WorldWideScience

Sample records for soviet military intervention

  1. Redefined Soviet military doctrine in perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menning, B.W.

    1992-01-01

    On May 29, 1987, the Warsaw Pact's Political Consultative Committee issued a communique proclaiming that the military doctrine of the Warsaw Pact member states is strictly defensive and proceeds from the fact that the application of military means to resolve any dispute is inadmissible under current conditions. Following this declaration, a corresponding redefinition of Soviet military doctrine to emphasize defensiveness and war prevention has evoke lively commentary and debate in both the West and the East. Because doctrinal issues are likely to retain significance during arms control and security negotiations. The purpose of this paper is to highlight important trends associated with a continuing dialogue over Soviet military doctrine and to assess what the future portends as doctrinal discussions unfold. Since 1987 the accelerating pace of change has accentuated the importance of doctrinally related concerns. As a result of the INF Treaty and the Stockholm agreement, there has been greater transparency regarding Soviet and Warsaw Pact military developments. On December 7, 1988, General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev announced unilateral troop reduction over the next two years, which, when completed, would reduce the offensive capabilities of Soviet forces in Eastern Europe. In March 1989 talks on Confidence- and Security-Building Measures (CSBM) opened in Vienna, with suggestions for exchanges of views on military policy. At the very same time, NATO and the Warsaw Pact began formal negotiations on reduction of Conventional Forces in Europe (CFE) with a specific mandate to reduce those asymmetries that most favored prosecution of deep operations

  2. Glasnost and Secrecy in the Soviet Military

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-21

    the most vicious and xenophobic brand of Russian chauvinism, complete with witch-hunts and spymania. Secrecy was also important for enhancing the...the Soviet Armed Forces, a significant factor tor a military establishment historically used to ’ie position of the underdog because of the Soviet

  3. Soviet Union, Military Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-06-05

    supremacy in the world. Like the foreign policies of the USSR and the USA , their military doctrines reveal the objectives they pursue: the Soviet... Gastronom or a Detskiy Mir. In- stallation of the equipment was delayed a long time as a result. The district finance service therefore did not consider

  4. Muzzling the Bear: Gorbachev’s Program to Restructure the Soviet Military

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-04-01

    quantity to quality- in a continuing program of military accumulation.4 4 Steven Adragna argues thalt Soviet military doctrine can not evolve until it...aggressive nature and intent of capitalist society. Adragna maintains that so far there has been no serious effort to discredit the historical theorem that...any military action the Soviet Union takes is defensive in nature by definition and is therefore justified. Further, Adragna claims that the Kremlin’s

  5. Bibliographic Index of Soviet Military Books, 1970-1974.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-31

    34 Each is preceded by a numerical designation, used in Soviet bibliographies, which corresponds in many ways to the Dewey Decimal System used in the...74-06882 (C0087) Mal’kov,V.I. Character and System of Laws of War and Armed * . Conflict, Principles of Military Art.(Kharakter i Sistema Zakonov...C0561) Stukalov,P.I., Shchetnini,V.F. System of Political Organi- zation of Socialist Society, the Plaice and Role in it of the Armed For- ces.( Sistema

  6. The conversion of military science and technology: Former Soviet Union case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martellini, M.

    1998-01-01

    The end of the Cold War which has brought deep changes in the very concept of defence, requires fundamental changes in the defence strategies of all nations, the new international situation is encouraging the conversion of the military sector for the benefit of the civilian economy. This process involves many companies that have previously worked mostly or exclusively on the basis of military orders. In particular, from the nuclear non-proliferation point of view and environmental safety standpoint, some urgent problems arise: civilian management of military nuclear technologies, management and storage of weapon-grade materials, namely plutonium and highly enriched uranium from dismantled nuclear warheads, cleaning and reusing large areas which have been taken up for the production of weapon-grade plutonium and uranium enrichment (in Soviet Union so called 'atomic sites'), retraining scientific personnel and engineers in the nuclear military industry

  7. Transformation in Russian and Soviet Military History: Proceedings of the Military History Symposium (12th) Held in Washington, D.C. on 1-3 October 1986

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    SESSION IV: CO,"AMENTARY 314 former Defense Secretary McNamara’s Pentagon "whiz kids ." There is a lot of talk in the Soviet Union today about...Philosophical Heritage of V. 1. Lenin and Problems of Contemporary War Concept, Algorithm, Decision Military Pedagogy Military Psychology Dictionary...Tactics, 1966. Military Pedagogy , 1966. M I Kalinin: On Communist Education and Military Duty, 1967. Military Psychology, 1968. Officer’s Guide for

  8. Soviet New Thinking: Perspectives and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-29

    and leading military theorist, as quoted in Steven P. Adragna , "A New Soviet Military? Doctrine and Strategy", Orbis, Spring, 1989, p. 166. 22... Adragna , pp. 166-68. 22. Soviet Battlefield Development Plan. Vol I: Soviet General Doctrine for War, p.1-8. 24. Goure, pp. 36-37. 25. William E. Odom

  9. The politics of Soviet strategic defense: Political strategies, organization politics, and Soviet strategic thought. (Volumes I and II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufman, S.J.

    1991-01-01

    This study formulates three different unitary rational-actor models and an organizational model that can be used to explain Soviet policy in strategic defense from 1966-1980, then tests the models to determine which most successfully explains Soviet behavior. The only rational-actor model that can explain the Soviet force posture for air defense relies on demonstrably false assumptions. A well-formulated organizational model can explain these facts, as well as some organizational pathologies shown by the Soviet National Air Defense Forces. The findings suggest that military services, even when ostensibly closely directed by civilian and military superiors, often manage to pursue their own interests rather than the requirements of higher policy. Soviet civilian leaders generally had limited control over the formulation of military doctrine or over the force posture of Soviet military services, but arms control (especially the ABM Treaty) offered a policy handle which helped them to affect doctrine and force posture to a substantial degree

  10. New Soviet concepts in military doctrine, strategy, and arms control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holloway, D.

    1989-01-01

    Gorbachev offered a new Soviet view of nuclear war, and national security. The core of the new thinking is as follows: human interests take precedence over the interests of any particular class; the world is becoming increasingly interdependent; there can be no victors in a nuclear war; security has to be based increasingly on political, rather than military, instruments; and security has to be mutual. This paper discusses what brought this new thinking about and how this thinking might impact policy decisions

  11. Atlas of the Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Harry F.

    This atlas consists of 20 maps, tables, charts, and graphs with complementary text illustrating Soviet government machinery, trade and political relations, and military stance. Some topics depicted by charts and graphs include: (1) Soviet foreign affairs machinery; (2) Soviet intelligence and security services; (4) Soviet position in the United…

  12. Analysis of the Soviet Military-Utopian Films of the Second Half of the 1930-es at the Media Studies in Students’ Audience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander V. Fedorov

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The main media educational outcome of hermeneutical analysis of Soviet military-utopian films of the second half of the 1930-es at the media studies in students’ audience is not only the students’ understanding of historical, political, social and cultural context and the mechanisms of formation of stereotypical representations of Soviet propaganda, the "military-offensive" films of this era, but also the development of the audience's perception of media, skills of analysis and interpretation of media texts, the development of critical thinking.

  13. Syria’s Military Capabilities and Options for Military Intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pradhan-Blach, Flemming

    2012-01-01

    This background paper does not endorse any military action towards Syria. The document does not reflect or express any official Danish policy or a position of the University of Copenhagen or the Centre for Military Studies. The purpose of this paper is to briefly describe military capabilities...... and options in order to provide a factual background for the ongoing discussion on possible military intervention in the Syrian conflict and Denmark’s possible participation in such an intervention. The paper is primarily based on the Military Balance published by the International Institute for Strategic...

  14. Female Employment in Military Industrial Complex Enterprises of Post-Soviet Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oxana A. Demchenkova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Reforms in Russian industry caused by disintegration of the USSR had a strong negative effect on military-industrial complex. Pre-reform Russian economy possessed a powerful efficient system of high-tech industries with defense industry being a core of the system in view of the government tasks which defense industry should effectively respond to. The defense industry accumulated elite of the labor force, highly skilled and educated workers. Socioeconomic and political transformation in Russian society resulted in significant qualitative and quantitative changes in human capital of military-industrial complex. The number of employees was cut down. Highly skilled workers turned out to be unemployed. In tough competition for working places caused by contraction of industrial production women turned out to be in the most vulnerable position. In this article results of the survey and documents analysis conducted by the author are looked at with gender perspective. The aim is to identify the basic trends in female employment in military-industrial complex of post-Soviet Russia. Job security, level of wages and managerial career chances for women are considered.

  15. Risk and Soviet Security Decisions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hull, Andrew

    1990-01-01

    .... There are several exceptions to general Soviet risk aversion in using military power. But in each instance, the Soviet Union has fared rather badly when it chanced large risks in pursuit of correspondingly high potential gains...

  16. Soviet debate on missile defense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parrott, B.

    1987-04-01

    Although the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) is meant to cope with the danger of a Soviet nuclear attack, the recent US debate over SDI has paid surprisingly little attention to Soviet views of ballistic missile defense. Despite the existence of a substantial body of pertinent scholarship, the debate has failed to take adequate account of major changes in Soviet ballistic missile defense policy since the mid-1960s. It has also neglected the links between current Soviet military policy and broader Soviet political and economic choices. The Soviets regard SDI not as a novel undertaking to reduce the risks of nuclear war but as an extension of the geopolitical competition between the superpowers. This competition has been dominated in the 1980s, in the Soviet view, by sharply increased US assertiveness and the decline of detente. Viewing SDI as a manifestation of these general trends, Soviet decision makers find the prospect of an unregulated race in ballistic missile defenses and military space technologies deeply unsettling. The deterioration of superpower relations has raised serious doubts in Moscow about the wisdom of Soviet external policy during the 1970s and has provoked sharp internal differences over policy toward the US. Already highly suspicious of the Reagan administration, the elite is united by a general conviction that SDI is an American gambit that may ultimately undercut past Soviet strategic gains and pose a grave new threat to Soviet security. 14 references.

  17. Soviet Nuclear Strategy form Stalin to Gorbachev

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catudal, H.M.

    1989-01-01

    This book examines the nature of the Soviet nuclear threat and how it has evolved over the years. Too often in the past U.S. officials, in shaping and directing plans for American nuclear forces, have tended to see Soviet military forces and strategy as a reflection of their own stance or simply as projecting the worst plausible case of Soviet intentions and capabilities. The result has been a distorted if not dangerous portrayal of the real threat. Soviet nuclear strategy, as explained in this detailed book, has evolved significantly since the days when the Soviets first possessed nuclear weapons under Joseph Stalin. Today there is in development a new Soviet military and strategic doctrine reflected in Gorbachev's words, We require a radical break with traditions of political thinking. This new doctrine promises to have a profound impact on European security and the overall East-West relationship

  18. Soviet Theater Nuclear Forces’ Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-01

    survivability) of those staffs. 18 Receit Soviet accounts of the "revolution in military affairs" stress the growing operational role of the General Staff...e.g., 29 economic) means and (ii) the West is preparing to take military advantage of its growing relative strength. The other factor is China. It seems...simple model of Soviet theater nuclear doctrine, might as well go hunting unicorns . He will not find it because, in any meaningful sense, it does not

  19. U.S. and Soviet Agriculture: The Shifting Balance of Power. Worldwatch Paper 51.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Lester R.

    Analysts of U.S.-Soviet balance of power usually focus on relative military strength. But other factors determine a country's overall power and influence. Among the most basic is a country's capacity to feed its people. By this measure the Soviet Union appears to be in deep trouble. Massive spending has increased Soviet military strength in recent…

  20. Soviet Military Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    some 27,000 meters of bridging equipment, 13 1 ."¾. million metric tons of arms and ammunition, "J -- and 60 million metric tons of petrol (fuel...rhis ammuitnition. lDuring aI warn sýuppjlis fromn stratev!1( s4tuck- a1lomg with ove-(r 9 m-illion metric tons o )f petrol 10 ~iilt- In thi. Stlviit...been a target for new Soviet overtures Deputy Foreign Minister Vladimir Petrovskiy through political influence operations and ex- went to Tunisia , Iraq

  1. Soviet energy: current problems and future options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, J B

    1981-12-01

    The connection between Soviet oil and energy resources, their efficient and timely utilization, and politico-military opportunities in the Persian Gulf region offer an inescapable link for analysis. Worsening trends in economic growth, factor productivity, social unrest, and energy production/distribution offset optimistic trends in Soviet military procurement and deployment. A conjunction of geologic, geographic, and systemic factors all point to a mid-1980s energy imbalance which in turn will pose hard questions for the Moscow leadership. 28 references.

  2. The United States, the Soviet Union/Russia and the strategic and military balance of power between 1989 and 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Fábio Bertonha

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The international system has changed dramatically after the fall of the Berlin Wall and the collapse of the USSR. These changes include economic, social and political aspects, as well as the strategic and military ones. This article discusses the changes in the world balance of power, regarding military and strategic aspects, in the period of almost thirty years after the fall of the Berlin Wall. The cases of the United States and the Soviet Union/Russian Federation will be specially addressed.

  3. Agitation and Propagandistic Work in Soviet POW Camps

    OpenAIRE

    Gulzhaukhar K. Kokebayeva

    2014-01-01

    The paper studies the problem of agitation work done among POWs in Soviet camps, the creation of military units and political organizations from POWs. Not only armed force was used during the Second World War, but also the power of words. The battles were accompanied by the information warfare. Opponents tried to use all possible means to manipulate people’s minds. Main directions of agitation and propaganda were defined by the «Soviet bureau of military and political propaganda», as well as ...

  4. Soviet science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medvedev, Z.A.

    1979-01-01

    In this brief history of science in the Soviet Union the emphasis is on the interaction between scientific and technological developments and the political objectives of the Soviet government Reference is made to the development of nuclear energy for military and for peaceful purposes. In an appendix, a rather detailed account is given of a 'nuclear disaster in the South Urals area'; reference is made to ecological, genetic and population researches in the areas contaminated by long-lived products of radioactive waste (e.g. Sr-90 and Cs-137). Section headings are: lakes; mammals; population genetics and radiation genetics (covering plants, animals and soil activity). (U.K.)

  5. Managing Uncertainity: Soviet Views on Deception, Surprise, and Control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hull, Andrew

    1989-01-01

    .... In the first two cases (deception and surprise), the emphasis is on how the Soviets seek to sow uncertainty in the minds of the enemy and how the Soviets then plan to use that uncertainty to gain military advantage...

  6. Humanitarian action and military intervention: temptations and possibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissman, Fabrice

    2004-06-01

    Although the war in Liberia in July 2003 claimed hundreds of lives, the international community was reluctant to intervene. In this article, the author debates the question: does international military intervention equal protection of populations? The role of humanitarian organisations in military intervention is considered. Aid organisations cannot call for deployment of a protection force without renouncing their autonomy or appealing to references outside their own practices. Such organisations provide victims with vital assistance and contribute to ensuring that their fate becomes a stake in political debate by exposing the violence that engulfs them, without substituting their own voices for those of the victims. The political content of humanitarian action is also outlined and military intervention in the context of genocide is discussed. The author concludes that the latter is one of the rare situations in which humanitarian actors can consider calling for an armed intervention without renouncing their own logic.

  7. Agitation and Propagandistic Work in Soviet POW Camps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulzhaukhar K. Kokebayeva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies the problem of agitation work done among POWs in Soviet camps, the creation of military units and political organizations from POWs. Not only armed force was used during the Second World War, but also the power of words. The battles were accompanied by the information warfare. Opponents tried to use all possible means to manipulate people’s minds. Main directions of agitation and propaganda were defined by the «Soviet bureau of military and political propaganda», as well as the 7th Division of Soviet army. In the propaganda work among German POWs, the priority was given on shaping the ideological and political views of former soldiers and officers of the Wehrmacht. As the result of the analysis of sources the author comes to conclusion that POWs of the Second World War period became the object of testing means and methods of ideological struggle of warring nations.

  8. The language of the Soviet political propaganda in conditions of escalation of politico military opposition in western Ukraine at the initial of the World War II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dokash Oksana Yuriievna

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The discourse of Soviet political propaganda is analyzed in conditions of the beginning of the WWII and entering of the Red Army into Western Ukraine on September 17, 1939. The article gives characteristic of propagandistic and manipulative mechanisms of escalation of military and political struggle as well as theirs influence upon mass consciousness of population of the region as objects of realization of Stalin’s totalitarian regime. The submission of information flows to ideological-propagandistic objectives of the Stalinist totalitarian regime, including the use of special “Soviet language” is indicated.

  9. Nonpharmaceutical Interventions for Military Populations During Pandemic Influenza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selim Kilic

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Influenza causes substantial illness and loss of work days among young adults, and outbreaks can affect the preparedness of military units. In an influenza pandemic, people who live in confined settings have greater risk of infection. Military trainees are at particularly high risk. Because of likely unavailability of vaccines and antiviral drugs at the start of a pandemic and for many months thereafter, nonpharmaceutical interventions may be very important. During a pandemic, it seems prudent that military public health officials employ at least several nonpharmaceutical interventions. For example frequent handwashing and respiratory hygiene/cough etiquette should be strongly encouraged among soldiers. Head-to-toe sleeping, a “no-cost” intervention should be for crowded berthing areas. Isolation of patients with influenza and quarantine of their close contacts should be employed. Masks and alcohol-based hand rubs may be employed among those at highest risk. Finally, whenever possible military planners should, reduce crowding and limit the interaction of training cohorts to reduce risk of influenza virus transmission. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(4: 285-290

  10. REVOLUTION IN MILITARY SCIENCE, ITS IMPORTANCE AND CONSEQUENCES, MILITARY ART ON A NEW STAGE,

    Science.gov (United States)

    The central problem of modern military art is defined as the development of new methods of conducting armed conflict. The changes involving the radical military technical re-equipping of Soviet Armed Forces, are described.

  11. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Military Affairs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1988-01-01

    Partial Contents: Military Political Issues, Military Science, Warsaw Pact, Armed Forces, Air Forces, Air Defense Forces, Naval Forces, Strategic Rocket Forces, Civil Defense, Rear Services, Defense Industries, DOSAAF...

  12. Loose Soviet nukes: A mountain or a molehill?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, D.C.

    1991-01-01

    For almost four decades, US national security alarmists have tossed and turned in the night fretting about the atomic plots that might be hatching behind the Kremlin's impenetrable walls. A secretly deployed antimissile shield? An unanswerable first strike? When Cold War fevers were spiking, no Soviet action was too dire to ponder. Now that the Cold War has been declared over and won, ironically, the focus of US concern has shifted to a new danger that has nothing to do with deliberate Soviet schemes. Rather, as Secretary of Defense Dick Cheney suggested in February 7 remarks to the House Armed Services Committee, the collapse of central authority in the Soviet Union means that the greatest threat to the neighbors of the Soviet Union in the future may well come more from the Soviet inability to control events inside the Soviet Union than it will from any conscious policy of seeking to expand their influence by military means

  13. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Military History Journal, No. 11, November 1987

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1988-01-01

    .... The articles are By the Course Indicated by Lenin, Outstanding Victory of Soviet Army, Strategic Soviet Troop Regroupings in Preparation of 1942-1943 Winter Campaign, Combat of 87th Rifle Division...

  14. A large industrial pollution problem on the Kyrgyzstan - Uzbekistan border: Soviet production of mercury and stibium for the Soviet military

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadjamberdiev, I.; Tukhvatshin, R.

    2009-01-01

    Soviet industry of mercury and stibium was located in South-East Fergana in Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan boarder. Khaidarken combine produced high pure mercury (99.9997 percent) since 1940, it was the second source in the World (after Almadena, Spain). Maximal production was 790 t in 1990, after Transitional Shock about 300 tons a year. Tail was established in 1967. There is special tube 5500 m transporting pulp to tail. The pulp contains about 0,003 mg/liter mercury, 0,005 mg/liter arsenic, 21 mg/liter stibium, etc. Pulp is cleaned by aluminum sulfuric and mortar. After drying and compressing by itself the concentrations rises: mercury 90-250 mg/kg, arsenic 190-400, stibium 800-1700 mg/kg. Environment pollution problem contains three kinds: ground water infiltration; old tube corroding some places (leaking from chink of tube) - both mentioned lead to vegetables cumulating; combine work spreading mercury by air to settlement Khaidarken. Kadamjay enterprise for stibium (mines, combine, purify plant, tails) began work in 1936. Most part of production used in soviet military. Maximal production was 17.000 t clearing ore in 1990, after USSR collapse 1-6 t/year. Tremendous tails and dams (total 150 mln t) remains non re-cultivated until now. The tails contain electrolysis wastage: sodium-sulfides, sulfites, sulfates; stibium; arsenic; cadmium; stibium; etc. Seven deposits (tail-damp really) established 1976, total square 76.1 thousands sq m, total volume 250 thousand cub m. The deposits over-filled, contents filtrating - little saline or lakes generated (one situated 50m near Uzbekistan boarder). River Shakhimardan flow to Uzbekistan (settlement Vuadil, Ferghana town). There are health damage indices in the areas.(author)

  15. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Military Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-07

    Meetings of students and veterans, militarized physical culture celebrations , department and school activities which develop a sense of patriotism, formal...they capable of making military affairs interesting to a young men in Adidas jackets with dyed- hackle hairdos, of getting them to love military

  16. We Have Not Learned How to Wage War There: The Soviet Approach in Afghanistan 1979-1989 (Occasional Paper, Number 36)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Interestingly, Soviet political leaders did not think Afghanistan was prepared for a collectivist type of government and endeavored to steer the PDPA away...military, the Army had always operated with considerable autonomy .”52 Soviet military advisers and civilian technicians were also often thrown into the

  17. The Finnish Campaigns: Failure of Soviet Operational Art in World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-02

    believed that warfare could not be forecasted and the need to accept bourgeoisie experiences.8 Key Military Theorists This debate would certainly... bourgeoisie influence in military affairs was sharply debated after the revolution. This left many Soviet senior officers vulnerable to attack by

  18. The Role of Women in the Soviet Armed Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-04-15

    she would stereotype Soviet women, she stated: " Overworked , unhappy with their lives-- standing in lines, taking care of the kids, alcoholism among men...Greece, The Netherlands, Turkey, Israel and Japan . There was no mention of the Soviet Union. Based upon a January 1991 query to the Women’s Research and...1986-1990 due to accidents, suicide and hazing. The group asked the military prosecutor to investigate the abuses within the armed forces, especially

  19. Commissariats of Military Industry during the Great Patriotic War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Il’In

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Strengthening national defense by building up military and economic potential was the most important vital task of the Soviet Union during the whole period of its existence. The price of enormous effort of labor, research and design teams, huge material and financial costs in the course of the prewar five-year plans in the Soviet Union was paid and incurred to create the military-industrial complex (MIC - sector of social production, designed to provide security for the state in armed struggle. The core of the DIC were four industry: Commissariat of Aviation Industry (NCAP, the People’s Commissariat of ammunition (NBC weapons Commissariat (IEC and the People's Commissariat of the shipbuilding industry (NCSP, formed in accordance with the Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet on January 11, 1939 by separation of the People's Commissariat of Defense Industry of the USSR. They became a separate group of central government, designed to provide measures for the implementation of strategic decisions of the military and political leadership of the country. Objective assessment of commissariats effectiveness were the results of their operations in wartime. From this point of view it is necessary to ascertain performance of its mission - to supply front with modern means of warfare. Largely due to this fact, the Soviet Union won in serious confrontation with the military-industrial complex military industry of Nazi Germany and its satellites. On the basis of archival documents and testimony of contemporaries the article shows the contribution of the defense industry in the Soviet Union's victory in the Great Patriotic War.

  20. Britain's exploitation of Occupied Germany for scientific and technical intelligence on the Soviet Union

    OpenAIRE

    Maddrell, John Paul

    1999-01-01

    At the beginning of the Cold War, the gathering of intelligence on the Soviet Union's current and future military capability seemed a near-impossibility. Soviet high-level communications were secure against decryption. Agent networks in the USSR were very difficult to establish and of uncertain reliability. Aerial reconnaissance of warrelated targets in the Soviet Union was risky and could only be occasional. But valuable intelligence was gathered in the years 1945-55 on the US...

  1. French Military Intervention in Mali: Inevitable, Consensual yet Insufficient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaline Bergamaschi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This practice note offers an account of France’s military intervention in Mali launched on 11 January 2013. Firstly, it provides an analysis of the events that led up to the dual crisis in the country’s northern and southern regions and to a new wave of armed conflict between government and rebel forces. Then, it is argued that although the French military intervention was framed as inevitable and based on a broad consensus, it will nevertheless be insufficient to address the root sociopolitical causes of Mali´s multidimensional crisis.

  2. Contamination of the Northern Oceans from Releases of Radioactivity from the Former Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, Leo S.

    1999-01-01

    During the Cold War the handling of Soviet military nuclear wastes was a classified topic--kept secret to hide the status and readiness of Soviet military forces. Following the end of the Cold War information about the handling of nuclear wastes by agencies of the Former Soviet Union (FSU) became available. The US Government response to the disclosure of disposal of radioactive wastes into the Arctic Ocean and into rivers that drain into the Arctic Ocean was the finding of the Arctic Nuclear Waste Assessment Program (ANWAP) in the Office of Naval Research (ONR). Projects were aided by ANWAP to study the behavior, transport, and fate of radionuclides in the Arctic Ocean. One of the research teams, the Risk Assessment Integration Group (RAIG) assessed the potential risks to humans and to the environment, particularly in the US Alaskan Arctic

  3. Historical Roots of Contemporary Debates on Soviet Military Doctrine and Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    28 - institutchikis’ "new thinking" about war. According to one prolific Soviet researcher, Alexander Savelyev , war aims are now being redefined and...limits. Indeed, it may well 5 Discussions with Alexander Savelyev at the Institute of World Economy and International Relations (IMEMO), Moscow, January...examines the themes of and historical context for the writings of Soviet strategists of the 1920s, such as Alexander Svechin and Leon Trotsky, who

  4. Sleep and Military Members: Emerging Issues and Nonpharmacological Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cary A. Brown

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Many individuals who work in the military experience sleep deficiency which presents a significant problem given the nature of their work. The cause of their sleep problems is likely multifactorial, stemming from the interplay between their personal health, habits and lifestyle juxtaposed with the stress of their military work such as emotional and physical trauma experienced in service. Objective. To present an overview of sleep deficiency in military members (MMs and review of nonpharmacological treatment options. Discussion. Although there are a number of promising nonpharmacological treatment options available for people working in the military who experience problems sleeping, testing interventions within the context of the military are still in the early stages. Further research utilizing rigorous design and standardized, context appropriate outcome measures is needed to help treat this burgeoning problem.

  5. Aldis, Anne C. and Roger N. McDermott, eds., Russian Military Reform, 1992-2002. Portland, OR: Frank Cass, 2003.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Erickson

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available In this edited volume, the fourth book in the Cass Series on Soviet (Russian Military Institutions, the authors analyze the security threats the first two post-Soviet administrations and military apparatus have had to contend with. The period covered by this volume is one of the most tumultuous which has confronted the Russian military. The array of new threats, resource limitations, the ambiguity of civil-military relations, and the interaction between the military, law enforcement, and int...

  6. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Military Affairs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1988-01-01

    Partial Contents: Military Political Issues, Warsaw Pact, Armed Forces, Ground Forces, Air Force, Air Defense Forces, Naval Forces, Strategic Rocket Forces, Civil Defense , Rear Services, Defense Industries, DOSAAF...

  7. Limited attacks on the United States and the Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levi, B.; Hippel, F. von.

    1987-01-01

    This report is focused on calculations carried out at Princeton University of the consequences of so-called ''limited'' nuclear attacks by the USA and the USSR on one another - primarily because such scenarios seem to be motivating the acquisition of new nuclear weapons. The conclusions were: The use of only a fraction of the destructive capacity in USA and Soviet nuclear arsenals could have catastrophic consequences to human kind. Although the primary justification of the tens of thousands of nuclear warheads in USA and Soviet arsenals is their potential use against military targets, the most commonly discussed potential large-scale military uses of these weapons - in attacks against the nuclear weapons of the other side - would result in tens of millions of civilian casualties. Certainly, if a first strike resulted in such a huge civilian toll, there could be little assurance of restraint in the response of the country that was attacked. The use of even 1% of the strategic arsenals of the USSR or the USA against the population, military industry or strategic-nuclear targets of the other nation could result in tens of millions of casualties. 17 refs, 6 figs, 5 tabs

  8. Nonlinear dynamics research in the former Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenney, B.L.; Krafsig, J.; Moon, F.C.; Shlesinger, M.F.

    1992-08-01

    This assessment of nonlinear dynamics research in the former Soviet Union was performed by seven US scientists and engineers active in the fields examined. The topics covered include: solid-state systems and circuits, information theory and signal analysis, chaos in mechanical systems, turbulence and vortex dynamics, ocean processes, image processing, and lasers and nonlinear optics. The field of nonlinear dynamics and chaos blossomed in academic settings in both the West and the former Soviet Union during the 1980s. The field went from mathematical abstraction to interesting engineering application areas. Several generalizations can be drawn from the review of Soviet work: Soviet work generally began earlier than Western work, and, in areas that do not require extensive computational resources, that work has kept up with, and often leads, the West. This is especially true in the mathematical analysis of nonlinear phenomena. Soviet researchers have shown an ability to combine numerical or analytic ideas with laboratory experimentation in a smoother, less erratic fashion than Western researchers. Furthermore, contrary to Western practice, the same researchers often do both theoretical and experimental work. In areas that require numerical verification of ideas in the field, the Western work is leading that of the former Soviet Union. This is especially true in the areas of signal processing, simulations of turbulence, and communications. No evidence was found of any significant penetration of ideas of nonlinear dynamics into technological applications of a military or commercial area in the former Soviet Union. Opportunities abound, but specific applications are not apparent

  9. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Military Affairs, Personnel Report: USSR Ministry of Defense, January 1989

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1989-01-01

    This volume lists names, ranks and assignments of Soviet commanders serving in the USSR Ministry of Defense and in some related agencies, compiled from various, open Soviet sources through January of 1989...

  10. Support to Military or Humanitarian Counterterrorism Interventions: The Effect of Interpersonal and Intergroup Attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Passini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, new interest in terrorism and psychological factors related to supporting the war on terrorism has been growing in the field of psychology. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of various socio-political attitudes on the level of agreement with military and humanitarian counterterrorism interventions. 270 Italian participants responded to a news article concerning measures against terrorism. Half of the participants read an article regarding a military intervention while the other half read about a humanitarian intervention. They then evaluated the other type of intervention. Results showed that military intervention was supported by people with high authoritarian, dominant, ethnocentric attitudes and by people who attach importance to both positive and negative reciprocity norms. Instead, none of these variables was correlated with humanitarian intervention. Finally, there was a considerable influence of media on the acceptance of both interventions.

  11. Soviet Advisors Group in South China and Soviet Union Financing of Gomindan War Planes in 1924

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Александр Геннадьевич Юркевич

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The article dwells on the organization and activities of the Soviet advisors group, which assisted to the South China government of Sun Yatsen, its participation in financing Kuomintang political and military projects. The author pointed out that the main aim of the advisors group efforts was to form new Kuomintang power institutions and to bring its policy and army under control, for all that the tactics of implementation of strategy aim were constantly changing.

  12. USSR Local War Doctrine as Rationale for the Development of the Soviet CTOL Aircraft Carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-06-01

    Soviet Union. [Ref. 11: p. 252] The peacetime Red naval mission is not entirely one of blissful exchanges of pleasantries. Its utility during distant...expended toward gift presentation and the exchange of pleasantries. Such visits were designed as feelers to divine Russian acceptance by the developing...How- * ever, the presence of military forces displaying the capa- * bilities to intervene may have affected the perceptions of * Soviet clinets

  13. Military Intervention, Kemalism, and Politics in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-05-01

    to inadequate or misdirected actions by the military during their tenure following the interventions. Despite the checkered history of democratic... ikeas .). AtaturK: Founder or a Modern State. London: C. Hurst.19. Hianeo. Anarew. "Turkey’s Ten Year Itch" in Tne wor!6 Today, 4oi 45 N’o. F. eb 1969

  14. A Soviet view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tikhonov, S.Y.

    1992-01-01

    During the past several years, the international situation has changed greatly. Efforts to maintain strategic stability have replaced the desire for strategic superiority. Equally important, new thinking in the Soviet Union has greatly accelerated the political warming between the superpowers. As a result of thee developments, the Soviet Union and the United States have come to the conclusion that a nuclear war cannot be won and should never be fought. These events have drastically reduced the probability of the deliberate use of nuclear or conventional weapons. However, the risk of a military crisis and its consequences still exist. Indeed, the risk of a nuclear exchange is still possible. What has changed, however, is that in the current international climate, a crisis or war may result unintentionally because of misperceptions, misunderstanding, accident, or technical fault. While the probability of this is admittedly small, it remains far greater than that of deliberate conflict. The purpose of this chapter, therefore, is twofold. First, it identifies potential sources of unintended crises and conflicts and recommends appropriate confidence-building measures. Second, it addresses CBMs and their potential roles in nuclear crisis de-escalation

  15. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Military Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-08

    the secret hope of finding a companion for life among the military. Which is also understandable, in human terms. Now—who goes? No clear selection...Moussorgsky, Mozart and Scriabin, Chopin and Mendelssohn, Tolstoy and Shakespeare . Everything new in science, technology and art interested him. He

  16. Scientific and technical training in the Soviet Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spearman, M. L.

    1984-01-01

    The Soviet Union recognizes that the foundation of their system depends upon complete dedication of the people to the state through thorough psychological training as well as through military training, and through specialized education in the broad fields of engineering, natural sciences, life sciences, social sciences, and education. An outline of the U.S.S.R. educational system indicates the extent of academic training, coupled with on-the-job and military training, that can produce a highly skilled, dedicated, and matured person. Observations on the coupling of political, economic, and psychological training along with the technical training are made, along with some mention of positive and negative aspects of the training.

  17. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Military Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-05-17

    arms) between the USSR and the United States. To me, it appears as unthinkable as a skirmish between an ele- phant and a whale . However, our military...have described them as racketeers, drug addicts , and have represented them as people who will potentially commit suicide. In fact it has always

  18. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Military Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-06-03

    Sciences History of the USSR Institute: When studying historical experience we often restrict ourselves to military-technical matters, letting slip...well then he, his sons or his pupils bring egoism with them into the army. That is the dialectic. If he does not set an example of mutual help for

  19. The Political Control of the Soviet Armed Forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-05

    training aids. 9In sum, the MPA is 6 responsible for providing coordination and standardization for the political socialization in the Soviet military...compelling nationalist loyalties and to instill approved Socialist values in soldiers of the non- lavic minorities. Along with this political ... socialization the political officer will 21 conduct language classes for those minorities with low levels of Russian fluency. In summary, the large number of

  20. The Analysis of Soviet Military Manpower

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-12-01

    Below physi- cians came writers and artists at 5.2, university teachers at 4.5, professional military at 4.3, and social scientists in philosophy at...Physical training period for an average unit like bata- lion covers 12 hours a month which includes 6 hours of gymnastics and 6 hours of obstacle

  1. Evaluation of a Multimedia Intervention for Children and Families Facing Multiple Military Deployments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flittner O'Grady, Allison; Thomaseo Burton, E; Chawla, Neelu; Topp, David; MacDermid Wadsworth, Shelley

    2016-02-01

    Repeated military deployments have been a common experience for many military families in the past 15 years. While there has been an increase in research and intervention focused on the effects on families of military deployments, much of this work has not focused specifically on the particular needs of young children. Talk, Listen, Connect: Multiple Deployments (TLC-II MD), a multimedia kit designed for home use, is among the first interventions directed toward young children. Created by Sesame Workshop and using popular Sesame Street characters, TLC-II MD was designed to support and equip families with young children with skills to address challenges associated with multiple deployments. This study utilized a randomized experimental design to evaluate the impact of TLC-II MD relative to a control condition using a Sesame Workshop multimedia kit not tailored to military families. Parents in both groups reported that children enjoyed the video overall and watched it repeatedly. Also in both groups, caregivers' depressive symptoms and children's aggressive behaviors declined significantly over time. Caregivers in the test group reported significantly larger increases in comfort discussing the deployment with their child and stronger perceptions that the DVD helped children to cope. Thus, the resilience-oriented materials were helpful to both groups, but those tailored to military families were significantly more likely to be perceived as helpful. Findings offer evidence regarding the ability of multimedia self-administered interventions to assist military families.

  2. ROLE OF JOINT VENTURE “SOVHISPAN” IN NORMALIZATION OF THE SOVIET-SPANISH BILATERAL RELATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Марина Николаевна Мосейкина

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The object of this research is to support the statement about the prevalence of the economic interest over the political ones, taking as an example the reestablishment of the Soviet-Spanish bilateral relations. The historical context of the creation of the Soviet-Spanish joint venture “Sovhispan”is highlighted as the final outcome of the secret negotiations and previous business practices between Spain and the Soviet Union in the late 1960s. The Soviet-Spanish economic relations started ten years before their normalization in 1977, the Canary Islandsbeing one of the places of their development. The principal conclusions of the research are: the geostrategic position of Spain was appreciated by the USA, via installation of the military bases on the mainland, and the USSR, using the Canary Islands as an operational base for the Soviet Fishing Fleet. “Sovrybflot”, an internal structure of the Ministry of Fisheries of the USSR, managed the overseas activity of the Soviet Fishing fleet abroad. Thus, the arrival of avast Soviet fishing fleet in the Canary Islands and the creation of the joint venture “Sovhispan” was a result of its work. “Sovhispan” was a “bridge” in the normalization of the Soviet-Spanish bilateral relations, and bankrupted with the dissolution of the USSR.

  3. The First Soviet Cosmonaut Team Their Lives, Legacy, and Historical Impact

    CERN Document Server

    Burgess, Colin

    2009-01-01

    The First Soviet Cosmonaut Team will relate who these men were and offer far more extensive background stories, in addition to those of the more familiar names of early Soviet space explorers from that group. Many previously-unpublished photographs of these “missing” candidates will also be included for the first time in this book. It will be a detailed, but highly readable and balanced account of the history, training and experiences of the first group of twenty cosmonauts of the USSR. A covert recruitment and selection process was set in motion throughout the Soviet military in August 1959, just prior to the naming of America’s Mercury astronauts. Those selected were ordered to report for training at a special camp outside of Moscow in the spring of 1960. Just a year later, Senior Lieutenant Yuri Gagarin of the Soviet Air Force (promoted in flight to the rank of major) was launched aboard a Vostok spacecraft and became the first person ever to achieve space flight and orbit the Earth.

  4. Managing military uranium and plutonium in the United States and the former Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunn, M.; Holdren, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    Effective approaches to the management of plutonium and highly enriched uranium (HEU)--the essential ingredients of nuclear weapons--are fundamental to controlling nuclear proliferation and providing the basis for deep, transparent, and irreversible reductions in nuclear weapons stockpiles. The collapse of the Soviet Union and the ongoing dismantlement of tens of thousands of nuclear weapons are creating unprecedented stresses on the systems for managing these materials, as well as unprecedented opportunities for cooperation to improve these systems. In this article, the authors summarize the technical background to this situation, and the current and prospective security challenges posed by military stockpiles of these materials in the US and Russia. They then review the programs in place to address these challenges, the progress of these programs to date, and the work remaining to be done, in five areas: (a) preventing theft and smuggling of nuclear warheads and fissile materials; (b) building a regime of monitored reductions in nuclear warhead and fissile material stockpiles; (c) ending further production of excess fissile materials; (d) reducing stockpiles of excess fissile materials; and (e) avoiding economic collapse in the nuclear cities where substantial fractions of these materials and their guardians reside. 128 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  5. RUSSIA›S COOPERATION WITH THE COUNTRIES OF POST-SOVIET EURASIA IN THE FIELD OF SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Valerievich Bespalov

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The problem of collective security remains relevant for the majority of post-Soviet Eurasia since the Soviet collapse to date.. In the article on the basis of diachronic analysis of political processes (the study of the successive in real historical time steps analyzed the formation and development of the legal framework of collective security in the post-Soviet Eurasia in relation to the real political processes in the region, the creation and development of the Treaty on Collective Security Organization, and its prospects.As a result of the military-political cooperation within the CIS has not received a significant development, Russia and its allies were forced to make a bet on the development of relations within the Treaty on Collective Security Organization.There are four areas of the Eurasian security cooperation within the Treaty on Collective Security Organization:1. Creation of a common «military umbrella» protecting the Member States of the Organization of the intrusion, including as a result of support for other-strange powers of local radical opposition. The key role played by the army and the military-industrial complex of Russia as the most powerful country in the military unit.2. The fight against international terrorism within the framework of cooperation between national security services and the Ministry of Interior.3. Prevention of large-scale intrusion of extremists from the territory of the north of Afghanistan.4. The fight against drug trafficking.Work on improving the legal framework of the Treaty on Collective Security Organization should be continued. As one of the future goals of the Organization should highlight the creation of a unified arms market, the deepening of cooperation in the development and production of weapons and other military products.

  6. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Military Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-16

    egoism . The main way of neutralizing these phenomena is to honestly assess each serviceman’s contribution to the cause of restructuring and enhancing...criticizes persons who do not live in accordance with our ethical standards. This is understandable. Shortcomings should be made public. We must not...people are making are completely in line with our ethical principles and existing housing legisla- tion. The Military Procuracy has a number of

  7. Who's bound by the former Soviet Union's arms control treaties?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhinelander, J.B.; Bunn, G.

    1991-01-01

    A crucial issue raised by the disintegration of the Soviet central government is what happens to Soviet arms control obligations. As the Soviet government transforms or collapses in the wake of the failed August coup, which of the resulting entities will be bound by the treaties the Soviet Union entered into? Under international law, the obligations of a state are not affected by even such dramatic changes in government. No one yet knows, however, what the end result of the ongoing devolution of power in the erstwhile Soviet Union will be. As illustrations of what could happen to Soviet arms control obligations - not predictions of the future - the authors pose two alternative scenarios. In the first, they assume that most of the current 12 republics, including all of the big four where substantial nuclear forces and the largest conventional forces are located (Russia, Ukraine, Khazakhstan, and Belarus), ultimately form a loose confederation with sufficient central authority to be called a nation-state and to carry out the essence of Soviet obligations under major arms control treaties. In the second, they assume that the union disintegrates further, with these four key republics seceding entirely and recognizing one another as independent states - a step which is apparently one of the US criteria for granting its own recognition. In this scenario, the Russian republic maintains its basic territory and replaces the central government as the power center for military and foreign affairs. In each of these cases, they will describe the general issues affecting the Soviet Union's international obligations, and consider specifically the two most important arms control agreements now in force - the multilateral nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty (NPT) and the bilateral Antiballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty

  8. Problems of Military Cemeteries Greenery - Case Study of the Military Cemetery in Zvolen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halajová, Denisa; Petreková, Denisa; Bihuňová, Mária

    2017-10-01

    The intention of this work is to highlight the importance of understanding military cemeteries as objects of cultural and historical heritage and as a part of garden design history. The design and maintenance of cemeteries and graves is a manifestation of the national culture. This is even more evident in military cemeteries, the maintenance of which is regulated by international agreements. Objects of military cemeteries are important places not only from the historical and architectural point of view, but also as green space. Most military cemeteries in Slovakia originated from World War I and II. In Slovakia, 160,000 soldiers were buried, 75,206 of them lost their lives in World War I and 93,000 in World War II. 32,495 war graves are registered by The Ministry of the Interior of the Slovak Republic - 23,316 war graves from World War I and 9,179 from World War II. From the period of World War II, there are 22 cemeteries and graveyards in Slovakia, established for soldiers of the Soviet, German, Romanian and Czechoslovak army. Military cemeteries and memorials are mostly high quality works of architecture and art. This paper focuses on the current situation and restoration issues of military cemeteries by examining the Military Cemetery in Zvolen. In the context of its planned reconstruction, a comprehensive tree assessment has been started in 2016. The Military Cemetery in Zvolen, being one of the largest military cemeteries in Slovakia, consists of The Cemetery of the Soviet Army with 17,628 buried soldiers and The Romanian Cemetery with 11,000 buried soldiers. The Romanian Cemetery is one of the largest cemeteries of the Romanian Army in Europe. Both cemeteries were declared national cultural monuments in 1963. In the cemetery, dendrometrical parameters and the health condition of trees were evaluated. In total, there are 825 woody plants. In both cemeteries, coniferous trees prevail, mainly individuals of the genus Thuja (49.4 %). Moreover, the maintenance of

  9. Military Influence in Russian Politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-09-01

    militarization Union. I have concluded that the disappeared. 5 Indeed, a de -militarization military’s opportunity and motivation to of Soviet society and... sindrom 41-go." Novoe vremya, No. 8 (February volunteers over conscripts, and the Navy 1991); Maj. Gen. V.G. Strekozov, "Zakony ob oborone i statuse

  10. Mediating mechanisms of a military Web-based alcohol intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jason; Herman-Stahl, Mindy; Calvin, Sara L; Pemberton, Michael; Bradshaw, Michael

    2009-03-01

    This study explored the mediating mechanisms of two Web-based alcohol interventions in a sample of active duty United States military personnel. Personnel were recruited from eight bases and received the Drinker's Check-Up (N=1483), Alcohol Savvy (N=688), or served as controls (N=919). The interventions drew on motivational interviewing and social learning theory and targeted multiple mediators including social norms, perceived risks and benefits, readiness to change, and coping strategies. Baseline data were collected prior to the intervention and follow-up data on alcohol consumption were gathered 1 month and 6 months after program completion. Two mediation models were examined: (1) a longitudinal two-wave model with outcomes and mediators assessed concurrently at the 1-month follow-up; and (2) a three-wave model in which the causal chain was fully lagged. Results indicated strong support for the role of perceived descriptive norms in transmitting the effects of the Drinker's Check-Up, with consistent mediation across the majority of alcohol outcome measures for both the concurrent and fully lagged mediation models. These results suggest that web-based interventions that are effective in lowering perceived norms about the frequency and quantity of drinking may be a viable strategy for reducing alcohol consumption in military populations. The results did not support program mediation by the other targeted variables, indicating the need for future research on the effective components of alcohol interventions. The mediation models also suggest reasons why program effects were not found for some outcomes or were different across programs.

  11. Understanding the Soviet Threat: The Necessity of Analyzing Soviet Military Thought and Actions from a Soviet Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    discipline comparable to physics or chemistry in its application. This concept is quite unusual for an American, as military affairs are not often studied in...Sanderson cites definitions from The Pocket Oxford Dictionary, The 67 Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology , and Blackie ’s Compact Etymological

  12. Protecting who? Small state roles in large-scale military interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodt, Annemarie Peen; Wivel, Anders

    of the ‘Responsibility to Protect’ (R2P). The aim of this paper is to explore how policy-makers of one small European state, Denmark, have navigated competing and sometimes conflicting protection agendas and calls for action. We argue that Danish military polices since 2001 have been formulated at the intersection...... of external demands in the form of socialization to the unipolar world order and domestic demands reflecting Danish strategic culture. We explore how different ‘logics of protection’ have served to legitimize Danish military participation in large-scale US-led interventions. Based on this analysis, we discuss...

  13. The Effect of Military Coup and Interventions on the Economic Performance: The Case of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif ÖZSAĞIR

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Some factors that affect the economic life indirectly but substantially at the same time are assumed exogenous or fixed by the traditional economics. However, these factors are considered fixed are the factors that affect the economy deeply. Political stability, verdicts devoid of justice, military coups and interventions, oligarchical bureaucratic structure, and terrorism are important factors assumed to be fixed. Although these factors may seem irrelevant at first glance, they have crucial impacts on economies. Important determinants of Turkey’s economic performance have been political decisions, the verdicts devoid of justice, in other words biased verdicts, military coups and interventions, oligarchical bureaucratic structure, and terrorism rather than economic policies. In this study, it is discussed that the effects of military coups and interventions on the performance of the economy in the context of Turkey example; and the hypothesis is validated within the framework of an econometric model.

  14. Foreign Aid versus Military Intervention in the War on Terror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azam, Jean-Paul; Thelen, Veronique

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a theoretical framework and some empirical results showing that the level of foreign aid received reduces the supply of terrorist attacks from recipient countries, while U.S. military interventions are liable to increase this supply. Due account is taken of endogeneity problems in producing these results. They suggest that…

  15. Application of the Soviet Theory of Deep Operation during the 1939 Soviet-Japanese Military Conflict in Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    And the Red Army’s Road To Operational Art 1918-1936,” http://cgsc.leavenworth.army.mil/carl/resources/ biblio /interwar.asp (accessed 25 December...cgsc.leavenworth.army.mil/carl/ resources/ biblio /interwar.asp (accessed 25 December 2009). 20 of military-technical superiority. He understood...resources/ biblio /interwar.asp (accessed 25 December 2009). Military-Topographical Directorate of the General Staff of the USSR. Maps from the

  16. Ecologies of socialism: Soviet Gradostroitel'stvo and late soviet socialism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Alexander Nunan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The most lasting legacy of the Soviet experience, more so than institutions that persist in the Russian Federation today or the mentalities of citizens of post-Soviet states, was its transformation of Eurasia from a rural continent into an urban one. Particularly after the Great Patriotic War, the landscape of Soviet urban spaces changed as countless rows of low-quality apartment housing sprung up and a uniform socialist urban culture appeared to be forming. However, how and why this urban revolution happened, and what effect it had on the psychological makeup of Soviet citizens, remains lesser known. Meanwhile, while scholars of urban history such as Jane Jacobs, Reyner Banham, Lewis Mumford, and Mike Davis have produced fascinating tracts and monographs on the “ecologies” of American urban spaces – how, in other words, human beings in various political systems have interacted with the built urban landscape around them – limited work has been done on similar processes and histories in the Soviet world beyond the technical literature of the Cold War era. In this paper, I attempt to provide the outlines of such a history with such an approach by analyzing how changes in the Soviet urban fabric from approximately 1932 to 1980s affected social life in Soviet cities and among Soviet families. Basing my argument on close readings of Soviet books on gradostroitel'stvo (urban construction, urban studies as well as literature, and guided by the insights of the above-listed urbanist thinkers, I argue that changes in urban planning so altered the relationship between citizens, the Party, and History that the Soviet system lost key strengths that had emboldened it during the 1930s and 1940s. In particular, while new Soviet housing projects obviously raised the standard of living of a great portion of the population, in resolving the housing problem, they also dismantled the “stranger's gaze” – the everyday urban clashes that, enabled by

  17. International aid is needed in resolving the military nuclear waste problems in Kola peninsula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forss, S.

    1995-01-01

    Information about military nuclear waste problems in the counties of Murmansk and Arkhangelsk has become public on an unprecedented scale since the end of the cold war and the collapse of the Soviet Union. Relevant technical details about the nuclear waste problem are still unclassified. The amount of knowledge is, however, steadily increasing despite military secrecy. It is now possible to perform a fairly reliable evaluation of the scope and magnitude of the nuclear waste problem that stems from more than three decades of operation of nuclear submarines and ships of the former Soviet Northern Fleet. The former Soviet Navy built some 240 nuclear submarines, most of them with twin reactors. About 180 nuclear submarines will have to be disposed of in the coming years. Since the late eighties the Soviet/Russian Navy has retired about twenty nuclear submarines a year. Approximately one hundred nuclear submarines now lie in Russian harbours in the North and in the Far East, awaiting disposal. More than seventy are in the Kola and Arkhangelsk areas. Most of the retired submarines still carry nuclear fuel in their reactor. (orig.)

  18. Military psychology and police psychology: mutual contributions to crisis intervention and stress management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Laurence

    2008-01-01

    Like siblings separated at birth, military psychology and police psychology have each independently addressed the cognitive, perceptual, emotional, and behavioral aspects of men and women performing extreme service in defense of their neighborhood or their country. This article reviews the major areas of commonality in the work of military and police psychologists in the areas of crisis intervention and stress management, and provides practical strategies for handling these operational and clinical challenges. The article makes specific recommendations for how police and military psychologists can cross-contribute to each other's fields for the overall enhanced provision of services to the men and women who wear uniforms of all kinds.

  19. Soviet energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-05-01

    As it moves from a centrally planned economy toward a market-based system, the Soviet Union will need to produce and export large quantities of oil to help finance industrial development and to purchase consumer goods from the West. Since 1988, however, Soviet oil production has fallen by about 8.8 percent. Oil exports also have declined, falling by about 15 percent from 1988 to 1990. The main reasons for the production decline are the lack of enough capital for exploration and production and the use of outdated and inefficient production practices. While U.S.-Soviet joint ventures could potentially help reverse this situation, both the United States and the Soviet Union maintain policies and practices that hinder U.S. trade and investment in Soviet oil exploration and production. Despite such difficulties, several U.S. multinational oil companies are proceeding with joint venture agreements, and progress is being made on overcoming some of the obstacles. For example, training programs in western business practices are being offered b the U.S. government, private companies, and universities. In addition, the U.S. and Soviet governments are now negotiating a tax treaty. GAO summarized this report in testimony before Congress

  20. JPRS Report. Soviet Union Foreign Military Review, No. 2, February 1989.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-08-11

    phenomena in ethnic relationships in the period of stagnation engen - dered problems retarding the development of Soviet society and degrading Armed Forces... civilized , good-neighbor relations among countries are the key to normalizing the situation in Asia and the Pacific basin, as is the case everywhere in the...divisions), 17 sepa- rate brigades (11 border, 3 fortress and 3 field fortification), 6 territorial zones (they include 13 medical, 12 rear and 11 civil

  1. Nuclear energy in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe (1917-1976)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waterman, G.J.

    1981-01-01

    The study is divided into several main sections. A brief history of nuclear development in the USSR is described; in particular, the influence of military achievements on subsequent civilian applications is outlined. Economic factors affecting the utilisation of nuclear energy and the feasibility of nuclear fuel are discussed, and an attempt is made to identify organisational aspects of the industry. Past nuclear power plans are evaluated and compared with actual events, and the probable role of nuclear power beyond the 1980s is outlined. The depletion of conventional fuel resources in Eastern Europe has increased the viability of nuclear fuel. The political and economic consequences arising from the transfer of Soviet nuclear technology to the area are assessed. Finally, technological and economic aspects of power reactors in the Soviet Union are evaluated and, where possible, comparisons are made with Western achievements. (author)

  2. Soviet diplomats and Comintern representatives in People’s Republic of Tuva in the 1920s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay M. Mollerov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This is the first study of the role Soviet diplomats and representatives of the Communist International (Comintern played in the Soviet-Tuvan relations during the first decade after the emergence of the young Tuvan state – People’s Republic of Tuva (1920s. From representing the interests of a small military mission, the Soviet diplomatic office in Tuva evolved into a full-scale embassy of the Soviet state. Its history clearly falls into two stages: from early 1920s to 1927 Soviet mission members largely abstained from interfering into PRT’s internal issues, but subsequently they started actively promoting the left wing of Tuvan People Revolutionary Party, which contributed to its accession to power. The Soviet state began to act as PRT’s patron on the international arena. This policy of support and custody was in accordance with Article 2 of PRT’s constitution. Using documentary sources, this article traces the appointments and transfers of a number of Soviet diplomatic officers and consuls (F.G. Falsky (Falkovsky, I.A. Chichayev, F.F. Razumov, A.G. Starkov, as well as Comintern representatives (I.G. Safyanov, B. Tsivenzhapov, V. Borovikov, A.M. Amur-Sanan, S.A. Natsov, V. Machavariani, V.A. Bogdanov. In the duopoly of consuls and Comintern representatives, the former dominated at the earlier stages, but after the defeat of Chinese communists in 1927 the Soviet leaders thought that Socialist transformations in Mongolia in Tuva should be sped up. The article makes use of archival sources from the State Archive of the Republic of Tuva, Russian State Archive of Socio-Political History (RGASPI, and the Research archive of Tuva Institute for Humanities and Applied Socioeconomic Studies.

  3. Soviet declaratory policy regarding the controllability of escalation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prewitt, J.L.

    1991-01-01

    Three variables were examined for their affect on Soviet views regarding the controllability of escalation. The first was bureaucratic affiliation. It was hypothesized that individuals affiliated with groups which directly controlled weapons would be more likely to support the controllability of escalation than those who were members of groups which did not control weapons. This hypothesis could not be rejected. The second variable was a commentator's rank. It was hypothesized that rank would act in two ways: (1) ideas regarding controlled escalation would appear at lower ranks first; and (2) unique views would be produced by specialized ranks within groups. The rank hypothesis could not be rejected. Certain escalation themes appeared to be presented first by military and civilian writers before being presented by the political leadership. The third variable, image of the West, did not appear to function as theorized. It was hypothesized that hard images of the West would be associated with the rejection of controlled escalation, whereas soft images would be associated with positions suggesting that escalation was controlled through joint US-Soviet cooperation

  4. U.S.-China Military Contacts: Issues for Congress. CRS Report for Congress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kan, Shirley

    2005-01-01

    ...). Renewed military exchanges with the PLA have not regained the closeness reached in the 1980s, when the United States and China cooperated strategically against the Soviet Union and the United States sold arms to China...

  5. Effects of a healthy food supply intervention in a military setting: positive changes in cereal, fat and sugar containing foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingham Clarissa ML

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Finland, all men are liable to military service and a clear majority completes service. The increasing prevalence of obesity also among soldiers concerns conscripts’ food choices. Conscripts are served nutritionally planned regular main meals but individual choices take place in free-time eating. This study assesses the effects in conscripts’ eating habits in an intervention targeting the supply of healthy foods available in the military setting. Methods Participants were 604 18-21-year old male conscripts of whom 242 belonged to Control Group and 362 to Intervention Group. Participants of Control Group were historical controls performing military service one year before Intervention Group. The intervention targeted selection, placement, and attractiveness of healthy foods in garrison refectories and soldier’s home cafeterias, the two main food providers in the military. Dietary intake data was collected by self-administered questionnaire at three time points: before/beginning of military service (T0, 8 weeks (T1 and 6 months (T2 of military service. Outcome measures were food consumption frequencies and four dietary indexes (Cereal Index, Fruit and Vegetable Index, Fat Index and Sugar Index developed to characterize the diet. Changes between study groups in outcome variables and in time were analysed by repeated-measures analysis of covariance. Results Significant (p  Conclusions In the military setting, healthier food choices can be promoted by intervening on the main food environments by improving the supply of healthy foods. However, impacting on conscripts’ individual selection as fruit and vegetable consumption is more challenging.

  6. Particular intervention plan of Cherbourg's military harbour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The Particular intervention plan (PPI in French) is an emergency plan which foresees the measures and means to be implemented to address the potential risks of the presence and operation of a nuclear facility. This plan is implemented and developed by the Prefect in case of nuclear accident (or incident leading to a potential accident), the impact of which extending beyond the facility perimeter. It represents a special section of the organisation plan for civil protection response (ORSEC plan). The PPI foresees the necessary measures and means for crisis management during the first hours following the accident and is triggered by the Department Prefect according to the information provided by the facility operator. Its aim is to protect the populations leaving within 10 km of the facility against a potential radiological hazard. The PPI describes: the facility, the intervention area, the protection measures for the population, the conditions of emergency plan triggering, the crisis organisation, the action forms of the different services, and the post-accident stage. This document is the public version of the Particular intervention plan of the military harbour of Cherbourg (Manche, France) which hosts several nuclear facilities devoted to the construction and dismantling of nuclear submarines (without weapons)

  7. Military youth and the deployment cycle: emotional health consequences and recommendations for intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Wolff, Jennifer; Lemmon, Keith M; Bodzy, Mary; Swenson, Rebecca R; Spirito, Anthony

    2011-08-01

    The United States military force includes over 2.2 million volunteer service members. Three out of five service members who are deployed or are preparing for deployment have spouses and/or children. Stressors associated with the deployment cycle can lead to depression, anxiety, and behavior problems in children, as well as psychological distress in the military spouse. Further, the emotional and behavioral health of family members can affect the psychological functioning of the military service member during the deployment and reintegration periods. Despite widespread acknowledgment of the need for emotional and behavioral health services for youth from military families, many professionals in a position to serve them struggle with how to best respond and select appropriate interventions. The purpose of this paper is to provide an empirically based and theoretically informed review to guide service provision and the development of evidence based treatments for military youth in particular. This review includes an overview of stressors associated with the deployment cycle, emotional and behavioral health consequences of deployment on youth and their caretaking parent, and existing preventative and treatment services for youth from military families. It concludes with treatment recommendations for older children and adolescents experiencing emotional and behavioral health symptoms associated with the deployment cycle.

  8. Reducing the nuclear dangers from the former Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, A.B.

    1992-01-01

    The disintegration of the former Soviet Union, a nation armed with over 27,000 nuclear weapons, poses a new form of nuclear danger. First, there is the risk that as political authority devolves to the former Soviet republics, the nuclear arsenal could similarly by parcelled out, in ways that will not be conducive to nuclear stability or to safe custody. Second, there is a danger of seizure, theft, sale, or use of nuclear weapons or components during the period of transition, particularly if the nuclear weapon operating and custodial system - apparently still intact at present - disintegrates. Third, there is a danger that any weakening of control over weapons, fissionable materials, sensitive components, or know-how could result in transfers outside the territory of the new Commonwealth of Independent States, fueling nuclear proliferation worldwide. To deal with these risks, there are a number of steps that should be taken now. These recommendations are primarily addressed to the US government, working in concert with the authorities in the Commonwealth states and the world commmunity. In order of urgency, they are: encouraging and assisting prompt securing, disabling, removing to Russia, and dismantlement of the weapons covered by the Bush-Gorbachev reciprocal proposals of last fall, and by other nuclear arms accords; extending the Bush-Gorbachev proposals to strategic nuclear weapons; assuring safety and security of Soviet nuclear weapons during a difficult transitional period; addressing proliferation outside the Commonwealth; exposing the new political structures of the Commonwealth to prevailing conceptions of international stability and security; and adjusting US nuclear relationships and military policy to the new nuclear realities in the former Soviet Union

  9. The Soviet Union and Soviet citizens in Finnish magazines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuija Saarinen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this article’s is to study Finnish popular journalism in 1970s and 1980s. A magazine studied in this article is Hymy (Smile, and it has been estimated that in the beginning of 1970s approximately the whole literary population of Finland read it. The purpose of this study is to analyze the different images Hymy created and published of the Soviet Union and the Soviet citizens. The central research question analyzes what kinds of issues Hymy published about the Soviet Union and its citizens before 1991. This study gives special attention to the reasons why the articles were written in the first place, and secondly, what was the nature of their content.        Hymy published 224 articles on the Soviet Union. The articles were mostly written in the spirit of criticism – not in the spirit of “friendship of the peoples” that was the official political stance of Finland toward the Soviet Union. Magazines had to be aware of the official Finnish political rhetoric concerning the relationship with the Soviet Union. Hymy as a popular magazine found a way to evade the official mandate. In Hymy, people were able to read anti-Soviet sentiments without any censoring. Therefore, Hymy not only provided its readers views and beliefs that expressed the popular beliefs and values, but also sympathized with them. The Cold War era in the 1970s and 1980s was still a post-traumatic period for Finns. The magazine Hymy was an important channel to publish stories on painful, embarrassing, and tragic subjects.

  10. Residual Cadmium and Lead Pollution at a Former Soviet Military Airfield in Tartu, Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mander, Ulo; Kull, Ain; Frey, Jane

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents data on the levels and dynamics of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) concentration in the plants, soil, and groundwater of the landing corridor and airfield of a former Soviet military air base in Estonia, immediately at the end of its 40-year service in 1992 and over the following 8 yr. In 1991-92 we found high Cd concentrations in the meadow plants Trifolium pratense and Dactylis glomerata (up to 56 mg kg -1 ). In 1993, the Cd concentration had dropped to 0.12-0.19 mg kg -1 , and stabilized in 1997-2000 at 0.04 mg kg -1 . Cd concentration in plants decreased significantly with increasing distance from the landing strip. Elevated Cd concentration (0.012 mg L -1 ) was found in the fuel of the TU-22M (Backfire) strategic bombers. In 1991 and 1993, leaded fuel influenced the mean Pb concentration in plants (1.8-4.2 mg kg -1 ). Average Pb concentration in both topsoil and the 30-40 cm soil horizon decreased between 1991 and 2000 from 28 to 6.5 and from 13.5 to 4.3 mg kg -1 , respectively. Cd concentration in the topsoil of the landing corridor showed a significant increase between 1991 and 1993 (0.07-0.3 and 0.3-1.2 mg kg -1 , respectively), but stabilized later on the level of 0.04 mg kg -1 . The concentrations of both Pb and Cd in the soil were higher closer to the fuel bunkers. Current assessment of the movement of these metals from the vegetation to the soil and to groundwater is linked to potential leaching to the surrounding environment

  11. Soviet scientists speak out

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holloway, D.

    1993-01-01

    In this article, Russian bomb designers answer the KGB's claim that espionage, not science, produced the Soviet bomb. Yuli Khariton and Yuri Smirnov wholly reject the argument that Soviet scientists can claim little credit for the first Soviet bomb. In a lecture delivered at the Kurchatov Institute, established in 1943 when Igor Kurchatov became the director of the Soviet nuclear weapons project, Khariton and Smironov point to the work done by Soviet nuclear physicists before 1941 and refute assertions that have been made in Western literature regarding the hydrogen bomb

  12. Bibliographic Index of Soviet Military Books, 1960-1969.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-10-17

    V.N. Territorial System of Military Structuring. (Territorial’naya Sistema Voyennogo Stroitel’stva) From organizational activities of the Party in...Iz Opyta Politicheskoy Raboty v Sovetskoy Armii) In English. In French. Moscow, Progress, 1965. 111p. 7700 24k. 65-04858 S1437. Companion of the...Territoria].’naya Sistema Tulegen Toktarov S2076 Voyennogo ... S0513 Tulyaki - Geroi Sovetskogo Soyuza - Tikhookeanskiy Flot S2722 S1148 Tiry i Stre

  13. Negation, Including, Gradual Oblivion: State Strategies On Soviet Heritage In Georgia, Armenia And Azerbaijan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Tokarev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the year of 100th anniversary of the October Revolution, the author turns to the question of the Soviet heritage influence on nation- and state-building processes in three countries of the South Caucasus –Azerbaijan,ArmeniaandGeorgia. The article postulates clear differences between the study of postcolonialism and the post-Soviet space, and therefore the author presents his own operationalization of the "imperial heritage" study. The countries of the South Caucasus are compared based on the following criteria: a number of ethnic Russians as the main constituent of the Soviet people living in the country; a status of the Russian language; national symbols (statutes, architecture, Soviet state symbols, the hierarchy of military ranks, and political practices (functioning of the party systems, type of sovereignty, degree of freedom of speech and political competition. StudyingAzerbaijan,ArmeniaandGeorgiadifferently coming out of theUSSRand using the disintegration of theUSSRto construct their national narratives in accordance with their own ideas about the ways of development, the author finds a repetition of the Soviet system elements. Each of the states demonstrates a unique combination of “post-Soviet Soviet” phenomena. The difference lies in the ratio between pro-Soviet and anti-Soviet elements. Azerbaijanseems to maintain a pro-Soviet narrative more than the others. It inherited the Soviet cult of personality and combined this practice with a completely non-Soviet (Eastern tradition of political dynasties covered by the election system. The Armenian political tradition includes reference to Soviet Armenia as theSecondRepublic, which distinguishes the country from the neighbors who consider themselves to be the successors of the democratic republics that emerged during the Civil War inRussia. Despite competitive elections and free media, the Armenian leadership seeks to establish a political system with a single dominant party and

  14. The Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, A.

    1991-01-01

    William T. R. Fox's pre-nuclear age analysis provides an excellent starting point for the authors' discussion of the role of nuclear weapons in Soviet security policy. By pointing to some of the non-nuclear, more properly geopolitical sources of peace in East-West relations, Fox's forceful analysis serves as a reminder to approach the authors' study with caution. Too often, there has been a tendency to reduce the etiology of war and peace in East-West relations to its nuclear aspect without proper regard for other, primarily geopolitical, components which provide the all-important context in which nuclear weapons work their indisputable deterrent effect. Two geopolitical sources for the relative peace in post-war East-West relations have been the inability of either the Soviet Union or the United states to employ direct military force in politically significant terms against the vital interests of the other; and an abiding preference, on the part of both, for a divided Germany within a divided Europe. Any other plausible alternative, of course, would almost certainly have involved a united Germany and the related likelihood that it would either gravitate to one or the other alliance or, itself, would constitute the third leg of an intrinsically unstable tri-polar relationship. This paper reports that the prevailing inclination to analyze East-West security as a direct function of nuclear deterrence (witness the Western consternation about INF and denuclearization, and the proliferation of think-tank study groups on post-nuclear security) begs the probability that there are in fact a variety of deeply rooted structures of stability in East-West relations and so exaggerates the delicacy of the existing security order in Europe. to an extent, this follows form the general acceptance of deterrence theory in the West, especially in the United States, and the undoubtedly singular character and role of nuclear weapons in that order

  15. Do All Lives Have the Same Value? Support for International Military Interventions as a Function of Political System and Public Opinion of Target States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falomir-Pichastor, J.M.; Pereira, A.; Staerklé, C.; Butera, F.

    2012-01-01

    This research examined the support for international military interventions as a function of the political system and the public opinion of the target country. In two experiments, we informed participants about a possible military intervention by the international community towards a sovereign

  16. Soviet test yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergino, Eileen S.

    Soviet seismologists have published descriptions of 96 nuclear explosions conducted from 1961 through 1972 at the Semipalatinsk test site, in Kazakhstan, central Asia [Bocharov et al., 1989]. With the exception of releasing news about some of their peaceful nuclear explosions (PNEs) the Soviets have never before published such a body of information.To estimate the seismic yield of a nuclear explosion it is necessary to obtain a calibrated magnitude-yield relationship based on events with known yields and with a consistent set of seismic magnitudes. U.S. estimation of Soviet test yields has been done through application of relationships to the Soviet sites based on the U.S. experience at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), making some correction for differences due to attenuation and near-source coupling of seismic waves.

  17. Strange but common bedfellows: the relationship between humanitarians and the military in developing psychosocial interventions for civilian populations affected by armed conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kienzler, Hanna; Pedersen, Duncan

    2012-07-01

    This essay analyses how the relationships between Cold War and post-Cold War politics, military psychiatry, humanitarian aid and mental health interventions in war and post-war contexts have transformed over time. It focuses on the restrictions imposed on humanitarian interventions and aid during the Cold War; the politics leading to the transfer of the PTSD diagnosis and its treatment from the military to civilian populations; humanitarian intervention campaigns in the post-Cold War era; and the development of psychosocial intervention programs and standards of care for civilian populations affected by armed conflict. Viewing these developments in their broader historical, political and social contexts reveals the politics behind mental health interventions conducted in countries and populations affected by warfare. In such militarized contexts, the work of NGOs providing assistance to people suffering from trauma-related health problems is far from neutral as it depends on the support of the military and plays an important role in the shaping of international politics and humanitarian aid programs.

  18. Developments in Soviet Journalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaunt, Philip

    1987-01-01

    Studies the news values, practices, and role of journalists in the Soviet Union. Claims that, although the Soviet press currently resembles a corporate public relations department, there are signs of change because of public demands. States that journalistic practices in the U.S. and Soviet Union are similar in their reliance on routine and…

  19. Educational perspectives for elderly migrants: A case of Soviet refugees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persidsky, Igor V.; Kelly, James J.

    1992-07-01

    Modern human migration is characterized by a large number of elderly immigrants, who are coming to the United States from developing countries as refugees. The emigration from the Soviet Union during the last 20 years presents a unique phenomenon in modern human migration because of (1) the high percentage of the elderly, about 17%; (2) origination from urban areas and rather high level of education; (3) beliefs and attitudes developed under the Soviet political, economic and cultural system; (4) non-minority status in the United States; and (5) strong support from the American Jewish community. The greatest problem in adjustment of the elderly is English fluency, because language determines the utilization of health services and social support which they need and which are available from the agencies. Special education programs for these elderly with bilingual/bicultural instructors must be identified as one of the most important intervention approaches. There is another educational strategy for the immigrant population which must be promoted: training/retraining of bilingual/bicultural professionals in geriatrics. American professionals who deal with the elderly Soviets must also be educated about Soviet culture, system of social welfare, health practices and social behavior.

  20. Integration of the military and civilian nuclear fuel cycles in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bukharin, O.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the close integration of the civil and military nuclear fuel cycles in Russia. Individual processing facilities, as well as the flow of nuclear material, are described as they existed in the 1980s and as they exist today. The end of the Cold War and the breakup of the Soviet Union weakened the ties between the two nuclear fuel cycles, but did not separate them. Separation of the military and civilian nuclear fuel cycles would facilitate Russia's integration into the world's nuclear fuel cycle and its participation in international non-proliferation regimes

  1. From Fascism to Communism: The Reconstruction of the Security Apparatus in the Soviet Zone of Occupation and Romania, 1944-1948

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grift, L. van de

    2009-01-01

    Towards the end of the Second World War, the Red Army occupied a large part of Europe and placed it under military administrations. The arrival of Soviet troops in East Central Europe marked the beginning of the region’s transition towards a new political system. Between 1944-1945 and the end of the

  2. Soviet Marxism and population policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonfrank, A

    1984-01-01

    American demographers have maintained that Marxism, notably Soviet Marxism, is consistently pronatalist. The Soviet view is said to be that population growth is not a problem and that birth control policies in either developed or developing societies are to be rejected; the "correct" (i.e., socialist) socioeconomic structure is the true solution to alleged population problems. Such representations of Soviet thought greatly oversimplify the Soviet position as well as fail to discern the changes in Soviet thought that have been occurring. Since the 1960s Soviet writers have increasingly acknowledged that population growth is, to a considerable degree, independent of the economic base of society and that conscious population policies may be needed to either increase or decrease the rate of population growth. Even socialist societies can have population problems. And where population growth is too rapid, as in the developing countries, policies to slow such growth are needed because of the threat to economic development. However, the Soviets continue to stress that birth control policies must go hand-in-hand with social and economic development policies if they are to be effective.

  3. Advancing further the history of Soviet psychology: moving forward from dominant representations in Western and Soviet psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Rey, Fernando L

    2014-02-01

    This article discusses the works of some Soviet scholars of psychology, their theoretical positions, and the times within which their works were developed. Dominant representations of Soviet psychology and some of the main Soviet authors are revisited in the light of a blending of facts actively associated with their emergence in both Soviet and Western psychology. From the beginning, Soviet psychology was founded upon Marxism. However, the ways by which that psychology pretended to become Marxist in its philosophical basis were diverse and often contradictory. Other philosophical and theoretical positions also influenced Soviet psychologists. Different moments of that contradictory process are discussed in this article, and through this, I bring to light their interrelations and the consequences for the development of Soviet psychology. This article reinterprets several myths found within Soviet psychology, in which different theoretical representations have become institutionalized for long periods in both Soviet and Western psychology. Particular attention is given to identifying the conditions that presented Vygotsky, Luria, and Leontiev as part of the same paradigm, and which paved the way for a perception of Leontiev and his group as paralleling Vygotsky's importance among American psychologists. Many of the sources that are used in this article were published in Soviet psychology only after the 1970s. Unlike the different and interesting works that began to appear on diverse trends in Soviet psychology, this article details in depth the articulation of topics and questions that still now are presented as different chapters in the analysis of Soviet psychology.

  4. Reaching the unreached with polio vaccine and other child survival interventions through partnership with military in Angola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekadu, Lemma; Okeibunor, Joseph; Nsubuga, Peter; Kipela, Jean Marie; Mkanda, Pascal; Mihigo, Richard

    2016-10-10

    Growing conflict and insecurity played a major role in precipitating polio outbreaks in the Horn of Africa and the Middle East. In Angola, the early post-conflict situation was characterized by the presence of many inaccessible zones and districts due to insecurity and poor infrastructure. Partnership with the Angolan Army health service (AAHS) was one of the innovative strategies that the Polio Eradication Initiative (PEI) introduced into the country to support the polio vaccination campaigns in insecure and hard to reach zones. Before embarking on creating a partnership with Angolan military it was essential to make high-level advocacy with top military decision makers to engage the leadership in the process for better and sustainable support to the strategy. The principal supports provided by the AAHS were the administration of oral polio vaccine, vitamin A, deworming agents, social mobilization, monitoring campaign quality, and surveillance. Distribution of logistics using military vehicles and helicopters to hard to reach and insecure zones was also part of the support. Using this partnership it was possible to reach a significant number of children in insecure and hard to reach areas with polio vaccine and other child survival interventions. The military partnership also contributed in increasing the demand and addressing rejection for the polio vaccine. Military is a potentially productive force that can be used for any development activities in any country. The Angolan experience has demonstrated that it is possible to form a partnership with the military for basic health intervention activities with little training and investment. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Competing with the Soviets science, technology, and the state in Cold War America

    CERN Document Server

    Wolfe, Audra J

    2013-01-01

    For most of the second half of the twentieth century, the United States and its allies competed with a hostile Soviet Union in almost every way imaginable except open military engagement. The Cold War placed two opposite conceptions of the good society before the uncommitted world and history itself, and science figured prominently in the picture. Competing with the Soviets offers a short, accessible introduction to the special role that science and technology played in maintaining state power during the Cold War, from the atomic bomb to the Human Genome Project. The high-tech machinery of nuclear physics and the space race are at the center of this story, but Audra J. Wolfe also examines the surrogate battlefield of scientific achievement in such diverse fields as urban planning, biology, and economics; explains how defense-driven federal investments created vast laboratories and research programs; and shows how unfamiliar worries about national security and corrosive questions of loyalty crept into the sup...

  6. Environmental remediation of the former Soviet military uranium milling site at Sillamae, Estonia: Features of approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassik, T.; Siinmaa, A.

    1999-01-01

    Quick launch of the nuclear program was a high priority for the Soviet military, as a uranium production plant installation was started at Sillamae, Estonia, in 1946. Estonian local ore - alum shale - containing only 0.03% of uranium was used for uranium production for nearly five years, after the plant was launched in 1948. Altogether more than 4 million tons of ore, imported mostly from Central and East European countries (Czechoslovakia, Hungary and Eastern Germany) were processed at Sillamae. These activities have left a large tailings impoundment with the total volume of ca 8 million cubic meters in the immediate vicinity of the Baltic Sea. Today the plant is privatized, converted to civil purposes and provides ca. 1200 jobs in the socially sensitive area of North-East Estonia, while environmental hazards from the past; however, remain: Continuous seepage of tailing waters into the sea contributes and would contribute over long term to the pollution of the Baltic Sea; stability of the tailings dam seaside under present conditions can not be guaranteed thus risking a sudden release of partly liquid tailings due to potential dam failure; and uncovered surface of the tailings presents a health hazard due to dusting and radon release and hinders the revitalization of the area. The conceptual design of the Estonia's largest environmental project is now complete, the completion of practical remedial works by the end of 2005 will render Sillamae project a pioneer among Central and East European restoration projects of this character. This paper presents characteristic features of Sillamae remediation project, planning the use of best technical solutions, especially considering the vulnerability of geotechnical stability. (author)

  7. Evolution of the military and social research in post-soviet space for the period 1993-2013 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. A. Kalahin

    2013-12-01

    The results showed that during the period from 1993 to 2013 on sociological subjects were protected by 82 theses. The most studied problems of military organization management processes are found in the military organization, its social structure. Less studied the economic aspects of the military organization. The study of the dynamics of military sociological research has shown that the problems of the social structure of the military organization in the long term remain valid. The economic aspects of the military organization only become relevant. It’s a natural tendency, which reflects the influence of both objective and subjective factors at the present stage of reforming the military organization.

  8. Soviet Union's Nuclear Power Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Glasnost has dramatically increased the availability of information about the Soviet Union's nuclear industry. In the future, even more information is likely to become known as Soviet participation in international forums increases. Not only is much more general information now available, but up-to-date details are regularly provided, including information such as the Soviet nuclear industry's strategic direction and goals, recent reactor design changes, safety inspection results, and reports of public opposition and protest. This article summarizes the current status of the Soviet nuclear power program, reconciling the often conflicting reports from various public sources

  9. The Decay of Communism: Managing Spent Nuclear Fuel in the Soviet Union, 1937-1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoegselius, Per

    2010-09-01

    The historical evolution of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) decision-making in Western Europe and North America is already fairly well-known. For the former socialist countries of Eastern Europe, and in particular the Soviet Union, we know less. There have recently been several good studies of Soviet nuclear power history (e.g. Schmid 2004, 2006, Josephson 2005), but none of them has gone into any depth when it comes to SNF, but rather focused on nuclear power reactors, public acceptance, the role of the media, etc. There are also several good overviews available that problematize the radioactive legacy of the Soviet Union, including the SNF and waste issue, but these studies do not address the historical dynamics and evolution of SNF management over a longer period of time; in other words, they fail to explain how and why the present state of affairs have actually come into being. The aim of this paper is to provide historical insight into the dynamics of SNF decision-making in the Soviet Union, from the origins of nuclear engineering in the 1930s to the collapse of the country in 1991. The nuclear fuel system can be described as a large technical system with a variety of interrelated components. The system is 'large' both because it involves key links between geographically disperse activities, and because it involves a variety of technologies, organizations and people that influence the dynamics and evolution of the system. Soviet SNF history is of particular interest in this context, with a nuclear fuel system that was the most complex in the world. The USSR was a pioneer within nuclear power and developed a variety of reactor designs and technologies for uranium mining, conversion and enrichment, as well as for transport, treatment, storage and reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. It explored both military and civil uses of the atom, and an enormous amount of people and organizations were involved in realizing highly ambitious nuclear programmes. The USSR is of

  10. War Termination Concepts and Political, Economic and Military Targeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-03-01

    imposed by the level of military technology, also served to reduce the probability of transcultural conflict; thus shared value systems probably...from the Berlin Blockade in 1948 through the Cuban Missile Crisis , and, utilizing the "lessons learned" approach, reformulates deterrence theory on...aspect of which is the "general crisis of capitalism," presently said to be in its most severe phase since the 1930s. The present crisis , Soviet

  11. [Sanitary service of West Special Military District on the eve and in the first days of the Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelepov, A M; Ishutin, O S; Leonik, S I

    2011-06-01

    This article evaluates military and political situation in the world and operational-strategic environment on the West Theater of operations on the eve of the Great Patriotic War (1941-1945). We analyze structure and overall condition of sanitary service of West Special Military District of the Workers and Peasants Red Army and causes of failure of mobilization, organization and deployment of military units and establishments from the beginning of aggression of Fascist Germany to the Soviet Union.

  12. Soviet civil defense is inadequate and meaningless

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, F.M.

    1985-01-01

    In this paper, the author argues that Soviet civil defense plans exist primarily on paper and are used to pacify the Soviet people, not as plans to survive and prevail in a nuclear confrontation with the U.S. The author describes how the Soviet people have little faith in the civil defense programs. They don't believe they can survive an attack. Furthermore, he says the Soviets have never staged an evacuation exercise in any major city nor, even in smaller towns, has an entire community been evacuated. The author says there are numerous problems with the shelter programs as well. Very few existing shelters have any food stocks, only a few more have any water. There is little evidence that Soviet leaders have planned their economy with civil defense in mind. Nor - given the blatant inadequacies of Soviet civil defense programs, the marked vulnerabilities of the Soviet economy, and the intrinsic limitation and uncertainties about civil defense generally - is there much basis for claiming that Soviet leaders, even in desperate straits, would risk war with the United States while counting on civil defense measures to limit the damage wreaked on the Soviet Union

  13. Scientific research in the Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mtingwa, S.K.

    1990-01-01

    I report on the scientific aspects of my US/USSR Interacademy Exchange Visit to the Soviet Union. My research was conducted at three different institutes: the Lebedev Physical Institute in Moscow, the Leningrad Nuclear Physics Institute in Gatchina, and the Yerevan Physics Institute in Soviet Armenia. I included relevant information about the Soviet educational system, salaries of Soviet physicists, work habits and research activities at the three institutes, and the relevance of that research to work going on in the United States. 18 refs

  14. Mineral production statistics of the former Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Four tables show, for each of the years 1980 to 1991 Soviet oil production, Soviet gas production, Soviet coal production and Soviet steel production. Total figures are given along with a regional breakdown. 4 refs

  15. Obesity and the US Military Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Sbrocco, Tracy; Theim, Kelly R.; Cohen, L. Adelyn; Mackey, Eleanor R.; Stice, Eric; Henderson, Jennifer L.; McCreight, Sarah J.; Bryant, Edny J.; Stephens, Mark B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This review discusses the current knowledge and future directions regarding obesity within the US military family (i.e., active-duty servicemembers, as well as military spouses, children, retirees, and veterans). The increasing rates of overweight and obesity within the US military adversely impact military readiness, limit recruitment, and place a significant financial burden on the Department of Defense. Design and Methods The following topics are reviewed: 1) The prevalence of and the financial, physical, and psychological costs associated with overweight in military communities; 2) military weight regulations, and challenges faced by the military family related to overweight and disordered eating; 3) the continued need for rigorous program evaluations and new intervention development. Results Overweight and its associated sequelae impact the entire military family. Military families share many similarities with their civilian counterparts, but they face unique challenges (e.g., stress related to deployments and relocations). Although the military has weight management resources, there is an urgent need for rigorous program evaluation and the development of enhanced obesity prevention programs across the lifespan of the military family–several of which are proposed herein. Conclusions Interdisciplinary and collaborative research efforts and team-based interventions will continue to inform understanding of obesity treatment and prevention within military and civilian populations. PMID:23836452

  16. Identity and Othering in Past and Present: Representations of the Soviet Era in Estonian Post-Soviet Textbooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Kello

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses representations of the ‘core Soviet era’ (1945-1985 in Estonian post-Soviet history textbooks (1989-2016. Attitudes towards the Soviet system have been a rich resource for identity building, and hence a powerful political tool across the whole of the post-Soviet block. Based on an analysis of sections about the Soviet era in Estonia in 21 textbooks, the paper takes a look at how textbooks reflect broader processes of social meaning making, identity building and othering after a profound social and political turn. In 1989 and during the early 1990s, perspectives and narratives in Estonian history textbooks were closely related to social memory and national politics, enacting a specific social representation of the Soviet era that dominated the Estonian-speaking public space during the 1990s. The Soviet era, Russia and local Russians became the main Others for Estonia and Estonians. Over time, public discourse has diversified. The national curriculum and textbooks, however, still maintain the canon that formed in 1990s and thus reflect earlier sentiments. Apart from the increasing salience of Soviet-era daily life in more recent textbooks, the thematic choices and emphases have changed little since the 1990s. Therefore, even if the style of writing has ‘cooled down’, issues of identity preservation, resistance and accommodation, together with a saliently negative representation of wrongdoings by the Soviet system, still prevail. On the one hand, this testifies to the resilience of an established tradition in the textbook genre in general. On the other hand, it reflects the dominance of an ethnocentric tradition in Estonian history textbook writing. The paper discusses the implications of these findings for interethnic relations in Estonia.

  17. Integrating occupational therapy in treating combat stress reaction within a military unit: An intervention model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gindi, Shahar; Galili, Giora; Volovic-Shushan, Shani; Adir-Pavis, Shirly

    2016-01-01

    Combat stress reaction (CR) is a syndrome with a wide range of symptoms including changes in soldiers' behaviors, emotional and physiological responses, avoidance and a decrease in both personal and military functioning. The short-term goal in treating CR is a speedy return to healthy functioning, whereas the long-term goal is to prevent the development of PTSD. Previous research has indicated that the achievement of this short-term goal affects the achievement of the long-term goal and vice versa. Effective treatment requires intervention by trained professionals proficient in reinforcing personal and functional identity without psychiatric labelling. The present paper presents a therapeutic model integrating OT in treating CR within a military setting. The model emphasizes the importance of preventing fixation to the role of 'patient' and a rapid return to maximal functioning. Based on Kielhofner's Model of Human Occupation, which aims to promote adaptive and efficient functioning by engaging soldiers in tasks supporting their military identity, empowering functionality, and increasing their perceived competency. The model emphasizes the therapeutic milieu within a military environment. Practical application of this model focuses on interdisciplinary aspects and client-focused application. The paper describes an assessment process for each soldier entering the CR unit and a treatment model integrating OT.

  18. The Soviet center of astronomical data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dluzhnevskaya, O.B.

    1982-01-01

    On the basis of the current French-Soviet cooperation in science and technology, the Astronomical Council of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences and the Strasbourg Center signed in 1977 an agreement on setting up the Soviet Center of Astronomical Data as its filial branch. The Soviet Center was created on the basis of a computation center at the Zvenigorod station of the Astronomical Council of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences, which had already had considerable experience of working with stellar catalogues. In 1979 the Center was equipped with a EC-1033 computer. In 1978-1979 the Soviet Center of Astronomical Data (C.A.D.) received from Strasbourg 96 of the most important catalogues. By September 1981 the list of catalogues available at the Soviet Center has reached 140 catalogues some of which are described. (Auth.)

  19. The Decay of Communism: Managing Spent Nuclear Fuel in the Soviet Union, 1937-1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoegselius, Per (History of Science and Technology, Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)), e-mail: perho@kth.se

    2010-09-15

    The historical evolution of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) decision-making in Western Europe and North America is already fairly well-known. For the former socialist countries of Eastern Europe, and in particular the Soviet Union, we know less. There have recently been several good studies of Soviet nuclear power history (e.g. Schmid 2004, 2006, Josephson 2005), but none of them has gone into any depth when it comes to SNF, but rather focused on nuclear power reactors, public acceptance, the role of the media, etc. There are also several good overviews available that problematize the radioactive legacy of the Soviet Union, including the SNF and waste issue, but these studies do not address the historical dynamics and evolution of SNF management over a longer period of time; in other words, they fail to explain how and why the present state of affairs have actually come into being. The aim of this paper is to provide historical insight into the dynamics of SNF decision-making in the Soviet Union, from the origins of nuclear engineering in the 1930s to the collapse of the country in 1991. The nuclear fuel system can be described as a large technical system with a variety of interrelated components. The system is 'large' both because it involves key links between geographically disperse activities, and because it involves a variety of technologies, organizations and people that influence the dynamics and evolution of the system. Soviet SNF history is of particular interest in this context, with a nuclear fuel system that was the most complex in the world. The USSR was a pioneer within nuclear power and developed a variety of reactor designs and technologies for uranium mining, conversion and enrichment, as well as for transport, treatment, storage and reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. It explored both military and civil uses of the atom, and an enormous amount of people and organizations were involved in realizing highly ambitious nuclear programmes. The USSR is

  20. Kimchi, seaweed, and seasoned carrot in the Soviet culinary culture: the spread of Korean food in the Soviet Union and Korean diaspora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changzoo Song

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The half-million Soviet Koreans (or Koryŏ saram in the former Soviet Union are the descendants of the ethnic Koreans who migrated to the Russian Far East in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from the northern parts of the Korean peninsula. Their settlements were established in the wide areas of the Russian Far East, including the urban areas around Vladivostok. They were, however, forced-migrated to Central Asia in late 1937 under Stalin's rule. From Central Asia, these Soviet Koreans were further dispersed to other parts of the Soviet Union in the post-Stalin era. These multiple dispersions of Soviet Koreans not only transformed their culinary habit, but also helped Korean food spread among the peoples of the Soviet Union. As a result, Korean food, such as kimchi, miyŏk (edible kelp, and others, were introduced and widely consumed throughout the Soviet Union. This paper explores this unusual spread and popularity of Korean food in the Soviet Union, focusing on the migration history of the Soviet Koreans and Soviet culinary culture. This work is based on the author's fieldwork in the Soviet Union in the early 1900s and again in mid-2000s. The unusual diffusion and popularity of the Korean food in the former Soviet Union provides us with important insights on migration and globalization of ethnic food.

  1. Iu. Ushakov & A. Stukalov, Front voennykh prokurorov [The Military Procurators’ Front], Moskva, Viatka, 2000, 223 pages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Voisin

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Front voennykh prokurorov is a collection of essays written by two writers who are not known as specialists of military history, but obviously have access to archives, as proves the reprint, in the middle of the book, of several pages from the personal files of Afanas’ev, former Main Military Prosecutor of Soviet Armed Forces.The first part of the book is devoted to Nikolai Porfir’evich Afanas’ev’s memoirs, written, according to the editors, after his retirement in 1950. Afanas’ev, though les...

  2. A Breakdown of Civil-Military Relations: The Soviet Coup of 1991

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In fact, the complex network of roles in which important military men were .... not effectively transfer power to a presidential central authority. ... On 18 August some of them went to see him in the Crimea, to gain his permission for a state of ..... Dunlop, op.cit, pp.207-210,250, D'Agostino, oo.cit., p.320, and Adelman, J., Torrents.

  3. The Army vs. the People: The Opposition of the Soviet Military to Baltic Independence

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-04-01

    untouched. General Fyodor Kuz’min, the commander of the Baltic Military District became Gorbachev’s de facto "Military Governer", the only powerful and... Sindrome ’, Neustavshchinye i Natsional’noi Aspekte Voinskoi Sluzhby" [Youth Try on Overcoats: on the ’Occupation Syndrome’, Non-Regulation Behavior, and...that despite the 4 V. Sein, "Komu na Ruku ’Antiarmeiskyi Sindrom ’?" [Who is Responsible for the ’Anti-Army Syndrome’?], Sovetskaya Latvia, July 5, 1989

  4. Military Intervention in Identity Group Conflicts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lyons, Todd

    2000-01-01

    .... I argue that the local military commander is relatively autonomous and therefore can and should aid the community in rebuilding durable, longterm institutions such as police, judiciary and local...

  5. Soviet satellite communications science and technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birch, J.N.; Campanella, S.J.; Gordon, G.D.; McElroy, D.R.; Pritchard, W.L.; Stamminger, R.

    1991-08-01

    This is a report by six US scientists and engineers concerning the current state of the art and projections of future Soviet satellite communications technologies. The panel members are experts in satellite stabilization, spacecraft environments, space power generation, launch systems, spacecraft communications sciences and technologies, onboard processing, ground stations, and other technologies that impact communications. The panel assessed the Soviet ability to support high-data-rate space missions at 128 Mbps by evaluating current and projected Soviet satellite communications technologies. A variety of space missions were considered, including Earth-to-Earth communications via satellites in geostationary or highly elliptical orbits, those missions that require space-to-Earth communications via a direct path and those missions that require space-to-Earth communications via a relay satellite. Soviet satellite communications capability, in most cases, is 10 years behind that of the United States and other industrialized nations. However, based upon an analysis of communications links needed to support these missions using current Soviet capabilities, it is well within the current Soviet technology to support certain space missions outlined above at rates of 128 Mbps or higher, although published literature clearly shows that the Soviet Union has not exceeded 60 Mbps in its current space system. These analyses are necessary but not sufficient to determine mission data rates, and other technologies such as onboard processing and storage could limit the mission data rate well below that which could actually be supported via the communications links. Presently, the Soviet Union appears to be content with data rates in the low-Earth-orbit relay via geostationary mode of 12 Mbps. This limit is a direct result of power amplifier limits, spacecraft antenna size, and the utilization of K{sub u}-band frequencies. 91 refs., 16 figs., 15 tabs.

  6. On Ideology, Language, and Identity: Language Politics in the Soviet and Post-Soviet Lithuania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balockaite, Rasa

    2014-01-01

    The paper illuminates links between state politics and language politics in Lithuania during different historical periods: (a) the thaw period, (b) the stagnation period, (c) the liberalization periods of Soviet socialism, and (d) the two post-Soviet decades characterized by both nationalism and liberalization. Based on analysis of the texts by…

  7. JPRS Report. Soviet Union: Political Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-10

    Soviets? The absurdity of a classified dissertation in pedagogy is intensified by the additional fact that given the truly impoverished posi- tion in...Khakass. These are our Soviet kids , the graduates of our Soviet schools. Together, they listen to the same lectures as the people their own age who...4,267. They are in training at 12 VUZs, 8 technical schools, and one professional- technical college. Four boarding schools have admitted Afghan kids

  8. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Foreign Military Review, No. 4, April 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-17

    Franch troops participated in military actions in Lebanon and Chad (1983)» and in Chad and Togo (1986). Today France is again using her armed forces...and 3 sections—transport, refueling and food supply); repair and maintenance platoon (86 men, command section, 8 functional sections—administrative...6 percent are major enterprises. Light industry and the food industry are of key importance in Pakistan. They account for more than half the

  9. NKGB-UL SOVIETIC PE FRONTUL INVIZIBIL ÎN BASARABIA, MARTIE-IUNIE 1944

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru MALACENCO

    2016-12-01

    the USSRsecret services, as a political power coercive tool, was governed by “the offensive or defensive phase of the Soviet troops. Establishment of the soviet NKGB – organization whose general objective was fighting state/Soviet regime enemies – occurred every time that Soviet army was to initiate offensive operations, aiming, of course, to “purify” the reconquered territory from hostile elements”. This was an inevitable phase in the territories (resovietisation.The history of the Second World War attests that in the territories were the Red Army stepped the communist regime was established. Grosso modo, during the War, aiming to liberate European countries, theUSSR was operating with several armies in the battlefield: the Red Army that was fighting on the military front and the special troops that were battling on the invisible front.Thus, at the end of March 1944, the Red Army managed to force the front line over theDniesterRiverand to reoccupy theNorth Bessarabia. For a short period of time Soroca was settled up as the administrative capital of the Soviet Moldova. Together with Soviet troops, theUSSRsecurity structures also returned in the territory. National Commissariat for State Security – NKGB, was one of the first Soviet institutions that were based in Soroca. The head of the MSSR’ NKGB was nominated the Ukrainian national Iosif Mordoveț (1944-1955. His goal was to reorganize the security apparatus within the reoccupiedBessarabiaterritory, fact that determined the faith oh this region for more than half of century ahead.

  10. Soviet Cybernetics: Recent News Items, Number Thirteen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Wade B.

    An issue of "Soviet Cybernetics: Recent News Items" consists of English translations of the leading recent Soviet contributions to the study of cybernetics. Articles deal with cybernetics in the 21st Century; the Soviet State Committee on Science and Technology; economic reforms in Rudnev's ministry; an interview with Rudnev; Dnepr-2; Dnepr-2…

  11. Esthetic Education in Soviet Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soviet Education, 1980

    1980-01-01

    This issue of Soviet Education examines esthetic education in Soviet schools, including ways of raising the level of esthetic education, the factor of labor, research on the relationship between the atheistic and esthetic education, ways of amplifying interrelationship between theory and practice in teacher education and psychological principles…

  12. Perestroika, Soviet oil, and joint ventures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Churkin, M. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Glaznost, the freedom of expression in both the public and private sectors of the Soviet Union, has rapidly transformed the country form a largely isolated and closed society to one that is rapidly becoming more cosmopolitan and open to the West. Now that the Soviet Union is moving toward a free-market economy, a number of new laws are being generated to create a favorable environment for Western investment, especially joint ventures. First, crude oil sales have provided over 75% of much-needed hard currency, and oil has been the principal barter for manufactured goods produced in eastern Europe. Second, joint oil ventures with Western companies can reverse declining production levels and provide sufficient stimulus to turn around the economic recession. The Soviet Union has a very large inventory of discovered but undeveloped oil and gas fields. Most of these fields are difficult for the Soviets to produce technically, financially, and environmentally safely, and they are actively seeking appropriate Western partners. From an exploration point of view, the Soviet Union has probably the largest number of undrilled and highly prospective oil basins, which may replenish declining reserves in the West. Finally, the Soviet Union represents in the long term a large unsaturated market eager to absorb the surplus of goods and services in the Western world. Again, joint oil ventures could provide the convertible currency to increase East-West trade

  13. The Origins of Soviet Sociolinguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandist, Craig

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the origins of Soviet sociolinguistics and suggests that the historical significance of the reception and reinterpretation of these ideas is considerable, leading to a reconsideration of the origins of sociolinguistics and the relationship between Marxism and the language sciences in the early years of the Soviet Union. (Author/VWL)

  14. Soviet Development of Gyrotrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-05-01

    Relationship Type of Device Remarks V, - Vc, anomalous Doppler Capable of 100 percent efficiency, CRM but more cumbersome than Cheren- kov devices V...authors; and discusses inlividual Soviet reseaLc- groups, the basic organizational units responAiLle for the CRM and gyrotron research and development. The...maintained a cCnEistEnt iecord of significant achievements; it has managed to overcome the systenic yeaxness of the Soviet R&C systeg in teimg atle to

  15. Soviet nostalgia and Russian politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen White

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Communist rule did not end suddenly in 1989, or in 1991. And for many, at least in Russia, there was no radical break but a complex evolution in which many of the former ruling group, and many of the values of the Soviet period, remained intact. According to the evidence of national representative surveys, levels of support for the principle of a union state have consistently been very high. In 2008 survey, more than half (57% largely or entirely agreed that the demise of the USSR had been a ‘disaster’, and nearly two-thirds (64% thought the former Soviet republics that had established a Commonwealth of Independent States should reconstitute a single state or at least cooperate more closely. Across the three Slavic republics, Russia, Ukraine and Belarus, it was guaranteed employment that was seen as the most positive feature of the old regime, and economic stagnation as its most serious shortcoming. Comparing the present and the Soviet period as they recalled it, ordinary Russians thought they had more opportunity to practise a religion, and to express their opinions. But ordinary people had (in their own view no more influence over the making of public policy than in the communist period, and they thought they were less likely to be treated fairly and equally by government. Age and living standards were the most powerful predictors of Soviet nostalgia when other variables were held constant. Nostalgics were much more likely to support parties of the left, or at least those that favoured public ownership, a Soviet or ‘more democratic Soviet’ system of government, and a closer association among the former Soviet republics; they were much less likely to support the parties that favoured the dissolution of the CIS, a wholly market economy, or Western-style democracy.

  16. Soviet Space Program Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-01

    in advance and some events were even broadcast live. Immediately following the first success- ful launch of their new Energia space launch vehicle in...early 1988. Just as a handbook written a couple of years ago would need updating with Mir, Energia , and the SL-16, this handbook will one day need up...1986. Johnson, Nicholas L. The Soviet Year in Space 1983. Colorado Springs, CO: Teledyne Brown Engineering, 1984. Lawton, A. " Energia - Soviet Super

  17. Resurgent Military Political Adventurism in West Africa: Implications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR Nneka

    military intervention in the politics of some West African states and this calls for ... experienced military coup leading to military rule in most cases. ... study, we shall examine the closely knit nature of inter-state relationships in West ... It is instructive to note that the military juntas did not fare better in office. ..... Sweden: SIPRI.

  18. Soviet Union oil sector outlook grows bleaker still

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the outlook for the U.S.S.R's oil sector which grows increasingly bleak and with it prospects for the Soviet economy. Plunging Soviet oil production and exports have analysts revising near term oil price outlooks, referring to the Soviet oil sector's self-destructing and Soviet oil production in a freefall. County NatWest, Washington, citing likely drops in Soviet oil production and exports (OGJ, Aug. 5, p. 16), has jumped its projected second half spot price for West Texas intermediate crude by about $2 to $22-23/bbl. Smith Barney, New York, forecasts WTI postings at $24-25/bbl this winter, largely because of seasonally strong world oil demand and the continued collapse in Soviet oil production. It estimates the call on oil from the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries at more than 25 million b/d in first quarter 1992. That would be the highest level of demand for OPEC oil since 1980, Smith Barney noted

  19. The Soviet program for peaceful uses of nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordyke, M.D.

    1996-01-01

    The concept of utilizing the weapons of war to serve the peaceful pursuits of mankind is as old as civilization itself. Perhaps the most famous reference to this basic desire is recorded in the Book of Micah where the great prophet Isiah called upon his people 'to turn your spears into pitchforks and your swords into plowshares.' As the scientists at Los Alamos worked on developing the world's first atomic bomb, thoughts of how this tremendous new source of energy could be used for peaceful purposes generally focused on using the thermal energy generated by the slow fission of uranium in a reactor, such as those being used to produce Plutonium to drive electric power stations. However, being scientists in a new, exciting field, it was impossible to avoid letting their minds wander from the task at hand to other scientific or non-military uses for the bombs themselves. During the Manhattan Project, Otto Frisch, one of the pioneers in the development of nuclear fission process in the 1930s, first suggested using an atomic explosion as a source for a large quantities of neutrons which could used in scientific experiments designed to expand their understanding of nuclear physics. After the war was over, many grandiose ideas appeared in the popular press on how this new source of energy should be to serve mankind. Not to be left out of the growing enthusiasm for peaceful uses of atomic energy, the Soviet Union added their visions to the public record. This document details the Soviet program for using nuclear explosions in peacetime pursuits

  20. The Soviet program for peaceful uses of nuclear explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordyke, M.D.

    1996-07-24

    The concept of utilizing the weapons of war to serve the peaceful pursuits of mankind is as old as civilization itself. Perhaps the most famous reference to this basic desire is recorded in the Book of Micah where the great prophet Isiah called upon his people `to turn your spears into pitchforks and your swords into plowshares.` As the scientists at Los Alamos worked on developing the world`s first atomic bomb, thoughts of how this tremendous new source of energy could be used for peaceful purposes generally focused on using the thermal energy generated by the slow fission of uranium in a reactor, such as those being used to produce Plutonium to drive electric power stations. However, being scientists in a new, exciting field, it was impossible to avoid letting their minds wander from the task at hand to other scientific or non-military uses for the bombs themselves. During the Manhattan Project, Otto Frisch, one of the pioneers in the development of nuclear fission process in the 1930s, first suggested using an atomic explosion as a source for a large quantities of neutrons which could used in scientific experiments designed to expand their understanding of nuclear physics. After the war was over, many grandiose ideas appeared in the popular press on how this new source of energy should be to serve mankind. Not to be left out of the growing enthusiasm for peaceful uses of atomic energy, the Soviet Union added their visions to the public record. This document details the Soviet program for using nuclear explosions in peacetime pursuits.

  1. 32 CFR 809a.10 - Military commanders' responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... authorities as soon as possible. (c) Military forces will ordinarily exercise police powers previously... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Military commanders' responsibilities. 809a.10... Disturbance Intervention and Disaster Assistance § 809a.10 Military commanders' responsibilities. (a...

  2. Bulletproofing the Psyche: Mindfulness Interventions in the Training Environment to Improve Resilience in the Military and Veteran Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Hendricks Thomas

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available While clinical health services exist for service members with existing mental health conditions like posttraumatic stress, they are not stemming the rising tide of service suicides. A new approach to mental health intervention and suicide prevention in military-connected personnel is required, one that speaks to the participatory, hardworking ethos of military culture. Social work and health promotion professionals working to prevent and treat mental health problems like depression and stress injuries must understand the confluence of warrior culture and mental health issues in the veteran community. While the research literature does not yet address this confluence issue directly, programs exist that provide guidance, and a mindfulness-based training protocol may provide the answer. The purpose of this review is to provide programming recommendations based on a review of successful exemplars in treatment settings, the limited evaluation of best practices currently available when working with this priority population in prevention settings, and a cultural analysis of the military veteran community.

  3. Skill Formation and Utilisation in the Post-Soviet Transition: Higher Education Planning in Post-Soviet Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvaramadze, Irakli

    2010-01-01

    Changes in the former Soviet system had a dramatic influence on higher education in Georgia. The main objective of the current article is to analyse implications of the post-Soviet transition for the skill formation and skill utilisation system in Georgia. In particular, the study analyses recent trends in Georgian higher education including…

  4. SOVIET POSTERS IN LITHUANIA IN 1940–1953

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bajoraite, Alma

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The Soviet occupation and their ideology brought to Lithuania a new poster quality. The paper analyzes the problem of posters propaganda and manipulation, the inheritance of the not traditional documents and their inventory. The goal of this paper is to analyze the soviet posters in Lithuania in 1940–1953.The principal problems of this paper are to research the formation and the domination of the posters in Lithuania: which role they had in the politics. The paper also analyzes the soviet posters impact on farming and their influence to the society.To sum up, the new trend of art appeared in 1940 in Lithuania, which had the principal goal to propagate the soviet ideology in all the political and social spheres. The goal of the soviet posters as the media of information was to provide the distorted view of the reality. The soviet posters had dominated in Lithuania in 1940–1953. This period had left a very interesting and rich heritage. It is the importatant part of the cultural and historical heritage.

  5. Frank Lloyd Wright in the Soviet Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian A. Spencer

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1937 the First All-Union Congress of Soviet Architects was held in Moscow. The congress brought  architects from all areas of the  Soviet Union. Under the auspices of Vsesoiuvnoe Obshchestvo Kul'turnoi Sviazi s zagranitsei (VOKS it invited international architects from Europe and North and South America.  The Organizing Committee of the Union of Soviet Architects invited Frank Lloyd Wright from the United States. Frank Lloyd Wright presented his philosophy and exhibited his work, specifically his designs for the weekend home for E. J. Kaufmann "Fallingwater" and the drawings for the S.C. Johnson Administration. Frank Lloyd Wright's presentation did not focus heavily on the architecture but, rather the spirit of the Russian and Soviet vision.

  6. Soviet experience with peaceful uses of nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordyke, M.D.

    1976-01-01

    The Soviet Union is pursuing an active program for developing peaceful uses of nuclear explosions (PNE). They have reported 16 explosions, with applications ranging from putting out oil-well fires and stimulating oil recovery to creating instant dams and canals. The data reported generally agree with U.S. experience. Seismic data collected by western sources on explosions outside the known Soviet test sites indicate that the Soviet program is at least twice as large as they have reported. The accelerated pace of these events suggests that in some applications the Soviet PNE program is approaching routine industrial technology

  7. Systematic review of military motor vehicle crash-related injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krahl, Pamela L; Jankosky, Christopher J; Thomas, Richard J; Hooper, Tomoko I

    2010-01-01

    Motor vehicle crashes account for nearly one third of U.S. military fatalities annually. The objective of this review is to summarize the published evidence on injuries due specifically to military motor vehicle (MMV) crashes. A search of 18 electronic databases identified English language publications addressing MMV crash-related injuries between 1970 and 2006 that were available to the general public. Documents limited in distribution to military or government personnel were not evaluated. Relevant articles were categorized by study design. The search identified only 13 studies related specifically to MMV crashes. Most were case reports or case series (n=8); only one could be classified as an intervention study. Nine of the studies were based solely on data from service-specific military safety centers. Few studies exist on injuries resulting from crashes of military motor vehicles. Epidemiologic studies that assess injury rates, type, severity, and risk factors are needed, followed by studies to evaluate targeted interventions and prevention strategies. Interventions currently underway should be evaluated for effectiveness, and those proven effective in the civilian community, such as graduated driver licensing, should be considered for implementation and evaluation in military populations. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Former Soviet refineries face modernization, restructuring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    A massive modernization and restructuring program is under way in the refining sector of Russia and other former Soviet republics. Economic reforms and resulting economic dislocation following the collapse of the Soviet Union has left refineries in the region grappling with a steep decline and changes in product demand. At the same time, rising oil prices and an aging, dilapidated infrastructure promise a massive shakeout. Even as many refineries in the former Soviet Union (FSU) face possible closure because they are running at a fraction of capacity, a host of revamps, expansions, and grass roots refineries are planned or under way. The paper discusses plans

  9. Education in the Soviet Baltic Republics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soviet Education, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Includes 11 articles about education in the Soviet Baltic Republics. The articles include historical studies of Estonian and Latvian schools and medieval Estonian folk games. The impact of Marxist educational theories and Soviet policies on educational research, teacher education, and teaching methods in the Baltic region from 1920-50 is…

  10. Le realizzazioni dell'economia sovietica. (Soviet economic performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. MADDISON

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available While in the 1950s Soviet output grew faster than most other industrial countries, the early 1960s has seen a noticeable slowing down in growth. The present paper puts these economic developments into perspective to judge the efficacy of Soviet policy in its attempt to achieve maximum growth and transform an underdeveloped into a developed country. The author first assesses Soviet performance and policy at different stages of development, before assessing the level attained. The purposes for which output is used and the major factors responsible for Soviet performance are then analysed. Finally, likely future developments are considered.JEL: P27, O40

  11. Soviet space nuclear reactor incidents - Perception versus reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Gary L.

    1992-01-01

    Since the Soviet Union reportedly began flying nuclear power sources in 1965 it has had four publicly known accidents involving space reactors, two publicly known accidents involving radioisotope power sources and one close call with a space reactor (Cosmos 1900). The reactor accidents, particularly Cosmos 954 and Cosmos 1402, indicated that the Soviets had adopted burnup as their reentry philosophy which is consistent with the U.S. philosophy from the 1960s and 1970s. While quantitative risk analyses have shown that the Soviet accidents have not posed a serious risk to the world's population, concerns still remain about Soviet space nuclear safety practices.

  12. The Provision of Indirect Military Support by US Administration to the Afghan Mujahideens in the 1980s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taisiуa V. Rabush

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the analysis of the US involvement in the process of providing indirect military and other kinds of support to the Afghan mujahedeens. The author also presents a brief overview of the main methods and means of US military aid to the Afghan rebels in the 1980s, as well as a detailed consideration of the process of providing such assistance. The author identifies three stages in the process of interaction between the US administration and the US intelligence agencies, on the one hand, and the Afghan insurgency, on the other hand: the first stage (1978-1979 refers to introduction of a limited contingent of Soviet troops in Afghanistan, where the US assistance to Afghan rebels was extremely cautious and measured; the second stage (1980 is marked by a considerable build-up of military assistance to Mujahedeens, but the United States sought to conceal their participation in this process; and during the third stage (since the election of Ronald Reagan up to the withdrawal of Soviet troops from Afghanistan, the assistance to Mujahedeens increased in several times, and the US stopped hiding this fact. The author briefly discusses the role and place of such countries slong with the US as Egypt, Saudi Arabia and Pakistan and so on in the structure of rendering support to the Afghan Mujahideens. The author also studies the US role in Afghanistan’s transformation into a “nest” for cultivating Islamic extremists.

  13. Ethnicity and Power in the Soviet Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Wierzbicki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty years have passed since the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Up until the point of dissolution, the Soviet authorities and intellectual elite had attempted to build a community in order to unite all Soviet citizens in the spirit of socialist modernisation. Although it is difficult to demonstrate that ‘a Soviet nation’ was successfully created [1], the attempt to build such a nation can serve as a case study through which to examine nation-building processes for constructivists as well as modernists . In addition to socialist modernisation, the Soviet nation aimed to be identified as a state, which would make it similar to the political nations dominant in western countries. Contrary to western tradition, however, it was not a nation state that provided full rights for all its citizens, but rather a socialist state that was ‘ruled by workers and peasantry’. Nevertheless, the authorities aimed to give the Soviet nation the characteristics of a specific nation state. “It was a nation that in historical terms strived, or more accurately part of which strived, to form or proclaim a particular state” [2]. While at the time of proclaiming the USSR there was no such thing as the Soviet nation, it can be assumed that it was intended to become a constructed titular nation. The majority of national communities, even created ones, have an ethnic core. However academics cannot agree on the kind of state the USSR was, to what extent it took into account the ethnicity of its multinational population, how much it reflected the values, culture, and interests of its largest population group (i.e., the Russians or even whether it was a Russian national state despite the strong influence of Russian ideology and politics. Some Russian academics, especially those in nationalistic circles (e.g., Valerij Solovej as well as western scholars such as Terry Martin and Geoffrey Hosking stressed that Russians dominated demographically and politically

  14. Evolution of Soviet Theater Nuclear Forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkeson, E.B.

    1994-01-01

    Soviet theater nuclear forces were a major pillar of Soviet superpower strength, rising sharply under Krushchev in the latter 1950s to their zenith under Brezhnev twenty years later. Most recently they have begun their decline under Gorbachev, and while not yet facing extinction, may be headed for a much reduced role under the new thinking in the USSR. This paper deals with the Soviet TNF in six periods of their life: The Post-war Stalin Period (1945-1953), the Post-Stalin Period (1953-1955), The Transition Period (1955-1959), The Period of Nuclear Revolution (1960-1964), The Period of Modern TNF Planning (1965-1980), and The Period of Non-nuclear Planning (1980-1987)

  15. The evolution of Soviet forces, strategy, and command

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, D.; Bethe, H.A.; Blair, B.G.; Bracken, P.; Carter, A.B.; Dickinson, H.; Garwin, R.L.; Holloway, D.; Kendall, H.W.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports on the evolution of Soviet forces, strategy and command. Soviet leaders have repeatedly emphasized that it would be tantamount to suicide to start a nuclear war. Mutual deterrence, however, does not make nuclear was impossible. The danger remains that a large-scale nuclear was could start inadvertently in an intense crisis, or by escalation out of a conventional war, or as an unforeseen combination of these. For these reasons crisis management has become a central issue in the United States, but the standard Soviet response to this Western interest has been to say that what is needed is crisis avoidance, not recipes for brinkmanship masquerading under another name. There is much sense in this view. Nevertheless, this demeanor does not mean that the Soviet Union has given no thought to the danger that a crisis might lead to nuclear war, only that Soviet categories for thinking about such matters differ from those employed in the United States

  16. The Revitalization of the Soviet Film Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogomolov, Yuri

    1991-01-01

    Discusses how the grip of the Soviet Union's past--from Stalinist mythology to ideological cliche--is being exposed and undermined whereas a sense of individual efficacy, necessary for the present, has yet to emerge from the portrayals in Soviet films. (PRA)

  17. Soviet books and publications on hydrology (continental) and hydrogeology: titles and some notes on obtaining Soviet monographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manheim, Frank T.

    1966-01-01

    A common method of publication for Soviet scientists, which partly supplants periodicals, is the publication of a collection of articles on a general area of research, frequently by members of a given institution. An extensive sampling of world geologic literature for 1961 (Hawkes, 1966) showed that 33 percent of Soviet titles appeared in periodicals whereas 55 percent of North American and 70 percent of Western European literature appeared in this form. The Soviet predilection for symposia and collections of papers makes searching for information on a given subject more difficult for Westerners because the monographs in question are often not included in exchange agreements (except informal personal ones) with Western libraries and institutions, because they may be primed in small editions, and because such publications frequently escape the notice of Western abstract journals. Unless one is fortunate enough to have many personal contacts in the Soviet Union, there seems to be little alternative to at least a rudimentary knowledge of Russian in order to stay abreast of work published as monographs and in collections.

  18. Soviet Robots in the Solar System Mission Technologies and Discoveries

    CERN Document Server

    Huntress, JR , Wesley T

    2011-01-01

    The Soviet robotic space exploration program began in a spirit of bold adventure and technical genius. It ended after the fall of the Soviet Union and the failure of its last mission to Mars in 1996. Soviet Robots in the Solar System chronicles the scientific and engineering accomplishments of this enterprise from its infancy to its demise. Each flight campaign is set into context of national politics and international competition with the United States. Together with its many detailed illustrations and images, Soviet Robots in the Solar System presents the most detailed technical description of Soviet robotic space flights provides a unique insight into programmatic, engineering, and scientific issues covers mission objectives, spacecraft engineering, flight details, scientific payload and results describes in technical depth Soviet lunar and planetary probes

  19. The Tenth Period of Soviet Third World Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-10-01

    All its activity is taking place in an atmosphere of responsible criticism and self-criticism and of observance of the principle of looking the truth...tremendous stability to the Soviet-Indian relationship. Moscow’s ties with New Dehli have lasted now well over thirty years. Moscow can be confident...itself a superpower with global interests and commitments. The costs of the Soviet empire may be onerous at the margin when Soviet economic managers

  20. Adult Development Theory and Political Analysis: An Integral Account of Social and Political Change in Soviet and Post-Soviet Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Elke Fein

    2010-01-01

    I propose a reading of social, political and discursive change in Soviet and post-Soviet Russia which is inspired by an integral, above all developmental perspective. In view of explaining Russia’s current political trajectory, I make several arguments. First, I claim that Russian politics are still to a large extent determined by the effects of a threefold crisis of sense-making. Neither the collapse of the Soviet empire, nor the question of how to define democratic government nor the lack o...

  1. Soviet precision timekeeping research and technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vessot, R.F.C.; Allan, D.W.; Crampton, S.J.B.; Cutler, L.S.; Kern, R.H.; McCoubrey, A.O.; White, J.D.

    1991-08-01

    This report is the result of a study of Soviet progress in precision timekeeping research and timekeeping capability during the last two decades. The study was conducted by a panel of seven US scientists who have expertise in timekeeping, frequency control, time dissemination, and the direct applications of these disciplines to scientific investigation. The following topics are addressed in this report: generation of time by atomic clocks at the present level of their technology, new and emerging technologies related to atomic clocks, time and frequency transfer technology, statistical processes involving metrological applications of time and frequency, applications of precise time and frequency to scientific investigations, supporting timekeeping technology, and a comparison of Soviet research efforts with those of the United States and the West. The number of Soviet professionals working in this field is roughly 10 times that in the United States. The Soviet Union has facilities for large-scale production of frequency standards and has concentrated its efforts on developing and producing rubidium gas cell devices (relatively compact, low-cost frequency standards of modest accuracy and stability) and atomic hydrogen masers (relatively large, high-cost standards of modest accuracy and high stability). 203 refs., 45 figs., 9 tabs.

  2. Soviet precision timekeeping research and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vessot, R.F.C.; Allan, D.W.; Crampton, S.J.B.; Cutler, L.S.; Kern, R.H.; McCoubrey, A.O.; White, J.D.

    1991-08-01

    This report is the result of a study of Soviet progress in precision timekeeping research and timekeeping capability during the last two decades. The study was conducted by a panel of seven US scientists who have expertise in timekeeping, frequency control, time dissemination, and the direct applications of these disciplines to scientific investigation. The following topics are addressed in this report: generation of time by atomic clocks at the present level of their technology, new and emerging technologies related to atomic clocks, time and frequency transfer technology, statistical processes involving metrological applications of time and frequency, applications of precise time and frequency to scientific investigations, supporting timekeeping technology, and a comparison of Soviet research efforts with those of the United States and the West. The number of Soviet professionals working in this field is roughly 10 times that in the United States. The Soviet Union has facilities for large-scale production of frequency standards and has concentrated its efforts on developing and producing rubidium gas cell devices (relatively compact, low-cost frequency standards of modest accuracy and stability) and atomic hydrogen masers (relatively large, high-cost standards of modest accuracy and high stability). 203 refs., 45 figs., 9 tabs

  3. Just War Theory and Presidential Discourse Prior to Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-04

    Topic This paper studies the public statements of US presidents to ascertain justifications for war or armed intervention. Edward J. Lordan used a... paradise , Grenada was “a Soviet- Cuban Colony, being readied as a major military bastion to export terror and undermine democracy.”29 Later in the speech

  4. Multidisciplinary intervention with sibutramine: assessing successful weight loss predictors in military adolescent dependents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Jorge L; Wilks, Edward G; Symons, Jenna E; Blankson, Kwabena L; Cole, Renee E

    2012-03-01

    Assess body mass index (BMI) reduction through a multidisciplinary intervention with sibutramine in adolescents of military parents and examine characteristics and behavioral traits as predictors of successful weight loss. A prospective study where participants received sibutramine daily for 6 months. Adolescents ages 12 to 18 with BMI-for-age and sex greater than 95 percentile and good health were enrolled. Outcome variables are BMI, biochemical indices, and clinical measurements. Predictor variables are participant demographics, family history, lifestyle changes, and behavioral traits assessed with behavioral assessment for children. One hundred participants were recruited with 81% completion. In those participants who completed the 6-month intervention, a mean participant BMI reduction of 3.1 kg/m2 (-9.3%) (p Sibutramine dose was increased from 10 to 15 mg at 3 months for participant with Sibutramine dose at 3 months (p or =10% reduction in BMI). Sibutramine was effective at promoting minimum beneficial BMI reduction of 5% in adolescents with service-connected parents; however, increasing dosage at 3 months did not improve the likelihood of being successful.

  5. Ex-Soviet Union: oil exporter or importer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khartukov, E.M.

    1993-01-01

    Perestroika of the Soviet economy and the political disintegration of the USSR have raised questions about the international ramifications of the ongoing economic and political developments in the world's largest oil-producing country. First of all, it relates to their impact on the quantity and quality of oil exports from the former Soviet Union (FSU). On the other hand, the opening of the national oil industry to foreign investors focuses their ever growing attention on the complicated internal, inter-republic oil issues which emerged after the sudden fragmentation of the Soviet oil empire into a dozen of sovereign but still interdependent parts. 1 fig., 7 tabs

  6. Former Soviet Union Hydrological Snow Surveys, 1966-1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Former Soviet Union Hydrological Snow Surveys are based on observations made by personnel at 1,345 sites throughout the Former Soviet Union between 1966 and...

  7. 3-D Soviet Style: A Presentation on Lessons Learned from the Soviet Experience in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-10-01

    auteurs se penchent sur les aspects stratégiques, opérationnels et tactiques de l’action soviétique. L’étude se fonde sur de l’information actualisée...publiée en russe et en anglais. Les données statistiques sur le conflit ont également été prises en compte. Les auteurs , MM. Anton Minkov et...communication and to the efforts the Soviets made in building Afghan security forces. It includes information on the theory and practice of Soviet

  8. Is Soviet Defense Policy Becoming Civilianized?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-08-01

    Larionov, a consultant to the institute, both at RAND and in Moscow; and Drs. Alexei Arbatov and Aleksandr Savelyev and several of their colleagues during...Soviet defense industry resources to civilian use is presented in Arthur J. Alexander , Perestroika and Change in Soviet Weapons Acquisition, The RAND...1986, especially pp. 101-102. 17 18 the more prominent younger specialists like Alexei Arbatov, Andrei Kokoshin, and Aleksandr Savelyev have long been

  9. Scientific and technical training in the Soviet Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spearman, M. L.

    1983-01-01

    Specific features and observations on the Soviet educational system and areas of apparent effectiveness are presented, noting that the literacy rate is over 98 percent in 1982. Educational goals are reoriented every five years to match with other projections of five-year plans. The Soviet constitution established strong educational goals, including schools, correspondence courses, lectures in native tongues, free tuition, and vocational training. The educational pattern from pre-school through graduate school lasts over 28 yr and contains two 2-yr periods of work, confined to specialties after graduate school. Mathematics is emphasized, as are physics, Marxism, and a foreign language. Approximately 300,000 engineers were graduated in the Soviet Union in 1982, compared with the 20-yr U.S. average of 50,000/yr. About 2/3 of Soviet engineers participate in defense work, a number which is four times the total number of U.S. engineers. It is asserted that the continual indoctrination, organization, and practical work experience will guarantee that the Soviet state will remain a dominant force in the world as long as centralized state control can be carried out.

  10. Soviet Counterinsurgency Operations in Afghanistan (1979-1988)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-29

    Soviet commitment in Afghanistan. was to be an "economy of force" mission, with the focus of Red Army combat power to remain in the European theatre ...critically for its operational and tactical resupply capability. ’’The Soviets in Afghanis4Ul,li1ce the Americansin Vietnam, discovered thai helicopters were

  11. FREUDIAN COMPLEXES OF SOVIET AND POST-SOVIET PHILOLOGY IN STUDYING THE GOSPEL TEXT IN RUSSIAN LITERATURE

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Andreevich Esaulov

    2012-01-01

    The article looks at a number of marginal concepts of Freudian theory and at his articles on Dostoevsky that revealed the 'cultural unconscious' of the founder of psychoanalysis. We point at the similarities between Freud's cultural unconscious – with its negativity against of the “Christian God”, historical Russia and Russian people – and the Soviet type of culture, especially in its early period (1920s – early 1930s). The ardor of Freudo-Marxism typical for the highest levels of Soviet powe...

  12. FREUDIAN COMPLEXES OF SOVIET AND POST-SOVIET PHILOLOGY IN STUDYING THE GOSPEL TEXT IN RUSSIAN LITERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Andreevich Esaulov

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The article looks at a number of marginal concepts of Freudian theory and at his articles on Dostoevsky that revealed the 'cultural unconscious' of the founder of psychoanalysis. We point at the similarities between Freud's cultural unconscious – with its negativity against of the “Christian God”, historical Russia and Russian people – and the Soviet type of culture, especially in its early period (1920s – early 1930s. The ardor of Freudo-Marxism typical for the highest levels of Soviet power and humanitarian studies lay in their striving towards a complete restructuring of Russian culture, state and man itself. Russian literature is interpreted on the basis of anti-Christian tenets and a set of criteria absolutely alien to Russian literature. We show that this mental attitude has not been overcome by post-Soviet literary criticism. Our article is a call on scholars of Russian literature to get rid of their Freudian complexes in the treatment of Russian culture.

  13. Fragmenting pastoral mobility: Changing grazing patterns in Post-Soviet Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carol Kerven; Ilya Ilych Alimaev; Roy Behnke; Grant Davidson; Nurlan Malmakov; Aidos Smailov; Iain Wright

    2006-01-01

    Kazak nomads were seasonally mobile in the pre-Soviet period, in response to climate variability and landscape heterogeneity. The scale of these movements was interrupted during the Soviet period, but some degree of mobility remained. Mobility virtually ceased in the post-Soviet 1990s, but is reemerging as flock numbers rebound from the mid 1990s population crash.

  14. Kimchi, seaweed, and seasoned carrot in the Soviet culinary culture: the spread of Korean food in the Soviet Union and Korean diaspora

    OpenAIRE

    Changzoo Song

    2016-01-01

    The half-million Soviet Koreans (or Koryŏ saram) in the former Soviet Union are the descendants of the ethnic Koreans who migrated to the Russian Far East in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from the northern parts of the Korean peninsula. Their settlements were established in the wide areas of the Russian Far East, including the urban areas around Vladivostok. They were, however, forced-migrated to Central Asia in late 1937 under Stalin's rule. From Central Asia, these Soviet Koreans w...

  15. Kant’s Studies in Ukrainian Philosophy of Soviet Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadym Tytarenko

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This writing is devoted to the brief review of Immanuel Kant’s philosophy studies and receptions of his philosophical concepts within the Ukrainian philosophy of Soviet period. Such attempt is actually pertinent because nowadays we definitely need to reconsider the soviet philosophical heritage for better understanding the real value of any philosophical conclusions and worldview-concerning statements which were made in the times of soviet ideology hegemony. Additionally, mentioned reconsidering is presently urgent because Ukrainian intellectual culture is now looking for its identity and is trying to identify the stillremaining ideological totalitarian elements which spoil the originality and objectiveness of its products. The present review attempts to identify which totalitarian intentions and prejudices were used to interpret and evaluate the Immanuel Kant’s heritage in the texts written by several selected Ukrainian philosophers of the Soviet period. Nevertheless, it’s obvious that absolutely impossible to avoid talking about Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel’s philosophical position interpretation by the same authors. Kant’s and Hegel’s soviet-Ukrainian interpretations were often connected, because there was a general trend of soviet Marxist history of philosophy to interpret Kant as the “worse” version of Hegel. To fulfill the general image of Kant’s philosophy interpretation in Ukrainian philosophy and its future perspectives, this paper also delivers some common information about the whole historical path of Kant’s interpretations and receptions

  16. The Inextricable Ties Between Society and The Army in Post-Soviet Russia: The Resurgence of Shefstvo Under Boris Yeltsin and Vladimir Putin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Sieca-Kozlowski

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Shefstvo, the creation of patronage relations between units of the armed forces and local governments, is a Russian practice dating back to the 1920s. Though it nearly disappeared at the end of the Soviet era, it re-emerged in the 1990’s when rampant inflation, reductions in military spending and embezzlement created problems of catastrophic proportions for the army. Exchange networks of a more or less spontaneous and informal nature grew up between the local authorities and the military units in order to provide the soldiers with material support such as money, food and clothing. When Putin began his second term in office and launched various campaigns promoting patriotism, the nature of these patronage relations underwent a change: the army began to seek sponsors on its own initiative and it also took on the role of public educator. The ideological aspect of shefstvo regained fundamental significance.

  17. Socialization of the Child in the Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandanavicius, Mary

    1979-01-01

    The socialization process of the child in the Soviet Union is examined in terms of socialistic/communistic political philosophy and the general attitudes of the Soviets toward social sciences, child rearing, and educational practice. The family, school, and youth organizations are also discussed as socializing agents. (Author/KC)

  18. Criminal-legal prohibitions in the soviet juridical discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey V. Skorobogatov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective to determine the place of criminal law prohibitions in the formation development and functioning of the Soviet legal discourse. Methods dialectic approach to the research of social phenomena which allows to analyze them in historical development and functioning in the context of the unity of the objective and subjective factors as well as postmodern paradigm giving the opportunity to explore the legal reality at different levels including the lawinterpretation one. Dialectical approach and postmodern paradigm have determined the choice of specific research methods comparative hermeneutics discursive formally legal. Results basing on the analysis of normativelegal acts regulating criminal legal relations in the USSR the development of the Soviet criminal law was considered since its emergence to termination of existence. Conclusion on its restrictive nature was made which was in line with the main task of this sector of law ndash the protection of the Soviet system and socialist property from criminal encroachments. The normative regulatory basis of criminal law prohibitions determined the general nature of the Soviet legal discourse which was designed to prove the necessity and expediency of such means of protecting public and state interests in the period of building communism. Scientific novelty on the basis of use of the complex classical and postclassical methods the article for the first time studies the role of criminal law prohibitions in the development of Soviet legal discourse. Practical value the key issues and conclusions of the article can be used in scientific and pedagogical activity while researching the issues of the nature and trends of development of the Soviet criminal law.

  19. Afghanistan: The First Five Years of Soviet Occupation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    July 1982, reported that be- fore reaching the Kabul River his group passed three DRA outposts or forts. One of his guerrilla companions assured him...driver, chef , doctor, and six chief advisers, all were Soviets. At the palace where he resided and worked, the guard force was Soviet, except for a

  20. Perestroika and Its Impact on the Soviet Labor Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Horst

    1991-01-01

    Discusses two books, "Restructuring the Soviet Economy: In Search of the Market" and "In Search of Flexibility: The New Soviet Labour Market," that assess the success of perestroika and the transition to a market-based economy. (JOW)

  1. The Soviet applied information sciences in a time of change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bengston, J.; Cronin, R.R.; Davidson, R.B.

    1991-07-01

    The Foreign Applied Sciences Assessment Center (FASAC) conducts reviews of selected areas of foreign basic and applied science by US scientists who are technically expert and active in the fields reviewed. Several of the FASAC assessments of Soviet science have involved various aspects of the information sciences, including enabling technologies and applications, as well as the core information sciences. This report draws upon those FASAC assessment reports, the expert judgment of some of the authors of those reports, and other public sources to characterize the current state of the information sciences in the Soviet Union and the effects of information science capabilities upon other areas of Soviet science and technology. This report also provides estimates of the likely effect of the political and social reforms underway in the Soviet Union on future Soviet progress in the information sciences and, at a more general level, in science and technology. 41 refs., 7 tabs.

  2. English military slang: definition, means of formation and thematic classification

    OpenAIRE

    MITCHELL PETER DZHONOVICH

    2014-01-01

    Global instability with military interventions in various Muslim countries by coalitions headed by the USA has led to an increase in interest toward the armed forces of the United States and their coalition partners -foremost, the UK and other countries of the (British) Commonwealth of Nations. For those working in the sphere of military interpreting, the interest is in language and, in particular, military speak. The article considers the notion of English military slang as a separate vocabu...

  3. Universal Higher Education and Positional Advantage: Soviet Legacies and Neoliberal Transformations in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolentseva, Anna

    2017-01-01

    The great expansion of participation in higher education in Russia in the post-Soviet period was the layered and contradictory result of both conditions established in the Soviet period, and the structuring of reforms after the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1992. The Soviet government was strongly committed to the expansion of education across…

  4. The Soviet RBMK-1000 containment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joosten, J.K.

    1988-01-01

    Following the accident in April, 1986, considerable attention was focused on the failure of the containment at the Chernobyl RBMK-1000 nuclear power plant. Conflicting statements arose regarding the nature of the plant's containment system primarily because of terminology differences, translation difficulties and lack of reliable information. This article, based on reports and briefings by the Soviet delegation, during the post-accident review meetings in Vienna and prior publications is intended to clarify perceptions of the Soviet RMBK-1000 nuclear power plant containment system design, and its relevance to containment management concepts. (author)

  5. Socialism and Education in Cuba and Soviet Uzbekistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charon-Cardona, Euridice

    2013-01-01

    During the Cold War over half a million Asians, Africans and Latin Americans studied and graduated in the Soviet Union's universities and technical schools as part of this country's educational aid policies. Cuba was an intermediary player in the Cold War geopolitical contest between the United States and the Soviet Union, fuelled by the…

  6. Obesity Prevention in the Military.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams-White, Marissa; Deuster, Patricia

    2017-06-01

    The objective was to review prevention efforts and approaches attempting to limit the problem of obesity in the military. Various individual-level initiatives have emerged, including programs promoting healthy cooking, meal planning, and other behavior changes among service members. Importantly, the military is attempting to tackle environmental factors contributing to the rise of obesity, by focusing on many recent environmental-level interventions and initiatives to improve military dining facilities and examine and modify other aspects of installations' built environments. Although published research within the military setting directed towards obesity prevention is limited, many innovative programs have been launched and need to be followed forward. The review of past and ongoing efforts can be an important step in identifying specific areas needing improvement, gaps that should be considered, lessons learned, and characteristics of successful programs that should be disseminated as best practices and further expanded.

  7. The outlook for Soviet gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebel, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    The economic collapse of the Soviet Union has seen the decline of its oil and gas industry through a lack of capital investment, idle wells, shortages of equipment and spare parts, worker apathy, and a leaky pipeline network. Natural gas reserves controlled by the Soviet Union total some 50 trillion m 3 , over 70% of which are in western Siberia. A total of just 19 gas deposits hold 70% of the total reserves and account for over 75% of national output. Natural gas production in 1990 was 815 billion m 3 or 38% of world output; exports reached 109 billion m 3 , divided roughly equally between eastern and western Europe, and all transported by pipeline. The Soviet Union is also a major gas consumer, at around 709 billion m 3 /y, and uses about half this amount for generating electricity. In the early 1980s, a crash program to expand the gas industry raised production from 435 billion m 3 in 1980 to 643 billion m 3 in 1985, but at the cost of hastily built pipelines and facilities, and a premature exhaustion of major gas fields. A prohibition on import of western-made compressors, due to the Afghanistan invasion, forced the installation of unreliable domestic compressors. Slow growth in gas ouput and unreliability of the current gas supply and transmission system has threatened the stability of supply to domestic and export customers, and gas delivery shortfalls of 50-60 billion m 3 were thought possible. The industry's future depends on development of additional fields, and a revived interest in Soviet natural gas is being shown by foreign investors. Since many of these fields are in remote or geologically unfavorable areas, large investments and lead times will be needed

  8. Soviet International Finance in the Gorbachev Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    officials responsible for financial matters; and the financial press . All of these sources are cited as appropriate in this repoet. Considerable additional...creditors back to 1984. 2See, for example, Judy Shelton, The Coming Soviet Crash, The Free Press , New York, 1989, p. xv. 14 end of 1988, net Soviet...eighth over LIBOR. As recently as September 1989, VEB was able to arrange a five-year, $100 million syndicated credit managed by Banca Commerciale Italiana

  9. Growing Soviet market is worth the hassles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muse, J.F.

    1991-01-01

    Tremendous opportunity is offered by the potential market in the Soviet republics for a diverse oil and gas equipment company, such as Baker Hughes. Until recently, however, the many risks and problems limited efforts to direct, hard currency sales by three or four individual divisions (out of a total of 23) that chose to pursue markets for their products by working through independent agents. This article discusses some aspects of dealing with the Soviet market

  10. The Grand Strategy of the Soviet Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-25

    of diverse echnic the highest origin could rise to AleveLs of power in all branches of the state. Plainly that is not the case in today’s Soviet...and psychological reasons, the new primacy given to external aggrandizement intensifies ethnic tensions inside Soviet society. The failure to fulfill...or perhaps because our own means are simply too small, we come to terms psychologically with its increasing power by persuading ourselves that it

  11. The Adversary System in Low-Level Soviet Economic Decisionmaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-08-01

    34- ° .. 78 - capital or a few countertrade agreements, will solve their problems for them. This is markedly different from the overall Soviet pattern...currency countertrade practice, the considerations of this Note would permit further refinement of predictions of Soviet economic decisionmaking that

  12. Interventions for Sustainable Weight Loss in Military Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    recruitment of 290 adult family members of Active Duty / Retirees (ADMP). To enhance our marketing efforts, we received IRB approval to create a study...through connections made at the 2017 IPR meeting, we participated in discussions with LTC McKnight ( Principle Advisor and Military Attach Environmental

  13. Economic Development in Afghanistan during the Soviet Period, 1979-1989: Lessons Learned from the Soviet Experience in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-01

    gouvernement afghan. Les auteurs de l’étude concluent que l’accent sur la sécurité en Afghanistan a été préjudiciable à un développement économique...Afghanistan (PDPA) regime were largely influenced by Soviet economic theory and experience. In addition to adopting economic planning based on the five...rural Afghans. On peasant in Leninist theory see Esther Kingston-Mann, “Proletarian Theory and Peasant Practice: Lenin 1901-1904,” in Soviet Studies

  14. Soviet medical ethics (1917-1991).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichterman, Boleslav L

    2005-01-01

    Russian medical ethics bears a heavy mark of seven decades of the communist regime. In 1918 the Health Care Commissariat (ministry) was formed. It was headed by Nikolai Semashko (1874-1949) who claimed that "the ethics of the Soviet physician is an ethics of our socialist motherland, an ethics of a builder of communist society; it is equal to communist moral". "Medical ethics" had been avoided until the late 1930s when it was replaced by "medical (or surgical) deontology". This "deontological" period started with "Problems of surgical deontology" written by N. Petrov, a surgeon, and lasted for almost half a century until "medical deontology" was abandoned in favor of "bioethics" in post-communist Russia. There have been five All-Union conferences on medical deontology since 1969. The story of the emergence of "The Oath of a Soviet Physician" is briefly described. The text of this Oath was approved by a special decree of the Soviet Parliament in 1971. Each graduate of medical school in USSR was obliged to take this Oath when receiving his or her medical diploma. It is concluded that such ideas of zemstvo medicine as universal access to health care and condemnation of private practice were put into practice under the communist regime.

  15. Cogeneration in the former Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horak, W.C.

    1997-01-01

    The former Soviet Union made a major commitment to Cogeneration. The scale and nature of this commitment created a system conceptually different from Cogeneration in the west. The differences were both in scale, in political commitment, and in socio economic impact. This paper addresses some of the largest scale Cogeneration programs, the technology, and the residual impact of these programs. The integration of the Cogeneration and nuclear programs is a key focus of the paper. Soviet designed nuclear power plants were designed to produce both electricity and heat for residential and industrial uses. Energy systems used to implement this design approach are discussed. The significant dependence on these units for heat created an urgent need for continued operation during the winter. Electricity and heat are also produced in nuclear weapons production facilities, as well as power plants. The Soviets also had designed, and initiated construction of a number of nuclear power plants open-quotes ATETsclose quotes optimized for production of heat as well as electricity. These were canceled

  16. Social-historical memory about soviet the pas: empiric research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. G. Pozdnyakova­Kirbatyeva

    2014-06-01

    Also considered komomeratyvni properties attitude to the soviet past in the population of different regions of the country and the most general description of the memory of the soviet past, namely the degree of interest of the population of different regions to the past.

  17. Soviet/Russian-American space cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karash, Yuri Y.

    This dissertation seeks to answer two questions: (1) what are the necessary conditions for the emergence of meaningful space cooperation between Russia and the United States, and (2) might this cooperation continue developing on its own merit, contributing to the further rapprochement between the two countries, even if the conditions that originated the cooperation were to change? The study examines the entire space era up to this point, 1957 to 1997, from the first satellite launch through the joint U.S.-Russian work on the ISS project. It focuses on the analysis of three distinct periods of possible and real cooperation between the United States and the Soviet Union/Russia. The first possibility for a limited Soviet-American cooperation in space emerged in the late 1950s, together with the space age, and continued until the mid-1960s. The major potential joint project of this period was a human expedition to the Moon. The global competition/confrontation between the two countries prevented actual cooperation. The second period was from the late 1960s until 1985 with consideration of experimental docking missions, including the docking of a reusable U.S. shuttle to a Soviet Salyut-type station. The global U.S.-Soviet competition still continued, but the confrontation was replaced by detente for a brief period of time lasting from the end of 1960s until mid-1970s. Detente gave the first example of U.S.-Soviet cooperation in space---the Apollo-Soyuz joint space flight (ASTP) which took place in 1975. However, the lack of interest of political leaderships in continuation of broad-scale cooperation between the two countries, and the end of detente, removed ASTP-like projects out of question at least until 1985. The third period started together with Mikhail Gorbachev's Perestroika in 1985 and continues until now. It involves almost a hundred of joint space projects both at the governmental and at the private sectors levels. The mainstream of the joint activities

  18. Serious gaming design for adaptability training of military personnel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mun, Y.; Hulst, A.H. van der; Oprins, E.A.P.B.; Jetten, A.M.; Bosch, K. van den; Schraagen, J.M.C.

    2017-01-01

    As the world in the 21st century has become more dynamic and unpredictable, the need for adaptive behavior in the military is of increasing importance. A serious game (SG) seems to be a suitable intervention for improving adaptability to prepare the military to deal with unpredictability. The

  19. Serious gaming design for adaptability training of military personnel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mun, Y.; Hulst, A.H. van der; Oprins, E.A.P.B.; Jetten, A.M.; Bosch, K. van den; Schraagen, J.M.C.

    2016-01-01

    As the world in the 21st century has become more dynamic and unpredictable, the need for adaptive behavior in the military is of increasing importance. A serious game (SG) seems to be a suitable intervention for improving adaptability to prepare the military to deal with unpredictability. The

  20. Resurgent Military Political Adventurism in West Africa: Implications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The democratization efforts of the 1990s in West Africa appeared to have put paid to military political adventurism which had been the plague of that region since independence in the 1960s. But since the year 2000 there has been a resurgence of military intervention in the politics of some West African states and this calls ...

  1. Soviet Cultural Diplomacy in Denmark during the Cold War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederichsen, Kim

    2012-01-01

    The article discusses the Soviet apparatus for cultural diplomacy abroad during the Cold War period using the worlds oldest society for friendship with the Soviet Union as a case study. The article looks at question from 3 diffrent angels: 1: Organisation, planning and financing. 2: Activities. 3...

  2. Soviet Union in the context of the Nobel prize

    CERN Document Server

    Blokh, Abram M

    2018-01-01

    The result of meticulous research by Professor Abram Blokh, this book presents facts, documents, thoughts and comments on the system of the Nobel Prize awards to Russian and Soviet scientists. It provides a comprehensive overview of the relationship between the ideas expressed by the Nobel Foundation and those expressed by the autocratic and totalitarian regimes in Russia and the ex-Soviet Union during the 20th century who had the same attitude of revulsion toward the intellectual and humanistic values represented by the Nobel Prizes. To do his research, the author had access to the declassified documents in the archives of the Nobel Foundation for many years. Also included in the book are new materials obtained and developed by the author after the publication of the first two editions (in Russian). This additional information is from the archives of the Soviet Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Russian Academy of Sciences, the Soviet Writers' Union et al. in Moscow and St Petersburg. These documents shed new...

  3. Soviet exoatmospheric neutral particle beam research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leiss, J.E.; Abrams, R.H.; Ehlers, K.W.; Farrell, J.A.; Gillespie, G.H.; Jameson, R.A.; Keefe, D.; Parker, R.K.

    1988-02-01

    This technical assessment was performed by a panel of eight U.S. scientists and engineers who are familiar with Soviet research through their own research experience, their knowledge of the published scientific literature and conference proceedings, and personal contacts with Soviet scientists and other foreign colleagues. Most of the technical components of a neutral particle beam generating system including the ion source, the accelerator, the accelerator radio frequency power supply, the beam conditioning and aiming system, and the beam neutralizer system are addressed. It does not address a number of other areas important to an exoatmospheric neutral beam system

  4. The Human Volunteer in Military Biomedical Research (Military Medical Ethics. Volume 2, Chapter 19)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-10-01

    justice have long been associated with social practices such as punishment, taxation and political The Human Volunteer in Military Biomedical Research...suspension of eligibility to receive research funding, to use investigational interventions, or to practise medicine. Unless there are persuasive reasons to do

  5. Marxism--Leninism and natural resources: the Soviet outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papp, D.S.

    1977-06-01

    Soviet leaders recognize that natural resources are finite, but they do not share the pessimism of many of their Western counterparts. They maintain that resource depletion is not a threat to be taken seriously on a worldwide basis, but rather is a manifestation of the capitalism. To understand both the continued Soviet optimism and the Soviet assessment of why the Western world is experiencing its current ''raw material crisis'', the author examines the role that natural resources play within Marxist-Leninist idealogy. Soviets believe, the author says, that the resource predicament is insoluble; that the condition will escalate until, along with several other factors, the situation will result in a worldwide socialist society. Western thought has advocated fine methods through which the industrialized world could evade the energy and raw materials shortages. These include new methods of mining, developing, and searching for natural resource deposits; setting up a non-socialist industrial nations' organization; appropriation of resource sites; zero growth rates; and genuine cooperation. The Kremlin discounts the West's ability to successfully carry out any of these solutions. (MCW)

  6. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, World Economy & International Relations, No. 5, May 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-10-06

    percent (2). The socialist states (the PRC, DPRK, Mongolia, Viet - nam , Cambodia and Laos) are the Soviet Union’s prin- cipal foreign trade partners: our...right is no longer attempting to maintain that the Soviet leader- ship’s new course amounts to cosmetic or purely propa- ganda measures. Soviet

  7. A balance and proprioception intervention programme to enhance combat performance in military personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Shany; Jacob, T; Ben-Dov, D; Yanovich, E; Tirosh, O; Steinberg, N

    2018-02-01

    Optimal functioning of the lower extremities under repeated movements on unstable surfaces is essential for military effectiveness. Intervention training to promote proprioceptive ability should be considered in order to limit the risk for musculoskeletal injuries. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of a proprioceptive intervention programme on static and dynamic postural balance among Israel Defense Forces combat soldiers. Twenty-seven male soldiers, aged 18-20 years, from a physical fitness instructor's course, were randomly divided into two groups matched by age and army unit. The intervention group (INT) underwent 4 weeks of proprioceptive exercises for 10 min daily; the control group underwent 4 weeks of upper body stretching exercises for 10 min daily. All participants were tested pre and postintervention for both static and dynamic postural balance. Significant interaction (condition*pre-post-test*group) was found for static postural balance, indicating that for the INT group, in condition 3 (on an unstable surface-BOSU), the post-test result was significantly better compared with the pretest result (pbalance on unstable surfaces, and improved the correlation between static postural balance in the eyes closed condition and dynamic postural balance following fatigue. Further longitudinal studies are needed to verify the relationship between proprioception programmes, additional weight bearing and the reduction of subsequent injuries in combat soldiers. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  8. Soviet command and control in a historical context

    OpenAIRE

    Kern, Jeffrey A.

    1981-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited An examination is made of the historical antecedents of present day command and control doctrine in the Soviet Union. The continuity of principal characteristics is demonstrated. The ideological determinants shaping the command and control system are first developed. These include centralism, collective decision-making, unity of command, and redundancy. Practical consequences of these are explored. The functioning of Soviet command...

  9. Soviet civil defense plans make nuclear war winnable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goure, L.

    1985-01-01

    In this paper, the author expresses his opinion that the U.S. is naive and suicidal in its lack of civil defense preparation for nuclear war. The Soviets' extensive civil defense planning is evidence that they plan to use their nuclear weapons and survive a counterattack by the U.S. The author compares the two systems and explains why the Soviets' system is superior

  10. Geopolitics: The Key to Understanding Soviet Regional Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    Soviet foreign policy. nertnngthis role, CO can begin to build a usable theoretical framwork for analyzing Soviet behavior in, utategiczlly inportant...the writings of the great geopolitical theorists, such as Mackinder, Spykman, and Gray, in developing a conceptual basis for understanding the la-tem...Histary,- British geographer Sir Halford J. mdcinder provided the conceptual framewrk for geopolitical theory by dividing the world into three vast regions

  11. Is Soviet society fit for the nuclear age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemeny, L.G.

    1986-01-01

    The author argues that the Kremlin's handling of the Chernobyl crisis is a far greater indictment of Soviet ethos, society and ideology than their technology. The Soviet nuclear plan is seen to be to press on regardless of safety standards. Australia's government and society, through poor education, foreign disinformation and media orchestration, are unable to participate effectively in the responsibilities of a global nuclear society

  12. Hello, Lenin? Nostalgia On Post-Soviet Television In Russia And Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateryna Khinkulova

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available After the collapse of the USSR in 1991, Soviet television looked old-fashioned and seemed redundant, with the emerging post-Soviet televisual cultures turning their gazes to global sources of inspiration. The next decade affected Russia and Ukraine in very different ways. In Russia brief exposure to what was seen as “cheap mass-culture” left TV viewers and producers disillusioned. With the change of attitude towards Western TV, the ideas about Soviet TV changed, too. From a grey and unexciting model Soviet TV had become a shining example of “high quality” and nostalgia-driven content set in for the next few years. In Ukraine, where no domestic TV had existed as such prior to 1991 and where Soviet TV was rapidly fading into the past (and some-one else’s past, too, a decade of experimenting with programming had left the TV producers much more open to global television formats and Western ideas, developing programmes very different than the Russian ones.

  13. DOSTOEVSKY'S RELIGIOSITY AS A METHODOLOGICAL PROBEM OF SOVIET LITERARY CRITICISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Sergeevich Shaulov

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Soviet literary criticism, especially in the first decades after the 1917 Revolution, was quite biased in its treatment of Dostoevsky and his works. The reasons for this bias lie both inside and outside the sphere of political ideology. We suggest that there exists a genetic link between some Soviet readings of Dostoevsky and a number of interpretations made in the author's lifetime. Also analysed are the attempts to 'domesticate' Dostoevsky and adapt his works to drastically different cultural conditions and political norms. It is indicative that this adaptation has always passed the stage of mythologizing the writer and his works. This mythologization paradoxically became a convergence point for Soviet (Lunacharsky, anti-Soviet (Berdyayev and purely philosophical (Bakhtin readings of Dostoevsky. Ultimately, the central Dostoevsky myth in post-revolutionary Russia was a version of Romantic mythology often directly expressed in comparing Dostoevsky with Prometheus. We also look at the negative readings of Dostoevsky, which construed the author as a certain mythological antagonist of the proletariat as the collective messiah. Such readings (exemplified in our article by Pereverzev's and Livshits' point at the ultimate limit of ethical assessment of Dostoevsky from the standpoint of rational secular humanism and the Soviet humanitarian thought as its version. Dostoevsky's artistic practice incorporates this tradition within the intranovel dialogue as just one of the voices and demonstrates its ethical insufficiency, which in its turn provokes the mixed reaction of 'appropriation' and 'rejection' from both Soviet thinkers and their contemporary heirs.

  14. The Soviet Union and population: theory, problems, and population policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Maio, A J

    1980-04-01

    Until the important public dialog on 3rd World population issues began in the Soviet Uuion in 1965, ideological limitations and bureaucratic interests prevented policy makers from recognizing the existence of a world of national "population problem." Since then, freer discussions of the Soviet Union's surprising decline in birthrate and labor shortages have led to serious policy questions. Conflicting policy goals, however, have resulted in only modest pronatalist policies. The Soviet population problem is a result of interregional disparities in population growth rates between the highly urbanized Soviet European populations with low birth rates and the least urbanized Central Asians with dramatically higher birth rates. As a result, these essentially Muslim people will provide the only major increases in labor resources and an increasing percentage of Soviet armed forces recruits. Policy planners are thus faced with difficult options. Current policies stressing technological transfers from the west and greater labor productivity, however, are unlikely to solve further labor shortages and regional imbalances. Ultimately, nonEuropana regions will be in an improved bargaining position for more favorable nationwide economic policies and for a greater role in policy planning.

  15. Nõukogude garaažikultuur. Soviet Garage Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tauri Tuvikene

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Apart from its manifestation in the form of political ideology, the arts and the economic system, socialism also manifested itself in space. The socialist space did not only take shape ideologically, but was also influenced by societal limitations and possibilities. Because of this, it is important to shed light on everyday life in the Soviet Union, which did not necessarily consist of big slogans or open opposition, and which neither expressed loud support nor aversion in relation to the Soviet system. In this article I take a look at the garage areas (which were usually built in clusters as spatial elements, and the garage culture associated with them. I describe how the garage was a necessary part of the car culture in Soviet society, a part which at times comprised objects, practices and meanings of its own: in other words, a garage culture. Cars have had a major impact on cityscapes in the West, where the number of cars per capita was many times larger than in the Soviet Union, but car usage has left its mark in socialist cities as well. Getting around in a car inevitably means aneed to park it somewhere; this basic fact applied to both sides of the Iron Curtain. However, garage areas have carried more importance in socialist societies – there is more of them, and they feature a large amount of parking spaces (hundreds if not thousands. The reason for this popularity was societal limitations and possibilities: on the one hand there was an opportunity for extensive land use brought about by the state ownership of land untouched by free-market search for profitability, but on the other hand there were also obstacles, created by a deficit. By enabling the car owner to keep his vehicle going, the garage had a concrete role to play in the Soviet economic system. The garage was a place where you could repair your car, store spare parts and protect it from potential theft. The role of the garage in Soviet car culture as described in this article

  16. [Civilian-military coordination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Montravel, G

    2002-01-01

    Current humanitarian emergencies create complex, mutidimensional situations that stimulate simultaneous responses from a wide variety of sources including governments, non-governmental organizations (NGO), United Nations agencies, and private individuals. As a result, it has become essential to establish a coherent framework in which each actor can contribute promptly and effectively to the overall effort. This is the role of the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. Regardless of the circumstances and level of coordination, cooperation and collaboration between humanitarian and military personnel, it is necessary to bear in mind their objectives. The purpose of humanitarian action is to reduce human suffering. The purpose of military intervention is to stop warfare. The author of this article will discuss the three major obstacles to civilian-military coordination (strategic, tactical, and operational). Operations cannot be conducted smoothly and differences cannot be ironed out without mutual respect between the two parties, an explicit definition of their respective duties and responsibilities, a clear understanding of their cultural differences, and the presence of an organization and facilities for coordination and arbitrage by a neutral referee.

  17. Evolution of environmental protection strategies in the Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesperance, A.M.

    1992-05-01

    In performing this work, interviews were conducted with members of the Supreme Soviet Committee for Rational Use of Natural Resources, Moscow, City Council, and St. Petersburg City Council. These officials provided their views on the current status of environmental protection in the former Soviet Union. Literature published in English, although limited, supplemented these discussions. In addition, a literature search was conducted of recent articles about this topic. Although the research for this paper was conducted before and during the August 1991 coup attempt in the Soviet Union, and after the formation of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), many of the observations expressed in this report may be relevant to the new states. This report provides to historical perspective on the barriers encountered while attempting to develop environmental policy in the former Soviet Union and establishes a context for problems facing the new states in developing their environmental policies. Organization changes that have occurred in environmental protection since the August coup are included to the extent they are known

  18. The Soviet collapse: Contradictions and neo-modernisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Sakwa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Over two decades have passed since the dissolution of the communist system and the disintegration of the Soviet Union in 1991 yet there is still no consensus over the causes and consequences of these epochal (and distinct events. As for the causes, it is easy to assume that the fall was ‘over-determined’, with an endless array of factors. It behoves the scholar to try to establish a hierarchy of causality, which is itself a methodological exercise in heuristics. However, the arbitrary prioritisation of one factor over another is equally a hermeneutic trap that needs to be avoided. Following an examination of the various ‘why’ factors, we focus on ‘what’ exactly happened at the end of the Soviet period. We examine the issue through the prism of reformulated theories of modernisation. The Soviet system was a sui generis approach to modernisation, but the great paradox was that the system did not apply this ideology to itself. By attempting to stand outside the processes which it unleashed, both society and system entered a cycle of stagnation. The idea of neo-modernisation, above all the idea that societies are challenged to come to terms with the ‘civilisation of modernity’, each in their own way, provides a key to developments. In the end the Soviet approach to this challenge failed, and the reasons for this need to be examined, but the challenge overall remains for post-communist Russia.

  19. Proposed Chevron Tengiz venture stalls amid Soviet political squabble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the status of foreign investment in Soviet oil and gas joint ventures which has reached a critical juncture. Just as the U.S. is considering granting most favored nation trade status to the U.S.S.R., the joint venture petroleum deal seen as the litmus test for such deals-Chevron Corp.'s proposed addition of supergiant Tengiz oil field to its Caspian Sea joint venture-has stalled amid controversy. Unconfirmed reports from Soviet officials and other foreign joint venture participants in the U.S.S.R. have Chevron pulling out of the long negotiated, multibillion dollar project after the Soviets rejected the company's terms. Chevron, however, insists the project is still alive

  20. Soviets may halt production drop with outside funds, technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riva, J.P. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    In a long history of Soviet oil production, a normal development progression has occurred in which several prolific oil provinces have been discovered in sequence, become dominant producers, and then declined. The present drop in Soviet oil output is partly the result of the natural decline of many of its large older fields, but also it is due to reduced capital investments in the domestic oil industry and to the reliance on outdated and inefficient exploration and development technology. This paper reports that financial and technical problems can be remedied by joint ventures with foreign oil companies. Despite these limitations, the Soviet Union has led the world in oil production ever since 1974, often by a considerable margin

  1. 'A people forgotten by history': Soviet Studies of the Kurds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leezenberg, M.

    2015-01-01

    The Russian/Soviet experience raises complex general questions concerning orientalism, conceptual hegemony, and the politics of (post-)colonial knowledge. Russia was not an empire in Said's sense, and drew much of its orientalist categories from non-imperialist German sources; the Soviet Union was

  2. Analysis of the 1957-1958 Soviet nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trabalka, J.R.; Eyman, L.D.; Auerbach, S.I.

    1980-01-01

    The presence of an extensive environmental contamination zone in Chelibinsk Province of the Soviet Union, associated with an accident in the winter of 1957 to 1958 involving the atmospheric release of fission wastes, appears to have been confirmed, primarily by an analysis of the Soviet radioecology literature. The contamination zone is estimated to contain 10(5) to 10(6) curies of strontium-90. A plausible explanation for the incident is the use of now-obsolete techniques for waste storage and cesium-137 isotope separation. Radioactive contamination appears to have resulted in resettlement of the human population from a significant area (100 to 1000 square kilometers). It therefore seems imperative to obtain a complete explanation of the cause (or causes) and consequences of the accident; Soviet experience gained in the application of corrective measures would be invaluable to the world nuclear community

  3. Is the shaman indeed risen in post-Soviet Siberia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olle Sundström

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In his exhaustive study of ‘shamanism’ among the Altaic peoples in Southern Siberia, the renowned Soviet ethnographer Leonid P. Potapov contends that ‘under the present conditions there are no remnants or survivals of Shamanism as such left in Altai’. What remains are legends and reminiscences, but these can no longer be told by people with personal experiences of Altaic ‘shamans’ and their rituals. According to Potapov, modern socialist culture has changed the minds of the Altaic peoples to the degree that they are now a materialistically thinking people, and ‘shamanism’ has completely disappeared. In addition, he contends that there are no prospects of its return after the deathblow dealt by Soviet anti-religious repression in the 1930s ‘shamanic’ rituals were forbidden and ritual paraphernalia such as drums and costumes were expropriated by the authorities. Considering that Potapov in his study follows Altaic ‘shamanism’ through 1500 years, depicting it as a ‘religion’ and ‘theology’ which stayed more or less intact over the centuries, his statement seems more like a pious hope based on the Soviet vision of a society liberated from superstition, religion, and spiritual exploitation. Potapov himself delineates Altaic ‘shamanism’s’ development from a ‘state religion’to a ‘folk religion’. From this perspective it might seem remarkable that ‘shamanism’ should not have survived 70 years of atheist repression, missionary work and the Soviet transformation of society. Already by the time Potapov’s book was published, during the very last months of the existence of the Soviet Union, there had, in fact, appeared a number of persons claiming to be ‘shamans’, with an ancestry dating from the time of ‘shamans’ of the first half of the twentieth century. These individuals were also part of organisations and movements promoting the revival of ‘shamanism’ in the autonomous Altai Republic. In

  4. Military Reform in Ukraine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ulrich, Marybeth

    2004-01-01

    Ukraine became one of the biggest countries in Europe after the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 and inherited a Soviet-built force that had been designed for conducting combined-arms offensive...

  5. PROBLEMS OF INTEGRATION AT THE FORMER SOVIET UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Еlena А. Hudorenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article provides analysis of historical retrospective of integrationprocesses in former Soviet Union, ways and opportunities for furtherdevelopment thereof.The authors make a study of the problems of development and functioningof Eurasian cooperation, the effectiveness of interaction with certain states,analyze the reasons of failures, emphasize the achievements results ofcooperation, point out the opportunities for integration processes betweendifferent CIS and provide practical recommendations for effectiveness thereof in former Soviet Union.

  6. Soviet Policy Toward Western Europe Objectives, Instruments, Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-02-01

    Hellenic Socialist Move- ment ( PASOK ) and the development of ties between its left wing and the Greek Communist party (KKE). Before PASOK won an...absolute majority in the June 1985 elections, the Soviets may have hoped for the formation of a PASOK -KKE coalition or, more likely, an arrange- ment...whereby a minority PASOK government would remain in power with tacit Communist support. Although these expectations were not fulfilled, the Soviets expect

  7. Vospitanie and Regime Change: Teacher-Education Textbooks in Soviet and Post-Soviet Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogachenko, Tatiana; Perry, Laura

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the pedagogical dimension of vospitanie, or character formation, in communist and post-communist education. It explores how vospitanie is conceptualized in two teacher-education textbooks--one from each period--in Ukraine, a post-Soviet country. Comparative analysis shows how conceptualizations of vospitanie have evolved over…

  8. President Ford and both the Soviet and American ASTP crews

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    President Gerald R. Ford removes the Soviet Soyuz spacecraft model from a model set depicting the 1975 Apollo Soyuz Test Project (ASTP), an Earth orbital docking and rendezvous mission with crewmen from the U.S. and USSR. From left to right, Vladamir A. Shatalov, Chief, Cosmonaut training; Valeriy N. Kubasov, ASTP Soviet engineer; Aleksey A. Leonov, ASTP Soviet crew commander; Thomas P. Stafford, commander of the American crew; Donald K. Slayton, American docking module pilot; Vance D. Brand, command module pilot for the American crew. Dr. George M Low, Deputy Administrator for NASA is partially obscured behind President Ford.

  9. The Evolution of the Soviet Use of Surrogates in Military Relations with the Third World, with Particular Emphasis on Cuban Participation in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-01

    accomplishments during the early and mid-1960s, Castro may have felt it necessary to assert Cuba’s machismo in the international arena to galvanize the state and...have believed a display of machismo was necessary. With the con- demnation of the Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia by the French, Italian, and

  10. Nuclear power in the Soviet Bloc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davey, W.G.

    1982-03-01

    The growth of Soviet Bloc nuclear power generation to the end of the century is evaluated on the basis of policy statements of objectives, past and current nuclear power plant construction, and trends in the potential for future construction. Central to this study is a detailed examination of individual reactor construction and site development that provides specific performance data not given elsewhere. A major commitment to nuclear power is abundantly clear and an expansion of ten times in nuclear electric generation is estimated between 1980 and 2000. This rate of growth is likely to have significant impact upon the total energy economy of the Soviet Bloc including lessening demands for use of coal, oil, and gas for electricity generation

  11. Nuclear power in the Soviet Bloc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davey, W.G.

    1982-03-01

    The growth of Soviet Bloc nuclear power generation to the end of the century is evaluated on the basis of policy statements of objectives, past and current nuclear power plant construction, and trends in the potential for future construction. Central to this study is a detailed examination of individual reactor construction and site development that provides specific performance data not given elsewhere. A major commitment to nuclear power is abundantly clear and an expansion of ten times in nuclear electric generation is estimated between 1980 and 2000. This rate of growth is likely to have significant impact upon the total energy economy of the Soviet Bloc including lessening demands for use of coal, oil, and gas for electricity generation.

  12. The image of women in Soviet Manifesto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Orabona

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article summarizes the condition of women within the Bolshevik regime, focusing on the use of posters. Visual propaganda was a means to easily reach wide strata of the population. The official Party ideology, expressed through visual propaganda, contributed to the definition of new social identities, as well as to the creation of new ways of thinking and acting in Soviet society. It had its own internal dynamics and operated as an independent force in a continually evolving society in which the field of discourse was radically changing. Posters aticipated developments in Soviet society and provided a model for people to follow; they were not limited to reflecting past or current events. The posters under consideretion pertain to the representation of women in their various occupations (e.g, workers, peasants or simply happily engaged in everyday life. The images prescribed, for example, which clothes to wear or how hair should be styled, and were without doubt powerful and pervasive; yet they were destined to meet an inevitable decline following Stalin's death, when the Soviet Union reprised its international relations.

  13. Soviet theories of economic demography: a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, P

    1983-06-01

    At this time Soviet demographic scientists maintain the position that population problems may in fact exist temporarily under socialism but that the planning principle will allow society to resolve population problems, through the use of the administrative, moral, and economic levers (subsidies, government policies, propaganda, education) emphasized by Urlanis (1974) and others. For planners to deal effectively with population management, the determinants of fertility and labor force participation must be established. The foundations of Soviet theories of human capital and fertility were laid by several writers. For the sake of simplicity, these are referred to as the Urlanis-Strumilin model, named after 2 pioneer researchers in Soviet demography and manpower economics. The formulations are based upon the writings of Strumlin (1964) and Urlanis (1974), supplemented by writings of numerous other Soviet researchers. Although their models avoid neoclassical terms such as marginal utility and income and price elasticities, they clearly employ these concepts. The Urlanis-Strumilin model, reduced to its basic elements, is a direct household utility maximizing model. The husband and wife, the household decision makers, must select optimal levels of child "quantity," child "quality," leisure, their own human capital (further education and training), and other goods. The Soviet theory recognizes that an increase in household income will increase relatively the demands for income elastic goods. The model postulates that the demand for child quality is inversely related to the price of children. The price of children is the opportunity cost of children, the major element of which is the income foregone by the mother in the course of childbearing and childrearing. The child quantity demand schedule has elastic and inelastic portions. The marginal utility of the 1st child is great. The marginal utilities of higher order children decline substantially. Families with at least 1

  14. Study design to develop and pilot-test a web intervention for partners of military service members with alcohol misuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osilla, Karen Chan; Pedersen, Eric R; Gore, Kristie; Trail, Thomas; Howard, Stefanie Stern

    2014-09-02

    Alcohol misuse among military service members from the recent conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan is over two times higher compared to misuse in the civilian population. Unfortunately, in addition to experiencing personal consequences from alcohol misuse, partners and family members of alcohol-misusing service members also suffer in negative ways from their loved one's drinking. These family members represent important catalysts for helping their loved ones identify problem drinking and overcoming the barriers to seeking care. This paper describes the protocol to a pilot study evaluating a 4-session, web-based intervention (WBI) for concerned partners (CPs) of service members with alcohol misuse. The WBI will be adapted from the Community Reinforcement and Family Training (CRAFT) intervention. In the first phase, we will develop and beta-test the WBI with 15-20 CPs. In the second phase, we will randomize CPs to WBI (n = 50) or to delayed-WBI (n = 50) and evaluate the impact of the WBI on CPs' perceptions of service member help-seeking and drinking, as well as the CP's well-being and relationship satisfaction 3 months after the intervention. In the third phase, we will recruit 15-20 service members whose partners have completed the study. We will interview the service members to learn how the CP-focused WBI affected them and to assess whether they would be receptive to a follow-on WBI module to help them. This project has the potential to benefit a large population of military service members who may be disproportionately affected by recent conflicts and whose drinking misuse would otherwise go undetected and untreated. It also develops a new prevention model that does not rely on service members or partners attending a hospital or clinical facility to access care. NCT02073825.

  15. Cross border environmental issues arising from the former Soviet Union nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, B.R.; Dooley, J.J.; Bradley, D.J.

    1998-02-01

    Radioactive contamination from sites in the Former Soviet Union (FSU) threaten bordering states via transport through marine environments. Japan, North Korea, South Korea, Germany, Sweden, Norway, and Finland share waterways or border common bodies of water with the FSU. Cross-border contamination resulting from past and in some cases current radioactive waste practices FSU nuclear wastes could under the right circumstances destabilize military, economic, or other relationships between the FSU and these border nations. The United States has an ongoing obligation to assist many of these border nations in times of need. This analysis was sponsored by the Office of Policy and International Affairs, Office of Materials-Asset Management and National Security Policy Analysis. The Center for Environmental Security was tasked to identify cross-border and other policy issues from an extensive body of technical materials dealing with nuclear materials management in the Former Soviet Union compiled over time by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The analysis focused on cross-border impacts but also provides insights into policy analysis based on this existing technical work. The efficiencies and results realized by this study indicate that this analytical methodology has merit for additional policy studies. There are three elements comprising the problem of understanding cross border transport. The amount of FSU nuclear waste that has been disposed of in ways that did not, or probably will not contain the waste is the first element. The past and probable future entry of these wastes into groundwater and surface waters, thence to seas is the second. Finally, adverse effects on human health and welfare from ingesting contaminated sea products, and from damaged fisheries and food production activities is the third

  16. Review of the Soviet gas industry in 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagers, M.J.

    1991-01-01

    Soviet production of natural gas increased by only 18.6 billion cubic meters (2.3%) in 1990, from 796.1 billion cubic meters (BCM) to 814.7 BCM. This was the smallest annual increment and the lowest rate of growth in more than two decades. During the 1980s, annual growth typically had been in the 6-8% range, with yearly increments of 40-50 BCM. Of the national total in 1990, enterprises of the Gazprom Concern (formerly the Ministry of the Gas Industry) produced 748.0 BCM, while the Ministry of Oil and Gas produced 66.7 BCM; the latter would be mostly associated gas. Given the USSR's ample resource base, it appears that the Soviet economy is experiencing increasing problems absorbing natural gas, particularly as Soviet aggregate economic output falls along with total energy consumption. During the 1980s, when the gas industry was growing so rapidly, the Soviets absorbed the massive increments in gas supply by directing most of it to a few very large consumers - electric power stations, iron and steel plants, and nitrogenous fertilizer centers. Currently, 54.3% of gas is used for electric power generation; 32.6% in industry; and only 13.1% by the housing and municipal sector. Although the share of housing units using either natural gas or LPG (liquefied petroleum gas-butane and propane) is fairly high in the Soviet Union - 84.8% - this is mostly for cooking rather than heating, so gas use per unit is relatively small. Another problem is that the availability of gas among households is very uneven across the republics and between rural and urban areas. A table gives statistics on gas production in various regions from 1970-1990

  17. Securing Human Rights on the Post-Soviet Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rustam A. Kasyanov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: A lot of profound political, economic, social, cultural and legislative modifications have happened on the post-Soviet space since the disintegration of the USSR. The term “post-Soviet space” should not be considered as the geographical boundaries of the fifteen former Soviet republics. The conception of the “post-Soviet space” has a more profound meaning as it reflects the common historical and cultural heritage as well as close economic relations, moreover, friendship between the citizens of the new independent States. The most developed sphere in the interstate relations nowadays is economics. The most prime example is Eurasian Economic Union (EEU, the youngest integration institution in the world which unites five countries willing to construe their relationship on a stronger basis than the proposed format of cooperation within the Commonwealth of the Independent States. In the modern world the economic and financial interests are determining, their ensuring makes the governments change foreign and domestic policies, start and terminate trade wars, desperately fight for the respect of their legal rights or, on the contrary, voluntarily give up on some parts of their sovereignty in the framework of integration development. The experience of the European Union demonstrates that the construction of the unified internal market within which freely move persons, goods, services and capitals is a necessary but not the only attribute of a successful integration project. At a certain moment the complex of economic and financial interests should be supplied with the interests of a concrete person. A strict observation of rights and freedoms is becoming a factor that predetermines a possibility of a conversion to the higher forms of integration. In this article is analyzed the problem of human rights defense in the main organizations functioning on the post-Soviet space - Eurasian Economic Union and Commonwealth of the Independent

  18. Post-Soviet emptiness (Vladimir Makanin and Viktor Pelevin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Günther

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Emptiness is a key word in several post-Soviet Russian novels of the late 1990s. One can find it as well in Vladimir Makanin's “Underground” as in two novels written by Viktor Pelevin, “Generation ‘P’” and “Chapaev and Emptiness”. After the fall of Soviet power Pelevin's cynical hero from “Generation ‘P’” changes from literature into advertising business, and in his novel “Chapaev and Emptiness” the legendary Soviet Civil War hero Chapaev transforms into a preacher of quasi-Buddhist nothingness. Makanin's hero, the writer Petrovich, renounces of his profession in order to work as a watchman in shelters for the homeless. His self-abasement is in accordance with the tradition of kenoticism (derived from the Greek word kenós = empty which played an important part in the history of Russian religious and cultural life. Criticizing the hypermoralism of classical Russian literature Makanin outlines a new image of the writer which is opposed to the Russian literary myth but still propagates moral and religious values. Pelevin's novels which reflect the relativism of postmodern poetics focus on another issue – the blurring of the difference between reality and illusion. In “Generation ‘P’”, mass media and advertising produce deceitful simulacra of reality and in “Chapaev and Emptiness” the deconstruction of Soviet mythology assumes the shape of a nightmare. Unsurprisingly, among the imagery of emptiness Malevich's famous “Black Square” including its numerous equivalents as black holes or all sorts of empty spaces is rather frequent in the three novels. Emptiness may be considered to be a characteristic trait of the atmosphere of the 1990s when Russians felt to live in a cultural vacuum somewhere between state economy and unbridled capitalism, between Soviet order and “post-slave” (Makanin chaos.

  19. When Military Parents Come Home: Building "Strong Families Strong Forces," a Home-Based Intervention for Military Families with Very Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Ruth; Acker, Michelle L.; Ross, Abigail M.; DeVoe, Ellen R.

    2011-01-01

    The long wars in Afghanistan and Iraq have presented unique challenges to military-connected families with very young children, yet few evidence-based services are available to support these families through deployment and reintegration. Although many military families have shown remarkable resilience throughout the intense demands of the wars,…

  20. Steven E. Miller and Dmitri V. Trenin, eds., The Russian Military: Power and Policy, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2004.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Tsypkin

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The Russian military largely went below the radar of Western interest after the disintegration of the Soviet Union.  More than a decade after the creation of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation, they have become again the object of interest for scholars – this time, both Western and Russian, as demonstrated by the reviewed volume, whose editors assembled a group of extraordinarily knowledgeable experts from Russia and the West.  In his introduction, Steven Miller explains that the purp...

  1. A Genealogy of (post-Soviet Dependency: Disabling Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandra Hartblay

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Nancy Fraser and Linda Gordon's 1994 article “A Genealogy of Dependency: Tracing a Keyword of the US Welfare State” explored the historical emergence of "dependency" as a moral category of post-industrial American state. In this article, I engage their framework to explore the genealogy of dependency in America's post-industrial sister, the post-Soviet Russian Federation. I also add disability as a core element of 'dependency' that was largely absent from Fraser and Gordon's original analysis. Considering cross-cultural translation, I ask how Russian deployments of three words that all relate to a concept of interdependence align with and depart from American notions of dependency, and trace historical configurations of the Soviet welfare state vis-a-vis disability. To do so, I draw on historical and cultural texts, linguistic comparisons, secondary sources, and ethnographic research. Given this analysis, I argue that rather than a Cold War interpretation of the Soviet Union and the US as oppositional superpowers in the 20th century, a liberatory disability studies framework suggests that in the postindustrial era the Soviet Union and the United States emerged as dual regimes of productivity. I suggest that reframing postsocialism as a global condition helps us to shift considerations of disability justice from a critique of capitalism to a critique of productivity.    Keywords: dependency, disability, citizenship, russia, productivity

  2. Soviet Archaeological Expedition as a Research Object

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Sveshnikova

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Soviet archaeological expeditions are the main focus of my research. They provide us with very interesting examples of archaeological expeditions as a part of a society, and not only as a part of science. After the 1960s it was an especially popular leisure practice. Many people who were not professional archaeologists went on expeditions in their leisure time and worked there as diggers or shovelmen (excavators. A Soviet archaeologist described them as people who ‘prefer to spend their vacation in archaeological expeditions in various parts of our country instead of seaside resorts.

  3. THE PROBLEM OF DISTINCTION BETWEEN TERMS "SOVIETISM", “IDEOLOGEME " AND "INTERNATIONALISM"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shkredova Mariya Igorevna

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article the problem of distinction between terms "Sovietism" "ideologeme" and "international word" are examined. Criteria of their differentiation and the features of functioning in lexicon and literature are analyzed. As a result of separation of criteria of differentiation and the analysis of characteristic features of these terms it became possible to determine of each of terms. Results of research can be used by the lexicologists studying the lexicon of the Soviet era, authors of dictionaries of Sovietism, by students and teachers in study of lexicon.

  4. Children's Literature in the Soviet Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, D. D.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Children's literature in the Soviet Union is of four types: 17 stories based on old tales, adaptations from great Russian literature, original writings for children, and translations from foreign works. (JH)

  5. Serbia's Military Neutrality: Origins, effects and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ejdus Filip

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Serbia is the only state in the Western Balkans that is not seeking NATO membership. In December 2007, Serbia declared military neutrality and in spite of its EU membership aspirations, developed very close relations with Moscow. The objective of this paper is threefold. First, I argue that in order to understand why Serbia declared military neutrality, one has to look both at the discursive terrain and domestic power struggles. The key narrative that was strategically used by mnemonic entrepreneurs, most importantly by the former Prime Minister Vojislav Koštunica, to legitimize military neutrality was the trauma of NATO intervention in 1999 and the ensuing secession of Kosovo. In the second part of the paper, I discuss the operational consequences of the military neutrality policy for Serbia's relations with NATO and Russia, as well as for military reform and EU accession. Finally, I spell out the challenges ahead in Serbia's neutrality policy and argue that its decision makers will increasingly be caught between pragmatic foreign policy requirements on the one hand and deeply entrenched traumatic memories on the other.

  6. Problem behaviors of children adopted from the former Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuinness, Teena M; Pallansch, Leona

    2007-01-01

    Although current meta-analyses of problem behavior of internationally adopted children exist, few children adopted from the former Soviet Union have been included in these reports. A significant concern is that 13 children adopted from the former Soviet Union have died at the hands of their American adoptive parents since 1996. A cohort of 105 children adopted from the former Soviet Union has been assessed at two points in time by telephone and postal surveys to measure the impact of risk and protective factors on problem behavior. Pre-adoptive risk factors have declined in importance (except for birth weight) and protective factors (operationalized as aspects of family environment) have increased in influence over time. Problem behavior scores declined slightly at Time 2, despite the children having entered adolescence. Families play a significant role in the behavior of children adopted from the former Soviet Union. Nurses should counsel families to shape the child's environment during the transition from orphanage to homes in the United States, especially for children who are low birth weight.

  7. Jinneography: Post-Soviet passages of traumatic exemplarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beigi, Khashayar

    2016-04-01

    While Russia has historically and geographically close ties with Islam, the second most-practiced religion in its vast territories, the collapse of the USSR changed the terms of this relationship in significant ways. One key shift is the emergence of new immigration patterns between Russia and former Soviet states. Traversing distant lands from the peripheries of the Caucasus and Central Asia to mainland Russia in search of work, migrants have come to recognize each other as fellow Muslims dispersed in a theological geography on the ruins of the universal comradeship dreamed by the Soviet utopia. I propose to study the Islamic pedagogical practice of ibra in the context of sociohistorical dynamics of education and migration between Russia and Central Asia to further locate and analyze this shift in relation to current debates on post-Soviet subjectivity. By discussing the case of a spirit possession of a Tajik national performed in Russia, I argue that the collective participation in the session pedagogically invokes, ciphers, and extends the post-Soviet terrains of history as ibra, or exemplary passage of worldly events. To do so, I first locate the Quranic concept of ibra as a pedagogical paradigm in Islamic traditions as well as an ethnographic lens in the context of educational campaigns for the Muslims of Eurasia and then apply the concept to my analysis of the possession session in order to show that in the ritualistic incarnations of ghosts, or jinns, the civil war of Tajikistan and its continuing cycle of terror is ciphered into a desire for learning, as well as a focus on approximation to the divine. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Kommunist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-22

    create the most favorable conditions for a new upsurge in Soviet cinema and theater. It is only the healthy, competitive and creative atmo- sphere, in...Communist Party), Vox (Colombian Communist Party), Unidad ( Peruvian Communist Party), Hora and Popular (Uruguayan Communist Party), and Pueblo (Ecuadorian

  9. Nuclear safety cooperation for Soviet designed reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reisman, A.W.; Horak, W.C.

    1995-01-01

    The nuclear accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986 first alerted the West to the significant safety risks of Soviet designed reactors. Five years later, this concern was reaffirmed when the IAEA, as a result of a review by an international team of nuclear safety experts, announced that it did not believe the Kozloduy nuclear power plants in Bulgaria could be operated safely. To address these safety concerns, the G-7 summit in Munich in July 1992 outlined a five point program to address the safety problems of Soviet Designed Reactors: operational safety improvement; near-term technical improvements to plants based on safety assessment; enhancing regulatory regimes; examination of the scope for replacing less safe plants by the development of alternative energy sources and the more efficient use of energy; and upgrading of the plants of more recent design. As of early 1994, over 20 countries and international organizations have pledged hundreds of millions of dollars in financial assistance to improve safety. This paper summarizes these assistance efforts for Soviet designed reactors, draws lessons learned from these activities, and offers some options for better addressing these concerns

  10. Itaalia konstrueerimine nõukogude reisikirjas. The Construction of Italy in Soviet Travelogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anneli Kõvamees

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The focus of the article is Aimée Beekman’s travelogue Plastmassist südamega madonna (Madonna With a Plastic Heart, 1963. It also covers Juhan Kahk’s travelogue Alpide taga on moonpunane Itaalia (Behind the Alps Lies Poppy-Red Italy, 1967, Artur Vader’s Itaalia päikese all (Under Italy’s Sun, 1973, the chapters on Italy in Voldemar Panso’s travel novel Laevaga Leningradist Odessasse ehk Miks otse minna, kui ringi saab (From Leningrad to Odessa by Boat or: Why Go Straight When You Can Go Around, 1957, Max Laosson’s Nato-blokk turisti bloknoodis (Notebook of a Tourist in the Nato Bloc, 1962 and Debora Vaarandi’s Välja õuest ja väravast (From the Yard and the Gate, 1970. My aim is to analyse Soviet Estonian authors’ image of Italy in order to see what characterises the Soviet travelogue. The theoretical background of the article is the research field of imagology within literary studies. Imagology and image studies deal with the depiction of countries and peoples. With the basic concepts of imagology as a starting point, the typical topic developments of the Soviet travelogue are covered, such as the thematic features of the worker, Western society and its mechanics and idiosyncracies, faith and the church, the question of the so-called ’real Italy’ and the characteristic perspicacity of writers of Soviet travelogues. When it comes to Estonian travelogues, one can talk about a Tuglasesque travelogue tradition; Friedebert Tuglas is considered one of the pioneers behind the Estonian travelogue with his works Teekond Hispaania (A Journey to Spain, 1918 and Teekond Põhja-Aafrika (A Journey to North Africa, I–III, 1928–1930. In the Tuglasesque travelogue, books of history and art, fiction and personal impressions are intertwined. The travelogue is educational and makes for good reading. The Soviet travelogue spans certain topics from a Soviet point of view and uses Soviet rhetorics and logics. The authors usually don

  11. The secret of the Soviet hydrogen bomb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellerstein, Alex; Geist, Edward

    2017-11-01

    Was the first Soviet thermonuclear device really a step in the wrong direction? No bomb design has been as much maligned or otherwise disparaged as the first Soviet thermonuclear weapon. Detonated in August 1953, the bomb, officially tested under the name RDS-6s but usually known as Sloika or "layer cake" (the name Andrei Sakharov coined for it), was nothing to sneeze at. Shown in Figure 1 and able to be dropped from aircraft, it released the explosive equivalent, or yield, of almost half a megaton of TNT. The result was a blazing fireball with 20 times the power of the bomb that leveled Nagasaki, Japan.

  12. Historical Soviet Daily Snow Depth (HSDSD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The HSDSD product is based on observations from 284 World Meteorological Organization (WMO) stations throughout Russia and the former Soviet Union. The area covered...

  13. A Systematic Review of Suicide Prevention Programs for Military or Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, Steven C.; Munjas, Brett; Shekelle, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Military personnel and veterans have important suicide risk factors. After a systematic review of the literature on suicide prevention, seven (five in the U.S.) studies of military personnel were identified containing interventions that may reduce the risk of suicide. The effectiveness of the individual components was not assessed, and problems in…

  14. Strong Military Families Program: A Multifamily Group Approach to Strengthening Family Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblum, Kate; Muzik, Maria; Waddell, Rachel; Thompson, Stephanie; Rosenberg, Lauren; Masini, Gabriella; Smith, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Military families frequently display remarkable resilience in the face of significant challenges, and yet deployment and parental separation are significant stressors for parents, particularly those with infants and young children. The Strong Military Families preventive intervention is a multifamily parenting and self-care skills group that aims…

  15. Text of the joint U.S.-Soviet summit statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-12-01

    The document reproduces the text of the joint U.S.-Soviet summit statement issued on 10 December 1987 at the conclusion of the meeting between the President of the United States and the General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Washington, December 7-10, 1987). It refers to the arms control (including nuclear weapons), human rights and humanitarian concerns, regional issues, bilateral affairs and further meetings

  16. Hello, Lenin? Nostalgia On Post-Soviet Television In Russia And Ukraine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khinkulova, Kateryna

    2012-01-01

    abstractAfter the collapse of the USSR in 1991, Soviet television looked old-fashioned and seemed redundant, with the emerging post-Soviet televisual cultures turning their gazes to global sources of inspiration. The next decade affected Russia and Ukraine in very different ways. In Russia brief

  17. French-Soviet experiments ARAKS: main results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavergnat, J.

    1982-01-01

    The objective of the French-Soviet ARAKS experiments (Artificial Radiation and Aurora between Kerguelen and the Soviet Union) was to study the injection of an electron beam in the ionospheric plasma. Two rockets were launched which were magnetically conjugated with a point on the ground, and many ground-based measurement facilities were set up in conjunction with these experiments, with emphasis on radar measurements in the Northern Hemisphere as well as on the VLH and VHF measurements in both hemispheres. One of the important results of the experiments is that they have demonstrated the possibility of detecting the ionization trails created by the beam penetrating the conjugate atmosphere by ground-based radar observations. The observations discussed include those related to neutralization of the electron gun and wave emission. 6 references

  18. Former Soviet Union (FSU) Gravity Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded gravity anomaly data for the Former Soviet Union (FSU) and Eastern Europe has been received by the National Geophysical Data Center(NGDC). The data file...

  19. Comparison of Soviet and US space food and nutrition programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Selina

    1989-01-01

    The Soviet Space Food and Nutrition programs are compared with those of the U.S. The Soviets established the first Space Food programs in 1961, when one of the Soviet Cosmonauts experienced eating in zero gravity. This study indicates that some major differences exist between the two space food and nutrition programs regarding dietary habits. The major differences are in recommended nutrient intake and dietary patterns between the cosmonauts and astronauts. The intake of protein, carbohydrates and fats are significantly higher in cosmonaut diets compared to astronauts. Certain mineral elements such as phosphorus, sodium and iron are also significantly higher in the cosmonauts' diets. Cosmonauts also experience intake of certain unconventional food and plant extracts to resist stress and increase stamina.

  20. Approaching Humanitarian Intervention Strategically: The Case of Somalia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fox, John G

    2000-01-01

    The U.S.-led military intervention in Somalia, which began in 1992, had profound consequences for how the United States would view later humanitarian operations overseas and the use of military force, in general...

  1. Illusions of Friendship? The Soviet Union and Russia in the Finnish Press

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heikki Luostarinen

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The image of the Soviet Union and Russia has changed dramatically in the press in Finland after the World War II. This article is based on a frequency analysis in which mentions of certain countries, groups of states and international organizations were coded (like the Soviet Union/Russia, United States, NATO, UN etc.. To make the analysis more revealing and interesting, a distinction was made whether the mention was made in the context of (1 alliance, friendship and cooperation, or in the context of (2 distance, restriction and enemy image, or (3 both in a positive and in a negative context. The time frame was from 1945 till the end of the century, and the newspapers chosen for the study represented the whole political spectrum of the Finnish media. The selection criteria of the material emphasized national celebration days. The study proves clearly what has been the main object of Finnish foreign policy after the WW II: in all coded press material, the Soviet Union/Russia was mentioned 222 times which makes 37.5% of all mentions. Other important states or groups have been the United States (5.3 %, EC/EU/WEU/West-Europe (12.6 %, United Nations (9.0 % and Nordic council/Nordic co-operation (11.2 %. With very few exceptions, all mentions concerning the UN and Nordic co-operation are positive. The Soviet Union has also been described rather positively (77.5 %. The share of negative mentions is 8.1% and mixture of negative and positive mentions 14.4%. Images of the United States and the European alliances are most contradictory. In the case of USA, 54.8 % of the mentions are positive and 45.2% negative. Concerning EC/EU etc. 54.1 % of mentions are positive, 28.4 % negative and 17.6 % mixtures of positive and negative references. Changes in attitudes towards the Soviet Union in different time spots are remarkable. The share of negative mentions of the Soviet Union was very low, except in 1995 (30 % when Finland already was a member of the EU

  2. Mindfulness Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, J David

    2017-01-03

    Mindfulness interventions aim to foster greater attention to and awareness of present moment experience. There has been a dramatic increase in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of mindfulness interventions over the past two decades. This article evaluates the growing evidence of mindfulness intervention RCTs by reviewing and discussing (a) the effects of mindfulness interventions on health, cognitive, affective, and interpersonal outcomes; (b) evidence-based applications of mindfulness interventions to new settings and populations (e.g., the workplace, military, schools); (c) psychological and neurobiological mechanisms of mindfulness interventions; (d) mindfulness intervention dosing considerations; and (e) potential risks of mindfulness interventions. Methodologically rigorous RCTs have demonstrated that mindfulness interventions improve outcomes in multiple domains (e.g., chronic pain, depression relapse, addiction). Discussion focuses on opportunities and challenges for mindfulness intervention research and on community applications.

  3. Reflections on Recent Research Into Animal-Assisted Interventions in the Military and Beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumayor, Christina B; Thrasher, Amy M

    2017-11-25

    The purpose of the present review was threefold: to address the current state of Animal-Assisted Interactions (AAI) within the military; to summarize recent literature (within the past three years) in the field of AAI; and to discuss trends in AAI research since 2014. With regard to AAI within the military, several canine interaction programs have been utilized to assist service members in coping with various issues. Therapy dogs have been deployed with Combat-Operational Stress Control units; they have been integrated into medical clinics and behavioral health treatment programs in garrison; and policy has been developed to address the use of therapy animals in military treatment facilities. General research in AAI has demonstrated efficacy for certain presenting issues (stress management, trauma, autism spectrum disorder) and specific populations (children, the elderly, acute care patients). Overall trends in research include calls for increased consideration for animal welfare in AAI and increased rigor in research methodology. Current research supports the structured use of therapy dogs in the treatment of various disorders and with specific populations, including military service members and veterans; however, the need for additional research with rigorous methodology remains.

  4. European Socio-cultural Change and Generational Diversity in the Post-Soviet Workforce.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madara APSALONE

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In times of increased retirement age and senior employees staying in workforce longer, successfully managing generational differences in the workforce forms an increasingly important challenge for modern day management. In many ways, generations may vary in attitudes and approaches, reflecting deeper differences in their core values. This might be particularly true for the Post-Soviet countries, where earlier generations were educated and started their careers within a completely different socio-economic system. In this study we explore differences in approaches towards values and attitudes amongst four generations of retail sector employees – starting from those, who were still to great extent exposed to pre-Soviet values, continuing with employees, who started their careers during the Soviet times, and ending with those, who were educated and entered the workforce after the collapse of the Soviet Union. 208 Latvian service employees were surveyed to assess their personal values and likelihood of dishonest and unethical behavior from four generations currently active in the workforce - Post-War generation, Early Gen X, Transition generation and Millennials. We confirmed that despite dual morality and ambiguous ethics in the Soviet Union, older generations reported higher likelihood of honest behavior than younger generations. And Post-War and Early Generation X also rated honesty and responsibility higher as their personal values. We also found significant differences between Early Generation X and the Transition generation in a post-Soviet context.

  5. Reflections through a Soviet Window. Rural Governance and Colonization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Dekel-Chen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper probes the crossroads between the realities of life and the ambitions of the early Soviet regime in one corner of its vast countryside. As a test case, I explore the meeting of organized agrarianization of Jews from the former Pale of Settlement with the mechanisms of Soviet power in the geographical and national peripheries of what was seen until recently as a monolithic, centralized state. Barring the last four years before Operation Barbarossa, a non-governmental, non-denominational American-Jewish philanthropy (the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee [Joint or Agro-Joint] funded and administered much of this resettlement project in southern Ukraine and Crimea. As shall be seen, the arrival of an effective foreign organization not only shaped the lives of its client-colonists, but the very character of Soviet rural authority through the emergence of hybrid models of governance in the countryside.

  6. Soviet histories of love on the American line-up: the phenomenon to the repair-man in modern cinema aesthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Diomina

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The post­Soviet culture is characterized by a deep nostalgia for the Soviet era. The manifestation of that nostalgia is a constant circulation of the Soviet themes in the post­Soviet media space. Classic Soviet romantic comedies are traditionally being showing on the national television during national holidays year by year. There are a lot of remakes of the cult Soviet films released in post­Soviet times. The movie “Office Romance. Modern Time”(2011 is an adaptation of the classic love story of Soviet film “Office Romance”(1977 to the realities of contemporary culture. Remakes adapt Soviet stable movie­plots for contemporary post­Soviet generation. Remake has an interpretive nature. Remake of “Office Romance” had the impact of the Hollywood genre conventions on cinema representation narrative and life style of the characters. Two versions of the same stories that belong to two cultural epochs, show the gradual assimilation of Soviet and post­Soviet cinema of Hollywood genre and mental patterns of American culture. The Soviet “Office Romance” (1977 genre conventions of romantic comedies were adapted to Soviet realities at the semantic level. The heroes of post­Soviet version of “Office Romance” (2011 have incorporated the mental patterns of American culture. The main heroes belief that identity and its representation in the society are not stable and established. On the representation of society and we must take care to design it so that it was clear to people around. This model has been played on the material of (PostSoviet culture in the analyzed films and effectiveness of the model is shown by the happy­ending.

  7. Smokeless tobacco use in the United States military: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Hannah E; Hunt, Yvonne M; Augustson, Erik

    2012-05-01

    Smokeless tobacco (ST) use represents an important target for intervention in the U.S. military population because it impairs "military readiness" and harms the health of the military. This paper aims to provide a systematic review of ST studies conducted in the U.S. military population in order to assess the content of existing ST research in this population, provide estimates of prevalence and clinically relevant use patterns, and discuss how these findings might be used to guide future ST research among this population. We reviewed articles published through December 2010 using PubMed and PsycINFO databases, Google Scholar, and any relevant articles' reference lists. Inclusion criteria included focus on a U.S. military sample, English language, measured tobacco use, and ST prevalence was reported or could be calculated. To the extent possible, each article was coded for demographics, socioeconomic status, prevalence, amount, frequency, and length of use, and quit intentions/attempts. Thirty-nine articles met criteria for inclusion. Less than half focused primarily on ST use among military personnel. The remaining studies measured ST use in the context of other behaviors. Findings related to clinically relevant behaviors included a need for more cohort and intervention studies, a better understanding of ST use in combination with cigarettes (i.e., concurrent use), and identifying risk factors for ST initiation and use. ST use is prevalent among military personnel, as is concurrent use of cigarettes and ST. We provide a number of recommendations to guide future research in this important, yet understudied, area.

  8. Book Review: Odintsov, M. I. Confessional Policy in the Soviet Union during the Great Patriotic War in 1941-1945 [Text] / M. I. Odintsov, A. S. Kochetova. – M. : Scientific & Political Book : Political Encyclopedia, 2014. – 317 p. – (History of Stalinism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim N. Yakunin

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The book contains the information about the status and activities of churches and religious groups in the Soviet Union before and during the Great Patriotic War in 1941–1945. The causes which led to the change in the policy of the Soviet government against the religious organizations are identified, the analysis of the activities of the Soviet state on creating a new system of state-church relations, the main stages of its development are represented. The activity of the newly created authorities on “Religious Affairs” – the Council for Russian Orthodox Church and the Religious Affairs Council is revealed. The authors show a response to the change in the statechurch relations in the center and different strata of Soviet society and also the ratio of official policy and propaganda with a specific embodiment of the state church policy. M.I. Odintsov and A.S. Kochetova analyze the situation and activity of religious organizations in the occupied territories of the USSR. The plans and main directions of the Nazi policy towards religion and religious organizations in the occupied territories of the USSR, directives of the political and military leadership of Nazi Germany are studied. The authors compare the religious policies of Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union and show their similarities and differences, emphasizing that the last ones were most clearly expressed from the beginning of the Great Patriotic War. The book features a wide source base. The documentation of 6 major Russian archives was used for solving the research problem.

  9. Interactive Videodisc Technology: Applications to the Air Command and Staff College Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-01

    objectives )r Executive and NSC system Congress Military Intelligence community Media National environment Transcultural communications Global challenges...Cuban missile crisis REGIONAL STUDIES: USSR AND EUROPE Superpower global objectives The Soviet Union: background The Soviet political-economic system...summary National security affairs review The crisis game WARFARE STUDIES MILITARY HISTORY AND THEORY * - Overview to thinking about war Sun Tzu Great

  10. The prevalence of toxic hotspots in former Soviet countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharov, Petr; Dowling, Russell; Gogishvili, Megi; Jones, Barbara; Caravanos, Jack; McCartor, Andrew; Kashdan, Zachary; Fuller, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Using a global database of contaminated sites, toxic hotspots in eight former Soviet countries were analyzed to identify the prevalence, types and sources of toxic pollution, as well as their associated potential public health impacts. For this analysis, polluted sites in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan were compiled and analyzed. The levels of contamination of seven key pollutants were assessed in each country. 424 contaminated sites were identified using data from Blacksmith Institute. Pesticides, lead (Pb), radioactive metals, arsenic (As), mercury (Hg), chromium (Cr), and cadmium (Cd) were the most commonly identified key pollutants. Collectively, these sites pose health risks to an estimated 6.2 million residents. The existing data on toxic hotspots in former Soviet countries likely captures only a small percentage of actual contaminated sites, but suggests potentially severe public health consequences. Additional assessments are needed to understand the risks posed by toxic pollution in the region. - Highlights: • Pollution in 8 former Soviet countries poses a health risk to 6.2 million residents. • The most commonly found key pollutants are pesticides, lead, arsenic, and cadmium. • The majority of sites can be traced to Soviet legacy pollution. - 424 sites were identified in the analysis. Pesticides, Pb, radioactive metals, As, Hg, Cr, and Cd were the most common key pollutants, collectively affecting 6.2 million people.

  11. Dacha in Post-Soviet Russia: Institutional Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozmainsky Ivan V.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper tries to analyze the phenomenon of «dacha» according to D. North's approach to institutions. The authors explore how dacha has become mass phenomenon in the late USSR, and how social and economic role of dacha increased in the Post-Soviet period. The specific features of the Post-Soviet Russia’s deurbanization has been studied. In particular, these features include large engagements of citizens in the rural way of life associated with dacha. It is shown how «dacha-ization» attributed to the crony capitalism. The economic role of dacha in Post-Soviet Russia is confirmed by comprehensive statistics, in particular. These data show that in Russia dacha serves rather as the source of food production than as place for leisure and recreation. The paper concludes that explicit priority of the model of organic agriculture in the dacha can be a kind of the solution of the problem of decreasing goods’ quality in the market economy (earlier described by one of the authors of the current paper. Moreover, this priority was fundamentally argued by D. I. Mendeleev. The authors believe that dacha will remain as an important institution for the Russians in coming years.

  12. Red orientalism: Mikhail Pavlovich and Marxist Oriental studies in early Soviet Russia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemper, M.

    2010-01-01

    Marxist Oriental Studies in early Soviet Russia emerged in opposition to the 'bourgeois' Russian tradition of classical Oriental scholarship; rather than studying texts and history, Bolshevik Orientalists saw their task in providing the Soviet government with the necessary political and

  13. Spy and Counterspy as a “Cultural Hero” in the Soviet Cinema of the Cold War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoria Sukovataya

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This article aim to analyze the evolution of the Soviet spy cinema of the Cold War in the context of the cultural history and the social changes in the USA and the Soviet Union, and the relations with the political opponents. The public reception of the Soviet spy and spying was evolved in the Soviet Union and it was reflected in the cinema plots and characters transformations.

  14. Citizenship struggles in Soviet successor states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brubaker, W R

    1992-01-01

    "The breakup of the Soviet Union has transformed yesterday's internal migrants, secure in their Soviet citizenship, into today's international migrants of contested legitimacy and uncertain membership. This transformation has touched Russians in particular, of whom some 25 million live in non-Russian successor states. This article examines the politics of citizenship vis-a-vis Russian immigrants in the successor states, focusing on the Baltic states, where citizenship has been a matter of sustained and heated controversy." The author concludes that "formal citizenship cannot be divorced from broader questions of substantive belonging. Successor states' willingness to accept Russian immigrants as citizens, and immigrants' readiness to adopt a new state as their state, will depend on the terms of membership for national minorities and the organization of public life in the successor states." Data are from a variety of published sources. excerpt

  15. Soviet medical response to the Chernobyl nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linnemann, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    The nuclear accident at Chernobyl was the worst in the history of nuclear power. It tested the organized medical response to mass radiation casualties. This article reviews the Soviet response as reported at the 1986 postaccident review meeting in Vienna and as determined from interviews. The Soviets used three levels of care: rescue and first aid at the plant site; emergency treatment at regional hospitals; and definitive evaluation and treatment in Moscow. Diagnosis, triage, patient disposition, attendant exposure, and preventive actions are detailed. The United States would be well advised to organize its resources definitively to cope with future nonmilitary nuclear accidents

  16. Model describing the effect of employment of the United States military in a complex emergency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMillan, Donald S

    2005-01-01

    The end of the Cold War vastly altered the worldwide political landscape. With the loss of a main competitor, the United States (US) military has had to adapt its strategic, operational, and tactical doctrines to an ever-increasing variety of non-traditional missions, including humanitarian operations. Complex emergencies (CEs) are defined in this paper from a political and military perspective, various factors that contribute to their development are described, and issues resulting from the employment of US military forces are discussed. A model was developed to illustrate the course of a humanitarian emergency and the potential impact of a military response. The US intervention in Haiti, Northern Iraq, Kosovo, Somalia, Bosnia, and Rwanda serve as examples. A CE develops when there is civil conflict, loss of national governmental authority, a mass population movement, and massive economic failure, each leading to a general decline in food security. The military can alleviate a CE in four ways: (1) provide security for relief efforts; (2) enforce negotiated settlements; (3) provide security for non-combatants; and/or (4) employ logistical capabilities. The model incorporates Norton and Miskel's taxonomy of identifying failing states and helps illustrate the factors that lead to a CE. The model can be used to determine if and when military intervention will have the greatest impact. The model demonstrates that early military intervention and mission assignment within the core competencies of the forces can reverse the course of a CE. Further study will be needed to verify the model.

  17. Relations between the Soviet Union and its Eastern European Allies: A Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-11-01

    Communist states forwarding the process of world revolution. 4. The ideologiaal seaurity faator* Eastern Europe has provided a defensive Soviet...relaxation and the final conclusion of the negotiations on European cooperation and se- curity. In the ideologiaal sphere, the Soviets, as mentioned

  18. Chernobyl as the beginning of the end of the Soviet Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Lindbladh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The belief in technology was fundamental in Soviet culture. When the nuclear reactor exploded and harvested souls and spread illness throughout a vast area, over the course of many years, an image of the collapse of the Soviet Union was thereby created. Chernobyl became an image of the apocalypse of communism.

  19. Themes in Current Soviet Curriculum Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popkewitz, Thomas S.; Tabachnick, B. Robert

    1982-01-01

    Soviet educators are first of all "upbringers" whose prime task is the formation and maintenance of the socialist outlook. They base their teaching on dialectical materialism, assume there are law-like principles of teaching and learning, and are inexhaustibly optimistic. (Author)

  20. Soviet equipment flies in

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1978-01-01

    End of February 1977 a Soviet Ilyushin-76 heavy freight aircraft landed at Cointrin airport having on board fifty large wire proprtional chambers and associated apparatus, together weighing 10 tons, supplied by the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, USSR. The equipment was for the CERN- Dubna-Munich-Saclay experiment NA4 on deep inelastic muon scattering being set up in the North Area of SPS. See Weekly Bulletin 11/78.

  1. Historical experience of the Soviet period Russian school in the context of information society development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozlova Galina N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The process and basic tendencies of creating scientific information related to the development of the Russian comprehensive school during the Soviet period are considered in the paper. The conclusions and generalizations are based on the analysis of articles and dissertation papers published in Russia in Soviet and post-Soviet time

  2. International assistance to upgrade the safety of Soviet-designed nuclear power plants. Selected activities in Eastern and Central Europe and the countries of the former Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillen, V.

    1993-12-01

    The overview is merely a snapshot of nuclear safety activities to assist the countries of Eastern and Central Europe and the former Soviet Union. While many other activities are planned or ongoing, this publication is meant to provide a general overview of the world community's commitment to improving the safety of Soviet-designed nuclear reactors

  3. Plant protection in post-Soviet Kazakhstan: the loss of an ecological perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toleubayev, K.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis examines why and how plant protection issues are embedded in political, economic and social contexts. It analyses the domain of plant protection in Kazakhstan under two different socio-economic and political formations, namely the Soviet period before 1991 and the post-Soviet period

  4. Activities of the Volgograd Branch of All-Russian Society for Protection of Historical and Cultural Monuments on the Protection of Labour Glory Monuments of the Soviet People in the 1970s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filatov Dmitriy N.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the causes and origins of the all-Russian society for protection of monuments of history and culture. On the basis of archival documents the author shows the appearance of the Volgograd branch of all-Russian society of protection of monuments of history and culture. The author describes its activities on studying, preserving and promoting the monuments of history and culture of the Volgograd region in the 1970s. The author discusses the causes of establishing in 1974 the section of the regional Department for the protection and promotion of monuments of labour glory of the Soviet people. He indicates that its appearance in the structure of all-Russian society of protection of monuments of history and culture was associated with an increased conducted by the then government work on military-Patriotic education of youth. Under this policy, the section has been considered from the point of view of propaganda of Soviet history and focused on the identification, promotion and protection of monuments of history of Soviet society. The article studies its activities related to the identification, research, description, and preservation of monuments of labour achievements of the Soviet period. The author indicates the difficulties encountered after the adoption in 1976 of the USSR Law “On the protection and use of monuments of history and culture”, where the monuments of labour glory in a separate category werenot distinguished and were classified as historical monuments. The author describes the closure of the section of monuments to the labour of fame in 1979 and evaluates the results of the section, its contribution to the preservation of the cultural heritage of the Volgograd region.

  5. Soviet steam generator technology: fossil fuel and nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosengaus, J.

    1987-01-01

    In the Soviet Union, particular operational requirements, coupled with a centralized planning system adopted in the 1920s, have led to a current technology which differs in significant ways from its counterparts elsewhere in the would and particularly in the United States. However, the monograph has a broader value in that it traces the development of steam generators in response to the industrial requirements of a major nation dealing with the global energy situation. Specifically, it shows how Soviet steam generator technology evolved as a result of changing industrial requirements, fuel availability, and national fuel utilization policy. The monograph begins with a brief technical introduction focusing on steam-turbine power plants, and includes a discussion of the Soviet Union's regional power supply (GRES) networks and heat and power plant (TETs) systems. TETs may be described as large central co-generating stations which, in addition to electricity, provide heat in the form of steam and hot water. Plants of this type are a common feature of the USSR today. The adoption of these cogeneration units as a matter of national policy has had a central influence on Soviet steam generator technology which can be traced throughout the monograph. The six chapters contain: a short history of steam generators in the USSR; steam generator design and manufacture in the USSR; boiler and furnace assemblies for fossil fuel-fired power stations; auxiliary components; steam generators in nuclear power plants; and the current status of the Soviet steam generator industry. Chapters have been abstracted separately. A glossary is included containing abbreviations and acronyms of USSR organizations. 26 references

  6. A systematic review of the effectiveness of alcohol brief interventions for the UK military personnel moving back to civilian life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigham, Sarah; Bauer, A; Robalino, S; Ferguson, J; Burke, A; Newbury-Birch, D

    2017-08-01

    Higher levels of alcohol consumption have been observed in the UK armed forces compared with the general population. For some, this may increase the risk of using alcohol as a coping strategy when adjusting to multiple life events occurring when moving back into civilian life. A systematic review was conducted to determine the effectiveness of alcohol brief interventions for military personnel during transition. Electronic databases including Medline, Central, Healthcare Management Information Consortium (HMIC) and Embase, and grey literature, were searched. Two reviewers independently assessed potential studies for inclusion, extracted data and assessed quality of selected articles using an established instrument. Ten studies met criteria for inclusion. Studies were synthesised narratively. Interventions were heterogeneous, and bias within studies may have acted to increase or decrease their reported effectiveness. The findings suggest some evidence for effectiveness of self-administered web-based interventions, involving personalised feedback over a number of sessions, and system-level electronic clinical reminders. All studies were from the USA. Delivery of interventions by a clinician during motivational interviews was most effective for those with post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms. A UK trial of web-based interventions with personalised feedback is recommended. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  7. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, The Working Class & The Contemporary World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-10-15

    Beatles and Rolling Stones groups, the astronaut J. Glenn, Dzh. (sic) Eisenhower and J. Kennedy, M.L. King and the screen actor M. Brando. At the ...JPRS-UWC-87-002 15 October 1987 FOREIGN BROADCAST INFORMATION SERVICE JPRS Report— Soviet Union THE WORKING CLASS & THE CONTEMPORARY WORLD...MmmKmoN STATEMENT A 19980714 146 mcWAUTtmBPBVmi Soviet Union The Working Class & The Contemporary World No 3, May-June 1987 JPRS-UWC-87-002

  8. The Soviet Withdrawal from Eastern Europe: A Move in Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-02-15

    head." A roof indeed! These dwellings back in the Soviet Union have been referred to as " prefabricated huts." Dozens of accounts lament that servicemen... prefabricated hostels. The head of the Defense Ministry estimates that fifty percent of the homeless are thus quartered: thirty percent have returned to...for 220,000 tons of fuel, garages for motor vehicles, 149 barracks, and 66 canteens. Soviet officials estimate that these facilities are wort- abut

  9. Young Australians’ Attitudes to the Military and Military Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Wadham

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available What are young Australians’ understandings of, and attitudes to, the military and military service? This article describes a pilot study of 320 young Australian university students’ attitudes to the military and military service during a time when Australia was engaged in the Afghanistan war. The main purpose of this study was to develop a survey instrument for further work in researching civil–military relations in Australia. Civil–military relations describe the complex set of relationships between the civil and military spheres. The role of the military, the relationship between the state and the military, the division of labor between civilian and military entities, foreign policy, and knowledge of military service are some of the fields that constitute a study of civil–military relations. This article reports on beliefs about, and attitudes to the specificities of military service and responses to the broader field of civil–military relations.

  10. Guideline for Early Interventions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vries, de, Maaike

    2006-01-01

    .... During the last years, the demand for early interventions has been increasing. International literature has shown that the psychosocial effects of disaster and military deployment may last for years...

  11. Soviet children and the threat of nuclear war: a preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chivian, E.; Mack, J.E.; Waletzky, J.P.; Lazaroff, C.; Doctor, R.; Goldenring, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    This study, the first undertaken by Western researchers with Soviet children on the subject of nuclear weapons, compared the questionnaire responses of 293 Soviet youngsters with those of 201 age-matched Californians. Interviews were conducted to supplement the questionnaire findings. Similarities and differences between the two samples are discussed in the context of how young people today perceive the threat of nuclear war

  12. PTSD in the military: special considerations for understanding prevalence, pathophysiology and treatment following deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yehuda, Rachel; Vermetten, Eric; McFarlane, Alexander C.; Lehrner, Amy

    2014-01-01

    Given the unique context of warzone engagement, which may include chronic threat, multiple and lengthy deployments, and loss, there is a need to understand whether and to what extent knowledge about PTSD derived from studies of civilian trauma exposure is generalizeable to the military. This special issue on PTSD in the military addresses a range of issues and debates related to mental health in military personnel and combat veterans. This article provides an overview of the issues covered in selected contributions that have been assembled for a special volume to consider issues unique to the military. Several leading scholars and military experts have contributed papers regarding: 1) prevalence rates of PTSD and other post-deployment mental health problems in different NATO countries, 2) the search for biomarkers of PTSD and the potential applications of such findings, and 3) prevention and intervention approaches for service members and veterans. The volume includes studies that highlight the divergence in prevalence rates of PTSD and other post-deployment mental health problems across nations and that discuss potential causes and implications. Included studies also provide an overview of research conducted in military or Veteran's Affairs settings, and overarching reviews of military-wide approaches to research, promotion of resilience, and mental health interventions in the Unites States and across NATO and allied ISAF partners. PMID:25206950

  13. Controlling the Image of the Teacher's Body under Authoritarianism: The Case of Soviet Latvia (1953-1984)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kestere, Iveta; Kalke, Baiba

    2018-01-01

    The ideal of the Soviet teacher can be revealed in Soviet mass media, but historians are challenged by the question "what was the actual reality"? Therefore, we addressed the reality of the Soviet school using two research questions: (1) What teacher image was cultivated by Soviet propaganda, and what did the average teacher actually…

  14. Cumulative Author Index for Soviet Laser Bibliographies Nos. 67-93, September 1983-February 1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-02-01

    C) 0 00 I: Cumulative Author Index for Soviet Laser Bibliographies September 1983 - February 1989 A Defense S&T Intelligence Special Purpose Document...90 CUMULATIVE AUTHOR INDEX FOR SOVIET LASER BIBLIOGRAPHIES Nos. 67-93 SEPTEMBER 1983 - FEBRUARY 1989 Date of Report March 31, 19 Vice Director for...RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER DST-2700Z-001-90 4. TITLE (and Subtitle) S. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED CUMULATIVE AUTHOR INDEX FOR SOVIET LASER

  15. NEIGHBORHOOD IMMIGRANT CONCENTRATION, ACCULTURATION, AND CULTURAL ALIENATION IN FORMER SOVIET IMMIGRANT WOMEN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Arlene Michaels; Birman, Dina; Zenk, Shannon; Wang, Edward; Sorokin, Olga; Connor, Jorgia

    2009-01-01

    Several acculturation theories note the importance of surrounding context, but few studies describe neighborhood influences on immigrant adaptation. The purpose of this study was to examine relationships among neighborhood immigrant concentration, acculturation, and alienation for 151 women aged 44-80 from the former Soviet Union who lived in the US fewer than 13 years. Participants resided in 65 census tracts in the Chicago area with varying concentrations of Russian-speaking and diverse immigrants. Results from self-report questionnaires suggest that the effect of acculturation on alienation varies depending on neighborhood characteristics. The study also demonstrates the complexity of individual and contextual influences on immigrant adoption. Understanding these relationships is important for developing community-based and neighborhood-level interventions to enhance the mental health of immigrants.

  16. The life, science and times of Lev Vasilevich Shubnikov pioneer of Soviet cryogenics

    CERN Document Server

    Reinders, L J

    2018-01-01

    This book describes the life, times and science of the Soviet physicist Lev Vasilevich Shubnikov (1901-1937).  From 1926 to 1930 Shubnikov worked in Leiden where he was the co-discoverer of the Shubnikov-De Haas effect. After his return to the Soviet Union he founded in Kharkov in Ukraine the first low-temperature laboratory in the Soviet Union, which in a very short time became the foremost physics institute in the country and among other things led to the discovery of type-II superconductivity. In August 1937 Shubnikov, together with many of his colleagues, was arrested and shot early in November 1937. This gripping story gives deep insights into the pioneering work of Soviet physicists before the Second World War, as well as providing much previously unpublished information about their brutal treatment at the hands of the Stalinist regime.

  17. Multidrug resistant tuberculosis in prisons located in former Soviet countries: A systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxwell Droznin

    Full Text Available A systematic literature review was performed to investigate the occurrence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB in prisons located in countries formerly part of the Soviet Union.A systematic search of published studies reporting MDR TB occurrence in prisons located in former Soviet countries was conducted by probing PubMed and Cumulative Index Nursing and Allied Health Literature for articles that met predetermined inclusion criteria.Seventeen studies were identified for systematic review. Studies were conducted in six different countries. Overall, prevalence of MDR TB among prisoners varied greatly between studies. Our findings suggest a high prevalence of MDR TB in prisons of Post-Soviet states with percentages as high as 16 times more than the worldwide prevalence estimated by the WHO in 2014.All studies suggested a high prevalence of MDR TB in prison populations in Post-Soviet states.

  18. Comparing Web, Group and Telehealth Formats of a Military Parenting Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    materials are available upon request: • Online questionnaire for baseline data collection (9 pages) • Online parent survey for time point 1 (69 pages...web-based parenting intervention for military families with school-aged children, we expect to strengthen parenting practices in families and...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0143 TITLE: Comparing Web, Group and Telehealth Formats of a Military Parenting Program PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR

  19. Climate research in the former Soviet Union. FASAC: Foreign Applied Sciences Assessment Center technical assessment report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellingson, R.G.; Baer, F.; Ellsaesser, H.W.; Harshvardhan; Hoffert, M.I.; Randall, D.A.

    1993-09-01

    This report assesses the state of the art in several areas of climate research in the former Soviet Union. This assessment was performed by a group of six internationally recognized US experts in related fields. The areas chosen for review are: large-scale circulation processes in the atmosphere and oceans; atmospheric radiative processes; cloud formation processes; climate effects of natural atmospheric disturbances; and the carbon cycle, paleoclimates, and general circulation model validation. The study found an active research community in each of the above areas. Overall, the quality of climate research in the former Soviet Union is mixed, although the best Soviet work is as good as the best corresponding work in the West. The best Soviet efforts have principally been in theoretical studies or data analysis. However, an apparent lack of access to modern computing facilities has severely hampered the Soviet research. Most of the issues considered in the Soviet literature are known, and have been discussed in the Western literature, although some extraordinary research in paleoclimatology was noted. Little unusual and exceptionally creative material was found in the other areas during the study period (1985 through 1992). Scientists in the former Soviet Union have closely followed the Western literature and technology. Given their strengths in theoretical and analytical methods, as well as their possession of simplified versions of detailed computer models being used in the West, researchers in the former Soviet Union have the potential to make significant contributions if supercomputers, workstations, and software become available. However, given the current state of the economy in the former Soviet Union, it is not clear that the computer gap will be bridged in the foreseeable future.

  20. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, USA: Economics, Politics, Ideology, No. 3, March 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-08-11

    CPSU Central Committee V.P. Nikonov received President J. Giffen of the American-Soviet Trade and Economic Council ( ASTEC ). 23—Deputies of the USSR...test against the campaign of slander and the instigation of anti-Soviet actions in the Estonian SSR. A.F. Dobrynin had a meeting with ASTEC

  1. Toward a Profile of Soviet Behavior in International Financial Markets,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-08-01

    duv. priding a hedge against both economic and political uncertaintv. l’oitical developments could cut oft Soviet access t(I Western credit marktt...deposits than heyc were paying on their loans, and this simple arbitrage operatio)n would have been p~rofitable. Opportunities for this kind of...8217 arbitrage miay’ hake persisted into 1985. when interest rates on short -term deposits finally% t’ell below the rates that the Soviet U nion would have been

  2. The Soviet Crisis Relocation Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-05-01

    tie text dealing with relo ’ation is oil one page long (out of a total of 47 pags), and in tile 1981 edition it is L(1I .,4 i about a page and a...departures of foot columns will also reflect the Soviet value system. In other words, priority will be giver to elements of the essencial work force

  3. Agreement between the Governments of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic, the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic and the International Atomic Energy Agency regarding international research on the consequences of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant to be carried out at the ''Pripyat'' scientific centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-10-01

    The document reproduces the text of the Agreement between the Governments of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic, the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic and the International Atomic Energy Agency regarding International Research on the Consequences of the Accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant to be carried out at the ''Pripyat'' Scientific Centre which was approved by the IAEA's Board of Governors on 12 September 1990. It was signed on 21 September 1990 and entered into force on the same date

  4. Ethos without nomos: the Russian–Georgian War and the post-Soviet state of exception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei Prozorov

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the 2008 Russian–Georgian conflict in the context of the post-Soviet spatial order, approached in terms of Carl Schmitt's theory of nomos and Giorgio Agamben's theory of the state of exception. The ‘five-day war’ was the first instance of the violation by Russia of the integrity of the post-Soviet spatial order established in the Belovezha treaties of December 1991. While from the beginning of the postcommunist period Russia functioned as the restraining force in the post-Soviet realm, the 2008 war has made further recourse to this function impossible, plunging the post-Soviet space into the condition of anomie, or the state of exception. This paper interprets this disruptive policy in the post-Soviet space as the continuation of the domestic political process of the ‘management of anomie,’ which has characterized the entire postcommunist period. In the conclusion, we address the implications of the transformation of the international order into the ethos of anomie for rethinking the ethical dimension of global politics.

  5. Japanese judo in the soviet Ukraine (the 1960s - 1970s: the image in youth and sports press

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Gulyayeva

    2016-10-01

    The prehistory of the Soviet judo, has also been discussed in the article, the creation on the basis of this martial art Sambo by V. Oshchepkov has been noted. It was later considered the Soviet international martial art, while judo was banned. It became legal again only after its inclusion into the Olympic program in Tokyo 1964, but it developed for a long time only in the framework of the Soviet Sambo. The USSR, according to the vision of its leadership, could not participate in the Olympic judo competitions. Firstly USSR tried to promote the idea of the predominance of Soviet Sambo in comparison to this Japanese martial art. The benefits of Sambo over judo were prescribed in the Soviet press. However, the loss of superiority of Soviet wrestlers in sport judo competitions in the early 1970s forced the Soviet government to reconsider its policy in relation to judo and to separate it from Sambo by creating in 1973 the Federation of judo of the USSR.

  6. Soviet Union, Military Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-07-08

    gardens, and in the vineyard ’.s and in the pastures of their "Pakhtako’r" kolkhoz. I gave birth to a dream—to become an officer. Back in the eighth...These dodgers, who prefer fancy pastry at home to the soldier’s dried crust, have always been around, of course. Every family has its black sheep , as

  7. Soviet Union, Military Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-06-15

    the embryo of future possibilities: good-neighbor relations between one person and another, the memory of history, histor- ical self-awareness, the...when reading the terse material, void of emotion. Behind it are destinies ; behind it are history, our past and present; behind it are great spirits

  8. Fruit and vegetable consumption in the former Soviet Union: the role of individual- and community-level factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goryakin, Yevgeniy; Rocco, Lorenzo; Suhrcke, Marc; Roberts, Bayard; McKee, Martin

    2015-10-01

    To explain patterns of fruit and vegetable consumption in nine former Soviet Union countries by exploring the influence of a range of individual- and community-level determinants. Cross-sectional nationally representative surveys and area profiles were undertaken in 2010 in nine countries of the former Soviet Union as part of the Health in Times of Transition (HITT) study. Individual- and area-level determinants were analysed, taking into account potential confounding at the individual and area level. Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine. Adult survey respondents (n 17 998) aged 18-95 years. Being male, increasing age, lack of education and lack of financial resources were associated with lower probability of consuming adequate amounts of fruit or vegetables. Daily fruit or vegetable consumption was positively correlated with the number of shops selling fruit and vegetables (for women) and with the number of convenience stores (for men). Billboard advertising of snacks and sweet drinks was negatively related to daily fruit or vegetable consumption, although the reverse was true for billboards advertising soft drinks. Men living near a fast-food outlet had a lower probability of fruit or vegetable consumption, while the opposite was true for the number of local food restaurants. Overall fruit and vegetable consumption in the former Soviet Union is inadequate, particularly among lower socio-economic groups. Both individual- and community-level factors play a role in explaining inadequate nutrition and thus provide potential entry points for policy interventions, while the nuanced influence of community factors informs the agenda for future research.

  9. Annual non-compliance report drops charge on Soviet radars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockwood, D.

    1993-01-01

    Last year's non-compliance report said a data link between Soviet early warming radars and the Moscow ABM system may be a significant violation of fundamental provisions of the ABM Treaty. This year's report, however, reverses last years position by saying: In light of the ambiguity of the Treaty language, and based on further review of the issue and on the probable Soviet practice - the US now judges that the support of ABM systems by early warning radars providing precise handover data will not constitute use of the radars as ABM radars in violation of the ABM Treaty

  10. Encountering women veterans with military sexual trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conard, Patricia L; Young, Cathy; Hogan, LaMicha; Armstrong, Myrna L

    2014-10-01

    As women veterans (WVs) are returning from Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom with military sexual trauma (MST), the purpose of this article is twofold. First, important exploratory questions that can assist with a thorough assessment and history are presented as well as the applicable treatment for any new, recurrent, or unresolved symptoms that involve MST. Review of multiple literary materials, as well as a clinical situation. WVs will be encountered in a variety of military or civilian primary and community care healthcare settings. Every woman (and man) in the civilian sector should be asked, "Have you ever served in the military?" Recognition, acknowledgment, and applicable interventions for MST and associated comorbidities, especially post-traumatic stress disorder, are presented as currently 80-90% of MST experiences have gone unreported. Immediate treatment and follow-up are critical for the well-being of the WVs. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. DE-Sovietizing educational systems, learning from past policy and practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Cathy C.

    1994-03-01

    All 21st century societies face the dilemma of reforming educational systems to meet changing social demands. In order to enable new beginnings to be made, this article examines the ending of reform efforts in the former Soviet Union immediately prior to the establishment of the Commonwealth of Independent States. Educational policy had followed a shifting course under changing Soviet leadership, much supposed reform consisting of little more than reworked statements of intent. In the second half of the 1980's, more serious attempts were made to raise enrollment of six-year olds, to upgrade instructional materials and teaching quality, and to redesign vocational education. Inadequate facilities and resources, lack of trained personnel, promotion on non-educational grounds, economic hardship and bureaucratic resistance hindered these reforms. As successor states to the Soviet Union — and others — face structural change, knowledge of why certain reforms were previously resisted will help future planning.

  12. Matvei Petrovich Bronstein and Soviet theoretical physics in the thirties

    CERN Document Server

    Gorelik, Gennady E

    1994-01-01

    Gennady E. Gorelik and Victor Ya. Frenkel Matvei Petrovich Bronstein and Soviet Theoretical Physics in the Thirties Translated by Valentina M. Levina The short life and tragic death of Matvei Petrovich Bronstein (1906-1938) may be seen as a symbol of the man's time and his country. One of the most remarkable features of Soviet history was the impressive advance of its physical sciences against the brutal and violent background of totalitarianism. Soviet advances in nuclear and space technology form an important part of world history. These achievements had their roots in the 1930s, when Bronstein's generation entered science. Among his friends were the famous physicists Lev Landau and George Gamow. Bronstein worked in the vast field of theoretical physics, ranging from nuclear physics to astrophysics and from relativistic quantum theory to cosmology. His pioneering work on quantizing gravitation goes beyond the history of physics, because today the quantum theory of gravitation occupies a special place in fun...

  13. Power Distance Perceptions in Post-Soviet Russia: Understanding the Workplace Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Kamenchuk, Olga

    2004-01-01

    The modem business economy is characterized by increased collaboration among different organizations across nation al boundaries. Post-Soviet Russia is one of the regions that is witnessing rapid economic growth and development of international business relations. Because of the challenges in intercultural communication the current study focuses on the problem of power distance, specifically in the workplace (in post-Soviet Russia). A phenomenological perspective, based on qualitative meth...

  14. Red Dawn – the final episode of the Cold war

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Kovačević

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In the period of renewal of the Cold war, after 1980, movies which abandon the idea of the dentate appear, and they represent the response to Soviet expansion taking place under the auspices of diminished military confrontation. Of course, the Hollywood reaction to the real expansion of communism was not at adequate response, but it is a part of the wider restructuring of American politics regarding the Soviet Union, which was evidenced by strengthening defenses through the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI, forcible intervention in Grenada, helping anti-communist movements around the world etc. In opposition to part of the US political scene which shut down attempts to stop the spread of communism across the world, action through popular culture, especially film, created a new climate in which multifaceted pressures on the socialist block were prepared. The movie Red Dawn can be considered part of the reaction of US politics on the particularistic view of the dentate as a shield for military and political spread of the USSR in Africa and other parts of the world. This pressure played on the inherent weaknesses of Soviet society in the 1980’s, a society which, after a brief period of failed transformation fell apart at the start of the final decade of the 20th century.

  15. Growing Up Gifted in the Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Robert E.

    1987-01-01

    A review of the educational program for gifted students in the Soviet Union discusses student responsibilities, program admission, and specialized schools featuring foreign languages, mathematics and physics, music, ballet and arts, sports, and "little academics" (advanced studies). (CB)

  16. JPRS Report. Soviet Union: International Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-18

    peoples. Kkhir Dzhokhari states that the recent success- ful visit of Malaysian Prime Minister Mahathir bin Mohamad to the Soviet Union, which here...university. In his speeches during his stay in the USSR in July and August of this year, Prime Minister Mahathir bin Moha- mad, emphasizing the "coincidence

  17. Review of possible peaceful applications of nuclear explosions in the national economy of the Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witherspoon, Paul A.

    1970-01-01

    The following review will give some of the current thinking of Soviet scientists and engineers on the possibilities of using nuclear explosions for peaceful purposes in the Soviet Union. This review is taken from a more detailed report that was presented under the same title by Soviet participants at an information-exchange meeting that was held in Vienna between the Soviet Union and the United States in April, 1969. Aside from a very brief review of one explosion in salt, the report does not give details on nuclear explosion effects (mechanical, seismic, radiation, or thermal). Rather, the report summarizes the results of design calculations and indicates the direction of Soviet planning for a variety of industrial applications. A complete translation of this report will be published by the Division of Technical Information and Education of AEC at Oakridge. (author)

  18. Review of possible peaceful applications of nuclear explosions in the national economy of the Soviet Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witherspoon, Paul A [University of California, Berkeley (United States)

    1970-05-15

    The following review will give some of the current thinking of Soviet scientists and engineers on the possibilities of using nuclear explosions for peaceful purposes in the Soviet Union. This review is taken from a more detailed report that was presented under the same title by Soviet participants at an information-exchange meeting that was held in Vienna between the Soviet Union and the United States in April, 1969. Aside from a very brief review of one explosion in salt, the report does not give details on nuclear explosion effects (mechanical, seismic, radiation, or thermal). Rather, the report summarizes the results of design calculations and indicates the direction of Soviet planning for a variety of industrial applications. A complete translation of this report will be published by the Division of Technical Information and Education of AEC at Oakridge. (author)

  19. Historical Soviet Daily Snow Depth (HSDSD), Version 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Historical Soviet Daily Snow Depth (HSDSD) product is based on observations from 284 World Meteorological Organization (WMO) stations throughout Russia and the...

  20. Postcolonial studies and post-Soviet societies: The possibilities and the limitations of their intersection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subotić Milan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Starting with a short review of the postcolonial studies’ origins, this paper considers the question of their application in the study of history and contemporary state of the post-Soviet societies. Aspirations of the leading theorists of postcolonial studies not to restrict their field of research on the relation of imperial metropoles (First World and its (postcolonial periphery (Third World have not met with the acceptance in post-Soviet societies’ academia. With the exception of the famous debates on „the Balkans“ that are not the subject of this paper, the paradigm of post-colonialism is rarely used in the interpretation of past and present of the former socialist states (Second World. Rejecting the thesis of their own (postcolonial status in most of Eastern European countries is usually based on a rejection of the assumption of the Soviet-style communism’s „civilizing mission“. From the same perspective, the Soviet Union is not considered a colonial metropole, but an occupying force, and the epoch of socialism is interpreted as externally imposed breach of the historical developments based on the European model. On the other hand, the concept of these countries’ transition opens up the issue of their (postcolonial status in relation to „Europe“ as the center of economic, political and cultural power. Therefore, the postcolonial critique of post-Soviet societies is more often focused on the thematisation of neo-imperial domination and neo-colonial dependency phenomena, than on the explanation of their socialist past. The author’s opinion is that it doesn’t mean that a number of concepts of postcolonial theory - such as „internal colonialism“ - cannot be productively used to a fuller understanding of the Soviet past, nor that in the interpretation of post-Soviet realities’ „hybrid forms“ the postcolonial studies cannot be of use. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 149026

  1. The Joint Staff/J-5 and A-AF CLIC (Center for Low Intensity Conflict) Planning and Policy in Low Intensity Conflict Conference held in Hampton, Virginia on 13-15 December 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-15

    over" or written off Egypt’s large military debt to the Soviet Union. The Soviet Union also offers more attractive countertrade and barter deals than...America to Third World arms customers. Unlike the United States, the Soviets have many years of experience in the countertrade and barter business

  2. News Media Use and Adolescents' Attitudes about Nuclear Issues: An American-Soviet Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, John P.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examines linkages between media use and attitudes from a survey of Soviet and American teenagers. Finds that all youths show a great concern about the possible effects of nuclear war, with heavy media users in both countries more optimistic, but the relation was stronger among Soviet students. (MS)

  3. Action Research Evaluation of Bystander Intervention Training Created by Munche, Stern, and O'Brien

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiflet, Jacqueline H.

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative, appreciative inquiry study was an examination of bystander intervention as related to sexual assault in the military. The purpose of the study was to examine how military personnel and Department of Defense civilian employees reflecting diverse backgrounds perceived the effectiveness of bystander intervention training and sexual…

  4. Sand or grease? Corruption-institutional trust nexus in post-Soviet countries

    OpenAIRE

    Nazim Habibov; Elvin Afandi; Alex Cheung

    2017-01-01

    This paper empirically tests several hypotheses about the nexus of corruption-institutional trust in Post-Soviet transitional countries of the former Soviet Union and Mongolia. We use two different indices of institutional trust to check the robustness of our analysis and estimate OLS and instrumental variable models with and without interaction terms. All things considered, our findings reject “greases the wheels” and “trust begets an honest political system” hypotheses. Instead, our finding...

  5. CIS as a successor of the Soviet Union: who is financially responsible for the uranium waste storage sites in Kyrgyzstan?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajtmatova, J.

    2001-05-01

    Full text: As the Second World War came to an end and the Cold War just started, the Soviet Union was faced with a problematic necessity of the nuclear weapons' production. Indeed, the Soviet Empire was in the extreme need of such weapons since their possession was viewed as an only guarantee of peaceful relations between USSR and United States. Exactly in that period the Soviet Union started its intensive exploitation of the large radioactive ore deposits (basically, uranium and radium), located on the territory of the present-day Kyrgyzstan. Throughout the post-war cold period and right up to mid-80s Kyrgyzstan had been one of the leading producers of uranium in the Soviet Union. In fact, the first Soviet atomic bomb was produced using Kyrgyz uranium. In the intense arms race with United States there was no time to concern oneself with environmental and demographic protection of the exploited territory, unfortunately. The role of the Kyrgyz ASSR (Kyrgyz Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic) was to provide raw materials, concurrently being a conveniently remote place to treat foreign radioactive ores (imported from Eastern Germany and Czechoslovakia) and serving as a burial place for their wastes. Creating an enormous amount of the radioactive wastes, the uranium and radium ore deposits were located in immediate proximity to highly populated areas; in the basins of transboundary rivers; and in the seismic-active regions of the Republic. As it could be legitimately assumed, the Soviet Union was not deeply obsessed with the environmental peculiarities of the treated area and did not give a damn to its protection, being solely interested in the maximization of the uranium extraction. In 1991, immediately after the Soviet Union's dissolution, the Russian Federation officially proclaimed itself its successor. Consequently, it was Russia that received the bigger part of a huge military potential (particularly, nuclear one) of its predecessor, including the nuclear

  6. “Creative Industries” Strategies in Soviet Lithuania: Packages of Mass Consumption Goods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eglė Jaškūnienė

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the Soviet mechanism of including the creative potentials into formation of economical and ideological policy strategies. Research aims to examine, how mass media and culture theories of Walter Benjamin, Frankfurt school and British Culture studies reflect the situation of mass culture in Soviet system. Case study is based on Lithuanian package design of 1960–1970s.

  7. A Survey of Progress in Coding Theory in the Soviet Union. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kautz, William H.; Levitt, Karl N.

    The results of a comprehensive technical survey of all published Soviet literature in coding theory and its applications--over 400 papers and books appearing before March 1967--are described in this report. Noteworthy Soviet contributions are discussed, including codes for the noiseless channel, codes that correct asymetric errors, decoding for…

  8. Masculinities in the Motherland: Gender and Authority in the Soviet Union during the Cold War, 1945-1968

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Erica L.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation starts from the premise that World War II changed Soviet ideas about manhood. The Soviet Union lost twenty-seven million combatants and civilians in World War II--twenty million of whom were men. Delineating, performing, negotiating, and resisting a variety of cultural ideas about manliness shaped Soviet militarism and ideology…

  9. Understanding Soviet Naval Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-07-01

    submarine noise reduction technology. A single-unit experimental, deep diving SSN. SSBN in a process that converted the unit to dubbed the MIKE class, was...is second only to that of Ja- ties. When the Soviet MIKE SSN suffered a pan in total catch tonnage each year. fire in the Norwegian Sea in April of... sharpl \\ tapered nose providing better o~er-the-nose visibil- ity: this change ’. as miade possible by the absence of’ the MIiG-23’s air intercept radar

  10. Comparison of elective lumbar discectomy outcomes between civilians and military personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farzanegan, G.; Mohebbi, H.A.; Moharamzad, Y.

    2007-01-01

    To determine the results of discectomy surgery for lumbar disc herniation in military personnel and compare it with civilians. One-hundred and seventeen military patients (54 subjects as combat forces and 63 as office personnel) and 115 civilians, who underwent discectomy surgery were included. In a mean duration of 50.8 months, the ability to return to full duty and resolution of complaints were assessed and satisfaction was measured using a Visual Analog Scale. Inability to return to previous duty was significantly higher in military personnel compared to civilians (p = 0.002); and in combat forces compared to office personnel (p 0.05). Surgical intervention had relatively poor outcomes in military personnel, specifically in combat forces. Prevention of injury to back region should be considered in military training programs and in case of presence of disc herniation related symptoms, efforts should be made to save patients effective function by conservation and medical therapies. (author)

  11. The Soviet-American gallium experiment (SAGE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garvey, G.T.

    1989-01-01

    The Soviet-American Gallium Experiment (SAGE) undertaking is a multi-institutional collaboration among scientists from the Institute for Nuclear Research, Moscow (INR), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and several US universities. It's purpose is to measure the number of low-energy electron neutrinos emitted from the Sun that arrive at this planet. As such, it is an extremely important experiment, touching on fundamental physics issues as well as solar dynamics. In contrast to the strategic overviews, plans, and hopes for intentional collaboration presented earlier today, SAGE is an ongoing working effort with high hopes of producing the first measurement of the Sun's low-energy flux. There are several international physics collaborations involving US and Soviet scientists at the large accelerator installations throughout the world. As the scale of research gets ever larger, requiring ever more resources and then larger collaborations. Much physics research lies solely in the realm of basic research so that governments feel easier about collaborations. Contacts between the US and USSR scientists interested in nuclear and particle physics goes back to the nineteen fifties and have continued with only minor interruptions since then. Over the past two decades the principal oversight of these activities has been through the Joint Coordinating Committee on the Fundamental Properties of Matter, supported by the DOE in the US and the State Committee for Atomic Energy in the USSR. The Academies of Science of both countries have been very helpful and supportive. Each venture has some distinguishing features; in the case of SAGE, the unique aspects are the collaboration between Soviet scientists and scientists at a DOE weapons laboratory and the fact that the experiment is carried out in a remote region of the USSR. The particular problems caused are discussed. 3 refs., 3 figs

  12. The economy of the soviet Tuva: achievements, challenges and lessons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander D. Begzi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Soviet period (1944-1991, the economy of Tuva was rapidly developing. Massive state investment helped create enterprises and whole branches of industry, which in turn outlined the areas of economy Tuva could specialize in. Indicators of regional economic development were higher than the national average. The industrial infrastructure created over the period, including transport, power engineering and technologies, has been since used for several decades without major renovations. However, the smooth function of the regional economy could be guaranteed only under directive planning and stringent control over prices, flows of resources, goods and other assets of planned Socialist economy. Together with other specific features of its economy, this made the economy of the region highly volatile. A breakdown of both economic achievements of the Soviet Tuva and the problems it faced will help us learn the lessons to be accounted for while developing new long-term development programs. Although the programmatic documents adopted in early 2000s (such as the Strategy of social and economic development of the Republic of Tuva to the year 2020, passed in 2007 have not yet expired, the economic situation and the configuration of the main economic actors have seriously changed, which calls for a radical overhaul of the long-term strategy of social and economic development. Some problems which have been around since the Soviet times have grown more acute, while others were replaced by their opposites. The revenue section of the region’s consolidated budget, just as it was in the Soviet period, cannot fully provide the required social expenditures. At the same time, the majority of Soviet mechanisms of economic development are now totally dysfunctional, which calls for the use of new organizational and financial instruments. The article was based on the data from official statistical collections of the Republic of Tuva, and the information found in

  13. The Experience of Soviet Medicine in World War II 1941-1945. Volume I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-02-25

    countries. The low percentage of neuropsychological patients in the Soviet Army is evidence of the achievements of pre- war years of the Soviet people...unsplinted 269 I I II I fracture did not bother them. To the question of the physician about =npn.aints, they most often pointed out hunger . As early

  14. Post-Soviet transformation of bureaucracy in Lithuania: main features and trends

    OpenAIRE

    Pivoras, Saulius

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to analyze the reforms and development of public administration and public bureaucracy in Lithuania from the prism of the post-Soviet transformation concept. In other words, the effort is to establish a continuation of the features of the Soviet bureaucratic - administrative system, to the extent these can be discussed, and their influence on the public bureaucracy of the independent Republic of Lithuania. It is being ascertained that the purpose of the reforms ...

  15. Experiences of military nurses in the Iraq and Afghanistan wars: review of research report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulsby, Kari

    2012-01-01

    Scannell-Desch and Doherty's (2010) research study findings are important to evidence-based nursing practice experiences of United States military nurses in the Iraq and Afghanistan wars to expand the research research findings identified common experiences and reoccurring stories and struggles of nurses pre, during, and postemployment in the Iraq and Afghanistan wars. These findings can be used for the education of future deploying military nurses and set the groundwork for further in-depth research studies on military nursing. One suggestion for future research would be a more in-depth study on the challenges faced by military nurses postemployment and interventions to assist in overcoming these challenges.

  16. NATO strategy in a new world order

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guertner, G.L.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the most immediate threat to Western Europe during the cold ware was the specter of Soviet military superiority looming from the East, proscribing Western political and economic freedom. NATO and the link to U.S. military power deterred political intimidation as well as a less probable military thrust into Central Europe. But these threat have faded under Mikhail Gorbachev, replaced by revolutions in Eastern Europe, the dissolution of the Warsaw Pact, receding Soviet military power, German unification, and the stirring of political and economic freedom nurtured by the West. These events are linked directly to the Gorbachev domestic revolution, a revolution that depends not only on domestic change, but also on political-economic integration with the West and dramatic shifts from defense to domestic investment. New Soviet military thinking, arms control, and unilateral cuts in conventional force structure and dramatic in themselves. But when projected on a new map of Europe, these events call for a major reexamination of NATO military strategy and the future role of the U.S. armed forces in a revised organization. A new strategy for NATO has been quietly taking shape since 1989, the debate often muffled by more dramatic events in the Soviet Union and more recently by war in the Persian Gulf. By the spring of 1991, the broad outlines of a new NATO within a radically new European security regime began to emerge. This chapter assesses both the emerging new strategy and the larger European security environment in which it will evolve

  17. Soviet Union: Summer school goes international

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1990-09-15

    The traditional annual Soviet Summer School, held in June in Dubna on the banks of the Volga, this year had international participation for the first time. Initiated by Moscow's Physical Engineering Institute and the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, the school has rotating themes, with the accent this year on developments in high energy physics.

  18. Soviet Union: Summer school goes international

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    The traditional annual Soviet Summer School, held in June in Dubna on the banks of the Volga, this year had international participation for the first time. Initiated by Moscow's Physical Engineering Institute and the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, the school has rotating themes, with the accent this year on developments in high energy physics

  19. The Social Determinants of Health in Military Forces of Iran: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanaeinasab, Hormoz; Ghanei, Mostafa; Mehrabi Tavana, Ali; Ravangard, Ramin; Karamali, Mazyar

    2015-01-01

    Providing effective health interventions and achieving equity in health need to apply the community-based approaches such as social determinants of health. In the military organizations, these determinants have received less attention from the military health researchers and policymakers. Therefore, this study aimed to identify and explain the social determinants affecting the health of military forces in Iran. This was a qualitative study which was conducted in 2014. The required data were collected through semistructured interviews and analyzed through Conventional Content Analysis. The studied sample consisted of 22 military health experts, policymakers, and senior managers selected using purposeful sampling method with maximum variation sampling. MAXQDA.2007 was used to analyze the collected data. After analyzing the collected data, two main contents, that is, “general social determinants of health” and “military social determinants of health,” with 22 themes and 90 subthemes were identified as the social determinants of military forces' health. Main themes were religious rule, spirituality promotion policies, international military factors, military command, and so forth. Given the role and importance of social factors determining the military forces' health, it can be recommended that the military organizations should pay more attention to these determinants in making policies and creating social, economic, and cultural structures for their forces. PMID:26379716

  20. The Social Determinants of Health in Military Forces of Iran: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadkarim Bahadori

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Providing effective health interventions and achieving equity in health need to apply the community-based approaches such as social determinants of health. In the military organizations, these determinants have received less attention from the military health researchers and policymakers. Therefore, this study aimed to identify and explain the social determinants affecting the health of military forces in Iran. This was a qualitative study which was conducted in 2014. The required data were collected through semistructured interviews and analyzed through Conventional Content Analysis. The studied sample consisted of 22 military health experts, policymakers, and senior managers selected using purposeful sampling method with maximum variation sampling. MAXQDA.2007 was used to analyze the collected data. After analyzing the collected data, two main contents, that is, “general social determinants of health” and “military social determinants of health,” with 22 themes and 90 subthemes were identified as the social determinants of military forces’ health. Main themes were religious rule, spirituality promotion policies, international military factors, military command, and so forth. Given the role and importance of social factors determining the military forces’ health, it can be recommended that the military organizations should pay more attention to these determinants in making policies and creating social, economic, and cultural structures for their forces.

  1. Military Strategy vs. Military Doctrine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfoed, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    The article argues that while doctrine represents the more scientific side of warfare, strategy represents the artistic side. Existing doctrine will almost never meet the requirements for winning the next war; it is through the artistic application of generic peacetime doctrine to the specific st...... strategic and operational context, using doctrine as building blocks for a context specific military strategy, that the military commander outwits and defeats or coerces the adversary and achieves the military objectives....

  2. Heritage of sovietism in contemporary Lithuania: perverted conceptions of property relations

    OpenAIRE

    Kačiuška, Žilvinas

    2006-01-01

    With the collapse of the Soviet Union, Central and Eastern European countries, including Lithuania, are sometimes called “the second Europe”, or the periphery of Western Europe. The cultural and economic distinctiveness of the “new Europe” is often explained by the “different” mentality of the societies of these countries, which was constructed by the Soviet model of collectivism and planned economy. Often it is argued that the slow changes in the mental categories in Central and Eastern Euro...

  3. Moscow State University physics alumni and the Soviet Atomic Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiselev, Gennadii V

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, two closely related themes are addressed: (1) the role that M V Lomonosov Moscow State University (MSU) played in training specialists in physics for the Soviet Atomic Project, and (2) what its alumni contributed to the development of thermonuclear weapons. In its earlier stages, the Soviet Atomic Project was in acute need of qualified personnel, without whom building nuclear and thermonuclear weapons would be an impossible task, and MSU became a key higher educational institution grappled with the training problem. The first part of the paper discusses the efforts of the leading Soviet scientists and leaders of FMD (First Main Directorate) to organize the training of specialists in nuclear physics at the MSU Physics Department and, on the other hand, to create a new Physics and Technology Department at the university. As a result, a number of Soviet Government's resolutions were prepared and issued, part of which are presented in the paper and give an idea of the large-scale challenges this sphere of education was facing at the time. Information is presented for the first time on the early MSU Physics Department graduates in the structure of matter, being employed in the FMD organizations and enterprises from 1948 to 1951. The second part discusses the contribution to the development of thermonuclear weapons by the teams of scientists led by Academicians I E Tamm, A N Tikhonov, and I M Frank, and including MSU physics alumni. The paper will be useful to anyone interested in the history of Russian physics. (from the history of physics)

  4. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, USA: Economics, Politics, Ideology, No. 11, November 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-05-18

    ASTEC ), established a year later, began oper- ating successfully. The revival of Soviet-American economic contacts was short-lived, however, and...conducted. The 10th annual meeting of ASTEC and the 9th session of the joint Soviet-American Trade Commission in June 1986 demonstrated the growing...irrigation equipment, and the chemical industry. JPRS-USA-88-005 18 May 1988 11 The American officials attending the ASTEC meeting displayed

  5. The Soviet Union prepares to roll up its sleeves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koryakin, Y.

    1990-01-01

    The first conference of the Soviet Nuclear Society (NESU-90) was held, from 26 to 29 June in Obninsk at the Moscow Region Scientific Centre, where the first nuclear power plant was commissioned. Around 600 specialists including several dozen distinguished foreigners were assembled there. The title of the conference - Nuclear energy in the USSR: problems and prospects (ecology, economics and law) - underlined its intention: to promote a dialogue with society on the broad question of satisfying the demand for energy. The 55 papers read and discussed at the conference, were largely concerned with the problems confronting nuclear power, and attention was directed to the surrounding social environment in the Soviet Union. (author)

  6. FUNCTIONING OF THE SOVIET IDEOLOGEME IN THE EMIGRANT LITERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Мария Игоревна Шкредова

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article the author analyzes the features of functioning of the Soviet ideologeme in the literature of emigrants in details. Much attention is given to the term "ideologeme", its characteristics and features. Criteria of differentiation of the terms "Sovietism" and "ideologeme" are considered. There is the analysis of changes in perception of ideological expressions into space and time by examples of passages from the literature of the emigrant writers.The received results of research will spark the interest of the authors of dictionaries and teachers in development of programs for studying lexicon, stylistics and the culture of speech.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-2-40

  7. On the safety of nuclear installations in the Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    The cooperation agreements between authorities and industries of the Soviet Union and West Germany now are gaining shape in practice. In this context, the framework conditions are of great interest that govern the realisation of the extensive nuclear energy programme of the Soviet Union. The chairman of the State Commission established in 1984 for supervision of nuclear installations and guidance on safety-engineering enhancement of nuclear power plant in the USSR has been interviewed by atw on topics of organisations, measures and regulatory activities in the field of reactor safety and radiation protection. The interview is given in full. (orig.) [de

  8. Russian, Soviet, and post-Soviet scientific migration: history and patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojevnikov, Alexei

    2011-03-01

    Immigrant scientists from other European countries (predominantly German) were crucial in establishing the tradition of modern science in the Russian Empire of the 18th and 19th centuries. Since the 1860s, however, outgoing waves of scientific migration started originating in Russia, bringing important innovations to international science. The scale and patterns of migration varied greatly with the turbulent time. The talk will describe several landmark stages of the proceess and their cultural consequences: from opening higher education possibilities for women during the late 19th century, to post-1917 academic refugees and Soviet defectors, to the 1960s brain drain provoked by the launch of Sputnik, and to what can be called the first truly global scientific diaspora of Russophone scientists after 1990.

  9. Young Australians’ Attitudes to the Military and Military Service

    OpenAIRE

    Ben Wadham; Grace Skrzypiec; Phillip Slee

    2014-01-01

    What are young Australians’ understandings of, and attitudes to, the military and military service? This article describes a pilot study of 320 young Australian university students’ attitudes to the military and military service during a time when Australia was engaged in the Afghanistan war. The main purpose of this study was to develop a survey instrument for further work in researching civil–military relations in Au...

  10. A Rocket Powered Single-Stage-to-Orbit Launch Vehicle With U.S. and Soviet Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacConochie, Ian O.; Stnaley, Douglas O.

    1991-01-01

    A single-stage-to-orbit launch vehicle is used to assess the applicability of Soviet Energia high-pressure-hydrocarbon engine to advanced U.S. manned space transportation systems. Two of the Soviet engines are used with three Space Shuttle Main Engines. When applied to a baseline vehicle that utilized advanced hydrocarbon engines, the higher weight of the Soviet engines resulted in a 20 percent loss of payload capability and necessitated a change in the crew compartment size and location from mid-body to forebody in order to balance the vehicle. Various combinations of Soviet and Shuttle engines were evaluated for comparison purposes, including an all hydrogen system using all Space Shuttle Main Engines. Operational aspects of the baseline vehicle are also discussed. A new mass properties program entitles Weights and Moments of Inertia (WAMI) is used in the study.

  11. Caring for Active Duty Military Personnel in the Civilian Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waitzkin, Howard; Noble, Marylou

    2011-01-01

    Due to the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, the unmet medical and psychological needs of military personnel are creating major challenges. Increasingly, active duty military personnel are seeking physical and mental health services from civilian professionals. The Civilian Medical Resources Network attempts to address these unmet needs. Participants in the Network include primary care and mental health practitioners in all regions of the country. Network professionals provide independent assessments, clinical interventions in acute situations, and documentation that assists GIs in obtaining reassignment or discharge. Most clients who use Network services come from low-income backgrounds and manifest psychological rather than physical disorders. Qualitative themes in professional-client encounters have focused on ethical conflicts, the impact of violence without meaning (especially violence against civilians), and perceived problems in military health and mental health policies. Unmet needs of active duty military personnel deserve more concerted attention from medical professionals and policy makers. PMID:21339846

  12. Caring for Active Duty Military Personnel in the Civilian Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marylou Noble

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, the unmet medical and psychological needs of military personnel are creating major challenges. Increasingly, active duty military personnel are seeking physical and mental health services from civilian professionals. The Civilian Medical Resources Network attempts to address these unmet needs. Participants in the Network include primary care and mental health practitioners in all regions of the country. Network professionals provide independent assessments, clinical interventions in acute situations, and documentation that assists GIs in obtaining reassignment or discharge. Most clients who use Network services come from low-income backgrounds and manifest psychological rather than physical disorders. Qualitative themes in professional-client encounters have focused on ethical conflicts, the impact of violence without meaning (especially violence against civilians, and perceived problems in military health and mental health policies. Unmet needs of active duty military personnel deserve more concerted attention from medical professionals and policy makers.

  13. The use of military force in the management and resolution of conflicts

    OpenAIRE

    António Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    The end of the Cold War changed the paradigm of the role and scope of military force in the management and resolution of conflicts. With increasing intervention by the international community, the new generation of peacekeeping operations has adopted a multidimensional approach to military force to be used in coordination with other instruments of power, ensuring a proper strategic framework considering the desired end state. This new approach and the increasing complexity of conflicts, predo...

  14. Public and private in the post-soviet area: the problem of demarcation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Zaidel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the problem of determination of public and private in the post­soviet area. Formation of these spheres should be a logical conclusion of successful transformation and modernization process in ex­soviet republics and getting all spheres of civil life out of the state control. Historical specific is underlined; it is given the determination and main characteristics of public and private. It is given two main approaches’ ways of interpretation the phenomena and formation of public sphere according to H. Arendt and Ju. Hubermas. The specific of formation and demarcation of public and private spheres in the post­soviet area is analyzed. The boundaries between public and private spheres were deformed by the soviet state and communist society. As a result it was built hierarchical relations among the state, society and ruler; it is typical for power centralized societies. The determining factor of institutional heritage in the processes of state­making is underlined. The deformation of division of state, public and private spheres is caused by combining of traditional and modern institutes and practices; as a result social practices that are against of logic of modern society slow down the development of market­oriented economy and modernization of institutions.

  15. Economic Equilibrium and Soviet Economic Reform

    OpenAIRE

    Herbert E. Scarf

    1991-01-01

    The paper, prepared for a Roundtable on Major Economic Problems in the U.S. and the U.S.S.R., discusses some aspects of price theory ñ in particular, the theory of general equilibrium -ñ which may offer some theoretical insights about the economic problems to be encountered during the transition from Socialism to private markets in the Soviet Union.

  16. Soviet Tactical Doctrine for Urban Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-12-01

    Soviet Area Specialist. Valuable assistance was provided by Mr. Gerald Sullivan and LTC Ray N. Franklin, USMC, of the Advanced Research Projects... Oldenburg 120.8 133.3 12.5 10 Osnabruck 133.6 164.0 30.4 23 Regensburg 123.0 133.5 10.5 9 Remacheid 123.0 135.5 12.5 10 Salzgitter 105.9 117.6 11.7

  17. Ethics of the humanitarian intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Mile

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The main subject of this paper are the ethical aspects of humanitarian military intervention. Author shows the weaknesses and difficulties of consequentialistic and deontological justification of humanitarian intervention. He points to the impossibility of a coherent moral theory of humanitarian intervention and argues that the humanitarian interventions of the nineties of the 20th century do not compliance just war. In his opinion, they represent an attempt of the quasi moral masking the real politics which lead the most powerful states in order to protect their national interests. .

  18. How successful was Joseph Stalin in establishing Soviet Union as a superpower?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Majkowski

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This essay will firstly address the extent of Stalin’s achievements in leading the course for domestic policy of the Soviet Union and its contribution towards maintaining the country’s supremacy in the world, for example the rapid post-war recovery of industry and agriculture, and secondly, the foreign policy including ambiguous relations with Communist governments of countries forming the Eastern Bloc, upkeeping frail alliances and growing antagonism towards western powers, especially the United States of America. The actions and influence of Stalin’s closest associates in the Communist Party and the effect of Soviet propaganda on the society are also reviewed. This investigation will cover the period from 1945 to 1953. Additionally, other factors such as the impact of post-war worldwide economic situation and attitude of the society of Soviet Union will be discussed.

  19. The Soviet Air Force and Strategic Bombing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-04-01

    to envision a British Air Force that could be totally divorced from some form of ground support role. Consequently, he saw an air campaign that would...CA: Presidio Press, 1986. Black, Steven K. The Icarus Illusion: Technology, Doctrine and the Soviet Air Force. Monterrey , CA, 1986. Cockburn, Andrew

  20. THE MILITARY STATE IN SOUTH AMERICA: INTERVENTIONISM, CAUDILLOS AND ARMED FORCES

    OpenAIRE

    PEDRO RIVAS NIETO

    2018-01-01

    In this work the author analyzes the elements of the Military State, which was the result of National Security Regimes. They ruled South America during the last third of the 20th century. The behaviour of the Armed Forces is compared with that of the classic caudillos. The Armed Forces-Civil Society relationship is studied too. And, of course, the intervention in political issues by the military and their relationship with political parties is also analyzed, as well. The conclusion ends with ...

  1. Immigrant Entrepreneurship in Post-Socialist Countries of the European Union: Motives and Patterns of Entrepreneurship of Post-Soviet Immigrants in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Tepavcevic

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the relationship between migration, entrepreneurship, and foreign direct investments by focusing on entrepreneurial activities of post-Soviet (immigrants in Hungary in periods between 1991 and 2016. Post-Soviet migrants are in focus because between 1956 and 1989 the Soviet Union coercively kept Hungary in the Socialist bloc. Based on surveys and in-depth interviews, this paper reveals that there are considerable differences in patterns of entrepreneurship among post-Soviet immigrant entrepreneurs depending mostly on time of their arrival to Hungary. Similarly, motives for entrepreneurship among the first-wave migrants combine negative factors in the former Soviet Union with positive factors encountered in Hungary, while factors in Hungary recognized as positive by most post-Soviets prevail in motives for later waves of post-Soviet migration and entrepreneurship in Hungary. The paper also demonstrates that many relatively small investments have been conducted since 2000 by citizens of post-Soviet countries to Hungary. Some of them are transforming into an entrepreneurial activity, serving also as a basis for immigration to Hungary.

  2. Prevalence and Trends of Cigarette Smoking Among Military Personnel in Taiwan: Results of 10-Year Anti-Smoking Health Promotion Programs in Military.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Nain-Feng; Lin, Fu-Huang; Wu, Yi-Chang

    2017-07-01

    decreased after 2012. Furthermore, in 2014, the prevalence of smoking decreased as the difference became smaller, 4.5% and 6.1% for freshman and senior, respectively. During this 10-year period, the smoking cessation programs include in-class education course, out-door physical training, antismoking clinic, and group therapy. After these military health promoting programs, there are some beneficial effects to decline the prevalence of cigarette smoking for military personnel in Taiwan. However, more active intervention and health promoting programs in prevention and cessation of smoking are needed for the military. The military also have to develop specific approaches and programs to prevent cigarette smoking among conscripts and officers. Reprint & Copyright © 2017 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  3. Parteilisest tsensuurist Nõukogude Eestis. Party Censorship in Soviet Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiiu Kreegipuu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available During the years of imposed Soviet rule in Estonia from 1940 to its collapse in 1991, Estonian culture and the written word were subject to Soviet censorship which due to its perseverance, extent and rigidity constrained creativity and self-expression. At the same time, archival documents and memories testify that considerable shifting could take place within this censorship which on the surface appeared strict and regulated, depending on the general ideological stance and the officials and party functionaries in place at the time. Soviet censorship is usually studied and described with the activities of the censorship office Glavlit as the focal point. However, for a more complete overview, it would be wise to keep in mind that a whole row of other institutions and authorities with the Communist Party in front also were involved in censorship matters. When it came to censorship, it was the party that had the final word – as it did with everything else – and if needed, it also acted as punisher. Apart from the role of censor, the Communist Party, its departments (with the Department for Propaganda and Agitation or Ideology in front and its officials also took part in hands-on censorship work, both in terms of decision-making and in dealing with concrete incidents (breach of censorship rules and censor mistakes but also in the search for and pointing out of ideological flaws. One area in which the party’s censorship activities manifested itself in a rather vivid manner was the leadership and control of the Soviet press. When analysing materials from the bureau of the Communist Party of Estonia’s Central Committee, it becomes clear that the party’s governing organs were constantly active in this area. The manifestation of problems and discussion of flaws here point to the circumstance that journalists and editors did not accept the censorship rules, but rather tried to find possibilities and means through which to modify or ignore them

  4. Rules of political communication in the pre-war Soviet countryside

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Merl

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The author aims to debunk the Soviet official myth of local administration as being weak and not functioning effectively. The Soviet regime could not function in the way it pretended to, and the official picture of the economy was far from the reality though played a central role in the political discourse for the aims of legitimacy. The command economy actually functioned as a symbiosis of commands and threats ‘from above’ and corrupt practices of the majority of people including officials. However, this symbiosis worked quite successfully in industry ensuring impressive rates of growth, but not in agriculture and rural areas. Certainly, the kolkhoz system also combined severe control and treats with tolerance to corrupt practices condemned in the official slogans so as to save people from starvation. However, in the countryside the myth that rural administration was weak and wrongdoing proved to be the strongest basis of the regime for it corresponded to the firm conviction of rural people and traditional expectations that Stalin would pursue the paternalist rule as a “good tsar” by punishing local officials (as scapegoats and by removing them from office (after blaming them for regime’s shortcomings as incompetent managers. To keep people from protests und rebellions the rural officials’ task was not only to use force and intimidation during the campaigns, but also to look away allowing the kolkhozniki from time to time to betray the state as compensation. Thus, the Soviet rural administration fulfilled its functions set by the regime, such as ensuring political communication for the aims of the faith in the legitimacy of the political rule. The author also considers a vertical channel of communication between the people and the regime - petitions to the ruler. Soviet people were encouraged to write letters including complaints to “bargain” personal dissatisfaction. Soviet peasants considered such a communication as a

  5. Strategies representations of gender identity in the practice actionism in the post-soviet space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Shelkovina

    2014-04-01

    In addition, the article rises the issue of the construction of national identity. The certain stage of this process is closely overlap with the construction of gender identity. In the post­Soviet region, these processes have become a way of rehabilitation of mental injuries that were acquired during the Soviet period.

  6. Dissemination of family-centered prevention for military and veteran families: adaptations and adoption within community and military systems of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beardslee, William R; Klosinski, Lee E; Saltzman, William; Mogil, Catherine; Pangelinan, Susan; McKnight, Carl P; Lester, Patricia

    2013-12-01

    In response to the needs of military families confronting the challenges of prolonged war, we developed Families OverComing Under Stress (FOCUS), a multi-session intervention for families facing multiple deployments and combat stress injuries adapted from existing evidence-based family prevention interventions (Lester et al. in Mil Med 176(1): 19-25, 2011). In an implementation of this intervention contracted by the US Navy Bureau of Medicine and Surgery (BUMED), FOCUS teams were deployed to military bases in the United States and the Pacific Rim to deliver a suite of family-centered preventive services based on the FOCUS model (Beardslee et al. in Prev Sci 12(4): 339-348, 2011). Given the number of families affected by wartime service and the changing circumstances they faced in active duty and veteran settings, it rapidly became evident that adaptations of this approach for families in other contexts were needed. We identified the core elements of FOCUS that are essential across all adaptations: (1) Family Psychological Health Check-in; (2) family-specific psychoeducation; (3) family narrative timeline; and (4) family-level resilience skills (e.g., problem solving). In this report, we describe the iterative process of adapting the intervention for different groups of families: wounded, ill, and injured warriors, families with young children, couples, and parents. We also describe the process of adopting this intervention for use in different ecological contexts to serve National Guard, Reserve and veterans, and utilization of technology-enhanced platforms to reach geographically dispersed families. We highlight the lessons learned when faced with the need to rapidly deploy interventions, adapt them to the changing, growing needs of families under real-world circumstances, and conduct rigorous evaluation procedures when long-term, randomized trial designs are not feasible to meet an emergent public health need.

  7. Soviet energy export prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scanlan, Tony

    1991-05-01

    The Soviet Union produces 20% of world energy but since 1988 this is in decline. Awakening consumerism and a sea-change in the structure of foreign trade and internal investment are placing this key industry into unprecedented uncertainty. The difference between success and failure goes beyond the 1988 peak of six million barrels daily of exports in oil equivalent. The article quantifies the key areas of energy uncertainty as equal in volume to total OPEC output and sees the long-term changes of success more than ever dependent on coordinated planning and investment as well as on market reality. (Author).

  8. The specter of post-communism: women and alcohol in eight post-Soviet states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinote, Brian Philip; Cockerham, William C; Abbott, Pamela

    2009-04-01

    Because men have borne the heaviest burden of premature mortality in the former Soviet Union, women have for the most part been overlooked in studies of the health crisis in this part of the world. A considerable body of research points to alcohol consumption among males as a primary lifestyle cause of premature mortality. However, the extent to which alcohol use has penetrated the female population following the collapse of communism and how this consumption is associated with other social factors is less well-understood. Accordingly, this paper investigates alcohol consumption in eight republics of the former USSR - Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, and Ukraine using data collected in 2001. More specifically, discussion of gender role transformations and the historical experiences of women during the Soviet era emphasize two potentially important social influences examined in this analysis: psychological distress and Soviet political ideology. Findings suggest that distress is only weakly statistically associated with frequent drinking behavior among women, but results for political ideology show that this factor is statistically and significantly associated with drinking behaviors. Alcohol consumption was not particularly common among women under communism, but trends have been changing. Our discussion suggests that, after the collapse of the Soviet state, women are more able to embrace behavioral practices related to alcohol, and many may do so as an overt rejection of traditional Soviet norms and values. Findings are also discussed within the context of current epidemiological trends and future research directions in these eight republics.

  9. JPRS Report Soviet Union Political Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-19

    gentsia, specialists, authoritative workers and kolkhoz farmers in on their deliberations. A soviet of primary party organization secretaries...are in favor of disassembling the authoritarian , bureaucratic system and for focusing on humane, democratic socialism, the forming of a state under...Iolota’nskiy Rayon in Turkmenistan a boarding home for mentally retarded children. Some end up here directly from maternity homes, others are brought by

  10. The New African Civil-Military Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in 1991, the stifling grip the superpowers had exercised throughout the world was fundamentally altered. The transformation of the international security system, coupled with political democratization, allowed the partial reorganisation of the security establishments....... At the heart of the states’ implosion has been weak, fragile and partisan defence and security institutions – a phenomenon that requires urgent research intervention to guide the much-needed reforms. In 2014, the Russian Academy of Sciences hosted the bi-annual African Studies Conference, with the lead author......). This process was further facilitated by one of the presenters and now co-editor, Maj Henrik Laugesen from the Royal Danish Defence College, who agreed to lead on the fundraising – succeeding in securing support from the Royal Danish Defence College....

  11. Landmarks in the Literature: Super Soviet Pedagogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alston, Patrick L.

    1979-01-01

    Anton Makarenko became a national hero for effecting education for communism in the 1920s. His book, "The Road to Life," is an artistic achievement and the most widely read and influential work on education in the Soviet Union. But Makarenko's legacy is more myth than model in present-day Russia. (Author/SJL)

  12. Inside the World of the Soviet Professional.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Carl R.

    1987-01-01

    Reports on a fall 1986 journey of Carl Rogers to the U.S.S.R. during which Rogers conducted lectures and workshops on humanistic psychology. Elaborates on workshop sessions with Russian psychologists and therapists. Concludes with general observations about what the workshops may have accomplished and on the Soviet lifestyle in general. (BR)

  13. From Ankara to Bled Marshal Tito’s visit to Greece (june 1954 and the formation of the Balkan alliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sfetas Spyridon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Tito’s visit to Greece contributed to the Balkan Pact’s transformation into a military alliance. Despite the establishment of Soviet-Yugoslav diplomatic relations in 1953, the Soviet Union made no political move towards normalizing bilateral relations. For security reasons Tito visited Athens (June 1954 to promote Yugoslavia’s military cooperation with Greece and Turkey without ruling out Yugoslavia’s accession to NATO. But the Soviet leadership, fearing Yugoslavia’s involvement in western defense mechanisms, sent the message to Belgrade that it was ready to recognize Stalin’s blunders towards Yugoslavia. Thus, Tito applied a policy of equidistance between East and West and refused to link up the Balkan Alliance with NATO.

  14. From Pre-Revolutionary Study of Religion to Soviet Religious Studies: a Transformation of Scientific Method and Research Techniques and the Formation of the Soviet Way of Dealing with Religious Questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Antonov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The author attempts a step by step analysis of the way religion was studied during the Soviet period. Discussing the way Soviet techniques differed from those of the Tsarist period, the author insists that any idea of a normal progression of ideas must be rejected and that instead we are dealing with a transformation of basic principles and a definitive break with the past. In the first part of his article, the author reviews the transformation of the way religion was dealt with from 1910 until the beginning of the 1930's with the aid of some key concepts put forth by Michel Foucault in his Archeology of Knowledge. Following the suggestions of Imre Lakatos regarding a research programs, the author describes the contributions of the main directives of religious thought during this period: the programs dealing with the spiritual-academic, religious-philosophical, and anthropological sectors. The author concludes by describing the main phases of development, the characteristic aspects, and the particularities of the Soviet approach to religion. The forgoing analysis permits the author to conclude that the Soviet approach to religion represents in no way a development but rather a complete break with pre-revolutionary ways of looking at religion and must be treated as a specific phenomenon. Neither can the Soviet approach, judging by its basic principles, be considered to have anything in common with a normal scientific method of studying religion as this term is generally accepted today. Rather, it was a system conditioned by external factors which clearly took precedence over internal ones to the detriment of any objective study of religion.

  15. “The Russians are coming, the Russians are coming” – an apology of detente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Kovačević

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The 1966 film The Russians are coming, the Russians are coming is a film which promotes the politics of detente in America. After cold war era films in which the Soviets are exclusively portrayed as spies endangering America, this is the first film to portray them as positive characters, while ridiculing those who propagate war and confrontation. After the Cuban crisis and the process of stopping the spread of nuclear weapons it was necessary to show the American public the funny face of detente. In the comedy about sailors from a stranded Soviet submarine confrontation is always possible but us avoided through solidarity and communal efforts. This apology of detente, intended to calm the cold war situation and anti-war lobbies in America is one-sided, because there weren’t any such films on the other side. What happened over there during the detente period is evident by the following decade in which the largest number of military interventions by the Soviet and Cuban armies around the world occurred.

  16. "No Truer Truth" : Sincerity Rhetoric in Soviet Russia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, E.; Dhooge, B.; De Dobbeleer, M.

    2016-01-01

    In contemporary discourse about human emotions, concerns about the sincerity of individuals, groups, and institutions thrive. This article thickens recent scholarship on sincerity rhetoric with an analysis of emotional regimes in Soviet Russia – a time and place where the notion of sincerity

  17. Commanders of the Great Victory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoly Dmitriyevich Borshchov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The honorary title of «commander» as well as the «admiral» is granted to a military or naval figure on the basis of public recognition of his personal contribution to the success of actions. Generals are usually individuals with creative thinking, the ability to foresee the development of military events. Generals usually have such personality traits as a strong will and determination, rich combat experience, credibility and high organizational skills. In an article dedicated to the 70th anniversary of the Soviet victory in the Great War examines the experience of formation and practice of the most talent-ed Soviet military leaders.

  18. National narrative, ethnology, and academia in post-Soviet Uzbekistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlène Laruelle

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Since the disintegration of the Soviet Union, the new states of Central Asia have been obliged to adjust their institutions to new symbolic frontiers and to take into account the independence they achieved in 1991. Both universities and Academies of Sciences have been called to reconsider their research policies and to orient them in order to respond to emerging national issues. The building of national narratives is a particularly relevant object of study in observing the various modes of legitimization of the Central Asian states and the scientific instruments they deem necessary for their political validation. The aim of this paper is to overcome the apparent, albeit actual, character of a number of changes that have taken place in Uzbekistan since 1991, in order to demonstrate the continuity of personal, institutional, and intellectual lines uniting contemporary research to that conducted during Soviet period. The preference accorded to ancient history, the praise of the originality and long heritage of the people, and an obsession with ethnogenesis, all are rooted in the contemporary narrative of the previous regime. They invite a reconsideration of the past two decades in a more nuanced manner and a rereading of the Soviet past in order to understand the process of building the nation-state, which has now been underway for more than half a century.

  19. Soviet in content - people’s in form: The building of Farming Cooperative Centres and the Soviet-Yugoslav dispute, 1948-1950

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živančević Jelena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It was not until 1948, when the Cominform conflict escalated, that the Communist Party of Yugoslavia began a thorough implementation of the Soviet model in Yugoslav agriculture - due to the Soviet criticism, the CPY made immediate legislative changes and started a class struggle in Yugoslav villages. Simultaneously, and just a few months before the Fifth Congress, Josip Broz Tito initiated a competition for building 4,000 Farming Cooperative Centres throughout Yugoslavia - they were built in accordance with the social-realist “national in form - socialist in content” slogan. Once the building started, in his Congress speech, Radovan Zogović, a leader of the Serbian Agitprop department, offered the first official proclamation of Socialist Realism in the post-war period by a political authority. This article analyses the process of planning, designing and building of the Farming Cooperative Centres; discusses their political, ideological and formal implications; and inquires into the specific role of architecture, joined with the theory of Socialist Realism, in building Yugoslav socialism.

  20. Child Soldiers: Are U.S. Military Members Prepared to Deal with the Threat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-02-15

    killing child soldiers. Additional attention should also be invested into identifying interventions that would decrease the negative stigma of mental...AIR WAR COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY CHILD SOLDIERS: ARE U.S. MILITARY MEMBERS PREPARED TO DEAL WITH THE THREAT? by Judith Hughes, LtCol, USAF A...COVERED 00-00-2006 to 00-00-2006 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Child Soldiers: Are U.S. Military Members Prepared to Deal with the Threat? 5a. CONTRACT

  1. JPRS Report. Soviet Union: World Economy & International Relations, No. 5, May 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-22

    begins to reflect on the difficult paths of the century, which is drawing to a close, and the destiny of mankind, which is taking shape with...standpoints of man’s destiny . The formation of the Soviet people as a subject of history is the history of the Soviet Union, the history of socialism...again and again. Particularly in our day. For it is, if you will, the embryo of the new thinking. Reread it. It contains the following ideas: war

  2. Soviet Cineclubs: Baranov's Film/Media Education Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we analyze a historical form of media literacy education that is still insufficiently discussed in English language literature: Russian cineclubs. We focus on one particular cineclub that was created by a Soviet educator Oleg Baranov in the 1950s. We describe this cineclub's context and structure, and discuss its popularity among…

  3. Families overcoming under stress: implementing family-centered prevention for military families facing wartime deployments and combat operational stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Patricia; Mogil, Catherine; Saltzman, William; Woodward, Kirsten; Nash, William; Leskin, Gregory; Bursch, Brenda; Green, Sara; Pynoos, Robert; Beardslee, William

    2011-01-01

    The toll of multiple and prolonged deployments on families has become clearer in recent years as military families have seen an increase in childhood anxiety, parental psychological distress, and marital discord. Families overcoming under stress (FOCUS), a family-centered evidence-informed resiliency training program developed at University of California, Los Angeles and Harvard Medical School, is being implemented at military installations through an initiative from Navy Bureau of Medicine and Surgery. The research foundation for FOCUS includes evidence-based preventive interventions that were adapted to meet the specific needs of military families facing combat operational stress associated with wartime deployments. Using a family narrative approach, FOCUS includes a customized approach utilizing core intervention components, including psychoeducation, emotional regulation skills, goal setting and problem solving skills, traumatic stress reminder management techniques, and family communication skills. The purpose of this study is to describe the development and implementation of FOCUS for military families. A case example is also presented.

  4. Health world views of post-Soviet citizens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Pamela A; Turmov, Sergei; Wallace, Claire

    2006-01-01

    The collapse of the Soviet Union has had an adverse impact on the lives of the peoples of Russia and Ukraine. This paper reports on qualitative case studies including interviews, focus groups and children's essays from Russia and Ukraine, on the topics of everyday understanding of health and the factors influencing it. The majority report poor health and difficult material circumstances. Their understandings of health and illness are multifactorial and include emotional as well as descriptive elements. Whilst the most frequently cited definition of health is of people with/without health problems, it is evident that health is seen positively, as more than the absence of debilitating illness. There is a strong emphasis on individual responsibility for health and evidence that people are thought to have a moral responsibility to strive to be healthy. However, there is also a strong awareness that the major factors which cause ill health are beyond their control. The findings provide additional support for the health lifestyles theory that has been developed to provide a sociological understanding of the mortality crisis in the former Soviet Union.

  5. 14 CFR 61.73 - Military pilots or former military pilots: Special rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Military pilots or former military pilots... Ratings and Pilot Authorizations § 61.73 Military pilots or former military pilots: Special rules. (a... a disciplinary action involving aircraft operations, a U.S. military pilot or former military pilot...

  6. Converting Resources from Military to Non-military Uses

    OpenAIRE

    Jurgen Brauer; John Tepper Marlin

    1992-01-01

    As a proportion of gross national product, U.S. military spending has declined steadily since the mid-1980s. The end of the Cold War has given rise to calls for even more cuts in military spending. In early 1992, President George Bush proposed to reduce military spending by 3 percent per year, in real dollars, for the next five years. The Democratic leadership in the House of Representatives countered with a plan calling for substantially deeper cuts. Any substantial changes in military expen...

  7. Acculturation, social alienation, and depressed mood in midlife women from the former Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Arlene Michaels; Sorokin, Olga; Wang, Edward; Feetham, Suzanne; Choi, Michelle; Wilbur, JoEllen

    2006-04-01

    Level of acculturation has been linked to depressed mood in studies across culturally diverse immigrant groups. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of acculturation, social alienation, personal and family stress, and demographic characteristics on depressed mood in midlife immigrant women from the former Soviet Union. Structural equation modeling showed that higher acculturation scores, measured by English language and American behavior, were indirectly related to lower scores for depressed mood. Higher acculturation levels promoted mental health indirectly by reducing social alienation and, subsequently, lowering family and personal stress, both of which had direct relationships to symptoms of depression. These findings support the ecological framework that guided our research and point to the importance of focusing on contextual factors in developing interventions for new immigrants. Copyright 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Soviet Cultural Diplomacy towards Denmark during the Cold War, 1945-1991

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederichsen, Kim

    bacteriological warfare in Korea, or the campaign against (West) German rearmament.Regarding reception and impact, it is concluded that the Soviet direct and supported activities were aimed at influencing public opinion and thereby give the impression of a public pressure that would in turn affect policy makers...... of the dissertation is that despite some success stories, including a wider audience form the mid-1970s on, it proved very difficult for the Soviet Union to achieve broad public sympathy for its messages as they more often than not seemed alien to the majority of the Danish public and therefore failed to influence...

  9. Charting the Course of the Voyenno-Morskoy Flot: Soviet Naval Strategy towards the Year 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-05-13

    through to the .Soviet strategic centers ashore. It is presumed that main battles will unfold on 144 the high seas, as was the case during WW2 in the...Several methods of nonacoustic detection are currently being explored by U.S. and Soviet scientists. These range from infrared temperature sensors

  10. The making of French nuclear energy policy. Through the relationship between civilian and military use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    The French history of nuclear development clearly shows the inseparability of its civilian use from military use. In France, Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA) and Electricite de France (EDF) have played an important role in research and development of nuclear technology since the postwar period. At first, the two organizations had kept great autonomy, but the government reinforced its control on them because France needed nuclear deterrence against the Soviet Union. France began using plutonium in 1952, and the Suez crisis in 1956 showed the need for nuclear force to ensure its independence. After this event, France managed the first nuclear test using plutonium in 1960. As for enriched uranium, they have long had great difficulty in securing it. The uranium enrichment technology became crucial also in civilian use in this period. EDF proposed the pressurized water reactor (PWR), which requires enriched uranium, as the future reactor type because of its economic advantage, but CEA wanted to continue developing the gas-cooled reactor (GCR) because of its independence in nuclear fuel supply. Finally, they chose PWR because a French enrichment facility was built in 1967. From such French history, we can say that the civilian and military use of nuclear technology are inseparable. (author)

  11. Attitudes of Major Soviet Nationalities. Volume IV. Central Asia. Kazakhstan, Kirgizistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tadzhikistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-06-01

    clothing and especially their cuisine , however, retain many traditional elements in addition to those intro- duced from other cultures. 8 I...among Soviet Moslems, the French scholar feels that "the storm which will burst when the Moslem intelligentsia claims real independence iBennigson...nonetheless presistent and pervasive. The French scholars Alexandre Bennigsen and Chantal Lemercier-Quelquejay, for example, have written: Soviet authors

  12. Differences over Economics in the Soviet Leadership, 1988-1990

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aslund, Anders

    1991-01-01

    .... It focuses on four central issues: the range of differences on agricultural policy, how to deal with the Soviet Union's financial crisis, what to do about pricing policy, and the overall goal of economic reform...

  13. Bibliography of published material related to the Soviet PNE Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledbetter, G.P.; Nordyke, M.D.

    1977-01-01

    Scientists in the Soviet Union have published many papers that provide details about the Soviet program for the peaceful use of nuclear explosions. Over the years much of this material has been gathered at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory into what has become a sizeable collection. The bibliography of 334 references provides a useful record of the material available in that collection. The bibliography is divided into three main parts. Part I lists articles alphabetically. In Part II, the same articles are arranged by subject; many of them are included under more than one subject category. Part III is a list of important collections of papers. These collections provide many of the articles listed in Parts I and II

  14. Повседневность Воинственности в России : Наследие милитаризованноrо социализма ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfred Sapper

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Militarization of society and culture have been a key characteristic of the Soviet era. Deeply rooted in the Civil war period, militarism got reinforced and consolidated with the Great Patriotic War, which largely succeeded in legitimising military values and creating consensus on their importance both in society and in State institutions. Perestroika and the fall of the Soviet Union are a testimony to the consensus’ crisis, with the Afghan war as a main element of the de-legitimacy of militarism. Thus, the 1990s are analysed as an attempt for society and statehood to bypass militarism ; but institutional change does not mean the end of it. Post-Soviet period is characterized by a double and contradictory evolution : on one hand, an increasing rejection of the military ; on the other hand, a widespread use of (military violence, on a daily basis as well as on a large scale, with the war in Chechnya.

  15. Promoting parenting to support reintegrating military families: after deployment, adaptive parenting tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gewirtz, Abigail H; Pinna, Keri L M; Hanson, Sheila K; Brockberg, Dustin

    2014-02-01

    The high operational tempo of the current conflicts and the unprecedented reliance on National Guard and Reserve forces highlights the need for services to promote reintegration efforts for those transitioning back to civilian family life. Despite evidence that parenting has significant influence on children's functioning, and that parenting may be impaired during stressful family transitions, there is a dearth of empirically supported psychological interventions tailored for military families reintegrating after deployment. This article reports on the modification of an empirically supported parenting intervention for families in which a parent has deployed to war. A theoretical rationale for addressing parenting during reintegration after deployment is discussed. We describe the intervention, After Deployment, Adaptive Parenting Tools (ADAPT), and report early feasibility and acceptability data from a randomized controlled effectiveness trial of ADAPT, a 14-week group-based, Web-enhanced parenting training program. Among the first 42 families assigned to the intervention group, participation rates were high, and equal among mothers and fathers. Satisfaction was high across all 14 sessions. Implications for psychological services to military families dealing with the deployment process are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Economic Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-10-28

    balance. It is well known that V. I. Lenin considered inflation the worse type of taxation . If we talk about the possible methods of normalizing the...INDUSTRIYA in Russian 12 Aug 88 p 1 [Article by V. Shishkin, member, Soviet Association of Political Sciences and candidate of juridical sciences, under...achievements as the results of extravagant spending and double counting. The ruinous nature of the gross output criteria was exposed by using

  17. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-28

    Kherson ship builder, the conscientious and docile Poltava or Podillya grain and cattle farmer, the dweller of the coastline of the dying Black Sea...even for free. The best crops of fields, gardens and orchards, the largest herds of cattle not only fail to improve, but consistently worsen the...the Soviet people"—in fact, the spiritual castration of non- Russians. We do not consider that a Ukrainian who speaks Russian automatically loses

  18. Memorable Fiction. Evoking Emotions and Family Bonds in Post-Soviet Russian Women’s Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marja RYTKÖNEN

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with women-centred prose texts of the 1990s and 2000s in Russia written by women, and focuses especially on generation narratives. By this term the author means fictional texts that explore generational relations within families, from the perspective of repressed experiences, feelings and attitudes in the Soviet period. The selected texts are interpreted as narrating and conceptualizing the consequences of patriarchal ideology for relations between mothers and daughters and for reconstructing connections between Soviet and post-Soviet by revisiting and remembering especially the gaps and discontinuities between (female generations. The cases discussed are Liudmila Petrushevskaia’s ‘povest’ Vremia noch [The Time: Night] (1991, Liudmila Ulitskaia’s novel Medeia i ee deti [Medea and her Children] (1996 and Elena Chizhova’s novel Vremia zhenshchin [The Time of Women] (2009. These novels reflect on the one hand the woman-centredness and novelty of representation in women’s prose writing in the post-Soviet period. On the other hand, the author suggests that they reflect the diverse methods of representing the Soviet era and experience through generation narratives. The texts reassess the past through intimate, tactile memories and perceptions, and their narration through generational plots draws attention to the process of working through, which needs to be done in contemporary Russia. The narratives touch upon the untold stories of those who suffered in silence or hid the family secrets from the officials, in order to save the family. The narration delves into the different layers of experience and memory, conceptualizing them in the form of multiple narrative perspectives constructing different generations and traditions. In this way they convey the ‘secrets’ hidden in the midst of everyday life routines and give voice to the often silent resistance of women towards patriarchal and repressive ideology. The new

  19. US - Former Soviet Union environmental management activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    The Office of Environmental Management (EM) has been delegated the responsibility for US DOE's cleanup of nuclear weapons complex. The nature and the magnitude of the waste management and environmental remediation problem requires the identification of technologies and scientific expertise from domestic and foreign sources. This booklet makes comparisons and describes coordinated projects and workshops between the USA and the former Soviet Union

  20. The soviet manned lunar program N1-L3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lardier, Christian

    2018-01-01

    The conquest of space was marked by the Moon race in which the two superpowers, the United States and the Soviet Union, were engaged in the 1960s. On the American side, the Apollo program culminated with the Man on the Moon in July 1969, 50 years ago. At the same time, the Soviet Union carried out a similar program which was kept secret for 20 years. This N1-L3 program was unveiled in August 1989. Its goal was to arrive on the Moon before the Americans. It included an original super-rocket, development of which began in June 1960. But this program became a national priority only in August 1964 and the super-rocket failed four times between 1969 and 1972. This article analyses the reasons for these failures, which led to the cancellation of the program in 1974.

  1. Ján Jamnický’s Ten Days with Soviet Theatre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindovská Nadežda

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Art was perceived in the Soviet Union as a part of ideology and propaganda aimed not only at the domestic environment but also at foreign countries. State cultural policy was presented through a series of magnificent meetings and shows, to which also participants from abroad were invited. In the 1930s Moscow was the venue of several theatre festivals, which were attended by Czechoslovak theatre makers. In 1936 it was also attended by Ján Jamnický, the novice theatre director of the Slovak National Theatre in Bratislava. The Slovak theatre maker saw a lot of inspiring productions and experienced the initial period of a campaign aimed at suppressing the freedom of artistic expression. He became a witness to the twilight of Russian theatre avant-garde. The present paper describes the theatre experiences of Ján Jamnický in the Soviet Union and their impact on his life, production and style of direction. It points to a series of overlooked facts which are necessary for a complete understanding of the historical and artistic context of Soviet theatre and Jamnický’s journey.

  2. Military Intervention to Stop Mass Atrocities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-04

    Central African Republic, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, North Korea, Iraq, Libya, Nigeria, South Sudan, Syria, and Yemen . Ongoing globalization... infrastructure and the potential to initiate a secessionist movement within India.76 As noted by Michael Walzer, India’s intervention in Bangladesh... infrastructure of the existing refugee camps. The logistical assistance provided by the United States ensured food and clean water made it to the

  3. Motivations for Weight Loss Among Active Duty Military Personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclin-Akinyemi, Courtney; Krukowski, Rebecca A; Kocak, Mehmet; Talcott, G Wayne; Beauvais, Alexis; Klesges, Robert C

    2017-09-01

    interactions with friends as motivators. Participants who identified as Hispanic endorsed significantly higher frequency of being motivated to improve their ability to physically defend themselves, interactions with friends, physical mobility, and sex life compared to those who identified as non-Hispanic. A significantly lower percentage of officers of lower rank (i.e., O1-3) endorsed being motivated to improve their quality of life. Improving confidence was a significant motivator for younger and lower ranking enlisted personnel (i.e., E1-4). Younger participants were also significantly more likely to want to improve their ability to physically defend themselves. We conclude that overweight and obese Military Personnel are motivated by various reasons to engage in weight loss, including their military physical fitness test. Findings may assist the development of recruitment efforts or motivationally focused intervention materials for weight loss interventions tailored for the diverse population of Active Duty Military Personnel. Reprint & Copyright © 2017 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  4. Shrinking the Civil-Military Divide: A Military Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-13

    behavior and rights, the values of the military are different and unique. Senior military officers highlight the importance of understanding the...Examples include on-base housing, shopping , schools, children’s sports leagues, and community and social events such as concerts, comedy shows, and movies... mall , a sporting event, or the movies provides a simple, 16 Skelton, “The Civil-Military Gap

  5. Path Dependencies and Institutional Bricolage in Post-Soviet Water Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenniver Sehring

    2009-02-01

    Based on empirical findings, four variables through which the neopatrimonial context in both countries impacts water governance are identified: the decision-making process, the agricultural sector, the local governance institutions, and internal water-institutional linkages. A historical-institutionalist perspective shows how path dependencies limit reform effectiveness: institutionalised Soviet and pre-Soviet patterns of behaviour still shape actors’ responses to new challenges. Consequently, rules and organisations established formally by the state or international donor organisations are undermined by informal institutions. Yet, informal institutions are not only an obstacle to reform, but can also support it. They are not static but dynamic. This is elucidated with the concept of 'institutional bricolage', which explains how local actors recombine elements of different institutional logics and thereby change their meaning.

  6. The End of Cheap Oil: Economic, Social, and Political Change in the US and Former Soviet Union

    OpenAIRE

    Kaufmann, Robert

    2014-01-01

    I use the quality and quantity of energy flows to interpret economic, social, and political changes in the US and Former Soviet Union. The economic successes of both the former Soviet Union (FSU) and the US reflect an abundant supply of high quality energy. This abundance ended in the 1970s in the US and the 1980s in the Former Soviet Union. In the US, the end of cheap oil caused labor productivity to stagnate, which stopped on-going growth in wages and family incomes. To preserve the Ameri...

  7. American News Media and Soviet Diplomacy, 1934-41.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddux, Thomas R.

    1981-01-01

    Analysis of the coverage given by 35 newspapers to United States-Soviet Union relations during 1934-41 reveals that newspapers with the most interest in foreign affairs expressed the opinion that Stalin had abandoned the idea of world revolution, while those with less interest viewed him as an imperialist. (FL)

  8. Acculturation and Communicative Mobility Among Former Soviet Nationalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haarmann, Harald; Holman, Eugene

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the strategies that the former Soviet states are evolving to balance the interests of dominant ethnic groups with those of linguistic minorities while constructing a national identity, highlighting language policy in action and focusing on acculturation processes and geographic mobility among groups. A case study of Estonia is also…

  9. The Press of the Soviet Union: A Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergethon, Bruce; And Others

    Compiled in response to the need for more information on the differences between the press systems of the United States and the Soviet Union, this bibliography contains 240 entries. Consisting of newspaper articles, journal articles, books, and pamphlets, the bibliography provides an overview of the different journalistic philosophies of the two…

  10. The Soviet Decision to Invade Czechoslovakia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-09-01

    inuary 1976 DDC - ’■’ rv > Canoron Station O T "> 1 ." Mexancria The caveat appearing on the title pi c.r. ol: Center for hib- avanced^earch...Soviets viewed the political developments in Czechoslovakia in 1968 with alarm bordering on paranoia, conditioned by the "dagger" phobia and by...published its Action Program entitled "The Czechoslovak Road to Socialism ," a program described by a Western authority as "a remarkable

  11. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, International Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-05-02

    socialist soci- ety. Perestroyka is not a deviation, but a new step forward in the development of socialism. This means that the whole policy is in the...anniversary of the Great October, that the restructuring is moving forward . The Soviet people is interested in this process and actively supports it...WASHINGTON POST, 3 March 1986. 4. EL FINANCIERO , Mexico, 28 May 1986. 5. THE FINANCIAL TIMES, London, 11 June 1986. 6. See VISION, Mexico, Vol 67, No 5

  12. Risk and resilience in military families experiencing deployment: the role of the family attachment network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggs, Shelley A; Riggs, David S

    2011-10-01

    Deployment separation constitutes a significant stressor for U.S. military men and women and their families. Many military personnel return home struggling with physical and/or psychological injuries that challenge their ability to reintegrate and contribute to marital problems, family dysfunction, and emotional or behavioral disturbance in spouses and children. Yet research examining the psychological health and functioning of military families is scarce and rarely driven by developmental theory. The primary purpose of this theoretical paper is to describe a family attachment network model of military families during deployment and reintegration that is grounded in attachment theory and family systems theory. This integrative perspective provides a solid empirical foundation and a comprehensive account of individual and family risk and resilience during military-related separations and reunions. The proposed family attachment network model will inform future research and intervention efforts with service members and their families.

  13. Gorbachev’s Arms Control Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-22

    on- site inspection for verifying nuclear tests as well as for dismantling missiles on Soviet territory. Clearlv Gorbachev wants an arms , -4- control...bring its seismological test equipment to what he called the "holy of holies", the area adjoining the Soviet proving ground near Semipalatinsk to offer...prenotification and observation of military exercises including on- site inspection on Soviet territory. But on the big issues--- nuclear testing , strategic weapons

  14. Between Two Suns. Czechoslovakia and the Sino-Soviet Dispute over the International Communist Movement (1953-1962)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolenovská, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 1 (2016), s. 19-48 ISSN 2336-3142 Institutional support: RVO:68378114 Keywords : Sino-Czechoslovak relations * Sino-Soviet split * Soviet bloc Subject RIV: AB - History OBOR OECD: History (history of science and technology to be 6.3, history of specific sciences to be under the respective headings)

  15. ADULT FOLK HIGH SCHOOLS DURING THE SOVIET ERA (1917-1991

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Vasilevna Gordina

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Life-long education is the important factor of adult’s effective social functioning. In contemporary informational society this statement is considered to be true. However, content and technological aspects of a life-long education have not been worked out in detail, therefore, those aspects are at the center of Russian and foreign specialists’ debates. Studying the development of adult schools during the Soviet period could have a heuristic value. Throughout this period we can trace effective and diverse experience in organizing adult education through variety of school types. Education of Soviet nation was seen to be a state priority. From the one hand, in that time it led to unification of adult education schools, form the other hand, it contributed to forming a base for education of various strata of society. During the Soviet epoch school system evolved, with school’s purposes and curricula changing: from fight against in 1920–1940-s, knowledge level renewal in post-war period (evening schools for young people living in rural areas or working at plants to improving standard of life, providing opportunities for creativity and personal security (Adult education centers. History of adult education development in Russia that is being shaped nowadays may rest on predecessors’ experience to reveal some risks and learn a lesson relevant to new generations of specialists in adult education.

  16. US-Soviet cooperation in countering nuclear terrorism: the role of risk reduction centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunn, S.; Warner, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    Preventing nuclear terrorism should be high on the agenda of US-Soviet relations. Indeed, the specter of nuclear terrorism, more than any other factor originally prompted and has subsequently sustained the author's deep interest in US-Soviet agreements on establishment of US-Soviet Nuclear Risk Reduction Centers and other important risk-reduction measures. Such centers can play an invaluable role in facilitating discussions aimed at forestalling possible contingencies and in providing a mechanism for dampening escalatory dangers that might otherwise result from any future nuclear terrorism incident. In addition to these crucial substantive functions, the centers could serve to reassure anxious publics that the governments they have entrusted with command authority over tens of thousands of nuclear devices are giving the highest priority to reducing the risk that any of them will ever be used, whether by design or by accident. Nuclear risk Reduction Centers are an idea whose time has come

  17. [History and current status of acupuncture-moxibustion in Russia and former Soviet Union].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu-Yang; Zhang, Wen-Peng; Zhu, Jian-Ping; Lei, Yan

    2012-10-01

    A brief history and new developments of acupuncture moxibustion in the former Soviet Union is provided in this paper, as well as in Russia. Science of acupuncture-moxibustion was introduced into Russia after the 10th Century. After the foundation of People's Republic of China, acupuncture-moxibustion therapy has drawn widespread attention in the former Soviet Union and Russia since the 1950s. Notably, acupuncture moxibustion therapy was legalized and popularized in mid 1950s in the Soviet Union, which was gradually accepted as a part of the country's medical system. In the latest 20 years, Federal health departments have paid attention to acupuncture-moxibustion therapy and issued laws and regulations on acupuncture reflexotherapy. The number of books and journals about acupuncture-moxibustion has been increasing; clinical application of acupuncture-moxibustion has been spreading and is welcomed by people. Academic exchanges between China and Russia are more frequent, which promoted the development of science of acupuncture-moxibustion in Russia.

  18. Soviet supplies of enriched uranium to capitalist countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valvoda, Z.

    1977-01-01

    The Soviet supplies of enriched uranium to the following capitalist countries are surveyed: Belgium, Finland, France, FRG, Austria, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. The time period, total supplies, average annual supplies, estimated average price per separation work unit, and the date of the conclusion of the contract are reported. (J.B.)

  19. Gifted and Talented Education in the Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetterman, David M.

    1987-01-01

    Focusing on the Young Pioneer Palace system in Moscow, this brief article reviews the Soviet Union's educational approach to gifted and talented children. Noted is the elaborate network of after-school programs with such activities at the Young Pioneer Palace as technical circles, naturalists' circles, song and dance ensembles, and a sports…

  20. US - Former Soviet Union environmental management activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The Office of Environmental Management (EM) has been delegated the responsibility for US DOE`s cleanup of nuclear weapons complex. The nature and the magnitude of the waste management and environmental remediation problem requires the identification of technologies and scientific expertise from domestic and foreign sources. This booklet makes comparisons and describes coordinated projects and workshops between the USA and the former Soviet Union.

  1. Soviet scientists in chinese institutes: A historical study of cooperation between the two academies of sciences in 1950s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiuchen; Yu, Feklova T

    2018-03-01

    In the 1950s, the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) engaged in close cooperation with the Soviet Academy of Sciences. The CAS sent scientists to the Soviet Academy to work as interns, study for advanced degrees, or engage in academic cooperation, and a large number of Soviet scientists were invited by the various institutes of the CAS to come to China to give lectures, direct research, help make scientific plans, and collaborate. The comprehensive cooperation between the two academies was launched at a time when the CAS institutes were in their embryonic stage, which suggests that the better-established Soviet scientists had the opportunity to play a dominate role. But the reality is not so straightforward. The case studies in this paper suggest that besides the influence of compatible political movements in China and the Soviet Union and bilateral ties between these two nations' scientific institutes, disharmony in actual working relationships prevented Soviet scientists from playing the role they might have envisioned within the CAS institutes. The rapid development of the cooperative relationship in a short span of time, combined with lack of experience on both sides, made for a disharmonious collaboration. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Soviet Central Asian Challenge: A Neo-Gramscian Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-09-01

    ecclesiastics ). Traditional intellectuals tend to function autonomously and are not organically linked to their class or group of origin. Nevertheless, the...Emperor Timur (Tamerlane). 56 AJ- ,. s; Russianness of Soviet society49- Russian language, Russian identity, and even Russian architecture . 50 Hence

  3. Failure of the “Typhoon” Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A A Akhtamzyan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of a number of historical sources, memories of both Soviet and German military commanders and politicians, the author plays chronicling the events of 1941, when the operation «Typhoon» was launched by Nazi Germany (known as the Battle of Moscow in Soviet sources. In October 1941, the Wehrmacht troops have created a direct threat to Moscow. However, transfer to Moscow of «Siberian» divisions, coordinated work on the front and rear foiled the plans of the Nazi aggressors. Already on Dec. 8, 1941, Hitler issued a directive № 39 on the transition to defense on the Eastern Front. Starting from the defeat at Moscow German generals at the front began to doubt the correctness of the assessment of the military potential of the Soviet Union. The first major offensive of the Red Army had not only military but also moral and political significance. The defeat of the Wehrmacht divisions tens of Moscow had resonance throughout the world. One of the important consequences of the victory of the Red Army near Moscow was proclamation of allied relations between the Soviet Union and Great Britain and reach an agreement with the United States on the principles applicable to the common struggle against Germany.

  4. Substance use disorders in military veterans: prevalence and treatment challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teeters JB

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Jenni B Teeters,1,2 Cynthia L Lancaster,1,2 Delisa G Brown,3 Sudie E Back1,2 1Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, USA; 2Ralph H Johnson Veterans Affairs (VA Medical Center, Charleston, SC, USA, 3Department of Human Development and Psychoeducation, Howard University, Washington, DC, USA Abstract: Substance use disorders (SUDs are a significant problem among our nation’s military veterans. In the following overview, we provide information on the prevalence of SUDs among military veterans, clinical characteristics of SUDs, options for screening and evidence-based treatment, as well as relevant treatment challenges. Among psychotherapeutic approaches, behavioral interventions for the management of SUDs typically involve short-term, cognitive-behavioral therapy interventions. These interventions focus on the identification and modification of maladaptive thoughts and behaviors associated with increased craving, use, or relapse to substances. Additionally, client-centered motivational interviewing approaches focus on increasing motivation to engage in treatment and reduce substance use. A variety of pharmacotherapies have received some support in the management of SUDs, primarily to help with the reduction of craving or withdrawal symptoms. Currently approved medications as well as treatment challenges are discussed. Keywords: addiction, alcohol use disorders, drug use disorders, treatment, pharmacotherapy, psychotherapy

  5. Nuclear deception: soviet information policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, E.P.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of the accident at the Chernobyl Unit 4 Reactor on information policies in the USSR is examined. The lack of an agreed-upon information policy and intraparty disagreement over domestic and foreign policy help to explain the delay in disclosure of the accident and conflicting statements concerning long-term health effects. A modest change in policy since Chernobyl has been noted: the willingness of Soviet spokespersons to discuss and debate issues with foreign correspondents, to publish sharply critical letters from citizens and a few foreign officials, and to provide many details about the nature and consequences of the accident

  6. GUINEAN-SOVIET RELATIONS IN THE 1 ST REPUBLIC PERIOD (1958-1984

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Сергей Сергеевич Размыслов

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the history of the Guinean-Soviet relations in the period of Ahmed Secou Toure’s presidency. Guinea and the USSR fought for Africa’s liberation from colonialism and imperialism, and the Guinean leader was an initiator of the integration processes in Africa. The author proves that the character of the bilateral relations was under strong influence of the Guinean leader’s controversial personality as well as the attempts to balance between the capitalist and socialist poles in the Cold War. As a result Guinea became estranged from the Soviet Union and restored the relationships with its former parent state, France, and other Western countries.

  7. Lenin's Grandchildren: Preschool Education in the Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Kitty D.

    The Soviets have long been devoting educational and institutional energies to the field of early childhood education. This book stresses what Russian preschool education does rather than what its theorists claim it does for children aged 2 months to 6 years who are in group care. Children, teachers and parents tell their own stories. Obviously…

  8. JPRS Report Soviet Union Political Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-26

    the right of immunity and can be removed from his post only by the Azerbaijan SSR Supreme Soviet in case of a violation by him of the constitution...ities of judges and people’s assessors and their execution of justice is inadmissible and is punishable by law. The immunity of judges and people’s...ecologically clean water to be sold in bottles and cardboard containers- -like kefir . Understandably, this beverage will cost more than tap water, but is

  9. Military and Political Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Alexey I. Podberyozkin

    2014-01-01

    Military-political issues is an important area of research work at MGIMO. The difference in this direction from the classical international specialization is that it is at the intersection of several disciplines: military science, military-technical and military-industrial as well as International Relations. A specialist in military and political issues should not only be an expert in the field of international relations and diplomacy, but also have a deep knowledge of military-technical issu...

  10. Health status of Russian minorities in former Soviet Republics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenewold, W.G.F.; van Ginneken, J.K.S.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To examine if, and to what extent, disparities in health status exist between ethnic Russians and the native majority populations of four former Soviet Republics; and to determine to what extent indicators of socio-economic status and lifestyle behaviours explain variations in health

  11. Suicide in inmates in Nazis and Soviet concentration camps: historical overview and critique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco eLopez-Munoz

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Living conditions in concentration camps were harsh and often inhumane, leading many prisoners to commit suicide. We have reviewed this topic in Nazi concentration camps (KL, Soviet special camps and gulags, providing some preliminary data of our research. Data show that the incidence of suicide in Nazi KL could be up to 30 times higher than the general population, and was also much higher than in Soviet special camps (maybe due to more favorable conditions for prisoners and the abolishment of death penalty, while available data on Soviet gulags are contradictory. However, data interpretation is very controversial, because, for example, the Nazi KL authorities used to cover up the murder victims as suicides. Most of suicides were committed in the first years of imprisonment and the method of suicide most commonly used was hanging, although other methods included cutting blood vessels, poisoning, contact with electrified wire, or starvation. It is possible to differentiate two behavior when committing suicide; impulsive behavior (contact with electrified barbed or premeditated suicide (hanging up or through poison. In Soviet special camps, possible motives for suicides could include feelings of guilt for crimes committed, fear of punishment and a misguided understanding of honor on the eve of criminal trials. Self-destructive behaviors such as self-mutilation in gulag camps or prisoners who let themselves die have been widely reported. Committing suicide in concentration camps was a common practice, although precise data may be impossible to obtain.

  12. Tobacco Pricing in Military Stores: Views of Military Policy Leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Elizabeth A; Jahnke, Sara A; Poston, Walker S C; Malone, Ruth E; Haddock, Christopher K

    2016-10-01

    Higher tobacco taxes reduce tobacco use. On military installations, cigarettes and other tobacco products are sold tax-free, keeping prices artificially low. Pricing regulations in the military specify that tobacco should be within 5% of the local most competitive price, but prices still average almost 13% lower than those at local Walmarts. To gain insight into policy leaders' ideas and positions on military tobacco pricing, we interviewed members of the Department of Defense (DoD) Addictive Substances Misuse Advisory Committee and the Advisory Committee on Tobacco about tobacco pricing policies (n = 12). Participants frequently lacked specific knowledge of details of military pricing policy, and the impact higher prices might have on military tobacco use. Most participants thought tobacco should not be sold at military stores, but many also felt that this policy change was unlikely due to tobacco industry pressure, and DoD reliance on tobacco profits to support Morale, Welfare, and Recreation funds. Achieving a tobacco-free military will require changing pricing policy, but this study suggests that for effective implementation, military leadership must also understand and articulate more clearly the rationale for doing so. Previous work has found that adherence to military tobacco pricing policy is inconsistent at best. This study suggests that lack of knowledge about the policy and conflicting pressures resulting from the funding stream tobacco sales represent extend to high level military policy leaders. Without clearer information and direction, these leaders are unlikely to be able to establish and implement better tobacco pricing policy. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Russia's strategic forces: policy, evolution and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedorov, Y.E.

    2005-01-01

    The well-know 1980 joke, according to which the Soviet Union was nothing else than Upper Volta armed with nuclear missiles, was literally not quite correct. On top of its nuclear missiles, the former Soviet Union had a lot of nuclear and conventional submarines, combat aircraft, tanks and other deadly weaponry. Yet it was true that the global ambitions of the high military commanders, the captains of the Soviet military-industrial complex, and the CPSU chiefs burdened the weak Soviet economy. In fact, military related expenditures, mounting up to 25 percent of the USSR GDP, were among the most fundamental causes of the Soviet economic and political collapse. By the 1990, the joke had become even more credible. Yeltzin Russia, affected by severe economic and social crises, kept only two attributes of its former superpower status: a seat on the UN Security Council and a substantial yet decreasing nuclear arsenal. Russia recent economic revival and political transformation, from the embryonic and chaotic democracy of Yeltzin into an authoritarian regime pillaring itself on the security sector and the post-Soviet bureaucracy, provoke critical questions in regards to the nation future role in the emerging international system, primarily in the Eurasian region. Two of these questions are whether Russia will be able to maintain the world second largest strategic nuclear arsenal, and how Russia ruling class will view the roles and missions of nuclear weapons. To answer these questions it is necessary to assess (a) the governmental policy that determines the development of Russian nuclear force; (b) the structure and quantity of the current nuclear force; and (c) the capacity of missile and submarine-building industries. (author)

  14. Military Parents' Personal Technology Usage and Interest in e-Health Information for Obesity Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jai, Tun-Min; McCool, Barent N; Reed, Debra B

    2016-03-01

    U.S. military families are experiencing high obesity rates similar to the civilian population. The Department of Defense's Military Health System (MHS) is one of the largest healthcare providers in the United States, serving approximately 9.2 million active duty service members, retirees, spouses, and children. The annual cost to the MHS for morbidities associated with being overweight exceeds $1 billion. The preschool age has been suggested as an opportune time to intervene for the prevention of obesity. Thus, this study investigated the current level of technology usage by military service member families and assessed their needs and interests in health/nutrition information. This needs assessment is crucial for researchers/educators to design further studies and intervention programs for obesity prevention in military families with young children. In total, 288 military parents (233 Army and 55 Air Force) at two military bases whose children were enrolled in military childcare centers in the southwestern United States participated in a Technology Usage in Military Family (TUMF) survey in 2013. Overall, both bases presented similar technology usage patterns in terms of computer and mobile device usage on the Internet. Air Force base parents had a slightly higher knowledge level of nutrition/health information than Army base parents. The TUMF survey suggested practical ways such as mobile applications/Web sites, social networks, games, etc., that health educators can use to disseminate nutrition/health information for obesity prevention among military families with young children.

  15. Postkolonialismi pealetung post -sovetoloogias: kas paradigmamuutuse künnisel? The Rise of Post-Colonialism in Post-Soviet Studies: Witnessing the Paradigm Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Epp Annus

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the current state of research in studies of Soviet colonialism and considers inner tensions within this emerging field. By now, dozens of monographs and hundreds of articles touch upon the various aspects of Soviet postcolonialism, yet the field is fragmented and full of inner contradictions and unanswered questions: What is the relationship of research in Soviet colonialism to postcolonial studies in general? What is its relationship to traditional Sovietology? Areas of tension are found through historical and geographical perspectives, in the Russian neglect of its own Soviet imperialism, and in the long-distance scholarship dominant in the area. This paper argues that what we are witnessing now is the pains of a paradigm change, further aggravated by special complexities within the field. The article offers a historical overview of the development of studies of Soviet colonialism and shows that a decisive turn took place in the first decade of the twenty-first century. In 1990s, postcolonial perspectives were more widely employed in analyses of Tsarist-era Russian history. In the 2000s, several important monographs about the Soviet Union were published, yet, interestingly, their main focus was the inter-war period, before the Baltic states were annexed to the Soviet Union. Thus, for research into Baltic Soviet history, these collections and monographs can only provide background information. As for the post-WWII era, most important work from the perspective of Baltic studies – that is, general arguments about the developments in Soviet Union – remain on the level of single articles, the best known of these being David Chioni Moore’s „Is the Post- in Postcolonial the Post- in Post-Soviet? Toward a Global Postcolonial Critique“ (2001. The article makes a distinction between the general term „empire-studies“ and the more restricted notion of „studies of colonialism“; it further distuinguishes post colonial

  16. Soviet Union goes to Sussex for advice on science policy

    CERN Multimedia

    Brown, P

    1990-01-01

    Two state officials from the Soviet Union came to the SPRU, Sussex University, to learn about methods for forecasting trends in science and technology and ways of establishing priorities for basic scientific research (1/2 page).

  17. Animal Effects from Soviet Atmospheric Nuclear Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    describes the effect on animal models of atmospheric nuclear weapons tests performed by the Soviet Union at the Semipalatinsk Test Site . Part I describes...understand the pathogenic mechanisms of injury and the likelihood of efficacy of proposed treatment measures. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Semipalatinsk Test Site ...the Semipalatinsk Test Site . Part 1 describes the air blast and thermal radiation effects. Part 2 covers the effects of primary (prompt) radiation and

  18. Synchrotron radiation sources in the Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapitza, S.P.

    1987-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation (SR) is now recognized to be an important instrument for experimental work in many fields of science. Recently the application of SR in medicine and industry, especially as a light source for microelectronics production have been demonstrated. Thus the development of SR sources has now grown to become a significant and independent dimension for accelerator research and technology. This article describes SR work in the Soviet Union

  19. Military Librarians Workshop: A Premier Gathering of Military Librarians, 1957-1999

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Palmer, William A., Jr; Hanna, Marcia

    2000-01-01

    The Military Librarian Workshop(MLW) is an annual meeting that brings together civilian and military personnel who serve as special librarians, library supervisors, or technical information officers in military or governmental...

  20. Gas in the former Soviet Union. A special report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    This special report includes 13 papers on various aspects of the natural gas industry and its development in the republics of the former Soviet Union and a full listing of all the Russian oil and gas fields. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 9 papers. (UK)

  1. A.I. Solzhenitsyn and R. Medvedev: discussion of “Letters to leaders of the Soviet Union” and its comprehension in migrant press (M.Agursky

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surovtseva Ekaterina Vladimirovna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the special epistolary genre - a genre of “letters to the leader”; it briefly analyzes the letter of declaration by Alexander Solzhenitsyn “Letter to the Leaders of the Soviet Union” (a kind of “lesson for tsars” and his polemic with R.A. Medvedev concerning the text. Solzhenitsyn and Medvedev are different in their views on the current ideology, the national problem in the democratization of the country, on religion, on the nature of Marxism, on the military-industrial complex and the threat of war on the fate of the Russian people in the XX century, on the technical and economic progress and the planet’s resources. Despite the fact that Medvedev agrees with some private aspects of Solzhenitsyn, in general he evaluates the “Letter to the Leaders of the Soviet Union” as an extremely negative and realizing the scale of the Solzhenitsyn’s individual he believes that he adheres to the backward views. Solzhenitsyn serves as a believer, Medvedev - as a Marxist and an atheist. We have also considered the perception of controversy of Solzhenitsyn and Medvedev by M.Agursky. He believes that Solzhenitsyn criticized Marxism in principle that denies the moral and concludes that “over time, the view expressed by Solzhenitsyn, will gain more and more supporters, despite the fact that small number of people share it”. The article by Agursky reflected high evaluation of “Letters” by Solzhenitsyn, recognition of the importance of this text for understanding the fate of Russia in the past and in the present.

  2. The Viability Of Moral Dissent By The Military

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    general hurricane, thy one tost sapling cannot, Starbuck ! And what is it? Reckon it. ‘Tis but to help strike a fin; no wondrous feat for Starbuck . What...own corporate interests. Finer criticizes Huntington’s definition of professionalism as excessively strict and idealized, and while he recognizes...power.”21 Furthermore, if military intervention takes place, it will likely be motivated by selfish corporate interests instead of the idealism of

  3. The prevalence of toxic hotspots in former Soviet countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharov, Petr; Dowling, Russell; Gogishvili, Megi; Jones, Barbara; Caravanos, Jack; McCartor, Andrew; Kashdan, Zachary; Fuller, Richard

    2016-04-01

    Using a global database of contaminated sites, toxic hotspots in eight former Soviet countries were analyzed to identify the prevalence, types and sources of toxic pollution, as well as their associated potential public health impacts. For this analysis, polluted sites in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan were compiled and analyzed. The levels of contamination of seven key pollutants were assessed in each country. 424 contaminated sites were identified using data from Blacksmith Institute. Pesticides, lead (Pb), radioactive metals, arsenic (As), mercury (Hg), chromium (Cr), and cadmium (Cd) were the most commonly identified key pollutants. Collectively, these sites pose health risks to an estimated 6.2 million residents. The existing data on toxic hotspots in former Soviet countries likely captures only a small percentage of actual contaminated sites, but suggests potentially severe public health consequences. Additional assessments are needed to understand the risks posed by toxic pollution in the region. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Legal transformations of business disputes in post-soviet Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Kyselova

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores mobilisation of law by Ukrainian business people at the pre-litigation stage of disputes, when litigation has not as yet been commenced but a legal claim has been formalised through the pretenziya - a formal letter to the delinquent party written to a special template. In Soviet times the pretenziya was by law an obligatory prerequisite before filing a claim in a commercial court (arbitrazh, but nowadays it is optional. Having analysed the spectrum of legal and extra-legal functions of pretenziya, this paper concludes that due to its adaptability, pretenziya proved capable of operating both as a token of the public order – the ‘shadow of the law’ - and as part of a private contract enforcement. Pretenziya in a voluntary form has not only survived in market-oriented economy but even opened up new avenues for the creative use of legal forms in post-Soviet business.

  5. To the Question on the Nature of Military Threats and Non-Military Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sambu R. Tsyrendorzhjyev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The notion of "military danger, military threats, military and non-military measures to Parry, and other definitions from the policy of the State to ensure the military security of the now widely used in journalism, conceptual, other documents and research. The attentive reader it is not difficult to notice the ambiguity in the interpretation of these concepts. This makes it difficult to not only the perception of the relevant topics for ensuring military security publications, but also the development of the theory and practice of ensuring the defence and security of the State. The author's view on the essence of the reasoning logic of non-military measures to counter military threats, as the ultimate goal of the article is the following.First the task of analyzing the concept of "national security", "object of national security" and understand the functions of the State, society and the individual to ensure national security. Decomposition of an object of national security, which is "national property" (the content of the concepts described in the article has made it possible to substantiate the basis for classification of national security threats and with better understanding of the nature, variety, Genesis. This provided a rationale for the role and the place of the tasks ensuring military security in the common task of ensuring national security, the correlation of military and non-military threats.The final phase of the research, the results of which are set out in the article is devoted to analysis of military threats, which made it possible to identify their main structural elements: source, media, military-political and strategic nature, install the main factors defining the content of these elements and their interaction. Based on these results, the proposed definition of the essence of non-military measures for counteracting of military threats, as well as guidelines for developing these measures.

  6. Are resources a curse? Rentierism and energy policy in post-Soviet States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gawrich, Andrea; Franke, Anja; Windwehr, Jana (eds.) [Kiel Univ. (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The analysis of rentierism in post-Soviet states, which this book presents, underscores the need for further research as rentier state concepts have mainly been applied on ''older'' rentier states like Arab, African and Latin American countries. An important contribution to a topical discussion. During the last 30 years, many resource-rich countries have experienced economic and political stagnation (''resource curse''). They have developed deficient political systems in which the process of modern state formation is being undercut (''rentier state'') as well as economic structures in which sectors that provide strong incentives for the accumulation of physical and human capital are under-represented (''Dutch disease''). These political and economic challenges can be observed in many of the post-Soviet states with high resource incomes since the mid 1990s. Such incomes present opportunities for reducing poverty and promoting economic growth. But instead of taking advantage of these opportunities, many of them present authoritarian regimes with high levels of corruption, low political freedom and rent-seeking elites. The book gives an detailed analysis of rentierism in post-Soviet states. (orig.)

  7. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-11-15

    jour- nals almost at the same time as A. Rybakov’s "Children of the Arbat," V. Dudintsev’s "White Clothes," D. Granin’s "Diehard," and the essays ... lyrical poet," Akh- matova is able to make "concise, vivid, and resounding statements regarding the salient or distinctive features of the spiritual...known poet M. Avi-Shaul; a photo essay on Soviet artists and cultural figures, who had visited Israel in recent years; on the Romen Theater, headed by

  8. Military nutrition: maintaining health and rebuilding injured tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Neil; Fallowfield, Joanne; Price, Susan; Wilson, Duncan

    2011-01-01

    Food and nutrition are fundamental to military capability. Historical examples demonstrate that a failure to supply adequate nutrition to armies inevitably leads to disaster; however, innovative measures to overcome difficulties in feeding reap benefits, and save lives. In barracks, UK Armed Forces are currently fed according to the relatively new Pay As You Dine policy, which has attracted criticism from some quarters. The recently introduced Multi-Climate Ration has been developed specifically to deal with issues arising from Iraq and the current conflict in Afghanistan. Severely wounded military personnel are likely to lose a significant amount of their muscle mass, in spite of the best medical care. Nutritional support is unable to prevent this, but can ameliorate the effects of the catabolic process. Measuring and quantifying nutritional status during critical illness is difficult. A consensus is beginning to emerge from studies investigating the effects of nutritional interventions on how, what and when to feed patients with critical illness. The Ministry of Defence is currently undertaking research to address specific concerns related to nutrition as well as seeking to promote healthy eating in military personnel. PMID:21149358

  9. Military service and military vocational training effects on post-service earnings

    OpenAIRE

    Bolin, Phil Warren

    1980-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. The influence of military service and military vocational training on post-service earnings was analyzed using the National Longitudinal Survey of young men (14-24 years of age in 1966) . When individuals were classified by their propensity to use training neither military service nor military vocational training was a significant determinant of post-service earnings. A disaggregation of the sample IQ revealed that m...

  10. "the yawning heights:" Islamic higher education in post-Soviet Daghestan and International educational networks

    OpenAIRE

    Navruzov, Amir

    2007-01-01

    The reproduction and transfer of Islamic knowledge has moved to the fore in the context of the religious upsurge at the turn of the 21st century in Daghestan and other post-Soviet Muslim regions. Religious institutions that have mosques, communities, and schools associated with them are mushrooming within a very short period, their numbers increased tenor even hundred-fold. Back in 1988, there were only two legal Islamic educational establishments in the Soviet Union: the Mir-i 'Arab Madrasah...

  11. Soviet Cinema and State Control: Lenin's Nationalization Decree Reconsidered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepley, Vance, Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Proposes a revisionist account of the immediate conditions and consequences of the 1919 Soviet cinema nationalization decree. Argues that nationalization was the least successful of a set of stop-gap measures; that it dispersed and diluted control; and that it actually retarded the growth of the film industry. (KEH)

  12. Trichoptera hydroptilidae (Insecta) from Soviet Union Far-Eastern territories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botosaneanu, L.; Levanidova, I.M.

    1988-01-01

    This is a contribution to the study of the scarcely known Trichoptera Hydroptilidae from Soviet Far-East (Primorye, Amur River basin, Kuril Islands, Kamtschatka, Chukotka). The discovery of a new species of Stactobia McL. on Kunashir Island, very far from the known distribution area of the genus,

  13. The Soviet Objective of War Termination: Limits and Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-06-01

    results, even the best, must be regarded as a base, as a trampoline , for achieving still higher indicators. What is considered a success today may no...organizations. According to Boris Ponomarev, former head of the Soviet’s International Department, such contacts would establish "broad alliances covering the

  14. Department of Energy's team's analyses of Soviet designed VVERs (water-cooled water-moderated atomic energy reactors)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-09-01

    This document contains apprendices A through P of this report. Topics discussed are: a cronyms and technical terms, accident analyses reactivity control; Soviet safety regulations; radionuclide inventory; decay heat; operations and maintenance; steam supply system; concrete and concrete structures; seismicity; site information; neutronic parameters; loss of electric power; diesel generator reliability; Soviet codes and standards; and comparisons of PWR and VVER features. (FI)

  15. Direct measurement of source RDP's and yields from near-field Soviet seismic data. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saikia, C.K.; McLaren, J.P.; Helmberger, D.V.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the source characteristics represented in the form of a reduced displacement potential (RDP) of Soviet nuclear explosions and was based on the availability of in-country near-field data. At the start of the project, it was thought that data would be readily accessible to us with the start of the open exchange of seismic data between the US and the Soviet Union. In fact, we did receive near-field waveforms of two Soviet nuclear explosions from Azghir test site near the Caspian Sea following which the transfer of data stopped till the end of the project. Consequently, the research effort was descoped. Only recently, some additional data have become available at CSS (Center for Seismic Studies). We have undertaken a thorough investigation of the limited data available from a large coupled shot (64 kT) in Azghir followed five years later by a decoupled shot (8 kT). We have successfully modeled the near-field data from these events to determine their source RDP's and establish a decoupling factor of 15 using a time-domain waveform modeling technique. The results of this study are presented in the enclosed manuscript: Analysis of near-field data from a Soviet decoupling experiment

  16. The Changing Face of the of Former Soviet Cities: Elucidated by Remote Sensing and Machine Learning Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poghosyan, Armen

    2017-04-01

    Despite remote sensing of urbanization emerged as a powerful tool to acquire critical knowledge about urban growth and its effects on global environmental change, human-environment interface as well as environmentally sustainable urban development, there is lack of studies utilizing remote sensing techniques to investigate urbanization trends in the Post-Soviet states. The unique challenges accompanying the urbanization in the Post-Soviet republics combined with the expected robust urban growth in developing countries over the next several decades highlight the critical need for a quantitative assessment of the urban dynamics in the former Soviet states as they navigate towards a free market democracy. This study uses total of 32 Level-1 precision terrain corrected (L1T) Landsat scenes with 30-m resolution as well as further auxiliary population and economic data for ten cities distributed in nine former Soviet republics to quantify the urbanization patterns in the Post-Soviet region. Land cover in each urban center of this study was classified by using Support Vector Machine (SVM) learning algorithm with overall accuracies ranging from 87 % to 97 % for 29 classification maps over three time steps during the past twenty-five years in order to estimate quantities, trends and drivers of urban growth in the study area. The results demonstrated several spatial and temporal urbanization patterns observed across the Post-Soviet states and based on urban expansion rates the cities can be divided into two groups, fast growing and slow growing urban centers. The relatively fast-growing urban centers have an average urban expansion rate of about 2.8 % per year, whereas the slow growing cities have an average urban expansion rate of about 1.0 % per year. The total area of new land converted to urban environment ranged from as low as 26 km2 to as high as 780 km2 for the ten cities over the 1990 - 2015 period, while the overall urban land increase ranged from 11.3 % to 96

  17. Knowledge Management as an Approach to Learning and Instructing Sector University Students in Post-Soviet Professional Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volegzhanina, Irina S.; Chusovlyanova, Svetlana V.; Adolf, Vladimir A.; Bykadorova, Ekaterina S.; Belova, Elena N.

    2017-01-01

    The relevance of the study depends on addressing to the issue of knowledge management in learning and instructing students of post-Soviet sector universities. In this regard, the article is intended to reveal the nature of knowledge management approach compared to the knowledge-based one predominated in Soviet education. The flagship approach of…

  18. Gender Analysis of the Development of School and University Theme in Soviet and Russian Audiovisual Media Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitskaya, Anastasia; Seliverstova, Lyudmila; Mamadaliev, Anvar

    2017-01-01

    The article is written within the framework of a broader study investigating school and university representation in the Soviet/Russian and foreign audiovisual media texts. The research outlines that in Soviet cinema the image of the female teacher was transformed in the following sequence: a heroine-revolutionary; a heroine of hard work; an…

  19. Bringing the Military Back in: Military Expenditures and Economic Growth 1990 to 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Kentor

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available After the “peace bonus” era, global military expenditures have escalated sharply despite some worldwide declines in military personnel. Theories on the economic impacts of the military institution and escalated military spending greatly differ and include arguments that they either improve domestic economic performance or crowd out growth-inducing processes. Empirical findings on this matter are inconclusive, in part due to a failure to disentangle the various dimensions of military expenditures. We further suggest that modern sociology's relative inattention to such issues has contributed to these shortcomings. We explore a new dimension of military spending that clarifies this issue—military expenditures per soldier —which captures the capital intensiveness of a country’s military organization. Our cross-national panel regression and causal analyses of developed and less developed countries from 1990 to 2003 show that military expenditures per soldier inhibit the growth of per capita GDP, net of control variables, with the most pronounced effects in least developed countries. These expenditures inhibit national development in part by slowing the expansion of the labor force. Labor-intensive militaries may provide a pathway for upward mobility, but comparatively capital-intensive military organizations limit entry opportunities for unskilled and under- or unemployed people. Deep investments in military hardware also reduce the investment capital available for more economically productive opportunities. We also find that arms imports have a positive effect on economic growth, but only in less developed countries.

  20. External and Internal Impact on Soviet Memorial Landscape Development by THE World War II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Cherkasski

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The World War II led to serious casualties and left deep scars / wounds of memory. As the victory over occupation regime was glorified, honored and starting from 1965 was widely celebrated at national level, there was a great gap between official and personal memory of war. Monuments are one of the forms of living examples of the past and thus are reliable sources for the study of different epochs and Zeitgeist / spirit of time and their changes. This article considers the development of Soviet memorial landscape by the World War II starting from the war termination to the Soviet Union collapse. Special attention is attached to internal political and international views / interpretations and development with respect to victims of war. In other words, the process of different groups of war victims exclusion and inclusion in Soviet collective memory under the influence of internal political and foreign political interests symbiosis. And, as a result, resultant attitude towards memorial places.

  1. Understanding help-seeking intentions in male military cadets: An application of perceptual mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, Sarah Bauerle; Muñiz, Javier; Gordon, Thomas F; Maurer, Laurie; Patterson, Freda

    2016-05-17

    Research suggests that men are less likely to seek help for depression, substance abuse, and stressful life events due to negative perceptions of asking for and receiving help. This may be exacerbated in male military cadets who exhibit higher levels of gender role conflict because of military culture. This exploratory study examined the perceptions of 78 male military cadets toward help-seeking behaviors. Cadets completed the 31-item Barriers to Help Seeking Scale (BHSS) and a component factor analysis was used to generate five composite variables and compare to validated factors. Perceptual mapping and vector modeling, which produce 3-dimensional models of a group's perceptions, were then used to model how they conceptualize help-seeking. Factor analysis showed slightly different groupings than the BHSS, perhaps attributed to different characteristics of respondents, who are situated in a military school compared to general university males. Perceptual maps show that cadets perceive trust of doctors closest to them and help-seeking farthest, supporting the concept that these males have rigid beliefs about having control and its relationship to health seeking. Differences were seen when comparing maps of White and non-White cadets. White cadets positioned themselves far away from all variables, while non-White cadets were closest to "emotional control". To move these cadets toward help-seeking, vector modeling suggests that interventions should focus on their general trust of doctors, accepting lack of control, and decreasing feelings of weakness when asking for help. For non-White cadets a focus on self-reliance may also need to be emphasized. Use of these unique methods resulted in articulation of specific barriers that if addressed early, may have lasting effects on help-seeking behavior as these young men become adults. Future studies are needed to develop and test specific interventions to promote help-seeking among military cadets.

  2. Understanding help-seeking intentions in male military cadets: An application of perceptual mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Bauerle Bass

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research suggests that men are less likely to seek help for depression, substance abuse, and stressful life events due to negative perceptions of asking for and receiving help. This may be exacerbated in male military cadets who exhibit higher levels of gender role conflict because of military culture. Methods This exploratory study examined the perceptions of 78 male military cadets toward help-seeking behaviors. Cadets completed the 31-item Barriers to Help Seeking Scale (BHSS and a component factor analysis was used to generate five composite variables and compare to validated factors. Perceptual mapping and vector modeling, which produce 3-dimensional models of a group’s perceptions, were then used to model how they conceptualize help-seeking. Results Factor analysis showed slightly different groupings than the BHSS, perhaps attributed to different characteristics of respondents, who are situated in a military school compared to general university males. Perceptual maps show that cadets perceive trust of doctors closest to them and help-seeking farthest, supporting the concept that these males have rigid beliefs about having control and its relationship to health seeking. Differences were seen when comparing maps of White and non-White cadets. White cadets positioned themselves far away from all variables, while non-White cadets were closest to “emotional control”. Conclusion To move these cadets toward help-seeking, vector modeling suggests that interventions should focus on their general trust of doctors, accepting lack of control, and decreasing feelings of weakness when asking for help. For non-White cadets a focus on self-reliance may also need to be emphasized. Use of these unique methods resulted in articulation of specific barriers that if addressed early, may have lasting effects on help-seeking behavior as these young men become adults. Future studies are needed to develop and test specific interventions

  3. International Humanitarian intervention in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valmir Hylenaj

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Humanitarian intervention in Kosovo did not happen by any geopolitical interest, but simply by an entirely humanitarian character which is closely connected with democratic principles, human rights, and the lack of moral order. Except for damages, massacres and destruction by fire of very sophisticated military artillery, Serbian army and police have forced with violence more than thousands of Kosovo Albanians to leave their home (Pllana, 2010, 241. With humanitarian intervention, NATO had shown it was ready to defend universal human values as the fundamental principle of humanity (free life. Main purpose of this article is an analysis of the international human intervention in Kosovo

  4. The Soviet Breakup and U.S. Foreign Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Allen

    1991-01-01

    This issue of a quarterly publication on world affairs explores the historical significance of the disintegration of the Soviet Union and the implication for U.S. foreign policy. With the breakup of the USSR in 1990-91, Russia for the first time this century does not have control over the non-Russian nations of its former empire in Central Asia,…

  5. Adult Development Theory and Political Analysis: An Integral Account of Social and Political Change in Soviet and Post-Soviet Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elke Fein

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available I propose a reading of social, political and discursive change in Soviet and post-Soviet Russia which is inspired by an integral, above all developmental perspective. In view of explaining Russia’s current political trajectory, I make several arguments. First, I claim that Russian politics are still to a large extent determined by the effects of a threefold crisis of sense-making. Neither the collapse of the Soviet empire, nor the question of how to define democratic government nor the lack of a resilient national identity have so far been resolved and re-appropriated in a transformative manner. Second, I try to show how this affects various aspects and dimensions of Russian politics. Third, I engage in a brief overview of a number of adult development models, asking to what extent and how the characteristics of consciousness development, particular stage characteristics, and the general logics and dynamics of successful and unsuccessful development these models describe can be helpful to the analysis of Russian politics. Also, I discuss their compatibility and parallels with discourse theory and analysis as an increasingly popular methodology in Russian Studies. Of the developmental models reviewed, the theory of political development by Stephen Chilton and the self-protective action logic in Susanne Cook-Greuter’s model of self and identity development are particularly relevant for my purpose. On these grounds, it is argued that since Vladimir Putin’s taking office as Russian president and later prime-minister, politics and (official political discourse have increasingly come to follow self-protective action logics as conceived by Susanne Cook-Greuter. This diagnosis, which could either be understood as a regression or as a realignment of internal and external dimensions of political development, can be explained as a reaction to Russia’s crisis of identity followed by a loss of internal stability and international influence connected

  6. Aging in the Soviet Union: A West Siberian Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demitri, Shimkin

    1989-01-01

    Presents ethnographic observations on the aged and aging from six months' residence in Siberian industrial city. Describes interactions with medical personnel and reviews scanty literature in Soviet Union. Notes integration of aged in families and respect given to older persons. Discusses problems of elderly caused by hard living conditions,…

  7. Time feature of Chinese military personnel’s suicide ideation and its relationship with psychosomatic health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-yi ZHANG

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the time feature of Chinese military personnel's suicide ideation and its relationship with psychosomatic health to provide scientific basis for formulation of mental health policy and intervention of related psychological crisis. Methods By random cluster sampling, a total of 11 362 military personnel including army, navy and air-force (1100 in 1980s, 8000 in 1990s, 2262 in year 2000 were tested by Chinese Psychosomatic Health Scale (CPSHS. SPSS statistic 17.0 program was used for data analysis, i.e., χ2-test, T-test and stepwise regression analysis. Results The incidence rate of military personnel's suicide ideation in the three decades from 1980 to 2000 was 10.27%, 7.09% and 2.83% respectively, which revealed a decreasing trend (P 0.05. Suicide ideation was selected into the regression equation of mental health, physical health, and total psychosomatic health scores, which could positively predict the level of military personnel's psychosomatic health (P=0.05 or 0.01. Conclusions Military personnel's suicide ideation presents a decreasing trend; the psychosomatic health of military personnel who have suicide ideation is worse than that of personnel without suicide ideation.

  8. Sixty years of the Military Technical Courier: Origins of the military technical thinking in the military printing of the Kingdom of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan B. Mijatović

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The article sheds light on the origins of the military technical thinking in the military publishing of the Kingdom of Serbia with a view to marking a jubilee - the sixtieth anniversary of the Military Technical Courier. 'Vojin', the first military review, printed in the middle of 19th century as a private venture, covered a wide scope of military issues, among which a special place was given to 'the science of weapons'. No sooner had this review ceased to exist than The Headquarters of the Army of the Kingdom of Serbia started publishing a new military review, 'Ratnik', which, apart from the art of war and war literature, dealt with the science of weapons in order to inform officers about the latest achievements in military technology and to educate them as well. Serbian military thinking, including its technical aspect, did not fall behind modern trends in its European and world counterparts until 1914. The development of weaponry in Europe and the world was regularly covered on the pages of military reviews.

  9. U.S. Russian Cooperation Can Reduce Nuclear Risks of Soviet Breakup

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kosminsky, J

    1992-01-01

    .... While this redirection of resources signals the end of a four-decade threat to America, it also creates a host of risks, ranging from Soviet nuclear scientists selling their services to outlaw states...

  10. Military and Political Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey I. Podberyozkin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Military-political issues is an important area of research work at MGIMO. The difference in this direction from the classical international specialization is that it is at the intersection of several disciplines: military science, military-technical and military-industrial as well as International Relations. A specialist in military and political issues should not only be an expert in the field of international relations and diplomacy, but also have a deep knowledge of military-technical issues to understand the basic trends in the development of scientific and technological progress and its impact on the balance of forces in the world. Global changes in the balance of power and the nature of the conflict, the emergence of new types of weapons are changing the basic methods and approaches to the art of war, which requires a science-based perspective on problem solving and multi-disciplinary approach in achieving the goals. Military and political studies allow us to understand how the development of military technology and military organization of the state affected by the political situation in the world, the national security of the country and its place in the system of international relations. Military-political research has been developing at MGIMO for a few decades. It laid down the basis for a scientific school of political-military studies. Its founding fathers were such prominent scholars of international affairs, as I.G. Usachyov, A.D. Nikonov, A.G. Arbatov, V.G. Baranovsky, V.M. Kulagin, A.N. Nikitin and other well-known experts. Their work covers a wide range of military and political issues, including the topics of arms control and disarmament, international, and especially European security, military policy, NATO, the Western military-political doctrines and their practical application. Now the lead in the development of this research at MGIMO has taken Center for Military-Political Studies, which became a concentration of relevant

  11. Affect and Public Support for Military Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dukhong Kim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the effects of affect on public opinion on foreign policy. It extends the existing studies which show a significant role that affect, as measured by feelings toward a country, plays in shaping public opinion on military action. According to the existing theory, the mass public, which does not have high levels of political information and knowledge, can rely on affect to make reasonable decisions and opinions. This is possible because affect works as an information shortcut or heuristic that can help those individuals who lack cognitive capacity to engage in a systematic search for information and a decision-making process. The research finding confirms this theory. More importantly, this study extends the existing studies by elaborating the conditions under which affect works in accounting for individuals’ support for military intervention. The effect of affect is conditioned by the level of political knowledge, which shows that knowledgeable individuals are more adept at using affect as a heuristic tool.

  12. Analysis of the 1957-58 Soviet nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trabalka, J.R.; Eyman, L.D.; Auerbach, S.I.

    1979-12-01

    The occurrence of a Soviet accident in the winter of 1957-58, involving the atmospheric release of reprocessed fission wastes (cooling time approximately 1-2 yrs.), appears to have been confirmed, primarily by an analysis of the USSR radioecology literature. Due to the high population density in the affected region (Cheliabinsk Province in the highly industrialized Urals Region) and the reported level of 90 Sr contamination, the event probably resulted in the evacuation and/or resettlement of the human population from a significant area (100-1000 km 2 ). The resulting contamination zone is estimated to have contained approximately 10 6 Ci of 90 Sr (reference radionuclide); a relatively small fraction of the total may have been dispersed as an aerosol. Although a plausible explanation for the incident exists (i.e., use of now-obsolete waste storage- 137 Cs isotope separation techniques), it is not yet possible, based on the limited information presently available, to completely dismiss this phenomenon as a purely historical event. It seems imperative that we have a complete explanation of the causes and consequences of this incident. Soviet experience gained in application of corrective measures would be invaluable to the rest of the world nuclear community

  13. 'If I Ever Have to Go to Prison, I Hope it's a Russian Prison': British Labour, Social Democracy and Soviet Communism, 1919-25.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Max

    2017-09-01

    Through the inter-war period, the USSR became an example of 'socialism in action' that the British labour movement could both look towards and define itself against. British visitors both criticized and acclaimed aspects of the new Soviet state between 1919 and 1925, but a consistently exceptional finding was the Soviet prison. Analysing the visits and reports of British guests to Soviet prisons, the aims of this article are threefold. Using new material from the Russian archives, it demonstrates the development of an intense admiration for, and often a desire to replicate, the Soviet penal system on the part of Labour members, future Communists, and even Liberals who visited Soviet Russia. It also critically examines why, despite such admiration, the effect of Soviet penal ideas failed to significantly influence Labour Party policy in this area. Finally, placing these views within a broader framework of the British labour movement's internal tussles over the competing notions of social democracy and communism, it is argued that a failure to affect policy should not proscribe reappraisals of these notions or the Soviet-Labour Party relationship, both of which were more complex than is currently permitted in the established historiography. © The Author [2017]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Kommunist, No. 14, September 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-06

    archaeology , ethnography, and others. During his lifetime Vavilov collected with his expedi- tions a truly unique wealth: 160,000 live samples of... Maya 1987 Goda. Dokumenty i Materialy" [Visit to the Soviet Union by Vietnamese Communist Party 9. Vityuk, V.V and Efirov, S.A. "’Levyy’ Terrorizm na

  15. Defense Institution Building: The Dynamics of Change in Georgia and the Need for Continuity of Effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    including military personnel. Based on his personal interviews and observations, Driscoll argues that “warlords could thus formalize their patron ...had “displayed leadership and an acute grasp of military affairs.”95 Consequently, his Ministry of Defense was heavily staffed by Soviet or Russian

  16. 14 CFR 65.117 - Military riggers or former military riggers: Special certification rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Military riggers or former military riggers: Special certification rule. 65.117 Section 65.117 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Riggers § 65.117 Military riggers or former military riggers: Special certification rule. In place of the...

  17. The Military's Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mikkel Vedby

    If the military were a business, would you buy shares? Over recent years, Western armed forces, particularly the US, have been costing more yet achieving less. At the same time, austerity measures are reducing defence budgets. This book uses defence data to examine the workings of modern Western...... militaries and explore what kind of strategies can overcome this gap between input and output. Instead of focusing on military strategy, Mikkel Vedby Rasmussen seeks to draw on the ideas of business strategy to assess alternative business cases - reforming military HR to combat instability in the 'Global...

  18. Second ANS workshop on the safety of Soviet-designed nuclear power plants. Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bari, R.A.

    1995-03-01

    The Second American Nuclear Society Workshop on the Safety of Soviet-Designed Nuclear Power Plants was held in Washington, DC, in November, 1994. The Workshop consisted of both plenary sessions and working sessions with three hundred participants overall. All countries with operating Soviet-Designed nuclear power plants were represented and representatives from several other countries also participated. In addition to the status and plans related to technical issues, the Workshop also included discussions of economic, political, legal, and social issues as they relate to the safety of these nuclear power plants

  19. Discussion about principles of lobour organizing in Soviet Russia in 1920

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Лариса Владимировна Борисова

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article the various points of view on the work organization, stated by heads of the Soviet Russia are analyzed during discussion about militarization and forced labor by spring of 1920.

  20. Soviet Education Policy 1917-1935: From Ideology to Bureaucratic Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauglo, Jon

    1988-01-01

    Examining early Soviet educational policy, Lauglo analyzes the initial expression of Marxist humanist values, popular participation, and the value of productive work for general education. Discusses the routinization into a Stalinist pattern of bureaucratically controlled utilitarianism and comments briefly on recent indications of change in…

  1. Iraqi Military Academies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nodar Z. Mossaki

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the system of training of officers in military academies in Iraq – in Zakho, Qalacholan, ar-Rustamiyah and an-Nasiriyah. The author describes the history of creation, process of evolution, challenges and features of training in these colleges. Particular attention paid to military academies in the territory of Iraqi Kurdistan, which actually do not obey the central government of Iraq, however, have the highest level of training. Currently, Iraq's military academies operate on the basis of the NATO standards. Iraqi military academies paid miuch attention to the specifics of the military and political situation in Iraq – counterinsurgency and counterterrorism operations, patrolling cities, fighting in an urban environment etc. Significant place in the curriculum take the courses contributing to the formation of pro-Western sentiment.

  2. 5. Food and Cooking in Revolutionary and Soviet Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Steila

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In tsarist Russia, with both indigenous and foreign cuisine being very popular, since the middle of the 19th century the figure of the revolutionary took ascetic features. The 1917 revolution saw a prevalence of the scientific aspects of nutrition and its collective organization over any ‘culinary’ consideration. Nevertheless, during the 1920s, some cookbooks adapted pre-revolutionary culinary traditions to post- revolutionary conditions. But again and again the country would meet dramatic situations as far as food production and distribution were concerned. At the end of the Twenties, the system of communal dining faced a serious crisis, when local governement was forced to help starving people rather than organize collective canteens. Alongside with industrialization of food production (in which A. Mikojan had a crucial role, nutrition was again considered as a pleasure in the 1930s, when Stalinism started to present the Soviet society as accomplished. Often disregarded in Russian revolutionary movements, food became an important element in the propaganda of the Soviet way of life.

  3. Forensic Psychiatric Evaluation for Military Absenteeism in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzeng, Nian-Sheng; Chen, Chih-Kang; Wang, Tzong-Shi; Chang, Hsin-An; Kao, Yu-Chen; Yeh, Hui-Wen; Chiang, Wei-Shan; Huang, San-Yuan

    2016-09-01

    The relationship between military absenteeism and mental health problems has been noted; however, factors affecting military absenteeism by enlisted personnel have not been studied systematically. In a medical center in Taiwan, we performed a chart review of 26 forensic psychiatric evaluations of enlisted personnel who were absent without leave (AWOL) or deserted their service from 1994 to 2014. The findings showed that many of these recruits had a lower level of education (50.00% had just nine years of education), intellectual disability (46.15%), depressive disorders (30.76%), and suicidal ideation (53.85%). Depressive disorder was overrepresented in comparison with findings in a previous study. Further study is needed to confirm whether psychiatric screening before service enlistment and early psychiatric intervention for service members with mental illness or emotional disturbance could help in the prevention of desertion or going AWOL. © 2016 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

  4. The lasting Soviet nuclear menace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schorr, J.

    1993-01-01

    This article describes the unsafe conditions of the nuclear power industry in the countries of the former Soviet Union. Because of lack of efficient power generation, the old first generation Chernobyl-type reactors are being upgraded or new ones are being constructed. The operators themselves are also unsafe, with lack of training and poor working conditions. Improving energy efficiency would be more cost effective than constructing new nuclear plants. This could be achieved by such measures as installing boiler controls, thermostats, and meters; by retrofitting factories; by raising the price of electricity to encourage conservation; by repairing leaking natural gas pipelines; and by building gas-fired power plants. These changes are not likely to come about soon however

  5. 'Korenizatsiia' and its Discontents: Ukraine and the Soviet Nationality Policies during the 1920s: A Review Essay

    OpenAIRE

    VUSHKO, Iryna

    2009-01-01

    This essay reviews the recent literature on the nationalities policy in Soviet Ukraine during the 1920s. It brings together different Western (English and German) and native (Ukrainian and Russian) historical narratives, all produced after 2001. Different approaches to the Soviet nationalities policy, as this essay demonstrates, reveal broader methodological differences between historians working within distinct historiographical traditions. Despite the increasing contacts between...

  6. Military suicide: factors that need to be taken into consideration to understand the phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, José R; Quiñones-Maldonado, Randy; Alvarado-Pomales, Awilda

    2009-01-01

    Soldier suicide rates, unfortunately, continue to rise in our military services. It is well known that military personnel are highly vulnerable to multiple psychopathologies due to a lack of social support system, traumatizing life events and deprived sense of control. Serious psychopathologies such as post-traumatic stress disorders, other anxiety disorders (i.e., generalized anxiety disorder) and depression may increase the risk of suicide. In addition, malingering may be a serious problem that can affect valid treatment due to an intentional production of false or grossly exaggerated physical or psychological symptoms, motivated by external incentive such as avoiding military duty or obtaining financial compensation. Moreover, Hispanic soldiers may be at a higher risk for such psychopathologies due to extreme marginalization conditions by military peers, lack of bilingual language management and discrimination that can severely affect their quality of life. Thus, it is important to recognize those problems in order to prevent them. Literature demonstrate that Primary Preventive Interventions (PPI) can help to reduce the incidence of psychiatric disorders due to an early identification of the mental conditions associate to serious outcome, such as suicide. Taking the previous factors into consideration, the relevant literature pertaining suicidality in service members and the mental disorders associated with it is reviewed. Furthermore, emphasis is made in the importance to develop and validate a battery of screening instruments that address the previous conditions in the military personnel, especially in the Hispanic/Latino soldier and/or veteran as future plans of interventions. This implies the creation, adaptation and administration of a Psychological Battery that will be culturally sensitive for Hispanic/Latino soldiers in which the screening of the previously mentioned pathologies and conditions can be identified. This may help to prevent serious

  7. Battling on the Home Front: Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Conflict Behavior among Military Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobloch-Fedders, Lynne M.; Caska-Wallace, Catherine; Smith, Timothy W.; Renshaw, Keith

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated interpersonal behavior differences among male military service members with and without PTSD and their female partners. Couples (N = 64) completed a 17-minute videotaped conflict discussion, and their interaction behavior was coded using the circumplex-based Structural Analysis of Social Behavior model (SASB; Benjamin, 1979; 1987; 2000). Within couples, the behavior of partners was very similar. Compared to military couples without PTSD, couples with PTSD displayed more interpersonal hostility and control. Couples with PTSD also exhibited more sulking, blaming, and controlling behavior, and less affirming and connecting behavior, than couples without PTSD. Results advance our understanding of the relational impacts of PTSD on military service members and their partners, and underscore the value of couple-based interventions for PTSD in the context of relationship distress. PMID:28270334

  8. Associations between school violence, military connection, and gang membership in California secondary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Joey Nuñez; Gilreath, Tamika D; Sanchez, Cathia Y; Astor, Ron Avi

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies have found that military-connected students confront many challenges-such as secondary traumatization-that may stem from a parent's deployment and frequent relocations. It is possible that multiple moves and deployments of family service members are associated with military-connected students' gang membership and involvement with school violence behaviors. In this study, a total of 13,484 students completed the core and military modules of the California Healthy Kids Survey. Logistic regressions examined the odds of a student being a member of a gang given their grade, gender, race/ethnicity, school violence behaviors, military-connectedness, changes in schools, and familial deployments. Results indicated that of the nearly 8% of students sampled who reported being in a gang, those with a parent or sibling currently serving in the military reported a higher prevalence rate of gang membership than students with no military connection. Students who reported being in fights or carrying weapons to school were at least twice more likely to be a gang member than students who reported not having been in fights or carrying weapons. Changing schools 4 or more times in a 5-year period and experiencing at least 1 familial deployment were also associated with an increased likelihood of gang membership. The findings of this study offer incentive to further explicate the gang and school violence experiences of military-connected students. This study supports schools in understanding the characteristics of the military-connected students and families they serve so they can implement appropriate interventions to curb gang and school violence behaviors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Financialised capitalism Soviet style? Varieties of state capture and crisis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.; Kalb, D.P.

    2010-01-01

    Looking for new ways to interpret the failings of the neo-liberal economy, this article argues that financialised capitalism at the eve of the 2008 financial crisis showed striking analogies with the characteristic combination of oligopoly and informality of the Soviet economy at the eve of its

  10. A Comparison of Soviet and US Industrial Performance : 1928-90

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kouwenhoven, Remco

    1997-01-01

    This paper contains estimates of comparative labour productivity levels in manufacturing for the Soviet Union and the USA. Value added was converted to a common currency by using an expenditure based unit value ratio (or purchasing power parity). Time series for value added and labour inputs were

  11. „Lenin’s Ghost!” History of Soviet Comics Characters in American Pop Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemysław Dudziński

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The tension between Soviet Union and United States thatdefined the global political landscape of the second half of the twentiethcentury, had its clear impact on perceptions and creation of Soviet heroes in the context of American culture. The first and primary goal of our article is to investigate and describe the functioning of a particular theme – Russian characters, especially Russian meta-humans in the area of American popular culture, especially mainstream comics. This inquiry is intended to demonstrate the basic historical dimension, i.e. the periods of growth and decline in popularity, and even the complete disappearance of that theme. The purpose of the second goal is an attempt to analyze the structures of comics characters associated with the Soviet Union and place them in a broader historical and cultural context. These treatments allow to signal changes in time-sensitive structure, which consists of values, stereotypes and pop culture clichés appropriate for the American culture. Thus, we hope that this article will be an important contribution to the further study of these issues.

  12. How to Arrange Student Tours to the Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winokur, Marshall

    The details of planning a student tour to the Soviet Union are described by an experienced tour organizer. Student tours of one to three weeks are presented as rewarding alternatives to lengthy overseas study. Recommendations are made regarding choice of tour type, length of tour, travel agencies, time of year to travel, advertising a tour,…

  13. The Soviet School System during Nazi Occupation (1941-1944)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krinko, Evgeny Fedorovich

    2016-01-01

    The article explores Soviet schooling in the occupied territory of the USSR during the Great Patriotic War. The author considers such issues as the reduction in the number of schools, changes in curricular content, and problems in the organization of schooling and the work of teachers. The article notes the effects of various factors on the…

  14. Critical thinking as culture: Teaching post-Soviet teachers in Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhalter, Nancy; Shegebayev, Maganat R.

    2012-02-01

    This paper explores the question of whether critical thinking can eventually become part of the cultural fabric in Kazakhstan, a country whose Soviet educational system not only trained teachers to memorise, lecture and intimidate students but also created a culture in educational institutions fraught with many fear-based behaviours engendering competitiveness, intolerance and other hostile behaviours antithetical to critical thinking and an open, democratic society. While educational reform can have profound effects on a nation, education is but one system in a complex network of governmental and cultural systems, and change must be borne by many. This paper reviews literature and presents qualitative data gathered through interviews with Soviet-trained teachers. The authors recommend that teachers should embrace student-centred techniques and critical thinking methodologies, as well as shift from a fear-based, authoritarian, top-down system of relating to students and colleagues to one of cooperation, openness and fairness. Such a reform will take repetitive, intensive and experiential training as well as regular assessments of progress.

  15. Response of Soviet VVER-440 accident localization systems to overpressurization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulak, R.F.; Fiala, C.; Sienicki, J.J.

    1989-01-01

    The Soviet designed VVER-440 model V230 and VVER-440 model V213 reactors do not use full containments to mitigate the effects of accidents. Instead, these VVER-440 units employ a sealed set of interconnected compartments, collectively called the accident localization system (ALS), to reduce the release of radionuclides to the atmosphere during accidents. Descriptions of the VVER accident localization structures may be found in the report DOE NE-0084. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the structural integrity of the VVER-440 ALS at the Soviet design pressure, and to determine their response to pressure loadings beyond the design value. Complex, three-dimensional, nonlinear, finite element models were developed to represent the major structural components of the localization systems of the VVER-440 models V230 and V213. The interior boundary of the localization system was incrementally pressurized in the calculations until the prediction of gross failure. 6 refs., 9 figs

  16. Soviet Union: priority development of gas industry forecast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernomyrdyn, V.S.

    1991-01-01

    The development of gas production and utilization in the Soviet Union is outlined, and the substantial contribution of the gas industry in restraining negative processes in the economy during the transition to a market economy is highlighted. The state owned Gazprom concern which is responsible for gas supply, the large ringed Integrated Gas Supply Systems, exports, underground gas storage, potential reserves, and the growth in gas productions are discussed. (UK)

  17. Corrupt Organizational Hierarchies in the Former Soviet Bloc

    OpenAIRE

    Osipian, Ararat

    2007-01-01

    Increasing scale and scope of corruption in the former Soviet Bloc, as well as numerous other countries, urges better understanding of the problem within the context of socio-economic transformations as it touches upon issues of organizational structures. This paper presents an overview of the research on corruption in organizations and develops models of corrupt organizations, including the vertical structure, the horizontal structure, and the hierarchy, as applied to transition economies.

  18. The Multilateralization of Regional Security in Southeast and Northeast Asia: The Role of the Soviet Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-04-01

    obligation of the Soviet Union of Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia , the Philippines, to provide it at the expense of its own development. Singapore, and Brunei to... Malaysia , which still applicable to the United States and Japan than to the officially insist on an end to permanent Soviet Union. Proposals cover the...can large South Korean companies, including Hyundai, commit the nation and keep its word. After almost Samsung , and Lucky Goldstar, are enlarging their

  19. Engaging military parents in a home-based reintegration program: a consideration of strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Abigail M; DeVoe, Ellen R

    2014-02-01

    For more than a decade, the long wars in Afghanistan and Iraq have placed tremendous and cumulative strain on U.S. military personnel and their families. The high operational tempo, length, and number of deployments-and greater in-theater exposure to threat-have resulted in well-documented psychological health concerns among service members and veterans. In addition, there is increasing and compelling evidence describing the significant deleterious impact of the deployment cycle on family members, including children, in military-connected families. However, rates of engagement and service utilization in prevention and intervention services continue to lag far below apparent need among service members and their families, because of both practical and psychological barriers. The authors describe the dynamic and ultimately successful process of engaging military families with young children in a home-based reintegration program designed to support parenting and strengthen parent-child relationships as service member parents move back into family life. In addition to the integration of existing evidence-based engagement strategies, the authors applied a strengths-based approach to working with military families and worked from a community-based participatory foundation to enhance family engagement and program completion. Implications for engagement of military personnel and their loved ones are discussed.

  20. Soviet efforts to attract foreign E and P investment through joint ventures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gochenour, D.T.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that since 1987, Soviet efforts to attract Western E and P investment have been evolving through the framework provided by the 1987 Joint-Venture Law. While this law and dozen or so regular acts, decrees, and amendments have sought to stimulate interest, they have failed to address significant failings in the Soviet Union's institutional organization of the petroleum industry. While we anticipate that institutional authority will continue to devolve away from the All-Union central control in Moscow to the republican authorities, many obstacles to investors still have not been addressed by the joint-venture laws. Among these are the export regime, fiscal regime (which we expect will get stiffer), and the rules for joint-venture capitalization and valuation