WorldWideScience

Sample records for soviet precision timekeeping

  1. Soviet precision timekeeping research and technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vessot, R.F.C.; Allan, D.W.; Crampton, S.J.B.; Cutler, L.S.; Kern, R.H.; McCoubrey, A.O.; White, J.D.

    1991-08-01

    This report is the result of a study of Soviet progress in precision timekeeping research and timekeeping capability during the last two decades. The study was conducted by a panel of seven US scientists who have expertise in timekeeping, frequency control, time dissemination, and the direct applications of these disciplines to scientific investigation. The following topics are addressed in this report: generation of time by atomic clocks at the present level of their technology, new and emerging technologies related to atomic clocks, time and frequency transfer technology, statistical processes involving metrological applications of time and frequency, applications of precise time and frequency to scientific investigations, supporting timekeeping technology, and a comparison of Soviet research efforts with those of the United States and the West. The number of Soviet professionals working in this field is roughly 10 times that in the United States. The Soviet Union has facilities for large-scale production of frequency standards and has concentrated its efforts on developing and producing rubidium gas cell devices (relatively compact, low-cost frequency standards of modest accuracy and stability) and atomic hydrogen masers (relatively large, high-cost standards of modest accuracy and high stability). 203 refs., 45 figs., 9 tabs.

  2. Soviet precision timekeeping research and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vessot, R.F.C.; Allan, D.W.; Crampton, S.J.B.; Cutler, L.S.; Kern, R.H.; McCoubrey, A.O.; White, J.D.

    1991-08-01

    This report is the result of a study of Soviet progress in precision timekeeping research and timekeeping capability during the last two decades. The study was conducted by a panel of seven US scientists who have expertise in timekeeping, frequency control, time dissemination, and the direct applications of these disciplines to scientific investigation. The following topics are addressed in this report: generation of time by atomic clocks at the present level of their technology, new and emerging technologies related to atomic clocks, time and frequency transfer technology, statistical processes involving metrological applications of time and frequency, applications of precise time and frequency to scientific investigations, supporting timekeeping technology, and a comparison of Soviet research efforts with those of the United States and the West. The number of Soviet professionals working in this field is roughly 10 times that in the United States. The Soviet Union has facilities for large-scale production of frequency standards and has concentrated its efforts on developing and producing rubidium gas cell devices (relatively compact, low-cost frequency standards of modest accuracy and stability) and atomic hydrogen masers (relatively large, high-cost standards of modest accuracy and high stability). 203 refs., 45 figs., 9 tabs

  3. How Does My Cellphone GPS Work?-The Physics of Precision Time-Keeping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Steven

    The most precise measurements in all of science are frequency and frequency difference measurements, or alternatively, phase and phase change of electromagnetic waves. Improvements in time-keeping have opened up many horizons in fundamental and applied physics that range from the detection of gravity waves to the melting of glaciers and the depletion of underground aquifers. Precision time keeping has also had important practical applications such as in the navigation, beginning with the determination of the longitude position of sailing ships. We now use our cell phones to help us navigate city streets and hail taxis from Uber and Lyft based on our geographical position within a few meters. How did this come about? What will the new time-keeping technologies enable in the future?

  4. Timekeeping in the Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, J. M.; Lombardi, M. A.

    2015-10-01

    Time and its measurement belong to the most fundamental core of physics, and many scientific and technological advances are directly or indirectly related to time measurements. Timekeeping is essential to everyday life, and thus is the most measured physical quantity in modern societies. Time can also be measured with less uncertainty and more resolution than any other physical quantity. The measurement of time is of the utmost importance for many applications, including: global navigation satellite systems, communications networks, electric power generation, astronomy, electronic commerce, and national defense and security. This paper discusses how time is kept, coordinated, and disseminated in the Americas.

  5. TIMEKEEPING IN THE AMERICAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, J M; Lombardi, M A

    Time and its measurement belong to the most fundamental core of physics, and many scientific and technological advances are directly or indirectly related to time measurements. Timekeeping is essential to everyday life, and thus is the most measured physical quantity in modern societies. Time can also be measured with less uncertainty and more resolution than any other physical quantity. The measurement of time is of the utmost importance for many applications, including: global navigation satellite systems, communications networks, electric power generation, astronomy, electronic commerce, and national defense and security. This paper discusses how time is kept, coordinated, and disseminated in the Americas.

  6. Tiny timekeepers witnessing high-rate exhumation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Xin; Moulas, Evangelos; Tajčmanová, Lucie

    2018-02-02

    Tectonic forces and surface erosion lead to the exhumation of rocks from the Earth's interior. Those rocks can be characterized by many variables including peak pressure and temperature, composition and exhumation duration. Among them, the duration of exhumation in different geological settings can vary by more than ten orders of magnitude (from hours to billion years). Constraining the duration is critical and often challenging in geological studies particularly for rapid magma ascent. Here, we show that the time information can be reconstructed using a simple combination of laser Raman spectroscopic data from mineral inclusions with mechanical solutions for viscous relaxation of the host. The application of our model to several representative geological settings yields best results for short events such as kimberlite magma ascent (less than ~4,500 hours) and a decompression lasting up to ~17 million years for high-pressure metamorphic rocks. This is the first precise time information obtained from direct microstructural observations applying a purely mechanical perspective. We show an unprecedented geological value of tiny mineral inclusions as timekeepers that contributes to a better understanding on the large-scale tectonic history and thus has significant implications for a new generation of geodynamic models.

  7. The development of the time-keeping clock with TS-1 single chip microcomputer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiguang; Li, Yongan

    The authors have developed a time-keeping clock with Intel 8751 single chip microcomputer that has been successfully used in time-keeping station. The hard-soft ware design and performance of the clock are introduced.

  8. Mobile Timekeeping Application Built on Reverse-Engineered JPL Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witoff, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Every year, non-exempt employees cumulatively waste over one man-year tracking their time and using the timekeeping Web page to save those times. This app eliminates this waste. The innovation is a native iPhone app. Libraries were built around a reverse- engineered JPL API. It represents a punch-in/punch-out paradigm for timekeeping. It is accessible natively via iPhones, and features ease of access. Any non-exempt employee can natively punch in and out, as well as save and view their JPL timecard. This app is built on custom libraries created by reverse-engineering the standard timekeeping application. Communication is through custom libraries that re-route traffic through BrowserRAS (remote access service). This has value at any center where employees track their time.

  9. Electronic Timekeeping: North Dakota State University Improves Payroll Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Ronald J.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    North Dakota State University has adopted automated timekeeping to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of payroll processing. The microcomputer-based system accurately records and computes employee time, tracks labor distribution, accommodates complex labor policies and company pay practices, provides automatic data processing and reporting,…

  10. Fifty years of atomic time-keeping at VNIIFTRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domnin, Y.; Gaigerov, B.; Koshelyaevsky, N.; Poushkin, S.; Rusin, F.; Tatarenkov, V.; Yolkin, G.

    2005-01-01

    Time metrology in Russia in the second half of the twentieth century has been marked, as in other advanced countries, by the rapid development of time and frequency quantum standards and the beginning of atomic time-keeping. This brief review presents the main developments and studies in time and frequency measurement, and the improvement of accuracy and atomic time-keeping at the VNIIFTRI-the National Metrology Institute keeping primary time and frequency standards and ensuring unification of measurement. The milestones along the way have been the ammonia and hydrogen masers, primary caesium beam and fountain standards and laser frequency standards. For many years, VNIIFTRI was the only world laboratory that applied hydrogen-maser clock ensembles for time-keeping. VNIIFTRI's work on international laser standard frequency comparisons and absolute frequency measurements contributed greatly to the adoption by the CIPM of a highly accurate value for the He-Ne/CH 4 laser frequency. VNIIFTRI and the VNIIM were the first to establish a united time, frequency and length standard. (authors)

  11. Fifty years of atomic time-keeping at VNIIFTRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domnin, Y.; Gaigerov, B.; Koshelyaevsky, N.; Poushkin, S.; Rusin, F.; Tatarenkov, V.; Yolkin, G. [VNIIFTRI (Russian Federation)

    2005-06-01

    Time metrology in Russia in the second half of the twentieth century has been marked, as in other advanced countries, by the rapid development of time and frequency quantum standards and the beginning of atomic time-keeping. This brief review presents the main developments and studies in time and frequency measurement, and the improvement of accuracy and atomic time-keeping at the VNIIFTRI-the National Metrology Institute keeping primary time and frequency standards and ensuring unification of measurement. The milestones along the way have been the ammonia and hydrogen masers, primary caesium beam and fountain standards and laser frequency standards. For many years, VNIIFTRI was the only world laboratory that applied hydrogen-maser clock ensembles for time-keeping. VNIIFTRI's work on international laser standard frequency comparisons and absolute frequency measurements contributed greatly to the adoption by the CIPM of a highly accurate value for the He-Ne/CH{sub 4} laser frequency. VNIIFTRI and the VNIIM were the first to establish a united time, frequency and length standard. (authors)

  12. Fifty years of atomic time-keeping at VNIIFTRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domnin, Yu; Gaigerov, B.; Koshelyaevsky, N.; Poushkin, S.; Rusin, F.; Tatarenkov, V.; Yolkin, G.

    2005-06-01

    Time metrology in Russia in the second half of the twentieth century has been marked, as in other advanced countries, by the rapid development of time and frequency quantum standards and the beginning of atomic time-keeping. This brief review presents the main developments and studies in time and frequency measurement, and the improvement of accuracy and atomic time-keeping at the VNIIFTRI—the National Metrology Institute keeping primary time and frequency standards and ensuring unification of measurement. The milestones along the way have been the ammonia and hydrogen masers, primary caesium beam and fountain standards and laser frequency standards. For many years, VNIIFTRI was the only world laboratory that applied hydrogen-maser clock ensembles for time-keeping. VNIIFTRI's work on international laser standard frequency comparisons and absolute frequency measurements contributed greatly to the adoption by the CIPM of a highly accurate value for the He-Ne/CH4 laser frequency. VNIIFTRI and the VNIIM were the first to establish a united time, frequency and length standard.

  13. Soviet energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-05-01

    As it moves from a centrally planned economy toward a market-based system, the Soviet Union will need to produce and export large quantities of oil to help finance industrial development and to purchase consumer goods from the West. Since 1988, however, Soviet oil production has fallen by about 8.8 percent. Oil exports also have declined, falling by about 15 percent from 1988 to 1990. The main reasons for the production decline are the lack of enough capital for exploration and production and the use of outdated and inefficient production practices. While U.S.-Soviet joint ventures could potentially help reverse this situation, both the United States and the Soviet Union maintain policies and practices that hinder U.S. trade and investment in Soviet oil exploration and production. Despite such difficulties, several U.S. multinational oil companies are proceeding with joint venture agreements, and progress is being made on overcoming some of the obstacles. For example, training programs in western business practices are being offered b the U.S. government, private companies, and universities. In addition, the U.S. and Soviet governments are now negotiating a tax treaty. GAO summarized this report in testimony before Congress

  14. Soviet science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medvedev, Z.A.

    1979-01-01

    In this brief history of science in the Soviet Union the emphasis is on the interaction between scientific and technological developments and the political objectives of the Soviet government Reference is made to the development of nuclear energy for military and for peaceful purposes. In an appendix, a rather detailed account is given of a 'nuclear disaster in the South Urals area'; reference is made to ecological, genetic and population researches in the areas contaminated by long-lived products of radioactive waste (e.g. Sr-90 and Cs-137). Section headings are: lakes; mammals; population genetics and radiation genetics (covering plants, animals and soil activity). (U.K.)

  15. Ultradian metronome: timekeeper for orchestration of cellular coherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, David; Murray, Douglas B

    2005-07-01

    Dynamic intracellular spatial and temporal organization emerges from spontaneous synchronization of a massive array of weakly coupled oscillators; the majority of subcellular processes are implicated in this integrated expression of cellular physiology. Evidence for this view comes mainly from studies of Saccharomyces cerevisiae growing in self-synchronized continuous cultures, in which a temperature-compensated ultradian clock (period of approximately 40 min) couples fermentation with redox state in addition to the transcriptome and cell-division-cycle progression. Functions for ultradian clocks have also been determined in other yeasts (e.g. Schizosaccharomyces pombe and Candida utilis), seven protists (e.g. Acanthamoeba castellanii and Paramecium tetraurelia), as well as cultured mammalian cells. We suggest that ultradian timekeeping is a basic universal necessity for coordinated intracellular coherence.

  16. Femtosecond Timekeeping: Slip-Free Clockwork for Optical Timescales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, D.; Droste, S.; Baumann, E.; Roslund, J.; Churin, D.; Cingoz, A.; Deschênes, J.-D.; Khader, I. H.; Swann, W. C.; Nelson, C.; Newbury, N. R.; Coddington, I.

    2018-04-01

    The generation of true optical time standards will require the conversion of the highly stable optical-frequency output of an optical atomic clock to a high-fidelity time output. We demonstrate a comb-based clockwork that phase-coherently integrates ˜7 ×1020 optical cycles of an input optical frequency to create a coherent time output. We verify the underlying stability of the optical timing system by comparing two comb-based clockworks with a common input optical frequency and show time drift over the 37-day measurement period. Both clockworks also generate traditional timing signals including an optical pulse per second and a 10-MHz rf reference. The optical pulse-per-second time outputs remain synchronized to 240 attoseconds (240 as) at 1000 s. The phase-coherent 10-MHz rf outputs are stable to near a part in 1019 . Fault-free timekeeping from an optical clock to femtosecond level over months is an important step in replacing the current microwave time standard by an optical standard.

  17. Developments in Soviet Journalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaunt, Philip

    1987-01-01

    Studies the news values, practices, and role of journalists in the Soviet Union. Claims that, although the Soviet press currently resembles a corporate public relations department, there are signs of change because of public demands. States that journalistic practices in the U.S. and Soviet Union are similar in their reliance on routine and…

  18. Soviet scientists speak out

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holloway, D.

    1993-01-01

    In this article, Russian bomb designers answer the KGB's claim that espionage, not science, produced the Soviet bomb. Yuli Khariton and Yuri Smirnov wholly reject the argument that Soviet scientists can claim little credit for the first Soviet bomb. In a lecture delivered at the Kurchatov Institute, established in 1943 when Igor Kurchatov became the director of the Soviet nuclear weapons project, Khariton and Smironov point to the work done by Soviet nuclear physicists before 1941 and refute assertions that have been made in Western literature regarding the hydrogen bomb

  19. Atlas of the Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Harry F.

    This atlas consists of 20 maps, tables, charts, and graphs with complementary text illustrating Soviet government machinery, trade and political relations, and military stance. Some topics depicted by charts and graphs include: (1) Soviet foreign affairs machinery; (2) Soviet intelligence and security services; (4) Soviet position in the United…

  20. Soviet test yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergino, Eileen S.

    Soviet seismologists have published descriptions of 96 nuclear explosions conducted from 1961 through 1972 at the Semipalatinsk test site, in Kazakhstan, central Asia [Bocharov et al., 1989]. With the exception of releasing news about some of their peaceful nuclear explosions (PNEs) the Soviets have never before published such a body of information.To estimate the seismic yield of a nuclear explosion it is necessary to obtain a calibrated magnitude-yield relationship based on events with known yields and with a consistent set of seismic magnitudes. U.S. estimation of Soviet test yields has been done through application of relationships to the Soviet sites based on the U.S. experience at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), making some correction for differences due to attenuation and near-source coupling of seismic waves.

  1. Soviet Development of Gyrotrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-05-01

    Relationship Type of Device Remarks V, - Vc, anomalous Doppler Capable of 100 percent efficiency, CRM but more cumbersome than Cheren- kov devices V...authors; and discusses inlividual Soviet reseaLc- groups, the basic organizational units responAiLle for the CRM and gyrotron research and development. The...maintained a cCnEistEnt iecord of significant achievements; it has managed to overcome the systenic yeaxness of the Soviet R&C systeg in teimg atle to

  2. Soviet Space Program Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-01

    in advance and some events were even broadcast live. Immediately following the first success- ful launch of their new Energia space launch vehicle in...early 1988. Just as a handbook written a couple of years ago would need updating with Mir, Energia , and the SL-16, this handbook will one day need up...1986. Johnson, Nicholas L. The Soviet Year in Space 1983. Colorado Springs, CO: Teledyne Brown Engineering, 1984. Lawton, A. " Energia - Soviet Super

  3. Risk and Soviet Security Decisions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hull, Andrew

    1990-01-01

    .... There are several exceptions to general Soviet risk aversion in using military power. But in each instance, the Soviet Union has fared rather badly when it chanced large risks in pursuit of correspondingly high potential gains...

  4. A Gravity-Responsive Time-Keeping Protein of the Plant and Animal Cell Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morre, D. James

    2003-01-01

    The hypothesis under investigation was that a ubiquinol (NADH) oxidase protein of the cell surface with protein disulfide-thiol interchange activity (= NOX protein) is a plant and animal time-keeping ultradian (period of less than 24 h) driver of both cell enlargement and the biological clock that responds to gravity. Despite considerable work in a large number of laboratories spanning several decades, this is, to my knowledge, our work is the first demonstration of a time-keeping biochemical reaction that is both gravity-responsive and growth-related and that has been shown to determine circadian periodicity. As such, the NOX protein may represent both the long-sought biological gravity receptor and the core oscillator of the cellular biological clock. Completed studies have resulted in 12 publications and two issued NASA-owned patents of the clock activity. The gravity response and autoentrainment were characterized in cultured mammalian cells and in two plant systems together with entrainment by light and small molecules (melatonin). The molecular basis of the oscillatory behavior was investigated using spectroscopic methods (Fourier transform infrared and circular dichroism) and high resolution electron microscopy. We have also applied these findings to an understanding of the response to hypergravity. Statistical methods for analysis of time series phenomena were developed (Foster et al., 2003).

  5. Soviet Union, Military Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-06-05

    supremacy in the world. Like the foreign policies of the USSR and the USA , their military doctrines reveal the objectives they pursue: the Soviet... Gastronom or a Detskiy Mir. In- stallation of the equipment was delayed a long time as a result. The district finance service therefore did not consider

  6. Soviet debate on missile defense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parrott, B.

    1987-04-01

    Although the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) is meant to cope with the danger of a Soviet nuclear attack, the recent US debate over SDI has paid surprisingly little attention to Soviet views of ballistic missile defense. Despite the existence of a substantial body of pertinent scholarship, the debate has failed to take adequate account of major changes in Soviet ballistic missile defense policy since the mid-1960s. It has also neglected the links between current Soviet military policy and broader Soviet political and economic choices. The Soviets regard SDI not as a novel undertaking to reduce the risks of nuclear war but as an extension of the geopolitical competition between the superpowers. This competition has been dominated in the 1980s, in the Soviet view, by sharply increased US assertiveness and the decline of detente. Viewing SDI as a manifestation of these general trends, Soviet decision makers find the prospect of an unregulated race in ballistic missile defenses and military space technologies deeply unsettling. The deterioration of superpower relations has raised serious doubts in Moscow about the wisdom of Soviet external policy during the 1970s and has provoked sharp internal differences over policy toward the US. Already highly suspicious of the Reagan administration, the elite is united by a general conviction that SDI is an American gambit that may ultimately undercut past Soviet strategic gains and pose a grave new threat to Soviet security. 14 references.

  7. Biological timekeeping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lloyd, David

    2016-01-01

    , the networks that connect differenttime domains and the oscillations, rhythms and biological clocks that coordinate andsynchronise the complexity of the living state.“It is the pattern maintained by this homeostasis, which is the touchstone ofour personal identity. Our tissues change as we live: the food we...

  8. The Timekeepers

    OpenAIRE

    Gray, Nicholas F

    2017-01-01

    A complex thriller based on scientific reality?a crime that could change society for ever. Thirty nanoseconds is just a third of a billionth of a single second, no time at all. So when the atomic clock network is attacked and universal time is altered by 30 nanoseconds scientists are left wondering how and why it was done. A specially assembled joint FBI - CIA team try to work out what crime can be carried out in just 30 nanoseconds, how the clocks were altered and who is behind it. With t...

  9. A compensated multi-pole linear ion trap mercury frequency standard for ultra-stable timekeeping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, Eric A; Diener, William A; Tjoelker, Robert L

    2008-12-01

    The multi-pole linear ion trap frequency standard (LITS) being developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has demonstrated excellent short- and long-term stability. The technology has now demonstrated long-term field operation providing a new capability for timekeeping standards. Recently implemented enhancements have resulted in a record line Q of 5 x 10(12) for a room temperature microwave atomic transition and a short-term fractional frequency stability of 5 x 10(-14)/tau(1/2). A scheme for compensating the second order Doppler shift has led to a reduction of the combined sensitivity to the primary LITS systematic effects below 5 x 10(-17) fractional frequency. Initial comparisons to JPL's cesium fountain clock show a systematic floor of less than 2 x 10(-16). The compensated multi-pole LITS at JPL was operated continuously and unattended for a 9-mo period from October 2006 to July 2007. During that time it was used as the frequency reference for the JPL geodetic receiver known as JPLT, enabling comparisons to any clock used as a reference for an International GNSS Service (IGS) site. Comparisons with the laser-cooled primary frequency standards that reported to the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) over this period show a frequency deviation less than 2.7 x 10(-17)/day. In the capacity of a stand-alone ultra-stable flywheel, such a standard could be invaluable for long-term timekeeping applications in metrology labs while its methodology and robustness make it ideal for space applications as well.

  10. Soviet equipment flies in

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1978-01-01

    End of February 1977 a Soviet Ilyushin-76 heavy freight aircraft landed at Cointrin airport having on board fifty large wire proprtional chambers and associated apparatus, together weighing 10 tons, supplied by the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, USSR. The equipment was for the CERN- Dubna-Munich-Saclay experiment NA4 on deep inelastic muon scattering being set up in the North Area of SPS. See Weekly Bulletin 11/78.

  11. Soviet Union's Nuclear Power Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Glasnost has dramatically increased the availability of information about the Soviet Union's nuclear industry. In the future, even more information is likely to become known as Soviet participation in international forums increases. Not only is much more general information now available, but up-to-date details are regularly provided, including information such as the Soviet nuclear industry's strategic direction and goals, recent reactor design changes, safety inspection results, and reports of public opposition and protest. This article summarizes the current status of the Soviet nuclear power program, reconciling the often conflicting reports from various public sources

  12. Homeostasis in Primates in the Hyperdynamic Environment. [circadian timekeeping and effects of lower body positive pressure on sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, C. A.

    1985-01-01

    The influence of chronic centrifugation upon the homestatic regulation of the circadian timekeeping system was examined. The interactions of body temperature regulation and the behavioral state of arousal were studied by evaluating the influence of cephalic fluid shifts induced by lower body positive air pressure (LBPP), upon these systems. The small diurnal squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus) was used as the non-human primate model. Results show that the circadian timekeeping system of these primates is functional in the hyperdynamic environment, however, some of its components appear to be regulated at different homeostatic levels. The LBPP resulted in an approximate 0.7 C decrease in DBT (p 0.01). However, although on video some animals appeared drowsy during LBPP, sleep recording revealed no significant changes in state of arousal. Thus, the physiological mechanisms underlying this lowering of body temperature can be independent of the arousal state.

  13. Soviet Military Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    some 27,000 meters of bridging equipment, 13 1 ."¾. million metric tons of arms and ammunition, "J -- and 60 million metric tons of petrol (fuel...rhis ammuitnition. lDuring aI warn sýuppjlis fromn stratev!1( s4tuck- a1lomg with ove-(r 9 m-illion metric tons o )f petrol 10 ~iilt- In thi. Stlviit...been a target for new Soviet overtures Deputy Foreign Minister Vladimir Petrovskiy through political influence operations and ex- went to Tunisia , Iraq

  14. Soviet energy export prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scanlan, Tony

    1991-05-01

    The Soviet Union produces 20% of world energy but since 1988 this is in decline. Awakening consumerism and a sea-change in the structure of foreign trade and internal investment are placing this key industry into unprecedented uncertainty. The difference between success and failure goes beyond the 1988 peak of six million barrels daily of exports in oil equivalent. The article quantifies the key areas of energy uncertainty as equal in volume to total OPEC output and sees the long-term changes of success more than ever dependent on coordinated planning and investment as well as on market reality. (Author).

  15. Understanding Soviet Naval Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-07-01

    submarine noise reduction technology. A single-unit experimental, deep diving SSN. SSBN in a process that converted the unit to dubbed the MIKE class, was...is second only to that of Ja- ties. When the Soviet MIKE SSN suffered a pan in total catch tonnage each year. fire in the Norwegian Sea in April of... sharpl \\ tapered nose providing better o~er-the-nose visibil- ity: this change ’. as miade possible by the absence of’ the MIiG-23’s air intercept radar

  16. Time Restored - The Harrison Timekeepers and R.T. Gould, the Man Who Knew (Almost) Everything

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, Jonathan

    2006-09-01

    This is the story of Rupert T. Gould (1890-1948), the polymath and horologist. A remarkable man, Lt Cmdr Gould made important contributions in an extraordinary range of subject areas throughout his relatively short and dramatically troubled life. From antique clocks to scientific mysteries, from typewriters to the first systematic study of the Loch Ness Monster, Gould studied and published on them all. With the title The Stargazer, Gould was an early broadcaster on the BBC's Children's Hour when, with his encyclopaedic knowledge, he became known as The Man Who Knew Everything. Not surprisingly, he was also part of that elite group on BBC radio who formed The Brains Trust, giving on-the-spot answers to all manner of wide ranging and difficult questions. With his wide learning and photographic memory, Gould awed a national audience, becoming one of the era's radio celebrities. During the 1920s Gould restored the complex and highly significant marine timekeepers constructed by John Harrison (1693-1776), and wrote the unsurpassed classic, The Marine Chronometer, its History and Development . Today he is virtually unknown, his horological contributions scarcely mentioned in Dava Sobel's bestseller Longitude. The TV version of Longitude, in which Jeremy Irons played Rupert Gould, did at least introduce Gould's name to a wider public. Gould suffered terrible bouts of depression, resulting in a number of nervous breakdowns. These, coupled with his obsessive and pedantic nature, led to a scandalously-reported separation from his wife and cost him his family, his home, his job, and his closest friends. In this first-ever biography of Rupert Gould, Jonathan Betts, the Royal Observatory Greenwich's Senior Horologist, has given us a compelling account of a talented but flawed individual. Using hitherto unknown personal journals, the family's extensive collection of photographs, and the polymath's surviving records and notes, Betts tells the story of how Gould's early life, his

  17. Esthetic Education in Soviet Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soviet Education, 1980

    1980-01-01

    This issue of Soviet Education examines esthetic education in Soviet schools, including ways of raising the level of esthetic education, the factor of labor, research on the relationship between the atheistic and esthetic education, ways of amplifying interrelationship between theory and practice in teacher education and psychological principles…

  18. The Origins of Soviet Sociolinguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandist, Craig

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the origins of Soviet sociolinguistics and suggests that the historical significance of the reception and reinterpretation of these ideas is considerable, leading to a reconsideration of the origins of sociolinguistics and the relationship between Marxism and the language sciences in the early years of the Soviet Union. (Author/VWL)

  19. Annual non-compliance report drops charge on Soviet radars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockwood, D.

    1993-01-01

    Last year's non-compliance report said a data link between Soviet early warming radars and the Moscow ABM system may be a significant violation of fundamental provisions of the ABM Treaty. This year's report, however, reverses last years position by saying: In light of the ambiguity of the Treaty language, and based on further review of the issue and on the probable Soviet practice - the US now judges that the support of ABM systems by early warning radars providing precise handover data will not constitute use of the radars as ABM radars in violation of the ABM Treaty

  20. A Soviet view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tikhonov, S.Y.

    1992-01-01

    During the past several years, the international situation has changed greatly. Efforts to maintain strategic stability have replaced the desire for strategic superiority. Equally important, new thinking in the Soviet Union has greatly accelerated the political warming between the superpowers. As a result of thee developments, the Soviet Union and the United States have come to the conclusion that a nuclear war cannot be won and should never be fought. These events have drastically reduced the probability of the deliberate use of nuclear or conventional weapons. However, the risk of a military crisis and its consequences still exist. Indeed, the risk of a nuclear exchange is still possible. What has changed, however, is that in the current international climate, a crisis or war may result unintentionally because of misperceptions, misunderstanding, accident, or technical fault. While the probability of this is admittedly small, it remains far greater than that of deliberate conflict. The purpose of this chapter, therefore, is twofold. First, it identifies potential sources of unintended crises and conflicts and recommends appropriate confidence-building measures. Second, it addresses CBMs and their potential roles in nuclear crisis de-escalation

  1. The Plant Circadian Clock: From a Simple Timekeeper to a Complex Developmental Manager.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Sabrina E; Kay, Steve A

    2016-12-01

    The plant circadian clock allows organisms to anticipate the predictable changes in the environment by adjusting their developmental and physiological traits. In the last few years, it was determined that responses known to be regulated by the oscillator are also able to modulate clock performance. These feedback loops and their multilayer communications create a complex web, and confer on the clock network a role that exceeds the measurement of time. In this article, we discuss the current knowledge of the wiring of the clock, including the interplay with metabolism, hormone, and stress pathways in the model species Arabidopsis thaliana We outline the importance of this system in crop agricultural traits, highlighting the identification of natural alleles that alter the pace of the timekeeper. We report evidence supporting the understanding of the circadian clock as a master regulator of plant life, and we hypothesize on its relevant role in the adaptability to the environment and the impact on the fitness of most organisms. Copyright © 2016 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  2. Soviet Marxism and population policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonfrank, A

    1984-01-01

    American demographers have maintained that Marxism, notably Soviet Marxism, is consistently pronatalist. The Soviet view is said to be that population growth is not a problem and that birth control policies in either developed or developing societies are to be rejected; the "correct" (i.e., socialist) socioeconomic structure is the true solution to alleged population problems. Such representations of Soviet thought greatly oversimplify the Soviet position as well as fail to discern the changes in Soviet thought that have been occurring. Since the 1960s Soviet writers have increasingly acknowledged that population growth is, to a considerable degree, independent of the economic base of society and that conscious population policies may be needed to either increase or decrease the rate of population growth. Even socialist societies can have population problems. And where population growth is too rapid, as in the developing countries, policies to slow such growth are needed because of the threat to economic development. However, the Soviets continue to stress that birth control policies must go hand-in-hand with social and economic development policies if they are to be effective.

  3. The Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, A.

    1991-01-01

    William T. R. Fox's pre-nuclear age analysis provides an excellent starting point for the authors' discussion of the role of nuclear weapons in Soviet security policy. By pointing to some of the non-nuclear, more properly geopolitical sources of peace in East-West relations, Fox's forceful analysis serves as a reminder to approach the authors' study with caution. Too often, there has been a tendency to reduce the etiology of war and peace in East-West relations to its nuclear aspect without proper regard for other, primarily geopolitical, components which provide the all-important context in which nuclear weapons work their indisputable deterrent effect. Two geopolitical sources for the relative peace in post-war East-West relations have been the inability of either the Soviet Union or the United states to employ direct military force in politically significant terms against the vital interests of the other; and an abiding preference, on the part of both, for a divided Germany within a divided Europe. Any other plausible alternative, of course, would almost certainly have involved a united Germany and the related likelihood that it would either gravitate to one or the other alliance or, itself, would constitute the third leg of an intrinsically unstable tri-polar relationship. This paper reports that the prevailing inclination to analyze East-West security as a direct function of nuclear deterrence (witness the Western consternation about INF and denuclearization, and the proliferation of think-tank study groups on post-nuclear security) begs the probability that there are in fact a variety of deeply rooted structures of stability in East-West relations and so exaggerates the delicacy of the existing security order in Europe. to an extent, this follows form the general acceptance of deterrence theory in the West, especially in the United States, and the undoubtedly singular character and role of nuclear weapons in that order

  4. The Soviet Union and Soviet citizens in Finnish magazines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuija Saarinen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this article’s is to study Finnish popular journalism in 1970s and 1980s. A magazine studied in this article is Hymy (Smile, and it has been estimated that in the beginning of 1970s approximately the whole literary population of Finland read it. The purpose of this study is to analyze the different images Hymy created and published of the Soviet Union and the Soviet citizens. The central research question analyzes what kinds of issues Hymy published about the Soviet Union and its citizens before 1991. This study gives special attention to the reasons why the articles were written in the first place, and secondly, what was the nature of their content.        Hymy published 224 articles on the Soviet Union. The articles were mostly written in the spirit of criticism – not in the spirit of “friendship of the peoples” that was the official political stance of Finland toward the Soviet Union. Magazines had to be aware of the official Finnish political rhetoric concerning the relationship with the Soviet Union. Hymy as a popular magazine found a way to evade the official mandate. In Hymy, people were able to read anti-Soviet sentiments without any censoring. Therefore, Hymy not only provided its readers views and beliefs that expressed the popular beliefs and values, but also sympathized with them. The Cold War era in the 1970s and 1980s was still a post-traumatic period for Finns. The magazine Hymy was an important channel to publish stories on painful, embarrassing, and tragic subjects.

  5. Mineral production statistics of the former Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Four tables show, for each of the years 1980 to 1991 Soviet oil production, Soviet gas production, Soviet coal production and Soviet steel production. Total figures are given along with a regional breakdown. 4 refs

  6. Soviet Hadron Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotchetkov, Dmitri

    2017-01-01

    Rapid growth of the high energy physics program in the USSR during 1960s-1970s culminated with a decision to build the Accelerating and Storage Complex (UNK) to carry out fixed target and colliding beam experiments. The UNK was to have three rings. One ring was to be built with conventional magnets to accelerate protons up to the energy of 600 GeV. The other two rings were to be made from superconducting magnets, each ring was supposed to accelerate protons up to the energy of 3 TeV. The accelerating rings were to be placed in an underground tunnel with a circumference of 21 km. As a 3 x 3 TeV collider, the UNK would make proton-proton collisions with a luminosity of 4 x 1034 cm-1s-1. Institute for High Energy Physics in Protvino was a project leading institution and a site of the UNK. Accelerator and detector research and development studies were commenced in the second half of 1970s. State Committee for Utilization of Atomic Energy of the USSR approved the project in 1980, and the construction of the UNK started in 1983. Political turmoil in the Soviet Union during late 1980s and early 1990s resulted in disintegration of the USSR and subsequent collapse of the Russian economy. As a result of drastic reduction of funding for the UNK, in 1993 the project was restructured to be a 600 GeV fixed target accelerator only. While the ring tunnel and proton injection line were completed by 1995, and 70% of all magnets and associated accelerator equipment were fabricated, lack of Russian federal funding for high energy physics halted the project at the end of 1990s.

  7. Soviet nostalgia and Russian politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen White

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Communist rule did not end suddenly in 1989, or in 1991. And for many, at least in Russia, there was no radical break but a complex evolution in which many of the former ruling group, and many of the values of the Soviet period, remained intact. According to the evidence of national representative surveys, levels of support for the principle of a union state have consistently been very high. In 2008 survey, more than half (57% largely or entirely agreed that the demise of the USSR had been a ‘disaster’, and nearly two-thirds (64% thought the former Soviet republics that had established a Commonwealth of Independent States should reconstitute a single state or at least cooperate more closely. Across the three Slavic republics, Russia, Ukraine and Belarus, it was guaranteed employment that was seen as the most positive feature of the old regime, and economic stagnation as its most serious shortcoming. Comparing the present and the Soviet period as they recalled it, ordinary Russians thought they had more opportunity to practise a religion, and to express their opinions. But ordinary people had (in their own view no more influence over the making of public policy than in the communist period, and they thought they were less likely to be treated fairly and equally by government. Age and living standards were the most powerful predictors of Soviet nostalgia when other variables were held constant. Nostalgics were much more likely to support parties of the left, or at least those that favoured public ownership, a Soviet or ‘more democratic Soviet’ system of government, and a closer association among the former Soviet republics; they were much less likely to support the parties that favoured the dissolution of the CIS, a wholly market economy, or Western-style democracy.

  8. Soviet Cybernetics: Recent News Items, Number Thirteen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Wade B.

    An issue of "Soviet Cybernetics: Recent News Items" consists of English translations of the leading recent Soviet contributions to the study of cybernetics. Articles deal with cybernetics in the 21st Century; the Soviet State Committee on Science and Technology; economic reforms in Rudnev's ministry; an interview with Rudnev; Dnepr-2; Dnepr-2…

  9. Soviet New Thinking: Perspectives and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-29

    and leading military theorist, as quoted in Steven P. Adragna , "A New Soviet Military? Doctrine and Strategy", Orbis, Spring, 1989, p. 166. 22... Adragna , pp. 166-68. 22. Soviet Battlefield Development Plan. Vol I: Soviet General Doctrine for War, p.1-8. 24. Goure, pp. 36-37. 25. William E. Odom

  10. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Kommunist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-22

    create the most favorable conditions for a new upsurge in Soviet cinema and theater. It is only the healthy, competitive and creative atmo- sphere, in...Communist Party), Vox (Colombian Communist Party), Unidad ( Peruvian Communist Party), Hora and Popular (Uruguayan Communist Party), and Pueblo (Ecuadorian

  11. The Soviet Crisis Relocation Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-05-01

    tie text dealing with relo ’ation is oil one page long (out of a total of 47 pags), and in tile 1981 edition it is L(1I .,4 i about a page and a...departures of foot columns will also reflect the Soviet value system. In other words, priority will be giver to elements of the essencial work force

  12. An essential role for the circadian-regulated gene nocturnin in osteogenesis: the importance of local timekeeping in skeletal homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guntur, Anyonya R; Kawai, Masanobu; Le, Phuong; Bouxsein, Mary L; Bornstein, Sheila; Green, Carla B; Rosen, Clifford J

    2011-11-01

    The role of circadian proteins in regulating whole-body metabolism and bone turnover has been studied in detail and has led to the discovery of an elemental system for timekeeping involving the core genes Clock, Bmal1, Per, and Cry. Nocturnin (Noc; Ccrn4l), a peripheral circadian-regulated gene has been shown to play a very important role in regulating adipogenesis by deadenylation of key mRNAs and intracytoplasmic transport of PPARγ. The role that it plays in osteogenesis has previously not been studied in detail. In this report we examined in vitro and in vivo osteogenesis in the presence and absence of Noc and show that loss of Noc enhances bone formation and can rescue rosiglitazone-induced bone loss in mice. The circadian rhythm of Noc is likely to be an essential element of marrow stromal cell fate. © 2011 New York Academy of Sciences.

  13. Precision manufacturing

    CERN Document Server

    Dornfeld, David

    2008-01-01

    Today there is a high demand for high-precision products. The manufacturing processes are now highly sophisticated and derive from a specialized genre called precision engineering. Precision Manufacturing provides an introduction to precision engineering and manufacturing with an emphasis on the design and performance of precision machines and machine tools, metrology, tooling elements, machine structures, sources of error, precision machining processes and precision process planning. As well as discussing the critical role precision machine design for manufacturing has had in technological developments over the last few hundred years. In addition, the influence of sustainable manufacturing requirements in precision processes is introduced. Drawing upon years of practical experience and using numerous examples and illustrative applications, David Dornfeld and Dae-Eun Lee cover precision manufacturing as it applies to: The importance of measurement and metrology in the context of Precision Manufacturing. Th...

  14. The outlook for Soviet gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebel, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    The economic collapse of the Soviet Union has seen the decline of its oil and gas industry through a lack of capital investment, idle wells, shortages of equipment and spare parts, worker apathy, and a leaky pipeline network. Natural gas reserves controlled by the Soviet Union total some 50 trillion m 3 , over 70% of which are in western Siberia. A total of just 19 gas deposits hold 70% of the total reserves and account for over 75% of national output. Natural gas production in 1990 was 815 billion m 3 or 38% of world output; exports reached 109 billion m 3 , divided roughly equally between eastern and western Europe, and all transported by pipeline. The Soviet Union is also a major gas consumer, at around 709 billion m 3 /y, and uses about half this amount for generating electricity. In the early 1980s, a crash program to expand the gas industry raised production from 435 billion m 3 in 1980 to 643 billion m 3 in 1985, but at the cost of hastily built pipelines and facilities, and a premature exhaustion of major gas fields. A prohibition on import of western-made compressors, due to the Afghanistan invasion, forced the installation of unreliable domestic compressors. Slow growth in gas ouput and unreliability of the current gas supply and transmission system has threatened the stability of supply to domestic and export customers, and gas delivery shortfalls of 50-60 billion m 3 were thought possible. The industry's future depends on development of additional fields, and a revived interest in Soviet natural gas is being shown by foreign investors. Since many of these fields are in remote or geologically unfavorable areas, large investments and lead times will be needed

  15. Soviet Nuclear Strategy form Stalin to Gorbachev

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catudal, H.M.

    1989-01-01

    This book examines the nature of the Soviet nuclear threat and how it has evolved over the years. Too often in the past U.S. officials, in shaping and directing plans for American nuclear forces, have tended to see Soviet military forces and strategy as a reflection of their own stance or simply as projecting the worst plausible case of Soviet intentions and capabilities. The result has been a distorted if not dangerous portrayal of the real threat. Soviet nuclear strategy, as explained in this detailed book, has evolved significantly since the days when the Soviets first possessed nuclear weapons under Joseph Stalin. Today there is in development a new Soviet military and strategic doctrine reflected in Gorbachev's words, We require a radical break with traditions of political thinking. This new doctrine promises to have a profound impact on European security and the overall East-West relationship

  16. JPRS Report. Soviet Union: Political Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-10

    Soviets? The absurdity of a classified dissertation in pedagogy is intensified by the additional fact that given the truly impoverished posi- tion in...Khakass. These are our Soviet kids , the graduates of our Soviet schools. Together, they listen to the same lectures as the people their own age who...4,267. They are in training at 12 VUZs, 8 technical schools, and one professional- technical college. Four boarding schools have admitted Afghan kids

  17. Scientific research in the Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mtingwa, S.K.

    1990-01-01

    I report on the scientific aspects of my US/USSR Interacademy Exchange Visit to the Soviet Union. My research was conducted at three different institutes: the Lebedev Physical Institute in Moscow, the Leningrad Nuclear Physics Institute in Gatchina, and the Yerevan Physics Institute in Soviet Armenia. I included relevant information about the Soviet educational system, salaries of Soviet physicists, work habits and research activities at the three institutes, and the relevance of that research to work going on in the United States. 18 refs

  18. Soviet civil defense is inadequate and meaningless

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, F.M.

    1985-01-01

    In this paper, the author argues that Soviet civil defense plans exist primarily on paper and are used to pacify the Soviet people, not as plans to survive and prevail in a nuclear confrontation with the U.S. The author describes how the Soviet people have little faith in the civil defense programs. They don't believe they can survive an attack. Furthermore, he says the Soviets have never staged an evacuation exercise in any major city nor, even in smaller towns, has an entire community been evacuated. The author says there are numerous problems with the shelter programs as well. Very few existing shelters have any food stocks, only a few more have any water. There is little evidence that Soviet leaders have planned their economy with civil defense in mind. Nor - given the blatant inadequacies of Soviet civil defense programs, the marked vulnerabilities of the Soviet economy, and the intrinsic limitation and uncertainties about civil defense generally - is there much basis for claiming that Soviet leaders, even in desperate straits, would risk war with the United States while counting on civil defense measures to limit the damage wreaked on the Soviet Union

  19. Nuclear deception: soviet information policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, E.P.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of the accident at the Chernobyl Unit 4 Reactor on information policies in the USSR is examined. The lack of an agreed-upon information policy and intraparty disagreement over domestic and foreign policy help to explain the delay in disclosure of the accident and conflicting statements concerning long-term health effects. A modest change in policy since Chernobyl has been noted: the willingness of Soviet spokespersons to discuss and debate issues with foreign correspondents, to publish sharply critical letters from citizens and a few foreign officials, and to provide many details about the nature and consequences of the accident

  20. Education in the Soviet Baltic Republics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soviet Education, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Includes 11 articles about education in the Soviet Baltic Republics. The articles include historical studies of Estonian and Latvian schools and medieval Estonian folk games. The impact of Marxist educational theories and Soviet policies on educational research, teacher education, and teaching methods in the Baltic region from 1920-50 is…

  1. Glasnost and Secrecy in the Soviet Military

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-21

    the most vicious and xenophobic brand of Russian chauvinism, complete with witch-hunts and spymania. Secrecy was also important for enhancing the...the Soviet Armed Forces, a significant factor tor a military establishment historically used to ’ie position of the underdog because of the Soviet

  2. The Revitalization of the Soviet Film Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogomolov, Yuri

    1991-01-01

    Discusses how the grip of the Soviet Union's past--from Stalinist mythology to ideological cliche--is being exposed and undermined whereas a sense of individual efficacy, necessary for the present, has yet to emerge from the portrayals in Soviet films. (PRA)

  3. The Soviet center of astronomical data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dluzhnevskaya, O.B.

    1982-01-01

    On the basis of the current French-Soviet cooperation in science and technology, the Astronomical Council of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences and the Strasbourg Center signed in 1977 an agreement on setting up the Soviet Center of Astronomical Data as its filial branch. The Soviet Center was created on the basis of a computation center at the Zvenigorod station of the Astronomical Council of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences, which had already had considerable experience of working with stellar catalogues. In 1979 the Center was equipped with a EC-1033 computer. In 1978-1979 the Soviet Center of Astronomical Data (C.A.D.) received from Strasbourg 96 of the most important catalogues. By September 1981 the list of catalogues available at the Soviet Center has reached 140 catalogues some of which are described. (Auth.)

  4. Why precision?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bluemlein, Johannes

    2012-05-15

    Precision measurements together with exact theoretical calculations have led to steady progress in fundamental physics. A brief survey is given on recent developments and current achievements in the field of perturbative precision calculations in the Standard Model of the Elementary Particles and their application in current high energy collider data analyses.

  5. Why precision?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bluemlein, Johannes

    2012-05-01

    Precision measurements together with exact theoretical calculations have led to steady progress in fundamental physics. A brief survey is given on recent developments and current achievements in the field of perturbative precision calculations in the Standard Model of the Elementary Particles and their application in current high energy collider data analyses.

  6. Former Soviet refineries face modernization, restructuring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    A massive modernization and restructuring program is under way in the refining sector of Russia and other former Soviet republics. Economic reforms and resulting economic dislocation following the collapse of the Soviet Union has left refineries in the region grappling with a steep decline and changes in product demand. At the same time, rising oil prices and an aging, dilapidated infrastructure promise a massive shakeout. Even as many refineries in the former Soviet Union (FSU) face possible closure because they are running at a fraction of capacity, a host of revamps, expansions, and grass roots refineries are planned or under way. The paper discusses plans

  7. The lasting Soviet nuclear menace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schorr, J.

    1993-01-01

    This article describes the unsafe conditions of the nuclear power industry in the countries of the former Soviet Union. Because of lack of efficient power generation, the old first generation Chernobyl-type reactors are being upgraded or new ones are being constructed. The operators themselves are also unsafe, with lack of training and poor working conditions. Improving energy efficiency would be more cost effective than constructing new nuclear plants. This could be achieved by such measures as installing boiler controls, thermostats, and meters; by retrofitting factories; by raising the price of electricity to encourage conservation; by repairing leaking natural gas pipelines; and by building gas-fired power plants. These changes are not likely to come about soon however

  8. XAP5 CIRCADIAN TIMEKEEPER Positively Regulates RESISTANCE TO POWDERY MILDEW8.1–Mediated Immunity in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Ju Xu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic expression of the Arabidopsis RESISTANCE TO POWDERY MILDEW8.1 (RPW8.1 boosts pattern-triggered immunity leading to enhanced resistance to different pathogens in Arabidopsis and rice. However, the underlying regulatory mechanism remains largely elusive. Here, we report that XAP5 CIRCADIAN TIMEKEEPER (XCT, At2g21150 positively regulates RPW8.1-mediated cell death and disease resistance. Forward genetic screen identified the b3-17 mutant that exhibited less cell death and susceptibility to powdery mildew and bacterial pathogens. Map-based cloning identified a G-to-A point mutation at the 3′ splice site of the 8th intron, which resulted in splice shift to 8-bp down-stream of the original splice site of XCT in b3-17, and introduced into a stop codon after two codons leading to a truncated XCT. XCT has previously been identified as a circadian clock gene required for small RNA biogenesis and acting down-stream of ETHYLENE-INSENSITIVE3 (EIN3 in the ethylene-signaling pathway. Here we further showed that mutation or down-regulation of XCT by artificial microRNA reduced RPW8.1-mediated immunity in R1Y4, a transgenic line expressing RPW8.1-YFP from the RPW8.1 native promoter. On the contrary, overexpression of XCT in R1Y4 background enhanced RPW8.1-mediated cell death, H2O2 production and resistance against powdery mildew. Consistently, the expression of RPW8.1 was down- and up-regulated in xct mutant and XCT overexpression lines, respectively. Taken together, these results indicate that XCT positively regulates RPW8.1-mediated cell death and disease resistance, and provide new insight into the regulatory mechanism of RPW8.1-mediated immunity.

  9. Children's Literature in the Soviet Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, D. D.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Children's literature in the Soviet Union is of four types: 17 stories based on old tales, adaptations from great Russian literature, original writings for children, and translations from foreign works. (JH)

  10. Former Soviet Union (FSU) Gravity Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded gravity anomaly data for the Former Soviet Union (FSU) and Eastern Europe has been received by the National Geophysical Data Center(NGDC). The data file...

  11. Frank Lloyd Wright in the Soviet Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian A. Spencer

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1937 the First All-Union Congress of Soviet Architects was held in Moscow. The congress brought  architects from all areas of the  Soviet Union. Under the auspices of Vsesoiuvnoe Obshchestvo Kul'turnoi Sviazi s zagranitsei (VOKS it invited international architects from Europe and North and South America.  The Organizing Committee of the Union of Soviet Architects invited Frank Lloyd Wright from the United States. Frank Lloyd Wright presented his philosophy and exhibited his work, specifically his designs for the weekend home for E. J. Kaufmann "Fallingwater" and the drawings for the S.C. Johnson Administration. Frank Lloyd Wright's presentation did not focus heavily on the architecture but, rather the spirit of the Russian and Soviet vision.

  12. Historical Soviet Daily Snow Depth (HSDSD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The HSDSD product is based on observations from 284 World Meteorological Organization (WMO) stations throughout Russia and the former Soviet Union. The area covered...

  13. Growing Up Gifted in the Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Robert E.

    1987-01-01

    A review of the educational program for gifted students in the Soviet Union discusses student responsibilities, program admission, and specialized schools featuring foreign languages, mathematics and physics, music, ballet and arts, sports, and "little academics" (advanced studies). (CB)

  14. Growing Soviet market is worth the hassles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muse, J.F.

    1991-01-01

    Tremendous opportunity is offered by the potential market in the Soviet republics for a diverse oil and gas equipment company, such as Baker Hughes. Until recently, however, the many risks and problems limited efforts to direct, hard currency sales by three or four individual divisions (out of a total of 23) that chose to pursue markets for their products by working through independent agents. This article discusses some aspects of dealing with the Soviet market

  15. Soviet energy: current problems and future options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, J B

    1981-12-01

    The connection between Soviet oil and energy resources, their efficient and timely utilization, and politico-military opportunities in the Persian Gulf region offer an inescapable link for analysis. Worsening trends in economic growth, factor productivity, social unrest, and energy production/distribution offset optimistic trends in Soviet military procurement and deployment. A conjunction of geologic, geographic, and systemic factors all point to a mid-1980s energy imbalance which in turn will pose hard questions for the Moscow leadership. 28 references.

  16. Soviet Theater Nuclear Forces’ Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-01

    survivability) of those staffs. 18 Receit Soviet accounts of the "revolution in military affairs" stress the growing operational role of the General Staff...e.g., 29 economic) means and (ii) the West is preparing to take military advantage of its growing relative strength. The other factor is China. It seems...simple model of Soviet theater nuclear doctrine, might as well go hunting unicorns . He will not find it because, in any meaningful sense, it does not

  17. Soviet satellite communications science and technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birch, J.N.; Campanella, S.J.; Gordon, G.D.; McElroy, D.R.; Pritchard, W.L.; Stamminger, R.

    1991-08-01

    This is a report by six US scientists and engineers concerning the current state of the art and projections of future Soviet satellite communications technologies. The panel members are experts in satellite stabilization, spacecraft environments, space power generation, launch systems, spacecraft communications sciences and technologies, onboard processing, ground stations, and other technologies that impact communications. The panel assessed the Soviet ability to support high-data-rate space missions at 128 Mbps by evaluating current and projected Soviet satellite communications technologies. A variety of space missions were considered, including Earth-to-Earth communications via satellites in geostationary or highly elliptical orbits, those missions that require space-to-Earth communications via a direct path and those missions that require space-to-Earth communications via a relay satellite. Soviet satellite communications capability, in most cases, is 10 years behind that of the United States and other industrialized nations. However, based upon an analysis of communications links needed to support these missions using current Soviet capabilities, it is well within the current Soviet technology to support certain space missions outlined above at rates of 128 Mbps or higher, although published literature clearly shows that the Soviet Union has not exceeded 60 Mbps in its current space system. These analyses are necessary but not sufficient to determine mission data rates, and other technologies such as onboard processing and storage could limit the mission data rate well below that which could actually be supported via the communications links. Presently, the Soviet Union appears to be content with data rates in the low-Earth-orbit relay via geostationary mode of 12 Mbps. This limit is a direct result of power amplifier limits, spacecraft antenna size, and the utilization of K{sub u}-band frequencies. 91 refs., 16 figs., 15 tabs.

  18. Soviet International Finance in the Gorbachev Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    officials responsible for financial matters; and the financial press . All of these sources are cited as appropriate in this repoet. Considerable additional...creditors back to 1984. 2See, for example, Judy Shelton, The Coming Soviet Crash, The Free Press , New York, 1989, p. xv. 14 end of 1988, net Soviet...eighth over LIBOR. As recently as September 1989, VEB was able to arrange a five-year, $100 million syndicated credit managed by Banca Commerciale Italiana

  19. Is Soviet Defense Policy Becoming Civilianized?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-08-01

    Larionov, a consultant to the institute, both at RAND and in Moscow; and Drs. Alexei Arbatov and Aleksandr Savelyev and several of their colleagues during...Soviet defense industry resources to civilian use is presented in Arthur J. Alexander , Perestroika and Change in Soviet Weapons Acquisition, The RAND...1986, especially pp. 101-102. 17 18 the more prominent younger specialists like Alexei Arbatov, Andrei Kokoshin, and Aleksandr Savelyev have long been

  20. The Grand Strategy of the Soviet Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-25

    of diverse echnic the highest origin could rise to AleveLs of power in all branches of the state. Plainly that is not the case in today’s Soviet...and psychological reasons, the new primacy given to external aggrandizement intensifies ethnic tensions inside Soviet society. The failure to fulfill...or perhaps because our own means are simply too small, we come to terms psychologically with its increasing power by persuading ourselves that it

  1. Perestroika, Soviet oil, and joint ventures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Churkin, M. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Glaznost, the freedom of expression in both the public and private sectors of the Soviet Union, has rapidly transformed the country form a largely isolated and closed society to one that is rapidly becoming more cosmopolitan and open to the West. Now that the Soviet Union is moving toward a free-market economy, a number of new laws are being generated to create a favorable environment for Western investment, especially joint ventures. First, crude oil sales have provided over 75% of much-needed hard currency, and oil has been the principal barter for manufactured goods produced in eastern Europe. Second, joint oil ventures with Western companies can reverse declining production levels and provide sufficient stimulus to turn around the economic recession. The Soviet Union has a very large inventory of discovered but undeveloped oil and gas fields. Most of these fields are difficult for the Soviets to produce technically, financially, and environmentally safely, and they are actively seeking appropriate Western partners. From an exploration point of view, the Soviet Union has probably the largest number of undrilled and highly prospective oil basins, which may replenish declining reserves in the West. Finally, the Soviet Union represents in the long term a large unsaturated market eager to absorb the surplus of goods and services in the Western world. Again, joint oil ventures could provide the convertible currency to increase East-West trade

  2. On Ideology, Language, and Identity: Language Politics in the Soviet and Post-Soviet Lithuania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balockaite, Rasa

    2014-01-01

    The paper illuminates links between state politics and language politics in Lithuania during different historical periods: (a) the thaw period, (b) the stagnation period, (c) the liberalization periods of Soviet socialism, and (d) the two post-Soviet decades characterized by both nationalism and liberalization. Based on analysis of the texts by…

  3. Ecologies of socialism: Soviet Gradostroitel'stvo and late soviet socialism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Alexander Nunan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The most lasting legacy of the Soviet experience, more so than institutions that persist in the Russian Federation today or the mentalities of citizens of post-Soviet states, was its transformation of Eurasia from a rural continent into an urban one. Particularly after the Great Patriotic War, the landscape of Soviet urban spaces changed as countless rows of low-quality apartment housing sprung up and a uniform socialist urban culture appeared to be forming. However, how and why this urban revolution happened, and what effect it had on the psychological makeup of Soviet citizens, remains lesser known. Meanwhile, while scholars of urban history such as Jane Jacobs, Reyner Banham, Lewis Mumford, and Mike Davis have produced fascinating tracts and monographs on the “ecologies” of American urban spaces – how, in other words, human beings in various political systems have interacted with the built urban landscape around them – limited work has been done on similar processes and histories in the Soviet world beyond the technical literature of the Cold War era. In this paper, I attempt to provide the outlines of such a history with such an approach by analyzing how changes in the Soviet urban fabric from approximately 1932 to 1980s affected social life in Soviet cities and among Soviet families. Basing my argument on close readings of Soviet books on gradostroitel'stvo (urban construction, urban studies as well as literature, and guided by the insights of the above-listed urbanist thinkers, I argue that changes in urban planning so altered the relationship between citizens, the Party, and History that the Soviet system lost key strengths that had emboldened it during the 1930s and 1940s. In particular, while new Soviet housing projects obviously raised the standard of living of a great portion of the population, in resolving the housing problem, they also dismantled the “stranger's gaze” – the everyday urban clashes that, enabled by

  4. Perestroika and Its Impact on the Soviet Labor Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Horst

    1991-01-01

    Discusses two books, "Restructuring the Soviet Economy: In Search of the Market" and "In Search of Flexibility: The New Soviet Labour Market," that assess the success of perestroika and the transition to a market-based economy. (JOW)

  5. Former Soviet Union Hydrological Snow Surveys, 1966-1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Former Soviet Union Hydrological Snow Surveys are based on observations made by personnel at 1,345 sites throughout the Former Soviet Union between 1966 and...

  6. Managing Uncertainity: Soviet Views on Deception, Surprise, and Control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hull, Andrew

    1989-01-01

    .... In the first two cases (deception and surprise), the emphasis is on how the Soviets seek to sow uncertainty in the minds of the enemy and how the Soviets then plan to use that uncertainty to gain military advantage...

  7. The French-Soviet Araks experiments: Main results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavergnat, J.

    1982-01-01

    This chapter reports on the Artificial Radiation and Aurora between Kerguelen and the Soviet Union (Araks) experiment, whose objectives were to study the motion of an electron beam inside the magnetosphere with a particular attention focused on the large scale phenomena (e.g. location of the conjugate point), and to study the interaction of the beam with the surrounding plasma. Topics considered include geometry and the experimental set-up, conjugated observations, neutralization of the electron gun, and waves emission. The Araks experiments were designed to study the injection of an electron beam into the ionospheric plasma. It is concluded that active experiment is promising for field line mapping in the auroral zone and precise investigation of beam-plasma interaction

  8. Precision translator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reedy, Robert P.; Crawford, Daniel W.

    1984-01-01

    A precision translator for focusing a beam of light on the end of a glass fiber which includes two turning fork-like members rigidly connected to each other. These members have two prongs each with its separation adjusted by a screw, thereby adjusting the orthogonal positioning of a glass fiber attached to one of the members. This translator is made of simple parts with capability to keep adjustment even in condition of rough handling.

  9. Precision Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Bernard J. T.

    2017-04-01

    Preface; Notation and conventions; Part I. 100 Years of Cosmology: 1. Emerging cosmology; 2. The cosmic expansion; 3. The cosmic microwave background; 4. Recent cosmology; Part II. Newtonian Cosmology: 5. Newtonian cosmology; 6. Dark energy cosmological models; 7. The early universe; 8. The inhomogeneous universe; 9. The inflationary universe; Part III. Relativistic Cosmology: 10. Minkowski space; 11. The energy momentum tensor; 12. General relativity; 13. Space-time geometry and calculus; 14. The Einstein field equations; 15. Solutions of the Einstein equations; 16. The Robertson-Walker solution; 17. Congruences, curvature and Raychaudhuri; 18. Observing and measuring the universe; Part IV. The Physics of Matter and Radiation: 19. Physics of the CMB radiation; 20. Recombination of the primeval plasma; 21. CMB polarisation; 22. CMB anisotropy; Part V. Precision Tools for Precision Cosmology: 23. Likelihood; 24. Frequentist hypothesis testing; 25. Statistical inference: Bayesian; 26. CMB data processing; 27. Parametrising the universe; 28. Precision cosmology; 29. Epilogue; Appendix A. SI, CGS and Planck units; Appendix B. Magnitudes and distances; Appendix C. Representing vectors and tensors; Appendix D. The electromagnetic field; Appendix E. Statistical distributions; Appendix F. Functions on a sphere; Appendix G. Acknowledgements; References; Index.

  10. Evolution of Soviet Theater Nuclear Forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkeson, E.B.

    1994-01-01

    Soviet theater nuclear forces were a major pillar of Soviet superpower strength, rising sharply under Krushchev in the latter 1950s to their zenith under Brezhnev twenty years later. Most recently they have begun their decline under Gorbachev, and while not yet facing extinction, may be headed for a much reduced role under the new thinking in the USSR. This paper deals with the Soviet TNF in six periods of their life: The Post-war Stalin Period (1945-1953), the Post-Stalin Period (1953-1955), The Transition Period (1955-1959), The Period of Nuclear Revolution (1960-1964), The Period of Modern TNF Planning (1965-1980), and The Period of Non-nuclear Planning (1980-1987)

  11. Suicide in inmates in Nazis and Soviet concentration camps: historical overview and critique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco eLopez-Munoz

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Living conditions in concentration camps were harsh and often inhumane, leading many prisoners to commit suicide. We have reviewed this topic in Nazi concentration camps (KL, Soviet special camps and gulags, providing some preliminary data of our research. Data show that the incidence of suicide in Nazi KL could be up to 30 times higher than the general population, and was also much higher than in Soviet special camps (maybe due to more favorable conditions for prisoners and the abolishment of death penalty, while available data on Soviet gulags are contradictory. However, data interpretation is very controversial, because, for example, the Nazi KL authorities used to cover up the murder victims as suicides. Most of suicides were committed in the first years of imprisonment and the method of suicide most commonly used was hanging, although other methods included cutting blood vessels, poisoning, contact with electrified wire, or starvation. It is possible to differentiate two behavior when committing suicide; impulsive behavior (contact with electrified barbed or premeditated suicide (hanging up or through poison. In Soviet special camps, possible motives for suicides could include feelings of guilt for crimes committed, fear of punishment and a misguided understanding of honor on the eve of criminal trials. Self-destructive behaviors such as self-mutilation in gulag camps or prisoners who let themselves die have been widely reported. Committing suicide in concentration camps was a common practice, although precise data may be impossible to obtain.

  12. The Soviet RBMK-1000 containment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joosten, J.K.

    1988-01-01

    Following the accident in April, 1986, considerable attention was focused on the failure of the containment at the Chernobyl RBMK-1000 nuclear power plant. Conflicting statements arose regarding the nature of the plant's containment system primarily because of terminology differences, translation difficulties and lack of reliable information. This article, based on reports and briefings by the Soviet delegation, during the post-accident review meetings in Vienna and prior publications is intended to clarify perceptions of the Soviet RMBK-1000 nuclear power plant containment system design, and its relevance to containment management concepts. (author)

  13. Soviet Archaeological Expedition as a Research Object

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Sveshnikova

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Soviet archaeological expeditions are the main focus of my research. They provide us with very interesting examples of archaeological expeditions as a part of a society, and not only as a part of science. After the 1960s it was an especially popular leisure practice. Many people who were not professional archaeologists went on expeditions in their leisure time and worked there as diggers or shovelmen (excavators. A Soviet archaeologist described them as people who ‘prefer to spend their vacation in archaeological expeditions in various parts of our country instead of seaside resorts.

  14. Soviet exoatmospheric neutral particle beam research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leiss, J.E.; Abrams, R.H.; Ehlers, K.W.; Farrell, J.A.; Gillespie, G.H.; Jameson, R.A.; Keefe, D.; Parker, R.K.

    1988-02-01

    This technical assessment was performed by a panel of eight U.S. scientists and engineers who are familiar with Soviet research through their own research experience, their knowledge of the published scientific literature and conference proceedings, and personal contacts with Soviet scientists and other foreign colleagues. Most of the technical components of a neutral particle beam generating system including the ion source, the accelerator, the accelerator radio frequency power supply, the beam conditioning and aiming system, and the beam neutralizer system are addressed. It does not address a number of other areas important to an exoatmospheric neutral beam system

  15. The secret of the Soviet hydrogen bomb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellerstein, Alex; Geist, Edward

    2017-11-01

    Was the first Soviet thermonuclear device really a step in the wrong direction? No bomb design has been as much maligned or otherwise disparaged as the first Soviet thermonuclear weapon. Detonated in August 1953, the bomb, officially tested under the name RDS-6s but usually known as Sloika or "layer cake" (the name Andrei Sakharov coined for it), was nothing to sneeze at. Shown in Figure 1 and able to be dropped from aircraft, it released the explosive equivalent, or yield, of almost half a megaton of TNT. The result was a blazing fireball with 20 times the power of the bomb that leveled Nagasaki, Japan.

  16. Energy-responsive timekeeping

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2008-12-31

    Dec 31, 2008 ... involved lesions of the parabrachial nucleus in rats (David- son et al. 2000); however .... loops (figure 2). The current model involves a primary loop with CLOCK and .... of reduced to oxidized nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide.

  17. Energy-responsive timekeeping

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An essential component of energy homeostasis lies in an organism's ability to coordinate daily patterns in activity, feeding, energy utilization and energy storage across the daily 24-h cycle. Most tissues of the body contain the molecular clock machinery required for circadian oscillation and rhythmic gene expression.

  18. Precision Airdrop (Largage de precision)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-12-01

    NAVIGATION TO A PRECISION AIRDROP OVERVIEW RTO-AG-300-V24 2 - 9 the point from various compass headings. As the tests are conducted, the resultant...rate. This approach avoids including a magnetic compass for the heading reference, which has difficulties due to local changes in the magnetic field...Scientifica della Difesa ROYAUME-UNI Via XX Settembre 123 Dstl Knowledge Services ESPAGNE 00187 Roma Information Centre, Building 247 SDG TECEN / DGAM

  19. Advancing further the history of Soviet psychology: moving forward from dominant representations in Western and Soviet psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Rey, Fernando L

    2014-02-01

    This article discusses the works of some Soviet scholars of psychology, their theoretical positions, and the times within which their works were developed. Dominant representations of Soviet psychology and some of the main Soviet authors are revisited in the light of a blending of facts actively associated with their emergence in both Soviet and Western psychology. From the beginning, Soviet psychology was founded upon Marxism. However, the ways by which that psychology pretended to become Marxist in its philosophical basis were diverse and often contradictory. Other philosophical and theoretical positions also influenced Soviet psychologists. Different moments of that contradictory process are discussed in this article, and through this, I bring to light their interrelations and the consequences for the development of Soviet psychology. This article reinterprets several myths found within Soviet psychology, in which different theoretical representations have become institutionalized for long periods in both Soviet and Western psychology. Particular attention is given to identifying the conditions that presented Vygotsky, Luria, and Leontiev as part of the same paradigm, and which paved the way for a perception of Leontiev and his group as paralleling Vygotsky's importance among American psychologists. Many of the sources that are used in this article were published in Soviet psychology only after the 1970s. Unlike the different and interesting works that began to appear on diverse trends in Soviet psychology, this article details in depth the articulation of topics and questions that still now are presented as different chapters in the analysis of Soviet psychology.

  20. Soviet Union: Summer school goes international

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1990-09-15

    The traditional annual Soviet Summer School, held in June in Dubna on the banks of the Volga, this year had international participation for the first time. Initiated by Moscow's Physical Engineering Institute and the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, the school has rotating themes, with the accent this year on developments in high energy physics.

  1. US - Former Soviet Union environmental management activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    The Office of Environmental Management (EM) has been delegated the responsibility for US DOE's cleanup of nuclear weapons complex. The nature and the magnitude of the waste management and environmental remediation problem requires the identification of technologies and scientific expertise from domestic and foreign sources. This booklet makes comparisons and describes coordinated projects and workshops between the USA and the former Soviet Union

  2. Soviet Union: Summer school goes international

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    The traditional annual Soviet Summer School, held in June in Dubna on the banks of the Volga, this year had international participation for the first time. Initiated by Moscow's Physical Engineering Institute and the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, the school has rotating themes, with the accent this year on developments in high energy physics

  3. Redefined Soviet military doctrine in perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menning, B.W.

    1992-01-01

    On May 29, 1987, the Warsaw Pact's Political Consultative Committee issued a communique proclaiming that the military doctrine of the Warsaw Pact member states is strictly defensive and proceeds from the fact that the application of military means to resolve any dispute is inadmissible under current conditions. Following this declaration, a corresponding redefinition of Soviet military doctrine to emphasize defensiveness and war prevention has evoke lively commentary and debate in both the West and the East. Because doctrinal issues are likely to retain significance during arms control and security negotiations. The purpose of this paper is to highlight important trends associated with a continuing dialogue over Soviet military doctrine and to assess what the future portends as doctrinal discussions unfold. Since 1987 the accelerating pace of change has accentuated the importance of doctrinally related concerns. As a result of the INF Treaty and the Stockholm agreement, there has been greater transparency regarding Soviet and Warsaw Pact military developments. On December 7, 1988, General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev announced unilateral troop reduction over the next two years, which, when completed, would reduce the offensive capabilities of Soviet forces in Eastern Europe. In March 1989 talks on Confidence- and Security-Building Measures (CSBM) opened in Vienna, with suggestions for exchanges of views on military policy. At the very same time, NATO and the Warsaw Pact began formal negotiations on reduction of Conventional Forces in Europe (CFE) with a specific mandate to reduce those asymmetries that most favored prosecution of deep operations

  4. Themes in Current Soviet Curriculum Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popkewitz, Thomas S.; Tabachnick, B. Robert

    1982-01-01

    Soviet educators are first of all "upbringers" whose prime task is the formation and maintenance of the socialist outlook. They base their teaching on dialectical materialism, assume there are law-like principles of teaching and learning, and are inexhaustibly optimistic. (Author)

  5. Economic Equilibrium and Soviet Economic Reform

    OpenAIRE

    Herbert E. Scarf

    1991-01-01

    The paper, prepared for a Roundtable on Major Economic Problems in the U.S. and the U.S.S.R., discusses some aspects of price theory ñ in particular, the theory of general equilibrium -ñ which may offer some theoretical insights about the economic problems to be encountered during the transition from Socialism to private markets in the Soviet Union.

  6. Landmarks in the Literature: Super Soviet Pedagogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alston, Patrick L.

    1979-01-01

    Anton Makarenko became a national hero for effecting education for communism in the 1920s. His book, "The Road to Life," is an artistic achievement and the most widely read and influential work on education in the Soviet Union. But Makarenko's legacy is more myth than model in present-day Russia. (Author/SJL)

  7. The Soviet Air Force and Strategic Bombing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-04-01

    to envision a British Air Force that could be totally divorced from some form of ground support role. Consequently, he saw an air campaign that would...CA: Presidio Press, 1986. Black, Steven K. The Icarus Illusion: Technology, Doctrine and the Soviet Air Force. Monterrey , CA, 1986. Cockburn, Andrew

  8. Inside the World of the Soviet Professional.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Carl R.

    1987-01-01

    Reports on a fall 1986 journey of Carl Rogers to the U.S.S.R. during which Rogers conducted lectures and workshops on humanistic psychology. Elaborates on workshop sessions with Russian psychologists and therapists. Concludes with general observations about what the workshops may have accomplished and on the Soviet lifestyle in general. (BR)

  9. JPRS Report. Soviet Union: International Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-18

    peoples. Kkhir Dzhokhari states that the recent success- ful visit of Malaysian Prime Minister Mahathir bin Mohamad to the Soviet Union, which here...university. In his speeches during his stay in the USSR in July and August of this year, Prime Minister Mahathir bin Moha- mad, emphasizing the "coincidence

  10. Ethnicity and Power in the Soviet Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Wierzbicki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty years have passed since the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Up until the point of dissolution, the Soviet authorities and intellectual elite had attempted to build a community in order to unite all Soviet citizens in the spirit of socialist modernisation. Although it is difficult to demonstrate that ‘a Soviet nation’ was successfully created [1], the attempt to build such a nation can serve as a case study through which to examine nation-building processes for constructivists as well as modernists . In addition to socialist modernisation, the Soviet nation aimed to be identified as a state, which would make it similar to the political nations dominant in western countries. Contrary to western tradition, however, it was not a nation state that provided full rights for all its citizens, but rather a socialist state that was ‘ruled by workers and peasantry’. Nevertheless, the authorities aimed to give the Soviet nation the characteristics of a specific nation state. “It was a nation that in historical terms strived, or more accurately part of which strived, to form or proclaim a particular state” [2]. While at the time of proclaiming the USSR there was no such thing as the Soviet nation, it can be assumed that it was intended to become a constructed titular nation. The majority of national communities, even created ones, have an ethnic core. However academics cannot agree on the kind of state the USSR was, to what extent it took into account the ethnicity of its multinational population, how much it reflected the values, culture, and interests of its largest population group (i.e., the Russians or even whether it was a Russian national state despite the strong influence of Russian ideology and politics. Some Russian academics, especially those in nationalistic circles (e.g., Valerij Solovej as well as western scholars such as Terry Martin and Geoffrey Hosking stressed that Russians dominated demographically and politically

  11. French-Soviet experiments ARAKS: main results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavergnat, J.

    1982-01-01

    The objective of the French-Soviet ARAKS experiments (Artificial Radiation and Aurora between Kerguelen and the Soviet Union) was to study the injection of an electron beam in the ionospheric plasma. Two rockets were launched which were magnetically conjugated with a point on the ground, and many ground-based measurement facilities were set up in conjunction with these experiments, with emphasis on radar measurements in the Northern Hemisphere as well as on the VLH and VHF measurements in both hemispheres. One of the important results of the experiments is that they have demonstrated the possibility of detecting the ionization trails created by the beam penetrating the conjugate atmosphere by ground-based radar observations. The observations discussed include those related to neutralization of the electron gun and wave emission. 6 references

  12. Nuclear power in the Soviet Bloc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davey, W.G.

    1982-03-01

    The growth of Soviet Bloc nuclear power generation to the end of the century is evaluated on the basis of policy statements of objectives, past and current nuclear power plant construction, and trends in the potential for future construction. Central to this study is a detailed examination of individual reactor construction and site development that provides specific performance data not given elsewhere. A major commitment to nuclear power is abundantly clear and an expansion of ten times in nuclear electric generation is estimated between 1980 and 2000. This rate of growth is likely to have significant impact upon the total energy economy of the Soviet Bloc including lessening demands for use of coal, oil, and gas for electricity generation

  13. Nuclear power in the Soviet Bloc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davey, W.G.

    1982-03-01

    The growth of Soviet Bloc nuclear power generation to the end of the century is evaluated on the basis of policy statements of objectives, past and current nuclear power plant construction, and trends in the potential for future construction. Central to this study is a detailed examination of individual reactor construction and site development that provides specific performance data not given elsewhere. A major commitment to nuclear power is abundantly clear and an expansion of ten times in nuclear electric generation is estimated between 1980 and 2000. This rate of growth is likely to have significant impact upon the total energy economy of the Soviet Bloc including lessening demands for use of coal, oil, and gas for electricity generation.

  14. Citizenship struggles in Soviet successor states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brubaker, W R

    1992-01-01

    "The breakup of the Soviet Union has transformed yesterday's internal migrants, secure in their Soviet citizenship, into today's international migrants of contested legitimacy and uncertain membership. This transformation has touched Russians in particular, of whom some 25 million live in non-Russian successor states. This article examines the politics of citizenship vis-a-vis Russian immigrants in the successor states, focusing on the Baltic states, where citizenship has been a matter of sustained and heated controversy." The author concludes that "formal citizenship cannot be divorced from broader questions of substantive belonging. Successor states' willingness to accept Russian immigrants as citizens, and immigrants' readiness to adopt a new state as their state, will depend on the terms of membership for national minorities and the organization of public life in the successor states." Data are from a variety of published sources. excerpt

  15. JPRS Report Soviet Union Political Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-19

    gentsia, specialists, authoritative workers and kolkhoz farmers in on their deliberations. A soviet of primary party organization secretaries...are in favor of disassembling the authoritarian , bureaucratic system and for focusing on humane, democratic socialism, the forming of a state under...Iolota’nskiy Rayon in Turkmenistan a boarding home for mentally retarded children. Some end up here directly from maternity homes, others are brought by

  16. US - Former Soviet Union environmental management activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The Office of Environmental Management (EM) has been delegated the responsibility for US DOE`s cleanup of nuclear weapons complex. The nature and the magnitude of the waste management and environmental remediation problem requires the identification of technologies and scientific expertise from domestic and foreign sources. This booklet makes comparisons and describes coordinated projects and workshops between the USA and the former Soviet Union.

  17. The Soviet Decision to Invade Czechoslovakia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-09-01

    inuary 1976 DDC - ’■’ rv > Canoron Station O T "> 1 ." Mexancria The caveat appearing on the title pi c.r. ol: Center for hib- avanced^earch...Soviets viewed the political developments in Czechoslovakia in 1968 with alarm bordering on paranoia, conditioned by the "dagger" phobia and by...published its Action Program entitled "The Czechoslovak Road to Socialism ," a program described by a Western authority as "a remarkable

  18. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Economic Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-10-28

    balance. It is well known that V. I. Lenin considered inflation the worse type of taxation . If we talk about the possible methods of normalizing the...INDUSTRIYA in Russian 12 Aug 88 p 1 [Article by V. Shishkin, member, Soviet Association of Political Sciences and candidate of juridical sciences, under...achievements as the results of extravagant spending and double counting. The ruinous nature of the gross output criteria was exposed by using

  19. Animal Effects from Soviet Atmospheric Nuclear Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    describes the effect on animal models of atmospheric nuclear weapons tests performed by the Soviet Union at the Semipalatinsk Test Site . Part I describes...understand the pathogenic mechanisms of injury and the likelihood of efficacy of proposed treatment measures. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Semipalatinsk Test Site ...the Semipalatinsk Test Site . Part 1 describes the air blast and thermal radiation effects. Part 2 covers the effects of primary (prompt) radiation and

  20. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, International Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-05-02

    socialist soci- ety. Perestroyka is not a deviation, but a new step forward in the development of socialism. This means that the whole policy is in the...anniversary of the Great October, that the restructuring is moving forward . The Soviet people is interested in this process and actively supports it...WASHINGTON POST, 3 March 1986. 4. EL FINANCIERO , Mexico, 28 May 1986. 5. THE FINANCIAL TIMES, London, 11 June 1986. 6. See VISION, Mexico, Vol 67, No 5

  1. JPRS Report Soviet Union Political Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-26

    the right of immunity and can be removed from his post only by the Azerbaijan SSR Supreme Soviet in case of a violation by him of the constitution...ities of judges and people’s assessors and their execution of justice is inadmissible and is punishable by law. The immunity of judges and people’s...ecologically clean water to be sold in bottles and cardboard containers- -like kefir . Understandably, this beverage will cost more than tap water, but is

  2. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-28

    Kherson ship builder, the conscientious and docile Poltava or Podillya grain and cattle farmer, the dweller of the coastline of the dying Black Sea...even for free. The best crops of fields, gardens and orchards, the largest herds of cattle not only fail to improve, but consistently worsen the...the Soviet people"—in fact, the spiritual castration of non- Russians. We do not consider that a Ukrainian who speaks Russian automatically loses

  3. Synchrotron radiation sources in the Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapitza, S.P.

    1987-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation (SR) is now recognized to be an important instrument for experimental work in many fields of science. Recently the application of SR in medicine and industry, especially as a light source for microelectronics production have been demonstrated. Thus the development of SR sources has now grown to become a significant and independent dimension for accelerator research and technology. This article describes SR work in the Soviet Union

  4. Soviet Tactical Doctrine for Urban Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-12-01

    Soviet Area Specialist. Valuable assistance was provided by Mr. Gerald Sullivan and LTC Ray N. Franklin, USMC, of the Advanced Research Projects... Oldenburg 120.8 133.3 12.5 10 Osnabruck 133.6 164.0 30.4 23 Regensburg 123.0 133.5 10.5 9 Remacheid 123.0 135.5 12.5 10 Salzgitter 105.9 117.6 11.7

  5. Nuclear safety cooperation for Soviet designed reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reisman, A.W.; Horak, W.C.

    1995-01-01

    The nuclear accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986 first alerted the West to the significant safety risks of Soviet designed reactors. Five years later, this concern was reaffirmed when the IAEA, as a result of a review by an international team of nuclear safety experts, announced that it did not believe the Kozloduy nuclear power plants in Bulgaria could be operated safely. To address these safety concerns, the G-7 summit in Munich in July 1992 outlined a five point program to address the safety problems of Soviet Designed Reactors: operational safety improvement; near-term technical improvements to plants based on safety assessment; enhancing regulatory regimes; examination of the scope for replacing less safe plants by the development of alternative energy sources and the more efficient use of energy; and upgrading of the plants of more recent design. As of early 1994, over 20 countries and international organizations have pledged hundreds of millions of dollars in financial assistance to improve safety. This paper summarizes these assistance efforts for Soviet designed reactors, draws lessons learned from these activities, and offers some options for better addressing these concerns

  6. Soviet medical ethics (1917-1991).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichterman, Boleslav L

    2005-01-01

    Russian medical ethics bears a heavy mark of seven decades of the communist regime. In 1918 the Health Care Commissariat (ministry) was formed. It was headed by Nikolai Semashko (1874-1949) who claimed that "the ethics of the Soviet physician is an ethics of our socialist motherland, an ethics of a builder of communist society; it is equal to communist moral". "Medical ethics" had been avoided until the late 1930s when it was replaced by "medical (or surgical) deontology". This "deontological" period started with "Problems of surgical deontology" written by N. Petrov, a surgeon, and lasted for almost half a century until "medical deontology" was abandoned in favor of "bioethics" in post-communist Russia. There have been five All-Union conferences on medical deontology since 1969. The story of the emergence of "The Oath of a Soviet Physician" is briefly described. The text of this Oath was approved by a special decree of the Soviet Parliament in 1971. Each graduate of medical school in USSR was obliged to take this Oath when receiving his or her medical diploma. It is concluded that such ideas of zemstvo medicine as universal access to health care and condemnation of private practice were put into practice under the communist regime.

  7. Cogeneration in the former Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horak, W.C.

    1997-01-01

    The former Soviet Union made a major commitment to Cogeneration. The scale and nature of this commitment created a system conceptually different from Cogeneration in the west. The differences were both in scale, in political commitment, and in socio economic impact. This paper addresses some of the largest scale Cogeneration programs, the technology, and the residual impact of these programs. The integration of the Cogeneration and nuclear programs is a key focus of the paper. Soviet designed nuclear power plants were designed to produce both electricity and heat for residential and industrial uses. Energy systems used to implement this design approach are discussed. The significant dependence on these units for heat created an urgent need for continued operation during the winter. Electricity and heat are also produced in nuclear weapons production facilities, as well as power plants. The Soviets also had designed, and initiated construction of a number of nuclear power plants open-quotes ATETsclose quotes optimized for production of heat as well as electricity. These were canceled

  8. The image of women in Soviet Manifesto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Orabona

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article summarizes the condition of women within the Bolshevik regime, focusing on the use of posters. Visual propaganda was a means to easily reach wide strata of the population. The official Party ideology, expressed through visual propaganda, contributed to the definition of new social identities, as well as to the creation of new ways of thinking and acting in Soviet society. It had its own internal dynamics and operated as an independent force in a continually evolving society in which the field of discourse was radically changing. Posters aticipated developments in Soviet society and provided a model for people to follow; they were not limited to reflecting past or current events. The posters under consideretion pertain to the representation of women in their various occupations (e.g, workers, peasants or simply happily engaged in everyday life. The images prescribed, for example, which clothes to wear or how hair should be styled, and were without doubt powerful and pervasive; yet they were destined to meet an inevitable decline following Stalin's death, when the Soviet Union reprised its international relations.

  9. Soviet Robots in the Solar System Mission Technologies and Discoveries

    CERN Document Server

    Huntress, JR , Wesley T

    2011-01-01

    The Soviet robotic space exploration program began in a spirit of bold adventure and technical genius. It ended after the fall of the Soviet Union and the failure of its last mission to Mars in 1996. Soviet Robots in the Solar System chronicles the scientific and engineering accomplishments of this enterprise from its infancy to its demise. Each flight campaign is set into context of national politics and international competition with the United States. Together with its many detailed illustrations and images, Soviet Robots in the Solar System presents the most detailed technical description of Soviet robotic space flights provides a unique insight into programmatic, engineering, and scientific issues covers mission objectives, spacecraft engineering, flight details, scientific payload and results describes in technical depth Soviet lunar and planetary probes

  10. Loose Soviet nukes: A mountain or a molehill?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, D.C.

    1991-01-01

    For almost four decades, US national security alarmists have tossed and turned in the night fretting about the atomic plots that might be hatching behind the Kremlin's impenetrable walls. A secretly deployed antimissile shield? An unanswerable first strike? When Cold War fevers were spiking, no Soviet action was too dire to ponder. Now that the Cold War has been declared over and won, ironically, the focus of US concern has shifted to a new danger that has nothing to do with deliberate Soviet schemes. Rather, as Secretary of Defense Dick Cheney suggested in February 7 remarks to the House Armed Services Committee, the collapse of central authority in the Soviet Union means that the greatest threat to the neighbors of the Soviet Union in the future may well come more from the Soviet inability to control events inside the Soviet Union than it will from any conscious policy of seeking to expand their influence by military means

  11. The Tenth Period of Soviet Third World Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-10-01

    All its activity is taking place in an atmosphere of responsible criticism and self-criticism and of observance of the principle of looking the truth...tremendous stability to the Soviet-Indian relationship. Moscow’s ties with New Dehli have lasted now well over thirty years. Moscow can be confident...itself a superpower with global interests and commitments. The costs of the Soviet empire may be onerous at the margin when Soviet economic managers

  12. Soviet/Russian-American space cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karash, Yuri Y.

    This dissertation seeks to answer two questions: (1) what are the necessary conditions for the emergence of meaningful space cooperation between Russia and the United States, and (2) might this cooperation continue developing on its own merit, contributing to the further rapprochement between the two countries, even if the conditions that originated the cooperation were to change? The study examines the entire space era up to this point, 1957 to 1997, from the first satellite launch through the joint U.S.-Russian work on the ISS project. It focuses on the analysis of three distinct periods of possible and real cooperation between the United States and the Soviet Union/Russia. The first possibility for a limited Soviet-American cooperation in space emerged in the late 1950s, together with the space age, and continued until the mid-1960s. The major potential joint project of this period was a human expedition to the Moon. The global competition/confrontation between the two countries prevented actual cooperation. The second period was from the late 1960s until 1985 with consideration of experimental docking missions, including the docking of a reusable U.S. shuttle to a Soviet Salyut-type station. The global U.S.-Soviet competition still continued, but the confrontation was replaced by detente for a brief period of time lasting from the end of 1960s until mid-1970s. Detente gave the first example of U.S.-Soviet cooperation in space---the Apollo-Soyuz joint space flight (ASTP) which took place in 1975. However, the lack of interest of political leaderships in continuation of broad-scale cooperation between the two countries, and the end of detente, removed ASTP-like projects out of question at least until 1985. The third period started together with Mikhail Gorbachev's Perestroika in 1985 and continues until now. It involves almost a hundred of joint space projects both at the governmental and at the private sectors levels. The mainstream of the joint activities

  13. Soviet space nuclear reactor incidents - Perception versus reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Gary L.

    1992-01-01

    Since the Soviet Union reportedly began flying nuclear power sources in 1965 it has had four publicly known accidents involving space reactors, two publicly known accidents involving radioisotope power sources and one close call with a space reactor (Cosmos 1900). The reactor accidents, particularly Cosmos 954 and Cosmos 1402, indicated that the Soviets had adopted burnup as their reentry philosophy which is consistent with the U.S. philosophy from the 1960s and 1970s. While quantitative risk analyses have shown that the Soviet accidents have not posed a serious risk to the world's population, concerns still remain about Soviet space nuclear safety practices.

  14. Le realizzazioni dell'economia sovietica. (Soviet economic performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. MADDISON

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available While in the 1950s Soviet output grew faster than most other industrial countries, the early 1960s has seen a noticeable slowing down in growth. The present paper puts these economic developments into perspective to judge the efficacy of Soviet policy in its attempt to achieve maximum growth and transform an underdeveloped into a developed country. The author first assesses Soviet performance and policy at different stages of development, before assessing the level attained. The purposes for which output is used and the major factors responsible for Soviet performance are then analysed. Finally, likely future developments are considered.JEL: P27, O40

  15. Soviet experience with peaceful uses of nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordyke, M.D.

    1976-01-01

    The Soviet Union is pursuing an active program for developing peaceful uses of nuclear explosions (PNE). They have reported 16 explosions, with applications ranging from putting out oil-well fires and stimulating oil recovery to creating instant dams and canals. The data reported generally agree with U.S. experience. Seismic data collected by western sources on explosions outside the known Soviet test sites indicate that the Soviet program is at least twice as large as they have reported. The accelerated pace of these events suggests that in some applications the Soviet PNE program is approaching routine industrial technology

  16. 3-D Soviet Style: A Presentation on Lessons Learned from the Soviet Experience in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-10-01

    auteurs se penchent sur les aspects stratégiques, opérationnels et tactiques de l’action soviétique. L’étude se fonde sur de l’information actualisée...publiée en russe et en anglais. Les données statistiques sur le conflit ont également été prises en compte. Les auteurs , MM. Anton Minkov et...communication and to the efforts the Soviets made in building Afghan security forces. It includes information on the theory and practice of Soviet

  17. The politics of Soviet strategic defense: Political strategies, organization politics, and Soviet strategic thought. (Volumes I and II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufman, S.J.

    1991-01-01

    This study formulates three different unitary rational-actor models and an organizational model that can be used to explain Soviet policy in strategic defense from 1966-1980, then tests the models to determine which most successfully explains Soviet behavior. The only rational-actor model that can explain the Soviet force posture for air defense relies on demonstrably false assumptions. A well-formulated organizational model can explain these facts, as well as some organizational pathologies shown by the Soviet National Air Defense Forces. The findings suggest that military services, even when ostensibly closely directed by civilian and military superiors, often manage to pursue their own interests rather than the requirements of higher policy. Soviet civilian leaders generally had limited control over the formulation of military doctrine or over the force posture of Soviet military services, but arms control (especially the ABM Treaty) offered a policy handle which helped them to affect doctrine and force posture to a substantial degree

  18. Soviet theories of economic demography: a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, P

    1983-06-01

    At this time Soviet demographic scientists maintain the position that population problems may in fact exist temporarily under socialism but that the planning principle will allow society to resolve population problems, through the use of the administrative, moral, and economic levers (subsidies, government policies, propaganda, education) emphasized by Urlanis (1974) and others. For planners to deal effectively with population management, the determinants of fertility and labor force participation must be established. The foundations of Soviet theories of human capital and fertility were laid by several writers. For the sake of simplicity, these are referred to as the Urlanis-Strumilin model, named after 2 pioneer researchers in Soviet demography and manpower economics. The formulations are based upon the writings of Strumlin (1964) and Urlanis (1974), supplemented by writings of numerous other Soviet researchers. Although their models avoid neoclassical terms such as marginal utility and income and price elasticities, they clearly employ these concepts. The Urlanis-Strumilin model, reduced to its basic elements, is a direct household utility maximizing model. The husband and wife, the household decision makers, must select optimal levels of child "quantity," child "quality," leisure, their own human capital (further education and training), and other goods. The Soviet theory recognizes that an increase in household income will increase relatively the demands for income elastic goods. The model postulates that the demand for child quality is inversely related to the price of children. The price of children is the opportunity cost of children, the major element of which is the income foregone by the mother in the course of childbearing and childrearing. The child quantity demand schedule has elastic and inelastic portions. The marginal utility of the 1st child is great. The marginal utilities of higher order children decline substantially. Families with at least 1

  19. Vospitanie and Regime Change: Teacher-Education Textbooks in Soviet and Post-Soviet Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogachenko, Tatiana; Perry, Laura

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the pedagogical dimension of vospitanie, or character formation, in communist and post-communist education. It explores how vospitanie is conceptualized in two teacher-education textbooks--one from each period--in Ukraine, a post-Soviet country. Comparative analysis shows how conceptualizations of vospitanie have evolved over…

  20. The Soviet-American gallium experiment (SAGE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garvey, G.T.

    1989-01-01

    The Soviet-American Gallium Experiment (SAGE) undertaking is a multi-institutional collaboration among scientists from the Institute for Nuclear Research, Moscow (INR), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and several US universities. It's purpose is to measure the number of low-energy electron neutrinos emitted from the Sun that arrive at this planet. As such, it is an extremely important experiment, touching on fundamental physics issues as well as solar dynamics. In contrast to the strategic overviews, plans, and hopes for intentional collaboration presented earlier today, SAGE is an ongoing working effort with high hopes of producing the first measurement of the Sun's low-energy flux. There are several international physics collaborations involving US and Soviet scientists at the large accelerator installations throughout the world. As the scale of research gets ever larger, requiring ever more resources and then larger collaborations. Much physics research lies solely in the realm of basic research so that governments feel easier about collaborations. Contacts between the US and USSR scientists interested in nuclear and particle physics goes back to the nineteen fifties and have continued with only minor interruptions since then. Over the past two decades the principal oversight of these activities has been through the Joint Coordinating Committee on the Fundamental Properties of Matter, supported by the DOE in the US and the State Committee for Atomic Energy in the USSR. The Academies of Science of both countries have been very helpful and supportive. Each venture has some distinguishing features; in the case of SAGE, the unique aspects are the collaboration between Soviet scientists and scientists at a DOE weapons laboratory and the fact that the experiment is carried out in a remote region of the USSR. The particular problems caused are discussed. 3 refs., 3 figs

  1. Soviet and East European energy databook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, D.C.

    1991-01-01

    For the USSR, energy data is assembled under the following main headings: energy and the economy; production; engineering; exploration; transport of fuel; refining; consumption by sector; employment; finance; trade; electricity. There are 162 tables. Five tables of data on Eastern Europe as a region cover production of energy, consumption, and exports of crude and oil products. Using similar broad headings as these for the USSR, a further 184 tables give data for the following individual countries: Bulgaria; Czechoslovakia; East Germany; Hungary; Poland; Romania; Yugoslavia. The data has been accumulated from Soviet and East European sources, mainly newspapers, journals, annual yearbooks and private contacts and the chief of these are listed. (UK)

  2. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-11-15

    jour- nals almost at the same time as A. Rybakov’s "Children of the Arbat," V. Dudintsev’s "White Clothes," D. Granin’s "Diehard," and the essays ... lyrical poet," Akh- matova is able to make "concise, vivid, and resounding statements regarding the salient or distinctive features of the spiritual...known poet M. Avi-Shaul; a photo essay on Soviet artists and cultural figures, who had visited Israel in recent years; on the Romen Theater, headed by

  3. Socialization of the Child in the Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandanavicius, Mary

    1979-01-01

    The socialization process of the child in the Soviet Union is examined in terms of socialistic/communistic political philosophy and the general attitudes of the Soviets toward social sciences, child rearing, and educational practice. The family, school, and youth organizations are also discussed as socializing agents. (Author/KC)

  4. Afghanistan: The First Five Years of Soviet Occupation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    July 1982, reported that be- fore reaching the Kabul River his group passed three DRA outposts or forts. One of his guerrilla companions assured him...driver, chef , doctor, and six chief advisers, all were Soviets. At the palace where he resided and worked, the guard force was Soviet, except for a

  5. The Adversary System in Low-Level Soviet Economic Decisionmaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-08-01

    34- ° .. 78 - capital or a few countertrade agreements, will solve their problems for them. This is markedly different from the overall Soviet pattern...currency countertrade practice, the considerations of this Note would permit further refinement of predictions of Soviet economic decisionmaking that

  6. Social-historical memory about soviet the pas: empiric research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. G. Pozdnyakova­Kirbatyeva

    2014-06-01

    Also considered komomeratyvni properties attitude to the soviet past in the population of different regions of the country and the most general description of the memory of the soviet past, namely the degree of interest of the population of different regions to the past.

  7. 'A people forgotten by history': Soviet Studies of the Kurds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leezenberg, M.

    2015-01-01

    The Russian/Soviet experience raises complex general questions concerning orientalism, conceptual hegemony, and the politics of (post-)colonial knowledge. Russia was not an empire in Said's sense, and drew much of its orientalist categories from non-imperialist German sources; the Soviet Union was

  8. Soviet Cultural Diplomacy in Denmark during the Cold War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederichsen, Kim

    2012-01-01

    The article discusses the Soviet apparatus for cultural diplomacy abroad during the Cold War period using the worlds oldest society for friendship with the Soviet Union as a case study. The article looks at question from 3 diffrent angels: 1: Organisation, planning and financing. 2: Activities. 3...

  9. Soviet Counterinsurgency Operations in Afghanistan (1979-1988)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-29

    Soviet commitment in Afghanistan. was to be an "economy of force" mission, with the focus of Red Army combat power to remain in the European theatre ...critically for its operational and tactical resupply capability. ’’The Soviets in Afghanis4Ul,li1ce the Americansin Vietnam, discovered thai helicopters were

  10. Socialism and Education in Cuba and Soviet Uzbekistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charon-Cardona, Euridice

    2013-01-01

    During the Cold War over half a million Asians, Africans and Latin Americans studied and graduated in the Soviet Union's universities and technical schools as part of this country's educational aid policies. Cuba was an intermediary player in the Cold War geopolitical contest between the United States and the Soviet Union, fuelled by the…

  11. The evolution of Soviet forces, strategy, and command

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, D.; Bethe, H.A.; Blair, B.G.; Bracken, P.; Carter, A.B.; Dickinson, H.; Garwin, R.L.; Holloway, D.; Kendall, H.W.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports on the evolution of Soviet forces, strategy and command. Soviet leaders have repeatedly emphasized that it would be tantamount to suicide to start a nuclear war. Mutual deterrence, however, does not make nuclear was impossible. The danger remains that a large-scale nuclear was could start inadvertently in an intense crisis, or by escalation out of a conventional war, or as an unforeseen combination of these. For these reasons crisis management has become a central issue in the United States, but the standard Soviet response to this Western interest has been to say that what is needed is crisis avoidance, not recipes for brinkmanship masquerading under another name. There is much sense in this view. Nevertheless, this demeanor does not mean that the Soviet Union has given no thought to the danger that a crisis might lead to nuclear war, only that Soviet categories for thinking about such matters differ from those employed in the United States

  12. The Soviet applied information sciences in a time of change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bengston, J.; Cronin, R.R.; Davidson, R.B.

    1991-07-01

    The Foreign Applied Sciences Assessment Center (FASAC) conducts reviews of selected areas of foreign basic and applied science by US scientists who are technically expert and active in the fields reviewed. Several of the FASAC assessments of Soviet science have involved various aspects of the information sciences, including enabling technologies and applications, as well as the core information sciences. This report draws upon those FASAC assessment reports, the expert judgment of some of the authors of those reports, and other public sources to characterize the current state of the information sciences in the Soviet Union and the effects of information science capabilities upon other areas of Soviet science and technology. This report also provides estimates of the likely effect of the political and social reforms underway in the Soviet Union on future Soviet progress in the information sciences and, at a more general level, in science and technology. 41 refs., 7 tabs.

  13. Skill Formation and Utilisation in the Post-Soviet Transition: Higher Education Planning in Post-Soviet Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvaramadze, Irakli

    2010-01-01

    Changes in the former Soviet system had a dramatic influence on higher education in Georgia. The main objective of the current article is to analyse implications of the post-Soviet transition for the skill formation and skill utilisation system in Georgia. In particular, the study analyses recent trends in Georgian higher education including…

  14. Universal Higher Education and Positional Advantage: Soviet Legacies and Neoliberal Transformations in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolentseva, Anna

    2017-01-01

    The great expansion of participation in higher education in Russia in the post-Soviet period was the layered and contradictory result of both conditions established in the Soviet period, and the structuring of reforms after the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1992. The Soviet government was strongly committed to the expansion of education across…

  15. Nonlinear dynamics research in the former Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenney, B.L.; Krafsig, J.; Moon, F.C.; Shlesinger, M.F.

    1992-08-01

    This assessment of nonlinear dynamics research in the former Soviet Union was performed by seven US scientists and engineers active in the fields examined. The topics covered include: solid-state systems and circuits, information theory and signal analysis, chaos in mechanical systems, turbulence and vortex dynamics, ocean processes, image processing, and lasers and nonlinear optics. The field of nonlinear dynamics and chaos blossomed in academic settings in both the West and the former Soviet Union during the 1980s. The field went from mathematical abstraction to interesting engineering application areas. Several generalizations can be drawn from the review of Soviet work: Soviet work generally began earlier than Western work, and, in areas that do not require extensive computational resources, that work has kept up with, and often leads, the West. This is especially true in the mathematical analysis of nonlinear phenomena. Soviet researchers have shown an ability to combine numerical or analytic ideas with laboratory experimentation in a smoother, less erratic fashion than Western researchers. Furthermore, contrary to Western practice, the same researchers often do both theoretical and experimental work. In areas that require numerical verification of ideas in the field, the Western work is leading that of the former Soviet Union. This is especially true in the areas of signal processing, simulations of turbulence, and communications. No evidence was found of any significant penetration of ideas of nonlinear dynamics into technological applications of a military or commercial area in the former Soviet Union. Opportunities abound, but specific applications are not apparent

  16. Soviet Advisors Group in South China and Soviet Union Financing of Gomindan War Planes in 1924

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Александр Геннадьевич Юркевич

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The article dwells on the organization and activities of the Soviet advisors group, which assisted to the South China government of Sun Yatsen, its participation in financing Kuomintang political and military projects. The author pointed out that the main aim of the advisors group efforts was to form new Kuomintang power institutions and to bring its policy and army under control, for all that the tactics of implementation of strategy aim were constantly changing.

  17. Ex-Soviet Union: oil exporter or importer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khartukov, E.M.

    1993-01-01

    Perestroika of the Soviet economy and the political disintegration of the USSR have raised questions about the international ramifications of the ongoing economic and political developments in the world's largest oil-producing country. First of all, it relates to their impact on the quantity and quality of oil exports from the former Soviet Union (FSU). On the other hand, the opening of the national oil industry to foreign investors focuses their ever growing attention on the complicated internal, inter-republic oil issues which emerged after the sudden fragmentation of the Soviet oil empire into a dozen of sovereign but still interdependent parts. 1 fig., 7 tabs

  18. President Ford and both the Soviet and American ASTP crews

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    President Gerald R. Ford removes the Soviet Soyuz spacecraft model from a model set depicting the 1975 Apollo Soyuz Test Project (ASTP), an Earth orbital docking and rendezvous mission with crewmen from the U.S. and USSR. From left to right, Vladamir A. Shatalov, Chief, Cosmonaut training; Valeriy N. Kubasov, ASTP Soviet engineer; Aleksey A. Leonov, ASTP Soviet crew commander; Thomas P. Stafford, commander of the American crew; Donald K. Slayton, American docking module pilot; Vance D. Brand, command module pilot for the American crew. Dr. George M Low, Deputy Administrator for NASA is partially obscured behind President Ford.

  19. Tokamak research in the Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strelkov, V.S.

    1981-01-01

    Important milestones on the way to the tokamak fusion reactor are recapitulated. Soviet tokamak research concentrated at the I.V. Kurchatov Institute in Moscow, the A.F. Ioffe Institute in Leningrad and the Physical-Technical Institute in Sukhumi successfully provides necessary scientific and technological data for reactor design. Achievments include, the successful operation of the first tokamak with superconducting windings (T-7) and the gyrotron set for microwave plasma heating in the T-10 tokamak. The following problems have intensively been studied: Various methods of additional plasma heating, heat and particle transport, and impurity control. The efficiency of electron-cyclotron resonance heating was demonstrated. In the Joule heating regime, both the heat conduction and diffusion rates are anomalously high, but the electron heat conduction rate decreases with increasing plasma density. Progress in impurity control makes it possible to obtain a plasma with effective charge approaching unity. (J.U.)

  20. Nuclear power in the Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponomarev-Stepnoi, N.N.

    1989-01-01

    The pros and cons of nuclear power are similar in many countries, but the following pro factors are specific to the Soviet Union: the major sources of conventional fuel are in one area of the country, but energy consumption is concentrated in another; and a large portion of energy is generated using oil and gas. The arguments against nuclear power are as follows: safety requirements and expectations have been increased; and public opinion is negative. A program of nuclear power generation has been developed. New techniques are being implemented to increase safety and enhance operations of different types of nuclear power plants. Its should be obvious in the future that a nuclear power plant has better economic and environmental parameters than existing methods of power generation

  1. Radon therapy in the Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sansoni, B.; Andrejew, S.V.

    1991-08-01

    In the Soviet Union approximately one million courses of radon treatment each lasting three weeks are prescribed every year. The curative application of radon used for cardiovascular diseases, including aftercare in cases of cardiac infarction, disorders of the locomotor system and joints and muscles, the male and female sexual system, diseases of the nervous system, endocrinology and metabolic diseases. Contraindication practice is similar to that in Central Europe. Radon is given to skin stimulation by wet and above all dry baths. The radiation exposure of patients from these three-week radon treatments is relatively low. The radon effect is interpreted as 'radiation flash' stimulating the nervous system. The skin plays a particular role in this process, acting as the stimulus acceptor. (orig./MG) [de

  2. Soviet women and the autonomous family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbrogno, S; Imbrogno, N I

    1989-01-01

    "The USSR family is changing in form from that of a social collectivity, a bedrock conception to socialism, to that of an autonomous family. Autonomy discloses a lack of homogeneity, an independence of choices over life-styles and a flexibility toward an interpretation given to the meaning of a socialistic state. Women are exceedingly active in making greater use of their legal rights to divorce and abortion and demanding equal status with men both in the workplace and in the home. Women are initiating major social changes, are readily adapting to changing relations and patterns in a complex society and are serving to spearhead changes in the family unit. These factors have generated major changes in the normative, behavioral and structural dimensions of marriage and family life in the Soviet Union." excerpt

  3. Identity and Othering in Past and Present: Representations of the Soviet Era in Estonian Post-Soviet Textbooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Kello

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses representations of the ‘core Soviet era’ (1945-1985 in Estonian post-Soviet history textbooks (1989-2016. Attitudes towards the Soviet system have been a rich resource for identity building, and hence a powerful political tool across the whole of the post-Soviet block. Based on an analysis of sections about the Soviet era in Estonia in 21 textbooks, the paper takes a look at how textbooks reflect broader processes of social meaning making, identity building and othering after a profound social and political turn. In 1989 and during the early 1990s, perspectives and narratives in Estonian history textbooks were closely related to social memory and national politics, enacting a specific social representation of the Soviet era that dominated the Estonian-speaking public space during the 1990s. The Soviet era, Russia and local Russians became the main Others for Estonia and Estonians. Over time, public discourse has diversified. The national curriculum and textbooks, however, still maintain the canon that formed in 1990s and thus reflect earlier sentiments. Apart from the increasing salience of Soviet-era daily life in more recent textbooks, the thematic choices and emphases have changed little since the 1990s. Therefore, even if the style of writing has ‘cooled down’, issues of identity preservation, resistance and accommodation, together with a saliently negative representation of wrongdoings by the Soviet system, still prevail. On the one hand, this testifies to the resilience of an established tradition in the textbook genre in general. On the other hand, it reflects the dominance of an ethnocentric tradition in Estonian history textbook writing. The paper discusses the implications of these findings for interethnic relations in Estonia.

  4. Soviet Union goes to Sussex for advice on science policy

    CERN Multimedia

    Brown, P

    1990-01-01

    Two state officials from the Soviet Union came to the SPRU, Sussex University, to learn about methods for forecasting trends in science and technology and ways of establishing priorities for basic scientific research (1/2 page).

  5. Historical Soviet Daily Snow Depth (HSDSD), Version 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Historical Soviet Daily Snow Depth (HSDSD) product is based on observations from 284 World Meteorological Organization (WMO) stations throughout Russia and the...

  6. Differences over Economics in the Soviet Leadership, 1988-1990

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aslund, Anders

    1991-01-01

    .... It focuses on four central issues: the range of differences on agricultural policy, how to deal with the Soviet Union's financial crisis, what to do about pricing policy, and the overall goal of economic reform...

  7. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, The Working Class & The Contemporary World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-10-15

    Beatles and Rolling Stones groups, the astronaut J. Glenn, Dzh. (sic) Eisenhower and J. Kennedy, M.L. King and the screen actor M. Brando. At the ...JPRS-UWC-87-002 15 October 1987 FOREIGN BROADCAST INFORMATION SERVICE JPRS Report— Soviet Union THE WORKING CLASS & THE CONTEMPORARY WORLD...MmmKmoN STATEMENT A 19980714 146 mcWAUTtmBPBVmi Soviet Union The Working Class & The Contemporary World No 3, May-June 1987 JPRS-UWC-87-002

  8. Soviet civil defense plans make nuclear war winnable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goure, L.

    1985-01-01

    In this paper, the author expresses his opinion that the U.S. is naive and suicidal in its lack of civil defense preparation for nuclear war. The Soviets' extensive civil defense planning is evidence that they plan to use their nuclear weapons and survive a counterattack by the U.S. The author compares the two systems and explains why the Soviets' system is superior

  9. PROBLEMS OF INTEGRATION AT THE FORMER SOVIET UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Еlena А. Hudorenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article provides analysis of historical retrospective of integrationprocesses in former Soviet Union, ways and opportunities for furtherdevelopment thereof.The authors make a study of the problems of development and functioningof Eurasian cooperation, the effectiveness of interaction with certain states,analyze the reasons of failures, emphasize the achievements results ofcooperation, point out the opportunities for integration processes betweendifferent CIS and provide practical recommendations for effectiveness thereof in former Soviet Union.

  10. Text of the joint U.S.-Soviet summit statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-12-01

    The document reproduces the text of the joint U.S.-Soviet summit statement issued on 10 December 1987 at the conclusion of the meeting between the President of the United States and the General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Washington, December 7-10, 1987). It refers to the arms control (including nuclear weapons), human rights and humanitarian concerns, regional issues, bilateral affairs and further meetings

  11. Soviet Policy Toward Western Europe Objectives, Instruments, Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-02-01

    Hellenic Socialist Move- ment ( PASOK ) and the development of ties between its left wing and the Greek Communist party (KKE). Before PASOK won an...absolute majority in the June 1985 elections, the Soviets may have hoped for the formation of a PASOK -KKE coalition or, more likely, an arrange- ment...whereby a minority PASOK government would remain in power with tacit Communist support. Although these expectations were not fulfilled, the Soviets expect

  12. Soviet command and control in a historical context

    OpenAIRE

    Kern, Jeffrey A.

    1981-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited An examination is made of the historical antecedents of present day command and control doctrine in the Soviet Union. The continuity of principal characteristics is demonstrated. The ideological determinants shaping the command and control system are first developed. These include centralism, collective decision-making, unity of command, and redundancy. Practical consequences of these are explored. The functioning of Soviet command...

  13. Toward a Profile of Soviet Behavior in International Financial Markets,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-08-01

    duv. priding a hedge against both economic and political uncertaintv. l’oitical developments could cut oft Soviet access t(I Western credit marktt...deposits than heyc were paying on their loans, and this simple arbitrage operatio)n would have been p~rofitable. Opportunities for this kind of...8217 arbitrage miay’ hake persisted into 1985. when interest rates on short -term deposits finally% t’ell below the rates that the Soviet U nion would have been

  14. Who's bound by the former Soviet Union's arms control treaties?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhinelander, J.B.; Bunn, G.

    1991-01-01

    A crucial issue raised by the disintegration of the Soviet central government is what happens to Soviet arms control obligations. As the Soviet government transforms or collapses in the wake of the failed August coup, which of the resulting entities will be bound by the treaties the Soviet Union entered into? Under international law, the obligations of a state are not affected by even such dramatic changes in government. No one yet knows, however, what the end result of the ongoing devolution of power in the erstwhile Soviet Union will be. As illustrations of what could happen to Soviet arms control obligations - not predictions of the future - the authors pose two alternative scenarios. In the first, they assume that most of the current 12 republics, including all of the big four where substantial nuclear forces and the largest conventional forces are located (Russia, Ukraine, Khazakhstan, and Belarus), ultimately form a loose confederation with sufficient central authority to be called a nation-state and to carry out the essence of Soviet obligations under major arms control treaties. In the second, they assume that the union disintegrates further, with these four key republics seceding entirely and recognizing one another as independent states - a step which is apparently one of the US criteria for granting its own recognition. In this scenario, the Russian republic maintains its basic territory and replaces the central government as the power center for military and foreign affairs. In each of these cases, they will describe the general issues affecting the Soviet Union's international obligations, and consider specifically the two most important arms control agreements now in force - the multilateral nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty (NPT) and the bilateral Antiballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty

  15. The Role of Women in the Soviet Armed Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-04-15

    she would stereotype Soviet women, she stated: " Overworked , unhappy with their lives-- standing in lines, taking care of the kids, alcoholism among men...Greece, The Netherlands, Turkey, Israel and Japan . There was no mention of the Soviet Union. Based upon a January 1991 query to the Women’s Research and...1986-1990 due to accidents, suicide and hazing. The group asked the military prosecutor to investigate the abuses within the armed forces, especially

  16. The Soviet Withdrawal from Eastern Europe: A Move in Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-02-15

    head." A roof indeed! These dwellings back in the Soviet Union have been referred to as " prefabricated huts." Dozens of accounts lament that servicemen... prefabricated hostels. The head of the Defense Ministry estimates that fifty percent of the homeless are thus quartered: thirty percent have returned to...for 220,000 tons of fuel, garages for motor vehicles, 149 barracks, and 66 canteens. Soviet officials estimate that these facilities are wort- abut

  17. Geopolitics: The Key to Understanding Soviet Regional Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    Soviet foreign policy. nertnngthis role, CO can begin to build a usable theoretical framwork for analyzing Soviet behavior in, utategiczlly inportant...the writings of the great geopolitical theorists, such as Mackinder, Spykman, and Gray, in developing a conceptual basis for understanding the la-tem...Histary,- British geographer Sir Halford J. mdcinder provided the conceptual framewrk for geopolitical theory by dividing the world into three vast regions

  18. Is Soviet society fit for the nuclear age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemeny, L.G.

    1986-01-01

    The author argues that the Kremlin's handling of the Chernobyl crisis is a far greater indictment of Soviet ethos, society and ideology than their technology. The Soviet nuclear plan is seen to be to press on regardless of safety standards. Australia's government and society, through poor education, foreign disinformation and media orchestration, are unable to participate effectively in the responsibilities of a global nuclear society

  19. Kimchi, seaweed, and seasoned carrot in the Soviet culinary culture: the spread of Korean food in the Soviet Union and Korean diaspora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changzoo Song

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The half-million Soviet Koreans (or Koryŏ saram in the former Soviet Union are the descendants of the ethnic Koreans who migrated to the Russian Far East in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from the northern parts of the Korean peninsula. Their settlements were established in the wide areas of the Russian Far East, including the urban areas around Vladivostok. They were, however, forced-migrated to Central Asia in late 1937 under Stalin's rule. From Central Asia, these Soviet Koreans were further dispersed to other parts of the Soviet Union in the post-Stalin era. These multiple dispersions of Soviet Koreans not only transformed their culinary habit, but also helped Korean food spread among the peoples of the Soviet Union. As a result, Korean food, such as kimchi, miyŏk (edible kelp, and others, were introduced and widely consumed throughout the Soviet Union. This paper explores this unusual spread and popularity of Korean food in the Soviet Union, focusing on the migration history of the Soviet Koreans and Soviet culinary culture. This work is based on the author's fieldwork in the Soviet Union in the early 1900s and again in mid-2000s. The unusual diffusion and popularity of the Korean food in the former Soviet Union provides us with important insights on migration and globalization of ethnic food.

  20. SOVIET POSTERS IN LITHUANIA IN 1940–1953

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bajoraite, Alma

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The Soviet occupation and their ideology brought to Lithuania a new poster quality. The paper analyzes the problem of posters propaganda and manipulation, the inheritance of the not traditional documents and their inventory. The goal of this paper is to analyze the soviet posters in Lithuania in 1940–1953.The principal problems of this paper are to research the formation and the domination of the posters in Lithuania: which role they had in the politics. The paper also analyzes the soviet posters impact on farming and their influence to the society.To sum up, the new trend of art appeared in 1940 in Lithuania, which had the principal goal to propagate the soviet ideology in all the political and social spheres. The goal of the soviet posters as the media of information was to provide the distorted view of the reality. The soviet posters had dominated in Lithuania in 1940–1953. This period had left a very interesting and rich heritage. It is the importatant part of the cultural and historical heritage.

  1. Soviet Union oil sector outlook grows bleaker still

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the outlook for the U.S.S.R's oil sector which grows increasingly bleak and with it prospects for the Soviet economy. Plunging Soviet oil production and exports have analysts revising near term oil price outlooks, referring to the Soviet oil sector's self-destructing and Soviet oil production in a freefall. County NatWest, Washington, citing likely drops in Soviet oil production and exports (OGJ, Aug. 5, p. 16), has jumped its projected second half spot price for West Texas intermediate crude by about $2 to $22-23/bbl. Smith Barney, New York, forecasts WTI postings at $24-25/bbl this winter, largely because of seasonally strong world oil demand and the continued collapse in Soviet oil production. It estimates the call on oil from the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries at more than 25 million b/d in first quarter 1992. That would be the highest level of demand for OPEC oil since 1980, Smith Barney noted

  2. Kant’s Studies in Ukrainian Philosophy of Soviet Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadym Tytarenko

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This writing is devoted to the brief review of Immanuel Kant’s philosophy studies and receptions of his philosophical concepts within the Ukrainian philosophy of Soviet period. Such attempt is actually pertinent because nowadays we definitely need to reconsider the soviet philosophical heritage for better understanding the real value of any philosophical conclusions and worldview-concerning statements which were made in the times of soviet ideology hegemony. Additionally, mentioned reconsidering is presently urgent because Ukrainian intellectual culture is now looking for its identity and is trying to identify the stillremaining ideological totalitarian elements which spoil the originality and objectiveness of its products. The present review attempts to identify which totalitarian intentions and prejudices were used to interpret and evaluate the Immanuel Kant’s heritage in the texts written by several selected Ukrainian philosophers of the Soviet period. Nevertheless, it’s obvious that absolutely impossible to avoid talking about Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel’s philosophical position interpretation by the same authors. Kant’s and Hegel’s soviet-Ukrainian interpretations were often connected, because there was a general trend of soviet Marxist history of philosophy to interpret Kant as the “worse” version of Hegel. To fulfill the general image of Kant’s philosophy interpretation in Ukrainian philosophy and its future perspectives, this paper also delivers some common information about the whole historical path of Kant’s interpretations and receptions

  3. DOSTOEVSKY'S RELIGIOSITY AS A METHODOLOGICAL PROBEM OF SOVIET LITERARY CRITICISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Sergeevich Shaulov

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Soviet literary criticism, especially in the first decades after the 1917 Revolution, was quite biased in its treatment of Dostoevsky and his works. The reasons for this bias lie both inside and outside the sphere of political ideology. We suggest that there exists a genetic link between some Soviet readings of Dostoevsky and a number of interpretations made in the author's lifetime. Also analysed are the attempts to 'domesticate' Dostoevsky and adapt his works to drastically different cultural conditions and political norms. It is indicative that this adaptation has always passed the stage of mythologizing the writer and his works. This mythologization paradoxically became a convergence point for Soviet (Lunacharsky, anti-Soviet (Berdyayev and purely philosophical (Bakhtin readings of Dostoevsky. Ultimately, the central Dostoevsky myth in post-revolutionary Russia was a version of Romantic mythology often directly expressed in comparing Dostoevsky with Prometheus. We also look at the negative readings of Dostoevsky, which construed the author as a certain mythological antagonist of the proletariat as the collective messiah. Such readings (exemplified in our article by Pereverzev's and Livshits' point at the ultimate limit of ethical assessment of Dostoevsky from the standpoint of rational secular humanism and the Soviet humanitarian thought as its version. Dostoevsky's artistic practice incorporates this tradition within the intranovel dialogue as just one of the voices and demonstrates its ethical insufficiency, which in its turn provokes the mixed reaction of 'appropriation' and 'rejection' from both Soviet thinkers and their contemporary heirs.

  4. Population change in the former Soviet Republics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haub, C

    1994-12-01

    Demographic trends in the former Soviet Republics and Russia are summarized and discussed in this publication. The former Soviet Republics in Europe as well as Georgia and Armenia had completed or almost completed their demographic transition before October 1991. Other Central Asian republics experienced reduced mortality, but, despite rapid declines, fertility is still above replacement level (at 3-4 children per woman). The economic and social dislocation of the breakup of the republics has hastened fertility decline. The annual population growth rate of the USSR in the mid-1980s was 0.9%; this rate declined to 0.4% in 1991, and the decline has continued. The 1991 population of the USSR was 289.1 million. Between 1989 and 1991, the crude birth rate was 18/1000 population, and the crude death rate was 10/1000. The net migration rate of -4/1000 helped to reduce growth. Total fertility in the USSR was 2.3 children in 1990. In Russia, fertility declined from 1.9 in 1990 to 1.4 in 1993. The preferred family size in Russia was 1.9 in 1990 and 1.5 in 1993. This decline occurred due to lack of confidence in the economy and insufficient income. Only 19% of women used contraception in 1990. Marriages declined after 1990. Age pyramids were similar in the republics in that there was a narrowing in the proportion aged 45-49 years, and the male population aged over 65 years was diminished, due to the effect of World War II. The cohort of those aged 20-24 years in 1992 was very small due to the small parental birth cohort. The differences in the republics was characterized as broad-based in the younger ages because of high fertility. The number of childbearing women will remain large. Life expectancy has been 70 years since the 1950s and has declined in some republics due to substandard health care, lack of job safety measures, and alcoholism. Some republics experienced increased life expectancy, but, after 1991, mortality increased. Tajikistan had the highest infant mortality

  5. Experimental investigations at the Soviet tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobrovskij, G.A.; Golant, V.E.; AN SSSR, Leningrad. Fiziko-Tekhnicheskij Inst.)

    1978-01-01

    The review is devoted to the basic results obtained on the Soviet tokamaks during 1976-1977. Behaviour of impurities, tearing instability, additional methods of plasma heating, energy distribution function were investigated. A brief description of new T-7, TM-4, ''Tuman-3'' tokamaks is given. It is shown that despite inflow of impurities to the pinch periphery, no their appreciable accumulation is observed at least during the discharge time. It is shown that the helical perturbations with m=2 and 1 present the greatest danger. The suppression of the tearing instability is related with suppression of the mode with m=2. The helical perturbation prevents formation of skin configuration at the initial stage of the discharge. As a rule, the transition of an appreciable fraction of electrons to continuous acceleration does not take place, although a significant deformation of electron distribution function under the action of electric field occurs. Plasma compression by increasing magnetic field induces oscillations and improves thermal plasma isolation. It is shown experimentally that the considerable efficiency of energy contribution to the ion component at the central part of plasma may be obtained by means of HF heating under conditions of low-hybrid resonance. It is shown that the recombination has a considerable effect on concentration of neutral particles in the central region

  6. A plan for Soviet nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, R.

    1992-01-01

    If environmentalist forces are successful, the Russian government may soon establish the country's first comprehensive program for dealing with nuclear waste. Later this month the Russian parliament, back from its summer recess, is expected to begin considering a bill on this topic. A draft copy indicates that Russia is starting with the basics: It orders the government to develop a means of insulting waste from the environment, to form a national waste processing program, and to create a registry for tracking where spent atomic fuel is stored or buried. The bill comes on the heels of a November 1991 decree by Russian President Boris Yeltsin to step up efforts to deal with nuclear waste issues and to create a government registry of nuclear waste disposal sites by 1 January 1993. The former Soviet Union has come under fire from environmentalists for dumping low- and intermediate-level nuclear wastes in the Arctic Ocean and for improperly storing waste at sites in the southern Urals and Belarus. Adding to the bill's urgency is the fact that Russia is considering sites for underground repositories for high-level waste at Tomsk, Krasnoyarsk, Chelyabinsk, and on the Kola Peninsula

  7. The Soviet contributions towards MAP/WINE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapoport, Z. TA.; Kazimirovsky, E. S.

    1989-01-01

    In the winter of 1983 to 1984, the research institutes of the Soviet Union took an active part in the accomplishment of the project Winter in Northern Europe (MAP/WINE) of the Middle Atmosphere Program. Different methods were used to measure temperature, direction and velocity of wind, turbulence, electron concentration in the lower ionosphere, and radio wave absorption. The study of the stratopheric warmings and the related changes in the mesosphere and lower ionosphere was considered of special importance. The analysis of the obtained data has shown, in particular, that during the stratospheric warmings the western wind in winter time becomes weaker and even reverses. At the same time period the electron concentration and the radio wave absorption in the lower ionosphere are often reduced. It is also observed that the high absorption zones move from west to east. These results confirm the concept about the role of the cyclonic circumpolar vortex in the transport of the auroral air to temperate latitudes and about the appearance of conditions for the winter anomalous radio wave absorption.

  8. Soviet contributions towards MAP/WINE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapoport, Z. Ts.; Kazimirovsky, E. S.

    In the winter of 1983/1984, the research institutes of the Soviet Union took an active part in the accomplishment of the project ``Winter in Northern Europe'' of the Middle Atmosphere Program (MAP/WINE). Different methods were used to measure temperature, direction and velocity of wind, turbulence, electron density in the lower ionosphere, and radio wave absorption. The study of the stratospheric warmings and the related changes in the mesosphere and lower ionosphere was considered of special importance. The analysis of the obtained data has shown, in particular, that during stratospheric warmings the westerly wind in wintertime becomes weaker and even reverses. At the same time period the electron density and the radio wave absorption in the lower ionosphere are often reduced. It is also observed that the high absorption zones move from west to east. These results confirm the concept about the role of the cyclonic circumpolar vortex in the transport of the auroral air to temperate latitudes and about the appearance of conditions for the winter anomalous radio wave absorption.

  9. The Soviet contributions towards MAP/WINE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapoport, Z. Ta.; Kazimirovsky, E. S.

    1989-04-01

    In the winter of 1983 to 1984, the research institutes of the Soviet Union took an active part in the accomplishment of the project Winter in Northern Europe (MAP/WINE) of the Middle Atmosphere Program. Different methods were used to measure temperature, direction and velocity of wind, turbulence, electron concentration in the lower ionosphere, and radio wave absorption. The study of the stratopheric warmings and the related changes in the mesosphere and lower ionosphere was considered of special importance. The analysis of the obtained data has shown, in particular, that during the stratospheric warmings the western wind in winter time becomes weaker and even reverses. At the same time period the electron concentration and the radio wave absorption in the lower ionosphere are often reduced. It is also observed that the high absorption zones move from west to east. These results confirm the concept about the role of the cyclonic circumpolar vortex in the transport of the auroral air to temperate latitudes and about the appearance of conditions for the winter anomalous radio wave absorption.

  10. The Changing Face of the of Former Soviet Cities: Elucidated by Remote Sensing and Machine Learning Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poghosyan, Armen

    2017-04-01

    Despite remote sensing of urbanization emerged as a powerful tool to acquire critical knowledge about urban growth and its effects on global environmental change, human-environment interface as well as environmentally sustainable urban development, there is lack of studies utilizing remote sensing techniques to investigate urbanization trends in the Post-Soviet states. The unique challenges accompanying the urbanization in the Post-Soviet republics combined with the expected robust urban growth in developing countries over the next several decades highlight the critical need for a quantitative assessment of the urban dynamics in the former Soviet states as they navigate towards a free market democracy. This study uses total of 32 Level-1 precision terrain corrected (L1T) Landsat scenes with 30-m resolution as well as further auxiliary population and economic data for ten cities distributed in nine former Soviet republics to quantify the urbanization patterns in the Post-Soviet region. Land cover in each urban center of this study was classified by using Support Vector Machine (SVM) learning algorithm with overall accuracies ranging from 87 % to 97 % for 29 classification maps over three time steps during the past twenty-five years in order to estimate quantities, trends and drivers of urban growth in the study area. The results demonstrated several spatial and temporal urbanization patterns observed across the Post-Soviet states and based on urban expansion rates the cities can be divided into two groups, fast growing and slow growing urban centers. The relatively fast-growing urban centers have an average urban expansion rate of about 2.8 % per year, whereas the slow growing cities have an average urban expansion rate of about 1.0 % per year. The total area of new land converted to urban environment ranged from as low as 26 km2 to as high as 780 km2 for the ten cities over the 1990 - 2015 period, while the overall urban land increase ranged from 11.3 % to 96

  11. The Soviet Union and population: theory, problems, and population policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Maio, A J

    1980-04-01

    Until the important public dialog on 3rd World population issues began in the Soviet Uuion in 1965, ideological limitations and bureaucratic interests prevented policy makers from recognizing the existence of a world of national "population problem." Since then, freer discussions of the Soviet Union's surprising decline in birthrate and labor shortages have led to serious policy questions. Conflicting policy goals, however, have resulted in only modest pronatalist policies. The Soviet population problem is a result of interregional disparities in population growth rates between the highly urbanized Soviet European populations with low birth rates and the least urbanized Central Asians with dramatically higher birth rates. As a result, these essentially Muslim people will provide the only major increases in labor resources and an increasing percentage of Soviet armed forces recruits. Policy planners are thus faced with difficult options. Current policies stressing technological transfers from the west and greater labor productivity, however, are unlikely to solve further labor shortages and regional imbalances. Ultimately, nonEuropana regions will be in an improved bargaining position for more favorable nationwide economic policies and for a greater role in policy planning.

  12. Scientific and technical training in the Soviet Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spearman, M. L.

    1983-01-01

    Specific features and observations on the Soviet educational system and areas of apparent effectiveness are presented, noting that the literacy rate is over 98 percent in 1982. Educational goals are reoriented every five years to match with other projections of five-year plans. The Soviet constitution established strong educational goals, including schools, correspondence courses, lectures in native tongues, free tuition, and vocational training. The educational pattern from pre-school through graduate school lasts over 28 yr and contains two 2-yr periods of work, confined to specialties after graduate school. Mathematics is emphasized, as are physics, Marxism, and a foreign language. Approximately 300,000 engineers were graduated in the Soviet Union in 1982, compared with the 20-yr U.S. average of 50,000/yr. About 2/3 of Soviet engineers participate in defense work, a number which is four times the total number of U.S. engineers. It is asserted that the continual indoctrination, organization, and practical work experience will guarantee that the Soviet state will remain a dominant force in the world as long as centralized state control can be carried out.

  13. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Military Affairs, Personnel Report: USSR Ministry of Defense, January 1989

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1989-01-01

    This volume lists names, ranks and assignments of Soviet commanders serving in the USSR Ministry of Defense and in some related agencies, compiled from various, open Soviet sources through January of 1989...

  14. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Military History Journal, No. 11, November 1987

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1988-01-01

    .... The articles are By the Course Indicated by Lenin, Outstanding Victory of Soviet Army, Strategic Soviet Troop Regroupings in Preparation of 1942-1943 Winter Campaign, Combat of 87th Rifle Division...

  15. Red orientalism: Mikhail Pavlovich and Marxist Oriental studies in early Soviet Russia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemper, M.

    2010-01-01

    Marxist Oriental Studies in early Soviet Russia emerged in opposition to the 'bourgeois' Russian tradition of classical Oriental scholarship; rather than studying texts and history, Bolshevik Orientalists saw their task in providing the Soviet government with the necessary political and

  16. Analysis of the 1957-1958 Soviet nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trabalka, J.R.; Eyman, L.D.; Auerbach, S.I.

    1980-01-01

    The presence of an extensive environmental contamination zone in Chelibinsk Province of the Soviet Union, associated with an accident in the winter of 1957 to 1958 involving the atmospheric release of fission wastes, appears to have been confirmed, primarily by an analysis of the Soviet radioecology literature. The contamination zone is estimated to contain 10(5) to 10(6) curies of strontium-90. A plausible explanation for the incident is the use of now-obsolete techniques for waste storage and cesium-137 isotope separation. Radioactive contamination appears to have resulted in resettlement of the human population from a significant area (100 to 1000 square kilometers). It therefore seems imperative to obtain a complete explanation of the cause (or causes) and consequences of the accident; Soviet experience gained in the application of corrective measures would be invaluable to the world nuclear community

  17. Comparison of Soviet and US space food and nutrition programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Selina

    1989-01-01

    The Soviet Space Food and Nutrition programs are compared with those of the U.S. The Soviets established the first Space Food programs in 1961, when one of the Soviet Cosmonauts experienced eating in zero gravity. This study indicates that some major differences exist between the two space food and nutrition programs regarding dietary habits. The major differences are in recommended nutrient intake and dietary patterns between the cosmonauts and astronauts. The intake of protein, carbohydrates and fats are significantly higher in cosmonaut diets compared to astronauts. Certain mineral elements such as phosphorus, sodium and iron are also significantly higher in the cosmonauts' diets. Cosmonauts also experience intake of certain unconventional food and plant extracts to resist stress and increase stamina.

  18. Reflections through a Soviet Window. Rural Governance and Colonization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Dekel-Chen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper probes the crossroads between the realities of life and the ambitions of the early Soviet regime in one corner of its vast countryside. As a test case, I explore the meeting of organized agrarianization of Jews from the former Pale of Settlement with the mechanisms of Soviet power in the geographical and national peripheries of what was seen until recently as a monolithic, centralized state. Barring the last four years before Operation Barbarossa, a non-governmental, non-denominational American-Jewish philanthropy (the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee [Joint or Agro-Joint] funded and administered much of this resettlement project in southern Ukraine and Crimea. As shall be seen, the arrival of an effective foreign organization not only shaped the lives of its client-colonists, but the very character of Soviet rural authority through the emergence of hybrid models of governance in the countryside.

  19. Agitation and Propagandistic Work in Soviet POW Camps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulzhaukhar K. Kokebayeva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies the problem of agitation work done among POWs in Soviet camps, the creation of military units and political organizations from POWs. Not only armed force was used during the Second World War, but also the power of words. The battles were accompanied by the information warfare. Opponents tried to use all possible means to manipulate people’s minds. Main directions of agitation and propaganda were defined by the «Soviet bureau of military and political propaganda», as well as the 7th Division of Soviet army. In the propaganda work among German POWs, the priority was given on shaping the ideological and political views of former soldiers and officers of the Wehrmacht. As the result of the analysis of sources the author comes to conclusion that POWs of the Second World War period became the object of testing means and methods of ideological struggle of warring nations.

  20. Proposed Chevron Tengiz venture stalls amid Soviet political squabble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the status of foreign investment in Soviet oil and gas joint ventures which has reached a critical juncture. Just as the U.S. is considering granting most favored nation trade status to the U.S.S.R., the joint venture petroleum deal seen as the litmus test for such deals-Chevron Corp.'s proposed addition of supergiant Tengiz oil field to its Caspian Sea joint venture-has stalled amid controversy. Unconfirmed reports from Soviet officials and other foreign joint venture participants in the U.S.S.R. have Chevron pulling out of the long negotiated, multibillion dollar project after the Soviets rejected the company's terms. Chevron, however, insists the project is still alive

  1. Soviets may halt production drop with outside funds, technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riva, J.P. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    In a long history of Soviet oil production, a normal development progression has occurred in which several prolific oil provinces have been discovered in sequence, become dominant producers, and then declined. The present drop in Soviet oil output is partly the result of the natural decline of many of its large older fields, but also it is due to reduced capital investments in the domestic oil industry and to the reliance on outdated and inefficient exploration and development technology. This paper reports that financial and technical problems can be remedied by joint ventures with foreign oil companies. Despite these limitations, the Soviet Union has led the world in oil production ever since 1974, often by a considerable margin

  2. Matvei Petrovich Bronstein and Soviet theoretical physics in the thirties

    CERN Document Server

    Gorelik, Gennady E

    1994-01-01

    Gennady E. Gorelik and Victor Ya. Frenkel Matvei Petrovich Bronstein and Soviet Theoretical Physics in the Thirties Translated by Valentina M. Levina The short life and tragic death of Matvei Petrovich Bronstein (1906-1938) may be seen as a symbol of the man's time and his country. One of the most remarkable features of Soviet history was the impressive advance of its physical sciences against the brutal and violent background of totalitarianism. Soviet advances in nuclear and space technology form an important part of world history. These achievements had their roots in the 1930s, when Bronstein's generation entered science. Among his friends were the famous physicists Lev Landau and George Gamow. Bronstein worked in the vast field of theoretical physics, ranging from nuclear physics to astrophysics and from relativistic quantum theory to cosmology. His pioneering work on quantizing gravitation goes beyond the history of physics, because today the quantum theory of gravitation occupies a special place in fun...

  3. The newest precision measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jing Gu; Lee, Jong Dae

    1974-05-01

    This book introduces basic of precision measurement, measurement of length, limit gauge, measurement of angles, measurement of surface roughness, measurement of shapes and locations, measurement of outline, measurement of external and internal thread, gear testing, accuracy inspection of machine tools, three dimension coordinate measuring machine, digitalisation of precision measurement, automation of precision measurement, measurement of cutting tools, measurement using laser, and point of choosing length measuring instrument.

  4. Practical precision measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwak, Ho Chan; Lee, Hui Jun

    1999-01-01

    This book introduces basic knowledge of precision measurement, measurement of length, precision measurement of minor diameter, measurement of angles, measurement of surface roughness, three dimensional measurement, measurement of locations and shapes, measurement of screw, gear testing, cutting tools testing, rolling bearing testing, and measurement of digitalisation. It covers height gauge, how to test surface roughness, measurement of plan and straightness, external and internal thread testing, gear tooth measurement, milling cutter, tab, rotation precision measurement, and optical transducer.

  5. Criminal-legal prohibitions in the soviet juridical discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey V. Skorobogatov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective to determine the place of criminal law prohibitions in the formation development and functioning of the Soviet legal discourse. Methods dialectic approach to the research of social phenomena which allows to analyze them in historical development and functioning in the context of the unity of the objective and subjective factors as well as postmodern paradigm giving the opportunity to explore the legal reality at different levels including the lawinterpretation one. Dialectical approach and postmodern paradigm have determined the choice of specific research methods comparative hermeneutics discursive formally legal. Results basing on the analysis of normativelegal acts regulating criminal legal relations in the USSR the development of the Soviet criminal law was considered since its emergence to termination of existence. Conclusion on its restrictive nature was made which was in line with the main task of this sector of law ndash the protection of the Soviet system and socialist property from criminal encroachments. The normative regulatory basis of criminal law prohibitions determined the general nature of the Soviet legal discourse which was designed to prove the necessity and expediency of such means of protecting public and state interests in the period of building communism. Scientific novelty on the basis of use of the complex classical and postclassical methods the article for the first time studies the role of criminal law prohibitions in the development of Soviet legal discourse. Practical value the key issues and conclusions of the article can be used in scientific and pedagogical activity while researching the issues of the nature and trends of development of the Soviet criminal law.

  6. [Precision and personalized medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipka, Sándor

    2016-10-01

    The author describes the concept of "personalized medicine" and the newly introduced "precision medicine". "Precision medicine" applies the terms of "phenotype", "endotype" and "biomarker" in order to characterize more precisely the various diseases. Using "biomarkers" the homogeneous type of a disease (a "phenotype") can be divided into subgroups called "endotypes" requiring different forms of treatment and financing. The good results of "precision medicine" have become especially apparent in relation with allergic and autoimmune diseases. The application of this new way of thinking is going to be necessary in Hungary, too, in the near future for participants, controllers and financing boards of healthcare. Orv. Hetil., 2016, 157(44), 1739-1741.

  7. Precision Clock Evaluation Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Tests and evaluates high-precision atomic clocks for spacecraft, ground, and mobile applications. Supports performance evaluation, environmental testing,...

  8. U.S. and Soviet Agriculture: The Shifting Balance of Power. Worldwatch Paper 51.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Lester R.

    Analysts of U.S.-Soviet balance of power usually focus on relative military strength. But other factors determine a country's overall power and influence. Among the most basic is a country's capacity to feed its people. By this measure the Soviet Union appears to be in deep trouble. Massive spending has increased Soviet military strength in recent…

  9. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, World Economy & International Relations, No. 5, May 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-10-06

    percent (2). The socialist states (the PRC, DPRK, Mongolia, Viet - nam , Cambodia and Laos) are the Soviet Union’s prin- cipal foreign trade partners: our...right is no longer attempting to maintain that the Soviet leader- ship’s new course amounts to cosmetic or purely propa- ganda measures. Soviet

  10. Historical experience of the Soviet period Russian school in the context of information society development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozlova Galina N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The process and basic tendencies of creating scientific information related to the development of the Russian comprehensive school during the Soviet period are considered in the paper. The conclusions and generalizations are based on the analysis of articles and dissertation papers published in Russia in Soviet and post-Soviet time

  11. Fragmenting pastoral mobility: Changing grazing patterns in Post-Soviet Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carol Kerven; Ilya Ilych Alimaev; Roy Behnke; Grant Davidson; Nurlan Malmakov; Aidos Smailov; Iain Wright

    2006-01-01

    Kazak nomads were seasonally mobile in the pre-Soviet period, in response to climate variability and landscape heterogeneity. The scale of these movements was interrupted during the Soviet period, but some degree of mobility remained. Mobility virtually ceased in the post-Soviet 1990s, but is reemerging as flock numbers rebound from the mid 1990s population crash.

  12. Russian, Soviet, and post-Soviet scientific migration: history and patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojevnikov, Alexei

    2011-03-01

    Immigrant scientists from other European countries (predominantly German) were crucial in establishing the tradition of modern science in the Russian Empire of the 18th and 19th centuries. Since the 1860s, however, outgoing waves of scientific migration started originating in Russia, bringing important innovations to international science. The scale and patterns of migration varied greatly with the turbulent time. The talk will describe several landmark stages of the proceess and their cultural consequences: from opening higher education possibilities for women during the late 19th century, to post-1917 academic refugees and Soviet defectors, to the 1960s brain drain provoked by the launch of Sputnik, and to what can be called the first truly global scientific diaspora of Russophone scientists after 1990.

  13. The Soviet Union prepares to roll up its sleeves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koryakin, Y.

    1990-01-01

    The first conference of the Soviet Nuclear Society (NESU-90) was held, from 26 to 29 June in Obninsk at the Moscow Region Scientific Centre, where the first nuclear power plant was commissioned. Around 600 specialists including several dozen distinguished foreigners were assembled there. The title of the conference - Nuclear energy in the USSR: problems and prospects (ecology, economics and law) - underlined its intention: to promote a dialogue with society on the broad question of satisfying the demand for energy. The 55 papers read and discussed at the conference, were largely concerned with the problems confronting nuclear power, and attention was directed to the surrounding social environment in the Soviet Union. (author)

  14. Agitation and Propagandistic Work in Soviet POW Camps

    OpenAIRE

    Gulzhaukhar K. Kokebayeva

    2014-01-01

    The paper studies the problem of agitation work done among POWs in Soviet camps, the creation of military units and political organizations from POWs. Not only armed force was used during the Second World War, but also the power of words. The battles were accompanied by the information warfare. Opponents tried to use all possible means to manipulate people’s minds. Main directions of agitation and propaganda were defined by the «Soviet bureau of military and political propaganda», as well as ...

  15. Soviet medical response to the Chernobyl nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linnemann, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    The nuclear accident at Chernobyl was the worst in the history of nuclear power. It tested the organized medical response to mass radiation casualties. This article reviews the Soviet response as reported at the 1986 postaccident review meeting in Vienna and as determined from interviews. The Soviets used three levels of care: rescue and first aid at the plant site; emergency treatment at regional hospitals; and definitive evaluation and treatment in Moscow. Diagnosis, triage, patient disposition, attendant exposure, and preventive actions are detailed. The United States would be well advised to organize its resources definitively to cope with future nonmilitary nuclear accidents

  16. On the safety of nuclear installations in the Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    The cooperation agreements between authorities and industries of the Soviet Union and West Germany now are gaining shape in practice. In this context, the framework conditions are of great interest that govern the realisation of the extensive nuclear energy programme of the Soviet Union. The chairman of the State Commission established in 1984 for supervision of nuclear installations and guidance on safety-engineering enhancement of nuclear power plant in the USSR has been interviewed by atw on topics of organisations, measures and regulatory activities in the field of reactor safety and radiation protection. The interview is given in full. (orig.) [de

  17. Precision machining commercialization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    To accelerate precision machining development so as to realize more of the potential savings within the next few years of known Department of Defense (DOD) part procurement, the Air Force Materials Laboratory (AFML) is sponsoring the Precision Machining Commercialization Project (PMC). PMC is part of the Tri-Service Precision Machine Tool Program of the DOD Manufacturing Technology Five-Year Plan. The technical resources supporting PMC are provided under sponsorship of the Department of Energy (DOE). The goal of PMC is to minimize precision machining development time and cost risk for interested vendors. PMC will do this by making available the high precision machining technology as developed in two DOE contractor facilities, the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory of the University of California and the Union Carbide Corporation, Nuclear Division, Y-12 Plant, at Oak Ridge, Tennessee

  18. FREUDIAN COMPLEXES OF SOVIET AND POST-SOVIET PHILOLOGY IN STUDYING THE GOSPEL TEXT IN RUSSIAN LITERATURE

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Andreevich Esaulov

    2012-01-01

    The article looks at a number of marginal concepts of Freudian theory and at his articles on Dostoevsky that revealed the 'cultural unconscious' of the founder of psychoanalysis. We point at the similarities between Freud's cultural unconscious – with its negativity against of the “Christian God”, historical Russia and Russian people – and the Soviet type of culture, especially in its early period (1920s – early 1930s). The ardor of Freudo-Marxism typical for the highest levels of Soviet powe...

  19. Economic Development in Afghanistan during the Soviet Period, 1979-1989: Lessons Learned from the Soviet Experience in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-01

    gouvernement afghan. Les auteurs de l’étude concluent que l’accent sur la sécurité en Afghanistan a été préjudiciable à un développement économique...Afghanistan (PDPA) regime were largely influenced by Soviet economic theory and experience. In addition to adopting economic planning based on the five...rural Afghans. On peasant in Leninist theory see Esther Kingston-Mann, “Proletarian Theory and Peasant Practice: Lenin 1901-1904,” in Soviet Studies

  20. Controlling the Image of the Teacher's Body under Authoritarianism: The Case of Soviet Latvia (1953-1984)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kestere, Iveta; Kalke, Baiba

    2018-01-01

    The ideal of the Soviet teacher can be revealed in Soviet mass media, but historians are challenged by the question "what was the actual reality"? Therefore, we addressed the reality of the Soviet school using two research questions: (1) What teacher image was cultivated by Soviet propaganda, and what did the average teacher actually…

  1. Health status of Russian minorities in former Soviet Republics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenewold, W.G.F.; van Ginneken, J.K.S.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To examine if, and to what extent, disparities in health status exist between ethnic Russians and the native majority populations of four former Soviet Republics; and to determine to what extent indicators of socio-economic status and lifestyle behaviours explain variations in health

  2. Aging in the Soviet Union: A West Siberian Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demitri, Shimkin

    1989-01-01

    Presents ethnographic observations on the aged and aging from six months' residence in Siberian industrial city. Describes interactions with medical personnel and reviews scanty literature in Soviet Union. Notes integration of aged in families and respect given to older persons. Discusses problems of elderly caused by hard living conditions,…

  3. Gas in the former Soviet Union. A special report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    This special report includes 13 papers on various aspects of the natural gas industry and its development in the republics of the former Soviet Union and a full listing of all the Russian oil and gas fields. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 9 papers. (UK)

  4. "No Truer Truth" : Sincerity Rhetoric in Soviet Russia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, E.; Dhooge, B.; De Dobbeleer, M.

    2016-01-01

    In contemporary discourse about human emotions, concerns about the sincerity of individuals, groups, and institutions thrive. This article thickens recent scholarship on sincerity rhetoric with an analysis of emotional regimes in Soviet Russia – a time and place where the notion of sincerity

  5. The Soviet collapse: Contradictions and neo-modernisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Sakwa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Over two decades have passed since the dissolution of the communist system and the disintegration of the Soviet Union in 1991 yet there is still no consensus over the causes and consequences of these epochal (and distinct events. As for the causes, it is easy to assume that the fall was ‘over-determined’, with an endless array of factors. It behoves the scholar to try to establish a hierarchy of causality, which is itself a methodological exercise in heuristics. However, the arbitrary prioritisation of one factor over another is equally a hermeneutic trap that needs to be avoided. Following an examination of the various ‘why’ factors, we focus on ‘what’ exactly happened at the end of the Soviet period. We examine the issue through the prism of reformulated theories of modernisation. The Soviet system was a sui generis approach to modernisation, but the great paradox was that the system did not apply this ideology to itself. By attempting to stand outside the processes which it unleashed, both society and system entered a cycle of stagnation. The idea of neo-modernisation, above all the idea that societies are challenged to come to terms with the ‘civilisation of modernity’, each in their own way, provides a key to developments. In the end the Soviet approach to this challenge failed, and the reasons for this need to be examined, but the challenge overall remains for post-communist Russia.

  6. A Genealogy of (post-Soviet Dependency: Disabling Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandra Hartblay

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Nancy Fraser and Linda Gordon's 1994 article “A Genealogy of Dependency: Tracing a Keyword of the US Welfare State” explored the historical emergence of "dependency" as a moral category of post-industrial American state. In this article, I engage their framework to explore the genealogy of dependency in America's post-industrial sister, the post-Soviet Russian Federation. I also add disability as a core element of 'dependency' that was largely absent from Fraser and Gordon's original analysis. Considering cross-cultural translation, I ask how Russian deployments of three words that all relate to a concept of interdependence align with and depart from American notions of dependency, and trace historical configurations of the Soviet welfare state vis-a-vis disability. To do so, I draw on historical and cultural texts, linguistic comparisons, secondary sources, and ethnographic research. Given this analysis, I argue that rather than a Cold War interpretation of the Soviet Union and the US as oppositional superpowers in the 20th century, a liberatory disability studies framework suggests that in the postindustrial era the Soviet Union and the United States emerged as dual regimes of productivity. I suggest that reframing postsocialism as a global condition helps us to shift considerations of disability justice from a critique of capitalism to a critique of productivity.    Keywords: dependency, disability, citizenship, russia, productivity

  7. Evolution of environmental protection strategies in the Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesperance, A.M.

    1992-05-01

    In performing this work, interviews were conducted with members of the Supreme Soviet Committee for Rational Use of Natural Resources, Moscow, City Council, and St. Petersburg City Council. These officials provided their views on the current status of environmental protection in the former Soviet Union. Literature published in English, although limited, supplemented these discussions. In addition, a literature search was conducted of recent articles about this topic. Although the research for this paper was conducted before and during the August 1991 coup attempt in the Soviet Union, and after the formation of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), many of the observations expressed in this report may be relevant to the new states. This report provides to historical perspective on the barriers encountered while attempting to develop environmental policy in the former Soviet Union and establishes a context for problems facing the new states in developing their environmental policies. Organization changes that have occurred in environmental protection since the August coup are included to the extent they are known

  8. History: An Analysis of the Former Soviet Union Foreign Policy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper attempts an appraisal of the FSU's foreign policy using Russia and Ukraine as case studies. The international context which Russia and Ukraine have confronted in view of the gravity of change, combined with the unique circumstances of their emergence through a process of the soviet state collapse, has ...

  9. Corruption Hierarchies in Higher Education in the Former Soviet Bloc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipian, Ararat L.

    2009-01-01

    Corruption in higher education is known but not described theoretically. Decentralization and privatization of higher education and the increasing scale and scope of corruption in higher education in the former Soviet Bloc, as well as numerous other countries, urges better understanding of the problem within the context of socio-economic…

  10. The prevalence of toxic hotspots in former Soviet countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharov, Petr; Dowling, Russell; Gogishvili, Megi; Jones, Barbara; Caravanos, Jack; McCartor, Andrew; Kashdan, Zachary; Fuller, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Using a global database of contaminated sites, toxic hotspots in eight former Soviet countries were analyzed to identify the prevalence, types and sources of toxic pollution, as well as their associated potential public health impacts. For this analysis, polluted sites in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan were compiled and analyzed. The levels of contamination of seven key pollutants were assessed in each country. 424 contaminated sites were identified using data from Blacksmith Institute. Pesticides, lead (Pb), radioactive metals, arsenic (As), mercury (Hg), chromium (Cr), and cadmium (Cd) were the most commonly identified key pollutants. Collectively, these sites pose health risks to an estimated 6.2 million residents. The existing data on toxic hotspots in former Soviet countries likely captures only a small percentage of actual contaminated sites, but suggests potentially severe public health consequences. Additional assessments are needed to understand the risks posed by toxic pollution in the region. - Highlights: • Pollution in 8 former Soviet countries poses a health risk to 6.2 million residents. • The most commonly found key pollutants are pesticides, lead, arsenic, and cadmium. • The majority of sites can be traced to Soviet legacy pollution. - 424 sites were identified in the analysis. Pesticides, Pb, radioactive metals, As, Hg, Cr, and Cd were the most common key pollutants, collectively affecting 6.2 million people.

  11. American News Media and Soviet Diplomacy, 1934-41.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddux, Thomas R.

    1981-01-01

    Analysis of the coverage given by 35 newspapers to United States-Soviet Union relations during 1934-41 reveals that newspapers with the most interest in foreign affairs expressed the opinion that Stalin had abandoned the idea of world revolution, while those with less interest viewed him as an imperialist. (FL)

  12. How to Arrange Student Tours to the Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winokur, Marshall

    The details of planning a student tour to the Soviet Union are described by an experienced tour organizer. Student tours of one to three weeks are presented as rewarding alternatives to lengthy overseas study. Recommendations are made regarding choice of tour type, length of tour, travel agencies, time of year to travel, advertising a tour,…

  13. Educational perspectives for elderly migrants: A case of Soviet refugees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persidsky, Igor V.; Kelly, James J.

    1992-07-01

    Modern human migration is characterized by a large number of elderly immigrants, who are coming to the United States from developing countries as refugees. The emigration from the Soviet Union during the last 20 years presents a unique phenomenon in modern human migration because of (1) the high percentage of the elderly, about 17%; (2) origination from urban areas and rather high level of education; (3) beliefs and attitudes developed under the Soviet political, economic and cultural system; (4) non-minority status in the United States; and (5) strong support from the American Jewish community. The greatest problem in adjustment of the elderly is English fluency, because language determines the utilization of health services and social support which they need and which are available from the agencies. Special education programs for these elderly with bilingual/bicultural instructors must be identified as one of the most important intervention approaches. There is another educational strategy for the immigrant population which must be promoted: training/retraining of bilingual/bicultural professionals in geriatrics. American professionals who deal with the elderly Soviets must also be educated about Soviet culture, system of social welfare, health practices and social behavior.

  14. The Soviet Central Asian Challenge: A Neo-Gramscian Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-09-01

    ecclesiastics ). Traditional intellectuals tend to function autonomously and are not organically linked to their class or group of origin. Nevertheless, the...Emperor Timur (Tamerlane). 56 AJ- ,. s; Russianness of Soviet society49- Russian language, Russian identity, and even Russian architecture . 50 Hence

  15. Soviet Cinema and State Control: Lenin's Nationalization Decree Reconsidered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepley, Vance, Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Proposes a revisionist account of the immediate conditions and consequences of the 1919 Soviet cinema nationalization decree. Argues that nationalization was the least successful of a set of stop-gap measures; that it dispersed and diluted control; and that it actually retarded the growth of the film industry. (KEH)

  16. Soviet Union in the context of the Nobel prize

    CERN Document Server

    Blokh, Abram M

    2018-01-01

    The result of meticulous research by Professor Abram Blokh, this book presents facts, documents, thoughts and comments on the system of the Nobel Prize awards to Russian and Soviet scientists. It provides a comprehensive overview of the relationship between the ideas expressed by the Nobel Foundation and those expressed by the autocratic and totalitarian regimes in Russia and the ex-Soviet Union during the 20th century who had the same attitude of revulsion toward the intellectual and humanistic values represented by the Nobel Prizes. To do his research, the author had access to the declassified documents in the archives of the Nobel Foundation for many years. Also included in the book are new materials obtained and developed by the author after the publication of the first two editions (in Russian). This additional information is from the archives of the Soviet Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Russian Academy of Sciences, the Soviet Writers' Union et al. in Moscow and St Petersburg. These documents shed new...

  17. Marxism--Leninism and natural resources: the Soviet outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papp, D.S.

    1977-06-01

    Soviet leaders recognize that natural resources are finite, but they do not share the pessimism of many of their Western counterparts. They maintain that resource depletion is not a threat to be taken seriously on a worldwide basis, but rather is a manifestation of the capitalism. To understand both the continued Soviet optimism and the Soviet assessment of why the Western world is experiencing its current ''raw material crisis'', the author examines the role that natural resources play within Marxist-Leninist idealogy. Soviets believe, the author says, that the resource predicament is insoluble; that the condition will escalate until, along with several other factors, the situation will result in a worldwide socialist society. Western thought has advocated fine methods through which the industrialized world could evade the energy and raw materials shortages. These include new methods of mining, developing, and searching for natural resource deposits; setting up a non-socialist industrial nations' organization; appropriation of resource sites; zero growth rates; and genuine cooperation. The Kremlin discounts the West's ability to successfully carry out any of these solutions. (MCW)

  18. Soviet Cineclubs: Baranov's Film/Media Education Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we analyze a historical form of media literacy education that is still insufficiently discussed in English language literature: Russian cineclubs. We focus on one particular cineclub that was created by a Soviet educator Oleg Baranov in the 1950s. We describe this cineclub's context and structure, and discuss its popularity among…

  19. Acculturation and Communicative Mobility Among Former Soviet Nationalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haarmann, Harald; Holman, Eugene

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the strategies that the former Soviet states are evolving to balance the interests of dominant ethnic groups with those of linguistic minorities while constructing a national identity, highlighting language policy in action and focusing on acculturation processes and geographic mobility among groups. A case study of Estonia is also…

  20. Financialised capitalism Soviet style? Varieties of state capture and crisis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.; Kalb, D.P.

    2010-01-01

    Looking for new ways to interpret the failings of the neo-liberal economy, this article argues that financialised capitalism at the eve of the 2008 financial crisis showed striking analogies with the characteristic combination of oligopoly and informality of the Soviet economy at the eve of its

  1. Trichoptera hydroptilidae (Insecta) from Soviet Union Far-Eastern territories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botosaneanu, L.; Levanidova, I.M.

    1988-01-01

    This is a contribution to the study of the scarcely known Trichoptera Hydroptilidae from Soviet Far-East (Primorye, Amur River basin, Kuril Islands, Kamtschatka, Chukotka). The discovery of a new species of Stactobia McL. on Kunashir Island, very far from the known distribution area of the genus,

  2. Soviet supplies of enriched uranium to capitalist countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valvoda, Z.

    1977-01-01

    The Soviet supplies of enriched uranium to the following capitalist countries are surveyed: Belgium, Finland, France, FRG, Austria, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. The time period, total supplies, average annual supplies, estimated average price per separation work unit, and the date of the conclusion of the contract are reported. (J.B.)

  3. The Soviet School System during Nazi Occupation (1941-1944)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krinko, Evgeny Fedorovich

    2016-01-01

    The article explores Soviet schooling in the occupied territory of the USSR during the Great Patriotic War. The author considers such issues as the reduction in the number of schools, changes in curricular content, and problems in the organization of schooling and the work of teachers. The article notes the effects of various factors on the…

  4. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Kommunist, No. 14, September 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-06

    archaeology , ethnography, and others. During his lifetime Vavilov collected with his expedi- tions a truly unique wealth: 160,000 live samples of... Maya 1987 Goda. Dokumenty i Materialy" [Visit to the Soviet Union by Vietnamese Communist Party 9. Vityuk, V.V and Efirov, S.A. "’Levyy’ Terrorizm na

  5. The Soviet Objective of War Termination: Limits and Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-06-01

    results, even the best, must be regarded as a base, as a trampoline , for achieving still higher indicators. What is considered a success today may no...organizations. According to Boris Ponomarev, former head of the Soviet’s International Department, such contacts would establish "broad alliances covering the

  6. The Press of the Soviet Union: A Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergethon, Bruce; And Others

    Compiled in response to the need for more information on the differences between the press systems of the United States and the Soviet Union, this bibliography contains 240 entries. Consisting of newspaper articles, journal articles, books, and pamphlets, the bibliography provides an overview of the different journalistic philosophies of the two…

  7. Problem behaviors of children adopted from the former Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuinness, Teena M; Pallansch, Leona

    2007-01-01

    Although current meta-analyses of problem behavior of internationally adopted children exist, few children adopted from the former Soviet Union have been included in these reports. A significant concern is that 13 children adopted from the former Soviet Union have died at the hands of their American adoptive parents since 1996. A cohort of 105 children adopted from the former Soviet Union has been assessed at two points in time by telephone and postal surveys to measure the impact of risk and protective factors on problem behavior. Pre-adoptive risk factors have declined in importance (except for birth weight) and protective factors (operationalized as aspects of family environment) have increased in influence over time. Problem behavior scores declined slightly at Time 2, despite the children having entered adolescence. Families play a significant role in the behavior of children adopted from the former Soviet Union. Nurses should counsel families to shape the child's environment during the transition from orphanage to homes in the United States, especially for children who are low birth weight.

  8. Lenin's Grandchildren: Preschool Education in the Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Kitty D.

    The Soviets have long been devoting educational and institutional energies to the field of early childhood education. This book stresses what Russian preschool education does rather than what its theorists claim it does for children aged 2 months to 6 years who are in group care. Children, teachers and parents tell their own stories. Obviously…

  9. Gifted and Talented Education in the Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetterman, David M.

    1987-01-01

    Focusing on the Young Pioneer Palace system in Moscow, this brief article reviews the Soviet Union's educational approach to gifted and talented children. Noted is the elaborate network of after-school programs with such activities at the Young Pioneer Palace as technical circles, naturalists' circles, song and dance ensembles, and a sports…

  10. Is the shaman indeed risen in post-Soviet Siberia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olle Sundström

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In his exhaustive study of ‘shamanism’ among the Altaic peoples in Southern Siberia, the renowned Soviet ethnographer Leonid P. Potapov contends that ‘under the present conditions there are no remnants or survivals of Shamanism as such left in Altai’. What remains are legends and reminiscences, but these can no longer be told by people with personal experiences of Altaic ‘shamans’ and their rituals. According to Potapov, modern socialist culture has changed the minds of the Altaic peoples to the degree that they are now a materialistically thinking people, and ‘shamanism’ has completely disappeared. In addition, he contends that there are no prospects of its return after the deathblow dealt by Soviet anti-religious repression in the 1930s ‘shamanic’ rituals were forbidden and ritual paraphernalia such as drums and costumes were expropriated by the authorities. Considering that Potapov in his study follows Altaic ‘shamanism’ through 1500 years, depicting it as a ‘religion’ and ‘theology’ which stayed more or less intact over the centuries, his statement seems more like a pious hope based on the Soviet vision of a society liberated from superstition, religion, and spiritual exploitation. Potapov himself delineates Altaic ‘shamanism’s’ development from a ‘state religion’to a ‘folk religion’. From this perspective it might seem remarkable that ‘shamanism’ should not have survived 70 years of atheist repression, missionary work and the Soviet transformation of society. Already by the time Potapov’s book was published, during the very last months of the existence of the Soviet Union, there had, in fact, appeared a number of persons claiming to be ‘shamans’, with an ancestry dating from the time of ‘shamans’ of the first half of the twentieth century. These individuals were also part of organisations and movements promoting the revival of ‘shamanism’ in the autonomous Altai Republic. In

  11. The economy of the soviet Tuva: achievements, challenges and lessons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander D. Begzi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Soviet period (1944-1991, the economy of Tuva was rapidly developing. Massive state investment helped create enterprises and whole branches of industry, which in turn outlined the areas of economy Tuva could specialize in. Indicators of regional economic development were higher than the national average. The industrial infrastructure created over the period, including transport, power engineering and technologies, has been since used for several decades without major renovations. However, the smooth function of the regional economy could be guaranteed only under directive planning and stringent control over prices, flows of resources, goods and other assets of planned Socialist economy. Together with other specific features of its economy, this made the economy of the region highly volatile. A breakdown of both economic achievements of the Soviet Tuva and the problems it faced will help us learn the lessons to be accounted for while developing new long-term development programs. Although the programmatic documents adopted in early 2000s (such as the Strategy of social and economic development of the Republic of Tuva to the year 2020, passed in 2007 have not yet expired, the economic situation and the configuration of the main economic actors have seriously changed, which calls for a radical overhaul of the long-term strategy of social and economic development. Some problems which have been around since the Soviet times have grown more acute, while others were replaced by their opposites. The revenue section of the region’s consolidated budget, just as it was in the Soviet period, cannot fully provide the required social expenditures. At the same time, the majority of Soviet mechanisms of economic development are now totally dysfunctional, which calls for the use of new organizational and financial instruments. The article was based on the data from official statistical collections of the Republic of Tuva, and the information found in

  12. Review of the Soviet gas industry in 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagers, M.J.

    1991-01-01

    Soviet production of natural gas increased by only 18.6 billion cubic meters (2.3%) in 1990, from 796.1 billion cubic meters (BCM) to 814.7 BCM. This was the smallest annual increment and the lowest rate of growth in more than two decades. During the 1980s, annual growth typically had been in the 6-8% range, with yearly increments of 40-50 BCM. Of the national total in 1990, enterprises of the Gazprom Concern (formerly the Ministry of the Gas Industry) produced 748.0 BCM, while the Ministry of Oil and Gas produced 66.7 BCM; the latter would be mostly associated gas. Given the USSR's ample resource base, it appears that the Soviet economy is experiencing increasing problems absorbing natural gas, particularly as Soviet aggregate economic output falls along with total energy consumption. During the 1980s, when the gas industry was growing so rapidly, the Soviets absorbed the massive increments in gas supply by directing most of it to a few very large consumers - electric power stations, iron and steel plants, and nitrogenous fertilizer centers. Currently, 54.3% of gas is used for electric power generation; 32.6% in industry; and only 13.1% by the housing and municipal sector. Although the share of housing units using either natural gas or LPG (liquefied petroleum gas-butane and propane) is fairly high in the Soviet Union - 84.8% - this is mostly for cooking rather than heating, so gas use per unit is relatively small. Another problem is that the availability of gas among households is very uneven across the republics and between rural and urban areas. A table gives statistics on gas production in various regions from 1970-1990

  13. Soviet steam generator technology: fossil fuel and nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosengaus, J.

    1987-01-01

    In the Soviet Union, particular operational requirements, coupled with a centralized planning system adopted in the 1920s, have led to a current technology which differs in significant ways from its counterparts elsewhere in the would and particularly in the United States. However, the monograph has a broader value in that it traces the development of steam generators in response to the industrial requirements of a major nation dealing with the global energy situation. Specifically, it shows how Soviet steam generator technology evolved as a result of changing industrial requirements, fuel availability, and national fuel utilization policy. The monograph begins with a brief technical introduction focusing on steam-turbine power plants, and includes a discussion of the Soviet Union's regional power supply (GRES) networks and heat and power plant (TETs) systems. TETs may be described as large central co-generating stations which, in addition to electricity, provide heat in the form of steam and hot water. Plants of this type are a common feature of the USSR today. The adoption of these cogeneration units as a matter of national policy has had a central influence on Soviet steam generator technology which can be traced throughout the monograph. The six chapters contain: a short history of steam generators in the USSR; steam generator design and manufacture in the USSR; boiler and furnace assemblies for fossil fuel-fired power stations; auxiliary components; steam generators in nuclear power plants; and the current status of the Soviet steam generator industry. Chapters have been abstracted separately. A glossary is included containing abbreviations and acronyms of USSR organizations. 26 references

  14. Securing Human Rights on the Post-Soviet Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rustam A. Kasyanov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: A lot of profound political, economic, social, cultural and legislative modifications have happened on the post-Soviet space since the disintegration of the USSR. The term “post-Soviet space” should not be considered as the geographical boundaries of the fifteen former Soviet republics. The conception of the “post-Soviet space” has a more profound meaning as it reflects the common historical and cultural heritage as well as close economic relations, moreover, friendship between the citizens of the new independent States. The most developed sphere in the interstate relations nowadays is economics. The most prime example is Eurasian Economic Union (EEU, the youngest integration institution in the world which unites five countries willing to construe their relationship on a stronger basis than the proposed format of cooperation within the Commonwealth of the Independent States. In the modern world the economic and financial interests are determining, their ensuring makes the governments change foreign and domestic policies, start and terminate trade wars, desperately fight for the respect of their legal rights or, on the contrary, voluntarily give up on some parts of their sovereignty in the framework of integration development. The experience of the European Union demonstrates that the construction of the unified internal market within which freely move persons, goods, services and capitals is a necessary but not the only attribute of a successful integration project. At a certain moment the complex of economic and financial interests should be supplied with the interests of a concrete person. A strict observation of rights and freedoms is becoming a factor that predetermines a possibility of a conversion to the higher forms of integration. In this article is analyzed the problem of human rights defense in the main organizations functioning on the post-Soviet space - Eurasian Economic Union and Commonwealth of the Independent

  15. Post-Soviet emptiness (Vladimir Makanin and Viktor Pelevin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Günther

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Emptiness is a key word in several post-Soviet Russian novels of the late 1990s. One can find it as well in Vladimir Makanin's “Underground” as in two novels written by Viktor Pelevin, “Generation ‘P’” and “Chapaev and Emptiness”. After the fall of Soviet power Pelevin's cynical hero from “Generation ‘P’” changes from literature into advertising business, and in his novel “Chapaev and Emptiness” the legendary Soviet Civil War hero Chapaev transforms into a preacher of quasi-Buddhist nothingness. Makanin's hero, the writer Petrovich, renounces of his profession in order to work as a watchman in shelters for the homeless. His self-abasement is in accordance with the tradition of kenoticism (derived from the Greek word kenós = empty which played an important part in the history of Russian religious and cultural life. Criticizing the hypermoralism of classical Russian literature Makanin outlines a new image of the writer which is opposed to the Russian literary myth but still propagates moral and religious values. Pelevin's novels which reflect the relativism of postmodern poetics focus on another issue – the blurring of the difference between reality and illusion. In “Generation ‘P’”, mass media and advertising produce deceitful simulacra of reality and in “Chapaev and Emptiness” the deconstruction of Soviet mythology assumes the shape of a nightmare. Unsurprisingly, among the imagery of emptiness Malevich's famous “Black Square” including its numerous equivalents as black holes or all sorts of empty spaces is rather frequent in the three novels. Emptiness may be considered to be a characteristic trait of the atmosphere of the 1990s when Russians felt to live in a cultural vacuum somewhere between state economy and unbridled capitalism, between Soviet order and “post-slave” (Makanin chaos.

  16. Precision digital control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyskub, V. G.; Rozov, B. S.; Savelev, V. I.

    This book is concerned with the characteristics of digital control systems of great accuracy. A classification of such systems is considered along with aspects of stabilization, programmable control applications, digital tracking systems and servomechanisms, and precision systems for the control of a scanning laser beam. Other topics explored are related to systems of proportional control, linear devices and methods for increasing precision, approaches for further decreasing the response time in the case of high-speed operation, possibilities for the implementation of a logical control law, and methods for the study of precision digital control systems. A description is presented of precision automatic control systems which make use of electronic computers, taking into account the existing possibilities for an employment of computers in automatic control systems, approaches and studies required for including a computer in such control systems, and an analysis of the structure of automatic control systems with computers. Attention is also given to functional blocks in the considered systems.

  17. submitter LEP precision results

    CERN Document Server

    Kawamoto, T

    2001-01-01

    Precision measurements at LEP are reviewed, with main focus on the electroweak measurements and tests of the Standard Model. Constraints placed by the LEP measurements on possible new physics are also discussed.

  18. Description of precision colorimeter

    OpenAIRE

    Campos Acosta, Joaquín; Pons Aglio, Alicia; Corróns, Antonio

    1987-01-01

    Describes the use of a fully automatic, computer-controlled absolute spectroradiometer as a precision colorimeter. The chromaticity coordinates of several types of light sources have been obtained with this measurement system.

  19. NCI Precision Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    This illustration represents the National Cancer Institute’s support of research to improve precision medicine in cancer treatment, in which unique therapies treat an individual’s cancer based on specific genetic abnormalities of that person’s tumor.

  20. Soviet books and publications on hydrology (continental) and hydrogeology: titles and some notes on obtaining Soviet monographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manheim, Frank T.

    1966-01-01

    A common method of publication for Soviet scientists, which partly supplants periodicals, is the publication of a collection of articles on a general area of research, frequently by members of a given institution. An extensive sampling of world geologic literature for 1961 (Hawkes, 1966) showed that 33 percent of Soviet titles appeared in periodicals whereas 55 percent of North American and 70 percent of Western European literature appeared in this form. The Soviet predilection for symposia and collections of papers makes searching for information on a given subject more difficult for Westerners because the monographs in question are often not included in exchange agreements (except informal personal ones) with Western libraries and institutions, because they may be primed in small editions, and because such publications frequently escape the notice of Western abstract journals. Unless one is fortunate enough to have many personal contacts in the Soviet Union, there seems to be little alternative to at least a rudimentary knowledge of Russian in order to stay abreast of work published as monographs and in collections.

  1. Laser precision microfabrication

    CERN Document Server

    Sugioka, Koji; Pique, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    Miniaturization and high precision are rapidly becoming a requirement for many industrial processes and products. As a result, there is greater interest in the use of laser microfabrication technology to achieve these goals. This book composed of 16 chapters covers all the topics of laser precision processing from fundamental aspects to industrial applications to both inorganic and biological materials. It reviews the sate of the art of research and technological development in the area of laser processing.

  2. International assistance to upgrade the safety of Soviet-designed nuclear power plants. Selected activities in Eastern and Central Europe and the countries of the former Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillen, V.

    1993-12-01

    The overview is merely a snapshot of nuclear safety activities to assist the countries of Eastern and Central Europe and the former Soviet Union. While many other activities are planned or ongoing, this publication is meant to provide a general overview of the world community's commitment to improving the safety of Soviet-designed nuclear reactors

  3. Precision Experiments at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    de Boer, Wim

    2015-01-01

    The Large Electron Positron Collider (LEP) established the Standard Model (SM) of particle physics with unprecedented precision, including all its radiative corrections. These led to predictions for the masses of the top quark and Higgs boson, which were beautifully confirmed later on. After these precision measurements the Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded in 1999 jointly to 't Hooft and Veltman "for elucidating the quantum structure of electroweak interactions in physics". Another hallmark of the LEP results were the precise measurements of the gauge coupling constants, which excluded unification of the forces within the SM, but allowed unification within the supersymmetric extension of the SM. This increased the interest in Supersymmetry (SUSY) and Grand Unified Theories, especially since the SM has no candidate for the elusive dark matter, while Supersymmetry provides an excellent candidate for dark matter. In addition, Supersymmetry removes the quadratic divergencies of the SM and {\\it predicts} the Hig...

  4. Precision muonium spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jungmann, Klaus P.

    2016-01-01

    The muonium atom is the purely leptonic bound state of a positive muon and an electron. It has a lifetime of 2.2 µs. The absence of any known internal structure provides for precision experiments to test fundamental physics theories and to determine accurate values of fundamental constants. In particular ground state hyperfine structure transitions can be measured by microwave spectroscopy to deliver the muon magnetic moment. The frequency of the 1s–2s transition in the hydrogen-like atom can be determined with laser spectroscopy to obtain the muon mass. With such measurements fundamental physical interactions, in particular quantum electrodynamics, can also be tested at highest precision. The results are important input parameters for experiments on the muon magnetic anomaly. The simplicity of the atom enables further precise experiments, such as a search for muonium–antimuonium conversion for testing charged lepton number conservation and searches for possible antigravity of muons and dark matter. (author)

  5. Precision genome editing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steentoft, Catharina; Bennett, Eric P; Schjoldager, Katrine Ter-Borch Gram

    2014-01-01

    Precise and stable gene editing in mammalian cell lines has until recently been hampered by the lack of efficient targeting methods. While different gene silencing strategies have had tremendous impact on many biological fields, they have generally not been applied with wide success in the field...... of glycobiology, primarily due to their low efficiencies, with resultant failure to impose substantial phenotypic consequences upon the final glycosylation products. Here, we review novel nuclease-based precision genome editing techniques enabling efficient and stable gene editing, including gene disruption...... by introducing single or double-stranded breaks at a defined genomic sequence. We here compare and contrast the different techniques and summarize their current applications, highlighting cases from the field of glycobiology as well as pointing to future opportunities. The emerging potential of precision gene...

  6. Precision electron polarimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chudakov, E.

    2013-01-01

    A new generation of precise Parity-Violating experiments will require a sub-percent accuracy of electron beam polarimetry. Compton polarimetry can provide such accuracy at high energies, but at a few hundred MeV the small analyzing power limits the sensitivity. Mo/ller polarimetry provides a high analyzing power independent on the beam energy, but is limited by the properties of the polarized targets commonly used. Options for precision polarimetry at 300 MeV will be discussed, in particular a proposal to use ultra-cold atomic hydrogen traps to provide a 100%-polarized electron target for Mo/ller polarimetry

  7. A passion for precision

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva. Audiovisual Unit

    2006-01-01

    For more than three decades, the quest for ever higher precision in laser spectroscopy of the simple hydrogen atom has inspired many advances in laser, optical, and spectroscopic techniques, culminating in femtosecond laser optical frequency combs as perhaps the most precise measuring tools known to man. Applications range from optical atomic clocks and tests of QED and relativity to searches for time variations of fundamental constants. Recent experiments are extending frequency comb techniques into the extreme ultraviolet. Laser frequency combs can also control the electric field of ultrashort light pulses, creating powerful new tools for the emerging field of attosecond science.

  8. Improving Precision of Types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Johnni

    Types in programming languages provide a powerful tool for the programmer to document the code so that a large aspect of the intent can not only be presented to fellow programmers but also be checked automatically by compilers. The precision with which types model the behavior of programs...... is crucial to the quality of these automated checks, and in this thesis we present three different improvements to the precision of types in three different aspects of the Java programming language. First we show how to extend the type system in Java with a new type which enables the detection of unintended...

  9. The soviet manned lunar program N1-L3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lardier, Christian

    2018-01-01

    The conquest of space was marked by the Moon race in which the two superpowers, the United States and the Soviet Union, were engaged in the 1960s. On the American side, the Apollo program culminated with the Man on the Moon in July 1969, 50 years ago. At the same time, the Soviet Union carried out a similar program which was kept secret for 20 years. This N1-L3 program was unveiled in August 1989. Its goal was to arrive on the Moon before the Americans. It included an original super-rocket, development of which began in June 1960. But this program became a national priority only in August 1964 and the super-rocket failed four times between 1969 and 1972. This article analyses the reasons for these failures, which led to the cancellation of the program in 1974.

  10. Legal transformations of business disputes in post-soviet Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Kyselova

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores mobilisation of law by Ukrainian business people at the pre-litigation stage of disputes, when litigation has not as yet been commenced but a legal claim has been formalised through the pretenziya - a formal letter to the delinquent party written to a special template. In Soviet times the pretenziya was by law an obligatory prerequisite before filing a claim in a commercial court (arbitrazh, but nowadays it is optional. Having analysed the spectrum of legal and extra-legal functions of pretenziya, this paper concludes that due to its adaptability, pretenziya proved capable of operating both as a token of the public order – the ‘shadow of the law’ - and as part of a private contract enforcement. Pretenziya in a voluntary form has not only survived in market-oriented economy but even opened up new avenues for the creative use of legal forms in post-Soviet business.

  11. The prevalence of toxic hotspots in former Soviet countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharov, Petr; Dowling, Russell; Gogishvili, Megi; Jones, Barbara; Caravanos, Jack; McCartor, Andrew; Kashdan, Zachary; Fuller, Richard

    2016-04-01

    Using a global database of contaminated sites, toxic hotspots in eight former Soviet countries were analyzed to identify the prevalence, types and sources of toxic pollution, as well as their associated potential public health impacts. For this analysis, polluted sites in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan were compiled and analyzed. The levels of contamination of seven key pollutants were assessed in each country. 424 contaminated sites were identified using data from Blacksmith Institute. Pesticides, lead (Pb), radioactive metals, arsenic (As), mercury (Hg), chromium (Cr), and cadmium (Cd) were the most commonly identified key pollutants. Collectively, these sites pose health risks to an estimated 6.2 million residents. The existing data on toxic hotspots in former Soviet countries likely captures only a small percentage of actual contaminated sites, but suggests potentially severe public health consequences. Additional assessments are needed to understand the risks posed by toxic pollution in the region. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. FUNCTIONING OF THE SOVIET IDEOLOGEME IN THE EMIGRANT LITERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Мария Игоревна Шкредова

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article the author analyzes the features of functioning of the Soviet ideologeme in the literature of emigrants in details. Much attention is given to the term "ideologeme", its characteristics and features. Criteria of differentiation of the terms "Sovietism" and "ideologeme" are considered. There is the analysis of changes in perception of ideological expressions into space and time by examples of passages from the literature of the emigrant writers.The received results of research will spark the interest of the authors of dictionaries and teachers in development of programs for studying lexicon, stylistics and the culture of speech.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-2-40

  13. Response of Soviet VVER-440 accident localization systems to overpressurization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulak, R.F.; Fiala, C.; Sienicki, J.J.

    1989-01-01

    The Soviet designed VVER-440 model V230 and VVER-440 model V213 reactors do not use full containments to mitigate the effects of accidents. Instead, these VVER-440 units employ a sealed set of interconnected compartments, collectively called the accident localization system (ALS), to reduce the release of radionuclides to the atmosphere during accidents. Descriptions of the VVER accident localization structures may be found in the report DOE NE-0084. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the structural integrity of the VVER-440 ALS at the Soviet design pressure, and to determine their response to pressure loadings beyond the design value. Complex, three-dimensional, nonlinear, finite element models were developed to represent the major structural components of the localization systems of the VVER-440 models V230 and V213. The interior boundary of the localization system was incrementally pressurized in the calculations until the prediction of gross failure. 6 refs., 9 figs

  14. Bibliography of published material related to the Soviet PNE Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledbetter, G.P.; Nordyke, M.D.

    1977-01-01

    Scientists in the Soviet Union have published many papers that provide details about the Soviet program for the peaceful use of nuclear explosions. Over the years much of this material has been gathered at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory into what has become a sizeable collection. The bibliography of 334 references provides a useful record of the material available in that collection. The bibliography is divided into three main parts. Part I lists articles alphabetically. In Part II, the same articles are arranged by subject; many of them are included under more than one subject category. Part III is a list of important collections of papers. These collections provide many of the articles listed in Parts I and II

  15. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Kommunist, No. 8, May 1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-08-11

    in which ethnographic ties were combined with moral ties, an awareness of spiritual unity, and a community of historical destinies and interests...historical destinies ," noted by Klyuchevskiy. This text does not seem to include the word "nation." But what is a people which has "become a state...toward the Soviet Union and the other socialist countries. S. Karaganov pointed out the fact that the embryos of the new political thinking appeared

  16. Proletkult` ideologeme and Intentions of Soviet Power in 1920s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Яна Грантовна Григорьян

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In article the questions of the Proletkult's formation and organization and its influence on the cultural life of the young Soviet state are analyzed. The author has shown inconsistent making process of the «socialist values», definition of methods of a party management by new proletarian art, search of estimations and criteria of an ideological orientation of products of socialist culture.

  17. Problems of nuclear energetics safety in the Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalevitsh, O.M.

    1991-01-01

    Authors describe present state of Soviet nuclear energy. They don't cover problems relative to its development and that reasons made so bleak picture of this economic branch. They pay particular attention to low level of nuclear safety in nuclear power plants. The improvement of this situation they see in enacting of atomic low, as quickly as possible, which will make a basis of safety development in nuclear industry

  18. The Political Control of the Soviet Armed Forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-05

    training aids. 9In sum, the MPA is 6 responsible for providing coordination and standardization for the political socialization in the Soviet military...compelling nationalist loyalties and to instill approved Socialist values in soldiers of the non- lavic minorities. Along with this political ... socialization the political officer will 21 conduct language classes for those minorities with low levels of Russian fluency. In summary, the large number of

  19. Bibliography of Soviet Laser Developments, November-December 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-22

    Pentin,Yu.A. (). Physical study methods in chemistry. Structural methods and optical spectroscopy. Textbook for institutions of higher learning...12L268). 225. Vlokh ,0.G.; Vlokh ,R.0.; Shopa,Ya.I. U. Optical activity and birefringence in K(sub2)Cd(sub2)(SO(sub4)](sub3) crystals. (JFIZA, no 7, 1987...GOI). State Optical Institute on the seventieth anniversary of the October Revolution in a period of revolutionary restructuring of Soviet society

  20. The Soviet Breakup and U.S. Foreign Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Allen

    1991-01-01

    This issue of a quarterly publication on world affairs explores the historical significance of the disintegration of the Soviet Union and the implication for U.S. foreign policy. With the breakup of the USSR in 1990-91, Russia for the first time this century does not have control over the non-Russian nations of its former empire in Central Asia,…

  1. Troubled lands: The legacy of Soviet environmental destruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    This book presents a picture of daily life and environmental conditions in the former Soviet Union, based on the personal contacts of the author and on local media coverage. The challenges of living with contaminated food, drinking water, land, and air are described. Also examined are developments in the region's environmental policy and politics and what the long-term effects could be. Information on environmental conditions in other regions of the world are given for comparison

  2. Digitization of Nuclear Explosion Seismograms from the Former Soviet Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-30

    seismograms recorded in the former Soviet Union was initiated in the 1990s under the International Science and Technology Centre ( ISTC ) project K-063...The Lamont-Doherty Observatory of Columbia University (LDEO) helped to organize that work, writing the proposal to ISTC , which involved the U.S.A...were determined under the ISTC CASRI Project. For Kyrgyzstan temporary stations the coordinates were based on reports and information provided by

  3. New Soviet concepts in military doctrine, strategy, and arms control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holloway, D.

    1989-01-01

    Gorbachev offered a new Soviet view of nuclear war, and national security. The core of the new thinking is as follows: human interests take precedence over the interests of any particular class; the world is becoming increasingly interdependent; there can be no victors in a nuclear war; security has to be based increasingly on political, rather than military, instruments; and security has to be mutual. This paper discusses what brought this new thinking about and how this thinking might impact policy decisions

  4. Reducing the nuclear dangers from the former Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, A.B.

    1992-01-01

    The disintegration of the former Soviet Union, a nation armed with over 27,000 nuclear weapons, poses a new form of nuclear danger. First, there is the risk that as political authority devolves to the former Soviet republics, the nuclear arsenal could similarly by parcelled out, in ways that will not be conducive to nuclear stability or to safe custody. Second, there is a danger of seizure, theft, sale, or use of nuclear weapons or components during the period of transition, particularly if the nuclear weapon operating and custodial system - apparently still intact at present - disintegrates. Third, there is a danger that any weakening of control over weapons, fissionable materials, sensitive components, or know-how could result in transfers outside the territory of the new Commonwealth of Independent States, fueling nuclear proliferation worldwide. To deal with these risks, there are a number of steps that should be taken now. These recommendations are primarily addressed to the US government, working in concert with the authorities in the Commonwealth states and the world commmunity. In order of urgency, they are: encouraging and assisting prompt securing, disabling, removing to Russia, and dismantlement of the weapons covered by the Bush-Gorbachev reciprocal proposals of last fall, and by other nuclear arms accords; extending the Bush-Gorbachev proposals to strategic nuclear weapons; assuring safety and security of Soviet nuclear weapons during a difficult transitional period; addressing proliferation outside the Commonwealth; exposing the new political structures of the Commonwealth to prevailing conceptions of international stability and security; and adjusting US nuclear relationships and military policy to the new nuclear realities in the former Soviet Union

  5. Moscow State University physics alumni and the Soviet Atomic Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiselev, Gennadii V

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, two closely related themes are addressed: (1) the role that M V Lomonosov Moscow State University (MSU) played in training specialists in physics for the Soviet Atomic Project, and (2) what its alumni contributed to the development of thermonuclear weapons. In its earlier stages, the Soviet Atomic Project was in acute need of qualified personnel, without whom building nuclear and thermonuclear weapons would be an impossible task, and MSU became a key higher educational institution grappled with the training problem. The first part of the paper discusses the efforts of the leading Soviet scientists and leaders of FMD (First Main Directorate) to organize the training of specialists in nuclear physics at the MSU Physics Department and, on the other hand, to create a new Physics and Technology Department at the university. As a result, a number of Soviet Government's resolutions were prepared and issued, part of which are presented in the paper and give an idea of the large-scale challenges this sphere of education was facing at the time. Information is presented for the first time on the early MSU Physics Department graduates in the structure of matter, being employed in the FMD organizations and enterprises from 1948 to 1951. The second part discusses the contribution to the development of thermonuclear weapons by the teams of scientists led by Academicians I E Tamm, A N Tikhonov, and I M Frank, and including MSU physics alumni. The paper will be useful to anyone interested in the history of Russian physics. (from the history of physics)

  6. Soviet Union: priority development of gas industry forecast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernomyrdyn, V.S.

    1991-01-01

    The development of gas production and utilization in the Soviet Union is outlined, and the substantial contribution of the gas industry in restraining negative processes in the economy during the transition to a market economy is highlighted. The state owned Gazprom concern which is responsible for gas supply, the large ringed Integrated Gas Supply Systems, exports, underground gas storage, potential reserves, and the growth in gas productions are discussed. (UK)

  7. Jinneography: Post-Soviet passages of traumatic exemplarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beigi, Khashayar

    2016-04-01

    While Russia has historically and geographically close ties with Islam, the second most-practiced religion in its vast territories, the collapse of the USSR changed the terms of this relationship in significant ways. One key shift is the emergence of new immigration patterns between Russia and former Soviet states. Traversing distant lands from the peripheries of the Caucasus and Central Asia to mainland Russia in search of work, migrants have come to recognize each other as fellow Muslims dispersed in a theological geography on the ruins of the universal comradeship dreamed by the Soviet utopia. I propose to study the Islamic pedagogical practice of ibra in the context of sociohistorical dynamics of education and migration between Russia and Central Asia to further locate and analyze this shift in relation to current debates on post-Soviet subjectivity. By discussing the case of a spirit possession of a Tajik national performed in Russia, I argue that the collective participation in the session pedagogically invokes, ciphers, and extends the post-Soviet terrains of history as ibra, or exemplary passage of worldly events. To do so, I first locate the Quranic concept of ibra as a pedagogical paradigm in Islamic traditions as well as an ethnographic lens in the context of educational campaigns for the Muslims of Eurasia and then apply the concept to my analysis of the possession session in order to show that in the ritualistic incarnations of ghosts, or jinns, the civil war of Tajikistan and its continuing cycle of terror is ciphered into a desire for learning, as well as a focus on approximation to the divine. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Aviation & Cosmonautics, No. 5, May 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-10-28

    onions, dill). High- fiber foods and foods which promote gas ( peas , beans, radishes, kvas, melons) should not be consumed. Prevention of discomfort...Mas- ter of Sport USSR Lt Col L. Kovalev, and repeated world and USSR record holder Maj V. Perminov, inspected the jumpers. The calm tone of...conducted in two areas. One involved the growing of large homoge- neous protein crystals on the Aynur unit. Essentailly these were the first Soviet

  9. Corrupt Organizational Hierarchies in the Former Soviet Bloc

    OpenAIRE

    Osipian, Ararat

    2007-01-01

    Increasing scale and scope of corruption in the former Soviet Bloc, as well as numerous other countries, urges better understanding of the problem within the context of socio-economic transformations as it touches upon issues of organizational structures. This paper presents an overview of the research on corruption in organizations and develops models of corrupt organizations, including the vertical structure, the horizontal structure, and the hierarchy, as applied to transition economies.

  10. Dacha in Post-Soviet Russia: Institutional Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozmainsky Ivan V.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper tries to analyze the phenomenon of «dacha» according to D. North's approach to institutions. The authors explore how dacha has become mass phenomenon in the late USSR, and how social and economic role of dacha increased in the Post-Soviet period. The specific features of the Post-Soviet Russia’s deurbanization has been studied. In particular, these features include large engagements of citizens in the rural way of life associated with dacha. It is shown how «dacha-ization» attributed to the crony capitalism. The economic role of dacha in Post-Soviet Russia is confirmed by comprehensive statistics, in particular. These data show that in Russia dacha serves rather as the source of food production than as place for leisure and recreation. The paper concludes that explicit priority of the model of organic agriculture in the dacha can be a kind of the solution of the problem of decreasing goods’ quality in the market economy (earlier described by one of the authors of the current paper. Moreover, this priority was fundamentally argued by D. I. Mendeleev. The authors believe that dacha will remain as an important institution for the Russians in coming years.

  11. National narrative, ethnology, and academia in post-Soviet Uzbekistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlène Laruelle

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Since the disintegration of the Soviet Union, the new states of Central Asia have been obliged to adjust their institutions to new symbolic frontiers and to take into account the independence they achieved in 1991. Both universities and Academies of Sciences have been called to reconsider their research policies and to orient them in order to respond to emerging national issues. The building of national narratives is a particularly relevant object of study in observing the various modes of legitimization of the Central Asian states and the scientific instruments they deem necessary for their political validation. The aim of this paper is to overcome the apparent, albeit actual, character of a number of changes that have taken place in Uzbekistan since 1991, in order to demonstrate the continuity of personal, institutional, and intellectual lines uniting contemporary research to that conducted during Soviet period. The preference accorded to ancient history, the praise of the originality and long heritage of the people, and an obsession with ethnogenesis, all are rooted in the contemporary narrative of the previous regime. They invite a reconsideration of the past two decades in a more nuanced manner and a rereading of the Soviet past in order to understand the process of building the nation-state, which has now been underway for more than half a century.

  12. Precision physics at LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinchliffe, I.

    1997-05-01

    In this talk the author gives a brief survey of some physics topics that will be addressed by the Large Hadron Collider currently under construction at CERN. Instead of discussing the reach of this machine for new physics, the author gives examples of the types of precision measurements that might be made if new physics is discovered

  13. Precision Muonium Spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jungmann, Klaus P.

    2016-01-01

    The muonium atom is the purely leptonic bound state of a positive muon and an electron. It has a lifetime of 2.2 mu s. The absence of any known internal structure provides for precision experiments to test fundamental physics theories and to determine accurate values of fundamental constants. In

  14. What is precision medicine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Inke R; Fuchs, Oliver; Hansen, Gesine; von Mutius, Erika; Kopp, Matthias V

    2017-10-01

    The term "precision medicine" has become very popular over recent years, fuelled by scientific as well as political perspectives. Despite its popularity, its exact meaning, and how it is different from other popular terms such as "stratified medicine", "targeted therapy" or "deep phenotyping" remains unclear. Commonly applied definitions focus on the stratification of patients, sometimes referred to as a novel taxonomy, and this is derived using large-scale data including clinical, lifestyle, genetic and further biomarker information, thus going beyond the classical "signs-and-symptoms" approach.While these aspects are relevant, this description leaves open a number of questions. For example, when does precision medicine begin? In which way does the stratification of patients translate into better healthcare? And can precision medicine be viewed as the end-point of a novel stratification of patients, as implied, or is it rather a greater whole?To clarify this, the aim of this paper is to provide a more comprehensive definition that focuses on precision medicine as a process. It will be shown that this proposed framework incorporates the derivation of novel taxonomies and their role in healthcare as part of the cycle, but also covers related terms. Copyright ©ERS 2017.

  15. Britain's exploitation of Occupied Germany for scientific and technical intelligence on the Soviet Union

    OpenAIRE

    Maddrell, John Paul

    1999-01-01

    At the beginning of the Cold War, the gathering of intelligence on the Soviet Union's current and future military capability seemed a near-impossibility. Soviet high-level communications were secure against decryption. Agent networks in the USSR were very difficult to establish and of uncertain reliability. Aerial reconnaissance of warrelated targets in the Soviet Union was risky and could only be occasional. But valuable intelligence was gathered in the years 1945-55 on the US...

  16. Cumulative Author Index for Soviet Laser Bibliographies Nos. 67-93, September 1983-February 1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-02-01

    C) 0 00 I: Cumulative Author Index for Soviet Laser Bibliographies September 1983 - February 1989 A Defense S&T Intelligence Special Purpose Document...90 CUMULATIVE AUTHOR INDEX FOR SOVIET LASER BIBLIOGRAPHIES Nos. 67-93 SEPTEMBER 1983 - FEBRUARY 1989 Date of Report March 31, 19 Vice Director for...RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER DST-2700Z-001-90 4. TITLE (and Subtitle) S. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED CUMULATIVE AUTHOR INDEX FOR SOVIET LASER

  17. FREUDIAN COMPLEXES OF SOVIET AND POST-SOVIET PHILOLOGY IN STUDYING THE GOSPEL TEXT IN RUSSIAN LITERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Andreevich Esaulov

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The article looks at a number of marginal concepts of Freudian theory and at his articles on Dostoevsky that revealed the 'cultural unconscious' of the founder of psychoanalysis. We point at the similarities between Freud's cultural unconscious – with its negativity against of the “Christian God”, historical Russia and Russian people – and the Soviet type of culture, especially in its early period (1920s – early 1930s. The ardor of Freudo-Marxism typical for the highest levels of Soviet power and humanitarian studies lay in their striving towards a complete restructuring of Russian culture, state and man itself. Russian literature is interpreted on the basis of anti-Christian tenets and a set of criteria absolutely alien to Russian literature. We show that this mental attitude has not been overcome by post-Soviet literary criticism. Our article is a call on scholars of Russian literature to get rid of their Freudian complexes in the treatment of Russian culture.

  18. Nõukogude garaažikultuur. Soviet Garage Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tauri Tuvikene

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Apart from its manifestation in the form of political ideology, the arts and the economic system, socialism also manifested itself in space. The socialist space did not only take shape ideologically, but was also influenced by societal limitations and possibilities. Because of this, it is important to shed light on everyday life in the Soviet Union, which did not necessarily consist of big slogans or open opposition, and which neither expressed loud support nor aversion in relation to the Soviet system. In this article I take a look at the garage areas (which were usually built in clusters as spatial elements, and the garage culture associated with them. I describe how the garage was a necessary part of the car culture in Soviet society, a part which at times comprised objects, practices and meanings of its own: in other words, a garage culture. Cars have had a major impact on cityscapes in the West, where the number of cars per capita was many times larger than in the Soviet Union, but car usage has left its mark in socialist cities as well. Getting around in a car inevitably means aneed to park it somewhere; this basic fact applied to both sides of the Iron Curtain. However, garage areas have carried more importance in socialist societies – there is more of them, and they feature a large amount of parking spaces (hundreds if not thousands. The reason for this popularity was societal limitations and possibilities: on the one hand there was an opportunity for extensive land use brought about by the state ownership of land untouched by free-market search for profitability, but on the other hand there were also obstacles, created by a deficit. By enabling the car owner to keep his vehicle going, the garage had a concrete role to play in the Soviet economic system. The garage was a place where you could repair your car, store spare parts and protect it from potential theft. The role of the garage in Soviet car culture as described in this article

  19. Precision synchrotron radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levi, M.; Rouse, F.; Butler, J.

    1989-03-01

    Precision detectors to measure synchrotron radiation beam positions have been designed and installed as part of beam energy spectrometers at the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC). The distance between pairs of synchrotron radiation beams is measured absolutely to better than 28 /mu/m on a pulse-to-pulse basis. This contributes less than 5 MeV to the error in the measurement of SLC beam energies (approximately 50 GeV). A system of high-resolution video cameras viewing precisely-aligned fiducial wire arrays overlaying phosphorescent screens has achieved this accuracy. Also, detectors of synchrotron radiation using the charge developed by the ejection of Compton-recoil electrons from an array of fine wires are being developed. 4 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  20. A passion for precision

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2006-01-01

    For more than three decades, the quest for ever higher precision in laser spectroscopy of the simple hydrogen atom has inspired many advances in laser, optical, and spectroscopic techniques, culminating in femtosecond laser optical frequency combs  as perhaps the most precise measuring tools known to man. Applications range from optical atomic clocks and tests of QED and relativity to searches for time variations of fundamental constants. Recent experiments are extending frequency comb techniques into the extreme ultraviolet. Laser frequency combs can also control the electric field of ultrashort light pulses, creating powerful new tools for the emerging field of attosecond science.Organiser(s): L. Alvarez-Gaume / PH-THNote: * Tea & coffee will be served at 16:00.

  1. Quad precision delay generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnan, Shanti; Gopalakrishnan, K.R.; Marballi, K.R.

    1997-01-01

    A Quad Precision Delay Generator delays a digital edge by a programmed amount of time, varying from nanoseconds to microseconds. The output of this generator has an amplitude of the order of tens of volts and rise time of the order of nanoseconds. This was specifically designed and developed to meet the stringent requirements of the plasma focus experiments. Plasma focus is a laboratory device for producing and studying nuclear fusion reactions in hot deuterium plasma. 3 figs

  2. Adult Development Theory and Political Analysis: An Integral Account of Social and Political Change in Soviet and Post-Soviet Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Elke Fein

    2010-01-01

    I propose a reading of social, political and discursive change in Soviet and post-Soviet Russia which is inspired by an integral, above all developmental perspective. In view of explaining Russia’s current political trajectory, I make several arguments. First, I claim that Russian politics are still to a large extent determined by the effects of a threefold crisis of sense-making. Neither the collapse of the Soviet empire, nor the question of how to define democratic government nor the lack o...

  3. Kimchi, seaweed, and seasoned carrot in the Soviet culinary culture: the spread of Korean food in the Soviet Union and Korean diaspora

    OpenAIRE

    Changzoo Song

    2016-01-01

    The half-million Soviet Koreans (or Koryŏ saram) in the former Soviet Union are the descendants of the ethnic Koreans who migrated to the Russian Far East in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from the northern parts of the Korean peninsula. Their settlements were established in the wide areas of the Russian Far East, including the urban areas around Vladivostok. They were, however, forced-migrated to Central Asia in late 1937 under Stalin's rule. From Central Asia, these Soviet Koreans w...

  4. Molecular cloning and characterization of a tumor-associated, growth-related, and time-keeping hydroquinone (NADH) oxidase (tNOX) of the HeLa cell surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chueh, Pin-Ju; Kim, Chinpal; Cho, NaMi; Morre, Dorothy M.; Morre, D. James

    2002-01-01

    NOX proteins are growth-related cell surface proteins that catalyze both hydroquinone or NADH oxidation and protein disulfide interchange and exhibit prion-like properties. The two enzymatic activities alternate to generate a regular period length of about 24 min. Here we report the expression, cloning, and characterization of a tumor-associated NADH oxidase (tNOX). The cDNA sequence of 1830 bp is located on gene Xq25-26 with an open reading frame encoding 610 amino acids. The activities of the bacterially expressed tNOX oscillate with a period length of 22 min as is characteristic of tNOX activities in situ. The activities are inhibited completely by capsaicin, which represents a defining characteristic of tNOX activity. Functional motifs identified by site-directed mutagenesis within the C-terminal portion of the tNOX protein corresponding to the processed plasma membrane-associated form include quinone (capsaicin), copper and adenine nucleotide binding domains, and two cysteines essential for catalytic activity. Four of the six cysteine to alanine replacements retained enzymatic activity, but the period lengths of the oscillations were increased. A single protein with two alternating enzymatic activities indicative of a time-keeping function is unprecedented in the biochemical literature.

  5. Parteilisest tsensuurist Nõukogude Eestis. Party Censorship in Soviet Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiiu Kreegipuu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available During the years of imposed Soviet rule in Estonia from 1940 to its collapse in 1991, Estonian culture and the written word were subject to Soviet censorship which due to its perseverance, extent and rigidity constrained creativity and self-expression. At the same time, archival documents and memories testify that considerable shifting could take place within this censorship which on the surface appeared strict and regulated, depending on the general ideological stance and the officials and party functionaries in place at the time. Soviet censorship is usually studied and described with the activities of the censorship office Glavlit as the focal point. However, for a more complete overview, it would be wise to keep in mind that a whole row of other institutions and authorities with the Communist Party in front also were involved in censorship matters. When it came to censorship, it was the party that had the final word – as it did with everything else – and if needed, it also acted as punisher. Apart from the role of censor, the Communist Party, its departments (with the Department for Propaganda and Agitation or Ideology in front and its officials also took part in hands-on censorship work, both in terms of decision-making and in dealing with concrete incidents (breach of censorship rules and censor mistakes but also in the search for and pointing out of ideological flaws. One area in which the party’s censorship activities manifested itself in a rather vivid manner was the leadership and control of the Soviet press. When analysing materials from the bureau of the Communist Party of Estonia’s Central Committee, it becomes clear that the party’s governing organs were constantly active in this area. The manifestation of problems and discussion of flaws here point to the circumstance that journalists and editors did not accept the censorship rules, but rather tried to find possibilities and means through which to modify or ignore them

  6. Precision electroweak measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demarteau, M.

    1996-11-01

    Recent electroweak precision measurements fro e + e - and p anti p colliders are presented. Some emphasis is placed on the recent developments in the heavy flavor sector. The measurements are compared to predictions from the Standard Model of electroweak interactions. All results are found to be consistent with the Standard Model. The indirect constraint on the top quark mass from all measurements is in excellent agreement with the direct m t measurements. Using the world's electroweak data in conjunction with the current measurement of the top quark mass, the constraints on the Higgs' mass are discussed

  7. Electroweak precision tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteil, St.

    2009-12-01

    This document aims at summarizing a dozen of years of the author's research in High Energy Physics, in particular dealing with precision tests of the electroweak theory. Parity violating asymmetries measurements at LEP with the ALEPH detector together with global consistency checks of the Kobayashi-Maskawa paradigm within the CKM-fitter group are gathered in the first part of the document. The second part deals with the unpublished instrumental work about the design, tests, productions and commissioning of the elements of the Pre-Shower detector of the LHCb spectrometer at LHC. Physics perspectives with LHCb are eventually discussed as a conclusion. (author)

  8. Ultra-precision bearings

    CERN Document Server

    Wardle, F

    2015-01-01

    Ultra-precision bearings can achieve extreme accuracy of rotation, making them ideal for use in numerous applications across a variety of fields, including hard disk drives, roundness measuring machines and optical scanners. Ultraprecision Bearings provides a detailed review of the different types of bearing and their properties, as well as an analysis of the factors that influence motion error, stiffness and damping. Following an introduction to basic principles of motion error, each chapter of the book is then devoted to the basic principles and properties of a specific type of bearin

  9. Spy and Counterspy as a “Cultural Hero” in the Soviet Cinema of the Cold War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoria Sukovataya

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This article aim to analyze the evolution of the Soviet spy cinema of the Cold War in the context of the cultural history and the social changes in the USA and the Soviet Union, and the relations with the political opponents. The public reception of the Soviet spy and spying was evolved in the Soviet Union and it was reflected in the cinema plots and characters transformations.

  10. Louis Aragon: (Re writing the Nazi-Soviet Pact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela KIMYONGÜR

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available At the time of the Nazi-Soviet non-aggression pact of 1939, Louis Aragon was a member of the French Communist Party (PCF, a well known novelist and poet and a journalist. Whilst his writing career had undergone several notable transformations, not least that from surrealist to socialist realist, his political commitment to the left and, from 1927 to the PCF, remained steadfast for much of his life. Indeed, unlike the PCF’s interpretation of the Second World War, which underwent a number of s...

  11. Scientific and technical training in the Soviet Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spearman, M. L.

    1984-01-01

    The Soviet Union recognizes that the foundation of their system depends upon complete dedication of the people to the state through thorough psychological training as well as through military training, and through specialized education in the broad fields of engineering, natural sciences, life sciences, social sciences, and education. An outline of the U.S.S.R. educational system indicates the extent of academic training, coupled with on-the-job and military training, that can produce a highly skilled, dedicated, and matured person. Observations on the coupling of political, economic, and psychological training along with the technical training are made, along with some mention of positive and negative aspects of the training.

  12. Bibliographic Index of Soviet Military Books, 1970-1974.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-31

    34 Each is preceded by a numerical designation, used in Soviet bibliographies, which corresponds in many ways to the Dewey Decimal System used in the...74-06882 (C0087) Mal’kov,V.I. Character and System of Laws of War and Armed * . Conflict, Principles of Military Art.(Kharakter i Sistema Zakonov...C0561) Stukalov,P.I., Shchetnini,V.F. System of Political Organi- zation of Socialist Society, the Plaice and Role in it of the Armed For- ces.( Sistema

  13. Nationalism and social welfare in the post-Soviet context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    This paper offers hypotheses on the role that state social welfare measures can play in reflecting nationalism and in aggravating interethnic tensions. Social welfare is often overlooked in theoretical literature on nationalism, because of the widespread assumption that the welfare state promotes social cohesion. However, social welfare systems may face contradictions between the goal of promoting universal access to all citizens on the one hand, and social pressures to recognize particular groups in distinct ways on the other. Examples from the post-Soviet context (particularly Russia) are offered to illustrate the ways in which social welfare issues may be perceived as having ethnic connotations.

  14. Economic Leverage on the Soviet Union in the 1980s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-07-01

    detente. Thus, they are led to argue the economic rationale of benefaction because it is the necessary implica- tion of a policy whose motivations are...administration’s position is certainly not mercantilist in the sense of striving for a larger U.S. esport surplus; the concern is with the efect of Soviet...and the value of hard currency esports that would have to be forgone to the @I*" wsrere I dIne ’away from export sectors. (An Padma Duda pointed

  15. First results from the Soviet-American Gallium Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abazov, A.I.; Abdurashitov, D.N.; Anosov, O.L.; Eroshkina, L.A.; Faizov, E.L.; Gavrin, V.N.; Kalikhov, A.V.; Knodel, T.V.; Knyshenko, I.I.; Kornoukhov, V.N.; Mezentseva, S.A.; Mirmov, I.N.; Ostrinsky, A.I.; Petukhov, V.V.; Pshukov, A.M.; Revzin, N.Y.; Shikhin, A.A.; Timofeyev, P.V.; Veretenkin, E.P.; Vermul, V.M.; Zakharov, Y.; Zatsepin, G.T.; Zhandarov, V.I.; Davis, R. Jr.; Lande, K.; Cherry, M.L.; Kouzes, R.T.

    1990-01-01

    The Soviet-American Gallium Experiment is the first experiment able to measure the dominant flux of low energy p-p solar neutrinos. Four extractions made during January to May 1990 from 30 tons of gallium have been counted and indicate that the flux is consistent with 0 SNU and is less than 72 SNU (68% CL) and less than 138 SNU (95% CL). This is to be compared with the flux of 132 SNU predicted by the Standard Solar Model. 10 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  16. A Survey of Progress in Coding Theory in the Soviet Union. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kautz, William H.; Levitt, Karl N.

    The results of a comprehensive technical survey of all published Soviet literature in coding theory and its applications--over 400 papers and books appearing before March 1967--are described in this report. Noteworthy Soviet contributions are discussed, including codes for the noiseless channel, codes that correct asymetric errors, decoding for…

  17. Plant protection in post-Soviet Kazakhstan: the loss of an ecological perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toleubayev, K.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis examines why and how plant protection issues are embedded in political, economic and social contexts. It analyses the domain of plant protection in Kazakhstan under two different socio-economic and political formations, namely the Soviet period before 1991 and the post-Soviet period

  18. Charting the Course of the Voyenno-Morskoy Flot: Soviet Naval Strategy towards the Year 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-05-13

    through to the .Soviet strategic centers ashore. It is presumed that main battles will unfold on 144 the high seas, as was the case during WW2 in the...Several methods of nonacoustic detection are currently being explored by U.S. and Soviet scientists. These range from infrared temperature sensors

  19. “Creative Industries” Strategies in Soviet Lithuania: Packages of Mass Consumption Goods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eglė Jaškūnienė

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the Soviet mechanism of including the creative potentials into formation of economical and ideological policy strategies. Research aims to examine, how mass media and culture theories of Walter Benjamin, Frankfurt school and British Culture studies reflect the situation of mass culture in Soviet system. Case study is based on Lithuanian package design of 1960–1970s.

  20. News Media Use and Adolescents' Attitudes about Nuclear Issues: An American-Soviet Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, John P.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examines linkages between media use and attitudes from a survey of Soviet and American teenagers. Finds that all youths show a great concern about the possible effects of nuclear war, with heavy media users in both countries more optimistic, but the relation was stronger among Soviet students. (MS)

  1. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, USA: Economics, Politics, Ideology, No. 3, March 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-08-11

    CPSU Central Committee V.P. Nikonov received President J. Giffen of the American-Soviet Trade and Economic Council ( ASTEC ). 23—Deputies of the USSR...test against the campaign of slander and the instigation of anti-Soviet actions in the Estonian SSR. A.F. Dobrynin had a meeting with ASTEC

  2. Chernobyl as the beginning of the end of the Soviet Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Lindbladh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The belief in technology was fundamental in Soviet culture. When the nuclear reactor exploded and harvested souls and spread illness throughout a vast area, over the course of many years, an image of the collapse of the Soviet Union was thereby created. Chernobyl became an image of the apocalypse of communism.

  3. Soviet children and the threat of nuclear war: a preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chivian, E.; Mack, J.E.; Waletzky, J.P.; Lazaroff, C.; Doctor, R.; Goldenring, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    This study, the first undertaken by Western researchers with Soviet children on the subject of nuclear weapons, compared the questionnaire responses of 293 Soviet youngsters with those of 201 age-matched Californians. Interviews were conducted to supplement the questionnaire findings. Similarities and differences between the two samples are discussed in the context of how young people today perceive the threat of nuclear war

  4. Relations between the Soviet Union and its Eastern European Allies: A Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-11-01

    Communist states forwarding the process of world revolution. 4. The ideologiaal seaurity faator* Eastern Europe has provided a defensive Soviet...relaxation and the final conclusion of the negotiations on European cooperation and se- curity. In the ideologiaal sphere, the Soviets, as mentioned

  5. ROLE OF JOINT VENTURE “SOVHISPAN” IN NORMALIZATION OF THE SOVIET-SPANISH BILATERAL RELATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Марина Николаевна Мосейкина

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The object of this research is to support the statement about the prevalence of the economic interest over the political ones, taking as an example the reestablishment of the Soviet-Spanish bilateral relations. The historical context of the creation of the Soviet-Spanish joint venture “Sovhispan”is highlighted as the final outcome of the secret negotiations and previous business practices between Spain and the Soviet Union in the late 1960s. The Soviet-Spanish economic relations started ten years before their normalization in 1977, the Canary Islandsbeing one of the places of their development. The principal conclusions of the research are: the geostrategic position of Spain was appreciated by the USA, via installation of the military bases on the mainland, and the USSR, using the Canary Islands as an operational base for the Soviet Fishing Fleet. “Sovrybflot”, an internal structure of the Ministry of Fisheries of the USSR, managed the overseas activity of the Soviet Fishing fleet abroad. Thus, the arrival of avast Soviet fishing fleet in the Canary Islands and the creation of the joint venture “Sovhispan” was a result of its work. “Sovhispan” was a “bridge” in the normalization of the Soviet-Spanish bilateral relations, and bankrupted with the dissolution of the USSR.

  6. Hello, Lenin? Nostalgia On Post-Soviet Television In Russia And Ukraine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khinkulova, Kateryna

    2012-01-01

    abstractAfter the collapse of the USSR in 1991, Soviet television looked old-fashioned and seemed redundant, with the emerging post-Soviet televisual cultures turning their gazes to global sources of inspiration. The next decade affected Russia and Ukraine in very different ways. In Russia brief

  7. Strategies representations of gender identity in the practice actionism in the post-soviet space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Shelkovina

    2014-04-01

    In addition, the article rises the issue of the construction of national identity. The certain stage of this process is closely overlap with the construction of gender identity. In the post­Soviet region, these processes have become a way of rehabilitation of mental injuries that were acquired during the Soviet period.

  8. The Experience of Soviet Medicine in World War II 1941-1945. Volume I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-02-25

    countries. The low percentage of neuropsychological patients in the Soviet Army is evidence of the achievements of pre- war years of the Soviet people...unsplinted 269 I I II I fracture did not bother them. To the question of the physician about =npn.aints, they most often pointed out hunger . As early

  9. Precision lifetime measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanner, C.E.

    1994-01-01

    Precision measurements of atomic lifetimes provide important information necessary for testing atomic theory. The authors employ resonant laser excitation of a fast atomic beam to measure excited state lifetimes by observing the decay-in-flight of the emitted fluorescence. A similar technique was used by Gaupp, et al., who reported measurements with precisions of less than 0.2%. Their program includes lifetime measurements of the low lying p states in alkali and alkali like systems. Motivation for this work comes from a need to test the atomic many-body-perturbation theory (MBPT) that is necessary for interpretation of parity nonconservation experiments in atomic cesium. The authors have measured the cesium 6p 2 P 1/2 and 6p 2 P 3/2 state lifetimes to be 34.934±0.094 ns and 30.499±0.070 ns respectively. With minor changes to the apparatus, they have extended their measurements to include the lithium 2p 2 P 1/2 and 2p 2 P 3/2 states

  10. Fundamentals of precision medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divaris, Kimon

    2018-01-01

    Imagine a world where clinicians make accurate diagnoses and provide targeted therapies to their patients according to well-defined, biologically-informed disease subtypes, accounting for individual differences in genetic make-up, behaviors, cultures, lifestyles and the environment. This is not as utopic as it may seem. Relatively recent advances in science and technology have led to an explosion of new information on what underlies health and what constitutes disease. These novel insights emanate from studies of the human genome and microbiome, their associated transcriptomes, proteomes and metabolomes, as well as epigenomics and exposomics—such ‘omics data can now be generated at unprecedented depth and scale, and at rapidly decreasing cost. Making sense and integrating these fundamental information domains to transform health care and improve health remains a challenge—an ambitious, laudable and high-yield goal. Precision dentistry is no longer a distant vision; it is becoming part of the rapidly evolving present. Insights from studies of the human genome and microbiome, their associated transcriptomes, proteomes and metabolomes, and epigenomics and exposomics have reached an unprecedented depth and scale. Much more needs to be done, however, for the realization of precision medicine in the oral health domain. PMID:29227115

  11. Precision measurements in supersymmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Johnathan Lee [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1995-05-01

    Supersymmetry is a promising framework in which to explore extensions of the standard model. If candidates for supersymmetric particles are found, precision measurements of their properties will then be of paramount importance. The prospects for such measurements and their implications are the subject of this thesis. If charginos are produced at the LEP II collider, they are likely to be one of the few available supersymmetric signals for many years. The author considers the possibility of determining fundamental supersymmetry parameters in such a scenario. The study is complicated by the dependence of observables on a large number of these parameters. He proposes a straightforward procedure for disentangling these dependences and demonstrate its effectiveness by presenting a number of case studies at representative points in parameter space. In addition to determining the properties of supersymmetric particles, precision measurements may also be used to establish that newly-discovered particles are, in fact, supersymmetric. Supersymmetry predicts quantitative relations among the couplings and masses of superparticles. The author discusses tests of such relations at a future e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} linear collider, using measurements that exploit the availability of polarizable beams. Stringent tests of supersymmetry from chargino production are demonstrated in two representative cases, and fermion and neutralino processes are also discussed.

  12. Precision muon physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorringe, T. P.; Hertzog, D. W.

    2015-09-01

    The muon is playing a unique role in sub-atomic physics. Studies of muon decay both determine the overall strength and establish the chiral structure of weak interactions, as well as setting extraordinary limits on charged-lepton-flavor-violating processes. Measurements of the muon's anomalous magnetic moment offer singular sensitivity to the completeness of the standard model and the predictions of many speculative theories. Spectroscopy of muonium and muonic atoms gives unmatched determinations of fundamental quantities including the magnetic moment ratio μμ /μp, lepton mass ratio mμ /me, and proton charge radius rp. Also, muon capture experiments are exploring elusive features of weak interactions involving nucleons and nuclei. We will review the experimental landscape of contemporary high-precision and high-sensitivity experiments with muons. One focus is the novel methods and ingenious techniques that achieve such precision and sensitivity in recent, present, and planned experiments. Another focus is the uncommonly broad and topical range of questions in atomic, nuclear and particle physics that such experiments explore.

  13. Precision Joining Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, J. W.; Westphal, D. A.

    1991-08-01

    A workshop to obtain input from industry on the establishment of the Precision Joining Center (PJC) was held on July 10-12, 1991. The PJC is a center for training Joining Technologists in advanced joining techniques and concepts in order to promote the competitiveness of U.S. industry. The center will be established as part of the DOE Defense Programs Technology Commercialization Initiative, and operated by EG&G Rocky Flats in cooperation with the American Welding Society and the Colorado School of Mines Center for Welding and Joining Research. The overall objectives of the workshop were to validate the need for a Joining Technologists to fill the gap between the welding operator and the welding engineer, and to assure that the PJC will train individuals to satisfy that need. The consensus of the workshop participants was that the Joining Technologist is a necessary position in industry, and is currently used, with some variation, by many companies. It was agreed that the PJC core curriculum, as presented, would produce a Joining Technologist of value to industries that use precision joining techniques. The advantage of the PJC would be to train the Joining Technologist much more quickly and more completely. The proposed emphasis of the PJC curriculum on equipment intensive and hands-on training was judged to be essential.

  14. Negation, Including, Gradual Oblivion: State Strategies On Soviet Heritage In Georgia, Armenia And Azerbaijan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Tokarev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the year of 100th anniversary of the October Revolution, the author turns to the question of the Soviet heritage influence on nation- and state-building processes in three countries of the South Caucasus –Azerbaijan,ArmeniaandGeorgia. The article postulates clear differences between the study of postcolonialism and the post-Soviet space, and therefore the author presents his own operationalization of the "imperial heritage" study. The countries of the South Caucasus are compared based on the following criteria: a number of ethnic Russians as the main constituent of the Soviet people living in the country; a status of the Russian language; national symbols (statutes, architecture, Soviet state symbols, the hierarchy of military ranks, and political practices (functioning of the party systems, type of sovereignty, degree of freedom of speech and political competition. StudyingAzerbaijan,ArmeniaandGeorgiadifferently coming out of theUSSRand using the disintegration of theUSSRto construct their national narratives in accordance with their own ideas about the ways of development, the author finds a repetition of the Soviet system elements. Each of the states demonstrates a unique combination of “post-Soviet Soviet” phenomena. The difference lies in the ratio between pro-Soviet and anti-Soviet elements. Azerbaijanseems to maintain a pro-Soviet narrative more than the others. It inherited the Soviet cult of personality and combined this practice with a completely non-Soviet (Eastern tradition of political dynasties covered by the election system. The Armenian political tradition includes reference to Soviet Armenia as theSecondRepublic, which distinguishes the country from the neighbors who consider themselves to be the successors of the democratic republics that emerged during the Civil War inRussia. Despite competitive elections and free media, the Armenian leadership seeks to establish a political system with a single dominant party and

  15. Masculinities in the Motherland: Gender and Authority in the Soviet Union during the Cold War, 1945-1968

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Erica L.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation starts from the premise that World War II changed Soviet ideas about manhood. The Soviet Union lost twenty-seven million combatants and civilians in World War II--twenty million of whom were men. Delineating, performing, negotiating, and resisting a variety of cultural ideas about manliness shaped Soviet militarism and ideology…

  16. Review of possible peaceful applications of nuclear explosions in the national economy of the Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witherspoon, Paul A.

    1970-01-01

    The following review will give some of the current thinking of Soviet scientists and engineers on the possibilities of using nuclear explosions for peaceful purposes in the Soviet Union. This review is taken from a more detailed report that was presented under the same title by Soviet participants at an information-exchange meeting that was held in Vienna between the Soviet Union and the United States in April, 1969. Aside from a very brief review of one explosion in salt, the report does not give details on nuclear explosion effects (mechanical, seismic, radiation, or thermal). Rather, the report summarizes the results of design calculations and indicates the direction of Soviet planning for a variety of industrial applications. A complete translation of this report will be published by the Division of Technical Information and Education of AEC at Oakridge. (author)

  17. Review of possible peaceful applications of nuclear explosions in the national economy of the Soviet Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witherspoon, Paul A [University of California, Berkeley (United States)

    1970-05-15

    The following review will give some of the current thinking of Soviet scientists and engineers on the possibilities of using nuclear explosions for peaceful purposes in the Soviet Union. This review is taken from a more detailed report that was presented under the same title by Soviet participants at an information-exchange meeting that was held in Vienna between the Soviet Union and the United States in April, 1969. Aside from a very brief review of one explosion in salt, the report does not give details on nuclear explosion effects (mechanical, seismic, radiation, or thermal). Rather, the report summarizes the results of design calculations and indicates the direction of Soviet planning for a variety of industrial applications. A complete translation of this report will be published by the Division of Technical Information and Education of AEC at Oakridge. (author)

  18. Precision Medicine in Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Precision medicine helps doctors select cancer treatments that are most likely to help patients based on a genetic understanding of their disease. Learn about the promise of precision medicine and the role it plays in cancer treatment.

  19. Health world views of post-Soviet citizens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Pamela A; Turmov, Sergei; Wallace, Claire

    2006-01-01

    The collapse of the Soviet Union has had an adverse impact on the lives of the peoples of Russia and Ukraine. This paper reports on qualitative case studies including interviews, focus groups and children's essays from Russia and Ukraine, on the topics of everyday understanding of health and the factors influencing it. The majority report poor health and difficult material circumstances. Their understandings of health and illness are multifactorial and include emotional as well as descriptive elements. Whilst the most frequently cited definition of health is of people with/without health problems, it is evident that health is seen positively, as more than the absence of debilitating illness. There is a strong emphasis on individual responsibility for health and evidence that people are thought to have a moral responsibility to strive to be healthy. However, there is also a strong awareness that the major factors which cause ill health are beyond their control. The findings provide additional support for the health lifestyles theory that has been developed to provide a sociological understanding of the mortality crisis in the former Soviet Union.

  20. Soviet psyhology of religion in 1960–1970s: marginalia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Orel

    2018-12-01

    Full Text Available This brief outline deals with the history of development of psychology of religion in the USSR. The author concentrates on the analysis of the historical, social, ideological context, i. e. the analysis of those particular circumstances of the early 1960s when Russian thinkers in the domain of the Humanities turned to the subject of psychology of religion. Particular emphasis is given to the importance of the so-called Khrushchev’s thaw in the formation and development of this research area. The key metaphor of the study is seeing the psychology of religion as an opening in the austere ice of Soviet dictatorship. The author gives a description of the main trends and topics that were raised in discussions on psychology of religion in the 1960–1970s. Ideological interpretation of the position and role of psychology of religion in Soviet science draws on studies by D. Ugrinovich, one of the most infl uential authors of the period in question. The paper suggests that the change of the ideological background in the early 1970s naturally effected the refusal of most of the authors to carry out research in this area and their “switch” to problems of sociology of religion.

  1. 5. Food and Cooking in Revolutionary and Soviet Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Steila

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In tsarist Russia, with both indigenous and foreign cuisine being very popular, since the middle of the 19th century the figure of the revolutionary took ascetic features. The 1917 revolution saw a prevalence of the scientific aspects of nutrition and its collective organization over any ‘culinary’ consideration. Nevertheless, during the 1920s, some cookbooks adapted pre-revolutionary culinary traditions to post- revolutionary conditions. But again and again the country would meet dramatic situations as far as food production and distribution were concerned. At the end of the Twenties, the system of communal dining faced a serious crisis, when local governement was forced to help starving people rather than organize collective canteens. Alongside with industrialization of food production (in which A. Mikojan had a crucial role, nutrition was again considered as a pleasure in the 1930s, when Stalinism started to present the Soviet society as accomplished. Often disregarded in Russian revolutionary movements, food became an important element in the propaganda of the Soviet way of life.

  2. Soviet declaratory policy regarding the controllability of escalation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prewitt, J.L.

    1991-01-01

    Three variables were examined for their affect on Soviet views regarding the controllability of escalation. The first was bureaucratic affiliation. It was hypothesized that individuals affiliated with groups which directly controlled weapons would be more likely to support the controllability of escalation than those who were members of groups which did not control weapons. This hypothesis could not be rejected. The second variable was a commentator's rank. It was hypothesized that rank would act in two ways: (1) ideas regarding controlled escalation would appear at lower ranks first; and (2) unique views would be produced by specialized ranks within groups. The rank hypothesis could not be rejected. Certain escalation themes appeared to be presented first by military and civilian writers before being presented by the political leadership. The third variable, image of the West, did not appear to function as theorized. It was hypothesized that hard images of the West would be associated with the rejection of controlled escalation, whereas soft images would be associated with positions suggesting that escalation was controlled through joint US-Soviet cooperation

  3. Limited attacks on the United States and the Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levi, B.; Hippel, F. von.

    1987-01-01

    This report is focused on calculations carried out at Princeton University of the consequences of so-called ''limited'' nuclear attacks by the USA and the USSR on one another - primarily because such scenarios seem to be motivating the acquisition of new nuclear weapons. The conclusions were: The use of only a fraction of the destructive capacity in USA and Soviet nuclear arsenals could have catastrophic consequences to human kind. Although the primary justification of the tens of thousands of nuclear warheads in USA and Soviet arsenals is their potential use against military targets, the most commonly discussed potential large-scale military uses of these weapons - in attacks against the nuclear weapons of the other side - would result in tens of millions of civilian casualties. Certainly, if a first strike resulted in such a huge civilian toll, there could be little assurance of restraint in the response of the country that was attacked. The use of even 1% of the strategic arsenals of the USSR or the USA against the population, military industry or strategic-nuclear targets of the other nation could result in tens of millions of casualties. 17 refs, 6 figs, 5 tabs

  4. Analysis of the 1957-58 Soviet nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trabalka, J.R.; Eyman, L.D.; Auerbach, S.I.

    1979-12-01

    The occurrence of a Soviet accident in the winter of 1957-58, involving the atmospheric release of reprocessed fission wastes (cooling time approximately 1-2 yrs.), appears to have been confirmed, primarily by an analysis of the USSR radioecology literature. Due to the high population density in the affected region (Cheliabinsk Province in the highly industrialized Urals Region) and the reported level of 90 Sr contamination, the event probably resulted in the evacuation and/or resettlement of the human population from a significant area (100-1000 km 2 ). The resulting contamination zone is estimated to have contained approximately 10 6 Ci of 90 Sr (reference radionuclide); a relatively small fraction of the total may have been dispersed as an aerosol. Although a plausible explanation for the incident exists (i.e., use of now-obsolete waste storage- 137 Cs isotope separation techniques), it is not yet possible, based on the limited information presently available, to completely dismiss this phenomenon as a purely historical event. It seems imperative that we have a complete explanation of the causes and consequences of this incident. Soviet experience gained in application of corrective measures would be invaluable to the rest of the world nuclear community

  5. VVER Reactor Safety in Eastern Europe and Former Soviet Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulou, Demetra

    2012-02-01

    VVER Soviet-designed reactors that operate in Eastern Europe and former Soviet republics have heightened international concern for years due to major safety deficiencies. The governments of countries with VVER reactors have invested millions of dollars toward improving the safety of their nuclear power plants. Most of these reactors will continue to operate for the foreseeable future since they provide urgently-needed electrical power. Given this situation, this paper assesses the radiological consequences of a major nuclear accident in Eastern Europe. The paper also chronicles the efforts launched by the international nuclear community to improve the safety of the reactors and notes the progress made so far through extensive collaborative efforts in Armenia, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Kazakhstan, Lithuania, Russia, Slovakia, and Ukraine to reduce the risks of nuclear accidents. Western scientific and technical staff collaborated with these countries to improve the safety of their reactor operations by strengthening the ability of the regulator to perform its oversight function, installing safety equipment and technologies, investing time in safety training, and working diligently to establish an enduring safety culture. Still, continued safety improvement efforts are necessary to ensure safe operating practices and achieve timely phase-out of older plants.

  6. Precision Medicine in Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Liu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Since President Obama announced the Precision Medicine Initiative in the United States, more and more attention has been paid to precision medicine. However, clinicians have already used it to treat conditions such as cancer. Many cardiovascular diseases have a familial presentation, and genetic variants are associated with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of cardiovascular diseases, which are the basis for providing precise care to patients with cardiovascular diseases. Large-scale cohorts and multiomics are critical components of precision medicine. Here we summarize the application of precision medicine to cardiovascular diseases based on cohort and omic studies, and hope to elicit discussion about future health care.

  7. Precisely predictable Dirac observables

    CERN Document Server

    Cordes, Heinz Otto

    2006-01-01

    This work presents a "Clean Quantum Theory of the Electron", based on Dirac’s equation. "Clean" in the sense of a complete mathematical explanation of the well known paradoxes of Dirac’s theory, and a connection to classical theory, including the motion of a magnetic moment (spin) in the given field, all for a charged particle (of spin ½) moving in a given electromagnetic field. This theory is relativistically covariant, and it may be regarded as a mathematically consistent quantum-mechanical generalization of the classical motion of such a particle, à la Newton and Einstein. Normally, our fields are time-independent, but also discussed is the time-dependent case, where slightly different features prevail. A "Schroedinger particle", such as a light quantum, experiences a very different (time-dependent) "Precise Predictablity of Observables". An attempt is made to compare both cases. There is not the Heisenberg uncertainty of location and momentum; rather, location alone possesses a built-in uncertainty ...

  8. Prompt and Precise Prototyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    For Sanders Design International, Inc., of Wilton, New Hampshire, every passing second between the concept and realization of a product is essential to succeed in the rapid prototyping industry where amongst heavy competition, faster time-to-market means more business. To separate itself from its rivals, Sanders Design aligned with NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center to develop what it considers to be the most accurate rapid prototyping machine for fabrication of extremely precise tooling prototypes. The company's Rapid ToolMaker System has revolutionized production of high quality, small-to-medium sized prototype patterns and tooling molds with an exactness that surpasses that of computer numerically-controlled (CNC) machining devices. Created with funding and support from Marshall under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract, the Rapid ToolMaker is a dual-use technology with applications in both commercial and military aerospace fields. The advanced technology provides cost savings in the design and manufacturing of automotive, electronic, and medical parts, as well as in other areas of consumer interest, such as jewelry and toys. For aerospace applications, the Rapid ToolMaker enables fabrication of high-quality turbine and compressor blades for jet engines on unmanned air vehicles, aircraft, and missiles.

  9. Precisely Tracking Childhood Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, Tamer H; Koplan, Jeffrey P; Breiman, Robert F; Madhi, Shabir A; Heaton, Penny M; Mundel, Trevor; Ordi, Jaume; Bassat, Quique; Menendez, Clara; Dowell, Scott F

    2017-07-01

    Little is known about the specific causes of neonatal and under-five childhood death in high-mortality geographic regions due to a lack of primary data and dependence on inaccurate tools, such as verbal autopsy. To meet the ambitious new Sustainable Development Goal 3.2 to eliminate preventable child mortality in every country, better approaches are needed to precisely determine specific causes of death so that prevention and treatment interventions can be strengthened and focused. Minimally invasive tissue sampling (MITS) is a technique that uses needle-based postmortem sampling, followed by advanced histopathology and microbiology to definitely determine cause of death. The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation is supporting a new surveillance system called the Child Health and Mortality Prevention Surveillance network, which will determine cause of death using MITS in combination with other information, and yield cause-specific population-based mortality rates, eventually in up to 12-15 sites in sub-Saharan Africa and south Asia. However, the Gates Foundation funding alone is not enough. We call on governments, other funders, and international stakeholders to expand the use of pathology-based cause of death determination to provide the information needed to end preventable childhood mortality.

  10. Climate research in the former Soviet Union. FASAC: Foreign Applied Sciences Assessment Center technical assessment report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellingson, R.G.; Baer, F.; Ellsaesser, H.W.; Harshvardhan; Hoffert, M.I.; Randall, D.A.

    1993-09-01

    This report assesses the state of the art in several areas of climate research in the former Soviet Union. This assessment was performed by a group of six internationally recognized US experts in related fields. The areas chosen for review are: large-scale circulation processes in the atmosphere and oceans; atmospheric radiative processes; cloud formation processes; climate effects of natural atmospheric disturbances; and the carbon cycle, paleoclimates, and general circulation model validation. The study found an active research community in each of the above areas. Overall, the quality of climate research in the former Soviet Union is mixed, although the best Soviet work is as good as the best corresponding work in the West. The best Soviet efforts have principally been in theoretical studies or data analysis. However, an apparent lack of access to modern computing facilities has severely hampered the Soviet research. Most of the issues considered in the Soviet literature are known, and have been discussed in the Western literature, although some extraordinary research in paleoclimatology was noted. Little unusual and exceptionally creative material was found in the other areas during the study period (1985 through 1992). Scientists in the former Soviet Union have closely followed the Western literature and technology. Given their strengths in theoretical and analytical methods, as well as their possession of simplified versions of detailed computer models being used in the West, researchers in the former Soviet Union have the potential to make significant contributions if supercomputers, workstations, and software become available. However, given the current state of the economy in the former Soviet Union, it is not clear that the computer gap will be bridged in the foreseeable future.

  11. THE PROBLEM OF DISTINCTION BETWEEN TERMS "SOVIETISM", “IDEOLOGEME " AND "INTERNATIONALISM"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shkredova Mariya Igorevna

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article the problem of distinction between terms "Sovietism" "ideologeme" and "international word" are examined. Criteria of their differentiation and the features of functioning in lexicon and literature are analyzed. As a result of separation of criteria of differentiation and the analysis of characteristic features of these terms it became possible to determine of each of terms. Results of research can be used by the lexicologists studying the lexicon of the Soviet era, authors of dictionaries of Sovietism, by students and teachers in study of lexicon.

  12. Precise Truss Assembly Using Commodity Parts and Low Precision Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komendera, Erik; Reishus, Dustin; Dorsey, John T.; Doggett, W. R.; Correll, Nikolaus

    2014-01-01

    Hardware and software design and system integration for an intelligent precision jigging robot (IPJR), which allows high precision assembly using commodity parts and low-precision bonding, is described. Preliminary 2D experiments that are motivated by the problem of assembling space telescope optical benches and very large manipulators on orbit using inexpensive, stock hardware and low-precision welding are also described. An IPJR is a robot that acts as the precise "jigging", holding parts of a local structure assembly site in place, while an external low precision assembly agent cuts and welds members. The prototype presented in this paper allows an assembly agent (for this prototype, a human using only low precision tools), to assemble a 2D truss made of wooden dowels to a precision on the order of millimeters over a span on the order of meters. The analysis of the assembly error and the results of building a square structure and a ring structure are discussed. Options for future work, to extend the IPJR paradigm to building in 3D structures at micron precision are also summarized.

  13. [Precision nutrition in the era of precision medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, P Z; Wang, H

    2016-12-06

    Precision medicine has been increasingly incorporated into clinical practice and is enabling a new era for disease prevention and treatment. As an important constituent of precision medicine, precision nutrition has also been drawing more attention during physical examinations. The main aim of precision nutrition is to provide safe and efficient intervention methods for disease treatment and management, through fully considering the genetics, lifestyle (dietary, exercise and lifestyle choices), metabolic status, gut microbiota and physiological status (nutrient level and disease status) of individuals. Three major components should be considered in precision nutrition, including individual criteria for sufficient nutritional status, biomarker monitoring or techniques for nutrient detection and the applicable therapeutic or intervention methods. It was suggested that, in clinical practice, many inherited and chronic metabolic diseases might be prevented or managed through precision nutritional intervention. For generally healthy populations, because lifestyles, dietary factors, genetic factors and environmental exposures vary among individuals, precision nutrition is warranted to improve their physical activity and reduce disease risks. In summary, research and practice is leading toward precision nutrition becoming an integral constituent of clinical nutrition and disease prevention in the era of precision medicine.

  14. Precision medicine in myasthenia graves: begin from the data precision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yu; Xie, Yanchen; Hao, Hong-Jun; Sun, Ren-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a prototypic autoimmune disease with overt clinical and immunological heterogeneity. The data of MG is far from individually precise now, partially due to the rarity and heterogeneity of this disease. In this review, we provide the basic insights of MG data precision, including onset age, presenting symptoms, generalization, thymus status, pathogenic autoantibodies, muscle involvement, severity and response to treatment based on references and our previous studies. Subgroups and quantitative traits of MG are discussed in the sense of data precision. The role of disease registries and scientific bases of precise analysis are also discussed to ensure better collection and analysis of MG data. PMID:27127759

  15. Radonclose - the system of Soviet designed regional waste management facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horak, W.C.; Reisman, A.; Purvis, E.E. III.

    1997-01-01

    The Soviet Union established a system of specialized regional facilities to dispose of radioactive waste generated by sources other than the nuclear fuel cycle. The system had 16 facilities in Russia, 5 in Ukraine, one in each of the other CIS states, and one in each of the Baltic Republics. These facilities are still being used. The major generators of radioactive waste they process these are research and industrial organizations, medical and agricultural institution and other activities not related to nuclear power. Waste handled by these facilities is mainly beta- and gamma-emitting nuclides with half lives of less than 30 years. The long-lived and alpha-emitting isotopic content is insignificant. Most of the radwaste has low and medium radioactivity levels. The facilities also handle spent radiation sources, which are highly radioactive and contain 95-98 percent of the activity of all the radwaste buried at these facilities

  16. Carbon in the Former Soviet Union: The Current Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodwell, G. M.; Stone, T. A.; Houghton, R. A.

    1997-01-01

    This work has been carried out in a period of great changes in Russia that have brought extreme hardships to the scientific community. We have been fortunate in establishing excellent relationships with the Russian scientific community and believe we have helped to retain coherence in circumstances where the continuation of research was in doubt. We have learned much and have been effective in advancing, even establishing, scholars and programs in Russia that might not otherwise have survived the transition. The vigor of the International Boreal Forest Research Association (IBFRA) is one sign of the value and success of these activities. Largely due to the current political and economic transitions in the former Soviet Union, the forests of much of the FSU are under reduced logging pressure. In addition, there is a decline in air pollution as heavy industry has waned, at least for now. Russian forestry statistics and our personal experience indicate a decline, perhaps as high as 60%, in forest harvesting over the last few years. But, new international market pressures on the forests exist in European Russia and in the Far East. The central government, still the "owner" of Russian forests, is having difficulty maintaining control over forest use and management particularly in the Far East and among the southern territories that have large, nonRussian ethnic populations. Extraordinarily large areas of mixed forest and grasslands, sparse or open forests, and mixed forests and tundra must be considered when calculating forest area It is insufficient to think of Russia as simply forest and nonforest Forest productivity, measured as growth of timber, appears to be in decline in all areas of Russia except in European Russia. Most information and publications on the recent history of these forests is heavily dependent on statistical data from the Soviet era. The interpretation of these data is very much open to debate. Anatoly Shwidenko, a long term collaborator and former

  17. Soviet-France cooperative study of the solar corona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vsekhvsyatskij, S.K.; Dzyubenko, N.I.; Ivanchuk, V.I.; Popov, O.S.; Rubo, G.A.; Kuchmij, S.; Kuchmij, O.; Shtel'makher, G.

    1981-01-01

    The study continues the investigations on the solar corona performed according to the program of the Soviet-France experiment ''The white corona dynamics'' during total solar eclipses on July 10 1972 and June 30, 1973 by the expeditions of Kiev University and Paris Astrophysical Institute. The results of the study of eclipse negatives obtained on June 30 1973 in Africa are given. On the basis of new methods of photometry and colorimetry using star images up to 8.5sup(m) as the photometry standards it has been found with high accuracy the distribution of the total corona brightness up to r approximately equal to 4.5 Rsub(S) and its K- and F-corona components for E and N directions. Neither color effect nor flattening is found in the dust component (r -6 Esub(S)

  18. Radioactive waste and contamination in the former Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suokko, K.; Reicher, D.

    1993-01-01

    Decades of disregard for the hazards of radioactive waste have created contamination problems throughout the former Soviet Union rivaled only by the Chernobyl disaster. Although many civilian activities have contributed to radioactive waste problems, the nuclear weapons program has been by far the greatest culprit. For decades, three major weapons production facilities located east of the Ural Mountains operated in complete secrecy and outside of environmental controls. Referred to until recently only by their postal abbreviations, the cities of Chelyabinsk-65, Tomsk-7, and Krasnoyarsk-26 were open only to people who worked in them. The mismanagement of waste at these sites has led to catastrophic accidents and serious releases of radioactive materials. Lack of public disclosure, meanwhile, has often prevented proper medical treatment and caused delays in cleanup and containment. 5 refs

  19. Maritime law and naval arms limitation: A Soviet perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vtorygin, L.

    1986-01-01

    Under conditions of the sharply aggravated international situation, there is an urgent necessity to intensify the struggle for the creation and consistent application of the principles and rules of international security law - which is a newly developing branch of modern international law. The Soviet scientists working in the field of international law regard international security law as a leading branch among the various branches of modern international law. The principles and rules of international security law are called upon to regulate international relations in the spheres of arms race limitation, in disarmament (particularly nuclear disarmament), and in the employment of naval fleets with one purpose only-to protect peace. They present, by themselves, an important group of principles and rules which influence the formation of a new international legal order in the oceans

  20. Joint Czechoslovak-Soviet workshop on current drive in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-10-01

    At the Joint Czechoslovak-Soviet Workshop on Current Drive in Tokamaks, five papers dealing with issues of general interest were presented. In a theoretical paper by Klima and Pavlo a one-dimensional model of the lower-hybrid current drive is described and the results of its analysis are used in a numerical simulation using T-7 tokamak parameters. In the second theoretical paper by Vojtsekhovich, Parail and Pereverzev the influence of the LH wave spectrum on the efficiency of the current drive is studied. Two papers deal with a new microwave system designed for experiments on LHCD in the T-7 tokamak. In particular, the power spectra of new four-waveguide grills are computed. In the last paper the non-inductive start-up of the discharge in the T-7 tokamak by means of electron cyclotron waves is investigated. (J.U.)

  1. Former Soviet Union's refining sector faces big shakeout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The crisis gripping the refining sector in the former Soviet Union (FSU) is deepening as that industry faces massive rationalization and restructuring. Refinery runs in FSU republics have been on the decline for a number of years. Peak throughput occurred in 1987 at 9.69 million b/d. In Russia, however, the peak came in 1980 at 6.5 million b/d. Given current operable refining capacity in the FSU, now down to about 9.27 million b/d distributed among 48 refineries, capacity utilization will average only about 65% this year. The paper discusses worsening conditions, a comparison of the FSU declines, the financial crisis, energy consumption, and the focus of FSU refineries on secondary capacity to upgrade the product mix

  2. Modernization experience of judicial policy post soviet countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Antoniuc

    2014-12-01

    The findings indicate that analysis of the accumulated Georgia and Kazakhstan, as well as other post­Soviet states, the experience of modernization policy of national judicial systems is very useful for the improvement of the domestic judicial system in the context of the proclaimed judicial reform. First it must ensure the restoration of the unity of the judiciary in the possibility of the existence of certain specialized vessels. Regarding the latter, it is interesting Kazakhstan practice, when the specialized courts are formed with the status of the regional or district court, without disrupting the unity of the judiciary, which is headed by the Supreme Court. Considerable interest may also be the creation of the courts of public councils to assess the ethical qualities of the candidates for judges, the introduction of the model­speakers of judges, the development of pre­trial (mediation and alternative (arbitration courts forms of dispute resolution.

  3. Georgian – Turkish Relations since the Breakdown of Soviet Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Mehmet SAYIN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes Georgian - Turkish relations since the collapse of the Soviet Union. Georgia managed to establish relations with Turkey only after gaining independence. Nowadays Georgia has very close relations with its Southern neighbor. Due to its strategic location, Georgia occupies a significant place in Turkish foreign policy. Georgia is a necessary bridge connecting Turkey with Azerbaijan and Central Asian States. Furthermore, Georgia has become a key transit route for Caspian energy resources. For Georgia Turkey is a window to Europe and the largest trade partner. The main goal of this article is to analyze various aspects of Turkish – Georgian relations and co-operation in different fields. There is outstanding cooperation between Turkey and Georgia in the fields such as energy, transport, economy, trade, defense, security etc.

  4. Health status of Russian minorities in former Soviet Republics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenewold, W G F; van Ginneken, J K

    2011-08-01

    To examine if, and to what extent, disparities in health status exist between ethnic Russians and the native majority populations of four former Soviet Republics; and to determine to what extent indicators of socio-economic status and lifestyle behaviours explain variations in health status. Data from the World Health Organization's World Health Surveys of former Soviet Republics that include information on ethnicity (i.e. Estonia, Latvia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan and Russia) were used. Russia was included as the benchmark population as it is the country of origin of ethnic Russians. Data were collected from respondents aged ≥25 years in 2001-2003. Principal component analysis was used to derive the Health Status Index and Household Wealth Index. Multiple classification analysis was applied to examine the effects of the determinants on health status, including ethnic group membership. In Estonia and Kazakhstan, ethnic Russians have, on average, a lower health status than members of the majority population, while their health status is higher in Ukraine. Higher levels of material wealth, educational attainment and physical activity were associated with a higher health status. The association of these variables with health status was often stronger than the association between ethnic group membership and health status. Differences in health status between Russian ethnic minorities and the majority populations were found in Estonia and Kazakhstan, but were non-existent in Latvia and were the opposite of what was expected in Ukraine. Use of the Health Status Index in combination with multiple classification analysis proved to be a useful approach to examine health status differentials, and to identify and profile vulnerable groups in a society. Copyright © 2011 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The Soviet program for peaceful uses of nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordyke, M.D.

    1996-01-01

    The concept of utilizing the weapons of war to serve the peaceful pursuits of mankind is as old as civilization itself. Perhaps the most famous reference to this basic desire is recorded in the Book of Micah where the great prophet Isiah called upon his people 'to turn your spears into pitchforks and your swords into plowshares.' As the scientists at Los Alamos worked on developing the world's first atomic bomb, thoughts of how this tremendous new source of energy could be used for peaceful purposes generally focused on using the thermal energy generated by the slow fission of uranium in a reactor, such as those being used to produce Plutonium to drive electric power stations. However, being scientists in a new, exciting field, it was impossible to avoid letting their minds wander from the task at hand to other scientific or non-military uses for the bombs themselves. During the Manhattan Project, Otto Frisch, one of the pioneers in the development of nuclear fission process in the 1930s, first suggested using an atomic explosion as a source for a large quantities of neutrons which could used in scientific experiments designed to expand their understanding of nuclear physics. After the war was over, many grandiose ideas appeared in the popular press on how this new source of energy should be to serve mankind. Not to be left out of the growing enthusiasm for peaceful uses of atomic energy, the Soviet Union added their visions to the public record. This document details the Soviet program for using nuclear explosions in peacetime pursuits

  6. A review of blasting activity in the former Soviet Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leith, W. [Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States); Bruk, L. [BRUK Hydrogeologcal Consulting, Inc., Rockville, MD (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Monitoring a comprehensive nuclear test ban by seismic means will require identification of seismic sources at lower magnitudes, where industrial explosions (primarily mining blasts) may comprise a significant fraction of the total number of events recorded and may, for some countries, dominate the seismicity. The USGS has recently obtained preliminary data on blasting activities in the former Soviet Union (FSU), one of the few countries in which the use of explosives exceeded that of the United States. A review of the Soviet data suggests that there are both similarities and differences in blasting practices between the U.S. and the FSU. These data are important because they provide some insight into variations form U.S. practice and because they can be used directly to estimate the assets needed to effectively monitor that country. Key findings include: (1) in 1988, approximately 2.6 million metric tons of high explosives were detonated in the FSu; this compares with 2.1 million metric tons in the U.S. in the same year; (2) about 80% of the explosives were used in mining, 10% in construction and 10% for other uses; (3) 84% of the explosives were consumed by only six Ministries of the FSU, and 66% were consumed in the three main mining industries: MinCherMet, MinTsvetMet and MinUgleProm; (4) in 1988 alone, the FSU conducted over 100 explosions in excess of 1 kt total charge (compare with one blast over 1 kt in the U.S. in 1987), and none of these were in the coal mining industry; (5) most very large blasts occurred on the surface, and in only a small number of mines; most underground blasts were less than 100 tons.

  7. The Soviet program for peaceful uses of nuclear explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordyke, M.D.

    1996-07-24

    The concept of utilizing the weapons of war to serve the peaceful pursuits of mankind is as old as civilization itself. Perhaps the most famous reference to this basic desire is recorded in the Book of Micah where the great prophet Isiah called upon his people `to turn your spears into pitchforks and your swords into plowshares.` As the scientists at Los Alamos worked on developing the world`s first atomic bomb, thoughts of how this tremendous new source of energy could be used for peaceful purposes generally focused on using the thermal energy generated by the slow fission of uranium in a reactor, such as those being used to produce Plutonium to drive electric power stations. However, being scientists in a new, exciting field, it was impossible to avoid letting their minds wander from the task at hand to other scientific or non-military uses for the bombs themselves. During the Manhattan Project, Otto Frisch, one of the pioneers in the development of nuclear fission process in the 1930s, first suggested using an atomic explosion as a source for a large quantities of neutrons which could used in scientific experiments designed to expand their understanding of nuclear physics. After the war was over, many grandiose ideas appeared in the popular press on how this new source of energy should be to serve mankind. Not to be left out of the growing enthusiasm for peaceful uses of atomic energy, the Soviet Union added their visions to the public record. This document details the Soviet program for using nuclear explosions in peacetime pursuits.

  8. Climate and the Soviet Grain Crisis of 1928

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welker, Jean Edward

    1995-01-01

    This dissertation tests the premise that peasant hoarding of surplus grain supplies and the refusal of the rural Soviet peasants to sell grain to state procurement apparatus during the late New Economic Policy period, caused the Grain Crisis of 1928. The peasants' reluctance to sell grain and claims of peasant hoarding could only occur if sufficient grain surpluses existed during this period. The existence of these assumed grain surpluses is shown to be highly improbable. First, the large but inconsistent body of 1920s grain statistics was evaluated per se and related to two periods of pre-WWI data, the Witte and Stolypin years, on a practical comparison whenever possible. For both these pre-World War I periods, intensive links between rapid industrialization and agriculture had been established similar to the conditions of the 1920s. The climatic conditions of the two imperial and one Soviet period in the 1920s, especially drought in 1927, was analyzed, and its impact on grain production estimated and interpreted. The conclusion was reached that the cause of drop in grain production in 1927 was due to a long-term and persistent trend of regional drought affecting spring wheat yields, especially in the areas of the Middle Volga and Kazakhstan. Second, the resultant conclusion was reached that there was insufficient bread grain on a national basis in 1927 to meet the essential needs of the rural peasants, much less the increasing demands of the government procurements. Third, the government's 1927 policy of monopolizing all available "surpluses" on the grain market under the false assumption that these surpluses were abundant, demonstrated either naivete and incompetence, or political expediency. This monopolization contributed to a breakdown in the marketing distribution of available grain, and generally exacerbated the poor procurement situation which was publically and incorrectly blamed on the peasants' hoarding.

  9. A large industrial pollution problem on the Kyrgyzstan - Uzbekistan border: Soviet production of mercury and stibium for the Soviet military

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadjamberdiev, I.; Tukhvatshin, R.

    2009-01-01

    Soviet industry of mercury and stibium was located in South-East Fergana in Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan boarder. Khaidarken combine produced high pure mercury (99.9997 percent) since 1940, it was the second source in the World (after Almadena, Spain). Maximal production was 790 t in 1990, after Transitional Shock about 300 tons a year. Tail was established in 1967. There is special tube 5500 m transporting pulp to tail. The pulp contains about 0,003 mg/liter mercury, 0,005 mg/liter arsenic, 21 mg/liter stibium, etc. Pulp is cleaned by aluminum sulfuric and mortar. After drying and compressing by itself the concentrations rises: mercury 90-250 mg/kg, arsenic 190-400, stibium 800-1700 mg/kg. Environment pollution problem contains three kinds: ground water infiltration; old tube corroding some places (leaking from chink of tube) - both mentioned lead to vegetables cumulating; combine work spreading mercury by air to settlement Khaidarken. Kadamjay enterprise for stibium (mines, combine, purify plant, tails) began work in 1936. Most part of production used in soviet military. Maximal production was 17.000 t clearing ore in 1990, after USSR collapse 1-6 t/year. Tremendous tails and dams (total 150 mln t) remains non re-cultivated until now. The tails contain electrolysis wastage: sodium-sulfides, sulfites, sulfates; stibium; arsenic; cadmium; stibium; etc. Seven deposits (tail-damp really) established 1976, total square 76.1 thousands sq m, total volume 250 thousand cub m. The deposits over-filled, contents filtrating - little saline or lakes generated (one situated 50m near Uzbekistan boarder). River Shakhimardan flow to Uzbekistan (settlement Vuadil, Ferghana town). There are health damage indices in the areas.(author)

  10. Cooperative Threat Reduction: Status of Defense Conversion Efforts in the Former Soviet Union

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    DOD's program to convert former Soviet Union defense industries to commercial enterprises is part of the Cooperative Threat Reduction program, which DOD has supported since 1992 to reduce the weapons...

  11. Russian radioecology: a bibliography of Soviet publications with citations of English translations and abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, V.

    1976-09-01

    Reports on radioecological research by Soviet scientists are listed, indicating those papers for which English translations are known to exist. Volumes 26 through 33 of Nuclear Science Abstracts were searched

  12. Multidrug resistant tuberculosis in prisons located in former Soviet countries: A systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxwell Droznin

    Full Text Available A systematic literature review was performed to investigate the occurrence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB in prisons located in countries formerly part of the Soviet Union.A systematic search of published studies reporting MDR TB occurrence in prisons located in former Soviet countries was conducted by probing PubMed and Cumulative Index Nursing and Allied Health Literature for articles that met predetermined inclusion criteria.Seventeen studies were identified for systematic review. Studies were conducted in six different countries. Overall, prevalence of MDR TB among prisoners varied greatly between studies. Our findings suggest a high prevalence of MDR TB in prisons of Post-Soviet states with percentages as high as 16 times more than the worldwide prevalence estimated by the WHO in 2014.All studies suggested a high prevalence of MDR TB in prison populations in Post-Soviet states.

  13. Discussion about principles of lobour organizing in Soviet Russia in 1920

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Лариса Владимировна Борисова

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article the various points of view on the work organization, stated by heads of the Soviet Russia are analyzed during discussion about militarization and forced labor by spring of 1920.

  14. Application of Soviet PNE Data to the Improvement of Seismic Monitoring Capability

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Murphy, John

    2004-01-01

    .... and the Russian Institute for Dynamics of the Geospheres to use regional seismic data recorded from Soviet PNE test and nearby earthquakes and mining events to assess the applicability of various...

  15. U.S. Russian Cooperation Can Reduce Nuclear Risks of Soviet Breakup

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kosminsky, J

    1992-01-01

    .... While this redirection of resources signals the end of a four-decade threat to America, it also creates a host of risks, ranging from Soviet nuclear scientists selling their services to outlaw states...

  16. The life, science and times of Lev Vasilevich Shubnikov pioneer of Soviet cryogenics

    CERN Document Server

    Reinders, L J

    2018-01-01

    This book describes the life, times and science of the Soviet physicist Lev Vasilevich Shubnikov (1901-1937).  From 1926 to 1930 Shubnikov worked in Leiden where he was the co-discoverer of the Shubnikov-De Haas effect. After his return to the Soviet Union he founded in Kharkov in Ukraine the first low-temperature laboratory in the Soviet Union, which in a very short time became the foremost physics institute in the country and among other things led to the discovery of type-II superconductivity. In August 1937 Shubnikov, together with many of his colleagues, was arrested and shot early in November 1937. This gripping story gives deep insights into the pioneering work of Soviet physicists before the Second World War, as well as providing much previously unpublished information about their brutal treatment at the hands of the Stalinist regime.

  17. Post-Soviet transformation of bureaucracy in Lithuania: main features and trends

    OpenAIRE

    Pivoras, Saulius

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to analyze the reforms and development of public administration and public bureaucracy in Lithuania from the prism of the post-Soviet transformation concept. In other words, the effort is to establish a continuation of the features of the Soviet bureaucratic - administrative system, to the extent these can be discussed, and their influence on the public bureaucracy of the independent Republic of Lithuania. It is being ascertained that the purpose of the reforms ...

  18. JPRS Report. Soviet Union: World Economy & International Relations, No. 5, May 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-22

    begins to reflect on the difficult paths of the century, which is drawing to a close, and the destiny of mankind, which is taking shape with...standpoints of man’s destiny . The formation of the Soviet people as a subject of history is the history of the Soviet Union, the history of socialism...again and again. Particularly in our day. For it is, if you will, the embryo of the new thinking. Reread it. It contains the following ideas: war

  19. Power Distance Perceptions in Post-Soviet Russia: Understanding the Workplace Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Kamenchuk, Olga

    2004-01-01

    The modem business economy is characterized by increased collaboration among different organizations across nation al boundaries. Post-Soviet Russia is one of the regions that is witnessing rapid economic growth and development of international business relations. Because of the challenges in intercultural communication the current study focuses on the problem of power distance, specifically in the workplace (in post-Soviet Russia). A phenomenological perspective, based on qualitative meth...

  20. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, USA: Economics, Politics, Ideology, No. 11, November 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-05-18

    ASTEC ), established a year later, began oper- ating successfully. The revival of Soviet-American economic contacts was short-lived, however, and...conducted. The 10th annual meeting of ASTEC and the 9th session of the joint Soviet-American Trade Commission in June 1986 demonstrated the growing...irrigation equipment, and the chemical industry. JPRS-USA-88-005 18 May 1988 11 The American officials attending the ASTEC meeting displayed

  1. "the yawning heights:" Islamic higher education in post-Soviet Daghestan and International educational networks

    OpenAIRE

    Navruzov, Amir

    2007-01-01

    The reproduction and transfer of Islamic knowledge has moved to the fore in the context of the religious upsurge at the turn of the 21st century in Daghestan and other post-Soviet Muslim regions. Religious institutions that have mosques, communities, and schools associated with them are mushrooming within a very short period, their numbers increased tenor even hundred-fold. Back in 1988, there were only two legal Islamic educational establishments in the Soviet Union: the Mir-i 'Arab Madrasah...

  2. Soviet diplomats and Comintern representatives in People’s Republic of Tuva in the 1920s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay M. Mollerov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This is the first study of the role Soviet diplomats and representatives of the Communist International (Comintern played in the Soviet-Tuvan relations during the first decade after the emergence of the young Tuvan state – People’s Republic of Tuva (1920s. From representing the interests of a small military mission, the Soviet diplomatic office in Tuva evolved into a full-scale embassy of the Soviet state. Its history clearly falls into two stages: from early 1920s to 1927 Soviet mission members largely abstained from interfering into PRT’s internal issues, but subsequently they started actively promoting the left wing of Tuvan People Revolutionary Party, which contributed to its accession to power. The Soviet state began to act as PRT’s patron on the international arena. This policy of support and custody was in accordance with Article 2 of PRT’s constitution. Using documentary sources, this article traces the appointments and transfers of a number of Soviet diplomatic officers and consuls (F.G. Falsky (Falkovsky, I.A. Chichayev, F.F. Razumov, A.G. Starkov, as well as Comintern representatives (I.G. Safyanov, B. Tsivenzhapov, V. Borovikov, A.M. Amur-Sanan, S.A. Natsov, V. Machavariani, V.A. Bogdanov. In the duopoly of consuls and Comintern representatives, the former dominated at the earlier stages, but after the defeat of Chinese communists in 1927 the Soviet leaders thought that Socialist transformations in Mongolia in Tuva should be sped up. The article makes use of archival sources from the State Archive of the Republic of Tuva, Russian State Archive of Socio-Political History (RGASPI, and the Research archive of Tuva Institute for Humanities and Applied Socioeconomic Studies.

  3. The Multilateralization of Regional Security in Southeast and Northeast Asia: The Role of the Soviet Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-04-01

    obligation of the Soviet Union of Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia , the Philippines, to provide it at the expense of its own development. Singapore, and Brunei to... Malaysia , which still applicable to the United States and Japan than to the officially insist on an end to permanent Soviet Union. Proposals cover the...can large South Korean companies, including Hyundai, commit the nation and keep its word. After almost Samsung , and Lucky Goldstar, are enlarging their

  4. Attitudes of Major Soviet Nationalities. Volume IV. Central Asia. Kazakhstan, Kirgizistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tadzhikistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-06-01

    clothing and especially their cuisine , however, retain many traditional elements in addition to those intro- duced from other cultures. 8 I...among Soviet Moslems, the French scholar feels that "the storm which will burst when the Moslem intelligentsia claims real independence iBennigson...nonetheless presistent and pervasive. The French scholars Alexandre Bennigsen and Chantal Lemercier-Quelquejay, for example, have written: Soviet authors

  5. Heritage of sovietism in contemporary Lithuania: perverted conceptions of property relations

    OpenAIRE

    Kačiuška, Žilvinas

    2006-01-01

    With the collapse of the Soviet Union, Central and Eastern European countries, including Lithuania, are sometimes called “the second Europe”, or the periphery of Western Europe. The cultural and economic distinctiveness of the “new Europe” is often explained by the “different” mentality of the societies of these countries, which was constructed by the Soviet model of collectivism and planned economy. Often it is argued that the slow changes in the mental categories in Central and Eastern Euro...

  6. Sand or grease? Corruption-institutional trust nexus in post-Soviet countries

    OpenAIRE

    Nazim Habibov; Elvin Afandi; Alex Cheung

    2017-01-01

    This paper empirically tests several hypotheses about the nexus of corruption-institutional trust in Post-Soviet transitional countries of the former Soviet Union and Mongolia. We use two different indices of institutional trust to check the robustness of our analysis and estimate OLS and instrumental variable models with and without interaction terms. All things considered, our findings reject “greases the wheels” and “trust begets an honest political system” hypotheses. Instead, our finding...

  7. USSR Local War Doctrine as Rationale for the Development of the Soviet CTOL Aircraft Carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-06-01

    Soviet Union. [Ref. 11: p. 252] The peacetime Red naval mission is not entirely one of blissful exchanges of pleasantries. Its utility during distant...expended toward gift presentation and the exchange of pleasantries. Such visits were designed as feelers to divine Russian acceptance by the developing...How- * ever, the presence of military forces displaying the capa- * bilities to intervene may have affected the perceptions of * Soviet clinets

  8. Historical Roots of Contemporary Debates on Soviet Military Doctrine and Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    28 - institutchikis’ "new thinking" about war. According to one prolific Soviet researcher, Alexander Savelyev , war aims are now being redefined and...limits. Indeed, it may well 5 Discussions with Alexander Savelyev at the Institute of World Economy and International Relations (IMEMO), Moscow, January...examines the themes of and historical context for the writings of Soviet strategists of the 1920s, such as Alexander Svechin and Leon Trotsky, who

  9. Muzzling the Bear: Gorbachev’s Program to Restructure the Soviet Military

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-04-01

    quantity to quality- in a continuing program of military accumulation.4 4 Steven Adragna argues thalt Soviet military doctrine can not evolve until it...aggressive nature and intent of capitalist society. Adragna maintains that so far there has been no serious effort to discredit the historical theorem that...any military action the Soviet Union takes is defensive in nature by definition and is therefore justified. Further, Adragna claims that the Kremlin’s

  10. MEASUREMENT AND PRECISION, EXPERIMENTAL VERSION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Harvard Project Physics.

    THIS DOCUMENT IS AN EXPERIMENTAL VERSION OF A PROGRAMED TEXT ON MEASUREMENT AND PRECISION. PART I CONTAINS 24 FRAMES DEALING WITH PRECISION AND SIGNIFICANT FIGURES ENCOUNTERED IN VARIOUS MATHEMATICAL COMPUTATIONS AND MEASUREMENTS. PART II BEGINS WITH A BRIEF SECTION ON EXPERIMENTAL DATA, COVERING SUCH POINTS AS (1) ESTABLISHING THE ZERO POINT, (2)…

  11. European Socio-cultural Change and Generational Diversity in the Post-Soviet Workforce.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madara APSALONE

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In times of increased retirement age and senior employees staying in workforce longer, successfully managing generational differences in the workforce forms an increasingly important challenge for modern day management. In many ways, generations may vary in attitudes and approaches, reflecting deeper differences in their core values. This might be particularly true for the Post-Soviet countries, where earlier generations were educated and started their careers within a completely different socio-economic system. In this study we explore differences in approaches towards values and attitudes amongst four generations of retail sector employees – starting from those, who were still to great extent exposed to pre-Soviet values, continuing with employees, who started their careers during the Soviet times, and ending with those, who were educated and entered the workforce after the collapse of the Soviet Union. 208 Latvian service employees were surveyed to assess their personal values and likelihood of dishonest and unethical behavior from four generations currently active in the workforce - Post-War generation, Early Gen X, Transition generation and Millennials. We confirmed that despite dual morality and ambiguous ethics in the Soviet Union, older generations reported higher likelihood of honest behavior than younger generations. And Post-War and Early Generation X also rated honesty and responsibility higher as their personal values. We also found significant differences between Early Generation X and the Transition generation in a post-Soviet context.

  12. Precision medicine for nurses: 101.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemoine, Colleen

    2014-05-01

    To introduce the key concepts and terms associated with precision medicine and support understanding of future developments in the field by providing an overview and history of precision medicine, related ethical considerations, and nursing implications. Current nursing, medical and basic science literature. Rapid progress in understanding the oncogenic drivers associated with cancer is leading to a shift toward precision medicine, where treatment is based on targeting specific genetic and epigenetic alterations associated with a particular cancer. Nurses will need to embrace the paradigm shift to precision medicine, expend the effort necessary to learn the essential terminology, concepts and principles, and work collaboratively with physician colleagues to best position our patients to maximize the potential that precision medicine can offer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Problems of Soviet procedural law enforcement in 1930s.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Kodintsev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available УДК 340.158The subject. Features of the organization of justice and the quality of procedural law enforcement in the USSR in the 1930s.The purpose. The determination of historical patterns of judicial enforcement in the USSR in the 1930s and the identification of the causes of the ineffectiveness of the proceedings in this period.Methodology. The author uses historical legal method, formal legal interpretation of statutes, the method of analysis of judicial statistics.Results, scope of application. After the criminal law campaigns of the early 1930s the judg-ment in the Soviet Union was in a disturbed condition. The Soviet civil process was almost absolutely eliminated. Tens thousands materials of court cases were lost throughout the Union every year. The courts were extremely busy.The courts used accusatory approach. The petitions of the accused were almost never solved. Prisoners were not handed copies of the indictments.During the terror of the old evils of the judicial system worsened, the destruction of the judicial process began. The timeframe for completing cases increased. Almost half of criminal cases in case of complaint (appeal has been revised by the higher courts. The courts again applied the simplified procedure.At the end of the 1930s the procedural regulation of the judicial work was the duty of People's Commissariat of Justice of the USSR and of the Supreme Court of the USSR. USSR Supreme Court continued to take decisions in litigation in the plenums. The Boards of Su-preme Court examines cases influencing law of practice.The quality of judgment by the Supreme Courts of the Republics of Soviet Union in the late 1930s did not change significantly in comparison with the previous period. This was due to constant staff turnover and low level of qualification of judges. The Supreme Courts of the Republics had no Plenum, so they could influence law of practice by the rulings of of the Boards. These rulings were extremely ignorant

  14. Advanced bioanalytics for precision medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roda, Aldo; Michelini, Elisa; Caliceti, Cristiana; Guardigli, Massimo; Mirasoli, Mara; Simoni, Patrizia

    2018-01-01

    Precision medicine is a new paradigm that combines diagnostic, imaging, and analytical tools to produce accurate diagnoses and therapeutic interventions tailored to the individual patient. This approach stands in contrast to the traditional "one size fits all" concept, according to which researchers develop disease treatments and preventions for an "average" patient without considering individual differences. The "one size fits all" concept has led to many ineffective or inappropriate treatments, especially for pathologies such as Alzheimer's disease and cancer. Now, precision medicine is receiving massive funding in many countries, thanks to its social and economic potential in terms of improved disease prevention, diagnosis, and therapy. Bioanalytical chemistry is critical to precision medicine. This is because identifying an appropriate tailored therapy requires researchers to collect and analyze information on each patient's specific molecular biomarkers (e.g., proteins, nucleic acids, and metabolites). In other words, precision diagnostics is not possible without precise bioanalytical chemistry. This Trend article highlights some of the most recent advances, including massive analysis of multilayer omics, and new imaging technique applications suitable for implementing precision medicine. Graphical abstract Precision medicine combines bioanalytical chemistry, molecular diagnostics, and imaging tools for performing accurate diagnoses and selecting optimal therapies for each patient.

  15. Precision Oncology: Between Vaguely Right and Precisely Wrong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Amy; Huang, Sui

    2017-12-01

    Precision Oncology seeks to identify and target the mutation that drives a tumor. Despite its straightforward rationale, concerns about its effectiveness are mounting. What is the biological explanation for the "imprecision?" First, Precision Oncology relies on indiscriminate sequencing of genomes in biopsies that barely represent the heterogeneous mix of tumor cells. Second, findings that defy the orthodoxy of oncogenic "driver mutations" are now accumulating: the ubiquitous presence of oncogenic mutations in silent premalignancies or the dynamic switching without mutations between various cell phenotypes that promote progression. Most troublesome is the observation that cancer cells that survive treatment still will have suffered cytotoxic stress and thereby enter a stem cell-like state, the seeds for recurrence. The benefit of "precision targeting" of mutations is inherently limited by this counterproductive effect. These findings confirm that there is no precise linear causal relationship between tumor genotype and phenotype, a reminder of logician Carveth Read's caution that being vaguely right may be preferable to being precisely wrong. An open-minded embrace of the latest inconvenient findings indicating nongenetic and "imprecise" phenotype dynamics of tumors as summarized in this review will be paramount if Precision Oncology is ultimately to lead to clinical benefits. Cancer Res; 77(23); 6473-9. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  16. Numerical precision control and GRACE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, J.; Hamaguchi, N.; Ishikawa, T.; Kaneko, T.; Morita, H.; Perret-Gallix, D.; Tokura, A.; Shimizu, Y.

    2006-01-01

    The control of the numerical precision of large-scale computations like those generated by the GRACE system for automatic Feynman diagram calculations has become an intrinsic part of those packages. Recently, Hitachi Ltd. has developed in FORTRAN a new library HMLIB for quadruple and octuple precision arithmetic where the number of lost-bits is made available. This library has been tested with success on the 1-loop radiative correction to e + e - ->e + e - τ + τ - . It is shown that the approach followed by HMLIB provides an efficient way to track down the source of numerical significance losses and to deliver high-precision results yet minimizing computing time

  17. Culture and the environment in the Soviet Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryde, Philip R.

    1985-03-01

    The Soviet Union is one of the most physically and culturally diverse nations on earth. Its natural environment embraces a rich variety of resources and ecosystems, many of which, such as Lake Baikal, are of world significance. Culturally, it is comprised of over a hundred ethnic groups, belonging to eight major language groups and six major religions. However, two cultures are dominant: the Slavic group (which takes in 75% of the USSR population and 80% of its land area) and the Turkic-Islamic peoples who account for the large majority of the remainder. Owing to the highly centralized nature of the country's political-administrative system, however, the effect of culture or ethnic traditions in the resolution of national environmental issues is quite small. Major decisions regarding either specific conservation issues or basic environmental policies are made at the centralized level by ministerial, planning, and Communist Party officials, and are based on pragmatically refined ideological considerations, rather than on regional cultural attitudes. This pragmatic refining of ideological considerations will involve the weighing of specific economic and environmental imperatives, and deciding on appropriate trade-offs. To find cultural expression in environmental management, one would need to look closely at local projects and approaches in the various ethnic regions, particularly the non-Slavic ones.

  18. Perception of gain in U.S.-Soviet arms control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Anieri, P.J.

    1991-01-01

    Most current work in the field of international cooperation focuses on the resolution of the 'prisoners dilemma.' Such work begins by assuming that the issues under consideration are defined by absolute gains, where both sides can gain simultaneously. But the realist strand of international relations literature holds that this assumption is suspect - that international relations are usually characterized by relative gains, where gain for one side comes only at the others expense. The model developed here uses the question of absolute versus relative gains not as a theoretical assumption, but as a variable to be measured empirically. The hypothesis is that whether or not the US and the Soviet Union cooperate to limit arms competition is largely determined by whether the two sides define the issue in question as one of absolute or relative gains. The 'perception of gain' hypothesis is compared to explanations at the levels of the international system (rational choice), domestic politics, and individual belief systems. Three case studies are used to compare the strengths and weaknesses of each hypothesis. The findings confirmed that perception of gain is an important independent variable affecting arms control outcomes, but none of the theories were completely supported or rejected

  19. The strategic offense initiative? The Soviets and Star Wars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westwick, Peter J. [History Department, University of Southern California, Los Angles, California (United States)

    2014-05-09

    Historians of the Cold War have paid too little attention to Soviet fears of 'space-strike weapons' - that is, possible offensive uses of President Ronald Reagan's Strategic Defense Initiative. In fifteen years or so, soldiers will no longer shoot rifles but will use some kind of lightning, some sort of a machine emitting a holocaustal electrical beam. Tell me, what can we invent in this line so as to surprise our neighbors?... Alas, we are only capable of imitating and purchasing weapons from others, and we do well if we manage to repair them ourselves. --Fyodor Dostoevsky, A Writer's Diary, 1873. [Khlinov, a physicist]: 'I know that he has made an important discovery concerning the transmission of infra-red rays over a distance.... Heat waves at a temperature of a thousand degrees centigrade transmitted parallel to each other constitute a monstrous weapon of destruction and defense in time of war. The whole secret lies in the transmission of a ray that does not disperse. So far nobody has been able to do this. Judging by your story, Garin has constructed a machine that will do it. If so it is an extremely important discovery.' 'I've been thinking for a long time that this invention smells of higher politics,' said Shelga. --Aleksei Tolstoy, The Garin Death Ray, 1927 (translated by George Hanna)

  20. The sinking of the Soviet Mike class nuclear powered submarine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this preliminary study is to assess the quantities of the longer-lived or persistent radioactive materials, or source terms, that have been lost at sea with the sinking of the Soviet MIKE class submarine off Bear Island on 7 April 1989. The report arrives at an assessment of the amount of radioactivity and compares this to the quantities of radioactive materials dumped by the UK from 1953 to 1982 at which time sea dumping of radioactive wastes was suspended by international resolve. This comparison can be used to assess the relative significance of the sinking of this submarine. The study does not extrapolate the estimated radioactive source terms to an environmental or radiological significance of the sinking, although it is concluded that unless the submarine is recovered intact from the ocean floor, the by far greater part of the radioactive materials on board will disperse to the marine environment at some future time, if they are not doing so already. (author)

  1. Homicide in post-Soviet Belarus: urban-rural trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickley, Andrew; Leinsalu, Mall; Razvodovsky, Yury E

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the occurrence of homicide in urban and rural regions of Belarus in the post-Soviet period. All-age male and female homicide mortality and population data were obtained for the years 1990, 1995, 2000 and 2005 for urban and rural regions of Belarus. These data were recalculated into three age categories and directly standardised. To assess relative changes in rural-urban homicide rates across time Poisson regression models were used to calculate rate ratios. Between 1990 and 1995 homicide rates rose sharply in urban and rural regions although the rise was greater in the former. Although there was little change in homicide rates in 2000, a notable divergence had occurred by 2005. While homicide rates rose slightly in rural areas, a large fall occurred in the rates of both men and women in urban areas. This resulted in significantly higher rural homicide rate ratios at the end of the study period. With some variations age-specific homicide rates followed this overall general pattern resulting in significantly higher homicide rate ratios in all rural groups aged 15 and above in 2005. It is probable that a combination of factors such as high levels of poverty, the effects of alcohol consumption, as well as the poor provision of emergency medical services underlie both the high levels of lethal violence and the growing rural-urban divergence in homicide rates in contemporary Belarus. Urgent action is now needed to address the deteriorating social and economic conditions underpinning violence, especially in rural regions.

  2. Energy supply problems seen persisting in former Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the former Soviet Union's energy crisis likely will persist through the end of the 1990s. However, rising natural gas and coal production may marginally ease the nation's fuel shortage at least by 1994. Especially important in easing energy problems in the new Commonwealth of Independent States will be conservation in industrial and domestic sectors, says a study published by the Moscow weekly Ekonomika i Zhizn (Economics and Life). C.I.S. oil flow is expected to fall again this year. But the study shows higher capital investment including foreign funds, improved technology, replacement of worn out equipment, better management, and market oriented prices could enable crude and condensate production to hold virtually steady at about 10 million b/d during 1995-2000. Without required changes, C.I.S. oil production could fall to about 9.2 million b/d by 1995 before recovering slightly to about 9.5 million b/d in 2000, the study shows

  3. The strategic offense initiative? The Soviets and Star Wars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westwick, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Historians of the Cold War have paid too little attention to Soviet fears of 'space-strike weapons' - that is, possible offensive uses of President Ronald Reagan's Strategic Defense Initiative. In fifteen years or so, soldiers will no longer shoot rifles but will use some kind of lightning, some sort of a machine emitting a holocaustal electrical beam. Tell me, what can we invent in this line so as to surprise our neighbors?... Alas, we are only capable of imitating and purchasing weapons from others, and we do well if we manage to repair them ourselves. --Fyodor Dostoevsky, A Writer's Diary, 1873. [Khlinov, a physicist]: 'I know that he has made an important discovery concerning the transmission of infra-red rays over a distance.... Heat waves at a temperature of a thousand degrees centigrade transmitted parallel to each other constitute a monstrous weapon of destruction and defense in time of war. The whole secret lies in the transmission of a ray that does not disperse. So far nobody has been able to do this. Judging by your story, Garin has constructed a machine that will do it. If so it is an extremely important discovery.' 'I've been thinking for a long time that this invention smells of higher politics,' said Shelga. --Aleksei Tolstoy, The Garin Death Ray, 1927 (translated by George Hanna)

  4. The strategic offense initiative? The Soviets and Star Wars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westwick, Peter J.

    2014-05-01

    Historians of the Cold War have paid too little attention to Soviet fears of "space-strike weapons" - that is, possible offensive uses of President Ronald Reagan's Strategic Defense Initiative. In fifteen years or so, soldiers will no longer shoot rifles but will use some kind of lightning, some sort of a machine emitting a holocaustal electrical beam. Tell me, what can we invent in this line so as to surprise our neighbors?... Alas, we are only capable of imitating and purchasing weapons from others, and we do well if we manage to repair them ourselves. --Fyodor Dostoevsky, A Writer's Diary, 1873. [Khlinov, a physicist]: "I know that he has made an important discovery concerning the transmission of infra-red rays over a distance.... Heat waves at a temperature of a thousand degrees centigrade transmitted parallel to each other constitute a monstrous weapon of destruction and defense in time of war. The whole secret lies in the transmission of a ray that does not disperse. So far nobody has been able to do this. Judging by your story, Garin has constructed a machine that will do it. If so it is an extremely important discovery." "I've been thinking for a long time that this invention smells of higher politics," said Shelga. --Aleksei Tolstoy, The Garin Death Ray, 1927 (translated by George Hanna)

  5. [Richard Koch's life in national socialism and in Soviet emigration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boltres, Daniela; Töpfer, Frank; Wiesing, Urban

    2006-01-01

    The Jewish historian and theorist of medicine, Richard Koch, teaching in Frankfurt/Main, fled in 1936 from National Socialist Germany to the USSR where he lived in the Caucasian spa Essentuki until his death in 1949. Here he worked as a doctor and continued his scientific work, especially on the foundations of medicine in natural philosophy. None of his works of this time were published. Koch was a scientific outsider in the USSR, and he was aware of this. However, he tried to make his views compatible with official doctrines. In 1947 he lost his employment at the medical clinic of Essentuki, and his material situation grew worse. It is still an open question whether this development was related to an increasingly anti-Jewish atmosphere in the USSR that was linked with the Stalinist "purges", as Koch himself appeared to believe. Before his flight from Germany Koch did not show any tendency towards communism or the political left at all. His attitude towards Soviet society and Stalin was mixed: cautious criticism was accompanied by strong expressions of commitment to Stalin and Koch's new Socialist home. The question to what extent Koch's comments showed his true convictions must remain without a definite answer. At least in part they can be understood as precautions in threatening circumstances. The opportunity of a remigration to Germany after 1945, however, was turned down by Koch.

  6. Soviet News and Propaganda Analysis Based on RED STAR (The Official Newspaper of the Soviet Defense Establishment), 1 - 31 January 1982. Volume 2, Number 1, 1982.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Letelier, and has tried to murder Castro, Indira Ghandi and Iranian government leaders. From 1961 to 1976 the CIA has con- ducted over 900 clandestine...revolution." "More Afghanistan counterrevolutionary bands are destroyed by the Afghanistan Army." "Indira Ghandi says that the Soviet Union did not inter

  7. Lung Cancer Precision Medicine Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patients with lung cancer are benefiting from the boom in targeted and immune-based therapies. With a series of precision medicine trials, NCI is keeping pace with the rapidly changing treatment landscape for lung cancer.

  8. Precision engineering: an evolutionary perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Chris J

    2012-08-28

    Precision engineering is a relatively new name for a technology with roots going back over a thousand years; those roots span astronomy, metrology, fundamental standards, manufacturing and money-making (literally). Throughout that history, precision engineers have created links across disparate disciplines to generate innovative responses to society's needs and wants. This review combines historical and technological perspectives to illuminate precision engineering's current character and directions. It first provides us a working definition of precision engineering and then reviews the subject's roots. Examples will be given showing the contributions of the technology to society, while simultaneously showing the creative tension between the technological convergence that spurs new directions and the vertical disintegration that optimizes manufacturing economics.

  9. How GNSS Enables Precision Farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Precision farming: Feeding a Growing Population Enables Those Who Feed the World. Immediate and Ongoing Needs - population growth (more to feed) - urbanization (decrease in arable land) Double food production by 2050 to meet world demand. To meet thi...

  10. Postcolonial studies and post-Soviet societies: The possibilities and the limitations of their intersection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subotić Milan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Starting with a short review of the postcolonial studies’ origins, this paper considers the question of their application in the study of history and contemporary state of the post-Soviet societies. Aspirations of the leading theorists of postcolonial studies not to restrict their field of research on the relation of imperial metropoles (First World and its (postcolonial periphery (Third World have not met with the acceptance in post-Soviet societies’ academia. With the exception of the famous debates on „the Balkans“ that are not the subject of this paper, the paradigm of post-colonialism is rarely used in the interpretation of past and present of the former socialist states (Second World. Rejecting the thesis of their own (postcolonial status in most of Eastern European countries is usually based on a rejection of the assumption of the Soviet-style communism’s „civilizing mission“. From the same perspective, the Soviet Union is not considered a colonial metropole, but an occupying force, and the epoch of socialism is interpreted as externally imposed breach of the historical developments based on the European model. On the other hand, the concept of these countries’ transition opens up the issue of their (postcolonial status in relation to „Europe“ as the center of economic, political and cultural power. Therefore, the postcolonial critique of post-Soviet societies is more often focused on the thematisation of neo-imperial domination and neo-colonial dependency phenomena, than on the explanation of their socialist past. The author’s opinion is that it doesn’t mean that a number of concepts of postcolonial theory - such as „internal colonialism“ - cannot be productively used to a fuller understanding of the Soviet past, nor that in the interpretation of post-Soviet realities’ „hybrid forms“ the postcolonial studies cannot be of use. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 149026

  11. FROM PERSONALIZED TO PRECISION MEDICINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. Raskina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The need to maintain a high quality of life against a backdrop of its inevitably increasing duration is one of the main problems of modern health care. The concept of "right drug to the right patient at the right time", which at first was bearing the name "personalized", is currently unanimously approved by international scientific community as "precision medicine". Precision medicine takes all the individual characteristics into account: genes diversity, environment, lifestyles, and even bacterial microflora and also involves the use of the latest technological developments, which serves to ensure that each patient gets assistance fitting his state best. In the United States, Canada and France national precision medicine programs have already been submitted and implemented. The aim of this review is to describe the dynamic integration of precision medicine methods into routine medical practice and life of modern society. The new paradigm prospects description are complemented by figures, proving the already achieved success in the application of precise methods for example, the targeted therapy of cancer. All in all, the presence of real-life examples, proving the regularity of transition to a new paradigm, and a wide range  of technical and diagnostic capabilities available and constantly evolving make the all-round transition to precision medicine almost inevitable.

  12. Tree Rings: Timekeepers of the Past.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, R. L.; McGowan, J.

    One of a series of general interest publications on science issues, this booklet describes the uses of tree rings in historical and biological recordkeeping. Separate sections cover the following topics: dating of tree rings, dating with tree rings, tree ring formation, tree ring identification, sample collections, tree ring cross dating, tree…

  13. Sensing and Timekeeping Using A Light Trapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    suspended polymer photonic crys- tal nanocavity", H. Clevenson, P. Desjardins, X . Gan, and D. Englund. Appl. Phys, Lett. 104, 241108 (2014). 5 6...constant of α = 0.45 cm−1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 2-2 Optical properties of the LTDW (a) Pump photon flux is plot- ted against...small ensemble of NV centers, with the y-axis shows nor- malized fluorescence and x -axis shows detuning from resonance in Hz 75 5-5 Rabi sequence

  14. Millisecond pulsars: Timekeepers of the cosmos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaspi, Victoria M.

    1995-01-01

    A brief discussion on the characteristics of pulsars is given followed by a review of millisecond pulsar discoveries including the very first, PRS B1937+21, discovered in 1982. Methods of timing millisecond pulsars and the accuracy of millisecond pulsars as clocks are discussed. Possible reasons for the pulse residuals, or differences between the observed and predicted pulse arrival times for millisecond pulsars, are given.

  15. Itaalia konstrueerimine nõukogude reisikirjas. The Construction of Italy in Soviet Travelogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anneli Kõvamees

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The focus of the article is Aimée Beekman’s travelogue Plastmassist südamega madonna (Madonna With a Plastic Heart, 1963. It also covers Juhan Kahk’s travelogue Alpide taga on moonpunane Itaalia (Behind the Alps Lies Poppy-Red Italy, 1967, Artur Vader’s Itaalia päikese all (Under Italy’s Sun, 1973, the chapters on Italy in Voldemar Panso’s travel novel Laevaga Leningradist Odessasse ehk Miks otse minna, kui ringi saab (From Leningrad to Odessa by Boat or: Why Go Straight When You Can Go Around, 1957, Max Laosson’s Nato-blokk turisti bloknoodis (Notebook of a Tourist in the Nato Bloc, 1962 and Debora Vaarandi’s Välja õuest ja väravast (From the Yard and the Gate, 1970. My aim is to analyse Soviet Estonian authors’ image of Italy in order to see what characterises the Soviet travelogue. The theoretical background of the article is the research field of imagology within literary studies. Imagology and image studies deal with the depiction of countries and peoples. With the basic concepts of imagology as a starting point, the typical topic developments of the Soviet travelogue are covered, such as the thematic features of the worker, Western society and its mechanics and idiosyncracies, faith and the church, the question of the so-called ’real Italy’ and the characteristic perspicacity of writers of Soviet travelogues. When it comes to Estonian travelogues, one can talk about a Tuglasesque travelogue tradition; Friedebert Tuglas is considered one of the pioneers behind the Estonian travelogue with his works Teekond Hispaania (A Journey to Spain, 1918 and Teekond Põhja-Aafrika (A Journey to North Africa, I–III, 1928–1930. In the Tuglasesque travelogue, books of history and art, fiction and personal impressions are intertwined. The travelogue is educational and makes for good reading. The Soviet travelogue spans certain topics from a Soviet point of view and uses Soviet rhetorics and logics. The authors usually don

  16. Hello, Lenin? Nostalgia On Post-Soviet Television In Russia And Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateryna Khinkulova

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available After the collapse of the USSR in 1991, Soviet television looked old-fashioned and seemed redundant, with the emerging post-Soviet televisual cultures turning their gazes to global sources of inspiration. The next decade affected Russia and Ukraine in very different ways. In Russia brief exposure to what was seen as “cheap mass-culture” left TV viewers and producers disillusioned. With the change of attitude towards Western TV, the ideas about Soviet TV changed, too. From a grey and unexciting model Soviet TV had become a shining example of “high quality” and nostalgia-driven content set in for the next few years. In Ukraine, where no domestic TV had existed as such prior to 1991 and where Soviet TV was rapidly fading into the past (and some-one else’s past, too, a decade of experimenting with programming had left the TV producers much more open to global television formats and Western ideas, developing programmes very different than the Russian ones.

  17. The specter of post-communism: women and alcohol in eight post-Soviet states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinote, Brian Philip; Cockerham, William C; Abbott, Pamela

    2009-04-01

    Because men have borne the heaviest burden of premature mortality in the former Soviet Union, women have for the most part been overlooked in studies of the health crisis in this part of the world. A considerable body of research points to alcohol consumption among males as a primary lifestyle cause of premature mortality. However, the extent to which alcohol use has penetrated the female population following the collapse of communism and how this consumption is associated with other social factors is less well-understood. Accordingly, this paper investigates alcohol consumption in eight republics of the former USSR - Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, and Ukraine using data collected in 2001. More specifically, discussion of gender role transformations and the historical experiences of women during the Soviet era emphasize two potentially important social influences examined in this analysis: psychological distress and Soviet political ideology. Findings suggest that distress is only weakly statistically associated with frequent drinking behavior among women, but results for political ideology show that this factor is statistically and significantly associated with drinking behaviors. Alcohol consumption was not particularly common among women under communism, but trends have been changing. Our discussion suggests that, after the collapse of the Soviet state, women are more able to embrace behavioral practices related to alcohol, and many may do so as an overt rejection of traditional Soviet norms and values. Findings are also discussed within the context of current epidemiological trends and future research directions in these eight republics.

  18. Ethos without nomos: the Russian–Georgian War and the post-Soviet state of exception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei Prozorov

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the 2008 Russian–Georgian conflict in the context of the post-Soviet spatial order, approached in terms of Carl Schmitt's theory of nomos and Giorgio Agamben's theory of the state of exception. The ‘five-day war’ was the first instance of the violation by Russia of the integrity of the post-Soviet spatial order established in the Belovezha treaties of December 1991. While from the beginning of the postcommunist period Russia functioned as the restraining force in the post-Soviet realm, the 2008 war has made further recourse to this function impossible, plunging the post-Soviet space into the condition of anomie, or the state of exception. This paper interprets this disruptive policy in the post-Soviet space as the continuation of the domestic political process of the ‘management of anomie,’ which has characterized the entire postcommunist period. In the conclusion, we address the implications of the transformation of the international order into the ethos of anomie for rethinking the ethical dimension of global politics.

  19. Precision Lunar Laser Ranging For Lunar and Gravitational Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkowitz, S. M.; Arnold, D.; Dabney, P. W.; Livas, J. C.; McGarry, J. F.; Neumann, G. A.; Zagwodzki, T. W.

    2008-01-01

    Laser ranging to retroreflector arrays placed on the lunar surface by the Apollo astronauts and the Soviet Lunar missions over the past 39 years have dramatically increased our understanding of gravitational physics along with Earth and Moon geophysics, geodesy, and dynamics. Significant advances in these areas will require placing modern retroreflectors and/or active laser ranging systems at new locations on the lunar surface. Ranging to new locations will enable better measurements of the lunar librations, aiding in our understanding of the interior structure of the moon. More precise range measurements will allow us to study effects that are too small to be observed by the current capabilities as well as enabling more stringent tests of Einstein's theory of General Relativity. Setting up retroreflectors was a key part of the Apollo missions so it is natural to ask if future lunar missions should include them as well. The Apollo retroreflectors are still being used today, and nearly 40 years of ranging data has been invaluable for scientific as well as other studies such as orbital dynamics. However, the available retroreflectors all lie within 26 degrees latitude of the equator, and the most useful ones within 24 degrees longitude of the sub-earth meridian. This clustering weakens their geometrical strength.

  20. YOUTH AND YOUTH POLICY IN THE POST-SOVIET STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Tsyunik

    2017-01-01

    occupy a rather significant place in the political process. Every year the number of new organizations is growing. Young people, this is quite an impulsive mass, which is easily influenced by the authority of the leader, which impresses them. Young people, through accession to a youth organization, have the right and the opportunity to influence the political process. Youth movements and organizations are in direct relationship with the political system. Politics is not possible without properly motivated youth, youth movements and organizations, as well as the youth movement is not possible without politics, there is an important role of political organizations in the political arena.This paper examines the problems of transformation of the youth policy of the ex-USSR countries in view of political developments in the post-Soviet region and in the world. It carried out a review of mechanisms of the implementation of the youth policy amid renewed values orientation structure of the younger generation of the post-Soviet countries. Historical account of formation of youth policy in certain select countries reviewed in this article. 

  1. Explosion Source Phenomena Using Soviet, Test-Era, Waveform Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richards, Paul G.; Rautian, Tatyana G.; Khalturin, Vitaly I.; Phillips, W. Scott

    2006-04-12

    During the nuclear testing era, the former Soviet Union carried out extensive observations of underground nuclear explosions, recording both their own shots and those of foreign nuclear states. Between 1961 and 1989, the Soviet Complex Seismological Expedition deployed seismometers at time-varying subsets of over 150 sites to record explosions at regional distances from the Semipalatinsk and Lop Nor test sites and from the shot points of peaceful nuclear explosions. This data set included recordings from broadband, multi-channel ChISS seismometers that produced a series of narrow band outputs, which could then be measured to perform spectral studies. [ChISS is the Russian abbreviation for multichannel spectral seismometer. In this instrument the signal from the seismometer is passed through a system of narrow bandpass filters and recorded on photo paper. ChISS instruments have from 8 to 16 channels in the frequency range from 100 sec to 40 Hz. We used data mostly from 7 channels, ranging from 0.08 to 5 Hz.] Quantitative, pre-digital era investigations of high-frequency source scaling relied on this type of data. To augment data sets of central Central Asia explosions, we have measured and compiled 537 ChISS coda envelopes for 124 events recorded at Talgar, Kazakhstan, at a distance of about 750 km from Semipalatinsk. Envelopes and calibration levels were measured manually from photo paper records for seven bands between 0.08 and 5 Hz. We obtained from 2 to 10 coda envelope measurements per event, depending on the event size and instrument magnification. Coda lengths varied from 250 to 1400 s. For small events, only bands between 0.6 and 2.5 Hz could be measured. Envelope levels were interpolated or extrapolated to 500 s and we have obtained the dependence of this quantity on magnitude. Coda Q was estimated and found to increase from 232 at 0.08 Hz to 1270 at 5 Hz. These relationships were used to construct an average scaling law of coda spectra for Semipalatinsk

  2. Nanomaterials for Cancer Precision Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yilong; Sun, Shuyang; Zhang, Zhiyuan; Shi, Donglu

    2018-04-01

    Medical science has recently advanced to the point where diagnosis and therapeutics can be carried out with high precision, even at the molecular level. A new field of "precision medicine" has consequently emerged with specific clinical implications and challenges that can be well-addressed by newly developed nanomaterials. Here, a nanoscience approach to precision medicine is provided, with a focus on cancer therapy, based on a new concept of "molecularly-defined cancers." "Next-generation sequencing" is introduced to identify the oncogene that is responsible for a class of cancers. This new approach is fundamentally different from all conventional cancer therapies that rely on diagnosis of the anatomic origins where the tumors are found. To treat cancers at molecular level, a recently developed "microRNA replacement therapy" is applied, utilizing nanocarriers, in order to regulate the driver oncogene, which is the core of cancer precision therapeutics. Furthermore, the outcome of the nanomediated oncogenic regulation has to be accurately assessed by the genetically characterized, patient-derived xenograft models. Cancer therapy in this fashion is a quintessential example of precision medicine, presenting many challenges to the materials communities with new issues in structural design, surface functionalization, gene/drug storage and delivery, cell targeting, and medical imaging. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Precision Medicine and Men's Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, Douglas A; Katchi, Farhan M; Ramasamy, Ranjith

    2017-07-01

    Precision medicine can greatly benefit men's health by helping to prevent, diagnose, and treat prostate cancer, benign prostatic hyperplasia, infertility, hypogonadism, and erectile dysfunction. For example, precision medicine can facilitate the selection of men at high risk for prostate cancer for targeted prostate-specific antigen screening and chemoprevention administration, as well as assist in identifying men who are resistant to medical therapy for prostatic hyperplasia, who may instead require surgery. Precision medicine-trained clinicians can also let couples know whether their specific cause of infertility should be bypassed by sperm extraction and in vitro fertilization to prevent abnormalities in their offspring. Though precision medicine's role in the management of hypogonadism has yet to be defined, it could be used to identify biomarkers associated with individual patients' responses to treatment so that appropriate therapy can be prescribed. Last, precision medicine can improve erectile dysfunction treatment by identifying genetic polymorphisms that regulate response to medical therapies and by aiding in the selection of patients for further cardiovascular disease screening.

  4. Precision Medicine in Gastrointestinal Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, David H; Park, Jason Y

    2016-05-01

    -Precision medicine is the promise of individualized therapy and management of patients based on their personal biology. There are now multiple global initiatives to perform whole-genome sequencing on millions of individuals. In the United States, an early program was the Million Veteran Program, and a more recent proposal in 2015 by the president of the United States is the Precision Medicine Initiative. To implement precision medicine in routine oncology care, genetic variants present in tumors need to be matched with effective clinical therapeutics. When we focus on the current state of precision medicine for gastrointestinal malignancies, it becomes apparent that there is a mixed history of success and failure. -To present the current state of precision medicine using gastrointestinal oncology as a model. We will present currently available targeted therapeutics, promising new findings in clinical genomic oncology, remaining quality issues in genomic testing, and emerging oncology clinical trial designs. -Review of the literature including clinical genomic studies on gastrointestinal malignancies, clinical oncology trials on therapeutics targeted to molecular alterations, and emerging clinical oncology study designs. -Translating our ability to sequence thousands of genes into meaningful improvements in patient survival will be the challenge for the next decade.

  5. Russian and Soviet forensic psychiatry: troubled and troubling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Russian forensic psychiatry is defined by its troubled and troubling relationship to an unstable state, a state that was not a continuous entity during the modern era. From the mid-nineteenth century, Russia as a nation-state struggled to reform, collapsed, re-constituted itself in a bloody civil war, metastasized into a violent "totalitarian" regime, reformed and stagnated under "mature socialism" and then embraced capitalism and "managed democracy" at the end of the twentieth century. These upheavals had indelible effects on policing and the administration of justice, and on psychiatry's relationship with them. In Russia, physicians specializing in medicine of the mind had to cope with rapid and radical changes of legal and institutional forms, and sometimes, of the state itself. Despite this challenging environment, psychiatrists showed themselves to be active professionals seeking to guide the transformations that inevitably touched their work. In the second half of the nineteenth century debates about the role of psychiatry in criminal justice took place against a backdrop of increasingly alarming terrorist activity, and call for revolution. While German influence, with its preference for hereditarianism, was strong, Russian psychiatry was inclined toward social and environmental explanations of crime. When revolution came in 1917, the new communist regime quickly institutionalized forensic psychiatry. In the aftermath of revolution, the institutionalization of forensic psychiatry "advanced" with each turn of the state's transformation, with profound consequences for practitioners' independence and ethical probity. The abuses of Soviet psychiatry under Stalin and more intensively after his death in the 1960s-80s remain under-researched and key archives are still classified. The return to democracy since the late 1980s has seen mixed results for fresh attempts to reform both the justice system and forensic psychiatric practice. © 2013.

  6. Physical protection cooperation with Former Soviet Union countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.D.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of physical protection cooperation activities between Sandia (SNL) and the Former Soviet Union (FSU) regarding Material Protection Control and Accounting (MPC ampersand A) responsibilities. Begun four years ago as part of the Safe, Secure Dismantlement Program, this project is intended to stem proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. Purpose of the program is to accelerate progress toward a goal shared by both Russia and the United States: to reduce the risk of nuclear weapons proliferation, including such threats as theft, diversion, and unauthorized possession of nuclear materials. This will be accomplished by strengthening the MPC ampersand A systems in both, countries. This new program (US Department of Energy Laboratory-to-Laboratory MPC ampersand A program) is designed to complement Government-to-Government programs sponsored by US Senators Nunn and Lugar. US and Russian representatives exchange visits and discuss physical protection philosophies. Russian representatives have received formal training in the US process of system design and analysis to include the design of an effective physical protection system, determination of physical protection system objectives, initial design of a physical protection system, evaluation of the design, and often redesign or refinement of the existing system. Some Russian organizations have philosophies similar to those of the United States, but when they differ, the US and Russian representatives must negotiate. Other Russian organizations, because of heavy reliance on guard forces, have not developed a systematic design process. Cooperative work between US national laboratories and Russian counterparts has resulted in major physical protection enhancements at a Russian demonstration site and other advancements for Laboratory-to-Laboratory projects

  7. Soviet histories of love on the American line-up: the phenomenon to the repair-man in modern cinema aesthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Diomina

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The post­Soviet culture is characterized by a deep nostalgia for the Soviet era. The manifestation of that nostalgia is a constant circulation of the Soviet themes in the post­Soviet media space. Classic Soviet romantic comedies are traditionally being showing on the national television during national holidays year by year. There are a lot of remakes of the cult Soviet films released in post­Soviet times. The movie “Office Romance. Modern Time”(2011 is an adaptation of the classic love story of Soviet film “Office Romance”(1977 to the realities of contemporary culture. Remakes adapt Soviet stable movie­plots for contemporary post­Soviet generation. Remake has an interpretive nature. Remake of “Office Romance” had the impact of the Hollywood genre conventions on cinema representation narrative and life style of the characters. Two versions of the same stories that belong to two cultural epochs, show the gradual assimilation of Soviet and post­Soviet cinema of Hollywood genre and mental patterns of American culture. The Soviet “Office Romance” (1977 genre conventions of romantic comedies were adapted to Soviet realities at the semantic level. The heroes of post­Soviet version of “Office Romance” (2011 have incorporated the mental patterns of American culture. The main heroes belief that identity and its representation in the society are not stable and established. On the representation of society and we must take care to design it so that it was clear to people around. This model has been played on the material of (PostSoviet culture in the analyzed films and effectiveness of the model is shown by the happy­ending.

  8. Sensing technologies for precision irrigation

    CERN Document Server

    Ćulibrk, Dubravko; Minic, Vladan; Alonso Fernandez, Marta; Alvarez Osuna, Javier; Crnojevic, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    This brief provides an overview of state-of-the-art sensing technologies relevant to the problem of precision irrigation, an emerging field within the domain of precision agriculture. Applications of wireless sensor networks, satellite data and geographic information systems in the domain are covered. This brief presents the basic concepts of the technologies and emphasizes the practical aspects that enable the implementation of intelligent irrigation systems. The authors target a broad audience interested in this theme and organize the content in five chapters, each concerned with a specific technology needed to address the problem of optimal crop irrigation. Professionals and researchers will find the text a thorough survey with practical applications.

  9. Precision measurement with atom interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jin

    2015-01-01

    Development of atom interferometry and its application in precision measurement are reviewed in this paper. The principle, features and the implementation of atom interferometers are introduced, the recent progress of precision measurement with atom interferometry, including determination of gravitational constant and fine structure constant, measurement of gravity, gravity gradient and rotation, test of weak equivalence principle, proposal of gravitational wave detection, and measurement of quadratic Zeeman shift are reviewed in detail. Determination of gravitational redshift, new definition of kilogram, and measurement of weak force with atom interferometry are also briefly introduced. (topical review)

  10. ELECTROWEAK PHYSICS AND PRECISION STUDIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MARCIANO, W.

    2005-01-01

    The utility of precision electroweak measurements for predicting the Standard Model Higgs mass via quantum loop effects is discussed. Current values of m W , sin 2 θ W (m Z ) # ovr MS# and m t imply a relatively light Higgs which is below the direct experimental bound but possibly consistent with Supersymmetry expectations. The existence of Supersymmetry is further suggested by a 2σ discrepancy between experiment and theory for the muon anomalous magnetic moment. Constraints from precision studies on other types of ''New Physics'' are also briefly described

  11. Universal precision sine bar attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Franklin D. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    This invention relates to an attachment for a sine bar which can be used to perform measurements during lathe operations or other types of machining operations. The attachment can be used for setting precision angles on vises, dividing heads, rotary tables and angle plates. It can also be used in the inspection of machined parts, when close tolerances are required, and in the layout of precision hardware. The novelty of the invention is believed to reside in a specific versatile sine bar attachment for measuring a variety of angles on a number of different types of equipment.

  12. Introduction to precise numerical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Aberth, Oliver

    2007-01-01

    Precise numerical analysis may be defined as the study of computer methods for solving mathematical problems either exactly or to prescribed accuracy. This book explains how precise numerical analysis is constructed. The book also provides exercises which illustrate points from the text and references for the methods presented. All disc-based content for this title is now available on the Web. · Clearer, simpler descriptions and explanations ofthe various numerical methods· Two new types of numerical problems; accurately solving partial differential equations with the included software and computing line integrals in the complex plane.

  13. US-Soviet cooperation in countering nuclear terrorism: the role of risk reduction centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunn, S.; Warner, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    Preventing nuclear terrorism should be high on the agenda of US-Soviet relations. Indeed, the specter of nuclear terrorism, more than any other factor originally prompted and has subsequently sustained the author's deep interest in US-Soviet agreements on establishment of US-Soviet Nuclear Risk Reduction Centers and other important risk-reduction measures. Such centers can play an invaluable role in facilitating discussions aimed at forestalling possible contingencies and in providing a mechanism for dampening escalatory dangers that might otherwise result from any future nuclear terrorism incident. In addition to these crucial substantive functions, the centers could serve to reassure anxious publics that the governments they have entrusted with command authority over tens of thousands of nuclear devices are giving the highest priority to reducing the risk that any of them will ever be used, whether by design or by accident. Nuclear risk Reduction Centers are an idea whose time has come

  14. DE-Sovietizing educational systems, learning from past policy and practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Cathy C.

    1994-03-01

    All 21st century societies face the dilemma of reforming educational systems to meet changing social demands. In order to enable new beginnings to be made, this article examines the ending of reform efforts in the former Soviet Union immediately prior to the establishment of the Commonwealth of Independent States. Educational policy had followed a shifting course under changing Soviet leadership, much supposed reform consisting of little more than reworked statements of intent. In the second half of the 1980's, more serious attempts were made to raise enrollment of six-year olds, to upgrade instructional materials and teaching quality, and to redesign vocational education. Inadequate facilities and resources, lack of trained personnel, promotion on non-educational grounds, economic hardship and bureaucratic resistance hindered these reforms. As successor states to the Soviet Union — and others — face structural change, knowledge of why certain reforms were previously resisted will help future planning.

  15. Contamination of the Northern Oceans from Releases of Radioactivity from the Former Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, Leo S.

    1999-01-01

    During the Cold War the handling of Soviet military nuclear wastes was a classified topic--kept secret to hide the status and readiness of Soviet military forces. Following the end of the Cold War information about the handling of nuclear wastes by agencies of the Former Soviet Union (FSU) became available. The US Government response to the disclosure of disposal of radioactive wastes into the Arctic Ocean and into rivers that drain into the Arctic Ocean was the finding of the Arctic Nuclear Waste Assessment Program (ANWAP) in the Office of Naval Research (ONR). Projects were aided by ANWAP to study the behavior, transport, and fate of radionuclides in the Arctic Ocean. One of the research teams, the Risk Assessment Integration Group (RAIG) assessed the potential risks to humans and to the environment, particularly in the US Alaskan Arctic

  16. How successful was Joseph Stalin in establishing Soviet Union as a superpower?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Majkowski

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This essay will firstly address the extent of Stalin’s achievements in leading the course for domestic policy of the Soviet Union and its contribution towards maintaining the country’s supremacy in the world, for example the rapid post-war recovery of industry and agriculture, and secondly, the foreign policy including ambiguous relations with Communist governments of countries forming the Eastern Bloc, upkeeping frail alliances and growing antagonism towards western powers, especially the United States of America. The actions and influence of Stalin’s closest associates in the Communist Party and the effect of Soviet propaganda on the society are also reviewed. This investigation will cover the period from 1945 to 1953. Additionally, other factors such as the impact of post-war worldwide economic situation and attitude of the society of Soviet Union will be discussed.

  17. External and Internal Impact on Soviet Memorial Landscape Development by THE World War II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Cherkasski

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The World War II led to serious casualties and left deep scars / wounds of memory. As the victory over occupation regime was glorified, honored and starting from 1965 was widely celebrated at national level, there was a great gap between official and personal memory of war. Monuments are one of the forms of living examples of the past and thus are reliable sources for the study of different epochs and Zeitgeist / spirit of time and their changes. This article considers the development of Soviet memorial landscape by the World War II starting from the war termination to the Soviet Union collapse. Special attention is attached to internal political and international views / interpretations and development with respect to victims of war. In other words, the process of different groups of war victims exclusion and inclusion in Soviet collective memory under the influence of internal political and foreign political interests symbiosis. And, as a result, resultant attitude towards memorial places.

  18. Department of Energy's team's analyses of Soviet designed VVERs (water-cooled water-moderated atomic energy reactors)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-09-01

    This document contains apprendices A through P of this report. Topics discussed are: a cronyms and technical terms, accident analyses reactivity control; Soviet safety regulations; radionuclide inventory; decay heat; operations and maintenance; steam supply system; concrete and concrete structures; seismicity; site information; neutronic parameters; loss of electric power; diesel generator reliability; Soviet codes and standards; and comparisons of PWR and VVER features. (FI)

  19. Knowledge Management as an Approach to Learning and Instructing Sector University Students in Post-Soviet Professional Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volegzhanina, Irina S.; Chusovlyanova, Svetlana V.; Adolf, Vladimir A.; Bykadorova, Ekaterina S.; Belova, Elena N.

    2017-01-01

    The relevance of the study depends on addressing to the issue of knowledge management in learning and instructing students of post-Soviet sector universities. In this regard, the article is intended to reveal the nature of knowledge management approach compared to the knowledge-based one predominated in Soviet education. The flagship approach of…

  20. Gender Analysis of the Development of School and University Theme in Soviet and Russian Audiovisual Media Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitskaya, Anastasia; Seliverstova, Lyudmila; Mamadaliev, Anvar

    2017-01-01

    The article is written within the framework of a broader study investigating school and university representation in the Soviet/Russian and foreign audiovisual media texts. The research outlines that in Soviet cinema the image of the female teacher was transformed in the following sequence: a heroine-revolutionary; a heroine of hard work; an…

  1. Between Two Suns. Czechoslovakia and the Sino-Soviet Dispute over the International Communist Movement (1953-1962)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolenovská, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 1 (2016), s. 19-48 ISSN 2336-3142 Institutional support: RVO:68378114 Keywords : Sino-Czechoslovak relations * Sino-Soviet split * Soviet bloc Subject RIV: AB - History OBOR OECD: History (history of science and technology to be 6.3, history of specific sciences to be under the respective headings)

  2. 'Korenizatsiia' and its Discontents: Ukraine and the Soviet Nationality Policies during the 1920s: A Review Essay

    OpenAIRE

    VUSHKO, Iryna

    2009-01-01

    This essay reviews the recent literature on the nationalities policy in Soviet Ukraine during the 1920s. It brings together different Western (English and German) and native (Ukrainian and Russian) historical narratives, all produced after 2001. Different approaches to the Soviet nationalities policy, as this essay demonstrates, reveal broader methodological differences between historians working within distinct historiographical traditions. Despite the increasing contacts between...

  3. Soviet Feature Cinema in the Mirror of the Soviet Film Critics (on the Example of Annuals "Screen" (1964-1990

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AlexanderFedorov

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In mid-1960s Moscow publishing house “Art” released yearbooks “Screen”, which reflected in concentrated form the most the important cinematic events in the USSR and the world. The first collection of this kind ("Screen 1964" was printed edition of 45,500 copies. The circulation of the next two collections was 30-35 thousand copies. From 1968 to 1985 the "Screens" were annually with a circulation of 50 thousand copies. "Screen 1987"’s circulation has been increased to 75 thousand, but the rest of the collection issues have returned to the circulation of 50 thousand copies. Each book is illustrated with black-and-white frames of the movies and photos masters of the screen. Yearbooks "Screen" became a sort of mirror of the Soviet critics of the 1960s–1980s, reflecting its ups and downs, forced to default figures, ideological passages, thaw and perestroika hope. From the time of the last annual output has been more than a quarter century. The film history faculty of VGIK has lost its former magic among students. Russian film critic since changed significantly. And compared to thaw and perestroika times – not always in the best possible way. There was, for example, glamorous and glossy film critic, but often superficial film critic dashing Internet users. Many of the authors of the annual "Screen" for a long time are no longer alive. Some of the critics have gone into other professions... But life goes on, and the Russian film critic still be able to delight true fans of the "tenth muse" deep intelligence and evidence-based reasoning.

  4. Soviet Cultural Diplomacy towards Denmark during the Cold War, 1945-1991

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederichsen, Kim

    bacteriological warfare in Korea, or the campaign against (West) German rearmament.Regarding reception and impact, it is concluded that the Soviet direct and supported activities were aimed at influencing public opinion and thereby give the impression of a public pressure that would in turn affect policy makers...... of the dissertation is that despite some success stories, including a wider audience form the mid-1970s on, it proved very difficult for the Soviet Union to achieve broad public sympathy for its messages as they more often than not seemed alien to the majority of the Danish public and therefore failed to influence...

  5. From social classes to ethnicities: Ethnocentric views in history textbooks in post-Soviet Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor A. Shnirelman

    2011-07-01

    This new paradigm is analyzed with reference to images of the North Caucasian highlanders in the post-Soviet history textbooks, especially with respect to their participation in the Caucasian war in the early 19th century and their deportation in 1943–1944. I will also discuss how the new North Ossetian and Ingush history textbooks represent ethnic neighbors – the Ingush by the Ossetians and the Ossetians by the Ingush. I will argue that cultural fundamentalism and ethnocentrism, which make up the basis of the post-Soviet historiography, cultivate soil for cultural racism – the most powerful type of racism in the contemporary world.

  6. Visions and Visualization of Sustainability: Leningrad Designers in Search of Soviet Recycling System, 1981-84

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karpova, Yulia

    2019-01-01

    In the first half of the 1960s, Soviet design was predominantly techno-optimistic. Industrial design, officially recognized as a profession in 1962 under the labels “technical aesthetics” (theory and methodology) and “artistic engineering” (practice) was to become an aid to science and technology...... of the optimal nomenclatures and assortments of consumer goods, in contrast to what they perceived as market-driven “chaos of forms” in the capitalist societies. However, in the 1970s, influenced by Western theorists such as Victor Margolin and Abraham Moles, Soviet designers were increasingly concerned...

  7. Second ANS workshop on the safety of Soviet-designed nuclear power plants. Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bari, R.A.

    1995-03-01

    The Second American Nuclear Society Workshop on the Safety of Soviet-Designed Nuclear Power Plants was held in Washington, DC, in November, 1994. The Workshop consisted of both plenary sessions and working sessions with three hundred participants overall. All countries with operating Soviet-Designed nuclear power plants were represented and representatives from several other countries also participated. In addition to the status and plans related to technical issues, the Workshop also included discussions of economic, political, legal, and social issues as they relate to the safety of these nuclear power plants

  8. STANFORD (SLAC): Precision electroweak result

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    Precision testing of the electroweak sector of the Standard Model has intensified with the recent publication* of results from the SLD collaboration's 1993 run on the Stanford Linear Collider, SLC. Using a highly polarized electron beam colliding with an unpolarized positron beam, SLD physicists measured the left-right asymmetry at the Z boson resonance with dramatically improved accuracy over 1992

  9. Spin and precision electroweak physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marciano, W.J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1994-12-01

    A perspective on fundamental parameters and precision tests of the Standard Model is given. Weak neutral current reactions are discussed with emphasis on those processes involving (polarized) electrons. The role of electroweak radiative corrections in determining the top quark mass and probing for {open_quotes}new physics{close_quotes} is described.

  10. Spin and precision electroweak physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marciano, W.J.

    1993-01-01

    A perspective on fundamental parameters and precision tests of the Standard Model is given. Weak neutral current reactions are discussed with emphasis on those processes involving (polarized) electrons. The role of electroweak radiative corrections in determining the top quark mass and probing for ''new physics'' is described

  11. Precision surveying system for PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunn, J.; Lauritzen, T.; Sah, R.; Pellisier, P.F.

    1977-01-01

    A semi-automatic precision surveying system is being developed for PEP. Reference elevations for vertical alignment will be provided by a liquid level. The short range surveying will be accomplished using a Laser Surveying System featuring automatic data acquisition and analysis

  12. Precision medicine at the crossroads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Maynard V

    2017-10-11

    There are bioethical, institutional, economic, legal, and cultural obstacles to creating the robust-precompetitive-data resource that will be required to advance the vision of "precision medicine," the ability to use molecular data to target therapies to patients for whom they offer the most benefit at the least risk. Creation of such an "information commons" was the central recommendation of the 2011 report Toward Precision Medicine issued by a committee of the National Research Council of the USA (Committee on a Framework for Development of a New Taxonomy of Disease; National Research Council. Toward precision medicine: building a knowledge network for biomedical research and a new taxonomy of disease. 2011). In this commentary, I review the rationale for creating an information commons and the obstacles to doing so; then, I endorse a path forward based on the dynamic consent of research subjects interacting with researchers through trusted mediators. I assert that the advantages of the proposed system overwhelm alternative ways of handling data on the phenotypes, genotypes, and environmental exposures of individual humans; hence, I argue that its creation should be the central policy objective of early efforts to make precision medicine a reality.

  13. Proton gyromagnetic precision measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Deming; Deming Zhu

    1991-01-01

    A computerized control and measurement system used in the proton gyromagnetic precision meausrement is descirbed. It adopts the CAMAC data acquisition equipment, using on-line control and analysis with the HP85 and PDP-11/60 computer systems. It also adopts the RSX11M computer operation system, and the control software is written in FORTRAN language

  14. Illusions of Friendship? The Soviet Union and Russia in the Finnish Press

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heikki Luostarinen

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The image of the Soviet Union and Russia has changed dramatically in the press in Finland after the World War II. This article is based on a frequency analysis in which mentions of certain countries, groups of states and international organizations were coded (like the Soviet Union/Russia, United States, NATO, UN etc.. To make the analysis more revealing and interesting, a distinction was made whether the mention was made in the context of (1 alliance, friendship and cooperation, or in the context of (2 distance, restriction and enemy image, or (3 both in a positive and in a negative context. The time frame was from 1945 till the end of the century, and the newspapers chosen for the study represented the whole political spectrum of the Finnish media. The selection criteria of the material emphasized national celebration days. The study proves clearly what has been the main object of Finnish foreign policy after the WW II: in all coded press material, the Soviet Union/Russia was mentioned 222 times which makes 37.5% of all mentions. Other important states or groups have been the United States (5.3 %, EC/EU/WEU/West-Europe (12.6 %, United Nations (9.0 % and Nordic council/Nordic co-operation (11.2 %. With very few exceptions, all mentions concerning the UN and Nordic co-operation are positive. The Soviet Union has also been described rather positively (77.5 %. The share of negative mentions is 8.1% and mixture of negative and positive mentions 14.4%. Images of the United States and the European alliances are most contradictory. In the case of USA, 54.8 % of the mentions are positive and 45.2% negative. Concerning EC/EU etc. 54.1 % of mentions are positive, 28.4 % negative and 17.6 % mixtures of positive and negative references. Changes in attitudes towards the Soviet Union in different time spots are remarkable. The share of negative mentions of the Soviet Union was very low, except in 1995 (30 % when Finland already was a member of the EU

  15. Precision and accuracy in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenner, J.D.

    1989-01-01

    The required precision due to random errors in the delivery of fractionated dose regime is considered. It is argued that suggestions that 1-3% precision is needed may be unnecessarily conservative. It is further suggested that random and systematic errors should not be combined with equal weight to yield an overall target uncertainty in dose delivery, systematic errors being of greater significance. The authors conclude that imprecise dose delivery and inaccurate dose delivery affect patient-cure results differently. Whereas, for example, a 10% inaccuracy in dose delivery would be quite catastrophic in the case considered here, a corresponding imprecision would have a much smaller effect on overall success rates. (author). 14 refs.; 2 figs

  16. Precision electroweak physics at LEP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mannelli, M.

    1994-12-01

    Copious event statistics, a precise understanding of the LEP energy scale, and a favorable experimental situation at the Z{sup 0} resonance have allowed the LEP experiments to provide both dramatic confirmation of the Standard Model of strong and electroweak interactions and to place substantially improved constraints on the parameters of the model. The author concentrates on those measurements relevant to the electroweak sector. It will be seen that the precision of these measurements probes sensitively the structure of the Standard Model at the one-loop level, where the calculation of the observables measured at LEP is affected by the value chosen for the top quark mass. One finds that the LEP measurements are consistent with the Standard Model, but only if the mass of the top quark is measured to be within a restricted range of about 20 GeV.

  17. Environment-assisted precision measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldstein, G.; Cappellaro, P.; Maze, J. R.

    2011-01-01

    We describe a method to enhance the sensitivity of precision measurements that takes advantage of the environment of a quantum sensor to amplify the response of the sensor to weak external perturbations. An individual qubit is used to sense the dynamics of surrounding ancillary qubits, which...... are in turn affected by the external field to be measured. The resulting sensitivity enhancement is determined by the number of ancillas that are coupled strongly to the sensor qubit; it does not depend on the exact values of the coupling strengths and is resilient to many forms of decoherence. The method...... achieves nearly Heisenberg-limited precision measurement, using a novel class of entangled states. We discuss specific applications to improve clock sensitivity using trapped ions and magnetic sensing based on electronic spins in diamond...

  18. Precise object tracking under deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saad, M.H

    2010-01-01

    The precise object tracking is an essential issue in several serious applications such as; robot vision, automated surveillance (civil and military), inspection, biomedical image analysis, video coding, motion segmentation, human-machine interface, visualization, medical imaging, traffic systems, satellite imaging etc. This frame-work focuses on the precise object tracking under deformation such as scaling , rotation, noise, blurring and change of illumination. This research is a trail to solve these serious problems in visual object tracking by which the quality of the overall system will be improved. Developing a three dimensional (3D) geometrical model to determine the current pose of an object and predict its future location based on FIR model learned by the OLS. This framework presents a robust ranging technique to track a visual target instead of the traditional expensive ranging sensors. The presented research work is applied to real video stream and achieved high precession results.

  19. Fit to Electroweak Precision Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erler, Jens

    2006-01-01

    A brief review of electroweak precision data from LEP, SLC, the Tevatron, and low energies is presented. The global fit to all data including the most recent results on the masses of the top quark and the W boson reinforces the preference for a relatively light Higgs boson. I will also give an outlook on future developments at the Tevatron Run II, CEBAF, the LHC, and the ILC

  20. Precise Object Tracking under Deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saad, M.H.

    2010-01-01

    The precise object tracking is an essential issue in several serious applications such as; robot vision, automated surveillance (civil and military), inspection, biomedical image analysis, video coding, motion segmentation, human-machine interface, visualization, medical imaging, traffic systems, satellite imaging etc. This framework focuses on the precise object tracking under deformation such as scaling, rotation, noise, blurring and change of illumination. This research is a trail to solve these serious problems in visual object tracking by which the quality of the overall system will be improved. Developing a three dimensional (3D) geometrical model to determine the current pose of an object and predict its future location based on FIR model learned by the OLS. This framework presents a robust ranging technique to track a visual target instead of the traditional expensive ranging sensors. The presented research work is applied to real video stream and achieved high precession results. xiiiThe precise object tracking is an essential issue in several serious applications such as; robot vision, automated surveillance (civil and military), inspection, biomedical image analysis, video coding, motion segmentation, human-machine interface, visualization, medical imaging, traffic systems, satellite imaging etc. This framework focuses on the precise object tracking under deformation such as scaling, rotation, noise, blurring and change of illumination. This research is a trail to solve these serious problems in visual object tracking by which the quality of the overall system will be improved. Developing a three dimensional (3D) geometrical model to determine the current pose of an object and predict its future location based on FIR model learned by the OLS. This framework presents a robust ranging technique to track a visual target instead of the traditional expensive ranging sensors. The presented research work is applied to real video stream and achieved high

  1. Precision measurements of electroweak parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Savin, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    A set of selected precise measurements of the SM parameters from the LHC experiments is discussed. Results on W-mass measurement and forward-backward asymmetry in production of the Drell--Yan events in both dielectron and dimuon decay channels are presented together with results on the effective mixing angle measurements. Electroweak production of the vector bosons in association with two jets is discussed.

  2. Precision titration mini-calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ensor, D.; Kullberg, L.; Choppin, G.

    1977-01-01

    The design and test of a small volume calorimeter of high precision and simple design is described. The calorimeter operates with solution sample volumes in the range of 3 to 5 ml. The results of experiments on the entropy changes for two standard reactions: (1) reaction of tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane with hydrochloric acid and (2) reaction between mercury(II) and bromide ions are reported to confirm the accuracy and overall performance of the calorimeter

  3. Knowledge of Precision Farming Beneficiaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Greena

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Precision Farming is one of the many advanced farming practices that make production more efficient by better resource management and reducing wastage. TN-IAMWARM is a world bank funded project aims to improve the farm productivity and income through better water management. The present study was carried out in Kambainallur sub basin of Dharmapuri district with 120 TN-IAMWARM beneficiaries as respondents. The result indicated that more than three fourth (76.67 % of the respondents had high level of knowledge on precision farming technologies which was made possible by the implementation of TN-IAMWARM project. The study further revealed that educational status, occupational status and exposure to agricultural messages had a positive and significant contribution to the knowledge level of the respondents at 0.01 level of probability whereas experience in precision farming and social participation had a positive and significant contribution at 0.05 level of probability.

  4. Title list of selected Soviet reports in the fields of nuclear research and nuclear engineering. 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumann, G.; Sube, R.

    1979-03-01

    140 titles of reports issued by Soviet institutes (KFTI, EFI, IAE, IFVE, ITEF, NIIAR, NIIEFA, FEI, RI, SFTI) in the fields of nuclear research and nuclear engineering have been arranged according to the INIS subject scope. The reports are available on a loan basis from ZfK Rossendorf, Information Department, Dresden

  5. Title list of selected Soviet reports in the fields of nuclear research and nuclear engineering. 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumann, G.; Sube, R.

    1979-03-01

    139 titles of reports issued by Soviet institutes (KFTI, EFI, IAE, IFVE, ITEF, NIIAR, NIIEFA, FEI, RI, SFTI) in the fields of nuclear research and nuclear engineering have been arranged according to the INIS subject scope. The reports are available on a loan basis from ZfK Rossendorf, Information Department, Dresden

  6. Title list of selected Soviet reports in the fields of nuclear research and nuclear engineering. 13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumann, G.; Sube, R.

    1979-12-01

    136 titles of reports issued by Soviet institutes (KFTI, EFI, IAE, IFVE, ITEF, NIIAR, NIIEFA, FEI, RI, SFTI) in the fields of nuclear research and nuclear engineering have been arranged according to the INIS subject scope. The reports are available on a loan basis from ZfK Rossendorf, Information Department, Dresden

  7. Primary care reforms in countries of the former soviet union: success and challenges.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kühlbrandt, C.; Boerma, W.

    2015-01-01

    Summary: This article examines primary care reforms in countries of the former Soviet Union. It places reforms in their wider political context and points to infrastructural, human and economic successes and challenges. There is great heterogeneity between countries regarding the effectiveness of

  8. Christina Isajiw. Negotiating Human Rights: In Defence of Dissidents during the Soviet Era. A Memoir.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Martin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Christina Isajiw. Negotiating Human Rights: In Defence of Dissidents during the Soviet Era. A Memoir. Edmonton and Toronto: Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies Press, 2014. xxx, 407 pp. Foreword by Bohdan Nahaylo. Introduction. Illustrations. Appendices on separate CD-Rom. Index. Paper.

  9. Human Capital--Economic Growth Nexus in the Former Soviet Bloc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipian, Ararat L.

    2007-01-01

    This study analyses the role and impact of higher education on per capita economic growth in the Former Soviet Bloc. It attempts to estimate the significance of educational levels for initiating substantial economic growth that now takes place in these two countries. This study estimates a system of linear and log-linear equations that account for…

  10. The Influence of Western Radio on the Democratization of Soviet Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manaev, Oleg

    1991-01-01

    Finds that the openness toward broadcasts from Radio Liberty and other Western stations during perestroika has only increased the level of distrust of the Soviet media by those teenagers who tend to be poorly adapted to the established social activities of their peers. (PRA)

  11. «We were shocked»: Soviet captivity and internment as acculturation stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Наталья Викторовна Суржикова

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available N.V. Surzhikova's article based at the specific source type - memories - covers social and cultural issues of the Soviet captivity and internment. The author analyses manifestation of cultural shock or a stress of acculturation that proceeded from the direct contact of the prisoners and interned persons with another cultural conditions as well as mechanisms and limits of their adaptation.

  12. Spatial Analysis of Market Economy Innovations in the Former Soviet Union: The Case of Commodity Exchanges

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-10-06

    current cooperative movement in the former Soviet Uni’n can be traced to a law adopted in November, 1986 which permitted family members residing...the labor joined the cooperative movement in 1988. Uzbekistan, the largest of the Central Asian republics, claims only one exchange in Tashkent

  13. The Repudiation of Single-Sex Education: Boys' Schools in the Soviet Union, 1943-1954

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, E. Thomas

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the 11-year Soviet experiment with boys' schools as a way to cast new light on scholarly research and public debates about single-sex education. Drawing on archival and published materials by educators who described school conditions, identified problems, suggested reforms, and evaluated remedies, the author argues that…

  14. Swords into ploughshares; A glimpse of solar technologies in the Soviet Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jesch, L.

    1990-12-01

    SAWIE Editor Leslie Jesch was invited to address a Seminar on Renewable Energies held in the Crimea in October 1990. This gave him the opportunity of a fascinating glimpse of the Soviet Union (or disUnion, as he found it.) and the chance to see the status of work in solar energy. He reports below on some of his experiences. (author).

  15. Table of content translations of Soviet reports received by the INDC Secretariat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-04-01

    The ''Table of Content Translations'' contains the translation of the table of contents, and abstracts when available, of those Soviet reports which the IAEA does not translate. The originals of these reports are normally available in limited quantities only and are given an INDC ''G'' distribution

  16. "Soviet" Higher Education in a Changing Political, Social, and Economic Context: A Scenario for the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkuriev, Stanislav

    1991-01-01

    Describes the changes in Soviet/Russian higher education since 1986. Reviews the development of higher education since 1918 and the bureaucratic structures that stifled progress and focused on vocational preparation. Argues that decentralization of authority will lead to improved general education essential for a free society. (CFR)

  17. Non-Formal Education and Civil Society in Post-Soviet Russia: What Is the Relationship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, W. John; Kliucharev, Grigori A.

    2011-01-01

    The article describes collaborative research into the relationship between non-formal education and civil society in post-Soviet Russia. It shows how through social survey data and case studies of non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and other civil society organisations (CSOs), using a combination of social science perspectives, much can be…

  18. The Western World in Soviet and Russian Cinema (1946-2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, A. V.

    2017-01-01

    Cinema has always represented a powerful medium for influencing audiences (including in political and ideological ways). Therefore, exploring how the image of the Western world has been transforming in Soviet and Russian films is still relevant today. This study seeks to accomplish the following: define the role and place of the changing portrayal…

  19. Symposium on Economic Transition in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Murrell

    1991-01-01

    This symposium examines the economic problems facing the reforming countries of the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, the interrelationships between these problems, and current knowledge on how to deal with them. The word "reform" is surely a misnomer for what is occurring; "revolution" is more fitting.

  20. Critical Thinking as Culture: Teaching Post-Soviet Teachers in Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhalter, Nancy; Shegebayev, Maganat R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the question of whether critical thinking can eventually become part of the cultural fabric in Kazakhstan, a country whose Soviet educational system not only trained teachers to memorise, lecture and intimidate students but also created a culture in educational institutions fraught with many fear-based behaviours engendering…

  1. International Education during the Cold War: Soviet Social Transformation and American Social Reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsvetkova, Natalia

    2008-01-01

    During the Cold War, the United States and Soviet Union employed various cultural and informational and educational tools to establish and maintain friendly political regimes in foreign states. In this context international education programs became a major part of their strategy to win the "minds" and "allegiance" and to…

  2. The Cold War in the Soviet School: A Case Study of Mathematics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    This article is devoted to certain aspects of the cold war reflected in the teaching of mathematics in the Soviet Union. The author deals specifically with direct manifestations of the cold war, not with the teaching of mathematics during the cold war in general. His aim is not to present a comprehensive examination of school programs in…

  3. Direct measurement of source RDP's and yields from near-field Soviet seismic data. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saikia, C.K.; McLaren, J.P.; Helmberger, D.V.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the source characteristics represented in the form of a reduced displacement potential (RDP) of Soviet nuclear explosions and was based on the availability of in-country near-field data. At the start of the project, it was thought that data would be readily accessible to us with the start of the open exchange of seismic data between the US and the Soviet Union. In fact, we did receive near-field waveforms of two Soviet nuclear explosions from Azghir test site near the Caspian Sea following which the transfer of data stopped till the end of the project. Consequently, the research effort was descoped. Only recently, some additional data have become available at CSS (Center for Seismic Studies). We have undertaken a thorough investigation of the limited data available from a large coupled shot (64 kT) in Azghir followed five years later by a decoupled shot (8 kT). We have successfully modeled the near-field data from these events to determine their source RDP's and establish a decoupling factor of 15 using a time-domain waveform modeling technique. The results of this study are presented in the enclosed manuscript: Analysis of near-field data from a Soviet decoupling experiment

  4. Public and private in the post-soviet area: the problem of demarcation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Zaidel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the problem of determination of public and private in the post­soviet area. Formation of these spheres should be a logical conclusion of successful transformation and modernization process in ex­soviet republics and getting all spheres of civil life out of the state control. Historical specific is underlined; it is given the determination and main characteristics of public and private. It is given two main approaches’ ways of interpretation the phenomena and formation of public sphere according to H. Arendt and Ju. Hubermas. The specific of formation and demarcation of public and private spheres in the post­soviet area is analyzed. The boundaries between public and private spheres were deformed by the soviet state and communist society. As a result it was built hierarchical relations among the state, society and ruler; it is typical for power centralized societies. The determining factor of institutional heritage in the processes of state­making is underlined. The deformation of division of state, public and private spheres is caused by combining of traditional and modern institutes and practices; as a result social practices that are against of logic of modern society slow down the development of market­oriented economy and modernization of institutions.

  5. Soviet Education Policy 1917-1935: From Ideology to Bureaucratic Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauglo, Jon

    1988-01-01

    Examining early Soviet educational policy, Lauglo analyzes the initial expression of Marxist humanist values, popular participation, and the value of productive work for general education. Discusses the routinization into a Stalinist pattern of bureaucratically controlled utilitarianism and comments briefly on recent indications of change in…

  6. From Communist Control to "Glastnost" and Back?: Media Freedom and Control in the Former Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Denise P.

    1998-01-01

    Frames the role of public relations in a self-governing society. Discusses three environmental factors that affect the practice of socially responsible public relations. Reviews the historical media philosophy of eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. Examines media practice occurring during the region's transformation and implications for…

  7. Space Race Propaganda: U.S. Coverage of the Soviet Sputniks in 1957.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlin, Cheryl L.

    1987-01-01

    Analyzes coverage of the Soviet Sputniks in 1957 by three news magazines--"U.S.News and World Report,""Newsweek," and "Time." Reports that "Time" and "U.S. News" covered the issue in Cold War terms, whereas "Newsweek" put emphasis on the prospects for space exploration. (MM)

  8. The First Soviet Cosmonaut Team Their Lives, Legacy, and Historical Impact

    CERN Document Server

    Burgess, Colin

    2009-01-01

    The First Soviet Cosmonaut Team will relate who these men were and offer far more extensive background stories, in addition to those of the more familiar names of early Soviet space explorers from that group. Many previously-unpublished photographs of these “missing” candidates will also be included for the first time in this book. It will be a detailed, but highly readable and balanced account of the history, training and experiences of the first group of twenty cosmonauts of the USSR. A covert recruitment and selection process was set in motion throughout the Soviet military in August 1959, just prior to the naming of America’s Mercury astronauts. Those selected were ordered to report for training at a special camp outside of Moscow in the spring of 1960. Just a year later, Senior Lieutenant Yuri Gagarin of the Soviet Air Force (promoted in flight to the rank of major) was launched aboard a Vostok spacecraft and became the first person ever to achieve space flight and orbit the Earth.

  9. "Quality Revolution" in Post-Soviet Education in Russia: From Control to Assurance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minina, Elena

    2017-01-01

    Employing the analytical framework of a discourse-driven social change, this paper unpacks the neoliberal concept of "educational quality" in the course of Russian education modernisation reform from 1991 to 2013. Since the early 1990s, the global neoliberal discourse has served as the backbone for post-Soviet educational ideology.…

  10. Soviet Negotiating Techniques in Arms Control Negotiations with the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-08-01

    Arma - ments and the Prohibition of Atomic, Hydrogen and Other Weapons of Mass Destruction. 󈧰 The disarmament debate then centered in twenty- eight...example, on the problem of the Mideast and on other outstanding problems in which the United States and the Soviet Union, acting together, canJ serve the

  11. The Dartmouth Dialog: the First Steps of Informal Soviet-American Diplomacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M A Moskovsky

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with little known episodes of the informal Soviet-American Dartmouth dialog during the period of the Cold War. The potential of this channel of information exchange and its role in the Cuban missile crisis and in the signing of Limited Test Ban Treaty on August 5, 1963 are analyzed.

  12. The Revival of Agrarian Youth Organizations in the Former Soviet Union: Lithuania--One Country's Story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, M. Craig; Thuemmel, William L.; Kisieliene, Sonata

    2000-01-01

    Provides an historical sketch of the origin of young farmers' organizations in Lithuania during the 1920s and 1930s and their second beginning since the fall of communism, the demise of the Soviet Union, and the regaining of Lithuania's independence in the 1990s. (Author/JOW)

  13. Identity Loss and Recovery in the Life Stories of Soviet World War II Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Peter G.; Podolskij, Andrei

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: We examined the adjustment to societal change following the fall of communism in a group of Soviet war veterans from Russia and the Ukraine. The focus of the study was on the dynamics of identity development, and especially generativity, in a period of intense social upheaval. Design and Methods: We administered measures of self-esteem,…

  14. VIDEO GAMES AS A MEANS OF COMMUNICATION POLICY POST-SOVIET SPACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Iglin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Videogames as a kind of entertainment have a mass nature in the modern world. This aspect involves the opportunity of political advertising and promotion of some kind of political views. This article reviews the political-communicative nature of videogames on the territory of Post-Soviet states.

  15. Systems Analysis of Interaction between Russia and the European Union in the Post-Soviet Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Vasfilov

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes post-Soviet relations between Russia and the European Union using the theoretical framework of neoclassical realism. It finds that the post-Soviet level of competition between Russia and the EU is higher than required by the international system. The reason is rooted in the influence of a number of internal factors (or intervening variables. Consequently, elites in both Russia and the EU are not able to adequately understand the signals sent by the international system. There is a wide variety of intervening variables; for example, there are factors caused by the political elites’ perceptions of each other’s intentions and of the international situation, factors related to inadequate information, factors related to the complex institutional structure of the EU and factors related to domestic political issues. In addition, the current international environment, characterized by a high degree of uncertainty, increases the effects of these intervening variables. These effects result in inaccurate and incorrect processing of the signals of the international system by Russian and European elites. As a result, a subsystem of international relations has arisen in the post-Soviet space, featuring a highly competitive environment. However, there are only two major actors in the region: Russia and the EU. Small countries are too weak, so must choose to align themselves with either Russia or the Euone or the other. This causes a rivalry between Russia and the EU for influence on small and medium-sized countries in the post-Soviet space.

  16. Title list of selected Soviet reports in the fields of nuclear research and nuclear engineering. 14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumann, G.; Sube, R.

    1979-12-01

    136 titles of reports issued by Soviet institutes (KFTI, EFI, IAE, IFVE, ITEF, NIIAR, NIIEFA, FEI, RI, SFTI) in the fields of nuclear research and nuclear engineering have been arranged according to the INIS subject scope. The reports are available on a loan basis from ZfK Rossendorf, Information Department, Dresden

  17. Title list of selected Soviet reports in the fields of nuclear research and nuclear engineering. 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumann, G.; Sube, R.

    1979-07-01

    158 titles of reports issued by Soviet institutes (KFTI, EFI, IAE, IFVE, ITEF, NIIAR, NIIEFA, FEI, RI, SFTI) in the fields of nuclear research and nuclear engineering have been arranged according to the INIS subject scope. The reports are available on a loan basis from ZfK Rossendorf, Information Department, Dresden

  18. Title list of selected Soviet reports in the fields of nuclear research and nuclear engineering. 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumann, G.; Sube, R.

    1979-03-01

    135 titles of reports issued by Soviet institutes (KFTI, EFI, IAE, IFVE, ITEF, NIIAR, NIIEFA, FEI, RI, SFTI) in the fields of nuclear research and nuclear engineering have been arranged according to the INIS subject scope. The reports are available on a loan basis from ZfK Rossendorf, Information Department, Dresden

  19. Title list of selected Soviet reports in the fields of nuclear research and nuclear engineering. 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumann, G.; Sube, R.

    1979-03-01

    133 titles of reports issued by Soviet institutes (KFTI, EFI, IAE, IFVE, ITEF, NIIAR, NIIEFA, FEI, RI, SFTI) in the fields of nuclear research and nuclear engineering have been arranged according to the INIS subject scope. The reports are available on a loan basis from ZfK Rossendorf, Information Department, Dresden

  20. Title list of selected Soviet reports in the fields of nuclear research and nuclear engineering. 12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumann, G.; Sube, R.

    1979-12-01

    136 titles of reports issued by Soviet institutes (KFTI, EFI, IAE, IFVE, ITEF, NIIAR, NIIEFA, FEI, RI, SFTI) in the fields of nuclear research and nuclear engineering have been arranged according to the INIS subject scope. The reports are available on a loan basis from ZfK Rossendorf, Information Department, Dresden