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Sample records for southwestern uganda characterization

  1. Genetic diversity of Ascaris in southwestern Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Betson, Martha; Nejsum, Peter; Llewellyn-Hughes, Julia

    2012-01-01

    . Microsatellite analysis using eight loci provided evidence for high gene flow between worm populations from the two villages but comparing these worms with others obtained in a prior study on Unguja, Zanzibar, confirmed little genetic exchange and mixing of worm populations between the two areas. By adding......Despite the common occurrence of ascariasis in southwestern Uganda, helminth control in the region has been limited. To gain further insights into the genetic diversity of Ascaris in this area, a parasitological survey in mothers (n=41) and children (n=74) living in two villages, Habutobere...... and Musezero, was carried out. Adult Ascaris worms were collected from infected individuals by chemo-expulsion using pyrantel pamoate treatment. Genetic diversity within these worms was assessed by inspection of DNA sequence variation in a mitochondrial marker and length polymorphism at microsatellite loci...

  2. Strategic nutrient management of field pea in southwestern Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Strategic nutrient management of field pea in southwestern Uganda. ... African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... Strategic nutrient management requires that the most limiting nutrient is known in order to provide a foundation for designing effective and sustainable soil fertility management ...

  3. Cultural control of banana weevils in Ntungamo, southwestern Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okech, S.H.; Gold, C.S.; Bagamba, F.; Masanza, M.; Tushemereirwe, W.; Ssennyonga, J.

    2005-01-01

    The International Institute of Tropical Agriculture and the Uganda National Banana Research Programme tested and evaluated selected cultural management options for the banana weevil through on-farm farmer participatory research in Ntungamo district, Uganda between 1996 and 003. A farmer adoption

  4. The negotiation of sexual relationships among school pupils in south-western Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyanzi, S; Pool, R; Kinsman, J

    2001-02-01

    The objective of the study was to explore how school-going adolescents in south-western Uganda negotiate sexual relationships. Qualitative data were obtained from 15 boys and 15 girls (14-18 years old), during a series of role plays, focus group discussions and one-to-one interviews. A questionnaire was administered to 80 pupils (12-20 years old) from the same school. Most of the pupils were sexually active. Sexual relationships between boys and girls were mediated by peers. Boys initiated relationships. Exchange played an important role in the negotiation of sexual relationships. Money or gifts were given and received in exchange for sexual favours and to strengthen the relationship. To maximize gains, some adolescents had sexual relationships with adults. Sexual relationships were characterized by ambiguity. Love is intertwined with sexual desire, money and prestige. Girls have to be explicit enough to get a good deal; if they are too explicit they will be stigmatized as 'loose' but if they are not interested in money they may be suspected of wanting to spread HIV. Boys try to persuade girls that they have money, but do not want to emphasize this too much. In sexual negotiations a boy must persuade a girl that although he is modern and sophisticated (i.e. experienced) he does not chase after every girl; the girl does not want to come over as an unsophisticated virgin, but does not want to give the impression that she is loose either. There is a tension between the traditional ideal of female chastity and submissiveness and the modern image of sexual freedom. Multiple partnerships were highly valued as a sign of sophistication. Condoms were not considered important. Interventions aimed at reducing the spread of HIV do not seem to be having an effect on the behaviour of this group of adolescents. On the contrary, risky attitudes and behaviour are part of an adolescent ideal of modernity and sophistication. New approaches are needed to persuade this group of the

  5. Antenatal services for pregnant teenagers in Mbarara Municipality, Southwestern Uganda: health workers and community leaders' views.

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    Rukundo, Godfrey Zari; Abaasa, Catherine; Natukunda, Peace Byamukama; Ashabahebwa, Bob Harold; Allain, Dominic

    2015-12-23

    Globally, about 11% of all annual births involve adolescents aged 15-19 years. Uganda has one of the highest teenage pregnancy rates in Sub-Saharan Africa. This study assessed stakeholders' views concerning factors affecting availability, accessibility and utilization of teenager friendly antenatal services in Mbarara Municipality, southwestern Uganda. This was a cross-sectional descriptive study utilizing Key Informant Interviews (KIIs). It was conducted in three divisions of Mbarara Municipality. The KIIs were held six Village Health Team (VHT) members, three gynecologists, six midwives, three Community leaders (LC 3 Secretaries for women affairs), one police officer from the Family and Child protection unit at Mbarara Police and three Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs). Data analysis was done manually by identifying emergent themes which were later coded and organized into concepts which were later developed into explanations. Reproductive health stakeholders generally considered teenage pregnancy to be among the high risk pregnancies that need to be handled with care. In addition, the reproductive health workers described their experience with teenagers as challenging due to their limited skills when it comes to addressing adolescent-specific needs. Adolescent-friendly services were defined as those that could provide privacy, enough time and patience when dealing with teenagers. With this description, there were no teenager-friendly antenatal services in Mbarara municipality at the time of the study. There is need for proactive steps to establish these services if the needs of this subgroup are to be met. There are no teenager friendly antenatal services in Mbarara municipality and few teenagers access and utilise the available general antenatal services. There is need for specialized training for health workers who deal with pregnant teens in Mbarara Municipality in order for them to provide teenager friendly services.

  6. Individual and health facility factors and the risk for obstructed labour and its adverse outcomes in south-western Uganda

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    Turyakira Eleanor

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obstructed labour is still a major cause of maternal morbidity and mortality and of adverse outcome for newborns in low-income countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of individual and health facility factors and the risk for obstructed labour and its adverse outcomes in south-western Uganda. Methods A review was performed on 12,463 obstetric records for the year 2006 from six hospitals located in south-western Uganda and 11,180 women records were analysed. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were applied to control for probable confounders. Results Prevalence of obstructed labour for the six hospitals was 10.5% and the main causes were cephalopelvic disproportion (63.3%, malpresentation or malposition (36.4% and hydrocephalus (0.3%. The risk of obstructed labour was statistically significantly associated with being resident of a particular district [Isingiro] (AOR 1.39, 95% CI: 1.04-1.86, with nulliparous status (AOR 1.47, 95% CI: 1.22-1.78, having delivered once before (AOR 1.57, 95% CI: 1.30-1.91 and age group 15-19 years (AOR 1.21, 95% CI: 1.02-1.45. The risk for perinatal death as an adverse outcome was statistically significantly associated with districts other than five comprising the study area (AOR 2.85, 95% CI: 1.60-5.08 and grand multiparous status (AOR 1.89, 95% CI: 1.11-3.22. Women who lacked paid employment were at increased risk of obstructed labour. Perinatal mortality rate was 142/1000 total births in women with obstructed labour compared to 65/1000 total births in women without the condition. The odds of having maternal complications in women with obstructed labour were 8 times those without the condition. The case fatality rate for obstructed labour was 1.2%. Conclusions Individual socio-demographic and health system factors are strongly associated with obstructed labour and its adverse outcome in south-western Uganda. Our study provides baseline information which may be used by

  7. Prevalence of dyslipidaemia and associated risk factors in a rural population in South-Western Uganda: a community based survey.

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    Gershim Asiki

    Full Text Available The burden of dyslipidaemia is rising in many low income countries. However, there are few data on the prevalence of, or risk factors for, dyslipidaemia in Africa.In 2011, we used the WHO Stepwise approach to collect cardiovascular risk data within a general population cohort in rural south-western Uganda. Dyslipidaemia was defined by high total cholesterol (TC ≥ 5.2 mmol/L or low high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C 6% (men aOR=3.00, 95%CI=1.37-6.59; women aOR=2.74, 95%CI=1.77-4.27. The odds of high TC was also higher among married men, and women with higher education or high BMI.Low HDL-C prevalence in this relatively young rural population is high whereas high TC prevalence is low. The consequences of dyslipidaemia in African populations remain unclear and prospective follow-up is required.

  8. Nutritional and developmental status among 6- to 8-month-old children in southwestern Uganda: a cross-sectional study.

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    Muhoozi, Grace K M; Atukunda, Prudence; Mwadime, Robert; Iversen, Per Ole; Westerberg, Ane C

    2016-01-01

    Undernutrition continues to pose challenges to Uganda's children, but there is limited knowledge on its association with physical and intellectual development. In this cross-sectional study, we assessed the nutritional status and milestone development of 6- to 8-month-old children and associated factors in two districts of southwestern Uganda. Five hundred and twelve households with mother-infant (6-8 months) pairs were randomly sampled. Data about background variables (e.g. household characteristics, poverty likelihood, and child dietary diversity scores (CDDS)) were collected using questionnaires. Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (BSID III) and Ages and Stages questionnaires (ASQ) were used to collect data on child development. Anthropometric measures were used to determine z-scores for weight-for-age (WAZ), length-for-age (LAZ), weight-for-length (WLZ), head circumference (HCZ), and mid-upper arm circumference. Chi-square tests, correlation coefficients, and linear regression analyses were used to relate background variables, nutritional status indicators, and infant development. The prevalence of underweight, stunting, and wasting was 12.1, 24.6, and 4.7%, respectively. Household head education, gender, sanitation, household size, maternal age and education, birth order, poverty likelihood, and CDDS were associated (pdevelopment delay of 1.3% in cognitive and language, and 1.6% in motor development. The ASQ indicated delayed development of 24, 9.1, 25.2, 12.2, and 15.1% in communication, fine motor, gross motor, problem solving, and personal social ability, respectively. All nutritional status indicators except HCZ were positively and significantly associated with development domains. WAZ was the main predictor for all development domains. Undernutrition among infants living in impoverished rural Uganda was associated with household sanitation, poverty, and low dietary diversity. Development domains were positively and significantly associated

  9. Psychological correlates of suicidality in HIV/AIDS in semi-urban south-western Uganda.

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    Rukundo, Godfrey Zari; Mishara, Brian; Kinyanda, Eugene

    2016-10-01

    There is a paucity of data on the prevalence of suicidality in HIV/AIDS, and associated psychological factors in sub-Saharan Africa, shown to be high in Uganda. Yet, the region accounts for over 70% of the world HIV burden. Our study used a cross-sectional survey of 226 HIV-positive (HIV+) adults and adolescents (aged 15-17 years) in Mbarara, Uganda. The relationship between suicidality and depressed mood, anxiety symptoms, state anger, self-esteem, trait anger and hopelessness was examined; anger was the predominant factor in suicidality, suggesting that anger management could potentially lower the prevalence of suicidality. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. Diagnosis and treatment of malaria in peripheral health facilities in Uganda: findings from an area of low transmission in south-western Uganda

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    Clarke Siân

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early recognition of symptoms and signs perceived as malaria are important for effective case management, as few laboratories are available at peripheral health facilities. The validity and reliability of clinical signs and symptoms used by health workers to diagnose malaria were assessed in an area of low transmission in south-western Uganda. Methods The study had two components: 1 passive case detection where all patients attending the out patient clininc with a febrile illness were included and 2 a longitudinal active malaria case detection survey was conducted in selected villages. A malaria case was defined as any slide-confirmed parasitaemia in a person with an axillary temperature ≥ 37.5°C or a history of fever within the last 24 hrs and no signs suggestive of other diseases. Results Cases of malaria were significantly more likely to report joint pains, headache, vomiting and abdominal pains. However, due to the low prevalence of malaria, the predictive values of these individual signs alone, or in combination, were poor. Only 24.8% of 1627 patients had malaria according to case definition and > 75% of patients were unnecessarily treated for malaria and few slide negative cases received alternative treatment. Conclusion In low-transmission areas, more attention needs to be paid to differential diagnosis of febrile illnesses In view of suggested changes in anti-malarial drug policy, introducing costly artemisinin combination therapy accurate, rapid diagnostic tools are necessary to target treatment to people in need.

  11. Inadequate knowledge of neonatal danger signs among recently delivered women in southwestern rural Uganda: a community survey.

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    Jacob Sandberg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Early detection of neonatal illness is an important step towards improving newborn survival. Every year an estimated 3.07 million children die during their first month of life and about one-third of these deaths occur during the first 24 hours. Ninety-eight percent of all neonatal deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries like Uganda. Inadequate progress has been made globally to reduce the amount of neonatal deaths that would be required to meet Millennium Development Goal 4. Poor knowledge of newborn danger signs delays care seeking. The aim of this study was to explore the knowledge of key newborn danger signs among mothers in southwestern Uganda. METHODS: Results from a community survey of 765 recently delivered women were analyzed using univariate and multivariate logistic regressions. Six key danger signs were identified, and spontaneous responses were categorized, tabulated, and analyzed. RESULTS: Knowledge of at least one key danger sign was significantly associated with being birth prepared (adjusted OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.2-2.3. Birth preparedness consisted of saving money, identifying transportation, identifying a skilled birth attendant and buying a delivery kit or materials. Overall, respondents had a poor knowledge of key newborn danger signs: 58.2% could identify one and 14.8% could identify two. We found no association between women attending the recommended number of antenatal care visits and their knowledge of danger signs (adjusted OR 1.0, 95% CI 0.8-1.4, or between women using a skilled birth attendant at delivery and their knowledge of danger signs (adjusted OR 1.2, 95% CI 0.9-1.7. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate the need to enhance education of mothers in antenatal care as well as those discharged from health facilities after delivery. Further promotion of birth preparedness is encouraged as part of the continuum of maternal care.

  12. Nutritional and developmental status among 6- to 8-month-old children in southwestern Uganda: a cross-sectional study

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    Grace K. M. Muhoozi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Undernutrition continues to pose challenges to Uganda's children, but there is limited knowledge on its association with physical and intellectual development. Objective: In this cross-sectional study, we assessed the nutritional status and milestone development of 6- to 8-month-old children and associated factors in two districts of southwestern Uganda. Design: Five hundred and twelve households with mother–infant (6–8 months pairs were randomly sampled. Data about background variables (e.g. household characteristics, poverty likelihood, and child dietary diversity scores (CDDS were collected using questionnaires. Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (BSID III and Ages and Stages questionnaires (ASQ were used to collect data on child development. Anthropometric measures were used to determine z-scores for weight-for-age (WAZ, length-for-age (LAZ, weight-for-length (WLZ, head circumference (HCZ, and mid-upper arm circumference. Chi-square tests, correlation coefficients, and linear regression analyses were used to relate background variables, nutritional status indicators, and infant development. Results: The prevalence of underweight, stunting, and wasting was 12.1, 24.6, and 4.7%, respectively. Household head education, gender, sanitation, household size, maternal age and education, birth order, poverty likelihood, and CDDS were associated (p<0.05 with WAZ, LAZ, and WLZ. Regression analysis showed that gender, sanitation, CDDS, and likelihood to be below the poverty line were predictors (p<0.05 of undernutrition. BSID III indicated development delay of 1.3% in cognitive and language, and 1.6% in motor development. The ASQ indicated delayed development of 24, 9.1, 25.2, 12.2, and 15.1% in communication, fine motor, gross motor, problem solving, and personal social ability, respectively. All nutritional status indicators except HCZ were positively and significantly associated with development domains. WAZ was the main

  13. Seroepidemiological investigation of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotypes in cattle around Lake Mburo National Park in South-Western Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mwiine, Frank Norbert; Ayebazibwe, Chrisostom; Alexandersen, Søren

    2010-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) outbreaks in cattle occur annually in Uganda. In this study the authors investigated antibodies against FMD virus (FMDV) in cattle in surrounding areas of Lake Mburo National Park in South-western Uganda. Two hundred and eleven serum samples from 23 cattle herds were...... examined for the presence of antibodies against FMDV non-structural proteins and structural proteins using Ceditest® FMDV-NS and Ceditest® FMDV type O (Cedi Diagnostics BV, Lelystad, The Netherlands). Furthermore, serotype-specific antibodies against the seven serotypes of FMDV were determined using in......-house serotype-specific Solid Phase Blocking ELISAs (SPBE). Of the sera tested, 42.7% (90/211) were positive in the ELISA for antibodies against non-structural proteins, while 75.4% (159/211) had antibodies against the structural proteins of FMDV serotype O. Titres of ≥ 1:160 of serotype-specific antibodies...

  14. Can volunteer community health workers decrease child morbidity and mortality in southwestern Uganda? An impact evaluation.

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    Jennifer L Brenner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The potential for community health workers to improve child health in sub-Saharan Africa is not well understood. Healthy Child Uganda implemented a volunteer community health worker child health promotion model in rural Uganda. An impact evaluation was conducted to assess volunteer community health workers' effect on child morbidity, mortality and to calculate volunteer retention. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Two volunteer community health workers were selected, trained and promoted child health in each of 116 villages (population ∼61,000 during 2006-2009. Evaluation included a household survey of mothers at baseline and post-intervention in intervention/control areas, retrospective reviews of community health worker birth/child death reports and post-intervention focus group discussions. Retention was calculated from administrative records. Main outcomes were prevalence of recent child illness/underweight status, community health worker reports of child deaths, focus group perception of effect, and community health worker retention. After 18-36 months, 86% of trained volunteers remained active. Post-intervention surveys in intervention households revealed absolute reductions of 10.2% [95%CI (-17.7%, -2.6%] in diarrhea prevalence and 5.8% [95%CI (-11.5%, -0.003%] in fever/malaria; comparative decreases in control households were not statistically significant. Underweight prevalence was reduced by 5.1% [95%CI (-10.7%, 0.4%] in intervention households. Community health worker monthly reports revealed a relative decline of 53% in child deaths (<5 years old, during the first 18 months of intervention. Focus groups credited community health workers with decreasing child deaths, improved care-seeking practices, and new income-generating opportunities. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A low-cost child health promotion model using volunteer community health workers demonstrated decreased child morbidity, dramatic mortality trend declines and

  15. Assessment of three medical and research laboratories using WHO AFRO_SLIPTA Quality Standards in Southwestern Uganda: a long way to go.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taremwa, Ivan Mugisha; Ampaire, Lucas; Iramiot, Jacob; Muhwezi, Obed; Matte, Aloysius; Itabangi, Herbert; Mbabazi, Hope; Atwebembeire, Jeninah; Kamwine, Monicah; Katawera, Victoria; Mbalibulha, Yona; Orikiriza, Patrick; Boum, Yap

    2017-01-01

    While the laboratory represents more than 70% of clinical diagnosis and patient management, access to reliable and quality laboratory diagnostics in sub-Saharan Africa remains a challenge. To gain knowledge and suggest evidence based interventions towards laboratory improvement in Southwestern Uganda, we assessed the baseline laboratory quality standards in three medical and research laboratories in Southwestern Uganda. We conducted a cross sectional survey from October, 2013 to April, 2014. Selected laboratories, including one private research, one private for profit and one public laboratory, were assessed using the WHO AFRO_SLIPTA checklist and baseline scores were determined. The three laboratories assessed met basic facility requirements, had trained personnel, and safety measures in place. Sample reception was properly designed and executed with a well designated chain of custody. All laboratories had sufficient equipment for the nature of work they were involved in. However, we found that standard operating procedures were incomplete in all three laboratories, lack of quality audit schemes by two laboratories and only one laboratory enrolled into external quality assurance schemes. The SLIPTA scores were one star for the research laboratory and no star for both the public and private-for-profit laboratories. While most of the laboratory systems were in place, the low scores obtained by the assessed laboratories reflect the need for improvement to reach standards of quality assured diagnostics in the region. Therefore, routine mentorship and regional supportive supervision are necessary to increase the quality of laboratory services.

  16. Evaluation of the Deki Reader™, an automated RDT reader and data management device, in a household survey setting in low malaria endemic southwestern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyet, Caesar; Roh, Michelle E; Kiwanuka, Gertrude N; Orikiriza, Patrick; Wade, Martina; Parikh, Sunil; Mwanga-Amumpaire, Juliet; Boum, Yap

    2017-11-07

    Early diagnosis of suspected malaria cases with a rapid diagnostic test (RDT) has been shown to be an effective malaria control tool used in many resource-constrained settings. However, poor quality control and quality assurance hinder the accurate reporting of malaria diagnoses. Recent use of a portable, battery operated RDT reader (Deki Reader™, Fio Corporation) has shown to have high agreement with visual inspection across diverse health centre settings, however evidence of its feasibility and usability during cross sectional surveys are limited. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of the Deki Reader™ in a cross-sectional survey of children from southwestern Uganda. A two-stage, stratified cluster sampling survey was conducted between July and October 2014 in three districts of southwestern Uganda, with varying malaria transmission intensities. A total of 566 children aged 6-59 months were included in the analysis. Blood samples were collected and tested for malaria using: the SD Bioline Malaria Ag Pf/Pan RDT and microscopy. Results were compared between visual inspection of the RDT and by the Deki Reader™. Diagnostic performance of both methods were compared to gold-standard microscopy. The sensitivity and specificity of the Deki Reader™ was 94.1% (95% CI 69.2-99.6%) and 95.6% (95% CI 93.4-97.1%), respectively. The overall percent agreement between the Deki Reader™ and visual RDT inspection was 98.9% (95% CI 93.2-99.8), with kappa statistic of 0.92 (95% CI 0.85-0.98). The findings from this study suggest that the Deki Reader™ is comparable to visual inspection and performs well in detecting microscopy-positive Plasmodium falciparum cases in a household survey setting. However, the reader's performance was highly dependent on ensuring adequate battery life and a work environment free of dirt particles.

  17. Exploratory characterization of volcanic ash sourced from Uganda as a pozzolanic material in portland cement concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buregyeya, A.; Quercia Bianchi, G.; Spiesz, P.R.; Florea, M.V.A.; Nassingwa, R.; Uzoegbo, H.C.; Schmidt, W.

    2013-01-01

    The need for alternative cementing materials to ordinary Portland cement (OPC) has promoted characterization research on pozzolana as an important ingredient in cement production. In Uganda, natural pozzolana application in cement production is done by only two producers of Portland cement and at a

  18. Facility and home based HIV Counseling and Testing: a comparative analysis of uptake of services by rural communities in southwestern Uganda

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    Guerra Ranieri

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Uganda, public human immunodeficiency virus (HIV Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT services are mainly provided through the facility based model, although the home based approach is being promoted as a strategy for improving access to VCT. However the uptake of VCT varies according to service delivery model and is influenced by a number of factors. The aim of this study therefore, was to compare predictors for uptake of facility and home based VCT in a rural context. Methods A longitudinal study with cross-sectional investigative phases was conducted at two sites (Rugando and Kabingo in southwestern Uganda between November 2007 (baseline and March 2008 (follow up. During the baseline visit, facility based VCT was offered at the main health centre in Rugando while home based VCT was offered at the household level in Kabingo and a mixed survey questionnaire administered to the respondents. The results presented in this paper are derived from only the baseline data. Results Nine hundred ninety four (994 respondents were interviewed, of whom 500 received facility based VCT in Rugando and 494 home based VCT in Kabingo during the baseline visit. The respondents had a mean age of 32.2 years (SD 10.9 and were mainly female (68 percent. Clients who received facility based VCT were less likely to be residents of the more rural households (adjusted Odds Ratio (aOR = 0.14, 95% CI 0.07, 0.22. The clients who received home based VCT were less likely to report having an STI symptom (aOR = 0.63, 95% CI 0.46, 0.86, and more likely to be worried about discrimination if they contracted AIDS (aOR = 1.78, 95% CI 1.22, 2.61. Conclusion The uptake of VCT provided through either the facility or home based models is influenced by client characteristics such as proximity to service delivery points, HIV related symptoms, and fear of discrimination in rural Uganda. Interventions that seek to improve uptake of VCT should provide potential clients

  19. Associations between mass media exposure and birth preparedness among women in southwestern Uganda: a community-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asp, Gustav; Odberg Pettersson, Karen; Sandberg, Jacob; Kabakyenga, Jerome; Agardh, Anette

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to mass media provides increased awareness and knowledge, as well as changes in attitudes, social norms and behaviors that may lead to positive public health outcomes. Birth preparedness (i.e. the preparations for childbirth made by pregnant women, their families, and communities) increases the use of skilled birth attendants (SBAs) and hence reduces maternal morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to explore the association between media exposure and birth preparedness in rural Uganda. A total of 765 recently delivered women from 120 villages in the Mbarara District of southwest Uganda were selected for a community-based survey using two-stage cluster sampling. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression was performed with generalized linear mixed models using SPSS 21. We found that 88.6% of the women surveyed listened to the radio and 33.9% read newspapers. Birth preparedness actions included were money saved (87.8%), identified SBA (64.3%), identified transport (60.1%), and purchased childbirth materials (20.7%). Women who had taken three or more actions were coded as well birth prepared (53.9%). Women who read newspapers were more likely to be birth prepared (adjusted OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.5-3.2). High media exposure, i.e. regular exposure to radio, newspaper, or television, showed no significant association with birth preparedness (adjusted OR 1.3, 95% CI 0.9-2.0). Our results indicate that increased reading of newspapers can enhance birth preparedness and skilled birth attendance. Apart from general literacy skills, this requires newspapers to be accessible in terms of language, dissemination, and cost.

  20. The Relationship Between Spirituality/Religiousness and Unhealthy Alcohol Use Among HIV-Infected Adults in Southwestern Uganda.

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    Adong, Julian; Lindan, Christina; Fatch, Robin; Emenyonu, Nneka I; Muyindike, Winnie R; Ngabirano, Christine; Winter, Michael R; Lloyd-Travaglini, Christine; Samet, Jeffrey H; Cheng, Debbie M; Hahn, Judith A

    2018-06-01

    HIV and alcohol use are two serious and co-existing problems in sub-Saharan Africa. We examined the relationship between spirituality and/or religiousness (SR) and unhealthy alcohol use among treatment-naïve HIV-infected adults attending the HIV clinic in Mbarara, Uganda. Unhealthy alcohol was defined as having either an alcohol use disorders identification test-consumption score of ≥4 for men or ≥3 for women, or having a phosphatidylethanol level of ≥50 ng/ml based on analysis of dried bloodspot specimens. Of the 447 participants, 67.8% were female; the median age was 32 years (interquartile range [IQR] 27-40). About half reported being Protestant (49.2%), 35.1% Catholic, and 9.2% Muslim. The median SR score was high (103 [IQR 89-107]); 43.3% drank at unhealthy levels. Higher SR scores were associated with lower odds of unhealthy drinking (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 0.83 per standard deviation [SD] increase; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.66-1.03). The "religious behavior" SR subscale was significantly associated with unhealthy alcohol use (aOR: 0.72 per SD increase; 95% CI 0.58-0.88). Religious institutions, which facilitate expression of religious behavior, may be helpful in promoting and maintaining lower levels of alcohol use.

  1. Analysis of Farmer’s Choices for Climate Change Adaptation Practices in South-Western Uganda, 1980–2009

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    Alex Zizinga

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is a serious threat to the livelihoods of rural communities, particularly in mountainous areas because they are very sensitive to such changes. In this study, we assessed the household determinants to climate change adaptation drawing from a case study of agricultural adaptation in the Mount Rwenzori area of South Western Uganda. The study identified the major adaptation practices that are adopted by farmers to cope with the impacts of climate change and using available on-farm technologies. A total of 143 smallholder farmers were sampled and interviewed using field based questionnaires, field observations, and key informant interviews. Data was cleaned, entered and analysed using SPSS and Stata software for descriptive statistics. Thereafter, a Multinomial logistic regression model was used to assess the drivers of farmers’ choice for adaptation practices, factors influencing the choice of adaptation, and barriers. The major adaptation practices that were identified included; use of different crop varieties, tree planting, soil and water conservation, early and late planting, and furrow irrigation. Discrete choice model results indicated the age of the household head, experience in farming, household size, climate change shocks, land size, use of agricultural inputs, landscape position (location, and crop yield varied significantly (p > 0.05, which influenced farmers’ choice of climate change adaptation practices. The main barriers to adaptation included inadequate information on adaptation methods and financial constraints, leading us to conclude that contextual adaptation practices are more desirable for adoption to farmers. Adapting to climate change needs support from government and other stakeholders, however the implementation is more successful when appropriate and suitable choices are employed.

  2. Characterization of Mesa Verde Black-on-white ceramics from southwestern Colorado using NAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glowacki, D M; Neff, H; Glascock, M D [Missouri Univ., Columbia, MO (United States). Research Reactor Facility

    1995-10-01

    Sixty Mesa Verde variety Black-on-white bowls from Castle Rock Pueblo (5MT 1825) and Sand Canyon Pueblo (5MT765) in southwestern Colorado were chemically characterized using neutron activation analysis. Eleven clay sources local to the sites in the McElmo Drainage area were also analyzed. The results revealed two distinct compositional groups containing relative frequencies that imply local production. The occurrence of trade between the two sites was also identified. (author). 20 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Heinrich event 4 characterized by terrestrial proxies in southwestern Europe

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    J. M. López-García

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Heinrich event 4 (H4 is well documented in the North Atlantic Ocean as a cooling event that occurred between 39 and 40 Ka. Deep-sea cores around the Iberian Peninsula coastline have been analysed to characterize the H4 event, but there are no data on the terrestrial response to this event. Here we present for the first time an analysis of terrestrial proxies for characterizing the H4 event, using the small-vertebrate assemblage (comprising small mammals, squamates and amphibians from Terrassa Riera dels Canyars, an archaeo-palaeontological deposit located on the seaboard of the northeastern Iberian Peninsula. This assemblage shows that the H4 event is characterized in northeastern Iberia by harsher and drier terrestrial conditions than today. Our results were compared with other proxies such as pollen, charcoal, phytolith, avifauna and large-mammal data available for this site, as well as with the general H4 event fluctuations and with other sites where H4 and the previous and subsequent Heinrich events (H5 and H3 have been detected in the Mediterranean and Atlantic regions of the Iberian Peninsula. We conclude that the terrestrial proxies follow the same patterns as the climatic and environmental conditions detected by the deep-sea cores at the Iberian margins.

  4. Molecular Characterization of Salmonella from Human and Animal Origins in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagirita, Atek Atwiine; Owalla, Tonny Jimmy; Majalija, Samuel

    2017-01-01

    Sporadic Salmonella outbreaks with varying clinical presentations have been on the rise in various parts of Uganda. The sources of outbreaks and factors underlying the different clinical manifestation are curtailed by paucity of information on Salmonella genotypes and the associated virulence genes. This study reports molecular diversity of Salmonella enterica and their genetic virulence profiles among human and animal isolates. Characterization was done using Kauffman-White classification scheme and virulence genes analysis using multiplex PCR. Overall, 52% of the isolates belonged to serogroup D, 16% to serogroup E, 15% to poly F, H-S, and 12% to serogroup B. Serogroups A, C1, and C2 each consisted of only one isolate representing 5%. Virulence genes located on SPI-1 [spaN and sipB] and on SPI-2 [spiA] in addition to pagC and msgA were equally distributed in isolates obtained from all sources. Plasmid encoded virulence gene spvB was found in <5% of isolates from both human epidemic and animal origins whereas it occurred in 80% of clinical isolates. This study reveals that serogroup D is the predominant Salmonella serogroup in circulation and it is widely shared among animals and humans and calls for joint and coordinated surveillance for one health implementation in Uganda. PMID:28634597

  5. PALEOARCHEAN MAFIC ROCKS OF THE SOUTHWESTERN SIBERIAN CRATON: PRELIMINARY GEOCHRONOLOGY AND GEOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Ivanov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Siberian craton consists of Archean blocks, which were welded up into the same large unit by ca 1.9 Ga [Gladkochub et al., 2006; Rojas-Agramonte et al., 2011]. The history of the constituent Archean blocks is mosaic because of limited number of outcrops, insufficient sampling coverage because of their location in remote regions and deep forest and difficulties with analytical studies of ancient rocks, which commonly underwent metamorphic modifications and secondary alterations. In this short note, we report data on discovery of unusual for Archean mafic rocks of ultimate fresh appearance. These rocks were discovered within southwestern Siberian craton in a region near a boundary between Kitoy granulites of the Sharyzhalgai highgrade metamorphic complex and Onot green-schist belt (Fig. 1. Here we present preliminary data on geochronology of these rocks and provide their geochemical characterization.

  6. Acceptance of HIV testing among women attending antenatal care in south-western Uganda: risk factors and reasons for test refusal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, V; Mellhammar, L; Bajunirwe, F; Björkman, P

    2008-07-01

    A problem commonly encountered in programs for prevention of mother-to-child-transmission (PMTCT) of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa is low rates of HIV test acceptance among pregnant women. In this study, we examined risk factors and reasons for HIV test refusal among 432 women attending three antenatal care clinics offering PMTCT in urban and semi-urban parts of the Mbarara district, Uganda. Structured interviews were performed following pre-test counselling. Three-hundred-eighty women were included in the study, 323 (85%) of whom accepted HIV testing. In multivariate analysis, testing site (Site A: OR = 1.0; Site B: OR = 3.08; 95%CI: 1.12-8.46; Site C: OR = 5.93; 95%CI: 2.94-11.98), age between 30 and 34 years (refusal. Testing sites operating for longer durations had higher rates of acceptance. The most common reasons claimed for test refusal were: lack of access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV-infected women (88%; n=57), a need to discuss with partner before decision (82%; n=57) and fear of partner's reaction (54%; n=57). Comparison with previous periods showed that the acceptance rate increased with the duration of the program. Our study identified risk factors for HIV test refusal among pregnant women in Uganda and common reasons for not accepting testing. These findings may suggest modifications and improvements in the performance of HIV testing in this and similar populations.

  7. Exploring the Care Relationship between Grandparents/Older Carers and Children Infected with HIV in South-Western Uganda: Implications for Care for Both the Children and Their Older Carers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rwamahe Rutakumwa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The care of children orphaned by HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa is often undertaken by grandparents, yet little is known about the care relationship between grandparent and grandchild. Our aim was to examine this relationship to understand the needs and responsibilities of both the HIV positive child and older carer and the nature of the relationship, and to assess the implications for care for the children and the older carers. A qualitative study was conducted with 40 purposively sampled children (13–17 years and their older carers (50 years and above. Participants were recruited from two clinics in south-western Uganda. Up to three semi-structured interviews were held with each participant. Data were analysed using a thematic framework approach. We found that the care relationship was mostly reciprocal: HIV positive children depended on carers for basic and health needs and carers counted on the children for performing tedious household tasks. The relationship was also characterised by challenges, sometimes causing tension between child and carer. We conclude that: (1 interventions targeting HIV positive children need to also address the needs of older carers, and (2 carers and children would benefit from psychosocial support and social protection.

  8. Isolation and Molecular Characterization of Brucella Isolates in Cattle Milk in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Rwabiita Mugizi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is endemic in livestock and humans in Uganda and its transmission involves a multitude of risk factors like consumption of milk from infected cattle. To shed new light on the epidemiology of brucellosis in Uganda the present study used phenotypic and molecular approaches to delineate the Brucella species, biovars, and genotypes shed in cattle milk. Brucella abortus without a biovar designation was isolated from eleven out of 207 milk samples from cattle in Uganda. These isolates had a genomic monomorphism at 16 variable number tandem repeat (VNTR loci and showed in turn high levels of genetic variation when compared with other African strains or other B. abortus biovars from other parts of the world. This study further highlights the usefulness of MLVA as an epidemiological tool for investigation of Brucella infections.

  9. Characterization and distribution of a Potyvirus associated with passion fruit woodiness disease in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper describes the incidence and etiology of viral infection on passion fruit in Uganda. Viral disease symptoms, including those characteristic of Passion fruit woodiness disease (PWD), were observed in producing areas with an overall mean infection level of 27%. Electron microscopic observati...

  10. The role of social support on HIV testing and treatment adherence: A qualitative study of HIV-infected refugees in southwestern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouhani, Shada A; O'Laughlin, Kelli N; Faustin, Zikama M; Tsai, Alexander C; Kasozi, Julius; Ware, Norma C

    2017-08-01

    Little is known about the factors that encourage or discourage refugees to test for HIV, or to access and adhere to HIV care. In non-refugee populations, social support has been shown to influence HIV testing and utilisation of services. The present study enrolled HIV-infected refugees on anti-retroviral therapy (ART) in Uganda, who participated in qualitative interviews on HIV testing, treatment, and adherence. Interviews were analysed for themes about four types of social support: emotional, informational, instrumental, and appraisal support. A total of 61 interviews were analysed. Four roles for these types of social support were identified: (1) informational support encouraged refugees to test for HIV; (2) emotional support helped refugees cope with a diagnosis of HIV; (3) instrumental support facilitated adherence to ART and (4) after diagnosis, HIV-infected refugees provided informational and emotional support to encourage other refugees to test for HIV. These results suggest that social support influences HIV testing and treatment among refugees. Future interventions should capitalise on social support within a refugee settlement to facilitate testing and treatment.

  11. Adolescents' Sexual Wellbeing in Southwestern Uganda: A Cross-Sectional Assessment of Body Image, Self-Esteem and Gender Equitable Norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemigisha, Elizabeth; Nyakato, Viola N; Bruce, Katharine; Ndaruhutse Ruzaaza, Gad; Mlahagwa, Wendo; Ninsiima, Anna B; Coene, Gily; Leye, Els; Michielsen, Kristien

    2018-02-22

    Measures of sexual wellbeing and positive aspects of sexuality in the World Health Organization definition for sexual health are rarely studied and remain poorly understood, especially among adolescents in Sub-Saharan Africa. The objective of this study was to assess sexual wellbeing in its broad sense-i.e., body image, self-esteem, and gender equitable norms-and associated factors in young adolescents in Uganda. A cross-sectional survey of adolescents ages 10-14 years in schools was carried out between June and July 2016. Among 1096 adolescents analyzed, the median age was 12 (Inter-Quartile Range (IQR): 11, 13) and 58% were female. Self-esteem and body image scores were high with median 24 (IQR: 22, 26, possible range: 7-28) and median 22 (IQR: 19, 24, possible range: 5-25) respectively. Gender equitable norms mean score was 28.1 (SD 5.2: possible range 11-44). We noted high scores for self-esteem and body image but moderate scores on gender equitable norms. Girls had higher scores compared to boys for all outcomes. A higher age and being sexually active were associated with lower scores on gender equitable norms. Gender equitable norms scores decreased with increasing age of adolescents. Comprehensive and timely sexuality education programs focusing on gender differences and norms are recommended.

  12. Adolescents’ Sexual Wellbeing in Southwestern Uganda: A Cross-Sectional Assessment of Body Image, Self-Esteem and Gender Equitable Norms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemigisha, Elizabeth; Nyakato, Viola N.; Bruce, Katharine; Ndaruhutse Ruzaaza, Gad; Mlahagwa, Wendo; Ninsiima, Anna B.; Coene, Gily; Leye, Els; Michielsen, Kristien

    2018-01-01

    Measures of sexual wellbeing and positive aspects of sexuality in the World Health Organization definition for sexual health are rarely studied and remain poorly understood, especially among adolescents in Sub-Saharan Africa. The objective of this study was to assess sexual wellbeing in its broad sense—i.e., body image, self-esteem, and gender equitable norms—and associated factors in young adolescents in Uganda. A cross-sectional survey of adolescents ages 10–14 years in schools was carried out between June and July 2016. Among 1096 adolescents analyzed, the median age was 12 (Inter-Quartile Range (IQR): 11, 13) and 58% were female. Self-esteem and body image scores were high with median 24 (IQR: 22, 26, possible range: 7–28) and median 22 (IQR: 19, 24, possible range: 5–25) respectively. Gender equitable norms mean score was 28.1 (SD 5.2: possible range 11–44). We noted high scores for self-esteem and body image but moderate scores on gender equitable norms. Girls had higher scores compared to boys for all outcomes. A higher age and being sexually active were associated with lower scores on gender equitable norms. Gender equitable norms scores decreased with increasing age of adolescents. Comprehensive and timely sexuality education programs focusing on gender differences and norms are recommended. PMID:29470388

  13. The invisible suffering: sexual coercion, interpersonal violence, and mental health--a cross-sectional study among university students in south-western Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anette Agardh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite a history of conflicts and widespread human rights violation in sub-Saharan Africa, little is known about the prevalence of interpersonal violence among the population in this region. Evidence from high-income countries suggests that exposure to violence has mental health consequences and violence also has associations with experiences of sexual coercion. AIMS: This study sought to investigate the prevalence of physical and perceived threats of violence among university students in Uganda and to assess the possible relationship between such violence, sexual coercion, and symptoms of anxiety, depression, and psychoticism, respectively. METHOD: In 2005, 980 Ugandan university students responded to a self-administered questionnaire (response rate 80% that assessed socio-demographic factors, social capital, importance of religion, mental health, experience of violence and sexual coercion, and sexual behaviour factors. Logistic regression analysis was applied as the main analytical tool. RESULTS: Of those who responded, 28% reported perceived threats/threats of violence and 10% exposure to actual physical violence over the previous 12 months, with no significant gender differences in exposure history. Exposure to violence was significantly associated with the experience of sexual coercion among both males and females. Sexual coercion and threats/threats of violence were both significantly associated with poor mental health in males and females, but only males showed a strong association between exposure to physical violence and poor mental health. CONCLUSION: The current study suggests that in terms of general exposure, both males and females in the study population are equally exposed to sexual coercion and interpersonal violence, and both male and female students show generally similar mental health effects of exposure to such violence. The prevalence of interpersonal violence found in our study population may have long

  14. Epidemiological and laboratory characterization of a yellow fever outbreak in northern Uganda, October 2010-January 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamala, Joseph F; Malimbo, Mugagga; Okot, Charles L; Atai-Omoruto, Ann D; Tenywa, Emmanuel; Miller, Jeffrey R; Balinandi, Stephen; Shoemaker, Trevor; Oyoo, Charles; Omony, Emmanuel O; Kagirita, Atek; Musenero, Monica M; Makumbi, Issa; Nanyunja, Miriam; Lutwama, Julius J; Downing, Robert; Mbonye, Anthony K

    2012-07-01

    In November 2010, following reports of an outbreak of a fatal, febrile, hemorrhagic illness in northern Uganda, the Uganda Ministry of Health established multisector teams to respond to the outbreak. This was a case-series investigation in which the response teams conducted epidemiological and laboratory investigations on suspect cases. The cases identified were line-listed and a data analysis was undertaken regularly to guide the outbreak response. Overall, 181 cases met the yellow fever (YF) suspected case definition; there were 45 deaths (case fatality rate 24.9%). Only 13 (7.5%) of the suspected YF cases were laboratory confirmed, and molecular sequencing revealed 92% homology to the YF virus strain Couma (Ethiopia), East African genotype. Suspected YF cases had fever (100%) and unexplained bleeding (97.8%), but jaundice was rare (11.6%). The overall attack rate was 13 cases/100000 population, and the attack rate was higher for males than females and increased with age. The index clusters were linked to economic activities undertaken by males around forests. This was the largest YF outbreak ever reported in Uganda. The wide geographical case dispersion as well as the male and older age preponderance suggests transmission during the outbreak was largely sylvatic and related to occupational activities around forests. Copyright © 2012 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Molecular characterization and multilocus genotypes of Enterocytozoon bieneusi among horses in southwestern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Deng

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enterocytozoon bieneusi is one of the most prevalent causative species of diarrhea and enteric diseases in various hosts. E. bieneusi has been identified in humans, mammals, birds, rodents and reptiles in China, but few studies have reported E. bieneusi in horses. Therefore, the present study was conducted to assess the prevalence, molecular characteristics and zoonotic potential of E. bieneusi among horses in southwestern China. Findings Three hundred and thirty-three fecal specimens were collected from horses on five farms in the Sichuan and Yunnan provinces of southwestern China. The prevalence of E. bieneusi was 22.5 % (75/333, as determined by nested polymerase chain reaction and sequencing analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region of the ribosomal RNA gene of E. bieneusi. Altogether, 10 genotypes were identified among the 75 E. bieneusi-positive samples: four of these genotypes were known (horse1, horse2, SC02 and D and six were novel (SCH1-4 and YNH1-2. Multilocus sequence typing using three microsatellites (MS1, MS3 and MS7 and one minisatellite (MS4 revealed three, two, three and three genotypes at these four loci, respectively. In phylogenetic analysis, all the genotypes of E. bieneusi obtained in this study were clustered into three distinct groups: D, SC02 and SCH1-3 were clustered into group 1 (zoonotic potential; SCH4 was clustered into group 2 (cattle-hosted; whereas horse2, YNH1 and YNH2 were clustered into group 6 (unclear zoonotic potential. Conclusions This is the first report of E. bieneusi among horses in southwestern China. This is also the first multilocus genotyping analysis using microsatellite and minisatellite markers of E. bieneusi in horses. The presence of genotype D, which was previously identified in humans, and genotypes SC02 and SCH1-3, which belong to potential zoonotic group 1, these results indicate that horses are a potential source of human E. bieneusi infections in China.

  16. Remote sensing characterization of the Animas River watershed, southwestern Colorado, by AVIRIS imaging spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, J.B.; Bove, D.J.; Mladinich, C.S.

    2005-01-01

    Visible-wavelength and near-infrared image cubes of the Animas River watershed in southwestern Colorado have been acquired by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Airborne Visible and InfraRed Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) instrument and processed using the U.S. Geological Survey Tetracorder v3.6a2 implementation. The Tetracorder expert system utilizes a spectral reference library containing more than 400 laboratory and field spectra of end-member minerals, mineral mixtures, vegetation, manmade materials, atmospheric gases, and additional substances to generate maps of mineralogy, vegetation, snow, and other material distributions. Major iron-bearing, clay, mica, carbonate, sulfate, and other minerals were identified, among which are several minerals associated with acid rock drainage, including pyrite, jarosite, alunite, and goethite. Distributions of minerals such as calcite and chlorite indicate a relationship between acid-neutralizing assemblages and stream geochemistry within the watershed. Images denoting material distributions throughout the watershed have been orthorectified against digital terrain models to produce georeferenced image files suitable for inclusion in Geographic Information System databases. Results of this study are of use to land managers, stakeholders, and researchers interested in understanding a number of characteristics of the Animas River watershed.

  17. Molecular characterization of Toxocara spp. from soil of public areas in Ahvaz southwestern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khademvatan, Shahram; Abdizadeh, Rahman; Tavalla, Mahdi

    2014-07-01

    In the present study, the microscopy and polymerase chain reaction methods were used for detection and identification of soil contamination by Toxocara eggs in squares, streets, public parks, and rubbish dumps in Ahvaz, southwestern Iran. A total of 210 soil samples were collected from different parts of the city and examined by microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods, following sodium nitrate flotation. Nucleotide sequencing was performed to confirm the results of the PCR method. Toxocara eggs were found in 64 and 71 soil samples using the microscopy and PCR methods, respectively. The highest contamination rate was observed in the central part of Ahvaz (39.5% and 46.5% by the microscopy and PCR methods, respectively). Based on internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) PCR identification, 28% of the samples were diagnosed as Toxocara cati and 5.7% as Toxocara canis; no mixed contamination was observed. DNA sequencing of the ITS2 gene confirmed our findings. Compared to the conventional microscopic detection following by flotation, used as the gold standard, the PCR method appears to be rapid and sensitive as well as allows analysis of Toxocara spp. isolated from soil independent of the stage of egg development. Therefore, the PCR method appears to be a valuable tool for the diagnosis and differentiation of Toxocara spp. from soil samples in epidemiological studies, and will help the local health systems in effective prevention and control of disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Joint application of ground penetrating radar and electrical resistivity measurements for characterization of subsurface stratigraphy in Southwestern Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adepelumi, A A; Fayemi, O

    2012-01-01

    The frequent building collapses in Nigeria have been attributed to a lack of pre-construction investigations, which assist engineers in obtaining in situ geotechnical information. Further, the structural subsurface settings are often ignored or investigation is haphazardly carried out. To address this issue and demonstrate the importance of such a survey, a combination of ground penetrating radar (GPR) and vertical electrical sounding (VES) data were acquired in a part of Southwestern Nigeria. A 200 MHz antenna was used for the data acquisition along four traverses. The data were subjected to standard GPR processing techniques, and attribute analysis such as instantaneous frequency, amplitude and phase. Also, for comparative and engineering characterization purposes, longitudinal conductance and coefficient of anisotropy were computed from the VES results and used for determining the competency of the bedrocks. From the GPR results, it was observed that the mapped subsurface is characterized as erosional truncated at a low angle, which is southerly dipping and includes tangential reflections. Further, stratified rocks dipping at an angle of 32° occur between 1.0 and 4.5 m depth in all of the GPR sections; these strata were truncated by topsoil at shallow depths. Also, some of the sections depict ancient channel structures that have a dimension of 70 m × 40 m. The resistivity data suggest that the study area is characterized by four distinct geoelectric sequences. These comprise topsoil which is composed of clay-like sand to lateritic clay whose thickness ranges between 0.25 and 8.12 m, weathered bedrock with a thickness between 3.84 and 12.61 m, stratified bedrock with a thickness between 0.33 and 7.51 m, and fresh bedrock. These results reveal a complex subsurface geology and this characterizes the study area. The area has low to moderate longitudinal conductance and coefficient of anisotropy values, which suggest that incompetent to semi-competent bedrock

  19. Geochemical characterization of mid-distal Nisyros tephra on Datça peninsula (southwestern Anatolia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gençalioğlu-Kuşcu, Gonca; Uslular, Göksu

    2018-04-01

    We present new distal records of tephra deposits that overly the Kos ignimbrite in seven locations of Datça peninsula. Tephra in one of these locations were previously associated with Nisyros Kyra sub-unit based only on the field characteristics. We use different proxies such as field observations, petrography, mineral, glass, and whole-rock chemistry in order to characterize and correlate the previously and recently identified pumice fall deposits on Datça. The total thickness of the fall deposit reaches to 3.5 m. The size of the pumice clasts is generally within the range of lapilli, and they have vitrophyric texture consisting mainly of plagioclase (andesine to labradorite) with scarce clinopyroxene (diopside to augite), olivine (Fo48-50), amphibole (magnesio-hastingsite), and biotite crystals. Amphibole is a ubiquitous phenocryst in all Datça tephra units and used as a criterion for the correlation. Glass major element analyses by EMPA reveal two different groups with andesitic and dacitic compositions. Difference in silica content (up to ca. 4 wt%) detected in the same specimen also designates the heterogeneity in pumice glass. This heterogeneity in glass composition is also supported by the frequent occurrence of banded pumice clasts in Datça tephra. Whole-rock composition of the pumice is mainly andesitic with calc-alkaline affinity. Multi-element patterns on primitive-mantle normalized diagram display typical arc-magmatism signature (i.e. depletion in Nb, Ta, Ti, and P). In order to check and eliminate the potential alternatives, we compared the distal deposits on Datça not only with Kyra, but also with other Nisyros tephra units. Yet, Kyra is the only unit that has comparable depositional characteristics, calcic amphibole crystals, andesitic-dacitic glass and whole-rock chemistry, and distal tephra deposits on neighboring islands (Tilos and Chalki). Therefore, we associate Datça tephra deposits with some proximal Kyra subunits of intermediate

  20. Molecular characterization of Mycobacterium avium subspecies hominissuis isolated from humans, cattle and pigs in the Uganda cattle corridor using VNTR analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muwonge, Adrian; Oloya, James; Kankya, Clovice; Nielsen, Sigrun; Godfroid, Jacques; Skjerve, Eystein; Djønne, Berit; Johansen, Tone B

    2014-01-01

    Members of the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) cause disease in both human and animals. Their ubiquitous nature makes them both successful microbes and difficult to source track. The precise characterization of MAC species is a fundamental step in epidemiological studies and evaluating of possible reservoirs. This study aimed at identifying and characterizing Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis isolated from human, slaughter cattle and pigs in various parts of the Uganda cattle corridor (UCC) at two temporal points using variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) analysis. A total of 46 M. avium isolates; 31 from 997 pigs, 12 from 43 humans biopsies and three from 61 cattle lesions were identified to subspecies level using IS1245 and IS901 PCR, thereafter characterized using VNTR. Twelve loci from two previously described VNTR methods were used and molecular results were analyzed and interpreted using Bionumerics 6.1. 37 of the isolates were identified as M. avium subsp. hominissuis and four as M. avium subsp. avium, while five could not be differentiated, possibly due to mixed infection. There was distinct clustering that coincides with the temporal and spatial differences of the isolates. The isolates from humans and cattle in the North Eastern parts of the UCC shared identical VNTR genotypes. The panel of loci gave an overall discriminatory power of 0.88. Some loci were absent in several isolates, probably reflecting differences in isolates from Uganda/Africa compared to isolates previously analyzed by these methods in Europe and Asia. The findings indicate a molecular difference between M. avium subsp. hominissuis isolates from pigs in Mubende and cattle and human in the rest of the UCC. Although human and cattle shared VNTR genotypes in the North Eastern parts of the UCC, it is most likely a reflection of a shared environmental source. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. IDRC in Uganda

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Chemotherapeutics Research Laboratory, the Government of Uganda ... tions informed Uganda's information ... to improve its management and build information technology systems. The hospital ... volunteers to refer sick children to medical.

  2. Accessing diabetes care in rural Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jannie; Bahendeka, Silver K.; Bygbjerg, Ib C.

    2017-01-01

    Non-communicable diseases including type 2 diabetes (T2D) are increasing rapidly in most Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries like Uganda. Little attention has been given to how patients with T2D try to achieve treatment when the availability of public health care for their disease is limited......, as is the case in most SSA countries. In this paper we focus on the landscape of availability of care and the therapeutic journeys of patients within that landscape. Based on fieldwork in south-western Uganda including 10 case studies, we explore the diabetes treatment options in the area and what it takes...... to access the available treatment. We analyse the resources patients need to use the available treatment options, and demonstrate that the patients’ journeys to access and maintain treatment are facilitated by the knowledge and support of their therapy management groups. Patients access treatment more...

  3. Discovery and full genome characterization of two highly divergent simian immunodeficiency viruses infecting black-and-white colobus monkeys (Colobus guereza) in Kibale National Park, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauck, Michael; Switzer, William M; Sibley, Samuel D; Hyeroba, David; Tumukunde, Alex; Weny, Geoffrey; Taylor, Bill; Shankar, Anupama; Ting, Nelson; Chapman, Colin A; Friedrich, Thomas C; Goldberg, Tony L; O'Connor, David H

    2013-10-21

    African non-human primates (NHPs) are natural hosts for simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIV), the zoonotic transmission of which led to the emergence of HIV-1 and HIV-2. However, our understanding of SIV diversity and evolution is limited by incomplete taxonomic and geographic sampling of NHPs, particularly in East Africa. In this study, we screened blood specimens from nine black-and-white colobus monkeys (Colobus guereza occidentalis) from Kibale National Park, Uganda, for novel SIVs using a combination of serology and "unbiased" deep-sequencing, a method that does not rely on genetic similarity to previously characterized viruses. We identified two novel and divergent SIVs, tentatively named SIVkcol-1 and SIVkcol-2, and assembled genomes covering the entire coding region for each virus. SIVkcol-1 and SIVkcol-2 were detected in three and four animals, respectively, but with no animals co-infected. Phylogenetic analyses showed that SIVkcol-1 and SIVkcol-2 form a lineage with SIVcol, previously discovered in black-and-white colobus from Cameroon. Although SIVkcol-1 and SIVkcol-2 were isolated from the same host population in Uganda, SIVkcol-1 is more closely related to SIVcol than to SIVkcol-2. Analysis of functional motifs in the extracellular envelope glycoprotein (gp120) revealed that SIVkcol-2 is unique among primate lentiviruses in containing only 16 conserved cysteine residues instead of the usual 18 or more. Our results demonstrate that the genetic diversity of SIVs infecting black-and-white colobus across equatorial Africa is greater than previously appreciated and that divergent SIVs can co-circulate in the same colobine population. We also show that the use of "unbiased" deep sequencing for the detection of SIV has great advantages over traditional serological approaches, especially for studies of unknown or poorly characterized viruses. Finally, the detection of the first SIV containing only 16 conserved cysteines in the extracellular envelope protein

  4. Widow inheritance and HIV/AIDS in rural Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabumba, E D; Mugyenyi, P; Batwala, V; Mulogo, E M; Mirembe, J; Khan, F A; Liljestrand, J

    2007-10-01

    Despite current efforts to combat HIV/AIDS through behavioural change, ingrained socio-cultural practices such as widow inheritance in south-western Uganda has not changed. Low education, unemployment, dowry, widows' socioeconomic demands and the inheritor's greed for the deceased's wealth, influence widow inheritance. Voluntary counselling and testing is needed for the widows and their inheritors; formal dowry should be removed from marriage and widow inheritance stripped of its sexual component.

  5. Hydrochemical characterization and quality evaluation of groundwater in parts of the basement complex area of ekiti, southwestern nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojo, T.A.; Niyi, T.M.

    2013-01-01

    Well water (88 samples) were collected across various bedrock units in the basement terrain of Ekiti area, Southwestern Nigeria. They were subjected to in-situ physico-chemical measurement and hydrochemical analyses using lC-OES and ion-chromatography methods for cations and anions, respectively. To understand the water quality and utilisation aspects of groundwater, chemical indices like sodium %, sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), Wilcox diagram and salinity diagram were constructed based on the analytical results. The results show pH values ranging between 6.0-7.8 and total hardness (TH) 3.2-508.7 mg/L. Major cations concentrations were in the order of Ca2 >K/sup +/>Na >Mg with average values of 28.5, 26.8, 24.2 and 7.9 mg/L, respectively while that of the anions were HCO >Cl >SO/sub 4/sup 2/ >NO/sub 3/ with average values of 118.7, 54.2, 23.8 and 0.92 mg/L. The main hydrochemical facies being Ca-HCO/sub 3/ waters. The ionic orders of abundance varied in different rocks of the study area. These concentration trends show a low total dissolved solids (130-1544 microS/cm) indicating a low water-rock interaction due to low residence time which is an indication of CO/sub 2/ dominated infiltration recharge with limited migratory history typical of the shallow basement terrain in the study area. Quality assessment revealed a potable groundwater system with chemical parameters within the acceptable limits of the WHO and SON drinking water standards with exception of Fe, Mn and Pb in a couple of locations. Also, the estimated SAR alongside TDS revealed a shallow groundwater system suitable for irrigation purpose. (author)

  6. Characterization of the non-polio enterovirus infections associated with acute flaccid paralysis in South-Western India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongala Laxmivandana

    Full Text Available Non-polio enteroviruses (NPEVs have been reported frequently in association with acute flaccid paralysis (AFP cases during Polio Surveillance Programs (PSPs worldwide. However, there is limited understanding on the attributes of their infections. This study reports characteristics of NPEVs isolated from AFP cases, investigated during PSPs held in 2009-2010, in Karnataka and Kerala states of south-western India having varied climatic conditions. NPEV cell culture isolates derived from stool specimens that were collected from 422 of 2186 AFP cases (<1-14 years age and 17 of 41 asymptomatic contacts; and details of all AFP cases/contacts were obtained from National Polio Laboratory, Bangalore. The distribution of NPEV infections among AFP cases and circulation pattern of NPEV strains were determined by statistical analysis of the data. Genotyping of all NPEV isolates was carried out by partial VP1 gene sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. NPEV positive AFP cases were significantly higher in children aged <2 years; with residual paralysis; in summer months; and in regions with relatively hot climate. Genotyping of NPEVs identified predominance of human enteroviruses (HEV-B species [81.9%-Echoviruses (E: 57.3%; coxsackieviruses (CV B: 15%; numbered EVs: 8.9%; CVA9: 0.7%] and low levels of HEV-A [14.5%-CVA: 6%; numbered EVs: 8.5%] and HEV-C [3.6%-CVA: 2.6%; numbered EVs: 1%] species, encompassing 63 genotypes. EV76 (6.3% and each of E3, CVB3 and E9 (4.97% were found frequently during 2009 while E11 (6.7%, CVB1 (6.1%, E7 (5.1% and E20 (5.1% were detected commonly in 2010. A marked proportion of AFP cases from children aged <2 years; presenting with fever; and from north and south interior parts of Karnataka state was detected with E/numbered EVs than that found with CVA/CVB. This study highlights the extensive genetic diversity and diverse circulation patterns of NPEV strains in AFP cases from different populations and climatic conditions.

  7. Characterizing pharmaceutical, personal care product, and hormone contamination in a karst aquifer of southwestern Illinois, USA, using water quality and stream flow parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodgen, L K; Kelly, W R; Panno, S V; Taylor, S J; Armstrong, D L; Wiles, K N; Zhang, Y; Zheng, W

    2017-02-01

    Karst aquifers are drinking water sources for 25% of the global population. However, the unique geology of karst areas facilitates rapid transfer of surficial chemicals to groundwater, potentially contaminating drinking water. Contamination of karst aquifers by nitrate, chloride, and bacteria have been previously observed, but little knowledge is available on the presence of contaminants of emerging concern (CECs), such as pharmaceuticals. Over a 17-month period, 58 water samples were collected from 13 sites in the Salem Plateau, a karst region in southwestern Illinois, United States. Water was analyzed for 12 pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs), 7 natural and synthetic hormones, and 49 typical water quality parameters (e.g., nutrients and bacteria). Hormones were detected in only 23% of samples, with concentrations of 2.2-9.1ng/L. In contrast, PPCPs were quantified in 89% of groundwater samples. The two most commonly detected PPCPs were the antimicrobial triclocarban, in 81% of samples, and the cardiovascular drug gemfibrozil, in 57%. Analytical results were combined with data of local stream flow, weather, and land use to 1) characterize the extent of aquifer contamination by CECs, 2) cluster sites with similar PPCP contamination profiles, and 3) develop models to describe PPCP contamination. Median detection in karst groundwater was 3 PPCPs at a summed concentration of 4.6ng/L. Sites clustered into 3 subsets with unique contamination models. PPCP contamination in Cluster I sites was related to stream height, manganese, boron, and heterotrophic bacteria. Cluster II sites were characterized by groundwater temperature, specific conductivity, sodium, and calcium. Cluster III sites were characterized by dissolved oxygen and barium. Across all sites, no single or small set of water quality factors was significantly predictive of PPCP contamination, although gemfibrozil concentrations were strongly related to the sum of PPCPs in karst groundwater

  8. Molecular characterization of SAT 2 foot-and-mouth disease virus from post-outbreak slaughtered animals: implications for disease control in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balinda, Sheila N; Belsham, Graham; Masembe, Charles

    2010-01-01

    In Uganda, limiting the extent of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) spread during outbreaks involves short term measures such as ring vaccination and restrictions to the movement of livestock and their products to and from the affected areas. In this study, the presence of FMD virus RNA was investigated...

  9. Country Presentation Uganda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oriada, R.; Byakagaba, A.; Kiza, M.; Magembe, M.

    2010-01-01

    Like Many African countries, Uganda is not Immune to the problem of illicit trafficking of Nuclear and Radioactive materials. This has been worsened by the porosity of the Ugandan Borders. There is control on the few Entry points and much of the border line does not have adequate control on what enters and leaves the country. Uganda is also used as a transit route with the neighboring countries like Sudan, Democratic Republic of Congo, Kenya,Tanzania.

  10. Social Justice : Perspectives from Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    SOCIAL JUSTICE, HEALTH AND POVERTY IN UGANDA John Barugahare Injustice in Uganda manifests in many ways. One most serious, yet least discussed social injustice, is inequity in Health. Although there are two equally important aims of health systems – efficiency and equity, in Uganda too much focus has been on ensuring efficiency and as a consequence concerns of equity have been relegated. Ultimately, health policy in Uganda has disproportionately negatively affected the poor’s livelihoods in g...

  11. Strategic nutrient management of field pea in southwestern Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 10, No 6 (2010) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  12. Efficacy of single and double doses of albendazole and mebendazole alone and in combination in the treatment of Trichuris trichiura in school-age children in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Namwanje, Harriet; Kabatereine, Narcis B.; Olsen, Annette

    2011-01-01

    A randomised clinical trial was conducted in Kabale District, southwestern Uganda, to compare the efficacies of single and double doses of a combination of 400mg albendazole (ALB) and 500mg mebendazole (MBZ) with those of single and double doses of each drug given alone in the treatment of Trichu......A randomised clinical trial was conducted in Kabale District, southwestern Uganda, to compare the efficacies of single and double doses of a combination of 400mg albendazole (ALB) and 500mg mebendazole (MBZ) with those of single and double doses of each drug given alone in the treatment...

  13. Environmental Management Audit: Southwestern Power Administration (Southwestern)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    This report documents the results of the Environmental Management Audit completed for the Southwestern Power Administration. During this Audit, activities and records were reviewed and personnel interviewed. The onsite portion of the Southwestern Audit was conducted from November 30 through December 11, 1992, by the US Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Audit (EH-24). EH-24 carries out independent assessments of Department of Energy (DOE) facilities and activities as part of the Assistant Secretary's Environmental Audit Program. This program is designed to evaluate the status of DOE facilities/activities regarding compliance with laws, regulations, DOE Orders, formal written procedures, compliance agreements, and Best Management Practices (BMPs). This internal oversight function plays an important role in improving the compliance status of DOE operations. The Environmental Management Audit stresses DOE's policy that it is the responsibility of line management to conduct operations in an environmentally sound and safe manner. The Environmental Management Audit focuses on management systems and programs, whereas the Environmental Baseline Audit conducted in March 1991 focused on specific compliance issues. The scope of the Southwestern Environmental Management Audit included a review of all systems and functions necessary for effective environmental management. Specific areas of review included: Organizational Structure; Environmental Commitment; Environmental Protection Programs; Formality of Environmental Programs; Internal and External Communication; Staff Resources, Training, and Development; and Program Evaluation, Reporting, and Corrective Action

  14. insurgencies in northern Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Criminal Court (ICC) investigations into the LRA activities. ... and the rebel movements in northern Uganda, see Human Rights Watch 2003, and ... the ICC, Luis Moreno Ocampo, met at Hotel Intercontinental, Hyde Park, London, ..... expunge criminal liability for war crimes and crimes against humanity, appear.

  15. Plague in Uganda

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2018-01-25

    Dr. Paul Mead, a medical officer at CDC, discusses his article on Plague in Uganda.  Created: 1/25/2018 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 1/25/2018.

  16. Assessment of Business Information Access Problems in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constant Okello-Obura

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Effective utilization of quality business information is crucial in attaining long-term and sustainable economic growth of the Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs. It is established that SMEs in northern Uganda operate in a business environment that is characterized by fragmented and incomplete information. It is a situation where an awareness of markets, technology, policies, regulations and finance is limited because businesses fail to receive timely business information. This article reports a portion of the results of a larger study using a descriptive design with survey research and other techniques. The study examined the problems SMEs in northern Uganda face in accessing business information; identified problems information providers face in providing business information to the SMEs in the region and attempted to establish whether SMEs in northern Uganda use public libraries in accessing business information as should be expected. The study’s respondents included the SMEs, information providers and business policy makers with the response rate of 87.3%; 72% and 85% respectively. The article proposes strategic interventions for business information to be accessed by the SMEs. It concludes that there is a need for Uganda and, in particular, northern Uganda to develop a strategy for business information access by the SMEs

  17. Young People Volunteering in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Riiser, Nina Milling

    2011-01-01

    Socio economic conditions in Uganda causes the youth to be caught between childhood and adulthood. They are young people moving towards adulthood, with no option of becoming independent. How does volunteering affect the youth and why does the youth volunteer? Does the youth get closer to adulthood by volunteering and what di they gain? Socio economic conditions in Uganda causes the youth to be caught between childhood and adulthood. They are young people moving towards adulthood, with no o...

  18. Spatial data fusion and analysis for soil characterization: a case study in a coastal basin of south-western Sicily (southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donato Sollitto

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Salinization is one of the most serious problems confronting sustainable agriculture in semi-arid and arid regions. Accurate mapping of soil salinization and the associated risk represent a fundamental step in planning agricultural and remediation activities. Geostatistical analysis is very useful for soil quality assessment because it makes it possible to determine the spatial relationships between selected variables and to produce synthetic maps of spatial variation. The main objective of this paper was to map the soil salinization risk in the Delia-Nivolelli alluvial basin (south-western Sicily, southern Italy, using multivariate geostatistical techniques and a set of topographical, physical and soil hydraulic properties. Elevation data were collected from existing topographic maps and analysed preliminarily to improve the estimate precision of sparsely sampled primary variables. For interpolation multi-collocated cokriging was applied to the dataset, including textural and hydraulic properties and electrical conductivity measurements carried out on 128 collected soil samples, using elevation data as auxiliary variable. Spatial dependence among elevation and physical soil properties was explored with factorial kriging analysis (FKA that could isolate and display the sources of variation acting at different spatial scales. FKA isolated significant regionalised factors which give a concise description of the complex soil physical variability at the different selected spatial scales. These factors mapped, allowed the delineation of zones at different salinisation risk to be managed separately to control and prevent salinization risk. The proposed methodology could be a valid support for land use and soil remediation planning at regional scale.

  19. Bartonella melophagi in blood of domestic sheep (Ovis aries) and sheep keds (Melophagus ovinus) from the southwestern US: Cultures, genetic characterization, and ecological connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosoy, Michael; Bai, Ying; Enscore, Russell; Rizzo, Maria Rosales; Bender, Scott; Popov, Vsevolod; Albayrak, Levent; Fofanov, Yuriy; Chomel, Bruno

    2016-07-15

    Bartonella melophagi sp. nov. was isolated from domestic sheep blood and from sheep keds (Melophagus ovinus) from the southwestern United States. The sequence analyses of the reference strain performed by six molecular markers consistently demonstrated that B. melophagi relates to but differ from other Bartonella species isolated from domestic and wild ruminants. Presence of 183 genes specific for B. melophagi, being absent in genomes of other Bartonella species associated with ruminants also supports the separation of this bacterial species from species of other ruminants. Bartonella DNA was detected in all investigated sheep keds; however, culturing of these bacteria from sheep blood rejects a speculation that B. melophagi is an obligatory endosymbiont. Instead, the results support the hypothesis that the domestic sheep is a natural host reservoir for B. melophagi and the sheep ked its main vector. This bacterium was not isolated from the blood of bighorn sheep and domestic goats belonging to the same subfamily Caprinae. B. melophagi has also been shown to be zoonotic and needs to be investigated further. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. The Karimojong from Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomes, Iva; Pereira, Vania; Gomes, Verónica

    2009-01-01

    The Karimojong, an African group from the Karamoja region of Northeast Uganda, were genetically analysed using a decaplex system for X chromosome short tandem repeats (X-STRs). A total of 255 individuals (117 males and 138 females) were genotyped for the following loci: DXS8378, DXS9898, DXS7133......, with gene diversities of 84.79% and 83.94%, respectively. The less discriminating locus observed was DXS7133, with a gene diversity of 39.79%. High overall values of power of discrimination were obtained for female (1 in 1.8 x 10(10)) and male samples (1 in 1.6 x 10(6)), as well as high power of exclusion...

  1. Characterization of Fusarium isolates from asparagus fields in southwestern Ontario and influence of soil organic amendments on Fusarium crown and root rot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrego-Benjumea, Ana; Basallote-Ureba, María J; Melero-Vara, José M; Abbasi, Pervaiz A

    2014-04-01

    Fusarium crown and root rot (FCRR) of asparagus has a complex etiology with several soilborne Fusarium spp. as causal agents. Ninety-three Fusarium isolates, obtained from plant and soil samples collected from commercial asparagus fields in southwestern Ontario with a history of FCRR, were identified as Fusarium oxysporum (65.5%), F. proliferatum (18.3%), F. solani (6.4%), F. acuminatum (6.4%), and F. redolens (3.2%) based on morphological or cultural characteristics and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis with species-specific primers. The intersimple-sequence repeat PCR analysis of the field isolates revealed considerable variability among the isolates belonging to different Fusarium spp. In the in vitro pathogenicity screening tests, 50% of the field isolates were pathogenic to asparagus, and 22% of the isolates caused the most severe symptoms on asparagus. The management of FCRR with soil organic amendments of pelleted poultry manure (PPM), olive residue compost, and fish emulsion was evaluated in a greenhouse using three asparagus cultivars of different susceptibility in soils infested with two of the pathogenic isolates (F. oxysporum Fo-1.5 and F. solani Fs-1.12). Lower FCRR symptom severity and higher plant weights were observed for most treatments on 'Jersey Giant' and 'Grande' but not on 'Mary Washington'. On all three cultivars, 1% PPM consistently reduced FCRR severity by 42 to 96% and increased plant weights by 77 to 152% compared with the Fusarium control treatment. Populations of Fusarium and total bacteria were enumerated after 1, 3, 7, and 14 days of soil amendment. In amended soils, the population of Fusarium spp. gradually decreased while the population of total culturable bacteria increased. These results indicate that soil organic amendments, especially PPM, can decrease disease severity and promote plant growth, possibly by decreasing pathogen population and enhancing bacterial activity in the soil.

  2. Characterization, Ecological Distribution, and Population Dynamics of Saccharomyces Sensu Stricto Killer Yeasts in the Spontaneous Grape Must Fermentations of Southwestern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maqueda, Matilde; Zamora, Emiliano; Álvarez, María L.

    2012-01-01

    Killer yeasts secrete protein toxins that are lethal to sensitive strains of the same or related yeast species. Among the four types of Saccharomyces killer yeasts already described (K1, K2, K28, and Klus), we found K2 and Klus killer yeasts in spontaneous wine fermentations from southwestern Spain. Both phenotypes were encoded by medium-size double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) viruses, Saccharomyces cerevisiae virus (ScV)-M2 and ScV-Mlus, whose genome sizes ranged from 1.3 to 1.75 kb and from 2.1 to 2.3 kb, respectively. The K2 yeasts were found in all the wine-producing subareas for all the vintages analyzed, while the Klus yeasts were found in the warmer subareas and mostly in the warmer ripening/harvest seasons. The middle-size isotypes of the M2 dsRNA were the most frequent among K2 yeasts, probably because they encoded the most intense K2 killer phenotype. However, the smallest isotype of the Mlus dsRNA was the most frequent for Klus yeasts, although it encoded the least intense Klus killer phenotype. The killer yeasts were present in most (59.5%) spontaneous fermentations. Most were K2, with Klus being the minority. The proportion of killer yeasts increased during fermentation, while the proportion of sensitive yeasts decreased. The fermentation speed, malic acid, and wine organoleptic quality decreased in those fermentations where the killer yeasts replaced at least 15% of a dominant population of sensitive yeasts, while volatile acidity and lactic acid increased, and the amount of bacteria in the tumultuous and the end fermentation stages also increased in an unusual way. PMID:22101056

  3. Multi-proxy Characterization of Two Recent Storm Deposits Attributed to Hurricanes Rita and Ike in the Chenier Plain of Southwestern Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Q.; Liu, K. B.; Ryu, J.

    2017-12-01

    The Chenier Plain in southwestern Louisiana owes its origin to dynamic depositional processes that are dominated by delta-switching of the Mississippi River to the east, while frequent hurricane activities also play an important role in its geomorphology and sedimentary history. However, despite several studies in the literature, the sediment-stratigraphic characteristics of recent or historic hurricane deposits are still not well documented from the Chenier Plain. In 2005 and 2008, Hurricane Rita (category 3) and Ike (category 2) made landfall on the coasts of Louisiana and Texas. Remote sensing images confirm that the Rockefeller Wildlife Refuge, located at the east end of the Louisiana Chenier Plain, was heavily impacted by both hurricanes. We analyzed the lithology and chemical stratigraphy of three 30 cm sediment monoliths (ROC-1, ROC-2, and ROC-3) recovered from a coastal saltmarsh in the Rockefeller Wildlife Refuge to identify the event deposits attributed to these two storms. Each monolith contains 2 distinct light-colored clastic sediment layers imbedded in brown organic clay. The loss-on-ignition and X-ray fluorescence results show that the hurricane layers have increased contents of Ca, Sr, Zr, and carbonates and decreased contents of water and organics. Surprisingly, despite its greater intensity and more severe impacts, Hurricane Rita left a much thinner storm deposit than did Hurricane Ike in all monoliths. Satellite data reveal that Hurricane Rita caused significant coastal erosion and shoreline recession, rendering the sampling sites much closer to the beach and ocean and therefore more prone to storm surges and overwash deposition than when Hurricane Ike struck three years later. Our results suggest that site-to-sea distance, which affects a study site's paleotempestological sensitivity, can play a bigger role in affecting the thicknesses of storm deposits than the intensity of the hurricane.

  4. Accessing diabetes care in rural Uganda: Economic and social resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Jannie; Bahendeka, Silver K; Bygbjerg, Ib C; Meyrowitsch, Dan W; Whyte, Susan R

    2017-07-01

    Non-communicable diseases including type 2 diabetes (T2D) are increasing rapidly in most Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries like Uganda. Little attention has been given to how patients with T2D try to achieve treatment when the availability of public health care for their disease is limited, as is the case in most SSA countries. In this paper we focus on the landscape of availability of care and the therapeutic journeys of patients within that landscape. Based on fieldwork in south-western Uganda including 10 case studies, we explore the diabetes treatment options in the area and what it takes to access the available treatment. We analyse the resources patients need to use the available treatment options, and demonstrate that the patients' journeys to access and maintain treatment are facilitated by the knowledge and support of their therapy management groups. Patients access treatment more effectively, if they and their family have money, useful social relations, and knowledge, together with the capacity to communicate with health staff. Patients coming from households with high socio-economic status (SES) are more likely to have all of these resources, while for patients with low or medium SES, lack of economic resources increases the importance of connections within the health system.

  5. Vesicovaginal fistula in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurdie, Fiona Katherine; Moffatt, Joanne; Jones, Kevin

    2018-03-09

    Kitovu Hospital in Masaka, Uganda, is a leading obstetric fistula repair centre in the country with the highest rates of fistula in the world. In this retrospective case review, the regional incidence and causative factors were studied in patients with vesicovaginal fistula (VVF) who were admitted at Kitovu Hospital. Fistula history included severity (ICIQ score), causes and outcomes of VVF were measured. Women suffered with symptoms of VVF for an average of 4.97 years with an average ICIQ severity score of 7.21. Patients travelled an average distance of 153 km and the majority travelled by public transport. Rates of prolonged labour were high. 69% of fistula-causing delivery resulted in stillbirth and 12% resulted in early neonatal death. Following surgery, 94% of patients were dry on discharge. Impact statement What is already known on this subject? Vesicovaginal fistula (VVF) is a severe, life-changing injury. Although largely eradicated from the Western world thanks to modern obstetric practice, VVF is still highly prevalent in developing countries where factors such as young childbearing age and poor access to emergency obstetric care increase the incidence (Wall et al. 2005 ). At the current rate of fistula repair, it is estimated that it would take 400 years to treat those already suffering with fistula, providing that no new cases emerged (Browning and Patel 2004 ). What do the results of this study add? The Ugandan women in this study reiterate tales of foetal loss, social isolation and epic journeys in search of fistula repair, as previously described in the literature. The study offers some hope for prompt help-seeking during labour and after fistulas are developed. It demonstrates the success of fistula repairs at Kitovu Hospital but highlights the paucity of service provision across Uganda. What are the implications of these findings for clinical practice and/or further research? Further epidemiological research is required to quantify the true

  6. Country watch: Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namutebi, S K

    1996-01-01

    During its work in Rakai district, CONCERN recognized that women lack property/inheritance rights, a situation which increases their vulnerability to HIV infection. Widows are being disinherited of all their properties, including their marital homes. Since many of these women lack both education and skills, their survival often depends upon either marrying again or engaging in sex work. Many women are ignorant of their rights under the national law. Lawyers from the Ugandan Women Lawyers Association help women and children understand their rights, but they do not provide continuously available services. CONCERN therefore initiated a program of community-based legal educators (paralegals) selected by village communities and recommended by local leaders. The paralegals must be over age 28 years, respected by the community, able to maintain confidentiality, and have participated in previous HIV/AIDS sensitization work. Selected candidates are subsequently trained by lawyers from a governmental ministry in the basics of the law pertaining to sexual abuse, marriage, inheritance, divorce, domestic violence, children's rights and responsibilities, and the legal system in Uganda, as well as referrals, gender sensitization, and adult education methods. The paralegals now provide awareness seminars in their communities which include brainstorming, role plays, use of picture codes, group discussions, and lectures.

  7. Diagnosis and treatment of malaria in peripheral health facilities in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ndyomugyenyi, Richard; Magnussen, Pascal; Clarke, Siân

    2007-01-01

    assessed in an area of low transmission in south-western Uganda. Methods The study had two components: 1) passive case detection where all patients attending the out patient clininc with a febrile illness were included and 2) a longitudinal active malaria case detection survey was conducted in selected...... negative cases received alternative treatment. Conclusion In low-transmission areas, more attention needs to be paid to differential diagnosis of febrile illnesses In view of suggested changes in anti-malarial drug policy, introducing costly artemisinin combination therapy accurate, rapid diagnostic tools...

  8. Current status of Uganda Kob (Kobus Kob Thomasi Neumann) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Current status of Uganda Kob (Kobus Kob Thomasi Neumann) in Toro Game Reserve, Uganda. ... As part of a biological assessment of Toro Game Reserve, the status of Uganda kob Kobus kob Thomasi ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  9. Carbon and nitrogen cycling in southwestern ponderosa fine forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen C. Hart; Paul C. Selmants; Sarah I. Boyle; Steven T. Overby

    2007-01-01

    Ponderosa pine forests of the southwestern United States were historically characterized by relatively open, parklike stands with a bunchgrass-dominated understory. This forest structure was maintained by frequent, low-intensity surface fires. Heavy livestock grazing, fire suppression, and favorable weather conditions following Euro-American settlement in the late 19th...

  10. Uganda Early Generation Seed Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mastenbroek, A.; Ntare, Bonny

    2016-01-01

    One of the major bottlenecks limiting farmers’ access to good quality seed for food crops in Uganda is the shortage of early generation seed (EGS - breeder and foundation) to produce sufficient quantities of certified and/or quality declared) to satisfy the needs of farmers. A national study was

  11. Uganda rainfall variability and prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jury, Mark R.

    2018-05-01

    This study analyzes large-scale controls on Uganda's rainfall. Unlike past work, here, a May-October season is used because of the year-round nature of agricultural production, vegetation sensitivity to rainfall, and disease transmission. The Uganda rainfall record exhibits steady oscillations of ˜3 and 6 years over 1950-2013. Correlation maps at two-season lead time resolve the subtropical ridge over global oceans as an important feature. Multi-variate environmental predictors include Dec-May south Indian Ocean sea surface temperature, east African upper zonal wind, and South Atlantic wind streamfunction, providing a 33% fit to May-Oct rainfall time series. Composite analysis indicates that cool-phase El Niño Southern Oscillation supports increased May-Oct Uganda rainfall via a zonal overturning lower westerly/upper easterly atmospheric circulation. Sea temperature anomalies are positive in the east Atlantic and negative in the west Indian Ocean in respect of wet seasons. The northern Hadley Cell plays a role in limiting the northward march of the equatorial trough from May to October. An analysis of early season floods found that moist inflow from the west Indian Ocean converges over Uganda, generating diurnal thunderstorm clusters that drift southwestward producing high runoff.

  12. Financial Sector Assessment Update : Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2005-01-01

    A joint International Monetary Fund-World Bank team conducted an assessment update of Uganda's financial system in connection with the Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP) in November, 2004. The purpose of the mission was to help the Ugandan authorities identify financial system strengths and weaknesses with a view to implementing an action plan to increase the system's contribution ...

  13. Uganda Journal - Vol 48 (2002)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Notes: Observations of Butterfly Migrations in Uganda, 2002 · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Ian Deshmukh, 111-114. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/uj.v48i1.23007 ...

  14. The resistance councils in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tidemand, Per

    in the capitals. In my dissertation I propose to change that focus. Partly by paying particular attention to rural politics, partly through a discussion of democracy in a longer-term perspective using a broader definition of democracy and finally through a discussion of democracy as effective political...... participation rather than only form al rights. I shall do so by analysing the Resistance Councils (RCs) in Uganda....

  15. Studies of geology and hydrology in the Basin and Range Province, Southwestern United States, for isolation of high-level radioactive waste - Basis of characterization and evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedinger, M.S.; Sargent, K.A.; Langer, William H.; Sherman, Frank B.; Reed, J.E.; Brady, B.T.

    1989-01-01

    The geologic and hydrologic factors in selected regions of the Basin and Range province were examined to identify prospective areas for further study that may provide isolation of high-level radioactive waste from the accessible environment. The six regions selected for study were characterized with respect to the following guidelines: (1) Potential repository media; (2) Quaternary tectonic conditions; (3) climatic change and geomorphic processes; (4) ground-water conditions; (5) ground-water quality; and (6) mineral and energy resources.The repository medium will function as the first natural barrier to radionuclide travel by virtue of associated slow ground-water velocity. The principal rock types considered as host media include granitic, intermediate, and mafic intrusive rocks; argillaceous rocks; salt and anhydrite; volcanic mudflow (laharic) breccias; some intrusive rhyolitic plugs and stocks; partially zeolitized tuff; and metamorphic rocks. In the unsaturated zone, the permeability and hydrologic properties of the rocks and the hydrologic setting are more important than the rock type. Media ideally should be permeable to provide drainage and should have a minimal water fluxThe ground-water flow path from a repository to the accessible environment needs to present major barriers to the transport of radionuclides. Factors considered in evaluating the ground-water conditions include ground-water traveltimes and quality, confining beds, and earth materials favorable for retardation of radionuclides. Ground-water velocities in the regions were calculated from estimated hydraulic properties of the rocks and gradients. Because site-specific data on hydraulic properties are not available, data from the literature were assembled and synthesized to obtain values for use in estimating ground-water velocities. Hydraulic conductivities for many rock types having granular and fracture permeability follow a log-normal distribution. Porosity for granular and very weathered

  16. Musculoskeletal trauma services in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naddumba, E K

    2008-10-01

    Approximately 2000 lives are lost in Uganda annually through road traffic accidents. In Kampala, they account for 39% of all injuries, primarily in males aged 16-44 years. They are a result of rapid motorization and urbanization in a country with a poor economy. Uganda's population is an estimated 28 million with a growth rate of 3.4% per year. Motorcycles and omnibuses, the main taxi vehicles, are the primary contributors to the accidents. Poor roads and drivers compound the situation. Twenty-three orthopaedic surgeons (one for every 1,300,000 people) provide specialist services that are available only at three regional hospitals and the National Referral Hospital in Kampala. The majority of musculoskeletal injuries are managed nonoperatively by 200 orthopaedic officers distributed at the district, regional and national referral hospitals. Because of the poor economy, 9% of the national budget is allocated to the health sector. Patients with musculoskeletal injuries in Uganda frequently fail to receive immediate care due to inadequate resources and most are treated by traditional bonesetters. Neglected injuries typically result in poor outcomes. Possible solutions include a public health approach for prevention of road traffic injuries, training of adequate human resources, and infrastructure development.

  17. The Prevalence of Brucellosis in Cattle, Goats and Humans in Rural Uganda: A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R; Nakavuma, J L; Ssajjakambwe, P; Vudriko, P; Musisi, N; Kaneene, J B

    2016-12-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the presence of brucellosis in cattle, goats and humans in farms from south-western Uganda and identify risk factors associated with brucellosis in these three host groups. Data and serum samples were collected from 768 cattle, 315 goats and 236 humans, with 635 samples of bovine milk, from 70 farms in two different study areas in south-western Uganda. Sera from livestock were tested with the Rose Bengal Plate test, using B. abortus and B. melitensis antigens, and human sera were tested with a commercial IgG/IgM lateral flow assay. Milk samples were tested using the OIE-approved milk ring test. Screening tests for brucellosis were positive in 14% of cattle serum, 29% of bovine milk, 17% of goat serum and 11% of human serum samples. There were significant differences in the test prevalence of brucellosis by study site, with levels higher in the study area near Lake Mburo National Park than in the study area near Queen Elizabeth National Park. Multivariable regression models identified risk factors associated with increasing test positivity at the individual and farm levels for cattle, goats and humans. Positive associations were seen between increasing seropositivity of brucellosis in goats, cattle and humans. Results of multivariable analyses suggest that improvements in farm biosecurity and hygiene may reduce the risk of brucellosis on the farm and suggest a role for ticks in bovine brucellosis. Although cattle are the focus of brucellosis control in Uganda, the significant associations between seropositivity in humans and seropositivity in goats suggest that brucellosis in goats may be an important contributor to the epidemiology of the disease on the farm. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Phylogeny of Yellow Fever Virus, Uganda, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Holly R; Kayiwa, John; Mossel, Eric C; Lutwama, Julius; Staples, J Erin; Lambert, Amy J

    2018-08-17

    In April 2016, a yellow fever outbreak was detected in Uganda. Removal of contaminating ribosomal RNA in a clinical sample improved the sensitivity of next-generation sequencing. Molecular analyses determined the Uganda yellow fever outbreak was distinct from the concurrent yellow fever outbreak in Angola, improving our understanding of yellow fever epidemiology.

  19. AQUIFER IN AJAOKUTA, SOUTHWESTERN NIGERIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2005-03-08

    Mar 8, 2005 ... To establish the feasibility of water supply in a basement complex area ofAjaokuta, Southwestern Nigeria, pumping test results were used to investigate the storage properties and groundwater potential of the aquifer. The aquifer system consists of weathered and weathered/fractured zone of decomposed ...

  20. Soil Erosion Risk Assessment in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fidele Karamage

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Land use without adequate soil erosion control measures is continuously increasing the risk of soil erosion by water mainly in developing tropical countries. These countries are prone to environmental disturbance due to high population growth and high rainfall intensity. The aim of this study is to assess the state of soil erosion by water in Uganda at national and district levels, for various land cover and land use (LCLU types, in protected areas as well to predict the impact of support practices on soil loss reduction. Predictions obtained using the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE model indicated that the mean rate of soil loss risk in Uganda’s erosion‐prone lands was 3.2 t∙ha−1∙y−1, resulting in a total annual soil loss of about 62 million tons in 2014. About 39% of the country’s erosion‐prone lands were comprised of unsustainable mean soil loss rates >1 t∙ha−1∙y−1. Out of 112 districts in Uganda, 66 districts were found to have unsustainable estimated soil loss rates >1 t∙ha−1∙y−1. Six districts in Uganda were found to have mean annual soil loss rates of >10 t∙ha−1∙y−1: Bududa (46.3 t∙ha−1∙y−1, Kasese (37.5 t∙ha−1∙y−1, Bundibugyo (28.9 t∙ha−1∙y−1, Bulambuli (20.9 t∙ha−1∙y−1, Sironko (14.6 t∙ha−1∙y−1 and Kotido (12.5 t∙ha−1∙y−1. Among the LCLU types, the highest soil loss rates of 11 t∙ha−1∙y−1 and 10.6 t∙ha−1∙y−1 were found in moderate natural forest and dense natural forest, respectively, mainly due to their locations in highland areas characterized by steep slopes ranging between 16% to 21% and their high rainfall intensity, ranging from 1255 mm∙y−1 to 1292 mm∙y−1. Only five protected areas in Uganda were found to have high mean estimated mean soil loss rates >10 t∙ha−1∙y−1: Rwenzori Mountains (142.94 t∙ha−1∙y−1, Mount Elgon (33.81 t∙ha−1∙y−1, Bokora corridor (12.13 t∙ha−1∙y−1

  1. Uganda tax policy reforms: A case study of Uganda revenue authority URA

    OpenAIRE

    Kato, Simon Kagambirwe

    2014-01-01

    In this study I examined the implementation of tax policy reforms at Uganda Revenue Authority. In particular, I examined the impact of the tax policy reforms implemented since the restructuring of Uganda Revenue Authority in 2005. Although Uganda's taxation system is a vital area of study, it has not gotten enough attention from researchers. This is because, in the Ugandan and generally African developing countries context, taxation involves vital and, to a large ex...

  2. Taxes and Bribes in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagger, Pamela; Shively, Gerald

    Using data from 433 firms operating along Uganda's charcoal and timber supply chains we investigate patterns of bribe payment and tax collection between supply chain actors and government officials responsible for collecting taxes and fees. We examine the factors associated with the presence and magnitude of bribe and tax payments using a series of bivariate probit and Tobit regression models. We find empirical support for a number of hypotheses related to payments, highlighting the role of queuing, capital-at-risk, favouritism, networks, and role in the supply chain. We also find that taxes crowd-in bribery in the charcoal market.

  3. Southwestern Power Administration Update, October- December 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2004-12-01

    On October 29, 2004, Southwestern and Southwest Power Pool, Inc. (SPP) reached agreement on interim arrangements to be implemented after the October 31, 2004, expiration of the membership agreement between the two parties. According to Jim McDonald, Director of Southwestern’s Division of Customer Service, the interim agreement forged between Southwestern and SPP seeks to minimize impacts to SPP as well as to Southwestern and its customers while Southwestern and SPP work on a seams/coordination agreement to succeed the expired membership agreement.

  4. Uganda Journal of Agricultural Sciences: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Uganda Journal of Agricultural Sciences (UJAS) (ISSN: 1026-0919) is a peer reviewed journal ... It should bear a background statement to originate the idea or research problem; ... Truly new procedures should be described in detail.

  5. Uganda's Vision 2040 and Human Needs Promotion

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    target the physical, economic, political and social development of Uganda. Although ... affordable quality health care and education, clean environment and green ..... focuses on preventive, curative and palliative medical services (Doyal and .... representation, tolerance, equity and constructive dialogues and openness to.

  6. Understanding Poverty Dynamics in Nebbi District, Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sulaiman.adebowale

    2008-10-20

    Oct 20, 2008 ... to receive increasing political, business and academic attention. In Uganda, ... Arising from this, poverty performance tracking has also lacked focus, ...... those already married was high for women (7%) compared to men (3%).

  7. Uganda elanikud tarbivad enim alkoholi / Villu Zirnask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Zirnask, Villu, 1966-

    2007-01-01

    Maailma tervishoiuorganisatsiooni (WHO) statistika järgi tarbivad maailmas kõige enam alkoholi Uganda elanikud - aastas 17,6 liitrit puhast alkoholi vanema kui 15-aastase elaniku kohta. Lisaks tabel alkoholi tarbimise kohta maailmas

  8. Summary sensory workshop Uganda, 21 - 25 November 2005, Uganda Fisheries Laboratory in Entebbe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schelvis-Smit, A.A.M.

    2005-01-01

    The Icelandic International Development Agency (ICEIDA) has requested The Netherlands Institute of Fisheries Research (RIVO) to organize a sensory workshop in Uganda. ICEIDA is establishing a fisheries laboratory in Uganda in cooperation with the Ugandan government. One of the tasks within this

  9. Greetings and Politeness in Doctor-Client Encounters in Southwestern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akin Odebunmi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Doctors and clients sometimes experience interactiveclashes during hospital meetings in South-western Nigerianhospitals because of their divergent culture-constrainedorientation to politeness cues. The goal of this paper is tounpack the discursive elements that characterize interactiveconfluence and divergence in selected consultativeencounters in the hospitals. The findings indicate thatinstitutional and cultural (disalignments occur in respect ofadjacency and non-adjacency pair greetings. In bothgreeting types, face support, threat and stasis are conjointlyco-constituted by doctors and Yoruba clients within theaffordances of the cultural, institutional and situationalcontext of the Southwestern Nigerian hospital setting.Adjacency pair greetings attract mutual interpretingsbetween the parties; interactive disalignments aredifferentially pragmatically accommodated by doctors andclients. In non-adjacency pair greeting, doctors’ threats areco-constituted as appropriate by both parties, theinstitutional power of doctor and shared Western culturalorientation playing significant roles.

  10. Uganda Journal of Agricultural Sciences - Vol 15, No 1 (2014)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... Insecticide use and practices among cotton farmers in northern Uganda ... Socio-economic aspects of goat farming enterprise in Teso region, Uganda · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL ...

  11. Principles for poverty alleviation among the youth in Northern Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Wilson

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the statistical data and analysis con-cerning poverty among the young people in Uganda. The poverty is continuously ascending, with the most affected region being Northern Uganda. The major cause of poverty in Uganda has been the “South-North divide” fuelled by poor political leadership, that divides people along the lines of politics and ethnicity. Poverty has caused many young people of Northern Uganda to resort to rebellion against the government currently in power. This has led to unending political instability and civil strife most especially in Northern Uganda. In this article atten-tion is given to the conflict in Northern Uganda and attempts are made to propose some amicable resolutions. The discussion includes the current poverty scenario in Northern Uganda and possible strategies for reducing the poverty rate that has caused much damage in Northern Uganda.

  12. Malaria eradication and economic outcomes in sub-Saharan Africa: Evidence from Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barofsky, Jeremy; Anekwe, Tobenna D; Chase, Claire

    2015-12-01

    This study evaluates the economic consequences of a 1959-1960 malaria eradication campaign in southwestern Uganda. The effort constitutes a rare, large-scale, and well-documented attempt to eliminate malaria in sub-Saharan Africa and produced an immediate disease reduction. We use this quasi-experimental health shock to identify long-term changes in educational and economic outcomes. Comparing the treatment district to a similar synthetic control, we find malaria eradication raised educational attainment by about a half year for both males and females, increased primary school completion among females and generated an almost 40% rise in the likelihood of male wage employment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Is health care financing in Uganda equitable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zikusooka, C M; Kyomuhang, R; Orem, J N; Tumwine, M

    2009-10-01

    Health care financing provides the resources and economic incentives for operating health systems and is a key determinant of health system performance. Equitable financing is based on: financial protection, progressive financing and cross-subsidies. This paper describes Uganda's health care financing landscape and documents the key equity issues associated with the current financing mechanisms. We extensively reviewed government documents and relevant literature and conducted key informant interviews, with the aim of assessing whether Uganda's health care financing mechanisms exhibited the key principles of fair financing. Uganda's health sector remains significantly under-funded, mainly relying on private sources of financing, especially out-of-pocket spending. At 9.6 % of total government expenditure, public spending on health is far below the Abuja target of 15% that GoU committed to. Prepayments form a small proportion of funding for Uganda's health sector. There is limited cross-subsidisation and high fragmentation within and between health financing mechanisms, mainly due to high reliance on out-of-pocket payments and limited prepayment mechanisms. Without compulsory health insurance and low coverage of private health insurance, Uganda has limited pooling of resources, and hence minimal cross-subsidisation. Although tax revenue is equitable, the remaining financing mechanisms for Uganda are inequitable due to their regressive nature, their lack of financial protection and limited cross-subsidisation. Overall, Uganda's current health financing is inequitable and fragmented. The government should take explicit action to promote equitable health care financing by establishing pre-payment schemes, enhancing cross-subsidisation mechanisms and through appropriate integration of financing mechanisms.

  14. Sanitary Quality of Raw Milk within the Commodity Subsector in Mbarara District and Kampala City in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Grillet

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The sanitary quality of raw milk is an important issue in Uganda for social, economical and health reasons. The present study carried out on the informal raw milk subsector of Uganda highlighted two main issues: (i poor hygiene conditions from the production location all the way to the consumer; (ii lack of an efficient preservation system to limit bacteria development during transportation to Kampala. The bacteria population reached very high levels close to 2 x 106 colony forming units per milliliter on the farm milk of Mbarara District in the southwestern region of the country, and these levels increased 150-fold during transportation to Kampala. The sector also includes rudimentary pasteurization units, where the overheated milk comes out bacteria-free. However, conservation over several days of the overheated milk makes this process potentially more dangerous than beneficial. Thus, the need for all the players of the sector to implement a strategy to improve milk quality can be two ways: (i by changing common practices to ensure better hygiene conditions; (ii by improving milk preserving through new methods such as cooling, small-scale pasteurization, or the use of the lactoperoxidase system. This study can help develop a technical and scientific basis to generate quality improvement actions in Uganda. But, whatever the strategy adopted by decision makers, it can only be implemented if all the stakeholders of the sector are involved.

  15. Prevalence and Predictors of Functional Vitamin K Insufficiency in Mothers and Newborns in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Data Santorino

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin K deficiency bleeding (VKDB in infancy is a serious but preventable cause of mortality or permanent disability. Lack of epidemiologic data for VKDB in sub-Saharan Africa hinders development and implementation of effective prevention strategies. We used convenience sampling to consecutively enroll mothers delivering in a southwestern Uganda Hospital. We collected socio-demographic and dietary information, and paired samples of maternal venous and neonatal cord blood for the immunoassay of undercarboxylated prothrombin (PIVKA-II, a sensitive marker of functional vitamin K (VK insufficiency. We used univariable and multivariable logistic regression models to identify predictors of VK insufficiency. We detected PIVKA-II of ≥0.2 AU (Arbitrary Units per mL/mL (indicative of VK insufficiency in 33.3% (47/141 of mothers and 66% (93/141 of newborns. Importantly, 22% of babies had PIVKA-II concentrations ≥5.0 AU/mL, likely to be associated with abnormal coagulation indices. We found no significant predictors of newborn VK insufficiency, including infant weight (AOR (adjusted odds ratio 1.85, 95% CI (confidence interval 0.15–22.49, gender (AOR 0.54, 95% CI 0.26–1.11, term birth (AOR 0.72, 95% CI 0.20–2.62, maternal VK-rich diet (AOR 1.13, 95% CI 0.55–2.35 or maternal VK insufficiency (AOR 0.99, 95% CI 0.47–2.10. VK insufficiency is common among mothers and newborn babies in southwestern Uganda, which in one fifth of babies nears overt deficiency. Lack of identifiable predictors of newborn VK insufficiency support strategies for universal VK prophylaxis to newborns to prevent VKDB.

  16. Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    were collected at the inlet and outlet of the waste water treatment plant (WWTP) at Kiteezi landfill site. A ... some trace elements and also defined as elements with ... concerns regarding the environmental contamination .... ml plastic bottles.

  17. Uganda

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Karen Kershaw

    The Land Act 1998. ➢. Women's movement Struggle over land – the lost co- ownership clause. ➢. Section 40 Consent clause- Protection of family land/ restrictions on the transfer of land by family members. ➢. (Section 57) Establishment of District Land. Boards- where at least one third must be women ...

  18. High Prevalence of Rickettsia spp. in Dog Fleas (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) in Rural Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomar, Ana M; Cevidanes, Aitor; Portillo, Aránzazu; Kalema-Zikusoka, Gladis; Chirife, Andrea D; Romero, Lourdes; Muro, Jesús; Mugisha, Lawrence; Oteo, José A; Millán, Javier

    2017-07-01

    Fleas are known vectors of zoonotic agents. Thirty-five fleas, including 28 Ctenocephalides felis (Bouché), four Pulex irritans (L.), and three Echidnophaga gallinacea (Westwood) from 19 rural dogs from southwestern Uganda were analyzed for the presence of Rickettsia spp. (ompB, gltA, and 17 kDa fragment genes) and Bartonella spp. (rpoB and ITS genes) by PCR. Rickettsial DNA was detected in 27 out of 28 of Ct. felis and in two out of four P. irritans. None of the E. gallinacea specimens harbored Rickettsia DNA. Rickettsia felis was confirmed in 12 Ct. felis and in the two P. irritans specimens with positive PCR-results. In addition, the presence of Candidatus Rickettsia asemboensis was evidenced in 15 Ct. felis. Bartonella spp. was not amplified in any sample. Our survey indicates that R. felis, the agent of the flea-borne spotted fever, is present in the study area. Besides, this is the first description of Ca. R. asemboensis in Uganda. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Nodding syndrome (NS) and Onchocerca Volvulus (OV) in Northern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagoro, David Kitara; Arony, Denis Anywar

    2017-01-01

    Nodding Syndrome (NS) is a childhood neurological disorder characterized by atonic seizures, cognitive decline, school dropout, muscle weakness, thermal dysfunction, wasting and stunted growth. There are recent published information suggesting associations between Nodding Syndrome (NS) with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) VGKC antibodies and serum leiomidin-1 antibody cross reacting with Onchocerca Volvulus ( OV ). These findings suggest a neuro-inflammatory cause of NS and they are important findings in the search for the cause of Nodding Syndrome. These observations perhaps provide further, the unique explanation for the association between Nodding Syndrome and Onchocerca Volvulus . Many clinical and epidemiological studies had shown a significant correlation between NS and infestation with a nematode, Onchocerca volvulus which causes a disease, Onchocerciasis , some of which when left untreated can develop visual defect ("River Blindness"). While these studies conducted in Northern Uganda and Southern Sudan indicate a statistically significant association with ( OV infection (using positive skin snips), we observe that ( OV is generally endemic in many parts of Sub Saharan Africa and Latin America and that to date, no NS cases have been recorded in those regions. This letter to the Editor is to provide additional information on the current view about the relationship between Nodding Syndrome and Onchocerca Volvulus as seen in Northern Uganda.

  20. The Burden of Cholera in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bwire, Godfrey; Malimbo, Mugagga; Maskery, Brian; Kim, Young Eun; Mogasale, Vittal; Levin, Ann

    2013-01-01

    Introduction In 2010, the World Health Organization released a new cholera vaccine position paper, which recommended the use of cholera vaccines in high-risk endemic areas. However, there is a paucity of data on the burden of cholera in endemic countries. This article reviewed available cholera surveillance data from Uganda and assessed the sufficiency of these data to inform country-specific strategies for cholera vaccination. Methods The Uganda Ministry of Health conducts cholera surveillance to guide cholera outbreak control activities. This includes reporting the number of cases based on a standardized clinical definition plus systematic laboratory testing of stool samples from suspected cases at the outset and conclusion of outbreaks. This retrospective study analyzes available data by district and by age to estimate incidence rates. Since surveillance activities focus on more severe hospitalized cases and deaths, a sensitivity analysis was conducted to estimate the number of non-severe cases and unrecognized deaths that may not have been captured. Results Cholera affected all ages, but the geographic distribution of the disease was very heterogeneous in Uganda. We estimated that an average of about 11,000 cholera cases occurred in Uganda each year, which led to approximately 61–182 deaths. The majority of these cases (81%) occurred in a relatively small number of districts comprising just 24% of Uganda's total population. These districts included rural areas bordering the Democratic Republic of Congo, South Sudan, and Kenya as well as the slums of Kampala city. When outbreaks occurred, the average duration was about 15 weeks with a range of 4–44 weeks. Discussion There is a clear subdivision between high-risk and low-risk districts in Uganda. Vaccination efforts should be focused on the high-risk population. However, enhanced or sentinel surveillance activities should be undertaken to better quantify the endemic disease burden and high-risk populations

  1. Southwestern Power Administration Annual Report 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-09-01

    Dear Secretary Moniz: I am pleased to present the financial statements and operating data for Southwestern Power Administration (Southwestern) for Fiscal Year (FY) 2012. In FY 2012, Southwestern delivered over 4.1 billion kilowatt-hours of energy to its wholesale customers in Arkansas, Kansas, Louisiana, Missouri, Oklahoma, and Texas, generating $195 million in revenue. In fulfilling its mission to market and reliably deliver renewable Federal hydroelectric power, Southwestern maintains 1,380 miles of high-voltage transmission lines, substations, and communications sites, contributing to the reliability of the regional and National electric grid. Southwestern also actively partners with the Department of Energy, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Southwestern’s customers, and other Federal power stakeholders to most effectively balance their diverse interests with Southwestern’s mission while continuing to maximize Federal assets to repay the Federal investment in the 24 hydropower facilities within Southwestern’s marketing region. Southwestern is proud of its past successes, and we look forward to continuing to serve the Nation’s energy needs in the future. Sincerely, Christopher M. Turner Administrator

  2. Southwestern Power Administration Annual Report 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-09-01

    Dear Secretary Chu: I am pleased to present the financial statements and operating data for Southwestern Power Administration (Southwestern) for Fiscal Year (FY) 2010. In FY 2010, Southwestern delivered nearly 7.6 billion kilowatt-hours of energy to its wholesale customers in Arkansas, Kansas, Louisiana, Missouri, Texas, and Oklahoma, generating $189 million in revenue. In fulfilling its mission to market and reliably deliver renewable Federal hydroelectric power, Southwestern maintains 1,380 miles of high-voltage transmission lines, substations, and communications sites, contributing to the reliability of the regional and National electric grid. Southwestern also actively partners with the Department of Energy, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Southwestern’s customers, and other Federal power stakeholders to most effectively balance their diverse interests with Southwestern’s mission while continuing to maximize Federal assets to repay the Federal investment in the 24 hydropower facilities within Southwestern’s marketing region. Southwestern is proud of its past successes, and we look forward to continuing to serve the Nation’s energy needs in the future. Sincerely, Christopher M. Turner Administrator

  3. Southwestern Power Administration Annual Report 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-04-01

    Dear Secretary Chu: I am pleased to present the financial statements and operating data for Southwestern Power Administration (Southwestern) for Fiscal Year (FY) 2011. In FY 2011, Southwestern delivered over 4.1 billion kilowatt-hours of energy to its wholesale customers in Arkansas, Kansas, Louisiana, Missouri, Oklahoma, and Texas, generating $167 million in revenue. In fulfilling its mission to market and reliably deliver renewable Federal hydroelectric power, Southwestern maintains 1,380 miles of high-voltage transmission lines, substations, and communications sites, contributing to the reliability of the regional and National electric grid. Southwestern also actively partners with the Department of Energy, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Southwestern’s customers, and other Federal power stakeholders to most effectively balance their diverse interests with Southwestern’s mission while continuing to maximize Federal assets to repay the Federal investment in the 24 hydropower facilities within Southwestern’s marketing region. Southwestern is proud of its past successes, and we look forward to continuing to serve the Nation’s energy needs in the future. Sincerely, Christopher M. Turner Administrator

  4. Characterization of non point source pollutants and their dispersion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EJIRO

    landing site in Uganda. N. Banadda. Agricultural and Bio-Systems Engineering Department, Makerere University, P. O. Box 7062, Kampala, Uganda. E-mail: banadda@agric.mak.ac.ug. Fax: +256-414-53.16.41. Accepted 5 January, 2011. The aim of this research is to characterize non point pollutants and their dispersion in ...

  5. An outbreak of Ebola in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okware, S I; Omaswa, F G; Zaramba, S; Opio, A; Lutwama, J J; Kamugisha, J; Rwaguma, E B; Kagwa, P; Lamunu, M

    2002-12-01

    An outbreak of Ebola disease was reported from Gulu district, Uganda, on 8 October 2000. The outbreak was characterized by fever and haemorrhagic manifestations, and affected health workers and the general population of Rwot-Obillo, a village 14 km north of Gulu town. Later, the outbreak spread to other parts of the country including Mbarara and Masindi districts. Response measures included surveillance, community mobilization, case and logistics management. Three coordination committees were formed: National Task Force (NTF), a District Task Force (DTF) and an Interministerial Task Force (IMTF). The NTF and DTF were responsible for coordination and follow-up of implementation of activities at the national and district levels, respectively, while the IMTF provided political direction and handled sensitive issues related to stigma, trade, tourism and international relations. The international response was coordinated by the World Health Organization (WHO) under the umbrella organization of the Global Outbreak and Alert Response Network. A WHO/CDC case definition for Ebola was adapted and used to capture four categories of cases, namely, the 'alert', 'suspected', 'probable' and 'confirmed cases'. Guidelines for identification and management of cases were developed and disseminated to all persons responsible for surveillance, case management, contact tracing and Information Education Communication (IEC). For the duration of the epidemic that lasted up to 16 January 2001, a total of 425 cases with 224 deaths were reported countrywide. The case fatality rate was 53%. The attack rate (AR) was highest in women. The average AR for Gulu district was 12.6 cases/10 000 inhabitants when the contacts of all cases were considered and was 4.5 cases/10 000 if limited only to contacts of laboratory confirmed cases. The secondary AR was 2.5% when nearly 5000 contacts were followed up for 21 days. Uganda was finally declared Ebola free on 27 February 2001, 42 days after the last case

  6. Spatial probability models of fire in the desert grasslands of the southwestern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fire is an important driver of ecological processes in semiarid environments; however, the role of fire in desert grasslands of the Southwestern US is controversial and the regional fire distribution is largely unknown. We characterized the spatial distribution of fire in the desert grassland region...

  7. Assessment of grassland ecosystem conditions in the Southwestern United States. Vol. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah M. Finch

    2004-01-01

    This report is volume 1 of a two-volume ecological assessment of grassland ecosystems in the Southwestern United States. Broadscale assessments are syntheses of current scientific knowledge, including a description of uncertainties and assumptions, to provide a characterization and comprehensive description of ecological, social, and economic components within an...

  8. Assessment of grassland ecosystem conditions in the Southwestern United States: Wildlife and fish. Vol. 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah M. Finch

    2005-01-01

    This report is volume 2 of a two-volume ecological assessment of grassland ecosystems in the Southwestern United States. Broad-scale assessments are syntheses of current scientific knowledge, including a description of uncertainties and assumptions, to provide a characterization and comprehensive description of ecological, social, and economic components within an...

  9. Clusia nubium (Clusiaceae): a new species from cloud-forests of southwestern Ecuador

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Mats; Borchsenius, Finn

    2016-01-01

    Clusia nubium from southwestern Ecuador is described as a species new to science. It grows as a hemiepiphyte in lower montane cloud forest. The species belongs to Clusia sect. Retinostemon, a largely Andean group characterized by male flowers with a resin-secreting synandrium of completely fused...

  10. Diseases threatening banana biodiversity in Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recent on station and on-farm studies suggest the major diseases threatening banana biodiversity in Uganda include: 1)Black sigatoka which severely affects all East African Highland (EA-AAA) banana cultivars and a range of introduced genotypes; 2) Fusarium wilt which affects several introduced genotypes though all EA ...

  11. Uganda | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Our funding helped develop the Uganda Health Information Network, an electronic ... Hand-held computers, mobile caching services, and mobile telephones enable ... Now used in hundreds of health centres, the technology has enhanced healthcare ... promote land policies that are fair to women; stimulate high-quality, ...

  12. Making decentralization work for women in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lakwo, A.

    2009-01-01

    This book is about engendering local governance. It explores the euphoria with which Uganda's decentralization policy took centre stage as a sufficient driver to engender local development responsiveness and accountability. Using a case study of AFARD in Nebbi district, it shows first that

  13. Healthy Child Uganda | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In sub-Saharan Africa, many children die from diarrhea, acute respiratory illness and malaria, despite the fact that there are well recognized, inexpensive and highly effective treatments for these ailments. Healthy Child Uganda (HCU), a Ugandan-Canadian partnership, has been operating a village health volunteer program ...

  14. THE UGANDA COPYRIGHT AND NEIGHBOURING RIGHTS BILL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper discusses the concept and philosophy of copyright. It also discusses copyright infringement with special reference to ICT. Furthermore, the paper examines international provisions related to copyright and reviews the Copyright Law Model. The paper also identifies gaps in the Uganda Copyright Bill, 2002 and ...

  15. Deprivation, HIV and AIDS in Northern Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-09-28

    physical aggression, deprivation, hunger and family separation, among others, for over twenty years. ... by various types of sexual crimes of rape (including marital rape), defilement and child .... insecurity and civil strife raged in northern Uganda mainly between the government ...... The Daily Monitor of September 28, 2007.

  16. Snakes and poles | Osmaston | Uganda Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Uganda Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 47 (2001) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Subscription ...

  17. Bottlenecks of blood processing in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kajja, I.; Kyeyune, D.; Bimenya, G. S.; Sibinga, C. T. S.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To identify where and why delays occur in Uganda blood banks. Background: The timely provision and supply of safe and efficacious blood components to hospitals depends on sound systems in the processing blood banks. Poorly managed systems lead to apparent blood shortages in hospitals and

  18. Going interdisciplinary in Uganda's education system | Namusisi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study presents the relevance of interdisciplinary education, the crisis in which Uganda's education system is, where specialisation is at its peak. It analyses the form of the present curriculum, which leaves the learner in state of dilemma. The author again shows the need for interdisciplinarity, tries to find out whether ...

  19. Deep groundwater quantity and quality in the southwestern US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, M.; Ayars, J. E.; Jackson, R. B.

    2017-12-01

    Groundwater demands are growing in many arid regions and adaptation through the use of non-traditional resources during extreme droughts is increasingly common. One such resource is deep groundwater, which we define as deeper than 300 m and up to several kilometer-depths. Although deep groundwater has been studied in the context of oil and gas, geothermal, waste disposal, and other uses, it remains poorly characterized, especially for the purposes of human consumption and irrigation uses. Therefore, we evaluate deep groundwater quantity and quality within these contexts. We compile and analyze data from water management agencies and oil and gas-based sources for the southwestern US, with a detailed look at California's Central Valley. We also use crop tolerance thresholds to evaluate deep groundwater quality for irrigation purposes. We find fresh and usable groundwater volume estimates in California's Central Valley to increase by three- and four-fold respectively when depths of up to 3 km are considered. Of the ten basins in the southwestern US with the most data, we find that the Great Basin has the greatest proportions of fresh and usable deep groundwater. Given the potentially large deep groundwater volumes, it is important to characterize the resource, guard against subsidence where extracted, and protect it for use in decades and centuries to come.

  20. All projects related to uganda | Page 5 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: ACCESS TO INFORMATION, LEGISLATION, REGULATIONS ... Region: North of Sahara, South of Sahara, Colombia, Ghana, Uganda, Tanzania ... ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH, AGRICULTURAL POLICY, ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY.

  1. Description of two new Capnia species (Plecoptera: Capniidae) from the Hengduan Mountains of southwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi-Teng; DU, Yu-Zhou

    2017-06-07

    Two new species of the genus Capnia from the Hengduan Mountains of southwestern China, C. oblata sp. nov. and C. xiei sp. nov. are described and illustrated as new members of the C. cordata Kimmins species group. Capnia oblata sp. nov. is characterized by posteromedial process of tergum 9 connecting antecosta with the medial sclerite bar. Capnia xiei sp. nov. is characterized by main epiproct sclerite bifurcate apically and basally with a bilamellar structure. The new species are compared with similar taxa.

  2. Casuses of deforestation in southwestern Madagascar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casse, Thorkil; Milhøj, Anders; Ranaivoson, Socrate

    2004-01-01

    Causes of deforestation are discussed in the case of southwestern Madagascar. Distinction is made between direct and indirect causes. The article ends up with an estimation of the value of agricultural land vs. an estimation of benefits from utilisation of non-timber forest products......Causes of deforestation are discussed in the case of southwestern Madagascar. Distinction is made between direct and indirect causes. The article ends up with an estimation of the value of agricultural land vs. an estimation of benefits from utilisation of non-timber forest products...

  3. Status, ecology, and conservation of the southwestern willow flycatcher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah M. Finch; Scott H. Stoleson

    2000-01-01

    This publication was prepared in response to a need expressed by southwestern agencies and organizations for a comprehensive assessment of the population status, history, biology, ecology, habitats, threats, and conservation of the southwestern willow flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus). The southwestern willow flycatcher was federally listed as...

  4. Making decentralization work for women in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Lakwo, A.

    2009-01-01

    This book is about engendering local governance. It explores the euphoria with which Uganda's decentralization policy took centre stage as a sufficient driver to engender local development responsiveness and accountability. Using a case study of AFARD in Nebbi district, it shows first that decentralized governance is gendered and technocratic as grassroots women's effective participation is lacking. Second, it shows that the insertion of women in local governance is merely a symbolic politica...

  5. High acceptability for cell phone text messages to improve communication of laboratory results with HIV-infected patients in rural Uganda: a cross-sectional survey study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siedner, Mark J; Haberer, Jessica E; Bwana, Mwebesa Bosco; Ware, Norma C; Bangsberg, David R

    2012-06-21

    Patient-provider communication is a major challenge in resource-limited settings with large catchment areas. Though mobile phone usership increased 20-fold in Africa over the past decade, little is known about acceptability of, perceptions about disclosure and confidentiality, and preferences for cell phone communication of health information in the region. We performed structured interviews of fifty patients at the Immune Suppression Syndrome clinic in Mbarara, Uganda to assess four domains of health-related communication: a) cell phone use practices and literacy, b) preferences for laboratory results communication, c) privacy and confidentiality, and d) acceptability of and preferences for text messaging to notify patients of abnormal test results. Participants had a median of 38 years, were 56% female, and were residents of a large catchment area throughout southwestern Uganda. All participants expressed interest in a service to receive information about laboratory results by cell phone text message, stating benefits of increased awareness of their health and decreased transportation costs. Ninety percent reported that they would not be concerned for unintended disclosure. A minority additionally expressed concerns about difficulty interpreting messages, discouragement upon learning bad news, and technical issues. Though all respondents expressed interest in password protection of messages, there was also a strong desire for direct messages to limit misinterpretation of information. Cell phone text messaging for communication of abnormal laboratory results is highly acceptable in this cohort of HIV-infected patients in rural Uganda. The feasibility of text messaging, including an optimal balance between privacy and comprehension, should be further studied.

  6. The complexities of educating nurses in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, C M; Rottman, C J; Lematia, R M

    1996-01-01

    Imagine that you are a woman living in rural Uganda. Your husband has returned to the city to work as a manual labourer. With a toddler playing alongside, you work long hot hours in the field to provide for your family. For weeks you have run a low-grade fever which you suspect is related to your advancing pregnancy. As traditional medicines have provided no relief, you sacrifice a day in the field and wait in line for care at a medical clinic outpost that is staffed one day a week. Nearing your turn, you hear a rumour that the government now requires payment in advance for care. As you and most of the others waiting in line do not have money, you leave together and arrange to pool resources from a community project so that you can all return to the clinic next week. Your pain increases and your productivity goes down. When the clinic day finally comes, the nurse does not show up because her own children need food and she prefers to earn ready cash by selling crafts in the market rather than work at the clinic for barely subsistence pay. The story does not end here, nor does that of countless other women in Uganda, including the caregivers. The difficulties are ongoing. And meeting health needs in Uganda as in many countries in Sub-Sahara Africa is complex and challenging.

  7. Use and perception of the psychostimulant, khat (catha edulis) among three occupational groups in south western Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihunwo, A O; Kayanja, F I B; Amadi-Ihunwo, U B

    2004-09-01

    To examine the use of and perception of the psychostimulant, khat (catha edulis) in three towns in south-western Uganda. Cross-sectional survey. Mbarara, Kabale and Fort Portal. Three categories of respondents prone to khat chewing habit were selected; One hundred and thirty students, thirty five law enforcement officials and sixteen transporters. Khat chewers existed within the sampled population. The relationship between tobacco smoking, drinking alcoholic beverages and the khat chewing habit was established. Out of 181 respondents, 164(90.6%) had heard of khat, 126(69.6%) had seen it and 57(31.5%) had chewed khat before. As at the time of this study, 37(20.4%) still chewed khat. Within the three categories of subjects, the use of khat was highest among law enforcement officials (97.1%), followed by transporters (68.8%) and students (9.2%). The majority of khat chewers were in the age range of 16-25 years. There was a clear correlation between khat chewing and the use of stimulants such as alcoholic beverages and tobacco smoking. Those who smoked cigarettes were twenty-eight times more likely to chew khat (OR=28.95% CI=9.6,83.7). Euphoria, suppressed sleep and increased sexual desire were the most predominant effects experienced by khat chewers. The knowledge of khat is widespread and its consumption is on the increase among students, law enforcement officials and transporters in south-western Uganda. This calls for attention considering the public health implications.

  8. All projects related to Uganda | Page 6 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Region: Uganda, North of Sahara, South of Sahara. Program: Think Tank Initiative. Total Funding: CA$ 1,845,170.00. Institutional Support : Makerere Institute of Social Research (MISR). Project. Makerere Institute of Social Research (MISR), Uganda, is the former East African Institute of Social and Economic Research ...

  9. Quality of Antenatal care services in eastern Uganda: implications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Good quality Antenatal Care (ANC) provides opportunity to detect and respond to risky maternal conditions. This study assessed quality of ANC services in eastern Uganda with a goal of benchmarking implications for interventions. Methods Data was collected from 15 health facilities in Eastern Uganda to establish capacity ...

  10. Uganda Journal of Agricultural Sciences - Vol 11 (2005)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information communication technology use pattern by women tree farmers in Buzaya county, Kamuli district, Uganda · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL ... The effect of intercropping maize with lablab on grain and fodder production in small holder dairy farming systems in Masaka district, Uganda · EMAIL FREE ...

  11. Gender and Age-Appropriate Enrolment in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Ryan

    2009-01-01

    Secondary school enrolment in Uganda has historically favoured males over females. Recently, however, researchers have reported that the secondary enrolment gender gap has significantly diminished, and perhaps even disappeared in Uganda. Even if gender parity is being achieved for enrolment broadly, there may be a gender gap concerning…

  12. Dilemmas in Implementing Language Rights in Multilingual Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namyalo, Saudah; Nakayiza, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Even after decades of uttering platitudes about the languages of Uganda, language policy pronouncements have invariably turned out to be public relations statements rather than blueprints for action. A serious setback for the right to linguistic equality and the right to use Uganda's indigenous languages has largely hinged on the language…

  13. Theory and Practice in Language Policy: The Case of Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The team that carried out the Survey of Language Use and Language Teaching in Eastern Africa (with specific reference to Uganda) was non-committal on stating the number of languages there are in Uganda. In the end, they mentioned 63 languages/dialects which fall into 5 groups based on broad lexical and grammatical ...

  14. The development of an information society for Uganda's industrial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the environment within which Uganda can be productively involved in the process of building an information society for industrial development. There are concerted efforts by the government of Uganda and civil society organisations in the country towards the development of information literacy and ...

  15. Supporting Local Seed Businesses : A Training Manual for ISSD Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mastenbroek, A.; Chebet, A.; Muwanika, C.T.; Adong, C.J.; Okot, F.; Otim, G.; Birungi, J.; Kansiime, M.; Oyee, P.; Ninsiima, P.

    2015-01-01

    The training manual is developed in Uganda to train partner organisations in coaching farmer groups to become sustainable local seed businesses. It introduces the Integrated Seed Sector Development Programme in Uganda and the concept of local seed businesses (LSBs). The manual has 5 modules covering

  16. Towards sustainable seed production of centro in Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Uganda Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 2000, 5: 13- 15. Printed in Uganda. ... cassava tuber yield. Production costs of I kg of seed were Shs 1200, 2000 and 3700 for centro ... of cassava are the second most important staple food of those ...

  17. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in young adults in Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: We observed significant gender differences in the prevalence of obesity among young adults in Uganda. Contrary to expectation, we did not observe significant rural-urban differences in the prevalence of overweight. Keywords: Obesity; overweight; prevalence; Uganda; young adults. African Health Sciences ...

  18. Challenges to Quality Primary and Secondary Education in Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The survey and discussion focus on the challenges to quality education in Uganda. It is over136 years since formal education was introduced in Uganda by the Christian Missionaries in 1877 and 1879. These were Anglican and Roman Catholic Missionaries respectively. Given the plethora of implicit and explicit challenges ...

  19. Uganda Coffee Supply Response and Export Demand: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Econometric methods were used to estimate the supply and demand functions for Uganda's coffee using time series data for the period 1971-91. Eight major importing countries for Uganda's coffee: U.S., U.K., Japan, France, Italy, Spain, Germany, and the Netherlands were considered in export demand analysis.

  20. Factors influencing woodlands of southwestern North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michele M. Girard; Harold Goetz; Ardell J. Bjugstad

    1987-01-01

    Literature pertaining to woodlands of southwestern North Dakota is reviewed. Woodland species composition and distribution, and factors influencing woodland ecosystems such as climate, logging, fire, and grazing are described. Potential management and improvement techniques using vegetation and livestock manipulation have been suggested.

  1. Southwestern Institute of Physics annual report (2000)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The research results and engineering progress of SWIP (Southwestern Institute of Physics) during the year of 2000 was summarized in this annual report. The contents divided into five parts: 1. tokamak experimental diagnoses and tokamak engineering; 2. fusion reactor and fusion reactor materials; 3. plasma theory and calculation; 4. technique development and application; 5. appendix 31 theses and presented in this report

  2. Population attributable fraction of Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma due to smoking and alcohol in Uganda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okello, Samson; Churchill, Cristina; Owori, Rogers; Nasasira, Benson; Tumuhimbise, Christine; Abonga, Charles Lagoro; Mutiibwa, David; Christiani, David C.; Corey, Kathleen E.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the high rates and regional variation of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) in East Africa, the contributions of smoking and alcohol to the ESCC burden in the general population are unknown. We conducted a case-control study of patients presenting for upper gastrointestinal endoscopic examination at Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital, Uganda. Sociodemographic data including smoking and alcohol intake were collected prior to endoscopy. Cases were those with histological diagnosis of ESCC and controls were participants with normal endoscopic examination and gastritis/duodentitis or normal histology. We used odds ratios associated with ESCC risk to determine the population attributable fractions for smoking, alcohol use, and a combination of smoking and alcohol use among adults aged 30 years or greater who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Our study consisted of 67 cases and 142 controls. Median age was 51 years (IQR 40–64); and participants were predominantly male (59 %). Dysphagia and/or odynophagia as indications for endoscopy were significantly more in cases compared to controls (72 % vs 6 %, p < 0.0001). Male gender and increasing age were statistically associated with ESCC. In the unadjusted models, the population attributable fraction of ESCC due to male gender was 55 %, female gender - 49 %, smoking 20 %, alcohol 9 % and a combination of alcohol & smoking 15 %. After adjusting for gender and age, the population attributable fraction of ESCC due to smoking, alcohol intake and a combination of alcohol & smoking were 16, 10, and 13 % respectively. In this population, 13 % of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cases would be avoided if smoking and alcohol use were discontinued. These results suggest that other important risk factors for ESCC in southwestern Uganda remain unknown

  3. From “tribes” to “regions”. Ethnicity and musical identity in western Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Cimardi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article looks at how the paradigm of ethnicity in Uganda has influenced the conception and perception of cultural identity, and specifically of music identity. According to the 2002 Census, Uganda counts more than 50 different peoples within its territory. For most of these, the language spoken locally and the complex of musics and dances characterize their identity. These elements are currently fostered by the Government also by promoting annually a national festival where each area presents, among other items, its own music and dance repertoires. The structure of the present school festival intends to follow historical and cultural sedimentations (identifying “regions”, but it can still be traced to the colonial classification of peoples (“tribes”. Considering data especially from western Uganda, the intermingling of the paradigm of ethnicity with the ones of music representativeness and identity will be observed. Discussion will consider the repertoires chosen for representativeness in the national context and concentrate on the ambiguity of the ethnic uniqueness of these musics and on the possibilities of expression of minorities.

  4. Southwestern Power Administration annual site environmental report CY 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This report provides a synopsis of Southwestern Power Administration's (Southwestern's) effectiveness in managing its operations in an environmentally responsible manner. In CY 1997, the Office of Environmental, Safety, and Health was reorganized and incorporated into the Division of Acquisition and Property. The Division of Acquisition, Property, and Environmental Management maintains responsibility for development, oversight, and implementation of environmental programs. Senior Management at Southwestern has taken actions to increase environmental awareness throughout the organization. During CY 1997, (Southwestern) was not involved in any known programs or activities that had adverse impacts on the environment. The 1997 Environmental Appraisal, a portion of Southwestern's Self-Assessment and Appraisal Program, indicated approximately 90% compliance with Southwestern's written environmental programs. Southwestern continued to function throughout CY 1997 in an operations and maintenance posture with minor substation projects

  5. Southwestern Power Administration site environmental report for calendar year 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    During CY 93, Southwestern was not involved in any programs that had a direct effect on the environment, involving endangered species, protection of wetlands, or increased electromagnetic radiation. Southwestern continued to function throughout the year in an operations and maintenance posture with minor substation projects. Southwestern received an environmental management audit by the Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Audit (EH-24), during CY 1992. The purpose of the audit was to give Southwestern, DOE headquarters, and the Secretary an indication of the status of Southwestern management's effectiveness in discharging its duties in an environmentally responsible manner. The audit identified 17 findings. An action plan was developed and remediation of the findings has been accomplished. Several strengths were identified during the audit with regard to the environmental programs at Southwestern. Most importantly, senior management at Southwestern has taken actions to increase environmental awareness throughout the organization which is evidenced by the creation of the Environmental, Safety, Health, and Security Office

  6. Cost-Effectiveness of Peer Counselling for the Promotion of Exclusive Breastfeeding in Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lumbwe Chola

    Full Text Available Community based breastfeeding promotion programmes have been shown to be effective in increasing breastfeeding prevalence. However, there is limited data on the cost-effectiveness of these programmes in sub-Saharan Africa. This paper evaluates the cost-effectiveness of a breastfeeding promotion intervention targeting mothers and their 0 to 6 month old children.Data were obtained from a community randomized trial conducted in Uganda between 2006-2008, and supplemented with evidence from several studies in sub-Saharan Africa. In the trial, peer counselling was offered to women in intervention clusters. In the control and intervention clusters, women could access standard health facility breastfeeding promotion services (HFP. Thus, two methods of breastfeeding promotion were compared: community based peer counselling (in addition to HFP and standard HFP alone. A Markov model was used to calculate incremental cost-effectiveness ratios between the two strategies. The model estimated changes in breastfeeding prevalence and disability adjusted life years. Costs were estimated from a provider perspective. Uncertainty around the results was characterized using one-way sensitivity analyses and a probabilistic sensitivity analysis.Peer counselling more than doubled the breastfeeding prevalence as reported by mothers, but there was no observable impact on diarrhoea prevalence. Estimated incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were US$68 per month of exclusive or predominant breastfeeding and U$11,353 per disability adjusted life year (DALY averted. The findings were robust to parameter variations in the sensitivity analyses.Our strategy to promote community based peer counselling is unlikely to be cost-effective in reducing diarrhoea prevalence and mortality in Uganda, because its cost per DALY averted far exceeds the commonly assumed willingness-to-pay threshold of three times Uganda's GDP per capita (US$1653. However, since the intervention significantly

  7. An assessment of opportunities and challenges for public sector involvement in the maternal health voucher program in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okal, Jerry; Kanya, Lucy; Obare, Francis; Njuki, Rebecca; Abuya, Timothy; Bange, Teresah; Warren, Charlotte; Askew, Ian; Bellows, Ben

    2013-10-18

    Continued inequities in coverage, low quality of care, and high out-of-pocket expenses for health services threaten attainment of Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5 in many sub-Saharan African countries. Existing health systems largely rely on input-based supply mechanisms that have a poor track record meeting the reproductive health needs of low-income and underserved segments of national populations. As a result, there is increased interest in and experimentation with results-based mechanisms like supply-side performance incentives to providers and demand-side vouchers that place purchasing power in the hands of low-income consumers to improve uptake of facility services and reduce the burden of out-of-pocket expenditures. This paper describes a reproductive health voucher program that contracts private facilities in Uganda and explores the policy and implementation issues associated with expansion of the program to include public sector facilities. Data presented here describes the results of interviews of six district health officers and four health facility managers purposefully selected from seven districts with the voucher program in southwestern Uganda. Interviews were transcribed and organized thematically, barriers to seeking RH care were identified, and how to address the barriers in a context where voucher coverage is incomplete as well as opportunities and challenges for expanding the program by involving public sector facilities were investigated. The findings show that access to sexual and reproductive health services in southwestern Uganda is constrained by both facility and individual level factors which can be addressed by inclusion of the public facilities in the program. This will widen the geographical reach of facilities for potential clients, effectively addressing distance related barriers to access of health care services. Further, intensifying ongoing health education, continuous monitoring and evaluation, and integrating the voucher

  8. Uganda group works to reduce AIDS' impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcbrier, P

    1996-10-01

    War and AIDS-related mortality in Uganda have created an estimated 1.2 million orphans in the country. Child welfare advocates and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) have therefore been working together for the past 4 years under an umbrella organization to coordinate efforts for vulnerable children. The Uganda Community-Based Association for Child Welfare (UCOBAC), links people and organizations involved in child advocacy, facilitates relations between the government and NGOs, and helps to strengthen the capacity of NGOs to identify and implement projects. UCOBAC emphasizes community-based initiatives which allow children to remain in their own communities instead of being institutionalized. One example of such an approach is a vocational skills training program in Rakai district established to help young orphans trying to make it on their own. More than 300 youths had benefitted from the program as of December 1994 and plans are underway to expand the program to 10 more districts. UCOBAC is also training communities and NGOs to identify and implement viable projects, and helps child welfare organizations by serving as a network for sharing information. UCOBAC came into existence in October 1990 with 93 members, including 57 local NGOs, 17 international NGOs, and 19 individual members. The organization has since established local offices in 35 of Uganda's 39 districts. UNICEF has thus far provided about US$130,000 for UCOBAC activities and will continue to fund local NGO initiatives through UCOBAC. UCOBAC, however, is giving priority to becoming financially independent of UNICEF within a couple of years. Future projects include an inventory of NGO child welfare projects, a child welfare resource library, and networking workshops with NGOs and government policymakers.

  9. Southwestern Power Administration Annual Report 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-12-01

    Dear Secretary Chu, I am pleased to present the financial statements and operating data for Southwestern Power Administration (Southwestern) for Fiscal Year (FY) 2008. In FY 2008, Southwestern delivered over 7.3 billion kilowatt-hours of energy to its wholesale customers – nearly 31% more than average due to numerous record rainfall amounts in the southwest region. These record amounts produced revenues which exceeded the average annual revenue requirement by nearly $20 million and resulted in over $200 million in economic benefits to the region. Yet even as Southwestern exceeded its goals of marketing and delivering Federal hydroelectric power to our customers, we stayed focused on safety, security, and reliability. For example, we maintained our nearly 1,400 miles of high-voltage transmission lines, substations, and communications sites while achieving a Recordable Accident Frequency Rate of 0.0, a record that reflects Southwestern’s safety achievement of no recordable injuries for every 200,000 hours worked. We kept our rights-of-way secure from vegetation and other obstacles, work that not only supports our mission but also promotes reliability of the regional and National grid. We exceeded all North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) Control Performance Standards (CPS- 1 and CPS-2), and maintained regulation and reserve obligations and reactive reserve margins to ensure the reliability of the bulk electric system, even during extended periods of restricted hydro operations due to unusually high project inflows. Finally, we continued our partnerships with the Department of Energy, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, our customers, and other Federal power stakeholders, partnerships that are vital to our continued success in marketing and delivering carbon-free, renewable, and domestically produced energy to our customers and to the Nation. Sincerely, Jon Worthington Administrator

  10. Southwestern Institute of Physics annual report 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    In the year 2001, significant progresses in the engineering construction of the HL-2A tokamak were made at the Southwestern Institute of Physics (SWIP). At the same time, the research projects from Nuclear Energy Development Foundation, the National Defense Basic Research Foundation and the National Science Foundation of China were completely fulfilled. In addition 283 papers and reports were contributed, among them, 67 are included in the Annual Report

  11. Review of indigenous knowledge in Uganda: implications for its promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R.S. Tabuti

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous knowledge (IK has a role to play for households and community well-being in Uganda. However, IK is undergoing significant change and is on the decline in Uganda because of factors such as acculturation or the loss of IK through exposure to external cultures. In this paper we review some of the roles of, and threats to, IK with particular reference to the local community of Kaliro District. We make some recommendations on how to conserve IK in Kaliro and elsewhere in Uganda. Key words: traditional knowledge, conservation, traditional medicine, ethnobotany

  12. Southwestern Power Administration Annual Report 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-01-01

    “Renewable energy” isn’t just a catchphrase at Southwestern Power Administration (Southwestern). It describes the hydroelectric energy we market, and the energy that Southwestern’s employees bring to work every day, constantly challenging themselves to become more eff ective and effi cient in providing aff ordable, environmentally clean power to the American people. As Southwestern’s new Administrator, I have had the opportunity to view our operations from a fresh perspective, and I’m proud to share with you how a focus on continual improvement has been evident in accomplishments throughout the agency during fi scal year (FY) 2007. When the North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) implemented new reliability standards, we met applicable implementation dates and exceeded NERC’s control performance standards throughout the year. When tasked with reducing the agency’s carbon footprint, we found ways to achieve an 8.7% reduction in energy intensity from last year without impacting our operational capabilities. And when faced with record-breaking infl ows into the reservoir projects from which we market power, we capitalized on the opportunity to provide customers with signifi cant quantities of supplemental energy. Our supplemental sales this year not only saved customers over $122 million, but increased Southwestern’s revenues -- a huge win-win for Southwestern’s ratepayers and the Nation’s taxpayers alike. Southwestern is proud of its role in protecting National and economic security by contributing to the diverse supply of domestically produced energy, operating and maintaining a safe and reliable transmission system, and ensuring good stewardship of our Nation’s water resources and environment. In FY 2007, Southwestern continued to repay all power costs to the American taxpayers by marketing and delivering approximately 5.6 billion kilowatthours of hydropower at cost-based rates to customers in our six-state region. This energy

  13. Uganda: condoms provoke an AIDS storm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tebere, R

    1991-03-01

    An advertisement in the Uganda weekly Topic printed in 1990 is the center of the controversy over whether promoting condom use to prevent AIDS is really promoting immorality and promiscuity. The ad states: "The bible may save your soul but this condom will save you life." Critics have called the ad blasphemy for showing a condom package alongside the Bible; claimed the condom fools people into thinking they are safe from AIDS; and blamed the practice of supplying condoms for the moral decadence that is destroying the country. In contrast the national AIDS Control Program (ACP) believes that supplying university students, who may be the group at highest risk, with condoms, is wise because they at lest know how to use them properly. A spokesman for the ACP said that the condom is one of the limited options that exist to fight the life-threatening epidemic. Present Museven changed his views to November 1990 from a policy of encouraging abstinence and monogamy, to promoting condoms. This change in government policy coincided with the report of 17,422 cases of AIDS, and the estimate that 1.3 million people in Uganda are infected with HIV.

  14. Characteristics of Intracrater Thermal Anomalies in Southwestern Margaritifer Terra

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, M. L.; Hamilton, V. E.

    2005-03-01

    We use thermophysical properties, albedo, short wavelength emissivity, composition, and geomorphology to understand the formation of anomalously warm intracrater deposits in southwestern Margaritifer Terra.

  15. All projects related to Uganda | Page 7 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2008-06-30

    Project. Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda have adopted new land laws, policies and institutional arrangements to accommodate decentralization of land administration and management. Start Date: June 30, 2008 ... Topic: EPIDEMIOLOGY, WEATHER, EPIDEMICS, MALARIA, PROPHYLAXIS, Disease control. Region: Kenya ...

  16. The International Criminal Court and conflict transformation in Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal on Conflict Resolution ... The International Criminal Court (ICC) commenced investigation of the armed conflict in Uganda in 2004. ... It also addresses the problem of assessing the impact of law on conflict through the use of an ...

  17. tracing uganda's global primary organic pineapple value chain

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    2016-02-22

    Feb 22, 2016 ... methods were used to validate results obtained from the .... TABLE 2. Agronomic information on organic pineapple production in Uganda ..... management, which makes the value chain expensive ..... A handbook for value ...

  18. Pitfalls of Constitutionalism and Political Transformation in Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-05-29

    May 29, 2015 ... were the people of Northern Uganda region, where the defeated armies re- ..... power (Museveni 1989) was back-tracking to manipulate the constitution. .... is important to term limits because I know what my president believes ...

  19. vegetation biomass prediction in the cattle corridor of uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    3Ministry of Water and Environment, Climate Change Unit, P. O. Box 2811, Kampala, Uganda ... (r=0.99). Precipitation has influenced vegetative biomass in the cattle corridor as there is a positive .... since they are cloud free (Campbell, 2006).

  20. Using ICTs to Address Water Challenges in Uganda | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Using ICTs to Address Water Challenges in Uganda ... the adaptive capacity of communities to address the issue of climate-induced water stress. ... It will do so by testing the electronic dissemination of seasonal forecasts, early warning ...

  1. Using ICTs to Address Water Challenges in Uganda | CRDI - Centre ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    15 janv. 2012 ... Using ICTs to Address Water Challenges in Uganda ... adaptive capacity of communities to address the issue of climate-induced water stress. ... It will do so by testing the electronic dissemination of seasonal forecasts, early ...

  2. New Wireless Network for Uganda's Healthcare Workers | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-11-10

    Nov 10, 2010 ... Physicians and health care workers working in locations without fixed-line ... face serious problems in sharing and accessing critical medical and public ... to be a powerful tool for doctors and health care workers in Uganda.

  3. Uganda : tous les projets | Page 3 | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Région: Ethiopia, Thailand, Uganda, Zambia, Norway, United Kingdom. Programme: ... Sujet: YOUTH UNEMPLOYMENT, LOW INCOME GROUPS, SOCIAL PROBLEMS, ECONOMIC GROWTH, DATA ANALYSIS, EMPLOYMENT STABILITY, Poverty alleviation, EMPLOYMENT CREATION, POLICY MAKING. Région: Kenya ...

  4. A century of soils research and development in Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the early stages, Uganda's soils were considered fertile and little was done to improve productivity in a systematic way. ... labour costs. ... introduction of cash crops [cotton, tobacco, coffee or tea] .... opening of phosphate mine near Tororo;.

  5. All projects related to uganda | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2015-08-11

    Supporting business opportunities for rural women in east and southern Africa. Project. Women in Zimbabwe, Kenya, and Uganda experience disadvantages and gender inequalities in labour and ... Start Date: Tuesday, August 11, 2015.

  6. All projects related to uganda | Page 4 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: YOUTH UNEMPLOYMENT, LOW INCOME GROUPS, SOCIAL ... New research will explore the potential of community participation in Uganda and South ... as well as a cornerstone to good governance and the fight against corruption.

  7. Credit Demand Amongst Farmers in Mukono District, Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    forming farmers' associations, leveraging mobile money technologies to reduce distance, and streamlining application procedures could bolster agricultural credit demand in Uganda. ...... analysis was collected for the latter's M.Sc. dissertation.

  8. Factors Contributing to Maternal Mortality in Uganda | Atuhaire ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . It was guided by the following objectives; to investigating whether the number of antenatal Care visits, maternal education, age, area and region of residence had any effect on maternal mortality in Uganda. Descriptive statistics are used to ...

  9. adaptation of introduced mungbean genotypes in uganda abstract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    locations in Uganda, to determine the adaptability of introduced mungbean genotypes, and identify ... The six test multi-locations were grouped into two candidate mega-environments for ..... interactions: Challenges and opportunities for.

  10. Determinants of fast food consumption in Kampala, Uganda | Ayo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Consumption of fast-food in Uganda is becoming an increasingly important ... to study the consumption and expenditure behaviour of consumers of fast-food in ... to restaurant negatively influenced the probability of fast-food consumption and ...

  11. Health Financing and Benefit Incidence Analysis in Uganda and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project will attempt to assess the performance health systems in Uganda and ... the impoverishing effect of out-of-pocket payment for catastrophic health events. ... IDRC and key partners will showcase critical work on adaptation and ...

  12. Teaching obstetric ultrasound at Mulago Hospital - Kampala, Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... basic obstetric ultrasound. Keywords: Ultrasound; obstetric; teaching; Uganda; low-resource; curriculum. .... tic and hands-on training were provided by one trainer. (HKA) who at the time .... any formal teaching session. Additionally, the study ...

  13. Salivary gland tumors in Uganda: clinical pathological study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Health Sciences ... salivary gland tumors as defined by WHO classification (1991), is accepted world-wide but little is available in the literature ... Objective: To outline the clinicopathological features of salivary gland tumors in Uganda.

  14. All projects related to uganda | Page 9 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Panafrican Research Agenda on the Integration of ICTs in Education - Phase I ... Developer Network : Open Source Personal Digital Assistant Software for ... the anti-retroviral therapy in Free State province, South Africa (102411); Uganda ...

  15. LEADERSHIP STYLES AND EMPLOYEE JOB SATISFACTION IN UGANDA: THE CASE OF UGANDA MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE

    OpenAIRE

    Epiphany Picho Odubuker

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between Leadership Styles and job satisfaction among the staff of Uganda Management Institute. A descriptive cross-sectional survey design was used with a sample size being 118. Purposive, stratified and systematic sampling techniques were used to select respondents. Data analysis involved frequencies and percentages, Spearman rank Order correlation, coefficient of determination, regression, and ANOVA. There was a strong positive re...

  16. A Scoping Study of the Mobile Telecommunications Industry in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Shinyekwa, Isaac

    2012-01-01

    The paper aims at mapping out the Mobile Telecommunications Industry in Uganda with a view to identify areas for further research in a systematic and more detailed way. The economic and social upgrading/downgrading conceptual framework to guide the Capturing the Gains research agenda was used in this process. The paper briefly presents the mobile phone domains, emphasising the relevant parts for Uganda, which include; software development, sales and marketing, mobile service provision and end...

  17. Promoting food security of low income women in central Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midtvåge, Runa; Hiranandani, Vanmala Sunder; Nambuanyi, Lekunze Ransom

    • Midtvåge, R., Hiranandani, V. S., & Lekunze, R. (2014). Promoting food security of low income women in central Uganda. Poster presentation, Sustainability Science Congress, University of Copenhagen, Denmark, October 22-24, 2014.......• Midtvåge, R., Hiranandani, V. S., & Lekunze, R. (2014). Promoting food security of low income women in central Uganda. Poster presentation, Sustainability Science Congress, University of Copenhagen, Denmark, October 22-24, 2014....

  18. Area Handbook Series. Uganda: A Country Study, 2nd Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    infections, anemia , tetanus, malaria, and tuberculosis. Incidence of AIDS quite high, reaching epidemic proportivns in southern areas. Uganda had...attributed to illness. Other fatal illnesses included anemia , tetanus, and whoop- ing cough, but some people also died of malnutrition. An estimat- ed...185 Persian Gulf States 550-89 Tunisia 550-42 Peru 550-80 Turkey 550-72 Philippines 550-74 Uganda 550-162 Poland 550-97 Uruguay 550-181 Portugal 550-71

  19. Strategic Marketing Problems in the Uganda Maize Seed Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Larson, Donald W.; Mbowa, Swaibu

    2004-01-01

    Strategic marketing issues and challenges face maize seed marketing firms as farmers increasingly adopt hybrid varieties in a modernizing third world country such as Uganda. The maize seed industry of Uganda has changed dramatically from a government owned, controlled, and operated industry to a competitive market oriented industry with substantial private firm investment and participation. The new maize seed industry is young, dynamic, growing and very competitive. The small maize seed marke...

  20. Partnerships for development: municipal solid waste management in Kasese, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, David; Drysdale, David; Hansen, Kenneth; Vanhille, Josefine; Wolf, Andreas

    2014-11-01

    Municipal solid waste management systems of many developing countries are commonly constrained by factors such as limited financial resources and poor governance, making it a difficult proposition to break with complex, entrenched and unsustainable technologies and systems. This article highlights strategic partnerships as a way to affect a distributed agency among several sets of stakeholders to break so-called path dependencies, which occur when such unsustainable pathways arise, stabilize and become self-reinforcing over time. Experiences from a North-South collaborative effort provide some lessons in such partnership building: In Uganda and Denmark, respectively, the World Wildlife Fund and the network organization access2innovation have mobilized stakeholders around improving the municipal solid waste management system in Kasese District. Through a municipal solid waste management system characterization and mapping exercise, some emergent lessons and guiding principles in partnership building point to both pitfalls and opportunities for designing sustainable pathways. First, socio-technical lock-in effects in the municipal solid waste management system can stand in the way of partnerships based on introducing biogas or incineration technologies. However, opportunities in the municipal solid waste management system can exist within other areas, and synergies can be sought with interlinking systems, such as those represented with sanitation. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. Uganda's participation in CTBT activities and earthquake monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tugume, F.A.

    2002-01-01

    Earthquake occurrence in Uganda is mostly related to East Africa Rift System. The country's western border lies within the Western branch of this system while the Eastern branch is only 200 km from its eastern border. The two tectonic features contribute to seismicity in Uganda. These are the Aswar shear zone running from Nimule at the border of Uganda and Sudan, to Mount Elgon on the Eastern border and Katonga fault break which cuts across the country from the foot hills of mount Rwenzori to the Western side of Lake Victoria. This unique tectonic setting makes Uganda one of most seismically active countries on the African continet as exemplified by some destructive earthquakes that have hit the country. For this reason the Government of uganda is in the process of setting up an earthquake monitoring system, the National Seismological Network, with efficient detectability, efficient data transmission and processing facilities so that earthquakes in Uganda can be properly assessed and seismic hazard studies of the country cunducted. The objectives of the said network, the seismic developments for the last two decades and its current satus are described

  2. Transformational Leadership and Teacher Motivation in Southwestern Arizona High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Catherine L.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between transformational leadership and teacher motivation in Southwestern Arizona high schools. Teachers in a school district in Southwestern Arizona comprised of high schools were surveyed using two instruments, Leithwood and Jantzi's (1998) The Leadership and Management of Schools in…

  3. Some lessons in artificial regeneration from southwestern Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    William I. Stein

    1955-01-01

    Natural reproduction has often proved undependable for restocking cutovers and burns in the mixed-conifer forest types of southwestern Oregon. These types, covering 6,000 square miles of productive forest land in the five southwestern Oregon counties, are composed of many species--principally Douglas fir, Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco;...

  4. Second generation plant health clinics in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Solveig; Matsiko, Frank; Mutebi, Emmanuel

    coverage, Regularity/timeliness and Quality of plant healthcare. Field work was carried out over 15 months between July 2010 and September 2011 in 13 districts in the eastern, central and western parts of Uganda. A total of 205 plant clinic sessions were held in the period. The plant clinics received 2...... from the clinics to diagnostic laboratories. Although the plant clinics have become part of Ministry policy and districts showed increasing interest and commitment, there are some structural barriers that made it difficult for the districts to institutionalise the clinics and for the Ministry to play...... their leading role. A mismatch between institutional mandates/authority and allocated resources limited the scope of the actions both at district and national level. The plant clinics risk ‘falling between the two chairs’ of extension and pest and disease control. Finding a solid institutional base...

  5. Bribery in health care in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Jennifer

    2010-09-01

    I examine the role of household permanent income in determining who bribes and how much they bribe in health care in Uganda. I find that rich patients are more likely than other patients to bribe in public health care: doubling household expenditure increases the bribery probability by 1.2 percentage points compared to a bribery rate of 17%. The income elasticity of the bribe amount is about 0.37. Bribes in the Ugandan public sector appear to be fees-for-service extorted from the richer patients amongst those exempted by government policy from paying the official fees. Bribes in the private sector appear to be flat-rate fees paid by patients who do not pay official fees. I do not find evidence that the public health care sector is able to price discriminate less effectively than public institutions with less competition from the private sector. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. A lifetime as TBA in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanabahita, C

    1993-01-01

    A 64-year old traditional birth attendant (TBA), Zowe Namasiga, in Kyobe county in the Rakai district of Uganda, delivered her 1st baby when she was 12 years old. She learned how to deliver babies by watching her father deliver babies. She married at 14 and had 7 children of her own. She delivered 2 of her own children all alone. She attended a 1-week workshop for TBAs hosted by World Vision International and attended by 52 other TBAs. The medical services that exist in rural Uganda and tend to be of low quality. The leading problem for pregnant women in Rakai district in insufficient transport. The closest clinic is 8 miles away from where the workshop was held, but it has no midwives and the staff are not trained to deliver babies. The ratio of midwife to women of reproductive age in Rakai district is 1:5000. Ms. Namasiga has to refer high risk patients to Kitovu Hospital, a distance of 62 km. In the workshop, illustrations of male and female reproductive systems helped them learn that the uterus is not connected to the digestive system. The TBAs learned about the importance of hygiene and of encouraging women to seek prenatal care and to receive tetanus toxoid injections. The workshop taught them how to identify high risk women and to refer them to the hospital. Few women go to the hospital, though, because town midwives do not treat them kindly. One participant described how she keeps premature babies alive: wraps them and places them in a circle of 5-liter metal cans filled with warm water. TBAs are concerned about AIDS. In fact, the last grandchild Ms. Namasiga delivered was born to parents with AIDS. She delivers babies with her bare hands, but now asks for payment so she can buy gloves to protect her cracked hands. Most TBAs care for AIDS orphans. TBAs assist at 90% of deliveries in this rural district.

  7. The Development of Professional Counseling in Uganda: Current Status and Future Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senyonyi, Ruth M.; Ochieng, Lois A.; Sells, James

    2012-01-01

    Professional counseling in Uganda has foundations in traditional cultures of its peoples, guidance offered in schools, and counseling to curb the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Currently, a definitive professional counselor profile in Uganda is being established. The Uganda Counselling Association continues the process of seeking legal authority to regulate…

  8. Uganda: The Challenge of Growth and Poverty Reduction. A World Bank Country Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    World Bank, Washington, DC.

    This report examines the outcomes of economic reform in Uganda and defines issues that Uganda must address in medium- and long-term strategies for poverty reduction. With a per capita income of approximately $220, Uganda is one of the poorest countries in the world. Its economy and social indicators bear the marks of nearly 15 years of political…

  9. Risk Factors for Podoconiosis: Kamwenge District, Western Uganda, September 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kihembo, Christine; Masiira, Ben; Lali, William Z; Matwale, Gabriel K; Matovu, Joseph K B; Kaharuza, Frank; Ario, Alex R; Nabukenya, Immaculate; Makumbi, Issa; Musenero, Monica; Zhu, Bao-Ping; Nanyunja, Miriam

    2017-06-01

    AbstractPodoconiosis, a noninfectious elephantiasis, is a disabling neglected tropical disease. In August 2015, an elephantiasis case-cluster was reported in Kamwenge District, western Uganda. We investigated to identify the disease's nature and risk factors. We defined a suspected podoconiosis case as onset in a Kamwenge resident of bilateral asymmetrical lower limb swelling lasting ≥ 1 month, plus ≥ 1 of the following associated symptoms: skin itching, burning sensation, plantar edema, lymph ooze, prominent skin markings, rigid toes, or mossy papillomata. A probable case was a suspected case with negative microfilaria antigen immunochromatographic card test (ruling out filarial elephantiasis). We conducted active case-finding. In a case-control investigation, we tested the hypothesis that the disease was caused by prolonged foot skin exposure to irritant soils, using 40 probable case-persons and 80 asymptomatic village control-persons, individually matched by age and sex. We collected soil samples to characterize irritants. We identified 52 suspected (including 40 probable) cases with onset from 1980 to 2015. Prevalence rates increased with age; annual incidence (by reported onset of disease) was stable over time at 2.9/100,000. We found that 93% (37/40) of cases and 68% (54/80) of controls never wore shoes at work (Mantel-Haenszel odds ratio [OR MH ] = 7.7; 95% [confidence interval] CI = 2.0-30); 80% (32/40) of cases and 49% (39/80) of controls never wore shoes at home (OR MH = 5.2; 95% CI = 1.8-15); and 70% (27/39) of cases and 44% (35/79) of controls washed feet at day end (versus immediately after work) (OR = 11; 95% CI = 2.1-56). Soil samples were characterized as rich black-red volcanic clays. In conclusion, this reported elephantiasis is podoconiosis associated with prolonged foot exposure to volcanic soil. We recommended foot hygiene and universal use of protective shoes.

  10. An Epidemiologic Investigation of Potential Risk Factors for Nodding Syndrome in Kitgum District, Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L Foltz

    Full Text Available Nodding Syndrome (NS, an unexplained illness characterized by spells of head bobbing, has been reported in Sudan and Tanzania, perhaps as early as 1962. Hypothesized causes include sorghum consumption, measles, and onchocerciasis infection. In 2009, a couple thousand cases were reportedly in Northern Uganda.In December 2009, we identified cases in Kitgum District. The case definition included persons who were previously developmentally normal who had nodding. Cases, further defined as 5- to 15-years-old with an additional neurological deficit, were matched to village controls to assess risk factors and test biological specimens. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate associations.Surveillance identified 224 cases; most (95% were 5-15-years-old (range = 2-27. Cases were reported in Uganda since 1997. The overall prevalence was 12 cases per 1,000 (range by parish = 0·6-46. The case-control investigation (n = 49 case/village control pairs showed no association between NS and previously reported measles; sorghum was consumed by most subjects. Positive onchocerciasis serology [age-adjusted odds ratio (AOR1 = 14·4 (2·7, 78·3], exposure to munitions [AOR1 = 13·9 (1·4, 135·3], and consumption of crushed roots [AOR1 = 5·4 (1·3, 22·1] were more likely in cases. Vitamin B6 deficiency was present in the majority of cases (84% and controls (75%.NS appears to be increasing in Uganda since 2000 with 2009 parish prevalence as high as 46 cases per 1,000 5- to 15-year old children. Our results found no supporting evidence for many proposed NS risk factors, revealed association with onchocerciasis, which for the first time was examined with serologic testing, and raised nutritional deficiencies and toxic exposures as possible etiologies.

  11. The Dynamics of Social Capital and Conflict Management in Multiple Resource Regimes: A Case of the Southwestern Highlands of Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal C. Sanginga

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Increasingly, social capital, defined as shared norms, trust, and the horizontal and vertical social networks that facilitate coordination and cooperation for mutually beneficial collective action, is seen as an important asset upon which people rely to manage natural resources and resolve conflicts. This paper uses empirical data from households and community surveys and case studies, to examine the role, strengths, and limits of social capital in managing conflicts over the use and management of natural resources. We inventoried over 700 cases ranging from conflicts between multiple resource users to supra-community conflicts between local communities concerns for better livelihoods and national/international concerns for environment conservation. Results show how different types of social capital are used in preventing and managing conflicts. Endowment in certain dimensions of social capital significantly decreased the occurrence of conflicts and played a significant role in managing them. However, social capital mechanisms have some limits, and are not always effective in resolving some types of conflicts. For such conflicts, people rely on formal mechanisms for arbitration and adjudication. In many cases, these have resulted in exclusion, coercion, and violence. Results show that policies or social capital alone do not possess the resources needed to promote broad-based and sustainable conflict resolution strategies. Rather, people use a range of conflict management strategies of different types and combinations of social capital and local polices. This synergy between social capital and local policy is based on complementarity and embededness: mutually supportive relations between local government and local communities, and the nature and extent of the ties connecting people and communities and public institutions. Better understanding of how this synergy between social capital and local policy can be strengthened is crucial to minimize natural resource management conflicts.

  12. Effectiveness of advertising availability of prenatal ultrasound on uptake of antenatal care in rural Uganda: A cluster randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherniak, William; Anguyo, Geoffrey; Meaney, Christopher; Yuan Kong, Ling; Malhame, Isabelle; Pace, Romina; Sodhi, Sumeet; Silverman, Michael

    2017-01-01

    In rural Uganda pregnant women often lack access to health services, do not attend antenatal care, and tend to utilize traditional healers/birth attendants. We hypothesized that receiving a message advertising that "you will be able to see your baby by ultrasound" would motivate rural Ugandan women who otherwise might use a traditional birth attendant to attend antenatal care, and that those women would subsequently be more satisfied with care. A cluster randomized trial was conducted across eight rural sub-counties in southwestern Uganda. Sub-counties were randomized to a control arm, with advertisement of antenatal care with no mention of portable obstetric ultrasound (four communities, n = 59), or an intervention arm, with advertisement of portable obstetric ultrasound. Advertisement of portable obstetric ultrasound was further divided into intervention A) word of mouth advertisement of portable obstetric ultrasound and antenatal care (one communitity, n = 16), B) radio advertisement of only antenatal care and word of mouth advertisement of antenatal care and portable obstetric ultrasound (one community, n = 7), or C) word of mouth + radio advertisement of both antenatal care and portable obstetric ultrasound (two communities, n = 75). The primary outcome was attendance to antenatal care. 159 women presented to antenatal care across eight sub-counties. The rate of attendance was 65.1 (per 1000 pregnant women, 95% CI 38.3-110.4) where portable obstetric ultrasound was advertised by radio and word of mouth, as compared to a rate of 11.1 (95% CI 6.1-20.1) in control communities (rate ratio 5.9, 95% CI 2.6-13.0, padvertising antenatal care and portable obstetric ultrasound by radio attendance was significantly improved. This study suggests that women can be motivated to attend antenatal care when offered the concrete incentive of seeing their baby.

  13. Food insecurity, social networks and symptoms of depression among men and women in rural Uganda: a cross-sectional, population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Jessica M; Nyakato, Viola N; Kakuhikire, Bernard; Tsai, Alexander C; Subramanian, S V; Bangsberg, David R; Christakis, Nicholas A

    2018-04-01

    To assess the association between food insecurity and depression symptom severity stratified by sex, and test for evidence of effect modification by social network characteristics. A population-based cross-sectional study. The nine-item Household Food Insecurity Access Scale captured food insecurity. Five name generator questions elicited network ties. A sixteen-item version of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist for Depression captured depression symptom severity. Linear regression was used to estimate the association between food insecurity and depression symptom severity while adjusting for potential confounders and to test for potential network moderators. In-home survey interviews in south-western Uganda. All adult residents across eight rural villages; 96 % response rate (n 1669). Severe food insecurity was associated with greater depression symptom severity (b=0·4, 95 % CI 0·3, 0·5, Pinsecurity and depression symptoms was stronger than for men on the periphery of their village social network, and for men with many poor personal network contacts, respectively. In this population-based study from rural Uganda, food insecurity was associated with mental health for both men and women. Future research is needed on networks and food insecurity-related shame in relation to depression symptoms among food-insecure men.

  14. Vulnerability of Maize Yields to Droughts in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terence Epule Epule

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Climate projections in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA forecast an increase in the intensity and frequency of droughts with implications for maize production. While studies have examined how maize might be affected at the continental level, there have been few national or sub-national studies of vulnerability. We develop a vulnerability index that combines sensitivity, exposure and adaptive capacity and that integrates agroecological, climatic and socio-economic variables to evaluate the national and spatial pattern of maize yield vulnerability to droughts in Uganda. The results show that maize yields in the north of Uganda are more vulnerable to droughts than in the south and nationally. Adaptive capacity is higher in the south of the country than in the north. Maize yields also record higher levels of sensitivity and exposure in the north of Uganda than in the south. Latitudinally, it is observed that maize yields in Uganda tend to record higher levels of vulnerability, exposure and sensitivity towards higher latitudes, while in contrast, the adaptive capacity of maize yields is higher towards the lower latitudes. In addition to lower precipitation levels in the north of the country, these observations can also be explained by poor soil quality in most of the north and socio-economic proxies, such as, higher poverty and lower literacy rates in the north of Uganda.

  15. Cancer mortality and radioactive fallout in southwestern Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado, S.G.; Land, C.E.; McKay, F.W.

    1987-01-01

    Cancer mortality was compared between a three-county region in southwestern Utah and the remainder of Utah in an investigation of reported excess cancer risks associated with residence in southwestern Utah during the period of above-ground nuclear tests at the Nevada Test Site. Because most of the fallout in southwestern Utah was deposited during 1953-1957, comparisons were limited to persons born before 1958, and deaths from leukemia and bone cancer during 1955-1980 and from other cancers during 1964-1980. There was no excess risk of cancer mortality in southwestern Utah, for single or grouped sites, with the single exception of leukemia which showed statistically significant odds ratios of 1.45 based on 62 deaths at all ages, and 2.84 based on nine deaths at ages 0-14. The finding for childhood leukemia was based on different time periods and geographic comparisons from those of two earlier studies in which no such excess was found. Mortality from all cancer sites combined was significantly lower in southwestern Utah than in the remainder of the state, even after adjustment for the higher proportion of (lower risk) Mormons in southwestern Utah. The present results, including the positive association for leukemia, are inconsistent with the high excess risks reported by Johnson (JAMA 1984;251:230-6) based on an interview survey of cancer incidence among long-term Mormon residents of southwestern Utah

  16. High acceptability for cell phone text messages to improve communication of laboratory results with HIV-infected patients in rural Uganda: a cross-sectional survey study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Patient-provider communication is a major challenge in resource-limited settings with large catchment areas. Though mobile phone usership increased 20-fold in Africa over the past decade, little is known about acceptability of, perceptions about disclosure and confidentiality, and preferences for cell phone communication of health information in the region. Methods We performed structured interviews of fifty patients at the Immune Suppression Syndrome clinic in Mbarara, Uganda to assess four domains of health-related communication: a) cell phone use practices and literacy, b) preferences for laboratory results communication, c) privacy and confidentiality, and d) acceptability of and preferences for text messaging to notify patients of abnormal test results. Results Participants had a median of 38 years, were 56% female, and were residents of a large catchment area throughout southwestern Uganda. All participants expressed interest in a service to receive information about laboratory results by cell phone text message, stating benefits of increased awareness of their health and decreased transportation costs. Ninety percent reported that they would not be concerned for unintended disclosure. A minority additionally expressed concerns about difficulty interpreting messages, discouragement upon learning bad news, and technical issues. Though all respondents expressed interest in password protection of messages, there was also a strong desire for direct messages to limit misinterpretation of information. Conclusions Cell phone text messaging for communication of abnormal laboratory results is highly acceptable in this cohort of HIV-infected patients in rural Uganda. The feasibility of text messaging, including an optimal balance between privacy and comprehension, should be further studied. PMID:22720901

  17. High acceptability for cell phone text messages to improve communication of laboratory results with HIV-infected patients in rural Uganda: a cross-sectional survey study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siedner Mark J

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patient-provider communication is a major challenge in resource-limited settings with large catchment areas. Though mobile phone usership increased 20-fold in Africa over the past decade, little is known about acceptability of, perceptions about disclosure and confidentiality, and preferences for cell phone communication of health information in the region. Methods We performed structured interviews of fifty patients at the Immune Suppression Syndrome clinic in Mbarara, Uganda to assess four domains of health-related communication: a cell phone use practices and literacy, b preferences for laboratory results communication, c privacy and confidentiality, and d acceptability of and preferences for text messaging to notify patients of abnormal test results. Results Participants had a median of 38 years, were 56% female, and were residents of a large catchment area throughout southwestern Uganda. All participants expressed interest in a service to receive information about laboratory results by cell phone text message, stating benefits of increased awareness of their health and decreased transportation costs. Ninety percent reported that they would not be concerned for unintended disclosure. A minority additionally expressed concerns about difficulty interpreting messages, discouragement upon learning bad news, and technical issues. Though all respondents expressed interest in password protection of messages, there was also a strong desire for direct messages to limit misinterpretation of information. Conclusions Cell phone text messaging for communication of abnormal laboratory results is highly acceptable in this cohort of HIV-infected patients in rural Uganda. The feasibility of text messaging, including an optimal balance between privacy and comprehension, should be further studied.

  18. Southwestern Institute of Physics: Annual Report 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-10-01

    The main achievements of controlled nuclear fusion research are presented for Southwestern Institute of Physics in 1998 year. With the establishment and operation of two auxiliary heating systems (NBI, ICRH), the HL-1M Tokamak is equipped with main auxiliary heating and current driving systems such as NBI, ECRH, ICRH and LHCD etc. . In addition, a variety of advanced fueling system, i.e. , multi-shot pellet and supersonic molecular beam injection, the first wall processing technologies of boronization, siliconization and lithiumization as well as more than 20 diagnostic facilities with partial space-time resolution capability have been established on the device. The construction of a larger Tokamak with divertors, the HL-2A, and its complementary systems are being carried out

  19. Environmental Assessment for power marketing policy for Southwestern Power Administration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-01

    Southwestern Power Administration (Southwestern) needs to renew expiring power sales contracts with new term (10 year) sales contracts. The existing contracts have been in place for several years and many will expire over the next ten years. Southwestern completed an Environmental Assessment on the existing power allocation in June, 1979 (a copy of the EA is attached), and there are no proposed additions of any major new generation resources, service to discrete major new loads, or major changes in operating parameters, beyond those included in the existing power allocation. Impacts from a no action plan, proposed alternative, and market power for less than 10 years are described.

  20. Environmental Assessment for power marketing policy for Southwestern Power Administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Southwestern Power Administration (Southwestern) needs to renew expiring power sales contracts with new term (10 year) sales contracts. The existing contracts have been in place for several years and many will expire over the next ten years. Southwestern completed an Environmental Assessment on the existing power allocation in June, 1979 (a copy of the EA is attached), and there are no proposed additions of any major new generation resources, service to discrete major new loads, or major changes in operating parameters, beyond those included in the existing power allocation. Impacts from a no action plan, proposed alternative, and market power for less than 10 years are described

  1. Study on climate change in Southwestern China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zongxing

    2015-03-01

    Nominated by Chinese Academy of Sciences as an outstanding Ph.D. thesis. Offers a needed exploration of the temporal and spatial pattern of climate change in southwestern China. Explores the action mechanism among the large-scale atmospheric circulation system, the complicated topography, human activities and regional climate changes. Analyzes the response of glaciers to climate change from the aspects of morphology of the glacier, glacial mass balance and the process of hydrology. This thesis confirms many changes, including sharp temperature rise, interannual variability of precipitation, extreme climate events and significant decreases of sunshine duration and wind speed in southwestern China, and systemically explores the action mechanism between large-scale atmospheric circulation systems, the complicated topography, human activities and regional climate changes. This study also analyzes the response of glaciers to climate change so that on the one hand it clearly reflects the relationship between glacier morphologic changes and climate change; on the other, it reveals the mechanism of action of climate warming as a balance between energy and matter. The achievements of this study reflect a significant contribution to the body of research on the response of climate in cold regions, glaciers and human activities to a global change against the background of the typical monsoon climate, and have provided scientific basis for predictions, countermeasures against disasters from extreme weather, utilization of water and the establishment of counterplans to slow and adapt to climate change. Zongxing Li works at the Cold and Arid Region Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China.

  2. Study on climate change in Southwestern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Zongxing

    2015-01-01

    Nominated by Chinese Academy of Sciences as an outstanding Ph.D. thesis. Offers a needed exploration of the temporal and spatial pattern of climate change in southwestern China. Explores the action mechanism among the large-scale atmospheric circulation system, the complicated topography, human activities and regional climate changes. Analyzes the response of glaciers to climate change from the aspects of morphology of the glacier, glacial mass balance and the process of hydrology. This thesis confirms many changes, including sharp temperature rise, interannual variability of precipitation, extreme climate events and significant decreases of sunshine duration and wind speed in southwestern China, and systemically explores the action mechanism between large-scale atmospheric circulation systems, the complicated topography, human activities and regional climate changes. This study also analyzes the response of glaciers to climate change so that on the one hand it clearly reflects the relationship between glacier morphologic changes and climate change; on the other, it reveals the mechanism of action of climate warming as a balance between energy and matter. The achievements of this study reflect a significant contribution to the body of research on the response of climate in cold regions, glaciers and human activities to a global change against the background of the typical monsoon climate, and have provided scientific basis for predictions, countermeasures against disasters from extreme weather, utilization of water and the establishment of counterplans to slow and adapt to climate change. Zongxing Li works at the Cold and Arid Region Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China.

  3. What influences climate and glacier change in southwestern China?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasunari, Teppei J.

    2011-12-01

    The subject of climate change in the Tibetan Plateau (TP) and Himalayas has taken on increasing importance because of the availability of water resources from their mountain glaciers (Immerzeel et al 2010). Many of the glaciers over these regions have been retreating, while some are advancing and stable (Yao et al 2004, Scherler et al 2011). Other studies report that some glaciers in the Himalayas show acceleration of their shrinkage (e.g., Fujita and Nuimura 2011). However, the causes of glacier melting are still difficult to grasp because of the complexity of climatic change and its influence on glacier issues. Despite this, it is vital that we pursue further study to enable future predictions of glacier changes. The paper entitled 'Climate and glacier change in southwestern China during the past several decades' by Li et al (2011) provided carefully analyzed, quality controlled, long-term data on atmospheric temperature and precipitation during the period 1961-2008. The data were obtained from 111 Chinese stations. The researchers performed systematic analyses of temperature and precipitation over the whole southwestern Chinese domain. They discussed those changes in terms of other meteorological components such as atmospheric circulation patterns, radiation and altitude difference, and then showed how these factors could contribute to climate and glacier changes in the region. Air temperature and precipitation are strongly associated with glacier mass balance because of heat balance and the addition of mass when it snows. Temperature warming trends over many places in southwestern China were unequivocally dominant in all seasons and at higher altitudes. This indicates that the heat contribution to the glaciers has been increasing. On the other hand, precipitation has a wider variability in time and space. It is more difficult to clearly understand the effect of precipitation on the climate and glacier melting characteristics in the whole of southwestern China

  4. A Political Economy Analysis of Domestic Resource Mobilization in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Anne Mette; Ulriksen, Marianne Sandvad

    -building with regard to mobilizing resources for social development. In the paper we analyse how political economy factors affect revenue raising and social spending priorities in Uganda. We establish a theoretical framework based on the political settlement theory, within which we explore instances of revenue bargain......-making. The first two instances relate to the actual mobilization of resources, whereas the third example focuses on bargains over spending priorities within a given revenue base. We find that in Uganda, a low-income country with competing political factions, there are specific challenges to mobilizing resources......This synthesis paper brings together the research findings from four papers prepared by the Uganda team as a part of the UNRISD Politics of Domestic Resource Mobilization for Social Development project, which addresses three broad themes: bargaining and contestation, key relations, and institution...

  5. Malaria treatment policy change and implementation: the case of Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanyunja, Miriam; Nabyonga Orem, Juliet; Kato, Frederick; Kaggwa, Mugagga; Katureebe, Charles; Saweka, Joaquim

    2011-01-01

    Malaria due to P. falciparum is the number one cause of morbidity and mortality in Uganda where it is highly endemic in 95% of the country. The use of efficacious and effective antimalarial medicines is one of the key strategies for malaria control. Until 2000, Chloroquine (CQ) was the first-line drug for treatment of uncomplicated malaria in Uganda. Due to progressive resistance to CQ and to a combination of CQ with Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine, Uganda in 2004 adopted the use of ACTs as first-line drug for treating uncomplicated malaria. A review of the drug policy change process and postimplementation reports highlight the importance of managing the policy change process, generating evidence for policy decisions and availability of adequate and predictable funding for effective policy roll-out. These and other lessons learnt can be used to guide countries that are considering anti-malarial drug change in future.

  6. Malaria Treatment Policy Change and Implementation: The Case of Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Nanyunja

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria due to P. falciparum is the number one cause of morbidity and mortality in Uganda where it is highly endemic in 95% of the country. The use of efficacious and effective antimalarial medicines is one of the key strategies for malaria control. Until 2000, Chloroquine (CQ was the first-line drug for treatment of uncomplicated malaria in Uganda. Due to progressive resistance to CQ and to a combination of CQ with Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine, Uganda in 2004 adopted the use of ACTs as first-line drug for treating uncomplicated malaria. A review of the drug policy change process and postimplementation reports highlight the importance of managing the policy change process, generating evidence for policy decisions and availability of adequate and predictable funding for effective policy roll-out. These and other lessons learnt can be used to guide countries that are considering anti-malarial drug change in future.

  7. Open access, open education resources and open data in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvo, Ivana Di; Mwoka, Meggie; Kwaga, Teddy; Rukundo, Priscilla Aceng; Ernest, Dennis Ssesanga; Osaheni, Louis Aikoriogie; John, Kasibante; Shafik, Kasirye; de Sousa, Agostinho Moreira

    2015-01-01

    As a follow up to OpenCon 2014, International Federation of Medical Students' Associations (IFMSA) students organized a 3 day workshop Open Access, Open Education Resources and Open Data in Kampala from 15-18 December 2014. One of the aims of the workshop was to engage the Open Access movement in Uganda which encompasses the scientific community, librarians, academia, researchers and students. The IFMSA students held the workshop with the support of: Consortium for Uganda University Libraries (CUUL), The Right to Research Coalition, Electronic Information for Libraries (EIFL), Makerere University, International Health Sciences University (IHSU), Pan African Medical Journal (PAMJ) and the Centre for Health Human Rights and Development (CEHURD). All these organizations are based or have offices in Kampala. The event culminated in a meeting with the Science and Technology Committee of Parliament of Uganda in order to receive the support of the Ugandan Members of Parliament and to make a concrete change for Open Access in the country.

  8. Stock-outs, uncertainty and improvisation in access to healthcare in war-torn Northern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muyinda, Herbert; Mugisha, James

    2015-12-01

    Stock-outs, also known as shortages or complete absence of a particular inventory, in public health facilities have become a hallmark in Uganda's health system making the notions of persistent doubt in access to healthcare - uncertainty, and doing more with less - 'improvisation', very pronounced. The situation becomes more critical in post-conflict areas with an over whelming burden of preexisting and conflict-related ailments amidst weak health systems. Particularly in the war-torn Northern Uganda, the intersection between the effects of violent conflict and shortage of medications is striking. There are problems getting the right type of medications to the right people at the right time, causing persistent shortages and uncertainty in access to healthcare. With reference to patients on Antiretroviral Therapy (ART), we present temporal trends in access to healthcare in the context of medication shortages in conflict-affected areas. We examine uncertainties in access to care, and how patients, medical practitioners, and the state - the key actors in the domain of supplying and utilizing medicines, respond. Our observation is that, while improvisation is a feature of biomedicine and facilitates problem solving in daily life, it is largely contextual. Given the rapidly evolving contexts and social and professional sensitivities that characterize war affected areas, there is a need for deliberate healthcare programs tailored to the unique needs of people and to the shaping of appropriate policies in post-conflict settings, which call for more North-South collaboration on equal terms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Is southwestern China experiencing more frequent precipitation extremes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Meixian; Xu, Xianli; Wang, Kelin; Sun, Alexander Y; Liu, Wen; Zhang, Xiaoyan

    2014-01-01

    Climate extremes have and will continue to cause severe damages to buildings and natural environments around the world. A full knowledge of the probability of the climate extremes is important for the management and mitigation of natural hazards. Based on Mann–Kendall trend test and copulas, this study investigated the characteristics of precipitation extremes as well as their implications in southwestern China (Yunnan, Guangxi and Guizhou Province), through analyzing the changing trends and probabilistic characteristics of six indices, including the consecutive dry days, consecutive wet days, annual total wet day precipitation, heavy precipitation days (R25), max 5 day precipitation amount (Rx5) and the rainy days (RDs). Results showed that the study area had generally become drier (regional mean annual precipitation decreased by 11.4 mm per decade) and experienced enhanced precipitation extremes in the past 60 years. Relatively higher risk of drought in Yuanan and flood in Guangxi was observed, respectively. However, the changing trends of the precipitation extremes were not spatially uniform: increasing risk of extreme wet events for Guangxi and Guizhou, and increasing probability of concurrent extreme wet and dry events for Yunnan. Meanwhile, trend analyses of the 10 year return levels of the selected indices implied that the severity of droughts decreased in Yunnan but increased significantly in Guangxi and Guizhou, and the severity of floods increased in Yunnan and Guangxi in the past decades. Hence, the policy-makers need to be aware of the different characterizations and the spatial heterogeneity of the precipitation extremes. (letters)

  10. Cost-effectiveness of rotavirus vaccination in Kenya and Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigei, Charles; Odaga, John; Mvundura, Mercy; Madrid, Yvette; Clark, Andrew David

    2015-05-07

    Rotavirus vaccines have the potential to prevent a substantial amount of life-threatening gastroenteritis in young African children. This paper presents the results of prospective cost-effectiveness analyses for rotavirus vaccine introduction for Kenya and Uganda. In each country, a national consultant worked with a national technical working group to identify appropriate data and validate study results. Secondary data on demographics, disease burden, health utilization, and costs were used to populate the TRIVAC cost-effectiveness model. The baseline analysis assumed an initial vaccine price of $0.20 per dose, corresponding to Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance stipulated copay for low-income countries. The incremental cost-effectiveness of a 2-dose rotavirus vaccination schedule was evaluated for 20 successive birth cohorts from the government perspective in both countries, and from the societal perspective in Uganda. Between 2014 and 2033, rotavirus vaccination can avert approximately 60,935 and 216,454 undiscounted deaths and hospital admissions respectively in children under 5 years in Kenya. In Uganda, the respective number of undiscounted deaths and hospital admission averted is 70,236 and 329,779 between 2016 and 2035. Over the 20-year period, the discounted vaccine program costs are around US$ 80 million in Kenya and US$ 60 million in Uganda. Discounted government health service costs avoided are US$ 30 million in Kenya and US$ 10 million in Uganda (or US$ 18 million including household costs). The cost per disability-adjusted life-year (DALY) averted from a government perspective is US$ 38 in Kenya and US$ 34 in Uganda (US$ 29 from a societal perspective). Rotavirus vaccine introduction is highly cost-effective in both countries in a range of plausible 'what-if' scenarios. The involvement of national experts improves the quality of data used, is likely to increase acceptability of the results in decision-making, and can contribute to strengthened national

  11. Fusarium verticillioides from finger millet in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Amgad A; Esele, J P; Logrieco, Antonio; Ritieni, Alberto; Leslie, John F

    2012-01-01

    Finger millet (Eleusine coracana) is a subsistence crop grown in Sub-Saharan Africa and the Indian Sub-continent. Fusarium species occurring on this crop have not been reported. Approximately 13% of the Fusarium isolates recovered from finger millet growing at three different locations in eastern Uganda belong to Fusarium verticillioides, and could produce up to 18,600 µg/g of total fumonisins when cultured under laboratory conditions. These strains are all genetically unique, based on AFLP analyses, and form fertile perithecia when crossed with the standard mating type tester strains for this species. All but one of the strains is female-fertile and mating-type segregates 13:20 Mat-1:Mat-2. Three new sequences of the gene encoding translation elongation factor 1-α were found within the population. These results indicate a potential health risk for infants who consume finger millet gruel as a weaning food, and are consistent with the hypothesis that F. verticillioides originated in Africa and not in the Americas, despite its widespread association with maize grown almost anywhere worldwide.

  12. The politics of mother tongue education: The case of Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ssentanda, Medadi Erisa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to explain the trend of mother tongue (MT education in Uganda by examining particularly government’s practices towards MT education. MT education was (reintroduced in Uganda in 2006/2007 due to disappointing literacy acquisition by learners with the hope of improving literacy skills among particularly rural children. Based on data gathered from rural government and private schools in rural areas, this paper questions what exactly it is that government seeks to reclaim, restore and/or rejuvenate in Uganda’s education system via MT education.

  13. Translating health research evidence into policy and practice in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mbonye, Anthony K; Magnussen, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    Uganda experiences a high disease burden of malaria, infectious and non-communicable diseases. Recent data shows that malaria is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among all age groups, while HIV prevalence is on the increase and there is re-emergence of viral haemorrhagic fevers and ch...... and cholera epidemics. In order to respond to the above situation, a team of researchers, policy makers, civil society and the media was formed in order to build a collaboration that would help in discussing appropriate strategies to mitigate the high disease burden in Uganda....

  14. Persistent shift of Calanus spp. in the south-western Norwegian Sea since 2003, linked to ocean climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Inga; Gaard, Eilif; Hátún, Hjalmar

    2016-01-01

    The southwestern Norwegian Sea is characterized by an inflow of warm and saline Atlantic water from the southwest and cold and less saline East IcelandicWater (EIW), of Arctic origin, from the northwest. These two water masses meet and form the Iceland-Faroe Front (IFF). In this region, the copep...... on the ecosystem and pelagic fish in this subpolar Atlantic region under expected climate change...

  15. Tree communities of lowland warm-temperate old-growth and neighboring shelterbelt forests in the Shikoku region of southwestern Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigeo Kuramoto; Shigenori Oshioka; Takahisa Hirayama; Kaori Sato; Yasumasa Hirata

    2007-01-01

    We characterized the tree species composition of a 30 ha old-growth and neighboring shelterbelt (reserved buffer strips among conifer plantations) in warm-temperate forests in the Shikoku region of southwestern Japan. Using a two-way indicator species analysis of data from 28 plots, we identified four structural groups in terms of relative basal area. These structural...

  16. Abolition of user fees: the Uganda paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabyonga Orem, Juliet; Mugisha, Frederick; Kirunga, Christine; Macq, Jean; Criel, Bart

    2011-11-01

    Inadequate health financing is one of the major challenges health systems in low-income countries currently face. Health financing reforms are being implemented with an increasing interest in policies that abolish user fees. Data from three nationally representative surveys conducted in Uganda in 1999/2000, 2002/03 and 2005/06 were used to investigate the impact of user fee abolition on the attainment of universal coverage objectives. An increase in illness reporting was noted over the three surveys, especially among the poorer quintiles. An increase in utilization was registered in the period immediately following the abolition of user fees and was most pronounced in the poorest quintile. Overall, there was an increase in utilization in both public and private health care delivery sectors, but only at clinic and health centre level, not at hospitals. Our study shows important changes in health-care-seeking behaviour. In 2002/03, the poorest population quintile started using government health centres more often than private clinics whereas in 1999/2000 private clinics were the main source of health care. The richest quintile has increasingly used private clinics. Overall, it appears that the private sector remains a significant source of health care. Following abolition of user fees, we note an increase in the use of lower levels of care with subsequent reductions in use of hospitals. Total annual average expenditures on health per household remained fairly stable between the 1999/2000 and 2002/03 surveys. There was, however, an increase of US$21 in expenditure between the 2002/03 and 2005/06 surveys. Abolition of user fees improved access to health services and efficiency in utilization. On the negative side is the fact that financial protection is yet to be achieved. Out-of-pocket expenditure remains high and mainly affects the poorer population quintiles. A dual system seems to have emerged where wealthier population groups are switching to the private sector.

  17. Multilingual Cultural Resources in Child-Headed Families in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namazzi, Elizabeth; Kendrick, Maureen E.

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on a study focusing on the use of multilingual cultural resources in child-headed households (CHHs) in Uganda's Rakai District. Using funds of knowledge and sociocultural perspectives on children's learning, we documented through ethnographic observations and interviews how children in four CHHs used multilingual cultural…

  18. Observations on the Distribution and Ecology of Bats in Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bat community patterns in Uganda are examined in relation to their occurrence in the different vegetation zones of the country. The data available so far cover only three of the country's floristic regions. These data suggest that the northern drier region U1 has more microchiropteran bats and that species diversity of ...

  19. Information and technology: Improving food security in Uganda ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2014-06-23

    Jun 23, 2014 ... Information and technology: Improving food security in Uganda ... knowledge to make decisions about planting, harvesting, and managing livestock, but ... to be effective for minimizing risks and increasing agricultural productivity. ... In time, this network of information – made possible by digital technology ...

  20. Food availability and livelihood strategies among rural households across Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wichern, Jannike; Wijk, van Mark T.; Descheemaeker, Katrien; Frelat, Romain; Asten, van Piet J.A.; Giller, Ken E.

    2017-01-01

    Despite continuing economic growth, Uganda faces persistent challenges to achieve food security. The effectiveness of policy and development strategies to help rural households achieve food security must improve. We present a novel approach to relate spatial patterns of food security to livelihood

  1. Integrating mental health into primary health care – Uganda's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    demographic and health indicators.1 The data showed a high growth rate in excess of 3% ... an integrated form with all other health care needs including promotive and ... In 1999 the government of Uganda (Ministry of Health) developed a ten .... The usual drug procurement system was strengthened with a special project.

  2. Reemerging Sudan Ebola Virus Disease in Uganda, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, Trevor; Balinandi, Stephen; Campbell, Shelley; Wamala, Joseph Francis; McMullan, Laura K.; Downing, Robert; Lutwama, Julius; Mbidde, Edward; Ströher, Ute; Rollin, Pierre E.; Nichol, Stuart T.

    2012-01-01

    Two large outbreaks of Ebola hemorrhagic fever occurred in Uganda in 2000 and 2007. In May 2011, we identified a single case of Sudan Ebola virus disease in Luwero District. The establishment of a permanent in-country laboratory and cooperation between international public health entities facilitated rapid outbreak response and control activities. PMID:22931687

  3. Higher Education Research in Uganda: Problems and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owoeye, J. S.; Oyebade, S. A.

    2010-01-01

    Research is regarded as essential for development and the application of new knowledge for the benefit of society. Higher education in Uganda has expanded rapidly in the last 20 years. Universities have become the most important institutions in the achievement of national and international goals in enhancing the quality of life, wealth creation,…

  4. All projects related to Uganda | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Project. This project examines employment creation for youth and women in Africa, focusing on small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in the tourism sector. Region: Mauritius, Tanzania, Uganda. Program: Employment and Growth. Total Funding: CA$ 646,600.00. Why don't they fight: A study to examine youth responses to ...

  5. Immunization Status and Child Survival in Uganda Edward Bbaale1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    under-five mortality rate is 90 per 1,000 live births. ... 46% to 52% but still below the worldwide target of 90% (Uganda Bureau of Statistics. (UBOS) and ICF ... detrimental child-survival effects of parental poverty and low educational attainment.

  6. Banana (Musa spp.) Production Characteristics and Performance in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bagamba, F.; Burger, C.P.J.; Tushemereirwe, W.K.

    2010-01-01

    The highland cooking banana (Musa spp., AAA-EA genome) is the most important crop in the East African Great Lakes region. In Uganda, production has expanded and productivity increased in the country’s southwest and declined in the Central region where the crop has traditional roots. Analyzing crop

  7. (Liberibacter spp.) associated with citrus greening disease in Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Citrus is one of the largest fruit crops grown in Uganda ... of several citrus industries in Asia and. Africa (da Graca ... role in transmission of HLB, psyllid feeding ... The Indian Ocean islands of Reunion and ..... Pacific Grove, California: Duxbury ...

  8. Abortion in Uganda: Magnitude and Implications | Mbonye | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to assess the status of safe motherhood in Uganda. A total of 97 health units, 30 hospitals, and 67 lower health units were included in the sample. Altogether, 335,682 deliveries, 302 maternal deaths, and 2,978 abortions were documented over a period of one year, with a computed abortion ratio ...

  9. Domestic violence in Gulu, Northern Uganda | Kitara | East and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: When guns fell silent in the post conflict northern Uganda, another form of physical injuries has come in place, Domestic Violence also commonly referred to as Gender based violence. This injury from violence leading to physical trauma is one of the leading public health problems in this region. We describe ...

  10. Addressing HIV/AIDS challenges in Uganda: does social capital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In addition, the success is attributed to the policy which allowed many actors to participate in the fight against the disease. The primary focus of this article is to map the process of social capital generation by NGOs and how social capital benefits enhance mitigation of HIV/AIDS challenges in Uganda. The key to social capital ...

  11. Is health care financing in Uganda equitable? | Zikusooka | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Uganda's health sector remains significantly under-funded, mainly relying on private sources of financing, especially out-of-pocket spending. At 9.6 % of total government expenditure, public spending on health is far below the Abuja target of 15% that GoU committed to. Prepayments form a small proportion of ...

  12. A Situational Analysis of Priority Disaster Hazards in Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Poverty, gender, lack of information, and lack of resilience measures were some of the factors promoting vulnerability to disasters. Conclusion: As Uganda develops a disaster risk reduction and response plan, it ought to prioritize epidemics of infectious diseases, drought/famine, conflicts and environmental degradation as ...

  13. Perceptions of risk to HIV Infection among Adolescents in Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using data from the 2004 National Survey of Adolescents, multivariate logistic regression models were fitted to examine the strength of the association between risky sexual behavior and perceived risk among 12-19-year-old adolescents in Uganda. After controlling for other correlates of sexual behavior such as age, ...

  14. Gender and age disparities in adult undernutrition in northern Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schramm, Stine; Kaducu, Felix Ocaka; Aas Smedemark, Siri

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of adult malnutrition and associated risk factors in a post-conflict area of northern Uganda. METHODS: A cross-sectional community survey was performed from September 2011 to June 2013. All registered residents in Gulu Health and Demographic Surveillance...

  15. Uganda Journal of Agricultural Sciences - Vol 4, No 1 (1999)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Serosurvey of Brucella abortus in cattle and goats in central and southern Uganda · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. J Nakavuma, T. Kibirige Ssebunya, J. Opuda Asibo, 13-18 ...

  16. Deprivation, HIV and AIDS in Northern Uganda | Atekyereza ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Significantly, with resettlement after the war, most people are still deprived of basic source of livelihood, which still continues as a factor in the spread of HIV infection. Key Words: HIV & AIDS, Deprivation, Susceptibility, Vulnerability, Deaths, IDP camps, Northern Uganda, Paimol, Pader. Résumé. Cette étude se concentre ...

  17. Prevalence of child injuries in Mbale region, Eastern Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The rate of unintentional child injuries in sub-Saharan Africa is at 53.1 per 100,000, The highest for low income regions, data on these injuries and associated factors among children in Uganda is very scanty. Most child injuries are related to the way of life in rural communities typically burns from charcoal ...

  18. Beyond ICT4D: new media research in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lovink, G.

    2011-01-01

    Beyond ICT4D: New Media Research in Uganda is a collection of ethnographic reports from diverse perspectives of those living at the other end of the African ICT pyramid. Crucially, these texts refocus on the so-called "ICT4D" debate away from the standard western lens, which depicts users in the

  19. The print media and conflict resolution in Northern Uganda | Acayo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article reviews the role of the print media in conflict resolution. Using Northern Uganda as a case study, the article seeks to demonstrate that the press can effectively be used either to fuel conflict in a region or to reduce conflict in a region. The article seeks to demonstrate the role played by the print media in conflict and ...

  20. Incidence of Cleft Lip and Palate in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dreise, Marieke; Galiwango, George; Hodges, Andrew

    Objective: The purpose of the study was to estimate the need for resources for cleft repairs in Uganda by determining the overall incidence of oral-facial clefts and the ratio of isolated cleft lip to isolated cleft palate to cleft lip and palate. Design: A 1-year prospective study was implemented

  1. Surgical reconstruction of Northern Uganda war victims. | Kalanzi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Aid groups estimate that since 1086 when the war conflicts in Northern Uganda started, over 30,000 people have died in the insurgency and over 20,000 people have remained maimed. Arising from the conflict, innocent civilians have had their limbs, lips, eyes, ears, noses, breasts, fingers and toes cut off.

  2. Building a vibrant library association: the case of Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In recent years ULA has emphasized advocacy, and contributed to progress towards new legislation (freedom of information, copyright, the National Library Act) and policies (school libraries, East African Community e-government strategy) of importance to the library and information field in Uganda and beyond.

  3. Proportion of patients in the Uganda rheumatic heart disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proportion of patients in the Uganda rheumatic heart disease registry with advanced ... of Cardiology guidelines on the management of valvular heart disease. ... disease that require surgical treatment yet they cannot access this therapy due to ... By Country · List All Titles · Free To Read Titles This Journal is Open Access.

  4. Uganda Journal of Agricultural Sciences - Vol 14, No 1 (2013)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anthelmintic efficacy of Albendazole, Levamisole and Ivermectin against gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infections in goats on natural pastures in Gomba District, Uganda · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. G Nsereko, P Emudong, JW Magona, ...

  5. Predictors of Home Deliveries in Rakai District, Uganda | Nuwaha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to identify independent predictors for home delivery, 211 women from 21 clusters, who had a delivery in the previous one year, were interviewed in Rakai District, Uganda, from June 2 to 30, 1997. Mothers answered questions regarding socio-economic, local, reproductive and self-efficacy variables and whether ...

  6. Outcome of patients undergoing open heart surgery at the Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An approach in which open heart surgeries are conducted locally by visiting teams enabling skills transfer to the local team and helps build to build capacity has been adopted at the Uganda Heart Institute (UHI). Objectives: We reviewed the progress of open heart surgery at the UHI and evaluated the postoperative ...

  7. Decentralisation in Africa: A critical review of Uganda's experience ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since the rise to power of the Movement government under the leadership of Yoweri Museveni in 1986, Uganda has largely been show-cased as an emerging democracy on the continent. Among other things, Museveni's regime has been acclaimed for the restoration of periodic national elections, the making of the ...

  8. An Arabic creole in Africa : the Nubi language of Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellens, Inneke Hilda Werner

    2003-01-01

    At present, about 25,000 Nubi live scattered over the towns of Uganda and Kenya. Their language, Nubi, has been called an Arabic creole. Nubi is Arabic, since about 90% of its vocabulary is of Arabic nature. It is termed a creole, since many of its structural and developmental features resemble

  9. land use and cover change in pastoral systems of uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    African Crop Science Journal, Vol. 22, Issue ... Bulindi Zonal Agricultural Research and Development Institute, P. O. Box 101, Hoima, Uganda .... latitudes 0o 57' 44.89" and 1o 40' 42.76" North and ..... Percent of small East African goat in herd.

  10. Conservation of biodiversity in the Sango Bay area, southern Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A series of biodiversity and socio-economic surveys carried out in the Sango Bay area of southern Uganda revealed high biodiversity values for some taxa in some sites. Use of this biodiversity and reliance on it by local communities was widespread. Biodiversity scores were given to all species and these were coupled with ...

  11. Professional integrity of teachers in Uganda : Practical action strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wabule, Alice

    2017-01-01

    The study analyses the problem of professional integrity of teachers in Uganda and explores solutions. It analyses the difficult conditions under which Ugandan teachers work, reports on the professional dilemmas that they face, and on the serious issues of failings of professional integrity. The

  12. Uganda : tous les projets | Page 4 | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Date de début : 16 août 2010. End Date: 22 octobre 2014. Sujet: INCOME GENERATION, Food security, AGRICULTURAL RESOURCES, RESOURCES MANAGEMENT, PASTORALISTS, HEALTH HAZARDS, DISEASE VECTORS. Région: Africa, South of Sahara, Uganda. Programme: Alimentation, environnement et santé.

  13. Birds of isolated small forests in Uganda | Dranzoa | Scopus: Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is also a strong indication of species turnover amongst the forest interior birds in these forests. The fact that, together and over time these small forests supported 37 forest interior species, suggests that, collectively, small forests (of which there are many in Uganda) do have conservation value. The evidence of species ...

  14. Can protected areas work in artisanal fisheries of Uganda? The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries Management agitates for provision of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) which seem to be effective in developed countries. However, efforts to control artisanal fisheries through protection have not been adequately assessed. The Uganda portion of Lake Edward, Kazinga channel and ...

  15. WEED FLORA OF CASSAVA IN WEST NILE ZONES OF UGANDA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Information on weeds of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) in eastern Africa is limited. The objective of this study was to establish the status of weed flora in selected cassava growing regions of Uganda. This study was conducted in 2013 at Abi Zonal Agricultural Research and Development Institute; (AbiZARDI) in Arua, ...

  16. CASE STUDY: Kampala, Uganda — From the ground up: Urban ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2006-04-21

    Apr 21, 2006 ... English · Français ... CASE STUDY: Kampala, Uganda — From the ground up: Urban ... Azuba has used this kind of evidence to convert more than one ... a bottomup approach was needed to draft ordinances that would work.

  17. Providing Sanitation for the Urban Poor in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okot-Okumu, J.; Oosterveer, P.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    After presenting background information on urbanization in Uganda, the chapter provides an overview of sanitation in the urban centres, where different social classes reside in separate zones. Factors determining sanitation provision and the use of sanitary facilities particularly in the informal

  18. A case report: the first successful cochlear implant in Uganda.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A case report: the first successful cochlear implant in Uganda. Richard Byaruhanga1, J. ... The patient was a 23 year old male whose presenting com- plaint was inability to .... Custom Sound by Cochlear (the company that manu- factures the ...

  19. Implications of Black Coffee Twig Borer on cocoa in Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    2014a,b). This pest thus poses a serious threat to both coffee and cocoa production in Uganda, and therefore, calls for prompt comprehensive mitigation actions (Kagezi et al., 2013a,b, 2014a,b,c,d). Damage is caused by the female beetle by boring a characteristic pin-sized entry hole into the attacked seedlings and/or.

  20. Grey Parrots Psittacus erithacus in Kampala, Uganda – are they ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The globally Vulnerable Grey Parrot (Psittacus erithacus) has been seen in Kampala, Uganda's capital city, in increasing numbers in recent years. This apparently new behaviour of a typically forest species is helped by the presence of many large trees, which provide roosting and nesting sites, and fruiting trees where they ...

  1. December2004 Results of Triple Arthrodesis in Uganda.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2004-12-02

    Dec 2, 2004 ... Background: In Uganda, foot deformities of various kinds and complexities are common. The aim of this study was to evaluate ... Conclusion: In the developing world triple arthrodesis still has a role to play in treatment of feet deformities. The results ... on flat ground, high stepping gait, moderate deformity ...

  2. Discourse on the values transmitted in universities Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study delved into the values transmitted in Universities in Uganda. Data were collected from a sample of 850 respondents who were drawn from faith-based, for–profit and public universities in the country. It was found that material, social/ public, personal and religious values are transmitted to students in the selected ...

  3. Adult Undernutrition in Rural Post-conflict Northern Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schramm, Stine; Sodemann, Morten

    2017-01-01

    This chapter outlines the prevalence and high-risk groups for adult undernutrition and discusses the social, behavioral, and structural mechanisms that can lead to food insecurity and undernutrition in a post-conflict setting like northern Uganda. In summary, adult undernutrition is higher in the...

  4. Mis ikkagi teeb Eestist Uganda? / Marja-Liisa Alop

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alop, Marja-Liisa

    2006-01-01

    Eesti üliõpilaskondade liidu juhatuse aseesimees M.-L. Alop kirjutab vastuse M. Heidmetsa artiklile 6. jaan. Eesti Päevalehes "Eestis nagu Ugandas", kus tõstatati Eestis üldise õppemaksu kehtestamise vajadus, mis vähendab vähem kindlustatute võimalusi kõrgharidust omandada

  5. A mixed methods approach to prioritizing components of Uganda's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this manuscript we explored the priorities of various eHealth stakeholders in Uganda to inform the eHealth policy review process. ... standard (31 postings), leadership and governance (22 postings), strategic planning (21 postings), infrastructure(14 postings), financial management (2 postings) and others (6 postings).

  6. Genetic analysis of Resistance to Rice Bacterial blight in Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A full-diallel mating design involving three resistant and three susceptible rice cultivars was used to produce F1 and F2 progenies in a screen-house at the National Crop Resources Research Institute (NaCRRI), Namulonge in Uganda. The parents and F2 populations were challenged with the Xanthomonas oryzae ...

  7. Gastric cancer diagnosis and treatment guidelines 2008: Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Uganda most cancers to the exception of bladder and penis are increasing in incidence. The incidence of cancer of stomach is 5.6/100,000 from 0.8/100,000 in the 1960s a seven fold increase.The purpose of this guideline document is to highlight the salient points in gastric cancer diagnosis and treatment in the ...

  8. Landuse/Cover Change Trend in Soroti District Eastern Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed the extent and trend of landuse/cover change in Soroti District, Uganda. A series of systematically corrected Orthorectified Landsat imageries of 1973, 1986 and 2001 were downloaded from the Landsat website. The images were analysed using unsupervised classification approach and the land-use/ ...

  9. Self-reported sexual behaviour among adolescent girls in Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Information about risk factors revealed in individual interviews and by the midwives taking a history was incongruent. Any approach for management of STIs, which is built on self-reported risk factors, needs careful assessment of reliability. Keywords: Adolescents, Risk factors, reliability, STI, Uganda

  10. uganda : tous les projets | Page 7 | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sujet: INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY, ACCESS TO INFORMATION, ELECTRONIC PUBLISHING. Région: Uganda, South Africa, South of Sahara. Financement total : CA$ 364,627.00. Droits d'auteur et accès au savoir en Afrique. Projet. Le débat actuel sur les politiques visant la propriété intellectuelle et sur l'incidence de ...

  11. Transitional justice and gender in Uganda: Making peace, failing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to document women's experiences of the armed conflict in Uganda and women's .... Lobbying and advocacy to address structural inequalities and gendered .... women on the ground were asking us as a Coalition how the method would address .... comprehensive solutions): Women's concerns and the Juba peace process.

  12. Using biodiversity data to review coverage of Uganda's protected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper seeks to demonstrate the usefulness of the data held at the National Biodiversity Data Bank (NBDB) situated at Makerere University Institute of Environment and Natural Resources (MUIENR). We assess its value as a potential planning tool, based on the growing evidence that Uganda aspires to a robust ...

  13. among People Receiving Antiretroviral Treatment in Western Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, we use survey (n=87) and interview (n=30) data to investigate orientations towards future childbearing among people receiving antiretroviral treatment and their family members in western Uganda. We investigate how reproductive options are perceived, by those receiving treatment and those closest to them, ...

  14. Participatory policy development for integrated watershed management in Uganda's highlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mutekanga, F.P.

    2012-01-01

    Soil erosion is a serious problem in the densely populated Uganda highlands and previous interventions were ineffective. This study, on the Ngenge watershed, Mount Elgon, was aimed at developing policy for the implementation of a new strategy for solving the problem, Integrated Watershed

  15. Recent advances in coffee berry disease (CBD) control in Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Waller & Bridge) attacks arabic a coffee in most African arabica coffee growing countries. The disease was first recorded in Uganda in 1959 and surveys on the disease indicated that up to 50% crop losses were being incurred. Most of the ...

  16. Butterflies of Uganda: Memories of a child soldier | Dahms | Scientia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scientia Militaria: South African Journal of Military Studies. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 40, No 2 (2012) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Butterflies of Uganda: Memories ...

  17. Thyroid Dysfunction among Young Adults in Uganda | Galukande ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thyroid Dysfunction among Young Adults in Uganda. ... The mean age of participants was 23 years, there were slightly more males 1.3:1. ... The prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in this cohort was low but falls in the range found elsewhere.

  18. Cambrian trilobites with Siberian affinities, southwestern Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, A.R.; Egbert, R.M.; Sullivan, R.; Knoth, J.S.

    1985-02-01

    Cambrian trilobites occur in two levels (about 7 m apart) in the core of a large, complex anticlinal structure in the area between the Taylor Mountains and the Hoholitna River in southwestern Alaska. The lower collection contains Erbia, Macannaia (a species close to Soviet forms described as Pagetia ferox Lermontova), two species of Kootenia (including one perhaps cospecific with forms from the central Brooks range), and several species of ptychoparioid trilobites. It is clear that biogeographic affinities are with the transitional facies of the eastern Siberian platform and the south Siberian foldbelt. In Soviet terms, the age of the collection falls in a disputed interval called latest Early Cambrian (Tojonian) by some authors, and earliest Middle Cambrian (Amgan) by others. In North American terms, Macannaia is known only from early Middle Cambrian beds. The younger collection contains abundant agnostids, a variety of conocoryphids, Paradoxides, and several species of ptychoparioid trilobites. This is an assemblage of undoubted late Middle Cambrian age, comparable to faunas described from the Maya State of the Siberian platform and the Paradoxides paradoxissimus Stage of the Baltic region. Both faunas are from ocean-facing or outer shelf environments. None of the key non-agnostid or non-pagetiid elements have been seen previously in deposits of Cambrian North America.

  19. Household and familial resemblance in risk factors for type 2 diabetes and related cardiometabolic diseases in rural Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jannie; Bahendeka, Silver K.; Whyte, Susan R.

    2017-01-01

    prevention and screening, we investigated the resemblance of T2D risk factors at household level and by type of familial dyadic relationship in a rural Ugandan community. Methods: This cross-sectional household-based study included 437 individuals ≥13 years of age from 90 rural households in south......-western Uganda. Resemblance in glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c), anthropometry, blood pressure, fitness status and sitting time were analysed using a general mixed model with random effects (by household or dyad) to calculate household intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and dyadic regression coefficients...... (ICC=0.24), HbA1c (ICC=0.18) and systolic blood pressure (ICC=0.11). Regarding dyadic resemblance, the highest standardised regression coefficient was seen in fitness status for spouses (0.54, 95% CI 0.32 to 0.76), parent–offspring (0.41, 95% CI 0.28 0.54) and siblings (0.41, 95% CI 0.25 to 0...

  20. "Helping my neighbour is like giving a loan…" -the role of social relations in chronic illness in rural Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amurwon, Jovita; Hajdu, Flora; Yiga, Dominic Bukenya; Seeley, Janet

    2017-11-09

    Understanding individuals' experience of accessing care and tending to various other needs during chronic illness in a rural context is important for health systems aiming to increase access to healthcare and protect poor populations from unreasonable financial hardship. This study explored the impact on households of access to free healthcare and how they managed to meet needs during chronic illness. Rich data from the life stories of individuals from 22 households in rural south-western Uganda collected in 2009 were analysed. The data revealed that individuals and households depend heavily on their social relations in order to meet their needs during illness, including accessing the free healthcare and maintaining vital livelihood activities. The life stories illustrated ways in which households draw upon social relations to achieve the broader social protection necessary to prevent expenses becoming catastrophic, but also demonstrated the uncertainty in relying solely on informal relations. Improving access to healthcare in a rural context greatly depends on broader social protection. Thus, the informal social protection that already exists in the form of strong reciprocal social relations must be acknowledged, supported and included in health policy planning.

  1. Past, Present, and Future of Neurosurgery in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haglund, Michael M; Warf, Benjamin; Fuller, Anthony; Freischlag, Kyle; Muhumuza, Michael; Ssenyonjo, Hussein; Mukasa, John; Mugamba, John; Kiryabwire, Joel

    2017-04-01

    Neurosurgery in Uganda was virtually non-existent up until late 1960s. This changed when Dr. Jovan Kiryabwire spearheaded development of a neurosurgical unit at Mulago Hospital in Kampala. His work ethic and vision set the stage for rapid expansion of neurosurgical care in Uganda.At the beginning of the 2000s, Uganda was a country of nearly 30 million people, but had only 4 neurosurgeons. Neurosurgery's progress was plagued by challenges faced by many developing countries, such as difficulty retaining specialists, lack of modern hospital resources, and scarce training facilities. To combat these challenges 2 distinct programs were launched: 1 by Dr. Benjamin Warf in collaboration with CURE International, and the other by Dr. Michael Haglund from Duke University. Dr. Warf's program focused on establishing a facility for pediatric neurosurgery. Dr. Haglund's program to increase neurosurgical capacity was founded on a "4 T's Paradigm": Technology, Twinning, Training, and Top-Down. Embedded within this paradigm was the notion that Uganda needed to train its own people to become neurosurgeons, and thus Duke helped establish the country's first neurosurgery residency training program.Efforts from overseas, including the tireless work of Dr. Benjamin Warf, have saved thousands of children's lives. The influx of the Duke Program caused a dynamic shift at Mulago Hospital with dramatic effects, as evidenced by the substantial increase in neurosurgical capacity. The future looks bright for neurosurgery in Uganda and it all traces back to a rural village where 1 man had a vision to help the people of his country. Copyright © 2017 by the Congress of Neurological Surgeons.

  2. Ebola hemorrhagic fever associated with novel virus strain, Uganda, 2007-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamala, Joseph F; Lukwago, Luswa; Malimbo, Mugagga; Nguku, Patrick; Yoti, Zabulon; Musenero, Monica; Amone, Jackson; Mbabazi, William; Nanyunja, Miriam; Zaramba, Sam; Opio, Alex; Lutwama, Julius J; Talisuna, Ambrose O; Okware, Sam I

    2010-07-01

    During August 2007-February 2008, the novel Bundibugyo ebolavirus species was identified during an outbreak of Ebola viral hemorrhagic fever in Bundibugyo district, western Uganda. To characterize the outbreak as a requisite for determining response, we instituted a case-series investigation. We identified 192 suspected cases, of which 42 (22%) were laboratory positive for the novel species; 74 (38%) were probable, and 77 (40%) were negative. Laboratory confirmation lagged behind outbreak verification by 3 months. Bundibugyo ebolavirus was less fatal (case-fatality rate 34%) than Ebola viruses that had caused previous outbreaks in the region, and most transmission was associated with handling of dead persons without appropriate protection (adjusted odds ratio 3.83, 95% confidence interval 1.78-8.23). Our study highlights the need for maintaining a high index of suspicion for viral hemorrhagic fevers among healthcare workers, building local capacity for laboratory confirmation of viral hemorrhagic fevers, and institutionalizing standard precautions.

  3. Assessing catastrophic and impoverishing effects of health care payments in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Kwesiga, Brendan; Zikusooka, Charlotte M; Ataguba, John E

    2015-01-01

    Background Direct out-of-pocket payments for health care are recognised as limiting access to health care services and also endangering the welfare of households. In Uganda, such payments comprise a large portion of total health financing. This study assesses the catastrophic and impoverishing impact of paying for health care out-of-pocket in Uganda. Methods Using data from the Uganda National Household Surveys 2009/10, the catastrophic impact of out-of-pocket health care payments is defined ...

  4. Qualitative evaluation of the Teenage Mothers Project in Uganda: a community-based empowerment intervention for unmarried teenage mothers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leerlooijer, J.N.; Bos, A.E.R.; Ruiter, R.A.C.; Reeuwijk, van M.A.J.; Rijsdijk, E.; Nshakira, N.; Kok, G.

    2013-01-01

    Background A large proportion of unmarried teenage mothers in Uganda face physical, psychological, and social problems after pregnancy and childbirth, such as obstetric complications, lack of education, and stigmatisation in their communities. The Teenage Mothers Project (TMP) in Eastern Uganda

  5. Seismic fabric and 3-D structure of the southwestern intracontinental Palmyride fold belt, Syria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaimov, T.A.; Barazangi, M. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)); Al-Saad, D.; Sawaf, T.; Khaddour, M. (Ministry of Petroleum and Mineral Resources, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic))

    1993-12-01

    The Palmyride fold belt, a 400 x 100 km transpressive belt in central Syria that is the northeastern arm of the Syrian arc, is the result of late Mesozoic and Cenozoic inversion of a late Paleozoic and Mesozoic, northeast-trending, linear intracontinental basin located within the northern Arabian platform. The southwestern Palmyrides, near the Dead Sea transform fault system and the Anti-Lebanon mountains, are characterized by short wavelength (5--10 km) en echelon folds separated by small intermontane basins that developed mainly in the Neogene to Holocene. A new three-dimensional data cube, 60 x 70 x 10 km, generated on a Landmark Graphics workstation and based on approximately 700 km of two-dimensional seismic reflection profiles, elucidates the structure of the upper 10 km of the crust in the southwestern Palmyrides. Visualization of the subsurface structure, which is represented by a prominent Upper Cretaceous reflection surface in the data cube, is augmented by topographical and Bouguer gravity data of the same region. Preexisting discontinuities, probable normal fault relicts of the Mesozoic Palmyride rift, likely controlled the development of individual Neogene thrusts. The new subsurface image shows important structural features not identified in outcrop. Short, west-northwest-trending transcurrent (or transfer) faults like the short, en echelon northeast-trending thrust faults and blind thrusts of the Palmyrides. A pervasive regional decollment is not observed, even though Triassic evaporites host local detachments. Unlike topographic relief, which only roughly resembles subsurface structures, the Bouguer gravity signature of the southwestern Palmyrides closely mimics underlying shallow geologic structures both on a large ([approximately]50 km wavelength) and a small ([approximately]5--10 km wavelength) scale. The structural analysis and many other recent studies of the region indicate minor right-lateral shear coupled with compression in the Palmyrides.

  6. Seven Global Goals. 2013 annual report, Southwestern Power Administration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-09-01

    For over 70 years, Southwestern has marketed and delivered reliable, renewable, and affordable hydropower, partnering with Federal power stakeholders and others in the industry to make sure the lights stay on. This kind of effective, efficient, and cost conscious operation is made possible only by hard work and dedication. Southwestern employees work individually and as a team to meet seven comprehensive agency goals that touch on all aspects of the agency’s operations. Dubbed the “Seven Global Goals” by Administrator Chris Turner, these objectives identify specific, measurable targets that support Southwestern’s mission and reinforce its responsibilities toward its customers and the Nation.

  7. Southwestern Avian Community Organization in Exotic Tamarix: Current Patterns and Future Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. A. Walker

    2006-01-01

    Tamarisk (saltcedar: Tamarix), an invasive exotic tree native to the Eastern Hemisphere, is currently the dominant plant species in most southwestern riparian ecosystems at elevations below 1500 m. Tamarisk alters abiotic conditions and the floral composition of native southwestern riparian ecosystems and, in turn, affects native southwestern animal communities....

  8. The energy behind the power. Southwestern Power Administration 1994 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    This is the Southwestern Power Administration 1994 annual report. The topics of the report include a letter to the secretary; an overview including the mission statement, a description of the Southwestern Federal Power System, financial statement, performance measurements, national performance review; year in review, summary of results, financial and statistical data and the Southwestern Power Administration Organization.

  9. Floods of December 1966 in southwestern Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Elmer; Mundorff, J.C.

    1970-01-01

    Severe floods occurred in parts of southwestern Utah on December 5-6, 1966, as a result of precipitation of about 1 inch to more than 12 inches during December 3-6. The flood on the Virgin River was the greatest since the first settlers arrived in 1860.The peak discharge of the Virgin River at Virgin, Utah, was 22,830 cubic feet per second on December 6; this exceeded the previous maximum discharge of 13,500 cubic feet per second on March 3, 1938, and September 17, 1961, and probably has a recurrence interval of 100 years. At eight other gage sites in the flood area, the peak discharge in December 1966 was the highest of record; the recurrence intervals of some of the peak discharges may be 100 years. The flood peaks were generally of short duration and most streams receded to near base flow within 24 hours.The dissolved-solids content was significantly lower in the Virgin River at Virgin than at St. George, about 25 miles downstream; the water was of the calcium sulfate type at both sites. Data for the Santa Clara River above Winsor Dam and the Santa Clara River near Santa Clara show a significant increase in dissolved solids between the two sites. The water above Winsor Dam was of the calcium bicarbonate type, and the water near Santa Clara was of the calcium bicarbonate sulfate type.The suspended-sediment discharge, during the period December 5-8, 1966, at Santa Clara River above Winsor Dam, near Santa Clara was about foyer times greater than all the suspended-sediment discharge during the preceding 3 years ; the suspended-sediment discharge of the Virgin River at Virgin was greater during the 4-day period than during any one of the preceding 3 years.Nearly all the flood damage in the area occurred in the Virgin River basin. According to the Soil Conservation Service, total damage in the Dixie Soil Conservation District in Washington County was about $835,000; 60 percent of the damage was caused by floodwater and 40 percent by deposited sediment.

  10. Patterns of Human Plague in Uganda, 2008-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, Joseph D; Apangu, Titus; Griffith, Kevin; Acayo, Sarah; Yockey, Brook; Kaggwa, John; Kugeler, Kiersten J; Schriefer, Martin; Sexton, Christopher; Ben Beard, C; Candini, Gordian; Abaru, Janet; Candia, Bosco; Okoth, Jimmy Felix; Apio, Harriet; Nolex, Lawrence; Ezama, Geoffrey; Okello, Robert; Atiku, Linda; Mpanga, Joseph; Mead, Paul S

    2017-09-01

    Plague is a highly virulent fleaborne zoonosis that occurs throughout many parts of the world; most suspected human cases are reported from resource-poor settings in sub-Saharan Africa. During 2008-2016, a combination of active surveillance and laboratory testing in the plague-endemic West Nile region of Uganda yielded 255 suspected human plague cases; approximately one third were laboratory confirmed by bacterial culture or serology. Although the mortality rate was 7% among suspected cases, it was 26% among persons with laboratory-confirmed plague. Reports of an unusual number of dead rats in a patient's village around the time of illness onset was significantly associated with laboratory confirmation of plague. This descriptive summary of human plague in Uganda highlights the episodic nature of the disease, as well as the potential that, even in endemic areas, illnesses of other etiologies might be being mistaken for plague.

  11. Patterns of Human Plague in Uganda, 2008–2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, Joseph D.; Apangu, Titus; Griffith, Kevin; Acayo, Sarah; Yockey, Brook; Kaggwa, John; Kugeler, Kiersten J.; Schriefer, Martin; Sexton, Christopher; Ben Beard, C.; Candini, Gordian; Abaru, Janet; Candia, Bosco; Okoth, Jimmy Felix; Apio, Harriet; Nolex, Lawrence; Ezama, Geoffrey; Okello, Robert; Atiku, Linda; Mpanga, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    Plague is a highly virulent fleaborne zoonosis that occurs throughout many parts of the world; most suspected human cases are reported from resource-poor settings in sub-Saharan Africa. During 2008–2016, a combination of active surveillance and laboratory testing in the plague-endemic West Nile region of Uganda yielded 255 suspected human plague cases; approximately one third were laboratory confirmed by bacterial culture or serology. Although the mortality rate was 7% among suspected cases, it was 26% among persons with laboratory-confirmed plague. Reports of an unusual number of dead rats in a patient’s village around the time of illness onset was significantly associated with laboratory confirmation of plague. This descriptive summary of human plague in Uganda highlights the episodic nature of the disease, as well as the potential that, even in endemic areas, illnesses of other etiologies might be being mistaken for plague. PMID:28820134

  12. Organic livestock production in Uganda: potentials, challenges and prospects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nalubwama, Sylvia Muwanga; Mugisha, Anthony; Vaarst, Mette

    2011-01-01

    Development in organic farming has been stimulated by farmers and consumers becoming interested in healthy food products and sustainable environment. Organic agriculture is a holistic production management system which is based on the principles of health, ecology, care, and fairness. Organic...... development in Uganda has focused more on the crop sector than livestock sector and has primarily involved the private sector, like organic products export companies and non-governmental organizations. Agriculture in Uganda and many African countries is predominantly traditional, less mechanized......, and is usually associated with minimum use of chemical fertilizers, pesticides, and drugs. This low external input agriculture also referred to as “organic by default” can create basis for organic farming where agroecological methods are introduced and present an alternative in terms of intensification...

  13. Perceptions of sexual coercion among young women in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayer, Manvir Kaur

    2010-01-01

    This paper sets out to explore Ugandan young women's definitions and perceptions of sexual coercion. A qualitative study was conducted with seven young women in rural Uganda. Participants filmed videos, wrote stories, made drawings and participated in transect walks before analysing their data through formal and informal discussions. Forced sex is defined narrowly to mean only rape. Verbal forms of sexual coercion were recognised, but only after some discussion. Verbal coercion is referred to as "abusing" or "convincing". Young women are commonly pressured into consenting to have sex, despite what they really want, owing to the socio-cultural circumstances. Young women in Uganda are significantly tolerant of sexual coercion. This tolerance appears to arise from power differentials between genders, and the socio-cultural environment shaping their lives. The paper improves understanding of young women's definitions and perceptions of sexual coercion, which is essential to provide effective violence prevention programmes. It also suggests that further research is warranted in this field.

  14. Mobilizing local financial resources - the case of Uganda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turyareeba, P.

    1993-01-01

    This chapter addresses private sector investment in the production of households renewable energy technologies (RETs) and provides recommendations for the large-scale manufacture and dissemination of these RETs in Uganda. The following four RETs are examined in detail: improved households cookstoves, institutional stoves, biomass briquettes and biogas. The household energy sector in Uganda relies heavily on biomass, with fuelwood providing 95.5 per cent, followed by charcoal which accounts for 2.7 per cent. Petroleum products and electricity contribute 1.4 per cent and 0.5 per cent, respectively. Charcoal and fuelwood are used mainly in the open fire and the traditional metal stove whose efficiencies are very low. In parts of the country where the fuelwood deficit is imminent, agricultural wastes are the major substitutes. (Author)

  15. Analysing Information Systems Security In Higher Learning Institutions Of Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Mugyenyi Raymond

    2017-01-01

    Information communication technology has increased globalisation in higher learning institution all over the world. This has been achieved through introduction of systems that ease operations related to information handling in the institutions. The paper assessed and analysed the information systems security performance status in higher learning institutions of Uganda. The existing policies that govern the information security have also been analysed together with the current status of inform...

  16. Retrospective study on cattle and poultry diseases in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Byaruhanga

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cattle and poultry enterprises are among the major contributors to food security and socioeconomic empowerment of households in Uganda. However, various diseases constrain their productivity. A two-year retrospective study between April 2012 and March 2014 was conducted using records for cattle and poultry diseases diagnosed at the Central Diagnostic Laboratory (CDL to determine prevalent diseases in Uganda. The laboratory received 836 samples from poultry (36.3% and cattle (63.7%. Of the 836 samples, 47.5% had a definitive diagnosis of disease causation. Most of the cattle and poultry diseases diagnosed were protozoan diseases (39.3% followed by bacterial (21.4%, viral (17.1%, helminthiasis (11.1%, nutritional diseases (4% and others (7.1%. For poultry, viral diseases (29.5% and protozoan diseases (27.1% especially newcastle disease (44.3% and coccidiosis (100% respectively, were the most diagnosed. While for cattle, hemo-protozoan parasites (52.1% were the most prevalent, of which 92.9% were east coast fever infection. Bacterial infection (20.5% in cattle were the second most diagnosed diseases and mastitis was the most diagnosed (46.2%. In summary, coccidioisis, collibacillosis, newcastle disease, gumboro disease, and avian helminthiasis were the most prevalent poultry diseases while in cattle, east coast fever, helminthiasis, mastitis, brucellosis and rabies were the most frequently diagnosed diseases. This study has identified the major diseases that hinder poultry and cattle production in Uganda. The data generated by CDL could be used for surveillance, monitoring and designing strategic interventions for control of poultry and cattle diseases in Uganda. Keywords: Coccidiosis, Collibacillosis, East coast fever, Mastitis, Newcastle disease, Rabies

  17. Disability inclusion in higher education in Uganda: Status and strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Emong; Lawrence Eron

    2016-01-01

    Background: Uganda has embraced inclusive education and evidently committed itself to bringing about disability inclusion at every level of education. Both legal and non-legal frameworks have been adopted and arguably are in line with the intent of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) on education. The CRPD, in Article 24, requires states to attain a right to education for persons with disabilities without discrimination and on the basis of equal opportunities at a...

  18. Inclusive Financial System Reforms in Uganda: Unveiling Ambiguity

    OpenAIRE

    Ayoki, Milton

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the financial system reforms in the context of financial sector deepening, and strategy for financial sector development and inclusion in Uganda. Results suggest that the indicators of financial sector development are largely as they were in 1996 and that the actual gains from financial inclusion strategies are small. Evidence suggests a weak link between financial deepening and financial usage by firms and households. It finds the acclaimed success (by policy makers and s...

  19. PTSD, depression and anxiety among former abductees in Northern Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Elbert Thomas; Pfeiffer Anett

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The population in Northern Uganda has been exposed to extreme levels of traumatic stress and thousands abducted forcibly became rebel combatants. Methods Using structured interviews, the prevalence and severity of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression and anxiety was assessed in 72 former abducted adults, 62 of them being former child soldiers. Results As retrospective reports of exposure to traumatic stress increased, anxiety and PTSD occurrence increased (r = ...

  20. Empowering the disabled through savings groups: Experimental evidence from Uganda.

    OpenAIRE

    Bjorvatn, Kjetil; Tungodden, Bertil

    2018-01-01

    We report from the first randomized controlled trial of a development program targeting people with disabilities: a village savings‐ and loans program in rural Uganda. We find that it has had a strong, positive impact on the lives of the disabled participants, through providing access to financial services and strengthening locus of control. Our results suggest that such programs may represent a promising tool to empowering people living with disabilities in developing countries, but al...

  1. Civil conflict and sleeping sickness in Africa in general and Uganda in particular.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrang Ford, Lea

    2007-03-29

    Conflict and war have long been recognized as determinants of infectious disease risk. Re-emergence of epidemic sleeping sickness in sub-Saharan Africa since the 1970s has coincided with extensive civil conflict in affected regions. Sleeping sickness incidence has placed increasing pressure on the health resources of countries already burdened by malaria, HIV/AIDS, and tuberculosis. In areas of Sudan, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Angola, sleeping sickness occurs in epidemic proportions, and is the first or second greatest cause of mortality in some areas, ahead of HIV/AIDS. In Uganda, there is evidence of increasing spread and establishment of new foci in central districts. Conflict is an important determinant of sleeping sickness outbreaks, and has contributed to disease resurgence. This paper presents a review and characterization of the processes by which conflict has contributed to the occurrence of sleeping sickness in Africa. Conflict contributes to disease risk by affecting the transmission potential of sleeping sickness via economic impacts, degradation of health systems and services, internal displacement of populations, regional insecurity, and reduced access for humanitarian support. Particular focus is given to the case of sleeping sickness in south-eastern Uganda, where incidence increase is expected to continue. Disease intervention is constrained in regions with high insecurity; in these areas, political stabilization, localized deployment of health resources, increased administrative integration and national capacity are required to mitigate incidence. Conflict-related variables should be explicitly integrated into risk mapping and prioritization of targeted sleeping sickness research and mitigation initiatives.

  2. Genetic analysis of influenza B viruses isolated in Uganda during the 2009–2010 seasons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byarugaba Denis K

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Influenza B viruses can cause morbidity and mortality in humans but due to the lack of an animal reservoir are not associated with pandemics. Because of this, there is relatively limited genetic sequences available for influenza B viruses, especially from developing countries. Complete genome analysis of one influenza B virus and several gene segments of other influenza B viruses isolated from Uganda from May 2009 through December 2010 was therefore undertaken in this study. Methods Samples were collected from patients showing influenza like illness and screened for influenza A and B by PCR. Influenza B viruses were isolated on Madin-Darby Canine Kidney cells and selected isolates were subsequently sequenced and analyzed phylogenetically. Findings Of the 2,089 samples collected during the period, 292 were positive by PCR for influenza A or B; 12.3% of the PCR positives were influenza B. Thirty influenza B viruses were recovered and of these 25 that grew well consistently on subculture were subjected to further analysis. All the isolates belonged to the B/Victoria-lineage as identified by hemagglutination inhibition assay and genetic analysis except one isolate that grouped with the B-Yamagata-lineage. The Ugandan B/Victoria-lineage isolates grouped in clade 1 which was defined by the N75K, N165K and S172P substitutions in hemagglutinin (HA protein clustered together with the B/Brisbane/60/2008 vaccine strain. The Yamagata-like Ugandan strain, B/Uganda/MUWRP-053/2009, clustered with clade 3 Yamagata viruses such as B/Bangladesh/3333/2007 which is characterized by S150I and N166Y substitutions in HA. Conclusion In general there was limited variation among the Ugandan isolates but they were interestingly closer to viruses from West and North Africa than from neighboring Kenya. Our isolates closely matched the World Health Organization recommended vaccines for the seasons.

  3. Civil conflict and sleeping sickness in Africa in general and Uganda in particular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berrang Ford Lea

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Conflict and war have long been recognized as determinants of infectious disease risk. Re-emergence of epidemic sleeping sickness in sub-Saharan Africa since the 1970s has coincided with extensive civil conflict in affected regions. Sleeping sickness incidence has placed increasing pressure on the health resources of countries already burdened by malaria, HIV/AIDS, and tuberculosis. In areas of Sudan, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Angola, sleeping sickness occurs in epidemic proportions, and is the first or second greatest cause of mortality in some areas, ahead of HIV/AIDS. In Uganda, there is evidence of increasing spread and establishment of new foci in central districts. Conflict is an important determinant of sleeping sickness outbreaks, and has contributed to disease resurgence. This paper presents a review and characterization of the processes by which conflict has contributed to the occurrence of sleeping sickness in Africa. Conflict contributes to disease risk by affecting the transmission potential of sleeping sickness via economic impacts, degradation of health systems and services, internal displacement of populations, regional insecurity, and reduced access for humanitarian support. Particular focus is given to the case of sleeping sickness in south-eastern Uganda, where incidence increase is expected to continue. Disease intervention is constrained in regions with high insecurity; in these areas, political stabilization, localized deployment of health resources, increased administrative integration and national capacity are required to mitigate incidence. Conflict-related variables should be explicitly integrated into risk mapping and prioritization of targeted sleeping sickness research and mitigation initiatives.

  4. Scaling up antiretroviral therapy in Uganda: using supply chain management to appraise health systems strengthening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windisch, Ricarda; Waiswa, Peter; Neuhann, Florian; Scheibe, Florian; de Savigny, Don

    2011-08-01

    Strengthened national health systems are necessary for effective and sustained expansion of antiretroviral therapy (ART). ART and its supply chain management in Uganda are largely based on parallel and externally supported efforts. The question arises whether systems are being strengthened to sustain access to ART. This study applies systems thinking to assess supply chain management, the role of external support and whether investments create the needed synergies to strengthen health systems. This study uses the WHO health systems framework and examines the issues of governance, financing, information, human resources and service delivery in relation to supply chain management of medicines and the technologies. It looks at links and causal chains between supply chain management for ART and the national supply system for essential drugs. It combines data from the literature and key informant interviews with observations at health service delivery level in a study district. Current drug supply chain management in Uganda is characterized by parallel processes and information systems that result in poor quality and inefficiencies. Less than expected health system performance, stock outs and other shortages affect ART and primary care in general. Poor performance of supply chain management is amplified by weak conditions at all levels of the health system, including the areas of financing, governance, human resources and information. Governance issues include the lack to follow up initial policy intentions and a focus on narrow, short-term approaches. The opportunity and need to use ART investments for an essential supply chain management and strengthened health system has not been exploited. By applying a systems perspective this work indicates the seriousness of missing system prerequisites. The findings suggest that root causes and capacities across the system have to be addressed synergistically to enable systems that can match and accommodate investments in

  5. Dismantling reified African culture through localised homosexualities in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyanzi, Stella

    2013-01-01

    Uganda's Anti-Homosexuality Bill of 2009 aimed at protecting the cherished culture of the people against emergent threats to the traditional heterosexual family. The Bill's justification, however, lay in myopic imaginings of a homogenous African-ness and pedestrian oblivion to pluralities within African sexualities. This paper revisits the debate that homosexuality is 'un-African'. Rhetoric analysis of the Anti-Homosexuality Bill exposes how dominant discourses of law, medicine, religion, geography and culture reinforce the view that homosexuality is foreign to Africa. Based on ethnography in contemporary Uganda, I explore how self-identified same-sex-loving individuals simultaneously claim their African-ness and their homosexuality. Their strategies include ethnic belonging, membership to kinship structures, making connections with pre-colonial histories of homosexuality, civic participation in democratic processes, national identity, organising of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, intersex and questioning support groups, language and nomenclature, visibility and voice in local communal activities, solidarity and adherence to cultural rituals. In present-day Uganda, same-sex-loving men, women and transgender people variously assert their African-ness.

  6. Agency relations and managed performance in public universities in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R.K. Kagaari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: This article focused on the need for improved employer-employee relationships in order for public universities in Uganda to achieve their intended objectives.Research purpose: The purpose of this article was to review the need for appropriate employer-employee relationships that will ensure quality services and service delivery in public universities in Uganda.Motivation for the study: The researchers set out to examine why managers of public universities in Uganda were continuously paying less attention to the needs of the employees.Research design, approach and method: A descriptive research design was employed and 12 respondents, purposively selected from 4 public universities, were interviewed. Data were recorded, transcribed and analysed using Nvivo software. This article is based on the perspective of agency theory, and discussed the contractual relationship between management and employees. The agency theory was deemed necessary because of its contribution to organisational literature.Main findings: There is a need to create and nurture a collegial working climate that promotes quality interactions through information sharing. This results in creating and retaining motivated and committed employees, and also helps to overcome the paradox of balancing the high demand for university education whilst offering quality services.Practical/managerial implications: Managers have to continuously monitor and accommodate employee needs and demands.Contribution/value-add: The potential value of the paper is its function as a guide for public universities to have visionary managers that will introduce new approaches to managing public universities in a competitive global environment.

  7. Expiry of medicines in supply outlets in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakyanzi, Josephine Katabaazi; Kitutu, Freddy Eric; Oria, Hussein; Kamba, Pakoyo Fadhiru

    2010-02-01

    The expiry of medicines in the supply chain is a serious threat to the already constrained access to medicines in developing countries. We investigated the extent of, and the main contributing factors to, expiry of medicines in medicine supply outlets in Kampala and Entebbe, Uganda. A cross-sectional survey of six public and 32 private medicine outlets was done using semi-structured questionnaires. The study area has 19 public medicine outlets (three non-profit wholesalers, 16 hospital stores/pharmacies), 123 private wholesale pharmacies and 173 retail pharmacies, equivalent to about 70% of the country's pharmaceutical businesses. Our findings indicate that medicines prone to expiry include those used for vertical programmes, donated medicines and those with a slow turnover. Awareness about the threat of expiry of medicines to the delivery of health services has increased. We have adapted training modules to emphasize management of medicine expiry for pharmacy students, pharmacists and other persons handling medicines. Our work has also generated more research interest on medicine expiry in Uganda. Even essential medicines expire in the supply chain in Uganda. Sound coordination is needed between public medicine wholesalers and their clients to harmonize procurement and consumption as well as with vertical programmes to prevent duplicate procurement. Additionally, national medicine regulatory authorities should enforce existing international guidelines to prevent dumping of donated medicine. Medicine selection and quantification should be matched with consumer tastes and prescribing habits. Lean supply and stock rotation should be considered.

  8. Organic livestock production in Uganda: potentials, challenges and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalubwama, Sylvia Muwanga; Mugisha, Anthony; Vaarst, Mette

    2011-04-01

    Development in organic farming has been stimulated by farmers and consumers becoming interested in healthy food products and sustainable environment. Organic agriculture is a holistic production management system which is based on the principles of health, ecology, care, and fairness. Organic development in Uganda has focused more on the crop sector than livestock sector and has primarily involved the private sector, like organic products export companies and non-governmental organizations. Agriculture in Uganda and many African countries is predominantly traditional, less mechanized, and is usually associated with minimum use of chemical fertilizers, pesticides, and drugs. This low external input agriculture also referred to as "organic by default" can create basis for organic farming where agroecological methods are introduced and present an alternative in terms of intensification to the current low-input/low-output systems. Traditional farming should not be confused with organic farming because in some cases, the existing traditional practices have consequences like overstocking and less attention to soil improvement as well as to animal health and welfare, which is contrary to organic principles of ecology, fairness, health, and care. Challenges of implementing sustainable organic practices in the Ugandan livestock sector threaten its future development, such as vectors and vector-borne diseases, organic feed insufficiency, limited education, research, and support to organic livestock production. The prospects of organic livestock development in Uganda can be enhanced with more scientific research in organic livestock production under local conditions and strengthening institutional support.

  9. Contraceptive knowledge, perceptions, and concerns among men in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thummalachetty, Nityanjali; Mathur, Sanyukta; Mullinax, Margo; DeCosta, Kelsea; Nakyanjo, Neema; Lutalo, Tom; Brahmbhatt, Heena; Santelli, John S

    2017-10-10

    Low contraceptive uptake and high unmet need for contraception remain significant issues in Uganda compared to neighboring countries such as Kenya, Ethiopia, and Rwanda. Although prior research on contraceptive uptake has indicated that male partners strongly influence women's decisions around contraceptive use, there is limited in-depth qualitative research on knowledge and concerns regarding modern contraceptive methods among Ugandan men. Using in-depth interviews (N = 41), this qualitative study investigated major sources of knowledge about contraception and perceptions of contraceptive side effects among married Ugandan men. Men primarily reported knowledge of contraceptives based on partner's experience of side effects, partner's knowledge from health providers and mass media campaigns, and partner's knowledge from her peers. Men were less likely to report contraceptive knowledge from health care providers, mass media campaigns, or peers. Men's concerns about various contraceptive methods were broadly associated with failure of the method to work properly, adverse health effects on women, and severe adverse health effects on children. Own or partner's human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status did not impact on contraceptive knowledge. Overall, we found limited accurate knowledge about contraceptive methods among men in Uganda. Moreover, fears about the side effects of modern contraceptive methods appeared to be common among men. Family planning services in Uganda could be significantly strengthened by renewed efforts to focus on men's knowledge, fears, and misconceptions.

  10. Contraceptive knowledge, perceptions, and concerns among men in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nityanjali Thummalachetty

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low contraceptive uptake and high unmet need for contraception remain significant issues in Uganda compared to neighboring countries such as Kenya, Ethiopia, and Rwanda. Although prior research on contraceptive uptake has indicated that male partners strongly influence women’s decisions around contraceptive use, there is limited in-depth qualitative research on knowledge and concerns regarding modern contraceptive methods among Ugandan men. Methods Using in-depth interviews (N = 41, this qualitative study investigated major sources of knowledge about contraception and perceptions of contraceptive side effects among married Ugandan men. RESULTS: Men primarily reported knowledge of contraceptives based on partner’s experience of side effects, partner’s knowledge from health providers and mass media campaigns, and partner’s knowledge from her peers. Men were less likely to report contraceptive knowledge from health care providers, mass media campaigns, or peers. Men’s concerns about various contraceptive methods were broadly associated with failure of the method to work properly, adverse health effects on women, and severe adverse health effects on children. Own or partner’s human immunodeficiency virus (HIV status did not impact on contraceptive knowledge. Conclusions Overall, we found limited accurate knowledge about contraceptive methods among men in Uganda. Moreover, fears about the side effects of modern contraceptive methods appeared to be common among men. Family planning services in Uganda could be significantly strengthened by renewed efforts to focus on men’s knowledge, fears, and misconceptions.

  11. Environmental Regulation in Uganda: Successes and Challenges - Comment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Echookit Akellol

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of environmental regulatory framework in Uganda was initiated by the national environment action planning process in 1990, as a realization that environment needed special focus. As a result of the said process environmental policy and law were developed. The 1995 constitutional of the Republic of Uganda was among the first ever such constitution in the East African region to deliberately enshrine the right to a decent environment and to provide for sustainable development, in addition to the principle that natural resources are held in trust for the people and should be responsibly managed for their benefit. Following the constitution, a number of environment legislations were enacted and others were revised to take into account environmental cardinal principles and considerations, including embedding in them environmental regulatory provisions. Hence, in addition to the framework of National Environment Act, a number of environment sect oral legislation exists and environmental management is spread throughout the respective institutions responsible for aspects of the environment. It is therefore safe to say that Uganda has developed a lot of legislation on the environment but the challenge remains that of developing more regulations under the relevant parent Acts, effective monitoring and enforcement.

  12. Towards reframing health service delivery in Uganda: the Uganda Initiative for Integrated Management of Non-Communicable Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy I. Schwartz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs is accelerating. Given that the capacity of health systems in LMICs is already strained by the weight of communicable diseases, these countries find themselves facing a double burden of disease. NCDs contribute significantly to morbidity and mortality, thereby playing a major role in the cycle of poverty, and impeding development. Methods: Integrated approaches to health service delivery and healthcare worker (HCW training will be necessary in order to successfully combat the great challenge posed by NCDs. Results: In 2013, we formed the Uganda Initiative for Integrated Management of NCDs (UINCD, a multidisciplinary research collaboration that aims to present a systems approach to integrated management of chronic disease prevention, care, and the training of HCWs. Discussion: Through broad-based stakeholder engagement, catalytic partnerships, and a collective vision, UINCD is working to reframe integrated health service delivery in Uganda.

  13. No-Party Democracy in Uganda, Myths and Realities by Senzo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    violence' (p 125). The penultimate chapter, by Ali Mazrui, (Between Domestic Policy and Regional Power: The Role of. Ideology in Uganda) argues that President Museveni's Uganda has played a greater role in regional politics under the guise of Pan-Africanism than the erstwhile leaders of the country. To this end, the.

  14. Consumer Perceptions towards Introducing a Genetically Modified Banana (Musa spp.) in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kikulwe, E.M.; Wesseler, J.H.H.; Falck-Zepeda, J.

    2010-01-01

    The introduction of a genetically modified (GM) banana (Musa spp.) in Uganda is not without controversy. It is likely to generate a wide portfolio of concerns as the technology of genetic engineering is still in its early stages of development in Uganda. The purpose of this study is to show how

  15. Learning Barriers among Grade 6 Pupils Attending Rural Schools in Uganda: Implications to Policy and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hungi, Njora; Ngware, Moses; Mahuro, Gerald; Muhia, Nelson

    2017-01-01

    The paper uses multilevel analysis procedures to examine individual- and group-level learning barriers that have the greatest impact on pupil achievement in Uganda. The data for this study were collected in 2014 among 2711 Grade 6 pupils attending 82 schools in two rural districts of Iganga and Mayuge in Uganda. Data used in this paper are part of…

  16. A Case Study of Cooperative Learning in Bushenyi District in Uganda: Educational Leaders' and Teachers' Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujuni, John Bosco

    2015-01-01

    In 2003-2007, the government of Uganda through the Ministry of Education and Sports (MoES), under the umbrella of UPHOLD and in Partnership with USAID, introduced cooperative learning as a "student-centered teaching approach" in some selected districts and schools in Uganda. This dissertation explored the current state and practice of…

  17. Hollywood in Uganda: Local Appropriation of Trans-National English-Language Movies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achen, Stella; Openjuru, George Ladaah

    2012-01-01

    Hollywood movies are popular in Uganda. This paper reports a study that investigated access to English-language Hollywood movies in Uganda, by way of an ethnographic audience study carried out in slum areas of the city of Kampala. The researchers visited and participated in the watching and reviewing of English-language movies in makeshift video…

  18. Hunting for Conservation? The Re-introduction of Sport Hunting in Uganda Examined

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ochieng, A.; Ahebwa, W.M.; Visseren-Hamakers, I.J.

    2015-01-01

    Uganda reintroduced sport hunting in 2001. The policy was piloted around Lake Mburo National Park and later replicated around other protected areas. This chapter analyses the development, implementation and impact of sport hunting policy in Uganda. We do so through literature review, document

  19. Nature and dynamics of climate variability in the uganda cattle corridor

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Meteology Department

    2013-08-12

    Aug 12, 2013 ... 1Department of Geography, Geo-Informatics and Climatic Sciences, Makerere University, Uganda. 2Africa Innovations Institute, Kampala, Uganda. 3Department of Biology, Gulu ..... research activities under the project “Adaptation to the. Impact of Climate Variability on Food and Health Security in the Cattle ...

  20. The Influence of Price on School Enrollment under Uganda's Policy of Free Primary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincove, Jane Arnold

    2012-01-01

    This study uses household survey data to estimate determinants of schooling in Uganda, with a model that includes the price of school. Uganda's universal education policy offered free tuition, fees, and supplies to up to four children per family, including two daughters. The empirical method includes an estimation of a child-specific price of…

  1. Counteracting Fabricated Anti-Gay Public Pedagogy in Uganda with Strategic Lifelong Learning as Critical Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, André P.

    2016-01-01

    Political, cultural and social fallout following the introduction of the anti-homosexuality bill in Uganda in 2009 intensified fabrication of an anti-gay public pedagogy of negation and nemesis that fuelled the passage of the Anti-Homosexuality Act, 2014. The Government of Uganda, conventional Anglicanism and US evangelical Christianity were all…

  2. Neoliberal Moral Economy: Capitalism, Socio-cultural Change and Fraud in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ponte, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    Book review of: Neoliberal Moral Economy: Capitalism, Socio-Cultural Change & Fraud in Uganda by Jörg Wiegratz. London and New York, Rowman & Littlefield, 2016, 375 pp. ISBN 9781783488537.......Book review of: Neoliberal Moral Economy: Capitalism, Socio-Cultural Change & Fraud in Uganda by Jörg Wiegratz. London and New York, Rowman & Littlefield, 2016, 375 pp. ISBN 9781783488537....

  3. Precooked beans for food, nutrition, and income in Kenya and Uganda

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Beans are an important food product that contribute to nutritional security, income generation, and employment in Kenya and Uganda. Although beans are typically consumed ... Institution. National Agricultural Research Organization. Pays d' institution. Uganda. Site internet. http://www.cgiar.org/hosted/naro/naro.htm ...

  4. Obesity as a form of malnutrition: Over-nutrition on the Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objectives were to highlight the burden of overweight and obesity as an additional area of importance for the malnutrition agenda in Uganda and to provide evidence-based considerations for stakeholders involved. Introduction: Mirroring other Low- and Middle-Income Countries (LMICs), Uganda is experiencing a ...

  5. Privatisation of Higher Education in Uganda and the Global Gender Justice Ideal: Uneasy Bedfellows?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baine, Euzobia M. Mugisha

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines ways in which privatisation of education is affecting the search for gender justice through education focusing on Uganda's higher education institutions (HEIs). Since 1988 when the first private university was opened, the winds of change have swept Uganda's higher education sector to change how it is financed and managed. The…

  6. What drives low-severity fire in the southwestern USA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sean A. Parks; Solomon Z. Dobrowski; Matthew H. Panunto

    2018-01-01

    Many dry conifer forests in the southwestern USA and elsewhere historically (prior to the late 1800’s) experienced fairly frequent surface fire at intervals ranging from roughly five to 30 years. Due to more than 100 years of successful fire exclusion, however, many of these forests are now denser and more homogenous, and therefore they have a greater probability of...

  7. Morphological pattern of endometrial biopsies in southwestern Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Endometrium remains the most sensitive indicator of ovarian function and endometrial biopsy is one of the diagnostic procedures in endometrial pathology. The current study was carried out to examine the morphological pattern of endometrial biopsies in Ibadan, South-western Nigeria and compare the results ...

  8. Fire and birds in the southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl E. Bock; William M. Block

    2005-01-01

    Fire is an important ecological force in many southwestern ecosystems, but frequencies, sizes, and intensities of fire have been altered historically by grazing, logging, exotic vegetation, and suppression. Prescribed burning should be applied widely, but under experimental conditions that facilitate studying its impacts on birds and other components of biodiversity....

  9. A plan for landscape fire restoration in the Southwestern Borderlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald J. Gottfried; Larry S. Allen

    2009-01-01

    Fires were prevalent in the Southwestern Borderlands of Arizona and New Mexico prior to the arrival of European-American settlers in the 1880s. The almost total exclusion of fires for more than 100 years has been linked to declines in biological diversity and a loss of productivity associated with the encroachment of woody vegetation into the grasslands and open...

  10. Hydrology of southwestern encinal oak ecosystems: A review and more

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald J. Gottfried; Peter F. Ffolliott; Daniel G. Neary

    2007-01-01

    Information about the hydrology of oak ecosystems of the southwestern United States and northern Mexico is lacking (Lopes and Ffolliott 1992, Baker et al. 1995) even though the woodlands and savannas cover more than 31,000 square miles. These ecosystems generally are found between 4,000 and 7,300 feet in elevation. Precipitation occurs in the winter and summer and...

  11. Silviculture of southwestern ponderosa pine: The status of our knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert H. Schubert

    1974-01-01

    Describes the status of our knowledge of ponderosa pine silviculture in the southwestern States of Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, and Utah. Economic value, impact on other uses, and the timber resource are discussed first, followed by ecological background, site quality, growth and yield, and silviculture and management. Relevant literature is discussed along with...

  12. A review of maternal mortality at Jimma Hospital, Southwestern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A retrospective review of hospital maternal deaths at Jimma Hospital, Southwestern Ethiopia, covering the period from September 1990 to May 1999 was conducted with the objectives of determining the overall maternal mortality rate, observing trend of maternal mortality during the period, and identifying major causes of ...

  13. Silvics and silviculture in the southwestern pinyon-juniper woodlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald J. Gottfried

    2004-01-01

    Southwestern pinyon-juniper and juniper woodlands cover large areas of the western United States. The woodlands have been viewed as places of beauty and sources of valuable resource products or as weed-dominated landscapes that hinder the production of forage for livestock. They are special places because of the emotions and controversies that encircle their management...

  14. Analysis of Culex and Aedes mosquitoes in southwestern Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Amplification and transmission of West Nile virus (WNV) by mosquitoes are driven by presence and number of viraemic/susceptible avian hosts. Methods: in order to predict risk of WNV infection to humans, we collected mosquitoes from horse stables in Lagos and Ibadan, southwestern Nigeria. The mosquitoes ...

  15. Upland hardwood habitat types in southwestern North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michele M. Girard; Harold Goetz; Ardell J. Bjugstad

    1985-01-01

    The Daubenmire habitat type method was used to classify the upland hardwood draws of southwestern North Dakota. Preliminary data analysis indicates there are four upland habitat types: Fraxinus pennsylvanica/Prunus virginiana; F. pnnseanica-Ulmus americana/P. virginiana; Populus...

  16. Recent emissions research in southwestern shrub and grassland fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    David R. Weise; Wayne Miller; David R. Cocker; Heejung Jung; Seyedehsan Hosseini; Marko Princevac; Robert J. Yokelson; Ian Burling; Sheryl Akagi; Shawn Urbanski; WeiMin Hao

    2015-01-01

    While it is currently challenging to use prescribed burning in chaparral and other southwestern shrub fuel types due to many constraints, any such activities require smoke management planning. Information on fuels and emissions from chaparral were limited and based on older sampling systems. The DoD SERDP program funded a project to measure fuels and smoke emissions in...

  17. Simulating the productivity of desert woody shrubs in southwestern Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the southwestern U.S., many rangelands have converted from native grasslands to woody shrublands dominated by creosotebush (Larrea tridentate) and honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa), threatening ecosystem health. Both creosotebush and mesquite have well-developed long root systems that allow t...

  18. Cancer distribution pattern in south-western Nigeria | Awodele ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The burden of cancer in Nigeria is appreciable with about 100,000 new cancer cases been reported in the country each year. This study aimed to determine the level of occurrence and pattern of distribution of different cancer types in two major functional cancer registries in south-western Nigeria. A desk review of the level ...

  19. Estimation of the lion ( Panthera leo ) population in the southwestern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A previous estimate of the lion (Panthera leo) population in the southwestern Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park (KTP) was made over 20 years ago. This together with increased fears regarding the viability of the population as a result of recent killings of roaming animals, an observed increase in non-violent mortalities during ...

  20. 2014 annual site environmental report, Southwestern Power Administration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-12-31

    Southwestern Power Administration’s Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) serves as the chief reporting mechanism for site environmental performance information within the Department of Energy and as a valuable resource for shared and collaborative environmental protection and performance information to Agency stakeholders and members of the public living near Southwestern Power Administration’s (Southwestern) facilities and transmission line rights-of-ways. This ASER meets the requirements of Department of Energy (DOE) Order 231.B. Southwestern’s key environmental involvement includes an emphasis on the protection of ecological resources which is effectively accomplished through environmental program elements such as protecting water resources, generation of clean hydropower energy, oil spill prevention practices, elimination of green-house gas emissions, and comprehensive project reviews to ensure the protection of living organisms, migratory birds, Federally threatened or endangered species, and historic or cultural resources. Southwestern continues to actively minimize effects to natural resources and strive for continual improvement in the area of environmental compliance and sustainability while achieving the agency mission to market and deliver Federal hydroelectric power.

  1. Fragmentation patterns of evergreen oak woodlands in Southwestern Iberia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costa, A.; Madeira, M.; Lima Santos, J.

    2014-01-01

    Mediterranean evergreen oak woodlands (composed of Quercus suber L. and Quercus rotundifolia Lam.) are becoming increasingly fragmented in the human-modified landscapes of Southwestern Portugal and Spain. Previous studies have largely neglected to assess the spatial changes of oak woodlands...... patterns of oak recruitment and therefore, its study may be helpful in highlighting future baselines for the sustainable management of oak woodlands....

  2. Prevalence of Infertility in Women in a Southwestern Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence and common causes of infertility in women aged between 15 and 55 years was assessed in four hospital centers in Osun State, located in the SouthWestern part of Nigeria. A survey of a consecutive sample of 200 cases of infertility were carried out in four hospital centers with a total of 50 cases of infertility ...

  3. Effectiveness of advertising availability of prenatal ultrasound on uptake of antenatal care in rural Uganda: A cluster randomized trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Cherniak

    Full Text Available In rural Uganda pregnant women often lack access to health services, do not attend antenatal care, and tend to utilize traditional healers/birth attendants. We hypothesized that receiving a message advertising that "you will be able to see your baby by ultrasound" would motivate rural Ugandan women who otherwise might use a traditional birth attendant to attend antenatal care, and that those women would subsequently be more satisfied with care. A cluster randomized trial was conducted across eight rural sub-counties in southwestern Uganda. Sub-counties were randomized to a control arm, with advertisement of antenatal care with no mention of portable obstetric ultrasound (four communities, n = 59, or an intervention arm, with advertisement of portable obstetric ultrasound. Advertisement of portable obstetric ultrasound was further divided into intervention A word of mouth advertisement of portable obstetric ultrasound and antenatal care (one communitity, n = 16, B radio advertisement of only antenatal care and word of mouth advertisement of antenatal care and portable obstetric ultrasound (one community, n = 7, or C word of mouth + radio advertisement of both antenatal care and portable obstetric ultrasound (two communities, n = 75. The primary outcome was attendance to antenatal care. 159 women presented to antenatal care across eight sub-counties. The rate of attendance was 65.1 (per 1000 pregnant women, 95% CI 38.3-110.4 where portable obstetric ultrasound was advertised by radio and word of mouth, as compared to a rate of 11.1 (95% CI 6.1-20.1 in control communities (rate ratio 5.9, 95% CI 2.6-13.0, p<0.0001. Attendance was also improved in women who had previously seen a traditional healer (13.0, 95% CI 5.4-31.2 compared to control (1.5, 95% CI 0.5-5.0, rate ratio 8.7, 95% CI 2.0-38.1, p = 0.004. By advertising antenatal care and portable obstetric ultrasound by radio attendance was significantly improved. This study suggests that women can

  4. Cross-sectional study on the prevalence and predictors of pregnancy among women living in HIV discordant relationships in a rural Rakai cohort, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakiganda, Lydia Jacenta; Agardh, Anette; Asamoah, Benedict Oppong

    2018-04-24

    This study examines the prevalence of pregnancy in serodiscordant couples and identifies predictors associated with pregnancy in rural Rakai, Uganda. A population-based cross-sectional study that used data from the Rakai Community Cohort Study (RCCS). We used data from the RCCS survey round 17 (2015-2016), which included 488 women in serodiscordant relationships. This study was conducted in Rakai district, located in south-western Uganda. Pregnancy status. Multivariable modified Poisson regression using stepwise selection was used to determine characteristics and behaviours associated with pregnancy status. The prevalence of pregnancy was 12% in women among serodiscordant couples. HIV-negative women in serodiscordant couples had a slightly higher pregnancy prevalence rate (13.6%) compared with HIV-positive women in serodiscordant couples (11%). Factors significantly associated with higher prevalence of pregnancy were; younger age 15-24 years (prevalence risk ratio (PRR)=4.04; 95% CI 1.72 to 9.50), middle age 25-34 years (PRR=2.49; 95% CI 1.05 to 5.89), Christian religion (PRR=2.26; 95% CI 1.41 to 3.63) and inconsistent condom use in the last 12 months (PRR=4.38, 95% CI 1.09 to 17.53). Neither HIV status nor HIV status disclosure was significantly associated with risk of getting pregnant. Nearly 12% of women in serodiscordant relationships were pregnant, highlighting the need for integrated services to prevent unintended pregnancies and reduce conceptional related risks for those choosing to conceive. Association with younger age and inconsistent condom use suggests a role for early and continued couple-based conception counselling. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. Population dynamics of caribou herds in southwestern Alaska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Valkenburg

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The five naturally occurring and one transplanted caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti herd in southwestern Alaska composed about 20% of Alaska's caribou population in 2001. All five of the naturally occurring herds fluctuated considerably in size between the late 1800s and 2001 and for some herds the data provide an indication of long-term periodic (40-50 year fluctuations. At the present time, the Unimak (UCH and Southern Alaska Peninsula (SAP are recovering from population declines, the Northern Alaska Peninsula Herd (NAP appears to be nearing the end of a protracted decline, and the Mulchatna Herd (MCH appears to now be declining after 20 years of rapid growth. The remaining naturally occurring herd (Kilbuck has virtually disappeared. Nutrition had a significant effect on the size of 4-month-old and 10-month-old calves in the NAP and the Nushagak Peninsula Herd (NPCH and probably also on population growth in at least 4 (SAP, NAP, NPCH, and MCH of the six caribou herds in southwestern Alaska. Predation does not appear to be sufficient to keep caribou herds in southwestern Alaska from expanding, probably because rabies is endemic in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes and is periodically transferred to wolves (Canis lupus and other canids. However, we found evidence that pneumonia and hoof rot may result in significant mortality of caribou in southwestern Alaska, whereas there is no evidence that disease is important in the dynamics of Interior herds. Cooperative conservation programs, such as the Kilbuck Caribou Management Plan, can be successful in restraining traditional harvest and promoting growth in caribou herds. In southwestern Alaska we also found evidence that small caribou herds can be swamped and assimilated by large herds, and fidelity to traditional calving areas can be lost.

  6. Southwestern Power Administration Annual Report 2004-2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2006-01-01

    Confidence Commitment Cooperation These are words that spring to mind regarding Southwestern Power Administration’s performance during fiscal years (FY) 2004-2006 By offering innovative, customer-oriented service, working to improve system reliability and efficiency, and partnering with customers and other Federal power stakeholders, Southwestern has certainly exhibited all three of these qualities during these challenging yet productive years In fact, our cooperative working relationships were critical to our success during the severe and widespread drought conditions which prevailed throughout Southwestern’s marketing area for much of 2005-2006 When we proposed a temporary energy deferral program, our customers came on board by voluntarily taking less Federal hydropower than they were entitled to, enabling us to preserve system storage and fulfill our contract obligations during the crucial summer months of 2006 The U S Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) also helped improve our drought situation by allowing Southwestern more operational flexibility on a regional level Despite the challenges this critical drought period presented, Southwestern remained committed to fulfilling our mission and strategic goals From FY 2004 through FY 2006, we marketed and delivered all available Federal hydropower while meeting and even exceeding the reliability standards of the North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) Our Power Operations Training Center in Springfield, Missouri, was cited as an “Example of Excellence” during a NERC readiness audit in October 2006; and as we have every year since NERC began measuring, Southwestern far exceeded the accepted NERC compliance ratings for power system operations reliability Our commitment to excellence and accountability has kept our repayment goals on target as well Revenues were sufficient to repay all annual expenses and the required principal investment in the Federal hydropower facilities Furthermore, the original

  7. Mapping the Geothermal System Using AMT and MT in the Mapamyum (QP Field, Lake Manasarovar, Southwestern Tibet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanfang He

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Southwestern Tibet plays a crucial role in the protection of the ecological environment and biodiversity of Southern Asia but lacks energy in terms of both power and fuel. The widely distributed geothermal resources in this region could be considered as potential alternative sources of power and heat. However, most of the known geothermal fields in Southwestern Tibet are poorly prospected and currently almost no geothermal energy is exploited. Here we present a case study mapping the Mapamyum (QP geothermal field of Southwestern Tibet using audio magnetotellurics (AMT and magnetotellurics (MT methods. AMT in the frequency range 11.5–11,500 Hz was used to map the upper part of this geothermal reservoir to a depth of 1000 m, and MT in the frequency range 0.001–320 Hz was used to map the heat source, thermal fluid path, and lower part of the geothermal reservoir to a depth greater than 1000 m. Data from 1300 MT and 680 AMT stations were acquired around the geothermal field. Bostick conversion with electromagnetic array profiling (EMAP filtering and nonlinear conjugate gradient inversion (NLCGI was used for data inversion. The AMT and MT results presented here elucidate the geoelectric structure of the QP geothermal field, and provide a background for understanding the reservoir, the thermal fluid path, and the heat source of the geothermal system. We identified a low resistivity anomaly characterized by resistivity in the range of 1–8 Ω∙m at a depth greater than 7 km. This feature was interpreted as a potential reflection of the partially melted magma in the upper crust, which might correlate to mantle upwelling along the Karakorum fault. It is likely that the magma is the heat source of the QP geothermal system, and potentially provides new geophysical evidence to understand the occurrence of the partially melted magmas in the upper crust in Southwestern Tibet.

  8. The past, present and future use of epidemiological intelligence to plan malaria vector control and parasite prevention in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talisuna, Ambrose O; Noor, Abdisalan M; Okui, Albert P; Snow, Robert W

    2015-04-15

    An important prelude to developing strategies to control infectious diseases is a detailed epidemiological evidence platform to target cost-effective interventions and define resource needs. A review of published and un-published reports of malaria vector control and parasite prevention in Uganda was conducted for the period 1900-2013. The objective was to provide a perspective as to how epidemiological intelligence was used to design malaria control before and during the global malaria eradication programme (GMEP) and to contrast this with the evidence generated in support of the Roll Back Malaria (RBM) initiative from 1998 to date. During the GMEP era, comprehensive investigations were undertaken on the effectiveness of vector and parasite control such as indoor residual house-spraying (IRS) and mass drug administration (MDA) at different sites in Uganda. Nationwide malariometric surveys were undertaken between 1964 and 1967 to provide a profile of risk, epidemiology and seasonality leading to an evidence-based national cartography of risk to characterize the diversity of malaria transmission in Uganda. At the launch of the RBM initiative in the late 1990s, an equivalent level of evidence was lacking. There was no contemporary national evidence-base for the likely impact of insecticide-treated nets (ITN), no new malariometric data, no new national cartography of malaria risk or any evidence of tailored intervention delivery based on variations in the ecology of malaria risk in Uganda. Despite millions of dollars of overseas development assistance over the last ten years in ITN, and more recently the resurrection of the use of IRS, the epidemiological impact of vector control remains uncertain due to an absence of nationwide basic parasite and vector-based field studies. Readily available epidemiological data should become the future business model to maximize malaria funding from 2015. Over the next five to ten years, accountability, impact analysis, financial

  9. The PAediatric Risk Assessment (PARA) Mobile App to Reduce Postdischarge Child Mortality: Design, Usability, and Feasibility for Health Care Workers in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Lauren Lacey; Dunsmuir, Dustin; Kumbakumba, Elias; Ansermino, John Mark; Larson, Charles P; Lester, Richard; Barigye, Celestine; Ndamira, Andrew; Kabakyenga, Jerome; Wiens, Matthew O

    2016-02-15

    Postdischarge death in children is increasingly being recognized as a major contributor to overall child mortality. The PAediatric Risk Assessment (PARA) app is an mHealth tool developed to aid health care workers in resource-limited settings such as Sub-Saharan Africa to identify pediatric patients at high risk of both in-hospital and postdischarge mortality. The intended users of the PARA app are health care workers (ie, nurses, doctors, and clinical officers) with varying levels of education and technological exposure, making testing of this clinical tool critical to successful implementation. Our aim was to summarize the usability evaluation of the PARA app among target users, which consists of assessing the ease of use, functionality, and navigation of the interfaces and then iteratively improving the design of this clinical tool. Health care workers (N=30) were recruited to participate at Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital and Holy Innocents Children's Hospital in Mbarara, Southwestern Uganda. This usability study was conducted in two phases to allow for iterative improvement and testing of the interfaces. The PARA app was evaluated using quantitative and qualitative measures, which were compared between Phases 1 and 2 of the study. Participants were given two patient scenarios that listed hypothetical information (ie, demographic, social, and clinical data) to be entered into the app and to determine the patient's risk of in-hospital and postdischarge mortality. Time-to-completion and user errors were recorded for each participant while using the app. A modified computer system usability questionnaire was utilized at the end of each session to elicit user satisfaction with the PARA app and obtain suggestions for future improvements. The average time to complete the PARA app decreased by 30% from Phase 1 to Phase 2, following user feedback and modifications. Participants spent the longest amount of time on the oxygen saturation interface, but modifications

  10. Soil Organic Matter Stability and Soil Carbon Storage with Changes in Land Use Intensity in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiemann, L. K.; Grandy, S.; Hartter, J.

    2014-12-01

    As the foundation of soil fertility, soil organic matter (SOM) formation and break-down is a critical factor of agroecosystem sustainability. In tropical systems where soils are quickly weathered, the link between SOM and soil fertility is particularly strong; however, the mechanisms controlling the stabilization and destabilization of SOM are not well characterized in tropical soils. In western Uganda, we collected soil samples under different levels of land use intensity including maize fields, banana plantations and inside an un-cultivated native tropical forest, Kibale National Park (KNP). To better understand the link between land use intensity and SOM stability we measured total soil C and N, and respiration rates during a 369 d soil incubation. In addition, we separated soils into particle size fractions, and mineral adsorbed SOM in the silt (2-50 μm ) and clay (fractions was dissociated, purified and chemically characterized via pyrolysis-GC/MS. Cultivated soil C and N have declined by 22 and 48%, respectively, in comparison to uncultivated KNP soils. Incubation data indicate that over the last decade, relatively accessible and labile soil organic carbon (SOC) pools have been depleted by 55-59% in cultivated soils. As a result of this depletion, the chemical composition of SOM has been altered such that clay and silt associated SOM differed significantly between agricultural fields and KNP. In particular, nitrogen containing compounds were in lower abundance in agricultural compared to KNP soils. This suggests that N depletion due to agriculture has advanced to pools of mineral associated organic N that are typically protected from break-down. In areas where land use intensity is relatively greater, increases in polysaccharides and lipids in maize fields compared to KNP indicate increases in microbial residues and decomposition by-products as microbes mine SOM for organic N. Chemical characterization of post-incubation SOM will help us better understand

  11. Southwestern Power Administration Combined Financial Statements, 2006-2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-09-01

    We have audited the accompanying combined balance sheets of the Southwestern Federal Power System (SWFPS), as of September 30, 2009, 2008, 2007, and 2006, and the related combined statements of revenues and expenses, changes in capitalization, and cash flows for the years then ended. As described in note 1(a), the combined financial statement presentation includes the hydroelectric generation functions of another Federal agency (hereinafter referred to as the generating agency), for which Southwestern Power Administration (Southwestern) markets and transmits power. These combined financial statements are the responsibility of the management of Southwestern and the generating agency. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on these combined financial statements based on our audits. We conducted our audits in accordance with auditing standards generally accepted in the United States of America. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audits to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the combined financial statements are free of material misstatement. An audit includes consideration of internal control over financial reporting as a basis for designing audit procedures that are appropriate in the circumstances, but not for the purpose of expressing an opinion on the effectiveness of Southwestern and the generating agency’s internal control over financial reporting. Accordingly, we express no such opinion. An audit also includes examining, on a test basis, evidence supporting the amounts and disclosures in the combined financial statements, assessing the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall combined financial statement presentation. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion. In our opinion, the combined financial statements referred to above present fairly, in all material respects, the respective financial position of the Southwestern Federal Power

  12. Precipitation Intensity Effects on Groundwater Recharge in the Southwestern United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian F. Thomas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Episodic recharge as a result of infrequent, high intensity precipitation events comprises the bulk of groundwater recharge in arid environments. Climate change and shifts in precipitation intensity will affect groundwater continuity, thus altering groundwater recharge. This study aims to identify changes in the ratio of groundwater recharge and precipitation, the R:P ratio, in the arid southwestern United States to characterize observed changes in groundwater recharge attributed to variations in precipitation intensity. Our precipitation metric, precipitation intensity magnification, was used to investigate the relationship between the R:P ratio and precipitation intensity. Our analysis identified significant changes in the R:P ratio concurrent with decreases in precipitation intensity. The results illustrate the importance of precipitation intensity in relation to groundwater recharge in arid regions and provide further insights for groundwater management in nonrenewable groundwater systems and in a changing climate.

  13. Groundwater resources monitoring and population displacement in northern Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalikakis, K.; Hammache, Y.; Nawa, A.; Slinski, K.; Petropoulos, G.; Muteesasira, A.

    2009-04-01

    Northern Uganda has been devastated by more than 20 years of open conflict by the LRA (Lord's Resistance Army) and the Government of Uganda. This war has been marked by extreme violence against civilians, who had been gathered in protected IDP (Internally Displaced Persons) camps. At the height of the displacement in 2007, the UN office for coordination of humanitarian affairs, estimated that nearly 2.5 million people were interned into approximately 220 camps throughout Northern Uganda. With the improved security since mid-2006, the people displaced by the conflict in Northern Uganda started to move out of the overcrowded camps and return either to their villages/parishes of origin or to resettlement/transit sites. However, basic water, sanitation and hygiene infrastructure in the return areas or any new settlements sites are minimal. People returning to their villages of origin encounter a situation where in many cases there is no access to safe water. Since 1998 ACF (Action Against Hunger, part of the Action Contre la Faim International Network) activities have been concentrated in the Acholi and Lango regions of Northern Uganda. ACF's WASH (Water, sanitation and hygiene) department interventions concern sanitation infrastructure, hygiene education and promotion as well as water points implementation. To ensure safe water access, actions are focused in borehole construction and traditional spring rehabilitation, also called "protected" springs. These activities follow the guidelines as set forth by the international WASH cluster, led by UNICEF. A three year project (2008-2010) is being implemented by ACF, to monitor the available groundwater resources in Northern Uganda. The main objectives are: 1. to monitor the groundwater quality from existing water points during different hydrological seasons, 2. to identify, if any, potential risks of contamination from population concentrations and displacement, lack of basic infrastructure and land use, and finally 3. to

  14. Assessment of Transportation Risk of Radioactive Materials in Uganda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard, Menya; Kim, Jonghyun

    2014-01-01

    Radioactive materials refer to any materials that spontaneously emit ionizing radiation and of which the radioactivity per gram is greater than 0.002 micro-curie. They include: spent nuclear fuel, nuclear wastes, medical sources i.e. Co-60, industrial sources i.e. Cs-137, Am-241:Be, Ra-226, and sources for research. In view of the rising reported cancer cases in Uganda, which might be as a result of radiation exposure due to constant transportation of radioactive materials i.e. industrial sources, a risk analysis was thought of and undertaken for the country's safety evaluation and improvement. It was therefore important to undertake a risk assessment of the actual and potential radiation exposure during the transportation process. This paper explains a study undertaken for transport risk assessment of the impact on the environment and the people living in it, from exposure to radioactivity during transportation of the industrial sources in Uganda. It provides estimates of radiological risks associated with visualized transport scenarios for the highway transport mode. This is done by calculating the human health impact and radiological risk from transportation of the sources along Busia transport route to Hoima. Busia is the entry port for the sources whilst Hoima, where various industrial practices that utilize sources like oil explorations are centered. During the study, a computer code RADTRAN-6 was used. The overall collective dose for population and package transport crew are 3.72E-4 and 1.69E-4 person-sievert respectively. These are less than the exemption value recommended by the IAEA and Uganda Regulatory Authority for public implying that no health effects like cancer are to be expected. Hence the rising cancer cases in the country are not as a result of increased transportation of radioactive materials in the Industrial sector

  15. Family caregivers in rural Uganda: the hidden reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipp, Walter; Tindyebwa, Denis; Rubaale, Tom; Karamagi, Ednah; Bajenja, Ellen

    2007-01-01

    We conducted 16 in-depth interviews with family caregivers of AIDS patients in three rural districts in western Uganda. They were selected from a client visitation list of the home-based care program for AIDS patients, based on volunteer participation. Family caregivers reported huge problems associated with providing the necessary psychological, social, and economic care. They also said that the physical and emotional demands of caregiving are overwhelming daily challenges. Most support to AIDS patients provided by family, friends, and the churches. The study highlights the great burden of caregivers, in sub-Saharan Africa who most often are elderly women and young girls. This study examine, the burden and related health issues of family caregivers, primarily women, for AIDS patients in Uganda. It was part of a broad research project using qualitative methods on family caregiving in the home environment in sub-Saharan Africa. As the requirements for family care giving are often overwhelming for women under the conditions as they exist in Uganda and in other developing countries, it constitutes a gender issue of great importance that has not been appreciated fully in the international literature. Family caregiving is also of international relevance, as HIV/AIDS is a global pandemic of previously unknown proportions. In many poor countries, family caregiving is the most common and often the only care that AIDS patients receive, because clinic-based care often is not available close to home or is not affordable. Therefore, family caregiver support programs to alleviate this burden are essential for all those countries where HIV/AIDS is prevalent. Family caregiver burden encompasses medical, social, and economic issues at the household level, which requires an interdisciplinary approach in order to fully understand and appreciate the different dimensions of the family caregiver burden and its negative impact on the lives of so many women in so many countries.

  16. Assessment of Transportation Risk of Radioactive Materials in Uganda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard, Menya; Kim, Jonghyun [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Radioactive materials refer to any materials that spontaneously emit ionizing radiation and of which the radioactivity per gram is greater than 0.002 micro-curie. They include: spent nuclear fuel, nuclear wastes, medical sources i.e. Co-60, industrial sources i.e. Cs-137, Am-241:Be, Ra-226, and sources for research. In view of the rising reported cancer cases in Uganda, which might be as a result of radiation exposure due to constant transportation of radioactive materials i.e. industrial sources, a risk analysis was thought of and undertaken for the country's safety evaluation and improvement. It was therefore important to undertake a risk assessment of the actual and potential radiation exposure during the transportation process. This paper explains a study undertaken for transport risk assessment of the impact on the environment and the people living in it, from exposure to radioactivity during transportation of the industrial sources in Uganda. It provides estimates of radiological risks associated with visualized transport scenarios for the highway transport mode. This is done by calculating the human health impact and radiological risk from transportation of the sources along Busia transport route to Hoima. Busia is the entry port for the sources whilst Hoima, where various industrial practices that utilize sources like oil explorations are centered. During the study, a computer code RADTRAN-6 was used. The overall collective dose for population and package transport crew are 3.72E-4 and 1.69E-4 person-sievert respectively. These are less than the exemption value recommended by the IAEA and Uganda Regulatory Authority for public implying that no health effects like cancer are to be expected. Hence the rising cancer cases in the country are not as a result of increased transportation of radioactive materials in the Industrial sector.

  17. Beyond ICT4D: new media research in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Lovink, G.

    2011-01-01

    Beyond ICT4D: New Media Research in Uganda is a collection of ethnographic reports from diverse perspectives of those living at the other end of the African ICT pyramid. Crucially, these texts refocus on the so-called "ICT4D" debate away from the standard western lens, which depicts users in the developing world as passive receivers of Western technological development, towards Ugandans whose use and production of technologies entail innovations from the ground up. It is this ‘other’ everyday...

  18. Diagnosing and Managing Adult Diabetes with Scarce Resources in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jannie; Whyte, Susan Reynolds

    testing to be provided for a fee at the hospital, in the private wing or through the services of a patient organization. Because the glucometer strips are relatively expensive, many patients went for months without testing their glucose levels. An additional problem was the need to obtain strips...... that matched the available glucometer (about 30 types were found in the areas visited). Economic constraints were exacerbated by costs for transport to the limited number of diabetes treatment facilities. Conclusion There is a severe lack of free diabetes testing and treatment possibilities in Uganda. Health...

  19. The introduction of mobile plant clinics to Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Solveig; Mutebi, Emmanuel

    Four mobile (or community-based) plant health clinics were started in Uganda on a pilot basis in 2005 as an attempt to ensure better plant health advisory services for small-scale farmers.  This new way of delivering primary plant healthcare to farmers has attracted wider interest and the Ministry......, Makerere University and CABI. The purpose of this study was to gather results and lessons learned from the pilot period to inform future plant clinic interventions. The study covers issues of organisation and management, clinic operation and performance as well as clinic use and preliminary evidence...

  20. African Indigenous science in higher education in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akena Adyanga, Francis

    This study examines African Indigenous Science (AIS) in higher education in Uganda. To achieve this, I use anticolonial theory and Indigenous knowledge discursive frameworks to situate the subjugation of Indigenous science from the education system within a colonial historical context. These theories allow for a critical examination of the intersection of power relations rooted in the politics of knowledge production, validation, and dissemination, and how this process has become a systemic and complex method of subjugating one knowledge system over the other. I also employ qualitative and autoethnographic research methodologies. Using a qualitative research method, I interviewed 10 students and 10 professors from two universities in Uganda. My research was guided by the following key questions: What is African Indigenous Science? What methodology would help us to indigenize science education in Uganda? How can we work with Indigenous knowledge and anticolonial theoretical discursive frameworks to understand and challenge the dominance of Eurocentric knowledge in mainstream education? My research findings revealed that AIS can be defined in multiple ways, in other words, there is no universal definition of AIS. However, there were some common elements that my participants talked about such as: (a) knowledge by Indigenous communities developed over a long period of time through a trial and error approach to respond to the social, economic and political challenges of their society. The science practices are generational and synergistic with other disciplines such as history, spirituality, sociology, anthropology, geography, and trade among others, (b) a cumulative practice of the use, interactions with and of biotic and abiotic organism in everyday life for the continued existence of a community in its' totality. The research findings also indicate that Indigenous science is largely lacking from Uganda's education curriculum because of the influence of colonial and

  1. Entomologic Inoculation Rates of Anopheles arabiensis in Southwestern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Ulesido, Fekadu Massebo; Balkew, Meshesha; Gebre-Michael, Teshome; Lindtjørn, Bernt

    2013-01-01

    We collected anophelines every second week for one year from randomly selected houses in southwestern Ethiopia by using Centers for Disease Control (CDC) light traps, pyrethrum spray catches, and artificial pit shelter constructions to detect circumsporozoite proteins and estimate entomologic inoculation rates (EIRs). Of 3,678 Anopheles arabiensis tested for circumsporozoite proteins, 11 were positive for Plasmodium falciparum and three for P. vivax. The estimated annual P. falciparum EIR of ...

  2. Genetic variation in the endangered Southwestern Willow Flycatcher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Joseph; Miller, Mark P.; Paxton, E.H.; Sogge, M.K.; Keim, Paul

    2000-01-01

    The Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus) is an endangered Neotropical migrant that breeds in isolated remnants of dense riparian habitat in the southwestern United States. We estimated genetic variation at 20 breeding sites of the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (290 individuals) using 38 amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs). Our results suggest that considerable genetic diversity exists within the subspecies and within local breeding sites. Statistical analyses of genetic variation revealed only slight, although significant, differentiation among breeding sites (Mantel's r = 0.0705, P UPGMA cluster analysis of the AFLP markers indicates that extensive gene flow has occurred among breeding sites. No one site stood out as being genetically unique or isolated. Therefore, the small level of genetic structure that we detected may not be biologically significant. Ongoing field studies are consistent with this conclusion. Of the banded birds that were resighted or recaptured in Arizona during the 1996 to 1998 breeding seasons, one-third moved between breeding sites and two-thirds were philopatric. Low differentiation may be the result of historically high rangewide diversity followed by recent geographic isolation of breeding sites, although observational data indicate that gene flow is a current phenomenon. Our data suggest that breeding groups of E. t. extimus act as a metapopulation.

  3. Characterization of a Hepatitis B virus strain in southwestern Paraná, Brazil, presenting mutations previously associated with anti-HBs Resistance Caracterização de uma cepa de hepatite por vírus B no sudoeste do Paraná, Brasil, apresentando mutações previamente associadas à resistência anti-HBs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Armando Bertolini

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated if hepatitis B virus (HBV mutants circulate in the southwestern region of the State of Paraná, Brazil, by analyzing samples from children who received immunoprophylaxis but were born to HBV carrier mothers. Samples from 25 children were screened for HBV serum markers and for HBV DNA by PCR. Only one sample was positive for HBsAg, anti-HBs and HBV DNA, although the child had been vaccinated. Analysis of the S gene sequence of this sample showed the presence of a proline at position 105, a serine at position 114, three threonines at positions 115, 116 and 140, and a glutamine at position 129. The presence of these amino acids, except for serine at position 114, has been related to monoclonal or polyclonal therapy with anti-HBs after liver transplantation, whereas the presence of threonine at position 116 has been described in immunized children from Singapore. This finding demonstrates the possible circulation of HBV strains resistant to hepatitis B immunoprophylaxis in southwestern Paraná, Brazil. The genotype of the sample was identified as genotype D, which is frequently found in the region studied. Since 36% of the children had received incomplete or no immunoprophylaxis, more extensive follow-up of children born to HBsAg-positive mothers is needed.O presente estudo investigou se mutantes do vírus da hepatite B (HBV circulam na região Sudoeste do Estado do Paraná, Brasil, analisando amostras de crianças que receberam a imunoprofilaxia por terem nascido de mães portadoras do HBV. Amostras de 25 crianças foram analisadas para os marcadores sorológicos do HBV e para o DNA-HBV por PCR. Somente uma amostra foi positiva para AgHBs, anti-HBs e DNA-HBV, apesar da criança ter sido vacinada. Análises da seqüência do gene S desta amostra mostrou a presença de uma prolina na posição 105, uma serina na posição 114, três treoninas nas posições 115, 116 e 140, e uma glutamina na posição 129. A presen

  4. Research on Structure Innovation of Agricultural Organization in China's Southwestern Mountainous Regions

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Qiang; Luo, Min; Wang, Ping

    2012-01-01

    Taking agricultural organization in China's southwestern mountainous regions as research object, on the basis of analysis of the status quo of agricultural organization development in China's southwestern mountainous regions, we use related theoretical knowledge on economics and organization science, we probe into the process of innovation and mechanism of action concerning the structure of agricultural organization in China's southwestern mountainous regions over the past 30 years. Finally w...

  5. Republic of Uganda National Presentation on Nuclear Power Infrastructure Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabbit, B.; Tungotyo, T.D

    2010-01-01

    The total installed electricity capacity is 595.8 MW mainly hydropower, cogeneration from biomass and thermal power. The Installed Capacity is expected to rise to about 802 MW in 2011 with commissioning of Bujagali hydropower Plant currently under construction, and other mini hydropower plants. Current contribution to the Energy Supply Pattern: Electricity 1.1%, Oil products 9.5% and Biomass 89.4%. (Uganda Energy balance, 2009). The need to drift from use of Biomass as source of energy prompted the consideration of energy supply options which are environmentally friendly. This includes the energy efficiency campaigns, renewable energy technologies and NPP. Uganda government intends to substantially increase power generation capacity in the next 20 years of which nuclear will have significant contribution. Legal framework has been put in place and currently building of capacity through training of young scientists. Ministry of Energy and Mineral Development is the home of all the energy Sector programmes including the nuclear Energy Programme. The Atomic Energy Act 2008 has been promulgated and the Atomic Energy Council was established to regulate the peaceful application of Atomic energy. The Council is mandated to provide protection and safety of individuals, society and the environment from the dangers resulting from ionizing radiation

  6. Agency relations and managed performance in public universities in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R.K. Kagaari

    2013-01-01

    Research purpose: The purpose of this article was to review the need for appropriate employer-employee relationships that will ensure quality services and service delivery in public universities in Uganda. Motivation for the study: The researchers set out to examine why managers of public universities in Uganda were continuously paying less attention to the needs of the employees. Research design, approach and method: A descriptive research design was employed and 12 respondents, purposively selected from 4 public universities, were interviewed. Data were recorded, transcribed and analysed using Nvivo software. This article is based on the perspective of agency theory, and discussed the contractual relationship between management and employees. The agency theory was deemed necessary because of its contribution to organisational literature. Main findings: There is a need to create and nurture a collegial working climate that promotes quality interactions through information sharing. This results in creating and retaining motivated and committed employees, and also helps to overcome the paradox of balancing the high demand for university education whilst offering quality services. Practical/managerial implications: Managers have to continuously monitor and accommodate employee needs and demands. Contribution/value-add: The potential value of the paper is its function as a guide for public universities to have visionary managers that will introduce new approaches to managing public universities in a competitive global environment.

  7. Post-Kemron, Uganda demands proof of the "Mariandina" drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-12-01

    An ethical review committee consisting of medical scientists, social scientists, and lawyers has been established by the Ugandan government to oversee individuals and institutions conducting biomedical research. The research of Professor Sali, who produced and marketed Mariandina as a cure for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), is not recognized, according to Dr. Jeremiah Twa-twa, Registrar of the National Medical Council. Professor Sali had been given six months to produce an acceptable protocol, with controls, that demonstrated the efficacy of the drug. He had stated previously that his patients received a minimum of six tablets daily of Mariandina A, B, or J; thousands are said to have been treated. Professor Sali, who returned to Uganda in 1990 with a 100,000-pound loan to produce the drug, advised his patients to sell everything they owned in order to pay for their treatment, according to Major Ruranga Rubaramira (head of a joint clinical council). The Uganda AIDS Commission is also considering the use of herbs in the treatment of AIDS; nine Western-trained researchers are collaborating with herbalists in studies that have shown promising results. Dr. Donna Kabatesi, who heads a clinic that uses both herbs and Western medicine in the treatment of AIDS patients at Mulago hospital, believes herbs are equally effective for some purposes.

  8. Disability inclusion in higher education in Uganda: Status and strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emong, Paul; Eron, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    Uganda has embraced inclusive education and evidently committed itself to bringing about disability inclusion at every level of education. Both legal and non-legal frameworks have been adopted and arguably are in line with the intent of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) on education. The CRPD, in Article 24, requires states to attain a right to education for persons with disabilities without discrimination and on the basis of equal opportunities at all levels of education. Despite Uganda's robust disability legal and policy framework on education, there is evidence of exclusion and discrimination of students with disabilities in the higher education institutions. The main objective of this article is to explore the status of disability inclusion in higher education and strategies for its realisation, using evidence from Emong's study, workshop proceedings where the authors facilitated and additional individual interviews with four students with disabilities by the authors. The results show that there are discrimination and exclusion tendencies in matters related to admissions, access to lectures, assessment and examinations, access to library services, halls of residence and other disability support services. The article recommends that institutional policies and guidelines on support services for students with disabilities and special needs in higher education be developed, data on students with disabilities collected to help planning, collaboration between Disabled Peoples Organisations (DPO's) strengthened to ensure disability inclusion and the establishment of disability support centres.

  9. Uganda--rehabilitation, or redefinition of health services?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, C P

    1986-01-01

    Uganda had one of the best health care delivery systems in Africa. The decade of misrule by Amin saw a collapse of the country and an exodus of doctors and other professions. The 1979 liberation war and subsequent political instability and insecurity further aggravated the poor health services then available. When political stability was temporarily restored in December 1980 the cash crop export sector took priority over social services and the health budget declined to only 3.5% compared to a former level of 7.5% of government budget. Emergencies in West Nile, Karamoja and the Luwero triangle continued to plague rehabilitation efforts upto 1985. Alternate strategies for improving health are proposed including female education, increased budget allocations, food and nutrition policy and health information. Uganda's prospect for rebuilding the health services has begun with immunization, control of diarrhoeal diseases, nutrition surveillance in Karamoja and an essential drugs programme, but the success of these is dependent upon political stability and improvement in overall security.

  10. “Helping my neighbour is like giving a loan…” –the role of social relations in chronic illness in rural Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovita Amurwon

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding individuals’ experience of accessing care and tending to various other needs during chronic illness in a rural context is important for health systems aiming to increase access to healthcare and protect poor populations from unreasonable financial hardship. This study explored the impact on households of access to free healthcare and how they managed to meet needs during chronic illness. Methods Rich data from the life stories of individuals from 22 households in rural south-western Uganda collected in 2009 were analysed. Results The data revealed that individuals and households depend heavily on their social relations in order to meet their needs during illness, including accessing the free healthcare and maintaining vital livelihood activities. The life stories illustrated ways in which households draw upon social relations to achieve the broader social protection necessary to prevent expenses becoming catastrophic, but also demonstrated the uncertainty in relying solely on informal relations. Conclusion Improving access to healthcare in a rural context greatly depends on broader social protection. Thus, the informal social protection that already exists in the form of strong reciprocal social relations must be acknowledged, supported and included in health policy planning.

  11. Improved Inputs Use and Productivity in Uganda's Maize Sub-sector

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Godfrey

    2012-12-07

    Dec 7, 2012 ... College of Business and Management Science, Makerere University, ... with a high level of improved inputs use as well as productivity [8]. .... Western Uganda spent on average three times more on hiring labour (UGX 0.051.

  12. Intestinal schistosomiasis among preschool children along the shores of Lake Victoria in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nalugwa, A.; Olsen, Annette; Tukahebwa, M. E.

    2015-01-01

    Schistosomiasis, a disease caused by Schistosoma trematode parasites, affects hundreds of millions of people and accounts for more than 40% of the global health burden due to neglected tropical diseases. In Uganda, intestinal schistosomiasis is endemic in 73 out of 112 districts and about 55......% of the population of 36 million individuals are at risk. There is scanty information on the status and burden of schistosomiasis in preschool children less than six years of age in Uganda. This study aimed to assess the status of Schistosoma mansoni infections in children aged 1-5 years in Uganda. S. mansoni...... prevalence and intensity of infection were examined in 3058 children from 5 districts along Lake Victoria shoreline, eastern Uganda. For each child one stool sample was collected on three consecutive days. The Kato-Katz technique was used to prepare stool smears on slides for microscopic examination. Short...

  13. The state of digitisation of the land registry operations in Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The state of digitisation of the land registry operations in Uganda. ... establish the challenges and chart strategies to overcome the challenges faced by stakeholders. ... The authors recommend strengthening the management of both paper and ...

  14. Improving Organisational Performance through knowledge management : The case of Financial Institutions in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bagorogoza, J.; de Waal, A.; van den Herik, H.J.; van de Walle, B.A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study is to examine the knowledge management practices of financial institutions in Uganda, in order to understand how these practices influence the high performance organisation factors and thereby the performance of the financial institutions.

  15. Integrating cultural control methods for tomato late blight (Phytophthora infestans) in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tumwine, J.; Frinking, H.D.; Jeger, M.J.

    2002-01-01

    Cultural control measures against tomato late blight (Phytophthora infestans) were evaluated in six field experiments over 3 years in Uganda. Each experiment included sanitation (removal of diseased plant tissues), fungicide (mancozeb) application, and an untreated control, as standard treatments.

  16. Public submissions on the Uganda national biotechnology and biosafety bill, 2012 reveal consensus for Uganda legislators to pass the bill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clet Wandui Masiga

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety to the Convention on Biological Diversity is an internationally binding instrument addressing issues of biosafety. Biosafety refers to the need to protect human health and the environment from the possible adverse effects of the products of modern biotechnology. Accordingly all countries to the convention are required to put in place regulatory mechanisms to enhance the safety of biotechnology in the context of the Convention’s overall goal of reducing all potential threats to biological diversity, while taking into account the risks to human health. Therefore each country party to the convention has its own procedures to enact laws to guide the safe use of biotechnology. In Uganda the process involves the drafting of the bill by the first parliamentary counsel, approval by cabinet, first reading at the parliament, committal to the responsible parliamentary sessional committee, tabling of the bill for public hearing, consultations, and final approval. In Uganda, the Committee on Science and Technology is responsible for the Biosafety Bill. In March 2013, the Committee tabled the bill for public hearing and submissions from public institutions. There were comments supporting the passage of the Bill and comments in objection.The reasons for objection are mainly due to precaution, speculation, lack of knowledge about biotechnology and biosafety, and alleged influence from biosafety entrepreneurs. This article reviews these public views, revealing controversy and possible consensus to pass the bill.

  17. Determination of Sorption Coefficient of Phosphorus Applied for Sugarcane Production in Southwestern Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muwamba, A; Nkedi-Kizza, P; Morgan, K T

    2016-09-01

    Phosphorus is among the essential nutrients applied to sugarcane ( L.) fields in the form of a fertilizer mixture (N, P, and K) in southwestern Florida. Sorption coefficient is used for modeling P movement, and in this study, we hypothesized that the sorption coefficient determined using fertilizer mixture (N, P, and K) will be significantly different from values determined using KCl and CaCl, the electrolytes most commonly used for conducting sorption experiments. Supporting electrolytes, 0.01 mol L KCl, 0.005 mol L CaCl, deionized (DI) water, simulated Florida rain, and fertilizer mixture prepared in Florida rain were used to characterize P sorption. Immokalee (Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Arenic Alaquods) and Margate (Sandy, siliceous hyperthermic Mollic Psammaquents) are the dominant mineral soils used for sugarcane production in southwestern Florida; we used the A and B horizons of Margate soil and the A and B horizons of the Immokalee soil for sorption experiments in this study. Freundlich sorption isotherms described P sorption data. The Freundlich sorption isotherm coefficients followed the trend 0.005 mol L CaCl > 0.01 mol L KCl ≈ fertilizer mixture > simulated Florida rain ≈ DI water. Sorption coefficients were used for modeling P movement with HYDRUS 1D; similar P results were obtained with the 0.01 mol L KCl and fertilizer mixture electrolyte treatments. The sorption coefficient for DI water and simulated Florida rain overpredicted P movement. The P sorption data showed the importance of choosing the appropriate electrolyte for conducting experiments based on the composition of fertilizer. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  18. Helping patients in Uganda overcome weight gain and obesity using motivational interviewing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Docherty

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is one of the fastest growing health problems in Uganda and across the world and its rising prevalence is placing additional strain on medical resources. At its simplest level obesity is a consequence of unhealthy lifestyles. Preventing its spread in Uganda will rest on the ability of society to motivate individuals to make positive healthy choices in their daily lives and many of the same techniques may be applicable to the situation in South Sudan.

  19. Epidemiology and Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in West-Nile Populations of Sudan and Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Neuner, Frank

    2003-01-01

    Bürgerkriege haben für die betroffenen Länder verheerende Auswirkungen auf soz-ialer, wirtschaftlicher, medizinischer und politischer Ebene. In einer epidemiologischen Studie, die im West-Nil Gebiet von Sudan und Uganda durchgeführt wurde, sollten die psychischen Folgen des sudanesischen Bürgerkrieges untersucht werden. Dabei wurden drei Populationen miteinander verglichen: Sudanesen, die im Sudan verblieben waren (n =664), Flüchtlinge, die aus dem Sudan nach Uganda geflohen waren (n = 1240) ...

  20. Prevalence and factors associated with depression symptoms among school-going adolescents in Central Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Nalugya-Sserunjogi, Joyce; Rukundo, Godfrey Zari; Ovuga, Emilio; Kiwuwa, Steven M.; Musisi, Seggane; Nakimuli-Mpungu, Etheldreda

    2016-01-01

    Background Depression in adolescents constitutes a global public health concern. However, data on its prevalence and associated factors are limited in low income countries like Uganda. Methods Using a cross-sectional descriptive study design, 519 adolescent students in 4 secondary schools in Mukono district, Uganda, were randomly selected after meeting study criteria. The 4 school types were: boarding mixed (boys and girls) school; day mixed school; girls? only boarding school; and, boys? onl...

  1. Promoting development oriented financial system in Sub-Saharan Africa: The Uganda country experience

    OpenAIRE

    Obowna, Marios; Abuka, Charles Augustine

    2006-01-01

    Uganda faced a number of challenges at the time of embarking on financial sector reforms. These challenges were complicated by decades of economic mismanagement and political instability that had prevailed in the country. In particular, there were concerns about the inadequacy of a critical mass of skilled and experienced financial sector players. This shortcoming inherently induced undue impediments to Uganda's corporate reporting regime. Further shortcoming were related to the lack of compr...

  2. Early warning systems of financial crises: implementation of a currency crisis model for Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Heun, Michael; Schlink, Torsten

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to implement a prototype of a currency crisis model as part of an early warning system framework for Uganda. The financial systems of developing countries like Uganda are especially vulnerable and therefore robust instruments to predict crises are needed. Our model is based on the signals approach developed by Kaminsky, Lizondo and Reinhart (1998) and Kaminsky and Reinhart (1999). The basic idea of the signals approach is to monitor several indicators that tend ...

  3. Incidence, Distribution and Characteristics of Major Tomato Leaf Curl and Mosaic Virus Diseases in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Ssekyewa, C

    2006-01-01

    In Uganda, about 3 million households consume tomato. However, tomato yields (10 ton/ ha) are low due to poor agronomic practices, lack of high yielding and disease resistant varieties, and pests (Varela, 1995; Hansen, 1990; Defrancq, 1989). Viral diseases are the third major cause of low tomato productivity in Uganda. Therefore, a survey was conducted; symptoms observed on tomato were categorized, and screened for both ribonucleic and deoxyribonucleic acid tomato viruses. Genetic identity fo...

  4. Identifying cholera "hotspots" in Uganda: An analysis of cholera surveillance data from 2011 to 2016

    OpenAIRE

    Bwire, Godfrey; Ali, Mohammad; Sack, David A.; Nakinsige, Anne; Naigaga, Martha; Debes, Amanda K.; Ngwa, Moise C.; Brooks, W. Abdullah; Garimoi Orach, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    Background Despite advance in science and technology for prevention, detection and treatment of cholera, this infectious disease remains a major public health problem in many countries in sub-Saharan Africa, Uganda inclusive. The aim of this study was to identify cholera hotspots in Uganda to guide the development of a roadmap for prevention, control and elimination of cholera in the country. Methodology/Principle findings We obtained district level confirmed cholera outbreak data from 2011 t...

  5. Scaling up antiretroviral therapy in Uganda: using supply chain management to appraise health systems strengthening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neuhann Florian

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Strengthened national health systems are necessary for effective and sustained expansion of antiretroviral therapy (ART. ART and its supply chain management in Uganda are largely based on parallel and externally supported efforts. The question arises whether systems are being strengthened to sustain access to ART. This study applies systems thinking to assess supply chain management, the role of external support and whether investments create the needed synergies to strengthen health systems. Methods This study uses the WHO health systems framework and examines the issues of governance, financing, information, human resources and service delivery in relation to supply chain management of medicines and the technologies. It looks at links and causal chains between supply chain management for ART and the national supply system for essential drugs. It combines data from the literature and key informant interviews with observations at health service delivery level in a study district. Results Current drug supply chain management in Uganda is characterized by parallel processes and information systems that result in poor quality and inefficiencies. Less than expected health system performance, stock outs and other shortages affect ART and primary care in general. Poor performance of supply chain management is amplified by weak conditions at all levels of the health system, including the areas of financing, governance, human resources and information. Governance issues include the lack to follow up initial policy intentions and a focus on narrow, short-term approaches. Conclusion The opportunity and need to use ART investments for an essential supply chain management and strengthened health system has not been exploited. By applying a systems perspective this work indicates the seriousness of missing system prerequisites. The findings suggest that root causes and capacities across the system have to be addressed synergistically to

  6. Financial management systems under decentralization and their effect on malaria control in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivumbi, George W; Nangendo, Florence; Ndyabahika, Boniface Rutagira

    2004-01-01

    A descriptive case study with multiple sites and a single level of analysis was carried out in four purposefully selected administrative districts of Uganda to investigate the effect of financial management systems under decentralization on malaria control. Data were primarily collected from 36 interviews with district managers, staff at health units and local leaders. A review of records and documents related to decentralization at the central and district level was also used to generate data for the study. We found that a long, tedious, and bureaucratic process combined with lack of knowledge in working with new financial systems by several actors characterized financial flow under decentralization. This affected the timely use of financial resources for malaria control in that there were funds in the system that could not be accessed for use. We were also told that sometimes these funds were returned to the central government because of non-use due to difficulties in accessing them and/or stringent conditions not to divert them to other uses. Our data showed that a cocktail of bureaucratic control systems, corruption and incompetence make the financial management system under decentralization counter-productive for malaria control. The main conclusion is that good governance through appropriate and efficient financial management systems is very important for effective malaria control under decentralization.

  7. The Medical Research Council (UK)/Uganda Virus Research Institute Uganda Research Unit on AIDS--'25 years of research through partnerships'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaleebu, P; Kamali, A; Seeley, J; Elliott, A M; Katongole-Mbidde, E

    2015-02-01

    For the past 25 years, the Medical Research Council/Uganda Virus Research Institute Uganda Research Unit on AIDS has conducted research on HIV-1, coinfections and, more recently, on non-communicable diseases. Working with various partners, the research findings of the Unit have contributed to the understanding and control of the HIV epidemic both in Uganda and globally, and informed the future development of biomedical HIV interventions, health policy and practice. In this report, as we celebrate our silver jubilee, we describe some of these achievements and the Unit's multidisciplinary approach to research. We also discuss the future direction of the Unit; an exemplar of a partnership that has been largely funded from the north but led in the south. © 2014 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Disposal and reclamation of southwestern coal and uranium wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wewerka, E.M.

    1979-01-01

    The types of solid wastes and effluents produced by the southwestern coal and uranium mining and milling industries are considered, and the current methods for the disposal and reclamation of these materials discussed. The major means of disposing of the solid wastes from both industries is by land fill or in some instances ponding. Sludges or aqueous wastes are normally discharged into settling and evaporative ponds. Basic reclamation measures for nearly all coal and uranium waste disposal sites include solids stabilization, compacting, grading, soil preparation, and revegetation. Impermeable liners and caps are beginning to be applied to disposal sites for some of the more harmful coal and uranium waste materials

  9. Factorial's composition of Lake Abha, Southwestern Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Beheiry, M.A.H

    2007-01-01

    The study analyzes the vegetation along Lake Abha in Southwestern Saudi Arabia. A total of 42 plant species were recorded. The annuals decrease and the biennials and perennials increase along the moisture gradient form the terraces to the free-water zone. Six vegetation clusters were identified. The most important are clusters which were identified by the presence of the following species: Phragmites australis, Juncus punctorius, Typha domingensis, Cyperus rotundus, Datura innoxia, Cynodon dactylon, Cornulaca monacantha and Potamogeton nododsus. Each of these communities has been analyzed by classification and ordination techniques and its habitat described and discussed. (author)

  10. Perceptions of Adolescent Pregnancy Among Teenage Girls in Rakai, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maly, Christina; McClendon, Katherine A; Baumgartner, Joy Noel; Nakyanjo, Neema; Ddaaki, William George; Serwadda, David; Nalugoda, Fred Kakaire; Wawer, Maria J; Bonnevie, Erika; Wagman, Jennifer A

    2017-01-01

    The leading causes of death and disability among Ugandan female adolescents aged 15 to 19 years are pregnancy complications, unsafe abortions, and childbirth. Despite these statistics, our understanding of how girls perceive adolescent pregnancy is limited. This qualitative study explored the social and contextual factors shaping the perceptions of adolescent pregnancy and childbirth among a sample of 12 currently pregnant and 14 never pregnant girls living in the rural Rakai District of Uganda. Interviews were conducted to elicit perceived risk factors for pregnancy, associated community attitudes, and personal opinions on adolescent pregnancy. Findings indicate that notions of adolescent pregnancy are primarily influenced by perceptions of control over getting pregnant and readiness for childbearing. Premarital pregnancy was perceived as negative whereas postmarital pregnancy was regarded as positive. Greater understanding of the individual and contextual factors influencing perceptions can aid in development of salient, culturally appropriate policies and programs to mitigate unintended adolescent pregnancies.

  11. Returning home: resettlement of formerly abducted children in Northern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbin, Joanne N

    2008-06-01

    This exploratory qualitative study considers the subjective resettlement experiences of children forced into armed conflict in Northern Uganda from the perspectives of 11 former child combatants and 11 adult community members. A thematic analysis was performed on the narrative data. The bioecological model was used to provide a conceptual framework for key themes. Major findings included the overarching impact of ongoing armed conflict on returnees' lives, the important role of the family in supporting children's resettlement, the harassment of former child soldiers by community members, and the community's inability to support systematically the returning children in tangible ways. This study recommends that humanitarian services at all levels strengthen the capacity of families to care for the material and psychoemotional needs of former child soldiers within their communities.

  12. Characterising agrometeorological climate risks and uncertainties: Crop production in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mubiru, Drake N.; Komutunga, Everline; Agona, Ambrose

    2012-01-01

    , the number of rainy days during this critical period of crop growth is decreasing, which possibly means that crops grown in this season are prone to climatic risks and therefore in need of appropriate adaptation measures. A time-series analysis of the maximum daily temperature clearly revealed an increase......Uganda is vulnerable to climate change as most of its agriculture is rain-fed; agriculture is also the backbone of the economy, and the livelihoods of many people depend upon it. Variability in rainfall may be reflected in the productivity of agricultural systems and pronounced variability may...... in temperature, with the lower limits of the ranges of daily maximums increasing faster than the upper limits. Finally, this study has generated information on seasonal rainfall characteristics that will be vital in exploiting the possibilities offered by climatic variability and also offers opportunities...

  13. The visibility of non-communicable diseases in northern Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whyte, Susan Reynolds; Park, Sung-Joon; Odong, George

    2015-01-01

    Background : WHO and Uganda’s Ministry of Health emphasize the need to address the growing burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Treatment for these conditions is urgent in northern Uganda where war has negatively affected both health and the public health care system. Objectives : We aimed...... to explore the recognized presence of selected chronic conditions in the out-patient population and to relate this ‘visibility’ to the ability of health units to diagnose and treat them. Methods : At six health facilities we reviewed patient registers for one month to determine the frequency of hypertension...... : The four conditions are relatively invisible in the outpatient population. Greater visibility would be facilitated by regular clinic days for hypertension and diabetes, availability and regular use of diagnostic instruments, and a more reliable supply of the relevant medicines....

  14. Perceptions of Adolescent Pregnancy Among Teenage Girls in Rakai, Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Maly

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The leading causes of death and disability among Ugandan female adolescents aged 15 to 19 years are pregnancy complications, unsafe abortions, and childbirth. Despite these statistics, our understanding of how girls perceive adolescent pregnancy is limited. This qualitative study explored the social and contextual factors shaping the perceptions of adolescent pregnancy and childbirth among a sample of 12 currently pregnant and 14 never pregnant girls living in the rural Rakai District of Uganda. Interviews were conducted to elicit perceived risk factors for pregnancy, associated community attitudes, and personal opinions on adolescent pregnancy. Findings indicate that notions of adolescent pregnancy are primarily influenced by perceptions of control over getting pregnant and readiness for childbearing. Premarital pregnancy was perceived as negative whereas postmarital pregnancy was regarded as positive. Greater understanding of the individual and contextual factors influencing perceptions can aid in development of salient, culturally appropriate policies and programs to mitigate unintended adolescent pregnancies.

  15. Elections and landmark policies in Tanzania and Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Anne Mette; Therkildsen, Ole

    2013-01-01

    Much of the relevant literature on Africa downplays the salience of elections for policy-making and implementation. Instead, the importance of factors such as clientelism, ethnicity, organized interest group and donor influence, is emphasized. We argue that, in addition, elections now motivate...... political elites to focus on policies they perceive to be able to gain votes. This is based on analyses of six landmark decisions made during the last fifteen years in the social, productive and public finance sectors in Tanzania and Uganda. Such policies share a number of key characteristics......: they are clearly identifiable with the party in power; citizens country-wide are targeted; and policy implementation aim at immediate, visible results. The influence of elections on policy making and implementation could therefore be more significant in countries where elections are more competitive than...

  16. Transnational Sex Politics, Conservative Christianity, and Antigay Activism in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Oliver

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In October 2009, a private member introduced the Anti-Homosexuality Bill to Uganda’s Parliament for consideration. This article analyzes the Bill within a broader context of transnational antigay activism, specifically the diverse ways that antigay activism in Uganda is shaped by global dynamics (such as the U.S. Christian Right’s pro-family agenda and local forms of knowledge and concerns over culture, national identity, and political and socio-economic issues/interests. This article lends insight into how transnational antigay activism connects to and reinforces colonial-inspired scripts about “African” sexuality and the deepening power inequalities between the global North and South under global neoliberalism, and raises some important questions about how the racial and gender politics of the U.S. Christian Right’s pro-family agenda travel and manifest within the Ugandan context.

  17. A habitat overlap analysis derived from Maxent for Tamarisk and the South-western Willow Flycatcher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia York; Paul Evangelista; Sunil Kumar; James Graham; Curtis Flather; Thomas Stohlgren

    2011-01-01

    Biologic control of the introduced and invasive, woody plant tamarisk (Tamarix spp, saltcedar) in south-western states is controversial because it affects habitat of the federally endangered South-western Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus). These songbirds sometimes nest in tamarisk where floodplain-level invasion replaces native habitats. Biologic control...

  18. Uptake of Cervical Cancer Screening and Associated Factors among Women in Rural Uganda: A Cross Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rawlance Ndejjo

    Full Text Available In developing countries, inadequate access to effective screening for cervical cancer often contributes to the high morbidity and mortality caused by the disease. The largest burden of this falls mostly on underserved populations in rural areas, where health care access is characterized by transport challenges, ill equipped health facilities, and lack of information access. This study assessed uptake of cervical cancer screening and associated factors among women in rural Uganda.This descriptive cross sectional study was carried out in Bugiri and Mayuge districts in eastern Uganda and utilised quantitative data collection methods. Data were collected using a semi-structured questionnaire on cervical cancer screening among females aged between 25 and 49 years who had spent six or more months in the area. Data were entered in Epidata 3.02 and analysed in STATA 12.0 statistical software. Univariate, bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed.Of the 900 women, only 43 (4.8% had ever been screened for cervical cancer. Among respondents who were screened, 21 (48.8% did so because they had been requested by a health worker, 17 (39.5% had certain signs and symptoms they associated with cervical cancer while 16 (37.2% did it voluntarily to know their status. Barriers to cervical cancer screening were negative individual perceptions 553 (64.5% and health facility related challenges 142 (16.6%. Other respondents said they were not aware of the screening service 416 (48.5%. The independent predictors of cervical cancer screening were: being recommended by a health worker [AOR = 87.85, p<0.001], knowing where screening services were offered [AOR = 6.24, p = 0.004], and knowing someone who had ever been screened [AOR = 9.48, p = 0.001].The prevalence of cervical cancer screening is very low in rural Uganda. Interventions to increase uptake of cervical cancer screening should be implemented so as to improve access to the service in rural areas.

  19. Advancing the application of systems thinking in health: exploring dual practice and its management in Kampala, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paina, Ligia; Bennett, Sara; Ssengooba, Freddie; Peters, David H

    2014-08-18

    Many full-time Ugandan government health providers take on additional jobs - a phenomenon called dual practice. We describe the complex patterns that characterize the evolution of dual practice in Uganda, and the local management practices that emerged in response, in five government facilities. An in-depth understanding of dual practice can contribute to policy discussions on improving public sector performance. A multiple case study design with embedded units of analysis was supplemented by interviews with policy stakeholders and a review of historical and policy documents. Five facility case studies captured the perspective of doctors, nurses, and health managers through semi-structured in-depth interviews. A causal loop diagram illustrated interactions and feedback between old and new actors, as well as emerging roles and relationships. The causal loop diagram illustrated how feedback related to dual practice policy developed in Uganda. As opportunities for dual practice grew and the public health system declined over time, government providers increasingly coped through dual practice. Over time, government restrictions to dual practice triggered policy resistance and protest from government providers. Resulting feedback contributed to compromising the supply of government providers and, potentially, of service delivery outcomes. Informal government policies and restrictions replaced the formal restrictions identified in the early phases. In some instances, government health managers, particularly those in hospitals, developed their own practices to cope with dual practice and to maintain public sector performance. Management practices varied according to the health manager's attitude towards dual practice and personal experience with dual practice. These practices were distinct in hospitals. Hospitals faced challenges managing internal dual practice opportunities, such as those created by externally-funded research projects based within the hospital. Private

  20. Quality of life among children with spina bifida in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims-Williams, Helen J; Sims-Williams, Hugh P; Mbabazi Kabachelor, Edith; Warf, Benjamin C

    2017-11-01

    Children surviving after spina bifida repair often have significant disability, the consequences of which may be more profound in low-income countries. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to measure quality of life (QOL) reported by children with spina bifida in Uganda, and to define factors associated with QOL. QOL was measured using both the Health Utilities Index (HUI3) Tool and a visual analogue scale (VAS) marked from 0 to 10. In keeping with the WHO definition of QOL, further analysis was conducted using subjective QOL scores (using the VAS). Multivariate regression was used to investigate the association between VAS scores and prespecified variables: age, sex, hydrocephalus, mobility, urinary continence, school attendance and family size. Sixty two of 68 surviving children aged 10-14 were able to complete all aspects of the assessment. There was poor correlation between the VAS and HUI3 Tool (Pearson correlation 0.488). On multivariate regression, the following variables were associated with a significant change in the 10-point VAS (change in score; 95% CI): male sex (-1.45; -2.436 to -0.465), urinary continence (1.681; 0.190 to 3.172), large family size (-1.775; -2.773 to -0.777) and hydrocephalus (-1.382; -2.374 to -0.465). Urinary continence and family size are potentially modifiable, the former by simple and inexpensive medical management. Enhanced investment in community-based rehabilitation and support is urgently needed. Delivery of family planning services is a national priority in Uganda, and should be discussed with families as part of holistic care. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  1. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in young adults in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baalwa, J; Byarugaba, B B; Kabagambe, E K; Kabagambe, K E; Otim, A M

    2010-12-01

    Obesity in young adults is rising and predicts diabetes and cardiovascular diseases later in life. Data on prevalence and determinants of obesity in developing countries are needed for primary prevention. To determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity in young adults in urban (Kampala city) and rural areas (Kamuli District) of Uganda. Cross-sectional survey of 683 randomly selected young adults aged 18-30 years. Obesity was defined as body mass index (BMI) > 30 kg/m(2) and overweight as BMI > 25 kg/m(2). Distribution of BMI by socio-demographic characteristics was determined. Of the 683 participants, 50.5% were female and 53.2% were from Kampala. The overall prevalence of obesity and overweight was 2.3% and 10.4%, respectively. The prevalence of obesity was 4.4% in Kampala and 0% in Kamuli while the prevalence of overweight was 10.2% and 10.6% in Kampala and Kamuli, respectively. Compared to males, females were more likely to be obese (2.9% vs. 1.8%) or overweight (17.4% vs. 3.3%). Residing in the city, alcohol consumption, smoking, non-engagement in sports activities, commuting to school by taxi or private vehicle and being from a rich family were the main factors significantly associated (Pobesity. Being female (p = 0.0001) and not engaging in any sports activities (P = 0.002) were two factors significantly associated with being overweight. We observed significant gender differences in the prevalence of obesity among young adults in Uganda. Contrary to expectation, we did not observe significant rural-urban differences in the prevalence of overweight.

  2. 78 FR 65703 - Notice of Availability of the Idaho and Southwestern Montana Greater Sage-Grouse Draft Land Use...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    ...] Notice of Availability of the Idaho and Southwestern Montana Greater Sage-Grouse Draft Land Use Plan... Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for managing Greater Sage- Grouse (GRSG) in the Idaho and Southwestern... Southwestern Montana Greater Sage-Grouse Draft LUP Amendments/Draft EIS by any of the following methods: Email...

  3. Agreement between diagnoses of childhood lymphoma assigned in Uganda and by an international reference laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orem J

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Jackson Orem,1–3 Sven Sandin,1 Caroline E Weibull,1 Michael Odida,4 Henry Wabinga,4 Edward Mbidde,2,3 Fred Wabwire-Mangen,5 Chris JLM Meijer,6 Jaap M Middeldorp,6 Elisabete Weiderpass1,7,81Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; 2Uganda Cancer Institute, 3School of Medicine, 4School of Biomedical Sciences, 5School of Public Health, Makerere University College of Health Sciences, Kampala, Uganda; 6Department of Pathology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; 7Cancer Registry of Norway, Oslo; Department of Community Medicine, University of Tromsø, Tromsø, Norway; 8Samfundet Folkhälsan, Helsinki, FinlandBackground: Correct diagnosis is key to appropriate treatment of cancer in children. However, diagnostic challenges are common in low-income and middle-income countries. The objective of the present study was to assess the agreement between a clinical diagnosis of childhood non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL assigned in Uganda, a pathological diagnosis assigned in Uganda, and a pathological diagnosis assigned in The Netherlands.Methods: The study included children with suspected NHL referred to the Mulago National Referral Hospital, Kampala, Uganda, between 2004 and 2008. A clinical diagnosis was assigned at the Mulago National Referral Hospital, where tissue samples were also obtained. Hematoxylin and eosin-stained slides were used for histological diagnosis in Uganda, and were re-examined in a pathology laboratory in The Netherlands, where additional pathological, virological and serological testing was also carried out. Agreement between diagnostic sites was compared using kappa statistics.Results: Clinical and pathological diagnoses from Uganda and pathological diagnosis from The Netherlands was available for 118 children. The agreement between clinical and pathological diagnoses of NHL assigned in Uganda was 91% (95% confidence interval [CI] 84–95; kappa 0.84; P < 0

  4. Two types of adakites revealed by 238U-230Th disequilibrium from Daisen volcano, southwestern Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokunaga, Saimi; Nakai, Shun'ichi; Orihashi, Yuji

    2010-01-01

    Daisen volcano is located on the Quaternary volcanic front in southwestern Japan. The volcano is composed mainly of andesite and dacite, which chemically resemble adakites, with high Al 2 O 3 and Sr/Y, steep REE patterns, and no negative Eu anomaly. ( 238 U/ 230 Th) disequilibrium (herein, a ratio in parentheses denotes the activity ratio) and trace element analyses of adakites from two volcanic domes, Karasugasen and Misen, indicate two adakite types. Adakite from Karasugasen is characterized by excess ( 230 Th) over ( 238 U), typical of most adakites, whereas adakite from Misen is characterized by excess ( 238 U) over ( 230 Th). The latter is consistent with enrichment in fluid-mobile elements relative to fluid immobile elements compared to rocks from Karasugasen. The values of ( 230 Th/ 232 Th) of adakites from Karasugasen and Misen are, respectively, around 0.75 and 0.81. These low ( 230 Th/ 232 Th) ratios result from the incorporation of subducted sedimentary material. The ratios, nevertheless, are higher than that for the estimate of lower crustal material suggesting significant incorporation of lower crust is unlikely. As adakites from Misen have ( 238 U) excess over ( 230 Th), adakite magma must have interacted with wedge mantle metasomatized by a slab-derived fluid, confirming the presence of a fluid-metasomatized mantle beneath Daisen volcano. (author)

  5. On the edge of Bantu expansions: mtDNA, Y chromosome and lactase persistence genetic variation in southwestern Angola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beleza Sandra

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current information about the expansion of Bantu-speaking peoples is hampered by the scarcity of genetic data from well identified populations from southern Africa. Here, we fill an important gap in the analysis of the western edge of the Bantu migrations by studying for the first time the patterns of Y-chromosome, mtDNA and lactase persistence genetic variation in four representative groups living around the Namib Desert in southwestern Angola (Ovimbundu, Ganguela, Nyaneka-Nkumbi and Kuvale. We assessed the differentiation between these populations and their levels of admixture with Khoe-San groups, and examined their relationship with other sub-Saharan populations. We further combined our dataset with previously published data on Y-chromosome and mtDNA variation to explore a general isolation with migration model and infer the demographic parameters underlying current genetic diversity in Bantu populations. Results Correspondence analysis, lineage sharing patterns and admixture estimates indicate that the gene pool from southwestern Angola is predominantly derived from West-Central Africa. The pastoralist Herero-speaking Kuvale people were additionally characterized by relatively high frequencies of Y-chromosome (12% and mtDNA (22% Khoe-San lineages, as well as by the presence of the -14010C lactase persistence mutation (6%, which likely originated in non-Bantu pastoralists from East Africa. Inferred demographic parameters show that both male and female populations underwent significant size growth after the split between the western and eastern branches of Bantu expansions occurring 4000 years ago. However, males had lower population sizes and migration rates than females throughout the Bantu dispersals. Conclusion Genetic variation in southwestern Angola essentially results from the encounter of an offshoot of West-Central Africa with autochthonous Khoisan-speaking peoples from the south. Interactions between the Bantus

  6. Oil industry in Uganda: The socio-economic effects on the people of Kabaale Village, Hoima, and Bunyoro region in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyomugasho, Miriam

    This thesis examines the socio-economic effects of oil industry on the people of Kabaale Village, Hoima, and Bunyoro region in Uganda. The thesis analyses the current political economy of Uganda and how Uganda is prepared to utilize the proceeds from the oil industry for the development of the country and its people. In addition, the research examines the effects of industry on the people of Uganda by analyzing how the people of Kabaale in Bunyoro region were affected by the plans to construct oil refinery in their region. This field research was done using qualitative methods and the Historical Materialism theoretical framework guided the study. The major findings include; displacement of people from land especially women, lack of accountability from the leadership, and less citizen participation in the policy formulation and oil industry. Ugandans, East Africans and the wider Pan-African world need to re-organize their socio-economic structure to enable people own means of production; participate and form labor organizations. Additionally, there is a need for oil producing African countries to unite and setup and oil fund for resources and investment instead of relying on foreign multinationals or become rentier states.

  7. Factors Associated with Perceived Stigma among People Living with HIV/AIDS in Post-Conflict Northern Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nattabi, Barbara; Li, Jianghong; Thompson, Sandra C.; Orach, Christopher G.; Earnest, Jaya

    2011-01-01

    HIV-related stigma continues to persist in several African countries including Uganda. This study quantified the burden of stigma and examined factors associated with stigma among 476 people living with HIV (PLHTV) in Gulu, northern Uganda. Data were collected between February and May 2009 using the HIV/AIDS Stigma Instrument-PLWA. Females more…

  8. The IMF-World Bank's economic stabilisation and structural adjustment policies and the Uganda economy, 1981-1989

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nabudere, D.W.

    1990-01-01

    This research report traces all the main developments in IMF-World Bank policies in Uganda. Most of the material concerns the three IMF standby arrangements with Uganda for 1981-1984 and the World Bank Group's Structural Adjustment Programmes. These programmes introduced two contradictory policies

  9. Non-Formal Education and Livelihood Skills for Marginalised Street and Slum Youth in Uganda. Project Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), 2006

    2006-01-01

    The Building Capacities for Non formal Education and Life Skills Programmes project in Uganda was implemented by Uganda Youth Development Link (UYDEL) with financial and technical support from UNESCO--Section for Literacy and non Formal Education in 2004-05; aiming at assisting vulnerable and marginalised youth affected by HIV/AIDS and other risk…

  10. Budget Planning and the Quality of Educational Services in Uganda Public Universities: A Case Study of Kyambogo University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basheka, Benon C.; Nabwire, Addah

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between budget planning and the quality of educational services at Kyambogo University in Uganda. We argue that the manner in which the university's budget planning activities are conducted determines in a significant way (by 76.8%) the quality of the services offered by public universities in Uganda. The…

  11. Exploring Differences in National and International Poverty Estimates: Is Uganda on Track to Halve Poverty by 2015?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores causes of differences in estimates of poverty incidence in Uganda since the early 1990s as measured by the Uganda Bureau of Statistics and the World Bank. While both sets of estimates from the two organisations show a declining trend in poverty incidence there are important differences in the levels of poverty, the speed of the…

  12. Benefit Incidence Analysis of Government Spending on Public-Private Partnership Schooling under Universal Secondary Education Policy in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wokadala, J.; Barungi, M.

    2015-01-01

    The study establishes whether government spending on private universal secondary education (USE) schools is equitable across quintiles disaggregated by gender and by region in Uganda. The study employs benefit incidence analysis tool on the Uganda National Panel Survey (UNPS 2009/10) data to establish the welfare impact of public subsidy on…

  13. Determinants of fertility desire among married or cohabiting individuals in Rakai, Uganda: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matovu, Joseph K B; Makumbi, Fredrick; Wanyenze, Rhoda K; Serwadda, David

    2017-01-10

    Recent trends in fertility rates indicate declines in total fertility rate (TFR) in some sub-Saharan African countries. However, countries such as Uganda continue to have a persistently high TFR partly attributed to strong preferences for large family sizes. We explored the factors that influence fertility desire among married or cohabiting individuals in Rakai, a rural district in southwestern Uganda. This cross-sectional study of fertility desire (desire to have another child) was nested in a cluster-randomized demand-creation intervention trial for the promotion of couples' HIV counseling and testing uptake among married or cohabiting individuals that was conducted in Rakai district between March 1 and April 30, 2015. A total of 1490 married or cohabiting individuals, resident in three study regions with differing background HIV prevalence, were enrolled into the study. Data were collected on socio-demographic, behavioral and fertility-related characteristics. We used a modified Poisson regression model to generate prevalence ratio (PR) as a measure of association for factors that were independently associated with fertility desire. We adjusted for clustering at community level and used STATA version 14.0 for all analyses. Overall, fertility desire was high (63.1%, n = 940); higher in men (69.9%, n = 489) than women (57.1%, n = 451). More than three-quarters (78.8%, n = 1174) had 3+ biological children while slightly more than two-thirds (68.5%, n = 1020) reported an ideal family size of 5+ children. Only 30% (n = 452) reported that they had attained their desired family size. After adjusting for potential and suspected confounders, the factors that were negatively associated with fertility desire were: age 30-39 (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR] = 0.82, 95% CI: 0.78, 0.86) and 40+ years (aPR = 0.65, 95% CI: 0.60, 0.71); having six or more biological children (aPR = 0.88, 95% CI: 0.80, 0.97); being HIV-positive (aPR = 0

  14. A situational analysis of priority disaster hazards in Uganda: findings from a hazard and vulnerability analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayega, R W; Wafula, M R; Musenero, M; Omale, A; Kiguli, J; Orach, G C; Kabagambe, G; Bazeyo, W

    2013-06-01

    Most countries in sub-Saharan Africa have not conducted a disaster risk analysis. Hazards and vulnerability analyses provide vital information that can be used for development of risk reduction and disaster response plans. The purpose of this study was to rank disaster hazards for Uganda, as a basis for identifying the priority hazards to guide disaster management planning. The study as conducted in Uganda, as part of a multi-country assessment. A hazard, vulnerability and capacity analysis was conducted in a focus group discussion of 7 experts representing key stakeholder agencies in disaster management in Uganda. A simple ranking method was used to rank the probability of occurance of 11 top hazards, their potential impact and the level vulnerability of people and infrastructure. In-terms of likelihood of occurance and potential impact, the top ranked disaster hazards in Uganda are: 1) Epidemics of infectious diseases, 2) Drought/famine, 3) Conflict and environmental degradation in that order. In terms of vulnerability, the top priority hazards to which people and infrastructure were vulnerable were: 1) Conflicts, 2) Epidemics, 3) Drought/famine and, 4) Environmental degradation in that order. Poverty, gender, lack of information, and lack of resilience measures were some of the factors promoting vulnerability to disasters. As Uganda develops a disaster risk reduction and response plan, it ought to prioritize epidemics of infectious diseases, drought/famine, conflics and environmental degradation as the priority disaster hazards.

  15. NATIONAL FRAMEWORK FOR THE SUSTAINABILITY OF HEALTH KNOWLEDGE TRANSLATION INITIATIVES IN UGANDA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basaza, Robert; Kinegyere, Alison; Mutatina, Boniface; Sewankambo, Nelson

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide evidence about the design and implementation of policies for advancing the sustainability of knowledge translation (KT) initiatives and policies in Uganda's health system. We searched for and reviewed evidence about KT sustainability issues in Uganda, the impacts of options, barriers to implementing these options, and implementation strategies to address such barriers. In instances where the systematic reviews provided limited evidence, these were supplemented with relevant primary studies. Documents such as the government reports and unpublished literature were also included in the search. Key informant interviews and a policy dialogue were conducted, and an expert working group guided the study. The KT sustainability issues identified were: the absence of a specific unit within the health sector to coordinate and synthesize research; health worker not familiar with KT activities and not often used. Furthermore, Uganda lacks a mechanism to sustain its current national health frameworks or platforms, and does not have a system to ensure the sustained coordination of existing national health KT platforms. The policy options proposed include: (i) the identification of a KT champion; (ii) the establishment of an operational KT framework; (iii) KT capacity building for researchers and research users, as well as policy and decision makers. The sustainability of KT will be influenced by the prevailing context and concerns within healthcare both in Uganda and internationally. Furthermore, the availability of resources for KT advocacy, communication, and program design will impact on the sustainability of Uganda's KT activities.

  16. Ebola viral hemorrhagic disease outbreak in West Africa- lessons from Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbonye, Anthony K; Wamala, Joseph F; Nanyunja, Miriam; Opio, Alex; Makumbi, Issa; Aceng, Jane Ruth

    2014-09-01

    There has been a rapid spread of Ebola Viral Hemorrhagic disease in Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone since March 2014. Since this is the first time of a major Ebola outbreak in West Africa; it is possible there is lack of understanding of the epidemic in the communities, lack of experience among the health workers to manage the cases and limited capacities for rapid response. The main objective of this article is to share Uganda's experience in controlling similar Ebola outbreaks and to suggest some lessons that could inform the control of the Ebola outbreak in West Africa. The article is based on published papers, reports of previous Ebola outbreaks, response plans and experiences of individuals who have participated in the control of Ebola epidemics in Uganda. Lessons learnt: The success in the control of Ebola epidemics in Uganda has been due to high political support, effective coordination through national and district task forces. In addition there has been active surveillance, strong community mobilization using village health teams and other community resources persons, an efficient laboratory system that has capacity to provide timely results. These have coupled with effective case management and infection control and the involvement of development partners who commit resources with shared responsibility. Several factors have contributed to the successful quick containment of Ebola outbreaks in Uganda. West African countries experiencing Ebola outbreaks could draw some lessons from the Uganda experience and adapt them to contain the Ebola epidemic.

  17. Combating political and bureaucratic corruption in Uganda: Colossal challenges for the church and the citizens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson B. Asea

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This article formulates a new approach to combating corruption in Uganda. In pursuit of this research, the author highlights the chronicity of corruption in Uganda, which is uniformly political and bureaucratic. Bureaucratic corruption takes place in service delivery and rule enforcement. It has two sides: demand-induced and supply-induced. Political corruption occurs at high levels of politics. There are ‘political untouchables’ and businessmen who are above the law and above institutional control mechanisms. The established institutions of checks and balances in Uganda have assiduously continued to have a limited bearing on corruption. Neither coherent anti-corruption norms nor severe formal sanctions are able to dishearten certain politicians and civil servants in Uganda from the deviant behaviour of structural corruption. Corruption is a spiritual departure from the law and standard of God. It is an action conceived in the human mind and carried out by the corrupt. Therefore, corruption deterrence not only lies in sound public financial management systems but depends to a large extent on having people with positive human character in all aspects of national life. This article thus provides the framework of corruption and discusses the manifestation of political and bureaucratic corruption in Uganda. It also exegetes the biblical stance regarding corruption. Finally, it proposes a panacea for combating political and bureaucratic corruption.

  18. Enhancing National Participation in the Oil and Gas Industry in Uganda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heum, Per; Mwakali, Jackson A.; Ekern, Ole Fredrik; Byaruhanga, Jackson N.M.; Koojo, Charles A.; Bigirwenkya, Naptali K.

    2011-07-01

    In realization of the petroleum industry potential, Uganda's Oil and Gas policy seeks to optimize wealth creation from the industry to enhance the welfare of the citizens. This study has examined how Uganda may benefit from the participation of Ugandans and Ugandan firms in the petroleum activities. In the literature this is frequently referred to by applying the term local content. Local in this sense, however, refers to national as opposed to international or foreign contributions. Thus, we apply the concept national content to avoid any misunderstanding. Focus of our study has been on identifying the opportunities, gaps and challenges posed by the petroleum industry to recommend necessary measures to maximize the benefits of national content otherwise defined as national participation.The study has examined lessons Uganda may draw on from other countries and from the economic literature on industrial growth and national wealth. Furthermore, the specific point of departure for Uganda with regard to expected petroleum activities, Uganda's industrial base and its human resource base, has been investigated. On this basis, the study has made its recommendations.(eb)

  19. Drilling through Conservation Policy: Oil Exploration in Murchison Falls Protected Area, Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catrina A MacKenzie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 2.5 billion barrels of commercially-viable oil, worth $2 billion in annual revenue for 20 years, were discovered under the Ugandan portion of the Albertine Rift in 2006. The region also contains seven of Uganda's protected areas and a growing ecotourism industry. We conducted interviews and focus groups in and around Murchison Falls Protected Area, Uganda's largest, oldest, and most visited protected area, to assess the interaction of oil exploration with the three primary conservation policies employed by Uganda Wildlife Authority: protectionism, neoliberal capital accumulation, and community-based conservation. We find that oil extraction is legally permitted inside protected areas in Uganda, like many other African countries, and that the wildlife authority and oil companies are adapting to co-exist inside a protected area. Our primary argument is that neoliberal capital accumulation as a conservation policy actually makes protected areas more vulnerable to industrial exploitation because nature is commodified, allowing economic value and profitability of land uses to determine how nature is exploited. Our secondary argument is that the conditional nature of protected area access inherent within the protectionist policy permits oil extraction within Murchison Falls Protected Area. Finally, we argue that community-based conservation, as operationalized in Uganda, has no role in defending protected areas against oil industrialisation.

  20. Ecological restoration of southwestern ponderosa pine ecosystems: A broad perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Craig D.; Savage, Melissa; Falk, Donald A.; Suckling, Kieran F.; Swetnam, Thomas W.; Schulke, Todd; Stacey, Peter B.; Morgan, Penelope; Hoffman, Martos; Klingel, Jon T.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to promote a broad and flexible perspective on ecological restoration of Southwestern (U.S.) ponderosa pine forests. Ponderosa pine forests in the region have been radically altered by Euro-American land uses, including livestock grazing, fire suppression, and logging. Dense thickets of young trees now abound, old-growth and biodiversity have declined, and human and ecological communities are increasingly vulnerable to destructive crown fires. A consensus has emerged that it is urgent to restore more natural conditions to these forests. Efforts to restore Southwestern forests will require extensive projects employing varying combinations of young-tree thinning and reintroduction of low-intensity fires. Treatments must be flexible enough to recognize and accommodate: high levels of natural heterogeneity; dynamic ecosystems; wildlife and other biodiversity considerations; scientific uncertainty; and the challenges of on-the-ground implementation. Ecological restoration should reset ecosystem trends toward an envelope of “natural variability,” including the reestablishment of natural processes. Reconstructed historic reference conditions are best used as general guides rather than rigid restoration prescriptions. In the long term, the best way to align forest conditions to track ongoing climate changes is to restore fire, which naturally correlates with current climate. Some stands need substantial structural manipulation (thinning) before fire can safely be reintroduced. In other areas, such as large wilderness and roadless areas, fire alone may suffice as the main tool of ecological restoration, recreating the natural interaction of structure and process. Impatience, overreaction to crown fire risks, extractive economics, or hubris could lead to widespread application of highly intrusive treatments that may further damage forest ecosystems. Investments in research and monitoring of restoration treatments are essential to refine

  1. HIV risk sexual behaviors among teachers in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lillian Ayebale

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies reveal that teachers are more likely to engage in high-risk sexual behavior compared to the rest of the adult population. Yet the education sector could be a major vehicle for imparting knowledge and skills of avoiding and/or coping with the pandemic. This study set out to establish HIV risk behaviors among teachers in Uganda, to inform the design of a behavior change communication strategy for HIV prevention among teachers. It was a cross sectional rapid assessment conducted among primary and secondary school teachers in Kampala and Kalangala districts, in Uganda. A total of 183 teachers were interviewed. HIV risk behavior, in this study was measured as having multiple sexual partners and/or sex with a partner of unknown status without using a condom. We also considered transactional/sex for favors and alcohol use as exposures to HIV risk behavior. Odds ratios (OR and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated. All data analysis was performed using SPSS version 17.0 and EPI Info Version 3.5.1. Forty five per cent of teachers reported having multiple concurrent sexual partners in the last three months, of these, only 24% acknowledged having used a condom at their last sexual encounter yet only 9.8% knew their partners’ HIV status. Teachers below 30years of age were more likely to have two or more concurrent sexual partners (OR 2.6, CI 1.31-5.34 compared to those above 30 years. Primary school teachers were less likely to involve with partners of unknown HIV status compared to secondary school teachers (OR 0.43, CI 0.19-0.97. Teachers aged below 30 years were also more likely to engage with partners of unknown HIV status compared to those above 30 years (OR 2.47, CI 1.10-5.59. Primary teachers were also less likely to have given or received gifts, money or other favors in exchange for sex (OR 0.24, CI 0.09-0.58. Teachers engage in risky sexual behaviors, which lead to HIV infection. There is need to promote

  2. Peatlands and potatoes; organic wetland soils in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Jenny; Langan, Charlie; Gimona, Alessandro; Poggio, Laura; Smith, Jo

    2017-04-01

    Land use change in Uganda's wetlands has received very little research attention. Peat soils dominate the papyrus wetlands of the south west of the country, but the areas they are found in have been increasingly converted to potato cultivation. Our research in Uganda set out to (a) document both the annual use of and changes to these soils under potato cultivation, and (b) the extent and condition of these soils across wetland systems. During our research we found it was necessary to develop locally appropriate protocols for sampling and analysis of soil characteristics, based on field conditions and locally available resources. Over the period of one year we studied the use of the peat soil for potato cultivation by smallholder farmers in Ruhuma wetland and measured changes to surface peat properties and soil nutrients in fields over that time. Farmer's use of the fields changed over the year, with cultivation, harvesting and fallow periods, which impacted on soil micro-topography. Measured soil properties changed over the course of the year as a result of the land use, with bulk density, nitrogen content, potassium and magnesium all reducing. Comparison of changes in soil carbon stocks over the study period were difficult to make as it was not possible to reach the bottom of the peat layer. However, a layer of fallow weeds discarded onto the soil prior to preparation of the raised potato beds provided a time marker which gave insight into carbon losses over the year. To determine the peatland extent, a spatial survey was conducted in the Kanyabaha-Rushebeya wetland system, capturing peat depths and key soil properties (bulk density, organic matter and carbon contents). Generalised additive models were used to map peat depth and soil characteristics across the system, and maps were developed for these as well as drainage and land use classes. Comparison of peat cores between the two study areas indicates spatial variability in peat depths and the influence of

  3. Patterns and predictors of self-medication in northern Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moses Ocan

    Full Text Available Self-medication with antimicrobial agents is a common form of self-care among patients globally with the prevalence and nature differing from country to country. Here we assessed the prevalence and predictors of antimicrobial self-medication in post-conflict northern Uganda. A cross-sectional study was carried out using structured interviews on 892 adult (≥18 years participants. Information on drug name, prescriber, source, cost, quantity of drug obtained, and drug use was collected. Households were randomly selected using multistage cluster sampling method. One respondent who reported having an illness within three months in each household was recruited. In each household, information was obtained from only one adult individual. Data was analyzed using STATA at 95% level of significance. The study found that a high proportion (75.7% of the respondents practiced antimicrobial self-medication. Fever, headache, lack of appetite and body weakness were the disease symptoms most treated through self-medication (30.3%. The commonly self-medicated antimicrobials were coartem (27.3%, amoxicillin (21.7%, metronidazole (12.3%, and cotrimoxazole (11.6%. Drug use among respondents was mainly initiated by self-prescription (46.5% and drug shop attendants (57.6%. On average, participants obtained 13.9±8.8 (95%CI: 12.6-13.8 tablets/capsules of antimicrobial drugs from drug shops and drugs were used for an average of 3.7±2.8 days (95%CI: 3.3-3.5. Over half (68.2% of the respondents would recommend self-medication to another sick person. A high proportion (76% of respondents reported that antimicrobial self-medication had associated risks such as wastage of money (42.1%, drug resistance (33.2%, and masking symptoms of underlying disease (15.5%. Predictors of self-medication with antimicrobial agents included gender, drug knowledge, drug leaflets, advice from friends, previous experience, long waiting time, and distance to the health facility. Despite

  4. Holocene RSL variation on southwestern Disko Island (Greenland)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emerich Souza, Priscila; Nielsen, Lars; Kroon, Aart

    We investigate RSL variations during the Holocene in Lakse Bugt by assessing topography, internal structure, and luminescence ages of fossil beach ridges and the modern beach. Lakse Bugt (Bay) lies on the southwestern coast of Disko Island in a mesotidal regime and a mild wave climate. Beach ridges...... are widespread over the marine terrace, extending from ~40 above sea level (m asl). The most recent ridges terminate either at the beach or at the coastal sandy cliffs ~8 m asl immediately behind the modern beach. These ridges are covered mainly by rounded boulders; the terrain surfaces of the swales have...... clearly been deformed by freezing and thawing processes, in contrast to those of the ridge crests, which are relatively smooth. High-resolution reflection GPR data and high resolution topographical data were collected along cross-shore transects using a shielded 250 MHz antennae system and a DGPS system...

  5. Algae from the arid southwestern United States: an annotated bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, W.H.; Gaines, S.R.

    1983-06-01

    Desert algae are attractive biomass producers for capturing solar energy through photosynthesis of organic matter. They are probably capable of higher yields and efficiencies of light utilization than higher plants, and are already adapted to extremes of sunlight intensity, salinity and temperature such as are found in the desert. This report consists of an annotated bibliography of the literature on algae from the arid southwestern United States. It was prepared in anticipation of efforts to isolate desert algae and study their yields in the laboratory. These steps are necessary prior to setting up outdoor algal culture ponds. Desert areas are attractive for such applications because land, sunlight, and, to some extent, water resources are abundant there. References are sorted by state.

  6. Macrofungi in the lateritic scrub jungles of southwestern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Greeshma

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A pilot study on macrofungi in scrub jungles (with and without fire-impact in lateritic region of southwestern coast of India was carried out.  Out of 11 species in 10 genera recovered, six and five species were confined to scrub jungle and fire-impacted scrub jungle, respectively.  An ectomycorrhizal Amanita sp. was the most frequent in scrub jungle associated with exotic (Acacia auriculiformis and A. mangium and plantation (Anacardium occidentale trees.  Based on traditional knowledge, it is a highly edible and nutritional delicacy in the coastal regions.  Astraeus odoratus was another common ectomycorrhizal fungus in native trees Hopea ponga, which was recovered from the fire-impacted scrub jungle and is possibly edible.  Edible termite mound mushroom Termitomyces striatus was also common in the fire-impacted scrub jungle.  Chlorophyllum molybdites was the most frequent mushroom in the fire-impacted scrub jungle.  

  7. Uranium favorability of southwestern Oklahoma and north-central Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanton, G.D.; Brogdon, L.D.; Quick, J.V.; Thomas, N.G.; Martin, T.S.

    1977-10-01

    Results are presented of a project to identify and delineate units and (or) facies that are favorable for uranium in the Upper Pennsylvanian and Lower Permian strata of north-central Texas and southwestern Oklahoma. To aid in this evaluation, an assessment of the probable uranium rocks (Wichita and Arbuckle Mountains) was necessary. Surface samples were collected from igneous and sedimentary rocks. Stream-sediment samples were also collected. However, the main emphasis of the investigation of the sedimentary units was on the identification of sedimentary facies trends in the subsurface and an evaluation of the uranium favorability within units studied. The area investigated centers along the Red River, the boundary between Texas and Oklahoma. The project area encompasses approximately 17,000 sq. mi. It includes all or parts of Cooke, Montague, Clay, Wichita, Wilbarger, Hardeman, Baylor, Knox, and Archer Counties in Texas and Love, Jefferson, Cotton, Tillman, Jackson, Stephens, Carter, Comanche, Harmon, and Greer Counties in Oklahoma

  8. Lithospheric Strength Beneath the Zagros Mountains of Southwestern Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, A. N.; Nyblade, A.; Brazier, R.; Rodgers, A.; Al-Amri, A.

    2006-05-01

    The Zagros Mountain Belt of southwestern Iran is among the most seismically active mountain belts in the world. Early seismic studies of this area found that the lithosphere underlying the Zagros Mountains follows the "jelly sandwich" model, having a strong upper crust and a strong lithospheric mantle, separated by a weak lower crust. More recent studies, which analyzed earthquakes originating within the Zagros Mountains that were recorded at teleseismic distances, however, found that these earthquakes occurred only within the upper crust, thus indicating that the strength of the Zagros Mountains' lithosphere lies only within the upper crust, in accordance with the "creme brulee" lithospheric model. Preliminary analysis of regionally recorded earthquakes that originated within the Zagros Mountains is presented here. Using earthquakes recorded at regional distances will allow the analysis of a larger dataset than has been used in previous studies. Preliminary results show earthquakes occurring throughout the crust and possibly extending into the upper mantle.

  9. Surficial geologic map of the Dillingham quadrangle, southwestern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Frederic H.

    2018-05-14

    The geologic map of the Dillingham quadrangle in southwestern Alaska shows surficial unconsolidated deposits, many of which are alluvial or glacial in nature. The map area, part of Alaska that was largely not glaciated during the late Wisconsin glaciation, has a long history reflecting local and more distant glaciations. Late Wisconsin glacial deposits have limited extent in the eastern part of the quadrangle, but are quite extensive in the western part of the quadrangle. This map and accompanying digital files are the result of the interpretation of black and white aerial photographs from the 1950s as well as more modern imagery. Limited new field mapping in the area was conducted as part of a bedrock mapping project in the northeastern part of the quadrangle; however, extensive aerial photographic interpretation represents the bulk of the mapping effort.

  10. Guanophilic fungi in three caves of southwestern Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieves-Rivera Angel M.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Fifty species of guanophilic (bat guano-loving fungi were isolated from field-collected samples within three caves in southwesternPuerto Rico; most were mitosporic fungi (23 species. The caves studied were Cueva La Tuna (Cabo Rojo, Cueva de Malano(Sistema de Los Chorros, San Germán, and Cueva Viento (El Convento Cave-Spring System, Guayanilla-Peñuelas. The mostconspicuous fungus by far was the zygomycete Circinella umbellata (Mucorales. Circinella umbellata dominated the bat guanoincubation chambers (Petri dishes lined with sterile filter paper moistened with sterile water at ambient laboratory conditions.Nineteen species of basidiomycetes (e.g., Ganoderma cf. resinaceum, Geastrum cf. minimum, Lepiota sp., Polyporus sp., Ramariasp. and three species of ascomycetes (Hypoxylon sp., Xylaria anisopleura, and X. kegeliana were also recorded. They were foundon soil, rotting leaves, bark and rotting wood, buried in bat guano located below natural skylights or sinkholes.

  11. LEXICOGRAPHICAL STUDIES ON THE SOUTHWESTERN DIALECTS OF THE UKRAINIAN LANGUAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasyl Greshchuk

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the issue of compiling the Southwestern dialect dictionaries. A survey of the history of the dialect dictionaries from the mid-nineteenth century to the present is given. The scientific background and principles of compiling the dictionaries in question are analyzed. Special attention is given to dictionary register, dictionary entry structure, description of semantic properties of registered words, illustrative material, word passport. It has been established that many aspects of the Hutsul dialects are reflected in different lexicographical works, though a big academic dictionary still needs to be written. There exist big differential dictionaries of the Boyko, Bukovynian, Upper Dniestrian dialects. The Transcarpathian and Lemko dialects are less closely studied in this respect. There have been carried out some lexicographical studies of the Podillian, Pokuttian, Southern Volynian dialects and the dialects of the Sian river basin; further research is certainly needed to provide a firm basis for compiling dictionaries of these dialects.

  12. Paleozoic stratigraphy of two areas in southwestern Indiana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Droste, J.B.

    1976-09-01

    Two areas recommended for evaluation as solid waste disposal sites lie along the strike of Paleozoic rocks in southwestern Indiana. Thin Pennsylvanian rocks and rocks of the upper Mississippian are at the bedrock surface in maturely dissected uplands in both areas. The gross subsurface stratigraphy beneath both areas is the same, but facies and thickness variation in some of the subsurface Paleozoic units provide for some minor differences between the areas. Thick middle Mississippi carbonates grade downward into clastics of lower Mississippian (Borden Group) and upper Devonian (New Albany Shale) rocks. Middle Devonian and Silurian rocks are dominated by carbonate lithologies. Upper Ordovician (Maquoketa Group) overly carbonates of middle Ordovician age. Thick siltstone and shale of the Borden Group-New Albany Shale zone and Maquoketa Group rocks should be suitable for repository development

  13. Correlates of previous couples’ HIV counseling and testing uptake among married individuals in three HIV prevalence strata in Rakai, Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph K. B. Matovu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies show that uptake of couples’ HIV counseling and testing (couples’ HCT can be affected by individual, relationship, and socioeconomic factors. However, while couples’ HCT uptake can also be affected by background HIV prevalence and awareness of the existence of couples’ HCT services, this is yet to be documented. We explored the correlates of previous couples’ HCT uptake among married individuals in a rural Ugandan district with differing HIV prevalence levels. Design: This was a cross-sectional study conducted among 2,135 married individuals resident in the three HIV prevalence strata (low HIV prevalence: 9.7–11.2%; middle HIV prevalence: 11.4–16.4%; and high HIV prevalence: 20.5–43% in Rakai district, southwestern Uganda, between November 2013 and February 2014. Data were collected on sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics, including previous receipt of couples’ HCT. HIV testing data were obtained from the Rakai Community Cohort Study. We conducted multivariable logistic regression analysis to identify correlates that are independently associated with previous receipt of couples’ HCT. Data analysis was conducted using STATA (statistical software, version 11.2. Results: Of the 2,135 married individuals enrolled, the majority (n=1,783, 83.5% had been married for five or more years while (n=1,460, 66% were in the first-order of marriage. Ever receipt of HCT was almost universal (n=2,020, 95%; of those ever tested, (n=846, 41.9% reported that they had ever received couples’ HCT. There was no significant difference in previous receipt of couples’ HCT between low (n=309, 43.9%, middle (n=295, 41.7%, and high (n=242, 39.7% HIV prevalence settings (p=0.61. Marital order was not significantly associated with previous receipt of couples’ HCT. However, marital duration [five or more years vis-à-vis 1–2 years: adjusted odds ratio (aOR: 1.06; 95% confidence interval (95% CI: 1.04–1.08] and

  14. Feasibility study of wind-generated electricity for rural applications in southwestern Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohring, G. W.

    The parameters associated with domestic production of wind generated electricity for direct use by small farms and rural homes in the southwestern Ohio region are discussed. The project involves direct utility interfaced electricity generation from a horizontal axis, down-wind, fixed pitch, wind powered induction generator system. Goals of the project are to determine: the ability to produce useful amounts of domestic wind generated electricity in the southwestern Ohio region; economic justification for domestic wind generated electrical production; and the potential of domestic wind generated electricity for reducing dependence on non-renewable energy resources in the southwestern Ohio region.

  15. Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter in Southwestern Greenland Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osburn, C. L.; Giles, M. E.; Underwood, G. J. C.

    2014-12-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is an important property of Arctic lake ecosystems, originating from allochthonous inputs from catchments and autochthonous production by plankton in the water column. Little is known about the quality of DOM in Arctic lakes that lack substantial inputs from catchments and such lakes are abundant in southwestern Greenland. Colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM), the fraction that absorbs ultraviolet (UV) and visible light, is the controlling factor for the optical properties of many surface waters and as well informs on the quality of DOM. We examined the quality of CDOM in 21 lakes in southwestern Greenland, from the ice sheet to the coast, as part of a larger study examining the role of DOM in regulating microbial communities in these lakes. DOM was size fractioned and absorbance and fluorescence was measured on each size fraction, as well as on bulk DOM. The specific ultraviolet absorbance (SUVA) at 254 nm (SUVA254), computed by normalizing absorption (a254) to dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration, provided an estimate of the aromatic carbon content of DOM. SUVA values were generally CDOM fluorescence was used to determine the relative abundance of allochthonous and autochthonous DOM in all size fractions. Younger lakes near the ice sheet and lakes near the coast had lower amounts of CDOM and appeared more microbial in quality. However, lakes centrally located between the ice sheet and the coast had the highest CDOM concentrations and exhibited strong humic fluorescence. Overall distinct differences in CDOM quality were observed between lake locations and among DOM size fractions.

  16. [Giant-cell arteritis: a descriptive study in southwestern Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo Romero, J M; Magro Ledesma, D; Ramos Salado, J L; Bureo Dacal, J C; de Dios Arrebola García, J; Bureo Dacal, P; Pérez Miranda, M

    2000-02-01

    To study the clinical and laboratory features of a series of patients with giant cell arteritis (GCA) or temporal arteritis in south-western Spain (Extremadura). Retrospective study of 25 patients with GCA diagnosed by temporal artery biopsy between 1990 and 1998. Nine patients were males and 16 (64%) females. Sixteen cases (64%) presented polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR). Other clinical findings were: fever/febricula (64%), constitutional syndrome (64%), new headache (96%), visual symptoms (48%), jaw claudication (17%) and abnormal temporal arteries (17%). All patients had an ESR of more than 50 mm/hour and a raised C-reactive protein. Thirteen patients (52%) had anemia (hemoglobin level < 12 g/dl). Eleven cases (44%) presented a platelet count higher than 400,000/mm3. Four patients (16%) had an elevated AST and/or ALT levels and 8 patients (32%) had an elevated GGT and/or alkaline phosphatase levels. In patients with PMR, there was a higher frequency of constitutional syndrome (81 vs 33%, p = 0.02). In females, there was a higher frequency of anemia (75 vs 11%, p < 0.01), platelet count higher than 400,000/mm3 (75 vs 0%, p < 0.01) and elevated AST and/or ALT (25 vs 0%, p < 0.01) and elevated GGT and/or alkaline phosphatase (50 vs 0%, p < 0.01) levels. The clinical and laboratory features of GCA in our series of patients in south-western Spain are similar to that described in other spanish populations, with the exception of a slightly higher frequency of PMR and a lower frequency of jaw claudication and abnormal temporal arteries. In our study, the clinical picture of GCA was more severe in patients with PMR and in females.

  17. Towards a delimitation of southwestern Nigeria into hydrological regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunkoya, O. O.

    1988-05-01

    Fifteen third-order drainage basins (1:50,000) on the Basement Complex rocks of southwestern Nigeria are classified into hydrological regions using hydrologic response parameters of average daily mean specific discharge ( QA); daily mean specific discharges equalled or exceeded 90% ( Q90), 50% ( Q50) and 10% ( Q10) of the study period; variability index of flow ( VI); recession constant ( K) of flow from peak discharge at the end of the rainy season to minimum discharge in the dry season; total annual runoff ( RO); total runoff within the dry season ( DSRO); dry season runoff as a percentage of total annual runoff (% DSRO); runoff coefficient ( ROC); and, number of days during the study period when there was no flow ( NFD). An ordination technique and a classification algorithm derived from cluster analysis technique and incorporating the analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests to determine the level of significance of the homogeneity of derived classes, were used to classify the fifteen basins into five hydrologically homogeneous regions. The constituent basins of each region were observed to share common basin geology. It was observed that those drainage basins having at least 50% of their basin area underlain by quartzitic rocks form two groups and have the most desirable or optimal hydrologic response patterns, desirability or optimality being in terms of ability to potentially meet water resource development requirements (i.e. high perennial discharge, low variability and large groundwater contribution to stream flow). The basins predominantly underlain by granite-gneisses and amphibolitic rocks have much poorer hydrologic response patterns. Hydrological regionalization in southwestern Nigeria appears to be influenced by drainage basin geology while percentage area of the basin underlain by massive quartzites could be used as an index of occurrence of desirable hydrologic response pattern.

  18. Fragmentation patterns of evergreen oak woodlands in Southwestern Iberia: identifying key spatial indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Augusta; Madeira, Manuel; Lima Santos, José; Plieninger, Tobias; Seixas, Júlia

    2014-01-15

    Mediterranean evergreen oak woodlands (composed of Quercus suber L. and Quercus rotundifolia Lam.) are becoming increasingly fragmented in the human-modified landscapes of Southwestern Portugal and Spain. Previous studies have largely neglected to assess the spatial changes of oak woodlands in relation to their surrounding landscape matrix, and to characterize and quantify woodland boundaries and edges. The present study aims to fill this gap by analyzing fragmentation patterns of oak woodlands over a 50-year period (1958-2007) in three landscapes. Using archived aerial imagery from 1958, 1995 and 2007, for two consecutive periods (1958-1995 and 1995-2007), we calculated a set of landscape metrics to compare woodland fragmentation over time. Our results indicated a continuous woodland fragmentation characterized by their edge dynamics. From 1958 to 2007, the replacement of open farmland by shrubland and by new afforestation areas in the oak woodland landscape surrounding matrix, led to the highest values for edge contrast length trends of 5.0 and 12.3, respectively. Linear discriminant analysis was performed to delineate fragmented woodland structures and identify metric variables that characterize woodland spatial configuration. The edge contrast length with open farmland showed a strong correlation with F1 (correlations ranging between 0.55 and 0.98) and may be used as a proxy for oak woodland mixedness in landscape matrix. The edge dynamics of oak woodlands may result in different patterns of oak recruitment and therefore, its study may be helpful in highlighting future baselines for the sustainable management of oak woodlands. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Introducing rapid diagnostic tests for malaria into registered drug shops in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mbonye, Anthony K; Clarke, Sîan E; Lal, Sham

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Malaria is a major public health problem in Uganda and the current policy recommends introduction of rapid diagnostic tests for malaria (RDTs) to facilitate effective case management. However, provision of RDTs in drug shops potentially raises a new set of issues, such as adherence...... to RDTs results, management of severe illnesses, referral of patients, and relationship with caretakers. The main objective of the study was to examine the impact of introducing RDTs in registered drug shops in Uganda and document lessons and policy implications for future scale-up of malaria control...... in the private health sector. METHODS: A cluster-randomized trial introducing RDTs into registered drug shops was implemented in central Uganda from October 2010 to July 2012. An evaluation was undertaken to assess the impact and the processes involved with the introduction of RDTs into drug shops, the lessons...

  20. Determinants of infant growth in Eastern Uganda: a community-based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engebretsen, Ingunn Marie Stadskleiv; Tylleskär, Thorkild; Wamani, Henry; Karamagi, Charles; Tumwine, James K

    2008-12-22

    Child under-nutrition is a leading factor underlying child mortality and morbidity in Sub-Saharan Africa. Several studies from Uganda have reported impaired growth, but there have been few if any community-based infant anthropometric studies from Eastern Uganda. The aim of this study was to describe current infant growth patterns using WHO Child Growth Standards and to determine the extent to which these patterns are associated with infant feeding practices, equity dimensions, morbidity and use of primary health care for the infants. A cross-sectional survey of infant feeding practices, socio-economic characteristics and anthropometric measurements was conducted in Mbale District, Eastern Uganda in 2003; 723 mother-infant (0-11 months) pairs were analysed. Infant anthropometric status was assessed using z-scores for weight-for-length (WLZ), length-for-age (LAZ) and weight-for-age (WAZ). Dependent dichotomous variables were constructed using WLZ growth among Ugandan infants.

  1. Gender and forum shopping in land conflict resolution in Northern Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anying, Irene Winnie; Gausset, Quentin

    2017-01-01

    Northern Uganda has been plagued by a long and violent civil war that lasted from 1996 to 2006, during which 2.5 million people were internally displaced and placed in camps. During the conflict, Uganda adopted a new constitution and a new land act that recognised customary land tenure and the role...... played by customary institutions in resolving land disputes. Following the cessation of hostilities in 2006, people began to go back “home”, and many land conflicts ensued. Because women are generally considered as particularly vulnerable in land conflicts, they have received much attention from...... the Ugandan government, international donors, and NGOs. This article focuses on how women make use of the existing legal pluralism in Uganda to defend their interests in land disputes. It argues that land conflicts are often proxies of social conflicts, which play a major role in women's opting for customary...

  2. Treatment and prevention of malaria in pregnancy in the private health sector in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mbonye, Anthony K; Buregyeya, Esther; Rutebemberwa, Elizeus

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Malaria in pregnancy is a major public health problem in Uganda; and it is the leading cause of anaemia among pregnant women and low birth weight in infants. Previous studies have noted poor quality of care in the private sector. Thus there is need to explore ways of improving quality...... of care in the private sector that provides almost a half of health services in Uganda. METHODS: A survey was conducted from August to October 2014 within 57 parishes in Mukono district, central Uganda. The selected parishes had a minimum of 200 households and at least one registered drug shop, pharmacy...... the factors that most influenced correct treatment of fever in pregnancy. CONCLUSION: Treatment of fever during pregnancy was poor in this study setting. These data highlight the need to develop interventions to improve patient safety and quality of care for pregnant women in the private health sector...

  3. Child malnutrition – from Hospital to clinical practice – the experience of Tanzania and Uganda

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    Alexandra Vasconcelos

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been a global effort to tackle the problem of child malnutrition that is still the underlying cause of death of at least 3.1 million children annually. Uganda and Tanzania are among the 22 countries with higher prevalence of child malnutrition. However, these two countries are true examples of how it is possible to reduce this scourge through simple, low-cost strategies. In 2010 I had the opportunity to learn and understand childhood malnutrition through a postgraduate course in Tanzania and Uganda – the East African Short Course in Tropical Medicine from London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (LSHTM. Beginning with a review of concepts and definitions of childhood malnutrition and the links between development and nutrition, this article moves on to summarise a learning experience from Uganda and Tanzania related to the progress and effectiveness of ‘hospital-based” and ‘community-specific’ interventions.

  4. Prevalence of hearing loss among primary school children in Mbarara, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basañez, Irving; Nakku, Doreen; Stangl, Susan; Wanna, George B

    2015-12-01

    Hearing loss in children is a common entity worldwide. We examined the prevalence and etiology of hearing loss among primary school children in Mbarara, Uganda. Cross-sectional study in primary school children aged 5-14 was performed to determine the prevalence of hearing loss. Ugandan primary school children were screened for disabling hearing loss (threshold >30dB) and confirmatory audiometry was performed on those who failed the screening. There were 639 children screened. Thirty-five (5.5%) of children screened failed and were referred for further testing. Two children were lost to follow-up. The percentage of children with true hearing loss was 3.1%. The incidence of failed hearing screening and hearing loss in Mbarara, Uganda is similar to other populations. Hearing loss is a significant problem in Uganda and efforts should be made for primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention of hearing loss. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Understanding Key Determinants of Brand Loyalty in Full Service Restaurants in Uganda

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    Samson Omuudu OTENGEI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates the key determinants of brand loyalty in full service restaurants in Uganda. The study used a quantitative research approach and adopted a cross sectional correlation survey design to test the study hypotheses. A total of 348 completed questionnaires collected from 116 restaurants were used in the analysis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to propose a model that examines the key determinants of brand loyalty in full service restaurants in Uganda. The findings from the study revealed that dining experience and restaurant image were significant predictors of brand loyalty in full service restaurants in Uganda and customer satisfaction was not a significant predictor of guest loyalty. Despite its managerial implications, several limitations of the study call for further empirical enquiry.

  6. Price transmission for agricultural commodities in Uganda: An empirical vector autoregressive analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen Kaspersen, Line; Føyn, Tullik Helene Ystanes

    This paper investigates price transmission for agricultural commodities between world markets and the Ugandan market in an attempt to determine the impact of world market prices on the Ugandan market. Based on the realization that price formation is not a static concept, a dynamic vector...... price relations, i.e. the price variations between geographically separated markets in Uganda and the world markets. Our analysis indicates that food markets in Uganda, based on our study of sorghum price transmission, are not integrated into world markets, and that oil prices are a very determining...... autoregressive (VAR) model is presented. The prices of Robusta coffee and sorghum are examined, as both of these crops are important for the domestic economy of Uganda – Robusta as a cash crop, mainly traded internationally, and sorghum for consumption at household level. The analysis focuses on the spatial...

  7. Genital Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Shedding Among Adults With and Without HIV Infection in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Warren; Nakku-Joloba, Edith; Krantz, Elizabeth M; Selke, Stacy; Huang, Meei-Li; Kambugu, Fred; Orem, Jackson; Casper, Corey; Corey, Lawrence; Wald, Anna

    2016-02-01

    Despite the high prevalence of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) in sub-Saharan Africa, the natural history of infection among Africans is not well characterized. We evaluated the frequency of genital HSV shedding in HIV-seropositive and HIV-seronegative men and women in Uganda. Ninety-three HSV-2-seropositive Ugandan adults collected anogenital swab specimens for HSV DNA quantification by polymerase chain reaction 3 times daily for 6 weeks. HSV-2 was detected from 2484 of 11 283 swab specimens collected (22%), with a median quantity of 4.3 log10 HSV copies/mL (range, 2.2-8.9 log10 HSV copies/mL). Genital lesions were reported on 749 of 3875 days (19%), and subclinical HSV shedding was detected from 1480 of 9113 swab specimens (16%) collected on days without lesions. Men had higher rates of total HSV shedding (relative risk [RR], 2.0 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.3-2.9]; P genital lesions (RR, 2.1 [95% CI, 1.2-3.4]; P = .005), compared with women. No differences in shedding rates or lesion frequency were observed based on HIV serostatus. HSV-2 shedding frequency and quantity are high among HSV-2-seropositive adults in sub-Saharan Africa, including persons with and those without HIV infection. Shedding rates were particularly high among men, which may contribute to the high prevalence of HSV-2 and early acquisition among African women. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Soils in an agricultural landscape of Jokioinen, south-western Finland

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    M. YLI-HALLA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Eleven pedons in an agricultural landscape at elevations 80-130 m above sea level in Jokioinen, south-western Finland were investigated and classified according to Soil Taxonomy, the FAO-Unesco system (FAO, and the World Reference Base for Soil Resources system (WRB. The soils were related to geomorphology of the landscape which is characterized by clayey fields and forested bedrock high areas covered with glacial till. A Spodosol/Podzol was found in a coarse-sandy soil in an esker while the sandy loam in a bedrock high area soils did not have an E horizon. A man-made mollic epipedon was found in a cultivated soil which had a sandy plow layer while clayey plow layers were ochric epipedons. Cambic horizons, identified by structure and redox concentrations, were common in cultivated soils. In a heavy clay soil, small slickensides and wedge-shaped aggregates, i.e., vertic characteristics, were found. Histosols occurred in local topographic depressions irrespective of the absolute elevation. According to the three classification systems, the following catenas are recognized: Haplocryods - Dystro/Eutrocryepts -Haplocryolls - Cryaquepts - Cryosaprists (Soil Taxonomy, Podzols - Regosols - Cambisols - Histosols (FAO-Unesco, and Podzols - Cambisols - Phaeozems - Gleysols - Histosols (WRB.;

  9. Effect of coffee processing on ecological integrity of river systems in Jimma zone, southwestern Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legesse, W.

    2005-01-01

    Jimma Zone in Southwestern Ethiopia is known for its coffee production and the landscape is dotted by a number of coffee processing industries. In order to assess the effect of coffee wastewater on the ecological integrity of the receiving water bodies, a longitudinal study has been initiated in January 2003 and is still in progress. The preliminary results of physicochemical parameters such as BOD (Biochemical Oxygen Demand) indicated that the coffee effluent is characterized by a remarkable polluting potential during the wet coffee-processing season. In general, a corresponding decline of bottom dwelling river fauna has been noted in many sampling locations. If business-as-usual scenario is followed, the economic gains accrued, as a result of coffee export, will be undone due to the ensuing water quality degradation and aquatic ecosystem disturbance. Although further study is required to fix the problem, provision of intervention strategies appear to be mandatory in order to avert quality deterioration of the rivers and streams flowing through the coffee producing region. (author)

  10. Empirical analysis of electromagnetic profiles for groundwater prospecting in rural areas of Ibadan, southwestern Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehinola, O. A.; Opoola, A. O.; Adesokan, H. A.

    2006-04-01

    The Slingram electromagnetic (EM) survey using a coil separation of 60 and 100 m was carried out in ten villages in the Akinyele area of Ibadan, southwestern Nigeria to aid in the development of groundwater. Five main rock types including an undifferentiated gneiss complex (Su), biotite-garnet schist/gneiss (Bs), quartzite and quartz schist (Q), migmatized undifferentiated biotite/hornblende gneiss (M) and pegmatite/quartz vein (P) underlie the study area. A total of 31 EM profiles was made to accurately locate prospective borehole sites in the field. Four main groups with different behavioural patterns were categorized from the EM profiles. Group 1 is characterized by a high density of positive (HDP) or a high density of negative (HDN) real and imaginary curves, Group 2 by parallel real and imaginary curves intersecting with negligible amplitude (PNA), Group 3 by frequent intersection of a high density of negative minima (FHN) real and imaginary curves, and Group 4 by separate and approximately parallel (SAP) real and imaginary curves. Qualitative pictures of the overburden thickness and the extent of fracturing have been proposed from these behavioural patterns. A comparison of the borehole yield with the overburden thickness and the level of fracturing shows that the borehole yield depends more on the fracture density than on the overburden thickness. The asymmetry of the anomaly was also found to be useful in the determination of the inclination of the conductor/fracture.

  11. The salinity signature of the cross-shelf exchanges in the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean: Numerical simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matano, Ricardo P; Combes, Vincent; Piola, Alberto R; Guerrero, Raul; Palma, Elbio D; Ted Strub, P; James, Corinne; Fenco, Harold; Chao, Yi; Saraceno, Martin

    2014-11-01

    A high-resolution model is used to characterize the dominant patterns of sea surface salinity (SSS) variability generated by the freshwater discharges of the Rio de la Plata (RdlP) and the Patos/Mirim Lagoon in the southwestern Atlantic region. We identify three dominant modes of SSS variability. The first two, which have been discussed in previous studies, represent the seasonal and the interannual variations of the freshwater plumes over the continental shelf. The third mode of SSS variability, which has not been discussed hitherto, represents the salinity exchanges between the shelf and the deep ocean. A diagnostic study using floats and passive tracers identifies the pathways taken by the freshwater plumes. During the austral winter (JJA) , the plumes leave the shelf region north of the BMC. During the austral summer (DJF), the plumes are entrained more directly into the BMC. A sensitivity study indicates that the high - frequency component of the wind stress forcing controls the vertical structure of the plumes while the low-frequency component of the wind stress forcing and the interannual variations of the RdlP discharge controls the horizontal structure of the plumes. Dynamical analysis reveals that the cross-shelf flow has a dominant barotropic structure and, therefore, the SSS anomalies detected by Aquarius represent net mass exchanges between the shelf and the deep ocean. The net cross-shelf volume flux is 1.21 Sv. This outflow is largely compensated by an inflow from the Patagonian shelf.

  12. Variability of carbon and water fluxes following climate extremes over a tropical forest in southwestern Amazonia.

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    Marcelo Zeri

    Full Text Available The carbon and water cycles for a southwestern Amazonian forest site were investigated using the longest time series of fluxes of CO2 and water vapor ever reported for this site. The period from 2004 to 2010 included two severe droughts (2005 and 2010 and a flooding year (2009. The effects of such climate extremes were detected in annual sums of fluxes as well as in other components of the carbon and water cycles, such as gross primary production and water use efficiency. Gap-filling and flux-partitioning were applied in order to fill gaps due to missing data, and errors analysis made it possible to infer the uncertainty on the carbon balance. Overall, the site was found to have a net carbon uptake of ≈5 t C ha(-1 year(-1, but the effects of the drought of 2005 were still noticed in 2006, when the climate disturbance caused the site to become a net source of carbon to the atmosphere. Different regions of the Amazon forest might respond differently to climate extremes due to differences in dry season length, annual precipitation, species compositions, albedo and soil type. Longer time series of fluxes measured over several locations are required to better characterize the effects of climate anomalies on the carbon and water balances for the whole Amazon region. Such valuable datasets can also be used to calibrate biogeochemical models and infer on future scenarios of the Amazon forest carbon balance under the influence of climate change.

  13. Intellectual Impairment in Patients with Newly Diagnosed HIV Infection in Southwestern Nigeria

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    Taofiki A. Sunmonu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurocognitive impairment is a detrimental complication of HIV infection. Here, we characterized the intellectual performance of patients with newly diagnosed HIV infection in southwestern Nigeria. We conducted a prospective study at Owo Federal Medical Center by using the adapted Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS. The raw scores were converted to standardized scores (z-scores and correlated with clinical and laboratory findings. Fifty-eight HIV positive patients were recruited; 72% were in WHO stages 3 and 4. We detected a high rate of intellectual impairment in HIV positive patients and controls (63.8% and 10%, resp.; P<0.001. HIV positive patients performed worse throughout the subtests of both verbal and performance intelligence quotients. Presence of opportunistic infections was associated with worse performance in the similarities and digit symbol tests and performance and full scale scores. Lower body weight correlated with poor performance in different WAIS subtests. The high rate of advanced disease stage warrants measures aimed at earlier diagnosis and treatment. Assessment of neurocognitive performance at diagnosis may offer the opportunity to improve functioning in daily life and counteract disease progression.

  14. Fractal geometry of two-dimensional fracture networks at Yucca Mountain, southwestern Nevada: proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, C.C.; Larsen, E.

    1985-01-01

    Fracture traces exposed on three 214- to 260-m 2 pavements in the same Miocene ash-flow tuff at Yucca Mountain, southwestern Nevada, have been mapped at a scale of 1:50. The maps are two-dimensional sections through the three-dimensional network of strata-bound fractures. All fractures with trace lengths greater than 0.20 m were mapped. The distribution of fracture-trace lengths is log-normal. The fractures do not exhibit well-defined sets based on orientation. Since fractal characterization of such complex fracture-trace networks may prove useful for modeling fracture flow and mechanical responses of fractured rock, an analysis of each of the three maps was done to test whether such networks are fractal. These networks proved to be fractal and the fractal dimensions (D) are tightly clustered (1.12, 1.14, 1.16) for three laterally separated pavements, even though visually the fracture networks appear quite different. The fractal analysis also indicates that the network patterns are scale independent over two orders of magnitude for trace lengths ranging from 0.20 to 25 m. 7 refs., 7 figs

  15. Estimating HIV incidence among adults in Kenya and Uganda: a systematic comparison of multiple methods.

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    Andrea A Kim

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Several approaches have been used for measuring HIV incidence in large areas, yet each presents specific challenges in incidence estimation.We present a comparison of incidence estimates for Kenya and Uganda using multiple methods: 1 Epidemic Projections Package (EPP and Spectrum models fitted to HIV prevalence from antenatal clinics (ANC and national population-based surveys (NPS in Kenya (2003, 2007 and Uganda (2004/2005; 2 a survey-derived model to infer age-specific incidence between two sequential NPS; 3 an assay-derived measurement in NPS using the BED IgG capture enzyme immunoassay, adjusted for misclassification using a locally derived false-recent rate (FRR for the assay; (4 community cohorts in Uganda; (5 prevalence trends in young ANC attendees. EPP/Spectrum-derived and survey-derived modeled estimates were similar: 0.67 [uncertainty range: 0.60, 0.74] and 0.6 [confidence interval: (CI 0.4, 0.9], respectively, for Uganda (2005 and 0.72 [uncertainty range: 0.70, 0.74] and 0.7 [CI 0.3, 1.1], respectively, for Kenya (2007. Using a local FRR, assay-derived incidence estimates were 0.3 [CI 0.0, 0.9] for Uganda (2004/2005 and 0.6 [CI 0, 1.3] for Kenya (2007. Incidence trends were similar for all methods for both Uganda and Kenya.Triangulation of methods is recommended to determine best-supported estimates of incidence to guide programs. Assay-derived incidence estimates are sensitive to the level of the assay's FRR, and uncertainty around high FRRs can significantly impact the validity of the estimate. Systematic evaluations of new and existing incidence assays are needed to the study the level, distribution, and determinants of the FRR to guide whether incidence assays can produce reliable estimates of national HIV incidence.

  16. A consortium approach to competency-based undergraduate medical education in Uganda: process, opportunities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiguli, Sarah; Mubuuke, Roy; Baingana, Rhona; Kijjambu, Stephen; Maling, Samuel; Waako, Paul; Obua, Celestino; Ovuga, Emilio; Kaawa-Mafigiri, David; Nshaho, Jonathan; Kiguli-Malwadde, Elsie; Bollinger, Robert; Sewankambo, Nelson

    2014-01-01

    Uganda, like the rest of Africa, is faced with serious health challenges including human immunodeficiency virus infection/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS), other infectious diseases and increasing non-communicable diseases, yet it has a significant shortage of health workers. Even the few health workers available may lack desired competencies required to address current and future health challenges. Reducing Uganda's disease burden and addressing health challenges requires Ugandan medical schools to produce health workers with the necessary competencies. This study describes the process which a consortium of Ugandan medical schools and the Medical Education Partnership for Equitable Services to all Ugandans (MESAU) undertook to define the required competencies of graduating doctors in Uganda and implement competency-based medical education (CBME). A retrospective qualitative study was conducted in which document analysis was used to collect data employing pre-defined checklists, in a desktop or secondary review of various documents. These included reports of MESAU meetings and workshops, reports from individual institutions as well as medical undergraduate curricula of the different institutions. Thematic analysis was used to extract patterns from the collected data. MESAU initiated the process of developing competencies for medical graduates in 2011 using a participatory approach of all stakeholders. The process involved consultative deliberations to identify priority health needs of Uganda and develop competencies to address these needs. Nine competence domain areas were collaboratively identified and agreed upon, and competencies developed in these domains. Key successes from the process include institutional collaboration, faculty development in CBME and initiating the implementation of CBME. The consortium approach strengthened institutional collaboration that led to the development of common competencies desired of all medical graduates to

  17. Utilization of induced mutations for groundnut breeding in Uganda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busolo-Bulafu, C.M.

    1987-01-01

    Groundnuts (Arachis hypogaea L.) are on high demand in Uganda. There is, therefore, an urgent need to improve groundnut yields through breeding. The main objectives besides yield are the following: 1. To improve disease resistance: (a) rosette virus transmitted by aphids (Aphis craccivora); (b) leafspot caused by Cercospora arachidicola (early) and Cercosporidium personatum (late). 2. To advance the maturity period of high yielding varieties so as to fit better into the rainfall pattern of the main growing areas. 3. To improve seed uniformity, seed size and quality (protein, oil). 4. To reduce plant height by shortening the internodes so as to have more flower production near the ground. For mutation breeding three erect groundnut cultivars were used, Roxo a recommended commercial variety; Red Beauty (Bl) a recommended local variety and No. 534 a tan skinned variety. Seeds of the three varieties were irradiated in 1976 at the FAO/IAEA Agricultural Section of the IAEA Laboratory Seibersdorf, with 1500 rad of fast neutrons (Nf) or 20 krad of 60 Co gamma rays. The pedigree method of selection was used until M9. During 1985 and 1986, seven mutant selections of Red Beauty and one from Roxo were tested in replicated yield trials. Results are given. On the basis of plot yields some of the Red Beauty mutant lines outyielded the parent but not the commercial variety Roxo

  18. PRIORITISING LEAN CONSTRUCTION BARRIERS IN UGANDA'S CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY

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    Henry Mwanaki Alinaitwe

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Engaging in lean construction efforts could prove to be highly rewarding for building firms in Uganda. However, lean construction is risky and can be disastrous if not properly managed. Lean production efforts in some other countries have not been successful due to the many barriers to its successful implementation. To enable sound lean construction efforts and to increase the chances of success in eliminating waste, a thorough investigation of the barriers is essential. This study presents 31 barriers and investigates their influence (strength on the success of lean construction initiatives. Structured interviews were carried out with technical managers of building firms to assess their perception of the barriers to lean production based on their experience at their firms. The strongest barrier is the provision of inputs exactly when required. Additionally, the barriers were ranked according to the ease of overcoming each. The easiest barrier to overcome is keeping the required items in the right place. Finally, a graphical aid is provided to enable decision makers to concentrate their efforts on the influential (strong, yet easy to overcome barriers. A lack of buildable designs and a participative management style for the workforce are the most important barriers to successful waste reduction in terms of strength and ease of overcoming. On the other hand, a lack of an organisational culture that supports teamwork, a lack of prefabrication and a lack of knowledgeable and skilled workers are regarded as low in strength, and at the same time difficult to overcome.

  19. Undergraduate student mental health at Makerere University, Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    OVUGA, EMILIO; BOARDMAN, JED; WASSERMAN, DANUTA

    2006-01-01

    There is little information on the current mental health of University students in Uganda. The present study was carried out to determine the prevalence of depressed mood and suicidal ideation among students at Makerere University. Two student samples participated. Sample I comprised 253 fresh students admitted to all faculties at the University in the academic year 2000/2001, selected by a simple random sampling procedure. Sample II comprised 101 students admitted to the Faculty of Medicine during the academic year 2002/2003. The prevalence of depressed mood was measured using the 13-item Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). The prevalence of depressed mood (BDI score 10 or more) was significantly higher in sample I (16.2%) than sample II (4.0%). Sample I members were significantly more likely than those of sample II to report lifetime and past week suicide ideation. Thus, there is a high prevalence of mental health problems among the general population of new students entering Makerere University and this is significantly higher than for new students in the Faculty of Medicine. PMID:16757997

  20. Understanding shallow groundwater contamination in Bwaise slum, Kampala, Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyenje, P. M.; Havik, J.; Foppen, J. W.; Uhlenbrook, S.

    2012-04-01

    Groundwater in unsewered urban areas is heavily contaminated by onsite sanitation activities and is believed to be an important source of nutrients ex-filtrating into streams and thus contributing to eutrophication of Lakes in urban areas. Currently the fate of nutrients and especially phosphorus leached into groundwater in such areas is not well known. In this study, we undertook an extensive investigation of groundwater in Bwaise slum, Kampala Uganda to understand the distribution and fate of sanitation-related nutrients N and P that are leached into groundwater. Transects of monitoring wells were installed in Bwaise slum and downstream of the slum. From these wells, water levels were measured and water quality analyses done to understand the distribution and composition of the nutrients, how they evolve downstream and the possible subsurface processes affecting their fate during transport. These findings are necessary to evaluate the risk of eutrophication posed by unsewered areas in urban cities and to design/implement sanitation systems that will effectively reduce the enrichment of these nutrients in groundwater. Key words: fate, groundwater, nutrients, processes, slums

  1. DECENTRALISATION IN AFRICA: A CRITICAL REVIEW OF UGANDA'S EXPERIENCE

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    Henry Ojambo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Since the rise to power of the Movement government under the leadership of Yoweri Museveni in 1986, Uganda has largely been show-cased as an emerging democracy on the continent. Among other things, Museveni's regime has been acclaimed for the restoration of periodic national elections, the making of the Constitution and the overall promotion of democratic governance, most especially through the adoption of a decentralised system with a commendable institutional and legal framework. Decentralisation is believed to promote service delivery at the local level, accountability for government resources by local leaders, and the involvement of the masses in local planning and the implementation of government programmes. It is now over twenty years since decentralisation was adopted as a system of government but the quality of service delivery and the accountability for government resources at the local level remains just as deplorable as the extent to which the masses are involved in the planning and implementation of government programmes in their localities. This paper examines the challenges that inhibit the realisation of the noble objectives of decentralisation, notwithstanding the apparently impressive institutional and legal framework.

  2. Pattern of neuropsychological performance among HIV positive patients in Uganda

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    Parsons Thomas D

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have examined cognitive functioning of HIV positive patients in sub-Saharan Africa. It cannot be assumed that HIV positive patients in Africa exhibit the same declines as patients in high-resource settings, since there are differences that may influence cognitive functioning including nutrition, history of concomitant disease, and varying HIV strains, among other possibilities. Part of the difficulty of specifying abnormalities in neuropsychological functioning among African HIV positive patients is that there are no readily available African normative databases. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the pattern of neuropsychological performance in a sample of HIV positive patients in comparison to HIV negative control subjects in Uganda. Methods The neuropsychological test scores of 110 HIV positive patients (WHO Stage 2, n = 21; WHO Stage 3, n = 69; WHO Stage 4, n = 20 were contrasted with those of 100 control subjects on measures of attention/concentration, mental flexibility, learning/memory, and motor functioning. Results Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA revealed significant group differences on measures of verbal learning and memory, speed of processing, attention and executive functioning between HIV seropositive and seronegative subjects. Conclusion Ugandan patients with HIV demonstrated relative deficits on measures of verbal learning and memory, speed of processing, attention, and executive functioning compared to HIV negative controls. These results from a resource limited region where clades A and D are prevalent are consistent with previous findings in the developed world where clade B predominates.

  3. Environmental insecticide residues from tsetse fly control measures in Uganda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sserunjoji-Sebalija, J.

    1976-01-01

    Up to June 1974 areas in Uganda totalling 8600km 2 have been successfully reclaimed from tsetse fly infestation by ground spray of 3% dieldrin water emulsions. A search for equally effective but less persistent and toxic compounds against tsetse flies has been unsuccessful. Fourteen insecticide formulations have been tested for their persistence on tree bark surfaces and, therefore, their availability and toxicity to the target tsetse flies. Only those compounds with a high immediate insecticidal activity (some higher than dieldrin) like endosulfan, Chlorfenvinphos and propoxur could merit further consideration in tsetse control. While some were toxic to tsetse as fresh deposits, they lacked sufficient persistence. A study of the environmental implication from the continued use of the highly persistent and toxic dieldrin has provided useful data on residues likely to be found both in terrestrial and aquatic fauna and flora. These are generally low. Moreover, there is evidence of degradation in some fish species (Protopterus aethiopicus and Clarias). Also, dilution factors and adsorption involving the muddy nature of water run-off, etc., and controlled burning of grasses after tsetse eradication would tend to inactivate the residual insecticide and protect aquatic systems. The general findings have indicated less risk than anticipated of the environmental contamination from tsetse control by application of persistent and toxic insecticides. (author)

  4. Alpha thalassemia among sickle cell anaemia patients in Kampala, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubega, Irene; Ndugwa, Christopher M; Mworozi, Edison A; Tumwine, James K

    2015-06-01

    Sickle cell anaemia is prevalent in sub Saharan Africa. While α+-thalassaemia is known to modulate sickle cell anaemia, its magnitude and significance in Uganda have hitherto not been described. To determine the prevalence of α+thalassaemia among sickle cell anaemia patients in Mulago Hospital and to describe the clinical and laboratory findings in these patients. A cross sectional study was carried out on patients with sickle cell anaemia in Kampala. Dried blood spots were used to analyze for the deletional α+ thalassaemia using multiplex polymerase chain reaction. Of the 142 patients with sickle cell anaemia, 110 (77.5%) had the αα+thalassaemia deletion. The gene frequency of (-α) was 0.425. Ninety one percent (100/110) of those with α+thalassaemia were heterozygous (αα/α-). Amongst the patients older than 60 months, 15 (83.3%) of those without αα+thalassaemia had significant hepatomegaly of greater than 4 cm compared to 36 (45.6%) of those with α+thalassaemia (p=0.003). The gene frequency of (-α) of 0.425 noted in this study is higher than that reported from many places in Africa. Concurrent alpha thalassemia might be a protective trait against significant hepatomegaly in sickle cell anaemia patients more than 60 months of age at Mulago hospital.

  5. IWRM in Uganda – Progress after decades of implementation

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    Alan Nicol

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Uganda lies almost wholly within the Nile Basin and is a country characterised as well-endowed with water resources. Receiving considerable inflows of aid since the early 1990s, some of this aid emerging after the 1992 Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro enabled the country to begin a process of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM, taking the lead from Chapter 18 of Agenda 21. With a focus on more comprehensively managing the country’s critical water endowment amidst growing pressure on the resource, bilateral technical assistance and financial support played a large part in backstopping these national efforts. Nevertheless, in spite of this support and government backing, some two decades later implementation on the ground remains thin and the exercise of IWRM in practice is limited. This paper examines the Ugandan IWRM experience and identifies complex political-economy issues lying at the heart of current challenges. It argues that rarely is there likely to be an easy fix to sustainable financing and suggests the need for stronger citizen engagement and buy-in to the wider logic of IWRM to support longer-term effectiveness and sustainability.

  6. Gender differentiation in community responses to AIDS in rural Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanyamurwa, J M; Ampek, G T

    2007-01-01

    AIDS has been reported in Africa to push households into poverty and chronic food insecurity. At the same time there are reports of significant household resilience to AIDS. This study explored how a mature epidemic in rural Uganda has affected rural farming households. It focused on gender differences in the experience of AIDS and, in particular, household capabilities to sustain livelihoods. The study compared the vulnerability of male- and female-headed households in relation to their ability to mitigate human resource losses, as well as their access to natural and physical resources, to social networks and to finance capital for production. The findings suggest that when rural households are affected by AIDS, depleting productive resources and directing resources towards immediate needs, there are gender differences in responses to, and in impacts of, the epidemic due to the different resources available to male- and female- headed households. Female-headed households were found to be more vulnerable to AIDS than male-headed counterparts. Women's remarriage opportunities were lower than men's, they faced greater risk of losing control over land and livestock and they accessed less state and private sector support. Women-headed households were more dependent on livelihood support from non-governmental organizations, which were found to provide both welfare and credit support to female-headed households affected by AIDS. Women were found to play an important role in social networks and resources at community level but themselves received little support from many formal community networks and services.

  7. Food shortages and gender relations in Ikafe settlement, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, L

    1998-03-01

    In 1996, an 18-month-old settlement created for 55,000 Sudanese refugees in northern Uganda came under attack by Ugandan rebels. By March 1997, the entire population of the settlement had migrated in search of safety. Because the refugees lost their livelihoods and cultivated fields, they had to adopt short-term coping strategies to acquire food. Two Oxfam researchers gathering information during this period for use in program planning and monitoring found that coping strategies included 1) hazarding dangerous journeys (women risked rape or abduction; men risked beating, looting, killing, or abduction) to harvest crops; 2) seeking piece-work employment; 3) exchanging sex for food; and 4) depleting assets. The crisis was particularly severe for single people (especially those with children). In families where the women but not the men could find employment, some men took on household responsibilities. As malnutrition increased, health declined. Observed changes to household gender relations included new sexual divisions of labor, assumption by females of decision-making power, increased domestic quarreling, and marital break-down (especially in cases where women had been raped). On the community level, women assumed more responsibility as men withdrew socially or left the settlement. These findings point to the importance of providing refugees with seeds, with small loans to stimulate business, and with the means to rebuild their sense of community.

  8. Sexual Behavior of Older Adults Living with HIV in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negin, Joel; Geddes, Louise; Brennan-Ing, Mark; Kuteesa, Monica; Karpiak, Stephen; Seeley, Janet

    2016-02-01

    Sexual behavior among older adults with HIV in Sub-Saharan Africa has been understudied despite the burgeoning of this population. We examined sexual behavior among older adults living with HIV in Uganda. Participants were eligible for the study if they were 50 years of age or older and living with HIV. Quantitative data were collected through face-to-face interviews, including demographic characteristics, health, sexual behavior and function, and mental health. Of respondents, 42 were men and 59 women. More than one-quarter of these HIV-positive older adults were sexually active. A greater proportion of older HIV-positive men reported being sexually active compared to women (54 vs. 15%). Among those who are sexually active, a majority never use condoms. Sixty-one percent of men regarded sex as at least somewhat important (42%), while few women shared this opinion (20%). Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that odds of sexual activity in the past year were significantly increased by the availability of a partner (married/cohabitating), better physical functioning, and male gender. As more adults live longer with HIV, it is critical to understand their sexual behavior and related psychosocial variables in order to improve prevention efforts.

  9. PTSD, depression and anxiety among former abductees in Northern Uganda

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    Elbert Thomas

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The population in Northern Uganda has been exposed to extreme levels of traumatic stress and thousands abducted forcibly became rebel combatants. Methods Using structured interviews, the prevalence and severity of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, depression and anxiety was assessed in 72 former abducted adults, 62 of them being former child soldiers. Results As retrospective reports of exposure to traumatic stress increased, anxiety and PTSD occurrence increased (r = .45. 49% of respondents were diagnosed with PTSD, 70% presented with symptoms of depression, and 59% with those of anxiety. In a multiple linear regression analysis four factors could best explain the development of PTSD symptoms: male respondents (sex living in an IDP-Camp (location with a kinship murdered in the war (family members killed in the war and having experienced a high number of traumatic events (number of traumatic events were more likely to develop symptoms of PTSD than others. In disagreement to a simple dose-response-effect though, we also observed a negative correlation between the time spent with the rebels and the PTSD symptom level. Conclusions Former abductees continue to suffer from severe mental ill-health. Adaptation to the living condition of rebels, however, may lower trauma-related mental suffering.

  10. Determinants of anaemia among pregnant women in rural Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbule, Marjorie A; Byaruhanga, Yusuf B; Kabahenda, Magaret; Lubowa, Abdulrahman

    2013-01-01

    In spite of intervention efforts, in Uganda, as in other developing countries, high levels of anaemia among pregnant women continue. Anaemia among women of reproductive age (15-49 years) is a matter of national concern. This study was carried out to assess determinants of anaemia in Kiboga district. This was a single cross-sectional, descriptive survey. The anaemia status of the pregnant women was determined by measuring their haemoglobin levels. Possible determinant factors including socio-economic characteristics, knowledge, attitudes, practices and food intake were assessed using a structured questionnaire. Results showed that the prevalence of anaemia among pregnant women in Kiboga district was high enough (63.1%) to be described as a severe public health problem. The uptake and utilisation of the public-health intervention package to combat anaemia in pregnancy was low, with iron/folic acid supplementation at 13.2%, use of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria 45.4%, and use of de-worming medicines 14.5%. Women from households without a functional radio were 2.07 times more likely be anaemic (95%CI, 1.08-3.00) compared with women from households where there was a functional radio. There was little awareness and functional knowledge about anaemia among pregnant women. The high prevalence of anaemia observed in Kiboga district can be attributed to poverty and limited access to nutrition and health education information which lead to low uptake and utilization of the public-health intervention package to combat anaemia in pregnancy.

  11. Prevention messages and AIDS risk behavior in Kampala, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearst, Norman; Kajubi, Phoebe; Hudes, Esther Sid; Maganda, Albert K; Green, Edward C

    2012-01-01

    Uganda was one of the first countries to substantially reduce HIV rates through behavior change, but these gains have not continued in recent years. Little is known about what messages Ugandans are currently hearing about AIDS prevention, what they themselves believe to be important prevention strategies, and how these beliefs are associated with behavior. We interviewed men and women aged between 20 and 39 in two poor peri-urban areas of Kampala, using a random sample, cross-sectional household survey design. Respondents provided detailed reports of sexual behavior over the past six months, the main prevention message they are currently hearing about AIDS, and their own ranking of the importance of prevention strategies. Condom use was the main AIDS prevention message that respondents reported hearing, followed by getting tested. These were also what respondents themselves considered most important, followed closely by faithfulness. Abstinence was the lowest ranked strategy, but a higher ranking for this prevention strategy was the only one consistently associated with less risky behavior. A higher ranking for condoms was associated with higher levels of risk behavior, while the ranking of testing made no difference in any behavior. These results present challenges for AIDS prevention strategies that rely primarily on promoting condoms and testing. HIV prevention programs need to assess their impact on behavior.

  12. Reconstructing Early Industrial Contributions to Legacy Trace Metal Contamination in Southwestern Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, R.; Bain, D.; Hillman, A. L.; Pompeani, D. P.; Abbott, M. B.

    2015-12-01

    The remobilization of legacy contamination stored in floodplain sediments remains a threat to ecosystem and human health, particularly with potential changes in global precipitation patterns and flooding regimes. Vehicular and industrial emissions are often the dominant, recognized source of anthropogenic trace metal loadings to ecosystems today. However, loadings from early industrial activities are poorly characterized and potential sources of trace metal inputs. While potential trace metal contamination from these activities is recognized (e.g., the historical use of lead arsenate as a pesticide), the magnitude and distribution of legacy contamination is often unknown. This presentation reconstructs a lake sediment record of trace metal inputs from an oxbow lake in Southwestern Pennsylvania. Sediment cores were analyzed for major and trace metal chemistry, carbon to nitrogen ratios, bulk density, and magnetic susceptibility. Sediment trace metal chemistry in this approximately 250 year record (180 cm) record changes in land use and industry both in the 19th century and the 20th century. Of particular interest is early 19th century loadings of arsenic and calcium to the lake, likely attributable to pesticides and lime used in tanning processes near the lake. After this period of tanning dominated inputs, sediment barium concentrations rise, likely reflecting the onset of coal mining operations and resulting discharge of acid mine drainage to surface waters. In the 20th century portion of our record (70 -20 cm), patterns in sediment zinc, cadmium, and lead concentrations are dominated by the opening and closing of the nearby Donora Zinc Works and the American Steel & Wire Works, infamous facilities in the history of air quality regulation. The most recent sediment chemistry records periods include the enactment of air pollution legislation (~ 35 cm), and the phase out of tetraethyl leaded gasoline (~30 cm). Our study documents the impact of early industry in the

  13. Erythromycin-resistant genes in group A β-haemolytic Streptococci in Chengdu, Southwestern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The management of Group A β-haemolytic Streptococci (Streptococcus pyogenes or GAS infection include the use of penicillins, cephalosporins or macrolides for treatment. A general increase in macrolides resistance in GAS has been observed in recent years. Differences in rates of resistance to these agents have existed according to geographical location and investigators. Aims: To investigate the antibiotic pattern and erythromycin-resistant genes of GAS isolates associated with acute tonsillitis and scarlet fever in Chengdu, southwestern China. Settings and Design: To assess the macrolide resistance, phenotype, and genotypic characterization of GAS isolated from throat swabs of children suffering from different acute tonsillitis or scarlet fever between 2004 and 2011 in the city of Chengdu, located in the southwestern region of China. Materials and Methods: Minimal inhibitory concentration with seven antibiotics was performed on 127 GAS isolates. Resistance phenotypes of erythromycin-resistant GAS isolates were determined by the double-disk test. Their macrolide-resistant genes (mefA, ermB and ermTR were amplified by PCR. Results: A total of 98.4% (125/127 of the isolates exhibited resistance to erythromycin, clindamycin and tetracycline. All isolates were sensitive to penicillin G and cefotaxime. Moreover, 113 ermB-positive isolates demonstrating the cMLS phenotype of erythromycin resistance were predominant (90.4% and these isolates showed high-level resistance to both erythromycin and clindamycin (MIC 90 > 256 μg/ml; 12 (9.6% isolates demonstrating the MLS phenotype of erythromycin resistance carried the mefA gene, which showed low-level resistance to both erythromycin (MIC 90 = 8 μg/ml and clindamycin (MIC 90 = 0.5 μg/ml; and none of the isolates exhibited the M phenotype. Conclusions: The main phenotype is cMLS, and the ermB gene code is the main resistance mechanism against macrolides in GAS. Penicillin is the most beneficial

  14. An empirical test of the Theory of Planned Behaviour applied to contraceptive use in rural Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiene, Susan M; Hopwood, Sarah; Lule, Haruna; Wanyenze, Rhoda K

    2014-12-01

    There is a high unmet need for contraceptives in developing countries such as Uganda, with high population growth, where efforts are needed to promote family planning and contraceptive use. Despite this high need, little research has investigated applications of health-behaviour-change theories to contraceptive use among this population. This study tested the Theory of Planned Behaviour's ability to predict contraceptive-use-related behaviours among post-partum women in rural Uganda. Results gave modest support to the theory's application and suggest an urgent need for improved theory-based interventions to promote contraceptive use in the populations of developing countries. © The Author(s) 2013.

  15. Understanding the Stability of Forest Reserve Boundaries in the West Mengo Region of Uganda

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    Nathan D. Vogt

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite heavy pressure and disturbance, state property regimes have stemmed deforestation within protected areas of the West Mengo region of Uganda for over 50 yr. In this manuscript, we reconstruct the process of creation and maintenance of forest reserve boundaries in the West Mengo region of Uganda to identify why these boundaries have largely remained stable over the long term under conditions in which they may be predicted to fail. The dramatic boundary stability in West Mengo we attribute to key aspects of institutional design and enforcement of boundaries.

  16. Science-based health innovation in Uganda: creative strategies for applying research to development

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    Daar Abdallah S

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Uganda has a long history of health research, but still faces critical health problems. It has made a number of recent moves towards building science and technology capacity which could have an impact on local health, if innovation can be fostered and harnessed. Methods Qualitative case study research methodology was used. Data were collected through reviews of academic literature and policy documents and through open-ended, face-to-face interviews with 30 people from across the science-based health innovation system, including government officials, researchers in research institutes and universities, entrepreneurs, international donors, and non-governmental organization representatives. Results Uganda has a range of institutions influencing science-based health innovation, with varying degrees of success. However, the country still lacks a coherent mechanism for effectively coordinating STI policy among all the stakeholders. Classified as a least developed country, Uganda has opted for exemptions from the TRIPS intellectual property protection regime that include permitting parallel importation and providing for compulsory licenses for pharmaceuticals. Uganda is unique in Africa in taking part in the Millennium Science Initiative (MSI, an ambitious though early-stage $30m project, funded jointly by the World Bank and Government of Uganda, to build science capacity and encourage entrepreneurship through funding industry-research collaboration. Two universities – Makerere and Mbarara – stand out in terms of health research, though as yet technology development and commercialization is weak. Uganda has several incubators which are producing low-tech products, and is beginning to move into higher-tech ones like diagnostics. Its pharmaceutical industry has started to create partnerships which encourage innovation. Conclusions Science-based health product innovation is in its early stages in Uganda, as are policies for guiding

  17. Two new species of Indonemoura (Plecoptera: Nemouridae) from Yunnan Province of southwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weihai; Wu, Limin; Yang, Ding

    2017-02-09

    Two new species of the nemourid genus Indonemoura are described, Indonemoura curvispina sp. nov. and I. spirocornua sp. nov., from the Gaoligong Mountains of Yunnan Province of southwestern China. The taxonomic relationships with related species are discussed.

  18. Morphological and interlayer geochemical studies on manganese nodules from the southwestern Carlsberg ridge

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Valsangkar, A.B.; Rajamanickam, G.V.; Karisiddaiah, S.M.; Siddiquie, H.N.

    Mixed facies of manganese nodules from the southwestern Carlberg Ridge have been analysed for Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Co and Zn. Seventy one analyses including the averages presented for outer layer, inner layer and near-core material. Morphological studies...

  19. Seasonal mixed layer heat balance of the southwestern tropical Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Foltz, G.R.; Vialard, J.; PraveenKumar, B.; McPhaden, M.J.

    from a long-term moored buoy are used in conjunction with satellite, in situ, and atmospheric reanalysis datasets to analyze the seasonal mixed layer heat balance in the thermocline ridge region of the southwestern tropical Indian Ocean. This region...

  20. Aeolian deposition of Arabia and Somalia sediments on the southwestern continental margin of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chauhan, O.S.

    Kaolinite, smectite, illite and chlorite as major clay minerals and palygorskite and gibbsite in minor quantities have been recorded from the slope of southwestern continental margin of India. Contribution of kaolinite, smectite and gibbsite is from...

  1. Whether weather matters: Evidence of association between in utero meteorological exposures and foetal growth among Indigenous and non-Indigenous mothers in rural Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah MacVicar

    Full Text Available Pregnancy and birth outcomes have been found to be sensitive to meteorological variation, yet few studies explore this relationship in sub-Saharan Africa where infant mortality rates are the highest in the world. We address this research gap by examining the association between meteorological factors and birth weight in a rural population in southwestern Uganda. Our study included hospital birth records (n = 3197 from 2012 to 2015, for which we extracted meteorological exposure data for the three trimesters preceding each birth. We used linear regression, controlling for key covariates, to estimate the timing, strength, and direction of meteorological effects on birth weight. Our results indicated that precipitation during the third trimester had a positive association with birth weight, with more frequent days of precipitation associated with higher birth weight: we observed a 3.1g (95% CI: 1.0-5.3g increase in birth weight per additional day of exposure to rainfall over 5mm. Increases in average daily temperature during the third trimester were also associated with birth weight, with an increase of 41.8g (95% CI: 0.6-82.9g per additional degree Celsius. When the sample was stratified by season of birth, only infants born between June and November experienced a significant associated between meteorological exposures and birth weight. The association of meteorological variation with foetal growth seemed to differ by ethnicity; effect sizes of meteorological were greater among an Indigenous subset of the population, in particular for variation in temperature. Effects in all populations in this study are higher than estimates of the African continental average, highlighting the heterogeneity in the vulnerability of infant health to meteorological variation in different contexts. Our results indicate that while there is an association between meteorological variation and birth weight, the magnitude of these associations may vary across ethnic

  2. The application of gene-based technologies in the study of Newcastle disease virus isolates from Uganda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otim, M.O.; Bisgaard, M.; Christensen, H.; Jorgensen, P.; Handberg, K.

    2005-01-01

    Molecular techniques were used to characterize 16 Newcastle disease (ND) Virus (NDV) isolates from ND outbreaks in chickens in eastern Uganda in 2001, and evaluate ND epidemiology, with emphasis on molecular aspects. F and HN genes, which are the major determinants of virulence, were studied. Strain pathogenicity was derived from genetic analysis of the F gene sequence and intracerebral pathogenicity index (ICPI). Comparative genetic and phylogenetic tree analyses were performed on the HN genes of the isolates and some strains selected from GenBank. ClustalX 1.81 and Phylip were used for gene alignment analysis and the final phylogeny was produced by the neighbour-joining method. F gene cleavage site sequence analysis, phylogenetic analysis and biological characterization showed that the strains were very virulent and closely related, being of common ancestry. All the Ugandan NDV isolates formed separate clades from the currently known genotypes, suggesting that they are a novel genotype, unrelated to those that have caused previous pandemics. (author)

  3. Perceptions of diabetes in rural areas of Eastern Uganda

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    Elizeus Rutebemberwa

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: People diagnosed with diabetes mellitus are increasing in sub-Saharan Africa and prompt care seeking depends on perceptions of the illness. Objective: The objective was to explore perceptions of diabetes in rural areas.Method: We conducted a qualitative, explorative and descriptive study in rural eastern Uganda. Eight focus group discussions with community members were conducted. Community members were presented with a story about a person with diabetes symptoms and their perceptions of the diagnosis and treatment elicited. Four focus group discussions with people with diabetes and seven key informant interviews with health workers were conducted. Respondents were asked how the community interpreted symptoms of diabetes, its causes and whether it was curable. Manifest content analysis was used.Results: Some respondents thought people with diabetes symptoms had HIV or were bewitched. Causes of diabetes mentioned included consuming too much fatty food. Some respondents thought diabetes is transmitted through air, sharing utensils with or sitting close to people with diabetes. Some respondents thought that diabetes could heal fast whilst others thought it was incurable. Conclusion: Misdiagnosis may cause delay in seeking proper care. Preventive programmes could build on people’s thinking that too much fatty food causes diabetes to promote diets with less fat. The perception of diabetes as a contagious disease leads to stigmatisation and affects treatment seeking. Seeing diabetes as curable could create patient expectations that may not be fulfilled in the management of diabetes. Rural communities would benefit from campaigns creating awareness of prevention, symptoms, diagnosis and management of diabetes.

  4. Improving retention and performance in civil society in Uganda

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    Paydos Michael

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article is the second article in the Human Resources for Health journal's first quarterly feature. The series of seven articles has been contributed by Management Sciences for Health (MSH under the theme of leadership and management in public health and will be published article-by-article over the next few weeks. The journal invited Dr Manuel M. Dayrit, Director of the WHO Department of Human Resources for Health and former Minister of Health for the Philippines to launch the feature with an opening editorial to be found in the journal's blog. This article – number two in the series – describes the experience of the Family Life Education Programme (FLEP, a reproductive health program that provides community-based health services through 40 clinics in five districts of Uganda, in improving retention and performance by using the Management Sciences for Health (MSH Human Resource Management Rapid Assessment Tool. A few years ago, the FLEP of Busoga Diocese began to see an increase in staff turnover and a decrease in overall organizational performance. The workplace climate was poor and people stopped coming for services even though there were few other choices in the area. An external assessment found the quality of the health care services provided was deficient. An action plan to improve their human resource management (HRM system was developed and implemented. To assess the strengths and weaknesses of their system and to develop an action plan, they used the Rapid Assessment Tool. The tool guides users through a process of prioritizing and action planning after the assessment is done. By implementing the various recommended changes, FLEP established an improved, responsive HRM system. Increased employee satisfaction led to less staff turnover, better performance, and increased utilization of health services. These benefits were achieved by cost-effective measures focused on professionalizing the organization's approach to HRM.

  5. School violence, mental health, and educational performance in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devries, Karen M; Child, Jennifer C; Allen, Elizabeth; Walakira, Eddy; Parkes, Jenny; Naker, Dipak

    2014-01-01

    Violence against children from school staff is anecdotally common in low- and middle-income countries, but data on prevalence and associations with mental health and educational outcomes are lacking. We report data from a cross-sectional survey conducted in June and July 2012 in Luwero District, Uganda. Forty-two primary schools representing 80% of students in the district were randomly selected; 100% agreed to participate. The International Society for the Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect Child Abuse Screening Tool-Child Institutional; Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire; and reading, spelling, and math tests were administered. We present descriptive statistics and logistic regression models, accounting for the complex sampling scheme used in the survey. We surveyed 3706 students and 577 school staff members; 93.3% (SE 1.0%) of boys and 94.2% (SE 1.6%) of girls attending primary school reported lifetime experience of physical violence from a school staff member, and >50% reported experience in the past week. Past-week physical violence was associated with increased odds of poor mental health and, for girls, double the odds of poor educational performance (adjusted odds ratio = 1.78, 95% confidence interval = 1.19-2.66). For boys, significant interactions were present. Despite a ban on corporal punishment in Ugandan schools since 1997, the use of violence against students is widespread and associated with poor mental health and educational performance. School violence may be an important but overlooked contributor to disease burden and poor educational performance in low- and middle-income settings.

  6. Epidemiology of child injuries in Uganda: challenges for health policy

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    Renee Yuen-Jan Hsia

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Globally, 90% of road crash deaths occur in the developing world. Children in Africa bear the major part of this burden, with the highest unintentional injury rates in the world. Our study aims to better understand injury patterns among children living in Kampala, Uganda and provide evidence that injuries are significant in child health. Trauma registry records of injured children seen at Mulago Hospital in Kampala were analysed. This data was collected when patients were seen initially and included patient condition, demographics, clinical variables, cause, severity, as measured by the Kampala trauma score, and location of injury. Outcomes were captured on discharge from the casualty department and at two weeks for admitted patients. From August 2004 to August 2005, 872 injury visits for children <18 years old were recorded. The mean age was 11 years (95% CI 10.9–11.6; 68% (95% CI 65–72% were males; 64% were treated in casualty and discharged; 35% were admitted. The most common causes were traffic crashes (34%, falls (18% and violence (15%. Most children (87% were mildly injured; 1% severely injured. By two weeks, 6% of the patients admitted for injuries had died and, of these morbidities, 16% had severe injuries, 63% had moderate injuries and 21% had mild injuries. We concluded that, in Kampala, children bear a large burden of injury from preventable causes. Deaths in low severity patients highlight the need for improvements in facility-based care. Further studies are necessary to capture overall child injury mortality and to measure chronic morbidity owing to sequelae of injuries.

  7. Indices to measure risk of HIV acquisition in Rakai, Uganda.

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    Joseph Kagaayi

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Targeting most-at-risk individuals with HIV preventive interventions is cost-effective. We developed gender-specific indices to measure risk of HIV among sexually active individuals in Rakai, Uganda. METHODS: We used multivariable Cox proportional hazards models to estimate time-to-HIV infection associated with candidate predictors. Reduced models were determined using backward selection procedures with Akaike's information criterion (AIC as the stopping rule. Model discrimination was determined using Harrell's concordance index (c index. Model calibration was determined graphically. Nomograms were used to present the final prediction models. RESULTS: We used samples of 7,497 women and 5,783 men. 342 new infections occurred among females (incidence 1.11/100 person years, and 225 among the males (incidence 1.00/100 person years. The final model for men included age, education, circumcision status, number of sexual partners, genital ulcer disease symptoms, alcohol use before sex, partner in high risk employment, community type, being unaware of a partner's HIV status and community HIV prevalence. The Model's optimism-corrected c index was 69.1 percent (95% CI = 0.66, 0.73. The final women's model included age, marital status, education, number of sex partners, new sex partner, alcohol consumption by self or partner before sex, concurrent sexual partners, being employed in a high-risk occupation, having genital ulcer disease symptoms, community HIV prevalence, and perceiving oneself or partner to be exposed to HIV. The models optimism-corrected c index was 0.67 (95% CI = 0.64, 0.70. Both models were well calibrated. CONCLUSION: These indices were discriminative and well calibrated. This provides proof-of-concept that population-based HIV risk indices can be developed. Further research to validate these indices for other populations is needed.

  8. The Economic Empowerment of Women in Uganda Through Mushroom Production

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    Ibarahim Mayanja

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on empowering women both in peri-urban and rural areas through mushroom production. It was conducted in Kampala Metropolitan area-Uganda, during October 2016. It focused on estimating profits, conducting benefit-cost analysis/ratio (BCR and return on investment (ROI, finding reasons as to why women involved in the mushroom production and identifying the constraints of mushroom farming from the perspective of women as well as the possible solutions to the constraints. 29 women were interviewed face to face through the use of the questionnaires. The study revealed an average net profit of 3,464.28 US dollars, BCR of 3.84 and ROI of 2.84 per farm in a period of three months. Our study revealed that mushroom production is a profitable enterprise for women. The major reason for women to involve in mushroom was to earn income. However, a range of other reasons was given such as fast maturity of mushrooms, availability of market, healthy benefits of mushrooms, etc. were the most important reasons. The problems faced by women farmers were ranked from the most pressing problem to the least pressing problem in this order; Low market prices per kilogram of mushroom, scarcity of cotton during some seasons, poor quality mushroom spawn supplied to farmers by breeders, inadequate extension, and advisory services were the most observed problems among others. The suggested solutions were organizing farmers into groups or cooperatives in order to negotiate for better markets locally and abroad together with the help of government, researchers to carry out more research on the suitability of other substrates like bagasse other than relying on only cotton, ensuring that mushroom spawn breeders conform to the set standards of quality spawn production and re-equipping local extension workers with knowledge regarding mushroom production among others.

  9. Gender and Economic Growth in Uganda : Unleashing the Power of Women

    OpenAIRE

    Ellis, Amanda; Manuel, Claire; Blackden, C. Mark

    2005-01-01

    Uganda is a leader in Sub-Saharan Africa, in recognizing linkages between economic growth and gender issues. These linkages are critical for achieving the Millennium Development Goals. The study assesses the legal and administrative barriers faced by women, as identified by the Bank's Foreign Investment Advisory Service (FIAS) and the International Finance Corporation's (IFC) Gender-Entrep...

  10. Cognitive Abilities of Pre- and Primary School Children with Spina Bifida in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannink, Femke; Fontaine, Johnny R. J.; Idro, Richard; van Hove, Geert

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates cognitive abilities of pre/primary school children without and with spina bifida in Uganda. Qualitative semi structured interviews and quantitative functioning scales measurements were combined and conducted with 133 parents, 133 children with spina bifida, and 35 siblings. ANCOVA was used to test for differences in…

  11. Enfants en santé Ouganda - Healthy Children Uganda (HCU) | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Depuis 2003, le partenariat canado-ougandais Enfants en santé Ouganda - Healthy Children Uganda (HCU) a mis en oeuvre un programme de bénévolat en santé dans 175 villages. ... A new website and resource library will help improve developing country registration and information systems for vital events.

  12. Improving Early-Grade Literacy in East Africa: Experimental Evidence from Kenya and Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Adrienne M.; McEwan, Patrick J.; Ngware, Moses; Oketch, Moses

    2014-01-01

    Primary school enrollments have increased rapidly in sub-Saharan Africa, spurring concerns about low levels of learning. We analyze field experiments in Kenya and Uganda that assessed whether the Reading to Learn intervention, implemented by the Aga Khan Foundation in both countries, improved early-grade literacy as measured by common assessments.…

  13. Comparative genomics of archived pyrazinamide resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates from Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine tuberculosis is a ‘neglected zoonosis’ and its contribution to the proportion of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex infections in humans is unknown. A retrospective study on archived Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) isolates from a reference laboratory in Uganda was undertaken to iden...

  14. Living with AIDS in Uganda : impacts on banana-farming households in two districts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karuhanga, M.

    2008-01-01

    The research was carried out among banana-farming households in the districts of Masaka and Kabarole in Uganda. A gendered livelihood approach was used. The research focused on the identification of critical factors that need to be taken into consideration in the development of relevant policies for

  15. Network Science Center Research Team’s Visit to Kampala, Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-15

    TERMS Network Analysis, Economic Networks, Entrepreneurial Ecosystems , Economic Development, Data Collection 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17...the Project Synopsis, Developing Network Models of Entrepreneurial Ecosystems in Developing Economies, on the Network Science Center web site.) A...Thomas visited Kampala, Uganda in support of an ongoing Network Science Center project to develop models of entrepreneurial networks. Our Center has

  16. The Land Act (1998) and Land Tenure Reform in Uganda | Okuku ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Land Act (1998), which aims at reforming land tenure relations in Uganda, is therefore one of the most far-reaching legislation enacted by the National Resistance Movement (NRM) government. The new tenure system aims at supporting agricultural development through the functioning of a land market, establishing ...

  17. Frequency and Predictors for Late Start of Antiretroviral Therapy in Primary Care Clinics, Kampala, Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sendagire, Ibrahim; Cobelens, Frank; Kambugu, Andrew; Konde-Lule, Joseph; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten

    2012-01-01

    Background: Access to antiretroviral treatment (ART) has improved greatly in many parts of the world, including Uganda, yet, many patients delay to start ART even when registered within the HIV services. We assessed, in a routine ambulatory care setting, what proportion of patients start ART late

  18. Sexual and reproductive health and rights: implications for comprehensive sex education among young people in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijsdijk, L.E.; Lie, R.; Bos, A.E.R.; Leerlooijer, J.N.; Kok, G.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the findings from an explorative study comparing sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) against local realities for young people in Uganda. This was done by analysing statements by Ugandan adolescents extracted from focus group discussions relating to two SRHRs central

  19. Fair-trade and tea: a comparative analysis of value chains in Kabarole Districtm Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Odoch, M.

    2008-01-01

    This dissertation examines the competiveness of the fair trade tea value chain through a comparative study of the conventional and fair trade tea value chains in Kabarole district, Uganda. By examining this economically important subject, it clarifies the process by which value chains compete for

  20. Exploring stigma as a barrier to cancer service engagement with breast cancer survivors in Kampala, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meacham, Elizabeth; Orem, Jackson; Nakigudde, Gertrude; Zujewski, Jo Anne; Rao, Deepa

    2016-10-01

    To understand the role of stigma in the delay of cancer service engagement by women with breast cancer in Kampala, Uganda. Women in Sub-Saharan African countries are twice as likely to die from cancer as women in high-income countries, which is largely attributable to late diagnosis. While breast cancer-related stigma has been identified in Sub-Saharan Africa, limited research focuses on how stigma impacts the behavior of breast cancer patients in Uganda. This qualitative study used a grounded theory approach to examine illness narratives from 20 breast cancer survivors in Uganda, gathered through semistructured interviews. Thematic analysis showed that perceived and internalized stigma associated with breast cancer influenced care engagement throughout illness, delaying engagement and inhibiting treatment completion. Women identified key factors for overcoming stigma including acceptance of diagnosis, social support, and understanding of breast cancer. The growing burden of mortality associated with breast cancer in Uganda can be mitigated by improving early detection and treatment engagement through interventions which account for key psychosocial barriers such as stigma. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.