WorldWideScience

Sample records for soviet socialist republics

  1. Agreement between the Governments of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic, the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic and the International Atomic Energy Agency regarding international research on the consequences of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant to be carried out at the ''Pripyat'' scientific centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-10-01

    The document reproduces the text of the Agreement between the Governments of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic, the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic and the International Atomic Energy Agency regarding International Research on the Consequences of the Accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant to be carried out at the ''Pripyat'' Scientific Centre which was approved by the IAEA's Board of Governors on 12 September 1990. It was signed on 21 September 1990 and entered into force on the same date

  2. Protocol between the Russian Federation and the International Atomic Energy Agency Additional to the Agreement between the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The text of the Protocol between the Russian Federation and the International Atomic Energy Agency Additional to the Agreement between the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Protocol on 21 March 2000. It was signed on 22 March 2000 in Vienna. Pursuant to Article 11 of the Additional Protocol, the Protocol entered into force on 16 October 2007, the date on which the Agency received from the Russian Federation written notification that the procedures of the Russian Federation required for entry into force had been met

  3. Protocol between the Russian Federation and the International Atomic Energy Agency Additional to the Agreement between the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The text of the Protocol between the Russian Federation and the International Atomic Energy Agency Additional to the Agreement between the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Protocol on 21 March 2000. It was signed on 22 March 2000 in Vienna. Pursuant to Article 11 of the Additional Protocol, the Protocol entered into force on 16 October 2007, the date on which the Agency received from the Russian Federation written notification that the procedures of the Russian Federation required for entry into force had been met [es

  4. JPRS Report, Arms Control, Protocol to the Treaty Between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on the Limitation of Underground Nuclear Weapon Tests

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1990-01-01

    ... and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on the Limitation of Underground Nuclear Weapon Tests of July 3, 1974, hereinafter referred to as the Treaty, convinced of the necessity to ensure effective...

  5. The Treaty between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on Underground Nuclear Explosions for Peaceful Purposes and Related Instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    On 1 June 1976 the Director General received a letter dated the same day from the Resident Representative of the United States of America to the Agency in which he communicated the text of the Treaty between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on Underground Nuclear Explosions for Peaceful Purposes which was signed by President Ford and General Secretary Brezhnev on 28 May 1976. The Resident Representative asked that the texts of the Treaty, the Protocol and the Agreed Statement be brought to the attention of all Members of the Agency in view of the relationship of this Treaty to the work of the Agency. On the same day the Director General received a letter in similar terms from the Resident Representative of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. Taking into account the common request made by the Resident Representatives of the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics the texts of the Treaty, the Protocol and the Agreed Statement are reproduced in this document.

  6. The Treaty between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on Underground Nuclear Explosions for Peaceful Purposes and Related Instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1976-06-14

    On 1 June 1976 the Director General received a letter dated the same day from the Resident Representative of the United States of America to the Agency in which he communicated the text of the Treaty between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on Underground Nuclear Explosions for Peaceful Purposes which was signed by President Ford and General Secretary Brezhnev on 28 May 1976. The Resident Representative asked that the texts of the Treaty, the Protocol and the Agreed Statement be brought to the attention of all Members of the Agency in view of the relationship of this Treaty to the work of the Agency. On the same day the Director General received a letter in similar terms from the Resident Representative of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. Taking into account the common request made by the Resident Representatives of the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics the texts of the Treaty, the Protocol and the Agreed Statement are reproduced in this document.

  7. Agreement of 27 September 1988 between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Government of India for the application of safeguards in connection with the supply of a nuclear power station from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The full text of the Agreement of 27 September 1988 between the Agency and the Government of India for the application of safeguards in connection with the supply of a nuclear power station composed of two pressurized light water reactors, each of 1000 MW(e) from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics is reproduced

  8. The text of the agreement of 8 July 1982 between Argentina and the Agency for the application of Safeguards in connection with the supply of nuclear material from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Agreement between the Republic of Argentina, the Federative Republic of Brazil, the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards came into force on 4 March 1994. As a result of the coming into force of the aforesaid Agreement for Argentina, the application of safeguards under the Agreement of 8 July 1982 between Argentina and the IAEA for the application of safeguards in connection with the supply of nuclear material from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics has been suspended

  9. The text of the agreement of 14 October 1981 between Argentina and the Agency for the application of Safeguards to heavy water supplied from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Agreement between the Republic of Argentina, the Federative Republic of Brazil, the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards came into force on 4 March 1994. As a result of the coming into force of the aforesaid Agreement for Argentina, the application of safeguards under the Agreement of 14 October 1981 between Argentina and the IAEA for the application of safeguards to heavy water supplied from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics has been suspended

  10. Certain problems in the economics of deep drilling operations conducted in the Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umanskiy, L.M.; Repina, I.S.

    1981-01-01

    The authors provide analysis and evaluation of technical-economic indicators for borehole drilling conducted at great depths in the Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Republic. Suggestions are made for improving such drilling operations in this area.

  11. Education in the Soviet Baltic Republics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soviet Education, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Includes 11 articles about education in the Soviet Baltic Republics. The articles include historical studies of Estonian and Latvian schools and medieval Estonian folk games. The impact of Marxist educational theories and Soviet policies on educational research, teacher education, and teaching methods in the Baltic region from 1920-50 is…

  12. 77 FR 60675 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-552-801] Certain Frozen Fish Fillets... fillets (``fish'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''). The Department has determined... Notice of Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, 68...

  13. 77 FR 73424 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Partial Rescission of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-552-801] Certain Frozen Fish Fillets... order on certain frozen fish fillets (``fish fillets'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam..., 2011. \\1\\ See Notice of Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Frozen Fish Fillets from the Socialist Republic...

  14. 78 FR 40100 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Rescission of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-552-801] Certain Frozen Fish Fillets... frozen fish fillets from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam'') covering the period August 1... Certain Frozen Fish Fillets from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Antidumping Duty New...

  15. Population change in the former Soviet Republics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haub, C

    1994-12-01

    Demographic trends in the former Soviet Republics and Russia are summarized and discussed in this publication. The former Soviet Republics in Europe as well as Georgia and Armenia had completed or almost completed their demographic transition before October 1991. Other Central Asian republics experienced reduced mortality, but, despite rapid declines, fertility is still above replacement level (at 3-4 children per woman). The economic and social dislocation of the breakup of the republics has hastened fertility decline. The annual population growth rate of the USSR in the mid-1980s was 0.9%; this rate declined to 0.4% in 1991, and the decline has continued. The 1991 population of the USSR was 289.1 million. Between 1989 and 1991, the crude birth rate was 18/1000 population, and the crude death rate was 10/1000. The net migration rate of -4/1000 helped to reduce growth. Total fertility in the USSR was 2.3 children in 1990. In Russia, fertility declined from 1.9 in 1990 to 1.4 in 1993. The preferred family size in Russia was 1.9 in 1990 and 1.5 in 1993. This decline occurred due to lack of confidence in the economy and insufficient income. Only 19% of women used contraception in 1990. Marriages declined after 1990. Age pyramids were similar in the republics in that there was a narrowing in the proportion aged 45-49 years, and the male population aged over 65 years was diminished, due to the effect of World War II. The cohort of those aged 20-24 years in 1992 was very small due to the small parental birth cohort. The differences in the republics was characterized as broad-based in the younger ages because of high fertility. The number of childbearing women will remain large. Life expectancy has been 70 years since the 1950s and has declined in some republics due to substandard health care, lack of job safety measures, and alcoholism. Some republics experienced increased life expectancy, but, after 1991, mortality increased. Tajikistan had the highest infant mortality

  16. 78 FR 62583 - Welded Stainless Pressure Pipe From Malaysia, Thailand, and the Socialist Republic of Vietnam...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... Pressure Pipe From Malaysia: Request for Extension of Preliminary Determination,'' ``Welded Stainless Steel... Stainless Pressure Pipe From Malaysia, Thailand, and the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Postponement of...: Charles Riggle (Malaysia), Brandon [[Page 62584

  17. The Scientific and Technical Revolution in the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vien, Nguyen Khac

    1979-01-01

    Discussed are the reasons for the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam's scientific backwardness. A development project which will enable this country to become a modern, economically self-sufficient country by the year 2000 is outlined. (BT)

  18. Post-Soviet Transitions of the Planned Socialist Towns: Visaginas, Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasa Baločkaitė

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Visaginas, formerly Sniečkus, (Lithuania was built as a planned socialist town and a satellite settlement to the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant. Both the plant and the town were established in order to integrate Lithuania into the All-Union economic structures via the energy supply system,. The specific characteristics of the town were a particular mono industry, high living standards, ethnic composition (mostly Russian speaking migrants, Lithuanians as minority, absence of any history prior to 1973 and strong pro-Soviet attitudes. For years, it was a success story and the vanguard site of the socialism. After the declaration of Lithuanian Independency in 1990, the town became the site of tensions and uncertainties. The aim of this research study is to illuminate how post-Soviet transition has been experienced by this particular type of community shaped by socialism. Community experiences are retrospectively reconstructed via content analysis of the local media. The particular characteristics of the town (ethnic composition, employment structure, etc. made the process of transition extremely complicated. While other planned socialist towns established new identities and new trajectories of development, in the case of Visaginas, not the future, but the past played a crucial role in shaping the town’s identity.

  19. Soviet diplomats and Comintern representatives in People’s Republic of Tuva in the 1920s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay M. Mollerov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This is the first study of the role Soviet diplomats and representatives of the Communist International (Comintern played in the Soviet-Tuvan relations during the first decade after the emergence of the young Tuvan state – People’s Republic of Tuva (1920s. From representing the interests of a small military mission, the Soviet diplomatic office in Tuva evolved into a full-scale embassy of the Soviet state. Its history clearly falls into two stages: from early 1920s to 1927 Soviet mission members largely abstained from interfering into PRT’s internal issues, but subsequently they started actively promoting the left wing of Tuvan People Revolutionary Party, which contributed to its accession to power. The Soviet state began to act as PRT’s patron on the international arena. This policy of support and custody was in accordance with Article 2 of PRT’s constitution. Using documentary sources, this article traces the appointments and transfers of a number of Soviet diplomatic officers and consuls (F.G. Falsky (Falkovsky, I.A. Chichayev, F.F. Razumov, A.G. Starkov, as well as Comintern representatives (I.G. Safyanov, B. Tsivenzhapov, V. Borovikov, A.M. Amur-Sanan, S.A. Natsov, V. Machavariani, V.A. Bogdanov. In the duopoly of consuls and Comintern representatives, the former dominated at the earlier stages, but after the defeat of Chinese communists in 1927 the Soviet leaders thought that Socialist transformations in Mongolia in Tuva should be sped up. The article makes use of archival sources from the State Archive of the Republic of Tuva, Russian State Archive of Socio-Political History (RGASPI, and the Research archive of Tuva Institute for Humanities and Applied Socioeconomic Studies.

  20. 78 FR 11150 - Utility Scale Wind Towers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Amended Final Determination of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-15

    ... From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Amended Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value... Department published the final determination of sales at less than fair value in the antidumping duty... the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value, 77 FR 75984...

  1. 76 FR 81913 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Time Limit for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-552-801] Certain Frozen Fish Fillets... antidumping duty order on certain frozen fish fillets from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam.\\1\\ Subsequent to..., 2012. \\1\\ See Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results...

  2. 75 FR 29726 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Notice of Partial Rescission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-552-801] Certain Frozen Fish Fillets... antidumping duty order on certain frozen fish fillets from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''). See Notice of Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of...

  3. 77 FR 1470 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Time for Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-552-801] Certain Frozen Fish Fillets... preliminary results of the new shipper review of certain frozen fish fillets from the Socialist Republic of... due no later than March 4, 2012. \\1\\ See Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of...

  4. 75 FR 26199 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Time Limit for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-552-801] Certain Frozen Fish Fillets... 31, 2009. See Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results... Barrientos, Senior Case Analyst, Certain Frozen Fish Fillets from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, dated...

  5. 76 FR 47149 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Notice of Partial Rescission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-552-801] Certain Frozen Fish Fillets... antidumping duty order on certain frozen fish fillets from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''). See Notice of Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of...

  6. 75 FR 57261 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Correction of Date for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-552-801] Certain Frozen Fish Fillets... reviews for certain frozen fish fillets from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam covering the period August 1, 2009, through February 15, 2010. See Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of...

  7. 76 FR 61088 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of New Shipper...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-552-801] Certain Frozen Fish Fillets... antidumping duty order on certain frozen fish fillets from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, received between... on certain frozen fish fillets from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam was published in the Federal...

  8. 77 FR 20008 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-552-801] Certain Frozen Fish Fillets... four new shipper reviews (``NSRs'') of the antidumping duty order on certain frozen fish fillets... Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, 68 FR 47909...

  9. 78 FR 59915 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-552-801] Certain Frozen Fish Fillets... fillets (``fish fillets'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam'') that meets the statutory... INFORMATION: Background The AD order on fish fillets from Vietnam was published on August 12, 2003.\\1\\ On...

  10. 78 FR 18957 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-552-801] Certain Frozen Fish Fillets... frozen fish fillets (``fish fillets'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''). The..., DC 20230; telephone: 202-482-0238. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background The AD order on fish fillets...

  11. 77 FR 20356 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-552-801] Certain Frozen Fish Fillets... frozen fish fillets (``fish fillets'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''). These... on fish fillets from Vietnam.\\1\\ On October 3, 2011 the Department published a notice of initiation...

  12. 78 FR 48415 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Amended Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-552-801] Certain Frozen Fish Fillets... review of the antidumping duty order on certain frozen fish fillets (``fish fillets'') from the Socialist... August 1, 2011, through January 31, 2012. \\1\\ See Certain Frozen Fish Fillets from the Socialist Republic...

  13. 76 FR 70111 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Deadline for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-552-801] Certain Frozen Fish Fillets... antidumping duty order on certain frozen fish fillets from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam'').\\1... 4, 2011.\\3\\ \\1\\ See Notice of Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Frozen Fish Fillets from the Socialist...

  14. 76 FR 20626 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Time Limit for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-552-801] Certain Frozen Fish Fillets... and requests for revocation in part for certain frozen fish fillets from the Socialist Republic of... administrative reviews and requests for revocation in part for certain frozen fish fillets from the Socialist...

  15. 75 FR 80795 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Time Limit for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-552-801] Certain Frozen Fish Fillets... of the sixth administrative and new shipper reviews of certain frozen fish fillets from the Socialist... January 13, 2011. \\1\\ See Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Notice of...

  16. 75 FR 44938 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Time Limit for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-552-801] Certain Frozen Fish Fillets... the period August 1, 2008, through July 31, 2009. See Certain Frozen Fish Fillets from the Socialist...: Antidumping Duty Administrative Review of Certain Frozen Fish Fillets from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam...

  17. 78 FR 55676 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-552-801] Certain Frozen Fish Fillets... order on certain frozen fish fillets (``fish fillets'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... preliminary results. \\1\\ See Notice of Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist...

  18. 76 FR 59658 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Time Limit for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-552-801] Certain Frozen Fish Fillets..., the antidumping duty order on certain frozen fish fillets from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... of initiation for the new shipper review of [[Page 59659

  19. Health status of Russian minorities in former Soviet Republics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenewold, W.G.F.; van Ginneken, J.K.S.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To examine if, and to what extent, disparities in health status exist between ethnic Russians and the native majority populations of four former Soviet Republics; and to determine to what extent indicators of socio-economic status and lifestyle behaviours explain variations in health

  20. In defense of shock therapy: Post-socialist transition of the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott A. Beaulier

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Popov (2007, 2000, Kolodko (2000, and Stiglitz (1999 argue that a shock therapy approach has a negative effect on post-socialist transition. Their benchmark for shock therapy, however, refers to the debate on the speed of market reforms. We propose that a more meaningful benchmark is the experience of the Czech Republic, Russia, and other transition economies which share similar approach to the market reforms, but have solved political economy problems of credibility and commitment differently. We compare the Czech Republic’s economic, political, and social performance to these benchmarks in all other post-socialist countries since they began their transitions. We find that the Czech transition is a consistent success because the Havel shock therapy has solved the political economy problems of reform’s credibility and state’s commitment to reform.

  1. 77 FR 27435 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Results of the New...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-10

    ... the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam'').\\1\\ We gave interested parties an opportunity to...&D Memo at Comment I, we have changed our primary surrogate country selection from Indonesia to... or destruction of proprietary information disclosed under the APO, which continues to govern business...

  2. 77 FR 64483 - Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Notice of Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-22

    ...-0649, respectively. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background On June 1, 2012, the Department published in... Pipe from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam;'' ``Verification of the Sales Response of Midwest Air... Steel Joint Stock Company.... Sun Steel Joint Stock 4.57 Company. Huu Lien Asia Corporation........ Huu...

  3. 76 FR 12939 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Time Limit for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-552-801] Certain Frozen Fish Fillets... the Preliminary Results of the seventh new shipper reviews of certain frozen fish fillets from the... later than April 14, 2011. \\1\\ See Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam...

  4. 75 FR 30374 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Time Limit for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-552-801] Certain Frozen Fish Fillets.... See Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results of New.... See Memorandum to the File, from Javier Barrientos, Senior Case Analyst, Certain Frozen Fish Fillets...

  5. 75 FR 20983 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Time Limit for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-552-801] Certain Frozen Fish Fillets... frozen fish fillets from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam covering the period August 1, 2008, through...''), covering the period August 1, 2008, through July 31, 2009. See Certain Frozen Fish Fillets from the...

  6. 75 FR 12726 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Results of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-552-801] Certain Frozen Fish Fillets... two new shipper reviews of the antidumping duty order on certain frozen fish fillets from the... of price or production. See Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam...

  7. 75 FR 47771 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Time Limit for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-552-801] Certain Frozen Fish Fillets... initiation of antidumping duty new shipper reviews for certain frozen fish fillets from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam covering the period August 1, 2009, through February 15, 2010. See Certain Frozen Fish...

  8. 75 FR 60074 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Notice of Correction to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-29

    ... Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. DATES: Effective Date: September 29, 2010. FOR FURTHER... table listing the antidumping duty rates for the companies in the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, several companies were inadvertently omitted. Also, incorrect antidumping duty margins were listed for three of the...

  9. Immigrant Entrepreneurship in Post-Socialist Countries of the European Union: Motives and Patterns of Entrepreneurship of Post-Soviet Immigrants in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Tepavcevic

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the relationship between migration, entrepreneurship, and foreign direct investments by focusing on entrepreneurial activities of post-Soviet (immigrants in Hungary in periods between 1991 and 2016. Post-Soviet migrants are in focus because between 1956 and 1989 the Soviet Union coercively kept Hungary in the Socialist bloc. Based on surveys and in-depth interviews, this paper reveals that there are considerable differences in patterns of entrepreneurship among post-Soviet immigrant entrepreneurs depending mostly on time of their arrival to Hungary. Similarly, motives for entrepreneurship among the first-wave migrants combine negative factors in the former Soviet Union with positive factors encountered in Hungary, while factors in Hungary recognized as positive by most post-Soviets prevail in motives for later waves of post-Soviet migration and entrepreneurship in Hungary. The paper also demonstrates that many relatively small investments have been conducted since 2000 by citizens of post-Soviet countries to Hungary. Some of them are transforming into an entrepreneurial activity, serving also as a basis for immigration to Hungary.

  10. Capital investment of overseas Vietnamese to the economy of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyabaev Andrey E.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores the vital issues of attracting investment from Vietnamese emigrants of different generations to the economy of the present-day Vietnam. We give the definition of the Vietnamese Diaspora (Viet Kieu and a short overview of emigrant waves. In addition, we explain how leaders of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam have interacted with overseas Vietnamese and their organizations in the field of economy over the years. The paper demonstrates geographic differences existing in this type of investment. Further, we outline the measures taken to encourage the Viet Kieu investment in the country’s economy as well as the success rate of these measures. Finally, we specify the barriers to investing in the national economy of Vietnam for “overseas fellow nationals”.

  11. Health status of Russian minorities in former Soviet Republics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenewold, W G F; van Ginneken, J K

    2011-08-01

    To examine if, and to what extent, disparities in health status exist between ethnic Russians and the native majority populations of four former Soviet Republics; and to determine to what extent indicators of socio-economic status and lifestyle behaviours explain variations in health status. Data from the World Health Organization's World Health Surveys of former Soviet Republics that include information on ethnicity (i.e. Estonia, Latvia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan and Russia) were used. Russia was included as the benchmark population as it is the country of origin of ethnic Russians. Data were collected from respondents aged ≥25 years in 2001-2003. Principal component analysis was used to derive the Health Status Index and Household Wealth Index. Multiple classification analysis was applied to examine the effects of the determinants on health status, including ethnic group membership. In Estonia and Kazakhstan, ethnic Russians have, on average, a lower health status than members of the majority population, while their health status is higher in Ukraine. Higher levels of material wealth, educational attainment and physical activity were associated with a higher health status. The association of these variables with health status was often stronger than the association between ethnic group membership and health status. Differences in health status between Russian ethnic minorities and the majority populations were found in Estonia and Kazakhstan, but were non-existent in Latvia and were the opposite of what was expected in Ukraine. Use of the Health Status Index in combination with multiple classification analysis proved to be a useful approach to examine health status differentials, and to identify and profile vulnerable groups in a society. Copyright © 2011 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The uses and abuses of participatory ideologies in the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vranješ Aleksandar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available After the formation of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY, the Communist Party of Yugoslavia (CPY has organized large work and youth actions aimed at rebuilding the country after the Second World War. The main hypothesis of this paper is that in Yugoslavia there was no participation in the true sense, but that there were mechanisms which represented the ideology of participation. Work actions had huge impact on rebuilding the land, but they were not voluntary - which is a basic requirement of modern theory of participation. Likewise, the term participation is further explained in this paper, in order to further explain the thesis of formal participation in the former Yugoslavia. Student protests in 1968 were not an isolated case of revolt against the system, the basic characteristics of popular revolt that had its roots back in the early sixties. The aim of this paper is theoretical analysis of the theory of participation and the basic characteristics of Yugoslavia, in order to show that the participation of the people in the exercise of power was just an illusion, ie. formal. Case Study about films of the sixties and seventies in Yugoslavia illustrates the processes of censorship and imposition of ideology of participation.

  13. GUINEAN-SOVIET RELATIONS IN THE 1 ST REPUBLIC PERIOD (1958-1984

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Сергей Сергеевич Размыслов

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the history of the Guinean-Soviet relations in the period of Ahmed Secou Toure’s presidency. Guinea and the USSR fought for Africa’s liberation from colonialism and imperialism, and the Guinean leader was an initiator of the integration processes in Africa. The author proves that the character of the bilateral relations was under strong influence of the Guinean leader’s controversial personality as well as the attempts to balance between the capitalist and socialist poles in the Cold War. As a result Guinea became estranged from the Soviet Union and restored the relationships with its former parent state, France, and other Western countries.

  14. Text of the Agreement between the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic and the Agency for the Application of Safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Succession by the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-07-01

    In a communication received on 24 March 1993, the Government of the Czech Republic informed the Director General, inter alia, that by virtue of succession to the Czech and Slovak Federal Republic, it was a Party, with effect from 1 January 1993, to the Agreement between the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic and the Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons [es

  15. Marital status behavior of women in the former Soviet Republics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scherbov, S; Darsky, L.

    1995-01-01

    This paper uses the most recent data and life table analysis to describe the marital behaviour of women in the republics of the former USSR. For the first time a multistate life table analysis was used to describe the marital careers of women from all the 15 republics. In the near future, such a

  16. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs, Republic Language Legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-05

    Goskomizdat Ensure that auditoria in the republic capital and in cities of republic subordination where basic political activities are carried on, and...also the auditoria of theater and entertainment enterprises in these cities, are equipped with the technical facilities for simultaneous translation

  17. State of development of gas cooled reactors in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grebennik, V.N.; Mosevitskij, I.S.

    1991-01-01

    In the context of the programme for the development of gas-cooled reactors in the USSR it is reported that pilot plants with VGR-50 MW(el) and VG-400 MW(el) have been developed up to the stage of engineering design and that now the efforts are concentrated on the project of pilot-commercial reactor plant VGM (PCRP VGM) of a modular type with unit thermal power of 200-250 MW. The installation is designed to solve the main scientific and engineering problems of construction of high-temperature gas-cooled reactors, to test equipment components, and to show advantages of the given type of installations having the enhanced safety and capability to generate high-potential heat. The status of work on the PCRP VGM project is described. 3 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab

  18. The influence of Dr. Hsiang-Tung Chang on neuroscience in Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chun

    2012-10-25

    As one of the founders of Chinese neuroscience, Dr. Hsiang-Tung Chang's return to China has a profound impact on neuroscience in China. As many people expected, this action also may have influenced the development of neuroscience in other Eastern countries. Therefore, Dr. Chang's move may have changed the history of neuroscience in a greater area than China.

  19. 77 FR 13547 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-07

    ... Critical Circumstances, In Part: Certain Lined Paper Products From the People's Republic of China, 71 FR... Administrative Review: Petroleum Wax Candles from the People's Republic of China, 72 FR 52355, 52356 (September... invoice date. \\42\\ See, e.g., Notice of Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value and Negative...

  20. 76 FR 12054 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-04

    ... Paper Products From the People's Republic of China, 71 FR 53079, 53082 (September 8, 2006); Final...: Petroleum Wax Candles from the People's Republic of China, 72 FR 52355, 52356 (September 13, 2007). In... Value and Negative Final Determination of Critical Circumstances: Certain Frozen and Canned Warmwater...

  1. Agreements Provided for in the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Declarations Received from Bulgaria, the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic, Hungary and Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1970-01-01

    The Director General has received from the Governments of Bulgaria, the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic, Hungary and Poland declarations in which they express their readiness, in conformity with the obligations they have assumed under Article III of the Treaty on the Non- Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, to begin negotiation of safeguards agreements with the Agency. The texts of these declarations are reproduced below for the information of all Members

  2. Agreements Provided for in the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Declarations Received from Bulgaria, the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic, Hungary and Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1970-06-11

    The Director General has received from the Governments of Bulgaria, the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic, Hungary and Poland declarations in which they express their readiness, in conformity with the obligations they have assumed under Article III of the Treaty on the Non- Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, to begin negotiation of safeguards agreements with the Agency. The texts of these declarations are reproduced below for the information of all Members.

  3. 77 FR 51514 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Affirmative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-24

    .... The Department generally bases its decision with respect to knowledge on the margins calculated in the... importers' knowledge that material injury is likely by reason of such imports.\\8\\ Finally, as part of their... Welded Carbon Quality Steel Pipe from the People's Republic of China, 73 FR 31970, 31972-73 (June 5, 2008...

  4. 77 FR 46058 - Utility Scale Wind Towers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Determination of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-02

    ...: Dynamic Random Access Memory Semiconductors of One Megabit and Above From the Republic of Korea, 57 FR... assembling of dynamic random access memory. What distinguishes the instant investigation from Semiconductors... date better reflects the date on which the exporter established the material terms of sale, and thus is...

  5. The reurbanisation concept and its utility for contemporary research on post-socialist cities: The case of the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ouředníček Martin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of reurbanisation is discussed in this article from theoretical and methodological perspectives. Reurbanisation has been defined as one of the stages of urban development recently, but it is also tied to processes of gentrification, or perceived as a policy aimed at the revitalisation of inner cities. The main objective of this contribution is to discuss three principal and different perspectives of reurbanisation: firstly, reurbanisation as defined on the macro-scale of settlement system development; secondly, the concept as elaborated at the micro-scale of the transformation of inner cities; and, thirdly, reurbanisation viewed as a specific urban policy at the local government scale of analysis. The authors’ singular understanding of the reurbanisation process – as suburban-to-urban migration – is then presented as an alternative conceptualization of reurbanisation. This paper presents and evaluates the use of the reurbanisation concept in research on residential environments in current conditions in the Czech Republic and relates it to the broader domain of research on post-socialist cities.

  6. Text of the agreement between the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic and the Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the treaty on the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-07-01

    The document informs that the Czech Republic succeeded to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons on 1 January 1993 and to the agreement between the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic and the Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the above treaty

  7. Text of the agreement between the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic and the Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the treaty on the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-07-01

    The document informs that the Slovak Republic succeeded to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons on 1 January 1993 and to the agreement between the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic and the Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the above treaty

  8. The text of the Agreement of 7 October 1983 between Cuba and the Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the supply of a zero-power nuclear reactor from the Hungarian People's Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The full text of the agreement of 7 October 1983 between Cuba and the Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the supply of a zero-power nuclear reactor from the Hungarian People's Republic and to the nuclear material to be used therein to be supplied by the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics is presented

  9. The Text of the Agreement of 17 November 1977 between the Agency and India for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Supply of Heavy Water from the Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-07-01

    The text of the Agreement of 17 November 1977 between the Agency and India for the application of safeguards in connection with the supply of heavy water from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members

  10. The Text of the Agreement of 17 November 1977 between the Agency and India for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Supply of Heavy Water from the Soviet Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1978-07-15

    The text of the Agreement of 17 November 1977 between the Agency and India for the application of safeguards in connection with the supply of heavy water from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members.

  11. Introduction of External, Independent Testing in "New Countries": Successes and Defeats of the Introduction of Modern Educational Assessment Techniques in Former Soviet and Socialist Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Steven

    2012-01-01

    A particular trait of the educational system under socialist reign was accountability at the input side--appropriate facilities, centrally decided curriculum, approved text-books, and uniformly trained teachers--but no control on the output. It was simply assumed that it met the agreed standards, which was, in turn, proven by the statistics…

  12. International Chernobyl project - input from the Commission of the European Communities to the evaluation of the relocation policy adopted by the former Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    In October 1989, the Government of the USSR formally requested the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to carry out: '...an international experts' assessment of the concept which the USSR has evolved to enable the population to live safely in areas affected by radioactive contamination following the Chernobyl accident, and an evaluation of the effectiveness of the steps taken in those areas to safeguard the health of the population'. The response to this request was a proposal for a multinational team to undertake an assessment of the radiological situation in the three affected Soviet Republics - the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (UKrSSR), the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic (BSSR) and the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (RSFSR). The International Chernobyl Project was established for this purpose with the participation of the Commission of the European Communities (CEC), the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the International Labour Office (ILO), the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), the World Health Organization (WHO) and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). An International Advisory Committee, comprising scientists from 10 countries and seven international organizations, was established to direct the Project and be responsible for its findings. The results of the Project have been published in two reports - an overview and a technical report -prepared by the International Advisory Committee

  13. Safeguarding nuclear materials in the former Soviet Republics through computerized materials protection, control and accountability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roumiantsev, A.N.; Ostroumov, Y.A.; Whiteson, R.; Seitz, S.L.; Landry, R.P.; Martinez, B.J.; Boor, M.G.; Anderson, L.K.; Gary, S.P.

    1997-01-01

    The threat of nuclear weapons proliferation is a problem of global concern. International efforts at nonproliferation focus on preventing acquisition of weapons-grade nuclear materials by unauthorized states, organizations, or individuals. Nonproliferation can best be accomplished through international cooperation in the application of advanced science and technology to the management and control of nuclear materials. Computerized systems for nuclear material protection, control, and accountability (MPC and A) are a vital component of integrated nuclear safeguards programs. This paper describes the progress of scientists in the United States and former Soviet Republics in creating customized, computerized MPC and A systems. The authors discuss implementation of the Core Material Accountability System (CoreMAS), which was developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory by the US Department of Energy and incorporates, in condensed and integrated form, the most valuable experience gained by US nuclear enterprises in accounting for and controlling nuclear materials. The CoreMAS approach and corresponding software package have been made available to sites internationally. CoreMAS provides methods to evaluate their existing systems and to examine advantages and disadvantages of customizing CoreMAS or improving their own existing systems. The sites can also address crucial issues of software assurance, data security, and system performance; compare operational experiences at sites with functioning computerized systems; and reasonably evaluate future efforts. The goal of the CoreMAS project is to introduce facilities at sites all over the world to modern international MPC and A practices and to help them implement effective, modern, computerized MPC and A systems to account for their nuclear materials, and thus reduce the likelihood of theft or diversion. Sites are assisted with MPC and A concepts and the implementation of an effective computerized MPC and A system

  14. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Additional Protocol on 6 March 2007. It was signed on 10 August 2007 in Vienna, Austria. Pursuant to Article 17 of the Additional Protocol, the Protocol entered into force on 17 September 2012, the date on which the Agency received from the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam written notification that Vietnam's statutory and constitutional requirements for entry into force had been met [fr

  15. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Additional Protocol on 6 March 2007. It was signed on 10 August 2007 in Vienna, Austria. Pursuant to Article 17 of the Additional Protocol, the Protocol entered into force on 17 September 2012, the date on which the Agency received from the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam written notification that Vietnam's statutory and constitutional requirements for entry into force had been met

  16. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Additional Protocol on 6 March 2007. It was signed on 10 August 2007 in Vienna, Austria. Pursuant to Article 17 of the Additional Protocol, the Protocol entered into force on 17 September 2012, the date on which the Agency received from the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam written notification that Vietnam's statutory and constitutional requirements for entry into force had been met [es

  17. Tolstoyism in the Late-Socialist Cultural Underground: Soviet Youth in Search of Religion, Individual Autonomy and Nonviolence in the 1970s – 1980s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordeeva Irina

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The 1970s in the Soviet Russia were characterized by religious revival among the members of the Soviet counterculture milieu. The young generation often opted for religious ideas and Tolstoyism served as one such option. The article explores individual cases of coming to Tolstoyism, reading and perception of his ideas, as well as a general historical background of spiritual search of Soviet youth (hippies and others of the period. The article demonstrates that all countercultural Tolstoyans shared two basic values - personal autonomy and nonviolence. They asserted the ideals of the free and individual search for the truth, of nonviolence, of anti-authoritarian humanism, a quest for a new, spiritual form of community, having nothing to do with obligatory Soviet-type communist, atheist, and materialistic collectivism. The spiritual alternative of the Tolstoyans was directed it not only at the individual, but at society as a whole fully anticipating that society would be improved. The research is based on the wide range of unexplored primary sources (rare samizdat texts and personal archives.

  18. Aram Khachaturian and socialist realism: A reconsideration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schultz Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aram Khachaturian remains a neglected figure in scholarship on Soviet music, his work often held as exemplifying Socialist Realism at its most conformist. In this article I suggest that folk music strongly influenced his style well before the imposition of Socialist Realism, and that his musical language and aesthetics have much more in common with those of contemporary composers in the West than has previously been assumed. A central focus of the paper will be to examine the role played by Soviet musicologists in placing questionable critical constructs on Khachaturian’s career and creative achievement.

  19. Ethnical distance of the citizens of Republika Srpska and the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina to the nations of former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puhalo Srđan

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the study of Ethnical distance with the citizens of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The study was made using Bogardus' scale of social distance, on 1000 interviewees of the Federation of BiH and 850 interviewees of Republika Srpska. The citizens of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina reject the Romas the most, followed by the Albanians and Macedonians. This is followed by the Serbs and Montenegrians, while Slovenians and Croats are the least rejected. Prejudices of the citizens of Bosnia and Herzegovina to the Romas, Albanians, and Macedonians are much more important for the rejection or accepting of offered relations, than it was the case with open hostility and war conflicts with the Serbs, Montenegrians, and Croats. In the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina a distinction is made in the degree of ethnical distance of Bosniaks and Croats to the nations who lived in the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Offered relations are more rejected by the Croats than by the Bosniaks. The citizens of Republika Srpska accept the Muslims (Bosniaks and Romas the least. This is followed by the Croats, Slovenians, and Macedonians, and the Montenegrians are rejected the least. The citizens of Republika Srpska refuse that they or the members of their family marry a member of another nation. Thus they object any possibility for the members of other nations to be found on managing position, or any situation where they themselves would be in a subordinate position in society in relation to the members of other nationalities.

  20. Grafica de carte din RSS Moldovenească în perioada de instaurare a realismului socialist (1940–1953

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Rocaciuc

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Initially, the publishing processes in the MASSR and Bessarabia of the interwar period developed completely differently in the aesthetic and ideological scope. Their unification is observed after 1940. In the art of book graphics of the Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic, the transition to socialist realism was characterized by documentation and the domination of illustration characteristics, accumulation of professional skills, formation of creative manners and the author’s styles of illustrators. Evgheni Merega was among the first graphic artists involved in these processes who cooperated with: Tiraspol State Printing House, the State Publishing House (Chisinau, „Shkoala sovetica” and „Uchpedgiz”. Boris Nesvedov and Valentina Neceaev started in the interwar period. In the period 1940–1953, Leonid Grigoraşenco, Ilia Bogdesco, Boris Şirocorad, Iacob Averbuh, Ioachim Postolachi, Aleksandr Neforosov etc. made a name for themselves in the field of book graphics.

  1. Asian republics: the gas industry of the southern FSU [former Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fueg, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    The central Asian and Caucasian states of the former Soviet Union differ widely in terms of natural gas production, reserves and future potential but have two features in common. Firstly, they have a form of ''common gas market'' with Turkmenistan largely supplying the gas demand of the whole region. Secondly, these states are land-locked and present gas transport routes all across Russian territory. Alternative routes to the western European market which by-pass Russia are being sought by Turkmenistan whose exports compete with those of the Russian Federation. Turkmenistan is the second largest producer of gas in the former Soviet Union after Russia. There is currently a crisis in the Turkmen gas industry, though, caused by technical problems and difficulties in attracting foreign investment for exploration. Of these southern states, Uzbekistan is the only one to have expanded production since the break-up of the Soviet Union by the timely replacement of depleting fields by new ones. Kazakhstan's production is falling rapidly and further development is dependent on Russian infrastructure and benevolence as 75% of known reserves are on the Russian border, Gas production in Azerbaijan, which is also declining, is largely associated gas from offshore fields. Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan produce only small amounts of associated gas and prospects for expansion of output are slim. (2 tables) (UK)

  2. Ethnicity and Power in the Soviet Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Wierzbicki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty years have passed since the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Up until the point of dissolution, the Soviet authorities and intellectual elite had attempted to build a community in order to unite all Soviet citizens in the spirit of socialist modernisation. Although it is difficult to demonstrate that ‘a Soviet nation’ was successfully created [1], the attempt to build such a nation can serve as a case study through which to examine nation-building processes for constructivists as well as modernists . In addition to socialist modernisation, the Soviet nation aimed to be identified as a state, which would make it similar to the political nations dominant in western countries. Contrary to western tradition, however, it was not a nation state that provided full rights for all its citizens, but rather a socialist state that was ‘ruled by workers and peasantry’. Nevertheless, the authorities aimed to give the Soviet nation the characteristics of a specific nation state. “It was a nation that in historical terms strived, or more accurately part of which strived, to form or proclaim a particular state” [2]. While at the time of proclaiming the USSR there was no such thing as the Soviet nation, it can be assumed that it was intended to become a constructed titular nation. The majority of national communities, even created ones, have an ethnic core. However academics cannot agree on the kind of state the USSR was, to what extent it took into account the ethnicity of its multinational population, how much it reflected the values, culture, and interests of its largest population group (i.e., the Russians or even whether it was a Russian national state despite the strong influence of Russian ideology and politics. Some Russian academics, especially those in nationalistic circles (e.g., Valerij Solovej as well as western scholars such as Terry Martin and Geoffrey Hosking stressed that Russians dominated demographically and politically

  3. The Socialist Car

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lars K.

    2013-01-01

    Review of L.H. Siegelbaum (ed.) The Socialist Car. Automobility in the Eastern Block. Cornell University Press, 2011.......Review of L.H. Siegelbaum (ed.) The Socialist Car. Automobility in the Eastern Block. Cornell University Press, 2011....

  4. Modeling inflation uncertainty in transition economies: The case of Russia and the former Soviet Republics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkam Serkan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the linkage between inflation and inflation uncertainty in seven transitional economies (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, the Kyrgyz Republic, the Russian Federation and the Ukraine which experienced hyper-inflation until the mid-1990s. This linkage is investigated in the ARCH modeling framework by using both conventional Granger noncausality testing and the Holmes-Hutton approach, which has significant small- and large-sample power advantages over the former. The results support the Friedman- Ball hypothesis in Azerbaijan, the Russian Federation and the Ukraine. The Cukierman-Meltzer hypothesis is favored in the Kyrgyz Republic and in the Russian Federation using a different model. In Azerbaijan, greater inflation uncertainty preceded lower rates of inflation, indicative of the strong monetary stabilization policies pursued in this economy.

  5. Attractiveness for Younger Generation of Ostrava - Jih Housing Area Developed in Socialist Era: Through Interviews with the Inhabitants (Ostrava-City, Czech Republic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yuno; Kanki, Kiyoko

    2017-10-01

    Ostrava city had developed as an industrial city in socialist era but now faces to deindustrialization. Ostrava-Jih is one of the housing areas developed in the socialist era. In this paper, the attractiveness of Ostrava-Jih for younger generation was showed by interview with inhabitants. As a result, the accessibility to nature around the housing estate, commercial facilities and public facilities, reasonable rent and housing price were evaluated. Besides, the inhabitants have done some activities for making their neighbourhoods more attractive.

  6. NOVEMBER 1948: A WRITTEN TEST ON SOCIALIST REALISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina CĂRĂBAŞ

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Drawing heavily on archival research, the paper analyses the formation of the discourse of socialist realism in Romanian post-war art. A questionnaire on socialist realism to which a number of artists responded in 1948 provides an intermediate phase that brought together more types of language and conceptions of art and reveals how the Soviet model was grafted onto local interwar theories.

  7. CONSTITUTIONAL TRANSPLANT IN THE PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA: THE INFLUENCE OF THE SOVIET MODEL AND CHALLENGES IN THE GLOBALIZATION ERA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Fan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this essay, I mainly focus on the constitutional transplantation in the People’s Republic of China. Firstly, I briefly present the Chinese constitution-making process from the Qing dynasty to the Republic of China to show that both regimes had transplanted more or less liberal constitutional principles, rules and institutions into their domestic constitutional document. Then, because China and the Former Soviet Union shared the Marxism-Leninism, China’s 1954 Constitution borrowed almost all the constitutional articles to various extents from the 1936 Soviet constitutional code. Though few articles of the 1977 Soviet Constitution have been imported into China’s present 1982 Constitution, China’s Constitution is still influenced by the Soviet model of constitution in many aspects related to the political and legal reform in the post-Mao era. Globalization brings many challenges to present-day China’s Soviet- featured constitutional system. With China’s accession to the WTO, a qualified judicial review mechanism is required to be established by the other Member States. However, China seems not to satisfy this obligation under the framework of the present legal system. In addition, a constitutional review mechanism is still absent in China. Besides, the modern Chinese legal system keeps silent on the domestic implementation of the UN international human rights treaties in view of the fact that Chinese international law theory was molded by Soviet’s which took highly concerned on protection of its state sovereignty. Chinese authorities, on the other hand, take a vague attitude to universal human rights standards. They sometimes prefer to observe them, while in other cases, they are not willing to follow them. Besides that, the domestic effects of international law also depend on the outcomes of the struggle and compromise between the reformist and Chinese Marxist conservative.

  8. SECULAR TRENDS AND LATITUDE GRADIENTS IN SEX RATIOS AT BIRTH IN THE FORMER SOVIET REPUBLICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Grech

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The male-female ratio at birth (M/F: male births divided by total births, which is anticipated to approximate 0.515, has been shown to exhibit latitude gradients and secular trends. Methods: Annual national data for male and female live births for the 15 countries that comprise the former Soviet Union were obtained from the World Health Organisation for the period 1980–2009 (115,167,569 total live births and analysed with contingency tables. Spearman correlation was also carried out to compare percentage annual gross domestic product growth (GDP% – downloaded from the World Bank and M/F. In this context, GDP% is used as a measure for economic hardship or wellbeing within the populace. Results: There have been overall highly significant secular increases in M/F (p < 0.0001 in the countries and regions investigated. M/F is significantly lower in the three more northern regions (Russian Federation, Baltic States and Central Asia. M/F 0.51324, 0.51335-0.51314 than the two more southern regions (Southern Caucasus and Eastern Europe. M/F 0.51654, 0.51635-0.51672. There was a male excess of 113,818 live births.There was a significant positive correlation between GDP% and M/F for Armenia, Azerbaijan and Uzbekistan. There was a significant negative correlation in Estonia. Conclusion: Previous studies have shown that improving socioeconomic conditions increase M/F, and the converse has also been demonstrated. This is a potential influence in this geographical area since this region has relatively recently emerged from communist rule and experienced an overall economic upturn, but is only partially supported using GDP%. Another factor may be the selective termination of female pregnancies. The latitude gradient parallels that of neighbouring Europe but no theory has been put forward to convincingly explain this finding to date.

  9. Assessment of the infectious diseases surveillance system of the Republic of Armenia: an example of surveillance in the Republics of the former Soviet Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mac Kenzie William R

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Before 1991, the infectious diseases surveillance systems (IDSS of the former Soviet Union (FSU were centrally planned in Moscow. The dissolution of the FSU resulted in economic stresses on public health infrastructure. At the request of seven FSU Ministries of Health, we performed assessments of the IDSS designed to guide reform. The assessment of the Armenian infectious diseases surveillance system (AIDSS is presented here as a prototype. Discussion We performed qualitative assessments using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC guidelines for evaluating surveillance systems. Until 1996, the AIDSS collected aggregate and case-based data on 64 infectious diseases. It collected information on diseases of low pathogenicity (e.g., pediculosis and those with no public health intervention (e.g., infectious mononucleosis. The specificity was poor because of the lack of case definitions. Most cases were investigated using a lengthy, non-disease-specific case-report form Armenian public health officials analyzed data descriptively and reported data upward from the local to national level, with little feedback. Information was not shared across vertical programs. Reform should focus on enhancing usefulness, efficiency, and effectiveness by reducing the quantity of data collected and revising reporting procedures and information types; improving the quality, analyses, and use of data at different levels; reducing system operations costs; and improving communications to reporting sources. These recommendations are generalizable to other FSU republics. Summary The AIDSS was complex and sensitive, yet costly and inefficient. The flexibility, representativeness, and timeliness were good because of a comprehensive health-care system and compulsory reporting. Some data were questionable and some had no utility.

  10. The economy of the soviet Tuva: achievements, challenges and lessons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander D. Begzi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Soviet period (1944-1991, the economy of Tuva was rapidly developing. Massive state investment helped create enterprises and whole branches of industry, which in turn outlined the areas of economy Tuva could specialize in. Indicators of regional economic development were higher than the national average. The industrial infrastructure created over the period, including transport, power engineering and technologies, has been since used for several decades without major renovations. However, the smooth function of the regional economy could be guaranteed only under directive planning and stringent control over prices, flows of resources, goods and other assets of planned Socialist economy. Together with other specific features of its economy, this made the economy of the region highly volatile. A breakdown of both economic achievements of the Soviet Tuva and the problems it faced will help us learn the lessons to be accounted for while developing new long-term development programs. Although the programmatic documents adopted in early 2000s (such as the Strategy of social and economic development of the Republic of Tuva to the year 2020, passed in 2007 have not yet expired, the economic situation and the configuration of the main economic actors have seriously changed, which calls for a radical overhaul of the long-term strategy of social and economic development. Some problems which have been around since the Soviet times have grown more acute, while others were replaced by their opposites. The revenue section of the region’s consolidated budget, just as it was in the Soviet period, cannot fully provide the required social expenditures. At the same time, the majority of Soviet mechanisms of economic development are now totally dysfunctional, which calls for the use of new organizational and financial instruments. The article was based on the data from official statistical collections of the Republic of Tuva, and the information found in

  11. Soviet Marxism and population policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonfrank, A

    1984-01-01

    American demographers have maintained that Marxism, notably Soviet Marxism, is consistently pronatalist. The Soviet view is said to be that population growth is not a problem and that birth control policies in either developed or developing societies are to be rejected; the "correct" (i.e., socialist) socioeconomic structure is the true solution to alleged population problems. Such representations of Soviet thought greatly oversimplify the Soviet position as well as fail to discern the changes in Soviet thought that have been occurring. Since the 1960s Soviet writers have increasingly acknowledged that population growth is, to a considerable degree, independent of the economic base of society and that conscious population policies may be needed to either increase or decrease the rate of population growth. Even socialist societies can have population problems. And where population growth is too rapid, as in the developing countries, policies to slow such growth are needed because of the threat to economic development. However, the Soviets continue to stress that birth control policies must go hand-in-hand with social and economic development policies if they are to be effective.

  12. Accumulating Transnational Social Capital among the Greeks from the former Soviet Union: Education, Ethnicity, Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni SIDERI

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The fall of the Soviet Union and the political and economic problems that followed the emergence of the post-Soviet republics forced many women to migration in a period of feminisation of migration due to global economic and social shifts. Following the biography of two ethnic Greek women from Georgia and Russia, the paper traces the transformations of their social and cultural capital based on ethnicity, gender and education into transnational social capital. The paper uses the idea of transnational social capital in order to examine the ways past networks and memberships or skills were reassessed and transformed or even expanded as part of the post-socialist family planning.

  13. 78 FR 13325 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... of China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and the Socialist Republic of Vietnam..., Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and the Socialist Republic of Vietnam.\\1\\ Currently, the... From the People's Republic of China,Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and the Socialist...

  14. 78 FR 50391 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China: Final Affirmative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ..., India, Indonesia, Malaysia, People's Republic of China, Thailand, and Socialist Republic of Vietnam... 2010 Aquatic Products Quality and Safety Supervision Program 9. Government Grants for Fishery Machinery...

  15. Records of the 11. regular session (26 September - 2 October 1967) 116. plenary meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1968-01-01

    Statements by the delegates of: Federal Republic of Germany Turkey Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic Iran Pakistan Bolivia Peru Brazil Czechoslovakia Paragraphs 151 1 belarus ukraine csech republic

  16. Socialization of the Child in the Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandanavicius, Mary

    1979-01-01

    The socialization process of the child in the Soviet Union is examined in terms of socialistic/communistic political philosophy and the general attitudes of the Soviets toward social sciences, child rearing, and educational practice. The family, school, and youth organizations are also discussed as socializing agents. (Author/KC)

  17. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, World Economy & International Relations, No. 5, May 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-10-06

    percent (2). The socialist states (the PRC, DPRK, Mongolia, Viet - nam , Cambodia and Laos) are the Soviet Union’s prin- cipal foreign trade partners: our...right is no longer attempting to maintain that the Soviet leader- ship’s new course amounts to cosmetic or purely propa- ganda measures. Soviet

  18. Themes in Current Soviet Curriculum Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popkewitz, Thomas S.; Tabachnick, B. Robert

    1982-01-01

    Soviet educators are first of all "upbringers" whose prime task is the formation and maintenance of the socialist outlook. They base their teaching on dialectical materialism, assume there are law-like principles of teaching and learning, and are inexhaustibly optimistic. (Author)

  19. Is the shaman indeed risen in post-Soviet Siberia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olle Sundström

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In his exhaustive study of ‘shamanism’ among the Altaic peoples in Southern Siberia, the renowned Soviet ethnographer Leonid P. Potapov contends that ‘under the present conditions there are no remnants or survivals of Shamanism as such left in Altai’. What remains are legends and reminiscences, but these can no longer be told by people with personal experiences of Altaic ‘shamans’ and their rituals. According to Potapov, modern socialist culture has changed the minds of the Altaic peoples to the degree that they are now a materialistically thinking people, and ‘shamanism’ has completely disappeared. In addition, he contends that there are no prospects of its return after the deathblow dealt by Soviet anti-religious repression in the 1930s ‘shamanic’ rituals were forbidden and ritual paraphernalia such as drums and costumes were expropriated by the authorities. Considering that Potapov in his study follows Altaic ‘shamanism’ through 1500 years, depicting it as a ‘religion’ and ‘theology’ which stayed more or less intact over the centuries, his statement seems more like a pious hope based on the Soviet vision of a society liberated from superstition, religion, and spiritual exploitation. Potapov himself delineates Altaic ‘shamanism’s’ development from a ‘state religion’to a ‘folk religion’. From this perspective it might seem remarkable that ‘shamanism’ should not have survived 70 years of atheist repression, missionary work and the Soviet transformation of society. Already by the time Potapov’s book was published, during the very last months of the existence of the Soviet Union, there had, in fact, appeared a number of persons claiming to be ‘shamans’, with an ancestry dating from the time of ‘shamans’ of the first half of the twentieth century. These individuals were also part of organisations and movements promoting the revival of ‘shamanism’ in the autonomous Altai Republic. In

  20. Proletkult` ideologeme and Intentions of Soviet Power in 1920s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Яна Грантовна Григорьян

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In article the questions of the Proletkult's formation and organization and its influence on the cultural life of the young Soviet state are analyzed. The author has shown inconsistent making process of the «socialist values», definition of methods of a party management by new proletarian art, search of estimations and criteria of an ideological orientation of products of socialist culture.

  1. Post-Communist Identities In The Republic Of Moldova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian Chifu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The study begins by referring to the group identity need of any human being and studies the large group identities when it comes to nation formation, ethnical references and political abuses in nation building in the post-communist era. The study refers specifically to the post-Soviet identities, the struggle of the Soviet elites in the new born independent states to maintain their privileges. In the particular case of the Republic of Moldova, there is more confusion coming from the name of the new identity, with a reference to Moldova – the former region of Romania and former Middle Age proto-state – and the ideological approach by Stalin who invented a new state in 1924, The Soviet Socialist Autonomous Republic of Moldova, and forged a „Moldavian” identity „from the ethnic family of the Slavic identities”, different from the Romanian one, to help explain the rapt and occupation of the region on the Eastern shores of the Prut river.

  2. THE SOCIALIST YOUTH UNION (1957–1976 – POLISH COUNTERPART OF KOMSOMOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Sadowska

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The political system of the Polish People’s Republic was modelled on the Soviet one. Polish youth organizations had the ambitions of being counterparts of Komsomol: they adopted similar work methods and tried to play a similar role in the country. The obvious differences resulted from the specificity of each country and the differences in the societies. The most deeply rooted in the memory of Poles is the Socialist Youth Union, which, being the most stable, existed for almost 20 years with nearly 1.3 million members in the early 1970s. The Union was closely connected with the Polish United Workers’ Party and it had to accomplish two main kinds of political task: to select and prepare future members of the Party, both ordinary and those in the managerial positions, and to educate the whole young generation. The Party indeed treated the organization as its agency, an office dealing with the affairs of youths. However, non-political activity of the Union (culture, entertainment, tourism, etc. was much more effective and evaluated more positively. Actually, there was much more falsehood in the Union: many members were almost completely passive and the work was often only simulated.

  3. Soviet Policy Toward Western Europe Objectives, Instruments, Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-02-01

    Hellenic Socialist Move- ment ( PASOK ) and the development of ties between its left wing and the Greek Communist party (KKE). Before PASOK won an...absolute majority in the June 1985 elections, the Soviets may have hoped for the formation of a PASOK -KKE coalition or, more likely, an arrange- ment...whereby a minority PASOK government would remain in power with tacit Communist support. Although these expectations were not fulfilled, the Soviets expect

  4. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, International Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-05-02

    socialist soci- ety. Perestroyka is not a deviation, but a new step forward in the development of socialism. This means that the whole policy is in the...anniversary of the Great October, that the restructuring is moving forward . The Soviet people is interested in this process and actively supports it...WASHINGTON POST, 3 March 1986. 4. EL FINANCIERO , Mexico, 28 May 1986. 5. THE FINANCIAL TIMES, London, 11 June 1986. 6. See VISION, Mexico, Vol 67, No 5

  5. Soviet energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-05-01

    As it moves from a centrally planned economy toward a market-based system, the Soviet Union will need to produce and export large quantities of oil to help finance industrial development and to purchase consumer goods from the West. Since 1988, however, Soviet oil production has fallen by about 8.8 percent. Oil exports also have declined, falling by about 15 percent from 1988 to 1990. The main reasons for the production decline are the lack of enough capital for exploration and production and the use of outdated and inefficient production practices. While U.S.-Soviet joint ventures could potentially help reverse this situation, both the United States and the Soviet Union maintain policies and practices that hinder U.S. trade and investment in Soviet oil exploration and production. Despite such difficulties, several U.S. multinational oil companies are proceeding with joint venture agreements, and progress is being made on overcoming some of the obstacles. For example, training programs in western business practices are being offered b the U.S. government, private companies, and universities. In addition, the U.S. and Soviet governments are now negotiating a tax treaty. GAO summarized this report in testimony before Congress

  6. The socialist regime: The intellectual origin of the images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Shlapentokh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Every phenomenon exists in several dimensions. It has several ontological attributes, so to speak, which provide opportunities for a variety of interpretations. The Bolshevik Revolution and the Soviet regime could be an example. At the beginning of Soviet history the revolution was seen as the beginning of a worldwide revolution opening an era of liberation for workers all over the world. As the Soviet regime solidified its position, the hope for worldwide revolution faded. In the new context, observers, especially outside Russia, looked at the regime from a different perspective. For them it represented the country's national interests, and its socialist slogans should not be taken at face value. Some believed post-revolutionary Russia was similar to post-revolutionary France and was experiencing its “Thermidor.” Others assumed the revolution showed Russia as a “Eurasian” state where all ethnic/religious groups lived in “symbiosis.” Finally, some assumed the Soviet regime would lead to the transformation of the human species and the human conquest of cosmos. This transition from one image to another does not mean that one illusion, one “wrong” image, follows another. It also does not mean the very notion of true meaning is meaningless simply because no reality exists as a fixed entity, and one could therefore “construct” any type of reality. It simply means that there are many attributes of the revolution, which are revealed in the course of time.

  7. Soviet nostalgia and Russian politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen White

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Communist rule did not end suddenly in 1989, or in 1991. And for many, at least in Russia, there was no radical break but a complex evolution in which many of the former ruling group, and many of the values of the Soviet period, remained intact. According to the evidence of national representative surveys, levels of support for the principle of a union state have consistently been very high. In 2008 survey, more than half (57% largely or entirely agreed that the demise of the USSR had been a ‘disaster’, and nearly two-thirds (64% thought the former Soviet republics that had established a Commonwealth of Independent States should reconstitute a single state or at least cooperate more closely. Across the three Slavic republics, Russia, Ukraine and Belarus, it was guaranteed employment that was seen as the most positive feature of the old regime, and economic stagnation as its most serious shortcoming. Comparing the present and the Soviet period as they recalled it, ordinary Russians thought they had more opportunity to practise a religion, and to express their opinions. But ordinary people had (in their own view no more influence over the making of public policy than in the communist period, and they thought they were less likely to be treated fairly and equally by government. Age and living standards were the most powerful predictors of Soviet nostalgia when other variables were held constant. Nostalgics were much more likely to support parties of the left, or at least those that favoured public ownership, a Soviet or ‘more democratic Soviet’ system of government, and a closer association among the former Soviet republics; they were much less likely to support the parties that favoured the dissolution of the CIS, a wholly market economy, or Western-style democracy.

  8. CHINA AND THE SOCIALIST TRANSITION - A BRIEF SKETCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Carapinha

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The troubled course of the revolutionary process of building socialism in China reveals a gradual reorientation of revolutionary energies to the "technical tasks", focused on economic development and increase of productive forces. The theoretical and practical reframing of Chinese socialist transition acquires a qualitative dimension with the proclamation of the Reform and Opening policy and the recognition of the historical phase that the Communist Party of China, since Deng Xiaoping, defined as the primary stage of socialism. The economic reformulation stresses the issue of the use of market instruments in the process of socialist transition in China, establishing a parallel with the pioneering experience of Soviet NEP. The socialist market economy in China corresponds to a model of mixed economy, in which public ownership and the State hold the commanding heights of the economy, and the integration into the world economy is a key lever. This reality that does not set as granted a return of China to the dominance of capitalism. At the same time, the inevitable clash between the dynamics of two conflicting economic systems – socialism and capitalism – raises to the CCP and the Chinese proletariat the theoretical and practical requirement of safeguarding a re-updated class perspective.

  9. The Text of the Agreement between the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic and the Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Suspension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The Agreement of 5 April 1973 between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in implementation of Article III, (I) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons entered into force for the Slovak Republic on 1 December 2005 [es

  10. Spatial Planning in Estonia – From A Socialist to Inclusive Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mart HIOB

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Spatial planning in Eastern Europe has gone through major changes during the years after the Soviet occupation ended around 1990. New planning standards were eagerly accepted but the practice was often carried out in a socialist manner. This article gives an overview of planning law and practice in Estonia during the transition period. The example presented is a district in Tartu, the second largest city of 100,000 inhabitants. The article analyses different master planning documents covering the whole district and compares both their process of compilation and their content to former Soviet era plans. The conclusion is that the transition from socialist to inclusive planning in Estonia has taken at least two decades, and the process is still not fi nished. This shows that the legal framework alone is not suffi cient to transform planning practice – a new ideology has to be accepted by the specialist as well as the politicians and the general public.

  11. Soviet science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medvedev, Z.A.

    1979-01-01

    In this brief history of science in the Soviet Union the emphasis is on the interaction between scientific and technological developments and the political objectives of the Soviet government Reference is made to the development of nuclear energy for military and for peaceful purposes. In an appendix, a rather detailed account is given of a 'nuclear disaster in the South Urals area'; reference is made to ecological, genetic and population researches in the areas contaminated by long-lived products of radioactive waste (e.g. Sr-90 and Cs-137). Section headings are: lakes; mammals; population genetics and radiation genetics (covering plants, animals and soil activity). (U.K.)

  12. Growing Soviet market is worth the hassles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muse, J.F.

    1991-01-01

    Tremendous opportunity is offered by the potential market in the Soviet republics for a diverse oil and gas equipment company, such as Baker Hughes. Until recently, however, the many risks and problems limited efforts to direct, hard currency sales by three or four individual divisions (out of a total of 23) that chose to pursue markets for their products by working through independent agents. This article discusses some aspects of dealing with the Soviet market

  13. Economic calculation in socialist countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellman, M.; Durlauf, S.N.; Blume, L.E.

    2008-01-01

    In the 1930s, when the classical socialist system emerged, economic decisions were based not on detailed and precise economic methods of calculation but on rough and ready political methods. An important method of economic calculation - particularly in the post-Stalin period - was that of

  14. Former Soviet refineries face modernization, restructuring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    A massive modernization and restructuring program is under way in the refining sector of Russia and other former Soviet republics. Economic reforms and resulting economic dislocation following the collapse of the Soviet Union has left refineries in the region grappling with a steep decline and changes in product demand. At the same time, rising oil prices and an aging, dilapidated infrastructure promise a massive shakeout. Even as many refineries in the former Soviet Union (FSU) face possible closure because they are running at a fraction of capacity, a host of revamps, expansions, and grass roots refineries are planned or under way. The paper discusses plans

  15. The text of the Agreement of 25 September 1980 between Cuba and the Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the supply of a nuclear research reactor from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-08-01

    The full text of the agreement between Cuba and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the supply of a nuclear research reactor from the USSR is presented

  16. Ecologies of socialism: Soviet Gradostroitel'stvo and late soviet socialism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Alexander Nunan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The most lasting legacy of the Soviet experience, more so than institutions that persist in the Russian Federation today or the mentalities of citizens of post-Soviet states, was its transformation of Eurasia from a rural continent into an urban one. Particularly after the Great Patriotic War, the landscape of Soviet urban spaces changed as countless rows of low-quality apartment housing sprung up and a uniform socialist urban culture appeared to be forming. However, how and why this urban revolution happened, and what effect it had on the psychological makeup of Soviet citizens, remains lesser known. Meanwhile, while scholars of urban history such as Jane Jacobs, Reyner Banham, Lewis Mumford, and Mike Davis have produced fascinating tracts and monographs on the “ecologies” of American urban spaces – how, in other words, human beings in various political systems have interacted with the built urban landscape around them – limited work has been done on similar processes and histories in the Soviet world beyond the technical literature of the Cold War era. In this paper, I attempt to provide the outlines of such a history with such an approach by analyzing how changes in the Soviet urban fabric from approximately 1932 to 1980s affected social life in Soviet cities and among Soviet families. Basing my argument on close readings of Soviet books on gradostroitel'stvo (urban construction, urban studies as well as literature, and guided by the insights of the above-listed urbanist thinkers, I argue that changes in urban planning so altered the relationship between citizens, the Party, and History that the Soviet system lost key strengths that had emboldened it during the 1930s and 1940s. In particular, while new Soviet housing projects obviously raised the standard of living of a great portion of the population, in resolving the housing problem, they also dismantled the “stranger's gaze” – the everyday urban clashes that, enabled by

  17. Erken Cumhuriyet Döneminde Türkiye Cumhuriyeti ile Sovyetler Birliği Arasındaki Sanatsal İlişkiler: “Ankara: Türkiye’nin Kalbi” Belgeseli Örneği / Artistic Relations between the Republic of Turkey and the Soviet Union in the Early Republican Era: The Case of the Documentary “Ankara: The Heart of Turkey”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalçın LÜLECİ

    2014-09-01

    important heritage from Czarism and attributed a special role to the art in order to make propaganda for the socialist ideology, and the Republic of Turkey, which considered developing an education system in terms of western arts, supporting artists and creation of the qualified artistic works as a measure of “civilization”, and which intended to benefit from the propaganda power of the art in conveying the Kemalist revolutions and doctrines to society, collaborated in the field of the art especially in 1930s. In this regard, the movie called “Ankara: The heart of Turkey”, which created by the Soviet film makers who were invited by the Turkish Government in terms of the “Celebration of the Tenth Anniversary of the Foundation of the Republic” had a special place. Hence, this study covers and attempts to highlight the dimensions of the collaboration and interaction between the Republic of Turkey and the Soviet Union in the field of art in the early years of the Republic.

  18. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Kommunist, No. 8, May 1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-08-11

    in which ethnographic ties were combined with moral ties, an awareness of spiritual unity, and a community of historical destinies and interests...historical destinies ," noted by Klyuchevskiy. This text does not seem to include the word "nation." But what is a people which has "become a state...toward the Soviet Union and the other socialist countries. S. Karaganov pointed out the fact that the embryos of the new political thinking appeared

  19. The Political Control of the Soviet Armed Forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-05

    training aids. 9In sum, the MPA is 6 responsible for providing coordination and standardization for the political socialization in the Soviet military...compelling nationalist loyalties and to instill approved Socialist values in soldiers of the non- lavic minorities. Along with this political ... socialization the political officer will 21 conduct language classes for those minorities with low levels of Russian fluency. In summary, the large number of

  20. Ideological Cooperation versus Cold War Realpolitik - The SED and the Icelandic Socialist Party

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valur Ingimundarson

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the relationship between the East German Socialist Unity Party (SED and the Icelandic Socialist Party (SEI during the Cold War. It details the structural limitations of ideological cooperation between the two parties – Iceland’s NATO membership and the U.S. military presence – as well as its possibilities, especially in the 1950s, through the governmental participation of the SEI. Special attention is devoted to the role played by Einar Olgeirsson, the chairman of the SEI 1939–1968, who was instrumental in forging and developing political, economic, and cultural ties with the SED and the German Democratic Republic. The article argues that this experiment in transnational solidarity between socialist parties from two radically different political systems failed in the end due to several factors, including ideological differences and the political and economic development in Iceland.

  1. East German Journalists and the Wende: A history of the collapse and transformation of socialist journalism in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Guzman, Morgan Morille Schupbach

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation utilizes archival sources and interviews to examine the transformation of the journalism profession in East Germany from the collapse of the German Democratic Republic (GDR) through the unification of the two German states. During this period of dramatic political and social upheaval, East German journalists navigated the divide between socialist journalism of the GDR and democratic journalism of the Federal Republic. By embedding the history of this professional transformat...

  2. Marxism--Leninism and natural resources: the Soviet outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papp, D.S.

    1977-06-01

    Soviet leaders recognize that natural resources are finite, but they do not share the pessimism of many of their Western counterparts. They maintain that resource depletion is not a threat to be taken seriously on a worldwide basis, but rather is a manifestation of the capitalism. To understand both the continued Soviet optimism and the Soviet assessment of why the Western world is experiencing its current ''raw material crisis'', the author examines the role that natural resources play within Marxist-Leninist idealogy. Soviets believe, the author says, that the resource predicament is insoluble; that the condition will escalate until, along with several other factors, the situation will result in a worldwide socialist society. Western thought has advocated fine methods through which the industrialized world could evade the energy and raw materials shortages. These include new methods of mining, developing, and searching for natural resource deposits; setting up a non-socialist industrial nations' organization; appropriation of resource sites; zero growth rates; and genuine cooperation. The Kremlin discounts the West's ability to successfully carry out any of these solutions. (MCW)

  3. On the transformation of socialist citeis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scarpaci, Joseph L.

    2000-01-01

    he collapse of the Socialist bloc after 1989 has been a topic of inquiry in many of the social sciences. In urban geography, however, there has been little systematic review about the changing nature of socialist cities in an era of rapid globalization. This paper outlines some of the macroeconomic...... contours that have conditioned national and metropolitan economies since 1989. It then reviews some of the defining features of the socialist city as a backdrop to Warsaw, selected Chinese cities, Ho Chi Minh, and Havana, which are the case studies of this special issue....

  4. Introduction. Socialist Culture and Modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joes Segal

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available From October 6th to 11th, 2013, the MS Gretha van Holland brought twenty-four conference participants from Berlin to Beeskow, Eisenhüttenstadt, Frankfurt/Oder and back to Berlin. The aim of this on-board boat conference, organised by Art Archive Beeskow and Utrecht University in collaboration with Marlene Heidel, Claudia Jansen and Ursula Lücke, was to cross borders – national and disciplinary – by connecting parallel and divergent European histories of the Cold War period, both on a conceptual and on a practical level. A selected group of historians, art historians, architectural historians, cultural anthropologists and visual artists discussed the various ways in which socialist cultural history has been presented over the past decades and put new perspectives to the test. This conference has resulted in the present issue of HCM.

  5. Implications of economic transition and demographics for financing pensions in the former socialist economies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, G P

    1993-01-01

    "This paper is concerned primarily with the financing of pensions, or the old-age income maintenance portion of the social security system. While the discussion here will be limited to Hungary and Poland, most of the post-socialist countries of East and Central Europe and of the former Soviet Union face similar problems." The author suggests "a set of alternative pension financing strategies....A novel approach is to replace the payroll tax with part of a value-added tax, which may be a good short run solution to current financial crises of the pension systems in these countries." excerpt

  6. CIS as a successor of the Soviet Union: who is financially responsible for the uranium waste storage sites in Kyrgyzstan?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajtmatova, J.

    2001-05-01

    Full text: As the Second World War came to an end and the Cold War just started, the Soviet Union was faced with a problematic necessity of the nuclear weapons' production. Indeed, the Soviet Empire was in the extreme need of such weapons since their possession was viewed as an only guarantee of peaceful relations between USSR and United States. Exactly in that period the Soviet Union started its intensive exploitation of the large radioactive ore deposits (basically, uranium and radium), located on the territory of the present-day Kyrgyzstan. Throughout the post-war cold period and right up to mid-80s Kyrgyzstan had been one of the leading producers of uranium in the Soviet Union. In fact, the first Soviet atomic bomb was produced using Kyrgyz uranium. In the intense arms race with United States there was no time to concern oneself with environmental and demographic protection of the exploited territory, unfortunately. The role of the Kyrgyz ASSR (Kyrgyz Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic) was to provide raw materials, concurrently being a conveniently remote place to treat foreign radioactive ores (imported from Eastern Germany and Czechoslovakia) and serving as a burial place for their wastes. Creating an enormous amount of the radioactive wastes, the uranium and radium ore deposits were located in immediate proximity to highly populated areas; in the basins of transboundary rivers; and in the seismic-active regions of the Republic. As it could be legitimately assumed, the Soviet Union was not deeply obsessed with the environmental peculiarities of the treated area and did not give a damn to its protection, being solely interested in the maximization of the uranium extraction. In 1991, immediately after the Soviet Union's dissolution, the Russian Federation officially proclaimed itself its successor. Consequently, it was Russia that received the bigger part of a huge military potential (particularly, nuclear one) of its predecessor, including the nuclear

  7. Marx’s Centenary (1918 in the Light of the Media and Socialist Thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Fuchs

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This article takes a historical view on Marx’s anniversary: It analyses how Marx’s centenary (5 May 1918 was reflected in the media and socialist thought. 1918 not just marked Marx’s 100th anniversary but was also the year in which the First World War ended. It was the year that saw the immediate aftermath of the Russian Revolution and the start of the Russian Civil War, the end of the Austro-Hungarian Empire; the formation of the Weimar Republic, Austria’s First Republic, the Czech Republic, the Hungarian Republic, the Second Polish Republic; the founding of the Communist Party of Germany (KPD, and the independence of Iceland from Denmark. The cultural forms, in which Marx’s centenary was reflected in 1918, included press articles, essays, speeches, rallies, demonstrations, music, and banners. The communists as well as left-wing socialists of the day saw themselves in the tradition of Marx, whereas revisionist social democrats based their politics on a criticism or revised reading of Marx. This difference resulted in different readings of Marx.

  8. From modernism to socialist realism in four years: Myaskovsky and Asafyev

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frolova-Walker Marina

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Two outstanding personalities of the Soviet musical life in the 1920's, the composer Nikolay Myaskovsky and the musicologist Boris Asafyev, both exponents of modernism, made volte-faces towards traditionalism at the beginning of the next decade. Myaskovsky's Symphony no. 12 (1931 and Asafyev's ballet The Flames of Paris (1932 became models for Socialist Realism in music. The letters exchanged between the two men testify to the formers uneasiness at the great success of those of his works he considered not valuable enough, whereas the latter was quite satisfied with his new career as composer. The examples of Myaskovsky and Asafyev show that early Soviet modernists made their move away from avant-garde creativity well before they faced any real danger from the bureaucracy.

  9. Soviet medical ethics (1917-1991).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichterman, Boleslav L

    2005-01-01

    Russian medical ethics bears a heavy mark of seven decades of the communist regime. In 1918 the Health Care Commissariat (ministry) was formed. It was headed by Nikolai Semashko (1874-1949) who claimed that "the ethics of the Soviet physician is an ethics of our socialist motherland, an ethics of a builder of communist society; it is equal to communist moral". "Medical ethics" had been avoided until the late 1930s when it was replaced by "medical (or surgical) deontology". This "deontological" period started with "Problems of surgical deontology" written by N. Petrov, a surgeon, and lasted for almost half a century until "medical deontology" was abandoned in favor of "bioethics" in post-communist Russia. There have been five All-Union conferences on medical deontology since 1969. The story of the emergence of "The Oath of a Soviet Physician" is briefly described. The text of this Oath was approved by a special decree of the Soviet Parliament in 1971. Each graduate of medical school in USSR was obliged to take this Oath when receiving his or her medical diploma. It is concluded that such ideas of zemstvo medicine as universal access to health care and condemnation of private practice were put into practice under the communist regime.

  10. Developments in Soviet Journalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaunt, Philip

    1987-01-01

    Studies the news values, practices, and role of journalists in the Soviet Union. Claims that, although the Soviet press currently resembles a corporate public relations department, there are signs of change because of public demands. States that journalistic practices in the U.S. and Soviet Union are similar in their reliance on routine and…

  11. Soviet scientists speak out

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holloway, D.

    1993-01-01

    In this article, Russian bomb designers answer the KGB's claim that espionage, not science, produced the Soviet bomb. Yuli Khariton and Yuri Smirnov wholly reject the argument that Soviet scientists can claim little credit for the first Soviet bomb. In a lecture delivered at the Kurchatov Institute, established in 1943 when Igor Kurchatov became the director of the Soviet nuclear weapons project, Khariton and Smironov point to the work done by Soviet nuclear physicists before 1941 and refute assertions that have been made in Western literature regarding the hydrogen bomb

  12. Ex-Soviet Union: oil exporter or importer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khartukov, E.M.

    1993-01-01

    Perestroika of the Soviet economy and the political disintegration of the USSR have raised questions about the international ramifications of the ongoing economic and political developments in the world's largest oil-producing country. First of all, it relates to their impact on the quantity and quality of oil exports from the former Soviet Union (FSU). On the other hand, the opening of the national oil industry to foreign investors focuses their ever growing attention on the complicated internal, inter-republic oil issues which emerged after the sudden fragmentation of the Soviet oil empire into a dozen of sovereign but still interdependent parts. 1 fig., 7 tabs

  13. Soviet women and the autonomous family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbrogno, S; Imbrogno, N I

    1989-01-01

    "The USSR family is changing in form from that of a social collectivity, a bedrock conception to socialism, to that of an autonomous family. Autonomy discloses a lack of homogeneity, an independence of choices over life-styles and a flexibility toward an interpretation given to the meaning of a socialistic state. Women are exceedingly active in making greater use of their legal rights to divorce and abortion and demanding equal status with men both in the workplace and in the home. Women are initiating major social changes, are readily adapting to changing relations and patterns in a complex society and are serving to spearhead changes in the family unit. These factors have generated major changes in the normative, behavioral and structural dimensions of marriage and family life in the Soviet Union." excerpt

  14. A summary of activities of the US/Soviet-Russian joint working group on space biology and medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doarn, Charles R.; Nicogossian, Arnauld E.; Grigoriev, Anatoly I.; Tverskaya, Galina; Orlov, Oleg I.; Ilyin, Eugene A.; Souza, Kenneth A.

    2010-10-01

    The very foundation of cooperation between the United States (US) and Russia (former Soviet Union) in space exploration is a direct result of the mutual desire for scientific understanding and the creation of a collaborative mechanism—the Joint Working Group (JWG) on Space Biology and Medicine. From the dawn of the space age, it has been the quest of humankind to understand its place in the universe. While nations can and do solve problems independently, it takes nations, working together, to accomplish great things. The formation of the JWG provided an opportunity for the opening of a series of productive relationships between the superpowers, the US and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR); and served as a justification for continued relationship for medical assistance in spaceflight, and to showcase Earth benefits from space medicine research. This relationship has been played out on an international scale with the construction and operation of the International Space Station. The fundamental reason for this successful endeavor is a direct result of the spirit and perseverance of the men and women who have worked diligently side-by-side to promote science and move our understanding of space forward. This manuscript provides a historical perspective of the JWG; how it came about; its evolution; what it accomplished; and what impact it has had and continues to have in the 21st century with regard to human spaceflight and space life sciences research. It captures the spirit of this group, which has been in continuous existence for over 40 years, and provides a never before reported summary of its activities.

  15. Who's bound by the former Soviet Union's arms control treaties?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhinelander, J.B.; Bunn, G.

    1991-01-01

    A crucial issue raised by the disintegration of the Soviet central government is what happens to Soviet arms control obligations. As the Soviet government transforms or collapses in the wake of the failed August coup, which of the resulting entities will be bound by the treaties the Soviet Union entered into? Under international law, the obligations of a state are not affected by even such dramatic changes in government. No one yet knows, however, what the end result of the ongoing devolution of power in the erstwhile Soviet Union will be. As illustrations of what could happen to Soviet arms control obligations - not predictions of the future - the authors pose two alternative scenarios. In the first, they assume that most of the current 12 republics, including all of the big four where substantial nuclear forces and the largest conventional forces are located (Russia, Ukraine, Khazakhstan, and Belarus), ultimately form a loose confederation with sufficient central authority to be called a nation-state and to carry out the essence of Soviet obligations under major arms control treaties. In the second, they assume that the union disintegrates further, with these four key republics seceding entirely and recognizing one another as independent states - a step which is apparently one of the US criteria for granting its own recognition. In this scenario, the Russian republic maintains its basic territory and replaces the central government as the power center for military and foreign affairs. In each of these cases, they will describe the general issues affecting the Soviet Union's international obligations, and consider specifically the two most important arms control agreements now in force - the multilateral nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty (NPT) and the bilateral Antiballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty

  16. The peasantry of the Volga German Republic in the Period of the New Economic Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina L. Furman

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the main directions of governmental policy on the peasant question and also the peculiarities of its implementation on the example of the peasantry of Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of the Volga Germans. Archival documents and statistics show the position of the peasantry during the October Revolution and the Russian Civil War. It has been found that the collective farms (cooperatives, communes and associations for the joint cultivation of the land were the most acceptable form of association under conditions of poverty in villages in the lean years. They allowed accumulating joint efforts and waiting for the next harvest even under the lack of inventory. The author comes to the conclusion that governmental interventions in the agricultural sector (land management, the introduction of the Unified Agricultural Tax, the distribution of breeding seed loan, the implementation of credit policy, etc. was adapted to the interests, primarily to the poorest ones in villages. In conjunction with a very meager budget of the Republic allocated for the development of agriculture, state power sought to solve the problems of the peasant population at the expense of redistribution from the rich peasants to the poorest ones. In this case the main tax burden laid on the proactive and strong part of the village (peasants of average means and substantial farmers that as a result neutralized all attempts to eradicate peasant debt and to generate financial flows for technical re-equipment of the village and intensification of the agricultural production.

  17. Louis Aragon: (Re writing the Nazi-Soviet Pact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela KIMYONGÜR

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available At the time of the Nazi-Soviet non-aggression pact of 1939, Louis Aragon was a member of the French Communist Party (PCF, a well known novelist and poet and a journalist. Whilst his writing career had undergone several notable transformations, not least that from surrealist to socialist realist, his political commitment to the left and, from 1927 to the PCF, remained steadfast for much of his life. Indeed, unlike the PCF’s interpretation of the Second World War, which underwent a number of s...

  18. Bibliographic Index of Soviet Military Books, 1970-1974.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-31

    34 Each is preceded by a numerical designation, used in Soviet bibliographies, which corresponds in many ways to the Dewey Decimal System used in the...74-06882 (C0087) Mal’kov,V.I. Character and System of Laws of War and Armed * . Conflict, Principles of Military Art.(Kharakter i Sistema Zakonov...C0561) Stukalov,P.I., Shchetnini,V.F. System of Political Organi- zation of Socialist Society, the Plaice and Role in it of the Armed For- ces.( Sistema

  19. Treatment of bastnaesite ore from Vietnamese Socialist Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Formanek, J.; Jerabek, J.; Jancarek, J.

    1987-01-01

    From the Vietnamese deposit at Nam Nam Xe Czechoslovakia imported several hundred tons of ore. Several methods of ore dressing were used: gravitational, preconcentration in electromagnetic field, magnetic separation, high-intesity electromagnetic separation. Flotation evidently was the best dressing method tried. The results are presented of testing using different flotation agents. (E.S.)

  20. Sport and Social Change. Socialist Feminist Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Catherine

    1988-01-01

    Though the number of women in sport and the productive labor force have increased, the lower levels of support and pay indicate devaluing by a capitalist patriarchal society. A socialist feminist theory of sport participation by women foresees the possibility of a nonpatriarchal capitalist society. (JD)

  1. Soviet nuclear testing: The Republics say no

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, L.J.

    1990-01-01

    Massive protests are taking place in Russia against nuclear weapons testing. Efforts have been mounted to stop all testing at Kazakhstan test site near the town of Semipalatinsk, site of the first nuclear detonation in 1949 and of more than 500 test conducted since. Boris Yeltsin proposed just after his election as president of the federation the elimination of testing grounds for nuclear and biological weapons on Russian territory. The central government in Moscow has announced that it is considering closing the Semipalatinsk site. Reaction has also been strong to testing at the Arctic island of Novaya Zemlya, and severe constraints, such as Arctic cold, frozen rocks, high winds, difficult access, and protests by Greenpeace activists and USSR's Nordic neighbors do not make this site attractive. The author feels that this movement in the USSR has set in motion a politically dynamic situation that makes for the best chance for a comprehensive test ban treaty yet witnessed

  2. Gas in the former Soviet Union. A special report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    This special report includes 13 papers on various aspects of the natural gas industry and its development in the republics of the former Soviet Union and a full listing of all the Russian oil and gas fields. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 9 papers. (UK)

  3. Mentality of nuclear energy and industry experts from post-socialist and post-capitalist countries and a problem of cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavrilov, S.D.; Kremnev, V.A.

    1996-01-01

    The disintegration of the Socialist Community and thereafter Yugoslavia, the Soviet Union and Czechoslovakia has led to the establishment of more than 20 post-socialist states. Their economies differ widely, and yet a mentality of the overwhelming majority of various strata of the population, including scientists and engineers, is almost invariable so far. The processes have had an effect on the mentality of nuclear experts, especially those who deal with nuclear weapon. The superposition of general crises of post-socialist countries and an availability of nuclear facilities and installations and nuclear technologies have already had an adverse effect on the specialists' mentality. On the other hand, experts from the post-capitalist countries have other mentalities and their socioeconomic position is cardinally distinguished. Thus, at most they may barely perceive the post-socialist specialists' envelope of mentality. It doesn't only prevent individuals' collaboration and organizations' cooperation by the lack of socio-culture-psychological misunderstanding,. In some instances it has already resulted in the interruption or cancellation of joint projects at the early stages of their implementation. The report is devoted to the problem of mutually beneficial interaction between experts and organizations from recently antagonistic systems, promoting better understanding, and a different rank specialists mentality convergence. The mentality and economic situation for experts from both the post-socialist countries and the Western industrial economies are discussed

  4. 31 CFR 505.10 - Prohibitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... North Korea Mongolia People's Republic of China Poland Romania The Slovak Republic The geographic area formerly known as the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics Vietnam [30 FR 1284, Feb. 6, 1965, as amended at...

  5. Atlas of the Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Harry F.

    This atlas consists of 20 maps, tables, charts, and graphs with complementary text illustrating Soviet government machinery, trade and political relations, and military stance. Some topics depicted by charts and graphs include: (1) Soviet foreign affairs machinery; (2) Soviet intelligence and security services; (4) Soviet position in the United…

  6. Criminal-legal prohibitions in the soviet juridical discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey V. Skorobogatov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective to determine the place of criminal law prohibitions in the formation development and functioning of the Soviet legal discourse. Methods dialectic approach to the research of social phenomena which allows to analyze them in historical development and functioning in the context of the unity of the objective and subjective factors as well as postmodern paradigm giving the opportunity to explore the legal reality at different levels including the lawinterpretation one. Dialectical approach and postmodern paradigm have determined the choice of specific research methods comparative hermeneutics discursive formally legal. Results basing on the analysis of normativelegal acts regulating criminal legal relations in the USSR the development of the Soviet criminal law was considered since its emergence to termination of existence. Conclusion on its restrictive nature was made which was in line with the main task of this sector of law ndash the protection of the Soviet system and socialist property from criminal encroachments. The normative regulatory basis of criminal law prohibitions determined the general nature of the Soviet legal discourse which was designed to prove the necessity and expediency of such means of protecting public and state interests in the period of building communism. Scientific novelty on the basis of use of the complex classical and postclassical methods the article for the first time studies the role of criminal law prohibitions in the development of Soviet legal discourse. Practical value the key issues and conclusions of the article can be used in scientific and pedagogical activity while researching the issues of the nature and trends of development of the Soviet criminal law.

  7. Postcolonial studies and post-Soviet societies: The possibilities and the limitations of their intersection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subotić Milan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Starting with a short review of the postcolonial studies’ origins, this paper considers the question of their application in the study of history and contemporary state of the post-Soviet societies. Aspirations of the leading theorists of postcolonial studies not to restrict their field of research on the relation of imperial metropoles (First World and its (postcolonial periphery (Third World have not met with the acceptance in post-Soviet societies’ academia. With the exception of the famous debates on „the Balkans“ that are not the subject of this paper, the paradigm of post-colonialism is rarely used in the interpretation of past and present of the former socialist states (Second World. Rejecting the thesis of their own (postcolonial status in most of Eastern European countries is usually based on a rejection of the assumption of the Soviet-style communism’s „civilizing mission“. From the same perspective, the Soviet Union is not considered a colonial metropole, but an occupying force, and the epoch of socialism is interpreted as externally imposed breach of the historical developments based on the European model. On the other hand, the concept of these countries’ transition opens up the issue of their (postcolonial status in relation to „Europe“ as the center of economic, political and cultural power. Therefore, the postcolonial critique of post-Soviet societies is more often focused on the thematisation of neo-imperial domination and neo-colonial dependency phenomena, than on the explanation of their socialist past. The author’s opinion is that it doesn’t mean that a number of concepts of postcolonial theory - such as „internal colonialism“ - cannot be productively used to a fuller understanding of the Soviet past, nor that in the interpretation of post-Soviet realities’ „hybrid forms“ the postcolonial studies cannot be of use. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 149026

  8. Transplanting a Western-Style Journalism Education to the Central Asian Republics of the Former Soviet Union: Experiences and Challenges at the American University of Central Asia in Kyrgyzstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skochilo, Elena; Toralieva, Gulnura; Freedman, Eric; Shafer, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Western standards of journalism education, as well as western professional journalistic practices, have had difficulty taking root in the five independent countries of formerly Soviet Central Asia. This essay examines the experience of one university's Department of Journalism and Mass Communication since 1997 and the challenges it faces,…

  9. Soviet test yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergino, Eileen S.

    Soviet seismologists have published descriptions of 96 nuclear explosions conducted from 1961 through 1972 at the Semipalatinsk test site, in Kazakhstan, central Asia [Bocharov et al., 1989]. With the exception of releasing news about some of their peaceful nuclear explosions (PNEs) the Soviets have never before published such a body of information.To estimate the seismic yield of a nuclear explosion it is necessary to obtain a calibrated magnitude-yield relationship based on events with known yields and with a consistent set of seismic magnitudes. U.S. estimation of Soviet test yields has been done through application of relationships to the Soviet sites based on the U.S. experience at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), making some correction for differences due to attenuation and near-source coupling of seismic waves.

  10. The Triumph and fall of socialist accounting : a historical aspect

    OpenAIRE

    Mackevičius, Jonas

    2005-01-01

    [...] Until now, the comparative analysis of accounting systems in socialist centralized planned economy and capitalistic free market economy has been insufficient; the mutual impact of these systems has not been articulated. Currently, one often poses a question: what were actual, possible and could be future contributions of socialist accounting to the development of international accounting? Will the insights and ideas of authors from socialist countries be applied to improve accounting sy...

  11. Soviet in content - people’s in form: The building of Farming Cooperative Centres and the Soviet-Yugoslav dispute, 1948-1950

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živančević Jelena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It was not until 1948, when the Cominform conflict escalated, that the Communist Party of Yugoslavia began a thorough implementation of the Soviet model in Yugoslav agriculture - due to the Soviet criticism, the CPY made immediate legislative changes and started a class struggle in Yugoslav villages. Simultaneously, and just a few months before the Fifth Congress, Josip Broz Tito initiated a competition for building 4,000 Farming Cooperative Centres throughout Yugoslavia - they were built in accordance with the social-realist “national in form - socialist in content” slogan. Once the building started, in his Congress speech, Radovan Zogović, a leader of the Serbian Agitprop department, offered the first official proclamation of Socialist Realism in the post-war period by a political authority. This article analyses the process of planning, designing and building of the Farming Cooperative Centres; discusses their political, ideological and formal implications; and inquires into the specific role of architecture, joined with the theory of Socialist Realism, in building Yugoslav socialism.

  12. Soviet Development of Gyrotrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-05-01

    Relationship Type of Device Remarks V, - Vc, anomalous Doppler Capable of 100 percent efficiency, CRM but more cumbersome than Cheren- kov devices V...authors; and discusses inlividual Soviet reseaLc- groups, the basic organizational units responAiLle for the CRM and gyrotron research and development. The...maintained a cCnEistEnt iecord of significant achievements; it has managed to overcome the systenic yeaxness of the Soviet R&C systeg in teimg atle to

  13. Soviet Space Program Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-01

    in advance and some events were even broadcast live. Immediately following the first success- ful launch of their new Energia space launch vehicle in...early 1988. Just as a handbook written a couple of years ago would need updating with Mir, Energia , and the SL-16, this handbook will one day need up...1986. Johnson, Nicholas L. The Soviet Year in Space 1983. Colorado Springs, CO: Teledyne Brown Engineering, 1984. Lawton, A. " Energia - Soviet Super

  14. The Psychoprophylactic Method of Painless Childbirth in Socialist Czechoslovakia: from State Propaganda to Activism of Enthusiasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrešanová, Ema

    2016-10-01

    This paper explores the history of the 'psychoprophylactic method of painless childbirth' in socialist Czechoslovakia, in particular, in the Czech and Moravian regions of the country, showing that it substantially differs from the course that the method took in other countries. This non-pharmacological method of pain relief originated in the USSR and became well known as the Lamaze method in western English-speaking countries. Use of the method in Czechoslovakia, however, followed a very different path from both the West, where its use was refined mainly outside the biomedical frame, and the USSR, where it ceased to be pursued as a scientific method in the 1950s after Stalin's death. The method was imported to Czechoslovakia in the early 1950s and it was politically promoted as Soviet science's gift to women. In the 1960s the method became widespread in practice but research on it diminished and, in the 1970s, its use declined too. However, in the 1980s, in the last decade of the Communist regime, the method resurfaced in the pages of Czechoslovak medical journals and underwent an exciting renaissance, having been reintroduced by a few enthusiastic individuals, most of them women. This article explores the background to the renewed interest in the method while providing insight into the wider social and political context that shaped socialist maternity and birth care in different periods.

  15. SOCIALIST REALISM IN LITERARY DEPICTIONS OF WAR (THE CASE OF CROATIAN PROSE NARRATIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Czerwiński

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article paradigms of socialist realist poetics in prose narrative on World WarTwo are taken into consideration. Some key ideologemes of socialist realism and communist worldview are underlined, such as absence of ambiguity (unequivocalness, simplifi cations, consistent mimeticism (truthful and historically concrete representation of reality, class awareness, militancy and heroism in war. Alongside theoretical and official directives, formulated by dogmatic theoreticians of socijalist realist doctrine (like Jure Franičević-Pločar who based his understandings of literature on the Soviet principles, created by Zhdanov and Stalin, there are given analyses of some literary texts written by Josip Barković, Joža Horvat, Ivo Andrić i Mate Beretin. The author focuses on literary construction of characters – the prototype illegal partisans who ruthlessly struggle against the occupiers as well as chronotopic settings which enable for the action to be set within schematized confl ict of good and evil. Including the new communist man, that is created during the revolution, there are given crucial political orientations concerning the canonized vision of the war, such as the principle of symmetry (meaning that all peoples’ traitors are fascists and the vision of the liberation from fascism as the victory of the communist revolution (in this perspective, communists are depicted as the sole antifascists.

  16. Soviet theories of economic demography: a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, P

    1983-06-01

    child can make substitutions between having more children and raising the quality of children already born. The question is what does the model predict will happen to fertility with economic development. The positive income effect will be limited as increased income is channelled into child quality and other superior goods rather than child quantity. The Urlanis-Strumilin model of labor supply assumes that the household allocates its time among market employment, household production. The model shows that the effect of children on female labor supply is not ambiguous. The presence of young children raises the value of home services and lowers long run market wages, thereby reducing female market labor supply. According to the model, the socialist state can manipulate labor supplies through several channels. It can reduce the value of home services by providing market substitutes. Soviet writers recognize the linkages between labor supply and fertility without formalizing the simultaneous relationship. The comparative statics of the Soviet model are essentially the same as those of the neoclassical model: an increase in "costs" of children will have, at best, a small positive impact on fertility.

  17. Nõukogude garaažikultuur. Soviet Garage Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tauri Tuvikene

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Apart from its manifestation in the form of political ideology, the arts and the economic system, socialism also manifested itself in space. The socialist space did not only take shape ideologically, but was also influenced by societal limitations and possibilities. Because of this, it is important to shed light on everyday life in the Soviet Union, which did not necessarily consist of big slogans or open opposition, and which neither expressed loud support nor aversion in relation to the Soviet system. In this article I take a look at the garage areas (which were usually built in clusters as spatial elements, and the garage culture associated with them. I describe how the garage was a necessary part of the car culture in Soviet society, a part which at times comprised objects, practices and meanings of its own: in other words, a garage culture. Cars have had a major impact on cityscapes in the West, where the number of cars per capita was many times larger than in the Soviet Union, but car usage has left its mark in socialist cities as well. Getting around in a car inevitably means aneed to park it somewhere; this basic fact applied to both sides of the Iron Curtain. However, garage areas have carried more importance in socialist societies – there is more of them, and they feature a large amount of parking spaces (hundreds if not thousands. The reason for this popularity was societal limitations and possibilities: on the one hand there was an opportunity for extensive land use brought about by the state ownership of land untouched by free-market search for profitability, but on the other hand there were also obstacles, created by a deficit. By enabling the car owner to keep his vehicle going, the garage had a concrete role to play in the Soviet economic system. The garage was a place where you could repair your car, store spare parts and protect it from potential theft. The role of the garage in Soviet car culture as described in this article

  18. A Comparative Analysis of Socialists and Capitalists Economies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    From America's example of capitalist economy and politics, China's capitalist's, socialists and communists' mixed-system; and from North Korea's example of a purely communists' state, the current essay has argued for the illusiveness of attempting to eliminate either a communist, a feudal, a fascist or a socialist's economy, ...

  19. Risk and Soviet Security Decisions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hull, Andrew

    1990-01-01

    .... There are several exceptions to general Soviet risk aversion in using military power. But in each instance, the Soviet Union has fared rather badly when it chanced large risks in pursuit of correspondingly high potential gains...

  20. Post-Soviet transformation of bureaucracy in Lithuania: main features and trends

    OpenAIRE

    Pivoras, Saulius

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to analyze the reforms and development of public administration and public bureaucracy in Lithuania from the prism of the post-Soviet transformation concept. In other words, the effort is to establish a continuation of the features of the Soviet bureaucratic - administrative system, to the extent these can be discussed, and their influence on the public bureaucracy of the independent Republic of Lithuania. It is being ascertained that the purpose of the reforms ...

  1. Soviet Union, Military Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-06-05

    supremacy in the world. Like the foreign policies of the USSR and the USA , their military doctrines reveal the objectives they pursue: the Soviet... Gastronom or a Detskiy Mir. In- stallation of the equipment was delayed a long time as a result. The district finance service therefore did not consider

  2. Soviet debate on missile defense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parrott, B.

    1987-04-01

    Although the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) is meant to cope with the danger of a Soviet nuclear attack, the recent US debate over SDI has paid surprisingly little attention to Soviet views of ballistic missile defense. Despite the existence of a substantial body of pertinent scholarship, the debate has failed to take adequate account of major changes in Soviet ballistic missile defense policy since the mid-1960s. It has also neglected the links between current Soviet military policy and broader Soviet political and economic choices. The Soviets regard SDI not as a novel undertaking to reduce the risks of nuclear war but as an extension of the geopolitical competition between the superpowers. This competition has been dominated in the 1980s, in the Soviet view, by sharply increased US assertiveness and the decline of detente. Viewing SDI as a manifestation of these general trends, Soviet decision makers find the prospect of an unregulated race in ballistic missile defenses and military space technologies deeply unsettling. The deterioration of superpower relations has raised serious doubts in Moscow about the wisdom of Soviet external policy during the 1970s and has provoked sharp internal differences over policy toward the US. Already highly suspicious of the Reagan administration, the elite is united by a general conviction that SDI is an American gambit that may ultimately undercut past Soviet strategic gains and pose a grave new threat to Soviet security. 14 references.

  3. The National Socialist Sisterhood: an instrument of National Socialist health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweikardt, Christoph

    2009-06-01

    When Adolf Hitler (1889-1945) came to power in 1933, the new Nazi government focused the German health system on their priorities such as the creation of a racially homogeneous society and the preparation of war. One of the measures to bring nursing under their control was the foundation of a new sisterhood. In 1934, Erich Hilgenfeldt (1897-1945), the ambitious head of the National Socialist People's Welfare Association (Nationalsozialistische Volkswohlfahrt), founded the National Socialist (NS) Sisterhood (Nationalsozialistische Schwesternschaft) to create an elite group that would work for the goals of the National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei, NSDAP). Hilgenfeldt proclaimed community nursing as a priority for NS Sisterhood nurses. Catholic and Protestant sisters, who were traditionally dedicated to community nursing, were to be gradually replaced. However, other competing priorities, such as hospital service for the training of junior nurses and work in conquered regions, as well as the lack of NS nursing personnel, hampered the expansion of community nursing. The paper also addresses areas for future research: everyday activities of NS nurses, the service of NS Sisterhood nurses for NSDAP organisations such as the elite racist paramilitary force SS (Schutzstaffel, Protective Squadron), and involvement in their crimes have hardly been investigated as yet.

  4. Nõukogude "kaasaegne stiil" : sotsialistlik modernism = The Soviet "contemporary style" : a socialist modernism / Susan E. Reid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Reid, Susan E., 1959-

    2009-01-01

    Modernismile lähenemisest nõukogude kunstis. Nõukogude kunstikriitikast ja -praktikast. Kaasaegne stiil sünteesis arhitektuuriga. Nõukogude Palee teostamata projektist Moskvas. 1962. aastal valminud Moskva Pioneeride Paleest kui stalinistliku praktika hülgamise näitest

  5. The Soviet Union and the Socialist and Social Democratic Parties of Western Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-02-01

    British forces, Craxi stated, "Those missiles are not on the moon," Corriere della Sera, May 30, 1985. • 7 .- P.- N" It.- ’j -9.’-V 1.r". k7 17- -. W...Party (PIP) Progressive Labor Party of St. Lucia (PLP) People’s Electoral Movement (MEP), Venezuela Consultative Parties-in-Exile Bulgarian Social

  6. The fairy tale of socialism : How "socialist" was the "new" literature in Soviet Estonia? / Cornelius Hasselblatt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hasselblatt, Cornelius, 1960-

    2003-01-01

    Eesti kirjandusest 1940-1956. Lähemalt järgmistest romaanidest: Erni Krusteni "Pekside raamat" (1946), Osvald Toominga "Pruuni katku aastail" (1950), Aadu Hindi "Tuulise ranna" 1. osa (1956), Johannes Semperi "Punased nelgid"(1955) ja Rudolf Sirge "Maa ja rahvas" (1956)

  7. Poland: biomedical ethics in a socialist state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szawarski, Zbigniew

    1987-06-01

    In one of a Hastings Center Report series of four country reports, a professor of ethics discusses the Polish approach to ethical issues in health care. Szawarski begins by outlining five factors that influence the practice of medicine in Poland: a socialist form of government, the influence of the Roman Catholic Church, an ongoing economic crisis, the legacy of the Nazi death camps, and a lack of formal instruction in biomedical ethics. He then discusses three current ethical concerns of physicians, patients, and the public: regulation of physician conduct, abortion, and in vitro fertilization. There is little formal public debate of the issues, however, and physicians seem committed to upholding traditional medical codes of ethics without analyzing underlying moral principles and justifications.

  8. The case of the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the collapse of the socialist system at the beginning of the 1990s, the health situation in the Czech Republic has improved more rapidly than in other CEE countries. Mortality from circulatory diseases decreased significantly at higher ages. The recent decline in mortality is likely to be attributable to technical progress in medical treatment and less affected by the change in lifestyle. While the use of cardiovascular drugs and the number of operations of invasive heart-surgery considerably improved, smoking and alcohol consumption have somewhat augmented at the same time. The recent favourable turnover has currently brought the Czech Republic a little closer to the European average.

  9. [Richard Koch's life in national socialism and in Soviet emigration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boltres, Daniela; Töpfer, Frank; Wiesing, Urban

    2006-01-01

    The Jewish historian and theorist of medicine, Richard Koch, teaching in Frankfurt/Main, fled in 1936 from National Socialist Germany to the USSR where he lived in the Caucasian spa Essentuki until his death in 1949. Here he worked as a doctor and continued his scientific work, especially on the foundations of medicine in natural philosophy. None of his works of this time were published. Koch was a scientific outsider in the USSR, and he was aware of this. However, he tried to make his views compatible with official doctrines. In 1947 he lost his employment at the medical clinic of Essentuki, and his material situation grew worse. It is still an open question whether this development was related to an increasingly anti-Jewish atmosphere in the USSR that was linked with the Stalinist "purges", as Koch himself appeared to believe. Before his flight from Germany Koch did not show any tendency towards communism or the political left at all. His attitude towards Soviet society and Stalin was mixed: cautious criticism was accompanied by strong expressions of commitment to Stalin and Koch's new Socialist home. The question to what extent Koch's comments showed his true convictions must remain without a definite answer. At least in part they can be understood as precautions in threatening circumstances. The opportunity of a remigration to Germany after 1945, however, was turned down by Koch.

  10. Negation, Including, Gradual Oblivion: State Strategies On Soviet Heritage In Georgia, Armenia And Azerbaijan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Tokarev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the year of 100th anniversary of the October Revolution, the author turns to the question of the Soviet heritage influence on nation- and state-building processes in three countries of the South Caucasus –Azerbaijan,ArmeniaandGeorgia. The article postulates clear differences between the study of postcolonialism and the post-Soviet space, and therefore the author presents his own operationalization of the "imperial heritage" study. The countries of the South Caucasus are compared based on the following criteria: a number of ethnic Russians as the main constituent of the Soviet people living in the country; a status of the Russian language; national symbols (statutes, architecture, Soviet state symbols, the hierarchy of military ranks, and political practices (functioning of the party systems, type of sovereignty, degree of freedom of speech and political competition. StudyingAzerbaijan,ArmeniaandGeorgiadifferently coming out of theUSSRand using the disintegration of theUSSRto construct their national narratives in accordance with their own ideas about the ways of development, the author finds a repetition of the Soviet system elements. Each of the states demonstrates a unique combination of “post-Soviet Soviet” phenomena. The difference lies in the ratio between pro-Soviet and anti-Soviet elements. Azerbaijanseems to maintain a pro-Soviet narrative more than the others. It inherited the Soviet cult of personality and combined this practice with a completely non-Soviet (Eastern tradition of political dynasties covered by the election system. The Armenian political tradition includes reference to Soviet Armenia as theSecondRepublic, which distinguishes the country from the neighbors who consider themselves to be the successors of the democratic republics that emerged during the Civil War inRussia. Despite competitive elections and free media, the Armenian leadership seeks to establish a political system with a single dominant party and

  11. Soviet equipment flies in

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1978-01-01

    End of February 1977 a Soviet Ilyushin-76 heavy freight aircraft landed at Cointrin airport having on board fifty large wire proprtional chambers and associated apparatus, together weighing 10 tons, supplied by the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, USSR. The equipment was for the CERN- Dubna-Munich-Saclay experiment NA4 on deep inelastic muon scattering being set up in the North Area of SPS. See Weekly Bulletin 11/78.

  12. Crafting socialist embryology: dialectics, aquaculture and the diverging discipline in Maoist China, 1950-1965.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lijing

    2017-11-07

    In the 1950s, embryology in socialist China underwent a series of changes that adjusted the disciplinary apparatus to suit socialism and the national goal of self-reliance. As the Communist state called on scientists to learn from the Soviets, embryologists' comprehensive view on heredity, which did not contradict Trofim Lysenko (1898-1976)'s doctrines, provided a space for them to advance their discipline. Leading scientists, often trained abroad in the tradition of experimental embryology, rode on the tides of Maoist ideology and repositioned their research. Some of their creative realignment of previous research questions, materials, and traditions to Marxist philosophy and agricultural objectives generated productive programs. In particular, Tong Dizhou (1902-1979) translated Engels's dialectics of nature into a research question about cytoplasmic inheritance. His continuing investigation on it led to the first goldfish "clone" through a nuclear transplantation experiment; Zhu Xi and his associates transferred a goldfish model in embryology into studies on improving carp aquaculture, leading to a rare success in the Great Leap Forward of 1958. These directions for embryology continued well into the 1960s. At a time when global embryology was diversifying and began to be molecularized, eventually forming "developmental biology," socialist embryology took shape in China with a different set of epistemic and practical commitments. The history of its development challenges and enriches our understanding of the concrete process of change in one discipline under Mao, showing ways in which scientists creatively adapted state-sanctioned ideologies and visions to do productive work outside the framework of molecular biology during the Cold War.

  13. Soviet Union's Nuclear Power Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Glasnost has dramatically increased the availability of information about the Soviet Union's nuclear industry. In the future, even more information is likely to become known as Soviet participation in international forums increases. Not only is much more general information now available, but up-to-date details are regularly provided, including information such as the Soviet nuclear industry's strategic direction and goals, recent reactor design changes, safety inspection results, and reports of public opposition and protest. This article summarizes the current status of the Soviet nuclear power program, reconciling the often conflicting reports from various public sources

  14. Comparing Socialist and Post-Socialist Television Culture. Fifty Years of Television in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zrinjka Peruško

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article builds a theoretical model for comparative analysis of media culture based on the notion of genre, and applies it to a comparative analysis of television as a cultural form in socialist and post-socialist Croatia. The paper explores how the shares and generic composition of program modes of information, entertainment and fiction change in time, and how the contribution of different genres to program flow and modes varies with the changes of political, economic and technological context. Longitudinal trends in television flows are comparatively evaluated in relation to trends in genre developments in Europe and their relationship to the changes in the cultural role of television. The results show a decrease in the information and an increase in the fiction mode between socialism and democracy, with some similarities of the Croatian and western television culture in relation to genre and mode composition and flow, albeit with a belated introduction of neo television genres. Notwithstanding the limited freedom of expression and ideological content, which necessarily influenced socialist media culture, television as a cultural form in Croatia developed in concert with the global program flows. The article is based on original content analysis of television schedules where the unit of analysis is a televisions program listing. The analogue television universe is represented by longitudinal data for 1959, 1969, 1979, 1989, 1999, and 2009. The stratified systematic sample (N=3934 for each chosen year consists of two constructed weeks from a universe of all listed programs broadcast on all free to air television channels with a national reach license.

  15. Makeshift Modernity. DIY, Craft and the Virtuous Homemaker in New Soviet Housing of the 1960s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan E. Reid

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In cities across the Soviet Union in the late 1950s and early 1960s, new housing developments of plain five-storey apartment blocks mushroomed thanks to an intensive programme for mass industrialised housing construction launched by the Party-State in 1957. Modern living conditions were to be created for millions, it was promised, through state planning and investment in the modernisation of construction, making maximum use of technology and factory prefabrication in place of bricklaying and other artisanal methods. Drawing on oral history and material culture, this article attends to some contradictory, seemingly unplanned and un-modern aspectsof popular agency entailed in producing the modern Soviet environment, including the role of local improvisation, DIY and manual craft. These were not necessarily resistant to or subversive of the socialist state's modernisationproject but had a more complex and ambivalent relation to it, as complementary or compensatory accommodations that"tuned" universal modelsto local contingency.

  16. The Islamic Republic of Eastern Turkestan and the Formation of Modern Uyghur Identity in Xinjiang

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, Joy R

    2006-01-01

    .... Founders of this republic, influenced by Pan-Islamism and Pan-Turkism used it to promote a Turkic-Muslim identity independent from Chinese and Soviet control and unique to the sedentary, oasis-dwellers of Xinjiang...

  17. Soviet Military Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    some 27,000 meters of bridging equipment, 13 1 ."¾. million metric tons of arms and ammunition, "J -- and 60 million metric tons of petrol (fuel...rhis ammuitnition. lDuring aI warn sýuppjlis fromn stratev!1( s4tuck- a1lomg with ove-(r 9 m-illion metric tons o )f petrol 10 ~iilt- In thi. Stlviit...been a target for new Soviet overtures Deputy Foreign Minister Vladimir Petrovskiy through political influence operations and ex- went to Tunisia , Iraq

  18. Soviet energy export prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scanlan, Tony

    1991-05-01

    The Soviet Union produces 20% of world energy but since 1988 this is in decline. Awakening consumerism and a sea-change in the structure of foreign trade and internal investment are placing this key industry into unprecedented uncertainty. The difference between success and failure goes beyond the 1988 peak of six million barrels daily of exports in oil equivalent. The article quantifies the key areas of energy uncertainty as equal in volume to total OPEC output and sees the long-term changes of success more than ever dependent on coordinated planning and investment as well as on market reality. (Author).

  19. Understanding Soviet Naval Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-07-01

    submarine noise reduction technology. A single-unit experimental, deep diving SSN. SSBN in a process that converted the unit to dubbed the MIKE class, was...is second only to that of Ja- ties. When the Soviet MIKE SSN suffered a pan in total catch tonnage each year. fire in the Norwegian Sea in April of... sharpl \\ tapered nose providing better o~er-the-nose visibil- ity: this change ’. as miade possible by the absence of’ the MIiG-23’s air intercept radar

  20. Esthetic Education in Soviet Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soviet Education, 1980

    1980-01-01

    This issue of Soviet Education examines esthetic education in Soviet schools, including ways of raising the level of esthetic education, the factor of labor, research on the relationship between the atheistic and esthetic education, ways of amplifying interrelationship between theory and practice in teacher education and psychological principles…

  1. The Origins of Soviet Sociolinguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandist, Craig

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the origins of Soviet sociolinguistics and suggests that the historical significance of the reception and reinterpretation of these ideas is considerable, leading to a reconsideration of the origins of sociolinguistics and the relationship between Marxism and the language sciences in the early years of the Soviet Union. (Author/VWL)

  2. Spatial Analysis of Market Economy Innovations in the Former Soviet Union: The Case of Commodity Exchanges

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-10-06

    current cooperative movement in the former Soviet Uni’n can be traced to a law adopted in November, 1986 which permitted family members residing...the labor joined the cooperative movement in 1988. Uzbekistan, the largest of the Central Asian republics, claims only one exchange in Tashkent

  3. A Soviet view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tikhonov, S.Y.

    1992-01-01

    During the past several years, the international situation has changed greatly. Efforts to maintain strategic stability have replaced the desire for strategic superiority. Equally important, new thinking in the Soviet Union has greatly accelerated the political warming between the superpowers. As a result of thee developments, the Soviet Union and the United States have come to the conclusion that a nuclear war cannot be won and should never be fought. These events have drastically reduced the probability of the deliberate use of nuclear or conventional weapons. However, the risk of a military crisis and its consequences still exist. Indeed, the risk of a nuclear exchange is still possible. What has changed, however, is that in the current international climate, a crisis or war may result unintentionally because of misperceptions, misunderstanding, accident, or technical fault. While the probability of this is admittedly small, it remains far greater than that of deliberate conflict. The purpose of this chapter, therefore, is twofold. First, it identifies potential sources of unintended crises and conflicts and recommends appropriate confidence-building measures. Second, it addresses CBMs and their potential roles in nuclear crisis de-escalation

  4. National narration and Politics of Memory in post-socialist Georgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dundua Salome

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to analyse the politics of so called “historical memory” during the state-building and nation-building process in post-socialist Georgia After the Rose Revolution 2003, the new government that aimed at building the “new Georgia,” implementing radical changes in many key spheres, including institutions, readdressing the totalitarian past, faced number of problematic manifestations in political and cultural life in this post-Soviet country. The “politics of memory” became one of the key factors of reconstructing of “new, democratic, western Georgia”. This process can be evaluated as leading toward state nationalism. Analyzing the politics of memory, symbolism is the most notable attitude and that is why former President Mikheil Saakashvili used commemorative ceremonies continuously. The authors argue in favour of approach, that the so called “memory politics” is the integral part of one’s legitimacy building, but at the same time, it can be used as tool for reconsidering of Polity’s future and mobilization of population under the “citizenship” umbrella towards the strong loyalty to the actual and future state-building.

  5. Class and Gender in Prime-Time Television Entertainment: Observations from a Socialist Feminist Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steeves, H. Leslie; Smith, Marilyn Crafton

    1987-01-01

    Assesses representations of women in television entertainment programs from a socialist feminist perspective. Elaborates on socialist feminist theory, presents concepts for an analysis of both class and gender oppression, and argues that most socialist feminist cultural studies do not address these categories adequately. Uses these concepts to…

  6. The Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, A.

    1991-01-01

    William T. R. Fox's pre-nuclear age analysis provides an excellent starting point for the authors' discussion of the role of nuclear weapons in Soviet security policy. By pointing to some of the non-nuclear, more properly geopolitical sources of peace in East-West relations, Fox's forceful analysis serves as a reminder to approach the authors' study with caution. Too often, there has been a tendency to reduce the etiology of war and peace in East-West relations to its nuclear aspect without proper regard for other, primarily geopolitical, components which provide the all-important context in which nuclear weapons work their indisputable deterrent effect. Two geopolitical sources for the relative peace in post-war East-West relations have been the inability of either the Soviet Union or the United states to employ direct military force in politically significant terms against the vital interests of the other; and an abiding preference, on the part of both, for a divided Germany within a divided Europe. Any other plausible alternative, of course, would almost certainly have involved a united Germany and the related likelihood that it would either gravitate to one or the other alliance or, itself, would constitute the third leg of an intrinsically unstable tri-polar relationship. This paper reports that the prevailing inclination to analyze East-West security as a direct function of nuclear deterrence (witness the Western consternation about INF and denuclearization, and the proliferation of think-tank study groups on post-nuclear security) begs the probability that there are in fact a variety of deeply rooted structures of stability in East-West relations and so exaggerates the delicacy of the existing security order in Europe. to an extent, this follows form the general acceptance of deterrence theory in the West, especially in the United States, and the undoubtedly singular character and role of nuclear weapons in that order

  7. Information on economic and social consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-07-01

    This ''Information on economic and social consequences of the Chernobyl accident'' was presented to the July 1990 session of the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations by the delegations of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic and the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic. It presents the radiation situation, the medical aspects of the accident, the evacuation of the inhabitants from areas affected by radioactive contamination and their social welfare, the agro-industrial production and forestry in these areas, the decontamination operations, the scientific back-up for the work dealing with the consequences of the accident and the expenditure and losses resulting from the Chernobyl disaster

  8. 76 FR 47551 - Certain Tissue Paper Products From the People's Republic of China: Affirmative Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-05

    ... accounting law,\\10\\ but did not do so.\\11\\ Despite its claims, MFVN could not conclusively demonstrate that... Accounting Law, Applicable to Business Activities,'' issued by the Government of the Socialist Republic of... the requested production and accounting records to show when it ceased using Chinese-origin jumbo...

  9. 75 FR 12508 - Certain Potassium Phosphate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Determination...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-16

    ... Thermphos (China) 69.58 Food Additive Co., Ltd. Yunnan Newswift Company Ltd....... Guangxi Yizhou 69.58... foregoing phosphate salts in all grades, whether food grade or technical grade. The product covered by this... Postponement of Final Determination: Certain Frozen Fish Fillets from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, 68 FR...

  10. [The career of the psychiatrist Dietfried Müller-Hegemann (1910-1989) : Example of a politically motivated rise and fall in the German Democratic Republic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, H

    2018-01-01

    Dietfried Müller-Hegemann was one of the prominent figures in East German psychiatry and psychotherapy of the 1950s and 1960s. Having been a communist prior to 1933, a resistance fighter during the National Socialist regime and having gone through political training during his exile in Soviet Russia, he proved to be a committed member of the new ruling SED socialist party in Eastern Germany. As such both governmental and party organs regarded him as a promising and reliable party member to be supported and implemented as executive staff within the new, socialist scientific system. Also, due to the fact that he supported the Pavlovian school of thought for modern psychiatry, Müller-Hegemann was installed as the new head of the Department of Neurology and Psychiatry at Leipzig University by the state secretary for higher education, notably against the clear opposition of the university medical faculty. Soon thereafter however Müller-Hegemann fell from favor due to the fact that he supported views that did not follow the strict ideological guidelines, e. g. with regard to the emergence of fascism. Moreover, he strongly opposed the separation of neurology from psychiatry as ruled by the ministry. An attempt in 1963 by junior party members and ministerial staff to remove him from office failed, but still managed to make Müller-Hegemann resign from his Leipzig post and take over that of director of the Griesinger hospital for the mentally ill in East Berlin. In May 1971, after new conflicts with party officials, he did not return from a business trip to Essen in West Germany. This study does not review the scientific and medical merits of Müller-Hegemann, but concentrates on how his career as a leading psychiatrist was manipulated, both supported and sabotaged, and ideologically controlled by the German Democratic Republic (GDR) system. His development is documented proof that party officials did not tolerate opposition, neither in ideological nor in

  11. Review of the Soviet gas industry in 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagers, M.J.

    1991-01-01

    Soviet production of natural gas increased by only 18.6 billion cubic meters (2.3%) in 1990, from 796.1 billion cubic meters (BCM) to 814.7 BCM. This was the smallest annual increment and the lowest rate of growth in more than two decades. During the 1980s, annual growth typically had been in the 6-8% range, with yearly increments of 40-50 BCM. Of the national total in 1990, enterprises of the Gazprom Concern (formerly the Ministry of the Gas Industry) produced 748.0 BCM, while the Ministry of Oil and Gas produced 66.7 BCM; the latter would be mostly associated gas. Given the USSR's ample resource base, it appears that the Soviet economy is experiencing increasing problems absorbing natural gas, particularly as Soviet aggregate economic output falls along with total energy consumption. During the 1980s, when the gas industry was growing so rapidly, the Soviets absorbed the massive increments in gas supply by directing most of it to a few very large consumers - electric power stations, iron and steel plants, and nitrogenous fertilizer centers. Currently, 54.3% of gas is used for electric power generation; 32.6% in industry; and only 13.1% by the housing and municipal sector. Although the share of housing units using either natural gas or LPG (liquefied petroleum gas-butane and propane) is fairly high in the Soviet Union - 84.8% - this is mostly for cooking rather than heating, so gas use per unit is relatively small. Another problem is that the availability of gas among households is very uneven across the republics and between rural and urban areas. A table gives statistics on gas production in various regions from 1970-1990

  12. Securing Human Rights on the Post-Soviet Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rustam A. Kasyanov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: A lot of profound political, economic, social, cultural and legislative modifications have happened on the post-Soviet space since the disintegration of the USSR. The term “post-Soviet space” should not be considered as the geographical boundaries of the fifteen former Soviet republics. The conception of the “post-Soviet space” has a more profound meaning as it reflects the common historical and cultural heritage as well as close economic relations, moreover, friendship between the citizens of the new independent States. The most developed sphere in the interstate relations nowadays is economics. The most prime example is Eurasian Economic Union (EEU, the youngest integration institution in the world which unites five countries willing to construe their relationship on a stronger basis than the proposed format of cooperation within the Commonwealth of the Independent States. In the modern world the economic and financial interests are determining, their ensuring makes the governments change foreign and domestic policies, start and terminate trade wars, desperately fight for the respect of their legal rights or, on the contrary, voluntarily give up on some parts of their sovereignty in the framework of integration development. The experience of the European Union demonstrates that the construction of the unified internal market within which freely move persons, goods, services and capitals is a necessary but not the only attribute of a successful integration project. At a certain moment the complex of economic and financial interests should be supplied with the interests of a concrete person. A strict observation of rights and freedoms is becoming a factor that predetermines a possibility of a conversion to the higher forms of integration. In this article is analyzed the problem of human rights defense in the main organizations functioning on the post-Soviet space - Eurasian Economic Union and Commonwealth of the Independent

  13. The specter of post-communism: women and alcohol in eight post-Soviet states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinote, Brian Philip; Cockerham, William C; Abbott, Pamela

    2009-04-01

    Because men have borne the heaviest burden of premature mortality in the former Soviet Union, women have for the most part been overlooked in studies of the health crisis in this part of the world. A considerable body of research points to alcohol consumption among males as a primary lifestyle cause of premature mortality. However, the extent to which alcohol use has penetrated the female population following the collapse of communism and how this consumption is associated with other social factors is less well-understood. Accordingly, this paper investigates alcohol consumption in eight republics of the former USSR - Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, and Ukraine using data collected in 2001. More specifically, discussion of gender role transformations and the historical experiences of women during the Soviet era emphasize two potentially important social influences examined in this analysis: psychological distress and Soviet political ideology. Findings suggest that distress is only weakly statistically associated with frequent drinking behavior among women, but results for political ideology show that this factor is statistically and significantly associated with drinking behaviors. Alcohol consumption was not particularly common among women under communism, but trends have been changing. Our discussion suggests that, after the collapse of the Soviet state, women are more able to embrace behavioral practices related to alcohol, and many may do so as an overt rejection of traditional Soviet norms and values. Findings are also discussed within the context of current epidemiological trends and future research directions in these eight republics.

  14. [International relationships in ophthalmology in the German Democratic Republic (GDR)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jähne, M

    2017-09-01

    International relationships in ophthalmology in the former German Democratic Republic (GDR) were directed by the government and predominantly promoted relationships to socialist countries in Eastern Europe. The lack of freedom of travel, restrictions of import for scientific journals and general prevention of contacts by the State security service led to a stagnation in daily practice and in research, mainly from 1961 until 1989.

  15. Power, ideology and children: Socialist childhoods in Czechoslovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Tesar

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available There was not one, singular childhood in socialist Czechoslovakia, but many and diverse, plural, childhoods. Spanning over 40 years (1948–1989, the Czechoslovak communist governance produced diverse conceptualisations of childhoods that remain often invisible, unexplored, and the current analyses are at best sketchy and refer mostly to pedagogical nuances of strong ideological pedagogical struggles. One way to explore such an abundance of historical data in a short journal article is to utilise a somewhat personal narrative of a child. This dialogic approach allows the strong presence of the voice of a child, re-told from an adult’s perspective, and it methodologically justifies an approach to thinking and theorising of socialist childhoods through Vaclav Havel’s (1985; 1989; 1990 theoretical thinking that has been utilised in philosophy of education previously (see Tesar, 2015e. There are also other examples of complex and thorough analyses of socialist childhoods in other countries (see for example Aydarova et al, 2016, and theoretical thinking about the socialist child as a foreigner to its own land, can be done through Kristeva’s lens (Arndt, 2015.

  16. Housing restitution policies among post-socialist countries: explaining divergence.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lux, Martin; Cirman, A.; Sunega, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 1 (2017), s. 145-156 ISSN 1461-6718 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA16-06335S Institutional support: RVO:68378025 Keywords : housing privatisation * property restitution * post-socialist countries Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography OBOR OECD: Sociology

  17. The Soviet Union and Soviet citizens in Finnish magazines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuija Saarinen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this article’s is to study Finnish popular journalism in 1970s and 1980s. A magazine studied in this article is Hymy (Smile, and it has been estimated that in the beginning of 1970s approximately the whole literary population of Finland read it. The purpose of this study is to analyze the different images Hymy created and published of the Soviet Union and the Soviet citizens. The central research question analyzes what kinds of issues Hymy published about the Soviet Union and its citizens before 1991. This study gives special attention to the reasons why the articles were written in the first place, and secondly, what was the nature of their content.        Hymy published 224 articles on the Soviet Union. The articles were mostly written in the spirit of criticism – not in the spirit of “friendship of the peoples” that was the official political stance of Finland toward the Soviet Union. Magazines had to be aware of the official Finnish political rhetoric concerning the relationship with the Soviet Union. Hymy as a popular magazine found a way to evade the official mandate. In Hymy, people were able to read anti-Soviet sentiments without any censoring. Therefore, Hymy not only provided its readers views and beliefs that expressed the popular beliefs and values, but also sympathized with them. The Cold War era in the 1970s and 1980s was still a post-traumatic period for Finns. The magazine Hymy was an important channel to publish stories on painful, embarrassing, and tragic subjects.

  18. [Outstanding Soviet zoologist and parasitologist E. N. Pavlovsky--the creator of the theory of natural foci of disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlovskyĭ, L N

    2011-01-01

    The article presents information on the outstanding Soviet Zoology and Parasitology, Academician of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences of the USSR, Hero of Socialist Labour, Lieutenant-General of the Medical Service E. N. Pavlovsky, the author of more than 1500 scientific papers, the founder of scientific school, one of the few scholars the twentieth century, approaching the level of scientists and encyclopedists. Considered its contribution to the study of natural foci of diseases has promoted the development of environmental trends in parasitology.

  19. Soviet Carriers in Turkish Straits

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-31

    NATO from breakup in the Southern Region and their countries from war in 1974.8 PASOK (Socialist Party of Greece ) political rhetoric no:withstanding...Mudania on 11 October 1922 established the present borders I between Greece and Turkey. This marked the real end of World War I in the Middle East. The...e.g., Eastern Thrace) to Turkey. Greece kept the islands of the Aegean, but those near the Straits (e.g., Lemnos) were demilitarized. The Treaty of

  20. Language Politics in the Republic of Kazakhstan: History, Problems and Prospect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhumanova, Aiman Z.; Dosova, Bibigul A.; Imanbetov, Amanbek N.; Zhumashev, Rymbek M.

    2016-01-01

    The research aims at global analysis of language politics in the Republic of Kazakhstan. Using comparative historical method and method of actualization, the authors examine achievements and shortcomings of the language politics of the Soviet state in order to understand the modern language situation in the Republic. The results show that one of…

  1. Mineral production statistics of the former Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Four tables show, for each of the years 1980 to 1991 Soviet oil production, Soviet gas production, Soviet coal production and Soviet steel production. Total figures are given along with a regional breakdown. 4 refs

  2. Buddhist Contribution to the Socialist Transformation of Buddhism in China: Activities of Ven. Juzan during 1949–1953

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Yu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the role played by Chinese Buddhists, especially the so-called "progressive Buddhists," in the socialist transformation of the sangha at the early stage of the People’s Republic of China (PRC. I concentrate on the case of Ven. Juzan (1908–1984. While the focus on one individual does not reveal the whole story about Chinese Buddhists’ involvement in the Chinese Communist Party’s project of reshaping the sangha, the career of Juzan does provide a window on the issue. By exploring various sources, including Modern Buddhist Studies (Xiandai foxue and government documents, I investigate how Juzan urged his fellow Buddhists to work with the Communist leadership, and how he justified government policies on Buddhism by reinterpreting Buddhist doctrines. In so doing, this study intends to show that Chinese Buddhists’ collaboration with the Communist regime was a significant dimension of the socialist transformation of the Chinese sangha, a process that laid the foundation for full-scale persecution of Buddhism during the Cultural Revolution (1966–1976.

  3. Denying Difference to the Post-Socialist Other: Bernhard Heisig and the Changing Reception of an East German Artist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    April A. Eisman

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This article traces the reception of East German artist Bernhard Heisig’s life and art—first in East Germany and then in the Federal Republic of Germany before and after the Wall. Drawing on post-colonial and post-socialist scholarship, it argues that Heisig’s reception exemplifies a western tendency to deny cultural and ideological difference in what the post-socialist scholar Piotr Piotrowski calls the “close Other.” This denial of difference to artists from the eastern bloc has shaped western understandings of Heisig’s life and art since reunification. Once perceived as an intellectually engaged, political artist, both in East and West Germany, after the fall of the Wall and German unification, Heisig was reinterpreted as a traumatized victim of two dictatorships, distorting not only our understanding of the artist and his work, but also of the nature of art and the role of the artist in East Germany.

  4. Soviet Hadron Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotchetkov, Dmitri

    2017-01-01

    Rapid growth of the high energy physics program in the USSR during 1960s-1970s culminated with a decision to build the Accelerating and Storage Complex (UNK) to carry out fixed target and colliding beam experiments. The UNK was to have three rings. One ring was to be built with conventional magnets to accelerate protons up to the energy of 600 GeV. The other two rings were to be made from superconducting magnets, each ring was supposed to accelerate protons up to the energy of 3 TeV. The accelerating rings were to be placed in an underground tunnel with a circumference of 21 km. As a 3 x 3 TeV collider, the UNK would make proton-proton collisions with a luminosity of 4 x 1034 cm-1s-1. Institute for High Energy Physics in Protvino was a project leading institution and a site of the UNK. Accelerator and detector research and development studies were commenced in the second half of 1970s. State Committee for Utilization of Atomic Energy of the USSR approved the project in 1980, and the construction of the UNK started in 1983. Political turmoil in the Soviet Union during late 1980s and early 1990s resulted in disintegration of the USSR and subsequent collapse of the Russian economy. As a result of drastic reduction of funding for the UNK, in 1993 the project was restructured to be a 600 GeV fixed target accelerator only. While the ring tunnel and proton injection line were completed by 1995, and 70% of all magnets and associated accelerator equipment were fabricated, lack of Russian federal funding for high energy physics halted the project at the end of 1990s.

  5. VVER Reactor Safety in Eastern Europe and Former Soviet Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulou, Demetra

    2012-02-01

    VVER Soviet-designed reactors that operate in Eastern Europe and former Soviet republics have heightened international concern for years due to major safety deficiencies. The governments of countries with VVER reactors have invested millions of dollars toward improving the safety of their nuclear power plants. Most of these reactors will continue to operate for the foreseeable future since they provide urgently-needed electrical power. Given this situation, this paper assesses the radiological consequences of a major nuclear accident in Eastern Europe. The paper also chronicles the efforts launched by the international nuclear community to improve the safety of the reactors and notes the progress made so far through extensive collaborative efforts in Armenia, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Kazakhstan, Lithuania, Russia, Slovakia, and Ukraine to reduce the risks of nuclear accidents. Western scientific and technical staff collaborated with these countries to improve the safety of their reactor operations by strengthening the ability of the regulator to perform its oversight function, installing safety equipment and technologies, investing time in safety training, and working diligently to establish an enduring safety culture. Still, continued safety improvement efforts are necessary to ensure safe operating practices and achieve timely phase-out of older plants.

  6. Soviet Jewish Community Strategies, Concerning Memory Perpetuation (Erection of Memorials to Jews-Fascism Victims Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Tcherkasski

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article, case studying the memorials erection, shows the process of Jews, victims of Nazism memory perpetuation by the Jewish Community within the Soviet Republics in postwar, what difficulties the Jewish Communities and groups of initiators faced, trying to prove the Jewish identity of the graves and gain adoption of Jewish symbols on memorials and memorial signs to fascism victims.

  7. Soviet Cybernetics: Recent News Items, Number Thirteen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Wade B.

    An issue of "Soviet Cybernetics: Recent News Items" consists of English translations of the leading recent Soviet contributions to the study of cybernetics. Articles deal with cybernetics in the 21st Century; the Soviet State Committee on Science and Technology; economic reforms in Rudnev's ministry; an interview with Rudnev; Dnepr-2; Dnepr-2…

  8. Soviet New Thinking: Perspectives and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-29

    and leading military theorist, as quoted in Steven P. Adragna , "A New Soviet Military? Doctrine and Strategy", Orbis, Spring, 1989, p. 166. 22... Adragna , pp. 166-68. 22. Soviet Battlefield Development Plan. Vol I: Soviet General Doctrine for War, p.1-8. 24. Goure, pp. 36-37. 25. William E. Odom

  9. Evaluation of the socialist health policy in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsalikis, G

    1988-01-01

    Following seven years of military rule and seven years of "democratic restoration" under the Right, Greece is now sailing under the flag of the Panhellenic Socialist Movement (PASOK). The Movement was inspired by the ideals of participatory democracy and socialization of the economy and of social services. A central part of socialist planning brought about the National Health System Act (1983) and related legislation intended to universalize health care, remove disparities, and restrict the private sector. It is argued here that the implementation of PASOK's statutory reforms in this field, as in others, will be subject to its ability to transform traditional patterns of production and consumption. As is now increasingly understood, it is hard to plan for socialism on the basis of wants provisions and patterns of consumption established under capitalism.

  10. Young Socialist Men in Mid-Sixties Britain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hughes, Celia Penelope

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the political, social and psychological experiences of a group of young working-class men who in the early-to-mid 1960s became active members in branches of the Labour Party Young Socialists. Concentrated in London's East End, these branches had become increasingly open...... to the politics of International Socialism, a tiny libertarian Trotskyist group that provided these young men with a political education and a social circle, and propelled them into a bourgeoning activist network. Activism in their groups occurred at a crucial moment of personal and political transition – social...... at subjectivity and gender to understand how their sub-culture provided for childhood structures of feeling and early class identity and to consider what meaning they derived from active socialist involvement....

  11. Buildings from the Socialist Past as part of a City’s Brand Identity: The case of Warsaw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ochkovskaya Marina

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate those buildings left over from Warsaw’s socialist past as a part of the city’s brand visual identity including their perception by foreign tourists and local citizens. Although Lisiak (2009 examined the destruction, removal and presence of these remnants from the socialist past in Central European cities, a comparative study of the perception of these architectural sites erected in Warsaw during socialist times has not been carried out specifically so far. To fill the gap, the authors concentrated research efforts on the following buildings: Palace of Culture and Science; the SMYK Store at Bracka 15/19; Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development at Wspólna 30; Office Building and Atrium at Wspólna 62; and the former headquarters of the Polish Communist Party at Nowy Świat 6/12. These buildings were built after the Second World War between the late 1940s and the first half of the 1950s. With the exception of the Palace of Culture and Science - which is one of the most notable symbols of Warsaw - these architectural sites are not on a priority list of the average tourist who does little or no planning for their trip. Nevertheless, these buildings are connected to the Polish People’s Republic era and might attract different groups interested in this historical period and architecture. Apart from being potential tourist attractions, these buildings are being re-evaluated and restored to become integrated into the urban environment and more ‘comfortable’ for the local inhabitants. This paper gives some insights into the recognition and attractiveness of these architectural sites from the socialist past by those from Russia and the USA who have visited Warsaw as well as by Poles who know this city well. It is recommended that these results be taken into consideration by tourist agencies who deal with tours in Warsaw as well as institutions responsible for the city’s image. The authors express

  12. Credentials of delegates to the 6. regular session. (b) Report of the Credentials Committee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1962-01-01

    Argentina Philippines Australia Iraq Bulgaria Union of Soviet Socialist Republics El Salvador United States of America Lebanon 2. The Credentials Committee held a meeting on 24 September 1962 at which russia

  13. Population Health in Regions Adjacent to the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    ...) of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR). Inhabitants of several Kazakhstan regions were contaminated in different years by radioactive fallout from atmospheric nuclear tests at the Semipalatinsk test site...

  14. Defense Sector Consolidation: Will Consolidation Within the Defense Sector Improve the Financial Performance of Defense Contractors While, Simultaneously Yielding Cost Savings to Taxpayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-12-01

    Treaty USSR Union of Soviet Socialist Republics WACC Weighted Average Cost of Capital...a present value using the company’s weighted average cost of capital ( WACC ). Synergy: The Premium for Potential Success For the most part

  15. Genetic effects of charged particles. Proceedings of conference; Geneticheskoe dejstvie korpuskulyarnykh izluchenij. Trudy rabochego soveshchaniya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-07-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of the conference entitled Genetic Effects of Charged Particles held in Dubna, Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic June 1990. Selected presentations were abstracted and indexed for the database.

  16. Linking Entrepreneurial Orientation to Firm Performance in a Post-Socialist Market Context: the Case of Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David KOVACS

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurial orientation provoked the interest of numerous scholars as well as political and administrative decision-makers. Both start-ups and already established corporate entities are increasingly persecuting new opportunities, products, and business models in order to establish superiority above their competitive environment. The tendencies evince an optimist impact of entrepreneurial orientation on business performance, namely on financial performance. Beyond the aforementioned relationship, there are impulses such as environmental and organizational factors, which are affecting the businesses. The results of this study provide evidence of the effect of entrepreneurial orientation on business performance in a post-socialist context. We test the impact of three moderators on this bivariate relationship. In contrast to the substantial body of literature for Western markets, we contribute to minimizing the considerable gap of research in post-socialist economies. Entrepreneurial orientation as an organizational behavior may affect the financial performance of businesses differently in distinct market contexts. Both, internal and external factors are crucial to identifying, analyze and monitor, to achieve superior performance and to overcome competitors. This study builds upon a stratified sampling survey of Hungarian company owners and managers from the Amadeus database. The study uses a deductive approach. For the analysis, we rely on structural equation modeling using the PLS algorithm. Our study contributes to the existing literature by means of confirming the entrepreneurial orientation to firm performance relationship for Hungary. In this context, we test the moderating effects of environmental dynamism, environmental hostility as environmental factors and firm age as an organizational factor. Environmental hostility is closely related to an unfavorable environment, deriving from rapid and radical changes in the industry, which are

  17. Smallholder dairy sheep production and market channel development: An institutional perspective of rural Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voors, M.J.; Haese, D' M.F.C.

    2010-01-01

    The rural economy of the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia has been adapting to new economic and political realities. Especially important for rural areas has been the breakdown of the socialist market structure in agriculture, which meant the demise of cooperative structures and farmers gaining

  18. Hospital reforms in France under a Socialist government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pouvourville, G

    1986-01-01

    French health care faced the dual crises of rising costs and excess physicians. No government, whether left or right, could avoid focusing reform on the extensive public hospital system. Many differences introduced by the Socialists after 1981 were rhetorical and relational--matters of "democratization" of governance and "control" of physicians. Paradoxically, the two major structural reforms, "departmentalization" and "global budgeting," were extensions of actions begun under preceding governments. Neither has come to fruition yet.

  19. Reducing the nuclear dangers from the former Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, A.B.

    1992-01-01

    The disintegration of the former Soviet Union, a nation armed with over 27,000 nuclear weapons, poses a new form of nuclear danger. First, there is the risk that as political authority devolves to the former Soviet republics, the nuclear arsenal could similarly by parcelled out, in ways that will not be conducive to nuclear stability or to safe custody. Second, there is a danger of seizure, theft, sale, or use of nuclear weapons or components during the period of transition, particularly if the nuclear weapon operating and custodial system - apparently still intact at present - disintegrates. Third, there is a danger that any weakening of control over weapons, fissionable materials, sensitive components, or know-how could result in transfers outside the territory of the new Commonwealth of Independent States, fueling nuclear proliferation worldwide. To deal with these risks, there are a number of steps that should be taken now. These recommendations are primarily addressed to the US government, working in concert with the authorities in the Commonwealth states and the world commmunity. In order of urgency, they are: encouraging and assisting prompt securing, disabling, removing to Russia, and dismantlement of the weapons covered by the Bush-Gorbachev reciprocal proposals of last fall, and by other nuclear arms accords; extending the Bush-Gorbachev proposals to strategic nuclear weapons; assuring safety and security of Soviet nuclear weapons during a difficult transitional period; addressing proliferation outside the Commonwealth; exposing the new political structures of the Commonwealth to prevailing conceptions of international stability and security; and adjusting US nuclear relationships and military policy to the new nuclear realities in the former Soviet Union

  20. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Kommunist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-22

    create the most favorable conditions for a new upsurge in Soviet cinema and theater. It is only the healthy, competitive and creative atmo- sphere, in...Communist Party), Vox (Colombian Communist Party), Unidad ( Peruvian Communist Party), Hora and Popular (Uruguayan Communist Party), and Pueblo (Ecuadorian

  1. The Soviet Crisis Relocation Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-05-01

    tie text dealing with relo ’ation is oil one page long (out of a total of 47 pags), and in tile 1981 edition it is L(1I .,4 i about a page and a...departures of foot columns will also reflect the Soviet value system. In other words, priority will be giver to elements of the essencial work force

  2. Soviet Muslim Emigres in the Republic of Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-05-01

    traditional cuisine , proverbs and dances, great national heroes (abreks, Sheik Shamil and Imam Mansur etc) necrologies, poetry, short stories and...sv ye Cin Arasinda tTurkistan, Between Russia and Chinal Istanbul: Otaj Yayinevi, -1975. 437 pp. Treats Russian and Chinese intervention in Turkistan...Yeni Kitap, Basunevi (undated). 72 pp. Recollections of Hap* Perpi Ozgen. Chronicles his struggles against Russian and Chinese imperialism (author

  3. Interregional migration in socialist countries: the case of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Y

    1997-03-01

    "This paper analyzes changing interregional migration in China and reveals that the recent eastward migration reverses patterns of migration under Mao. It finds that investment variables are more important than the conventional variables of income and job opportunities in determining China's recent interregional migration. It suggests that both state policy and the global force influence interregional migration, challenging the popular view that the socialist state is the only critical determinant. This paper also criticizes Mao's approach to interregional migration and discusses the impact of migration on development." excerpt

  4. Main trends of cooperation of physicists in socialist countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biryukov, V.

    1978-01-01

    The work of JINR at Dubna, the first international scientific centre of socialist countries, is focused on studies in theoretical physics, high energy physics, nuclear physics, and low energy physics. Results are described obtained so far in the above fields as well as computer technology and data processing. JINR is also a centre for accelerator technology work. The U-300 three-meter cyclotron and the U-200 two-meter isochronous cyclotron were installed and the U-400 four-meter cyclotron is being built. The experience of JINR shows that the institute has become an educational facility for scientists and specialists from the participating countries. (J.P.)

  5. The outlook for Soviet gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebel, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    The economic collapse of the Soviet Union has seen the decline of its oil and gas industry through a lack of capital investment, idle wells, shortages of equipment and spare parts, worker apathy, and a leaky pipeline network. Natural gas reserves controlled by the Soviet Union total some 50 trillion m 3 , over 70% of which are in western Siberia. A total of just 19 gas deposits hold 70% of the total reserves and account for over 75% of national output. Natural gas production in 1990 was 815 billion m 3 or 38% of world output; exports reached 109 billion m 3 , divided roughly equally between eastern and western Europe, and all transported by pipeline. The Soviet Union is also a major gas consumer, at around 709 billion m 3 /y, and uses about half this amount for generating electricity. In the early 1980s, a crash program to expand the gas industry raised production from 435 billion m 3 in 1980 to 643 billion m 3 in 1985, but at the cost of hastily built pipelines and facilities, and a premature exhaustion of major gas fields. A prohibition on import of western-made compressors, due to the Afghanistan invasion, forced the installation of unreliable domestic compressors. Slow growth in gas ouput and unreliability of the current gas supply and transmission system has threatened the stability of supply to domestic and export customers, and gas delivery shortfalls of 50-60 billion m 3 were thought possible. The industry's future depends on development of additional fields, and a revived interest in Soviet natural gas is being shown by foreign investors. Since many of these fields are in remote or geologically unfavorable areas, large investments and lead times will be needed

  6. Soviet Nuclear Strategy form Stalin to Gorbachev

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catudal, H.M.

    1989-01-01

    This book examines the nature of the Soviet nuclear threat and how it has evolved over the years. Too often in the past U.S. officials, in shaping and directing plans for American nuclear forces, have tended to see Soviet military forces and strategy as a reflection of their own stance or simply as projecting the worst plausible case of Soviet intentions and capabilities. The result has been a distorted if not dangerous portrayal of the real threat. Soviet nuclear strategy, as explained in this detailed book, has evolved significantly since the days when the Soviets first possessed nuclear weapons under Joseph Stalin. Today there is in development a new Soviet military and strategic doctrine reflected in Gorbachev's words, We require a radical break with traditions of political thinking. This new doctrine promises to have a profound impact on European security and the overall East-West relationship

  7. JPRS Report. Soviet Union: Political Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-10

    Soviets? The absurdity of a classified dissertation in pedagogy is intensified by the additional fact that given the truly impoverished posi- tion in...Khakass. These are our Soviet kids , the graduates of our Soviet schools. Together, they listen to the same lectures as the people their own age who...4,267. They are in training at 12 VUZs, 8 technical schools, and one professional- technical college. Four boarding schools have admitted Afghan kids

  8. The SIPRI report. The wars of the world. The Soviet heritage. The proliferation of mass destruction weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raschke, M.

    1993-12-01

    This book is an extract from the SIPRI yearbook 1993 which discusses and analyzes the year's major political topics, i.e. the U.N. peace-making diplomacy, the consequences of the CSCE process, the major armed conflicts, new fronts, the wars in Bosnia-Herzegovina, in the former Soviet republics, in Cambodia, and in southern Africa, the Soviet conflict heritage, ethnonationalism, the availability and the risks of the availability of nuclear weapons, the development and proliferation of nuclear weapons, the new nuclear powers, the U.N. Iraq committee of inquiry, and the Iraqi potential of weapons. (orig./HSCH) [de

  9. Claude McKay between United States and Soviet Union: African-American Identity and Socialist Utopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiorenzo Iuliano

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes Claude McKay’s essays on politics and society, especially those dealing with the racial question in the 1920s US. It reviews these texts, alongside other works (poems and autobiographical writings that McKay produced on the same topics. The article aims at tracing a trajectory in McKay’s political thought: after criticizing the social and economic structures of capitalist and colonial societies, McKay envisages in post-revolutionary USSR a utopian society for oppressed people worldwide. However, his writings, rather than depicting the actual USSR society he knew in the early 1920s, evokes the multicultural myth of the ‘melting pot’ traditionally used to celebrate the US. McKay, maybe unwillingly, enthusiastically praises the myth of American exceptionalism, referring it to the USSR.

  10. Medieval socialist realism : Representations of Tallinn Old Town in Soviet Estonian Feature Films, 1969-1972 / Eva Näripea

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Näripea, Eva

    2004-01-01

    Tallinna keskaegse vanalinna kujutamine Nõukogude Eesti mängufilmides : "Viimne reliikvia" (režii Grigori Kromanov, Tallinnfilm 1969), "Varastati Vana Toomas" (režii Semjon Shkolnikov, Tallinnfilm 1970), "Kolme katku vahel" (režii Virve Aruoja, Eesti Telefilm 1970), "Don Juan Tallinnas" (režii Arvo Kruusement, Tallinnfilm 1971), "Verekivi" (režii Madis Ojamaa, Tallinnfilm 1972)

  11. Scientific research in the Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mtingwa, S.K.

    1990-01-01

    I report on the scientific aspects of my US/USSR Interacademy Exchange Visit to the Soviet Union. My research was conducted at three different institutes: the Lebedev Physical Institute in Moscow, the Leningrad Nuclear Physics Institute in Gatchina, and the Yerevan Physics Institute in Soviet Armenia. I included relevant information about the Soviet educational system, salaries of Soviet physicists, work habits and research activities at the three institutes, and the relevance of that research to work going on in the United States. 18 refs

  12. Soviet civil defense is inadequate and meaningless

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, F.M.

    1985-01-01

    In this paper, the author argues that Soviet civil defense plans exist primarily on paper and are used to pacify the Soviet people, not as plans to survive and prevail in a nuclear confrontation with the U.S. The author describes how the Soviet people have little faith in the civil defense programs. They don't believe they can survive an attack. Furthermore, he says the Soviets have never staged an evacuation exercise in any major city nor, even in smaller towns, has an entire community been evacuated. The author says there are numerous problems with the shelter programs as well. Very few existing shelters have any food stocks, only a few more have any water. There is little evidence that Soviet leaders have planned their economy with civil defense in mind. Nor - given the blatant inadequacies of Soviet civil defense programs, the marked vulnerabilities of the Soviet economy, and the intrinsic limitation and uncertainties about civil defense generally - is there much basis for claiming that Soviet leaders, even in desperate straits, would risk war with the United States while counting on civil defense measures to limit the damage wreaked on the Soviet Union

  13. The safety of nuclear power plants in eastern Europe and countries of the former Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lederman, Luis

    1996-01-01

    A particular type of pressurized light water reactors, WWERs, (water cooled, water moderated energy reactors) is the only Soviet designed nuclear power reactor which have been built outside the former Soviet Union. There are 45 such units in operation and 14 under construction, including those outside Eastern Europe. There are 11 first generation 440 MW(e) WWER model 110 (WWER-440/230) plants in operation. One of the two units in Armenia shut down since 1989, following a devastating earthquake near the site was restarted in 1995. Four units in the eastern part of Germany were shut down permanently in 1990. Four of the operating units are in Bulgaria, two are in the Slovak Republic and four are in Russia. All of these units had been designed before formal nuclear safety standards were issued in the Soviet Union, and lack safety features basic to other pressurized water reactors (PWRs). Their shortcomings reported in the assessments made by the IAEA and others include reactor pressure vessel embrittlement problems, limited emergency core cooling capability, insufficient redundancy and separation of safety equipment, deficient instrumentation and control systems, insufficient internal and external hazards protection, the lack of a containment, and the absence of comprehensive accident analysis and safety analysis reports. Of the second generation, 440 MW(e) WWER model 213 (WWER 440/213), 16 units are in operation: four in the Czech Republic, four in Hungary, two in Russia, two in the Slovak Republic, two in Ukraine and two in Finland. The two reactors in Finland have undergone significant safety improvements, particularly in the fitting of non-Soviet instrumentation and of a containment structure

  14. 78 FR 6297 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-30

    ... nonmarket economy within the meaning of section 771(18) of the Act, normal value has been calculated in... have been valued primarily in Bangladesh, which is economically comparable to Vietnam and is a... not available from Bangladesh, we used Indian, Indonesian and Philippine sources. For a full...

  15. Factors affecting brownfield regeneration in post-socialist space: The case of the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Osman, Robert; Frantál, Bohumil; Klusáček, Petr; Kunc, Josef; Martinát, Stanislav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 48, November 2015 (2015), s. 309-316 ISSN 0264-8377 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR(CZ) TD020259; GA MŠk(CZ) 7E11035 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : brownfields * success factors * land use management Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 2.768, year: 2015 http://ac.els-cdn.com/S0264837715001702/1-s2.0-S0264837715001702-main.pdf?_tid=0d849052-9f28-11e5-8c6b-00000aacb35f&acdnat=1449743188_a27012ae5c616955d77af87b79b63135

  16. 77 FR 3737 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Countervailing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-25

    ... by subparagraph (A); or (ii) determine industry support using a statistically valid sampling method... convenience and customs purposes, the written description of the merchandise is dispositive. [FR Doc. 2012...

  17. 78 FR 35253 - Welded Stainless Pressure Pipe From Malaysia, Thailand, and the Socialist Republic of Vietnam...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-12

    ... support using a statistically valid sampling method to poll the industry. Section 771(4)(A) of the Act... for convenience and customs purposes only; the written description of the scope of these...

  18. 76 FR 20318 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation and Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-12

    ... necessarily provide a dispositive indication of succession, generally, the Department will consider one... production and sale of the subject merchandise, the new company operates as the same business entity as the...

  19. 77 FR 20358 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    ... and prawns through freezing and which are sold in any count size. The products described above may be..., spices or sauce are included in the scope of the order. In addition, food preparations (including dusted... subjected to individually quick frozen (``IQF'') freezing immediately after application of the dusting layer...

  20. 77 FR 23222 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-18

    ... which are processed from warmwater shrimp and prawns through freezing and which are sold in any count... addition, food preparations (including dusted shrimp), which are not ``prepared meals,'' that contain more... subjected to individually quick frozen (``IQF'') freezing immediately after application of the dusting layer...

  1. 78 FR 33342 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-04

    ... from warmwater shrimp and prawns through freezing and which are sold in any count size. The products... prawns that are packed with marinade, spices or sauce are included in the scope. In addition, food...'') freezing immediately after application of the dusting layer. When dusted in accordance with the definition...

  2. 75 FR 47546 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-06

    ... freezing and which are sold in any count size. The products described above may be processed from any..., spices or sauce are included in the scope of the order. In addition, food preparations, which are not... after being dusted, but prior to being frozen; and 5) that is subjected to IQF freezing immediately...

  3. 78 FR 56211 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-12

    ... rate, the cash deposit rate will be that for the Vietnam-wide entity; and (4) for all non-Vietnam... the surrogate values for certain export-related expenses incurred by Minh Phu Group and Nha Trang. The...\\ See Issues and Decision Memorandum at Appendix. Rate for Non-Selected Companies For the final results...

  4. [General aspects of population reproduction in the Socialist Republic of Croatia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertheimer-baletic, A

    1986-01-01

    The author presents a social and historical review of population growth in Yugoslavia. Aspects of population growth unique to a Marxist society are identified. Using Croatia as an example of a region with a low birth rate, the author discusses fertility, mortality, and migration as they affect overall population growth. (SUMMARY IN ENG AND RUS)

  5. Lessons learned from successful Papanicolaou cytology cervical cancer prevention in the Socialist Republic of Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suba, Eric J; Raab, Stephen S

    2012-04-01

    In 1996, we documented that the burden of cervical cancer in Vietnam was associated with troop movements during the Vietnam War. Subsequently, establishment of Papanicolaou screening in southern Vietnam was associated with reductions in cervical cancer incidence from 29.2/100,000 in 1998 to 16/100,000 in 2003. This is one of the first English-language reports of a real-world cervical cancer prevention effort associated with a decisive impact on health outcomes in a contemporary developing country. if our ideological commitment is to improve health outcomes as rapidly as possible among as many people as possible, then Papanicolaou screening (with or without HPV or visual screening) must be implemented without further delay in any setting where cervical screening is appropriate but unavailable; consideration must be given to HPV vaccination after, rather than before, full coverage of target demographic groups by screening services has been achieved and/or the possibility has been excluded that HPV vaccination may be ineffective for cancer prevention. Competing ideological commitments engender imprudent yet commercially useful alternative strategies prone to decelerate global reductions in mortality by suppressing the more-rapid uptake of less-expensive open-source technology in favor of the less-rapid uptake of more-expensive proprietary technologies with uncertain real-world advantages and unfavorable real-world operational limitations. Global cervical cancer prevention efforts will become more effective if global health leaders, including the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, embrace an ideological commitment to improving health outcomes as rapidly as possible among as many people as possible and assimilate the policy implications of that commitment. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. 77 FR 4993 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    ..., management, supplier relationships, and customer base). In its December 13, 2011, submission, C. P. Vietnam... including, but not limited to, changes in management, production facilities, supplier relationships, and customer base.\\8\\ Although no single factor will necessarily provide a dispositive indication of succession...

  7. 78 FR 8105 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Antidumping Duty Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-05

    ... following companies: Acton Co., Ltd.; Angang Clothes Rack Manufacture Co.; Asmara Home Vietnam; B2B Co., Ltd...) CTN Limited Company CTN Limited Company 157.00 Ju Fu Co., Ltd Ju Fu Co., Ltd..... 157.00 Triloan.... \\6\\ The Vietnam-wide entity includes South East Asia Hamico Export Joint Stock Company, the TJ Group...

  8. 77 FR 32930 - Certain Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-04

    ... allegations concerning electricity that the GOV allegedly provided for less than adequate remuneration (LTAR... investigation into petitioners' allegation.\\9\\ \\9\\ See Memorandum to Melissa G. Skinner, Director, Office 3, AD... for determining whether a government good or service is provided for less than adequate remuneration...

  9. Atomic energy: agreement between Canada and the Socialist Republic of Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    The governments of Canada and Romania agreed to cooperate in the development and application of atomic energy for peaceful purposes, including joint research and development projects, the application of atomic energy for electricity generation and other peaceful purposes, industrial enterprises; the supply of information, material, nuclear material, equipment and facilities; licensing arrangements; access to equipment and facilities; technical assistance; scientific visits; and training. Reprocessing, enrichment, and heavy water technology are excluded. Safeguards measures are spelled out. (LL)

  10. 77 FR 46044 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Determination of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-02

    ... NME country, section 773(c)(1) of the Act directs it to base NV, in most circumstances, on the NME...); Certain Pasta from Italy: Notice of Final Results of the Twelfth Administrative Review, 75 FR 6352...

  11. 76 FR 55872 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-09

    ... concludes that there is a significant potential for the manipulation of price or production. For further... 29, 2010) (``Initiation''). \\6\\ This includes: (1) An Giang Fisheries Import and Export Joint Stock...) Anvifish Joint Stock Company (aka Anvifish JSC); (4) Asia Commerce Fisheries Joint Stock Company...

  12. 77 FR 1053 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-09

    ... autonomy from the government regarding the selection of management.\\11\\ \\11\\ See Silicon Carbide, 59 FR at... in the International Financial Statistics of the International Monetary Fund. \\32\\ See Notice of... and administrative expenses, and profit, we used the simple average of the 2009-2010 financial...

  13. 76 FR 20627 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ... agreements; and (4) has autonomy from the government regarding the selection of management.\\7\\ \\7\\ See... Bangladeshi data could not be obtained), as published in the International Financial Statistics of the..., and profit, we used the simple average of the 2009-2010 financial statement of Apex Foods Limited and...

  14. Paramilitaries in the dissolution of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia: Effects on the Peace Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-20

    vi The paramilitaries rob, they rape , they steal. Why are we fighting and what are we fighting for?1 ―General Slavko Lasica INTRODUCTION...and their criminal actions of ethnic cleansing, looting, raping , and other crimes, few go into detail about these groups, why they formed in the...controlled a portion of the black market in Sarajevo based on smuggled arms, food, and prostitution and controlled many of the cafes and night clubs

  15. 75 FR 16434 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Determination of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...: Case History On November 3, 2009, the Department published in the Federal Register its preliminary..., convenience, department, specialty retail, discount stores, and restaurants to their customers to package and...

  16. 75 FR 16428 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Affirmative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...; telephone: (202) 482- 3586 and (202) 482-1396, respectively. Case History The following events have occurred... retail, discount stores, and restaurants to their customers to package and carry their purchased products...

  17. 75 FR 15416 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-552-801] Certain Frozen Fish Fillets... new shipper review (``NSR'') of the antidumping duty order on certain frozen fish fillets (``fish... order on fish fillets from Vietnam was published in the Federal Register on August 12, 2003. See Notice...

  18. 76 FR 17837 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-31

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-552-801] Certain Frozen Fish Fillets... new shipper review (``NSR'') of the antidumping duty order on certain frozen fish fillets (``fish... INFORMATION: Background The notice announcing the antidumping duty order on fish fillets from Vietnam was...

  19. An Analysis of the Community College Concept in the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epperson, Cynthia K.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to discover if core characteristics exist forming a Vietnamese community college model and to determine if the characteristics would explain the model. This study utilized three theoretical orientations while reviewing the existing literature, formulating the research questions, examining the data and drawing…

  20. 77 FR 73430 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Affirmative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    ... and 7323.99.9080. Although the HTSUS subheadings are provided for convenience and customs purposes... examine: (i) The volume and value of the imports; (ii) seasonal trends; and (iii) the share of domestic...

  1. 75 FR 23670 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Countervailing Duty Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ... provided without any consumer packaging and free of charge by retail establishments, e.g., grocery, drug, convenience, department, specialty retail, discount stores, and restaurants to their customers to package and...) polyethylene bags that are packed in consumer packaging with printing that refers to specific end-uses other...

  2. 75 FR 12206 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-15

    ... (or thawed-from-frozen) and peeled shrimp; (2) to which a ``dusting'' layer of rice or wheat flour of... thoroughly and evenly coated with the flour; (4) with the non- shrimp content of the end product constituting...., Ltd. (``Fish One''), and Seaprodex Minh Hai (collectively ``revocation companies''). Of the revocation...

  3. Use of solar energy for heat supply under conditions of the Socialist Federated Republic of Yugoslavia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savic, B.

    1981-01-01

    The characteristics of a flat solar energy collector are used to determine the specific heat productivity of the solar unit under meteorological conditions of Belgrade. The evaluation is made with regard for experimental data of year-round operation of hot water supply units and the seasonal use of heating units.

  4. 76 FR 4292 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ... of economic development,'' the Department places primary emphasis on per capita gross national income... common ownership; (3) the extent to which managerial employees or board members of one firm sit on the...

  5. 78 FR 50387 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Affirmative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ... Blanchard Seafood, Inc.; Dominick Seafood; Fisherman's Reef Packing Plant; Golden Gulf Coast Pkg. Co., Inc...-caught warmwater species include, but are not limited to, whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana...

  6. 75 FR 3446 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Intent To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-21

    ...-frozen) and peeled shrimp; (2) to which a ``dusting'' layer of rice or wheat flour of at least 95 percent... with the flour; (4) with the non- shrimp content of the end product constituting between four and 10... Department considers, inter alia, such factors as: (1) The timing of the sale; (2) the price and quantity; (3...

  7. Radonclose - the system of Soviet designed regional waste management facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horak, W.C.; Reisman, A.; Purvis, E.E. III.

    1997-01-01

    The Soviet Union established a system of specialized regional facilities to dispose of radioactive waste generated by sources other than the nuclear fuel cycle. The system had 16 facilities in Russia, 5 in Ukraine, one in each of the other CIS states, and one in each of the Baltic Republics. These facilities are still being used. The major generators of radioactive waste they process these are research and industrial organizations, medical and agricultural institution and other activities not related to nuclear power. Waste handled by these facilities is mainly beta- and gamma-emitting nuclides with half lives of less than 30 years. The long-lived and alpha-emitting isotopic content is insignificant. Most of the radwaste has low and medium radioactivity levels. The facilities also handle spent radiation sources, which are highly radioactive and contain 95-98 percent of the activity of all the radwaste buried at these facilities

  8. Former Soviet Union's refining sector faces big shakeout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The crisis gripping the refining sector in the former Soviet Union (FSU) is deepening as that industry faces massive rationalization and restructuring. Refinery runs in FSU republics have been on the decline for a number of years. Peak throughput occurred in 1987 at 9.69 million b/d. In Russia, however, the peak came in 1980 at 6.5 million b/d. Given current operable refining capacity in the FSU, now down to about 9.27 million b/d distributed among 48 refineries, capacity utilization will average only about 65% this year. The paper discusses worsening conditions, a comparison of the FSU declines, the financial crisis, energy consumption, and the focus of FSU refineries on secondary capacity to upgrade the product mix

  9. 77 FR 3440 - Utility Scale Wind Towers From the People's Republic of China and the Socialist Republic of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-24

    ... comments that they feel are relevant to the development of an accurate listing of physical characteristics... the main Department of Commerce building. In determining whether Petitioner has standing under section... price (``EP'') based on declarations of the price bid for wind towers by a certain Chinese exporter...

  10. The Soviet Armed Forces: A History of Their Organizational Development, A Soviet View

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    sense of responsibility for his coun- try’s destiny , integrity and efficiency in the performance of his duties, and purposeful determination in the...revolution. These detachments were called the Red Guards, and they were the embryo and prototype of the socialist army. The organizational development of...reveal the destiny of the socialist army to the working public and call for them to enter its ranks. Teams of party workers arose in regiments and

  11. The Reaction of West Germany to Soviet-American negotiations 1968-1972

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina Alexandrovna Borisova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the analyzing of the reaction of Germany to the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT in the late 60's - early 70’s. Our attention is paid to the characteristics of executive and legislative authorities’ decisions of Germany. After Berlin and Cuban missiles crisis constant threat of a nuclear missile stability promoted the development of SALT, which should be the basic element of balance of power for the survival of human civilization. For all western countries searching for the formula to avoid the escalation of all-out war had to be based on the main principles of international relations in the context of detent of geo-political tensions between the Soviet Union and the United States. But for a long period of time West Germany still to be on the position of cold war confrontation. Such a policy could lead Germany to political isolation. After first successful steps of soviet-american’s negotiations West Germany began to realize the threat of its isolation and tried to integrate itself in the general process of detent, first of all in the field of European security. Main purpose of this research is analyzing specific mechanisms of transformation of the bilateral relations between United States and Germany, comparing different foreign policies with socialistic block, studying contradictions in the capitalist block and to identify and classify these differences, as well.

  12. Nuclear deception: soviet information policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, E.P.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of the accident at the Chernobyl Unit 4 Reactor on information policies in the USSR is examined. The lack of an agreed-upon information policy and intraparty disagreement over domestic and foreign policy help to explain the delay in disclosure of the accident and conflicting statements concerning long-term health effects. A modest change in policy since Chernobyl has been noted: the willingness of Soviet spokespersons to discuss and debate issues with foreign correspondents, to publish sharply critical letters from citizens and a few foreign officials, and to provide many details about the nature and consequences of the accident

  13. Glasnost and Secrecy in the Soviet Military

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-21

    the most vicious and xenophobic brand of Russian chauvinism, complete with witch-hunts and spymania. Secrecy was also important for enhancing the...the Soviet Armed Forces, a significant factor tor a military establishment historically used to ’ie position of the underdog because of the Soviet

  14. The Revitalization of the Soviet Film Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogomolov, Yuri

    1991-01-01

    Discusses how the grip of the Soviet Union's past--from Stalinist mythology to ideological cliche--is being exposed and undermined whereas a sense of individual efficacy, necessary for the present, has yet to emerge from the portrayals in Soviet films. (PRA)

  15. The Soviet center of astronomical data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dluzhnevskaya, O.B.

    1982-01-01

    On the basis of the current French-Soviet cooperation in science and technology, the Astronomical Council of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences and the Strasbourg Center signed in 1977 an agreement on setting up the Soviet Center of Astronomical Data as its filial branch. The Soviet Center was created on the basis of a computation center at the Zvenigorod station of the Astronomical Council of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences, which had already had considerable experience of working with stellar catalogues. In 1979 the Center was equipped with a EC-1033 computer. In 1978-1979 the Soviet Center of Astronomical Data (C.A.D.) received from Strasbourg 96 of the most important catalogues. By September 1981 the list of catalogues available at the Soviet Center has reached 140 catalogues some of which are described. (Auth.)

  16. The Role of Small Countries in Post-Soviet Territorial Restructuring: the Baltic Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smirnov V.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This author analyses the 2013 Lithuanian presidency of the EU in the context of the Ukrainian crisis and evaluates the contribution of Latvia and Estonia (the former Soviet republics set to preside over the EU in 2015 and 2018 to the shift in the power balance in the post-Soviet space. Through assessing the actions of small countries in promoting the Eastern Partnership programme with an emphasis on the anti-Russian agenda, the author concludes that they will inflict harm on the EU in a long-term perspective. These former Soviet republics no longer rely on mere diplomacy, but resort to a whole new problematic narrative, where Russia is described as an “aggressive and unpredictable neighbour” that poses the “threat from the East.” Being more mobile, small countries are able to concentrate power and resources in one or several key areas. This makes it possible for these countries to take advantage of international politics (even if the consequences of such steps are miscalculated and “feed” on it through — so metimes consciously — creating “conflict nodes” in the relations between major players. This is especially true in the case of states that do not bear responsibility for global stability.

  17. Social mobility in socialist Serbia: A revisionist approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonić Slobodan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper starts from the findings of the latest study of social structure in Serbia (2012, which show a significant reduction of vertical social mobility, especially for further inter-stratum distance. In light of these data, the author considers that we have to re-examine earlier, very biting evaluation of some Serbian sociologists concerning 'closeness' for mobility of the society in socialist Serbia. The author analyzes and re-evaluated findings of earlier research (Janićijević, 1970; Flere and Đurđev, 1982/3; Bogdanovic, 1986; 1988; Vukovic, 1989. He concludes that very brisk evaluation of mobility in the Serbian society during socialism is a consequence of schematic interpretation of these findings with Yasuda 's index.

  18. Public and private in the post-soviet area: the problem of demarcation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Zaidel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the problem of determination of public and private in the post­soviet area. Formation of these spheres should be a logical conclusion of successful transformation and modernization process in ex­soviet republics and getting all spheres of civil life out of the state control. Historical specific is underlined; it is given the determination and main characteristics of public and private. It is given two main approaches’ ways of interpretation the phenomena and formation of public sphere according to H. Arendt and Ju. Hubermas. The specific of formation and demarcation of public and private spheres in the post­soviet area is analyzed. The boundaries between public and private spheres were deformed by the soviet state and communist society. As a result it was built hierarchical relations among the state, society and ruler; it is typical for power centralized societies. The determining factor of institutional heritage in the processes of state­making is underlined. The deformation of division of state, public and private spheres is caused by combining of traditional and modern institutes and practices; as a result social practices that are against of logic of modern society slow down the development of market­oriented economy and modernization of institutions.

  19. Open-Source Data Collection Techniques for Weapons Transfer Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    IR Infrared ISO International Organization for Standardization ITAR International Traffic in Arms Regulations NER Named Entity Recognition NLP ...Control Protocol UAE United Arab Emirates URI Uniform Resource Identifier URL Uniform Resource Locator USSR Union of Soviet Socialist Republics UTF...KOREA, DEMOCRATIC PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF North Korea KOREA, REPUBLIC OF South Korea LIBYAN ARAB JAMAHIRIYA Libya RUSSIAN FEDERATION Russia Table 3

  20. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, International Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-06-03

    enlightenment, literature, art, cinema , the press, radio, television, cultural enlightenment work, physical culture and sports. We must note the...television broadcasting, cinema and education. An important sector in cultural construction has become the expansion and intensification of ties along the...Uruguay have reestablished diplomatic relations with the first socialist state in the Western Hemisphere. Peruvian -Cuban relations, which were at a

  1. JPRS Report. Soviet Union, International Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-08-15

    theory of socialist building is still in diapers . And today too there is no "growth" in this direction. We have seen more than once that some...building of a solar battery plant using our silica deposits. This is very important for the Amur region where there are many clear days and a very

  2. On simulation of the atmospheric acoustic channel for some nuclear tests in former soviet test site Semipalatinsk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokin, A. G.; Lobycheva, I. Yu.

    2011-08-01

    This paper presents data on the recording of infrasound from distant nuclear explosions set off in former soviet test site Semipalatinsk and recorded by infrasonic station Irkutsk-Badary of the Institute of Solar-Terrestrial Physics SB RAS in the Tunkinsky region in the Buryat Republic. We assess the state of the atmospheric acoustic channel (AAC) along the propagation path. Results of the AAC modeling are compared with experimental data.

  3. For a Socialist Theoretical System for Human Rights with Chinese Characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU CHUNDE

    2011-01-01

    @@ Ⅰ.The Necessity and Feasibility for Developing a Socialist Theoretical System for Human Rights with Chinese Characteristics Development of such a system is needed to ensure success of the social transformation and transition ongoing up in China.

  4. Incidents in Czechoslovakian "Socialist Management" between 1956 and 1989. Conflict and Reconciliation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vilímek, Tomáš; Tůma, Oldřich

    42/43, Spring-Summer (2016), s. 187-240 ISSN 1310-9456 Institutional support: RVO:68378114 Keywords : socialist management * centrally planned economy * Czechoslovakia 1956-1989 Subject RIV: AB - History

  5. The USSR Victory in World War II and the Emergence of the Independent Republic of Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa M. Efimova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Victorious ending of the World War 2 on May, 9, 1945, stroke a crushing blow on the military axis Berlin - Rome - Tokyo. The USSR played a decisive role both on European and Asian fronts. Fulfilling its allied duty the Soviet Union entered the war in the Far East on 9 August, 1945 and defeated the Japanese army in Manchuria. This act became a great contribution to liberation of Asian peoples from the Japanese occupation. On the 17 August 1945 the Republic of Indonesia declared its independence. The recognition on the side of international community as well as diplomatic support became\\e vital for the survival of the newly emerged Republic.The Soviet victory together with the allied nations in the Second World War, the new status of the USSR as a superpower, its constant anticolonial stance stimulated former colonies to appeal to the Soviet Union for backing and support. One of the first was the Republic of Indonesia, to which the USSR rendered all kind of help and encourages. The present article which is a result of the study of newly available documents from several recently opened Soviet archives shows the Soviet backing of Indonesia in the UN, its diplomatic recognition, in strengthening of Indonesian status as a sovereign state on the international arena as a whole.

  6. The lasting Soviet nuclear menace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schorr, J.

    1993-01-01

    This article describes the unsafe conditions of the nuclear power industry in the countries of the former Soviet Union. Because of lack of efficient power generation, the old first generation Chernobyl-type reactors are being upgraded or new ones are being constructed. The operators themselves are also unsafe, with lack of training and poor working conditions. Improving energy efficiency would be more cost effective than constructing new nuclear plants. This could be achieved by such measures as installing boiler controls, thermostats, and meters; by retrofitting factories; by raising the price of electricity to encourage conservation; by repairing leaking natural gas pipelines; and by building gas-fired power plants. These changes are not likely to come about soon however

  7. Children's Literature in the Soviet Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, D. D.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Children's literature in the Soviet Union is of four types: 17 stories based on old tales, adaptations from great Russian literature, original writings for children, and translations from foreign works. (JH)

  8. Former Soviet Union (FSU) Gravity Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded gravity anomaly data for the Former Soviet Union (FSU) and Eastern Europe has been received by the National Geophysical Data Center(NGDC). The data file...

  9. Frank Lloyd Wright in the Soviet Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian A. Spencer

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1937 the First All-Union Congress of Soviet Architects was held in Moscow. The congress brought  architects from all areas of the  Soviet Union. Under the auspices of Vsesoiuvnoe Obshchestvo Kul'turnoi Sviazi s zagranitsei (VOKS it invited international architects from Europe and North and South America.  The Organizing Committee of the Union of Soviet Architects invited Frank Lloyd Wright from the United States. Frank Lloyd Wright presented his philosophy and exhibited his work, specifically his designs for the weekend home for E. J. Kaufmann "Fallingwater" and the drawings for the S.C. Johnson Administration. Frank Lloyd Wright's presentation did not focus heavily on the architecture but, rather the spirit of the Russian and Soviet vision.

  10. Historical Soviet Daily Snow Depth (HSDSD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The HSDSD product is based on observations from 284 World Meteorological Organization (WMO) stations throughout Russia and the former Soviet Union. The area covered...

  11. Growing Up Gifted in the Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Robert E.

    1987-01-01

    A review of the educational program for gifted students in the Soviet Union discusses student responsibilities, program admission, and specialized schools featuring foreign languages, mathematics and physics, music, ballet and arts, sports, and "little academics" (advanced studies). (CB)

  12. Soviet energy: current problems and future options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, J B

    1981-12-01

    The connection between Soviet oil and energy resources, their efficient and timely utilization, and politico-military opportunities in the Persian Gulf region offer an inescapable link for analysis. Worsening trends in economic growth, factor productivity, social unrest, and energy production/distribution offset optimistic trends in Soviet military procurement and deployment. A conjunction of geologic, geographic, and systemic factors all point to a mid-1980s energy imbalance which in turn will pose hard questions for the Moscow leadership. 28 references.

  13. Soviet Theater Nuclear Forces’ Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-01

    survivability) of those staffs. 18 Receit Soviet accounts of the "revolution in military affairs" stress the growing operational role of the General Staff...e.g., 29 economic) means and (ii) the West is preparing to take military advantage of its growing relative strength. The other factor is China. It seems...simple model of Soviet theater nuclear doctrine, might as well go hunting unicorns . He will not find it because, in any meaningful sense, it does not

  14. Soviet satellite communications science and technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birch, J.N.; Campanella, S.J.; Gordon, G.D.; McElroy, D.R.; Pritchard, W.L.; Stamminger, R.

    1991-08-01

    This is a report by six US scientists and engineers concerning the current state of the art and projections of future Soviet satellite communications technologies. The panel members are experts in satellite stabilization, spacecraft environments, space power generation, launch systems, spacecraft communications sciences and technologies, onboard processing, ground stations, and other technologies that impact communications. The panel assessed the Soviet ability to support high-data-rate space missions at 128 Mbps by evaluating current and projected Soviet satellite communications technologies. A variety of space missions were considered, including Earth-to-Earth communications via satellites in geostationary or highly elliptical orbits, those missions that require space-to-Earth communications via a direct path and those missions that require space-to-Earth communications via a relay satellite. Soviet satellite communications capability, in most cases, is 10 years behind that of the United States and other industrialized nations. However, based upon an analysis of communications links needed to support these missions using current Soviet capabilities, it is well within the current Soviet technology to support certain space missions outlined above at rates of 128 Mbps or higher, although published literature clearly shows that the Soviet Union has not exceeded 60 Mbps in its current space system. These analyses are necessary but not sufficient to determine mission data rates, and other technologies such as onboard processing and storage could limit the mission data rate well below that which could actually be supported via the communications links. Presently, the Soviet Union appears to be content with data rates in the low-Earth-orbit relay via geostationary mode of 12 Mbps. This limit is a direct result of power amplifier limits, spacecraft antenna size, and the utilization of K{sub u}-band frequencies. 91 refs., 16 figs., 15 tabs.

  15. Soviet International Finance in the Gorbachev Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    officials responsible for financial matters; and the financial press . All of these sources are cited as appropriate in this repoet. Considerable additional...creditors back to 1984. 2See, for example, Judy Shelton, The Coming Soviet Crash, The Free Press , New York, 1989, p. xv. 14 end of 1988, net Soviet...eighth over LIBOR. As recently as September 1989, VEB was able to arrange a five-year, $100 million syndicated credit managed by Banca Commerciale Italiana

  16. Is Soviet Defense Policy Becoming Civilianized?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-08-01

    Larionov, a consultant to the institute, both at RAND and in Moscow; and Drs. Alexei Arbatov and Aleksandr Savelyev and several of their colleagues during...Soviet defense industry resources to civilian use is presented in Arthur J. Alexander , Perestroika and Change in Soviet Weapons Acquisition, The RAND...1986, especially pp. 101-102. 17 18 the more prominent younger specialists like Alexei Arbatov, Andrei Kokoshin, and Aleksandr Savelyev have long been

  17. The Grand Strategy of the Soviet Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-25

    of diverse echnic the highest origin could rise to AleveLs of power in all branches of the state. Plainly that is not the case in today’s Soviet...and psychological reasons, the new primacy given to external aggrandizement intensifies ethnic tensions inside Soviet society. The failure to fulfill...or perhaps because our own means are simply too small, we come to terms psychologically with its increasing power by persuading ourselves that it

  18. Technology transfer of the systematic approach to training to Soviet designed nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haber, S.B.; Yoder, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    International Nuclear Safety Program initiated by US DOE in 1992 in Russia and Ukraine was expanded to include Armenia (together with IAEA), Bulgaria, Lithuania and Slovak Republic. Presentation describes the background, objectives, activities and key accomplishments of technology transfer of SAT to Soviet designed NPPs. High level of cooperation between countries was achieved showing mutual commitment of US and the countries involved to improve the quality of training of NPP personnel. Technology transfer will succeed because of the efforts and dedication of personnel from the initial sites in Russia and Ukraine

  19. Perestroika, Soviet oil, and joint ventures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Churkin, M. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Glaznost, the freedom of expression in both the public and private sectors of the Soviet Union, has rapidly transformed the country form a largely isolated and closed society to one that is rapidly becoming more cosmopolitan and open to the West. Now that the Soviet Union is moving toward a free-market economy, a number of new laws are being generated to create a favorable environment for Western investment, especially joint ventures. First, crude oil sales have provided over 75% of much-needed hard currency, and oil has been the principal barter for manufactured goods produced in eastern Europe. Second, joint oil ventures with Western companies can reverse declining production levels and provide sufficient stimulus to turn around the economic recession. The Soviet Union has a very large inventory of discovered but undeveloped oil and gas fields. Most of these fields are difficult for the Soviets to produce technically, financially, and environmentally safely, and they are actively seeking appropriate Western partners. From an exploration point of view, the Soviet Union has probably the largest number of undrilled and highly prospective oil basins, which may replenish declining reserves in the West. Finally, the Soviet Union represents in the long term a large unsaturated market eager to absorb the surplus of goods and services in the Western world. Again, joint oil ventures could provide the convertible currency to increase East-West trade

  20. Buildings from the Socialist Past as part of a City’s Brand Identity: The case of Warsaw

    OpenAIRE

    Ochkovskaya Marina; Gerasimenko Valentina

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate those buildings left over from Warsaw’s socialist past as a part of the city’s brand visual identity including their perception by foreign tourists and local citizens. Although Lisiak (2009) examined the destruction, removal and presence of these remnants from the socialist past in Central European cities, a comparative study of the perception of these architectural sites erected in Warsaw during socialist times has not been carried out specifically so ...

  1. New trajectories of post-socialist residential mobility in Bucharest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Suditu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the post-socialist period, residential mobility processes were very intense and took place on large areas. Flow intensity led to the emergence of new spatial and functional realities and created new relationships within the affected areas. During all this period, Bucharest’s metropolitan area was shaped by the spatial mobility of the city dwellers, as well as by the change of their social and residential aspirations. The majority of those who were registered as movers in Bucharest were actually residents of Bucharest (they only changed their domicile and the share of people coming to the city from elsewhere has increased constantly over the last decade. Except for the early 1990s, a period when residential legal status was pending clarification, migrations from peri-urban area, especially from Ilfov County, to Bucharest had a low intensity. Situation is quite different in terms of moving out of Bucharest, to the communes and towns of Ilfov County, located in close proximity, which have been continuously increasing values. The correlation between housing stock features (real estate supply and the demand of new dwellings (emphasized by the residential trajectories prove both that current mobility flows taking place at this time in Bucharest are segmented based on economic-spatial criteria and that Markov chains are functional.

  2. Family Dynamics and the Teenage Immigrant: Creating the Self through the Parents' Image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowitz, Fran

    1994-01-01

    Assessed role played by Soviet Jewish emigre family in exacerbating dual disjunctures of immigration and adolescents. Results, based on life history interviews with five women who came from United Soviet Socialist Republic to United States as teenagers in 1970s, challenge bipolar model of adolescent immigrants and raise questions about previous…

  3. Metal Contamination in the Republic of Armenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurkjian

    2000-05-01

    / Air, soil, and water samples were collected throughout the Republic of Armenia both before and after its independence from the Soviet Union in 1991. Reported analyses of those samples indicated that levels of several trace metal concentrations (Ag, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, Ti, and Zn) exceeded the maximum allowable concentrations established by the former Soviet Union (FSU) and subsequently adopted by Armenia. Although industrial production has declined by more than 80% since the 1980s, the economy is improving and there is potential for a significant increase in the generation of industrial metal emissions. These include automobile emissions, which are now considered to be the primary source of atmospheric lead. Historically, the Soviet Union did not strictly enforce environmental standards, and Armenia is now faced with the resulting environmental problems and the associated risks to public health. Since some trace metal concentrations may be at or near potentially toxic levels, there is a need to accurately assess the extent of metal contamination in order to devise cleanup plans and develop long-term environmental protection and public health strategies in Armenia.

  4. On Ideology, Language, and Identity: Language Politics in the Soviet and Post-Soviet Lithuania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balockaite, Rasa

    2014-01-01

    The paper illuminates links between state politics and language politics in Lithuania during different historical periods: (a) the thaw period, (b) the stagnation period, (c) the liberalization periods of Soviet socialism, and (d) the two post-Soviet decades characterized by both nationalism and liberalization. Based on analysis of the texts by…

  5. Problems of Soviet procedural law enforcement in 1930s.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Kodintsev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available УДК 340.158The subject. Features of the organization of justice and the quality of procedural law enforcement in the USSR in the 1930s.The purpose. The determination of historical patterns of judicial enforcement in the USSR in the 1930s and the identification of the causes of the ineffectiveness of the proceedings in this period.Methodology. The author uses historical legal method, formal legal interpretation of statutes, the method of analysis of judicial statistics.Results, scope of application. After the criminal law campaigns of the early 1930s the judg-ment in the Soviet Union was in a disturbed condition. The Soviet civil process was almost absolutely eliminated. Tens thousands materials of court cases were lost throughout the Union every year. The courts were extremely busy.The courts used accusatory approach. The petitions of the accused were almost never solved. Prisoners were not handed copies of the indictments.During the terror of the old evils of the judicial system worsened, the destruction of the judicial process began. The timeframe for completing cases increased. Almost half of criminal cases in case of complaint (appeal has been revised by the higher courts. The courts again applied the simplified procedure.At the end of the 1930s the procedural regulation of the judicial work was the duty of People's Commissariat of Justice of the USSR and of the Supreme Court of the USSR. USSR Supreme Court continued to take decisions in litigation in the plenums. The Boards of Su-preme Court examines cases influencing law of practice.The quality of judgment by the Supreme Courts of the Republics of Soviet Union in the late 1930s did not change significantly in comparison with the previous period. This was due to constant staff turnover and low level of qualification of judges. The Supreme Courts of the Republics had no Plenum, so they could influence law of practice by the rulings of of the Boards. These rulings were extremely ignorant

  6. Ordinance of 30 November 1988 on travel abroad by citizens of the German Democratic Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    This Ordinance sets forth new rules with respect to travel abroad by citizens of the German Democratic Republic. Its major provisions are as follows: 1) the occasions when relatives may travel abroad to other than socialist countries have been increased; 2) travel abroad by pensioners may be undertaken without giving any special reason; 3) travel abroad to socialist countries can be made for any reason; 4) persons may now leave the German Democratic Republic permanently for humanitarian reasons, including the desire of an invalid or old person to receive care or spend his or her days elsewhere and family reunification; 5) requests for permanent departure can be denied on the grounds of national security or defense, because a person has not performed his or her military service, to protect the public order or state interests, and to protect the rights of citizens or socialist morale and social requirements; 6) requests to go abroad temporarily are generally to be handled within 30 days and requests to leave permanently usually within 3 months; 7) adverse decisions may now be appealed both administratively and then through the courts, although in a court the only argument that can be made is that the decision was unlawful; 8) a request that has been denied can be resubmitted if the reason for denial is no longer present; and 9) in the case of a request to leave permanently, 6 months must pass before resubmission.

  7. З ІСТОРІЇ КРИМСЬКОЇ СОЦІАЛІСТИЧНОЇ РАДЯНСЬКОЇ РЕСПУБЛІКИ (1919 р.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Т. Б. Бикова

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The proposed article deals with events, related to the construction in Crimea of soviet republic by bolshevists. The special attention is spared for reasons which compelled new power to proclaim a republic on a peninsula. Problems which arose up on a peninsula, while Crimean Socialistic Soviet Republic halted existence, are also examined in the article. In opinion of author, an important role in becoming of Crimean Socialistic Soviet Republic was played by the desire of bolshevist leaders to create in Crimea a buffer area for counteraction the countries of the Entente. Large attention in the article is paid to discussions about that, what soviet republic Crimea must belong to, Ukrainian, or Russian.

  8. Images d’un camp de vacances en pays socialiste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ania Szczepanska

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available En 1976, Marcel Lozinski choisit d’aller filmer un camp de vacances organisé par le mouvement de la jeunesse socialiste dans la région des lacs de Mazurie en Pologne. Le cinéaste décide de filmer le quotidien de ces jeunes familles en vacances, entre quiz politiques, leçons de savoir vivre et concours de la famille modèle. Pour cela, il élabore un protocole de travail singulier : aux vacanciers s’ajoutent des personnes complices du cinéaste dont le rôle sera pour certains de participer activement à la vie collective, pour d’autres de s’y opposer.Tourné en 1976, le documentaire Comment vivre attendra cinq années avant d’être diffusé en salle, en tant que fiction. Pourquoi cette diffusion retardée et surtout, que penser de cette requalification a posteriori ? Outre l’analyse du film lui-même, un entretien mené avec Marcel Lozinski ainsi que des archives consultées à la filmothèque de Varsovie apporteront des éléments d’analyse sur la réception de l’œuvre par les autorités cinématographiques de l’époque, mais également sur le sens produit par les dispositifs mis en place par le cinéaste au cours de ce tournage.

  9. Hock, Beáta. 2013. Gendered Artistic Positions and Social Voices - Politics, Cinema and the Visual Arts in State-Socialist and Post-Socialist Hungary. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag. 284 pp. illus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilla Tőke

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hock, Beáta. 2013. Gendered Artistic Positions and Social Voices - Politics, Cinema and the Visual Arts in State-Socialist and Post-Socialist Hungary. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag. 284 pp. illus. Reviewed by Lilla Tőke, Assistant Professor, City University of New York, LaGuardia Community College

  10. [History and current status of acupuncture-moxibustion in Russia and former Soviet Union].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu-Yang; Zhang, Wen-Peng; Zhu, Jian-Ping; Lei, Yan

    2012-10-01

    A brief history and new developments of acupuncture moxibustion in the former Soviet Union is provided in this paper, as well as in Russia. Science of acupuncture-moxibustion was introduced into Russia after the 10th Century. After the foundation of People's Republic of China, acupuncture-moxibustion therapy has drawn widespread attention in the former Soviet Union and Russia since the 1950s. Notably, acupuncture moxibustion therapy was legalized and popularized in mid 1950s in the Soviet Union, which was gradually accepted as a part of the country's medical system. In the latest 20 years, Federal health departments have paid attention to acupuncture-moxibustion therapy and issued laws and regulations on acupuncture reflexotherapy. The number of books and journals about acupuncture-moxibustion has been increasing; clinical application of acupuncture-moxibustion has been spreading and is welcomed by people. Academic exchanges between China and Russia are more frequent, which promoted the development of science of acupuncture-moxibustion in Russia.

  11. Perestroika and Its Impact on the Soviet Labor Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Horst

    1991-01-01

    Discusses two books, "Restructuring the Soviet Economy: In Search of the Market" and "In Search of Flexibility: The New Soviet Labour Market," that assess the success of perestroika and the transition to a market-based economy. (JOW)

  12. Former Soviet Union Hydrological Snow Surveys, 1966-1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Former Soviet Union Hydrological Snow Surveys are based on observations made by personnel at 1,345 sites throughout the Former Soviet Union between 1966 and...

  13. Managing Uncertainity: Soviet Views on Deception, Surprise, and Control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hull, Andrew

    1989-01-01

    .... In the first two cases (deception and surprise), the emphasis is on how the Soviets seek to sow uncertainty in the minds of the enemy and how the Soviets then plan to use that uncertainty to gain military advantage...

  14. Exploring the impact of foreign direct investment on tobacco consumption in the former Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, A B; McKee, M

    2005-02-01

    Tobacco is the single largest cause of morbidity and mortality in the developed world; in the former socialist bloc tobacco kills twice as many men as in the west. Although evidence shows that liberalisation of the cigarette trade through the elimination of import barriers leads to significant increases in consumption, far less is known about the impact of foreign direct investment on cigarette consumption. This paper seeks to explore the impact that the substantial transnational tobacco company investments have had on patterns of tobacco trade and consumption in the former Soviet Union. Routine data were used to explore trends in cigarette trade and consumption in the 15 countries of the former Soviet Union from the 1960s to the present day. Comparisons were made between trends in countries that have received substantial investment from the tobacco transnationals and countries that have not. Between 1991 and 2000 cigarette production increased by 96% in countries receiving industry investment and by 11% in countries that did not. Over the same period cigarette consumption increased by 40%; the increase was concentrated in countries receiving investments. Despite these investments, cigarette imports still outweigh exports and no trade surplus has yet to result. The findings suggest that liberalisation of inward investment has a significant and positive impact on cigarette consumption and that without appropriate safeguards, market liberalisation may have long term negative impacts on health. Specific trade rules are needed to govern trade and investment in this uniquely harmful product. Implementation of effective tobacco control policies should precede tobacco industry privatisation. International financial organisations pressing for privatisation should ensure this occurs.

  15. Evolution of Soviet Theater Nuclear Forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkeson, E.B.

    1994-01-01

    Soviet theater nuclear forces were a major pillar of Soviet superpower strength, rising sharply under Krushchev in the latter 1950s to their zenith under Brezhnev twenty years later. Most recently they have begun their decline under Gorbachev, and while not yet facing extinction, may be headed for a much reduced role under the new thinking in the USSR. This paper deals with the Soviet TNF in six periods of their life: The Post-war Stalin Period (1945-1953), the Post-Stalin Period (1953-1955), The Transition Period (1955-1959), The Period of Nuclear Revolution (1960-1964), The Period of Modern TNF Planning (1965-1980), and The Period of Non-nuclear Planning (1980-1987)

  16. The Soviet RBMK-1000 containment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joosten, J.K.

    1988-01-01

    Following the accident in April, 1986, considerable attention was focused on the failure of the containment at the Chernobyl RBMK-1000 nuclear power plant. Conflicting statements arose regarding the nature of the plant's containment system primarily because of terminology differences, translation difficulties and lack of reliable information. This article, based on reports and briefings by the Soviet delegation, during the post-accident review meetings in Vienna and prior publications is intended to clarify perceptions of the Soviet RMBK-1000 nuclear power plant containment system design, and its relevance to containment management concepts. (author)

  17. Soviet Archaeological Expedition as a Research Object

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Sveshnikova

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Soviet archaeological expeditions are the main focus of my research. They provide us with very interesting examples of archaeological expeditions as a part of a society, and not only as a part of science. After the 1960s it was an especially popular leisure practice. Many people who were not professional archaeologists went on expeditions in their leisure time and worked there as diggers or shovelmen (excavators. A Soviet archaeologist described them as people who ‘prefer to spend their vacation in archaeological expeditions in various parts of our country instead of seaside resorts.

  18. Soviet exoatmospheric neutral particle beam research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leiss, J.E.; Abrams, R.H.; Ehlers, K.W.; Farrell, J.A.; Gillespie, G.H.; Jameson, R.A.; Keefe, D.; Parker, R.K.

    1988-02-01

    This technical assessment was performed by a panel of eight U.S. scientists and engineers who are familiar with Soviet research through their own research experience, their knowledge of the published scientific literature and conference proceedings, and personal contacts with Soviet scientists and other foreign colleagues. Most of the technical components of a neutral particle beam generating system including the ion source, the accelerator, the accelerator radio frequency power supply, the beam conditioning and aiming system, and the beam neutralizer system are addressed. It does not address a number of other areas important to an exoatmospheric neutral beam system

  19. The secret of the Soviet hydrogen bomb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellerstein, Alex; Geist, Edward

    2017-11-01

    Was the first Soviet thermonuclear device really a step in the wrong direction? No bomb design has been as much maligned or otherwise disparaged as the first Soviet thermonuclear weapon. Detonated in August 1953, the bomb, officially tested under the name RDS-6s but usually known as Sloika or "layer cake" (the name Andrei Sakharov coined for it), was nothing to sneeze at. Shown in Figure 1 and able to be dropped from aircraft, it released the explosive equivalent, or yield, of almost half a megaton of TNT. The result was a blazing fireball with 20 times the power of the bomb that leveled Nagasaki, Japan.

  20. JPRS Report:. Soviet Union, Political Affairs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1990-01-01

    ...; REPUBLIC PARTY AND STATE AFFAIRS - Baltic Unity Efforts Assessed, Baltic Military District Loyal to USSR Law, Latvia Paramilitary Leader on Group's Role, Formation of Latvian Defense Units, Latvian...

  1. The Glaring Socioeconomic Meltdown in Post-Soviet Ukraine, Moldova, and Belarus: A Distorted Mindset in Search of a Way Out

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olesea Ghedrovici

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Cultural and historical values and assumptions deeply imprint all aspects of people’s lives, including their role in social, economic, and political transformation. Many of the former Soviet states are still going through a painful metamorphosis on a confusing path toward acceptance of freedom and democratic values. The idea we wish to highlight there is the impact of the Soviet moral and psychological legacy on the socioeconomic transition now under way in the East European countries that once were republics of the Soviet Union. It is important to shed light on the reasons why, after 20 years of formal independence, the region is still struggling to find its way forward.

  2. The Decay of Communism: Managing Spent Nuclear Fuel in the Soviet Union, 1937-1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoegselius, Per

    2010-09-01

    The historical evolution of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) decision-making in Western Europe and North America is already fairly well-known. For the former socialist countries of Eastern Europe, and in particular the Soviet Union, we know less. There have recently been several good studies of Soviet nuclear power history (e.g. Schmid 2004, 2006, Josephson 2005), but none of them has gone into any depth when it comes to SNF, but rather focused on nuclear power reactors, public acceptance, the role of the media, etc. There are also several good overviews available that problematize the radioactive legacy of the Soviet Union, including the SNF and waste issue, but these studies do not address the historical dynamics and evolution of SNF management over a longer period of time; in other words, they fail to explain how and why the present state of affairs have actually come into being. The aim of this paper is to provide historical insight into the dynamics of SNF decision-making in the Soviet Union, from the origins of nuclear engineering in the 1930s to the collapse of the country in 1991. The nuclear fuel system can be described as a large technical system with a variety of interrelated components. The system is 'large' both because it involves key links between geographically disperse activities, and because it involves a variety of technologies, organizations and people that influence the dynamics and evolution of the system. Soviet SNF history is of particular interest in this context, with a nuclear fuel system that was the most complex in the world. The USSR was a pioneer within nuclear power and developed a variety of reactor designs and technologies for uranium mining, conversion and enrichment, as well as for transport, treatment, storage and reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. It explored both military and civil uses of the atom, and an enormous amount of people and organizations were involved in realizing highly ambitious nuclear programmes. The USSR is of

  3. The Decay of Communism: Managing Spent Nuclear Fuel in the Soviet Union, 1937-1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoegselius, Per (History of Science and Technology, Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)), e-mail: perho@kth.se

    2010-09-15

    The historical evolution of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) decision-making in Western Europe and North America is already fairly well-known. For the former socialist countries of Eastern Europe, and in particular the Soviet Union, we know less. There have recently been several good studies of Soviet nuclear power history (e.g. Schmid 2004, 2006, Josephson 2005), but none of them has gone into any depth when it comes to SNF, but rather focused on nuclear power reactors, public acceptance, the role of the media, etc. There are also several good overviews available that problematize the radioactive legacy of the Soviet Union, including the SNF and waste issue, but these studies do not address the historical dynamics and evolution of SNF management over a longer period of time; in other words, they fail to explain how and why the present state of affairs have actually come into being. The aim of this paper is to provide historical insight into the dynamics of SNF decision-making in the Soviet Union, from the origins of nuclear engineering in the 1930s to the collapse of the country in 1991. The nuclear fuel system can be described as a large technical system with a variety of interrelated components. The system is 'large' both because it involves key links between geographically disperse activities, and because it involves a variety of technologies, organizations and people that influence the dynamics and evolution of the system. Soviet SNF history is of particular interest in this context, with a nuclear fuel system that was the most complex in the world. The USSR was a pioneer within nuclear power and developed a variety of reactor designs and technologies for uranium mining, conversion and enrichment, as well as for transport, treatment, storage and reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. It explored both military and civil uses of the atom, and an enormous amount of people and organizations were involved in realizing highly ambitious nuclear programmes. The USSR is

  4. Advancing further the history of Soviet psychology: moving forward from dominant representations in Western and Soviet psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Rey, Fernando L

    2014-02-01

    This article discusses the works of some Soviet scholars of psychology, their theoretical positions, and the times within which their works were developed. Dominant representations of Soviet psychology and some of the main Soviet authors are revisited in the light of a blending of facts actively associated with their emergence in both Soviet and Western psychology. From the beginning, Soviet psychology was founded upon Marxism. However, the ways by which that psychology pretended to become Marxist in its philosophical basis were diverse and often contradictory. Other philosophical and theoretical positions also influenced Soviet psychologists. Different moments of that contradictory process are discussed in this article, and through this, I bring to light their interrelations and the consequences for the development of Soviet psychology. This article reinterprets several myths found within Soviet psychology, in which different theoretical representations have become institutionalized for long periods in both Soviet and Western psychology. Particular attention is given to identifying the conditions that presented Vygotsky, Luria, and Leontiev as part of the same paradigm, and which paved the way for a perception of Leontiev and his group as paralleling Vygotsky's importance among American psychologists. Many of the sources that are used in this article were published in Soviet psychology only after the 1970s. Unlike the different and interesting works that began to appear on diverse trends in Soviet psychology, this article details in depth the articulation of topics and questions that still now are presented as different chapters in the analysis of Soviet psychology.

  5. The influence of bureaucrats on the policy-making process in the former Soviet Union: The case of Chernobyl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerner, Lucy Alexandra

    The events that started to unfurl in the former Soviet Union in the beginning of the 1990s and that ended with the disintegration of the USSR caught many sovietologists, and specialists on former communist and socialist regimes by surprise. Major theories and analyses developed and successfully used in such areas as Comparative Politics, International Relations, and Comparative Socialism turned out to be impotent to foresee the approach of the dramatic changes. Noticing the growing significance of and influence on the policy making process of numerous bureaucracies, this study has applied alternative approaches that were developed in such fields as Organizational Theory, Bureaucratic Behavior, and Public Policy. The issue of bureaucratic performance in the former USSR became the central focal point of the study. Methods suggested by specialists in these fields permitted measurement of the performance of different bureaucratic medical institutions during and after the Chernobyl crisis. Utilization of performance measurements helped uncover several important phenomena. One, that performance of the Soviet medical institutions/organizations and bureaucracies that they housed reached an ultimate dysfunctional stage. It became counterproductive to the point that we can brand it pathological. The characteristic feature of pathological performance is that its outcomes (final results) have a totally counterproductive effect on the external environment and on the community which uses its services and/or products. In the case of Chernobyl it was medical services that were either very poorly provided to the victims of the accident or totally withheld from them The result was a manifold increase in different illnesses and deaths among the population affected by the accident. Second, behavior and performance of the medical bureaucracies in comparison with the behavior and performance of other Soviet bureaucracies has shown that it was not unique. This counterproductive behavior

  6. [Some unique characteristics of the demographic situation in Russia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brui, B; Mikhailov, E

    1991-01-01

    The authors briefly describe the demographic situation in the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic, using data from the 1989 census and current demographic research. Changes in the birth rate and population growth are examined, and migration flows in the various regions of the republic are compared. Factors affecting low birth rates are analyzed, and trends in marriage, divorce, mortality, and life expectancy are explored.

  7. Soviet Union: Summer school goes international

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1990-09-15

    The traditional annual Soviet Summer School, held in June in Dubna on the banks of the Volga, this year had international participation for the first time. Initiated by Moscow's Physical Engineering Institute and the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, the school has rotating themes, with the accent this year on developments in high energy physics.

  8. US - Former Soviet Union environmental management activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    The Office of Environmental Management (EM) has been delegated the responsibility for US DOE's cleanup of nuclear weapons complex. The nature and the magnitude of the waste management and environmental remediation problem requires the identification of technologies and scientific expertise from domestic and foreign sources. This booklet makes comparisons and describes coordinated projects and workshops between the USA and the former Soviet Union

  9. Soviet Union: Summer school goes international

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    The traditional annual Soviet Summer School, held in June in Dubna on the banks of the Volga, this year had international participation for the first time. Initiated by Moscow's Physical Engineering Institute and the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, the school has rotating themes, with the accent this year on developments in high energy physics

  10. Redefined Soviet military doctrine in perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menning, B.W.

    1992-01-01

    On May 29, 1987, the Warsaw Pact's Political Consultative Committee issued a communique proclaiming that the military doctrine of the Warsaw Pact member states is strictly defensive and proceeds from the fact that the application of military means to resolve any dispute is inadmissible under current conditions. Following this declaration, a corresponding redefinition of Soviet military doctrine to emphasize defensiveness and war prevention has evoke lively commentary and debate in both the West and the East. Because doctrinal issues are likely to retain significance during arms control and security negotiations. The purpose of this paper is to highlight important trends associated with a continuing dialogue over Soviet military doctrine and to assess what the future portends as doctrinal discussions unfold. Since 1987 the accelerating pace of change has accentuated the importance of doctrinally related concerns. As a result of the INF Treaty and the Stockholm agreement, there has been greater transparency regarding Soviet and Warsaw Pact military developments. On December 7, 1988, General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev announced unilateral troop reduction over the next two years, which, when completed, would reduce the offensive capabilities of Soviet forces in Eastern Europe. In March 1989 talks on Confidence- and Security-Building Measures (CSBM) opened in Vienna, with suggestions for exchanges of views on military policy. At the very same time, NATO and the Warsaw Pact began formal negotiations on reduction of Conventional Forces in Europe (CFE) with a specific mandate to reduce those asymmetries that most favored prosecution of deep operations

  11. Economic Equilibrium and Soviet Economic Reform

    OpenAIRE

    Herbert E. Scarf

    1991-01-01

    The paper, prepared for a Roundtable on Major Economic Problems in the U.S. and the U.S.S.R., discusses some aspects of price theory ñ in particular, the theory of general equilibrium -ñ which may offer some theoretical insights about the economic problems to be encountered during the transition from Socialism to private markets in the Soviet Union.

  12. Landmarks in the Literature: Super Soviet Pedagogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alston, Patrick L.

    1979-01-01

    Anton Makarenko became a national hero for effecting education for communism in the 1920s. His book, "The Road to Life," is an artistic achievement and the most widely read and influential work on education in the Soviet Union. But Makarenko's legacy is more myth than model in present-day Russia. (Author/SJL)

  13. The Soviet Air Force and Strategic Bombing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-04-01

    to envision a British Air Force that could be totally divorced from some form of ground support role. Consequently, he saw an air campaign that would...CA: Presidio Press, 1986. Black, Steven K. The Icarus Illusion: Technology, Doctrine and the Soviet Air Force. Monterrey , CA, 1986. Cockburn, Andrew

  14. Inside the World of the Soviet Professional.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Carl R.

    1987-01-01

    Reports on a fall 1986 journey of Carl Rogers to the U.S.S.R. during which Rogers conducted lectures and workshops on humanistic psychology. Elaborates on workshop sessions with Russian psychologists and therapists. Concludes with general observations about what the workshops may have accomplished and on the Soviet lifestyle in general. (BR)

  15. Soviet precision timekeeping research and technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vessot, R.F.C.; Allan, D.W.; Crampton, S.J.B.; Cutler, L.S.; Kern, R.H.; McCoubrey, A.O.; White, J.D.

    1991-08-01

    This report is the result of a study of Soviet progress in precision timekeeping research and timekeeping capability during the last two decades. The study was conducted by a panel of seven US scientists who have expertise in timekeeping, frequency control, time dissemination, and the direct applications of these disciplines to scientific investigation. The following topics are addressed in this report: generation of time by atomic clocks at the present level of their technology, new and emerging technologies related to atomic clocks, time and frequency transfer technology, statistical processes involving metrological applications of time and frequency, applications of precise time and frequency to scientific investigations, supporting timekeeping technology, and a comparison of Soviet research efforts with those of the United States and the West. The number of Soviet professionals working in this field is roughly 10 times that in the United States. The Soviet Union has facilities for large-scale production of frequency standards and has concentrated its efforts on developing and producing rubidium gas cell devices (relatively compact, low-cost frequency standards of modest accuracy and stability) and atomic hydrogen masers (relatively large, high-cost standards of modest accuracy and high stability). 203 refs., 45 figs., 9 tabs.

  16. Soviet precision timekeeping research and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vessot, R.F.C.; Allan, D.W.; Crampton, S.J.B.; Cutler, L.S.; Kern, R.H.; McCoubrey, A.O.; White, J.D.

    1991-08-01

    This report is the result of a study of Soviet progress in precision timekeeping research and timekeeping capability during the last two decades. The study was conducted by a panel of seven US scientists who have expertise in timekeeping, frequency control, time dissemination, and the direct applications of these disciplines to scientific investigation. The following topics are addressed in this report: generation of time by atomic clocks at the present level of their technology, new and emerging technologies related to atomic clocks, time and frequency transfer technology, statistical processes involving metrological applications of time and frequency, applications of precise time and frequency to scientific investigations, supporting timekeeping technology, and a comparison of Soviet research efforts with those of the United States and the West. The number of Soviet professionals working in this field is roughly 10 times that in the United States. The Soviet Union has facilities for large-scale production of frequency standards and has concentrated its efforts on developing and producing rubidium gas cell devices (relatively compact, low-cost frequency standards of modest accuracy and stability) and atomic hydrogen masers (relatively large, high-cost standards of modest accuracy and high stability). 203 refs., 45 figs., 9 tabs

  17. JPRS Report. Soviet Union: International Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-18

    peoples. Kkhir Dzhokhari states that the recent success- ful visit of Malaysian Prime Minister Mahathir bin Mohamad to the Soviet Union, which here...university. In his speeches during his stay in the USSR in July and August of this year, Prime Minister Mahathir bin Moha- mad, emphasizing the "coincidence

  18. The News Paradigm and the Limits of Objectivity: A Socialist at the "Wall Street Journal."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Stephen D.

    Using the case study approach to examine an important aspect of the news paradigm (the objectivity of the journalist), this paper examines the case of A. Kent MacDougall, a former reporter for the "Wall Street Journal" and the "Los Angeles Times" who revealed that he was a socialist and often wrote for radical publications…

  19. Capitalism Reborn, Chaos and the Post-Socialist Freefall: A View from Europe's "New Periphery"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templer, Bill

    2014-01-01

    The present paper--from a vantage in Bulgaria, and focusing in significant part on this country as an iconic example of the "post-socialist freefall' and its dystopia on European capitalism's neocolonial "new periphery"--is a revised version of an earlier chapter in "Immiseration Capitalism and Education: Austerity, Resistance…

  20. Empowerment in a Socialist Egalitarian Agenda: Minority Women in China's Higher Education System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhenzhou

    2011-01-01

    Socialist egalitarianism and empowerment represent two different routes for realising equality of group differentiation. The former is pursued through top-down enactment by state apparatuses, while the latter closely relates to autonomous social movements, such as those occurring in liberal democratic societies. Using the experience of minority…

  1. Making Socialists: Mary Bridges Adams and the Fight for Knowledge and Power, 1855-1939

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiler, Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a review of "Making socialists: Mary Bridges Adams and the fight for knowledge and power, 1855-1939," by Jane Martin. Jane Martin has explored the history of late-nineteenth-century and early-twentieth century-British women educational activists in numerous publications over the past two decades. Her first book,…

  2. "Quiet Food Sovereignty” as Food Sovereignty without Movements? Understanding Food Sovereignty in Post-Socialist Russia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O. Visser (Oane); N.V. Mamonova (Natalia); M.N. Spoor (Max); A. Nikulin (Alexander)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractWhat does food sovereignty look like in settings where rural social movements are weak or non-existent, such as in countries with post-socialist, semi-authoritarian regimes? Focusing on Russia, we present a divergent form of food sovereignty. Building on the concept of ‘quiet

  3. Overview of nuclear safety regulations in countries of Easter Europe and the former Soviet Union. Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-10-01

    The document contains a compilation of information on Nuclear Safety Regulations in countries of Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union provided by the representatives of Armenia, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Hungary, Slovakia and Ukraine in the Steering Committee of the Extrabudgetary Programme on the Safety of WWER Nuclear Power Plants (the Steering Committee provides co-ordination and guidance to the IAEA on technical matters and serves as a forum for exchange of information with the European Commission and with other international and financial organizations). A separate abstract was prepared for each of the seven individual papers

  4. French-Soviet experiments ARAKS: main results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavergnat, J.

    1982-01-01

    The objective of the French-Soviet ARAKS experiments (Artificial Radiation and Aurora between Kerguelen and the Soviet Union) was to study the injection of an electron beam in the ionospheric plasma. Two rockets were launched which were magnetically conjugated with a point on the ground, and many ground-based measurement facilities were set up in conjunction with these experiments, with emphasis on radar measurements in the Northern Hemisphere as well as on the VLH and VHF measurements in both hemispheres. One of the important results of the experiments is that they have demonstrated the possibility of detecting the ionization trails created by the beam penetrating the conjugate atmosphere by ground-based radar observations. The observations discussed include those related to neutralization of the electron gun and wave emission. 6 references

  5. Nuclear power in the Soviet Bloc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davey, W.G.

    1982-03-01

    The growth of Soviet Bloc nuclear power generation to the end of the century is evaluated on the basis of policy statements of objectives, past and current nuclear power plant construction, and trends in the potential for future construction. Central to this study is a detailed examination of individual reactor construction and site development that provides specific performance data not given elsewhere. A major commitment to nuclear power is abundantly clear and an expansion of ten times in nuclear electric generation is estimated between 1980 and 2000. This rate of growth is likely to have significant impact upon the total energy economy of the Soviet Bloc including lessening demands for use of coal, oil, and gas for electricity generation

  6. Nuclear power in the Soviet Bloc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davey, W.G.

    1982-03-01

    The growth of Soviet Bloc nuclear power generation to the end of the century is evaluated on the basis of policy statements of objectives, past and current nuclear power plant construction, and trends in the potential for future construction. Central to this study is a detailed examination of individual reactor construction and site development that provides specific performance data not given elsewhere. A major commitment to nuclear power is abundantly clear and an expansion of ten times in nuclear electric generation is estimated between 1980 and 2000. This rate of growth is likely to have significant impact upon the total energy economy of the Soviet Bloc including lessening demands for use of coal, oil, and gas for electricity generation.

  7. Citizenship struggles in Soviet successor states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brubaker, W R

    1992-01-01

    "The breakup of the Soviet Union has transformed yesterday's internal migrants, secure in their Soviet citizenship, into today's international migrants of contested legitimacy and uncertain membership. This transformation has touched Russians in particular, of whom some 25 million live in non-Russian successor states. This article examines the politics of citizenship vis-a-vis Russian immigrants in the successor states, focusing on the Baltic states, where citizenship has been a matter of sustained and heated controversy." The author concludes that "formal citizenship cannot be divorced from broader questions of substantive belonging. Successor states' willingness to accept Russian immigrants as citizens, and immigrants' readiness to adopt a new state as their state, will depend on the terms of membership for national minorities and the organization of public life in the successor states." Data are from a variety of published sources. excerpt

  8. JPRS Report Soviet Union Political Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-19

    gentsia, specialists, authoritative workers and kolkhoz farmers in on their deliberations. A soviet of primary party organization secretaries...are in favor of disassembling the authoritarian , bureaucratic system and for focusing on humane, democratic socialism, the forming of a state under...Iolota’nskiy Rayon in Turkmenistan a boarding home for mentally retarded children. Some end up here directly from maternity homes, others are brought by

  9. US - Former Soviet Union environmental management activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The Office of Environmental Management (EM) has been delegated the responsibility for US DOE`s cleanup of nuclear weapons complex. The nature and the magnitude of the waste management and environmental remediation problem requires the identification of technologies and scientific expertise from domestic and foreign sources. This booklet makes comparisons and describes coordinated projects and workshops between the USA and the former Soviet Union.

  10. The Soviet Decision to Invade Czechoslovakia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-09-01

    inuary 1976 DDC - ’■’ rv > Canoron Station O T "> 1 ." Mexancria The caveat appearing on the title pi c.r. ol: Center for hib- avanced^earch...Soviets viewed the political developments in Czechoslovakia in 1968 with alarm bordering on paranoia, conditioned by the "dagger" phobia and by...published its Action Program entitled "The Czechoslovak Road to Socialism ," a program described by a Western authority as "a remarkable

  11. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Economic Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-10-28

    balance. It is well known that V. I. Lenin considered inflation the worse type of taxation . If we talk about the possible methods of normalizing the...INDUSTRIYA in Russian 12 Aug 88 p 1 [Article by V. Shishkin, member, Soviet Association of Political Sciences and candidate of juridical sciences, under...achievements as the results of extravagant spending and double counting. The ruinous nature of the gross output criteria was exposed by using

  12. Animal Effects from Soviet Atmospheric Nuclear Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    describes the effect on animal models of atmospheric nuclear weapons tests performed by the Soviet Union at the Semipalatinsk Test Site . Part I describes...understand the pathogenic mechanisms of injury and the likelihood of efficacy of proposed treatment measures. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Semipalatinsk Test Site ...the Semipalatinsk Test Site . Part 1 describes the air blast and thermal radiation effects. Part 2 covers the effects of primary (prompt) radiation and

  13. JPRS Report Soviet Union Political Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-26

    the right of immunity and can be removed from his post only by the Azerbaijan SSR Supreme Soviet in case of a violation by him of the constitution...ities of judges and people’s assessors and their execution of justice is inadmissible and is punishable by law. The immunity of judges and people’s...ecologically clean water to be sold in bottles and cardboard containers- -like kefir . Understandably, this beverage will cost more than tap water, but is

  14. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-28

    Kherson ship builder, the conscientious and docile Poltava or Podillya grain and cattle farmer, the dweller of the coastline of the dying Black Sea...even for free. The best crops of fields, gardens and orchards, the largest herds of cattle not only fail to improve, but consistently worsen the...the Soviet people"—in fact, the spiritual castration of non- Russians. We do not consider that a Ukrainian who speaks Russian automatically loses

  15. Synchrotron radiation sources in the Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapitza, S.P.

    1987-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation (SR) is now recognized to be an important instrument for experimental work in many fields of science. Recently the application of SR in medicine and industry, especially as a light source for microelectronics production have been demonstrated. Thus the development of SR sources has now grown to become a significant and independent dimension for accelerator research and technology. This article describes SR work in the Soviet Union

  16. Soviet Tactical Doctrine for Urban Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-12-01

    Soviet Area Specialist. Valuable assistance was provided by Mr. Gerald Sullivan and LTC Ray N. Franklin, USMC, of the Advanced Research Projects... Oldenburg 120.8 133.3 12.5 10 Osnabruck 133.6 164.0 30.4 23 Regensburg 123.0 133.5 10.5 9 Remacheid 123.0 135.5 12.5 10 Salzgitter 105.9 117.6 11.7

  17. Nuclear safety cooperation for Soviet designed reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reisman, A.W.; Horak, W.C.

    1995-01-01

    The nuclear accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986 first alerted the West to the significant safety risks of Soviet designed reactors. Five years later, this concern was reaffirmed when the IAEA, as a result of a review by an international team of nuclear safety experts, announced that it did not believe the Kozloduy nuclear power plants in Bulgaria could be operated safely. To address these safety concerns, the G-7 summit in Munich in July 1992 outlined a five point program to address the safety problems of Soviet Designed Reactors: operational safety improvement; near-term technical improvements to plants based on safety assessment; enhancing regulatory regimes; examination of the scope for replacing less safe plants by the development of alternative energy sources and the more efficient use of energy; and upgrading of the plants of more recent design. As of early 1994, over 20 countries and international organizations have pledged hundreds of millions of dollars in financial assistance to improve safety. This paper summarizes these assistance efforts for Soviet designed reactors, draws lessons learned from these activities, and offers some options for better addressing these concerns

  18. Cogeneration in the former Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horak, W.C.

    1997-01-01

    The former Soviet Union made a major commitment to Cogeneration. The scale and nature of this commitment created a system conceptually different from Cogeneration in the west. The differences were both in scale, in political commitment, and in socio economic impact. This paper addresses some of the largest scale Cogeneration programs, the technology, and the residual impact of these programs. The integration of the Cogeneration and nuclear programs is a key focus of the paper. Soviet designed nuclear power plants were designed to produce both electricity and heat for residential and industrial uses. Energy systems used to implement this design approach are discussed. The significant dependence on these units for heat created an urgent need for continued operation during the winter. Electricity and heat are also produced in nuclear weapons production facilities, as well as power plants. The Soviets also had designed, and initiated construction of a number of nuclear power plants open-quotes ATETsclose quotes optimized for production of heat as well as electricity. These were canceled

  19. The image of women in Soviet Manifesto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Orabona

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article summarizes the condition of women within the Bolshevik regime, focusing on the use of posters. Visual propaganda was a means to easily reach wide strata of the population. The official Party ideology, expressed through visual propaganda, contributed to the definition of new social identities, as well as to the creation of new ways of thinking and acting in Soviet society. It had its own internal dynamics and operated as an independent force in a continually evolving society in which the field of discourse was radically changing. Posters aticipated developments in Soviet society and provided a model for people to follow; they were not limited to reflecting past or current events. The posters under consideretion pertain to the representation of women in their various occupations (e.g, workers, peasants or simply happily engaged in everyday life. The images prescribed, for example, which clothes to wear or how hair should be styled, and were without doubt powerful and pervasive; yet they were destined to meet an inevitable decline following Stalin's death, when the Soviet Union reprised its international relations.

  20. Soviet Robots in the Solar System Mission Technologies and Discoveries

    CERN Document Server

    Huntress, JR , Wesley T

    2011-01-01

    The Soviet robotic space exploration program began in a spirit of bold adventure and technical genius. It ended after the fall of the Soviet Union and the failure of its last mission to Mars in 1996. Soviet Robots in the Solar System chronicles the scientific and engineering accomplishments of this enterprise from its infancy to its demise. Each flight campaign is set into context of national politics and international competition with the United States. Together with its many detailed illustrations and images, Soviet Robots in the Solar System presents the most detailed technical description of Soviet robotic space flights provides a unique insight into programmatic, engineering, and scientific issues covers mission objectives, spacecraft engineering, flight details, scientific payload and results describes in technical depth Soviet lunar and planetary probes

  1. Loose Soviet nukes: A mountain or a molehill?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, D.C.

    1991-01-01

    For almost four decades, US national security alarmists have tossed and turned in the night fretting about the atomic plots that might be hatching behind the Kremlin's impenetrable walls. A secretly deployed antimissile shield? An unanswerable first strike? When Cold War fevers were spiking, no Soviet action was too dire to ponder. Now that the Cold War has been declared over and won, ironically, the focus of US concern has shifted to a new danger that has nothing to do with deliberate Soviet schemes. Rather, as Secretary of Defense Dick Cheney suggested in February 7 remarks to the House Armed Services Committee, the collapse of central authority in the Soviet Union means that the greatest threat to the neighbors of the Soviet Union in the future may well come more from the Soviet inability to control events inside the Soviet Union than it will from any conscious policy of seeking to expand their influence by military means

  2. [Socialist escapes. Breaking away from ideology and everday routine in Eastern Europe 1945-1989] / Karsten Brüggemann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Brüggemann, Karsten, 1965-

    2014-01-01

    Arvustus: Socialist escapes: Breaking away from ideology and everday routine in Eastern Europe 1945-1989, co-edited with Cathleen M. Giustino and Catherine J. Plum (New York and Oxford: Berghahn Books, 2013).

  3. The Tenth Period of Soviet Third World Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-10-01

    All its activity is taking place in an atmosphere of responsible criticism and self-criticism and of observance of the principle of looking the truth...tremendous stability to the Soviet-Indian relationship. Moscow’s ties with New Dehli have lasted now well over thirty years. Moscow can be confident...itself a superpower with global interests and commitments. The costs of the Soviet empire may be onerous at the margin when Soviet economic managers

  4. Soviet/Russian-American space cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karash, Yuri Y.

    This dissertation seeks to answer two questions: (1) what are the necessary conditions for the emergence of meaningful space cooperation between Russia and the United States, and (2) might this cooperation continue developing on its own merit, contributing to the further rapprochement between the two countries, even if the conditions that originated the cooperation were to change? The study examines the entire space era up to this point, 1957 to 1997, from the first satellite launch through the joint U.S.-Russian work on the ISS project. It focuses on the analysis of three distinct periods of possible and real cooperation between the United States and the Soviet Union/Russia. The first possibility for a limited Soviet-American cooperation in space emerged in the late 1950s, together with the space age, and continued until the mid-1960s. The major potential joint project of this period was a human expedition to the Moon. The global competition/confrontation between the two countries prevented actual cooperation. The second period was from the late 1960s until 1985 with consideration of experimental docking missions, including the docking of a reusable U.S. shuttle to a Soviet Salyut-type station. The global U.S.-Soviet competition still continued, but the confrontation was replaced by detente for a brief period of time lasting from the end of 1960s until mid-1970s. Detente gave the first example of U.S.-Soviet cooperation in space---the Apollo-Soyuz joint space flight (ASTP) which took place in 1975. However, the lack of interest of political leaderships in continuation of broad-scale cooperation between the two countries, and the end of detente, removed ASTP-like projects out of question at least until 1985. The third period started together with Mikhail Gorbachev's Perestroika in 1985 and continues until now. It involves almost a hundred of joint space projects both at the governmental and at the private sectors levels. The mainstream of the joint activities

  5. Soviet space nuclear reactor incidents - Perception versus reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Gary L.

    1992-01-01

    Since the Soviet Union reportedly began flying nuclear power sources in 1965 it has had four publicly known accidents involving space reactors, two publicly known accidents involving radioisotope power sources and one close call with a space reactor (Cosmos 1900). The reactor accidents, particularly Cosmos 954 and Cosmos 1402, indicated that the Soviets had adopted burnup as their reentry philosophy which is consistent with the U.S. philosophy from the 1960s and 1970s. While quantitative risk analyses have shown that the Soviet accidents have not posed a serious risk to the world's population, concerns still remain about Soviet space nuclear safety practices.

  6. Le realizzazioni dell'economia sovietica. (Soviet economic performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. MADDISON

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available While in the 1950s Soviet output grew faster than most other industrial countries, the early 1960s has seen a noticeable slowing down in growth. The present paper puts these economic developments into perspective to judge the efficacy of Soviet policy in its attempt to achieve maximum growth and transform an underdeveloped into a developed country. The author first assesses Soviet performance and policy at different stages of development, before assessing the level attained. The purposes for which output is used and the major factors responsible for Soviet performance are then analysed. Finally, likely future developments are considered.JEL: P27, O40

  7. Soviet experience with peaceful uses of nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordyke, M.D.

    1976-01-01

    The Soviet Union is pursuing an active program for developing peaceful uses of nuclear explosions (PNE). They have reported 16 explosions, with applications ranging from putting out oil-well fires and stimulating oil recovery to creating instant dams and canals. The data reported generally agree with U.S. experience. Seismic data collected by western sources on explosions outside the known Soviet test sites indicate that the Soviet program is at least twice as large as they have reported. The accelerated pace of these events suggests that in some applications the Soviet PNE program is approaching routine industrial technology

  8. The Changing Face of the of Former Soviet Cities: Elucidated by Remote Sensing and Machine Learning Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poghosyan, Armen

    2017-04-01

    Despite remote sensing of urbanization emerged as a powerful tool to acquire critical knowledge about urban growth and its effects on global environmental change, human-environment interface as well as environmentally sustainable urban development, there is lack of studies utilizing remote sensing techniques to investigate urbanization trends in the Post-Soviet states. The unique challenges accompanying the urbanization in the Post-Soviet republics combined with the expected robust urban growth in developing countries over the next several decades highlight the critical need for a quantitative assessment of the urban dynamics in the former Soviet states as they navigate towards a free market democracy. This study uses total of 32 Level-1 precision terrain corrected (L1T) Landsat scenes with 30-m resolution as well as further auxiliary population and economic data for ten cities distributed in nine former Soviet republics to quantify the urbanization patterns in the Post-Soviet region. Land cover in each urban center of this study was classified by using Support Vector Machine (SVM) learning algorithm with overall accuracies ranging from 87 % to 97 % for 29 classification maps over three time steps during the past twenty-five years in order to estimate quantities, trends and drivers of urban growth in the study area. The results demonstrated several spatial and temporal urbanization patterns observed across the Post-Soviet states and based on urban expansion rates the cities can be divided into two groups, fast growing and slow growing urban centers. The relatively fast-growing urban centers have an average urban expansion rate of about 2.8 % per year, whereas the slow growing cities have an average urban expansion rate of about 1.0 % per year. The total area of new land converted to urban environment ranged from as low as 26 km2 to as high as 780 km2 for the ten cities over the 1990 - 2015 period, while the overall urban land increase ranged from 11.3 % to 96

  9. 3-D Soviet Style: A Presentation on Lessons Learned from the Soviet Experience in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-10-01

    auteurs se penchent sur les aspects stratégiques, opérationnels et tactiques de l’action soviétique. L’étude se fonde sur de l’information actualisée...publiée en russe et en anglais. Les données statistiques sur le conflit ont également été prises en compte. Les auteurs , MM. Anton Minkov et...communication and to the efforts the Soviets made in building Afghan security forces. It includes information on the theory and practice of Soviet

  10. The politics of Soviet strategic defense: Political strategies, organization politics, and Soviet strategic thought. (Volumes I and II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufman, S.J.

    1991-01-01

    This study formulates three different unitary rational-actor models and an organizational model that can be used to explain Soviet policy in strategic defense from 1966-1980, then tests the models to determine which most successfully explains Soviet behavior. The only rational-actor model that can explain the Soviet force posture for air defense relies on demonstrably false assumptions. A well-formulated organizational model can explain these facts, as well as some organizational pathologies shown by the Soviet National Air Defense Forces. The findings suggest that military services, even when ostensibly closely directed by civilian and military superiors, often manage to pursue their own interests rather than the requirements of higher policy. Soviet civilian leaders generally had limited control over the formulation of military doctrine or over the force posture of Soviet military services, but arms control (especially the ABM Treaty) offered a policy handle which helped them to affect doctrine and force posture to a substantial degree

  11. Population aging in Albanian post-socialist society: Implications for care and family life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meçe Merita

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Population aging is becoming an inevitable phenomenon in Albanian post-socialist society, posing multi-faceted challenges to its individuals, families and society as a whole. Since 1991, the Albanian population has been exposed to intensive demographic changes caused by unintended aspects of socio-economic transition from a planned socialist economy to a market-oriented capitalist one (Hoff, 2008. Ongoing processes of re-organization of social institutions increased its socio-economic insecurity leading to the application of various coping mechanisms. While adjusting themselves to other aspects of life, people changed their decisions of having children and leaving the country (Hoff, 2008. On the other hand, replacement of former traditional extended family forms with diverse living arrangements and family structures has been the outcome of the combination of three factors: falling fertility, increasing life expectancy and increasing migration (INSTAT, 2014.

  12. “Building a New Socialist Countryside” – Only a Political Slogan?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunter Schubert

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In March 2006, China’s National People’s Congress officially promulgated the central government’s intention to “build a new socialist countryside”, a new policy initiative and approach to rural development. Drawing on fieldwork conducted in two Chinese counties in 2008 and 2009, this article investigates how the new policy is being substantiated and implemented at the local level. It argues that by combining China’s new fiscal system of transfer payments to poor local governments with administrative reforms, intensified internal project evaluation, and efforts to increase the rural income through a mixture of infrastructural investment, agricultural specialization, the expansion of social welfare, and accelerated urbanization, “building a new socialist countryside” constitutes more than a political slogan and has the potential to successfully overcome rural poverty and the rural-urban divide.

  13. Constitution and religiosity of/in the constitutional order of the National Socialist Empire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velez, Pedro

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we will analyse the National Socialist regime as a politico-constitutional reality. We will do it from a new way of looking at politico-constitutional phenomena, interpreting them as registered in a religious grounding. It seeks to show that the National Socialist regime was characterised by having identified the political community – a racially interpreted and raised community to the Absolute – with an empirical historic personality regarded as eminently communitarian. It suggests that the regime constitutes a sui generis case, either in a context of regimes conventionally classified as "right-wing authoritarian and/or totalitarian" or in a larger context of contemporary politics.

  14. Role of Creative Industries in the Post-Socialist Urban Transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stryjakiewicz Tadeusz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the past two decades the cities in Central and Eastern Europe have witnessed a wide-ranging transformation in many aspects. The introduction of a market-oriented economy after half a century of socialism has brought about deep social, economic, cultural and political changes. The first stage of the changes, the 1990s, involved the patching up of structural holes left by the previous system. The post-socialist city had to face challenges of the future while carrying the ballast of the past. Rapid progress in catching up with the West transformed the city a great deal. Later on, the advent of the 21st century brought a new wave of development processes based, among other things, on creativity and innovation. Hence our contribution aims to explore the role of creativity and creative industries in the post-socialist urban transformation. The article consists of three basic parts. In the first we present the concept of a ‘creative post-socialist city’ and define the position of creative industries in it. We also indicate some similarities to and differences from the West European approaches to this issue. In the second part, examples from Central and Eastern Europe are used in an attempt to elucidate the concept of a ‘creative post-socialist city’ by identifying some basic features of creative actions /processes as well as a creative environment, both exogenous and endogenous. The former is embedded in different local networks, both formal (institutionalised and informal, whereas the structure of the latter is strongly path-dependent. In the third part we critically discuss the role of local policies on the development of creative industries, pointing out some of their shortcomings and drawing up recommendations for future policy measures.

  15. Propaganda of the Occupation Regime of National Socialistic Germany in Latvia (1941-1945)

    OpenAIRE

    Kaspars Zellis

    2011-01-01

    Annotation Doctoral thesis „Propaganda of the Occupation Regime of National Socialistic Germany in Latvia (1941-1945)” presents analysis of Nazi propaganda towards people of Latvia during the World War II. The analysis covers the institutions of propaganda and the main channels of propaganda – media, radio, cinema etc. The content of propaganda has been analyzed in the research as well. The thesis deals with the issue of propaganda of integration, the main goal of which was creating a n...

  16. Characteristics and drivers of forest cover change in the post-socialist era in Croatia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cvitanovi, Marin; Blackburn, George Alan; Rudbeck Jepsen, Martin

    2016-01-01

    of deforestation and reforestation in private- and state-owned forests during the post-socialist period and the causal drivers of change. The selected region of Northern Croatia is characterised by a high percentage of privately owned forests with minimal national monitoring and control. We used a mixed...... show that the deforestation in private forests is weakening overall, mostly due to the continuation of the de-agrarisation and de-ruralisation processes which began during socialism....

  17. Aspects of Morality and Law Enforcement in Today's Science in Post-Soviet Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliestikova, Jana; Kliestik, Tomas; Misankova, Maria; Corejova, Tatiana; Krizanova, Anna

    2017-10-20

    Many reports independently confirm that even more than a quarter of a century after the collapse of the Soviet Union, the results of research and development in those countries that were under its influence are insufficient in comparison to the rest of the world. Given that human intelligence is not distributed unevenly and that science is a powerful driving force for the future of an economy, there is a hidden problem, which, if it can be resolved, may release great economic potential. The first generation of researchers from Armenia, Czech Republic, Georgia, Slovakia and Ukraine, who successfully completed their education after the political revolution, were surveyed. The survey revealed many similarities with regards to ethics, but that there is mounting evidence that the main cause of the current situation is the state of the local legal systems. The conclusion was drawn that a conceptual change in staffing within the relevant legal systems is required to release potential and stimulate wealth creation.

  18. The Second Sex in Hungary. Simone de Beauvoir and the (Post-Socialist Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Joó

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Beauvoir’s work was translated in 1969, a period of change in state socialism: the introduction of some elements of market economy in 1968 (called New Economic Mechanism, the publication of Western bourgeois philosophers as Sartre and Beauvoir, and Marxist philosophers’ efforts to revise orthodox Marxism. ’The woman question’ was declared to be already solved by socialism. The emblematic female identity is of the working mother: free and equal with men by virtue of law, taking part in producing new value as worker and according to her natural role as mother and wife, representing the center of the socialist family. Under these circumstances the reception of The Second Sex is highly interesting: a success (two editions in a high number of copies, but only two contemporary reviews (one friendly, one sharply critical. In this paper, I give a reconstruction of socialist women’s reading of Beauvoir, given their officially propagated homogeneous identity and their unrecognized double burden. They could have identified themselves with Beauvoir’s new, independent woman and at the same time with the traditional woman. Beauvoir’s legacy for us post-socialist women can be derived from this past: to face ambiguities in identity and to vindicate individual freedom.

  19. Participatory measurements of sustainable urban development and quality of life in post-socialist Zadar, Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cavrić Branko

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last two decades, there has been an intensive discourse and research about measuring sustainable urban development. Many cities, regions and countries have decided to introduce indicators for monitoring and measuring the progress towards sustainability. Today there is a wide spread perception that information on the environment in general, and urban environment in particular, is the determinant of effective rational decisions and allocation of resources. Such information would enable planners and decision makers to formulate redistributive policies and programmes to address some of the disparities that exist in a post-socialist city. Cities of the post-socialist world characterized by sharp disparities, socio-economic contrasts and environmental degradation provide an excellent laboratory for tracing information on the quality of urban life. The current situation in the emerging Croatian coastal city of Zadar reflects the diversity of the post-socialist urban change in a very fragile Mediterranean landscape. This paper takes a critical look at sustainable development and its measurements. It describes the participatory approach through which different local communities in Zadar were evaluating quality of life based on basic pillars of sustainable development. The identification and collection of their opinions provide valuable data base and community input into urban governance and development planning decision making.

  20. Travelling Policy and Local Spaces in the Republic of Tajikistan: A Comparison of the Attitudes of Tajikistan and the World Bank towards Textbook Provision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahry, Stephen A,

    2005-01-01

    For newly independent Central Asian republics a debate has arisen about how much of the aims, content and pedagogy of old Soviet-era curricula to retain, how much to revise or replace, and with what. There is a need to replace and revise textbooks, which are wearing out and outdated. Financial crisis has made the financial support of external…

  1. 77 FR 15039 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Results and Partial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-14

    ... country selection from Indonesia to Bangladesh. For all other changes to the calculations of Vinh Hoan and... Economy Country Status In every case conducted by the Department involving Vietnam, Vietnam has been... government has been found to have over the economy to warrant determining a rate for the entity that is...

  2. 77 FR 3731 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam and Taiwan: Initiation of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-25

    ... support using a statistically valid sampling method to poll the industry. Section 771(4)(A) of the Act...'') subheadings 7326.20.0020 and 7323.99.9080. Although the HTSUS subheadings are provided for convenience and...

  3. 75 FR 61122 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Amended Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-04

    ... which are processed from warmwater shrimp and prawns through freezing and which are sold in any count... scope of this investigation. In addition, food preparations, which are not ``prepared meals,'' that...'') freezing immediately after application of the dusting layer. Battered shrimp is a shrimp-based product that...

  4. 75 FR 75965 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Results of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... shrimp and prawns through freezing and which are sold in any count size. The products described above may..., food preparations, which are not ``prepared meals,'' that contain more than 20 percent by weight of... subjected to IQF freezing immediately after application of the dusting layer. Battered shrimp is a shrimp...

  5. 78 FR 39708 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Results of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-02

    ... parties an opportunity to comment on the Preliminary Results and, based upon our analysis of the comments... Comment I, we have now selected Indonesia as the primary surrogate country. We have also made other... information disclosed under the APO, which continues to govern business proprietary information in this...

  6. Lifelong Teacher Education in the Czechoslovakian Socialist Republic with Especial Reference to the Training of Teachers in Special Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerna, Marie

    1987-01-01

    The structure of the Czechoslovak system of preservice and inservice teacher education introduced by Education Act No. 29 of 1984 is described. The preparation of special education teachers is given particular emphasis. (Author/MT)

  7. 77 FR 75980 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Determination of Sales...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... following companies: Acton Co., Ltd.; Angang Clothes Rack Manufacture Co.; Asmara Home Vietnam; B2B Co., Ltd...\\ M&B Metal Products Company, Inc.; Innovative Fabrication LLC/Indy Hanger; and US Hanger Company, LLC... South East Asia Hamico Export Joint Stock Company (``Hamico'') and the TJ Group as mandatory respondents...

  8. 77 FR 19211 - Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    ..., and it did not export any subject merchandise to the United States through a trading company... on Import and Export Tax, goods imported from foreign countries into non-tariff zones for use only in non-tariff zones are not liable for import duties. In accordance with Decree 29/2008/ND-CP issuing...

  9. Love Will Keep Us Apart? Understanding Living Apart Together Partnerships in the Post-state-socialist Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Formánková, Lenka; Křížková, Alena

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 6 (2015), s. 993-1022 ISSN 0038-0288 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-13766S; GA ČR GAP404/10/0021 Institutional support: RVO:68378025 Keywords : living apart together * biographical research * gender * new forms of partnership * family policy Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography Impact factor: 0.262, year: 2015 http://sreview.soc.cas.cz/cs/issue/180-sociologicky-casopis-czech-sociological-review-6-2015/3580

  10. 77 FR 75984 - Utility Scale Wind Towers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Determination of Sales at...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... Determination 1. Steel Plate 2. Surrogate Financial Statements 3. Financial Ratio Adjustments 4. Packed Weight... financial statements for Ganges International Pvt Ltd. for purposes of calculating the surrogate financial ratios. Scope of the Investigation The merchandise covered by this investigation are certain wind towers...

  11. 76 FR 35403 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Results of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-17

    ... Comparable Merchandise C. Data Considerations Comment II: Surrogate Values A. Financial Ratios i. Whether To Reject Gemini's Financial Ratios Due to the Subsidies Listed in the Financial Statement ii. Which Financial Statements Represent the Best Source for Calculating Financial Ratios B. Byproducts i. Fish Waste...

  12. 78 FR 17350 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Results of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-21

    ... Considerations--Whole Live Fish Comment II: Surrogate Financial Ratios Comment III: Labor Comment IV: Sawdust... parties an opportunity to comment on the Preliminary Results. Based upon our analysis of the comments and... description of the Scope of the Order. Analysis of Comments Received All issues raised in the case and...

  13. 76 FR 56158 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Results and Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-12

    ... F. Purchased Ice G. Water H. Containerization I. Labor J. Financial Ratios Comment 3: Zeroing... parties an opportunity to comment on the Preliminary Results and, based upon our analysis of the comments... to comment on the Preliminary Results. Between April 4, 2011, and April 25, 2011, the Department...

  14. 75 FR 38985 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Results of the Fifth...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-07

    .... Whole Live Fish. B. Surrogate Financial Ratios. Comment 3: Indirect Labor. Comment 4: Factors of... of the comments and information received, we made changes to the dumping margin calculation for the... value data, surrogate value rebuttal comments, case and rebuttal briefs. See Memorandum to the File...

  15. 76 FR 77485 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-13

    ... and sign contracts and other agreements; and (4) has autonomy from the government regarding the... primary surrogate country. We recognize, with respect to determining surrogate financial ratios, that we have no useable financial statements on the record at this time with respect to Indonesia. As both...

  16. 75 FR 4350 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results of New...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-27

    ... negotiate and sign contracts and other agreements; and (4) has autonomy from the government regarding the... could not be obtained), as published in the International Financial Statistics of the International...

  17. 77 FR 56180 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-12

    ... autonomy from the government regarding the selection of management.\\24\\ \\24\\ See Silicon Carbide, 59 FR at... contains three financial statements from Bangladeshi producers of comparable merchandise which are... inflation using data published in the International Monetary Fund's International Financial Statistics. In...

  18. 78 FR 29323 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Amended Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-552-801] Certain Frozen Fish Fillets... administrative review and aligned new shipper reviews on certain frozen fish fillets (``fish fillets'') from the... (``POR'') is August 1, 2010, through July 31, 2011. \\1\\ See Certain Frozen Fish Fillets from the...

  19. 77 FR 63786 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Notice of Court Decision...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-17

    ..., filing of petitions and applications and agency #0;statements of organization and functions are examples... (``Federal Circuit'') in Timken,\\3\\ as clarified by Diamond Sawblades,\\4\\ the Department is notifying the...., v. United States, 893 F.2d 337 (Fed. Cir. 1990) (``Timken''). \\4\\ Diamond Sawblades Mfrs. Coalition...

  20. 76 FR 27991 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Notice of Court Decision...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ...) (``Timken''), as clarified by Diamond Sawblades Mfrs. Coalition v. United States, F.3d, Court No. 2010-1024... this administrative review with no history of a calculated margin a separate rate of 4.57 percent, \\2...

  1. 75 FR 47771 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Results and Partial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-09

    ... products included in the scope of this investigation, regardless of definitions in the Harmonized Tariff.... Battered shrimp is a shrimp-based product that, when dusted in accordance with the definition of dusting... Thanh Long Thien Ma Seafood Tourism Material and Equipment Company (Matourimex Hochiminh City Branch...

  2. 77 FR 34935 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Notice of Court Decision...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-12

    ....2d 337 (Fed. Cir. 1990) (``Timken''), as clarified by Diamond Sawblades Mfrs. Coalition v. United... longer parties in this litigation, are not subject to this remand, and we have not changed the rate...

  3. A Self-Sustained Education System for a Developing Country: The Case of the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Dien Ngoc

    Viet Nam's average annual population growth rate is 2.6%, which accounts for a large youth population: 37.7% of the total population is under age 15, compared with an average of 20% in developed or newly industrialized countries. A free basic education for all children is almost impossible to provide. With consideration of the Vietnamese people's…

  4. The Elimination of Illiteracy and the Use of Complementary Education in the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and Oceania.

    To counteract the legacy of 80 years of colonial rule in North Viet Nam, President Ho Chi Minh outlined government objectives in the Declaration of Independence in 1945. Major objectives included combatting ignorance and illiteracy. To work toward these objectives, the government established a Department of Popular Education and encouraged…

  5. 77 FR 32552 - Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ... pipe. The latter is a consolidated financial statement of a large conglomerate, and includes the.... They also provided the financial statements for an Indonesian producer of identical merchandise, and...- specific export subsidies). Second, we have on the record the financial statements of four Indian producers...

  6. 77 FR 64471 - Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Negative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-22

    ... To Produce Exported Goods Import Duty Exemptions for Imported Fixed Assets, Spare Parts and... Imported Fixed Assets, Spare Parts and Accessories for Encouraged Projects Comment 6 SeAH VINA's Failure to... of Fixed Assets, Spare Parts and Accessories Policy Loans Comment 8 Preferential Financing to the...

  7. 75 FR 56062 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Notice of Preliminary Results...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-15

    ... or paid for in NME currency, we valued these services using surrogate values from Descartes Carrier Rate Retrieval Database (``Descartes'') Web site. See Surrogate Value Memo. Where applicable, we used...

  8. 76 FR 15941 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Results of the Sixth...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-22

    ... case briefs.\\3\\ On October 7, 2010, majority staff members from the Senate Finance Committee met with... Memo at Comment I, we have changed our surrogate country selection from the Philippines to Bangladesh...

  9. 77 FR 55800 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Results and Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-11

    ... preliminary margin calculation. Specifically, we: Applied the corrected shrimp price data from the Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia-Pacific 2011 Shrimp Price Study to value raw shrimp; \\5\\ \\5\\ See Decision... ``dusting'' layer of rice or wheat flour of at least 95 percent purity has been applied; (3) with the entire...

  10. 75 FR 36635 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Rescission of New Shipper...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... ``dusting'' layer of rice or wheat flour of at least 95 percent purity has been applied; (3) with the entire surface of the shrimp flesh thoroughly and evenly coated with the flour; (4) with the non-shrimp content... Duc Co., Ltd.: Price of the Sale and Subsequent U.S. Sales. Rescission of Review In evaluating whether...

  11. 76 FR 45775 - Fourth New Shipper Review of Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    ... ``dusting'' layer of rice or wheat flour of at least 95 percent purity has been applied; (3) with the entire surface of the shrimp flesh thoroughly and evenly coated with the flour; (4) with the non-shrimp content... prices or costs of factors of production in one or more ME countries that are (1) At a comparable level...

  12. 76 FR 64307 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Amended Final Results and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-18

    ...) and peeled shrimp; (2) to which a ``dusting'' layer of rice or wheat flour of at least 95 percent... with the flour; (4) with the non-shrimp content of the end product constituting between four and 10...

  13. Spatial distribution of arable and abandoned land across former Soviet Union countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesiv, Myroslava; Schepaschenko, Dmitry; Moltchanova, Elena; Bun, Rostyslav; Dürauer, Martina; Prishchepov, Alexander V.; Schierhorn, Florian; Estel, Stephan; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Alcántara, Camilo; Kussul, Natalia; Shchepashchenko, Maria; Kutovaya, Olga; Martynenko, Olga; Karminov, Viktor; Shvidenko, Anatoly; Havlik, Petr; Kraxner, Florian; See, Linda; Fritz, Steffen

    2018-04-01

    Knowledge of the spatial distribution of agricultural abandonment following the collapse of the Soviet Union is highly uncertain. To help improve this situation, we have developed a new map of arable and abandoned land for 2010 at a 10 arc-second resolution. We have fused together existing land cover and land use maps at different temporal and spatial scales for the former Soviet Union (fSU) using a training data set collected from visual interpretation of very high resolution (VHR) imagery. We have also collected an independent validation data set to assess the map accuracy. The overall accuracies of the map by region and country, i.e. Caucasus, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Republic of Moldova, Russian Federation and Ukraine, are 90±2%, 84±2%, 92±1%, 78±3%, 95±1%, 83±2%, respectively. This new product can be used for numerous applications including the modelling of biogeochemical cycles, land-use modelling, the assessment of trade-offs between ecosystem services and land-use potentials (e.g., agricultural production), among others.

  14. In situ radiation measurements at the former Soviet Nuclear Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tipton, W.J.

    1996-06-01

    A team from the Remote Sensing Laboratory conducted a series of in situ radiological measurements at the former Soviet Nuclear Test Site near Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan, during the period of July 21-30, 1994. The survey team measured the terrestrial gamma radiation at selected areas on the site to determine the levels of natural and man-made radiation. The survey was part of a cooperative effort between the United States team and teams of radiation scientists from the National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakhstan and the V.G. Khlopin Radium Institute in St. Petersburg, Russia. In addition to in situ radiation measurements made by the United States and Russian teams, soil samples were collected and analyzed by the Russian and Kazakhstani teams. All teams conducted their measurements at ten locations within the test site. The United States team also made a number of additional measurements to locate and verify the positions of three potential fallout plumes containing plutonium contamination from nonnuclear tests. In addition, the United States team made several measurements in Kurchatov City, the housing area used by personnel and their families who work(ed) at the test sites. Comparisons between the United States and Russian in situ measurements and the soil sample results are presented as well as comparisons with a Soviet aerial survey conducted in 1990-1991. The agreement between the different types of measurements made by all three countries was quite good

  15. Excavating the Psyche: A Social History of Soviet Psychiatry in Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chehirian, Julian

    2018-06-01

    This article investigates how an imported Soviet psychiatric model affected Bulgarians who experienced psychological crisis by examining therapeutic possibilities that were available and foreclosed in the People's Republic of Bulgaria. Bulgarians struggling with psychological disorders in the present day experience polar forms of marginalization: non-recognition on one extreme, and chronic medicalization on the other. Both tendencies can be traced to the Communist-period remodeling of mental healthcare, which outlawed private practice and individual-centered therapy, which reified empirically observable, physiological underpinnings of pathology while suppressing therapies that engaged with the existential context of mental illness. I argue that the reproduction of a Soviet psychiatric model instigated a modernization process but failed to anticipate the idiosyncrasy of economic and social conditions within the country. Furthermore, that this model rejected a therapeutic focus on the individual but developed no effective alternative for identifying and treating subjective characteristics of mental illness. Bulgaria's history of psychiatry has received little scholarly attention beyond Bulgarian psychiatrists who documented the development of their field. This article presents archival, literary and oral history footholds towards the development of a social history of Bulgarian psychiatry-a perspective that is especially and problematically missing.

  16. Risk and protective factors in children adopted from the former Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuinness, T M; McGuinness, J P; Dyer, J G

    2000-01-01

    The former Soviet Union (including the present independent republics of Russia, Ukraine, Latvia, Belarus, Lithuania, and Georgia) is the leading source of children adopted from overseas by persons in the United States (US Department of State, 1998). This study sought to (a) characterize the current social, academic, and conduct competencies of 6- to 9-year-old children adopted from the former Soviet Union who have resided in the United States for at least 2 years and (b) evaluate both risks and protective influences of adoptive families and their relationships to competence via a structural equation model. Telephone interviews and a postal survey of children were drawn from a US community sample of 105 children. Measures included (a) Child Behavior Checklist, (b) Teacher Report Form, (c) Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, (c) Family Environment Scale, and (d) demographic information. Many children had experienced abuse, abandonment, or neglect between birth and entry to the institution. Their mean birth weight was 2637 g, and alcohol abuse by the birth mother was common (41%). Although the children scored below average in competence, adoptive family environments were positive and served as buffers between the risks experienced by the children and the subsequent development of competence within the adoptive family. Children's abilities ranged from severely challenged to developmentally normal. The high rate of fetal alcohol exposure in the children may portend future challenges for families.

  17. Vospitanie and Regime Change: Teacher-Education Textbooks in Soviet and Post-Soviet Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogachenko, Tatiana; Perry, Laura

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the pedagogical dimension of vospitanie, or character formation, in communist and post-communist education. It explores how vospitanie is conceptualized in two teacher-education textbooks--one from each period--in Ukraine, a post-Soviet country. Comparative analysis shows how conceptualizations of vospitanie have evolved over…

  18. The Soviet-American gallium experiment (SAGE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garvey, G.T.

    1989-01-01

    The Soviet-American Gallium Experiment (SAGE) undertaking is a multi-institutional collaboration among scientists from the Institute for Nuclear Research, Moscow (INR), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and several US universities. It's purpose is to measure the number of low-energy electron neutrinos emitted from the Sun that arrive at this planet. As such, it is an extremely important experiment, touching on fundamental physics issues as well as solar dynamics. In contrast to the strategic overviews, plans, and hopes for intentional collaboration presented earlier today, SAGE is an ongoing working effort with high hopes of producing the first measurement of the Sun's low-energy flux. There are several international physics collaborations involving US and Soviet scientists at the large accelerator installations throughout the world. As the scale of research gets ever larger, requiring ever more resources and then larger collaborations. Much physics research lies solely in the realm of basic research so that governments feel easier about collaborations. Contacts between the US and USSR scientists interested in nuclear and particle physics goes back to the nineteen fifties and have continued with only minor interruptions since then. Over the past two decades the principal oversight of these activities has been through the Joint Coordinating Committee on the Fundamental Properties of Matter, supported by the DOE in the US and the State Committee for Atomic Energy in the USSR. The Academies of Science of both countries have been very helpful and supportive. Each venture has some distinguishing features; in the case of SAGE, the unique aspects are the collaboration between Soviet scientists and scientists at a DOE weapons laboratory and the fact that the experiment is carried out in a remote region of the USSR. The particular problems caused are discussed. 3 refs., 3 figs

  19. Religious ritual contested: anti-religious activities and women’s ritual practice in rural Soviet Karelia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marja-Liisa Keinänen

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available After the October Revolution, the Bolsheviks sought to establish a new atheistic order which would eradicate from the public consciousness all vestiges of "religious prejudices", which were regarded as a residue from the imperial era and an instrument used to exploit the masses. Even though it was generally held that religion would automatically disappear from socialist society when its material precondition, the class society, was abolished, the regime made concentrated efforts to speed up the process by means of virulent anti-religious propaganda. The ultimate goal was to wipe out the persistent remains of the bourgeois system of values. No force was to be used since it was feared this would merely offend the religious sentiments of the people and strengthen their adherence to religion. Theoretically, the ultimate goal was to be achieved through education and information, but in practice, anti-religious activities were at times quite brutal. These attacks were successful in curtailing the activities of religious institutions in Karelia, but did not bring to an end the religious practices of lay people, which were continued, in one form or another, throughout the entire Soviet period. One fundamental reason for the survival of religious rituals, both Christian and indigenous, was the fact that they were so deeply embedded in people's consciousness and intimately integrated with their everyday lives. Every important phase and turn in human life was sanctified by rituals. The goal of the present paper is to examine what forms anti-religious attacks took in Soviet Karelia and how people reacted to them. The focus is on the attacks against the very fundaments of the ritual complex of the church and, by extension, on the effects of these attacks on the indigenous ritual complex, which co-existed in parallel with that of the "official" religious institutions.

  20. Soviet and East European energy databook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, D.C.

    1991-01-01

    For the USSR, energy data is assembled under the following main headings: energy and the economy; production; engineering; exploration; transport of fuel; refining; consumption by sector; employment; finance; trade; electricity. There are 162 tables. Five tables of data on Eastern Europe as a region cover production of energy, consumption, and exports of crude and oil products. Using similar broad headings as these for the USSR, a further 184 tables give data for the following individual countries: Bulgaria; Czechoslovakia; East Germany; Hungary; Poland; Romania; Yugoslavia. The data has been accumulated from Soviet and East European sources, mainly newspapers, journals, annual yearbooks and private contacts and the chief of these are listed. (UK)

  1. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-11-15

    jour- nals almost at the same time as A. Rybakov’s "Children of the Arbat," V. Dudintsev’s "White Clothes," D. Granin’s "Diehard," and the essays ... lyrical poet," Akh- matova is able to make "concise, vivid, and resounding statements regarding the salient or distinctive features of the spiritual...known poet M. Avi-Shaul; a photo essay on Soviet artists and cultural figures, who had visited Israel in recent years; on the Romen Theater, headed by

  2. Afghanistan: The First Five Years of Soviet Occupation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    July 1982, reported that be- fore reaching the Kabul River his group passed three DRA outposts or forts. One of his guerrilla companions assured him...driver, chef , doctor, and six chief advisers, all were Soviets. At the palace where he resided and worked, the guard force was Soviet, except for a

  3. The Adversary System in Low-Level Soviet Economic Decisionmaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-08-01

    34- ° .. 78 - capital or a few countertrade agreements, will solve their problems for them. This is markedly different from the overall Soviet pattern...currency countertrade practice, the considerations of this Note would permit further refinement of predictions of Soviet economic decisionmaking that

  4. Social-historical memory about soviet the pas: empiric research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. G. Pozdnyakova­Kirbatyeva

    2014-06-01

    Also considered komomeratyvni properties attitude to the soviet past in the population of different regions of the country and the most general description of the memory of the soviet past, namely the degree of interest of the population of different regions to the past.

  5. 'A people forgotten by history': Soviet Studies of the Kurds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leezenberg, M.

    2015-01-01

    The Russian/Soviet experience raises complex general questions concerning orientalism, conceptual hegemony, and the politics of (post-)colonial knowledge. Russia was not an empire in Said's sense, and drew much of its orientalist categories from non-imperialist German sources; the Soviet Union was

  6. Soviet Cultural Diplomacy in Denmark during the Cold War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederichsen, Kim

    2012-01-01

    The article discusses the Soviet apparatus for cultural diplomacy abroad during the Cold War period using the worlds oldest society for friendship with the Soviet Union as a case study. The article looks at question from 3 diffrent angels: 1: Organisation, planning and financing. 2: Activities. 3...

  7. Soviet Counterinsurgency Operations in Afghanistan (1979-1988)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-29

    Soviet commitment in Afghanistan. was to be an "economy of force" mission, with the focus of Red Army combat power to remain in the European theatre ...critically for its operational and tactical resupply capability. ’’The Soviets in Afghanis4Ul,li1ce the Americansin Vietnam, discovered thai helicopters were

  8. Socialism and Education in Cuba and Soviet Uzbekistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charon-Cardona, Euridice

    2013-01-01

    During the Cold War over half a million Asians, Africans and Latin Americans studied and graduated in the Soviet Union's universities and technical schools as part of this country's educational aid policies. Cuba was an intermediary player in the Cold War geopolitical contest between the United States and the Soviet Union, fuelled by the…

  9. Self-management socialism compared to social market economy in transition: Are there convergent paths?

    OpenAIRE

    Mulaj, Isa

    2009-01-01

    Despite considerable and miscellaneous research in transition economics, some of its aspects have yet to evolve and come up with a more standard theory. After the initial systemic change in two versions of socialist systems - centralist in the former Soviet Union (FSU), and self-management in the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY), and rush towards a market-based system, setbacks in economic performance were marked by a sharp decline in living standards for the majority of...

  10. The evolution of Soviet forces, strategy, and command

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, D.; Bethe, H.A.; Blair, B.G.; Bracken, P.; Carter, A.B.; Dickinson, H.; Garwin, R.L.; Holloway, D.; Kendall, H.W.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports on the evolution of Soviet forces, strategy and command. Soviet leaders have repeatedly emphasized that it would be tantamount to suicide to start a nuclear war. Mutual deterrence, however, does not make nuclear was impossible. The danger remains that a large-scale nuclear was could start inadvertently in an intense crisis, or by escalation out of a conventional war, or as an unforeseen combination of these. For these reasons crisis management has become a central issue in the United States, but the standard Soviet response to this Western interest has been to say that what is needed is crisis avoidance, not recipes for brinkmanship masquerading under another name. There is much sense in this view. Nevertheless, this demeanor does not mean that the Soviet Union has given no thought to the danger that a crisis might lead to nuclear war, only that Soviet categories for thinking about such matters differ from those employed in the United States

  11. The Soviet applied information sciences in a time of change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bengston, J.; Cronin, R.R.; Davidson, R.B.

    1991-07-01

    The Foreign Applied Sciences Assessment Center (FASAC) conducts reviews of selected areas of foreign basic and applied science by US scientists who are technically expert and active in the fields reviewed. Several of the FASAC assessments of Soviet science have involved various aspects of the information sciences, including enabling technologies and applications, as well as the core information sciences. This report draws upon those FASAC assessment reports, the expert judgment of some of the authors of those reports, and other public sources to characterize the current state of the information sciences in the Soviet Union and the effects of information science capabilities upon other areas of Soviet science and technology. This report also provides estimates of the likely effect of the political and social reforms underway in the Soviet Union on future Soviet progress in the information sciences and, at a more general level, in science and technology. 41 refs., 7 tabs.

  12. Feasibility and options for purchasing nuclear weapons, highly enriched uranium (HEU) and plutonium from the former Soviet Union (FSU)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    In response to a recent tasking from the National Security Council, this report seeks to analyze the possible options open to the US for purchasing, from the former Soviet Union (FSU) substantial quantities of plutonium and highly enriched uranium recovered from the accelerated weapons retirements and dismantlements that will soon be taking place. The purpose of this paper is to identify and assess the implications of some of the options that now appear to be open to the United States, it being recognized that several issues might have to be addressed in further detail if the US Government, on its own, or acting with others seeks to negotiate any such purchases on an early basis. As an outgrowth of the dissolution of the Soviet Union three of the C.I.S. republics now possessing nuclear weapons, namely the Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan, have stated that it is their goal, without undue delay, to become non-nuclear weapon states as defined in the Non-Proliferation Treaty. Of overriding US concern is the proliferation of nuclear weapons in the Third World, and the significant opportunity that the availability of such a large quantity of surplus weapons grade material might present in this regard, especially to a cash-starved FSU Republic. Additionally, the US, in its endeavor to drawdown its own arsenal, needs to assure itself that these materials are not being reconfigured into more modern weapons within the CIS in a manner which would be inconsistent with the stated intentions and publicized activities. The direct purchase of these valuable materials by the US government or by interested US private enterprises could alleviate these security concerns in a straightforward and very expeditious manner, while at the same time pumping vitally needed hard currency into the struggling CIS economy. Such a purchase would seem to be entirely consistent with the Congressional mandate indicated by the Soviet Nuclear Threat Reduction Act of 1991

  13. Building Infectious Disease Research Programs to Promote Security and Enhance Collaborations with Countries of the Former Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomew, James C; Pearson, Andrew D; Stenseth, Nils Chr; LeDuc, James W; Hirschberg, David L; Colwell, Rita R

    2015-01-01

    Addressing the threat of infectious diseases, whether natural, the results of a laboratory accident, or a deliberate act of bioterrorism, requires no corner of the world be ignored. The mobility of infectious agents and their rapid adaptability, whether to climate change or socioeconomic drivers or both, demand the science employed to understand these processes be advanced and tailored to a country or a region, but with a global vision. In many parts of the world, largely because of economic struggles, scientific capacity has not kept pace with the need to accomplish this goal and has left these regions and hence the world vulnerable to infectious disease outbreaks. To build scientific capability in a developing region requires cooperation and participation of experienced international scientists who understand the issues and are committed to educate the next generations of young investigators in the region. These efforts need to be coupled with the understanding and resolve of local governments and international agencies to promote an aggressive science agenda. International collaborative scientific investigation of infectious diseases not only adds significantly to scientific knowledge, but it promotes health security, international trust, and long-term economic benefit to the region involved. This premise is based on the observation that the most powerful human inspiration is that which brings peoples together to work on and solve important global challenges. The republics of the former Soviet Union provide a valuable case study for the need to rebuild scientific capacity as they are located at the crossroads where many of the world's great epidemics began. The scientific infrastructure and disease surveillance capabilities of the region suffered significant decline after the breakup of the Soviet Union. The U.S. Cooperative Threat Reduction (CTR) Program, a part of the U.S. Department of Defense, together with partner countries, have worked diligently to

  14. Skill Formation and Utilisation in the Post-Soviet Transition: Higher Education Planning in Post-Soviet Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvaramadze, Irakli

    2010-01-01

    Changes in the former Soviet system had a dramatic influence on higher education in Georgia. The main objective of the current article is to analyse implications of the post-Soviet transition for the skill formation and skill utilisation system in Georgia. In particular, the study analyses recent trends in Georgian higher education including…

  15. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-10-26

    and to enhance substantively the role of the republic’s manage- rial entities in satisfying the population’s demand for alimentary products, it is...designing, biotechnology and others. On the other hand, to the extent that the principles of cost accounting and self financing are more and more widely

  16. JPRS Report, Soviet Union: International Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-08-24

    birthday)" 73 FEATURE ARTICLE Gabriel Garcia Marquez, "The USSR: 22,400,000 Square Kilometers Without A Single Coca - Cola Ad" Foreword by V. Zemskov...and became acquainted with the antiwar activi- ties carried out in the Ukrainian republic under the sponsorship of the UkSSR Peace Committee. UD

  17. Chinese Policy in Post-Soviet States. «One Belt — One Road Initiative»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliya M. Borisova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Former Soviet Union countries is of special interest for China. Russian influence in former republics has been declining since the Soviet Union collapsed. China used these changes to start developing of bilateral relations with Central Asia states, as a first priority, and continued with Ukraine, Belorussia, South Caucasus governments. Former Soviet countries’ course to weaken Russian influence helped Chinese policy to be promoted. It has altered from bitty steps to concerted course in the region. China began to play a major role in the trade and economic development of Central Asia, supporting its policy with political mechanisms. To strengthen its positions, Beijing proposed its “One belt - one road” strategic initiative, which consists of two major projects : Silk Road Economic Belt and the 21st Century Maritime Silk Route Economic Belt. These projects involve almost all of the former soviet states, of which Central Asian countries play a major part. This world region is seen in China as a platform for invading European markets, and it also provides a way to avoid trespassing of the Russian borders. In the context of Chinese “One road — one belt” initiative, there is a great concern of the cooperation with EAEU project. EAEU is aimed to provide coordinated unified economic policy with state-members, to guarantee the free movement of goods, capital and labour. Moscow sees its initiative as an instrument for construction of economic and political structure in the region, same as Beijing does. Possibility of two global projects coexistence, which can be distinguished as competitive, is a problem to be solved.   

  18. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Kommunist, No. 10, July 1989.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-09-21

    and the "high-minded phraseology" of true socialists or of Proudhon , was unable to presume the conclusions that his successors would draw from the...albeit also approximate) moral assessments. The polemics between Marx and Engels and Proudhon and his followers, strictly speaking, was based on a

  19. Preventing Escalation in the South China Sea Disputed Waters: A Comparative Study of Republic of the Philippines and Socialist Republic of Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Problem of Maritime Cooperation in the South China Sea,” in Security and International Politics in the South China Sea, eds. Sam Bateman and Ralf Emmers...South China Sea,” in Security and International Politics in the South China Sea: Towards a cooperative management regime, eds. Sam Bateman and Ralf...Cooperation in the South China Sea.” In Security and International Politics in the South China Sea, edited by Sam Bateman and Ralf Emmers. Oxon, UK

  20. Universal Higher Education and Positional Advantage: Soviet Legacies and Neoliberal Transformations in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolentseva, Anna

    2017-01-01

    The great expansion of participation in higher education in Russia in the post-Soviet period was the layered and contradictory result of both conditions established in the Soviet period, and the structuring of reforms after the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1992. The Soviet government was strongly committed to the expansion of education across…

  1. Nonlinear dynamics research in the former Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenney, B.L.; Krafsig, J.; Moon, F.C.; Shlesinger, M.F.

    1992-08-01

    This assessment of nonlinear dynamics research in the former Soviet Union was performed by seven US scientists and engineers active in the fields examined. The topics covered include: solid-state systems and circuits, information theory and signal analysis, chaos in mechanical systems, turbulence and vortex dynamics, ocean processes, image processing, and lasers and nonlinear optics. The field of nonlinear dynamics and chaos blossomed in academic settings in both the West and the former Soviet Union during the 1980s. The field went from mathematical abstraction to interesting engineering application areas. Several generalizations can be drawn from the review of Soviet work: Soviet work generally began earlier than Western work, and, in areas that do not require extensive computational resources, that work has kept up with, and often leads, the West. This is especially true in the mathematical analysis of nonlinear phenomena. Soviet researchers have shown an ability to combine numerical or analytic ideas with laboratory experimentation in a smoother, less erratic fashion than Western researchers. Furthermore, contrary to Western practice, the same researchers often do both theoretical and experimental work. In areas that require numerical verification of ideas in the field, the Western work is leading that of the former Soviet Union. This is especially true in the areas of signal processing, simulations of turbulence, and communications. No evidence was found of any significant penetration of ideas of nonlinear dynamics into technological applications of a military or commercial area in the former Soviet Union. Opportunities abound, but specific applications are not apparent

  2. Is there an opportunity to establish the social-capitalism in the post socialist transition?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lošonc Alpar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently Claus Offe has put the question that concerns the fate of the European model of social capitalism: Can the model of social capitalism survive the European integration in the context of certain contemporary tendencies? Offe has presupposed that the mentioned model is challenged by the processes of globalization and the integration of the post socialist countries into the European Union. The working hypothesis of the article is that there is an opportunity to provide a coherent answer to this question. The article consists of two parts. In the first part the author starts with the Polanyi's socio-economic theory and emphasizes the importance of this approach for the analyzing of the tendencies of capitalism in Western Europe and in the post socialist countries. The author argues that with the Polanyi's theory we are able to explicate the forms of the embedded liberalism in Western Europe after 1945 and the orientation of non-embedded neo-liberalism and the functioning of the workfare state after the crisis of the Keynesian welfare state. Despite the tendencies of the globalization projected by neo-liberalism, the central element of the social capitalism namely, the welfare state, remains with the dimensions of the continuity. In the next part the author points out that there is an asymmetrical structure between the Western-Europe and non-Western part of Europe concerning the socialization of capitalism. The neoliberalisation in accordance with the model of the transfer of ideal-type of capitalism is more strongly implemented in the countries of transition. In addition, the mentioned theoretical approach provides opportunities to explain the failures of implementing of neo-liberalism in the post socialist countries. On the basis of the endorsing of the socio-economic aspects we can address the issue pointed out by Offe.

  3. Soviet Advisors Group in South China and Soviet Union Financing of Gomindan War Planes in 1924

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Александр Геннадьевич Юркевич

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The article dwells on the organization and activities of the Soviet advisors group, which assisted to the South China government of Sun Yatsen, its participation in financing Kuomintang political and military projects. The author pointed out that the main aim of the advisors group efforts was to form new Kuomintang power institutions and to bring its policy and army under control, for all that the tactics of implementation of strategy aim were constantly changing.

  4. Economic integration of socialist states through the peaceful utilisation of the atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korff, H.J.

    1975-01-01

    The 'Interatominstrument' organisation was set up at the beginning of 1972 by Bulgaria, Hungary, East Germany, Poland, Russia and Czechoslovakia to help co-ordination between, and economic integration of, socialist countries. An account is given of the important and wide role played by the organisation in the co-ordination and rationalisation of research, development and manufacturing capacity on techniques and equipment based on the peaceful uses of atomic energy. Other functions include procurement, dissemination of information and extension of application of nuclear energy. Reference is made to the significant commercial and other successes already achieved by Interatominstrument. (P.G.R.)

  5. Meeting of socialist conntries' representatives on problems of nuclear materials analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacak, P.; Moravec, J.; Krtil, J.; Sus, F.

    1982-01-01

    A meeting of representatives of the socialist countries was held in Prague from May 18 to 22, 1981, to discuss cooperation in the field of analytical control of nuclear materials. The Czechoslovak delegation informed the participants of the extent and results of the work of the Central Control Laboratory of the Nuclear Research Institute in Rez. A brief survey is given of the nondestructive methods of measuring the physical parameters of nuclear fuel, the methods of destructive determination of uranium and plutonium and the methods of preparation of standard materials for mass spectrometry which the Central Control Laboratory has introduced and verified for securing analytical control of nuclear materials. (B.S.)

  6. "Quiet Food Sovereignty” as Food Sovereignty without Movements? Understanding Food Sovereignty in Post-Socialist Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Visser, Oane; Mamonova, Natalia; Spoor, Max; Nikulin, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    textabstractWhat does food sovereignty look like in settings where rural social movements are weak or non-existent, such as in countries with post-socialist, semi-authoritarian regimes? Focusing on Russia, we present a divergent form of food sovereignty. Building on the concept of ‘quiet sustainability’, we present a dispersed, muted, but clearly bottom-up variant we term ‘quiet food sovereignty’. In the latter, the role of the very productive smallholdings is downplayed by the state and part...

  7. Courts of customary law in the post-soviet states: history and the current situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Сергій Володимирович Васильєв

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem setting and relevance of the research topic. Research of courts of customary law is not a new trend in the domestic legal science. However, it should be noted that this issue was covered mainly in the historical and ethnographic aspect, and, as a rule, in relation to specific countries or peoples. Taking into account the fact that in some post-Soviet states the rules of the customary law have remained and take effect even under the current conditions, there is a need to study people’s judgment on the basis of historical experience, taking into account the fact that there is no special scientific research on this subject. Paper objective. On the basis of studying the courts of customary law that existed in the territory of the post-Soviet states, to reveal their diversity, special features and peculiarities of formation and to analyze the contemporary forms of the aforementioned courts. Paper main body. The courts of customary law existed in various nations and nationalities since ancient times. The identity of one or another traditional court depended on such facts as the territorial location of the community, the level of economic and cultural development, type of religion, etc. In this paper the organization of the traditional justice of post-Soviet states in the second half of the XIX century was studied, when the basic territorial boundaries of the Russian Empire were formed. It is within these boundaries the peoples lived, who subsequently became Soviet republics, and then independent states. The main characteristic features of traditional courts that existed in the territory of post-Soviet states have been emphasized (1 judicial procedure was not regulated in detail; (2 the rules of the customary law (adat rules were the basis of the justice; (3 members of the court were competent persons of the community; (4 the court was common for all members of the community; (5 disputes were resolved through reconciliation of the parties; (6

  8. President Ford and both the Soviet and American ASTP crews

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    President Gerald R. Ford removes the Soviet Soyuz spacecraft model from a model set depicting the 1975 Apollo Soyuz Test Project (ASTP), an Earth orbital docking and rendezvous mission with crewmen from the U.S. and USSR. From left to right, Vladamir A. Shatalov, Chief, Cosmonaut training; Valeriy N. Kubasov, ASTP Soviet engineer; Aleksey A. Leonov, ASTP Soviet crew commander; Thomas P. Stafford, commander of the American crew; Donald K. Slayton, American docking module pilot; Vance D. Brand, command module pilot for the American crew. Dr. George M Low, Deputy Administrator for NASA is partially obscured behind President Ford.

  9. Tokamak research in the Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strelkov, V.S.

    1981-01-01

    Important milestones on the way to the tokamak fusion reactor are recapitulated. Soviet tokamak research concentrated at the I.V. Kurchatov Institute in Moscow, the A.F. Ioffe Institute in Leningrad and the Physical-Technical Institute in Sukhumi successfully provides necessary scientific and technological data for reactor design. Achievments include, the successful operation of the first tokamak with superconducting windings (T-7) and the gyrotron set for microwave plasma heating in the T-10 tokamak. The following problems have intensively been studied: Various methods of additional plasma heating, heat and particle transport, and impurity control. The efficiency of electron-cyclotron resonance heating was demonstrated. In the Joule heating regime, both the heat conduction and diffusion rates are anomalously high, but the electron heat conduction rate decreases with increasing plasma density. Progress in impurity control makes it possible to obtain a plasma with effective charge approaching unity. (J.U.)

  10. Nuclear power in the Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponomarev-Stepnoi, N.N.

    1989-01-01

    The pros and cons of nuclear power are similar in many countries, but the following pro factors are specific to the Soviet Union: the major sources of conventional fuel are in one area of the country, but energy consumption is concentrated in another; and a large portion of energy is generated using oil and gas. The arguments against nuclear power are as follows: safety requirements and expectations have been increased; and public opinion is negative. A program of nuclear power generation has been developed. New techniques are being implemented to increase safety and enhance operations of different types of nuclear power plants. Its should be obvious in the future that a nuclear power plant has better economic and environmental parameters than existing methods of power generation

  11. Radon therapy in the Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sansoni, B.; Andrejew, S.V.

    1991-08-01

    In the Soviet Union approximately one million courses of radon treatment each lasting three weeks are prescribed every year. The curative application of radon used for cardiovascular diseases, including aftercare in cases of cardiac infarction, disorders of the locomotor system and joints and muscles, the male and female sexual system, diseases of the nervous system, endocrinology and metabolic diseases. Contraindication practice is similar to that in Central Europe. Radon is given to skin stimulation by wet and above all dry baths. The radiation exposure of patients from these three-week radon treatments is relatively low. The radon effect is interpreted as 'radiation flash' stimulating the nervous system. The skin plays a particular role in this process, acting as the stimulus acceptor. (orig./MG) [de

  12. JPRS Report, Soviet Union Economic Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-12

    that the person ordering music not only pays money, but also provides musicians with musical instruments. State orders are now backed by drums and...have become more frequent. Last year, the USSR Ministry of Light Industry organized the first Ail-Union Fashion Festival in Moscow, featuring a large...opportunities for tourism , including foreign tourism . And the influx of those who want to visit the republic is increasing sharply all the time. While foreign

  13. JPRS Report, Soviet Union: Political Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-20

    Afonin] At one time I was a first-class volleyball player, high office, an official, but for a live, specific person with skier and chess-player. I love...people, often caused by will help solve it. their incomplete knowledge of the radiation situation. Above all, I see the means for this in halting the...financing. even more complicated as the republic switches to self- management and self-financing. It is common knowledge that the CPSU Central Com- mittee

  14. JPRS Report:. Soviet Union, Political Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-26

    low-quality wine for apparatchiks of all levels, turning the people into sheep , ready to do any- thing just for a bottle! It was a good thing that...they dug up the vineyards , destroying the nest of the "green snake," breaking up the unfortunate links between the republics. But where is the...Pesorin, Privolzhsk, Ivanovo Oblast. Let Them Answer!... It’s high time that the leaders who cut down hundreds of thousands of wonderful vineyards

  15. JPRS Report, Soviet Union: Political Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-04-13

    responsible for the Ukrainian film industry Moscow, Leningrad, Georgia and Moldavia. May I were established within the UkSSR Ministry of Culture express...the republic has developed a document, "Major dent 0. Gusev: "Reorganization and the Price of conditions for puttingthe Ukrainian film industry on a...8217Prestige"’] full cost accounting basis," Currently the Ukrainian film industry contributes 80 million rubles in gross income annually to the local

  16. Identity and Othering in Past and Present: Representations of the Soviet Era in Estonian Post-Soviet Textbooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Kello

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses representations of the ‘core Soviet era’ (1945-1985 in Estonian post-Soviet history textbooks (1989-2016. Attitudes towards the Soviet system have been a rich resource for identity building, and hence a powerful political tool across the whole of the post-Soviet block. Based on an analysis of sections about the Soviet era in Estonia in 21 textbooks, the paper takes a look at how textbooks reflect broader processes of social meaning making, identity building and othering after a profound social and political turn. In 1989 and during the early 1990s, perspectives and narratives in Estonian history textbooks were closely related to social memory and national politics, enacting a specific social representation of the Soviet era that dominated the Estonian-speaking public space during the 1990s. The Soviet era, Russia and local Russians became the main Others for Estonia and Estonians. Over time, public discourse has diversified. The national curriculum and textbooks, however, still maintain the canon that formed in 1990s and thus reflect earlier sentiments. Apart from the increasing salience of Soviet-era daily life in more recent textbooks, the thematic choices and emphases have changed little since the 1990s. Therefore, even if the style of writing has ‘cooled down’, issues of identity preservation, resistance and accommodation, together with a saliently negative representation of wrongdoings by the Soviet system, still prevail. On the one hand, this testifies to the resilience of an established tradition in the textbook genre in general. On the other hand, it reflects the dominance of an ethnocentric tradition in Estonian history textbook writing. The paper discusses the implications of these findings for interethnic relations in Estonia.

  17. Elements of traditional Tuvan cosmology in the state emblem of the People’s Republic of Tuva, 1935-1939

    OpenAIRE

    Boris B. Mongush

    2016-01-01

    The article examines the constituent elements of the state emblem of the People’s Republic of Tuva (in its 1935/1939 version). We view state emblems as a special type of historical source where constituent emblems and elements are, in fact, reflections of a certain worldview. Emblems of the People’s Republic of Tuva (PRT) originally were full of Buddhist religious symbolism, but in the course of time it switched over to representing the dominance of the Soviet heraldic symbolism. Among the...

  18. Soviet Union goes to Sussex for advice on science policy

    CERN Multimedia

    Brown, P

    1990-01-01

    Two state officials from the Soviet Union came to the SPRU, Sussex University, to learn about methods for forecasting trends in science and technology and ways of establishing priorities for basic scientific research (1/2 page).

  19. Historical Soviet Daily Snow Depth (HSDSD), Version 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Historical Soviet Daily Snow Depth (HSDSD) product is based on observations from 284 World Meteorological Organization (WMO) stations throughout Russia and the...

  20. Differences over Economics in the Soviet Leadership, 1988-1990

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aslund, Anders

    1991-01-01

    .... It focuses on four central issues: the range of differences on agricultural policy, how to deal with the Soviet Union's financial crisis, what to do about pricing policy, and the overall goal of economic reform...

  1. Friedrich Albert Lange on neo-Kantianism, socialist Darwinism, and a psychology without a soul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Friedrich Albert Lange was a German philosopher, political theorist, educator, and psychologist who outlined an objective psychology in the 1860s. This article shows how some of the most important worldviews of the nineteenth century (Kantianism, Marxism, and Darwinism) were combined creatively in his thought system. He was crucial in the development of neo-Kantianism and incorporated psycho-physiological research on sensation and perception in order to defend Kant's epistemological idealism. Based on a critique of phrenology and philosophical psychology of his time, Lange developed a program of a psychology without a soul. He suggested that only those phenomena that can be observed and controlled should be studied, that psychology should focus on actions and speech, and that for each psychological event the corresponding physical or physiological processes should be identified. Lange opposed introspection and subjective accounts and promoted experiments and statistics. He also promoted Darwinism for psychology while developing a socialist progressive-democratic reading of Darwin in his social theory. The implications of socialist Darwinism on Lange's conceptualization of race are discussed and his prominence in nineteenth century philosophy and psychology is summarized. Copyright 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. La peine de mort en Yugoslavie socialiste et le conflit des sources normatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Vukovic

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The author analyses a discussion on death penalty that took place in Belgrade, at the end of the socialist era, between Igor Primorac and Ivan Jankovic. Primorac attacked the utilitarian justification of the socialist penal system, though he agreed on different, retributive grounds that death penalty for premeditated murder should be preserved. Jankovic advocated utilitarian ideas and rejected the death penalty as an atavistic aberration. In the first part of the article, their main arguments are presented and their contextual meaning is being explained. In the second part of the article, the author analyses those arguments and concludes that a retributivism has not been the philosophy of death penalty during its history, b that retentionist conclusions do not follow from retributive premises, c that utilitarianism, in spite of its historical connection with abolitionism, can justify death penalty, d that since the problem cannot be resolved on moral grounds alone, it should be resolved on political grounds, and e that political considerations require the abolition of death penalty.

  3. Using Their Own People Against Them: Russia’s Exploitation of Ethnicity in Georgia and Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Caucasus, from Nagorno-Karabakh to Chechnya . Georgia, once a prosperous Soviet Socialist Republic, could not escape the chaos. During this first phase...Afghanistan, Chechnya , and Georgia, but others were simply politicized rightist nationalists eager to export their ideology.222 These volunteers were

  4. The Texts of Three Agreements for the Supply of Materials to the Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1959-06-15

    The texts of three agreements concluded on 11 May 1959 between the Agency and the Governments of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and of the United States of America respectively are reproduced in this document for the information of all Members of the Agency.

  5. The Representation of the Cold War in Three Estonian History Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korbits, Keit

    2015-01-01

    The article looks at the discursive strategies different Estonian history textbooks employ to represent the Cold War period, and the "commonsense" ideologies instilled through these representations. The textbooks analysed include two history books dating back to the Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic and, for contrast, one written during…

  6. A Live Vaccine from Brucella abortus Strain 82 for Control of Cattle Brucellosis in the Russian Federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    During the first half of the 20th century, widespread regulatory efforts to control cattle brucellosis (Brucella abortus) in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics were essentially nonexistent, and control was limited to selective test and slaughter of serologic agglutination reactors. By the 1950...

  7. Voting, Public Goods and Violence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Staal (Klaas)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractBorders are not definite, they can change over time. Recent examples are the disintegration of the Soviet Union and of the Socialist Republic of Yugoslavia. Within countries, borders between municipalities can change as well. Border changes can be relatively peaceful, like it was the

  8. The Texts of Three Agreements for the Supply of Materials to the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1959-01-01

    The texts of three agreements concluded on 11 May 1959 between the Agency and the Governments of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and of the United States of America respectively are reproduced in this document for the information of all Members of the Agency

  9. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, The Working Class & The Contemporary World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-10-15

    Beatles and Rolling Stones groups, the astronaut J. Glenn, Dzh. (sic) Eisenhower and J. Kennedy, M.L. King and the screen actor M. Brando. At the ...JPRS-UWC-87-002 15 October 1987 FOREIGN BROADCAST INFORMATION SERVICE JPRS Report— Soviet Union THE WORKING CLASS & THE CONTEMPORARY WORLD...MmmKmoN STATEMENT A 19980714 146 mcWAUTtmBPBVmi Soviet Union The Working Class & The Contemporary World No 3, May-June 1987 JPRS-UWC-87-002

  10. Soviet civil defense plans make nuclear war winnable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goure, L.

    1985-01-01

    In this paper, the author expresses his opinion that the U.S. is naive and suicidal in its lack of civil defense preparation for nuclear war. The Soviets' extensive civil defense planning is evidence that they plan to use their nuclear weapons and survive a counterattack by the U.S. The author compares the two systems and explains why the Soviets' system is superior

  11. PROBLEMS OF INTEGRATION AT THE FORMER SOVIET UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Еlena А. Hudorenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article provides analysis of historical retrospective of integrationprocesses in former Soviet Union, ways and opportunities for furtherdevelopment thereof.The authors make a study of the problems of development and functioningof Eurasian cooperation, the effectiveness of interaction with certain states,analyze the reasons of failures, emphasize the achievements results ofcooperation, point out the opportunities for integration processes betweendifferent CIS and provide practical recommendations for effectiveness thereof in former Soviet Union.

  12. Text of the joint U.S.-Soviet summit statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-12-01

    The document reproduces the text of the joint U.S.-Soviet summit statement issued on 10 December 1987 at the conclusion of the meeting between the President of the United States and the General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Washington, December 7-10, 1987). It refers to the arms control (including nuclear weapons), human rights and humanitarian concerns, regional issues, bilateral affairs and further meetings

  13. Soviet command and control in a historical context

    OpenAIRE

    Kern, Jeffrey A.

    1981-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited An examination is made of the historical antecedents of present day command and control doctrine in the Soviet Union. The continuity of principal characteristics is demonstrated. The ideological determinants shaping the command and control system are first developed. These include centralism, collective decision-making, unity of command, and redundancy. Practical consequences of these are explored. The functioning of Soviet command...

  14. Toward a Profile of Soviet Behavior in International Financial Markets,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-08-01

    duv. priding a hedge against both economic and political uncertaintv. l’oitical developments could cut oft Soviet access t(I Western credit marktt...deposits than heyc were paying on their loans, and this simple arbitrage operatio)n would have been p~rofitable. Opportunities for this kind of...8217 arbitrage miay’ hake persisted into 1985. when interest rates on short -term deposits finally% t’ell below the rates that the Soviet U nion would have been

  15. The Role of Women in the Soviet Armed Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-04-15

    she would stereotype Soviet women, she stated: " Overworked , unhappy with their lives-- standing in lines, taking care of the kids, alcoholism among men...Greece, The Netherlands, Turkey, Israel and Japan . There was no mention of the Soviet Union. Based upon a January 1991 query to the Women’s Research and...1986-1990 due to accidents, suicide and hazing. The group asked the military prosecutor to investigate the abuses within the armed forces, especially

  16. The Soviet Withdrawal from Eastern Europe: A Move in Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-02-15

    head." A roof indeed! These dwellings back in the Soviet Union have been referred to as " prefabricated huts." Dozens of accounts lament that servicemen... prefabricated hostels. The head of the Defense Ministry estimates that fifty percent of the homeless are thus quartered: thirty percent have returned to...for 220,000 tons of fuel, garages for motor vehicles, 149 barracks, and 66 canteens. Soviet officials estimate that these facilities are wort- abut

  17. Geopolitics: The Key to Understanding Soviet Regional Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    Soviet foreign policy. nertnngthis role, CO can begin to build a usable theoretical framwork for analyzing Soviet behavior in, utategiczlly inportant...the writings of the great geopolitical theorists, such as Mackinder, Spykman, and Gray, in developing a conceptual basis for understanding the la-tem...Histary,- British geographer Sir Halford J. mdcinder provided the conceptual framewrk for geopolitical theory by dividing the world into three vast regions

  18. Is Soviet society fit for the nuclear age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemeny, L.G.

    1986-01-01

    The author argues that the Kremlin's handling of the Chernobyl crisis is a far greater indictment of Soviet ethos, society and ideology than their technology. The Soviet nuclear plan is seen to be to press on regardless of safety standards. Australia's government and society, through poor education, foreign disinformation and media orchestration, are unable to participate effectively in the responsibilities of a global nuclear society

  19. Central Asian Republic Info

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — CAR Info is designed and managed by the Central Asian Republic Mission to fill in the knowledge and reporting gaps in existing agency systems for that Mission. It...

  20. Kimchi, seaweed, and seasoned carrot in the Soviet culinary culture: the spread of Korean food in the Soviet Union and Korean diaspora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changzoo Song

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The half-million Soviet Koreans (or Koryŏ saram in the former Soviet Union are the descendants of the ethnic Koreans who migrated to the Russian Far East in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from the northern parts of the Korean peninsula. Their settlements were established in the wide areas of the Russian Far East, including the urban areas around Vladivostok. They were, however, forced-migrated to Central Asia in late 1937 under Stalin's rule. From Central Asia, these Soviet Koreans were further dispersed to other parts of the Soviet Union in the post-Stalin era. These multiple dispersions of Soviet Koreans not only transformed their culinary habit, but also helped Korean food spread among the peoples of the Soviet Union. As a result, Korean food, such as kimchi, miyŏk (edible kelp, and others, were introduced and widely consumed throughout the Soviet Union. This paper explores this unusual spread and popularity of Korean food in the Soviet Union, focusing on the migration history of the Soviet Koreans and Soviet culinary culture. This work is based on the author's fieldwork in the Soviet Union in the early 1900s and again in mid-2000s. The unusual diffusion and popularity of the Korean food in the former Soviet Union provides us with important insights on migration and globalization of ethnic food.

  1. SOVIET POSTERS IN LITHUANIA IN 1940–1953

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bajoraite, Alma

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The Soviet occupation and their ideology brought to Lithuania a new poster quality. The paper analyzes the problem of posters propaganda and manipulation, the inheritance of the not traditional documents and their inventory. The goal of this paper is to analyze the soviet posters in Lithuania in 1940–1953.The principal problems of this paper are to research the formation and the domination of the posters in Lithuania: which role they had in the politics. The paper also analyzes the soviet posters impact on farming and their influence to the society.To sum up, the new trend of art appeared in 1940 in Lithuania, which had the principal goal to propagate the soviet ideology in all the political and social spheres. The goal of the soviet posters as the media of information was to provide the distorted view of the reality. The soviet posters had dominated in Lithuania in 1940–1953. This period had left a very interesting and rich heritage. It is the importatant part of the cultural and historical heritage.

  2. Soviet Union oil sector outlook grows bleaker still

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the outlook for the U.S.S.R's oil sector which grows increasingly bleak and with it prospects for the Soviet economy. Plunging Soviet oil production and exports have analysts revising near term oil price outlooks, referring to the Soviet oil sector's self-destructing and Soviet oil production in a freefall. County NatWest, Washington, citing likely drops in Soviet oil production and exports (OGJ, Aug. 5, p. 16), has jumped its projected second half spot price for West Texas intermediate crude by about $2 to $22-23/bbl. Smith Barney, New York, forecasts WTI postings at $24-25/bbl this winter, largely because of seasonally strong world oil demand and the continued collapse in Soviet oil production. It estimates the call on oil from the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries at more than 25 million b/d in first quarter 1992. That would be the highest level of demand for OPEC oil since 1980, Smith Barney noted

  3. Kant’s Studies in Ukrainian Philosophy of Soviet Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadym Tytarenko

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This writing is devoted to the brief review of Immanuel Kant’s philosophy studies and receptions of his philosophical concepts within the Ukrainian philosophy of Soviet period. Such attempt is actually pertinent because nowadays we definitely need to reconsider the soviet philosophical heritage for better understanding the real value of any philosophical conclusions and worldview-concerning statements which were made in the times of soviet ideology hegemony. Additionally, mentioned reconsidering is presently urgent because Ukrainian intellectual culture is now looking for its identity and is trying to identify the stillremaining ideological totalitarian elements which spoil the originality and objectiveness of its products. The present review attempts to identify which totalitarian intentions and prejudices were used to interpret and evaluate the Immanuel Kant’s heritage in the texts written by several selected Ukrainian philosophers of the Soviet period. Nevertheless, it’s obvious that absolutely impossible to avoid talking about Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel’s philosophical position interpretation by the same authors. Kant’s and Hegel’s soviet-Ukrainian interpretations were often connected, because there was a general trend of soviet Marxist history of philosophy to interpret Kant as the “worse” version of Hegel. To fulfill the general image of Kant’s philosophy interpretation in Ukrainian philosophy and its future perspectives, this paper also delivers some common information about the whole historical path of Kant’s interpretations and receptions

  4. DOSTOEVSKY'S RELIGIOSITY AS A METHODOLOGICAL PROBEM OF SOVIET LITERARY CRITICISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Sergeevich Shaulov

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Soviet literary criticism, especially in the first decades after the 1917 Revolution, was quite biased in its treatment of Dostoevsky and his works. The reasons for this bias lie both inside and outside the sphere of political ideology. We suggest that there exists a genetic link between some Soviet readings of Dostoevsky and a number of interpretations made in the author's lifetime. Also analysed are the attempts to 'domesticate' Dostoevsky and adapt his works to drastically different cultural conditions and political norms. It is indicative that this adaptation has always passed the stage of mythologizing the writer and his works. This mythologization paradoxically became a convergence point for Soviet (Lunacharsky, anti-Soviet (Berdyayev and purely philosophical (Bakhtin readings of Dostoevsky. Ultimately, the central Dostoevsky myth in post-revolutionary Russia was a version of Romantic mythology often directly expressed in comparing Dostoevsky with Prometheus. We also look at the negative readings of Dostoevsky, which construed the author as a certain mythological antagonist of the proletariat as the collective messiah. Such readings (exemplified in our article by Pereverzev's and Livshits' point at the ultimate limit of ethical assessment of Dostoevsky from the standpoint of rational secular humanism and the Soviet humanitarian thought as its version. Dostoevsky's artistic practice incorporates this tradition within the intranovel dialogue as just one of the voices and demonstrates its ethical insufficiency, which in its turn provokes the mixed reaction of 'appropriation' and 'rejection' from both Soviet thinkers and their contemporary heirs.

  5. Kyrgyz Republic; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2013-01-01

    Performance of the banking sector during the crisis and challenges are discussed. The impact of the political crisis on the banking sector is outlined. The Kyrgyz Republic is one of the most open economies in the world. Gross international reserves (GIR) in the Kyrgyz Republic have increased more than sixfold in the last decade. Gold exports, remittances, and official development assistance have become important sources of reserve accumulation. The current level of reserves in the Kyrgyz Repu...

  6. Reforming the Ukrainian Armed Forces on a Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-25

    the Soviet Union. On July 16, 1990, the parliament of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialistic Republic (SSR) voted for the Declaration of State Sovereignty ...improvement.30 However, these $4.4 billion also include costs such as pensions, utility bills, training, maintenance, food , ammunition, gear...Budapest Memorandum is one example. However, it is also hard to protect the sovereignty of a country, when that country is not committed to its own self

  7. "A Riddle, Wrapped in a Mystery, inside an Enigma": Teaching Post-Socialist Transformation to UK Students in Moscow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Dominique; Round, John

    2010-01-01

    In the 20 years since the fall of the Berlin Wall, teaching post-socialist transition to undergraduate students has become increasingly challenging. This paper relates the development, planning and operation of a fieldwork module in Moscow, for Year Three geography undergraduates. It argues that "on-street" teaching and imaginative use…

  8. Environmental values in post-socialist Hungary : Is it useful to distinguish egoistic, altruistic and biospheric values?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Judith. I. M.; Steg, Linda; Keizer, Martijn; Farsang, Andrea; Watt, Alan

    2012-01-01

    In this article the authors examine whether the significance of biospheric values as a separate cluster next to egoistic and altruistic values is mainly a Western European phenomenon or whether biospheric values are also endorsed as a value in its own right in post-socialist Hungary. In two

  9. Reading Research in the Socialist Countries. Abridged Papers and Minutes of a Conference (Budapest, Hungary, October 15-18, 1974).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrinina, Natalia Y., Ed.; And Others

    These papers on reading research in the socialist countries were delivered at a conference held in Budapest, Hungary, in October of 1974. Included are the text of the introductory address and papers on the following topics: (1) the library and society; (2) the library as it relates to students, teachers, and engineers; (3) the role and…

  10. Post-socialist agricultural cooperatives in Russia : A case study of top-down cooperatives in the Belgorod region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Kurakin (Alexander); O. Visser (Oane)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractThrough a study of agricultural service cooperatives in Russia’s Belgorod region, this article addresses two gaps in the literature: _first_, the dearth of empirical studies on cooperatives in post-socialist Russia; _second_, the lack of attention to top-down cooperatives in

  11. War Remembered, Revolution Forgotten: Recasting the Sino-North Korean Alliance in China’s Post-Socialist Media State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Ma

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available From October 1950 to July 1953, the nascent Chinese state entered into a strategic alliance with North Korea; hundreds of thousands of Chinese soldiers shed blood on the Korean peninsula in defense of the socialist homeland and advancing Communist internationalism. But since the end of the Korean War, China has moved from revolutionary idealism and political radicalism in Mao’s era to the current post-socialist pragmatism and materialism. As the ideological winds shift, China’s contemporary propaganda apparatus must redefine the Korean War in order to reconcile the complexity of the war and wartime alliance with contemporary political concerns and popular views. By focusing on a documentary film, The Unforgettable Victory, produced by China’s leading state-run film studio in 2013, this article explores the ways in which the official media of the post-socialist era presents the past revolutionary war. The new film celebrates the splendid valor of Chinese soldiers, civilians’ heroic sacrifices, and the war’s nationalist legacy; however, it purposefully forgets the revolutionary fervor and internationalist sentiments that once forged the Sino–North Korean alliance and empowered wartime mobilization. This article examines the process of remembering and forgetting, and reveals government propaganda’s latest efforts to demobilize contemporary viewers while infusing the past revolutionary war with ideological clarity and political certainty in post-socialist China.

  12. USSR Report, Political and Sociological Affairs, Press Surveys from Soviet Southern Republics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-02-10

    Research Institute of Viticulture, Winemaking and Horticulture , concerning the disappointing grape harvest this past session. Many farm managers and other... therapeutic properties. This is simply not true, the official says, but has been fabricated by tongue-waggers and, perhaps, by "hostile elements." BOOK ON

  13. USSR Report, Political and Sociological Affairs, Press Surveys from Soviet Southern Republics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-17

    for an increase in the institutes productivity. It is mentioned that "a major scientific organization for the study of petrol - eum and gas resources...the conference include Algeria, Iraq, Libya, Sudan, Jordan, Tunisia , Morocco, Egypt and other Arab countries, Afghan- istan, Iran, Turkey, India

  14. The Successes and Failures of Democracy in the Post-Soviet Republics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    framework. The first theory posits that the power dynamics of leadership between the democrats and those supporting the ancien régime are crucial in... leadership , balance of power, leadership dynamics, democratic transition 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 141 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF REPORT...the leadership and constitutional framework—help to account for the differing levels of democratic freedom. The assessments consider general

  15. Experimental investigations at the Soviet tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobrovskij, G.A.; Golant, V.E.; AN SSSR, Leningrad. Fiziko-Tekhnicheskij Inst.)

    1978-01-01

    The review is devoted to the basic results obtained on the Soviet tokamaks during 1976-1977. Behaviour of impurities, tearing instability, additional methods of plasma heating, energy distribution function were investigated. A brief description of new T-7, TM-4, ''Tuman-3'' tokamaks is given. It is shown that despite inflow of impurities to the pinch periphery, no their appreciable accumulation is observed at least during the discharge time. It is shown that the helical perturbations with m=2 and 1 present the greatest danger. The suppression of the tearing instability is related with suppression of the mode with m=2. The helical perturbation prevents formation of skin configuration at the initial stage of the discharge. As a rule, the transition of an appreciable fraction of electrons to continuous acceleration does not take place, although a significant deformation of electron distribution function under the action of electric field occurs. Plasma compression by increasing magnetic field induces oscillations and improves thermal plasma isolation. It is shown experimentally that the considerable efficiency of energy contribution to the ion component at the central part of plasma may be obtained by means of HF heating under conditions of low-hybrid resonance. It is shown that the recombination has a considerable effect on concentration of neutral particles in the central region

  16. A plan for Soviet nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, R.

    1992-01-01

    If environmentalist forces are successful, the Russian government may soon establish the country's first comprehensive program for dealing with nuclear waste. Later this month the Russian parliament, back from its summer recess, is expected to begin considering a bill on this topic. A draft copy indicates that Russia is starting with the basics: It orders the government to develop a means of insulting waste from the environment, to form a national waste processing program, and to create a registry for tracking where spent atomic fuel is stored or buried. The bill comes on the heels of a November 1991 decree by Russian President Boris Yeltsin to step up efforts to deal with nuclear waste issues and to create a government registry of nuclear waste disposal sites by 1 January 1993. The former Soviet Union has come under fire from environmentalists for dumping low- and intermediate-level nuclear wastes in the Arctic Ocean and for improperly storing waste at sites in the southern Urals and Belarus. Adding to the bill's urgency is the fact that Russia is considering sites for underground repositories for high-level waste at Tomsk, Krasnoyarsk, Chelyabinsk, and on the Kola Peninsula

  17. The Soviet contributions towards MAP/WINE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapoport, Z. TA.; Kazimirovsky, E. S.

    1989-01-01

    In the winter of 1983 to 1984, the research institutes of the Soviet Union took an active part in the accomplishment of the project Winter in Northern Europe (MAP/WINE) of the Middle Atmosphere Program. Different methods were used to measure temperature, direction and velocity of wind, turbulence, electron concentration in the lower ionosphere, and radio wave absorption. The study of the stratopheric warmings and the related changes in the mesosphere and lower ionosphere was considered of special importance. The analysis of the obtained data has shown, in particular, that during the stratospheric warmings the western wind in winter time becomes weaker and even reverses. At the same time period the electron concentration and the radio wave absorption in the lower ionosphere are often reduced. It is also observed that the high absorption zones move from west to east. These results confirm the concept about the role of the cyclonic circumpolar vortex in the transport of the auroral air to temperate latitudes and about the appearance of conditions for the winter anomalous radio wave absorption.

  18. Soviet contributions towards MAP/WINE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapoport, Z. Ts.; Kazimirovsky, E. S.

    In the winter of 1983/1984, the research institutes of the Soviet Union took an active part in the accomplishment of the project ``Winter in Northern Europe'' of the Middle Atmosphere Program (MAP/WINE). Different methods were used to measure temperature, direction and velocity of wind, turbulence, electron density in the lower ionosphere, and radio wave absorption. The study of the stratospheric warmings and the related changes in the mesosphere and lower ionosphere was considered of special importance. The analysis of the obtained data has shown, in particular, that during stratospheric warmings the westerly wind in wintertime becomes weaker and even reverses. At the same time period the electron density and the radio wave absorption in the lower ionosphere are often reduced. It is also observed that the high absorption zones move from west to east. These results confirm the concept about the role of the cyclonic circumpolar vortex in the transport of the auroral air to temperate latitudes and about the appearance of conditions for the winter anomalous radio wave absorption.

  19. The Soviet contributions towards MAP/WINE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapoport, Z. Ta.; Kazimirovsky, E. S.

    1989-04-01

    In the winter of 1983 to 1984, the research institutes of the Soviet Union took an active part in the accomplishment of the project Winter in Northern Europe (MAP/WINE) of the Middle Atmosphere Program. Different methods were used to measure temperature, direction and velocity of wind, turbulence, electron concentration in the lower ionosphere, and radio wave absorption. The study of the stratopheric warmings and the related changes in the mesosphere and lower ionosphere was considered of special importance. The analysis of the obtained data has shown, in particular, that during the stratospheric warmings the western wind in winter time becomes weaker and even reverses. At the same time period the electron concentration and the radio wave absorption in the lower ionosphere are often reduced. It is also observed that the high absorption zones move from west to east. These results confirm the concept about the role of the cyclonic circumpolar vortex in the transport of the auroral air to temperate latitudes and about the appearance of conditions for the winter anomalous radio wave absorption.

  20. From management to mediation: local forestry management and the forestry crisis in post-socialist Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eikeland, Sveinung; Eythorsson, Einar; Ivanova, Lyudmila

    2004-03-01

    The local branches of the Russian Forestry Service, the leskhozy, were known for their efficiency and management skills in the Soviet era and were one of the very few community-based "Soviet-type" institutions to survive the transition. This article examines the role of the leskhozy in the new market economy. Our analysis is based on data from interviews with informants attached to the forestry sector in the Murmansk area. In some cases their knowledge of the leskhozy stretches back to the emergence of the system in 1947. Our principal finding is that the struggle to survive as a federal body in the current legal and economic climate is forcing the leskhozy to relegate sustainable forestry management, presumably their primary raison d'être, to the lower portions of their list of priorities. Several consequences result. There is a heightened incidence of illegal logging, and corruption informs the allocation of forest areas to private interests. Stumpage prices have plummeted as timber from subsidized commercial cutting (ostensibly sanitary cutting or thinning) has flooded the markets. The root cause of these tribulations lies with the market-based harvesting permit system. Its introduction in the 1990s did little to eliminate the self-seeking practices of the old Soviet forestry management hierarchies. In the free market, local forestry managers can turn their dual responsibilities to their own advantage inasmuch as they control the allocation of harvesting permits while at the same time controlling logging practices.