WorldWideScience

Sample records for southwestern south america

  1. Anaglyph, South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    This anaglyph (stereoscopic view) of South America was generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). It is best viewed at or near full resolution with anaglyph glasses. For this broad view the resolution of the data was first reduced to 30 arcseconds (about 928 meters north-south but variable east-west), matching the best previously existing global digital topographic data set called GTOPO30. The data were then resampled to a Mercator projection with approximately square pixels (about one kilometer, or 0.6 miles, on each side). Even at this decreased resolution the variety of landforms comprising the South American continent is readily apparent.Topographic relief in South America is dominated by the Andes Mountains, which extend all along the Pacific Coast. These mountains are created primarily by the convergence of the Nazca and South American tectonic plates. The Nazca Plate, which underlies the eastern Pacific Ocean, slides under western South America resulting in crustal thickening, uplift, and volcanism. Another zone of plate convergence occurs along the northwestern coast of South America where the Caribbean Plate also slides under the South American Plate and forms the northeastern extension of the Andes Mountains.East of the Andes, much of northern South America drains into the Amazon River, the world's largest river in terms of both watershed area and flow volume. Topographic relief is very low in much of the Amazon Basin but SRTM data provide an excellent detailed look at the basin's three-dimensional drainage pattern, including the geologic structural trough (syncline) that hosts the eastern river channel.North of the Amazon, the Guiana Highlands commonly stand in sharp contrast to the surrounding lowlands, indeed hosting the world's tallest waterfall, Angel Falls (979 meters or 3212 feet). Folded and fractured bedrock structures are distinctive in the topographic pattern.South of the Amazon, the Brazilian Highlands show a mix of

  2. Herpetological surveys of south-western and south-eastern regions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The herpetofauna of part of the south-western (Lagos, Ogun and Oyo States) and south-eastern (Cross River State) regions were investigated. Specimens were located opportunistically during visual surveys. Both regions fall in the tropical zone, and the south-western region surveyed, was mostly lowland, degraded forests ...

  3. Breaking away to South America

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2011-01-01

    In December 2010, Peter Dreesen of CERN’s Technology Department (TE) returned from a long trip to South America. In four months he traversed the entire Andean range, from the equator to a latitude of 55 degrees south—on a bicycle!   Peter Dreesen on the Salar de Uyuni Lake, Bolivia. 11 000 kilometres is one long bike ride! And yet, that’s what Peter Dreesen did, travelling from Quito, Ecuador to Ushuaia, Argentina. Peter, an engineer in the TE Department, is no novice: the year before, he cycled from Paris to Peking, a distance of 13 500 kilometres, in just over four months. His latest voyage began last August, when he loaded his bicycle and boarded a plane for South America. In the saddle. After a week of acclimatisation at three thousand metres altitude, Peter left Quito on 6 August 2010. He arrived in Ushuaia (el fin del mundo, the end of the world, as it’s known in South America) on 12 December 2010. He recounts: “It was a bizarre sensation...

  4. Ecosystem biophysical memory in the southwestern North America climate system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forzieri, G; Feyen, L; Vivoni, E R

    2013-01-01

    To elucidate the potential role of vegetation to act as a memory source in the southwestern North America climate system, we explore correlation structures of remotely sensed vegetation dynamics with precipitation, temperature and teleconnection indices over 1982–2006 for six ecoregions. We found that lagged correlations between vegetation dynamics and climate variables are modulated by the dominance of monsoonal or Mediterranean regimes and ecosystem-specific physiological processes. Subtropical and tropical ecosystems exhibit a one month lag positive correlation with precipitation, a zero- to one-month lag negative correlation with temperature, and modest negative effects of sea surface temperature (SST). Mountain forests have a zero month lag negative correlation with precipitation, a zero–one month lag negative correlation with temperature, and no significant correlation with SSTs. Deserts show a strong one–four month lag positive correlation with precipitation, a low zero–two month lag negative correlation with temperature, and a high four–eight month lag positive correlation with SSTs. The ecoregion-specific biophysical memories identified offer an opportunity to improve the predictability of land–atmosphere interactions and vegetation feedbacks onto climate. (letter)

  5. Cancer distribution pattern in south-western Nigeria | Awodele ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The burden of cancer in Nigeria is appreciable with about 100,000 new cancer cases been reported in the country each year. This study aimed to determine the level of occurrence and pattern of distribution of different cancer types in two major functional cancer registries in south-western Nigeria. A desk review of the level ...

  6. Dating Violence in South-Western Nigeria Tertiary Institutions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examined peace education as a means of curbing gap in knowledge and dating violence in South-western Nigeria tertiary institutions. Economic, social and psychological problems exert enormous pressures on students making them violent or docile in the face of challenges. These factors combine to make ...

  7. Growing pains in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, S

    1997-08-01

    This article describes some negative effects from modernization and urban growth in South America, including disease, pesticides, occupational hazards, poor environmental controls of water and garbage, sanitation, and environmental degradation. South America is following the global trend toward urbanization and the problems that accompany it. Agricultural expansion led to an expanded market for pesticides that includes the deadly DDT, paraquat, and heptachlor. Brazil and Colombia are the largest consumers. Latin American officials justify use of DDT, which is banned in the US and many European countries, as an effective means of combating mosquitos that carry malaria. Exposure occurs during harvesting, transporting, forestry, livestock farming, and vector control activities. Methyl bromide, which is used post-harvest and as a soil fumigant, is dangerous enough to be banned in the US in 2001, and in developing countries in 2002. Exposure to toxic chemicals can severely inhibit enzyme action that is necessary for neurological functioning. A hot climate, which prevents protective clothing, lack of education on proper application, and absence of water to wash exposed skin, make pesticide protection very difficult. Over 40 million agricultural workers are at risk of pesticide poisoning. Habitat destruction has contributed to increased mosquito infestations. Children in the workplace are at even greater risk of noise pollution and chemical poisoning. South America pollutes almost 11 times more fresh water per capita than Europe. About 70% of domestic garbage is collected, and about 30% is disposed of correctly. Only 10% of urban wastewater is treated before discharge into waterways. The loss of coastal wetlands reduces the ability of waterways to filter and absorb nutrients. Environmental health problems suggest an interlinkage between environmental sustainability, human health, and economic growth.

  8. Impact craters in South America

    CERN Document Server

    Acevedo, Rogelio Daniel; Ponce, Juan Federico; Stinco, Sergio G

    2015-01-01

    A complete and updated catalogue of impact craters and structures in South America from 2014 is presented here. Approximately eighty proven, suspected and disproven structures have been identified by several sources in this continent. All the impact sites of this large continent have been exhaustively reviewed: the proved ones, the possible ones and some very doubtful. Many sites remain without a clear geological ""in situ"" confirmation and some of them could be even rejected. Argentina and Brazil are leading the list containing almost everything detected. In Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Guyana,

  9. DESIGNING DEMOCRACY IN SOUTH AMERICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erinaldo Ferreira Carmo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1980s, when South America pulled away the shadow of authoritarianism and again to breathe the air of freedom, the democratization process has been strengthened in the region, within a very dynamic and not uniform among the states. In this chapter we describe the construction of regional democracy and the changes occurring every decade, including the prospects for this ongoing, with reference to the historical and political process of each South American State, including the ostensible expansion of citizenship rights and political involvement of citizen, but 186. GeoTextos, vol. 8, n. 2, dez. 2012. E. Carmo, S. Pacheco. 185-210 without ceasing to understand the fragility of political institutions, the drama of corruption, the obstacles posed by drug trafficking and the guerrilla groups, the constraints to economic growth and rising, but still incipient, organization of the Southern Common Market – Mercosul.

  10. South America in a new world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto van Klaveren

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available South American countries participate on the new international stage in very diverse ways, reflecting their different political models and preferences. The big changes that have seriously affected the international system have had a profound impact on South America. The United States are no longer the dominant power in the world, nor in their old backyard, South America. Europe retains a certain role in the area, but the crisis it is undergoing is limiting its influence in the region. Relations between South American counties are increasing, but not within the framework of a single, coherent integration process. China, India, Korea, and other Asian countries are joining Japan’s traditional and always discreet presence in the area, but up to now Asia has confined itself to economic exchanges with South America. In general, South America is consolidating itself as the second-largest emerging region on the planet, after Asia, and is projecting that reality in its international relations.

  11. Geography of spring landbird migration through riparian habitats in southwestern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan K. Skagen; Jeffrey F. Kelly; Charles van Riper III; Richard L. Hutto; Deborah M. Finch; David J. Krueper; Cynthia P. Melcher

    2005-01-01

    Migration stopover resources, particularly riparian habitats, are critically important to landbirds migrating across the arid southwestern region of North America. To explore the effects of species biogeography and habitat affinity on spring migration patterns, we synthesized existing bird abundance and capture data collected in riparian habitats of the borderlands...

  12. Sirex research and management in South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edson Tadeu Iede; Susete Rocio C. Penteado; Wilson Reis. Filho

    2011-01-01

    The European woodwasp, Sirex noctilio Fabricius, 1793 (Hymenoptera: Siricidae) is being monitoring and/or controlled on about 4.1 million hectares Pinus spp. plantations in South America’s Southern Cone.

  13. Holocene insect remains from south-western Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøcher, Jens Jensenius; Bennike, Ole; Wagner, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    Remains of plants and invertebrates from Holocene deposits in south-western Greenland include a number of insect fragments from Heteroptera and Coleoptera. Some of the finds extend the known temporal range of the species considerably back in time, and one of the taxa has not previously been found...... in Greenland either fossil or extant. The fossil fauna includes the weevil Rutidosoma globulus which is at present extremely rare in Greenland. Its rarity might indicate that it is a recent immigrant, but the fossil finds provide a minimum date for its arrival at around 5840 cal. years B. P. Other remains...

  14. Earthquake swarms in South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtkamp, S. G.; Pritchard, M. E.; Lohman, R. B.

    2011-10-01

    We searched for earthquake swarms in South America between 1973 and 2009 using the global Preliminary Determination of Epicenters (PDE) catalogue. Seismicity rates vary greatly over the South American continent, so we employ a manual search approach that aims to be insensitive to spatial and temporal scales or to the number of earthquakes in a potential swarm. We identify 29 possible swarms involving 5-180 earthquakes each (with total swarm moment magnitudes between 4.7 and 6.9) within a range of tectonic and volcanic locations. Some of the earthquake swarms on the subduction megathrust occur as foreshocks and delineate the limits of main shock rupture propagation for large earthquakes, including the 2010 Mw 8.8 Maule, Chile and 2007 Mw 8.1 Pisco, Peru earthquakes. Also, subduction megathrust swarms commonly occur at the location of subduction of aseismic ridges, including areas of long-standing seismic gaps in Peru and Ecuador. The magnitude-frequency relationship of swarms we observe appears to agree with previously determined magnitude-frequency scaling for swarms in Japan. We examine geodetic data covering five of the swarms to search for an aseismic component. Only two of these swarms (at Copiapó, Chile, in 2006 and near Ticsani Volcano, Peru, in 2005) have suitable satellite-based Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) observations. We invert the InSAR geodetic signal and find that the ground deformation associated with these swarms does not require a significant component of aseismic fault slip or magmatic intrusion. Three swarms in the vicinity of the volcanic arc in southern Peru appear to be triggered by the Mw= 8.5 2001 Peru earthquake, but predicted static Coulomb stress changes due to the main shock were very small at the swarm locations, suggesting that dynamic triggering processes may have had a role in their occurrence. Although we identified few swarms in volcanic regions, we suggest that particularly large volcanic swarms (those that

  15. A habitat overlap analysis derived from Maxent for Tamarisk and the South-western Willow Flycatcher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia York; Paul Evangelista; Sunil Kumar; James Graham; Curtis Flather; Thomas Stohlgren

    2011-01-01

    Biologic control of the introduced and invasive, woody plant tamarisk (Tamarix spp, saltcedar) in south-western states is controversial because it affects habitat of the federally endangered South-western Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus). These songbirds sometimes nest in tamarisk where floodplain-level invasion replaces native habitats. Biologic control...

  16. Roadmap for sustainable water resources in southwestern North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleick, Peter H

    2010-12-14

    The management of water resources in arid and semiarid areas has long been a challenge, from ancient Mesopotamia to the modern southwestern United States. As our understanding of the hydrological and climatological cycles has improved, and our ability to manipulate the hydrologic cycle has increased, so too have the challenges associated with managing a limited natural resource for a growing population. Modern civilization has made remarkable progress in water management in the past few centuries. Burgeoning cities now survive in desert regions, relying on a mix of simple and complex technologies and management systems to bring adequate water and remove wastewater. These systems have permitted agricultural production and urban concentrations to expand in regions previously thought to have inadequate moisture. However, evidence is also mounting that our current management and use of water is unsustainable. Physical, economic, and ecological limits constrain the development of new supplies and additional water withdrawals, even in regions not previously thought vulnerable to water constraints. New kinds of limits are forcing water managers and policy makers to rethink previous assumptions about population, technology, regional planning, and forms of development. In addition, new threats, especially the challenges posed by climatic changes, are now apparent. Sustainably managing and using water in arid and semiarid regions such as the southwestern United States will require new thinking about water in an interdisciplinary and integrated way. The good news is that a wide range of options suggest a roadmap for sustainable water management and use in the coming decades.

  17. Roadmap for sustainable water resources in southwestern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleick, Peter H.

    2010-01-01

    The management of water resources in arid and semiarid areas has long been a challenge, from ancient Mesopotamia to the modern southwestern United States. As our understanding of the hydrological and climatological cycles has improved, and our ability to manipulate the hydrologic cycle has increased, so too have the challenges associated with managing a limited natural resource for a growing population. Modern civilization has made remarkable progress in water management in the past few centuries. Burgeoning cities now survive in desert regions, relying on a mix of simple and complex technologies and management systems to bring adequate water and remove wastewater. These systems have permitted agricultural production and urban concentrations to expand in regions previously thought to have inadequate moisture. However, evidence is also mounting that our current management and use of water is unsustainable. Physical, economic, and ecological limits constrain the development of new supplies and additional water withdrawals, even in regions not previously thought vulnerable to water constraints. New kinds of limits are forcing water managers and policy makers to rethink previous assumptions about population, technology, regional planning, and forms of development. In addition, new threats, especially the challenges posed by climatic changes, are now apparent. Sustainably managing and using water in arid and semiarid regions such as the southwestern United States will require new thinking about water in an interdisciplinary and integrated way. The good news is that a wide range of options suggest a roadmap for sustainable water management and use in the coming decades. PMID:21149725

  18. Byzantine Crosses with Inlay in the South-Western Crimea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elzara A. Khayredinova

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Archaeological materials played an important role for the studies of the history of Christianity in the South-Western Crimea. Especially interesting are individual artefacts of Christian cult, pectoral crosses in particular. Crosses in costumes of the barbarians of the South-Western Crimea appear in the second half of the 6th century. They were mainly mass goods that were brought from Byzantium and were manufactured in Cherson and jewellery workshops of the country of Dori. This paper analyses byzantine crosses from 550–625 AD with inlay. It was the earliest and the most popular type of crosses among the Crimean Goths. The location of beads and crosses documented in situ in graves provides arguments to reconstruct necklaces and costume which components they formed. Only women and girls wore these crosses in necklaces, accompanied with beads and varied amulets. Many necklaces contained several crosses, which could be explained as the understanding of cross as an amulet. Crosses, as other things of personal godliness, as well as numerous objects with Christian symbols, are a bright evidence of Christianity spreading in Crimea. Crimean finds enlarge our notion of everyday Christian culture in the early mediaeval period, thus forming a striking evidence of close economic and cultural relations of the Crimea and the Byzantine Empire in the early Middle Ages.

  19. Energy market integration in South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammons, T.J.; Franco, N. de; Sbertoli, L.V.; Khelil, C.; Rudnick, H.; Clerici, A.; Longhi, A.

    1997-01-01

    This article is a summary of presentations made during the 1997 Winter Meeting panel session on Power and Natural Gas in Latin America: Towards an Integrated Market. Reregulation and demand for energy resources to support economic growth are driving international natural gas and electricity exchange initiatives. Panelists focused on the gas and electric power industry in Latin America in terms of the: transport of gas or transmission of electricity; energy market integration in the southern cone of South America; and issues on gas use for electricity generation in South America countries. Countries such as Argentina, Bolivia, and Peru will export natural gas to Brazil, Uruguay, Paraguay and Chile, an the energy matrices of these countries will change

  20. Amphitropical disjunctions in New World Menthinae: Three Pliocene dispersals to South America following late Miocene dispersal to North America from the Old World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, Bryan T; Liu, Sitong; Bonifacino, Jose M; Sytsma, Kenneth J

    2017-11-20

    The subtribe Menthinae (Lamiaceae), with 35 genera and 750 species, is among the largest and most economically important subtribes within the mint family. Most genera of Menthinae are found exclusively in the New World, where the group has a virtually continuous distribution ranging from temperate North America to southern South America. In this study, we explored the presence, timing, and origin of amphitropical disjuncts within Menthinae. Our analyses were based on a data set consisting of 89 taxa and the nuclear ribosomal DNA markers ITS and ETS. Phylogenetic relationships were determined under maximum likelihood and Bayesian criteria, divergence times were estimated with the program BEAST, and ancestral range estimated with BioGeoBEARS. A North Atlantic Land Bridge migration event at about 10.6 Ma is inferred from western Eurasia to North America. New World Menthinae spread rapidly across North America, and then into Central and South America. Several of the large speciose genera are not monophyletic with nuclear rDNA, a finding mirrored with previous chloroplast DNA results. Three amphitropical disjunctions involving North and southern South America clades, one including a southeastern South American clade with several genera, were inferred to have occurred within the past 5 Myr. Although three New World Menthinae genera occur in both North and South America, none exhibit an amphitropical disjunction. However, three clades exhibit amphitropical disjunctions, all dating to the early Pliocene, and all involve jump dispersals to either southeastern or southwestern South America from southeastern North America. © 2017 Botanical Society of America.

  1. Military Intervention in South America,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    size and com- position of the armed forces, and the traditional role of the 3 military in the political system. A third approach to military intervention...Structure and Military Intervention in Latin America," Archives Europeenes de Sociologie , 1I (Spring, 1961), 62-81; Ernest A. Duff and John F. McCamant

  2. SOUTH AMERICA: Looking for partners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    A Regional Meeting on Fundamental Physics organized at the CIF International Physics Centre in Bogota, Colombia, in April, looked at future international collaboration possibilities for physicists from the South American Andean region in general, and from Colombia in particular

  3. Brazilian Hybrid Security in South America

    OpenAIRE

    Villa, Rafael Duarte

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Existing research on security governance in South America functions on dichotomous lines. Analysis of Brazil’s security practices is a case in point. On the one hand, scholars point out the balance of power and hegemonic institutions as the main discourse in the security practices between Brazil and its South American neighbors. On the other hand, some other emphasize the importance of democracy, cooperation on defense and security, and peaceful conflict resolution between states in ...

  4. Status of radiation curing in South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado, L.D.B.; Rotta, A.C.; Petrie, I.

    2007-01-01

    In August 2006, an agreement between the Rad tech International North America and the ATBCR, the Brazillian Technical Association for Radiation cure, turns ATCBR into RadTech South America. This new institution starts with already 10 years of history and pioneering technical experience and achievements in UV and EB radiation cure. Both RadTech institutions have asserted a whole cooperation and information exchange to continue with the initial ATBCR compromise in promoting UV and EB curing technology and to make it available to professionals, enterprise and other organizations. The RadTech South America has it's headquarter at the Energy and Nuclear Research Institute, IPEN, in Sao Paulo, Brazil, from whom also gets sponsorship. (Author)

  5. South America, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    This image of South America was generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). For this broad view the resolution of the data was first reduced to 30 arcseconds (about 928 meters north-south but variable east-west), matching the best previously existing global digital topographic data set called GTOPO30. The data were then resampled to a Mercator projection with approximately square pixels (about one kilometer, or 0.6 miles, on each side). Even at this decreased resolution the variety of landforms comprising the South American continent is readily apparent.Topographic relief in South America is dominated by the Andes Mountains, which extend all along the Pacific Coast. These mountains are created primarily by the convergence of the Nazca and South American tectonic plates. The Nazca Plate, which underlies the eastern Pacific Ocean, slides under western South America resulting in crustal thickening, uplift, and volcanism. Another zone of plate convergence occurs along the northwestern coast of South America where the Caribbean Plate also slides under the South American Plate and forms the northeastern extension of the Andes Mountains.East of the Andes, much of northern South America drains into the Amazon River, the world's largest river in terms of both watershed area and flow volume. Topographic relief is very low in much of the Amazon Basin but SRTM data provide an excellent detailed look at the basin's three-dimensional drainage pattern, including the geologic structural trough (syncline) that hosts the eastern river channel.North of the Amazon, the Guiana Highlands commonly stand in sharp contrast to the surrounding lowlands, indeed hosting the world's tallest waterfall, Angel Falls (979 meters or 3212 feet). Folded and fractured bedrock structures are distinctive in the topographic pattern.South of the Amazon, the Brazilian Highlands show a mix of landforms, including some broad areas of consistent topographic patterns that indicate the

  6. Fish biodiversity and conservation in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, R E; Albert, J S; Di Dario, F; Mincarone, M M; Petry, P; Rocha, L A

    2016-07-01

    The freshwater and marine fish faunas of South America are the most diverse on Earth, with current species richness estimates standing above 9100 species. In addition, over the last decade at least 100 species were described every year. There are currently about 5160 freshwater fish species, and the estimate for the freshwater fish fauna alone points to a final diversity between 8000 and 9000 species. South America also has c. 4000 species of marine fishes. The mega-diverse fish faunas of South America evolved over a period of >100 million years, with most lineages tracing origins to Gondwana and the adjacent Tethys Sea. This high diversity was in part maintained by escaping the mass extinctions and biotic turnovers associated with Cenozoic climate cooling, the formation of boreal and temperate zones at high latitudes and aridification in many places at equatorial latitudes. The fresh waters of the continent are divided into 13 basin complexes, large basins consolidated as a single unit plus historically connected adjacent coastal drainages, and smaller coastal basins grouped together on the basis of biogeographic criteria. Species diversity, endemism, noteworthy groups and state of knowledge of each basin complex are described. Marine habitats around South America, both coastal and oceanic, are also described in terms of fish diversity, endemism and state of knowledge. Because of extensive land use changes, hydroelectric damming, water divergence for irrigation, urbanization, sedimentation and overfishing 4-10% of all fish species in South America face some degree of extinction risk, mainly due to habitat loss and degradation. These figures suggest that the conservation status of South American freshwater fish faunas is better than in most other regions of the world, but the marine fishes are as threatened as elsewhere. Conserving the remarkable aquatic habitats and fishes of South America is a growing challenge in face of the rapid anthropogenic changes of the 21

  7. Characteristics of abortion care seekers in south-western Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oye-Adeniran, Boniface A; Adewole, Isaac F; Umoh, Augustine V; Fapohunda, Ohluwafunmilayo R; Iwere, Ngozi

    2004-12-01

    This prospective hospital-based study was carried out to understand the characteristics of abortion care seekers in south-western Nigeria. Information was obtained from a total of 1876 women seeking abortion at hospitals using a questionnaire. The results show that majority (60%) were between the ages of 15 and 24 years, of which adolescents between the ages of 15 and 19 years constituted 23.7%. Most (63.2%) of the respondents were unmarried, but married women also constituted a significant proportion (30.2%) of the abortion care seekers. Students were the single highest group, while the predominant economic activity was trading (26.7%). Respondents terminated their pregnancies mainly because they were students or because they did not desire to have children. Most (35.5%) of the women were introduced to providers by friends. Average contraceptive prevalence among the abortion care seekers was 27.4%. It is obvious from the results that young persons, especially in-school adolescents, should be targeted for comprehensive sexuality education especially in view of the current HIV/AIDS pandemic.

  8. Climate change and runoff in south-western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberstein, R. P.; Aryal, S. K.; Durrant, J.; Pearcey, M.; Braccia, M.; Charles, S. P.; Boniecka, L.; Hodgson, G. A.; Bari, M. A.; Viney, N. R.; McFarlane, D. J.

    2012-12-01

    SummaryThis paper presents the results of computer simulations of runoff from 13 major fresh and brackish river basins in south-western Australia (SWA) under climate projections obtained from 15 GCMs with three future global warming scenarios equivalent to global temperature rises of 0.7 °C, 1.0 °C and 1.3 °C by 2030. The objective was to apply an efficient methodology, consistent across a large region, to examine the implications of the best available projections in climate trends for future surface water resources. An ensemble of rainfall-runoff models was calibrated on stream flow data from 1975 to 2007 from 106 gauged catchments distributed throughout the basins of the study area. The sensitivity of runoff to projected changes in mean annual rainfall is examined using the climate 'elasticity' concept. Averaged across the study area, all 15 GCMs project declines in rainfall under all global warming scenarios with a median decline of 8% resulting in a median decline in runoff of 25%. Such uniformity in projections from GCMs is unusual. Over SWA the average annual runoff under the 5th wettest and 5th driest of the 45 projections of the 2030 climate declines by 10 and 42%, respectively. Under the 5th driest projection the runoff decline ranges from 53% in the northern region to 40% in the southern region. Strong regional variations in climate sensitivity are found with the proportional decline in runoff greatest in the northern region and the greatest volumetric declines in the wetter basins in the south. Since the mid 1970s stream flows into the major water supply reservoirs in SWA have declined by more than 50% following a 16% rainfall reduction. This has already had major implications for water resources planning and for the preservation of aquatic and riparian ecosystems in the region. Our results indicate that this reduction in runoff is likely to continue if future climate projections eventuate.

  9. Agriculture, Rio Sao Francisco, Brazil, South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    The large field patterns in this view of the Rio Sao Francisco basin, Brazil, South America, (11.5S, 43.5W) indicate a commercial agriculture venture; family subsistence farms are much smaller and laid out in different patterns. Land clearing in Brazil has increased at an alarming rate in recent years and preliminary estimates suggest a 25 to 30% increase in deforestation since 1984. The long term impact on the ecological processes are still unknown.

  10. Diversity and distribution of whiteflies in south-western Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Whiteflies (Aleyrodidae) are major pests of crops in southwestern Nigeria, yet there is scanty information on diversity and distribution of these economic species. Therefore, a study of diversity and distribution of whitefly fauna was carried out in southwestern Nigeria in wet and dry seasons, between May 2007 and June 2012.

  11. Geological-uraniferous favourability of South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stipanicic, P.N.

    1984-01-01

    The South American continent includes several metallogenic provinces some of which have excellent uranium possibilities. Basically, two types of lithological complex have contributed to this favourability: the large Precambrian shields covering about 5,500,000 km 2 and the crystalline Hercynian nesocratons with about 300,000 km 2 as source rocks. Only in Argentina and Brazil has continuous uranium exploration in South America been carried out, with moderate budgets, during the last twenty-five years. In the rest of South America the search for uranium has been performed intermittently and with limited resources. However, during recent years interest has increased and more continuous operation has been recorded in some countries (Bolivia, Colombia, Chile, Peru). It can be estimated that only 20% of the favourable areas have been explored fairly intensively in Argentina and Brazil, the two most advanced uraniferous countries. Nevertheless, the uranium possibilities of South America are proved by the resources of 250,000 t U already defined (in Argentina and Brazil) for the category of production cost below US $130/kg U. The speculative uranium potential of the continent was estimated by the International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project as between 770,000 and 1,500,000 t U. Within the South American geostructural framework, five main uraniferous geological areas have been defined on the basis of the geotectonic evolution of the continent, the succession of sedimentary and magmatic processes, and the participation in them of the endogenous and exogenous phases of the uranium geochemical cycle. In this paper the principal uranium metallogenic models occurring in the above five main areas are studied together with the uranium potential of each area. The possibility of uranium recovery from these sources in relation to the respective costs of production is briefly discussed

  12. The Cambrian-Ordovician rocks of Sonora, Mexico, and southern Arizona, southwestern margin of North America (Laurentia): chapter 35

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, William R.; Harris, Alta C.; Repetski, John E.; Derby, James R.; Fritz, R.D.; Longacre, S.A.; Morgan, W.A.; Sternbach, C.A.

    2013-01-01

    Cambrian and Ordovician shelf, platform, and basin rocks are present in Sonora, Mexico, and southern Arizona and were deposited on the southwestern continental margin of North America (Laurentia). Cambrian and Ordovician rocks in Sonora, Mexico, are mostly exposed in scattered outcrops in the northern half of the state. Their discontinuous nature results from extensive Quaternary and Tertiary surficial cover, from Tertiary and Mesozoic granitic batholiths in western Sonora, and from widespread Tertiary volcanic deposits in the Sierra Madre Occidental in eastern Sonora. Cambrian and Ordovician shelf rocks were deposited as part of the the southern miogeocline on the southwestern continental margin of North America.

  13. The diets of fish in three south-western Cape estuarine systems ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The stomach contents of 2756 fish of 14 species taken by seine and gill netting in the Bot River, Kleinmond and Palmiet estuaries on the south-western Cape coast of South Africa were examined. The small juveniles of all species consumed primarily zooplankton before switching to their adult diets. Seven of the species, ...

  14. South America, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    This image of South America was generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). For this broad view the resolution of the data was first reduced to 30 arcseconds (about 928 meters north-south but variable east-west), matching the best previously existing global digital topographic data set called GTOPO30. The data were then resampled to a Mercator projection with approximately square pixels (about one kilometer, or 0.6 miles, on each side). Even at this decreased resolution the variety of landforms comprising the South American continent is readily apparent.Topographic relief in South America is dominated by the Andes Mountains, which extend all along the Pacific Coast. These mountains are created primarily by the convergence of the Nazca and South American tectonic plates. The Nazca Plate, which underlies the eastern Pacific Ocean, slides under western South America resulting in crustal thickening, uplift, and volcanism. Another zone of plate convergence occurs along the northwestern coast of South America where the Caribbean Plate also slides under the South American Plate and forms the northeastern extension of the Andes Mountains.East of the Andes, much of northern South America drains into the Amazon River, the world's largest river in terms of both watershed area and flow volume. Topographic relief is very low in much of the Amazon Basin but SRTM data provide an excellent detailed look at the basin's three-dimensional drainage pattern, including the geologic structural trough (syncline) that hosts the eastern river channel.North of the Amazon, the Guiana Highlands commonly stand in sharp contrast to the surrounding lowlands, indeed hosting the world's tallest waterfall, Angel Falls (979 meters or 3212 feet). Folded and fractured bedrock structures are distinctive in the topographic pattern.South of the Amazon, the Brazilian Highlands show a mix of landforms, including some broad areas of consistent topographic patterns that indicate the

  15. Catalogue of meteorites from South America

    CERN Document Server

    Acevedo, Rogelio Daniel; García, Víctor Manuel

    2014-01-01

    The first Catalogue of Meteorites from South America includes new specimens never previously reported, while doubtful cases and pseudometeorites have been deliberately omitted.The falling of these objects is a random event, but the sites where old meteorites are found tend to be focused in certain areas, e.g. in the deflation surfaces in Chile's Atacama Desert, due to favorable climate conditions and ablation processes.Our Catalogue provides basic information on each specimen like its provenance and the place where it was discovered (in geographic co-ordinates and with illustrative maps), its

  16. The rock coast of South and Central America : chapter 10

    OpenAIRE

    Blanco-Chao, R.; Pedoja, K.; Witt, C.; Martinod, J.; Husson, L.; Regard, V.; Audin, Laurence; Nexer, M.; Delcaillau, B.; Saillard, M.; Melnick, D.; Dumont, J.F.; Santana, E.; Navarrete, E.; Martillo, C.

    2014-01-01

    The great variety of climatic conditions, tidal ranges and wave regimes of South and Central America act on a complex geology and tectonic framework. Many of the rock and cliffed coasts of South America are strongly controlled by the occurrence of extensive Cenozoic and Pleistocene sediments that crop out at the coast. Geology and the different uplift rates are a major factor in the whole coastal geomorphology of South and Central America, and consequently are a very important control of the ...

  17. The palms of South America: diversity, distribution and evolutionary history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Christophe Pintaud

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an inventory of South American palms including 457 species and 50 genera. The distribution of palms within seven phytogeographical entities is analyzed. Factors which influence the evolution of palms in South America are discussed.

  18. The Cocos Ridge drives collision of Panama with northwestern South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaFemina, Peter; Govers, Rob; Mora-Paez, Hector; Geirsson, Halldor; Cmacho, Eduardo

    2015-04-01

    The collision of the Panamanian isthmus with northwestern South America is thought to have initiated as early as Oligocene - Miocene time (23-25 Ma) based on geologic and geophysical data and paleogeographic reconstructions. This collision was driven by eastward-directed subduction beneath northwestern South America. Cocos - Caribbean convergence along the Middle America Trench, and Nazca - Caribbean oblique convergence along the South Panama Deformed Belt have resulted in complex deformation of the southwestern Caribbean since Miocene - Pliocene time. Subduction and collision of the aseismic Cocos Ridge is thought to have initiated migration of the volcanic arc toward the back-arc; 3) Quaternary to present deformation within the Central Costa Rica Deformed Belt; 4) Quaternary to present shortening across the fore-arc Fila Costeña fold and thrust belt and back-arc North Panama Deformed Belt (NPDB); 5) Quaternary to present outer fore-arc uplift of Nicoya Peninsula above the seamount domain, and the Osa and Burica peninsulas above the ridge; and 6) Pleistocene to present northwestward motion of the Central American Fore Arc (CAFA) and northeastward motion of the Panama Region. We investigate the geodynamic effects of Cocos Ridge collision on motion of the Panama Region with a new geodynamic model. The model is compared to a new 1993-2015 GPS-derived three-dimensional velocity field for the western Caribbean and northwestern South America. Specifically, we test the hypotheses that the Cocos Ridge is the main driver for upper plate deformation in the western Caribbean. Our models indicate that Cocos Ridge collision drives northwest-directed motion of the CAFA and the northeast-directed motion of the Panama Region. The Panama Region is driven into the Caribbean across the NPDB and into northwestern South America, which is also converging with the Panama Region, pushing it toward the west-northwest. Therefore, modern collision of Panama with northwestern South America

  19. Predicting Fire Season Severity in South America Using Sea Surface Temperature Anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yang; Randerson, James T.; Morton, Douglas C.; Jin, Yufang; DeFries, Ruth S.; Collatz, George J.; Kasibhatla, Prasad S.; Giglio, Louis; Jin, Yufang; Marlier, Miriam

    2011-01-01

    Fires in South America cause forest degradation and contribute to carbon emissions associated with land use change. Here we investigated the relationship between year-to-year changes in satellite-derived estimates of fire activity in South America and sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies. We found that the Oceanic Ni o Index (ONI) was correlated with interannual fire activity in the eastern Amazon whereas the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) index was more closely linked with fires in the southern and southwestern Amazon. Combining these two climate indices, we developed an empirical model that predicted regional annual fire season severity (FSS) with 3-5 month lead times. Our approach provides the foundation for an early warning system for forecasting the vulnerability of Amazon forests to fires, thus enabling more effective management with benefits for mitigation of greenhouse gas and air pollutant emissions.

  20. On plate tectonics and the geologic evolution of southwestern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Peter L.

    1991-07-01

    Very rapid subduction of the Farallon plate under southwestern North America between 60 and 40 Ma was accompanied by a relatively low volume of magmatism throughout the southwestern United States and northern Mexico. Between 40 and 20 Ma, when subduction slowed significantly and in one area may have even stopped, magmatism became widespread and voluminous from Nevada and Utah to central Mexico. This correlation of rapid subduction with a relatively low volume of magmatism can be explained by the observation that subduction-related andesitic arc volcanism, often formed in a Laramide-style compressional regime, is relatively low volume compared to continental volcanism. The shallow roots of arc volcanic systems are clearly exposed in the porphyry copper deposits found in currently active arcs and common throughout southwestern North America between 60 and 50 Ma. By 43 Ma, worldwide plate motions changed, the Pacific plate began moving away from North America, and subduction of the Farallon plate slowed. By around 36 Ma, the easternmost part of the East Pacific Rise, which was located between the Pioneer and Murray fracture zones, approached the trench and the young, hot, buoyant lithosphere appears to have clogged part of the subduction zone. Uplift on land became widespread. Voluminous continental magmatism formed the Sierra Madre Occidental (SMO) of Mexico, one of the largest batholiths in the world, as well as volcanic centers now exposed in the San Juan Mountains of Colorado and the Rio Grande Rift of New Mexico. Vectors of motion of the Pacific plate relative to the North American plate determined by Stock and Molnar (1988) are consistent with formation of a transtensional environment along the plate boundary sufficient to create a 100- to 200-km-wide void just landward of the old volcanic arc. While the SMO batholith was forming within this void, the Monterey and Arguello microplates just offshore to the west were broken off from the Farallon plate and rotated

  1. Maritime Transportation of Illegal Drugs from South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    1 Maritime Transportation of Illegal Drugs from South America • Michael P. Atkinson: Operations Research Department, Naval...2 Maritime Transportation of Illegal Drugs from South America Abstract The US invests considerable effort in searching and interdicting drug...Trafficking Organizations (DTOs) employ both maritime and air conveyances and use a variety of vessel types to transport the drugs. Examples of maritime

  2. Dermatobia hominis myiasis among travelers returning from South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamir, Jeremy; Haik, Josef; Orenstein, Arie; Schwartz, Eli

    2003-04-01

    Dermatobia hominis is the most common cause of myiasis in Central and South America, affecting mammals and humans, causing nonhealing furuncle-like lesions. During the years 1994 to 1999, 14 Israeli travelers returning from South America were diagnosed with D hominis myiasis. The approach consists of correct diagnosis and a proper removal of the larvae, after which the patients heal with no complications.

  3. Migratory Fishes of South America : Biology, Fisheries, and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Migratory Fishes of South America : Biology, Fisheries, and Conservation Status. Couverture du livre Migratory Fishes of South America : Biology, Fisheries, and Conservation Status. Directeur(s) : Joachim Carolsfield, Brian Harvey, Carmen Ross et Anton Baer. Maison(s) d'édition : World Fisheries Trust, Banque mondiale, ...

  4. Multi-year predictability of climate, drought, and wildfire in southwestern North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikamoto, Yoshimitsu; Timmermann, Axel; Widlansky, Matthew J; Balmaseda, Magdalena A; Stott, Lowell

    2017-07-26

    Past severe droughts over North America have led to massive water shortages and increases in wildfire frequency. Triggering sources for multi-year droughts in this region include randomly occurring atmospheric blocking patterns, ocean impacts on atmospheric circulation, and climate's response to anthropogenic radiative forcings. A combination of these sources translates into a difficulty to predict the onset and length of such droughts on multi-year timescales. Here we present results from a new multi-year dynamical prediction system that exhibits a high degree of skill in forecasting wildfire probabilities and drought for 10-23 and 10-45 months lead time, which extends far beyond the current seasonal prediction activities for southwestern North America. Using a state-of-the-art earth system model along with 3-dimensional ocean data assimilation and by prescribing the external radiative forcings, this system simulates the observed low-frequency variability of precipitation, soil water, and wildfire probabilities in close agreement with observational records and reanalysis data. The underlying source of multi-year predictability can be traced back to variations of the Atlantic/Pacific sea surface temperature gradient, external radiative forcings, and the low-pass filtering characteristics of soils.

  5. Precipitation of Continental Origin over South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Agudelo, J. A.; Dominguez, F.

    2012-12-01

    The Amazon forest receives high amounts of moisture from the tropical Atlantic. A significant part of this moisture is returned back to the atmosphere by the forest, and further redistributed to the rest of the continent by the meridional flow imposed by the Andes. Thus, the land-atmosphere interaction between the Amazon forest and the large-scale flow affects not only the forest itself but also the downstream regions. We develop a method to quantify the precipitation of continental origin over South America, and identify the contribution that selected source regions make to continental precipitation. The average annual cycle of precipitation of continental origin for the five-year period 2000-2004 shows a band of high values aligned along the northwest-southeast direction, from southern Peru to northeastern Argentina. The lowest values of precipitation of continental origin occur upstream, over the northeastern coast of South America. Precipitation that originates as moisture from the Amazon forest shows maximum values over the western side of the Amazon, east of the Andes, especially over southern Peru. The Amazon forest also contributes to precipitation over La Plata River Basin (LPRB) and the Pacific coast of Colombia. During its dry season, up to 29.3% of the precipitation over LPRB originates as moisture from the Amazon forest. Throughout the year, the contributions to precipitation over LPRB by the Amazon forest and LPRB (recycled precipitation) are in the same range, but out of phase. The average contribution of the rest of the continent to precipitation over LPRB is smaller but of the same order as that of the Amazon and LPRB.

  6. Gap in knowledge and dating violence in South-Western Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gap in knowledge and dating violence in South-Western Nigeria Tertiary institutions: implications for peace education. ... Gender and Behaviour ... The findings revealed that there was significant relationship between students involve in peace education and rate of curbing gap in knowledge and dating violence.

  7. Description of a new moss frog from the south-western Cape (Anura ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A new species of moss frog, genus Arthroleptella, is described from the Kleinrivier mountains of the south-western Cape. It is morphologically indistinguishable from the other three species in the area. The four Cape species are allopatric, each has a unique male advertisement call, and preliminary molecular data shows ...

  8. Topographic controls on the regional-scale biodiversity of the south-western USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    David D. Coblentz; Kurt H. Riitters

    2004-01-01

    Aim Topography is a fundamental geophysical observable that contains valuable information about the geodynamic, tectonic and climatic history of a region. Here, we extend the traditional uses of topographic analysis to evaluate the role played by topography in the distribution of regional-scale biodiversity in the south-western USA. An important aspect of our study is...

  9. The diets of fish in three south-western Cape estuarine systems

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1988-09-26

    Sep 26, 1988 ... 'Ci. Table 2 The diets of fourteen fish species from the Bot River, Kleinmond and Palmiet estuaries in the south-western Cape. Only prey categories that. N. +:> contributed >0,5%V consumed by at least one species are included (- indicates < 0,5% contribution to occurrence or volume). ---w. '-' Food category.

  10. Parkia biglobosa as an economic resource for rural women in south-western Burkina Faso

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mette-Helene Kronborg; Lykke, Anne Mette; Ilboudo, Jean-Baptiste

    2013-01-01

    An approach for commercialising a product from Parkia biglobosa in order to improve the economic situation of rural women in south-western Burkina Faso was explored. Income is generated from sales of a derivative from the fermented seeds called soumbala. About one fifth of the women (18%) were in...

  11. Food and feeding habits of some anuran species in south-western ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The food and feeding habits of some anuran species in south-western Nigeria were investigated. Individuals of eighteen anuran species were selected randomly from collection made from the various survey sites which represented all the anuran families observed in the study. Morphometric measurements and analysis of ...

  12. Intensification scenarios in south-western Niger: Implications for revisiting fertilizer policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rovere, La R.; Keulen, van H.; Hiernaux, P.; Szonyi, J.; Schipper, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    In semi-arid south-western Niger, external fertilizer inputs are a complement of livestock-mediated nutrient transfers for maintaining soil fertility. This paper discusses scenarios of intensification for different farm household types in an area representative of the wetter parts of semi-arid

  13. HIV/AIDS: Knowledge and attitudes of dentists in South-Western ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge and attitudes of dentists in South-Western Nigeria in relation to HIV/AIDS. Materials and methods: A questionnaire survey of 164 dentists in Lagos, Ibadan and Benin The data was analyzed using Epi-info statistical software. Results: The modes of ...

  14. How do we know how much groundwater is stored in south-western Cape mountains?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Midgley, JJ

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Isotopes of water (D, O-18) in rain and streams were used to obtain an estimate of the amount of ground water in the south-western Cape Mountains. It was assumed that the groundwater reservoir is well-mixed and that the water isotope signals...

  15. Use of Nonradioactive Detection Method for North- and South-Western Blot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Claudia; Gräfe, Daniel; Bartsch, Holger; Bachmann, Michael P

    2015-01-01

    Many proteins bind to nucleic acids. For the first characterization of novel proteins, a fast and simple technique for testing their nucleic acid binding capabilities is desirable. Here we describe the use of a North-western and South-western blot protocol for the evaluation of the DNA and RNA binding abilities of a novel putative methyl transferase HSPC133 (METTL5).

  16. Feline Immunodeficiency Virus in South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno M. Teixeira

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The rapid emergence of AIDS in humans during the period between 1980 and 2000 has led to extensive efforts to understand more fully similar etiologic agents of chronic and progressive acquired immunodeficiency disease in several mammalian species. Lentiviruses that have gene sequence homology with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV have been found in different species (including sheep, goats, horses, cattle, cats, and several Old World monkey species. Lentiviruses, comprising a genus of the Retroviridae family, cause persistent infection that can lead to varying degrees of morbidity and mortality depending on the virus and the host species involved. Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV causes an immune system disease in domestic cats (Felis catus involving depletion of the CD4+ population of T lymphocytes, increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections, and sometimes death. Viruses related to domestic cat FIV occur also in a variety of nondomestic felids. This is a brief overview of the current state of knowledge of this large and ancient group of viruses (FIVs in South America.

  17. Feline immunodeficiency virus in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Bruno M; Hagiwara, Mitika K; Cruz, Juliano C M; Hosie, Margaret J

    2012-03-01

    The rapid emergence of AIDS in humans during the period between 1980 and 2000 has led to extensive efforts to understand more fully similar etiologic agents of chronic and progressive acquired immunodeficiency disease in several mammalian species. Lentiviruses that have gene sequence homology with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have been found in different species (including sheep, goats, horses, cattle, cats, and several Old World monkey species). Lentiviruses, comprising a genus of the Retroviridae family, cause persistent infection that can lead to varying degrees of morbidity and mortality depending on the virus and the host species involved. Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) causes an immune system disease in domestic cats (Felis catus) involving depletion of the CD4+ population of T lymphocytes, increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections, and sometimes death. Viruses related to domestic cat FIV occur also in a variety of nondomestic felids. This is a brief overview of the current state of knowledge of this large and ancient group of viruses (FIVs) in South America.

  18. Look Out Below: Islamic Terrorism in South America

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cruz, Christopher A

    2006-01-01

    ..., and a sympathetic population filled with anti-American sentiment, the Islamic terrorist threat is very real in South America and should be a major security concern for the United States. While U.S. Central Command (CENTCOM...

  19. Ecosystem Demography Model: Scaling Vegetation Dynamics Across South America

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This model product contains the source code for the Ecosystem Demography Model (ED version 1.0) as well as model input and output data for a portion of South America...

  20. Health system reforms in South America: an opportunity for UNASUR

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes-Temporão, José; Instituto Suramericano de Gobierno Salud (ISAGS/UNASUR). Rio de Janeiro, Brasil.; Faria, Mariana; Instituto Suramericano de Gobierno Salud (ISAGS/UNASUR). Rio de Janeiro, Brasil.

    2014-01-01

    Health systems in South America still support segmentation, privatization and fragmentation. Health reforms of the structural adjustment programs in the 1980s and 1990s in South America followed different purposes and strategies ranging from privatization, commodification and state intervention for the implementation of a national public health service with universal access as a right of the citizens. Since the 2000s, many countries have expanded social policies, reduced poverty and social in...

  1. [Campylobacter and campylobacteriosis: a view from South America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Heriberto

    2011-03-01

    The thermotolerant species of Campylobacter have become very important in public health, especially as agents of infectious diarrhea in human beings. In this brief revision we present part of the available information generated in South America about epidemiological, clinical and bacteriological aspects of campylobacteriosis and we identify some differences between the observed and documented campylobacteriosis in South America compared to those described in industrialized countries.

  2. Cretaceous paleogeography and depositional cycles of western South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macellari, C. E.

    The western margin of South America was encroached upon by a series of marine advances that increased in extent from the Early Cretaceous to a maximum in the early Late Cretaceous for northern South America (Venezuela to Peru). In southern South America, however, the area covered by the marine advances decreased from a maximum in the Early Cretaceous to a minimum during mid-Cretaceous time, followed by a widespread advance at the end of the period. A series of unconformity-bounded depositional cycles was recognized in these sequences: five cycles in northern South America, and six (but not exactly equivalent) cycles in the Cretaceous back-arc basins of southern South America (Neuquén and Austral, or Magallanes, Basins). Both widespread anoxic facies and maximum flooding of the continent in northern South America coincide in general terms with recognized global trends, but this is not the case in southern South America. Here, anoxic facies are restricted to the Lower Cretaceous and seem to be controlled by local aspects of the basin evolution and configuration. The contrasts observed between northern and southern South America can be explained by differences in tectonic setting and evolution. To the north, sediments were deposited around the tectonically stable Guayana-Brazilian Massifs, and thus registered global "signals" such as anoxic events and major eustatic changes. The southern portion of the continent, on the contrary, developed in an active tectonic setting. Here, the mid-Cretaceous Peruvian Orogeny overprinted, to a large extent, world-wide trends and only the earliest and latest Cretaceous conform to global depositional patterns.

  3. South America's energy integration overshadows Venezuela-US confrontational posture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrantes, Dayse

    2006-01-01

    Venezuela's plans of a 10 000 km gas pipeline project spanning Latin America is presented. A brief analysis of Venezuela's petroleum industry is provided. President Hugo Chavez' main ambitions include reducing oil sales to the USA and to spark South America's energy integration

  4. Radiometric ages of some igneous rocks from the southern and southwestern coalfields of New South Wales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, P.F.; Facer, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    Samples from six igneous rock units of the Southern and Southwestern Coalfields (Sydney Basin) of New South Wales have been dated using the K-Ar radiometric technique. The following ages were determined: a dolerite from Towradgi, 243 +- 10 MY; a dolerite from a diamond-drill hole at Sutton Forest, 202 +- 8 MY; the Bong Bong Basalt, 190 +- 8 MY; the Good Dog Lamprophyre, 101 +- 4 MY; a teschenite from South Bulli coal mine 74.0 +- 3.6 MY; and a dolerite from Robertson, 63.8 +- 3.2 MY. Combination of these new ages wth previously-published ages indicates that igneous activity in the Southern and Southwestern Coalfields occurred during four discrete periods of time - Middle-to-Late Permian; Late Triassic to Early Jurassic; mid-Cretaceous (only the Good Dog Lamprophyre has yielded such an age); and latest Cretaceous to Late Oligocene

  5. Contrasting evidence of Holocene ice margin retreat, south-western Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levy, L. B.; Larsen, Nicolaj K.; Davidson, T. A.

    2017-01-01

    Constraining the Greenland Ice Sheet's (GrIS) response to Holocene climate change provides calibrations for ice sheet models that hindcast past ice margin fluctuations. Ice sheet models predict enhanced ice retreat in south-western Greenland during the middle Holocene; however, few geological...... observations corroborating the extensive retreat are available. We present new data from lake sediment cores from the Isua region, south-western Greenland, which provide constraints on Holocene fluctuations of the GrIS margins. Our data indicate that the main GrIS margin was 30 km west of its present...... factor in ice retreat. The late retreat at Isua is in contrast to the early retreat observed in the Godthåbsfjord area and is probably related to the lack of fjords extending to the present Isua ice margin. Our data are not consistent with current ice sheet models that overestimate the middle Holocene...

  6. Late-glacial of southern South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heusser, C. J.

    Overall trends in late-glacial paleoenvironments of southern South America are interpretable from the pollen stratigraphy of radiocarbon dated sections of mires in Tierra del Fuego (55°S), the Chilotan archipelago (42-43°S), and the Chilean Lake District (39-41°S). In Tierra del Fuego, southern beech ( Nothofagus) and shrub and herb taxa (Gramineae, Empetrum, Acaena, Gunnera, Compositae and Cyperaceae) serve as indicators of the changing climate; in the Chilotan archipelago and in the Chilean Lake District, southern beech and other trees (species of Myrtaceae, Podocarpus, Prumnopitys, Pseudopanax and Weinmannia) suffice as indices of climatic change. Pollen records from each of these regions, although in need of greater dating control, indicate climatic sequences that are broadly similar. The records, however, are not regionally consistent in all aspects and differ in their indicator value with the implication of fossil beetle evidence. Attempts at correlation can be unsatisfactory at times and can stem inter alia from the different ecophysiological responses of both plants and beetles to environmental pressures. These differences, which affect the timing of reproduction and migration, may result in the variable occurrence of different species in the records. The broad implication of the pollen data is that following a glacial readvance culminating at about 15,000-14,500 BP, late-glacial climate was generally warmer during intervals before 13,000 and between 12,000 and 11,000 BP, and was cooler between 13,000 and 12,000 and from 11,000 to 10,000 BP.

  7. DETERMINANTS OF GOOD ORAL HYGIENE AMONG PREGNANT WOMEN IN IBADAN, SOUTH-WESTERN NIGERIA.

    OpenAIRE

    Ifesanya, Joy U.; Ifesanya, Adeleke O.; Asuzu, Michael C.; Oke, Gbemisola A.

    2010-01-01

    Background and objectives: The need to attain and maintain good oral hygiene among pregnant women cannot be over emphasized as periodontal diseases in pregnancy have been linked with poor pregnancy outcomes. This study assessed the variables that affect oral hygiene status among pregnant women in a south-western Nigerian locality. Methodology: Four hundred and five pregnant Nigerian women were assessed for their oral hygiene status using the Oral Hygiene Index-Simplified. Demographic and preg...

  8. Changes in the forest ecosystems in areas impacted by aridization in south-western Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Pravalie, Remus; Sîrodoev, Igor; Peptenatu, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Background In the past few decades, global climate change has accentuated the intensification of aridization in South-Western Romania, with direct and indirect consequences on the quality of forest ecosystems. In addition to qualitative deterioration, the quantitative changes brought about by intensive anthropic deforestation have created the conditions for a decline in the size of forest areas on vast tracts of land. The paper aims to analyze the qualitative and quantitative changes in the f...

  9. New views on American colonization: critical tests from South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Rourke, Dennis

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional view of colonization of the Americas as a migration across Beringia and subsequent dispersal southward following the last glacial maximum is being increasingly questioned. In North America, archaeological links to Siberia are tenuous and genetic data are more consistent with an earlier entry of people into the Americas, from Central rather than Northeast Siberia. An entry of populations into the Americas prior to the last glacial maximum forces a reconsideration not only of timing, but also geographic points of entry and speed of dispersal, based on ecological theory. A number of emerging alternative hypotheses on the colonization of the Americas predict early entry and dispersal of people into South America - earlier than, or coeval with, initial dispersal in North America. The study of genetic, morphological, and archaeological variation across South America is critical to testing these new, alternative hypotheses of Native American origins. I will review the evidence for emerging, alternative views of American Colonization, and suggest ways in which data from South American populations and prehistory will be crucial in testing them.

  10. Energy security in South America and Southern Africa: synthesis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiratu, Sheila

    2011-01-01

    In developing countries, the ability to provide adequate and reliable energy supplies is a key to sustainable economic development. The aim of this report is to study the energy supply security in both Southern Africa and South America and how these regions can participate in the international effort to combat climate change. This report showed that South Africa's energy sector mostly relies on carbon intensive coal while Brazil is mainly supplied by hydroelectricity. It was found that in both countries energy needs will increase significantly due to rising demand both internally and at a regional scale. However it was also shown that both Southern Africa and South America have important hydro, solar and wind renewable resources which could enhance their electricity security while minimizing their environmental impacts. This study demonstrated that Southern Africa and South America can enhance their electricity security through the use of renewable energies but that technology and financing is needed to develop the sector.

  11. Identification and interpretation of tectonic features from ERTS-1 imagery: Southwestern North America and the Red Sea area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Gawad, M. (Principal Investigator); Tubbesing, L.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The ERTS-1 imagery was utilized to study major fault and tectonic lines and their intersections in southwestern North America. A system of transverse shear faults was recognized in the California Coast Ranges, the Sierra Nevada, the Great Basin, and Mexico. They are interpreted as expressions of a major left-lateral shear which predated the San Andreas system, the opening of the Gulf of California and Basin and Range rift development. Tectonic models for Basin and Range, Coast Ranges, and Texas-Parras shears were developed. Geological structures and Precambrian metamorphic trend lines of schistosity were studied across the Red Sea rift.

  12. Sedimentation and near-bottom currents in the South-Western Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emelyanov, Emelyan M.

    2008-01-01

    The aims of the paper are: 1) to study the bottom relief and Late Quaternary bottom sediments of the South-Western Atlantic from the Amazon cone to the Vema Channel and Rio Grande Rise, and 2) to reconstruct recent and palaeo-Antarctic near-bottom currents (AABW). For this purpose, we used three main Parasound seismic profiles: 30 cores (up to 500 cm in length), the nanoplankton stratigraphy of 9 cores from the Brazilian lithological profile (along 24 °W), and literature sources. No soft sedimentes were found in the Vema channel; the bottom of the channel is acoustically "hard". Our geological data confirm that AABW flows mainly through this channel. The velocity of this flow should be higher than 100 cm.s-1. Only this strong current is able to rewash not only soft Holocene sediments, but also consolidated Quaternary deposits. Soft layered sediments occur at a depth less than 4200 m in the Hunter channel. Consequently, the AABW is able to flow from the Argentine Basin to the Brazil Basin only at a depth of more than 4200 m in this channel. Brown red clay or yellowish gray miopelagic clay prevail in the Brazil Deep. The age of red clay in the cores is different: Early or Late Pleistocene, or Holocene. Clay was rewashed and re-deposited in many areas of the deep. This means that the hydrodynamics sometimes was very active at a depth of 4000-5000 m in the Brazil Deep. The presence of conturite and turbidite interlayers in the red clay of the S. America continental base confirms the occurrence of a strong jet of the AABW (Deep Western Boundary current - DWBC) here. Antarctic and other diatoms were brought by AABW from Antarctica up to 10-5 °S. An unusual Pleistocene Ethmodiscus rex ooze was discovered at the latitude of 20 °S. Our data confirm the occurrence in the area between 10-5 °S of two mid-oceanic channels, one of them (EMOC) being located on a large sedimentary swell. The AABW in the cross-section from the Amazon River to the MAR flows through the Nara

  13. Phylodynamic analysis of avian infectious bronchitis virus in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marandino, Ana; Pereda, Ariel; Tomás, Gonzalo; Hernández, Martín; Iraola, Gregorio; Craig, María Isabel; Hernández, Diego; Banda, Alejandro; Villegas, Pedro; Panzera, Yanina; Pérez, Ruben

    2015-06-01

    Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a coronavirus of chickens that causes great economic losses to the global poultry industry. The present study focuses on South American IBVs and their genetic relationships with global strains. We obtained full-length sequences of the S1 coding region and N gene of IBV field isolates from Uruguay and Argentina, and performed Phylodynamic analysis to characterize the strains and estimate the time of the most recent common ancestor. We identified two major South American genotypes, which were here denoted South America I (SAI) and Asia/South America II (A/SAII). The SAI genotype is an exclusive South American lineage that emerged in the 1960s. The A/SAII genotype may have emerged in Asia in approximately 1995 before being introduced into South America. Both SAI and A/SAII genotype strains clearly differ from the Massachusetts strains that are included in the vaccine formulations being used in most South American countries. © 2015 The Authors.

  14. A mid-Holocene climate reconstruction for eastern South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. F. Prado

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The mid-Holocene (6000 calibrated years before present is a key period in palaeoclimatology because incoming summer insolation was lower than during the late Holocene in the Southern Hemisphere, whereas the opposite happened in the Northern Hemisphere. However, the effects of the decreased austral summer insolation over South American climate have been poorly discussed by palaeodata syntheses. In addition, only a few of the regional studies have characterised the mid-Holocene climate in South America through a multiproxy approach. Here, we present a multiproxy compilation of mid-Holocene palaeoclimate data for eastern South America. We compiled 120 palaeoclimatological datasets, which were published in 84 different papers. The palaeodata analysed here suggest a water deficit scenario in the majority of eastern South America during the mid-Holocene if compared to the late Holocene, with the exception of northeastern Brazil. Low mid-Holocene austral summer insolation caused a reduced land–sea temperature contrast and hence a weakened South American monsoon system circulation. This scenario is represented by a decrease in precipitation over the South Atlantic Convergence Zone area, saltier conditions along the South American continental margin, and lower lake levels.

  15. Analysis of some medicinal plants in South-western Nigeria using PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olabanji, S.O.; Moschini, G.; Padova Univ.

    2006-01-01

    Analysis of thirteen medicinal plants of various biological activities commonly used in South-western Nigeria was carried out using PIXE technique. Nine of these plants are anti-cancer while four are antimicrobial. PIXE measurements were carried out using collimated proton beams delivered by the 2. 5 MV AN 2000 Van de Graaff accelerator at the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), (LNL) Legnaro, (Padova), Italy. The results showed the presence of twenty three different elements in the plants and none of them contains any toxic heavy metals. Only Chenopodium ambrosioides showed detectable levels of selenium which is considered important in cancer prevention. (author)

  16. Microfossils in the Ordovician erratic boulders from South-western Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nõlvak, J.

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Chitinozoans, ostracods and acritarchs found in four glacially transported limestone boulders from the south-western coast of Finland have been studied in order to test the usefulness of these microfossil groups in age determinations. Also rare specimens of conodonts, inarticulated brachiopods and foraminifers were found. Baltic limestone (or Östersjö limestone was the most problematic, because only fossils with calcitic or phosphatic shells are preserved. It is concluded that the boulders identified correlate with the Uhaku and Rakvere stages of the Middle Ordovician.

  17. Meteorological and oceanographic aspects of a winter storm over the south-western Cape Province, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jury, M.R.; Shillington, F.A.; Prestidge, G.; Maxwell, C.D.

    1986-01-01

    In May the southern hemisphere circumpolar jet stream accelerates in response to a growing temperature gradient between the pole and equator. Initially, the jet stream may 'spin up' in pulses, causing the upper air current to become unstable and to meander equatorwards out of the higher latitudes (40-50 degrees S). Winter storms induced by the jet stream and which move, from west to east, to the south of the African continent are then guided by the upper air currents further north. Between 15 and 17 May 1984, such a sequence of synoptic weather events developed and the south-western Cape came under the influence of the 'roaring 40's'. In this article a chronology of the storm and its meteorological effects are described using data collected at the Koeberg nuclear power station, the Cape Town Airport Weather Office and across the south-western Cape. The destructive effects of the storm, particularly felt along the coast as a result of large swells and a significant storm surge, are discussed

  18. Alien conifer invasions in South America: short fuse burning?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Richardson, DM

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available , in the management of conifer invasions in the southern hemisphere provides the opportunity to transfer learning and experience to South America. With this in mind, 15 researchers from Argentina, Brazil, Chile, New Zealand, South Africa and the USA assembled... up to 80% of the total cost of the plantings, with no require- ments to control the natural regeneration that follows (SAGPyA 1999). Similar incentives are offered in Chile. The workshop provided an important opportunity to develop a consensus...

  19. Environmental pollution research in South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miguel, A.H.

    1991-01-01

    This article provides and account of published research in environmental pollution carried out in South American institutions within the past 10 years. Because of the broadness of the topic, the continental dimensions of the assignment, and limitations of space and time, the article focuses on environmental research related to air, water, food, and soil. Thus, it is not a complete record, but rather a sample of published pollution research activities. The information here was obtained primarily from Dialog's electronic search of the Pollution Abstracts Database. The article also identifies other environmental problems that need the attention of South American researchers

  20. Thermodynamic Environments Supporting Extreme Convection in Subtropical South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, K. L.; Trier, S. B.

    2015-12-01

    Extreme convection tends to form in the vicinity of mountain ranges, and the Andes in subtropical South America help spawn some of the most intense convection in the world. Subsequent to initiation, the convection often evolves into propagating mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) similar to those seen over the U.S. Great Plains and produces damaging tornadoes, hail, and floods across a wide agricultural region. In recent years, studies on the nature of convection in subtropical South America using spaceborne radar data have elucidated key processes responsible for their extreme characteristics, including a strong relationship between the Andes topography and convective initiation. Building on previous work, an investigation of the thermodynamic environment supporting some of the deepest convection in the world will be presented. In particular, an analysis of the thermodynamic destabilization in subtropical South America, which considers the parcel buoyancy minimum for conditionally unstable air parcels, will be presented. Additional comparisons between the nocturnal nature and related diurnal cycle of MCSs in subtropical South America the U.S. Great Plains will provide insights into the processes controlling MCS initiation and upscale growth.

  1. Migratory Fishes of South America: Biology, Fisheries, and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2004-01-01

    Jan 1, 2004 ... Fish species that migrate within the great rivers of South America support important local fisheries but are little known outside their native range. This book represents the first collection of the work of local scientific experts on these remarkable fish. The authors cover the Upper Paraná, Paraguay-Paraná, ...

  2. New species of Ficus (Moraceae) from South America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, C.C.

    2007-01-01

    Eleven new species and one new subspecies of Ficus from South America, mainly from the Andean region, are described and illustrated: F. cotopaxiensis, F. ecuadorensis, F. francoae, F. jacobii subsp. mantana, F. loxensis, F. maximoides, F. pastasana, F. quichuana, F. quistocochensis, F. rimacana, F.

  3. Patterns of species richness in sandy beaches of South America

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Instituto de Zoologia, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, Chile. Received 22 Occobcr 1993; accepted 19 Jan.uary 1994. Species richness of the intertidal macroinfauna of exposed sandy beaches around South America is reviewed in relation to geographic location. This macrolnfauna is dominated by drolanid isopods ...

  4. Monstrilloida (Crustacea: Copepoda) from the Beagle Channel, South America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suárez-Morales, E.; Ramírez, F.C.; Derisio, C.

    2008-01-01

    Monstrilloid copepods were collected during zooplankton surveys in the Beagle Channel at the southernmost end of South America. These specimens represent two species of Monstrillopsis, one of them undescribed, and one new species of Monstrilla. Monstrillopsis igniterra n. sp. is related to forms of

  5. Timber production in selectively logged tropical forests in South America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keller, M.; Asner, G.P.; Blate, G.; McGlocklin, J.; Merry, F.; Peña-Claros, M.; Zweede, J.

    2007-01-01

    Selective logging is an extensive land-use practice in South America. Governments in the region have enacted policies to promote the establishment and maintenance of economically productive and sustainable forest industries. However, both biological and policy constraints threaten to limit the

  6. Morphological and cytological diversity of goldenrods (Solidago L. and Euthamia Nutt. from south-western Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szymura Magdalena

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Correlations between the morphology and cytology of invasive species and the effectiveness of invasion are among the most interesting questions in invasion ecology. Amongst exceptionally successful worldwide plant invaders, species of goldenrod (Solidago and Euthamia are considered. The main aim of the study was to compare the morphology (concerning life traits and cytology of the selected goldenrods occurring in south-western Poland with the effectiveness of their invasion. The results of the study, conducted in south-western Poland, showed that life traits of invasive Solidago and Euthamia taxa were clearly not connected with the effectiveness of invasion. The most widespread species, S. gigantea and S. altissima, had the highest ramets and uncommon species such as Euthamia graminifolia and S. virgaurea had short ramets. However, S. canadensis, which is tall, is also uncommon. The most frequent species (S. gigantea produced smaller inflorescence than less frequent species (S. altissima, S. canadensis and Euthamia graminifolia. The spread of particular taxa was also not connected with the ploidy level and DNA content.

  7. LEONA for TLE and HEET Research in South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    São Sabbas, F.; Souza, J. R. D.; Guerra, E. M.; Filho, A. C. J.; Galvão, R. M. O.; Branco, R.; Kherani, E. A.; Naccarato, K. P.; Federico, C. A.; Pazianotto, M. T.; Gatto, R. C.; Cisotto, M. V.; Brito, A. F. D.; Fontes, N. R.; Camargo, I. H.; Silva, A. L. G. D.

    2017-12-01

    In 2014 the core of LEONA, which is the "Transient Luminous Event and Thunderstorm High Energy Emission Collaborative Network in Latin America", was established in Brazil with 4 ground stations equipped to perform Transient Luminous Events - TLEs. This year a neutron detector was also installed to collect data on neutron flashes produced by lightning and thunderstorms themselves. Neutrons are one of the several types of High Energy Emissions from Thunderstorms - HEETs. The TLE stations are operated remotely via internet, by users logged in LEONA website, and the HEET station is continuously and automatically operated. Now a proposal to expand LEONA to have 12 TLE ground stations, 2 HEET ground stations (for neutrons, gamma and X rays) and 1 HEET mobile station (for gamma and X rays) is currently under evaluation by the Brazilian São Paulo Research Foundation - FAPESP, and if funded will start to be carried out in early 2018. The expanded version of LEONA will cover the Central Region of South America, including Southeast and Southern Brazil, Northern Argentina, Paraguay and Uruguay, which compose the most electrically active Region of South America. It will also have one TLE station in the Amazon and Northeast Regions of Brazil. South America is one of the most active thunderstorm regions of the world, with extremely large and long lived thunderstorms. Due to the South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly - SAMA, covering most of its territory, scientific satellites routinely turn off their equipment while flying over South America, therefore a ground network like LEONA is the only way to make consistent long term measurements of TLEs and HEET in this important region of the world. This paper will present LEONA in detail, its current operational status and its expansion plan over the next 4 years. It will also highlight the main results of the different TLE observations performed from Brazil up to date by the Atmospheric and Space Electrodynamical Coupling - ACATMOS group at

  8. A preliminary analysis of emigration determinants in Mexico, Central America, northern South America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, M A

    1994-01-01

    The author examines migratory movements and their causes in Mexico, Central and South America, and the Caribbean. Sections are included on migration trends, theoretical approaches, and methodological tools before the 1970s; the shift in migratory patterns after the 1980s; macrosocial variables as a general background of current international flows; and migration policies.

  9. Oil supply in Central and South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilera, Roberto F.

    2009-01-01

    This paper estimates a cumulative supply curve for conventional oil in the Central and South American (CSA) region. The curve includes volumes from provinces not previously assessed by other organizations, as well as reserve growth. Volumes for the previously unassessed provinces are estimated using a variable shape distribution (VSD) model. Then the volumes are allocated to CSA countries based on each country's share of proved reserves. Figures provided by the cumulative supply curve are stock variables for all time, unlike the traditional supply curve where they are flow variables that can continue from one period to the next. In this study, the fixed stock approach is used since it provides practical information with respect to the concerns that some have expressed about oil scarcity in the near future. Results indicate that Central and South American oil is more abundant than often assumed, and can be produced at costs below current market oil prices, and substantially below mid-2008 prices.

  10. The Influence of Nationalism in Mercosur and in South America - can the regional integration project survive?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Steen Fryba

    2007-01-01

    The article discusses if the tendency towards nationalism in Latin America seems to get in the way of the regional integration project in Mercosur and at the level of South America......The article discusses if the tendency towards nationalism in Latin America seems to get in the way of the regional integration project in Mercosur and at the level of South America...

  11. Calculating investment potential in South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    Taxes and licensing provisions typically increase overall costs for private investors, and therefore impede private investment. In addition, the design and structure of tax systems in each country affect the extent to which financial risks are borne by private investors, rather than by the host government. Tax systems that increase perceived financial risks stemming from unpredictable oil prices, development costs and physical characteristics of undiscovered or undeveloped oil fields raise further impediments to private investment. This analysis focuses on both aspects of the investment climate--risk and return--and the way that investment incentives within three South American countries are influenced by tax and licensing regimes

  12. Contribution to the freshwater gastrotrich fauna of wetland areas of southwestern Ontario (Canada) with redescriptions of seven species and a check-list for North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwank, Peter; Kånneby, Tobias

    2014-06-05

    This study gives additional, detailed information on the freshwater gastrotrich species described and reported from the southwestern regions of Ontario and New Brunswick, Canada by Schwank (1990). Aspidiophorus ontarioniensis, Chaetonotus (Chaetonotus) furculatus, Chaetonotus (Chaetonotus) ontariensis, Chaetonotus (Primochaetus) annae, Ichthydium malleum, Lepidodermella forficulata and Setopus lemnicola are all redescribed. In addition, a complete list of freshwater species currently known from North America is given.

  13. Defining Genetic, Taxonomic, and Geographic Boundaries Among Species of the Psorophora confinnis (Diptera: Culicidae) Complex in North and South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzaro, Gregory C; Collier, Travis C; Lee, Yoosook

    2015-09-01

    The Psorophora confinnis complex is currently composed of three species--Psorophora confinnis sensu stricto (Lynch Arribalzaga) in South America, Psorophora columbiae (Dyar and Knab) in North America, and Psorophora jamaicensis (Theobald) in the Caribbean. Members of the complex are of considerable importance as vectors of arboviruses, for example, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, and are significant biting pests throughout their range. The biological and geographic boundaries of Ps. confinnis and Ps. columbiae are unclear. In fact, the name Ps. columbiae is presently designated as "provisional." In this article, we aim to clarify the taxonomy and geographic distributions of species within the Ps. confinnis complex. A population genetics approach was employed using gene and genotypic frequency data at 26 isozyme loci. The results suggest that the Ps. confinnis complex in North and South America is composed of four species. Ps. confinnis s.s. and Ps. columbiae are distinct species in South and North America, respectively. Populations in Colombia, South America, formally designated as Ps. funiculus (Dyar) and populations in the southwestern United States and western Mexico, formally designated Ps. toltecum (Dyar and Knab), are distinct species. Psorophora toltecum and Psorophora funiculus species names should be resurrected from synonymy. In addition we identified a Ps. columbiae and Ps. toltecum hybrid zone in central Texas in a region described as being one of 13 North American suture zones, being geographical areas in which closely related species occur in sympatry and frequently hybridize. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Protoparmelia capitata (Ascomycota: Parmeliaceae: new record for South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Aptroot

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The sterile corticolous crustose lichen Protoparmelia capitata (Ascomycota: Parmeliaceae, recently described for southeastern North America, is reported as a new record for South America in the Serra da Jiboia mountain range, near the municipality of Santa Teresinha, in the state of Bahia, in northeastern Brazil. This species is locally common and is probably closely related to P. isidiata, which has the same pigmentation and medullary chemistry, P. capitata differing from P. isidiata in that the former features soredia rather than isidia.

  15. A Q fever cluster among workers at an abattoir in south-western Sydney, Australia, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Lord

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: In September 2015, the Public Health Unit of the South Western Sydney Local Health District was notified of two possible Q fever cases. Case investigation identified that both cases were employed at an abattoir, and both cases advised that co-workers had experienced similar symptoms. Public Health Unit staff also recalled interviewing in late 2014 at least one other Q fever case who worked at the same abattoir. This prompted an outbreak investigation. Methods: The investigation incorporated active case finding, microbiological analysis, field investigation and a risk factor survey. Included cases were laboratory definitive or suspected cases occurring from October 2014 to October 2015, residing or working in south-western Sydney. A suspected case had clinically compatible illness, high-risk exposure and was epidemiologically linked to another confirmed case. A confirmed case included laboratory detection of C. burnetii. Results: Eight cases met the case definition with seven confirmed (including a deceased case and one suspected. The eight cases were all males who had been employed at an abattoir in south-western Sydney during their incubation period; symptom onset dates ranged from November 2014 to September 2015. Field investigation identified multiple potential risk factors at the abattoir, and the majority (75% of employees were not vaccinated against Q fever despite this high-risk setting. Conclusion: This cluster of Q fever in a single abattoir confirms the significance of this zoonotic disease as an occupational hazard among persons working in high-risk environments. Implementation of Q fever vaccination programmes should eliminate Q fever in high-risk occupational settings.

  16. A Q fever cluster among workers at an abattoir in south-western Sydney, Australia, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Heidi; Fletcher-Lartey, Stephanie; Weerasinghe, Guy; Chandra, Meena; Egana, Nilva; Schembri, Nicole; Conaty, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    In September 2015, the Public Health Unit of the South Western Sydney Local Health District was notified of two possible Q fever cases. Case investigation identified that both cases were employed at an abattoir, and both cases advised that co-workers had experienced similar symptoms. Public Health Unit staff also recalled interviewing in late 2014 at least one other Q fever case who worked at the same abattoir. This prompted an outbreak investigation. The investigation incorporated active case finding, microbiological analysis, field investigation and a risk factor survey. Included cases were laboratory definitive or suspected cases occurring from October 2014 to October 2015, residing or working in south-western Sydney. A suspected case had clinically compatible illness, high-risk exposure and was epidemiologically linked to another confirmed case. A confirmed case included laboratory detection of C. burnetti . Eight cases met the case definition with seven confirmed (including a deceased case) and one suspected. The eight cases were all males who had been employed at an abattoir in south-western Sydney during their incubation period; symptom onset dates ranged from November 2014 to September 2015. Field investigation identified multiple potential risk factors at the abattoir, and the majority (75%) of employees were not vaccinated against Q fever despite this high-risk setting. This cluster of Q fever in a single abattoir confirms the significance of this zoonotic disease as an occupational hazard among persons working in high-risk environments. Implementation of Q fever vaccination programmes should eliminate Q fever in high-risk occupational settings.

  17. Malaria vectors in South America: current and future scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laporta, Gabriel Zorello; Linton, Yvonne-Marie; Wilkerson, Richard C; Bergo, Eduardo Sterlino; Nagaki, Sandra Sayuri; Sant'Ana, Denise Cristina; Sallum, Maria Anice Mureb

    2015-08-19

    Malaria remains a significant public health issue in South America. Future climate change may influence the distribution of the disease, which is dependent on the distribution of those Anopheles mosquitoes competent to transmit Plasmodium falciparum. Herein, predictive niche models of the habitat suitability for P. falciparum, the current primary vector Anopheles darlingi and nine other known and/or potential vector species of the Neotropical Albitarsis Complex, were used to document the current situation and project future scenarios under climate changes in South America in 2070. To build each ecological niche model, we employed topography, climate and biome, and the currently defined distribution of P. falciparum, An. darlingi and nine species comprising the Albitarsis Complex in South America. Current and future (i.e., 2070) distributions were forecast by projecting the fitted ecological niche model onto the current environmental situation and two scenarios of simulated climate change. Statistical analyses were performed between the parasite and each vector in both the present and future scenarios to address potential vector roles in the dynamics of malaria transmission. Current distributions of malaria vector species were associated with that of P. falciparum, confirming their role in transmission, especially An. darlingi, An. marajoara and An. deaneorum. Projected climate changes included higher temperatures, lower water availability and biome modifications. Regardless of future scenarios considered, the geographic distribution of P. falciparum was exacerbated in 2070 South America, with the distribution of the pathogen covering 35-46% of the continent. As the current primary vector An. darlingi showed low tolerance for drier environments, the projected climate change would significantly reduce suitable habitat, impacting both its distribution and abundance. Conversely, climate generalist members of the Albitarsis Complex showed significant spatial and

  18. Ionospheric TEC Weather Map Over South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, H.; Wrasse, C. M.; Denardini, C. M.; Pádua, M. B.; de Paula, E. R.; Costa, S. M. A.; Otsuka, Y.; Shiokawa, K.; Monico, J. F. Galera; Ivo, A.; Sant'Anna, N.

    2016-11-01

    Ionospheric weather maps using the total electron content (TEC) monitored by ground-based Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) receivers over South American continent, TECMAP, have been operationally produced by Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais's Space Weather Study and Monitoring Program (Estudo e Monitoramento Brasileiro de Clima Especial) since 2013. In order to cover the whole continent, four GNSS receiver networks, (Rede Brasileiro de Monitoramento Contínuo) RBMC/Brazilian Institute for Geography and Statistics, Low-latitude Ionospheric Sensor Network, International GNSS Service, and Red Argentina de Monitoreo Satelital Continuo, in total 140 sites, have been used. TECMAPs with a time resolution of 10 min are produced in 12 h time delay. Spatial resolution of the map is rather low, varying between 50 and 500 km depending on the density of the observation points. Large day-to-day variabilities of the equatorial ionization anomaly have been observed. Spatial gradient of TEC from the anomaly trough (total electron content unit, 1 TECU = 1016 el m-2 (TECU) 80) causes a large ionospheric range delay in the GNSS positioning system. Ionospheric plasma bubbles, their seeding and development, could be monitored. This plasma density (spatial and temporal) variability causes not only the GNSS-based positioning error but also radio wave scintillations. Monitoring of these phenomena by TEC mapping becomes an important issue for space weather concern for high-technology positioning system and telecommunication.

  19. Saver.net lidar network in southern South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristori Pablo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The South American Environmental Risk Management Network (SAVER-Net is an instrumentation network, mainly composed by lidars, to provide real-time information for atmospheric hazards and risk management purposes in South America. This lidar network have been developed since 2012 and all its sampling points are expected to be fully implemented by 2017. This paper describes the network’s status and configuration, the data acquisition and processing scheme (protocols and data levels, as well as some aspects of the scientific networking in Latin American Lidar Network (LALINET. Similarly, the paper lays out future plans on the operation and integration to major international collaborative efforts.

  20. Central and South America GPS geodesy - CASA Uno

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, James N.; Dixon, Timothy H.

    1990-01-01

    In January 1988, scientists from over 25 organizations in 13 countries and territories cooperated in the largest GPS campaign in the world to date. A total of 43 GPS receivers collected approximately 590 station-days of data in American Samoa, Australia, Canada, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, New Zealand, Norway, Panama, Sweden, United States, West Germany, and Venezuela. The experiment was entitled CASA Uno. Scientific goals of the project include measurements of strain in the northern Andes, subduction rates for the Cocos and Nazca plates beneath Central and South America, and relative motion between the Caribbean plate and South America. A second set of measurements are planned in 1991 and should provide preliminary estimates of crustal deformation and plate motion rates in the region.

  1. [Genetic variability of Phytophthora infestans isolates from south-western Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa Salgado, Victoria María; Mideros, María Fernanda; Jaramillo-Villegas, Sonia; Cotes-Torres, José Miguel; Lagos Mora, Luz Estela; Pineda, Rosana Paola; Montoya, Mauricio Marín

    2008-09-30

    Late blight caused by Phytophthora infestans is one of the most limiting diseases in solanaceous crops in the world. This pathogen is a main constraint in the highland Andes, where these plants are grown under high humidity conditions and continuous cropping. The aim of this research was to increase the available information on the biology of P. infestans, specifically on its level of genetic variation in south-western Colombia, an area where various solanaceous crops susceptible to this pathogen converge. The study was carried out by using AFLP molecular markers with the restriction enzymes EcoRI and MseI and different primer combinations. Results indicated a low level of genetic variation among the 26 isolates evaluated, with only 18 polymorphic bands out of 135 amplicons obtained (13.43%), a Nei's genetic diversity index of 0.04, and a Shannon's information index of 0.06.

  2. Selected Determinants of Coopetition of Industrial Enterprises in South-Western Poland in 2009–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaszewski Marek

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available When studying literature on the issue coopetition it may be found that this issue has become more and more popular in recent years. However, this finding was not confirmed in economic practice. Reluctance or concerns about coopetition result from caution and distrust of Polish entrepreneurs in relation to other players on the market. In the previous socio-political conditions this approach was successful. However, the current situation forces small and medium-sized enterprises to draw attention to the strategy of “sleeping with the enemy.” In this context, the objective of the study was to answer the question of what factors influence establishing coopetition in south-western Poland in a simulative or detrimental way.

  3. Invasive vascular plant species of oxbow lakes in south-western Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spałek Krzysztof

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Natural water reservoirs are very valuable floristic sites in south-western Poland. Among them, the most important for the preservation of biodiversity of flora are oxbow lakes. The long-term process of human pressure on habitats of this type caused disturbances of their biological balance. Changes in the water regime, industrial development and chemisation of agriculture, especially in the period of the last two hundred years, led to systematic disappearances of localities of many plant species connected with rare habitats and also to the appearance of numerous invasive plant species. They are: Azolla filiculoides, Echinocystis lobata, Erechtites hieraciifolia, Impatiens glandulifera, I. parviflora, Reynoutria japonica, Solidago canadensis, S. gigantea and S. graminifolia. Field works were conducted in years 2005-2012.

  4. Evidences linking ENSO and coral growth in the Southwestern-South Atlantic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evangelista, H. [LARAMG, Laboratorio de Radioecologia e Mudancas Globais/DBB/UERJ. Pav. HLC, Subsolo, Maracana, RJ (Brazil); Godiva, D. [LARAMG, Laboratorio de Radioecologia e Mudancas Globais/DBB/UERJ. Pav. HLC, Subsolo, Maracana, RJ (Brazil); Universidade Federal Fluminense, Outeiro Sao Joao Batista, s/n, Centro, Departamento de Geoquimica Ambiental, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Sifeddine, A. [IRD, Institut de Recherche Pour le Developpement, UR055 Paleotropique, Bondy (France); Universidade Federal Fluminense, Outeiro Sao Joao Batista, s/n, Centro, Departamento de Geoquimica Ambiental, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Leao, Z.M.A.N.; Kikuchi, R.K.P. [UFBA/Instituto de Geociencias. Rua Barao de Geremoabo, s/n, Federacao, Salvador, BA (Brazil); Rigozo, N.R. [LARAMG, Laboratorio de Radioecologia e Mudancas Globais/DBB/UERJ. Pav. HLC, Subsolo, Maracana, RJ (Brazil); FAETEC, Faculdade de Educacao e Tecnologia Thereza Porto Marques, Jacarei, SP (Brazil); Segal, B. [UFRJ/Museu Nacional/Setor de Celenterologia/Departamento de Invertebrados, Quinta da Boa Vista s/n, Sao Cristovao, RJ (Brazil); Ambrizzi, T. [USP/Department of Atmospheric Sciences, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Kampel, M. [INPE/Divisao de Sensoriamento Remoto, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Cornec, F. le [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Outeiro Sao Joao Batista, s/n, Centro, Departamento de Geoquimica Ambiental, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2007-12-15

    Physical and biological changes in the marine environment, induced by oceanic-atmospheric processes, can be imprinted in massive coral skeletons. Herein, we present an evidence of potential El Nino impacts at the Southwestern South Atlantic Ocean (SWSA) inferred from the sclerochronology of the reef coral Favia leptophylla. The application of spectral analysis (wavelet decomposition and the iterative regression) to coral growth length and to meteorological-oceanographic parameters (air temperature, sea surface temperature and precipitation) as well as to Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) and solar irradiation indicated a major significant inverse relationship between SOI and coral growth length at the 4-8 years frequency band. We propose here that coral growth length from the SWSA could be affected by El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events through an ''atmospheric bridge'', in contrast to its direct effect at the Pacific Ocean, related to the increase in sea surface temperature. (orig.)

  5. Acid ran and below-cloud scavenging in south-western China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanner, P.A.; Lei, H.C.; Huang, M.Y.; Shen, Z.L.

    1997-01-01

    Major urban areas in south-western China exhibit unique air pollution problems due to increasing use of high sulphur-content fuels in an environment of unfavourable topography and climate. Ambient levels of sulphur dioxide exceed the air quality objectives, and this gas is the major precursor of acid rain. Cloudwater chemistry studies are reported for urban, suburban and countryside locations, during the period 1985-89. Although cloudwater acidity was found to increase towards the cloud base, the acidity was much greater for rainwater samples collected simultaneously, and was more pronounced in urban rather than neighbouring suburban or countryside regions. The main contribution to the acidity arises from below-cloud scavenging of gas and aerosol and model calculations are able to simulate this behaviour

  6. Vaccination: foot-and-mouth disease experience in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, I E; Malirat, V; Neitzert, E; Correa Melo, E

    2004-01-01

    Vaccination against foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) constitutes an important component of the policy for its control and eradication in South America. Considering that immunization may not impair subclinical infection, it became advisable to ally to vaccination campaigns a surveillance instrument to monitor silent viral circulation. Novel approaches for the evaluation of antibodies to FMD non-capsid proteins (NCPs), developed and validated at PANAFTOSA proved valuable for assessing viral circulation in immunized populations. The extensive and coordinated application in South America of vaccination together with this serosurvey tool indicated the effectiveness of systematic vaccination to prevent FMD spread and to restrain silent viral circulation intra- and inter- herds, and gave input to an old controversy related to the real epidemiological significance, if any, of carrier animals under the vaccination conditions in South America. The fitness of NCP tests to assess viral circulation in a population supported the incorporation into the OIE code of the "free of FMD with vaccination" category as a step prior to the recognition of the "free of FMD without vaccination" category. Likewise it released the path to allow animals, vaccinated for protective purposes during emergencies, to live for the term of their productive lives.

  7. Cretaceous sauropod diversity and taxonomic succession in South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jesus Faria, Caio César; Riga, Bernardo González; dos Anjos Candeiro, Carlos Roberto; da Silva Marinho, Thiago; David, Leonardo Ortiz; Simbras, Felipe Medeiros; Castanho, Roberto Barboza; Muniz, Fellipe Pereira; Gomes da Costa Pereira, Paulo Victor Luiz

    2015-08-01

    The South American sauropod dinosaurs fossil record is one of the world's most relevant for their abundance (51 taxa) and biogeographical implications. Their historical biogeography was influenced by the continental fragmentation of Gondwana. The scenery of biogeographic and stratigraphic distributions can provide new insight into the causes of the evolution of the sauropods in South America. One of the most important events of the sauropods evolution is the progressive replacement of Diplodocimorpha by the Titanosauriformes during the early Late Cretaceous. The fluctuation of the sea levels is frequently related to the diversity of sauropods, but it is necessary to take into account the geological context in each continent. During the Maastrichthian, a global sea level drop has been described; in contrast, in South America there was a significant rise in sea level (named 'Atlantic transgression') which is confirmed by sedimentary sequences and the fossil record of marine vertebrates. This process occurred during the Maastrichtian, when the hadrosaurs arrived from North America. The titanosaurs were amazingly diverse during the Late Cretaceous, both in size and morphology, but they declined prior to their final extinction in the Cretaceous/Paleocene boundary (65.5Yrs).

  8. A habitat overlap analysis derived from maxent for tamarisk and the south-western willow flycatcher

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Patricia; Evangelista, Paul; Kumar, Sunil; Graham, James; Flather, Curtis; Stohlgren, Thomas

    2011-06-01

    Biologic control of the introduced and invasive, woody plant tamarisk ( Tamarix spp, saltcedar) in south-western states is controversial because it affects habitat of the federally endangered South-western Willow Flycatcher ( Empidonax traillii extimus). These songbirds sometimes nest in tamarisk where floodplain-level invasion replaces native habitats. Biologic control, with the saltcedar leaf beetle ( Diorhabda elongate), began along the Virgin River, Utah, in 2006, enhancing the need for comprehensive understanding of the tamarisk-flycatcher relationship. We used maximum entropy (Maxent) modeling to separately quantify the current extent of dense tamarisk habitat (>50% cover) and the potential extent of habitat available for E. traillii extimus within the studied watersheds. We used transformations of 2008 Landsat Thematic Mapper images and a digital elevation model as environmental input variables. Maxent models performed well for the flycatcher and tamarisk with Area Under the ROC Curve (AUC) values of 0.960 and 0.982, respectively. Classification of thresholds and comparison of the two Maxent outputs indicated moderate spatial overlap between predicted suitable habitat for E. traillii extimus and predicted locations with dense tamarisk stands, where flycatcher habitat will potentially change flycatcher habitats. Dense tamarisk habitat comprised 500 km2 within the study area, of which 11.4% was also modeled as potential habitat for E. traillii extimus. Potential habitat modeled for the flycatcher constituted 190 km2, of which 30.7% also contained dense tamarisk habitat. Results showed that both native vegetation and dense tamarisk habitats exist in the study area and that most tamarisk infestations do not contain characteristics that satisfy the habitat requirements of E. traillii extimus. Based on this study, effective biologic control of Tamarix spp. may, in the short term, reduce suitable habitat available to E. traillii extimus, but also has the potential

  9. Changes in the forest ecosystems in areas impacted by aridization in south-western Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pravalie, Remus; Sîrodoev, Igor; Peptenatu, Daniel

    2014-01-06

    In the past few decades, global climate change has accentuated the intensification of aridization in South-Western Romania, with direct and indirect consequences on the quality of forest ecosystems. In addition to qualitative deterioration, the quantitative changes brought about by intensive anthropic deforestation have created the conditions for a decline in the size of forest areas on vast tracts of land. The paper aims to analyze the qualitative and quantitative changes in the forest ecosystems in South-Western Romania, changes due to the synergic context of the global climate changes and the anthropic pressures of the past three decades. In order to capture the evolution of aridization in the study area, specific aridization indexes have been calculated, such as the De Martonne index and the UNEP aridity index. 1990 and 2011 satellite images have been used in order to quantify the qualitative changes. The results obtained indicated that, in the past two decades, the quality of the biomass declined as a result of the increase in the climatic aridity conditions (De Martonne si UNEP aridity index, indicating in the last decades, annual values under 15 mm/°C, and under 0.5 mm/mm, that means that the values situated under these thresholds, describe arid and semi-arid climate conditions). Also, the uncontrolled logging across vast surfaces caused the loss of forest ecosystems by 7% in the overall study area, during the last three decades. The severe effects of aridization meant, first of all, a significant decline in the quality of the ecosystem services supplied by forests. In the absence of viable actions to correct the present situation, the extremely undesirable consequences of an ecological and social nature will arise in the near future.

  10. Perspectivs and challenges of phenology research on South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrícia Morellato, Leonor

    2017-04-01

    Detecting plant responses to environmental changes across the Southern Hemisphere is an important question in the global agenda, as there is still a shortage of studies addressing phenological trends related to global warming. Here I bring a fresh perspective on the current knowledge of South America's phenology, and discusss the challenges and future research agendas for one of the most diverse regions of the world. I will syntethize: (i) What is the current focus of contemporany phenological research in South America? (ii) Is phenology contributing to the detection of trends and shifts related to climate or antropogenic changes? (iii) How has phenology been integrated to conservation, restoration, and management of natural vegetation and endangered species? (iv) What would be the main challenges and new avenues for South American phenological research in the 21st century? (v) Can we move towards phenology monitoring networks, linked to citizen science and education? My perspective is based on recent reviews addressing the Southeastern Hemisphere, South America, and Neotropical phenology; and on reviews and essays on the contribution of phenological research to biodiversity conservation, management, and ecological restoration, emphasizing tropical, species-rich ecosystems. Phenological research has grown at an unprecedented rate in the last 20 years, surpassing 100 articles per year after 2010. There is still a predominance of short-term studies (2-3 years) describing patterns and drivers for reproduction and leaf exchange. Only 10 long-term studies were found, based on direct observations or plant traps, and this number did not add much to the previous surveys. Therefore, we remain in need of more long-term studies to enhance the contribution of phenology to climate change research in South America. It is also mandatory to bring conservation issues to phenology research. The effects of climatic and antropogenic changes on plant phenology have been addressed

  11. Checklist of Helminth parasites of Amphibians from South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campião, Karla Magalhães; Morais, Drausio Honorio; Dias, Olívia Tavares; Aguiar, Aline; Toledo, Gislayne De Melo; Tavares, Luiz Eduardo Roland; Da Silva, Reinaldo José

    2014-07-30

    Parasitological studies on helminths of amphibians in South America have increased in the past few years. Here, we present a list with summarized data published on helminths of South American amphibians from 1925 to 2012, including a list of helminth parasites, host species, and geographic records. We found 194 reports of helminths parasitizing 185 amphibian species from eleven countries: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Equador, French Guyana, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela. Helminth biodiversity includes 278 parasite species of the groups Acanthocephala, Nematoda, Cestoda, Monogenea and Trematoda. A list of helminth parasite species per host, and references are also presented. This contribution aims to document the biodiversity of helminth parasites in South American amphibians, as well as identify gaps in our knowledge, which in turn may guide subsequent studies. 

  12. Mid-Holocene to Present Climate Transition in Tropical South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcq, B.; Cordeiro, R.; Sifeddine, A.; Braconnot, P.; Dias, P. S.; Costa, R.; Jorgetti, T.

    2008-12-01

    The classical illustration of Holocene climate changes in tropical South America is the huge rising of Titicaca lake level from 4400 to 4000 cal BP. Because the Amazon basin is the source of Andean rainfalls we have explored Amazonian data of climate changes during the Holocene to better understand the cause of this abrupt transition. Amazonian data confirm the existence of mid-Holocene dryness: (1) lacustrine level studies show a lower precipitation/evaporation budget than present, with the lowest lake levels between 8500 and 6800 cal BP; (2) although the dominant Holocene vegetation has always been the rainforest in the heart of Amazonia, this forest expanded towards the northwestern and southwestern regions from 6800 to 1550 cal BP, moreover, pioneer elements of the rainforest developed during the mid-Holocene and the best example is those of Cecropia, between 9000 and 5000 cal BP. (3) soil d13C indicates a forest expansion over savannas areas in Roraima (north), Mato Grosso and Rondonia (southwest), during the Holocene. (4) the mid-Holocene (8000- 4000 cal BP) is characterized by repeated occurrences of forest fires, marked by the presence of charcoals in soils and lacustrine sediments. However these different records are not characterized by abrupt transitions at the end of the Middle Holocene in Amazonia. In the Andean records there is a clear north-south shift in the timing of the transition. Analysis of coupled Ocean Atmosphere Model simulations suggest that convection in Amazon basin is directly controlled by insolation leading to an almost linear response of local climate to the global forcing. Differently, in the eastern and south-western regions where the rain is brought by the South American Monsoon, the climate transition appears more abrupt. It may be because the involved climate mechanisms are more complex and depend on Ocean/Atmosphere/Vegetation coupled process (ITCZ position, ZCAS formation, etc.). Tectonic movements or threshold links to

  13. Deformation of Northwestern South America from GPS Geodesy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora-Paez, H.; La Femina, P. C.; Mothes, P. A.; Ruiz, A. G.; Fernandes, R. M.

    2013-12-01

    The North Andes block (NAB) is a hypothesized tectonic block that migrates (escapes) north-northeast relative to a stable South American reference frame. The motion of this block is thought-to-be derived by the collision of the Carnegie Ridge in southern Ecuador and/or by oblique convergence and high degrees of interplate coupling north of the ridge (i.e., strain partitioning). At the latitude of Ecuador, the NAB is defined by transpressional deformation accommodating east-northeastward motion along its boundary with South America. In southern to central Colombia, the NAB is dissected by several mapped and prominent regional shear zones. At these latitudes the NAB may be bound to the west by the Choco block and the transpressional Atrato-Uraba fault system and to the east by the Guayaquil-Algeciras fault system. And in northern Colombia the Caribbean - South America plate boundary is defined by the NAB and proposed Maracaibo and Guajira blocks. We investigate the deformation of northwestern South America, including the kinematics of NAB utilizing a new velocity field based on continuous GPS and existing episodic GPS data in Ecuador, Colombia, Venezuela and Panama. We reference these new velocities to a newly estimated Euler vector for the South America plate based on inversion of cGPS data from stations east of the Andes. The new velocity field and published earthquake slip vectors are inverted to solve for the Euler vectors of the NAB, Choco, Panama, Maracaibo and Guajira blocks and interseismic elastic strain accumulation (interseismic coupling) on block-bounding faults using a block modeling approach. We test a suite of block models to investigate the tectonic nature of the NAB along strike and the style of faulting in the upper plate accommodating block motion. Through the estimation of elastic strain accumulation on all block-bounding faults, we improve the understanding of interseismic coupling along a convergent margin capable of producing M>8 earthquakes

  14. Improving precipitation simulation from updated surface characteristics in South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Gabriel; Silva, Maria Elisa Siqueira; Moraes, Elisabete Caria; Chiquetto, Júlio Barboza; da Silva Cardozo, Francielle

    2017-07-01

    Land use and land cover maps and their physical-chemical and biological properties are important variables in the numerical modeling of Earth systems. In this context, the main objective of this study is to analyze the improvements resulting from the land use and land cover map update in numerical simulations performed using the Regional Climate Model system version 4 (RegCM4), as well as the seasonal variations of physical parameters used by the Biosphere Atmosphere Transfer Scheme (BATS). In general, the update of the South America 2007 land use and land cover map, used by the BATS, improved the simulation of precipitation by 10 %, increasing the mean temporal correlation coefficient, compared to observed data, from 0.84 to 0.92 (significant at p Amazon deforestation arc; (2) around the Brazil-Bolivia border (in the Brazilian Pantanal wetlands); (3) in the Northeast region of Brazil; (4) in northwestern Paraguay; and (5) in the River Plate Basin, in Argentina. Moreover, the main precipitation differences between sensitivity and control experiments occurred during the rainy months in central-north South America (October to March). These were associated with a displacement in the South Atlantic convergence zone (SACZ) positioning, presenting a spatial pattern of alternated areas with higher and lower precipitation rates. These important differences occur due to the replacement of tropical rainforest for pasture and agriculture and the replacement of agricultural areas for pasture, scrubland, and deciduous forest.

  15. Using Remote Sensing Products for Environmental Analysis in South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Brito Silva

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Land cover plays a major role in many biogeochemical models that represent processes and connections with terrestrial systems; hence, it is a key component for public decisions in ecosystems management. The advance of remote sensing technology, combined with the emergence of new operational products, offers alternatives to improve the accuracy of environmental monitoring and analysis. This work uses the GLOBCOVER, the Vegetation Continuous Field (VCF, MODIS Fire Radiative Power (FRP and the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM remotely sensed databases to analyze the biomass burning distribution, the land use and land cover characteristics and the percent of tree cover in South America during the years 2000 to 2005. Initially, GLOBCOVER was assessed based on VCF product, and subsequently used for quantitative analysis of the spatial distribution of the South America fires with the fire radiative power (FRP. The results show that GLOBCOVER has a tendency to overestimate forest classes and to underestimate urban and mangroves areas. The fire quantification based on GLOBCOVER product shows that the highest incidence of fires can be observed in the arc of deforestation, located in the Amazon forest border, with vegetation cover composed mainly of broadleaved evergreen or semi-deciduous forest. A time series analysis of FRP database indicates that biomass burning occurs mainly in areas of broadleaved evergreen or semi-deciduous forest and in Brazilian Cerrado associated with grassland management, agricultural land clearing and with the deforestation of Amazon tropical rainforest. Also, variations in FRP intensity and spread can be attributed to rainfall anomalies, such as in 2004, when South America had a positive anomaly rainfall.

  16. Biogeography and speciation of terrestrial fauna in the south-western Australian biodiversity hotspot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rix, Michael G; Edwards, Danielle L; Byrne, Margaret; Harvey, Mark S; Joseph, Leo; Roberts, J Dale

    2015-08-01

    The south-western land division of Western Australia (SWWA), bordering the temperate Southern and Indian Oceans, is the only global biodiversity hotspot recognised in Australia. Renowned for its extraordinary diversity of endemic plants, and for some of the largest and most botanically significant temperate heathlands and woodlands on Earth, SWWA has long fascinated biogeographers. Its flat, highly weathered topography and the apparent absence of major geographic factors usually implicated in biotic diversification have challenged attempts to explain patterns of biogeography and mechanisms of speciation in the region. Botanical studies have always been central to understanding the biodiversity values of SWWA, although surprisingly few quantitative botanical analyses have allowed for an understanding of historical biogeographic processes in both space and time. Faunistic studies, by contrast, have played little or no role in defining hotspot concepts, despite several decades of accumulating quantitative research on the phylogeny and phylogeography of multiple lineages. In this review we critically analyse datasets with explicit supporting phylogenetic data and estimates of the time since divergence for all available elements of the terrestrial fauna, and compare these datasets to those available for plants. In situ speciation has played more of a role in shaping the south-western Australian fauna than has long been supposed, and has occurred in numerous endemic lineages of freshwater fish, frogs, reptiles, snails and less-vagile arthropods. By contrast, relatively low levels of endemism are found in birds, mammals and highly dispersive insects, and in situ speciation has played a negligible role in generating local endemism in birds and mammals. Quantitative studies provide evidence for at least four mechanisms driving patterns of endemism in south-western Australian animals, including: (i) relictualism of ancient Gondwanan or Pangaean taxa in the High Rainfall

  17. Balance of power or hegemony in South America?

    OpenAIRE

    Iglesias, Matías

    2016-01-01

    Does Argentina still need to maintain its armed forces and a security policy? After the defeat in the 1982 War and the return to democracy from a military de facto regime, Argentinean Armed Forces lost prestige and their budget is now the lowest in the region. Many authors are of the view that they should be dismantled once and for all, for the era of conflict hypothesis and balance of power in South America is gone. The purpose of this thesis is to provide a counterargument. Scenario methodo...

  18. Correlation of uranium geology between South America and Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    Acting upon the recommendation of an Advisory Group Meeting held in 1980, the IAEA organized a Working Group on the Correlation of the Uranium Geology between South America and Africa because of the tremendous geological potential for uranium and the interest showed by the Member States of the regions concerned. The report of this Working Group is now presented. The aim of this report is to provide the nuclear industry and, in particular, the countries of the region with a broad but updated outline of current development in the uranium geology and the uranium potential of Africa and South America. The scope is such that it will provide, for those not directly involved in uranium exploration in the area, a general technical summary on the regional geology and tectonics of these two continents in order that the geodynamic setting of their uranium occurrences may be correlated. With respect to the area to be covered and bearing in mind the purpose of this study, the Working Group surveyed the most relevant parts of western Gondwanaland, of which the two continents form a part. The area covered by the report extends from north of the West African Craton and the Guiana Shield to the southern end of South America and Africa; from the Amazonian Province in western Brazil and western Argentina to the central part of the West African Craton, Congo-Kasai Craton. The Andean Chain in South America and the Atlas Mountains in North Africa, which were formed by continental accretion in recent geological time and post-dated the split and drift of the two land masses, were not considered. Some of the inner portions of those cratons distant from the coastlines and for which the correlation features do not apply have also been omitted. However, certain areas of important uranium mineralization outside the main study area have been described in order to offer comparative models for future exploration elsewhere. The subject of the report is discussed under six headings: cratonic areas

  19. Spatial distribution of Glossina sp. and Trypanosoma sp. in south-western Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duguma, Reta; Tasew, Senbeta; Olani, Abebe; Damena, Delesa; Alemu, Dereje; Mulatu, Tesfaye; Alemayehu, Yoseph; Yohannes, Moti; Bekana, Merga; Hoppenheit, Antje; Abatih, Emmanuel; Habtewold, Tibebu; Delespaux, Vincent; Duchateau, Luc

    2015-08-19

    Accurate information on the distribution of the tsetse fly is of paramount importance to better control animal trypanosomosis. Entomological and parasitological surveys were conducted in the tsetse belt of south-western Ethiopia to describe the prevalence of trypanosomosis (PoT), the abundance of tsetse flies (AT) and to evaluate the association with potential risk factors. The study was conducted between 2009 and 2012. The parasitological survey data were analysed by a random effects logistic regression model, whereas the entomological survey data were analysed by a Poisson regression model. The percentage of animals with trypanosomosis was regressed on the tsetse fly count using a random effects logistic regression model. The following six risk factors were evaluated for PoT (i) altitude: significant and inverse correlation with trypanosomosis, (ii) annual variation of PoT: no significant difference between years, (iii) regional state: compared to Benishangul-Gumuz (18.0%), the three remaining regional states showed significantly lower PoT, (iv) river system: the PoT differed significantly between the river systems, (iv) sex: male animals (11.0%) were more affected than females (9.0%), and finally (vi) age at sampling: no difference between the considered classes. Observed trypanosome species were T. congolense (76.0%), T. vivax (18.1%), T. b. brucei (3.6%), and mixed T. congolense/vivax (2.4%). The first four risk factors listed above were also evaluated for AT, and all have a significant effect on AT. In the multivariable model only altitude was retained with AT decreasing with increasing altitude. Four different Glossina species were identified i.e. G. tachinoides (52.0%), G. pallidipes (26.0%), G.morsitans submorsitans (15.0%) and G. fuscipes fuscipes (7.0 %). Significant differences in catches/trap/day between districts were observed for each species. No association could be found between the tsetse fly counts and trypanosomosis prevalence. Trypanosomosis

  20. Water yield issues in the jarrah forest of south-western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruprecht, J. K.; Stoneman, G. L.

    1993-10-01

    The jarrah forest of south-western Australia produces little streamflow from moderate rainfall. Water yield from water supply catchments for Perth, Western Australia, are low, averaging 71 mm (7% of annual rainfall). The low water yields are attributed to the large soil water storage available for continuous use by the forest vegetation. A number of water yield studies in south-western Australia have examined the impact on water yield of land use practices including clearing for agricultural development, forest harvesting and regeneration, forest thinning and bauxite mining. A permanent reduction in forest cover by clearing for agriculture led to permanent increases of water yield of approximately 28% of annual rainfall in a high rainfall catchment. Thinning of a high rainfall catchment led to an increase in water yield of 20% of annual rainfall. However, it is not clear for how long the increased water yield will persist. Forest harvesting and regeneration have led to water yield increases of 16% of annual rainfall. The subsequent recovery of vegetation cover has led to water yields returning to pre-disturbance levels after an estimated 12-15 years. Bauxite mining of a high rainfall catchment led to a water yield increase of 8% of annual rainfall, followed by a return to pre-disturbance water yield after 12 years. The magnitude of specific streamflow generation mechanisms in small catchments subject to forest disturbance vary considerably, typically in a number of distinct stages. The presence of a permanent groundwater discharge area was shown to be instrumental in determining the magnitude of the streamflow response after forest disturbance. The long-term prognosis for water yield from areas subject to forest thinning, harvesting and regeneration, and bauxite mining are uncertain, owing to the complex interrelationship between vegetation cover, tree height and age, and catchment evapotranspiration. Management of the forest for water yield needs to acknowledge

  1. Quality assessment of published health economic analyses from South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Márcio; Iskedjian, Michael; Einarson, Thomas R

    2006-05-01

    Health economic analyses have become important to healthcare systems worldwide. No studies have previously examined South America's contribution in this area. To survey the literature with the purpose of reviewing, quantifying, and assessing the quality of published South American health economic analyses. A search of MEDLINE (1990-December 2004), EMBASE (1990-December 2004), International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (1990-December 2004), Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (1982-December 2004), and Sistema de Informacion Esencial en Terapéutica y Salud (1980-December 2004) was completed using the key words cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA), cost-utility analysis (CUA), cost-minimization analysis (CMA), and cost-benefit analysis (CBA); abbreviations CEA, CUA, CMA, and CBA; and all South American country names. Papers were categorized by type and country by 2 independent reviewers. Quality was assessed using a 12 item checklist, characterizing scores as 4 (good), 3 (acceptable), 2 (poor), 1 (unable to judge), and 0 (unacceptable). To be included in our investigation, studies needed to have simultaneously examined costs and outcomes. We retrieved 25 articles; one duplicate article was rejected, leaving 24 (CEA = 15, CBA = 6, CMA = 3; Brazil = 9, Argentina = 5, Colombia = 3, Chile = 2, Ecuador = 2, 1 each from Peru, Uruguay, Venezuela). Variability between raters was less than 0.5 point on overall scores (OS) and less than 1 point on all individual items. Mean OS was 2.6 (SD 1.0, range 1.4-3.8). CBAs scored highest (OS 2.8, SD 0.8), CEAs next (OS 2.7, SD 0.7), and CMAs lowest (OS 2.0, SD 0.5). When scored by type of question, definition of study aim scored highest (OS 3.0, SD 0.8), while ethical issues scored lowest (OS 1.5, SD 0.9). By country, Peru scored highest (mean OS 3.8) and Uruguay had the lowest scores (mean OS 2.2). A nonsignificant time trend was noted for OS (R2 = 0.12; p = 0.104). Quality scores of health economic analyses

  2. Chlorophyll Fluorescence Better Captures Seasonal and Interannual Gross Primary Productivity Dynamics Across Dryland Ecosystems of Southwestern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, W. K.; Biederman, J. A.; Scott, R. L.; Moore, D. J. P.; He, M.; Kimball, J. S.; Yan, D.; Hudson, A.; Barnes, M. L.; MacBean, N.; Fox, A. M.; Litvak, M. E.

    2018-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing provides unmatched spatiotemporal information on vegetation gross primary productivity (GPP). Yet understanding of the relationship between GPP and remote sensing observations and how it changes with factors such as scale, biophysical constraint, and vegetation type remains limited. This knowledge gap is especially apparent for dryland ecosystems, which have characteristic high spatiotemporal variability and are under-represented by long-term field measurements. Here we utilize an eddy covariance (EC) data synthesis for southwestern North America in an assessment of how accurately satellite-derived vegetation proxies capture seasonal to interannual GPP dynamics across dryland gradients. We evaluate the enhanced vegetation index, solar-induced fluorescence (SIF), and the photochemical reflectivity index. We find evidence that SIF is more accurately capturing seasonal GPP dynamics particularly for evergreen-dominated EC sites and more accurately estimating the full magnitude of interannual GPP dynamics for all dryland EC sites. These results suggest that incorporation of SIF could significantly improve satellite-based GPP estimates.

  3. Continent at a Crossroads: Prosperity, Justice, and Security in South America

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Scott, Frances K

    2006-01-01

    This Special Bibliography Series, Number 107, "Continent at the Crossroads: Prosperity, Justice, and Security in South America," was developed by Social Sciences Bibliographer and Reference Librarian Frances K...

  4. Nitrogen management challenges in major watersheds of South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bustamante, Mercedes M C; Martinelli, Luiz Antonio; Machado Lins, Silvia Rafaela; Pérez, Tibisay; Rasse, Rafael; Marquina, Sorena; Ometto, Jean Pierre H B; Siqueira Pacheco, Felipe

    2015-01-01

    Urbanization and land use changes alter the nitrogen (N) cycle, with critical consequences for continental freshwater resources, coastal zones, and human health. Sewage and poor watershed management lead to impoverishment of inland water resources and degradation of coastal zones. Here we review the N contents of rivers of the three most important watersheds in South America: the Amazon, La Plata, and Orinoco basins. To evaluate potential impacts on coastal zones, we also present data on small- and medium-sized Venezuelan watersheds that drain into the Caribbean Sea and are impacted by anthropogenic activities. Median concentrations of total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) were 325 μg L −1 and 275 μg L −1 in the Amazon and Orinoco basins, respectively, increasing to nearly 850 μg L −1 in La Plata Basin rivers and 2000 μg L −1 in small northern Venezuelan watersheds. The median TDN yield of Amazon Basin rivers (approximately 4 kg ha −1 yr −1 ) was larger than TDN yields of undisturbed rivers of the La Plata and Orinoco basins; however, TDN yields of polluted rivers were much higher than those of the Amazon and Orinoco rivers. Organic matter loads from natural and anthropogenic sources in rivers of South America strongly influence the N dynamics of this region. (letter)

  5. Moisture origin and transport processes in Colombia, northern South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyos, I.; Dominguez, F.; Cañón-Barriga, J.; Martínez, J. A.; Nieto, R.; Gimeno, L.; Dirmeyer, P. A.

    2018-02-01

    We assess the spatial structure of moisture flux divergence, regional moisture sources and transport processes over Colombia, in northern South America. Using three independent methods the dynamic recycling model (DRM), FLEXPART and the Quasi-isentropic back-trajectory (QIBT) models we quantify the moisture sources that contribute to precipitation over the region. We find that moisture from the Atlantic Ocean and terrestrial recycling are the most important sources of moisture for Colombia, highlighting the importance of the Orinoco and Amazon basins as regional providers of atmospheric moisture. The results show the influence of long-range cross-equatorial flow from the Atlantic Ocean into the target region and the role of the study area as a passage of moisture into South America. We also describe the seasonal moisture transport mechanisms of the well-known low-level westerly and Caribbean jets that originate in the Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea, respectively. We find that these dynamical systems play an important role in the convergence of moisture over western Colombia.

  6. Radium isotopes in saline seepages, south-western Yilgarn, Western Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickson, B.L.

    1985-01-01

    Water samples from saline seepages in the south-western Yilgarn Block of Western Australia contain high activities of the four naturally-occurring radium isotopes. Activities of up to 310 pCi/l for 226 Ra and 1720 pCi/l for 228 Ra were measured and the 228 Ra/ 226 Ra ratio averaged 6.1. Activities of the two short-lived radium isotopes were also high. 223 Ra activities of up to 94 pCi/l were found with an average 226 Ra/ 223 Ra ratio of 3.3, considerably lower than the natural abundance ratio of 21.4. Activities of up to 23 pCi/l 227 Ac, the long-lived grandparent of 223 Ra, were also measured. The analysis of surface granite samples, the probable source rocks of the radium, gave Th/U activity ratios of around 1.5. The higher 228 Ra/ 226 Ra ratios of the waters were attributed to readily leached 228 Ra in the weathered granites as a result of thorium remaining after weathering. Leach experiments on U-Th ore by NaCl solutions showed that all four radium isotopes were equally leached. Sulphate anions reduced the 226 Ra and 228 Ra leaching to a greater extent than for 223 Ra and 224 Ra, suggesting that the latter isotopes were being supported in solution by parent isotopes. (author)

  7. Gastrointestinal Helminths in Slaughtered Cattle in Ibadan, South-Western Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olubukola Deborah Adedipe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As part of an ongoing project to investigate the epidemiology of gastrointestinal helminths of cattle in Nigeria, we carried out a systematic random sampling of cattle slaughtered in a major abattoir in Ibadan, south-western Nigeria. Using sedimentation and floatation methods, we analyzed fecal samples from 397 animals between March and May 2013. Overall, 163 (41.6% of the animals had at least one gastrointestinal helminth egg, comprising a total of eight helminths from different genera (i.e., four nematodes, three trematodes, and one cestode, with nematode infection being the highest (71.54%. In addition, eggs of four helminths of zoonotic importance were also obtained. Among the cattle examined, the Bunaji breed was the most infected (46%; 69/150. Furthermore, female animals (OR=1.1; 95% CI: 0.60–1.84 and animals with moderate body condition (OR=1.2; 95% CI: 0.80–1.79 are more likely to be positive to helminth infection. Our findings reveal that there were helminth infections of both zoonotic and socioeconomic importance among the cattle screened. Considering the impact of the infections on animal production and public health, we advocate that effective prophylactic measures be adopted as a first step to curtail helminth infections of cattle in Nigeria.

  8. High resolution model studies of transport of sedimentary material in the south-western Baltic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Torsten; Fennel, Wolfgang; Kuhrts, Christiane

    2009-02-01

    The paper presents high resolution model simulations of transport, deposition and resuspension of sedimentary material in the south-western Baltic, based on an upgrade of the sediment transport model described in the work of Kuhrts et al. [Kuhrts, C., Fennel, W., Seifert, T., 2004. Model studies of transport of sedimentary material in the Western Baltic. Journal of Marine Systems 52, 167.]. In the western Baltic, a grid spacing of at least 1 nautical mile is required to resolve the shallow and narrow bathymetry and the associated current patterns. A series of experimental model simulations is carried out with forcing data for the year 1993, which include a sequence of storms in January. Compared to earlier model versions, a more detailed description of potential deposition areas can be provided. The study quantifies the influence of enhanced bottom roughness caused by biological structures, like mussels and worm holes, provides estimates of the regional erosion risks for fine grained sediments, and analyses scenarios of the settling and spreading of material at dumping sites. Although the effects of changed bottom roughness, as derived from more detailed, re-classified sea floor data, are relatively small, the sediment transport and deposition patterns are clearly affected by the variation of the sea bed properties.

  9. Drinking water insecurity: water quality and access in coastal south-western Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benneyworth, Laura; Gilligan, Jonathan; Ayers, John C; Goodbred, Steven; George, Gregory; Carrico, Amanda; Karim, Md Rezaul; Akter, Farjana; Fry, David; Donato, Katherine; Piya, Bhumika

    2016-01-01

    National drinking water assessments for Bangladesh do not reflect local variability, or temporal differences. This paper reports on the findings of an interdisciplinary investigation of drinking water insecurity in a rural coastal south-western Bangladesh. Drinking water quality is assessed by comparison of locally measured concentrations to national levels and water quality criteria; resident's access to potable water and their perceptions are based on local social surveys. Residents in the study area use groundwater far less than the national average; salinity and local rainwater scarcity necessitates the use of multiple water sources throughout the year. Groundwater concentrations of arsenic and specific conductivity (SpC) were greater than surface water (pond) concentrations; there was no statistically significant seasonal difference in mean concentrations in groundwater, but there was for ponds, with arsenic higher in the dry season. Average arsenic concentrations in local water drinking were 2-4 times times the national average. All of the local groundwater samples exceeded the Bangladesh guidance for SpC, although the majority of residents surveyed did not perceive their water as having a 'bad' or 'salty' taste.

  10. Unmet social needs and teenage pregnancy in Ogbomosho, South-western Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salami, Kabiru K; Ayegboyin, Matthew; Adedeji, Isaac A

    2014-12-01

    Consistent high teenage pregnancy rates in South-western Nigeria are characteristically underpinned by the unmet social needs of the teenagers. To elicit intergenerational views on the influence of unmet social needs on teenage pregnancy. Through a descriptive and cross-sectional design, a total of 174 respondents who were either pregnant teenagers, teenage mothers during the survey or had been pregnant as teenagers, were interviewed, using questionnaire supplemented with 12 key informant interviews. With the mean age of 16.5 years, and educational status range of between primary and below (25.8%) and tertiary (9.8%) levels, only 39.7% respondents were married, about half (47.7%) remained single while others were separated (12.6%). Less than half (44.9%) of the respondents were engaged in occupational activities. The unmet material and financial supports expected from parents (43.1%), the lack of free education from government up till secondary school level (51.2%), the lack of sex education and knowledge needs for signs of maturity (53.4%) and discouragement from friends not to have boyfriend (66.1%) prone teenagers to unplanned pregnancy. Promotion of sexual education and parental care is encouraged as strategy against unplanned pregnancy among teenagers.

  11. Cousin marriage in south-western England in the nineteenth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Cathy; Smith, Malcolm

    2013-05-01

    Knowledge of inbreeding levels in historical times is necessary to estimate the health consequences of past inbreeding, and to contextualize the current public debate about cousin marriage in Britain. This research aims to calculate the level of cousin marriage using the intensive technique of multi-source parish reconstitution and to determine whether village organization, religion and occupational class influenced the level of consanguineous marriage. A wide variety of documentary sources were used to create extensive pedigrees of spouses in over 800 marriages in the 19th century in the rural villages of Stourton and Kilmington. The closed village of Stourton had higher levels of inbreeding than the open village of Kilmington. Catholics had lower rates of 1st cousin marriage but higher rates of 2nd cousin marriage than Protestants. Farmers had higher levels of 1st cousin marriage than labourers. The levels of consanguinity in south-western Wiltshire in the 19th century were related to the economic structure of the villages and the religion and social class of the spouses.

  12. Working towards residential Radon survey in South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zielinski, Jan M.; University of Ottawa, ON; Canoba, Analia C.; Shilnikova, Natalia S.; Veiga, Lene H. S.

    2008-01-01

    Information about residential radon levels in low and middle income countries is very sparse. In response to the World Health Organization initiative in the International Radon Project, we propose a research project that will address this knowledge gap in South America by conducting a residential radon survey. Following initial in vitro and in vivo studies of radon and studies of uranium miners exposed to radon, over twenty large case-control studies of lung cancer risk from exposure to residential radon have been completed worldwide by year 2004. Recently pooled data from these individual studies have been analyzed. These collaborative analyses of the indoor studies in Europe, North America, and China provide strong direct evidence that radon is causing a substantial number of lung cancers in the general population. To reduce radon lung cancer risk, national authorities must have methods and tools based on solid scientific evidence to develop sound public health policies. We propose to conduct a survey in ten South American countries using the distribution and analysis of passive alpha tracking detectors in houses selected at random in pre-selected cities in each participating country. We also present an approach to estimate the cost of carrying out such a survey and the radon laboratory infrastructure needed. The results of the proposed survey will allow to conduct assessment of the exposure to residential radon in the populations of South American countries and to assess the health impact of this exposure. The results of the project will also help national health authorities in developing national residential radon action levels and regulations, as well as provide public health guidance for radon awareness and mitigation. (author)

  13. Interannual and Decadal Variability of Summer Rainfall over South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiayu; Lau, K.-M.

    1999-01-01

    Using the CPC (Climate Prediction Center) Merged Analysis of Precipitation product along with the Goddard Earth Observing System reanalysis and the Climate Analysis Center sea surface temperature (SST) data, we conduct a diagnostic study of the interannual and decadal scale variability of summer rainfall over South America. Results show three leading modes of rainfall variation identified with interannual, decadal, and long-term trend variability. Together, these modes explain more than half the total variance. The first mode is highly correlated with El Nino/southern oscillation (ENSO), showing severe drought over Northeast Brazil and copious rainfall over the Ecuador coast and the area of Uruguay-Southern Brazil in El Nino years. This pattern is attributed to the large scale zonal shift of the Walker circulation and local Hadley cell anomaly induced by positive (negative) SST anomaly over the eastern (western) equatorial Pacific. In El Nino years, two convective belts indicated by upper tropospheric velocity potential trough and mid-tropospheric rising motion, which are somewhat symmetric about the equator, extend toward the northeast and the southeast into the tropical North and South Atlantic respectively. Sandwiched between the ascent is a region of descending motion over Northeast Brazil. The southern branch of the anomalous Hadley cell is dynamically linked to the increase of rainfall over Uruguay-Southern Brazil. The regional response of anomalous circulation shows a stronger South American summer monsoon and an enhanced (weakened) subtropical high over the South Atlantic (South Pacific) Ocean. The decadal variation displays a meridional shift of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), which is tie to the anomalous cross-equatorial SST gradient over the Atlantic and the eastern Pacific. In conjunction with this mode is a large scale mass swing between the polar regions and midlatitudes in both hemispheres. Over the South Atlantic and the South Pacific

  14. Economic aspects for South America energy integration; Aspectos economicos para a integracao energetica da America do Sul

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vela, Jorge Alberto Alcala; Cardozo, Fernando Simoes [ELETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Expansion of the internal market and external, production on a large scale and more dynamic economic growth would be the consequences of a regional integration in South America. However, due to the specific characteristics of South America this process did not occur. Many attempts were made through the years with the creation of institutions that tried to promote the integration of different forms of South America. This article analyses the current economic conditions in which this initiative is to achieve an energy integration, which seems feasible given the provision expresses the presidents of South American countries before a possible rationing of energy. Through analysis of the results it may be concluded that there is a growing demand for energy in all countries, which should be resolved first in order not to cut the development of South America. The main economic aspects which affect the process of integrating energy are the commercial structures of energy, the energy complementarities, the degree of development of infrastructure for interconnection, the industrial structure and conformation electric business. However, an immediate solution would be to boost bilateral integration energy projects and construction of transmission lines that interconnect the regional stations for the supply of electric energy. Moreover, as the conditions are not improved political and economic and there is no compatible models between technical institutions and legal and administrative, will not be achieved significant progress in the process of regional energy integration of South America. (author)

  15. Impact of the Desert dust on the summer monsoon system over Southwestern North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Zhao

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The radiative forcing of dust emitted from the Southwest United States (US deserts and its impact on monsoon circulation and precipitation over the North America monsoon (NAM region are simulated using a coupled meteorology and aerosol/chemistry model (WRF-Chem for 15 years (1995–2009. During the monsoon season, dust has a cooling effect (−0.90 W m−2 at the surface, a warming effect (0.40 W m−2 in the atmosphere, and a negative top-of-the-atmosphere (TOA forcing (−0.50 W m−2 over the deserts on 24-h average. Most of the dust emitted from the deserts concentrates below 800 hPa and accumulates over the western slope of the Rocky Mountains and Mexican Plateau. The absorption of shortwave radiation by dust heats the lower atmosphere by up to 0.5 K day−1 over the western slope of the Mountains. Model sensitivity simulations with and without dust for 15 summers (June-July-August show that dust heating of the lower atmosphere over the deserts strengthens the low-level southerly moisture fluxes on both sides of the Sierra Madre Occidental. It also results in an eastward migration of NAM-driven moisture convergence over the western slope of the Mountains. These monsoonal circulation changes lead to a statistically significant increase of precipitation by up to ~40 % over the eastern slope of the Mountains (Arizona-New~Mexico-Texas regions. This study highlights the interaction between dust and the NAM system and motivates further investigation of possible dust feedback on monsoon precipitation under climate change and the mega-drought conditions projected for the future.

  16. Applying complex networks to evaluate precipitation patterns over South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciemer, Catrin; Boers, Niklas; Barbosa, Henrique; Kurths, Jürgen; Rammig, Anja

    2016-04-01

    The climate of South America exhibits pronounced differences between the wet- and the dry-season, which are accompanied by specific synoptic events like changes in the location of the South American Low Level Jet (SALLJ) and the establishment of the South American Convergence Zone (SACZ). The onset of these events can be related to the presence of typical large-scale precipitation patterns over South America, as previous studies have shown[1,2]. The application of complex network methods to precipitation data recently received increased scientific attention for the special case of extreme events, as it is possible with such methods to analyze the spatiotemporal correlation structure as well as possible teleconnections of these events[3,4]. In these approaches the correlation between precipitation datasets is calculated by means of Event Synchronization which restricts their applicability to extreme precipitation events. In this work, we propose a method which is able to consider not only extreme precipitation but complete time series. A direct application of standard similarity measures in order to correlate precipitation time series is impossible due to their intricate statistical properties as the large amount of zeros. Therefore, we introduced and evaluated a suitable modification of Pearson's correlation coefficient to construct spatial correlation networks of precipitation. By analyzing the characteristics of spatial correlation networks constructed on the basis of this new measure, we are able to determine coherent areas of similar precipitation patterns, spot teleconnections of correlated areas, and detect central regions for precipitation correlation. By analyzing the change of the network over the year[5], we are also able to determine local and global changes in precipitation correlation patterns. Additionally, global network characteristics as the network connectivity yield indications for beginning and end of wet- and dry season. In order to identify

  17. Fossorial snake genus Apostolepis from South America (Serpentes: Colubridae: Elapomorphinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Lema, Thales

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available An update commented list of the snake genus Apostolepis from South America, with keys for identification of the species. They are fossorial snakes that present different coloration according their distribution: (a 7 to 3 dark stripes coloration, without light nuchal collar (if present, vestigial, with snout not projected beyond jaws - in Amazonian and enclaves within Caatinga domain; (b 5 dark striped dorsal pattern, snout projected, usually without white nuchal collars — from region of contact between Cerrado and Chaco domains; (c dorsal pattern coloration uniformly red, with nucho-cervical collars, snout usually projected — in Cerrado with dispersion to Chaco and Caatinga; (d 2 or none dark stripes dorsally, venter immaculate or with black blotches, snout projecting: (e an aberrant pattern with oblique black dorsal stripes, without collars, head black and snout projecting — one species in an enclave within Caatinga, with 17 rows of scales instead of 15.

  18. Ecosystem engineering impact of Limnoperna fortunei in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrigran, Gustavo; Damborenea, Cristina

    2011-01-01

    Limnoperna fortunei, or golden mussel, has invaded aquatic ecosystems in the Americas following it introduction from Southeast Asia. It is not only an aggressive invasive species, it is also a very effective ecosystem engineer, altering both ecosystem structure and function, and causes great ecological and economic impacts. This paper describes its impact as an ecosystem engineer (on benthic communities and the water column). A review of the existing scientific literature is presented, and the impact and the mechanisms by which the golden mussel modifies, maintains, and creates new environmental conditions in the invaded South American inland freshwater environments are analyzed. Understanding the ecosystem engineering roles of L. fortunei is important for its management and/or control in the invaded areas, and in cases of future invasions.

  19. Crash and rebound of indigenous populations in lowland South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Marcus J.; Walker, Robert S.; Kesler, Dylan C.

    2014-04-01

    Lowland South America has long been a battle-ground between European colonization and indigenous survival. Initial waves of European colonization brought disease epidemics, slavery, and violence that had catastrophic impacts on indigenous cultures. In this paper we focus on the demography of 238 surviving populations in Brazil. We use longitudinal censuses from all known indigenous Brazilian societies to quantify three demographic metrics: 1) effects of European contact on indigenous populations; 2) empirical estimates of minimum viable population sizes; and 3) estimates of post-contact population growth rates. We use this information to conduct population viability analysis (PVA). Our results show that all surviving populations suffered extensive mortality during, and shortly after, contact. However, most surviving populations exhibit positive growth rates within the first decade post-contact. Our findings paint a positive demographic outlook for these indigenous populations, though long-term survival remains subject to powerful externalities, including politics, economics, and the pervasive illegal exploitation of indigenous lands.

  20. Palm harvest impacts in north-western South America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Tropical forests harbor thousands of useful plants that are harvested and used in subsistence economies or traded in local, regional or international markets. The effect on the ecosystem is little known, and the forests resilience is badly understood. Palms are the most useful group of plants...... in tropical American forests. This paper introduces a cross-disciplinary study of the effects of harvesting palm products from the tropical forests in north-western South America. The size of the resource is estimated through palm community studies in the different forest formations that determines the number...... of species and individuals of all palm species. The genetic structure of useful palm species is studied to determine how much harvesting of the species contributes to genetic erosion of its populations, and whether extraction can be made without harm. Almost all palm species are used in rural communities...

  1. Multistation digisonde observations of equatorial spread F in South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. W. Reinisch

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Directional ionogram and F-region drift observations were conducted at seven digisonde stations in South America during the COPEX campaign from October to December 2002. Five stations in Brazil, one in Argentina, and one in Peru, monitored the ionosphere across the continent to study the onset and development of F-region density depletions that cause equatorial spread F (ESF. New ionosonde techniques quantitatively describe the prereversal uplifting of the F layer at the magnetic equator and the eastward motion of the depletions over the stations. Three of the Brazilian stations were located along a field line with a 350-km apex over the equator to investigate the relation of the occurrence of ESF and the presence of sporadic E-layers at the two E-region intersections of the field line. No simple correlation was found.

  2. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy in South America: a regional preventive approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gelderen, C; Gimeno, E J; Schudel, A A

    2003-04-01

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is a neurodegenerative disease of cattle caused by prions that was first described in the United Kingdom (UK) in 1986. The BSE epizootic that commenced in the UK in the 1980s has since spread into other countries in Europe and Asia through exports of contaminated meat-and-bone meal or infected cattle. Over the past few years, other emerging or reemerging diseases have spread into previously free countries or regions through international trade. This negative effect of globalisation means that to implement successful preventive and strategic programmes to safeguard animal health, such programmes must, as a priority, take a regional approach. Global thinking, regional planning and local performance constitute the key factors for the successful control of animal diseases. In South America, initial preventive actions against BSE were adopted in 1989. Further measures adopted since then and based on new scientific and technical findings, have led to the demonstration that the region is free of BSE. These early preventive actions have reliably protected the region from importing BSE-infected material. An integral part of the project to determine the BSE status of South America was the training of personnel, the incorporation of technology and the provision of updated information through close relationships with international organisations and prominent international researcher workers. Regional activities aimed at harmonising BSE prevention programmes, producing objective and transparent data on the equivalence of regional BSE status and facilitating regional and international trade have recently been launched. Maintaining the BSE-free status of the region must be given high priority by the beef agro-industrial sectors.

  3. Growing Brazilian demand to spur gas network in South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deffarges, E.H.; Maurer, L.I.A.

    1993-01-01

    A recent combination in South America of economic and geopolitical factors is prompting development of a new integrated gas-pipeline network in the continent's Southern Cone. The crucial factors include privatization, regional integration, economic growth, and environmental concerns. The area, Latin America's largest regional entity, includes Brazil (population 150 million and a 1990 GNP of about $375 billion, 9th largest in the world), Argentina (population 32 million and the third largest Latin American economy after Brazil and Mexico), Bolivia, Chile, Paraguay, and Uruguay. Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay are members of the MercoSur economic bloc whose objective is to develop free trade in the region. There are very few integrated pipeline networks in the world. Besides the giant North American system, with hundreds of producers and pipelines, there is only one other large integrated network. It connects continental European countries to their outside suppliers such as Norway, the C.I.S., and Algeria. The emergence of a new pipeline system is therefore important for the natural-gas industry worldwide and even more so if it occurs in a region now growing rapidly after a decade of economic difficulties

  4. Climate change induced occupational stress and reported morbidity among cocoa farmers in South-Western Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abayomi Samuel Oyekale

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective. Climate change is one of the major development hurdles in many developing countries. The health outcome of farm households are related to climate change, which is related to several external and internal health-related issues, such as management of occupational stressors. This study seeks, inter alia, to determine the climate related occupational stress and factors influencing reported sick times among cocoa farmers. Material and Method. Data were collected from selected cocoa farmers in South-Western Nigeria. Descriptive statistics and Negative Binomial regression were used for data analyses. Results. The results showed that cocoa farmers were ageing, and that the majority had cultivating cocoa for most of their years of farming. Cocoa was the primary crop for the majority of the farmers, while 92.00% of the farmers in Osun state owned the cultivated cocoa farms. The forms of reported climate change induced occupational stresses were increase in pest infestation (74.5% in Ekiti state, difficulties in weed control (82.1% in Ekiti state, missing regular times scheduled for spraying cocoa pods (45.7% in Ondo state, inability to spray cocoa effectively (58.5% in Ondo state, and reduction in cocoa yield (71.7% in Ekiti state. The Negative Binomial regression results showed that the age of farmers (0.0103, their education (-0.0226, years of cocoa farming (-0.0112, malaria infection (0.4901, missed spraying (0.5061, re-spraying of cocoa (0.2630, reduction in cocoa yield (0.20154, contact with extension (0.2411 and residence in Ondo state (-0.2311 were statistically significant (p<0.05. Conclusion. Climate change influences the farm operations of cocoa farmers with resultant occupational stresses. Efforts to assist cocoa farmers should include, among others, provision of weather forecasts and some form of insurance.

  5. Distribution, biomass and local importance of tamarind trees in south-western Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahiry Ranaivoson

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The multipurpose tamarind (Tamarindus indica L. tree is important for people’s livelihood and considered as sacred in the Mahafaly region of south-western Madagascar. However, the ongoing overexploitation of this species has caused a decline of tamarind trees. In this study, the species distribution, changes in tamarind biomass and the role of traditional taboos for the conservation of this species were determined to identify opportunities and constraints for its conservation and appropriate land management planning. Semi-structured interviews (N=63 were conducted in 10 villages in the study region to obtain information regarding the utilization of tamarind trees. During field surveys, the diameter at breast height (DBH, height, wood volume and wood biomass were measured for already felled trees (N=25. Additionally, 318 trees were inventoried by measuring their DBH, height and GPS location. Using high resolution satellite images from 2004/2005 and 2012 the crown areas of all tamarind trees in six village areas were identified. Allometric equations were established to predict their wood biomass from DBH, crown surface and wood volume. Tamarind trees are mainly used as supplementary food, as well as for traditional ceremonies, charcoal production and medicinal purposes. Altogether, 0.06–0.35 trees ha−1 were observed. A regression analysis yielded high coefficients of determination for the relationships between DBH and wood biomass (r2=0.98, DBH and crown area (r2=0.72, and crown area and wood biomass (r2=0.71. From 2004/2005 to 2012, wood biomass losses of 12%–90% were caused by charcoal production and slash and burn agriculture. The traditionally sacred status of the tree has become insufficient to secure its conservation in the Mahafaly region.

  6. Soil preferences and morphological diversity of goldenrods (Solidago L. from south-western Poland

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    Magdalena Szymura

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Invasive plants in their new range can differ from their ancestors, including traits ultimately influencing habitat preferences, competitiveness and dispersal ability. In Europe Solidago species are considered as one of the worst invaders of American origin. In this study the frequency of occurrence of Solidago species, their soil preferences and morphological diversity, in Silesia (south-western Poland, Central Europe were surveyed. On the basis of phytosociological relevés, made using the Braun-Blanquet method, in 75 plots, we determined the composition of species co-occurring with particular Solidago species. The height of ramets, as well as length and width of inflorescences of Solidago species were measured. We also determined the basic soil properties and noted the presence of trees overshading the ground vegetation. The compositional variation of vegetation and its relation to environmental traits: soil properties (texture, pH, percentage of organic matter, total nitrogen, nitrate, phosphorus, potassium and calcium content and presence of canopy were analyzed by multivariate ordination methods (CA and CCA. Goldenrod species, in most cases (74.3% occurred singly, two on one plot – rather rarely (mostly S. canadensis with S. altissima, whereas three Solidago species co-occurred only in three plots. Particular species differed in the height of the plant and inflorescence size, the exception was lack of difference between S. altissima and S. canadensis. S. virgaurea often occurred under trees canopy and the populations were separated from other goldenrod species. The species co-occurring with S. altissima and S. canadensis were the ruderal species, whereas plants from wet meadows occurred in plots with S. gigantea. The distribution of S. graminifolia was very limited, but inside its range it was able to occupy different habitats. The plots, where particular Solidago species occurred, did not differ significantly with respect to soil

  7. Sedimentary lipid biomarkers in the magnesium rich and highly alkaline Lake Salda (south-western Anatolia

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    Jérôme Kaiser

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Lake Salda located in south-western Anatolia is characterized by the presence of living stromatolites and by a low diversity of both phytoplankton and zooplankton due to high pH and magnesium concentration. The most abundant, free sedimentary lipids of the uppermost centimetres of the lake sediments were studied as potential environmental biomarkers, and proxies based on glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGT were tested in this extreme environment. Dinosterol and tetrahymanol are potentially relevant biomarkers for the dinoflagellate Peridinium cinctum and ciliates, respectively. C20:1 and C25:2 highly branched isoprenoid (HBI alkenes, and n-C17 alkane and n-C17:1 alkene are considered as representing, respectively, diatoms and Cyanobacteria involved in the formation of the stromatolites. Isoprenoid GDGT-0 is assumed to be derived mainly from Euryarchaeota (methanogens, and crenarchaeol from Thaumarchaeota. Allochthonous organic material is represented by long-chain n-alkanes and n-alkanols derived from land plant leaf waxes, as well as branched GDGTs produced by soil bacteria. While pH and temperature proxies based on branched GDGTs are likely not applicable in Lake Salda, TEX86 (tetraether index of tetraethers consisting of 86 carbons, a proxy based on isoprenoid GDGTs, potentially allows estimating mean annual lake surface temperature. Interestingly, C23 and C25 1,2 diols, which have a yet unknown origin, were found for the first time in lake sediments. This study represents the first investigation of sedimentary lipid distribution in an alkaline and magnesium-rich lake in Anatolia, and provides a basis for future biomarker-based paleoenvironmental reconstruction of Lake Salda.

  8. GRAVITY VARIATIONS AND RECENT GEODYNAMICS OF THE SOUTH-WESTERN PART OF THE BAIKAL REGION

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    V. Yu. Timofeev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern methods for determination of gravity values make it possible to obtain measurements with the accuracy up to 10–9 from g0 of the normal value (up to 1 microgal = 10 m/sec2. While all the systematic and periodic effects are excluded, a question is raised about stability of the gravity field of the Earth over time. Changes of the altitude (the Earth’s radius with time can be estimated with an accuracy of 0.1 mm by modern space geodetic techniques, such as VLBI method. Our experiments for evaluation of stability of the gravity values over the past decades are based on the data obtained by Russian and foreign observatories using absolute ballistic laser gravimeters. The results put a limit of 10–10 per year to changes of the Earth’s radius. These estimations can be useful for testing hypotheses in tectonics.Measurements of non-tidal variations of gravity (Δg, which were obtained from 1992 to 2012 at the Talaya seismic station (located in the south-western part of the Baikal region, are interpreted together with GPS observation data. At the Talaya seismic station, the linear component of gravity variations corresponds to changes in the elevation of this site. The correlation coefficient is close to the normal value of the vertical gradient of gravity. At this site, coseismic gravity variations at the time of the Kultuk earthquake (27 August 2008, Mw=6.3 were caused by a combined effect of the change of the site’s elevation and deformation of the crust. Our estimations of the coseismic effects are consistent with results obtained by modeling based on the available seismic data.

  9. Prevalence of overweight and obesity among children in Ile-ife, south-western Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adegoke, S A; Olowu, W A; Adeodu, O O; Elusiyan, J B E; Dedeke, I O F

    2009-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a potential health problem in Nigeria because of our changing patterns of lifestyle. It is associated with significant health, medical and psychological consequences for children and adolescents. To determine the nutritional status of Nigerian children aged six to eighteen years using anthropometry. The study which was a school-based cross-sectional survey employed a multi-staged random sampling method. Four secondary and four primary schools (two private and two public) were selected to ensure adequate representation of the focus age group of six to 18 years and social classes. Ninety students were selected from each school. Overall, 360 subjects were selected from primary and secondary schools respectively giving a total of 720 school children. Each subject had a questionnaire complete followed by the measurement of height and weight. Nutritional status was determined using the International Obesity Task Force criteria. Two (0.3%) of the 720 students studied were obese both being females. Twenty (2.8%) subjects were overweight of which 17 (85.0%) were females and three (15.0%) males. Females had a higher prevalence of overweight when compared with males. There was a higher proportion of overweight students in the higher social classes when compared with the lower social classes (p=0.03). Five hundred and sixty (77.8%) were underweight with a BMI less than 18.50. Obesity and overweight are rather uncommom problems among children in Ile-Ife a semi urban south-western Nigeria town. However, overweight is more common in children from high social classes and among adolescents, the girls tend to have higher BMI than the boys. Underweight is prevalent among these children.

  10. Climate change induced occupational stress and reported morbidity among cocoa farmers in South-Western Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyekale, Abayomi Samuel

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is one of the major development hurdles in many developing countries. The health outcome of farm households are related to climate change, which is related to several external and internal health-related issues, such as management of occupational stressors. This study seeks, inter alia, to determine the climate related occupational stress and factors influencing reported sick times among cocoa farmers. Data were collected from selected cocoa farmers in South-Western Nigeria. Descriptive statistics and Negative Binomial regression were used for data analyses. The results showed that cocoa farmers were ageing, and that the majority had cultivating cocoa for most of their years of farming. Cocoa was the primary crop for the majority of the farmers, while 92.00% of the farmers in Osun state owned the cultivated cocoa farms. The forms of reported climate change induced occupational stresses were increase in pest infestation (74.5% in Ekiti state), difficulties in weed control (82.1% in Ekiti state), missing regular times scheduled for spraying cocoa pods (45.7% in Ondo state), inability to spray cocoa effectively (58.5% in Ondo state), and reduction in cocoa yield (71.7% in Ekiti state). The Negative Binomial regression results showed that the age of farmers (0.0103), their education (-0.0226), years of cocoa farming (-0.0112), malaria infection (0.4901), missed spraying (0.5061), re-spraying of cocoa (0.2630), reduction in cocoa yield (0.20154), contact with extension (0.2411) and residence in Ondo state (-0.2311) were statistically significant (pClimate change influences the farm operations of cocoa farmers with resultant occupational stresses. Efforts to assist cocoa farmers should include, among others, provision of weather forecasts and some form of insurance.

  11. Mechanisms for synoptic variations of atmospheric CO2 in North America, South America and Europe

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    I. T. Baker

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Synoptic variations of atmospheric CO2 produced by interactions between weather and surface fluxes are investigated mechanistically and quantitatively in midlatitude and tropical regions using continuous in-situ CO2 observations in North America, South America and Europe and forward chemical transport model simulations with the Parameterized Chemistry Transport Model. Frontal CO2 climatologies show consistently strong, characteristic frontal CO2 signals throughout the midlatitudes of North America and Europe. Transitions between synoptically identifiable CO2 air masses or transient spikes along the frontal boundary typically characterize these signals. One case study of a summer cold front shows CO2 gradients organizing with deformational flow along weather fronts, producing strong and spatially coherent variations. In order to differentiate physical and biological controls on synoptic variations in midlatitudes and a site in Amazonia, a boundary layer budget equation is constructed to break down boundary layer CO2 tendencies into components driven by advection, moist convection, and surface fluxes. This analysis suggests that, in midlatitudes, advection is dominant throughout the year and responsible for 60–70% of day-to-day variations on average, with moist convection contributing less than 5%. At a site in Amazonia, vertical mixing, in particular coupling between convective transport and surface CO2 flux, is most important, with advection responsible for 26% of variations, moist convection 32% and surface flux 42%. Transport model sensitivity experiments agree with budget analysis. These results imply the existence of a recharge-discharge mechanism in Amazonia important for controlling synoptic variations of boundary layer CO2, and that forward and inverse simulations should take care to represent moist convective transport. Due to the scarcity of tropical observations at the time of this study, results in Amazonia are not generalized for

  12. Coordination of NEO Observers in South-America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tancredi, G.

    At present the discovery of NEOs is concentrated in the Northern Hemisphere. None of the 6 existing survey programs can reach declinations below -30deg. Nevertheless, there are two small surveys ready to start in the near future in the southern hemisphere: an extension of the Catalina Sky Survey using the Uppsala Schmidt in Siding Spring and the Project BUSCA in Uruguay. Many of the NEOs discovered by the northern surveys could reach the southern sky, with declinations unreachable for a northern observer. Furthermore, the recovery of an asteroid in subsequent oppositions could come indistinctly in the northern and southern sky. A network of well-equipped observers in the southern region is then a must in a campaign to catalog the NEO population. In view of this situation, the Planetary Society, through its NEO grant, have already supported many observers in the Southern Hemisphere. The planetary science community in South America has considerably grown in the last 10 years. We have well-known research groups in Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay. Those groups have established many scientific links by exchanging graduate students and through several meetings. In particular, we have already hold two Workshop in Planetary Science in South America in 1999 (La Plata, Argentina) and 2000 (Montevideo, Uruguay) with more than 25 participants each. Recently, in February 2002, we organized a Workshop of NEO observers in Montevideo with the participation of more than 20 professional and amateurs observers from: Argentina: Obs. Ast. Felix Aguilar - Yale University (San Juan) and CRICYT (Mendoza); Brazil: Obs. Abraes de Moraes (San Pablo), Obs. Wykrota (Belo Horizonte) and Observatorio Nacional (Rio de Janeiro); Paraguay: Obs. Nacional de Asuncion and Sociedad de Estudios Astronómicos (Asunción) Uruguay: Depto. Astronomía - Fac. Ciencias, Obs. Ast. Los Molinos and Obs. Kappa Crucis (Montevideo). Among the resolutions of the Workshop, we highlight: * Creation of the "Asociaci

  13. Colonization of and radiation in South America by butterflies in the subtribe Phyciodina (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlberg, Niklas; Freitas, André V L

    2007-09-01

    The historical biogeography of insects in South America is largely unknown, as dated phylogenies have not been available for most groups. We have studied the phylogenetic relationships and historical biogeography of a subtribe of butterflies, Phyciodina in the family Nymphalidae, based on one mitochondrial gene (COI) and two nuclear gene regions (EF-1alpha and wingless). The subtribe comprises 89 species mainly found in tropical South America, with a few species in North America and the Greater Antilles. We find that the enigmatic genus Antillea is sister to the rest of Phyciodina, and suggest that it should be included in the subtribe. Several genera are found to be polyphyletic or nested within another genus, and are proposed to be synonymised. These are Dagon, Castilia, Telenassa and Janatella, which we propose should be synonymised with Eresia. Brazilian "Ortilia" form an independent lineage and require a new genus name. The diversification of Phyciodina has probably taken place over the past about 34 MYA. The ancestral phyciodine colonised South America from North America through a possible landspan that connected the Greater Antilles to South America about 34MYA. A vicariance event left the ancestral Antillea on the Greater Antilles, while the ancestral 0e on South America colonised the Guyanan Shield and soon after the Brazilian Shield. We hypothesise that the Brazilian Shield was an important area for the diversification of Phyciodina. From there, the ancestor of Anthanassa, Eresia and Tegosa colonised NW South America, where especially Eresia diversified in concert with the rising of the Andes beginning about 20 MYA. Central America was colonised from NW South America about 15 MYA by the ancestors of Anthanassa and Phyciodes. Our study is the first to use a dated phylogeny to study the historical biogeography of a group of South American species of butterflies.

  14. Seismicity of the Earth 1900-2007, Nazca Plate and South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhea, Susan; Hayes, Gavin P.; Villaseñor, Antonio; Furlong, Kevin P.; Tarr, Arthur C.; Benz, Harley

    2010-01-01

    The South American arc extends over 7,000 km, from the Chilean triple junction offshore of southern Chile to its intersection with the Panama fracture zone, offshore the southern coast of Panama in Central America. It marks the plate boundary between the subducting Nazca plate and the South America plate, where the oceanic crust and lithosphere of the Nazca plate begin their decent into the mantle beneath South America. The convergence associated with this subduction process is responsible for the uplift of the Andes Mountains, and for the active volcanic chain present along much of this deformation front. Relative to a fixed South America plate the Nazca plate moves slightly north of eastwards at a rate varying from approximately 80 mm/yr in the south to approximately 70mm/yr in the north.

  15. A Paleoecological View of the Anthropocene in Tropical South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, M. B.; McMichael, C. H.; Piperno, D. R.

    2015-12-01

    Many potential events could define the onset of the Anthropocene in the Neotropics. The first effects caused by humans included the final extinction of megafauna around 10,000 years ago, and changes in fire frequency, particularly after about 8000 years ago. The first agriculture (squash) is evident in northwestern regions at 9000 BP, and in the Amazon Basin maize is cultivated by 6300 BP. But these events have not been widely documented on the continent and if some chronological uniformity is sought as a guide to defining the onset of the Anthropocene, they would fail that test. Coming forward through time, increasing societal complexity is evident beginning about 3000 BP in both the Amazon and the Andes, but again the development was patchy. Some archaeologists are arguing that between c. 2000 BP and 500 BP the Amazon Basin became a manufactured landscape. While major river corridors were very likely influenced by human populations, the level of use in the great interfluvial areas (c. 90% of Amazonia) remains a matter of debate. The empirical data that exist for human presence in these areas point to sparse occupation, both in space and time, and the assertion that most of prehistoric Amazonia was manipulated by humans is unsupported. Following European contact, indigenous populations were reduced probably 90-95% within 200 years, which interrupted the cultural trajectory of the Neotropics. The next possible contender for the local onset of the Anthropocene was the Rubber Boom (1879-1912). The Rubber Boom greatly increased human populations along many of the Amazon's major rivers and tributaries. Hunting and deforestation picked up pace, and the growing presence of steamships allowed exportation of a wide range of Amazonian products beyond rubber, e.g. plumes, timber, and turtle oil. In addition to these local effects, the global effects that came with increased fossil fuel use and industrialization, would also have influenced all of South America. Even so, the

  16. Diurnal variations in water vapor over Central and South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meza, Amalia; Mendoza, Luciano; Clara, Bianchi

    2017-04-01

    Diurnal variations in atmospheric integrated water vapor (IWV) are studied employing IWV estimates, with a 30 minutes sampling rate, derived from Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) observations during the period 2007-2013. The analysis was performed in 70 GNSS tracking sites (GPS + GLONASS) belonging to Central and South America, which have more than 5 years of data. The selected area involves different climate types, from polar to tropical, and diverse relieves, therefore the patterns of IWV diurnal variations are very different for each station. There are many processes that could induce diurnal variations in atmospheric water vapor (Dai et al, 1999 a,b), the most relevant causes are: surface evapotranspiration, atmospheric large-scale vertical motion, atmospheric low-level moisture convergence and precipitation and vertical mixing (which affects the vertical distribution of water vapor but does not affect the IWV). Firstly, our work study the main characteristics of the IWV diurnal cycle (and for surface temperature, T) obtained for all stations together, using Principal Component Analysis (PCA). First and second PCA modes highlight the global main behaviors of IWV variability for all stations. The first mode on IWV represent the 70% of the variability and could be related to the surface evapotranspiration, while the second mode (27 % of the variability) is practically in counter phase to T variability (its first mode represent the 97% of the variability), therefore this mode could be related to breeze regime. Then, every station is separately analyzed and seasonal and local variations (relative to the relives) are detected, these results spotlight, among other characteristics, the sea and mountain breeze regime. This presentation shows the first analysis of IWV diurnal cycle performed over Central and South America and another original characteristic is PCA technique employed to infer the results. Reference: Dai, A., K. E. Trenberth, and T. R. Karl

  17. Final Gondwana breakup: The Paleogene South American native ungulates and the demise of the South America-Antarctica land connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reguero, Marcelo A.; Gelfo, Javier N.; López, Guillermo M.; Bond, Mariano; Abello, Alejandra; Santillana, Sergio N.; Marenssi, Sergio A.

    2014-12-01

    The biogeographic hypothesis more accepted today is that Antarctica (West Antarctica) and southern South America (Magellan region, Patagonia) were connected by a long and narrow causeway (Weddellian Isthmus) between the Antarctic Peninsula and South America since the Late Cretaceous (Campanian) until the Early Paleogene allowing terrestrial vertebrates to colonize new frontiers using this land bridge. Stratigraphically calibrated phylogenies including large, terrestrial native ungulates Litopterna and Astrapotheria taxa reveal long ghost lineages that extended into the Late Paleocene and provide evidence for the minimum times at which these "native ungulates" were present both on Antarctica and South America. Based on these results we estimate that the Weddellian Isthmus was functional as a land bridge until the Late Paleocene. Our data place the disconnection between Antarctica and South America in the Late Paleocene, indicating that the terrestrial faunistic isolation (Simpson's "splendid isolation") in South America begun at the end of the Paleocene (~ 56 to 57 m.y.). This faunistic isolation is documented to have occurred at least 25 Ma before the existence of deep-water circulation conditions in Drake Passage (~ 30 m.y.) based on the onset of seafloor spreading in the west Scotia Sea region. We hypothesize that in the early stages of extension (Late Paleocene, ~ 55 m.y.) a wide and relatively shallow epicontinental sea developed between the Antarctic Peninsula and South America drowning the Weddellian Isthmus and preventing the faunal interchange for obligate cursorial terrestrial forms.

  18. Insecticide resistance in Anopheles gambiae from south-western Chad, Central Africa

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    Etang Josiane

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indoor residual spraying and insecticide-treated nets (ITN are essential components of malaria vector control in Africa. Pyrethroids are the only recommended compounds for nets treatment because they are fast-acting insecticides with low mammalian toxicity. However, there is growing concern that pyrethroid resistance may threaten the sustainability of ITN scaling-up programmes. Here, insecticide susceptibility was investigated in Anopheles gambiae sensu lato from an area of large scale ITN distribution programme in south-western Chad. Methods Susceptibility to 4% DDT, 0.05% deltamethrin, 0.75% permethrin, 0.1% bendiocarb and 5% malathion was assessed using the WHO standard procedures for adult mosquitoes. Tests were carried out with two to four days-old, non-engorged female mosquitoes. The An. gambiae Kisumu strain was used as a reference. Knockdown effect was recorded every 5 min and mortality scored 24 h after exposure. Mosquitoes were identified to species and molecular form by PCR-RFLP and genotypes at the kdr locus were determined in surviving specimens by Hot Oligonucleotide Ligation Assay (HOLA. Results During this survey, full susceptibility to malathion was recorded in all samples. Reduced susceptibility to bendiocarb (mortality rate of 96.1% was found in one sample out of nine assayed. Increased tolerance to pyrethroids was detected in most samples (8/9 with mortality rates ranging from 70.2 to 96.6% for deltamethrin and from 26.7 to 96.3% for permethrin. Pyrethroid tolerance was not associated with a significant increase of knock-down times. Anopheles arabiensis was the predominant species of the An. gambiae complex in the study area, representing 75 to 100% of the samples. Screening for kdr mutations detected the L1014F mutation in 88.6% (N = 35 of surviving An. gambiae sensu stricto S form mosquitoes. All surviving An. arabiensis (N = 49 and M form An. gambiae s.s. (N = 1 carried the susceptible allele

  19. Riparian vegetation in South-western Europe: drivers of change across space and time (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, F. C.; Ferriera, M.

    2010-12-01

    Riparian ecosystems of Mediterranean Europe have been largely disturbed for millennia due to human-driven alterations. Land-use, deforestation, water diversion and river regulation have been the major causes of change of riparian and freshwater ecosystems. Riparian vegetation in this region has particular features due to a large climatic and environmental variation; from the climatic harshness and the flash-flow hydrological regime of southern rivers to high-altitude permanent rivers of the north regions. Riparia is a fundamental element of the Mediterranean landscape by a number of ecological values, and economic and societal benefits, and they are usually seen as “linear oasis” embedded in the complex landscape matrix. We face a huge challenge in understanding the distribution trends of the riparian species assemblages in those diverse biogeographic regions and the varying effects of the multi-scaled drivers of change. I will review the main studies that have explored the patterns of variation of riparian plant assemblages across space and time in South-Western Europe, including its longitudinal and lateral dimension. Structural community features and plant functional traits, that can be described and quantified, are ecological expressions of both natural and human disturbances, and comparatively less understood than floral composition patterns, and many studies suggest that they are more reactive to disturbance. Linkages of taxonomic and functional trait variation will also be addressed, focusing in the influence of environment at various scale levels. Effects of human disturbances, particularly the alien plant invasions and the losses of biodiversity and connectivity will be tackled. These studies provided evidence of shifts in species composition and in structural complexity, as well as in individual and community responses to wetting and drying due to regulation and to physical disturbances of riverbanks. The intensive agriculture in adjacent lands is a

  20. The Ecology of the Ural Owl at South-Western Border of Its Distribution (Slovenia

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    Al Vrezec

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In Slovenia the Ural Owl (Strix uralensis is on its south-western limit of distribution and belongs to the southern subspecies Strix uralensis macroura. Dark coloured owls are characteristic for this subspecies and represent between 5 to 15% of the population. Slovenian breeding population size is estimated at 400 to 700 pairs. The densities of territories ranges between 0.9 to 13.4 territories per 10 km2, and the highest are reached in mountain forests of southern Dinaric region. In the forests with dominant deciduous trees, e.g. Beech (Fagus sylvatica and Pedinculate Oak (Quercus robur, the breeding densities are significantly higher than in the forests with higher proportion of coniferous trees, e.g. Norway Spruce (Picea abies. The species does not select specific altitude and throughout Slovenia it occurs between 150 and 1600 m a.s.l.  The most of the nest found at natural nest-sites were in tree holes or semi-holes (56% and at the tree stumps (20%. Nest boxes were occupied less frequently in Slovenia with occupancy rate of 29%. At least in mountain regions breeding begins quite late, between 15 March to 21 June. Average clutch size is 3.3 ± 1.0 eggs per nest. About 80% of all nests are successful raising at least one young. The diet shifts significantly between breeding and non-breeding period due to the seasonality in prey availability. According to the biomass the most important prey in breeding period are mice (Muridae, voles (Arvicollidae and mole (Talpa europaea, but in the non-breeding period voles and dormice (Gliridae predominate. Large Fat Dormouse (Glis glis seems to have very important role in the post-breeding period, but not in the breeding period due to its dormancy. As a large forest-dwelling predator the Ural Owl shapes the raptor community in the forest by excluding mezopredator species, as Tawny Owl (Strix aluco, what allows smaller raptors, e.g. Boreal Owl (Aegolius funereus to expend their ranges to lower elevations

  1. Analysis of late Jurassic-recent paleomagnetic data from active plate margins of South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Myrl E.

    Paleomagnetic results for rocks of late Mesozoic and Cenozoic age from South America are analyzed and interpreted. Emphasis is placed on the active margins of the continent. Some important conclusions are reached, with varying degrees of certainty: (1) The reference APW path for stable South America is fairly well defined for the Late Jurassic and Cretaceous, and is not much different from the present rotation axis. (2) The so-called "Bolivian orocline" involved counterclockwise rotations in Peru and northernmost Chile and clockwise rotations in Chile south of about latitude 18.5S. These rotations probably are a result of in situ small-block rotations in response to shear, not actual oroclinal bending. (3) The Bonaire block of northern Venezuela and Colombia has been rotated clockwise relative to the stable interior of South America by about 90°. It also seems to have drifted northward relative to the craton by as much as 1600 km. It probably represents a true accreted terrane, one of very few recognized in South America so far. (4) The "Magellanes orocline" at the southern tip of South America apparently involves some counterclockwise rotation of paleomagnetic vectors, but this too is probably the result of distributed shear. (5) Tectonic processes have very thoroughly "rearranged" the rocks making up the active margins of South America. "Rearrange" here denotes displacement of crustal blocks relative to their surroundings, without significant internal deformation By analogy with North America "rearrangement" might entail in situ block rotation, translation of crustal blocks along the continental margin, and accretion of exotic "tectonostratigraphic terranes". However, in western South America "rearrangement" seems to have consisted dominantly of block rotations that were essentially in situ. For the parts of the Andes investigated so far, late Mesozoic and Cenozoic accretion of exotic terranes and large-scale translation of crustal slivers, as found in western

  2. Opportunities and challenges in developing gas markets in South America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duarte, Cristiano Boaventura [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The article has the objective of identifying and analyzing the key market levers and drivers, emerging issues and challenges in developing the gas markets in South America. In section 1, the paper provides an overview of the most relevant indicators in the natural gas markets of the region. Data such as natural gas proven reserves; production; consumption; trade movements (by pipeline and LNG) and main aspects of regulatory framework are shown. In section 2, some of the key challenges and opportunities in developing gas markets in the region are identified, including those relating to market integration, political aspects and the main players' investments. In section 3, possible strategies from governments and enterprises to overcome those challenges, and seize the potential opportunities of the region are examined. In section 4, the conclusions point to the potential of developing the gas markets as a means to diversify the energy sources in the region, fostering a successful process of economic growth and political integration in the area. (author)

  3. The first hypothelminorheic Crustacea (Amphipoda, Dogielinotidae, Hyalella from South America

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    Stella Rodrigues

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Most of known troglobiotic species occur in caves and subterranean environments from great depths. However, recently more attention has been given to other subterranean environments, such as the hypothelminorheic habitats. It comprises the most superficial among all subterranean habitats. This kind of environment is characterized by the constant presence of wet spots, absence of light and very particular abiotic characteristics, comprising unique species. The first hypothelminorheic Amphipoda from South America is here described, a new species of the genus Hyalella which occurs in a wetland on Southern Brazil. The new species differs from other troglobiotics of the genus by the presence of a curved seta on the inner ramus of uropod 1 and elongation of appendices, as the first pair of antennae and peraeopods 6 and 7. However, human impacts in the area where the new species occurs have changed heavily their habitat, which may have led the species to a critical level of threat or even extinction, demonstrating the fragility of this environment.a

  4. [Hantavirus as important emerging agents in South America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondoño, Andrés F; Levis, Silvana; Rodas, Juan D

    2011-01-01

    The dawning of the 20th century was marked by the emergence of new infectious disease agents and the appearance of others previously thought controlled. Both phenomena were possibly connected with ecological disturbances that led to the recognition of a dramatic climate change, of which the effects are only now becoming noticeable. Among the variety of agents to be considered, the many new viruses stand out, not only for their numerical proliferation, but also for their genetic versatility. It is this quality that provides them dexterity for evolving new strategies and adaptations to changing environmental conditions. Recently, some of the most ubiquitous and well-publicized viral agents in the American continents have been the rodent-borne viruses, and among these are the hantaviruses, etiological agents of pulmonary syndromes. Approximately 18 hantaviruses (belonging to the family Bunyaviridae), have been discovered in South America during the last 20 years, and although most of them cause persistent infections and subclinical infections in wild rodents (particularly members of the subfamily Sigmodontinae) and humans respectively; some others might also be highly lethal for humans. The goal herein is to review the state of the art regarding general aspects of hantaviruses and the diseases they cause around the world, highlighting the most recent findings in Colombia. Finally, the many unanswered questions will be recognized and highlighted concerning clinical importance and socio-economic impact of these agents on quality of public health in Colombia.

  5. Lowland tapir distribution and habitat loss in South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Luis Passos Cordeiro

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The development of species distribution models (SDMs can help conservation efforts by generating potential distributions and identifying areas of high environmental suitability for protection. Our study presents a distribution and habitat map for lowland tapir in South America. We also describe the potential habitat suitability of various geographical regions and habitat loss, inside and outside of protected areas network. Two different SDM approaches, MAXENT and ENFA, produced relative different Habitat Suitability Maps for the lowland tapir. While MAXENT was efficient at identifying areas as suitable or unsuitable, it was less efficient (when compared to the results by ENFA at identifying the gradient of habitat suitability. MAXENT is a more multifaceted technique that establishes more complex relationships between dependent and independent variables. Our results demonstrate that for at least one species, the lowland tapir, the use of a simple consensual approach (average of ENFA and MAXENT models outputs better reflected its current distribution patterns. The Brazilian ecoregions have the highest habitat loss for the tapir. Cerrado and Atlantic Forest account for nearly half (48.19% of the total area lost. The Amazon region contains the largest area under protection, and the most extensive remaining habitat for the tapir, but also showed high levels of habitat loss outside protected areas, which increases the importance of support for proper management.

  6. Cystic echinococcosis in South America: a call for action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos F. Pavletic

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Cystic echinococcosis (CE or hydatidosis, a parasitic zoonosis caused by a cestode of the family Taeniidae, species Echinococcus granulosus, is endemic in Argentina, Chile, Peru, Uruguay, and southern Brazil. This report presents CE figures for these five countries in 2009 – 2014 and proposes indicators to measure national control programs. Nearly 5 000 new CE cases were diagnosed annually in the five countries during the study period. The average case fatality rate was 2.9%, which suggests that CE led to approximately 880 deaths in these countries during the 6-year period. CE cases that required secondary or tertiary health care had average hospital stays of 10.6 days, causing a significant burden to health systems. The proportion of new cases (15% in children less than 15 years of age suggests ongoing transmission. Despite figures showing that CE is not under control in South America, the long-standing implementation of national and local control programs in three of the five countries has achieved reductions in some of the indicators. The Regional Initiative for the Control of CE, which includes the five countries and provides a framework for networking and collaboration, must intensify its efforts.

  7. The Experiences of South-Western Taiwanese Male Adolescents Controlling Their Smoking After Exposure to an Education Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rei-Mei Hong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco use is the most preventable cause of chronic diseases and cancers worldwide. In south-western Taiwan, tobacco use has become one of the top risk behaviors. Smoking in young people has been associated with alcohol addiction and drug abuse in later life; and most smokers start young. Initiation of cigarette smoking at an early age leads to more life-years of tobacco use, makes quitting harder, and increases the risk for serious health consequences. How adolescent boys effectively control their tobacco use is still uncertain. The article explores on the experience of 12 adolescent boys in south-western Taiwan controlling tobacco use as a result of participating in a smoking prevention education program. In addition to the use of interviews and focus groups as the traditional method of data gathering, the lead author also included the use of participants’ paintings as representations of the participants’ lived experience of the phenomenon. The findings of the study suggest that adolescent boys with smoking experience in Taiwan had the desire to control their smoking behavior after obtaining information through a local education program. In addition, they chose suitable methods for controlling their smoking based on the information that had been provided.

  8. Distributed ice thickness and glacier volume in southern South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrivick, Jonathan L.; Davies, Bethan J.; James, William H. M.; Quincey, Duncan J.; Glasser, Neil F.

    2016-11-01

    South American glaciers, including those in Patagonia, presently contribute the largest amount of meltwater to sea level rise per unit glacier area in the world. Yet understanding of the mechanisms behind the associated glacier mass balance changes remains unquantified partly because models are hindered by a lack of knowledge of subglacial topography. This study applied a perfect-plasticity model along glacier centre-lines to derive a first-order estimate of ice thickness and then interpolated these thickness estimates across glacier areas. This produced the first complete coverage of distributed ice thickness, bed topography and volume for 617 glaciers between 41°S and 55°S and in 24 major glacier regions. Maximum modelled ice thicknesses reach 1631 m ± 179 m in the South Patagonian Icefield (SPI), 1315 m ± 145 m in the North Patagonian Icefield (NPI) and 936 m ± 103 m in Cordillera Darwin. The total modelled volume of ice is 1234.6 km3 ± 246.8 km3 for the NPI, 4326.6 km3 ± 865.2 km3 for the SPI and 151.9 km3 ± 30.38 km3 for Cordillera Darwin. The total volume was modelled to be 5955 km3 ± 1191 km3, which equates to 5458.3 Gt ± 1091.6 Gt ice and to 15.08 mm ± 3.01 mm sea level equivalent (SLE). However, a total area of 655 km2 contains ice below sea level and there are 282 individual overdeepenings with a mean depth of 38 m and a total volume if filled with water to the brim of 102 km3. Adjusting the potential SLE for the ice volume below sea level and for the maximum potential storage of meltwater in these overdeepenings produces a maximum potential sea level rise (SLR) of 14.71 mm ± 2.94 mm. We provide a calculation of the present ice volume per major river catchment and we discuss likely changes to southern South America glaciers in the future. The ice thickness and subglacial topography modelled by this study will facilitate future studies of ice dynamics and glacier isostatic adjustment, and will be important for projecting water resources and

  9. New views on American colonization: critical tests from South America

    OpenAIRE

    O'Rourke, Dennis

    2007-01-01

    The traditional view of colonization of the Americas as a migration across Beringia and subsequent dispersal southward following the last glacial maximum is being increasingly questioned. In North America, archaeological links to Siberia are tenuous and genetic data are more consistent with an earlier entry of people into the Americas, from Central rather than Northeast Siberia. An entry of populations into the Americas prior to the last glacial maximum forces a reconsideration not only of ti...

  10. South-western extension of the known range of two freshwater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hilgendorf), were collected in the Gamtoos River in the eastern Cape, representing a southwestern range extension for both. This is the first known record of these species west of Port Elizabeth, and also the first record of an overlap of their ...

  11. LBA-ECO LC-24 Forest Cover Map from MODIS, 500-m, South America: 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains forest cover information for 2001 for all of South America. The data were collected by the MODIS sensor onboard the TERRA platform and...

  12. LBA-ECO LC-24 Forest Cover Map from MODIS, 500-m, South America: 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set contains forest cover information for 2001 for all of South America. The data were collected by the MODIS sensor onboard the TERRA platform...

  13. JERS-1 Synthetic Aperture Radar, 100-m Mosaics, South America: 1995-1996, R1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides ~100-m resolution image mosaics of South America acquired during the low flood season between September and December 1995 and during the high...

  14. Cold Fronts in RegCM/HadGEM simulations over South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pampuch, Luana; Marcos de Jesus, Eduardo; Porfírio da Rocha, Rosmeri; Ambrizzi, Tércio

    2017-04-01

    Cold front is one of the most important systems that contribute for precipitation over South America. The representation of this system in climate models is important for a better representation of the precipitation. The Regional Climate Model RegCM is widely used for climate studies in South America, being important to understand how this model represents the cold fronts. A climatology (from 1979-2004) of the number of cold fronts in each season for RegCM4 simulations over South America CORDEX domain nested in HadGEM2-ES. The simulated climatology was compared with ERA-Interim reanalysis cold fronts climatology over the South America and adjacent South Atlantic Ocean. The cold fronts tracking for the model and the reanalysis were performed using an objective methodology based on decrease of air temperature in 925hPa, shift of meridional wind in 925hPa from northern to southern quadrant and increased in sea level pressure. The main differences were observed on summer and winter. On summer the model overestimate the number of cold fronts over southeastern South America and adjacent Atlantic Ocean; and underestimate it over central-south Argentina and Atlantic Ocean. On winter, the signs were opposite of that summer. On autumn and spring the differences were smaller and occurs mainly over all South Atlantic and north Argentina.

  15. Natural gas commercialization in South America and its role as a regional integration factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanton, Ed; Rotte, Jooste

    1994-01-01

    This paper reviews the development of the existing natural gas businesses in various parts of the world. Lessons that have been learnt are used as pointers to assist in further development of the gas potential in South America. The healthy prospects for gas in South America are reviewed together with the provisions that are essential for gas business development in the future. (author). 1 fig

  16. Natural gas commercialization in South America and its role as a regional integration factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanton, Ed; Rotte, Jooste [Shell International Gas (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    This paper reviews the development of the existing natural gas businesses in various parts of the world. Lessons that have been learnt are used as pointers to assist in further development of the gas potential in South America. The healthy prospects for gas in South America are reviewed together with the provisions that are essential for gas business development in the future. (author). 1 fig.

  17. Invasions by Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in the Western Hemisphere: implications for South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Koch; Robert C. Venette; William D. Hutchison

    2006-01-01

    The multicolored Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas), native to Asia, has recently been detected in South America after successfully invading North America and Europe. This coccinellid is a voracious predator; therefore, it is popular and effective in biological control. Unfortunately, H. axyridis also has associated...

  18. South America's energy integration overshadows Venezuela-US confrontational posture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrantes, Dayse

    2006-07-01

    Venezuela's plans of a 10 000 km gas pipeline project spanning Latin America is presented. A brief analysis of Venezuela's petroleum industry is provided. President Hugo Chavez' main ambitions include reducing oil sales to the USA and to spark South America's energy integration.

  19. Radon exposure in abandoned metalliferous mines of South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, A.A.R. da; Umisedo, N.; Yoshimura, E.M.; Anjos, R.M.; Valladares, D.L.; Velasco, H.; Rizzotto, M.

    2011-01-01

    Since the days of the Spanish and Portuguese conquerors, South America has been closely associated with the metalliferous ore mining. Gold, silver, tin, lead, tungsten, nickel, copper, and palladium ores have been explored over the last centuries. In addition, there has also been the development and promotion of other economic activities related to mining, as the underground mine tourism. A few works have been published on radon levels in the South American mining. In this study, we investigated the radon transport process and its health hazard in two exhausted and abandoned mines in San Luis Province, Argentina. These mines were chosen because they have different physical configurations in their cavities, features which can affect the air flow patterns and radon concentrations. La Carolina gold mine (32 deg 48' 0'' S, 66 deg 60' 0'' W) is currently a blind end system, corresponding to a horizontal excavation into the side of a mountain, with only a main adit. Los Condores wolfram mine (32 deg 33' 25'' S, 65 deg 15' 20'' W) is also a horizontal excavation into the side of a mountain, but has a vertical output (a shaft) at the end of the main gallery. Three different experimental methodologies were used. Radon concentration measurements were performed by CR-39 nuclear track detectors. The distribution of natural radionuclide activities ( 40 K, 232 Th and 238 U) was determined from rock samples collected along their main adits, using in laboratory gamma-ray spectrometry. The external gamma dose rate was evaluated using thermoluminescent dosimeters and a portable survey meter. The values for the 222 Rn concentration ranged from 0.43 ± 0.04 to 1.48 ± 0.12 kBq/m 3 in the Los Condores wolfram mine and from 1.8 ± 0.1 to 6.0±0.5 kBq/m 3 in the La Carolina gold mine, indicating that, in this mine, the radon levels exceed up to four times the action level of 1.5 kBq/m 3 recommended by the ICRP. The patterns of the radon transport process revealed that the La Carolina

  20. Observed warming over northern South America has an anthropogenic origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkhordarian, Armineh; von Storch, Hans; Zorita, Eduardo; Loikith, Paul C.; Mechoso, Carlos R.

    2017-10-01

    We investigate whether the recently observed trends in daily maximum and minimum near-surface air temperature (Tmax and Tmin, respectively) over South America (SA) are consistent with the simulated response of Tmin and Tmax to anthropogenic forcing. Results indicate that the recently observed warming in the dry seasons is well beyond the range of natural (internal) variability. In the wet season the natural modes of variability explain a substantial portion of Tmin and Tmax variability. We demonstrate that the large-scale component of greenhouse gas (GHG) forcing is detectable in dry-seasonal warming. However, none of the global and regional climate change projections reproduce the observed warming of up to 0.6 K/Decade in Tmax in 1983-2012 over northern SA during the austral spring (SON). Thus, besides the global manifestation of GHG forcing, other external drivers have an imprint. Using aerosols-only forcing simulations, our results provide evidence that anthropogenic aerosols also have a detectable influence in SON and that the indirect effect of aerosols on cloud's lifetime is more compatible with the observed record. In addition, there is an increasing trend in the observed incoming solar radiation over northern SA in SON, which is larger than expected from natural (internal) variability alone. We further show that in the dry seasons the spread of projected trends based on the RCP4.5 scenario derived from 30 CMIP5 models encompasses the observed area-averaged trends in Tmin and Tmax. This may imply that the observed excessive warming in the dry seasons serve as an illustration of plausible future expected change in the region.

  1. Climate Inferences from Geothermal Measurements in South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurza Fausto, E.; Harris, R. N.; Montenegro, A.; Tassara, A.; Beltrami, H.

    2014-12-01

    Analysis of borehole temperature data have contributed significantly to estimating the last millennium surface temperature changes. Additionally, recent analysis have contributed to evaluate the Earth's energy balance by providing a quantitative value for the energy absorbed by the continents in the later part of the 20th century. Knowledge of the surface energy flux is important for understanding the solid Earth - atmosphere boundary condition, land cover changes, and their impact on regional and global climate models. We present data and analysis of 19 borehole temperature versus depth profiles from South America. The dataset includes 10 new borehole logs measured during 2012 at three sites in northern Chile (Vallenar, Sierra Gorda and Sierra Limon Verde). These new measurements complement six temperature logs measured during 1994 in the same region (sites near Michilla and Sierra Limon Verde; Springer et al., Tectonophysics, 1998) and four logs obtained from the NOAA Paleoclimatology Borehole Database located in Villa Staff, Toquepala and Talara in Peru. These data were analyzed for climate variability signals of the surface temperature and changes in the Earth's surface energy balance. The analysis suggests a cooling trend during the 19th century of approximately -0.5ºK. Furthermore, results show regionalized temperature changes in ground surface temperatures during the last 50 years with estimates of -0.4ºK in Vallenar, and approximately +1ºK in the Atacama Desert of Northern Chile. We place the results within the context of surface air temperature yearly means obtained from existing meteorological and proxy paleoclimatic data between Peru and Northern Chile. The use of geothermal measurements for climate variability studies provides a further understanding of the climatic and energy cycles of the Southern Hemisphere, where meteorological data can be scarce to non-existent.

  2. Evaluation Metrics for Simulations of Tropical South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallup, S.; Baker, I. T.; Denning, A. S.; Cheeseman, M.; Haynes, K. D.; Phillips, M.

    2017-12-01

    The evergreen broadleaf forest of the Amazon Basin is the largest rainforest on earth, and has teleconnections to global climate and carbon cycle characteristics. This region defies simple characterization, spanning large gradients in total rainfall and seasonal variability. Broadly, the region can be thought of as trending from light-limited in its wettest areas to water-limited near the ecotone, with individual landscapes possibly exhibiting the characteristics of either (or both) limitations during an annual cycle. A basin-scale classification of mean behavior has been elusive, and ecosystem response to seasonal cycles and anomalous drought events has resulted in some disagreement in the literature, to say the least. However, new observational platforms and instruments make characterization of the heterogeneity and variability more feasible.To evaluate simulations of ecophysiological function, we develop metrics that correlate various observational products with meteorological variables such as precipitation and radiation. Observations include eddy covariance fluxes, Solar Induced Fluorescence (SIF, from GOME2 and OCO2), biomass and vegetation indices. We find that the modest correlation between SIF and precipitation decreases with increasing annual precipitation, although the relationship is not consistent between products. Biomass increases with increasing precipitation. Although vegetation indices are generally correlated with biomass and precipitation, they can saturate or experience retrieval issues during cloudy periods.Using these observational products and relationships, we develop a set of model evaluation metrics. These metrics are designed to call attention to models that get "the right answer only if it's for the right reason," and provide an opportunity for more critical evaluation of model physics. These metrics represent a testbed that can be applied to multiple models as a means to evaluate their performance in tropical South America.

  3. Maritime transportation of illegal drugs from South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Michael P; Kress, Moshe; Szechtman, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    The US invests considerable effort in searching and interdicting drug-trafficking vessels in the Caribbean and Eastern Pacific regions. While some vessels are indeed interdicted, resulting in confiscation of substantial quantities of drugs, many such vessels manage to avoid detection and arrive safely at their destinations in Central America and Mexico with their drug load intact. The agency in charge of interdicting this traffic, Joint Interagency Task Force South-JIATF-S, sends out both aerial and surface assets for search and interdiction missions. An important parameter for planning search and interdiction missions is an estimate of the expected steady-state number of the various types of drug trafficking vessels present in the search regions at any given time. In this paper we use various publicly available sources to estimate these numbers. We estimate that the number of drug shipments initiated per month ranges between four and six dozen, and at any given time there are between two and four vessels, of all types, on the high seas. These estimates remain quite robust over a relatively large range of assumptions and estimates regarding the size and distribution of the drug flow, mix of vessel types, and physical characteristics of those vessels. Our analysis provides insight for how to allocate assets to search, detect, and interdict drug trafficking vessels. The results can also be useful to vet informants to check if their information is consistent with our flow estimates. To the best of our knowledge this is the first time such flow estimates appear in the open literature. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Successful adaptation of a research methods course in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamariz, Leonardo; Vasquez, Diego; Loor, Cecilia; Palacio, Ana

    2017-01-01

    South America has low research productivity. The lack of a structured research curriculum is one of the barriers to conducting research. To report our experience adapting an active learning-based research methods curriculum to improve research productivity at a university in Ecuador. We used a mixed-method approach to test the adaptation of the research curriculum at Universidad Catolica Santiago de Guayaquil. The curriculum uses a flipped classroom and active learning approach to teach research methods. When adapted, it was longitudinal and had 16-hour programme of in-person teaching and a six-month follow-up online component. Learners were organized in theme groups according to interest, and each group had a faculty leader. Our primary outcome was research productivity, which was measured by the succesful presentation of the research project at a national meeting, or publication in a peer-review journal. Our secondary outcomes were knowledge and perceived competence before and after course completion. We conducted qualitative interviews of faculty members and students to evaluate themes related to participation in research. Fifty university students and 10 faculty members attended the course. We had a total of 15 groups. Both knowledge and perceived competence increased by 17 and 18 percentage points, respectively. The presentation or publication rate for the entire group was 50%. The qualitative analysis showed that a lack of research culture and curriculum were common barriers to research. A US-based curriculum can be successfully adapted in low-middle income countries. A research curriculum aids in achieving pre-determined milestones. UCSG: Universidad Catolica Santiago de Guayaquil; UM: University of Miami.

  5. Seroepidemiological investigation of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotypes in cattle around Lake Mburo National Park in South-Western Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mwiine, Frank Norbert; Ayebazibwe, Chrisostom; Alexandersen, Søren

    2010-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) outbreaks in cattle occur annually in Uganda. In this study the authors investigated antibodies against FMD virus (FMDV) in cattle in surrounding areas of Lake Mburo National Park in South-western Uganda. Two hundred and eleven serum samples from 23 cattle herds were...

  6. From disaster to sustainability : Floods, changing property relations and water management in the south-western Netherlands, c. 1500-1800

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Cruijningen, P.J.

    2014-01-01

    Insufficient maintenance was the main cause of flooding of a large part of the South-Western Netherlands in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. Re-embankment resulted in changes in soil conditions and property relations. Church and peasants lost land and urban bourgeois became the most important

  7. From disaster to sustainability: floods, changing property relations and water management in the south-western Netherlands, c. 1500-1800

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cruijningen, van P.J.

    2014-01-01

    When large parts of the south-western Netherlands flooded in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries the main cause was insufficient maintenance of the sea defences. The subsequent re-embankment of the polders resulted in changes to both soil conditions and property relations in the region. The Church

  8. The Contribution of Information Acquisition and Management Capacity to Administrators' Decision-Making Effectiveness in Tertiary Institutions in South-Western Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabunmi, Martins; Erwat, Eseza Akiror

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated through empirical methods the extent to which information acquisition and information management capacity of administrators in tertiary institutions in South-Western Nigeria contributed to their decision-making effectiveness. It adopted the ex post facto survey research design, using the random sampling technique to select…

  9. Individual and health facility factors and the risk for obstructed labour and its adverse outcomes in south-western Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turyakira Eleanor

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obstructed labour is still a major cause of maternal morbidity and mortality and of adverse outcome for newborns in low-income countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of individual and health facility factors and the risk for obstructed labour and its adverse outcomes in south-western Uganda. Methods A review was performed on 12,463 obstetric records for the year 2006 from six hospitals located in south-western Uganda and 11,180 women records were analysed. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were applied to control for probable confounders. Results Prevalence of obstructed labour for the six hospitals was 10.5% and the main causes were cephalopelvic disproportion (63.3%, malpresentation or malposition (36.4% and hydrocephalus (0.3%. The risk of obstructed labour was statistically significantly associated with being resident of a particular district [Isingiro] (AOR 1.39, 95% CI: 1.04-1.86, with nulliparous status (AOR 1.47, 95% CI: 1.22-1.78, having delivered once before (AOR 1.57, 95% CI: 1.30-1.91 and age group 15-19 years (AOR 1.21, 95% CI: 1.02-1.45. The risk for perinatal death as an adverse outcome was statistically significantly associated with districts other than five comprising the study area (AOR 2.85, 95% CI: 1.60-5.08 and grand multiparous status (AOR 1.89, 95% CI: 1.11-3.22. Women who lacked paid employment were at increased risk of obstructed labour. Perinatal mortality rate was 142/1000 total births in women with obstructed labour compared to 65/1000 total births in women without the condition. The odds of having maternal complications in women with obstructed labour were 8 times those without the condition. The case fatality rate for obstructed labour was 1.2%. Conclusions Individual socio-demographic and health system factors are strongly associated with obstructed labour and its adverse outcome in south-western Uganda. Our study provides baseline information which may be used by

  10. Hydrovatus caraibus Sharp, 1882 (Dytiscidae, Hydroporinae, Hydrovatini new for the fauna of South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benetti, C. J.

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available The species Hydrovatus caraibus Sharp, 1882 is recorded for the first time for South America, after the recollection of specimens of this species in the municipality of Gramado, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The range of distribution of the species, previously restricted to the Caribbean, is now extended to the latitude 29º 26’ South, approximately.

  11. Monitoring Ecosystems and Biodiversity at a Continental Scale--A Proposal for South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier Silva

    2006-01-01

    A monitoring system plan is being developed in South America to assess critically endangered ecoregions. The system will be based on a previous ecosystem and biodiversity inventory developed through a large gap analysis program in five South American ecoregions. The monitoring system will include three main elements: (1) Landscape Ecology: vegetation cover,...

  12. What Do We Know about the Development of Creativity in South America?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preiss, David D.; Grau, Valeska; Ortiz, Dominga; Bernardino, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    We review recent research about the development of creativity in South America focusing on studies of individual differences in creativity and educational and developmental studies of children and adolescents' creativity. Most South American researchers are influenced by mainstream psychometric approaches, although computational and cultural…

  13. 7 CFR 319.56-26 - Melon and watermelon from certain countries in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Melon and watermelon from certain countries in South... and Vegetables § 319.56-26 Melon and watermelon from certain countries in South America. (a) Cantaloupe and watermelon from Ecuador. Cantaloupe (Cucumis melo) and watermelon (fruit) (Citrullus lanatus...

  14. Effects of Seasonal Land Surface Conditions on Hydrometeorological Dynamics in South-western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-21

    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: Arid and semiarid landscapes in regions with seasonal precipitation experience dramatic changes that alter land surface...semiarid landscapes in regions with seasonal precipitation experience dramatic changes that alter land surface conditions, including soil moisture...aerial vehicle data acquisition and high performance computing-based hydrologic modeling designed to capture, account for and predict seasonal variations

  15. PHYLOGEOGRAPHY OF BATRACHOSPERMUM MACROSPORUM (BATRACHOSPERMALES, RHODOPHYTA) FROM NORTH AND SOUTH AMERICA(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vis, Morgan L; Cameron Hodge, J; Necchi, Orlando

    2008-08-01

    Phylogeographic trends in Batrachospermum macrosporum Mont. were investigated using the mitochondrial intergenic spacer between the cytochrome oxidase subunit 2 and 3 genes (cox2-3). A total of 11 stream segments were sampled with seven in the coastal plain of North America and four in tropical areas of South America. Fifteen thalli were sampled from seven streams, 14 thalli from two streams, and eight thalli from two streams. There were 16 haplotypes detected using 149 individuals. Of the eight haplotypes from locations in North America, all were 334 base pairs (bp) in length, and of those from South America, five were 344 bp, and three were 348 bp. Two individual networks were produced: one for the haplotypes from North America and another for those from South America, and these could not be joined due to the large number of base pair differences. This split between haplotypes from North and South America was confirmed with sequence data of the rbcL gene. There was very little genetic variation among the haplotypes from the North American locations, leading us to hypothesize that these are fairly recent colonization events along the coastal plain. In contrast, there was high variation among haplotypes from South America, and it would appear that the Amazon serves as a center of diversity. We detected considerable variation in haplotypes among streams, but frequently, a single haplotype in an individual stream segment, which is consistent with data from previous studies of other batrachospermalean taxa, may suggest a single colonization event per stream. © 2008 Phycological Society of America.

  16. Perspective on South America: the Latin American contribution to the world movement in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, M J

    2001-08-01

    The invigoration of Latin American medical education during the past decade has been remarkable. The new initiatives which have taken place and the innovative programmes which have been enacted are analysed with reference to the seminal participation in international ventures. The analysis demonstrates that, while South American regional development was undeniably and profoundly influenced by the world movement in medical education, there has also been a reciprocal influence. South America has contributed notably to global action. The extent of the contribution by South America to the world movement, and the benefits gained in turn, make it self-evident that continuation of such bilateral exchange is crucial, and is to be energetically promoted.

  17. Seismicity of the Earth 1900-2013, seismotectonics of South America (Nazca Plate Region)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Gavin P.; Smoczyk, Gregory M.; Benz, Harley M.; Furlong, Kevin P.; Villaseñor, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The South American arc extends over 7,000 kilometers (km), from the Chilean margin triple junction offshore of southern Chile, to its intersection with the Panama fracture zone, offshore of the southern coast of Panama in Central America. It marks the plate boundary between the subducting Nazca plate and the South America plate, where the oceanic crust and lithosphere of the Nazca plate begin their descent into the mantle beneath South America. The convergence associated with this subduction process is responsible for the uplift of the Andes Mountains, and for the active volcanic chain present along much of this deformation front. Relative to a fixed South America plate, the Nazca plate moves slightly north of eastwards at a rate varying from approximately 80 millimeters/year (mm/yr) in the south, to approximately 65 mm/yr in the north. Although the rate of subduction varies little along the entire arc, there are complex changes in the geologic processes along the subduction zone that dramatically influence volcanic activity, crustal deformation, earthquake generation and occurrence all along the western edge of South America.

  18. MJO Modulating the Activity of the Leading Mode of Intraseasonal Variability in South America

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    Mariano S. Alvarez

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Intraseasonal (IS variability in South America is efficiently described through the first empirical orthogonal function of filtered precipitation or outgoing longwave radiation (OLR anomalies. In the 30–90-day band, the leading OLR pattern between October and April is a dipole with centers of action in the South Atlantic Convergence Zone (SACZ and southeastern South America (SESA. The Madden Julian Oscillation (MJO was shown to have an impact on the rainfall in South America, with greater influence during the austral warm season. The aim of this study is therefore to assess the modulation of the MJO in the activity of the leading pattern of variability in South America, named the 3090-Seasonal-Intraseasonal (SIS pattern. It was found that the most intense periods of activity of the SIS pattern appear to be related to intense MJO events with coherent eastward propagation. Furthermore, positive 3090-SIS phases, associated with enhanced (inhibited convection over the SESA (SACZ region generally occur during MJO progression from the eastern Indian Ocean to the Western Pacific (i.e., Maritime Continent sector. On the contrary, negative 3090-SIS phases, associated with enhanced (inhibited convection over SACZ (SESA are observed when the MJO active phase locates between the Western Pacific and the western Indian Ocean (African sector. The 3090-SIS pattern modulation by the MJO opens the opportunity to develop skillful subseasonal prediction tools in South America.

  19. On what basis is it possible to teach intercomprehension between western and south-western Slavic languages?

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    Grégoire Labbé

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Intercomprehension between similar languages of the same family is to a certain measure a natural phenomenon. However, comprehension of a close language will very often be disturbed by many opaque elements, which are not understandable without a better knowledge of its grammar or vocabulary. A methodology similar to the one offered by the manual Eurom 5 allows learners to work on their comprehension of a language family and its functioning. In Eurom 5, the learning process is focused on the knowledge of a “romance system”, bringing out the particularities of each of the languages dealt with within the manual. With such a system in place, a better comprehension of these languages is guaranteed. We have been trying to adapt such a concept to western and south-western Slavic languages, focusing at first on Czech, Slovenian and, to a lesser extent, Croatian.

  20. Desertification and its effect on the erosion of vegetation in the south-western region of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Salam, Magda Magdy; Elhakem, Abeer Hamdy

    2016-03-01

    This study was conducted in Jazan region of south-western Saudi Arabia. Vegetation cover, frequency, abundance and soil characteristics were analysed at three locations with different quantitative and descriptive vegetation characteristics. Plant species were classified into three primary communities dominated by Salvadora persic, Acacia tortilis and Ziziphus spini-Christi. The results indicated that the distribution of plant species is controlled by soil characteristics. Very limited water resources are also limiting factor in vegetation growth. Among the three studied sites, desert and coastal environments are affected by desertification. Rehabilitation of the degraded lands requires collaborative efforts and support from the different related governmental sectors. Ecological conservation and sustainable development must be adopted as tools of rehabilitation.

  1. Prevalence of dyslipidaemia and associated risk factors in a rural population in South-Western Uganda: a community based survey.

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    Gershim Asiki

    Full Text Available The burden of dyslipidaemia is rising in many low income countries. However, there are few data on the prevalence of, or risk factors for, dyslipidaemia in Africa.In 2011, we used the WHO Stepwise approach to collect cardiovascular risk data within a general population cohort in rural south-western Uganda. Dyslipidaemia was defined by high total cholesterol (TC ≥ 5.2 mmol/L or low high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C 6% (men aOR=3.00, 95%CI=1.37-6.59; women aOR=2.74, 95%CI=1.77-4.27. The odds of high TC was also higher among married men, and women with higher education or high BMI.Low HDL-C prevalence in this relatively young rural population is high whereas high TC prevalence is low. The consequences of dyslipidaemia in African populations remain unclear and prospective follow-up is required.

  2. Genomic Insights into the Ancestry and Demographic History of South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homburger, Julian R; Moreno-Estrada, Andrés; Gignoux, Christopher R; Nelson, Dominic; Sanchez, Elena; Ortiz-Tello, Patricia; Pons-Estel, Bernardo A; Acevedo-Vasquez, Eduardo; Miranda, Pedro; Langefeld, Carl D; Gravel, Simon; Alarcón-Riquelme, Marta E; Bustamante, Carlos D

    2015-12-01

    South America has a complex demographic history shaped by multiple migration and admixture events in pre- and post-colonial times. Settled over 14,000 years ago by Native Americans, South America has experienced migrations of European and African individuals, similar to other regions in the Americas. However, the timing and magnitude of these events resulted in markedly different patterns of admixture throughout Latin America. We use genome-wide SNP data for 437 admixed individuals from 5 countries (Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Chile, and Argentina) to explore the population structure and demographic history of South American Latinos. We combined these data with population reference panels from Africa, Asia, Europe and the Americas to perform global ancestry analysis and infer the subcontinental origin of the European and Native American ancestry components of the admixed individuals. By applying ancestry-specific PCA analyses we find that most of the European ancestry in South American Latinos is from the Iberian Peninsula; however, many individuals trace their ancestry back to Italy, especially within Argentina. We find a strong gradient in the Native American ancestry component of South American Latinos associated with country of origin and the geography of local indigenous populations. For example, Native American genomic segments in Peruvians show greater affinities with Andean indigenous peoples like Quechua and Aymara, whereas Native American haplotypes from Colombians tend to cluster with Amazonian and coastal tribes from northern South America. Using ancestry tract length analysis we modeled post-colonial South American migration history as the youngest in Latin America during European colonization (9-14 generations ago), with an additional strong pulse of European migration occurring between 3 and 9 generations ago. These genetic footprints can impact our understanding of population-level differences in biomedical traits and, thus, inform future medical

  3. Genomic Insights into the Ancestry and Demographic History of South America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian R Homburger

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available South America has a complex demographic history shaped by multiple migration and admixture events in pre- and post-colonial times. Settled over 14,000 years ago by Native Americans, South America has experienced migrations of European and African individuals, similar to other regions in the Americas. However, the timing and magnitude of these events resulted in markedly different patterns of admixture throughout Latin America. We use genome-wide SNP data for 437 admixed individuals from 5 countries (Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Chile, and Argentina to explore the population structure and demographic history of South American Latinos. We combined these data with population reference panels from Africa, Asia, Europe and the Americas to perform global ancestry analysis and infer the subcontinental origin of the European and Native American ancestry components of the admixed individuals. By applying ancestry-specific PCA analyses we find that most of the European ancestry in South American Latinos is from the Iberian Peninsula; however, many individuals trace their ancestry back to Italy, especially within Argentina. We find a strong gradient in the Native American ancestry component of South American Latinos associated with country of origin and the geography of local indigenous populations. For example, Native American genomic segments in Peruvians show greater affinities with Andean indigenous peoples like Quechua and Aymara, whereas Native American haplotypes from Colombians tend to cluster with Amazonian and coastal tribes from northern South America. Using ancestry tract length analysis we modeled post-colonial South American migration history as the youngest in Latin America during European colonization (9-14 generations ago, with an additional strong pulse of European migration occurring between 3 and 9 generations ago. These genetic footprints can impact our understanding of population-level differences in biomedical traits and, thus, inform

  4. Genomic Insights into the Ancestry and Demographic History of South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homburger, Julian R.; Moreno-Estrada, Andrés; Gignoux, Christopher R.; Nelson, Dominic; Sanchez, Elena; Ortiz-Tello, Patricia; Pons-Estel, Bernardo A.; Acevedo-Vasquez, Eduardo; Miranda, Pedro; Langefeld, Carl D.; Gravel, Simon; Alarcón-Riquelme, Marta E.; Bustamante, Carlos D.

    2015-01-01

    South America has a complex demographic history shaped by multiple migration and admixture events in pre- and post-colonial times. Settled over 14,000 years ago by Native Americans, South America has experienced migrations of European and African individuals, similar to other regions in the Americas. However, the timing and magnitude of these events resulted in markedly different patterns of admixture throughout Latin America. We use genome-wide SNP data for 437 admixed individuals from 5 countries (Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Chile, and Argentina) to explore the population structure and demographic history of South American Latinos. We combined these data with population reference panels from Africa, Asia, Europe and the Americas to perform global ancestry analysis and infer the subcontinental origin of the European and Native American ancestry components of the admixed individuals. By applying ancestry-specific PCA analyses we find that most of the European ancestry in South American Latinos is from the Iberian Peninsula; however, many individuals trace their ancestry back to Italy, especially within Argentina. We find a strong gradient in the Native American ancestry component of South American Latinos associated with country of origin and the geography of local indigenous populations. For example, Native American genomic segments in Peruvians show greater affinities with Andean indigenous peoples like Quechua and Aymara, whereas Native American haplotypes from Colombians tend to cluster with Amazonian and coastal tribes from northern South America. Using ancestry tract length analysis we modeled post-colonial South American migration history as the youngest in Latin America during European colonization (9–14 generations ago), with an additional strong pulse of European migration occurring between 3 and 9 generations ago. These genetic footprints can impact our understanding of population-level differences in biomedical traits and, thus, inform future medical

  5. Neurocysticercosos in South-Central America and the Indian Subcontinent: a comparative evaluation

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    Gagandeep Singh

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Neurocysticercosis is an important public health problem in South-Central America and South Asia. A review of the differences in epidemiological and clinical attributes of cysticercosis and taeniasis in South Central America and India, respectively, is undertaken in the present communication. Intestinal taeniasis is hyperendemic in several American countries. In comparison, the prevalence of Taenia solium infestation is lower in India. The clinical manifestations in several American neurocysticercosis series comprise epilepsy, intracranial hypertension and meningeal - racemose cysticercosis, in roughly equal proportions. An overwhelming majority of the Indian subjects present with seizures. The commonest pathological substrate of the disorder in Indian patients is the solitary parenchymal degenerating cyst. The reasons for the predominance of solitary forms in India, and of multilesional forms in South Central America are discussed. The magnitude of Taenia solium infestation and the frequency of pork consumption in a given population appear to influence the quantum of cyst load in affected individuals.

  6. Promoting Scientific Collaboration in South America through IDD-Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagas, G. O.

    2006-05-01

    The IDD-Brazil constitutes of an expansion of the Unidata Internet Data Distribution (IDD), a joint effort among the Laboratório de Prognósticos em Mesoescala - Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (LPM/UFRJ), Centro de PreviSão de Tempo e Estudos Climáticos (CPTEC, a division of INPE) and the Unidata Program Center, linking several Brazilian and South American Institutions in a network for near-real time data sharing. This international cooperation is modifying drastically the way that researchers use data, providing access to broaden and more detailed information, available freely for the participants of this network. Data-sharing is one of the biggest issues in Brazil, and the solutions developed at Unidata Program Center enhances not only data access and management, but also the display and analysis of a variety of datasets. Using the Local Data Manager (LDM), a site can both receive and send data trough the IDD network, on a client-server architecture. Moreover, this system also provides a seamless integration with many decoders, following WMO standards for a large array of data, ranging from METAR messages to GRIB. Using this network as a new path to deliver and acquire observational data, IDD-Brazil participants are now capable of receiving observational data not only from GTS (Global Telecommunication System), but also from CPTECs PCD (automatic stations) network and the entire array of METAR and SYNOP observations, in a near-real time basis. This network is capable of addressing a gap in data sharing, since it has no cost for educational and research purposes. The UFRJ has been working closely with CPTEC and Unidata, porting new datasets to this system, such as the output from CPTEC's ETA 40km regional model, local acquired Satellite Imagery from GOES, and LPM's MM5 and WRF 20km mesoscale models. The IDD-Brazil is creating a new cooperation among several institutions that traditionally face the same issues, but never had a link to a community. The

  7. Seaweed beds support more juvenile reef fish than seagrass beds in a south-western Atlantic tropical seascape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggertsen, L.; Ferreira, C. E. L.; Fontoura, L.; Kautsky, N.; Gullström, M.; Berkström, C.

    2017-09-01

    Seascape connectivity is regarded essential for healthy reef fish communities in tropical shallow systems. A number of reef fish species use separate adult and nursery habitats, and hence contribute to nutrient and energy transfer between habitats. Seagrass beds and mangroves often constitute important nursery habitats, with high structural complexity and protection from predation. Here, we investigated if reef fish assemblages in the tropical south-western Atlantic demonstrate ontogenetic habitat connectivity and identify possible nurseries on three reef systems along the eastern Brazilian coast. Fish were surveyed in fore reef, back reef, Halodule wrightii seagrass beds and seaweed beds. Seagrass beds contained lower abundances and species richness of fish than expected, while Sargassum-dominated seaweed beds contained significantly more juveniles than all other habitats (average juvenile fish densities: 32.6 per 40 m2 in Sargassum beds, 11.2 per 40 m2 in back reef, 10.1 per 40 m2 in fore reef, and 5.04 per 40 m2 in seagrass beds), including several species that are found in the reef habitats as adults. Species that in other regions worldwide (e.g. the Caribbean) utilise seagrass beds as nursery habitats were here instead observed in Sargassum beds or back reef habitats. Coral cover was not correlated to adult fish distribution patterns; instead, type of turf was an important variable. Connectivity, and thus pathways of nutrient transfer, seems to function differently in east Brazil compared to many tropical regions. Sargassum-dominated beds might be more important as nurseries for a larger number of fish species than seagrass beds. Due to the low abundance of structurally complex seagrass beds we suggest that seaweed beds might influence adult reef fish abundances, being essential for several keystone species of reef fish in the tropical south-western Atlantic.

  8. Regional distribution patterns of chemical parameters in surface sediments of the south-western Baltic Sea and their possible causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leipe, T.; Naumann, M.; Tauber, F.; Radtke, H.; Friedland, R.; Hiller, A.; Arz, H. W.

    2017-12-01

    This study presents selected results of a sediment geochemical mapping program of German territorial waters in the south-western Baltic Sea. The field work was conducted mainly during the early 2000s. Due to the strong variability of sediment types in the study area, it was decided to separate and analyse the fine fraction (TOC) and selected elements (P, Hg), the regional distribution maps show strong differences between the analysed fine fraction and the recalculated total sediment. Seeing that mud contents vary strongly between 0 and 100%, this can be explained by the well-known grain-size effect. To avoid (or at least minimise) this effect, further interpretations were based on the data for the fine fraction alone. Lateral transport from the large Oder River estuary combined with high abundances and activities of benthic fauna on the shallow-water Oder Bank (well sorted fine sand) could be some main causes for hotspots identified in the fine-fraction element distribution. The regional pattern of primary production as the main driver of nutrient element fixation (C, N, P, Si) was found to be only weakly correlated with, for example, the TOC distribution in the fine fraction. This implies that, besides surface sediment dynamics, local conditions (e.g. benthic secondary production) also have strong impacts. To the best of the authors' knowledge, there is no comparable study with geochemical analyses of the fine fraction of marine sediments to this extent (13,600 km2) and coverage (between 600 and 800 data points) in the Baltic Sea. This aspect proved pivotal in confidently pinpointing geochemical "anomalies" in surface sediments of the south-western Baltic Sea.

  9. Potential impacts of climate change on flow regime and fish habitat in mountain rivers of the south-western Balkans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadaki, Christina; Soulis, Konstantinos; Muñoz-Mas, Rafael; Martinez-Capel, Francisco; Zogaris, Stamatis; Ntoanidis, Lazaros; Dimitriou, Elias

    2016-01-01

    The climate change in the Mediterranean area is expected to have significant impacts on the aquatic ecosystems and particular in the mountain rivers and streams that often host important species such as the Salmo farioides, Karaman 1938. These impacts will most possibly affect the habitat availability for various aquatic species resulting to an essential alteration of the water requirements, either for dams or other water abstractions, in order to maintain the essential levels of ecological flow for the rivers. The main scope of this study was to assess potential climate change impacts on the hydrological patterns and typical biota for a south-western Balkan mountain river, the Acheloos. The altered flow regimes under different emission scenarios of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) were estimated using a hydrological model and based on regional climate simulations over the study area. The Indicators of Hydrologic Alteration (IHA) methodology was then used to assess the potential streamflow alterations in the studied river due to predicted climate change conditions. A fish habitat simulation method integrating univariate habitat suitability curves and hydraulic modeling techniques were used to assess the impacts on the relationships between the aquatic biota and hydrological status utilizing a sentinel species, the West Balkan trout. The most prominent effects of the climate change scenarios depict severe flow reductions that are likely to occur especially during the summer flows, changing the duration and depressing the magnitude of the natural low flow conditions. Weighted Usable Area-flow curves indicated the limitation of suitable habitat for the native trout. Finally, this preliminary application highlighted the potential of science-based hydrological and habitat simulation approaches that are relevant to both biological quality elements (fish) and current EU Water policy to serve as efficient tools for the estimation of possible climate

  10. Potential climate change impacts on the water balance of regional unconfined aquifer systems in south-western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ali

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study assesses climate change impacts on water balance components of the regional unconfined aquifer systems in south-western Australia, an area that has experienced a marked decline in rainfall since the mid 1970s and is expected to experience further decline due to global warming. Compared with the historical period of 1975 to 2007, reductions in the mean annual rainfall of between 15 and 18 percent are expected under a dry variant of the 2030 climate which will reduce recharge rates by between 33 and 49 percent relative to that under the historical period climate. Relative to the historical climate, reductions of up to 50 percent in groundwater discharge to the ocean and drainage systems are also expected. Sea-water intrusion is likely in the Peel-Harvey Area under the dry future climate and net leakage to confined systems is projected to decrease by up to 35 percent which will cause reduction in pressures in confined systems under current abstraction. The percentage of net annual recharge consumed by groundwater storage, and ocean and drainage discharges is expected to decrease and percentage of net annual recharge consumed by pumping and net leakage to confined systems to increase under median and dry future climates. Climate change is likely to significantly impact various water balance components of the regional unconfined aquifer systems of south-western Australia. We assess the quantitative climate change impact on the different components (the amounts using the most widely used GCMs in combination with dynamically linked recharge and physically distributed groundwater models.

  11. Trophic ecology of yellownose skate Zearaja chilensis, a top predator in the south-western Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belleggia, M; Andrada, N; Paglieri, S; Cortés, F; Massa, A M; Figueroa, D E; Bremec, C

    2016-03-01

    The diet and trophic level (TL ) of the yellownose skate Zearaja chilensis in the south-western Atlantic Ocean (35°-54° S), and how these varied in relation to body size, sex, maturity stage, depth and region were determined by analysis of stomach contents. From 776 specimens analysed, 671 (86·5%) ranging from 180 to 1190 mm total length (LT ) had prey in their stomachs. The diet was dominated by fishes, mainly the notothenioid Patagonotothen ramsayi and the Argentine hake Merluccius hubbsi. The consumption of fishes and crabs increased with increasing predator size, and these preys were more important in the north than in the south. Isopods and other crustaceans were consumed more in the south and their consumption decreased as the size of Z. chilensis increased. The TL of Z. chilensis increased with LT from 4·29 to 4·59 (mean 4·53), confirming their ecological role as a top predator. The small and large size classes exhibited a low diet overlap and the highest spatial segregation, whereas medium and large specimens had higher co-occurrence and dietary overlap indices. A clear distinction in tooth shape was noted between sexes in adult specimens, with males having longer cusps. This sexual heterodonty may be related to reproductive behaviour, increasing the grasping ability of males during courtship, because there were no differences in diet between the sexes. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  12. Hydraulic properties and scale effects investigation in regional rock aquifers, south-western Quebec, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nastev, M.; Savard, M. M.; Lapcevic, P.; Lefebvre, R.; Martel, R.

    This paper reports on the characterization of hydraulic properties of regional rock aquifers carried out within a groundwater resources assessment project in the St. Lawrence Lowlands of south-western Quebec. To understand the aquifer behavior at both the fracture level and at field scale, hydraulic investigations were carried out using various aquifer tests. The groundwater flow at the local scale is controlled mostly by the fracture system. Results of the constant-head injection tests show a weak decreasing trend of hydraulic conductivity with depth indicating that a major part of the groundwater flow occurs in the first meters of the rock sequence. At the regional scale, the equivalent porous media approach is applicable. The hydraulic conductivity measurements were correlated to the scale of the aquifer tests expressed with the investigated aquifer volume. A simple interpolation procedure for the hydraulic conductivity field was developed based on the distance between field measurements and the tested aquifer volumes. The regional distribution of the hydraulic conductivity for the major fractured aquifer units indicates that dolostone is the most permeable whereas sandstone and crystalline rocks are the least permeable units. Este artículo trata de la caracterización de las propiedades hidráulicas en acuíferos regionales rocosos, la cual se llevó a cabo dentro del proyecto de evaluación de los recursos de agua subterránea en St. Lawrence Lowlands al suroeste de Quebec. Para entender el comportamiento del acuífero tanto a nivel de fractura como a escala del campo, se ejecutaron investigaciones hidráulicas usando varias pruebas de acuífero. El flujo del agua subterránea a escala local está controlado principalmente por el sistema de fracturas. Los resultados de las pruebas de inyección con cabeza constante muestran una tendencia decreciente débil de la conductividad hidráulica con la profundidad, indicando que la mayor parte del flujo de agua

  13. Review of the harvestfishes, genus Peprilus (Perciformes: Stromateidae), of the Atlantic coast of South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marceniuk, Alexandre P; Caires, Rodrigo; Siccha-Ramirez, Raquel; Oliveira, Claudio

    2016-04-06

    Currently, seven valid species are recognized in the genus Peprilus. Found from United States to Argentina, Peprilus paru has a complex nomenclatural history, with seven junior synonyms, three from North America and four from South America. As there has been no recent research, it remains unclear whether species representatives in the north-south axis represent different populations of a single species or distinct species. By comparison of type specimens as well as a comprehensive collection of non-type specimens, this paper aims to clarify the taxonomic status of the nominal species listed as junior synonyms of Peprilus paru in the Atlantic side of South America. Based on morphological data and DNA barcoding, Peprilus crenulatus Cuvier, 1829 and P. xanthurus (Quoy & Gaimard, 1825) are resurrected, while Rhombus argentipinnis Cuvier, 1833 and Rhombus orbicularis Guichenot, 1866, are considered to be junior synonyms of P. crenulatus.

  14. Protecting The Homeland By Efficient Phase 0 Operations In The Caribbean, Central, And South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Ministry of Health, Ministry of Defense, Ministry of Education , non-governmental organizations, bilingual schools and a variety of community members...Per the guidance provided in Military Medical Ethics, “military exercises specifically in Latin America were to (1) improve readiness of armed...Strengthening regional and U.S. security in the Caribbean, Central, and South America requires active engagement through exercises and educational

  15. Stress distribution and seismicity patterns of the 2011 seismic swarm in the Messinia basin, (South-Western Peloponnesus, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Chouliaras

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation we examine the local stress field and the seismicity patterns associated with the 2011–2012 seismicity swarm in the Messinia basin, south-western Peloponnesus, Greece, using the seismological data of the National Observatory of Athens (NOA. During this swarm more than 2000 events were recorded in a 12 month period by the Hellenic Unified Seismological Network (HUSN and also by the additional local installation of four portable broadband seismographic stations by NOA.

    The results indicate a Gaussian distribution of swarm activity and the development of a seismicity cluster in a pre-existing seismic gap within the Messinia basin. Centroid Moment Tensor solutions demonstrate a normal fault trending northwest–southeast and dipping to the southwest primarily due to an extensional stress field. During this seismicity swarm an epicentre migration of the three largest shocks is observed, from one end of the rupture zone in the north-western part of the cluster, towards the other edge of the rupture in the south-eastern part of the cluster. This migration is found to follow the Coulomb failure criterion that predicts the advancement and retardation of the stress field and the patterns of increases and decreases of the seismicity rate (b-value of the frequency–magnitude relation.

  16. Increasing Aridity is Enhancing Silver Fir (Abies Alba Mill). Water Stress in its South-Western Distribution Limit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macias, M. [Department of Geology, University of Helsinki, Gustaf Haellstroeminkatu 2, P.O. Box 64, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Andreu, L.; Bosch, O.; Gutierrez, E. [Departament d' Ecologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Avgda. Diagonal, 645, Barcelona, 08028, Catalonia (Spain); Camarero, J.J. [Unidad de Recursos Forestales, Centro de Investigacion Agroalimentaria, Gobierno de Aragon, Apdo. 727, Zaragoza, 50080, Aragon (Spain)

    2006-12-15

    Tree populations located at the geographical distribution limit of the species may provide valuable information about the response of tree growth to climate warming across climatic gradients. Dendroclimatic information was extracted from a network of 10 silver-fir (Abies alba) populations in the south-western distribution limit of the species (Pyrenees, NE Iberian Peninsula). Ring-width chronologies were built for five stands sampled in mesic sites from the Main Range in the Pyrenees, and for five forests located in the southern Peripheral Ranges where summer drought is more pronounced. The radial growth of silver-fir in this region is constrained by water stress during the summer previous to growth, as suggested by the negative relationship with previous September temperature and, to a lesser degree, by a positive relationship with previous end of summer precipitation. Climatic data showed a warming trend since the 1970s across the Pyrenees, with more severe summer droughts. The recent warming changed the climate-growth relationships, causing higher growth synchrony among sites, and a higher year-to-year growth variation, especially in the southernmost forests. Moving-interval response functions suggested an increasing water-stress effect on radial growth during the last half of the 20th century. The growth period under water stress has extended from summer up to early autumn. Forests located in the southern Peripheral Ranges experienced a more intense water stress, as seen in a shift of their response to precipitation and temperature. The Main-Range sites mainly showed a response to warming. The intensification of water-stress during the late 20th century might affect the future growth performance of the highly-fragmented A. alba populations in the southwestern distribution limit of the species.

  17. Highly specialized mammalian skulls from the Late Cretaceous of South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rougier, Guillermo W; Apesteguía, Sebastián; Gaetano, Leandro C

    2011-11-02

    Dryolestoids are an extinct mammalian group belonging to the lineage leading to modern marsupials and placentals. Dryolestoids are known by teeth and jaws from the Jurassic period of North America and Europe, but they thrived in South America up to the end of the Mesozoic era and survived to the beginnings of the Cenozoic. Isolated teeth and jaws from the latest Cretaceous of South America provide mounting evidence that, at least in western Gondwana, dryolestoids developed into strongly endemic groups by the Late Cretaceous. However, the lack of pre-Late Cretaceous dryolestoid remains made study of their origin and early diversification intractable. Here we describe the first mammalian remains from the early Late Cretaceous of South America, including two partial skulls and jaws of a derived dryolestoid showing dental and cranial features unknown among any other group of Mesozoic mammals, such as single-rooted molars preceded by double-rooted premolars, combined with a very long muzzle, exceedingly long canines and evidence of highly specialized masticatory musculature. On one hand, the new mammal shares derived features of dryolestoids with forms from the Jurassic of Laurasia, whereas on the other hand, it is very specialized and highlights the endemic, diverse dryolestoid fauna from the Cretaceous of South America. Our specimens include only the second mammalian skull known for the Cretaceous of Gondwana, bridging a previous 60-million-year gap in the fossil record, and document the whole cranial morphology of a dryolestoid, revealing an unsuspected morphological and ecological diversity for non-tribosphenic mammals.

  18. Analysis of subsidence in northeastern Venezuela as a discriminator of tectonic models for northern South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erikson, Johan P.; Pindell, James L.

    1993-10-01

    Subsidence analysis of northeastern Venezuela's exposed, parautochthonous Lower Cretaceous-Miocene sedimentary section reveals an Atlantic-type passive-margin subsidence history for the entire Cretaceous-middle Eocene interval; Oligocene-Miocene subsidence was rapid and great and was caused by foredeep formation and emplacement of the fold-and-thrust belt that now exposes the passive-margin sedimentary section. Our analyses support tectonic models of South America's northern margin which propose Cenozoic eastward migration of a foredeep along northern South America's late Mesozoic passive margin. The calculated subsidence is inconsistent with tectonic models that propose middle or Late Cretaceous subduction or obduction.

  19. South America and the proliferation of biological weapons

    OpenAIRE

    Tatiana Coutto

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on the role of regional institutions and political practices in strengthening multilateral disarmament and non-proliferation regimes. Particular attention is devoted to coordination between Brazil and Argentina with a view to forging a "South American position" vis-à-vis the Biological and Toxins Weapons Convention (BTWC). Empirical evidence suggests that informal arrangements between the two countries were capable of involving other South American leaders and promoting t...

  20. Gender and Intra-Regional Migration in South America

    OpenAIRE

    Cerrutti, Marcela

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the process of feminization of South American intra-regional migration, with emphasis in the Southern Cone. It describes recent changes and trends, and addresses some of the most salient issues on the participation and experiences of female migrants. It deals with the social and economic reasons underlying the increasing autonomous migration of women, particularly on the interconnections between the South-American economic restructuring and the increasing demand of female ...

  1. A buffer for Etosha - The attitudes towards a buffer zone on private farmland at the south-western border of the Etosha National Park (Namibia) and chances for its implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Jokisch, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the attitudes of local people at the south-western border of the Etosha National Park (Namibia) towards a buffer zone on private farmland. Results are compared with expert opinions and literature. Research methods are qualitative interviews and participant observation. The farmland at the south-western border of the Etosha National Park is used for multiple purposes ranging from classical cattle farming to wildlife farming for consumptive (trophy hunting) or non...

  2. Health outcomes among HIV-positive Latinos initiating antiretroviral therapy in North America versus Central and South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesar, Carina; Koethe, John R; Giganti, Mark J; Rebeiro, Peter; Althoff, Keri N; Napravnik, Sonia; Mayor, Angel; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Wolff, Marcelo; Padgett, Denis; Sierra-Madero, Juan; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Sterling, Timothy R; Willig, James; Levison, Julie; Kitahata, Mari; Rodriguez-Barradas, Maria C; Moore, Richard D; McGowan, Catherine; Shepherd, Bryan E; Cahn, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Latinos living with HIV in the Americas share a common ethnic and cultural heritage. In North America, Latinos have a relatively high rate of new HIV infections but lower rates of engagement at all stages of the care continuum, whereas in Latin America antiretroviral therapy (ART) services continue to expand to meet treatment needs. In this analysis, we compare HIV treatment outcomes between Latinos receiving ART in North America versus Latin America. Methods HIV-positive adults initiating ART at Caribbean, Central and South America Network for HIV (CCASAnet) sites were compared to Latino patients (based on country of origin or ethnic identity) starting treatment at North American AIDS Cohort Collaboration on Research and Design (NA-ACCORD) sites in the United States and Canada between 2000 and 2011. Cox proportional hazards models compared mortality, treatment interruption, antiretroviral regimen change, virologic failure and loss to follow-up between cohorts. Results The study included 8400 CCASAnet and 2786 NA-ACCORD patients initiating ART. CCASAnet patients were younger (median 35 vs. 37 years), more likely to be female (27% vs. 20%) and had lower nadir CD4 count (median 148 vs. 195 cells/µL, p<0.001 for all). In multivariable analyses, CCASAnet patients had a higher risk of mortality after ART initiation (adjusted hazard ratio (AHR) 1.61; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.32 to 1.96), particularly during the first year, but a lower hazard of treatment interruption (AHR: 0.46; 95% CI: 0.42 to 0.50), change to second-line ART (AHR: 0.56; 95% CI: 0.51 to 0.62) and virologic failure (AHR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.48 to 0.57). Conclusions HIV-positive Latinos initiating ART in Latin America have greater continuity of treatment but are at higher risk of death than Latinos in North America. Factors underlying these differences, such as HIV testing, linkage and access to care, warrant further investigation. PMID:26996992

  3. Environmental patterns and biomass distribution of gelatinous macrozooplankton. Three study cases in the South-western Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. W. Mianzan

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Periodic swarms or blooms of gelatinous macrozooplankton have a negative effect on many human activities such as tourism, fisheries, and industry, but for several reasons (sampling procedures, underestimation of their real abundance, etc., they have often been neglected in the local literature. The high spatial resolution exercise of the South-western Atlantic anchovy Engraulis anchoita Recruitment Project (SARP was therefore also suitable for estimating standing stocks of jelly macrozooplankton, attempting to establish particular environmental patterns exerting control on the spatial distribution of these facultative carnivorous predators in coastal frontal environments. These studies were carried out through a sampling programme on board the German R/V Meteor in three different systems, convergence and divergent, in the South-western Atlantic Ocean: Region A (42°S on the Argentine shelf, characterised by tidal mixing fronts; Region B (36°S, the freshwater outflow from Río de la Plata; and Region C (28°S, under upwelling events in subtropical waters on the Brazilian shelf. In general, a dominance of gelatinous macrozooplankton, compared with the other fraction of macrozooplankton and micronekton was observed. Mean standing stock of the gelatinous zooplankton was always greater than 50% of organic carbon (org. C in every section analysed. The lobate ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi dominated the zooplankton biomass in Region A, Argentina. It represented 60% of total org. C and was more abundant at the stratified zone of the front. Ctenophores were also dominant in Region B, Río de la Plata, where the related species Mnemiopsis mccradyi and the cydippid ctenophore Pleurobrachia pileus comprised 81% of total org. C. Mnemiopsis was most common in areas of vertical thermal and saline stratification, while Pleurobrachia was dominant in the less stratified areas. Gelatinous zooplankton was also the principal component of the macrozooplankton biomass

  4. Future Trends in Nutrient Export to the Coastal Waters of South America: Implications for Occurrence of Eutrophication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struijk, F.; Kroeze, C.

    2010-01-01

    We analyze future trends in nutrient export to the coastal waters of South America, with a special focus on the causes of nutrient export and their potential effects. Nutrient Export from Watersheds (NEWS) model results for South America are presented, including trends in human activities and the

  5. Diversity and conservation of enset (Ensete ventricosum Welw. Cheesman) and its relation to household food and livelihood security in south-western Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Negash, A.

    2001-01-01

    Agriculture in Ethiopia is characterized by diverse farming practices. Farmers with various ethnic background and cultural diversity living in the country's diverse agro-ecological zones have developed farming systems, characterized by a high degree of species diversity. The enset based farming system is one of these. It can be found in South-western part of the country. The research, on which this thesis is based, was carried out in the Kaffa Shaka zone among 240 househ...

  6. THE RELATIVE INCIDENCE OF HYPERTENSION COMORBIDLY OCCURRING WITH DIABETES IN ABO/RHESUS BLOOD GROUPS AND HAEMOGLOBIN GENOTYPES IN SOUTH-WESTERN NIGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    Adio J. Akamo; Oladipo Ademuyiwa; Regina N. Ugbaja; Elizabeth A. Balogun; David A. Ojo; Olusola A. Talabi; Christopher, A. Erinle

    2014-01-01

    ABO blood groups, Rhesus factors and haemoglobin genotypes are all inherited blood characters. This this study was aimed at investigating the relative incidence of hypertension comorbidly occurring with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in ABO/Rhesus blood groups and haemoglobin genotypes in some residents of Abeokuta, South-Western Nigeria. Age and sex matched control subjects (n=150) and patients (n=470) [hypertensive nondiabetics (HND, n=179), normotensive diabetics (ND, n=132), hypertensive...

  7. Climate Change Impact on ENSO and its Teleconnections with South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natori, A. A.; Grimm, A. M.

    2006-12-01

    We analyze the interannual variability of the summer monsoon rainy season in South America and its relationship with SST as simulated by the ocean-atmosphere coupled model ECHAM5-OM for present-day conditions (1961-1990) and future A2 emission scenario (2071-2100). The first mode of model precipitation variability, both in spring and summer, is associated with El Niño- Southern Oscillation (ENSO). In both seasons it features a dipole of anomalies between northern and southeastern South America. These modes correspond, with some differences, to the first variability mode of observed spring precipitation, and to the third variability mode of observed summer precipitation, which are also associated with ENSO. While the relationship between ENSO events and precipitation variability in northern South America strengthens for the A2 scenario, it weakens in southeastern South America, especially in spring, which is presently the season with strongest ENSO-related impact. The ENSO related SST anomalies in the equatorial central-eastern Pacific are stronger in the enhanced emission scenario, which probably explains the stronger connection with northern Brazil via anomalous Walker circulation. However, the ENSO-related latitudinal tropical-subtropical SST gradient in eastern South Pacific is weaker in the projected climate, which reduces the Rossby-wave propagation to southeastern South America, thus weakening the ENSO impact on the circulation and precipitation in this region. Acknowledgments. This study was supported by MMA-Brazil/PROBIO (GEF and BIRD), Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientifico e Tecnologico (CNPq Brazil), and Inter-American Institute for Global Change Research (CRN055).

  8. Volatile Substance Misuse Among High School Students in South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynes-Dowell, Marya; Mateu-Gelabert, Pedro; Barros, Helena Maria Taunhauser; Delva, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    This article summarizes data from a 2004 study of over 300,000 high school students (aged 13–18 years) in nine South American countries. A probabilistic sample targeted urban secondary schools, utilizing a self-administered questionnaire on prevalence and frequency of substance use. Multivariate analysis showed that volatile substances were the first or second most commonly reported substances used after alcohol and cigarettes in all countries (lifetime prevalence range: 2.67% [Paraguay] to 16.55% [Brazil]). Previous studies have highlighted volatile substance misuse among street children, whereas this study demonstrates that it is common among South American high school students. PMID:21609142

  9. Land use patterns and related carbon losses following deforestation in South America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sy, De V.; Herold, M.; Achard, F.; Beuchle, R.; Clevers, J.G.P.W.; Lindquist, E.; Verchot, L.

    2015-01-01

    Land use change in South America, mainly deforestation, is a large source of anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Identifying and addressing the causes or drivers of anthropogenic forest change is considered crucial for global climate change mitigation. Few countries however, monitor

  10. Triatoma vitticeps subcomplex (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae): a new grouping of Chagas disease vectors from South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alevi, Kaio Cesar Chaboli; de Oliveira, Jader; de Azeredo-Oliveira, Maria Tercília Vilela; da Rosa, João Aristeu

    2017-04-13

    Triatomines have been grouped into complexes and subcomplexes based largely on morphological and geographical distribution. Although these groupings are not formally recognised as taxonomic ranks, they are likely monophyletic. However, recent studies have demonstrated that some subcomplexes from South America did not form monophyletic groups, and reorganisations have been suggested. One suggested reorganisation is to exclude Triatoma vitticeps, T. melanocephala, and T. tibiamaculata from the T. brasiliensis subcomplex. However, T. vitticeps and T. melanocephala exhibit several similar characteristics, including morphologic, cytogenetic, and phylogenetic features, a factor which supports the creation of a new subcomplex. Thus, this study aimed to describe the T. vitticeps subcomplex. T. vitticeps and T. melanocephala are sister species and share a phylogenetic relationship, several similar morphological characteristics, the same composition of constitutive heterochromatin (Xs CG-rich and Y AT-rich), the same karyotype (2n = 20A + X 1 X 2 X 3 Y), and the same meiotic behaviour during spermatogenesis. Based on karyosystematics, for example, the T. vitticeps subcomplex may differ from all of the other subcomplexes from South America, as well as from the Rhodniini tribe and the genus Panstrongylus. We argue that the case of agmatoploidy involving the X chromosome was responsible for the karyotype divergence of this subcomplex in relation to the other South America subcomplexes. Based on the phenotypic characteristics (morphology) and genotypes (cytogenetics and molecular features), we propose the creation of the monophyletic T. vitticeps subcomplex, which we believe is distinct from all other subcomplexes from South America.

  11. Multilocus genotypes indicate differentiation among Puccinia psidii populations from South America and Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. N. Graca; A. C. Alfenas; A. L. Ross-Davis; Ned Klopfenstein; M. -S. Kim; T. L. Peever; P. G. Cannon; J. Y. Uchida; C. Y. Kadooka; R. D. Hauff

    2011-01-01

    Puccinia psidii is the cause of rust disease of many host species in the Myrtaceae family, including guava (Psidium spp.), eucalypt (Eucalyptus spp.), rose apple (Syzygium jambos), and 'ohi'a (Metrosideros polymorpha). First reported in 1884 on guava in Brazil, the rust has since been detected in South America (Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Paraguay, Uruguay,...

  12. Tectonic implications of tomographic images of subducted lithosphere beneath northwestern South America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilst, R.D. van der; Mann, P.

    1994-01-01

    We used seismic tomography to investigate the complex structure of the upper mantle below northwestern South America. Images of slab structure not delineated by previous seismicity studies help us to refine existing tectonic models of subducted Caribbean-Pacific lithosphere beneath the study area.

  13. Rifting and magmatism associated with the South America and Africa break-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomaz Filho, Antonio; Cesero, Pedro de

    2000-01-01

    Based on about 380 K/Ar dating of basic and alkaline magmatic rocks from Brazilian sedimentary basins and the argentinean Atlantic margin it is possible to interpret the evolution of the rifting that caused the South America and Africa break-up. This process started in the Triassic and took place northwestward of the Foz do Amazonas basin, on the equatorial Brazilian continental margin, and reached the San Julian and North Malvinas basins, in the southern portion of South America. From this latter up to the Espirito Santo Basin, rifting took place between the Jurassic and Neocomian whereas transcurrence caused by clockwise rotation of South America on the equatorial margin generated the Potiguar Basin. The available information suggests that the final break-up of Africa and South America occurred along the eastern Brazilian margin, between the Cumuruxatiba/Mucuri and Pernambuco basins, during the Cenomanian/Turonian. The resistance offered by the Sao Luis/West African and Sao Francisco/Congo cratons promoted the huge magnetic manifestations which occur in the Brazilian paleozoic intracratonic basins (Acre, Solimoes, Amazonas, Paranaiba and Parana basins) as well as in the interior Tacutu Rift. Hot spots turned out during the drift phase, as registered by the Mecejana (CE)/Rocas Atoll/Fernando de Noronha Archipelago Alignment and Pocos de Caldas/Cabo Frio Alkaline Rocks Alignment that persists up to Vitoria/Trindade Chain. (author)

  14. Characterizing Temperature Variability and Associated Large Scale Meteorological Patterns Across South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detzer, J.; Loikith, P. C.; Mechoso, C. R.; Barkhordarian, A.; Lee, H.

    2017-12-01

    South America's climate varies considerably owing to its large geographic range and diverse topographical features. Spanning the tropics to the mid-latitudes and from high peaks to tropical rainforest, the continent experiences an array of climate and weather patterns. Due to this considerable spatial extent, assessing temperature variability at the continent scale is particularly challenging. It is well documented in the literature that temperatures have been increasing across portions of South America in recent decades, and while there have been many studies that have focused on precipitation variability and change, temperature has received less scientific attention. Therefore, a more thorough understanding of the drivers of temperature variability is critical for interpreting future change. First, k-means cluster analysis is used to identify four primary modes of temperature variability across the continent, stratified by season. Next, composites of large scale meteorological patterns (LSMPs) are calculated for months assigned to each cluster. Initial results suggest that LSMPs, defined using meteorological variables such as sea level pressure (SLP), geopotential height, and wind, are able to identify synoptic scale mechanisms important for driving temperature variability at the monthly scale. Some LSMPs indicate a relationship with known recurrent modes of climate variability. For example, composites of geopotential height suggest that the Southern Annular Mode is an important, but not necessarily dominant, component of temperature variability over southern South America. This work will be extended to assess the drivers of temperature extremes across South America.

  15. Rapid coastal spread of First Americans: Novel insights from South America's Southern Cone mitochondrial genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodner, Martin; Perego, Ugo A.; Huber, Gabriela; Fendt, Liane; Röck, Alexander W.; Zimmermann, Bettina; Olivieri, Anna; Gómez-Carballa, Alberto; Lancioni, Hovirag; Angerhofer, Norman; Bobillo, Maria Cecilia; Corach, Daniel; Woodward, Scott R.; Salas, Antonio; Achilli, Alessandro; Torroni, Antonio; Bandelt, Hans-Jürgen; Parson, Walther

    2012-01-01

    It is now widely agreed that the Native American founders originated from a Beringian source population ∼15–18 thousand years ago (kya) and rapidly populated all of the New World, probably mainly following the Pacific coastal route. However, details about the migration into the Americas and the routes pursued on the continent still remain unresolved, despite numerous genetic, archaeological, and linguistic investigations. To examine the pioneering peopling phase of the South American continent, we screened literature and mtDNA databases and identified two novel mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) clades, here named D1g and D1j, within the pan-American haplogroup D1. They both show overall rare occurrences but local high frequencies, and are essentially restricted to populations from the Southern Cone of South America (Chile and Argentina). We selected and completely sequenced 43 D1g and D1j mtDNA genomes applying highest quality standards. Molecular and phylogeographic analyses revealed extensive variation within each of the two clades and possibly distinct dispersal patterns. Their age estimates agree with the dating of the earliest archaeological sites in South America and indicate that the Paleo-Indian spread along the entire longitude of the American double continent might have taken even South America. PMID:22333566

  16. Conservation of placentation during the tertiary radiation of mammals in South America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Anthony Michael; Mess, Andrea Maria

    2013-01-01

    The eutherian placenta is considered to possess great plasticity, but it is not clear how this variation reflects adaptation to different ecological niches. Because South America was isolated for most of the Tertiary, it represents a natural laboratory to examine this question. We here describe p...

  17. A rapid diversification of rainforest trees (Guatteria; Annonaceae) following dispersal from Central into South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkens, Roy H J; Chatrou, Lars W; Maas, Jan W; van der Niet, Timotheüs; Savolainen, Vincent

    2007-07-01

    Several recent studies have suggested that a substantial portion of today's plant diversity in the Neotropics has resulted from the dispersal of taxa into that region rather than vicariance, but more data are needed to substantiate this claim. Guatteria (Annonaceae) is, with 265 species, the third largest genus of Neotropical trees after Inga (Fabaceae) and Ocotea (Lauraceae), and its widespread distribution and frequent occurrence makes the genus an excellent model taxon to study diversification patterns. This study reconstructed the phylogeny of Guatteria and inferred three major biogeographical events in the history of the genus: (1) a trans-oceanic Miocene migration from Central into South America before the closing of the Isthmus of Panama; (2) a major diversification of the lineage within South America; and (3) several migrations of South American lineages back into Central America via the closed Panamanian land bridge. Therefore, Guatteria is not an Amazonian centred-genus sensu Gentry but a major Miocene diversification that followed its dispersal into South America. This study provides further evidence that migration into the Neotropics was an important factor in the historical assembly of its biodiversity. Furthermore, it is shown that phylogenetic patterns are comparable to those found in Ocotea and Inga and that a closer comparison of these genera is desirable.

  18. A diagnosis of rainfall over South America during 1997/98 El Niño ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 118; Issue 3. A diagnosis of rainfall over South America during 1997/98 El Niño and 1998/99 La Niña events: Comparison between TRMM PR and GPCP rainfall estimates. Sergio H Franchito V Brahmananda Rao Ana C Vasques Clovis M E Santo Jorge C Conforte.

  19. Spatiotemporal Analysis of Guaroa Virus Diversity, Evolution, and Spread in South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groseth, Allison; Wollenberg, Kurt R.; Mampilli, Veena; Shupert, Taylor; Weisend, Carla; Guevara, Carolina; Kochel, Tadeusz J.; Tesh, Robert B.

    2015-01-01

    We conducted phylogeographic modeling to determine the introduction and spread of Guaroa virus in South America. The results suggest a recent introduction of this virus into regions of Peru and Bolivia over the past 60–70 years and emphasize the need for increased surveillance in surrounding areas. PMID:25695188

  20. Parallel diversifications of Cremastosperma and Mosannona (Annonaceae), tropical rainforest trees tracking Neogene upheaval of South America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pirie, M.D.; Maas, P.J.M.; Wilschut, R.A.; Melchers-Sharrott, H.; Chatrou, L.W.

    2018-01-01

    Much of the immense present day biological diversity of Neotropical rainforests originated from the Miocene onwards, a period of geological and ecological upheaval in South America. We assess the impact of the Andean orogeny, drainage of Lake Pebas and closure of the Panama isthmus on two clades of

  1. Parallel diversifications of Cremastosperma and mosannona (annonaceae), tropical rainforest trees tracking neogene upheaval of South America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pirie, Michael D.; Maas, Paul J.M.; Wilschut, Rutger A.; Melchers-Sharrott, Heleen; Chatrou, Lars W.

    2018-01-01

    Much of the immense present day biological diversity of Neotropical rainforests originated from the Miocene onwards, a period of geological and ecological upheaval in South America. We assess the impact of the Andean orogeny, drainage of Lake Pebas and closure of the Panama isthmus on two clades of

  2. Migration of Computer Science Graduates from South Asia to Europe and North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, W. A.; Siddiqi, A. B.; Ahmed, F.

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses the influx of computer science graduates from South Asia into Europe and North America. It analyses the need and supply chains between two points and identifies the pros and cons of the education imparted to these graduates. The effects of social disorder due to migrations are addressed. The resulting technological vacuum in…

  3. Land use change and ecosystem service provision in Pampas and Campos grasslands of southern South America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Modernel Hristoff, Pablo; Rossing, W.A.H.; Corbeels, M.; Dogliotti, S.; Picasso, V.; Tittonell, P.

    2016-01-01

    New livestock production models need to simultaneously meet the increasing global demand for meat and preserve biodiversity and ecosystem services. Since the 16th century beef cattle has been produced on the Pampas and Campos native grasslands in southern South America, with only small amounts of

  4. Long-term trends and interannual variability of forest, savanna and agricultural fires in South America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Y.; Morton, D. C.; Yin, Y. F.; Collatz, G. J.; Kasibhatla, P. S.; van der Werf, G.R.; DeFries, R. S.; Randerson, J. T.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Landscape fires in South America have considerable impacts on ecosystems, air quality and the climate system. We examined long-term trends and interannual variability of forest, savanna and agricultural fires for the continent during 2001-2012 using multiple satellite-derived fire

  5. Rodent middens, a new method for Quaternary research in arid zones of South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, J.L.; Saavedra, B.

    2002-01-01

    In arid and semi-arid regions of South America, historical evidence for climate and vegetation change is scarce despite its importance for determining reference conditions and rates of natural variability in areas susceptible to modern desertification. Normal lines of evidence, such as pollen stratigraphies from lakes, are either rare or unobtainable in deserts; studies of late Quaternary vegetation history are few and generally inconclusive. This gap in knowledge may be corrected with discovery and development of fossil rodent middens in rocky environments throughout arid South America. These middens, mostly the work of Lagidium, Phyllotis, Abrocoma and Octodontomys, are rich in readily identifiable plant macrofossils, cuticles and pollen, as well as vertebrate and insect remains. In the North American deserts, more than 2,500 woodrat (Neotoma) middens analyzed since 1960 have yielded a detailed history of environmental change during the past 40,000 years. Preliminary work in the pre-puna, Monte and Patagonian Deserts of western Argentina, the Atacama Desert of northern Chile/southern Peru, the Mediterranean matorral of central Chile, and the Puna of the Andean altiplano suggest a similar potential for rodent middens in South America. Here we borrow from the North American experience to synthesize methodologies and approaches, summarize preliminary work, and explore the potential of rodent midden research in South America.

  6. The sexual history of the global South: sexual politics in Africa, Asia and Latin America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, S.; Sívori, H.

    2013-01-01

    The Sexual History of the Global South explores the gap between sexuality studies and post-colonial cultural critique. Featuring twelve case studies, based on original historical and ethnographic research from countries in Africa, Asia, and Latin America, the book examines the sexual investments

  7. Two new species of Parandrinae (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in genera Parandra and Acutandra from South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two new species of high-elevation Parandrinae (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) are described from Bolivia and Ecuador, South America. Both species are unusual in having piceous coloration over most of the dorsal surface. Acutandra caterinoi Lingafelter & Tishechkin, new species, is described from Pichin...

  8. Book review: Vetter, H. 2005. Terralog. Turtles of the World. Vol. 3. Central and South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Book review: Vetter, H. 2005. Terralog. Turtles of the World. Vol. 3. Central and South America/Schildkröten der Welt Band 3. Mittel- und Südamerika: 1-128, color pictures 606 + 9. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt, Germany.ISBN 3-930612-82-8; 29.7 x 20.8 cm

  9. Greening South America, one business at a time | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-09-06

    Sep 6, 2016 ... Brand-name billion-dollar multinationals tend to get the lion's share of attention when the topic of environmentally-friendly industry comes up. But in South American countries such as Argentina, small and medium-sized businesses are emerging as role players, too. This article is part of an ongoing series of ...

  10. Patterns of species richness in sandy beaches of South America ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The middle shore is primarily occupied by cirolanids and bivalves, and hippid crabs, bivalves and amphipods dominate the lower beach. Generally, species richness increases from upper to lower beach levels. Studies carried out on exposed sandy beaches of south-central Chile (ca. 40°S) show that different beach states ...

  11. Concepts in International Relations: Contemporary Issues in South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starbird, Caroline; Pettit, Jenny; Hurt,J.P.; Antony; DeBoer, Dale

    2005-01-01

    This book's purpose is to give students an in-depth understanding of South American countries and cultures. The book approaches this understanding through examinations of statistics, maps, articles and editorials, case studies, and text of legislation. The book provides students with background for each situation, giving them a good understanding…

  12. On the importance of cascading moisture recycling in South America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zemp, D.C.; Schleussner, C.F.; Barbosa, H.M.J.; Van der Ent, R.J.; Donges, J.F.; Heinke, J.; Sampaio, G.; Rammig, A.

    2014-01-01

    Continental moisture recycling is a crucial process of the South American climate system. In particular, evapotranspiration from the Amazon basin contributes substantially to precipitation regionally as well as over other remote regions such as the La Plata basin. Here we present an in-depth

  13. Regional Policy Frameworks of Social Solidarity Economy in South America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Saguier (Marcelo); Z.W. Brent (Zoe)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This paper looks at how the social and solidarity economy (SSE) discourse has been deployed at a regional level by the Union of South American Nations (UNASUR) and Southern American Common Market (MERCOSUR), and the implications of these new policy frameworks for the

  14. The birds of the alien Acacia thickets of the South-western Cape

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    THE BIRDS OF THE ALIEN ACACIA THICKETS. OF THE SOUTH WESTERN CAPE. 1. M. WINTERBOTTOM. Percy FitzPatrick Institute of African Ornithology, University of Cape Town. About 1876, the Cape Superintendent of Plantations began using the Australian Acacia cyanophylla and A. cyclops on a large scale to fix ...

  15. Rainfall induced landslides in December 2004 in south-western Umbria, central Italy: types, extent, damage and risk assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cardinali

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The autumn of 2004 was particularly wet in Umbria, with cumulative rainfall in the period from October to December exceeding 600 mm. On 4–6 December and on 25–27 December 2004, two storms hit the Umbria Region producing numerous landslides, which were abundant near the town of Orvieto where they affected volcanic deposits and marine sediments. In this work, we document the type and abundance of the rainfall-induced landslides in the Orvieto area, in south-western Umbria, we study the rainfall conditions that triggered the landslides, including the timing of the slope failures, we determine the geotechnical properties of the failed volcanic materials, and we discuss the type and extent of damage produced by the landslides. We then use the recent event landslide information to test a geomorphological assessment of landslide hazards and risk prepared for the village of Sugano, in the Orvieto area. Based on the results of the test, we update the existing landslide hazards and risk scenario for extremely rapid landslides, mostly rock falls, and we introduce a new landslide scenario for rapid and very rapid landslides, including soil slides, debris flows and debris avalanches.

  16. Lesion Distribution and Epidemiology of Mycobacterium bovis in Elk and White-Tailed Deer in South-Western Manitoba, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd K. Shury

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Surveillance for Mycobacterium bovis in free-ranging elk (Cervus elaphus and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus from south-western Manitoba was carried out from 1997 to 2010 to describe the lesions, epidemiology, and geographic distribution of disease. Tissues were cultured from animals killed by hunters, culled for management, blood-tested, or found opportunistically. Period prevalence in elk was approximately six times higher than deer, suggesting a significant reservoir role for elk, but that infected deer may also be involved. Prevalence was consistently higher in elk compared to deer in a small core area and prevalence declines since 2003 are likely due to a combination of management factors instituted during that time. Older age classes and animals sampled from the core area were at significantly higher risk of being culture positive. Positive elk and deer were more likely to be found through blood testing, opportunistic surveillance, and culling compared to hunting. No non-lesioned, culture-positive elk were detected in this study compared to previous studies in red deer.

  17. Knowledge and practices related to bovine brucellosis transmission amongst livestock workers in Yewa, south-western Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesokan, Hezekiah K; Alabi, Peter I; Stack, Judy A; Cadmus, Simeon I B

    2013-03-06

    Brucellosis is an endemic disease in the animal population in Nigeria and of major public health importance, particularly amongst livestock workers who are ignorant of the risk of Brucella infection. Therefore, to gain insight into the knowledge and practices related to brucellosis transmission amongst livestock holders (LH) and livestock marketers (LM) in Yewa, an international livestock trading centre in south-western Nigeria, we conducted an interviewbased study using a cluster sampling technique. In all, a total of 157 respondents comprising 54 LH and 103 LM were interviewed. Two-thirds (69.5%) of the two groups had poor knowledge of brucellosis with no significant difference between them (p = 0.262). Furthermore, consumption of unpasteurised milk, uncooked meat and its products, co-habitation with animals, and poor hygiene were significant risk practices identified as possible means of transfer of Brucella infection from animals to humans amongst these livestock workers (p < 0.05). In conclusion, our findings revealed that poor knowledge and practices related to the consumption of unpasteurised or unboiled dairy products, contaminated beef, and unhygienic practices are factors that will facilitate Brucella infections amongst livestock workers in Nigeria. Therefore, there is a need for more public health enlightenment programmes, as well as implementation of brucellosis control measures in the cattle populations.

  18. Mammal occurrence and roadkill in two adjacent ecoregions (Atlantic Forest and Cerrado in south-western Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton C. Cáceres

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the frequencies of mammal roadkill in two adjacent biogeographic ecoregions (Atlantic Forest and Cerrado of Brazil. Mammals were recorded during a seven-year period and over 3,900 km of roads, in order to obtain data for frequencies of species in habitats (sites and frequencies of species killed by cars on roads. Sites (n = 80 within ecoregions (Cerrado, n = 57; Atlantic Forest, n = 23 were searched for records of mammals. Species surveyed in the entire region totaled 33, belonging to nine orders and 16 families. In the Cerrado, 31 species were recorded in habitats; of these, 25 were found dead on roads. In the Atlantic Forest ecoregions, however, we found 21 species in habitats, 16 of which were also found dead on roads. There was no overall significant difference between ecoregions for frequencies of occurrence in habitats or for roadkills, but there were differences between individual species. Hence, anteaters were mostly recorded in the Cerrado ecoregion, whereas caviomorph rodents tended to be more frequent in the Atlantic Forest ecoregion (seen mainly by roadkills. The greater number of species (overall and threatened and the greater abundance of species records in the Cerrado suggest that this ecoregion has a greater biodiversity and is better conserved than the Atlantic Forest ecoregion, in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, south-western Brazil.

  19. Low level off-road vehicle (ORV) traffic negatively impacts macroinvertebrate assemblages at sandy beaches in south-western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Rebecca; Speldewinde, Peter C.; Stewart, Barbara A.

    2016-04-01

    Off-road vehicle use is arguably one of the most environmentally damaging human activities undertaken on sandy beaches worldwide. Existing studies focused on areas of high traffic volumes have demonstrated significantly lower abundance, diversity and species richness of fauna in zones where traffic is concentrated. The impact of lower traffic volumes is unknown. This study aimed to investigate the impacts of relatively low-level vehicle traffic on sandy beach fauna by sampling invertebrate communities at eight beaches located in south-western Australia. We found that even low-level vehicle traffic negatively impacts the physical beach environment, and consequently, the ability of many species to survive in this habitat in the face of this disturbance. Compaction, rutting and displacement of the sand matrix were observed over a large area, resulting in significant decreases in species diversity and density, and measurable shifts in community structure on beaches that experienced off-road vehicle traffic. Communities at impact sites did not display seasonal recovery as traffic was not significantly different between seasons. Given a choice between either reducing traffic volumes, or excluding ORV traffic from beaches, our results suggest that the latter would be more appropriate when the retention of ecological integrity is the objective.

  20. Knowledge and practices related to bovine brucellosis transmission amongst livestock workers in Yewa, south-western Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hezekiah K. Adesokan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is an endemic disease in the animal population in Nigeria and of major public health importance, particularly amongst livestock workers who are ignorant of the risk of Brucella infection. Therefore, to gain insight into the knowledge and practices related to brucellosis transmission amongst livestock holders (LH and livestock marketers (LM in Yewa, an international livestock trading centre in south-western Nigeria, we conducted an interviewbased study using a cluster sampling technique. In all, a total of 157 respondents comprising 54 LH and 103 LM were interviewed. Two-thirds (69.5% of the two groups had poor knowledge of brucellosis with no significant difference between them (p = 0.262. Furthermore, consumption of unpasteurised milk, uncooked meat and its products, co-habitation with animals, and poor hygiene were significant risk practices identified as possible means of transfer of Brucella infection from animals to humans amongst these livestock workers (p < 0.05. In conclusion, our findings revealed that poor knowledge and practices related to the consumption of unpasteurised or unboiled dairy products, contaminated beef, and unhygienic practices are factors that will facilitate Brucella infections amongst livestock workers in Nigeria. Therefore, there is a need for more public health enlightenment programmes, as well as implementation of brucellosis control measures in the cattle populations.

  1. Knowledge and practices related to bovine brucellosis transmission amongst livestock workers in Yewa, south-western Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hezekiah K. Adesokan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is an endemic disease in the animal population in Nigeria and of major public health importance, particularly amongst livestock workers who are ignorant of the risk of Brucella infection. Therefore, to gain insight into the knowledge and practices related to brucellosis transmission amongst livestock holders (LH and livestock marketers (LM in Yewa, an international livestock trading centre in south-western Nigeria, we conducted an interviewbased study using a cluster sampling technique. In all, a total of 157 respondents comprising 54 LH and 103 LM were interviewed. Two-thirds (69.5% of the two groups had poor knowledge of brucellosis with no significant difference between them (p = 0.262. Furthermore, consumption of unpasteurised milk, uncooked meat and its products, co-habitation with animals, and poor hygiene were significant risk practices identified as possible means of transfer of Brucella infection from animals to humans amongst these livestock workers (p < 0.05. In conclusion, our findings revealed that poor knowledge and practices related to the consumption of unpasteurised or unboiled dairy products, contaminated beef, and unhygienic practices are factors that will facilitate Brucella infections amongst livestock workers in Nigeria. Therefore, there is a need for more public health enlightenment programmes, as well as implementation of brucellosis control measures in the cattle populations.

  2. Prevalence and Determinants of Unintended Pregnancy Among Women in South-Western Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamina, M A

    2015-09-01

    To study the prevalence of unwanted pregnancy in urban and rural settlements in Southwestern Nigeria. A prospective cross-sectional study of women within reproductive age. Community-based study of unwanted pregnancy was conducted in 2012. They were women of reproductive age who had experienced unintended and/or unwanted pregnancies and they were randomly selected from rural and urban areas of Ogun state in Nigeria. A semi-structured questionnaire was used for data collection. The prevalence of unintended/unwanted pregnancy, associated factors including the views, perception and attitudes of community members in both urban and rural settlements and the pattern of help-seeking behavior on the problem. The age range of respondents was 15-48 years (mean age 31.2± 6.7 years). One thousand, two hundred and twenty-one (51.6%) of the respondents were married. The percentage of illiterate respondents was 3.5% in urban area and 4.1% in rural area. There was a statistically significant association between level of education and use of a method to avoid or delay pregnancy (p abortion was 33.5%. Quality of service was the most important factor in the choice of a place for pregnancy termination in urban and rural areas. Economic reasons were often cited as reasons women make use of abortion services. Unwanted pregnancy constitutes a problem, even at the community level. The high contraceptive awareness should be translated to an increased use so as to bridge the large gap of unmet need.

  3. Living with the Risks of Cyclone Disasters in the South-Western Coastal Region of Bangladesh

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    Bishawjit Mallick

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Bangladesh is one of the most disaster prone countries in the world. Cyclone disasters that affect millions of people, destroy homesteads and livelihoods, and trigger migration are common in the coastal region of Bangladesh. The aim of this article is to understand how the coastal communities in Bangladesh deal with the continuous threats of cyclones. As a case study, this study investigates communities that were affected by the Cyclone Sidr in 2007 and Cyclone Aila in 2009, covering 1555 households from 45 coastal villages in the southwestern region of Bangladesh. The survey method incorporated household based questionnaire techniques and community based focus group discussions. The pre-event situation highlights that the affected communities were physically vulnerable due to the strategic locations of the cyclone shelters nearer to those with social supreme status and the location of their houses in relatively low-lying lands. The victims were also socio-economically vulnerable considering the high rate of illiteracy, larger family size, no ownership of land, and extreme poverty. They were mostly day labourers, farmers, and fishermen. Post-event situation reveals that the victims’ houses and livelihoods were severely damaged or destroyed. Most victims were forced to shift their occupations (e.g., from farmers to fishermen, and many became unemployed. They also became heavily dependent on micro-credits and other forms of loans. A significant number of people were displaced and migrated to large urban agglomerations in search of livelihoods to maintain their families back in the affected villages. Migration was primarily undertaken as an adaptation strategy.

  4. [Power and health in South America: international sanitary conferences, 1870-1889].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Cleide de Lima

    2013-06-01

    This article analyzes the international sanitary conferences that were held in South America in 1873 and 1887, involving the Brazilian Empire and the Republics of Argentina and Uruguay, as an integral part of a series of similar events that took place in Europe and North America starting in the second half of the nineteenth century. The interests of the countries involved, namely trade relations and immigration from Europe - both directly affected by the epidemics - are discussed, and the repercussions of these sanitary agreements on the other countries in the Americas are indicated. The American health conventions in the late nineteenth century represented the first initiatives in the Americas to solve international public health problems.

  5. Distribution of Ophioglossum reticulatum L. in South America. A case of long-distance jump dispersal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meza Torres, Esteban I.; Cerne, Bibiana; Ulke, Ana G.; Morbelli, Marta A.

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this exploratory work is to test the hypothesis that South American populations of Ophioglossum reticulatum L. derive from Africa. Spores cross the Atlantic transported by wind and arrive in South America in recurrent migration. Three-dimensional (backward and forward) trajectories of spores between Africa and South America were calculated using the Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory Model (HYSPLIT4). The model showed possible backward trajectories in the low troposphere arriving in South America with probable origin in Northwestern Africa. The results support the hypothesis of long-distance dispersal of the studied species. Including vertical motion in the model runs allowed obtaining valuable and novel information about the migration routes. The trade winds combined with the South American monsoon could be a dispersal vehicle for the disseminules from Northwestern Africa to the eastern slopes of the Andes. As the monsoon is a periodic regional atmospheric circulation pattern, transcontinental migration can be assumed to be a recurring phenomenon that provides genetic exchange and prevents speciation by reproductive isolation. Modelled forward trajectories connect the neotropics with Africa-Madagascar, but they seem to be less effective due to their travelling altitudes. This hypothesis might explain the absence of infraspecific taxa restricted to different geographic locations.

  6. South America and the proliferation of biological weapons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Coutto

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the role of regional institutions and political practices in strengthening multilateral disarmament and non-proliferation regimes. Particular attention is devoted to coordination between Brazil and Argentina with a view to forging a "South American position" vis-à-vis the Biological and Toxins Weapons Convention (BTWC. Empirical evidence suggests that informal arrangements between the two countries were capable of involving other South American leaders and promoting the exchange of information among different groups of states, most notably during the 2006 BTWC review conference. This paper also sheds light on the identification of specific features that allow for increasing visibility and actorness of regional powers in promoting universality of multilateral security regimes (MSR, as well as the limitations faced by these players.

  7. What Do We Know About the Development of Creativity in South America?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preiss, David D; Grau, Valeska; Ortiz, Dominga; Bernardino, Michelle

    2016-06-01

    We review recent research about the development of creativity in South America focusing on studies of individual differences in creativity and educational and developmental studies of children and adolescents' creativity. Most South American researchers are influenced by mainstream psychometric approaches, although computational and cultural approaches are also considered. Two main areas of inquiry are: (a) the relationship between creativity and other constructs, and (b) the structural and cultural inhibitors of creativity in school. Studies conducted beyond the school shed light on the role resilience has in fostering creativity. The lack of studies testing interventions aimed at promoting creativity is concerning. There is also a surprising lack of observational studies related to the pedagogy of creativity. Last but not least, there is a need to advance research on other factors, in addition to the educational ones, that may play a role in fostering creativity in South America. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Invasive American bullfrogs and African clawed frogs in South America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barbosa, Fabiana G.; Both, Camila; Bastos, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    Invasion of protected areas by non-native species is currently one of the main threats to global biodiversity. Using an ensemble of bioclimatic envelope models we quantify the degree of exposure of South American protected areas to invasion by two invasive amphibian species. We focus on protected.......5%). Conservation plans for these regions should, therefore, consider latent threats from multiple sources including invasion by highly competitive non-native species such as the ones modeled in our study....

  9. A new GPS velocity field in the south-western Balkans: insights for continental dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agostino, N.; Avallone, A.; Duni, L.; Ganas, A.; Georgiev, I.; Jouanne, F.; Koci, R.; Kuka, N.; Metois, M.

    2017-12-01

    The Balkans peninsula is an area of active distributed deformation located at the southern boundary of the Eurasian plate. Relatively low strain rates and logistical reasons have so far limited the characterization and definition of the active tectonics and crustal kinematics. The increasing number of GNSS stations belonging to national networks deployed for scientific and cadastral purposes, now provides the opportunity to improve the knowledge of the crustal kinematics in this area and to define a cross-national velocity field that illuminates the active tectonic deformation. In this work we homogeneously processed the data from the south western Balkans and neighbouring regions using available rinex files from scientific and cadastral networks (ALBPOS, EUREF, HemusNET, ITALPOS, KOPOS, MAKPOS, METRICA, NETGEO, RING, TGREF). In order to analyze and interpret station velocities relative to the Eurasia plate and to reduce the common mode signal, we updated the Eurasian terrestrial reference frame described in Métois et al. 2015. Starting from this dataset we present a new GPS velocity field covering the south western part of the Balkan Peninsula. Using this new velocity field, we derive the strain rate tensor to analyze the regional style of the deformation. Our results (1) improve the picture of the general southward flow of the crust characterizing the south western Balkans behind the contractional belt at the boundary with Adriatic and (2) provide new key elements for the understanding of continental dynamics in this part of the Eurasian plate boundary.

  10. Winter-to-Summer Precipitation Phasing in Southwestern North America: A Multi-Century Perspective from Paleoclimatic Model-Data Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coats, Sloan; Smerdon, Jason E.; Seager, Richard; Griffin, Daniel; Cook, Benjamin I.

    2015-01-01

    The phasing of winter-to-summer precipitation anomalies in the North American monsoon (NAM) region 2 (113.25 deg W-107.75 deg W, 30 deg N-35.25 deg N-NAM2) of southwestern North America is analyzed in fully coupled simulations of the Last Millennium and compared to tree ring reconstructed winter and summer precipitation variability. The models simulate periods with in-phase seasonal precipitation anomalies, but the strength of this relationship is variable on multidecadal time scales, behavior that is also exhibited by the reconstructions. The models, however, are unable to simulate periods with consistently out-of-phase winter-to-summer precipitation anomalies as observed in the latter part of the instrumental interval. The periods with predominantly in-phase winter-to-summer precipitation anomalies in the models are significant against randomness, and while this result is suggestive of a potential for dual-season drought on interannual and longer time scales, models do not consistently exhibit the persistent dual-season drought seen in the dendroclimatic reconstructions. These collective findings indicate that model-derived drought risk assessments may underestimate the potential for dual-season drought in 21st century projections of hydroclimate in the American Southwest and parts of Mexico.

  11. Seismology in South America; an interview with Alberto Giesecke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spall, H.

    1980-01-01

    Dr. Alberto A. Giesecke is head of the Instituto Geofisico del Peru, in Lima, Peru, and Director of Centro Regional de Sismologia para America del Sur (CERESIS). The center is dedicated to the coordination and promotion of earthquake hazard mitigation. Dr. Giesecke was President of the National Research Council of Peru and currently is a member of the Board of Directors of the National Institute for Industrial Technological Research and Standards and of the National Institute for Research and Training in Telecommunications. He presided over the Organizing Committee for the General Assemblies of the International Association for Seismology and Physics of the Earth's interor and the International Union for Radio Science held in Lima, Peru, in 1973 and 1975, respectively. 

  12. Otolith chemical composition as a useful tool for sciaenid stock discrimination in the south-western Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra V. Volpedo

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Striped weakfish (Cynoscion guatucupa and whitemouth croaker (Micropogonias furnieri are important commercial and recreational species found in abundance along the South American Atlantic coast. In recent years otolith chemical composition has been used as a tool for identifying fish stocks for several species. The chemical composition of C. guatucupa and M. furnieri otoliths was determined by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES in samples from coastal sites (Partido de La Costa, Mar del Plata and San Blás Bay. Significant differences in the ratios of Mg/Ca, Mn/Ca and Sr/Ca for C. guatucupa otoliths and Cd/Ca, Cu/Ca, Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca and Zn/Ca for M. furnieri otoliths suggest the existence of two different fish stocks, one originating in the north (including Samborombón Bay and Partido de La Costa fisheries and another originating in the south (including “El Rincón” and San Blás fisheries. These results agree with previous studies on the same species using different methodologies. These stocks may be separated by an oceanographic barrier, the “Frente El Rincón”. Otolith chemical composition has not been previously used in South America for identifying fish stocks and may be a simple, quick and useful tool for the sustainable exploitation and management of commercial species.

  13. GLOBAL WARMING AND CLIMATE CHANGE IN SOUTH AMERICA

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    PATRICK PATERSON

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Global warming presents one of the most serious threats to South American nations. Countries in the region are at risk of a variety of climate change related problems: rising sea levels, diminishing potable water supplies, forest res, intense storms and ooding, heat waves and the spread of diseases. These disasters are occurring more frequently in the region and will likely increase in intensity also. The armed forces in the region are the only government departments with both the capacity and the manpower to respond to these massive catastrophes. Military support to civilian authorities will be required more frequently and under more severe conditions as climate change conditions worsen.

  14. Assessing the seismic risk potential of South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Kishor; Petersen, Mark D.; Harmsen, Stephen; Smoczyk, Gregory M.

    2016-01-01

    We present here a simplified approach to quantifying regional seismic risk. The seismic risk for a given region can be inferred in terms of average annual loss (AAL) that represents long-term value of earthquake losses in any one year caused from a long-term seismic hazard. The AAL are commonly measured in the form of earthquake shaking-induced deaths, direct economic impacts or indirect losses caused due to loss of functionality. In the context of South American subcontinent, the analysis makes use of readily available public data on seismicity, population exposure, and the hazard and vulnerability models for the region. The seismic hazard model was derived using available seismic catalogs, fault databases, and the hazard methodologies that are analogous to the U.S. Geological Survey’s national seismic hazard mapping process. The Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response (PAGER) system’s direct empirical vulnerability functions in terms of fatality and economic impact were used for performing exposure and risk analyses. The broad findings presented and the risk maps produced herein are preliminary, yet they do offer important insights into the underlying zones of high and low seismic risks in the South American subcontinent. A more detailed analysis of risk may be warranted by engaging local experts, especially in some of the high risk zones identified through the present investigation.

  15. CRUSTAL THICKNESS VARIATIONS AND SEISMICITY OF NORTHWESTERN SOUTH AMERICA

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    Woo Kim Jeong

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Any uncompensated mass of the northern Andes Mountains is presumably under pressure to adjust within the Earth to its ideal state of isostatic equilibrium. Isostasy is the ideal state that any
    uncompensated mass seeks to achieve in time. These pressures interact with the relative motions between adjacent plates that give rise to earthquakes along the plate boundaries. By combining the
    gravity MOHO estimates and crustal discontinuities with historical and instrumental seismological catalogs the correlation between isostatically disturbed terrains and seismicity has been established.
    The thinner and thicker crustal regions were mapped from the zero horizontal curvature of the crustal thickness estimates. These boundaries or edges of crustal thickness variations were compared to
    crustal discontinuities inferred from gravity and magnetic anomalies and the patterns of seismicity that have been catalogued for the last 363 years. The seismicity is very intense along the Nazca-North
    Andes, Caribbean-North American and North Andes-South American collision zones and associated with regional tectonic compressional stresses that have locally increased and/or diminished by
    compressional and tensional stress, respectively, due to crustal thickness variations. High seismicity is also associated with the Nazca-Cocos diverging plate boundary whereas low seismicity is associated with the Panama-Nazca Transform Fault and the South American Plate.

  16. Magmatism and polymetallic mineralization in southwestern Qinzhou-Hangzhou metallogenic belt, South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xudong; Lu, Jianjun; Wang, Rucheng; Ma, Dongsheng

    2016-04-01

    As Neoproterozoic suture zone between the Yangtze Block and Cathaysia Block, Qinzhou-Hangzhou metallogenic belt is one of the 21 key metallogenic belts in China. Intensive multiple-aged felsic magmatism and related polymetallic mineralization take place in this belt. Although Neoproterozoic, Paleozoic, Triassic granites and associated deposits have been found in southwestern Qinzhou-Hangzhou metallogenic belt, Middle-Late Jurassic (150-165 Ma) magmatism and related mineralization is of the most importance. Three major kinds of Middle-Late Jurassic granitoids have been distinguished. (Cu)-Pb-Zn-bearing granitoids are slightly differentiated, calc-alkaline and metaluminous dioritic to granodioritic rocks. Sn-(W)-bearing granites contain dark microgranular enclaves and have high contents of REE and HFSE, suggesting affinities of aluminous A-type (A2) granites. W-bearing granites are highly differentiated and peraluminous rocks. (Cu)-Pb-Zn-bearing granitoids have ɛNd(t) values of -11 ˜ -4 and ɛHf(t) values of -12 ˜ -7, corresponding to TDMC(Nd) from 1.4 to 1.8 Ga and TDMC(Hf) from 1.6 to 2.0 Ga, respectively. The ɛNd(t) values of W-bearing granites vary from -11 to -8 with TDMC(Nd) of 1.6 ˜ 1.9 Ga and ɛHf(t) values change from -16 to -7 with TDMC(Hf) of 1.5 ˜ 2.0 Ga. Compared with (Cu)-Pb-Zn-bearing granitoids and W-bearing granites, the Sn-(W)-bearing granites have higher ɛNd(t) (-8 ˜ -2) and ɛHf(t) (-8 ˜ -2) values and younger TDMC(Nd) (1.1 ˜ 1.6 Ga) and TDMC(Hf) (1.2 ˜ 1.8 Ga) values, showing a more juvenile isotopic character. Sn-(W)-bearing granites originate from partial melting of granulitized lower crust involved with some mantle-derived materials. W-bearing granites are derived from partial melting of crust. (Cu)-Pb-Zn-bearing granitoids are also derived from crust but may be influenced by more mantle-derived materials. For (Cu)-Pb-Zn deposits, skarn and carbonate replacement are the most important mineralization types. Cu ore bodies mainly

  17. Scanning RBS-PIXE study of ancient artifacts from South America using a microbeam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruvalcaba-Sil, J. L.; Demortier, G.

    1997-07-01

    Pre-Hispanic goldsmiths developed original techniques to manufacture and to gild ornaments and artifacts. Gold metallurgy in ancient America was mainly a surface technology. Surface studies of artifacts from various regions of pre-Hispanic South America were carried out using a 2 MeV proton microbeam (10 μm diameter). Several regions of the artifacts were scanned: RBS and PIXE were used simultaneously to determine the elemental composition and to characterize the homogeneity in depth and at the surface. Complementary information is provided from previous analyses using a macrobeam. Outstanding aspects about the metallurgical processes involved in the gilding of the artifacts have been established.

  18. Institutional Status of BRICS and Pragmatic Cooperation:The Case of South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernani Contipelli

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available As a group formed by emerging powers, the BRICS is characterized by its particular profile: a pragmatic politic strategythat presents contradictory actions between its members. Internal cooperation among the BRICS members is becomingmore “institutional” with the creation of its financial institutions, the New Development Bank (NDB and the ContingencyReserve Agreement (CRA. These have led the group to a next stage in its history without changing its essence. The NDBhas been created to mobilize resources for infrastructure and sustainable development projects in emerging and developingcountries, and the CRA has been established to provide liquidity to countries experiencing difficulties in their balance ofpayment and to head off future economic crises. Many developing countries are closely observing these financial institutions.South America appears particularly interested to take advantage of them by attracting investments and obtainingloans from BRICS members in order to develop infrastructure in their countries and to build more informal relationshipswith foreign partners with reduced political commitments. For South America, the BRICS is an example of a pragmaticformula for cooperation in contrast to the modus operandi of traditional powers. In other words, poor countries would havean alternative to the International Monetary Fund and World Bank. Relations between the BRICS and South America arecharacterized by a pragmatic approach that reflects the “way of being” of the group and the necessities of modernization ofthe region. This article analyzes the particular relationship that BRICS is establishing with the countries of South Americausing its institutional status and pragmatic approach.

  19. Biogeographic range expansion into South America by Coccidioides immitis mirrors New World patterns of human migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, M C; Koenig, G L; White, T J; San-Blas, G; Negroni, R; Alvarez, I G; Wanke, B; Taylor, J W

    2001-04-10

    Long-distance population dispersal leaves its characteristic signature in genomes, namely, reduced diversity and increased linkage between genetic markers. This signature enables historical patterns of range expansion to be traced. Herein, we use microsatellite loci from the human pathogen Coccidioides immitis to show that genetic diversity in this fungus is geographically partitioned throughout North America. In contrast, analyses of South American C. immitis show that this population is genetically depauperate and was founded from a single North American population centered in Texas. Variances of allele distributions show that South American C. immitis have undergone rapid population growth, consistent with an epidemic increase in postcolonization population size. Herein, we estimate the introduction into South America to have occurred within the last 9,000-140,000 years. This range increase parallels that of Homo sapiens. Because of known associations between Amerindians and this fungus, we suggest that the colonization of South America by C. immitis represents a relatively recent and rapid codispersal of a host and its pathogen.

  20. Eocene primates of South America and the African origins of New World monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Mariano; Tejedor, Marcelo F.; Campbell, Kenneth E.; Chornogubsky, Laura; Novo, Nelson; Goin, Francisco

    2015-04-01

    The platyrrhine primates, or New World monkeys, are immigrant mammals whose fossil record comes from Tertiary and Quaternary sediments of South America and the Caribbean Greater Antilles. The time and place of platyrrhine origins are some of the most controversial issues in primate palaeontology, although an African Palaeogene ancestry has been presumed by most primatologists. Until now, the oldest fossil records of New World monkeys have come from Salla, Bolivia, and date to approximately 26 million years ago, or the Late Oligocene epoch. Here we report the discovery of new primates from the ?Late Eocene epoch of Amazonian Peru, which extends the fossil record of primates in South America back approximately 10 million years. The new specimens are important for understanding the origin and early evolution of modern platyrrhine primates because they bear little resemblance to any extinct or living South American primate, but they do bear striking resemblances to Eocene African anthropoids, and our phylogenetic analysis suggests a relationship with African taxa. The discovery of these new primates brings the first appearance datum of caviomorph rodents and primates in South America back into close correspondence, but raises new questions about the timing and means of arrival of these two mammalian groups.

  1. Biogeographic range expansion into South America by Coccidioides immitis mirrors New World patterns of human migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Matthew C.; Koenig, Gina L.; White, Thomas J.; San-Blas, Gioconda; Negroni, Ricardo; Alvarez, Isidro Gutiérrez; Wanke, Bodo; Taylor, John W.

    2001-01-01

    Long-distance population dispersal leaves its characteristic signature in genomes, namely, reduced diversity and increased linkage between genetic markers. This signature enables historical patterns of range expansion to be traced. Herein, we use microsatellite loci from the human pathogen Coccidioides immitis to show that genetic diversity in this fungus is geographically partitioned throughout North America. In contrast, analyses of South American C. immitis show that this population is genetically depauperate and was founded from a single North American population centered in Texas. Variances of allele distributions show that South American C. immitis have undergone rapid population growth, consistent with an epidemic increase in postcolonization population size. Herein, we estimate the introduction into South America to have occurred within the last 9,000–140,000 years. This range increase parallels that of Homo sapiens. Because of known associations between Amerindians and this fungus, we suggest that the colonization of South America by C. immitis represents a relatively recent and rapid codispersal of a host and its pathogen. PMID:11287648

  2. Bayesian phylogeography of the Arawak expansion in lowland South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Robert S; Ribeiro, Lincoln A

    2011-09-07

    Phylogenetic inference based on language is a vital tool for tracing the dynamics of human population expansions. The timescale of agriculture-based expansions around the world provides an informative amount of linguistic change ideal for reconstructing phylogeographies. Here we investigate the expansion of Arawak, one of the most widely dispersed language families in the Americas, scattered from the Antilles to Argentina. It has been suggested that Northwest Amazonia is the Arawak homeland based on the large number of diverse languages in the region. We generate language trees by coding cognates of basic vocabulary words for 60 Arawak languages and dialects to estimate the phylogenetic relationships among Arawak societies, while simultaneously implementing a relaxed random walk model to infer phylogeographic history. Estimates of the Arawak homeland exclude Northwest Amazonia and are bi-modal, with one potential homeland on the Atlantic seaboard and another more likely origin in Western Amazonia. Bayesian phylogeography better supports a Western Amazonian origin, and consequent dispersal to the Caribbean and across the lowlands. Importantly, the Arawak expansion carried with it not only language but also a number of cultural traits that contrast Arawak societies with other lowland cultures.

  3. Climate predictability and prediction skill on seasonal time scales over South America from CHFP models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Marisol; Vera, C. S.

    2017-10-01

    This work presents an assessment of the predictability and skill of climate anomalies over South America. The study was made considering a multi-model ensemble of seasonal forecasts for surface air temperature, precipitation and regional circulation, from coupled global circulation models included in the Climate Historical Forecast Project. Predictability was evaluated through the estimation of the signal-to-total variance ratio while prediction skill was assessed computing anomaly correlation coefficients. Both indicators present over the continent higher values at the tropics than at the extratropics for both, surface air temperature and precipitation. Moreover, predictability and prediction skill for temperature are slightly higher in DJF than in JJA while for precipitation they exhibit similar levels in both seasons. The largest values of predictability and skill for both variables and seasons are found over northwestern South America while modest but still significant values for extratropical precipitation at southeastern South America and the extratropical Andes. The predictability levels in ENSO years of both variables are slightly higher, although with the same spatial distribution, than that obtained considering all years. Nevertheless, predictability at the tropics for both variables and seasons diminishes in both warm and cold ENSO years respect to that in all years. The latter can be attributed to changes in signal rather than in the noise. Predictability and prediction skill for low-level winds and upper-level zonal winds over South America was also assessed. Maximum levels of predictability for low-level winds were found were maximum mean values are observed, i.e. the regions associated with the equatorial trade winds, the midlatitudes westerlies and the South American Low-Level Jet. Predictability maxima for upper-level zonal winds locate where the subtropical jet peaks. Seasonal changes in wind predictability are observed that seem to be related to

  4. Upper Cretaceous source rocks of Northern South America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talukdar, S.C. (DGSI, The Woodland, TX (United States)); DeToni, B. (Intevep, Los Teques (Venezuela)); Marcano, F. (Maraven, Caracas (Venezuela)); Sweeney, J. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)); Rangel, A. (ICP, Bucaramanga (Colombia))

    1993-02-01

    Upper Cretaceous source rocks sourced most of the oil accumulations in Trinidad, Venezuela and Colombia. Extensive areas of mature to overmature organic-rich, calcareous shales and limestones are present in basins throughout the area. Paleogeographic reconstruction shows deposition of the source rocks in open marine, outer shelf-inner slope environments on the passive margin of the Cretaceous South American continent. Deposition is primarily related to marine transgressions caused by eustatic sea level changes and to Upper Cretaceous oceanic anoxic events. Sedimentological and geochemical data show regional variations in organic facies across the huge Upper Cretaceous shelf margin. Source rocks deposited in the pelagic domain in outer shelf-slope towards north and northwest are commonly organic-rich and contain oil prone, type II kerogen with essentially marine amorphous organic matter. In this organic facies, variations in organic content were primary controlled by changes in marine organic productivity and sedimentation rate, while the kerogen quality was influenced by short-term fluctuations in the thickness of oxygen-minimum layer. Source rocks deposited in outer neritic environment, towards south and southeast are usually less organic-rich and include oil and gas prone kerogen between types II and III with both marine amorphous and terrestrial organic matter. Temporal changes in the influx of terrestrial organic matter and fluctuations in relative anoxicity controlled the kerogen quality. Hydrocarbon generation from these source rocks occurred during the Tertiary. Basin modelling quantifies oil and gas generation and expulsion from the various organic facies. Oil characteristics can be predicted by the organic facies in the effective source area.

  5. Connecting Realities: Peace Corps Volunteers in South America and the Global War on Poverty during the 1960s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Purcell

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the work of Peace Corps volunteers in South America during the 1960s. It argues that through their training in impoverished communities in the United States and their intervention in similar contexts in South America, these volunteers connected diverse visions of community action aimed at eradicating poverty. This allows an inclusion of a historical comprehension of the Peace Corps within the scenario of a Global War on Poverty. The argument derives from the analysis of letters and testimonies, press items, and official documents found in archives and libraries both in the United States and South America.

  6. Serological investigation of bovine brucellosis in three cattle production systems in Yewa Division, south-western Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadmus, Simeon I B; Alabi, Peter I; Adesokan, Hezekiah K; Dale, Emma J; Stack, Judy A

    2013-01-01

    Limited data are available on the risk factors responsible for the occurrence of brucellosis amongst different cattle production systems in Nigeria despite its significant impact on livestock production. Consequently, a cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of bovine brucellosis in three cattle production systems in Yewa Division of Ogun State, south-western Nigeria. A total of 279 blood samples (sedentary = 88; transhumance = 64; trade = 127) were examined for antibodies to Brucella sp. using the Rose Bengal test (RBT) and competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA). Overall, 24 (8.6%) and 16 (5.7%) of the animals tested seropositive for Brucella using RBT and cELISA, respectively. The herd seroprevalences based on RBT and cELISA were 31.6% and 15.8%, respectively. The results using cELISA reveal higher seroprevalence in the trade cattle (7.9%; confidence intervals [CI] = 3.2% - 12.6%) and those in a sedentary system (5.7%; CI = 0.9% - 10.5%) than in cattle kept under a transhumant management system (1.6%; CI = 1.5% - 4.7%). Age (> 3 years; p = 0.043) and breed (Djali; p = 0.038) were statistically significant for seropositivity to brucellosis based on cELISA, but sex (female, p = 0.234), production system (trade and sedentary; p = 0.208) or herd size (> 120; p = 0.359) was not. Since breeding stock is mostly sourced from trade and sedentary cattle, it is important that routine serological screening should be conducted before introducing any animal into an existing herd.

  7. 14 C dating and isotopic composition of lacustrine sediment in the Vale do Ribeira, south-western Sao Paulo State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saia, Soraya E.M.G.; Pessenda, Luiz C.R.; Gouveia, Susy E.M.; Vidotto, Elaine; Ledru, Marie-Pierre; Karmann, Ivo; Amaral, Paula G.; Bendassoli, Jose A.

    2005-01-01

    This work is part of a multi and interdisciplinary study involving paleoenvironmental records based on systematic and joint actions of pollen, isotopic composition ( 12 C, 13 C and 14 N, 15 N) and 14 C dating of lacustrine sediment. Samplings have been made in the Lagoa Grande located at Parque Estadual de Turismo do Alto Ribeira - PETAR, in the Vale do Ribeira, south-western Sao Paulo state. This integration must improve significantly the studies of vegetation and climate changes that occurred during the Late Pleistocene in the southeastern region of Brazil. The δ 13 C results of lacustrine sediment presented values from -23 to -30 per mille with isotopic tendencies of enrichment-depletion in the whole profile. The highest values of total organic carbon (TOC) and C/N associated with depleted δ 13 C values, were linked to organic matter from C 3 land plant and interpreted as the presence of denser arboreal vegetation around the lake. The smallest values of TOC and C/N associated with enriched δ 13 C values were linked to phytoplanktonic influence and/or the presence of less dense arboreal vegetation around the lake. These fluctuations reflect changes in quality and quantity of sedimentary organic matter linked to vegetation changes and the production of organic matter within the sedimentation basin connected with lake level variations. The combination of C/N and δ 13 C data on a cross-plot diagram shows a general distribution of points lying close to the planktonic (algal) organic matter. However, the scattering of certain points indicates a slight contribution from C 3 land plants. The variations in arboreal pollen (%AP) along the core are characterized by AP values between 40 and 80%. The 14C dating indicated Modern age at the shallow horizons to 1,030 years BP for the deeper horizon. (author)

  8. Hydrological impact of two intensities of timber harvest and associated silviculture in the jarrah forest in south-western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinal, J.; Stoneman, G. L.

    2011-03-01

    SummaryThe hydrological impact of two different intensities of timber harvest and associated silviculture, one standard and the other more intensive, was investigated using a paired-catchment study in jarrah forest in south-western Australia. This study was undertaken during a period when average annual rainfall was below the long-term average and deep groundwater levels were declining. Following treatment, recharge increased and slowed the decline in deep groundwater levels in proportion to the magnitude of the initial reduction in vegetation density. However, neither treatment was sufficiently intense to reverse the continued decline in groundwater levels over the course of the study. Annual stream salinity did not increase in response to either treatment because saline deep groundwater did not rise following the treatments. Annual streamflow did not increase in either catchment for three reasons. Firstly, there was little additional net precipitation to the intermittent shallow perched groundwater system in the streamzone because the area remained untreated. Secondly, there was minimal additional throughflow to the perched groundwater system in the streamzone from upslope areas because the increased net precipitation in hillslope areas following treatment was used in replenishing the progressively increasing soil moisture deficit. Thirdly, because groundwater levels did not rise and hence there was little prospect for an increased discharge of saline groundwater or of an expanded deep groundwater discharge zone. This study has demonstrated that the measures that were implemented to timber harvest and silvicultural methods to reduce the magnitude of the groundwater response and hence the risk of a transient increase in stream salinity are effective. If annual rainfall remains relatively low and deep groundwater levels remain at current levels or decline further, then the risk of an increase in stream salinity from either the standard or the more intensive harvest

  9. Asymptomatic bacteriuria among elderly and middle-aged rural community-dwellers in South-Western Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olowe OA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available OA Olowe,1 OB Makanjuola,1 KO Olabiyi,1 PO Akinwusi,2 CO Alebiosu,2 MA Isawumi,3 MB Hassan,3 EO Asekun-Olarinmoye,4 WO Adebimpe,4 TA Adewole5 1Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, 2Department of Medicine, 3Department of Ophthalmology, 4Department of Community Medicine, 5Department of Biochemistry, College of Health Sciences, Osun State University, Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria Abstract: Asymptomatic bacteriuria in elderly individuals has been well described in institutionalized settings, but to a lesser extent in the community. The purpose of this study was to determine the pathogens responsible for asymptomatic bacteriuria in elderly and middle-aged individuals in Alajue-Ede, South-Western Nigeria, and to identify any associated factors. Mid-stream urine samples were collected from apparently healthy elderly and middle-aged volunteers who were participating in community health screening. Samples were processed and bacterial isolates were identified following standard procedures. In total, 128 volunteers (48 men, 76 women participated in the study. Twenty-eight (22.6% urinary pathogens were isolated, comprising Klebsiella species in five (17.9%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa in one (3.6%, Escherichia coli in 19 (67.9%, and Proteus species in three (10.7% cases. Women were identified as being at higher risk of asymptomatic bacteriuria, and the prevalence also increased with increasing age in men. The elderly in this community have a high prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria, and screening for comorbid medical conditions may be of benefit. Keywords: asymptomatic bacteriuria, urinary pathogens, elderly, urinary tract infection

  10. Serological investigation of bovine brucellosis in three cattle production systems in Yewa Division, south-western Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simeon I.B. Cadmus

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Limited data are available on the risk factors responsible for the occurrence of brucellosis amongst different cattle production systems in Nigeria despite its significant impact on livestock production. Consequently, a cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of bovine brucellosis in three cattle production systems in Yewa Division of Ogun State, south-western Nigeria. A total of 279 blood samples (sedentary = 88; transhumance = 64; trade = 127 were examined for antibodies to Brucella sp. using the Rose Bengal test (RBT and competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA. Overall, 24 (8.6% and 16 (5.7% of the animals tested seropositive for Brucella using RBT and cELISA, respectively. The herd seroprevalences based on RBT and cELISA were 31.6% and 15.8%, respectively. The results using cELISA reveal higher seroprevalence in the trade cattle (7.9%; confidence intervals [CI] = 3.2% – 12.6% and those in a sedentary system (5.7%; CI = 0.9% – 10.5% than in cattle kept under a transhumant management system (1.6%; CI = 1.5% – 4.7%. Age (> 3 years; p = 0.043 and breed (Djali; p = 0.038 were statistically significant for seropositivity to brucellosis based on cELISA, but sex (female, p = 0.234, production system (trade and sedentary; p = 0.208 or herd size (> 120; p = 0.359 was not. Since breeding stock is mostly sourced from trade and sedentary cattle, it is important that routine serological screening should be conducted before introducing any animal into an existing herd.

  11. The influence of environmental sanitation on prevalence of malaria in a rural town in south-western Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoran, O E; Onwumbe, O O; Salami, O M; Mautin, G B

    2014-01-01

    The single most significant cause of morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa and other third world countries is the poor standard of environmental sanitation.This factor plays a major role in disease transmission especially for endemic diseases such as malaria. This study was therefore designed to assess the influence of environmental sanitation on prevalence of Malaria in a rural town in South-Western Nigeria. This was an analytical cross-sectional study. A multi stage cluster sampling technique was used to select the participants into the study. One participant per each household was selected into the study. A semistructured questionnaire was used to collect relevant information. A total of 300 households were recruited into the study. Only 14 [4.7%] were regularly involved in daily cleaning of the environment outside their houses and 286 [95.3%] were aware that dirty environment increases the risk of contracting malaria. Majority 178 [62.2%] believe that bushes around the house are major facilitators of malaria. 32 [11.2%] mentioned presence of stagnant water while 76 [26.6%] mentioned unclean drainage system. The prevalence of Malaria attack in the last 6 months among respondents was 192 (64.0 %). Regular cleaning of respondent's environment outside their houses was statistically significant associated with prevalence of Malaria in the households studied [OR = 1.88, CI = 2.61-54.13] while the knowledge of environmental impact on malaria [OR = 1.37, Cl = 0.92-2.05] and malaria transmission [OR = 0.70, CI = 0.43-1.12] were not statistically significandy associated with prevalence of malaria. The study concludes that regular cleaning of house surroundings was associated with prevalence of malaria infection in rural areas in Nigeria. Sustainable control and elimination of malaria cannot occur in isolation from other sector of the society most especially the environmental health and engineering services.

  12. Process-based modelling to evaluate simulated groundwater levels and frequencies in a Chalk catchment in south-western England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Simon; Coxon, Gemma; Howden, Nicholas J. K.; Freer, Jim; Hartmann, Andreas

    2018-02-01

    Chalk aquifers are an important source of drinking water in the UK. Due to their properties, they are particularly vulnerable to groundwater-related hazards like floods and droughts. Understanding and predicting groundwater levels is therefore important for effective and safe water management. Chalk is known for its high porosity and, due to its dissolvability, exposed to karstification and strong subsurface heterogeneity. To cope with the karstic heterogeneity and limited data availability, specialised modelling approaches are required that balance model complexity and data availability. In this study, we present a novel approach to evaluate simulated groundwater level frequencies derived from a semi-distributed karst model that represents subsurface heterogeneity by distribution functions. Simulated groundwater storages are transferred into groundwater levels using evidence from different observations wells. Using a percentile approach we can assess the number of days exceeding or falling below selected groundwater level percentiles. Firstly, we evaluate the performance of the model when simulating groundwater level time series using a spilt sample test and parameter identifiability analysis. Secondly, we apply a split sample test to the simulated groundwater level percentiles to explore the performance in predicting groundwater level exceedances. We show that the model provides robust simulations of discharge and groundwater levels at three observation wells at a test site in a chalk-dominated catchment in south-western England. The second split sample test also indicates that the percentile approach is able to reliably predict groundwater level exceedances across all considered timescales up to their 75th percentile. However, when looking at the 90th percentile, it only provides acceptable predictions for long time periods and it fails when the 95th percentile of groundwater exceedance levels is considered. By modifying the historic forcings of our model

  13. The carbon budget of Pinus radiata plantations in south-western Australia under four climate change scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simioni, Guillaume; Ritson, Peter; Kirschbaum, Miko U F; McGrath, John; Dumbrell, Ian; Copeland, Beth

    2009-09-01

    We conducted a comprehensive modelling study to estimate future stem wood production and net ecosystem production (NEP) of Pinus radiata D. Don plantations in south-western Australia, a region that is predicted to undergo severe rainfall reduction in future decades. The process-based model CenW was applied to four locations where it had previously been tested. Climate change scenarios under four emission scenarios for the period from 2005 to 2066 were considered, in addition to simulations under the current climate. Results showed that stem wood production and NEP were little affected by moderate climate change. However, under the most pessimistic climate change scenario (Special Report on Emission Scenarios A2), stem wood production and NEP decreased strongly. These results could be explained by the trade-off between the positive effect of rising atmospheric CO(2) on plant water use efficiency and the negative effects of decreasing rainfall and increasing temperatures. Because changes in heterotrophic respiration (R(H)) lagged behind changes in plant growth, and because R(H) rates were increased by higher temperatures, NEP was more negatively affected than stem wood production. Stem wood production and NEP also strongly interacted with location, with the site currently having the wettest climate being least affected by climatic change. These results suggest that realistic predictions of forest production and carbon sequestration potential in the context of climate change require (1) the use of modelling tools that describe the important feedbacks between environmental variables, plant physiology and soil organic matter decomposition, (2) consideration of a range of climate change scenarios and (3) simulations that account for a gradual climate change to capture transient effects.

  14. The pathway of obstructed labour as perceived by communities in south-western Uganda: a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabakyenga, Jerome K; Östergren, Per-Olof; Emmelin, Maria; Kyomuhendo, Phionah; Odberg Pettersson, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Obstructed labour is still a major cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality in Uganda, where many women give birth at home alone or assisted by non-skilled birth attendants. Little is known of how the community view obstructed labour, and what actions they take in cases where this complication occurs. The objective of the study was to explore community members' understanding of and actions taken in cases of obstructed labour in south-western Uganda. Grounded theory (GT) was used to analyse data from 20 focus group discussions (FGDs), 10 with women and 10 with men, which were conducted in eight rural and two urban communities. A conceptual model based on the community members' understanding of obstructed labour and actions taken in response is presented as a pathway initiated by women's desire to 'protecting own integrity' (core category). The pathway consisted of six other categories closely linked to the core category, namely: (1) 'taking control of own birth process'; (2) 'reaching the limit--failing to give birth' (individual level); (3) 'exhausting traditional options'; (4) 'partner taking charge'; (5) 'facing challenging referral conditions' (community level); and finally (6) 'enduring a non-responsive healthcare system' (healthcare system level). There is a need to understand and acknowledge women's reluctance to involve others during childbirth. However, the healthcare system should provide acceptable care and a functional referral system closer to the community, thus supporting the community's ability to seek timely care as a response to obstructed labour. Easy access to mobile phones may improve referral systems. Upgrading of infrastructure in the region requires a multi-sectoral approach. Testing of the conceptual model through a quantitative questionnaire is recommended.

  15. Meteorological and hydrological extremes derived from taxation records: case study for south-western Moravia (Czech Republic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chromá, Kateřina; Brázdil, Rudolf; Valášek, Hubert; Zahradníček, Pavel

    2013-04-01

    Meteorological and hydrological extremes (MHEs) cause great material damage or even loss of human lives in the present time, similarly as it was in the past. In the Czech Lands (recently the Czech Republic), systematic meteorological and hydrological observations started generally in the latter half of the 19th century. Therefore, in order to create long-term series of such extremes, it is necessary to search for other sources of information. Different types of documentary evidence are used in historical climatology and hydrology to find such information. Some of them are related to records connected with taxation system. The taxation system in Moravia allowed farmers to request tax relief if their crops have been damaged by MHEs. The corresponding documents contain information about the type of extreme event and the date of its occurrence; often also impacts on crops or land may be derived. The nature of events leading to damage include particularly hailstorms, torrential rain, flash floods, floods (in regions along larger rivers), less frequently windstorms, late frosts and in some cases also information about droughts or extreme snow depths. However, the results obtained are influenced by uncertainties related to taxation records - their temporal and spatial incompleteness, limitation of the MHEs occurrence in the period of main agricultural work (May-August) and the purpose for which they were originally collected (primarily tax alleviation, i.e. information about MHEs was of secondary importance). All these aspects related to the study of MHEs from taxation records are demonstrated for five estates (Bítov, Budkov, Jemnice with Staré Hobzí, Nové Syrovice and Uherčice) in the south-western part of Moravia for the 18th-19th centuries. The analysis shows importance of taxation records for the study of past MHEs as well as great potential for their use.

  16. Serological investigation of bovine brucellosis in three cattle production systems in Yewa Division, south-western Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simeon I.B. Cadmus

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Limited data are available on the risk factors responsible for the occurrence of brucellosis amongst different cattle production systems in Nigeria despite its significant impact on livestock production. Consequently, a cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of bovine brucellosis in three cattle production systems in Yewa Division of Ogun State, south-western Nigeria. A total of 279 blood samples (sedentary = 88; transhumance = 64; trade = 127 were examined for antibodies to Brucella sp. using the Rose Bengal test (RBT and competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA. Overall, 24 (8.6% and 16 (5.7% of the animals tested seropositive for Brucella using RBT and cELISA, respectively. The herd seroprevalences based on RBT and cELISA were 31.6% and 15.8%, respectively. The results using cELISA reveal higher seroprevalence in the trade cattle (7.9%; confidence intervals [CI] = 3.2% – 12.6% and those in a sedentary system (5.7%; CI = 0.9% – 10.5% than in cattle kept under a transhumant management system (1.6%; CI = 1.5% – 4.7%. Age (> 3 years; p = 0.043 and breed (Djali; p = 0.038 were statistically significant for seropositivity to brucellosis based on cELISA, but sex (female, p = 0.234, production system (trade and sedentary; p = 0.208 or herd size (> 120; p = 0.359 was not. Since breeding stock is mostly sourced from trade and sedentary cattle, it is important that routine serological screening should be conducted before introducing any animal into an existing herd.

  17. Sero-epidemiological survey and risk factors associated with brucellosis in dogs in south-western Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoola, Modupe Comfort; Ogugua, Akwoba Joseph; Akinseye, Victor Oluwatoyin; Joshua, Tunde Olu; Banuso, Morenikeji Folusho; Adedoyin, Folashade Julianah; Adesokan, Hezekiah Kehinde; Omobowale, Temidayo Olutayo; Abiola, John Olusoji; Otuh, Patricia Ihuaku; Nottidge, Helen Oyebukola; Dale, Emma-Jane; Perrett, Lorraine; Taylor, Andrew; Stack, Judy; Cadmus, Simeon Idowu Babalola

    2016-01-01

    In Nigeria, there is limited information on brucellosis particularly in dogs, despite its public health implications. We undertook a sero-epidemiological survey of brucellosis in dogs to determine the prevalence of the disease and associated risk factors for its occurrence in Nigeria. A cross-sectional study was conducted to screen dogs in south-western Nigeria for antibodies to Brucella sp using the rapid slide agglutination test (RSA) and Rose Bengal test (RBT), with positive samples confirmed respectively by serum agglutination test (SAT) and competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA). Data were analyzed with STATA-12. From the 739 dog sera tested, 81 (10.96%) were positive by RSA and 94 (12.72%) by RBT; these were corroborated with SAT (4/81; 4.94%) and cELISA (1/94; 1.06%), respectively. Logistic regression identified location (OR=0.04; 95% CI: 0.02-0.09), breed (OR=1.71; 95% CI: 1.34-2.19), age (OR=0.10; 95% CI: 0.04-0.30) and management system (OR=8.51; 95% CI: 1.07-68.05) as risk factors for Brucella infection by RSA. However, location (OR=10.83; 95% CI: 5.48-21.39) and history of infertility (OR=2.62; 95% CI: 1.41-4.84) were identified as risk factors using RBT. Given the 10.96% to 12.72% seroprevalence of brucellosis recorded in this study, we advocate control of the disease in dogs, and public health education for those at risk of infection. Again, further studies are required to elucidate the role of dogs in the epidemiology of brucellosis in Nigeria considering the conducive human-animal interface and ecological factors responsible for the transmission of the disease.

  18. Nature and causes of Quaternary climate variation of tropical South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Paul A.; Fritz, Sherilyn C.

    2015-09-01

    This selective review of the Quaternary paleoclimate of the South American summer monsoon (SASM) domain presents viewpoints regarding a range of key issues in the field, many of which are unresolved and some of which are controversial. (1) El Niño-Southern Oscillation variability, while the most important global-scale mode of interannual climate variation, is insufficient to explain most of the variation of tropical South American climate observed in both the instrumental and the paleoclimate records. (2) Significant climate variation in tropical South America occurs on seasonal to orbital (i.e. multi-millennial) time scales as a result of sea-surface temperature (SST) variation and ocean-atmosphere interactions of the tropical Atlantic. (3) Decadal-scale climate variability, linked with this tropical Atlantic variability, has been a persistent characteristic of climate in tropical South America for at least the past half millennium, and likely, far beyond. (4) Centennial-to-millennial climate events in tropical South America were of longer duration and, perhaps, larger amplitude than any observed in the instrumental period, which is little more than a century long in tropical South America. These were superimposed upon both precession-paced insolation changes that caused significant variation in SASM precipitation and eccentricity-paced global glacial boundary conditions that caused significant changes in the tropical South American moisture balance. As a result, river sediment and water discharge increased and decreased across tropical South America, lake levels rose and fell, paleolakes arose and disappeared on the Altiplano, glaciers waxed and waned in the tropical Andes, and the tropical rainforest underwent significant changes in composition and extent. To further evaluate climate forcing over the last glacial cycle (˜125 ka), we developed a climate forcing model that combines summer insolation forcing and a proxy for North Atlantic SST forcing to

  19. Akaganéite (β-FeOOH) precipitation in inland acid sulfate soils of south-western New South Wales (NSW), Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibi, Irshad; Singh, Balwant; Silvester, Ewen

    2011-11-01

    The prevalence of sulphidic sediments in inland wetlands has been only recently recognized in many parts of the world, including Australia. The exposure of sulphidic sediments in these wetlands due to natural and human induced drying events has resulted in the oxidation of iron sulfide minerals, the formation of secondary iron minerals characteristic of acid sulfate soils and the release of highly acidic solutions. The objective of this study was to determine the mineralogy and morphology of sediments collected from the oxidized surface horizon (0-5 cm) of an inland acid sulfate soil located in south-western New South Wales (NSW), Australia. Random powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning transmission electron microscopy combined with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (STEM-EDS) techniques were used to characterize the minerals present in these sediments. Akaganéite was identified as the major mineral phase in the sediments; K-jarosite was also determined in small amounts in some sediments. The XRD patterns of sequentially washed (E-pure® water-0.01 M HCl-0.01 M EDTA) sediment samples showed all akaganéite peaks; the Rietveld refinement of these patterns also revealed a predominance of akaganéite. The chemical analyses of the original and washed sediments using STEM-EDS clearly showed the presence of akaganéite as a pure mineral phase with an average Fe/Cl mole ratio of 6.7 and a structural formula of Fe 8O 8(OH) 6.8(Cl) 1.2. These findings show that the extreme saline-acidic solutions (pH ˜ 2, EC = 216 dS/m) at the Bottle Bend lagoon provide ideal conditions for the crystallization of this rarely forming mineral.

  20. BOLIVAR: the Caribbean-South America plate boundary between 60W and 71W as imaged by seismic reflection data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnani, M.; Mann, P.; Clark, S. A.; Escalona, A.; Zelt, C. A.; Christeson, G. L.; Levander, A.

    2007-12-01

    We present the results of ~6000km of marine multi-channel seismic (MCS) reflection data collected offshore Venezuela as part of the Broadband Ocean Land Investigation of Venezuela and the Antilles arc Region project (BOLIVAR). The imaged area spans almost 12 degrees of longitude and 5 degrees of latitude and encompasses the diffuse plate boundary between South America (SA) and the SE Caribbean plate (CAR). This plate boundary has been evolving for at least the past 55My when the volcanic island arc that borders the CAR plate started colliding obliquely with the SA continent: the collision front has migrated from west to east. BOLIVAR MCS data show that the crustal architecture of the present plate boundary is dominated by the eastward motion of the Caribbean plate with respect to SA and is characterized by a complex combination of convergent and strike-slip tectonics. To the north, the reflection data image the South Caribbean Deformed Belt (SCDB) and the structures related to the thrusting of the CAR plate under the Leeward Antilles volcanic arc region. The data show that the CAR underthrusting continues as far east as the southern edge of the Aves ridge and detailed stratigraphic dating of the Venezuela basin and trench deposits suggests that the collision began in the Paleogene. The amount of shortening along the SCDB decreases toward the east, in part due to the geometry of plate motion vectors and in part as a result of the NNE escape of the Maracaibo block in western Venezuela. South of the SCDB the MCS profiles cross the Leeward Antilles island arc and Cenozoic sedimentary basins, revealing a complex history of Paleogene-Neogene multiphase extension, compression, and tectonic inversion, as well as the influence of the tectonic activity along the right-lateral El Pilar - San Sebastian fault system. East of the Bonaire basin the MCS data image the southern end of the Aves Ridge abandoned volcanic island arc and the southwestern termination of the Grenada basin

  1. High level of molecular and phenotypic biodiversity in Jatropha curcas from Central America compared to Africa, Asia and South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes Osorio, Luis Rodolfo; Torres Salvador, Andres Fransisco; Jongschaap, Raymond Elmar Etienne; Azurdia Perez, Cesar Augusto; Berduo Sandoval, Julio Ernesto; Trindade, Luisa Miguel; Visser, Richard Gerardus Franciscus; van Loo, Eibertus Nicolaas

    2014-03-25

    The main bottleneck to elevate jatropha (Jatropha curcas L.) from a wild species to a profitable biodiesel crop is the low genetic and phenotypic variation found in different regions of the world, hampering efficient plant breeding for productivity traits. In this study, 182 accessions from Asia (91), Africa (35), South America (9) and Central America (47) were evaluated at genetic and phenotypic level to find genetic variation and important traits for oilseed production. Genetic variation was assessed with SSR (Simple Sequence Repeat), TRAP (Target Region Amplification Polymorphism) and AFLP (Amplified fragment length polymorphism) techniques. Phenotypic variation included seed morphological characteristics, seed oil content and fatty acid composition and early growth traits. Jaccard's similarity and cluster analysis by UPGM (Unweighted Paired Group Method) with arithmetic mean and PCA (Principle Component Analysis) indicated higher variability in Central American accessions compared to Asian, African and South American accessions. Polymorphism Information Content (PIC) values ranged from 0 to 0.65. In the set of Central American accessions. PIC values were higher than in other regions. Accessions from the Central American population contain alleles that were not found in the accessions from other populations. Analysis of Molecular Variance (AMOVA; P Central American accessions showed very large genetic variation as assessed by DNA-marker variation compared to accessions from other regions. Central American accessions also showed the highest phenotypic variation and should be considered as the most important source for plant breeding. Some variation in early growth traits was found within a group of accessions from Asia and Africa, while these accessions did not differ in a single DNA-marker, possibly indicating epigenetic variation.

  2. High level of molecular and phenotypic biodiversity in Jatropha curcas from Central America compared to Africa, Asia and South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The main bottleneck to elevate jatropha (Jatropha curcas L.) from a wild species to a profitable biodiesel crop is the low genetic and phenotypic variation found in different regions of the world, hampering efficient plant breeding for productivity traits. In this study, 182 accessions from Asia (91), Africa (35), South America (9) and Central America (47) were evaluated at genetic and phenotypic level to find genetic variation and important traits for oilseed production. Results Genetic variation was assessed with SSR (Simple Sequence Repeat), TRAP (Target Region Amplification Polymorphism) and AFLP (Amplified fragment length polymorphism) techniques. Phenotypic variation included seed morphological characteristics, seed oil content and fatty acid composition and early growth traits. Jaccard’s similarity and cluster analysis by UPGM (Unweighted Paired Group Method) with arithmetic mean and PCA (Principle Component Analysis) indicated higher variability in Central American accessions compared to Asian, African and South American accessions. Polymorphism Information Content (PIC) values ranged from 0 to 0.65. In the set of Central American accessions. PIC values were higher than in other regions. Accessions from the Central American population contain alleles that were not found in the accessions from other populations. Analysis of Molecular Variance (AMOVA; P jatropha oil significantly differed (P < 0.05) between regions. Conclusions The pool of Central American accessions showed very large genetic variation as assessed by DNA-marker variation compared to accessions from other regions. Central American accessions also showed the highest phenotypic variation and should be considered as the most important source for plant breeding. Some variation in early growth traits was found within a group of accessions from Asia and Africa, while these accessions did not differ in a single DNA-marker, possibly indicating epigenetic variation. PMID:24666927

  3. Status of nuclear power programs in South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spitalnik, J.

    2010-10-01

    Analysis of nuclear power plants construction in four South American countries - Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Uruguay - is made based on programs set up by government specialized agencies. In Argentina, in a time-span up to 2023, the nuclear power program considers a five-fold increase of the current installed capacity reaching some 5,000 M We. The Brazilian reference scenario will install additional 4,000 M We, up to 2030, to reach a total installed capacity of about 6,000 M We. Other scenarios could bring this total to some 8,000 - 10,000 M We. Chile and Uruguay have started strategic studies to place the nuclear power option in the future energy matrix of the country. The government of Chile set up, in 2007, a Task Group to determine whether nuclear power could be considered a viable option. This Group concluded that nuclear power is a mature, safe competitive, and low carbon emitter technology that could be considered a viable option. A Nuclear Advisory Group was created who made studies to install a nuclear power plant in the 2016-2021 time-span. In December 2008, the Uruguayan Government created a high level Working Group to establish the feasibility conditions for Nuclear Power Generation in the country. (Author)

  4. Governance, agricultural intensification, and land sparing in tropical South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceddia, Michele Graziano; Bardsley, Nicholas Oliver; Gomez-y-Paloma, Sergio; Sedlacek, Sabine

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we address two topical questions: How do the quality of governance and agricultural intensification impact on spatial expansion of agriculture? Which aspects of governance are more likely to ensure that agricultural intensification allows sparing land for nature? Using data from the Food and Agriculture Organization, the World Bank, the World Database on Protected Areas, and the Yale Center for Environmental Law and Policy, we estimate a panel data model for six South American countries and quantify the effects of major determinants of agricultural land expansion, including various dimensions of governance, over the period 1970–2006. The results indicate that the effect of agricultural intensification on agricultural expansion is conditional on the quality and type of governance. When considering conventional aspects of governance, agricultural intensification leads to an expansion of agricultural area when governance scores are high. When looking specifically at environmental aspects of governance, intensification leads to a spatial contraction of agriculture when governance scores are high, signaling a sustainable intensification process. PMID:24799696

  5. [Comprehensive primary care and segmented health systems in South America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovanella, Ligia; Almeida, Patty Fidelis de

    2017-10-02

    The article analyzes recent reforms in primary health care in the South American countries, discussing the scope and challenges for establishing comprehensive primary health care in the region's health systems. The data sources were case studies conducted in 12 countries, and the analytical lines were the strategic components in the design and implementation of primary health care: national policy approaches, characteristics of financing, organization and provision, and the workforce in primary health care. The crosscutting analysis from a comparative perspective provides an overview of primary health care in the region's countries and highlights convergences and asymmetries. A common trait is the recovery of the expanded definition of primary health care with family and community components, a territorial base, multidisciplinary team, incorporation of community health workers, and social participation. Implementation revealed heterogeneities in the advances and contradictions in the models. Insufficient supply of physicians, difficulties in provision and physician retention in remote and peripheral areas, as well as in primary health care itself, precarious employment relations, and absence of career plans are common problems, and there have been recent initiatives in government intervention to direct the workforce to the public system. Segmentation of the supply of primary health care converges with the segmentation of social protection in the various countries, through maintenance of social insurance or selective and targeted insurance or coverage by private health insurance, and persistent exclusion of populations from the right to health. The article argues that implementation of comprehensive primary health care is conditioned by the prevailing modalities of social protection in health.

  6. The Brasiliano collage in South America: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamim Bley de Brito Neves

    Full Text Available Analysis of recent geological and geochronological data from the basement of the South American platform indicates that the Brasiliano orogenic collage took place in four distinct pulses: a Early Cryogenian (ca. 800 - 740Ma; b Late Cryogenian-Early Ediacaran (ca. 660 - 610 Ma; c Early-Middle Ediacaran (c. 590 - 560 Ma; and d Late Cambrian (520 - 500 Ma. The first three pulses are well represented in most Neoproterozoic structural provinces in West Gondwana. The youngest orogenic phase/pulse, however, is only seen in Argentina (Pampean Orogeny and Brazil, in eastern Rio de Janeiro State (Búzios Orogeny. The period between ca. 750 and 500 Ma is comparable to that reported for the amalgamation of various continental fragments in East (Arabian-Nubian, Mozambique, Kuunga and North Gondwana (Cadomian. However, important differences in the nature and ages of events are recognized, which can be expected in view of the magnitude of Gondwana agglutination and the diversity of paleogeographic and tectonic scenarios. West Gondwana shows an interesting peculiarity: lithologically and tectonically diversified Tonian terranes underlie Brasiliano orogenic buildups. They were strongly reworked during most of the orogenic pulses. The Tonian terranes (1000 - 900 Ma and their relation with Rodinia or with the processes of Gondwana fusion remains an open question. Indications of their presence in East Gondwana are still poorly documented.

  7. Governance, agricultural intensification, and land sparing in tropical South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceddia, Michele Graziano; Bardsley, Nicholas Oliver; Gomez-y-Paloma, Sergio; Sedlacek, Sabine

    2014-05-20

    In this paper we address two topical questions: How do the quality of governance and agricultural intensification impact on spatial expansion of agriculture? Which aspects of governance are more likely to ensure that agricultural intensification allows sparing land for nature? Using data from the Food and Agriculture Organization, the World Bank, the World Database on Protected Areas, and the Yale Center for Environmental Law and Policy, we estimate a panel data model for six South American countries and quantify the effects of major determinants of agricultural land expansion, including various dimensions of governance, over the period 1970-2006. The results indicate that the effect of agricultural intensification on agricultural expansion is conditional on the quality and type of governance. When considering conventional aspects of governance, agricultural intensification leads to an expansion of agricultural area when governance scores are high. When looking specifically at environmental aspects of governance, intensification leads to a spatial contraction of agriculture when governance scores are high, signaling a sustainable intensification process.

  8. Catalog of the subgenus Melanoconion of Culex (Diptera: Culicidae) for South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Gutierrez, Carolina; Sallum, Maria Anice Mureb

    2015-10-07

    Species of Culex (Melanoconion) Theobald are recognized as vectors of arboviruses. The species of this subgenus pose a real taxonomic challenge. The current classification of the subgenus recognizes a total of 160 species divided in two major sections, Melanoconion and Spissipes; and several non-formal groupings within each section. We gathered bibliographic records of the subgenus in South America, with particular focus on the period of time after the publication of the Catalog by Pecor et al. (1992) until present time. This compilation included 139 species occurring in South American countries with all the relevant bibliographic sources, including the corresponding information for those medically important species.

  9. Deformation patterns in the southwestern part of the Mediterranean Ridge (South Matapan Trench, Western Greece)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andronikidis, Nikolaos; Kokinou, Eleni; Vafidis, Antonios; Kamberis, Evangelos; Manoutsoglou, Emmanouil

    2017-12-01

    Seismic reflection data and bathymetry analyses, together with geological information, are combined in the present work to identify seabed structural deformation and crustal structure in the Western Mediterranean Ridge (the backstop and the South Matapan Trench). As a first step, we apply bathymetric data and state of art methods of pattern recognition to automatically detect seabed lineaments, which are possibly related to the presence of tectonic structures (faults). The resulting pattern is tied to seismic reflection data, further assisting in the construction of a stratigraphic and structural model for this part of the Mediterranean Ridge. Structural elements and stratigraphic units in the final model are estimated based on: (a) the detected lineaments on the seabed, (b) the distribution of the interval velocities and the presence of velocity inversions, (c) the continuity and the amplitudes of the seismic reflections, the seismic structure of the units and (d) well and stratigraphic data as well as the main tectonic structures from the nearest onshore areas. Seabed morphology in the study area is probably related with the past and recent tectonics movements that result from African and European plates' convergence. Backthrusts and reverse faults, flower structures and deep normal faults are among the most important extensional/compressional structures interpreted in the study area.

  10. Maps showing geology, oil and gas fields, and geological provinces of South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, C. J.; Viger, R.J.; Anderson, C.P.

    1999-01-01

    This digitally compiled map includes geology, geologic provinces, and oil and gas fields of South America. The map is part of a worldwide series on CD-ROM by World Energy Project released of the U.S. Geological Survey . The goal of the project is to assess the undiscovered, technically recoverable oil and gas resources of the world and report these results by the year 2000. For data management purposes the world is divided into eight energy regions corresponding approximately to the economic regions of the world as defined by the U.S. Department of State. South America (Region 6) includes Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Columbia, Ecuador, Falkland Islands, French Guiana, Guyuna, Netherlands, Netherlands Antilles, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, Uruguay, and Venezuela.

  11. Sea-Air Intermodal Port Pair Selection Criteria in South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    transport to the front. “Focused Logistics” is a complex ballet that must take into account what, where, when, and how America’s war materials need to be...Benin 93 76.8 7.7 6.7 4.2 6.7 7.4 7.4 6.4 8.4 5.5 5.3 4.1 7.0 Vietnam 95 76.6 6.9 5.2 5.3 5.9 6.5 6.6 7.3 6.4 7.3 6.0 7.0 6.2 Mexico 96 76.1 6.8 4.1 5.8...of Responsibility includes: The land mass of Latin America south of Mexico , The waters adjacent to Central and South America, The Caribbean Sea, A

  12. Mammals of South America, Volume 1, Marsupials, Xenarthrans, Shrews, and Bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, A.L.

    2007-01-01

    The vast terrain between Panama and Tierra del Fuego contains some of the world?s richest mammalian fauna, but until now it has lacked a comprehensive systematic reference to the identification, distribution, and taxonomy of its mammals. The first such book of its kind and the inaugural volume in a three-part series, Mammals of South America both summarizes existing information and encourages further research of the mammals indigenous to the region. Containing identification keys and brief descriptions of each order, family, and genus, the first volume of Mammals of South America covers marsupials, shrews, armadillos, sloths, anteaters, and bats. Species accounts include taxonomic descriptions, synonymies, keys to identification, distributions with maps and a gazetteer of marginal localities, lists of recognized subspecies, brief summaries of natural history information, and discussions of issues related to taxonomic interpretations. Highly anticipated and much needed, this book will be a landmark contribution to mammalogy, zoology, tropical biology, and conservation biology.

  13. Population ecology of Chaetophractus vellerosus: the first report for an armadillo in South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín M. Abba

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this work was to obtain the first estimates of survival rates (S, capture probability (p and life expectancy for armadillos in South America by analyzing capture-mark-recapture data obtained from a population of Chaetophractus vellerosus (Gray, 1865 located in Magdalena, Buenos Aires, Argentina. From June 2006 to June 2011, we conducted 16 field surveys that resulted in 365 capture events of 152 adult C. vellerosus. For the survival analysis we used a Cormack-Jolly-Seber (CJS modelling framework. Interannual variation in S made an important contribution to overall variation in the survival rate of C. vellerosus. The average life expectancy for females and males after attaining sexual maturity was estimated at 1.70 and 1.65 years respectively. The period of lowest survival probability was associated with dry seasons that might have affected the availability of food. This study provides the first estimates of demographic parameters for xenarthrans in South America.

  14. Identifying spatial data availability and spatial data needs for Chagas disease mitigation in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Emily; Bone, Christopher

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this paper on Chagas disease is to determine the availability and spatial resolution of existing data that can be used to address Chagas disease transmission risk in South America. A literature review was conducted to determine prominent variables that models utilize to assist with efforts to mitigate Chagas disease. Next, a Web search was performed to collect publicly available spatial data pertaining to these variables for the countries in South America. The data were classified based on type and spatial extent, which were then used to create maps of data availability of variables related to Chagas disease transmission. Governments can use this information to better direct their resources to collect data and control the spread of triatomines and Chagas more effectively, and potentially identify more cost-effective strategies for eliminating triatomine vectors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. First evidence for Wollemi Pine-type pollen (Dilwynites: Araucariaceae in South America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Macphail

    Full Text Available We report the first fossil pollen from South America of the lineage that includes the recently discovered, extremely rare Australian Wollemi Pine, Wollemia nobilis (Araucariaceae. The grains are from the late Paleocene to early middle Eocene Ligorio Márquez Formation of Santa Cruz, Patagonia, Argentina, and are assigned to Dilwynites, the fossil pollen type that closely resembles the pollen of modern Wollemia and some species of its Australasian sister genus, Agathis. Dilwynites was formerly known only from Australia, New Zealand, and East Antarctica. The Patagonian Dilwynites occurs with several taxa of Podocarpaceae and a diverse range of cryptogams and angiosperms, but not Nothofagus. The fossils greatly extend the known geographic range of Dilwynites and provide important new evidence for the Antarctic region as an early Paleogene portal for biotic interchange between Australasia and South America.

  16. Tle and Heet Research in South America in the Framework of Leona Collaborative Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sao Sabbas, F.

    2013-12-01

    South America is one of the most active thunderstorm regions of the world. About 20 years ago, it was discovered that thunderstorm electrical activity, in the form of lightning discharges, can excite Transient Luminous Events - TLEs in the upper atmosphere directly above it. More recently, measurements of High Energy Emissions from Thunderstorms - HEET from space revealed that they also produce high energy emissions. Up to date, six different field campaigns, between 2002 and 2012 have been successfully performed in Brazil to make TLE observations. More than 700 events, mainly sprites, have been recorded over thunderstorms in different places in South America during these campaigns. Given the high thunderstorm electrical activity in our region, it is expected to have an extremely high TLE occurrence rate as well as intense emission of TGFs, high energy electron beams, neutron beam, X-Rays, i.e. HEET in general. This paper will review the main results of the different TLE observations performed from Brazil up to date and the research on TLEs and HEET performed by the Atmospheric and Space Electrodynamical Coupling - ACATMOS group at INPE. It will introduce the LEONA: Transient Luminous Event and Thunderstorm High Energy Emission Collaborative Network in Latin America. The team unites scientists of research institutions from several countries to investigate TLEs, HEET and related phenomena. It will present the collaborative network of cameras that are already been installed in Brazil, Peru and Argentina for continuous remote observation of TLE, and the prospective installation of 21 optical observation sites in other locations in South America, as well as a neutron detector in southern Brazil. The LEONA project has been recently approved by the Brazilian research funding agency FAPESP. The Argentina sites will allow for combined collaborative studies of TLEs and HEET produced by thunderstorms in the Pampas region, where the most several thunderstorms in South America

  17. Tropical Peat and Peatland Development in the Floodplains of the Greater Pamba Basin, South-Western India during the Holocene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navnith K P Kumaran

    Full Text Available Holocene sequences in the humid tropical region of Kerala, South-western (SW India have preserved abundance of organic-rich sediments in the form of peat and its rapid development in a narrow time frame towards Middle Holocene has been found to be significant. The sub-coastal areas and flood plains of the Greater Pamba Basin have provided palaeorecords of peat indicating that the deposits are essentially formed within freshwater. The combination of factors like stabilized sea level and its subsequent fall since the Middle Holocene, topographic relief and climatic conditions led to rapid peat accumulation across the coastal lowlands. The high rainfall and massive floods coupled with a rising sea level must have inundated > 75% of the coastal plain land converting it into a veritable lagoon-lake system that eventually led to abrupt termination of the forest ecosystem and also converted the floodplains into peatland where accumulation of peat almost to 2.0-3.0 m thickness in coastal lowlands and river basins during the shorter interval in the Middle Holocene. Vast areas of the coastal plains of Kerala have been converted into carbon rich peatland during the Middle Holocene and transforming the entire coastal stretch and associated landforms as one of the relatively youngest peatlands in the extreme southern tip of India. Unlike the uninterrupted formation of peatlands of considerable extent during the Holocene in Southeast Asia, the south Peninsular Indian region has restricted and short intervals of peatlands in the floodplains and coastal lowlands. Such a scenario is attributed to the topographic relief of the terrain and the prevailing hydrological regimes and environmental conditions as a consequence of monsoon variability since Middle Holocene in SW India. Considering the tropical coastal lowlands and associated peatlands are excellent repositories of carbon, they are very important for regional carbon cycling and habitat diversity. The

  18. Tropical Peat and Peatland Development in the Floodplains of the Greater Pamba Basin, South-Western India during the Holocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaran, Navnith K P; Padmalal, Damodaran; Limaye, Ruta B; S, Vishnu Mohan; Jennerjahn, Tim; Gamre, Pradeep G

    2016-01-01

    Holocene sequences in the humid tropical region of Kerala, South-western (SW) India have preserved abundance of organic-rich sediments in the form of peat and its rapid development in a narrow time frame towards Middle Holocene has been found to be significant. The sub-coastal areas and flood plains of the Greater Pamba Basin have provided palaeorecords of peat indicating that the deposits are essentially formed within freshwater. The combination of factors like stabilized sea level and its subsequent fall since the Middle Holocene, topographic relief and climatic conditions led to rapid peat accumulation across the coastal lowlands. The high rainfall and massive floods coupled with a rising sea level must have inundated > 75% of the coastal plain land converting it into a veritable lagoon-lake system that eventually led to abrupt termination of the forest ecosystem and also converted the floodplains into peatland where accumulation of peat almost to 2.0-3.0 m thickness in coastal lowlands and river basins during the shorter interval in the Middle Holocene. Vast areas of the coastal plains of Kerala have been converted into carbon rich peatland during the Middle Holocene and transforming the entire coastal stretch and associated landforms as one of the relatively youngest peatlands in the extreme southern tip of India. Unlike the uninterrupted formation of peatlands of considerable extent during the Holocene in Southeast Asia, the south Peninsular Indian region has restricted and short intervals of peatlands in the floodplains and coastal lowlands. Such a scenario is attributed to the topographic relief of the terrain and the prevailing hydrological regimes and environmental conditions as a consequence of monsoon variability since Middle Holocene in SW India. Considering the tropical coastal lowlands and associated peatlands are excellent repositories of carbon, they are very important for regional carbon cycling and habitat diversity. The alarming rate of land

  19. Care of patients with Huntington's disease in South America: a survey

    OpenAIRE

    Maciel, Ricardo Oliveira Horta; Cardoso, Francisco Eduardo Costa; Chana-Cuevas, Pedro; Cosentino, Carlos; Fernandez, William; Rieder, Carlos R. M.; Serrano-Duenas, Marcos; Weiser, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a rare neurodegenerative disease with a multitude of symptoms, which requires access to specialized multidisciplinary care for adequate management. The aim of this study was to survey the characteristics of care in various HD centers in South America (SA). Methods A questionnaire was sent to 24 centers involved in the care for HD patients in SA. Results Of the total 24 centers, 19 (79.2%) are academic units. The majority of centers (62.5%) are general movement ...

  20. Long-term energy prospective modeling for South America - Application to international climate negotiations

    OpenAIRE

    Postic, Sébastien

    2015-01-01

    Together, Central and South America and the Caribbean represent more than 450 million people and 12% of the Earth's total emerged land. The region stands out in the global energy landscape for the outstanding contribution of renewable sources to its energy production. Maintaining this level of renewable energy in the future might prove a challenging task, as ‘historical' energy sources (hydropower, biomass) run into sustainability issues and ‘new' options (wind, solar, geothermal energy) stil...

  1. The first Triassic dipteran (Insecta) from South America, with review of Hennigmatidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, María Belén; Lukashevich, Elena D

    2013-01-01

    The first Triassic dipteran from South America is described based on an isolated wing from the lower Upper Triassic deposits of Argentina (Mendoza Province, Potrerillos Formation, Quebrada del Durazno locality). Trihennigma zavattierii gen. et sp. nov. is a member of the Mesozoic family Hennigmatidae, previously recorded only from Eurasia. A key for the genera and species of Hennigmatidae is provided and systematic position of the taxa is discussed.

  2. Revision of the Applicability of the NGA's in South America, Chile - Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado Lara, F., Sr.; Ledezma, C., Sr.

    2015-12-01

    In South America, larger magnitude seismic events originate in the subduction zone between the Nazca and Continental plates, as opposed to crustal events. Crustal seismic events are important in areas very close to active fault lines; however, seismic hazard analyses incorporate crust events related to a maximum distance from the site under study. In order to use crustal events as part of a seismic hazard analysis, it is necessary to use the attenuation relationships which represent the seismic behavior of the site under study. Unfortunately, in South America the amount of compiled crustal event historical data is not yet sufficient to generate a firm regional attenuation relationship. In the absence of attenuation relationships for crustal earthquakes in the region, the conventional approach is to use attenuation relationships from other regions which have a large amount of compiled data and which have similar seismic conditions to the site under study. This practice permits the development of seismic hazard analysis work with a certain margin of accuracy. In South America, in the engineering practice, new generation attenuation relationships (NGA-W) are used among other alternatives in order to incorporate the effect of crustal events in a seismic hazard analysis. In 2014, the NGA-W Version 2 (NGA-W2) was presented with a database containing information from Taiwan, Turkey, Iran, USA, Mexico, Japan, and Alaska. This paper examines whether it is acceptable to utilize the NGA-W2 in seismic hazard analysis in South America. A comparison between response spectrums of the seismic risk prepared in accordance with NGA-W2 and actual response spectrums of crustal events from Argentina is developed in order to support the examination. The seismic data were gathered from equipment installed in the cities of Santiago, Chile and Mendoza, Argentina.

  3. Helminths of two anuran species, Atelopus spurrelli (Bufonidae) and Dendrobates histrionicus (Dendrobatidae), from Colombia, South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Stephen R; Bursey, Charles R

    2003-09-01

    Two species of anurans from Colombia, South America, Atelopus spurrelli and Dendrobates histrionicus, were examined for helminths. A. spurrelli was found to harbor three species of Nematoda, adults of Cosmocerca podicipinus and larvae of Physocephalus sp. and Porrocaecum sp. D. histrionicus was found to harbor, in addition to C. podicipinus, Physocephalus sp. and Porrocaecum sp. and cystacanths of three species of Acanthocephala: Centrorhynchus sp., Onicola sp. and Polymorphus sp. A. spurrelli and D. histrionicus represent new host records for these helminths.

  4. A Cutaneous Ulcer Resulting from Mycobacterium ulcerans—Leishmania braziliensis Coinfection in South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mougin, Benjamin; Avenel-Audran, Martine; Hasseine, Lilia; Martin, Ludovic; Cottin, Jane; Pomares, Christelle; Delaunay, Pascal; Marty, Pierre; Ravel, Christophe; Chabasse, Dominique; Abgueguen, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Buruli ulcer is a tropical skin disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. Its mode of transmission is not yet clearly understood. We report here a cutaneous ulcer in a European traveler in South America resulting from a coinfection detected specifically for Mycobacterium ulcerans and Leishmania braziliensis DNA with real-time polymerase chain reaction. This observation of a unique cutaneous ulcer raises the issue about possible modes of transmission of those two pathogens by the same vector. PMID:22049045

  5. Arrival of Paleo-Indians to the Southern Cone of South America: New Clues from Mitogenomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Saint Pierre, Michelle; Gandini, Francesca; Perego, Ugo A.; Bodner, Martin; Gómez-Carballa, Alberto; Corach, Daniel; Angerhofer, Norman; Woodward, Scott R.; Semino, Ornella; Salas, Antonio; Parson, Walther; Moraga, Mauricio; Achilli, Alessandro; Torroni, Antonio; Olivieri, Anna

    2012-01-01

    With analyses of entire mitogenomes, studies of Native American mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation have entered the final phase of phylogenetic refinement: the dissection of the founding haplogroups into clades that arose in America during and after human arrival and spread. Ages and geographic distributions of these clades could provide novel clues on the colonization processes of the different regions of the double continent. As for the Southern Cone of South America, this approach has recently allowed the identification of two local clades (D1g and D1j) whose age estimates agree with the dating of the earliest archaeological sites in South America, indicating that Paleo-Indians might have reached that region from Beringia in less than 2000 years. In this study, we sequenced 46 mitogenomes belonging to two additional clades, termed B2i2 (former B2l) and C1b13, which were recently identified on the basis of mtDNA control-region data and whose geographical distributions appear to be restricted to Chile and Argentina. We confirm that their mutational motifs most likely arose in the Southern Cone region. However, the age estimate for B2i2 and C1b13 (11–13,000 years) appears to be younger than those of other local clades. The difference could reflect the different evolutionary origins of the distinct South American-specific sub-haplogroups, with some being already present, at different times and locations, at the very front of the expansion wave in South America, and others originating later in situ, when the tribalization process had already begun. A delayed origin of a few thousand years in one of the locally derived populations, possibly in the central part of Chile, would have limited the geographical and ethnic diffusion of B2i2 and explain the present-day occurrence that appears to be mainly confined to the Tehuelche and Araucanian-speaking groups. PMID:23240014

  6. First report of Raoiella indica Hirst (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) in South America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasquez, Carlos [Universidad Centroccidental Lisandro Alvarado, Barquisimeto, Estado Lara (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)]. E-mail: carlosvasquez@ucla.edu.ve; Quiros de G, Magally [Universidad del Zulia, Maracaibo, Estado Zulia, (Venezuela). Museo de Artropodos; Aponte, Orlando [Universidad Central de Venezuela, Estado Aragua (Venezuela). Inst. de Zoologia Agricola; Sandoval, D. Maria F. [Ministerio del Poder Popular para la Agricultura y Tierras (Venezuela). Servicio Autonomo de Sanidad Agropecuaria

    2008-11-15

    The presence of the red palm mite, Raoiella indica Hirst is recorded for the first time in South America. High populations and severe damages caused by this new invasive mite were found on coconut and banana leaves in Sucre (10 deg 27' 47{sup N} and 64 deg 10' 38{sup W}) and Monagas (9 deg 46'60{sup N} and 63 deg 12'0{sup W}) states in northeastern Venezuela. (author)

  7. Monitoring the Quality of Medicines: Results from Africa, Asia, and South America

    OpenAIRE

    Hajjou, Mustapha; Krech, Laura; Lane-Barlow, Christi; Roth, Lukas; Pribluda, Victor S.; Phanouvong, Souly; El-Hadri, Latifa; Evans, Lawrence; Raymond, Christopher; Yuan, Elaine; Siv, Lang; Vuong, Tuan-Anh; Boateng, Kwasi Poku; Okafor, Regina; Chibwe, Kennedy M.

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring the quality of medicines plays a crucial role in an integrated medicines quality assurance system. In a publicly available medicines quality database (MQDB), the U.S. Pharmacopeial Convention (USP) reports results of data collected from medicines quality monitoring (MQM) activities spanning the period of 2003?2013 in 17 countries of Africa, Asia, and South America. The MQDB contains information on 15,063 samples collected and tested using Minilab? screening methods and/or pharmacop...

  8. Acoustic regulations for housing and schools in Europe and South America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machimbarrena, Maria; Rasmussen, Birgit

    2017-01-01

    for acoustic requirements. Considering globalization and noise as a health issue, it is important to extend attention to other parts of the world and establish dialogue and cooperation. As a pilot study, acoustic regulations in three countries in South America, namely Argentina, Brazil and Chile, have been...... on reverberation time for classrooms. Thus, the paper provides a basis for discussing future cooperation on optimizing acoustic regulations....

  9. Homologous Recombination and Xylella fastidiosa Host-Pathogen Associations in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coletta-Filho, Helvécio D; Francisco, Carolina S; Lopes, João R S; Muller, Christiane; Almeida, Rodrigo P P

    2017-03-01

    Homologous recombination affects the evolution of bacteria such as Xylella fastidiosa, a naturally competent plant pathogen that requires insect vectors for dispersal. This bacterial species is taxonomically divided into subspecies, with phylogenetic clusters within subspecies that are host specific. One subspecies, pauca, is primarily limited to South America, with the exception of recently reported strains in Europe and Costa Rica. Despite the economic importance of X. fastidiosa subsp. pauca in South America, little is known about its genetic diversity. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) has previously identified six sequence types (ST) among plant samples collected in Brazil (both subsp. pauca and multiplex). Here, we report on a survey of X. fastidiosa genetic diversity (MLST based) performed in six regions in Brazil and two in Argentina, by sampling five different plant species. In addition to the six previously reported ST, seven new subsp. pauca and two new subsp. multiplex ST were identified. The presence of subsp. multiplex in South America is considered to be the consequence of a single introduction from its native range in North America more than 80 years ago. Different phylogenetic approaches clustered the South American ST into four groups, with strains infecting citrus (subsp. pauca); coffee and olive (subsp. pauca); coffee, hibiscus, and plum (subsp. pauca); and plum (subsp. multiplex). In areas where these different genetic clusters occurred sympatrically, we found evidence of homologous recombination in the form of bidirectional allelic exchange between subspp. pauca and multiplex. In fact, the only strain of subsp. pauca isolated from a plum host had an allele that originated from subsp. multiplex. These signatures of bidirectional homologous recombination between endemic and introduced ST indicate that gene flow occurs in short evolutionary time frames in X. fastidiosa, despite the ecological isolation (i.e., host plant species) of genotypes.

  10. Insecta, Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Cerambycinae, Trachyderini: New state and country records from South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quintino, H. Y. S.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the revision of the collections of the Museu Nacional, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro andthe National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, the current work provides new localities for 32 speciesand two subspecies of Trachyderini from South America. Thirteen new country records from Argentina, Brazil, Colombia,Ecuador, Peru, Surinam and Venezuela and 35 new state records from Brazil are registered.

  11. Widespread occurrence of bd in French Guiana, South America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie A Courtois

    Full Text Available The amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd is a purported agent of decline and extinction of many amphibian populations worldwide. Its occurrence remains poorly documented in many tropical regions, including the Guiana Shield, despite the area's high amphibian diversity. We conducted a comprehensive assessment of Bd in French Guiana in order to (1 determine its geographical distribution, (2 test variation of Bd prevalence among species in French Guiana and compare it to earlier reported values in other South American anuran species (http://www.bd-maps.net; 123 species from 15 genera to define sentinel species for future work, (3 track changes in prevalence through time and (4 determine if Bd presence had a negative effect on one selected species. We tested the presence of Bd in 14 species at 11 sites for a total of 1053 samples (306 in 2009 and 747 in 2012. At least one Bd-positive individual was found at eight out of 11 sites, suggesting a wide distribution of Bd in French Guiana. The pathogen was not uniformly distributed among the studied amphibian hosts, with Dendrobatidae species displaying the highest prevalence (12.4% as compared to Bufonidae (2.6 % and Hylidae (1.5%. In contrast to earlier reported values, we found highest prevalence for three Dendrobatidae species and two of them displayed an increase in Bd prevalence from 2009 to 2012. Those three species might be the sentinel species of choice for French Guiana. For Dendrobates tinctorius, of key conservation value in the Guiana Shield, smaller female individuals were more likely to be infected, suggesting either that frogs can outgrow their chytrid infections or that the disease induces developmental stress limiting growth. Generally, our study supports the idea that Bd is more widespread than previously thought and occurs at remote places in the lowland forest of the Guiana shield.

  12. Widespread occurrence of bd in French Guiana, South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtois, Elodie A; Gaucher, Philippe; Chave, Jérôme; Schmeller, Dirk S

    2015-01-01

    The amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) is a purported agent of decline and extinction of many amphibian populations worldwide. Its occurrence remains poorly documented in many tropical regions, including the Guiana Shield, despite the area's high amphibian diversity. We conducted a comprehensive assessment of Bd in French Guiana in order to (1) determine its geographical distribution, (2) test variation of Bd prevalence among species in French Guiana and compare it to earlier reported values in other South American anuran species (http://www.bd-maps.net; 123 species from 15 genera) to define sentinel species for future work, (3) track changes in prevalence through time and (4) determine if Bd presence had a negative effect on one selected species. We tested the presence of Bd in 14 species at 11 sites for a total of 1053 samples (306 in 2009 and 747 in 2012). At least one Bd-positive individual was found at eight out of 11 sites, suggesting a wide distribution of Bd in French Guiana. The pathogen was not uniformly distributed among the studied amphibian hosts, with Dendrobatidae species displaying the highest prevalence (12.4%) as compared to Bufonidae (2.6 %) and Hylidae (1.5%). In contrast to earlier reported values, we found highest prevalence for three Dendrobatidae species and two of them displayed an increase in Bd prevalence from 2009 to 2012. Those three species might be the sentinel species of choice for French Guiana. For Dendrobates tinctorius, of key conservation value in the Guiana Shield, smaller female individuals were more likely to be infected, suggesting either that frogs can outgrow their chytrid infections or that the disease induces developmental stress limiting growth. Generally, our study supports the idea that Bd is more widespread than previously thought and occurs at remote places in the lowland forest of the Guiana shield.

  13. Upper Cretaceous source rocks of northern and northwestern South America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talukdar, S.; Gallango, O.; Cassani, F.; Vallejos, C.

    1989-03-01

    Organic carbon-rich, laminated, calcareous shales and limestones of Cenomanian to Campanian age are widespread in the polyhistory basins of Venezuela, Colombia, and Trinidad and are identified as the most important oil-generating source rocks in these basins. Available data on sedimentological, geochemical, and organic petrographic characteristics demonstrate that these source rocks are characterized by predominantly marine organic matter deposited in anoxic to near-anoxic marine environments. Marine transgressions due to eustatic sea level rise, with consequent flooding of available shelves of the northern and northwestern passive margin of the Cretaceous South American continent and resulting upwelling conditions, appears to be the key geologic control for the deposition of these laterally extensive source rocks. Significant vertical variations in geochemical properties are observed. These variations were caused by temporal changes in the influx of terrestrial organic matter and/or alternations of relatively oxic and anoxic conditions. Regional variations in organic carbon content, organic matter type, and oil potential broadly reflect the paleogeographic setting of the Cretaceous continental margin. The regionally extensive oil-prone source rocks became largely mature for hydrocarbon generation during the Tertiary, consequent to the development of the individual polyhistory basins. Rock-Eval pyrolysis data from several samples and results from hydrous pyrolysis experiments on some selected immature samples from the Venezuelan basins are used to define the oil-generating capacity, and kinetic parameters obtained from Rock-Eval experiments on the same samples are considered to outline the oil generation under the geological heating rates encountered in the sedimentary basins.

  14. South America: Brazil leads the way in offshore drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-08-15

    Brazil has found more than 600 million barrels of oil in the Campos basin and made other strikes to the north, offshore Sergipe, Alagoas, and Rio Grande do Norte states. Argentina's government recently gave the state oil company (YPF) permission to prospect in the Falkland Islands area about 200 miles east of Argentina's southern tip. YPF also is expected to accelerate work offshore Tierra del Fuego next year. The nationalization of petroleum in Venezuela is discussed. Drilling activity has slowed to 67 percent of the level of 1974. The goal for 1975 is about 875 million barrels. Chile has revised its oil law to permit foreign companies to explore, develop and produce the country's resources via contracts. Despite spotty successes, Peru has not given up on the northeastern jungle area, just south of Ecuador's fields. Occidental Petroleum and Petroperu have been the only companies to find commercial oil in the four-year exploration period. Their reserves are put at 464 million barrels. Eighteen foreign companies signed 14 contracts covering more than 50,000 square miles in Bolivia since the country asked for outside help in 1972. Ecuador's output reached an all-time high of 244,000 bpd and then slowed down to a 27,000 bpd dribble when the Trans-Ecuador pipeline broke. The government decreed that production from the Texaco and Gulf fields in the Oriente must rise to 210,000 bopd and that the two companies must drill their unexplored and undeveloped acreage or lose it. Ecuador cut 43 cents from the price of oil by reducing the production tax. Colombia abolished all oil concessions this year in an attempt to stem steadily slipping production. Exploration activities in Uruguay and Paraguay are discussed. (MCW)

  15. Cross-timescale Interference and Rainfall Extreme Events in South Eastern South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Angel G.

    The physical mechanisms and predictability associated with extreme daily rainfall in South East South America (SESA) are investigated for the December-February season. Through a k-mean analysis, a robust set of daily circulation regimes is identified and then it is used to link the frequency of rainfall extreme events with large-scale potential predictors at subseasonal-to-seasonal scales. This basic set of daily circulation regimes is related to the continental and oceanic phases of the South Atlantic Convergence Zone (SACZ) and wave train patterns superimposed on the Southern Hemisphere Polar Jet. Some of these recurrent synoptic circulation types are conducive to extreme rainfall events in the region through synoptic control of different meso-scale physical features and, at the same time, are influenced by climate phenomena that could be used as sources of potential predictability. Extremely high rainfall (as measured by the 95th- and 99th-percentiles) is preferentially associated with two of these weather types, which are characterized by moisture advection intrusions from lower latitudes and the Pacific; another three weather types, characterized by above-normal moisture advection toward lower latitudes or the Andes, are preferentially associated with dry days (days with no rain). The analysis permits the identification of several subseasonal-to-seasonal scale potential predictors that modulate the occurrence of circulation regimes conducive to extreme rainfall events in SESA. It is conjectured that a cross-timescale interference between the different climate drivers improves the predictive skill of extreme precipitation in the region. The potential and real predictive skill of the frequency of extreme rainfall is then evaluated, finding evidence indicating that mechanisms of climate variability at one timescale contribute to the predictability at another scale, i.e., taking into account the interference of different potential sources of predictability at

  16. The children of mama coca: coca, cocaine and the fate of harm reduction in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, Francisco I; Caiaffa, Waleska; Rossi, Diana; Vila, Marcelo; Malta, Monica

    2007-03-01

    The paper reviews the main findings from substance misuse research carried out over the last two decades in South America looking at the main initiatives aimed at reducing drug related harm and curbing the spread of HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted and blood-borne diseases. The current challenges faced by harm reduction in the region are analysed from the perspective of the history of coca and its different uses in South America. Except in Brazil and Argentina, the implementation of initiatives to reduce drug related harm in South America has been very cautious. The paper aims to link the analysis of harms associated with the use of illicit substances, with the often paradoxically harmful effects of supply-side drug policies in the world's largest coca/cocaine producing area. Despite the undeniable success of many initiatives, the broader context of harm maximization through structural violence and entrenched corruption acts as a major disincentive for the comprehensive adoption of sound public health policies.

  17. Predicting geographic distributions of Phacellodomus species (Aves: Furnariidae in South America based on ecological niche modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria da Salete Gurgel Costa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Phacellodomus Reichenbach, 1853, comprises nine species of Furnariids that occur in South America in open and generally dry areas. This study estimated the geographic distributions of Phacellodomus species in South America by ecological niche modeling. Applying maximum entropy method, models were produced for eight species based on six climatic variables and 949 occurrence records. Since highest climatic suitability for Phacellodomus species has been estimated in open and dry areas, the Amazon rainforest areas are not very suitable for these species. Annual precipitation and minimum temperature of the coldest month are the variables that most influence the models. Phacellodomus species occurred in 35 ecoregions of South America. Chaco and Uruguayan savannas were the ecoregions with the highest number of species. Despite the overall connection of Phacellodomus species with dry areas, species such as P. ruber, P. rufifrons, P. ferrugineigula and P. erythrophthalmus occurred in wet forests and wetland ecoregions.

  18. Monitoring the Quality of Medicines: Results from Africa, Asia, and South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajjou, Mustapha; Krech, Laura; Lane-Barlow, Christi; Roth, Lukas; Pribluda, Victor S.; Phanouvong, Souly; El-Hadri, Latifa; Evans, Lawrence; Raymond, Christopher; Yuan, Elaine; Siv, Lang; Vuong, Tuan-Anh; Boateng, Kwasi Poku; Okafor, Regina; Chibwe, Kennedy M.; Lukulay, Patrick H.

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring the quality of medicines plays a crucial role in an integrated medicines quality assurance system. In a publicly available medicines quality database (MQDB), the U.S. Pharmacopeial Convention (USP) reports results of data collected from medicines quality monitoring (MQM) activities spanning the period of 2003–2013 in 17 countries of Africa, Asia, and South America. The MQDB contains information on 15,063 samples collected and tested using Minilab® screening methods and/or pharmacopeial methods. Approximately 71% of the samples reported came from Asia, 23% from Africa, and 6% from South America. The samples collected and tested include mainly antibiotic, antimalarial, and antituberculosis medicines. A total of 848 samples, representing 5.6% of total samples, failed the quality test. The failure proportion per region was 11.5%, 10.4%, and 2.9% for South America, Africa, and Asia, respectively. Eighty-one counterfeit medicines were reported, 86.4% of which were found in Asia and 13.6% in Africa. Additional analysis of the data shows the distribution of poor-quality medicines per region and by therapeutic indication as well as possible trends of counterfeit medicines. PMID:25897073

  19. Monitoring the quality of medicines: results from Africa, Asia, and South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajjou, Mustapha; Krech, Laura; Lane-Barlow, Christi; Roth, Lukas; Pribluda, Victor S; Phanouvong, Souly; El-Hadri, Latifa; Evans, Lawrence; Raymond, Christopher; Yuan, Elaine; Siv, Lang; Vuong, Tuan-Anh; Boateng, Kwasi Poku; Okafor, Regina; Chibwe, Kennedy M; Lukulay, Patrick H

    2015-06-01

    Monitoring the quality of medicines plays a crucial role in an integrated medicines quality assurance system. In a publicly available medicines quality database (MQDB), the U.S. Pharmacopeial Convention (USP) reports results of data collected from medicines quality monitoring (MQM) activities spanning the period of 2003-2013 in 17 countries of Africa, Asia, and South America. The MQDB contains information on 15,063 samples collected and tested using Minilab® screening methods and/or pharmacopeial methods. Approximately 71% of the samples reported came from Asia, 23% from Africa, and 6% from South America. The samples collected and tested include mainly antibiotic, antimalarial, and antituberculosis medicines. A total of 848 samples, representing 5.6% of total samples, failed the quality test. The failure proportion per region was 11.5%, 10.4%, and 2.9% for South America, Africa, and Asia, respectively. Eighty-one counterfeit medicines were reported, 86.4% of which were found in Asia and 13.6% in Africa. Additional analysis of the data shows the distribution of poor-quality medicines per region and by therapeutic indication as well as possible trends of counterfeit medicines. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  20. Evidence of a robust relationship between solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence and gross primary productivity across dryland ecosystems of southwestern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, W. K.; Biederman, J. A.; Scott, R. L.; Moore, D. J.; Kimball, J. S.; He, M.; Yan, D.; Hudson, A.; Barnes, M.; MacBean, N.; Fox, A. M.; Litvak, M. E.

    2017-12-01

    Satellite remote sensing provides unmatched spatiotemporal information on multiple facets of vegetation dynamics including seasonal to interannual total photosynthesis, termed gross primary productivity (GPP). Yet, our understanding of the relationship between GPP and remote sensing observations - and how this relationship changes with scale, biophysical constraint, vegetation type, etc. - remains limited. This knowledge gap is especially apparent for dryland ecosystems, which have high spatial and temporal variability and are under-represented by long-term, continuous field measurements. Here, utilizing a new synthesis of eddy covariance flux tower data for southwestern North America, we present a first assessment of the ability of novel satellite remote sensing vegetation proxies to accurately capture seasonal to interannual GPP dynamics across the region. We evaluate the greenness-based Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) and emerging proxies linked to plant physiological function, Solar-Induced Fluorescence (SIF) and Photochemical Reflectivity Index (PRI). We find that SIF observations more consistently correlate with seasonal GPP dynamics (R = 0.90) compared to EVI (R = 0.85) and PRI (R = 0.78). More, we find that SIF observations are also more sensitive to interannual GPP variability (linear slope = 0.80) relative to EVI (linear slope = 0.63) and PRI (linear slope = 0.35). This is likely due to increased sensitivity of SIF to GPP during periods of decoupling between greenness and photosynthesis due to water-limitation / stomatal closure. Conversely, EVI and PRI observations better capture spatial GPP variability between flux tower sites. These results suggest that combinations of these independent vegetation growth proxies could yield synergistic improvements in satellite-based GPP estimates.

  1. CMIP5 land surface models systematically underestimate inter-annual variability of net ecosystem exchange in semi-arid southwestern North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacBean, N.; Scott, R. L.; Biederman, J. A.; Vuichard, N.; Hudson, A.; Barnes, M.; Fox, A. M.; Smith, W. K.; Peylin, P. P.; Maignan, F.; Moore, D. J.

    2017-12-01

    Recent studies based on analysis of atmospheric CO2 inversions, satellite data and terrestrial biosphere model simulations have suggested that semi-arid ecosystems play a dominant role in the interannual variability and long-term trend in the global carbon sink. These studies have largely cited the response of vegetation activity to changing moisture availability as the primary mechanism of variability. However, some land surface models (LSMs) used in these studies have performed poorly in comparison to satellite-based observations of vegetation dynamics in semi-arid regions. Further analysis is therefore needed to ensure semi-arid carbon cycle processes are well represented in global scale LSMs before we can fully establish their contribution to the global carbon cycle. In this study, we evaluated annual net ecosystem exchange (NEE) simulated by CMIP5 land surface models using observations from 20 Ameriflux sites across semi-arid southwestern North America. We found that CMIP5 models systematically underestimate the magnitude and sign of NEE inter-annual variability; therefore, the true role of semi-arid regions in the global carbon cycle may be even more important than previously thought. To diagnose the factors responsible for this bias, we used the ORCHIDEE LSM to test different climate forcing data, prescribed vegetation fractions and model structures. Climate and prescribed vegetation do contribute to uncertainty in annual NEE simulations, but the bias is primarily caused by incorrect timing and magnitude of peak gross carbon fluxes. Modifications to the hydrology scheme improved simulations of soil moisture in comparison to data. This in turn improved the seasonal cycle of carbon uptake due to a more realistic limitation on photosynthesis during water stress. However, the peak fluxes are still too low, and phenology is poorly represented for desert shrubs and grasses. We provide suggestions on model developments needed to tackle these issues in the future.

  2. LBA-ECO LC-22 Vegetation Cover Types from MODIS, 500-m, South America: 2000-2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set contains proportional estimates for the vegetative cover types of tree cover, herbaceous vegetation, and bare ground over South America for...

  3. LBA-ECO LC-39 MODIS Active Fire and Frequency Data for South America: 2000-2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides active fire locations and estimates of annual fire frequencies for South America from 2000-2007. Data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging...

  4. LBA-ECO LC-39 MODIS Active Fire and Frequency Data for South America: 2000-2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set provides active fire locations and estimates of annual fire frequencies for South America from 2000-2007. Data from the Moderate Resolution...

  5. South America electric power integration: an utopia or a reality?; Integracao eletrica sul-americana: utopia ou realidade?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velez, Jaime

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this chapter is the discussing on the economic and institutional conditions necessary to the South America electric power integration in the context of the changes in the electric industry initiated on the 1980's years.

  6. Malaria vectors and transmission dynamics in Goulmoun, a rural city in south-western Chad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awono-Ambene Parfait

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge of some baseline entomological data such as Entomological Inoculation Rates (EIR is crucially needed to assess the epidemiological impact of malaria control activities directed either against parasites or vectors. In Chad, most published surveys date back to the 1960's. In this study, anopheline species composition and their relation to malaria transmission were investigated in a dry Sudanian savannas area of Chad. Methods A 12-month longitudinal survey was conducted in the irrigated rice-fields area of Goulmoun in south western Chad. Human landing catches were performed each month from July 2006 to June 2007 in three compounds (indoors and outdoors and pyrethrum spray collections were conducted in July, August and October 2006 in 10 randomly selected rooms. Mosquitoes belonging to the Anopheles gambiae complex and to the An. funestus group were identified by molecular diagnostic tools. Plasmodium falciparum infection and blood meal sources were detected by ELISA. Results Nine anopheline species were collected by the two sampling methods. The most aggressive species were An. arabiensis (51 bites/human/night, An. pharoensis (12.5 b/h/n, An. funestus (1.5 b/h/n and An. ziemanni (1.3 b/h/n. The circumsporozoite protein rate was 1.4% for An. arabiensis, 1.4% for An. funestus, 0.8% for An. pharoensis and 0.5% for An. ziemanni. Malaria transmission is seasonal, lasting from April to December. However, more than 80% of the total EIR was concentrated in the period from August to October. The overall annual EIR was estimated at 311 bites of infected anophelines/human/year, contributed mostly by An. arabiensis (84.5% and An. pharoensis (12.2%. Anopheles funestus and An. ziemanni played a minor role. Parasite inoculation occurred mostly after 22:00 hours but around 20% of bites of infected anophelines were distributed earlier in the evening. Conclusion The present study revealed the implication of An. pharoensis in malaria

  7. Predicting the risk of an endemic focus of Leishmania tropica becoming established in South-Western Europe through the presence of its main vector, Phlebotomus sergenti Parrot, 1917.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barón, S D; Morillas-Márquez, F; Morales-Yuste, M; Díaz-Sáez, V; Gállego, M; Molina, R; Martín-Sánchez, J

    2013-09-01

    The aim of the study was the construction of risk maps for exposure to Phlebotomus sergenti, the main vector of Leishmania tropica, with a view to identifying hot spots for the potential establishment of this parasite in the southwest of Europe. Data were collected on the presence/absence of this vector and the ecological and climatic characteristics of 662 sampling sites located in the southeast, centre and northeast of the Iberian Peninsula (south-western Europe). The environmental factors associated with the distribution of P. sergenti were determined. The best predictors for the presence of this dipteran were ‘altitude’, ‘land use’, ‘land surface temperature’, ‘aspect’, ‘adjacent land cover’, ‘absence of vegetation in wall’ and the ‘absence of PVC pipes in the drainage holes of retaining walls’. Risk maps for exposure to the vector were drawn up based on these variables. The validation of the predictive risk model confirmed its usefulness in the detection of areas with a high risk of P. sergenti being present. These locations represent potential hot spots for an autochthonous focus of L. tropica becoming established. The risk maps produced for P. sergenti presence revealed several areas in the centre and south of the Iberian Peninsula to be the most prone to this process, which would make it possible for the disease to enter south-western Europe.

  8. Expanding dryland ecosystem flux datasets enable novel quantification of water availability and carbon exchange in Southwestern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biederman, J. A.; Scott, R. L.; Smith, W. K.; Litvak, M. E.; MacBean, N.

    2017-12-01

    Global-scale studies suggest that water-limited dryland ecosystems dominate the increasing trend in magnitude and interannual variability of the land CO2 sink. However, the terrestrial biosphere models and remote sensing models used in large-scale analyses are poorly constrained by flux measurements in drylands, which are under-represented in global datasets. In this talk, I will address this gap with eddy covariance data from 30 ecosystems across the Southwest of North America with observed ranges in annual precipitation of 100 - 1000 mm, annual temperatures of 2 - 25 °C, and records of 3 - 10 years each (160 site-years). This extensive dryland dataset enables new approaches including 1) separation of temporal and spatial patterns to infer fast and slow ecosystem responses to change, and 2) partitioning of precipitation into hydrologic losses, evaporation, and ecosystem-available water. I will then compare direct flux measurements with models and remote sensing used to scale fluxes regionally. Combining eddy covariance and streamflow measurements, I will show how evapotranspiration (ET), which is the efflux of soil moisture remaining after hydrologic losses, is a better metric than precipitation of water available to drive ecosystem CO2 exchange. Furthermore, I will present a novel method to partition ET into evaporation and transpiration using the tight coupling of transpiration and photosynthesis. In contrast with typical carbon sink function in wetter, more-studied regions, dryland sites express an annual net carbon uptake varying from -350 to +330 gC m-2. Due to less respiration losses relative to photosynthesis gains during winter, declines in winter precipitation across the Southwest since 1999 are reducing annual net CO2 uptake. Interannual variability of net uptake is larger than for wetter regions, and half the sites pivot between sinks in wet years to sources in dry years. Biospheric and remote sensing models capture only 20-30 % of interannual

  9. Multielement instrumental neutron activation analysis of macroalgae Cystoseira used as biomonitor of the Black Sea coastal waters pollution (South-Western Crimea, Sevastopol)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kravtsova, A.V.; Mil'chakova, N.A.; Frontas'eva, M.V.

    2013-01-01

    For the first time for Sevastopol region the peculiarities of 26 (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, V, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Br, Rb, Sr, Sb, I, Cs, Ba, Sm, Nd, Ag, Au and U) macro- and microelements accumulation in the thalli of brown algae Cystoseira from the coastal waters of south-western Crimea (the Black Sea) were studied using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The possibility of using brown algae Cystoseira as a biomonitor of coastal waters pollution was shown

  10. Methodology of Leaving America for Asia: Reading South Korea's Social Studies Textbooks through Chen Kuan-Hsing's Asia as Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Jeong-eun

    2013-01-01

    This project began as a content analysis of five South Korean high school Social Studies textbooks. Yet, it has evolved into an epistemological experiment to pursue the question of "what does it mean to leave America for Asia, at least methodologically, for the researcher who left Asia for America?" Using the textbooks as a mediating…

  11. Low-carbon agriculture in South America to mitigate global climate change and advance food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá, João Carlos de Moraes; Lal, Rattan; Cerri, Carlos Clemente; Lorenz, Klaus; Hungria, Mariangela; de Faccio Carvalho, Paulo Cesar

    2017-01-01

    The worldwide historical carbon (C) losses due to Land Use and Land-Use Change between 1870 and 2014 are estimated at 148 Pg C (1 Pg=1billionton). South America is chosen for this study because its soils contain 10.3% (160 Pg C to 1-m depth) of the soil organic carbon stock of the world soils, it is home to 5.7% (0.419 billion people) of the world population, and accounts for 8.6% of the world food (491milliontons) and 21.0% of meat production (355milliontons of cattle and buffalo). The annual C emissions from fossil fuel combustion and cement production in South America represent only 2.5% (0.25 Pg C) of the total global emissions (9.8 Pg C). However, South America contributes 31.3% (0.34 Pg C) of global annual greenhouse gas emissions (1.1 Pg C) through Land Use and Land Use Change. The potential of South America as a terrestrial C sink for mitigating climate change with adoption of Low-Carbon Agriculture (LCA) strategies based on scenario analysis method is 8.24 Pg C between 2016 and 2050. The annual C offset for 2016 to 2020, 2021 to 2035, and 2036 to 2050 is estimated at 0.08, 0.25, and 0.28 Pg C, respectively, equivalent to offsetting 7.5, 22.2 and 25.2% of the global annual greenhouse gas emissions by Land Use and Land Use Change for each period. Emission offset for LCA activities is estimated at 31.0% by restoration of degraded pasturelands, 25.6% by integrated crop-livestock-forestry-systems, 24.3% by no-till cropping systems, 12.8% by planted commercial forest and forestation, 4.2% by biological N fixation and 2.0% by recycling the industrial organic wastes. The ecosystem carbon payback time for historical C losses from South America through LCA strategies may be 56 to 188years, and the adoption of LCA can also increase food and meat production by 615Mton or 17.6Mtonyear -1 and 56Mton or 1.6Mtonyear -1 , respectively, between 2016 and 2050. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The basement of the Eastern Cordillera, Colombia: An allochthonous terrane in northwestern South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forero Suarez, A.

    The fault system of the Borde Llanero of Colombia represents the limit between two early Paleozoic geologic provinces: the Guiana Shield (Gondwana) to the east, and an allochthonous terrane — formerly a piece of the North American continent — to the west. The Baudó Range, the Western Cordillera, and the western flank of the Central Cordillera are the result of post-Jurassic accretion. In contrast the pre-Emsian metamorphic rocks of the eastern flank of the Central Cordillera, of the Eastern Cordillera of Colombia, and of the Mérida Andes correspond to an allochthonous terrane that was accreted to the north-western continental border of South America during the collision between North America and Gondwana in Silurian-Early Devonian times. Geochronologic and petrographic data indicate the presence of the Grenvillian granulite belt, represented by the Garzón-Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta belt. This belt is separated from the Guiana Shield by a magmatic tract which is parallel to the Borde Llanero of Venezuela and Colombia. The late Paleozoic regional metamorphism in the Northern Andes of Colombia occurred during Late Silurian-Early Devonian times. Since the late Emsian, a sedimentary cycle was initiated on this allochthonous basement. The faunal records of northwestern South America and the North American continent are indistinguishable for that time. This similarity clearly shows that both northwestern South America and the North American regions of the Appalachians and New Mexico belong to the same paleobiogeographic province. The faunal communication in this case supports the idea of the immediate neighborhood of the two continents.

  13. Contrasted accumulation patterns of persistent organic pollutants and mercury in sympatric tropical dolphins from the south-western Indian Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dirtu, Alin C.; Malarvannan, Govindan; Das, Krishna; Dulau-Drouot, Violaine; Kiszka, Jeremy J.; Lepoint, Gilles; Mongin, Philippe; Covaci, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    Due to their high trophic position and long life span, small cetaceans are considered as suitable bioindicators to monitor the presence of contaminants in marine ecosystems. Here, we document the contamination with persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and total mercury (T-Hg) of spinner (Stenella longirostris, n =21) and Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus, n=32) sampled from the coastal waters of La Réunion (south-western Indian Ocean). In addition, seven co-occurring teleost fish species were sampled and analyzed as well. Blubber samples from living dolphins and muscle from teleosts were analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDT and metabolites (DDTs), chlordanes (CHLs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Methoxylated PBDEs (MeO-PBDEs), reported as having a natural origin, were also analyzed. T-Hg levels were measured in blubber and skin biopsies of the two dolphin species. Stable isotopes δ 13 C and δ 15 N values were determined in skin of the dolphins and in the muscle of teleosts. For PCBs, HCHs and T-Hg, concentrations were significantly higher in T. aduncus than in S. longirostris. For other POP levels, intra-species variability was high. MeO-PBDEs were the dominant compounds (55% of the total POPs) in S. longirostris, while PCBs dominated (50% contribution) in T. aduncus. Other contaminants showed similar profiles between the two species. Given the different patterns of POPs and T-Hg contamination and the δ 15 N values observed among analyzed teleosts, dietary and foraging habitat preferences most likely explain the contrasted contaminant profiles observed in the two dolphin species. Levels of each class of contaminants were significantly higher in males than females. Despite their spatial and temporal overlap in the waters of La Réunion, S. longirostris and T. aduncus are differently exposed to contaminant accumulation. - Highlights: • POPs and total Hg were

  14. Ethnobotanical survey of Rinorea dentata (Violaceae) used in South-Western Nigerian ethnomedicine and detection of cyclotides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attah, Alfred F; Hellinger, Roland; Sonibare, Mubo A; Moody, Jones O; Arrowsmith, Sarah; Wray, Susan; Gruber, Christian W

    2016-02-17

    People living in the tropical rain forest of South-Western Nigeria use Rinorea dentata (P. Beauv.) Kuntze (Violaceae) in ethno-veterinary medicine to facilitate parturition. There are no evidence-based pharmacological investigations for the uterotonic activity of this plant. (i) Collection of data about the ethnopharmacological uses of R. dentata and evaluation of its uses and applications in health care; (ii) determining potential uterotonic effects in vitro, and (iii) chemical characterization of R. dentata, which is a member of the Violaceae family known to express circular cystine-knot peptides, called cyclotides. The ethnopharmacological use of R. dentata in settlement camps within the area J4 of Omo forest has been investigated by semi-structured questionnaires and open interviews. Use index analysis has been performed by seven quantitative statistical models. Respondents' claim on the beneficial ethno-veterinary application of the plant to aid parturition has been investigated in vitro by myometrial contractility organ bath assays. The bioactive plant extract was screened by chemical derivatization and mass spectrometry-based peptidomics using reversed-phase HPLC fractionation and MALDI-TOF/TOF analysis. Based on the survey analysis, medicinal preparations of R. dentata have been used for anti-microbial and anti-malaria purpose in humans, and for aiding parturition in farm animals. The latter application was mentioned by one out of six respondents who claimed to use this plant for any medicinal purpose. The plant extract exhibited a weak uterotonic effect using organ bath studies. The plant contains cyclotides and the peptide riden A has been identified by de novo amino acid sequencing using mass spectrometry. Few dwellers around the settlement camps of the tropical forest of Omo (Nigeria) use R. dentata for various health problems in traditional veterinary and human medicine. The weak uterotonic effect of the cyclotide-rich extract is in agreement with the

  15. Early Iron Age gold buttons from South-Western Iberian Peninsula. Identification of a gold metallurgical workshop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monge Soares, António M.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Early Iron Age gold buttons from Castro dos Ratinhos, Fortios and Outeiro da Cabeça were analysed by conventional EDXRF, Micro-PIXE, SEM-EDS and Optical Microscopy. EDXRF results point out to a rather homogeneous alloy composition throughout all the analysed buttons. PIXE microanalyses show that all the button components (disk, tab and peripheral grooved decorated rod have the same alloy composition. PIXE and SEM-EDS microanalyses, supplemented with optical microscopy characterization, show the absence of chemical composition differences between distinct components and joining zones, suggesting that no solder had been applied, i.e. that a partial melting/solid state diffusion process had been used for the welding of button components. Finally, the noticeable similar compositions together with the use of the same welding process and the very similar artefact typologies suggest that those small gold treasures could be interpreted as the result of the work of a single metallurgical workshop, probably located somewhere in the South-Western Iberian Peninsula.

    Botones de oro pertenecientes a la primera Edad del Hierro, procedentes de Castro dos Ratinhos, Fortios e Outeiro da Cabeça (Portugal, fueron analizados por EDXRF y Micro-PIXE. Los resultados de los análisis por EDXRF mostraron una composición similar en todos los botones, independientemente de su procedencia. Por otra parte, los microanálisis por PIXE permitieron verificar que los componentes soldados de cada botón (disco, presilla y cordón exterior tienen la misma composición química. Además de eso, las áreas de soldadura fueron estudiadas mediante Micro-PIXE, SEM-EDS y posterior análisis metalográfico por microscopia óptica de reflexión. Estos análisis permitieron comprobar la ausencia de soldaduras en las zonas de unión de estos componentes, lo que nos permite concluir que debe haber tenido lugar un proceso de fusión parcial y de difusión en estado sólido para unir

  16. Urban-rural disparities in the nutritional status of school adolescent girls in the Mizan district, south-western Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berheto, Tezera M; Mikitie, Wondafrash K; Argaw, Alemayehu

    2015-01-01

    Malnutrition that occurs during adolescence has important consequences for the future growth and development of the individual, particularly in girls in developing countries. Besides limiting growth, adolescent malnutrition has important consequences for society. Despite this, there is a lack of information on the nutritional status of adolescent girls in Ethiopia. This study was therefore performed to help redress this lack of data and to provide information for future improvements by health planners and policy makers. A comparative cross-sectional study design was employed to determine the urban-rural disparity in nutritional status of adolescent school girls in the Mizan district in south-western Ethiopia. A two-stage sampling procedure was used to randomly select 622 adolescent girls, 311 each from urban and rural locations. Trained field workers used structured questionnaires to obtain the desired information from the respondents. Anthropometric measurements of height and weight were collected using standard procedures and appropriate quality control measures. Height-for-age Z-scores and body mass index (BMI)-for-age Z-scores were generated using AnthroPlus software. The independent sample t-test and χ2 test were used to determine statistical significance. There were no significant differences in the ages or physical activities of the two populations of girls studied. Consumption of cereal, vegetables, sweets, sugars, fats, meat, and eggs was similar between the two groups, although slight differences were found with regard to legumes, milk, and fruit consumption. No significant differences were found in the prevalence of mild underweight girls and overweight girls in the urban and rural groups (26.5% vs 22.3% and 7.5% vs 5.2%, respectively). Significant stunting was, however, present in the rural population (40.9% vs. 17.8% in the urban group). Although overall lower than the reference data provided by WHO, the mean BMI-for-age Z-scores and height-for-age Z

  17. Impact of intestinal helminthiases on the nutritional status of primary-school children in Osun state, south-western Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oninla, S O; Onayade, A A; Owa, J A

    2010-10-01

    In January-March 2000, the impact of intestinal helminthiases on the nutritional status of 749 pupils (353 boys and 396 girls) attending public primary schools in the Ife Central local government area of Osun state, in south-western Nigeria, was investigated. Demographic, socio-economic and other relevant information was collected on the pupils, on the same day that a single stool sample was collected from each subject and examined, using Stoll's dilution egg-count technique. The weights, heights and ages of the subjects were recorded and converted to percentages of the reference medians for weight-for-height, weight-for-age and height-for-age. The overall prevalences of helminth infection detected among the 465 malnourished pupils (i.e. those with any form of under-nutrition) and the 284 well-nourished pupils were 32.9% and 25.4%, respectively (P=0.029). The nutritional indices of the pupils who were found helminth-infected were generally lower than those of the pupils who appeared free of intestinal helminths. The mean values for weight-for-height, for example, were higher in the apparently uninfected pupils than in those found infected with any intestinal helminth (P=0.02) or only with Ascaris lumbricoides (P=0.05). Similarly, the mean height-for-age of the pupils who were apparently uninfected was higher than the corresponding value for the pupils found hookworm-positive (P=0.003). The pupils who were each found infected with two or more species of intestinal infection had significantly lower weights-for-heights, weights-for-ages and heights-for-ages than the pupils who appeared to be helminth-free. The results of a multivariate logistic-regression analysis indicated that hookworm infection was a significant risk factor for underweight (P=0.015), wasting (P=0.033) and stunting (P=0.015) whereas Trichuris was only a significant risk factor for stunting (P=0.025). It appears that intestinal helminthiasis may play a causal or contributory role in the occurrence of

  18. North-South precipitation patterns in western North America on interannual-to-decadal timescales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettinger, M.D.; Cayan, D.R.; Diaz, Henry F.; Meko, D.M.

    1998-01-01

    The overall amount of precipitation deposited along the West Coast and western cordillera of North America from 25??to 55??N varies from year to year, and superimposed on this domain-average variability are varying north-south contrasts on timescales from at least interannual to interdecadal. In order to better understand the north-south precipitation contrasts, their interannual and decadal variations are studied in terms of how much they affect overall precipitation amounts and how they are related to large-scale climatic patterns. Spatial empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs) and spatial moments (domain average, central latitude, and latitudinal spread) of zonally averaged precipitation anomalies along the westernmost parts of North America are analyzed, and each is correlated with global sea level pressure (SLP) and sea surface temperature series, on interannual (defined here as 3-7 yr) and decadal (>7 yr) timescales. The interannual band considered here corresponds to timescales that are particularly strong in tropical climate variations and thus is expected to contain much precipitation variability that is related to El Nino-Southern Oscillation; the decadal scale is defined so as to capture the whole range of long-term climatic variations affecting western North America. Zonal EOFs of the interannual and decadal filtered versions of the zonal-precipitation series are remarkably similar. At both timescales, two leading EOFs describe 1) a north-south seesaw of precipitation pivoting near 40??N and 2) variations in precipitation near 40??N, respectively. The amount of overall precipitation variability is only about 10% of the mean and is largely determined by precipitation variations around 40??-45??N and most consistently influenced by nearby circulation patterns; in this sense, domain-average precipitation is closely related to the second EOF. The central latitude and latitudinal spread of precipitation distributions are strongly influenced by precipitation

  19. Assessing and mapping drought hazard in Africa and South-Central America with a Meteorological Drought Severity Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrao, Hugo; Barbosa, Paulo; Vogt, Jürgen

    2015-04-01

    the intra-annual variability of precipitation in estimating the severity of events that can impact on seasonal activities. The MDSI is standardized in space and time, and considers the relative monthly precipitation deficits and the seasonal influence of precipitation regimes in the meteorological drought severity computation. In this study, the calculation of the MDSI is performed with monthly precipitation totals from the Full Data Reanalysis Monthly Product Version 6.0 of the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC). This dataset provides a global analysis at 0.5 dd latitude/longitude grid spacing of monthly precipitation over land from operational in situ rain gauges collected between January 1901 and December 2010. Using the MDSI, we estimated the severity of drought events that occurred in the past 100 years in Africa and South-Central America, and produced drought hazard maps based on the probability of exceedance the median historical severity. Overall, results indicate that drought hazard is high for semiarid areas, such as Northeastern and Southern South America, as well as Eastern and Southwestern Africa. Since available water resources in semiarid areas are already insufficient to permanently meet the demands of human activities, the outcomes highlight the aggravated risk for food security and confirm the need for the implementation of disaster mitigation measures in those regions.

  20. Fire Ants (Solenopsis spp. and Their Natural Enemies in Southern South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Briano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We review the fire ant research conducted by the ARS-South American Biological Control Laboratory (SABCL since 1987 to find a complex of natural enemies in southern South America and evaluate their specificity and suitability for field release as self-sustaining biological control agents. We also include those studies conducted by the ARS-Center for Medical, Agriculture, and Veterinary Entomology in the United States with the SABCL collaboration. Ecological and biological information is reported on local fire ants and their microsporidia, nematodes, viruses, phorid flies, eucharitid wasps, strepsiptera, and parasitic ants. Their biology, abundance, distribution, detrimental effect, field persistence, specificity, and phenology are discussed. We conclude that the objectives of the ARS program in South America are being achieved and that the pioneering studies have served to encourage further investigations in the United States and other countries and advanced the implementation of biological control programs to decrease imported fire ant densities and damage. Still, several promising organisms should be further investigated for eventual field release in the near future.

  1. Summer precipitation variability over Southeastern South America in a global warming scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junquas, C. [UPMC/CNRS, Laboratoire de Meteorologie Dynamique, Institut Pierre Simon Laplace, Ecole Polytechnique, Paris (France); UMI-IFAECI CNRS-CONICET-UBA, Centro de Investigaciones del Mar y la Atmosfera (CIMA), DCAO/FCEyN, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Vera, C. [UMI-IFAECI CNRS-CONICET-UBA, Centro de Investigaciones del Mar y la Atmosfera (CIMA), DCAO/FCEyN, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Li, L.; Le Treut, H. [UPMC/CNRS, Laboratoire de Meteorologie Dynamique, Institut Pierre Simon Laplace, Ecole Polytechnique, Paris (France)

    2012-05-15

    December-January-February (DJF) rainfall variability in southeastern South America (SESA) is studied in 18 coupled general circulation models from the WCRP/CMIP3 dataset, for present climate and the SRES-A1B climate change scenario. The analysis is made in terms of properties of the first leading pattern of rainfall variability in the region, characterized by a dipole-like structure with centers of action in the SESA and South Atlantic Convergence Zone (SACZ) regions. The study was performed to address two issues: how rainfall variability in SESA would change in a future climate and how much of that change explains the projected increasing trends in the summer mean rainfall in SESA identified in previous works. Positive (negative) dipole events were identified as those DJF seasons with above (below) normal rainfall in SESA and below (above) normal rainfall in the SACZ region. Results obtained from the multi-model ensemble confirm that future rainfall variability in SESA has a strong projection on the changes of seasonal dipole pattern activity, associated with an increase of the frequency of the positive phase. In addition, the frequency increase of positive dipole phase in the twenty first century seems to be associated with an increase of both frequency and intensity of positive SST anomalies in the equatorial Pacific, and with a Rossby wave train-like anomaly pattern linking that ocean basin to South America, which regionally induces favorable conditions for moisture transport convergence and rainfall increase in SESA. (orig.)

  2. Antimicrobial resistance among Enterobacteriaceae in South America: history, current dissemination status and associated socioeconomic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonelli, Raquel Regina; Moreira, Beatriz Meurer; Picão, Renata Cristina

    2014-04-01

    South America exhibits some of the higher rates of antimicrobial resistance in Enterobactericeae worldwide. This continent includes 12 independent countries with huge socioeconomic differences, where the ample access to antimicrobials, including counterfeit ones, coexists with ineffective health systems and sanitation problems, favoring the emergence and dissemination of resistant strains. This work presents a literature review concerning the evolution and current status of antimicrobial resistance threats found among Enterobacteriaceae in South America. Resistance to β-lactams, fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides was emphasized along with description of key epidemiological studies that highlight the success of specific resistance determinants in different parts of the continent. In addition, a discussion regarding political and socioeconomic factors possibly related to the dissemination of antimicrobial resistant strains in clinical settings and at the community is presented. Finally, in order to assess the possible sources of resistant bacteria, we compile the current knowledge about the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in isolates in South American' food, food-producing animals and off-hospitals environments. By addressing that intensive intercontinental commerce and tourism neutralizes the protective effect of geographic barriers, we provide arguments reinforcing that globally integrated efforts are needed to decelerate the emergence and dissemination of antimicrobial resistant strains. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Climate change and American Bullfrog invasion: what could we expect in South America?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Nori

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Biological invasion and climate change pose challenges to biodiversity conservation in the 21(st century. Invasive species modify ecosystem structure and functioning and climatic changes are likely to produce invasive species' range shifts pushing some populations into protected areas. The American Bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus is one of the hundred worst invasive species in the world. Native from the southeast of USA, it has colonized more than 75% of South America where it has been reported as a highly effective predator, competitor and vector of amphibian diseases. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We modeled the potential distribution of the bullfrog in its native range based on different climate models and green-house gases emission scenarios, and projected the results onto South America for the years of 2050 and 2080. We also overlaid projected models onto the South American network of protected areas. Our results indicate a slight decrease in potential suitable area for bullfrog invasion, although protected areas will become more climatically suitable. Therefore, invasion of these sites is forecasted. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: We provide new evidence supporting the vulnerability of the Atlantic Forest Biodiversity Hotspot to bullfrog invasion and call attention to optimal future climatic conditions of the Andean-Patagonian forest, eastern Paraguay, and northwestern Bolivia, where invasive populations have not been found yet. We recommend several management and policy strategies to control bullfrog invasion and argue that these would be possible if based on appropriate articulation among government agencies, NGOs, research institutions and civil society.

  4. Going like gangbusters: transnational tobacco companies "making a killing" in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stebbins, K R

    2001-06-01

    This article reports on the recent growth of transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) in South America. Although some scholarly attention has been directed toward such growth in Asia and eastern Europe, South America has also been targeted by the TTCs' aggressive expansionist practices in recent years. Fighting "Big Tobacco" is entirely different from combating most public health problems. Unlike cigarettes, most infectious diseases and maternal and child health problems never provide profits to transnational corporations and governments. Also, most public health problems (with alcohol being another notable exception) are not exacerbated by extensive advertising campaigns that promote the cause of the health problems. Supported by data gathered during three months of fieldwork in Ecuador, Peru, Chile, and Argentina in 1997, this article suggests that the TTCs' marketing strategies override cultural differences in the choices people make regarding smoking and health. Combining critical medical anthropology and public health, this article concludes that unless dramatic actions are taken, an avoidable outbreak of tobacco-related diseases will eventually reach epidemic proportions on the South American continent. It is also a "call to arms" for more medical anthropologists to investigate tobacco-related matters around the world.

  5. Genetic Differentiation within the Puccinia triticina Population in South America and Comparison with the North American Population Suggests Common Ancestry and Intercontinental Migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaf rust, caused by Puccinia triticina is the most prevalent and widespread disease of wheat in South America. The objective of this study was to determine the number of genetically differentiated groups of P. triticina that are currently present in South America, and to compare the South American ...

  6. Emerging Plasmodium vivax resistance to chloroquine in South America: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lígia Antunes Gonçalves

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The global emergence of Plasmodium vivax strains resistant to chloroquine (CQ since the late 1980s is complicating the current international efforts for malaria control and elimination. Furthermore, CQ-resistant vivax malaria has already reached an alarming prevalence in Indonesia, East Timor and Papua New Guinea. More recently, in vivo studies have documented CQ-resistant P. vivax infections in Guyana, Peru and Brazil. Here, we summarise the available data on CQ resistance across P. vivax-endemic areas of Latin America by combining published in vivo and in vitro studies. We also review the current knowledge regarding the molecular mechanisms of CQ resistance in P. vivax and the prospects for developing and standardising reliable molecular markers of drug resistance. Finally, we discuss how the Worldwide Antimalarial Resistance Network, an international collaborative effort involving malaria experts from all continents, might contribute to the current regional efforts to map CQ-resistant vivax malaria in South America.

  7. The first peopling of South America: new evidence from Y-chromosome haplogroup Q.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenza Battaglia

    Full Text Available Recent progress in the phylogenetic resolution of the Y-chromosome phylogeny permits the male demographic dynamics and migratory events that occurred in Central and Southern America after the initial human spread into the Americas to be investigated at the regional level. To delve further into this issue, we examined more than 400 Native American Y chromosomes (collected in the region ranging from Mexico to South America belonging to haplogroup Q - virtually the only branch of the Y phylogeny observed in modern-day Amerindians of Central and South America - together with 27 from Mongolia and Kamchatka. Two main founding lineages, Q1a3a1a-M3 and Q1a3a1-L54(xM3, were detected along with novel sub-clades of younger age and more restricted geographic distributions. The first was also observed in Far East Asia while no Q1a3a1-L54(xM3 Y chromosome was found in Asia except the southern Siberian-specific sub-clade Q1a3a1c-L330. Our data not only confirm a southern Siberian origin of ancestral populations that gave rise to Paleo-Indians and the differentiation of both Native American Q founding lineages in Beringia, but support their concomitant arrival in Mesoamerica, where Mexico acted as recipient for the first wave of migration, followed by a rapid southward migration, along the Pacific coast, into the Andean region. Although Q1a3a1a-M3 and Q1a3a1-L54(xM3 display overlapping general distributions, they show different patterns of evolution in the Mexican plateau and the Andean area, which can be explained by local differentiations due to demographic events triggered by the introduction of agriculture and associated with the flourishing of the Great Empires.

  8. Seismic hazard maps of Mexico, the Caribbean, and Central and South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, J.G.; Shedlock, K.M.

    2004-01-01

    The growth of megacities in seismically active regions around the world often includes the construction of seismically unsafe buildings and infrastructures due to an insufficient knowledge of existing seismic hazard and/or economic constraints. Minimization of the loss of life, property damage, and social and economic disruption due to earthquakes depends on reliable estimates of seismic hazard. We have produced a suite of seismic hazard estimates for Mexico, the Caribbean, and Central and South America. One of the preliminary maps in this suite served as the basis for the Caribbean and Central and South America portion of the Global Seismic Hazard Map (GSHM) published in 1999, which depicted peak ground acceleration (pga) with a 10% chance of exceedance in 50 years for rock sites. Herein we present maps depicting pga and 0.2 and 1.0 s spectral accelerations (SA) with 50%, 10%, and 2% chances of exceedance in 50 years for rock sites. The seismicity catalog used in the generation of these maps adds 3 more years of data to those used to calculate the GSH Map. Different attenuation functions (consistent with those used to calculate the U.S. and Canadian maps) were used as well. These nine maps are designed to assist in global risk mitigation by providing a general seismic hazard framework and serving as a resource for any national or regional agency to help focus further detailed studies required for regional/local needs. The largest seismic hazard values in Mexico, the Caribbean, and Central and South America generally occur in areas that have been, or are likely to be, the sites of the largest plate boundary earthquakes. High hazard values occur in areas where shallow-to-intermediate seismicity occurs frequently. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Storm-time total electron content and its response to penetration electric fields over South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. M. de Siqueira

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work the response of the ionosphere due to the severe magnetic storm of 7–10 November 2004 is investigated by analyzing GPS Total Electron Content (TEC maps constructed for the South America sector. In order to verify the disturbed zonal electric fields in South America during the superstorm, ionospheric vertical drift data obtained from modeling results are used in the analysis. The vertical drifts were inferred from ΔH magnetometer data (Jicamarca-Piura following the methodology presented by Anderson et al. (2004. Also used were vertical drifts measured by the Jicamarca ISR. Data from a digisonde located at São Luís, Brazil (2.33° S, 44.2° W, dip latitude 0.25° are presented to complement the Jicamarca equatorial data. Penetration electric fields were observed by the comparison between the equatorial vertical drifts and the Interplanetary Electric Field (IEF. The TEC maps obtained from GPS data reflect the ionospheric response over the South America low-latitude and equatorial region. They reveal unexpected plasma distributions and TEC levels during the main phase of the superstorm on 7 November, which is coincident with the local post-sunset hours. At this time an increase in the pre-reversal enhancement was expected to develop the Equatorial Ionization Anomaly (EIA but we observed the absence of EIA. The results also reveal well known characteristics of the plasma distributions on 8, 9, and 10 November. The emphasized features are the expansion and intensification of EIA due to prompt penetration electric fields on 9 November and the inhibition of EIA during post-sunset hours on 7, 8, and 10 November. One important result is that the TEC maps provided a bi-dimensional view of the ionospheric changes offering a spatial description of the electrodynamics involved, which is an advantage over TEC measured by isolated GPS receivers.

  10. Linking the basement geology along the Africa-South America coasts in the South Atlantic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Konopásek, J.; Sláma, Jiří; Košler, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 280, July (2016), s. 221-230 ISSN 0301-9268 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Gondwana reconstruction * South Atlantic Ocean * Plate tectonics * Kaoko Belt * Dom Feliciano Belt Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 3.843, year: 2016

  11. An alternative model for the early peopling of southern South America revealed by analyses of three mitochondrial DNA haplogroups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Saint Pierre, Michelle; Bravi, Claudio M; Motti, Josefina M B; Fuku, Noriyuki; Tanaka, Masashi; Llop, Elena; Bonatto, Sandro L; Moraga, Mauricio

    2012-01-01

    After several years of research, there is now a consensus that America was populated from Asia through Beringia, probably at the end of the Pleistocene. But many details such as the timing, route(s), and origin of the first settlers remain uncertain. In the last decade genetic evidence has taken on a major role in elucidating the peopling of the Americas. To study the early peopling of South America, we sequenced the control region of mitochondrial DNA from 300 individuals belonging to indigenous populations of Chile and Argentina, and also obtained seven complete mitochondrial DNA sequences. We identified two novel mtDNA monophyletic clades, preliminarily designated B2l and C1b13, which together with the recently described D1g sub-haplogroup have locally high frequencies and are basically restricted to populations from the extreme south of South America. The estimated ages of D1g and B2l, about ~15,000 years BP, together with their similar population dynamics and the high haplotype diversity shown by the networks, suggests that they probably appeared soon after the arrival of the first settlers and agrees with the dating of the earliest archaeological sites in South America (Monte Verde, Chile, 14,500 BP). One further sub-haplogroup, D4h3a5, appears to be restricted to Fuegian-Patagonian populations and reinforces our hypothesis of the continuity of the current Patagonian populations with the initial founders. Our results indicate that the extant native populations inhabiting South Chile and Argentina are a group which had a common origin, and suggest a population break between the extreme south of South America and the more northern part of the continent. Thus the early colonization process was not just an expansion from north to south, but also included movements across the Andes.

  12. COELIAC DISEASE IN CENTRAL AND SOUTH AMERICA: time for a concerted approach to its epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Affifa FARRUKH

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Central and South America offer an opportunity to resolve some of the current controversies that surround the epidemiology of celiac disease. Through a concerted action which brings together clinicians, researchers and patients there is an opportunity to establish robust data sets which will allow detailed analysis of environmental and genetic factors. In this review available data from the continent together with data from Spain and Italy are drawn together to give a current picture in the hope that it will stimulate further research.

  13. Radon in groundwaters from Guarany aquifer, South America: environmental and exploration implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonotto, D.M.; Caprioglio, L.

    2002-01-01

    Groundwater and sandstone samples were analyzed for radon in Guarany aquifer, Parana sedimentary basin, South America. The dissolved radon ranged between 3 and 3303 pCi/l, being lognormally distributed, with a modal value of 1315 pCi/l, and a median value of 330 pCi/l. 222 Rn leakage experiments for sandstones yielded a theoretical value of 1390 pCi/l for 222 Rn in water, showing that theoretical modeling can reliably be used to interpret laboratory and field data

  14. Two new species of Parandrinae (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in the genera Parandra and Acutandra from South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingafelter, Steven W; Tishechkin, Alexey K

    2017-05-30

    Two new species of high-elevation Parandrinae (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) are described from Bolivia and Ecuador, South America. Both species are unusual in having piceous coloration over most of the dorsal surface. Parandra (Tavandra) santossilvai Lingafelter & Tishechkin, new species, is described from Achira, Santa Cruz Province, Bolivia, a site at 2,000 meters elevation. Acutandra caterinoi Lingafelter & Tishechkin, new species, is described from Pichincha Province, Ecuador, from sites between 1,900-2,500 meters. Illustrations, descriptions, diagnoses, and discussion of their generic and subgeneric placements are included.

  15. THE MILITARY STATE IN SOUTH AMERICA: INTERVENTIONISM, CAUDILLOS AND ARMED FORCES

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    PEDRO RIVAS NIETO

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work the author analyzes the elements of the Military State, which was the result of National Security Regimes. They ruled South America during the last third of the 20th century. The behaviour of the Armed Forces is compared with that of the classic caudillos. The Armed Forces-Civil Society relationship is studied too. And, of course, the intervention in political issues by the military and their relationship with political parties is also analyzed, as well. The conclusion ends with an analysis of the authoritarian nature of Military State.

  16. Acciones bloqueantes alrededor de los setenta grados oeste en el sur de Sudamérica Blocking action arround seventy degrees West in the South of South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelia P. Alessandro

    2005-12-01

    esta situación. La presencia de estos sistemas y la falta de viento N o NE inciden en la extremadamente escasa precipitación recibida en el Noreste de la Argentina, en las altas temperaturas en la Patagonia y bajas temperaturas en el NE y centro del país.Blocking situations near 70ºW south of South America are characterised. Cases which initiate to the west and those to the east of the above- mentioned longitude are distinguished. Averaging all cases it is seen that the Atlantic high as well as the Pacific high is displaced to the south for the first and second group respectively. Four different models result from the Principal Component Analysis, three of which representing blocking situations over the south-eastern Pacific Ocean and one of the south-western Atlantic. The trajectory of those highs that commence to the west have a cuasi zonal orientation with a speed of 20 Km/h, meanwhile those that region to the east have a slight component to the north with a speed of 20.5 Km/h. The mean centre of the anticyclones has a geopotential height of 227.7 gpm. The associated temperature anomalies are negative over most of Argentina, excepting the extreme south and the northeast, for both groups. When the blocking high is to the west of 70ºW the anomalies are more negative over Patagonia and more positive over the north-eastern country. Precipitations in Patagonia are superior with blockings beginning to the east of 70ºW with respect to those that first appear to the west, with exception of Ushuaia (54.48ºS, 68.19ºO station and north-eastern Argentina. The situation of February 2004 is described. This month has been selected because has an extreme low zonal circulation index, a high meridional index and a very high blocking index I with respect to southern summer, showing in the study area the presence of several blocking systems to the south of South America. These systems are associated with a lack of N and NE winds giving extremely low precipitations over north

  17. The 2004 Sumatra tsunami as recorded on the Atlantic coast of South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. N. Candella

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The 2004 Sumatra tsunami propagated throughout the World Ocean and was clearly recorded by tide gauges on the Atlantic coast of South America. A total of 17 tsunami records were found and subsequently examined for this region. Tsunami wave heights and arrival times are generally consistent with numerical modeling results. Maximum wave heights of more than 1.2 m were observed on the coasts of Uruguay and southeastern Brazil. Marked differences in tsunami height from pairs of closely located tide gauge sites on the coast of Argentina illustrate the importance that local topographic resonance effects can have on the observed wave response. Findings reveal that, outside the Indian Ocean, the highest waves were recorded in the South Atlantic and not in the Pacific as has been previously suggested.

  18. Tobacco advertisement exposure and tobacco consumption among youths in South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geneviéve Plamondon

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assesses the statistical association between exposure to tobacco marketing and tobacco consumption among adolescents in South America, by using data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey. Materials and methods. Using data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS, the exposure to tobacco marketing at the school level was studied from advertising in TV, radio, massive public events and street advertisement. Tobacco behaviour was considered. The total pooled sample used was 134 073 youths from Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Peru, Brazil, Uruguay, Suriname, Colombia, Guyana, Ecuador, Paraguay and Venezuela. Results. The exposure to tobacco marketing is positively and significantly associated to the probability of youths experimenting with tobacco (at least once in their lifetime. For regular smokers, exposure to tobacco marketing is positively and significantly associated to smoking intensity. Conclusions. These results call for the implementation of strong restrictions on tobacco advertisement of various types in South American countries.

  19. Fish and aquatic habitat conservation in South America: a continental overview with emphasis on neotropical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barletta, M; Jaureguizar, A J; Baigun, C; Fontoura, N F; Agostinho, A A; Almeida-Val, V M F; Val, A L; Torres, R A; Jimenes-Segura, L F; Giarrizzo, T; Fabré, N N; Batista, V S; Lasso, C; Taphorn, D C; Costa, M F; Chaves, P T; Vieira, J P; Corrêa, M F M

    2010-06-01

    Fish conservation in South America is a pressing issue. The biodiversity of fishes, just as with all other groups of plants and animals, is far from fully known. Continuing habitat loss may result in biodiversity losses before full species diversity is known. In this review, the main river basins of South America (Magdalena, Orinoco, Amazon and Paraná-La Plata system), together with key aquatic habitats (mangrove-fringed estuaries of the tropical humid, tropical semi-arid and subtropical regions) are analysed in terms of their characteristics and main concerns. Habitat loss was the main concern identified for all South American ecosystems. It may be caused by damming of rivers, deforestation, water pollution, mining, poor agricultural practice or inadequate management practice. Habitat loss has a direct consequence, which is a decrease in the availability of living resources, a serious social and economic issue, especially for South American nations which are all developing countries. The introduction of exotic species and overfishing were also identified as widespread across the continent and its main freshwater, coastal and marine ecosystems. Finally, suggestions are made to find ways to overcome these problems. The main suggestion is a change of paradigm and a new design for conservation actions, starting with integrated research and aiming at the co-ordinated and harmonized management of the main transboundary waters of the continent. The actions would be focused on habitat conservation and social rescue of the less well-off populations of indigenous and non-indigenous peoples. Energy and freshwater demands will also have to be rescaled in order to control habitat loss.

  20. Anti-malarial drug safety information obtained through routine monitoring in a rural district of South-Western Senegal

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    Brasseur Philippe

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowing the safety profile of anti-malarial treatments in routine use is essential; millions of patients receive now artemisinin combination therapy (ACT annually, but the return on information through current systems is as yet inadequate. Cohort event monitoring (CEM is a WHO (World Health Organization-recommended practice; testing its performance and feasibility in routine practice in malaria-endemic is important. Methods A nine-year CEM-based study of the safety of artesunate-amodiaquine (ASAQ at five peripheral health facilities in a rural district of South-western Senegal. Staff (nurses, health workers were trained to collect actively and systematically information on the patient, treatment and events on a purposely designed questionnaire. The occurrence and severity of events was collected before, during and after treatment up to 28 days in order to generate information on all adverse events (AEs as well as treatment-emerging signs/symptoms (TESS. Laboratory tests (haematology, liver and renal was planned for at least 10% of cases. Results During 2001–2009, 3,708 parasitologically-confirmed malaria cases (mean age = 16.0 ± 12.7 years were enrolled (26% and 52% of all and parasitologically-confirmed ASAQ treatments, respectively. Treatment was supervised in 96% of cases. Products changed over time: 49% were a loose combination of individually-packaged products (available 2001–03, 42% co-blistered products (2004–09 and 9% a fixed-dose co-formulation (2006–09; dosing was age-based for 42%, weight-based for 58%. AS and AQ were correctly dosed in 97% and 82% of cases with the loose and 93% and 86% with the fixed combination, but only 50% and 42% with the co-blistered product. Thirty-three per cent (33% of patients had at least one sign/symptom pre-treatment, 12% had at least one AE and 9% a TESS (total events 3,914, 1,144 and 693, respectively. AEs overestimated TESS by 1.2-2 fold (average 1.7. Changes in

  1. Molecular Epidemiology and Spatio-Temporal Dynamics of the H3N8 Equine Influenza Virus in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olguin Perglione, Cecilia; Golemba, Marcelo D; Torres, Carolina; Barrandeguy, Maria

    2016-10-16

    Equine influenza virus (EIV) is considered the most important respiratory pathogen of horses as outbreaks of the disease lead to substantial economic losses. The H3N8 EIV has caused respiratory disease in horses across the world, including South American countries. Nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences for the complete haemagglutinin gene of the H3N8 EIV detected in South America since 1963 were analyzed. Phylogenetic and Bayesian coalescent analyses were carried out to study the origin, the time of the most recent common ancestors (tMRCA), the demographic and the phylogeographic patterns of the H3N8 EIV. The phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the H3N8 EIV detected in South America grouped in 5 well-supported monophyletic clades, each associated with strains of different origins. The tMRCA estimated for each group suggested that the virus was circulating in North America at least one year before its effective circulation in the South American population. Phylogenetic and coalescent analyses revealed a polyphyletic behavior of the viruses causing the outbreaks in South America between 1963 and 2012, possibly due to the introduction of at least 4 different EIVs through the international movement of horses. In addition, phylodynamic analysis suggested South America as the starting point of the spread of the H3N8 EIV in 1963 and showed migration links from the United States to South America in the subsequent EIV irruptions. Further, an increase in the relative genetic diversity was observed between 2006 and 2007 and a subsequent decline since 2009, probably due to the co-circulation of different lineages and as a result of the incorporation of the Florida clade 2 strain in vaccines, respectively. The observed data highlight the importance of epidemiological surveillance and the implementation of appropriate quarantine procedures to prevent outbreaks of the disease.

  2. Different precipitation patterns across tropical South America during Heinrich and Dansgaard-Oeschger stadials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yancheng; Chiessi, Cristiano M.; Mulitza, Stefan; Sawakuchi, André O.; Häggi, Christoph; Zabel, Matthias; Portilho-Ramos, Rodrigo C.; Schefuß, Enno; Crivellari, Stefano; Wefer, Gerold

    2017-12-01

    Detailed knowledge about tropical South American precipitation patterns during Heinrich (H) and Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) stadials provides relevant insights into the possible evolution of Amazonian hydroclimate under future climate change. Sediment core GeoB16224-1 (ca. 7°N), raised from a site in the continental slope off French Guiana in western equatorial Atlantic under the influence of the Amazon River discharge, documents the impacts of H and DO stadials on both inorganic (i.e., Fe/Ca record) and organic (i.e., alkenone C37 concentration and C37/C38 ratio) geochemistry between 41 and 13 ka BP. Our results show millennial-scale covariations of increased Fe/Ca values with decreased C37 concentration and C37/C38 ratios during H and DO stadials. Comparing our high temporal resolution data with previously published records from ca. 17°N to 4°S, we are able to differentiate the influence of H and DO stadials upon tropical South American precipitation. We find that records under the influence of the South American summer monsoon (e.g., western Amazon) and the northern edge of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) (e.g., northernmost South America) exhibit strong climate shifts during both H and DO stadials, but regions under the influence of the southern edge of the ITCZ (e.g., northeastern Brazil) experience a weaker reaction during DO stadials than during H stadials.

  3. Tracking populations of Phytophthora ramorum within trees and across the South-western Oregon tanoak (Notholithocarpus densiflorus) forest with DNA fingerprinting and the relative fitness of dominant and rare individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer Britt; Everett Hansen

    2011-01-01

    Since the discovery of Phytophthora ramorum Werres, De Cock & Man In't Veld in south-western Oregon forests in 2001, newly infected areas are detected each year. Yet, there are still gaps in our knowledge about how the pathogen spreads or where new infections come from. Our study aims to track the spread of P. ramorum...

  4. Ecological knowledge and sustainable planning in Nigeria: a reflection on the Yorubas of South-Western Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Oladayo Ramon Ibrahim

    2017-01-01

    In pre-colonial times, African people survived by acquiring and preserving community knowledge of the environment and the relationships between human and non-human elements. The paper is based primarily on secondary data, and examines the relationships between African people, especially Yoruba people of southwestern Nigeria and the land and how understanding this relationship can help our quest for a more effective and sustainable regional planning. The study investigates the indigenous Yor...

  5. Environmental and Human Controls of Ecosystem Functional Diversity in Temperate South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingo Alcaraz-Segura

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The regional controls of biodiversity patterns have been traditionally evaluated using structural and compositional components at the species level, but evaluation of the functional component at the ecosystem level is still scarce. During the last decades, the role of ecosystem functioning in management and conservation has increased. Our aim was to use satellite-derived Ecosystem Functional Types (EFTs, patches of the land-surface with similar carbon gain dynamics to characterize the regional patterns of ecosystem functional diversity and to evaluate the environmental and human controls that determine EFT richness across natural and human-modified systems in temperate South America. The EFT identification was based on three descriptors of carbon gain dynamics derived from seasonal curves of the MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI: annual mean (surrogate of primary production, seasonal coefficient of variation (indicator of seasonality and date of maximum EVI (descriptor of phenology. As observed for species richness in the southern hemisphere, water availability, not energy, emerged as the main climatic driver of EFT richness in natural areas of temperate South America. In anthropogenic areas, the role of both water and energy decreased and increasing human intervention increased richness at low levels of human influence, but decreased richness at high levels of human influence.

  6. Water vapour trends at several tropospheric levels over South America between 1973 and 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales, L.; Mattar, C.; Da-Silva, L.; Abarca, R.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper water vapour trends were analyzed at several tropospheric levels over South America between 1973 and 2003. It was carried out using in situ values retrieved by 15 radiosonde stations and NCEP NCAR Reanalysis data (NNR). NNR and radiosonde water vapour data were linked to Koeppen-Geiger climatic zones to calculate anomalies, trends, and the non-parametric statistical significance for each mandatory level. A methodology used to process radiosonde data is shown. Water vapour trends in tropical climates presented positive decadal trends. This is statistically significant for the first mandatory levels retrieved by radiosonde. The highest values are presented in average with NNR; the decadal magnitude for climate Af being 0.15 g kg -1 for 1000 and 925 h Pa, and for climate As 0.27 g kg -1 for 925 and 850 h Pa. For non-tropical climates the magnitude trends of specific humidity are affected by the spatial resolution of NNR, which is seen when comparing the results received by the radiosondes. Finally, this paper shows the initial results of water vapour content trends in the last three decades over South America. Strong climatic events and synoptic oscillations were not commented upon.

  7. Cultural Phylogenetics of the Tupi Language Family in Lowland South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Robert S.; Wichmann, Søren; Mailund, Thomas; Atkisson, Curtis J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Recent advances in automated assessment of basic vocabulary lists allow the construction of linguistic phylogenies useful for tracing dynamics of human population expansions, reconstructing ancestral cultures, and modeling transition rates of cultural traits over time. Methods Here we investigate the Tupi expansion, a widely-dispersed language family in lowland South America, with a distance-based phylogeny based on 40-word vocabulary lists from 48 languages. We coded 11 cultural traits across the diverse Tupi family including traditional warfare patterns, post-marital residence, corporate structure, community size, paternity beliefs, sibling terminology, presence of canoes, tattooing, shamanism, men's houses, and lip plugs. Results/Discussion The linguistic phylogeny supports a Tupi homeland in west-central Brazil with subsequent major expansions across much of lowland South America. Consistently, ancestral reconstructions of cultural traits over the linguistic phylogeny suggest that social complexity has tended to decline through time, most notably in the independent emergence of several nomadic hunter-gatherer societies. Estimated rates of cultural change across the Tupi expansion are on the order of only a few changes per 10,000 years, in accord with previous cultural phylogenetic results in other language families around the world, and indicate a conservative nature to much of human culture. PMID:22506065

  8. Mast fruiting is a frequent strategy in woody species of eastern South America.

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    Natalia Norden

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is thought that mast seeding is a rare reproductive strategy in the tropics, since tropical climates are less variable, and fruit consumers tend to be more generalist in these regions. However, previous tests of this hypothesis were based on only few tropical datasets, and none from tropical South America. Moreover, reproductive strategies have been quantified based on the coefficient of variation of interannual seed production, an index that potentially confounds masting and high interannual variability in seed production. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We developed a new approach to model the monthly variability in seed production for 28 tree species, and 20 liana species monitored during 5 years in a tropical forest of Central French Guiana. We found that 23% of the species showed a masting pattern, 54% an annual fruiting pattern, and 23% an irregular fruiting pattern. The majority of masting species were trees (8 out of 11, most of them animal-dispersed. The classification into reproductive strategies based on the coefficient of variation was inconsistent with our results in nearly half of the cases. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study is the first to clearly evidence the frequency of the masting strategy in a tropical forest community of Eastern South America. The commonness of the masting strategy in tropical plants may promote species coexistence through storage dynamics.

  9. Hot continent: South America is open for fast growth in the natural gas sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinsch, A. E.

    1997-01-01

    Opportunities for participation in the rapid expansion of the natural gas sector in South America following privatization and deregulation initiatives, were examined on a country-by-country basis. In Colombia and Venezuela opportunities exist primarily in domestic development of the gas sector, whereas in the countries of the southern cone - Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay, Peru and Uruguay - the situation is said to be ripe for energy sector integration. Currently, a second regional pipeline link, with a capacity of 129 Bcf/year, is nearing completion, which will carry gas from west Argentina to Santiago, Chile, to supplement the 77 Bcf/year pipeline carrying gas from Bolivia to the Argentine border, where it connects with a trunk line to supply the Buenos Aires market. A Canadian Energy Research Institute study, to be published in the summer of 1997, focuses on the various pipeline links being put forward to integrate the gas resources in the southern cone with existing and potential gas markets. The integration scenarios examined are predicted to reveal both economic and commercial merit for the pipeline corridors. Canadian energy and pipeline companies are said to be well positioned to take advantage of the opportunities resulting from these initiatives, and to help making the vision of an integrated gas pipeline network in the southern cone of South America a reality

  10. Phylogeny and cryptic diversity in geckos (Phyllopezus; Phyllodactylidae; Gekkota) from South America's open biomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Tony; Colli, Guarino R; Rodrigues, Miguel T; Werneck, Fernanda P; Simons, Andrew M

    2012-03-01

    The gecko genus Phyllopezus occurs across South America's open biomes: Cerrado, Seasonally Dry Tropical Forests (SDTF, including Caatinga), and Chaco. We generated a multi-gene dataset and estimated phylogenetic relationships among described Phyllopezus taxa and related species. We included exemplars from both described Phyllopezus pollicaris subspecies, P. p. pollicaris and P. p.przewalskii. Phylogenies from the concatenated data as well as species trees constructed from individual gene trees were largely congruent. All phylogeny reconstruction methods showed Bogertia lutzae as the sister species of Phyllopezus maranjonensis, rendering Phyllopezus paraphyletic. We synonymized the monotypic genus Bogertia with Phyllopezus to maintain a taxonomy that is isomorphic with phylogenetic history. We recovered multiple, deeply divergent, cryptic lineages within P. pollicaris. These cryptic lineages possessed mtDNA distances equivalent to distances among other gekkotan sister taxa. Described P. pollicaris subspecies are not reciprocally monophyletic and current subspecific taxonomy does not accurately reflect evolutionary relationships among cryptic lineages. We highlight the conservation significance of these results in light of the ongoing habitat loss in South America's open biomes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A diplodocid sauropod survivor from the early cretaceous of South America.

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    Pablo A Gallina

    Full Text Available Diplodocids are by far the most emblematic sauropod dinosaurs. They are part of Diplodocoidea, a vast clade whose other members are well-known from Jurassic and Cretaceous strata in Africa, Europe, North and South America. However, Diplodocids were never certainly recognized from the Cretaceous or in any other southern land mass besides Africa. Here we report a new sauropod, Leikupal laticauda gen. et sp. nov., from the early Lower Cretaceous (Bajada Colorada Formation of Neuquén Province, Patagonia, Argentina. This taxon differs from any other sauropod by the presence of anterior caudal transverse process extremely developed with lateroventral expansions reinforced by robust dorsal and ventral bars, very robust centroprezygapophyseal lamina in anterior caudal vertebra and paired pneumatic fossae on the postzygapophyses in anterior-most caudal vertebra. The phylogenetic analyses support its position not only within Diplodocidae but also as a member of Diplodocinae, clustering together with the African form Tornieria, pushing the origin of Diplodocoidea to the Middle Jurassic or even earlier. The new discovery represents the first record of a diplodocid for South America and the stratigraphically youngest record of this clade anywhere.

  12. Decoupling the spread of grasslands from the evolution of grazer-type herbivores in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strömberg, Caroline A E; Dunn, Regan E; Madden, Richard H; Kohn, Matthew J; Carlini, Alfredo A

    2013-01-01

    The evolution of high-crowned cheek teeth (hypsodonty) in herbivorous mammals during the late Cenozoic is classically regarded as an adaptive response to the near-global spread of grass-dominated habitats. Precocious hypsodonty in middle Eocene (∼38 million years (Myr) ago) faunas from Patagonia, South America, is therefore thought to signal Earth's first grasslands, 20 million years earlier than elsewhere. Here, using a high-resolution, 43-18 million-year record of plant silica (phytoliths) from Patagonia, we show that although open-habitat grasses existed in southern South America since the middle Eocene (∼40 Myr ago), they were minor floral components in overall forested habitats between 40 and 18 Myr ago. Thus, distinctly different, continent-specific environmental conditions (arid grasslands versus ash-laden forests) triggered convergent cheek-tooth evolution in Cenozoic herbivores. Hypsodonty evolution is an important example where the present is an insufficient key to the past, and contextual information from fossils is vital for understanding processes of adaptation.

  13. The environmental paradox in generation: How South America is gradually becoming more dependent on thermal generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arango, Santiago [University of Lugano, Switzerland, Via Buffi 13, CH-6904 Lugano (Switzerland); Complexity Center, CeiBa, Universidad Nacional de Colombia Medellin, Colombia, Carrera 80 65 - 223 Bloque. M8a-211, Medellin (Colombia); Larsen, Erik R. [University of Lugano, Switzerland, Via Buffi 13, CH-6904 Lugano (Switzerland)

    2010-12-15

    There has been an increasing focus on global warming, emission of green house gases (GHG), and the problems this might create. In this article, we review the trend in sustainable and renewable electricity generation in South America, where the generation portfolio increasingly depends on thermal generation, in particular gas. South America is a region that has relatively low emissions, but the current development is not desirable in environmental terms. We analyze the underlying reasons for this development, which is related to security of supply, deregulation, and the cost of renewable energy. We review and discuss the policies to promote renewables in the region. We analyze the potential advantages and drawbacks of different types of market interventions, such as direct subsidies that create potentially strong market distortions, more sophisticated market interventions that might be less intrusive but not necessarily as effective as, e.g. firm energy markets. We also review market-based solutions such as the Clean Market Mechanism and its potential, and the use of renewable electricity in non-interconnected zones, which might be one of the most economically attractive applications of renewables. However, without a stronger and more aggressive intervention from the governments in the region it is unlikely that the increase in thermal generation can be stopped. (author)

  14. The amazing diversity of the genus Monospilus Sars, 1862 (Crustacea: Branchiopoda: Aloninae) in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Francisco Diogo R; Elmoor-Loureiro, Lourdes M A; Panarelli, Eliana A

    2017-03-13

    The main goal of this paper is to describe three new species of the genus Monospilus Sars, 1862 (Crustacea: Cladocera). Monospilus macroerosus sp. nov. differs from other species of the genus in several peculiar morphological traits, the most striking being the presence of a saw-shaped pecten of teeth on the postabdominal claw. This species inhabits semiterrestrial habitats (wet leaf litter on hydromorphic soil from gallery forest), exhibiting adaptations related to movement and food handling in this type of habitat. Monospilus brachyspinus sp. nov. inhabits truly aquatic habitats, where lives being associated with macrophytes and submerged leaves. It may be recognized by the postabdominal claw, which is armed with proximal spinulae modified in a short spine. In Monospilus sp., the proximal spinulae are modified in a long and slender spine. So far, Monospilus sp. occurs in southern South America, while Monospilus macroerosus sp. nov. and Monospilus brachyspinus sp. nov. occur in the Cerrado biome in Brazil, in the central portion of South America. Some conclusions about the conservation status of new species also are made.

  15. Climate co-variability between South America and Southern Africa at interannual, intraseasonal and synoptic scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puaud, Yohan; Pohl, Benjamin; Fauchereau, Nicolas; Macron, Clémence; Beltrando, Gérard

    2017-06-01

    This paper investigates and quantifies co-variability between large-scale convection in the South American and Southern African sectors at different timescales (interannual, intraseasonal and synoptic), during the austral summer seasons (November-February) from 1979 to 2012. Multivariate analyses (Canonical Correlation Analysis and Principal Component Analysis) are applied to daily outgoing longwave radiation (OLR, used as a proxy for atmospheric convection) anomalies to extract the principal modes of variability and co-variability in each and between both regions, filtered to consider the appropriate time-scales. At the interannual timescale, results confirm the predominant role of El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), favoring enhanced convection over both southeastern Brazil and northern Argentina on the one hand, and tropical Africa and the western Indian Ocean on the other hand. At the intraseasonal timescale, the leading mode of co-variability is related to modulations of large-scale atmospheric convection over most of South America, and 10 days later, tropical Southern Africa. This mode accounts for the impacts of the Madden-Julian-oscillation (MJO) over these regions: identifying robust co-variability at the intraseasonal timescale between both regions require thus to consider a temporal shift between the two sectors. At the synoptic scale, however, co-variability consists mostly of a synchronous modulation of the large-scale atmospheric convection over the South American and Southern African sectors. This results from the development of concomitant Rossby waves forming a continuous wave train over the South Atlantic in the mid-latitudes, affecting both the South Atlantic and South Indian Convergence Zones. Among the days when convection shows significant anomalies (30 % of the total days in each sector), this synchronous mode occurs about 25 % of the time, individual Rossby waves modulating convection over one single region only during the remaining 75

  16. First detection of Mycobacterium ulcerans DNA in environmental samples from South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Aaron; Gozlan, Rodolphe; Marion, Estelle; Marsollier, Laurent; Andreou, Demetra; Sanhueza, Daniel; Ruffine, Rolland; Couppié, Pierre; Guégan, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    The occurrences of many environmentally-persistent and zoonotic infections are driven by ecosystem changes, which in turn are underpinned by land-use modifications that alter the governance of pathogen, biodiversity and human interactions. Our current understanding of these ecological changes on disease emergence however remains limited. Buruli ulcer is an emerging human skin disease caused by the mycobacterium, Mycobacterium ulcerans, for which the exact route of infection remains unclear. It can have a devastating impact on its human host, causing extensive necrosis of the skin and underlying tissue, often leading to permanent disability. The mycobacterium is associated with tropical aquatic environments and incidences of the disease are significantly higher on floodplains and where there is an increase of human aquatic activities. Although the disease has been previously diagnosed in South America, until now the presence of M. ulcerans DNA in the wild has only been identified in Australia where there have been significant outbreaks and in western and central regions of Africa where the disease is persistent. Here for the first time, we have identified the presence of the aetiological agent's DNA in environmental samples from South America. The DNA was positively identified using Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) on 163 environmental samples, taken from 23 freshwater bodies in French Guiana (Southern America), using primers for both IS2404 and for the ketoreductase-B domain of the M. ulcerans mycolactone polyketide synthase genes (KR). Five samples out of 163 were positive for both primers from three different water bodies. A further nine sites had low levels of IS2404 close to a standard CT of 35 and could potentially harbour M. ulcerans. The majority of our positive samples (8/14) came from filtered water. These results also reveal the Sinnamary River as a potential source of infection to humans.

  17. First detection of Mycobacterium ulcerans DNA in environmental samples from South America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Morris

    Full Text Available The occurrences of many environmentally-persistent and zoonotic infections are driven by ecosystem changes, which in turn are underpinned by land-use modifications that alter the governance of pathogen, biodiversity and human interactions. Our current understanding of these ecological changes on disease emergence however remains limited. Buruli ulcer is an emerging human skin disease caused by the mycobacterium, Mycobacterium ulcerans, for which the exact route of infection remains unclear. It can have a devastating impact on its human host, causing extensive necrosis of the skin and underlying tissue, often leading to permanent disability. The mycobacterium is associated with tropical aquatic environments and incidences of the disease are significantly higher on floodplains and where there is an increase of human aquatic activities. Although the disease has been previously diagnosed in South America, until now the presence of M. ulcerans DNA in the wild has only been identified in Australia where there have been significant outbreaks and in western and central regions of Africa where the disease is persistent. Here for the first time, we have identified the presence of the aetiological agent's DNA in environmental samples from South America. The DNA was positively identified using Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR on 163 environmental samples, taken from 23 freshwater bodies in French Guiana (Southern America, using primers for both IS2404 and for the ketoreductase-B domain of the M. ulcerans mycolactone polyketide synthase genes (KR. Five samples out of 163 were positive for both primers from three different water bodies. A further nine sites had low levels of IS2404 close to a standard CT of 35 and could potentially harbour M. ulcerans. The majority of our positive samples (8/14 came from filtered water. These results also reveal the Sinnamary River as a potential source of infection to humans.

  18. Geographically Sourcing Cocaine’s Origin - Delineation of the Nineteen Major Coca Growing Regions in South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallette, Jennifer R.; Casale, John F.; Jordan, James; Morello, David R.; Beyer, Paul M.

    2016-03-01

    Previously, geo-sourcing to five major coca growing regions within South America was accomplished. However, the expansion of coca cultivation throughout South America made sub-regional origin determinations increasingly difficult. The former methodology was recently enhanced with additional stable isotope analyses (2H and 18O) to fully characterize cocaine due to the varying environmental conditions in which the coca was grown. An improved data analysis method was implemented with the combination of machine learning and multivariate statistical analysis methods to provide further partitioning between growing regions. Here, we show how the combination of trace cocaine alkaloids, stable isotopes, and multivariate statistical analyses can be used to classify illicit cocaine as originating from one of 19 growing regions within South America. The data obtained through this approach can be used to describe current coca cultivation and production trends, highlight trafficking routes, as well as identify new coca growing regions.

  19. Quantitative ethnobotany of palms in northwestern South America: a comparative analysis in Amazonia, Andes and Chocó

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cámara-Leret, Rodrigo

    and socioeconomic factors of informants is presented in Chapter 2. In Chapter 3, the field data were used to compare and validate the quality and coverage of palm ethnobotanical information from a literature review of works published over the last 60 years in the same region. The results of this study show...... that fieldwork collected more information than the existing literature on most of the analyzed scales, and represents the first empirical evidence that ethnobotanical knowledge is poorly documented in northwestern South America. Given our findings, we hope to stimulate the formulation of plans to systematically...... document ethnobotanical knowledge in northwestern South America and elsewhere before it disappears. Chapter 4 presents the first multiple-scale assessment of the ecosystem services provided by palms in northwestern South America. It is based on ethnobotanical data from 15 localities and palm ecological...

  20. Origin of samples of Cannabis sativa through insect fragments associated with compacted hemp drug in South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Patrício Macedo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Origin of samples of Cannabis sativa through insect fragments associated with compacted hemp drug in South America. Insects associated with a seizure of Cannabis sativa L. may indicate the origin of the illicit drug. Nevertheless, no work regarding this subject has been previously published for South America. In the present investigation, seven kilograms of vegetal material (C. sativa were inspected for insect fragments. Three species were identified and used to test the origin of the seizure of cannabis plant material: Euschistus heros (Fabricius, 1794, Thyanta perditor (Fabricius, 1794 (Heteroptera, Pentatomidae, and Cephalotes pusillus (Klug, 1824 (Hymenoptera, Formicidae. These insect species restricted the geographic origin of the drug to the Neotropical region, and their distribution patterns showed an overlap of the State of Mato Grosso (Brazil, Argentina, and Paraguay. Based on this information, two of the three major C. sativa growing areas in South America were excluded: (1 the Colombian territory and (2 northeastern Brazil.

  1. Ancient mitochondrial DNA reveals convergent evolution of giant short-faced bears (Tremarctinae) in North and South America

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Kieren J.; Bray, Sarah C.; Bover, Pere; Soibelzon, Leopoldo; Schubert, Blaine W.; Prevosti, Francisco; Prieto, Alfredo; Martin, Fabiana; Austin, Jeremy J.; Cooper, Alan

    2016-01-01

    The Tremarctinae are a subfamily of bears endemic to the New World, including two of the largest terrestrial mammalian carnivores that have ever lived: the giant, short-faced bears Arctodus simus from North America and Arctotherium angustidens from South America (greater than or equal to 1000 kg). Arctotherium angustidens became extinct during the Early Pleistocene, whereas Arctodus simus went extinct at the very end of the Pleistocene. The only living tremarctine is the spectacled bear (Trem...

  2. Potential role of vegetation dynamics on recent extreme droughts over tropical South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, G.; Erfanian, A.; Fomenko, L.

    2017-12-01

    Tropical South America is a drought hot spot. In slightly over a decade (2005-2016), the region encountered three extreme droughts (2005, 2010, and 2016). Recurrent extreme droughts not only impact the region's eco-hydrology and socio-economy, but are also globally important as they can transform the planet's largest rainforest, the Amazon, from a carbon sink to a carbon source. Understanding drought drivers and mechanisms underlying extreme droughts in tropical South America can help better project the fate of the Amazon rainforest in a changing climate. In this study we use a regional climate model (RegCM4.3.4) coupled with a comprehensive land-surface model (CLM4.5) to study the present-day hydroclimate of the region, focusing specifically on what might have caused the frequent recurrence of extreme droughts. In the context of observation natural variability of the global oceanic forcing, we tackle the role of land-atmosphere interactions and ran the model with and without dynamic vegetation to study how vegetation dynamics and carbon-nitrogen cycles may have influenced the drought characteristics. Our results demonstrate skillful simulation of the South American climate in the model, and indicate substantial sensitivity of the region's hydroclimatology to vegetation dynamics. This presentation will compare the role of global oceanic forcing versus regional land surface feedback in the recent recurrent droughts, and will characterize the effects of vegetation dynamics in enhancing the drought severity. Preliminary results on future projections of the regional ecosystem and droughts perspective will be also presented.

  3. Bioerosion by microbial euendoliths in benthic foraminifera from heavy metal-polluted coastal environments of Portovesme (south-western Sardinia, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Cherchi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A monitoring survey of the coastal area facing the industrial area of Portoscuso-Portovesme (south-western Sardinia, Italy revealed intense bioerosional processes. Benthic foraminifera collected at the same depth (about 2 m but at different distances from the pollution source show extensive microbial infestation, anomalous Mg/Ca molar ratios and high levels of heavy metals in the shell associated with a decrease in foraminifera richness, population density and biodiversity with the presence of morphologically abnormal specimens. We found that carbonate dissolution induced by euendoliths is selective, depending on the Mg content and morpho-structural types of foraminiferal taxa. This study provides evidences for a connection between heavy metal dispersion, decrease in pH of the sea-water and bioerosional processes on foraminifera.

  4. Sedimentary environments in the south-western Barents Sea during the last deglaciation and the Holocene: a case study outside the Ingøydjupet trough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Pau

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A lithological and foraminiferal study of newly acquired sediment cores outside the Ingøydjupet (Ingøy Deep trough has been carried out to improve constraints on the last deglacial history in the south-western Barents Sea. Three lithofacies and three foraminiferal facies were identified. The lowermost lithological unit is a diamicton interpreted as glacial till. It contains a low-abundance, ecologically mixed foraminiferal assemblage, presumably resulting from glacial reworking. Above the diamicton, a layer of ice-rafted debris (IRD, likely associated with intensive iceberg production, marks the initial destabilization of the marine-based ice sheet. At this time, ca. 15.6–15.0 Ky B.P., opportunistic foraminiferal species Nonionellina labradorica and Stainforthia spp. reached peak abundance. During the south-western Barents Sea ice-margin retreat, presumably corresponding to the Bølling interstadial, a sequence of glaciomarine laminations was deposited conformably on the layer of IRD. Sedimentation rates were apparently high (estimated about 0.4 cm per year and the foraminiferal fauna was dominated by Elphidium spp. and Cassidulina reniforme, species common for glacier-proximal environments. A hiatus at the top of the deglacial unit is likely linked to the high bottom-current activity associated with a strengthened inflow of Atlantic water masses into the Barents Sea. The uppermost lithological unit is represented by the Holocene marine sandy mud. It contains a high-abundance, high-diversity foraminiferal fauna with common cassidulinids, Cibicides spp., Epistominella pusilla and planktic species.

  5. Effect of nine years of animal waste deposition on profile distribution of heavy metals in Abeokuta, south-western Nigeria and its implication for environmental quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azeez, J O; Adekunle, I O; Atiku, O O; Akande, K B; Jamiu-Azeez, S O

    2009-09-01

    Uncontrolled deposition of waste from animal farms is a common practice in south-western Nigeria, and the presence of heavy metals in soil constitutes environmental and health hazards by polluting the soil, ground water, adjoining streams and rivers. The study investigated the profile distribution of Mn, Pb, Cd, Zn, Fe, Cu, Ni and Cr in some tropical Alfisols in south-western Nigeria after nine years disposal of animal wastes. The amount of these metals in the soil horizons was high enough to cause health and phytotoxic risks. All the metals except Zn and Cr increased down the profile, while Mn, Pb, Cd, Fe, Cu and Ni accumulated at 80-120 cm depth. The increment of these metals at this depth over the top soil were 26%, 143%, 72%, 47%, 328% for Mn, Pb, Cd, Cu and Ni, respectively. It thus, shows their mobility and the possibility of polluting ground water. The Mn content at the poultry and cattle waste sites increased by 127% and 25%, respectively over the control, while that of cattle and swine dump site for Cd content were 9.82 and 15.63 mg kg(-1), respectively. Lead content also increased by 8.52 and 5.25 mg kg(-1), respectively. There was the accumulation of Zn and Cu at the swine dump site while the cattle dump site had the highest amounts of nickel and chromium. The least amount of Fe was recorded at the swine waste dump site. The reduction in organic matter with depths together with the reduced pH might have favored the mobility of the metals. The ranking of pollution among the sites was poultry>swine>cattle>sheep and could be due to the type of ration fed, the vaccination programmes, sanitation programmes and other management practices.

  6. First case of New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase in Klebsiella pneumoniae from Ecuador: An update for South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Romero-Alvarez

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To describe a clinical case of Klebsiella pneumoniae harboring a New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM plasmid in Ecuador and to present a map of reports of NDM isolates in South America. Methods: The modified Hodge test, carbapenem inactivation method, imipenem–EDTA disk method (synergy, and Rapidec Carba NP test were used to identify antibiotic resistance mechanisms. The presence of resistance genes was explored with a conjugation assay, and molecular confirmation of NDM was performed by PCR and DNA sequencing. Plasmid characterization was conducted by PCR-based replicon typing. A literature review was performed in Google Scholar and PubMed to identify reports from South America. Results: An HIV-infected patient, who had never traveled abroad, developed a bloodstream infection caused by K. pneumoniae ST147 harboring the NDM-1 resistance gene in a plasmid from the IncA/C group. Local circulation of NDM has also been described in other South American countries, in particular in Colombia and Brazil, although published scientific records were not found for other countries. Conclusions: This report presents the first evidence of autochthonous circulation of the NDM-1 resistance gene harbored by an IncA/C plasmid isolated from a K. pneumoniae ST147 in Ecuador. Efforts should be implemented to monitor and characterize the spatial and temporal distribution of NDM in Ecuador and other countries of South America. Keywords: NDM, South America, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Antibiotic resistance, Plasmid

  7. Sea breeze development under an offshore synoptic wind in the South-Western Cape and implications for the Stellenbosch wine-producing area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnardot, V.; Planchon, O.; Cautenet, S.

    2005-07-01

    Sea breezes were investigated during the maturation period of wine grapes in the South-Western Cape under particular synoptic wind conditions (onshore for Table Bay and offshore for False Bay). Observations from an automatic weather station network located in the Stellenbosch wine-producing area as well as the Regional Atmospheric Modelling System (RAMS, non-hydrostatic, parallel, version 4.3) were used. Results showed that two sea breezes developed, one from Table Bay late in the morning, and the other from False Bay later in the afternoon. The coastal low strengthened and deflected the sea breeze from Table Bay towards the south and south-east of the study area, while the offshore large-scale circulation hindered the development of the sea breeze in the opposite direction over False Bay and delayed its movement towards land. The decrease in temperature resulting from the onset of the sea breeze from the Atlantic early in the afternoon could be significant for viticulture, reducing the duration and intensity of high temperature stress on grapevine functioning at the coolest locations.

  8. Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and CA-MRSA strains in South America: comparative review to emergence of strains in North America and worldwide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Leonardo Nogueira Farias

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the last few years, 3 different strains of MRSA have emerged: Community-associated Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA, Hospital-associated (HA-MRSA, and Livestock-associated (LA-MRSA. The most common CA-MRSA strain is USA 300 lineage. In Brasil, this superbacteria is an important public health problem, once they are associated with severe infections (sepsis, shock and osteomyelitis, high mortality rates (including babies and low response to usual treatments. Aim: To review attempts to compare CA-MRSA strains in South America and propose an interconnection with patterns of North America and worldwide strains. Methods: Non-systematic review. Findings: Epidemiological and Genotyping definitions were used to compare different strains in different continents. Thus, we could determine ST30+ as the most common lineage in the Brazil and South America, USA 300 lineage as the most common in North America and ST80+ as the most common in Europe. Conclusion: MRSA is a seriously public health problem in Brazil and worldwide.  In few years scientist will need a better understand of bacteria-derived factors that participate in enhanced MRSA pathogenesis & host susceptibility. Also, scientists will need to improve tools for an early diagnosis and they will need to enhance preventative/therapeutic modalities. However, new challenges will keep emerging.

  9. ROLE OF THE STRUCTURAL FACTOR IN THE DISTRIBUTION OF HIGH-RADON GROUNDWATER IN THE SOUTHWESTERN FLANK OF THE SOUTH BAIKAL RIFT BASIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Zh. Seminsky

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the distribution patterns of high-radon groundwater at the southwestern shore of LakeBaikal. This region is a flank of the South Baikalrift basin, characterized by high geodynamic activity and complex fault patterns, without any special geochemical conditions with regard to the content of uranium in the rocks. Based on our observations and measurements, we consolidated the first massive database on radon volume activity (Q in a variety of local water sources. In the Kultuk–Vydrino area, the Q values vary from zero to 81.1 Bq/l, according to the analysis of the water samples from 93 springs, lakes, small streams, wells, and drilled holes. The highest concentrations of radon are discovered in the groundwater samples. Such values are unevenly scattered across the study area. The chain of the maximum Q values trends northwestwards along the LakeBaikalshore. This distribution pattern of radon, as well as the locations of individual water sources with Q>15 Bq/l are predetermined by the structural factor. The paragenetic analysis of faults and joints in the Kultuk–Vydrino area shows that this factor includes both the structure and stages in the development of the regional largest Main Sayan fault zone (the southwestern flank of the South Baikalbasin is a segment of this zone. The water sources with increased concentrations of radon are located in zones with a high density of the 2nd order faults, especially on sites wherein the NW-striking faults cross the transverse faults that have experienced repeated activation. Temperature T is an additional factor influencing the degree of radioactivity in water. A relationship between T and Q is reverse. Water sources with Q>15 Bq/l associated with the 2nd order fault zones may occur also due to a locally lower temperature of groundwater. Our study gives evidence that the southwestern coast ofLake Baikal is promising for finding high-radon water sources. Using such water in balneo

  10. The carbon balance of South America: a review of the status, decadal trends and main determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gloor

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We summarise the contemporary carbon budget of South America and relate it to its dominant controls: population and economic growth, changes in land use practices and a changing atmospheric environment and climate. Component flux estimate methods we consider sufficiently reliable for this purpose encompass fossil fuel emission inventories, biometric analysis of old-growth rainforests, estimation of carbon release associated with deforestation based on remote sensing and inventories, and agricultural export data. Alternative methods for the estimation of the continental-scale net land to atmosphere CO2 flux, such as atmospheric transport inverse modelling and terrestrial biosphere model predictions, are, we find, hampered by the data paucity, and improved parameterisation and validation exercises are required before reliable estimates can be obtained. From our analysis of available data, we suggest that South America was a net source to the atmosphere during the 1980s (~ 0.3–0.4 Pg C a−1 and close to neutral (~ 0.1 Pg C a−1 in the 1990s. During the latter period, carbon uptake in old-growth forests nearly compensated for the carbon release associated with fossil fuel burning and deforestation.

    Annual mean precipitation over tropical South America as inferred from Amazon River discharge shows a long-term upward trend. Although, over the last decade dry seasons have tended to be drier, with the years 2005 and 2010 in particular experiencing strong droughts. On the other hand, precipitation during the wet seasons also shows an increasing trend. Air temperatures have also increased slightly. Also with increases in atmospheric CO2 concentrations, it is currently unclear what effect these climate changes are having on the forest carbon balance of the region. Current indications are that the forests of the Amazon Basin have acted as a substantial long-term carbon sink, but with the most recent

  11. SOM and Biomass C Stocks in Degraded and Undisturbed Andean and Coastal Nothofagus Forests of Southwestern South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Dube

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Grazing and over-exploitation can severely degrade soil in native forests. Considering that productivity in ecosystems is related to soil organic matter (SOM content and quality, the objectives of this study were to: (1 determine the influence of degraded (DEF, partly-degraded (PDF, and undisturbed (UNF Nothofagus forests on the stocks of carbon (C in tree biomass and SOM; (2 evaluate fractions of SOM as indicators of sustainable management; and (3 use the Century model to determine the potential gains of soil organic C (SOC. The forests are located in the Andes and Coastal mountains of southern Chile. The SOM was fractionated to separate the light fraction (LF, macroaggregates (>212 µm, mesoaggregates (212–53 µm, and microaggregates (<53 µm. In two measurement periods, the SOC stocks at 0–20 cm and 20–40 cm depths in macroaggregates were on average 100% higher in the Andean UNF, and SOC was over twice as much at 20–40 cm depth in Andean DEF. Century simulations showed that improved silvopastoral management would gradually increase total SOC in degraded soils of both sites, especially the Ultisol with a 15% increase between 2016 and 2216 (vs. 7% in the Andisol. Greater SOC in macroaggregates (p < 0.05 of UNF indicate a condition of higher sustainability and better management over the years.

  12. Land Cover Characterization and Mapping of South America for the Year 2010 Using Landsat 30 m Satellite Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Giri

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Detailed and accurate land cover and land cover change information is needed for South America because the continent is in constant flux, experiencing some of the highest rates of land cover change and forest loss in the world. The land cover data available for the entire continent are too coarse (250 m to 1 km for resource managers, government and non-government organizations, and Earth scientists to develop conservation strategies, formulate resource management options, and monitor land cover dynamics. We used Landsat 30 m satellite data of 2010 and prepared the land cover database of South America using state-of-the-science remote sensing techniques. We produced regionally consistent and locally relevant land cover information by processing a large volume of data covering the entire continent. Our analysis revealed that in 2010, 50% of South America was covered by forests, 2.5% was covered by water, and 0.02% was covered by snow and ice. The percent forest area of South America varies from 9.5% in Uruguay to 96.5% in French Guiana. We used very high resolution (<5 m satellite data to validate the land cover product. The overall accuracy of the 2010 South American 30-m land cover map is 89% with a Kappa coefficient of 79%. Accuracy of barren areas needs to improve possibly using multi-temporal Landsat data. An update of land cover and change database of South America with additional land cover classes is needed. The results from this study are useful for developing resource management strategies, formulating biodiversity conservation strategies, and regular land cover monitoring and forecasting.

  13. Early dispersals of maize and other food plants into the Southern Caribbean and Northeastern South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagán-Jiménez, Jaime R.; Rodríguez-Ramos, Reniel; Reid, Basil A.; van den Bel, Martijn; Hofman, Corinne L.

    2015-09-01

    Grindstones from Eva 2 and St. John, two of the earliest sites in northeastern South America and the southern Caribbean respectively, were subjected to starch grain analysis. Results of this study revealed that these stone artifacts were utilized to process a variety of cultivars such as maize (Zea mays), sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas), chili pepper (Capsicum spp.), achira (Canna spp.), legumes (Fabaceae), and yams (Dioscoreaceae), coupled with wild resources, most notably marunguey (Zamia spp.). Radiocarbon dates indicate that the use of plants identified at these two sites were much older than previously considered, going back to at least 7790 cal. BP at St. John and 5990 cal. BP at Eva 2. This new evidence showcases the importance of the Caribbean basin as an arena for early phytocultural dispersals. It also focuses attention on the role of navigation as a mechanism for crop diffusion in the Neotropics.

  14. ITS-2 sequences-based identification of Trichogramma species in South America

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    R. P. Almeida

    Full Text Available Abstract ITS2 (Internal transcribed spacer 2 sequences have been used in systematic studies and proved to be useful in providing a reliable identification of Trichogramma species. DNAr sequences ranged in size from 379 to 632 bp. In eleven T. pretiosum lines Wolbachia-induced parthenogenesis was found for the first time. These thelytokous lines were collected in Peru (9, Colombia (1 and USA (1. A dichotomous key for species identification was built based on the size of the ITS2 PCR product and restriction analysis using three endonucleases (EcoRI, MseI and MaeI. This molecular technique was successfully used to distinguish among seventeen native/introduced Trichogramma species collected in South America.

  15. Characterization of Trypanosoma rangeli Strains Isolated in Central and South America: an Overview

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    Grisard Edmundo C

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma rangeli is a hemoflagelate parasite that infects domestic and sylvatic animals, as well as man, in Central and South America. T. rangeli has an overlapping distribution with T. cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease, sharing several animal reservoirs and triatomine vectors. We have isolated T. rangeli strains in the State of Santa Catarina, in southern Brazil, which dramatically increased the distribution area of this parasite. This brief review summarizes several studies comparing T. rangeli strains isolated in Santa Catarina with others isolated in Colombia, Honduras and Venezuela. The different methods used include indirect immunofluorescence and western blot assays, lectin agglutination, isoenzyme electrophoresis and random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis, triatomine susceptibility, in vitro cell infection assays, and mini-exon gene analysis.

  16. Checklist of helminths from lizards and amphisbaenians (Reptilia, Squamata of South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RW Ávila

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive and up to date summary of the literature on the helminth parasites of lizards and amphisbaenians from South America is herein presented. One-hundred eighteen lizard species from twelve countries were reported in the literature harboring a total of 155 helminth species, being none acanthocephalans, 15 cestodes, 20 trematodes and 111 nematodes. Of these, one record was from Chile and French Guiana, three from Colombia, three from Uruguay, eight from Bolivia, nine from Surinam, 13 from Paraguay, 12 from Venezuela, 27 from Ecuador, 17 from Argentina, 39 from Peru and 103 from Brazil. The present list provides host, geographical distribution (with the respective biome, when possible, site of infection and references from the parasites. A systematic parasite-host list is also provided.

  17. Track analysis of Oribatid mites (Acari: Oribatida) of the Subantarctic subregion of South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Érica V; Romano, Gonzalo M; Morrone, Juan J

    2016-06-23

    We analysed distributional data of 30 species of Oribatid mites of the Subantarctic subregion of southern South America in order to contribute to elucidate their biotic evolution. We constructed individual tracks for the species analysed, based on published and unpublished records. After superposing them we obtained six generalized tracks and five nodes. Four generalized tracks (T2, T3, T4 and T6) extend along and near the Andean ranges, whereas two generalized tracks (T1 and T5) may be artefacts caused by the lack of information. The generalized tracks and nodes show the complex relationships of the austral biota, as hypothesized in previous contributions based on other plant and animal taxa.

  18. Revision of the genus Lolliguncula Steenstrup, 1881 (Cephalopoda: Loliginidae off the Pacific Coast of South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz Cardoso

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper the species from the genus LolligunculaSteentrup, 1881 (Cephalopoda: Loliginidae in Southeastern Pacific Ocean are reviewed. The presence of Lolliguncula (Lolliguncula panamensisBerry, 1911, Lolliguncula (Loliolopsis diomedeae Hoyle, 1911 and Lolliguncula (Lolliguncula argusBrakoniecki and Roper, 1985 are confirmed from Mexican waters to Perú and the species Lolliguncula (Lolliguncula arguscollected during a cruise of the R/V Anton Bruunfrom 1966 off the coast of South America is recorded for the first time in Peruvian waters. A key to identification of Pacific species is given. We report a diagnostic feature with taxonomic remarks of these species. Updated information on the distribution, biology, and fisheries of each species also is discussed.

  19. Doses from 222Rn, 226Ra, and 228Ra in groundwater from Guarani aquifer, South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonotto, D M

    2004-01-01

    Groundwater samples were analysed for 222Rn, 226Ra, and 228Ra in Guarani aquifer spreading around 1 million km2 within four countries in South America, and it was found that their activity concentrations are lognormally distributed. Population-weighted average activity concentration for these radionuclides allowed to estimate a value either slightly higher (0.13 mSv/year) than 0.1 mSv for the total effective dose or two times higher (0.21 mSv/year) than this limit, depending on the choice of the dose conversion factor. Such calculation adds useful information for the appropriate management of this transboundary aquifer that is socially and economically very important to about 15 million inhabitants living in Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay and Paraguay.

  20. Decreasing Inappropriate Use of Antibiotics in Primary Care in Four Countries in South America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urbiztondo, Inés; Bjerrum, Lars; Caballero, Lidia

    2017-01-01

    High antibiotic prescribing and antimicrobial resistance in patients attending primary care have been reported in South America. Very few interventions targeting general practitioners (GPs) to decrease inappropriate antibiotic prescribing have been investigated in this region. This study assessed...... limited effect. A cluster randomized two-arm control trial was implemented. Healthcare centres from Bolivia, Argentina, Paraguay and Uruguay participating in the quality improvement program HAPPY AUDIT were randomly allocated to either intervention or control group. During ten consecutive weeks, GPs...... in the intervention group received evidence-based online feedback on the management of suspected RTIs. In patients with acute bronchitis, the intervention reduced the antibiotic prescribing rate from 71.6% to 56% (control group from 61.2% to 52%). In patients with acute otitis media, the intervention reduced...

  1. [Health, globalization and interculturalism: an anthropological approach to the situation of indigenous peoples in South America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hita, Susana Ramírez

    2014-10-01

    This article reflects upon the impact of globalization and interculturalism on the living conditions of indigenous peoples in South America. Through two examples - Bolivia and Argentina - it is seen how health interculturalism has transformed into a discourse and a practice that both global organizations and most Latin American countries have used to assimilate and attract indigenous communities. Traditional medicine is respected and valued without proposing changes to improve the living conditions of these population groups. This is especially true in those areas where land is being expropriated or contaminated with the extraction of gas, oil, minerals and the construction of dams, along with indiscriminate deforestation of the rainforest. Health/illness cannot be separated from the territorial conditions of these peoples since environmental health is critical for their survival.

  2. Psychological Functioning in Youth With Spina Bifida Living in Colombia, South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Elizabeth G; Arango-Lasprilla, Juan C; Olivera Plaza, Silvia L; Mendez, Nadezda; Quintero, Lorena; Velasco Trujillo, Diego Mauricio; Daly, Brian P

    2015-07-01

    No studies have examined psychological functioning among youth with spina bifida (SB) living in a developing country where access to mental health resources is often scarce. This study compared self-reported psychological functioning between youth with SB living in Colombia, South America, and a demographically matched comparison group of healthy Colombian children. 22 children with SB and 22 comparison children completed assessments of depression and anxiety. Most (68.81%) participants were male, and the sample had a mean age of 13.25 years (SD = 2.65 years). Results revealed that children with SB reported greater total symptoms of depression (p Colombia. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Doses from 222Rn, 226Ra, and 228Ra in groundwater from Guarani aquifer, South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonotto, D.M.

    2004-01-01

    Groundwater samples were analysed for 222 Rn, 226 Ra, and 228 Ra in Guarani aquifer spreading around 1 million km 2 within four countries in South America, and it was found that their activity concentrations are lognormally distributed. Population-weighted average activity concentration for these radionuclides allowed to estimate a value either slightly higher (0.13 mSv/year) than 0.1 mSv for the total effective dose or two times higher (0.21 mSv/year) than this limit, depending on the choice of the dose conversion factor. Such calculation adds useful information for the appropriate management of this transboundary aquifer that is socially and economically very important to about 15 million inhabitants living in Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay and Paraguay

  4. Annual and interannual variability of forest fires in South America and their temporal scaling in Amazonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becerra Romero, Alejandro; Poveda, German

    2006-01-01

    Investigating the dynamics of forest fires in time is a challenge for environmental sciences, due to their close relation to land use and land change and their connections with the earth's climate through land surface-atmosphere feedbacks, as well as interannual variability associated with ENSO. By means of the ATSR world fire atlas data set (ESA, Europe), pertaining to the GOFC/GOLD-Fire program (monitoring and mapping implementation team), we quantify the annual and interannual variability of forest fires in South America (in three zones: Amazonia, river of La Plata and Colombo Venezuelan plain) on annual and interannual time scales, and the properties of temporary scaling of registered forest fires in the river basin of the Amazon River are quantified for the period 1997-2003. The fires in South America exhibit a noticeable annual cycle that is associated with the annual cycle of precipitations in each zone of study. The effect of the two phases of phenomenon ENSO is demonstrated, with greater fire incidence during El Nino and diminution during La Nina. The power law that relates the area to the fire frequency (fire surface versus number of events) exhibits three zones of scaling such that fires of 1 km 2 or less (θ = 0,4253, R 2 0,9701), between 1 - 20 km 2 θ - 1,1972, R 2 = 0,9893), and between 20 km 2 - 232 km 2 (θ = 2,7354, R 2 - 0,9396). The results reveal that the temporary evolution of forest fires in a site can be modeled like a fractal process of long-term memory, with exponents of scaling between 2,199 (log time vr log factor Fano (t) and 2,2476 (Log Time vr log factor Allan (t)

  5. The Role of Satellite Imagery to Improve Pastureland Estimates in South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graesser, J.

    2015-12-01

    Agriculture has changed substantially across the globe over the past half century. While much work has been done to improve spatial-temporal estimates of agricultural changes, we still know more about the extent of row-crop agriculture than livestock-grazed land. The gap between cropland and pastureland estimates exists largely because it is challenging to characterize natural versus grazed grasslands from a remote sensing perspective. However, the impasse of pastureland estimates is set to break, with an increasing number of spaceborne sensors and freely available satellite data. The Landsat satellite archive in particular provides researchers with immense amounts of data to improve pastureland information. Here we focus on South America, where pastureland expansion has been scrutinized for the past few decades. We explore the challenges of estimating pastureland using temporal Landsat imagery and focus on key agricultural countries, regions, and ecosystems. We focus on the suggested shift of pastureland from the Argentine Pampas to northern Argentina, and the mixing of small-scale and large-scale ranching in eastern Paraguay and how it could impact the Chaco forest to the west. Further, the Beni Savannahs of northern Bolivia and the Colombian Llanos—both grassland and savannah regions historically used for livestock grazing—have been hinted at as future areas for cropland expansion. There are certainly environmental concerns with pastureland expansion into forests; but what are the environmental implications when well-managed pasture systems are converted to intensive soybean or palm oil plantation? Tropical, grazed grasslands are important habitats for biodiversity, and pasturelands can mitigate soil erosion when well managed. Thus, we must improve estimates of grazed land before we can make informed policy and conservation decisions. This talk presents insights into pastureland estimates in South America and discusses the feasibility to improve current

  6. Review of mammalogical research in the Guianas of northern South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Burton K

    2016-03-01

    Research on mammals in the Guianas of northern South America has had a checkered history. In this review, I summarize the notable contributions to mammalogical study in Guyana, Suriname and French Guiana. These studies began in the mid-18th century with the binomial nomenclature system of scientific classification created by the Swedish naturalist Carl Linnaeus, who described 23 species new to science based on holotype specimens from the Guianas. Notwithstanding popular accounts by amateur naturalists visiting this region, over the next 7 decades there was only sporadic taxonomic work done on Guianan mammals primarily by researchers at European museums. The first comprehensive biological exploration took place in the 1840s during a geographic survey of the boundaries of British Guiana. However, it was not until almost half a century later that scientific publications began to regularly document the increasing species diversity in the region, including the prodigious work of Oldfield Thomas at the British Museum of Natural History in London. Another lull in the study of mammals occurred in the mid-1910s to the early 1960s after which foreign researchers began to rediscover the Guianas and their pristine habitats. This biological renaissance is still ongoing and I give a prospectus on the direction of future research in one of the last frontiers of tropical rainforest. An initiative that would be greatly beneficial is the establishment of a university network in the Guianas with graduate-based research to develop a cadre of professional experts on biodiversity and evolution as seen in other countries of South America. © 2016 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  7. Subduction zone locking, strain partitioning, intraplate deformation and their implications to Seismic Hazards in South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galgana, G. A.; Mahdyiar, M.; Shen-Tu, B.; Pontbriand, C. W.; Klein, E.; Wang, F.; Shabestari, K.; Yang, W.

    2014-12-01

    We analyze active crustal deformation in South America (SA) using published GPS observations and historic seismicity along the Nazca Trench and the active Ecuador-Colombia-Venezuela Plate boundary Zone. GPS-constrained kinematisc models that incorporate block and continuum techniques are used to assess patterns of regional tectonic deformation and its implications to seismic potential. We determine interplate coupling distributions, fault slip-rates, and intraplate crustal strain rates in combination with historic earthquakes within 40 seismic zones crust to provide moment rate constraints. Along the Nazca subduction zone, we resolve a series of highly coupled patches, interpreted as high-friction producing "asperities" beneath the coasts of Ecuador, Peru and Chile. These include areas responsible for the 2010 Mw 8.8 Maule Earthquake and the 2014 Mw 8.2 Iquique Earthquake. Predicted tectonic block motions and fault slip rates reveal that the northern part of South America deforms rapidly, with crustal fault slip rates as much as ~20 mm/a. Fault slip and locking patterns reveal that the Oca Ancón-Pilar-Boconó fault system plays a key role in absorbing most of the complex eastward and southward convergence patterns in northeastern Colombia and Venezuela, while the near-parallel system of faults in eastern Colombia and Ecuador absorb part of the transpressional motion due to the ~55 mm/a Nazca-SA plate convergence. These kinematic models, in combination with historic seismicity rates, provide moment deficit rates that reveal regions with high seismic potential, such as coastal Ecuador, Bucaramanga, Arica and Antofagasta. We eventually use the combined information from moment rates and fault coupling patterns to further constrain stochastic seismic hazard models of the region by implementing realistic trench rupture scenarios (see Mahdyiar et al., this volume).

  8. Configuring a regional model for climate change simulations over South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvão de Souza, Samuel; Araújo Costa, Alexandre; Cassain Sales, Domingo

    2013-04-01

    The Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS), developed at Colorado State University is being used for regional climate simulations at the State University of Ceará in the context of Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX). This work describes configuration tests for simulations over an extended South America CORDEX domain, for a short period (1984 - 1985). The horizontal model grid comprises 182 by 172 points with 50 km spacing, ranging from 85.25W - 20.75W and 58.75S - 15.25N. The regional model was driven by data from the member 1 of the historical run from the global model HadGEM2-ES and regional model precipitation results were compared against GPCP data. The use of large-scale nudging was shown to be a very important parameter, as we tested central nudging timescales ranging from relatively strong (12h) to weak (10 days). Strong nudging was generally associated with a wet bias over the Amazon and Central Brazil, which was reduced as the nudging timescale increased. Simulations with weak nudging, in opposition, tended to produce a dry bias. The role of the width of the nudging "buffer zone" for lateral nudging was also investigated and model results suggest that a small number of points (3, in our case) can indeed be used, with no negative impacts in the model results over the area of interest within its domain We analyzed model sensitivity regarding parameters of plant fisiology (such as root depth and stomatal resistance), and the number of model soil levels, but those showed less influence in model results. In the end, we found that the best possible RAMS configuration that enable investigating climate processes and climate change over South America (especially over the Amazon) is the one that uses a 5-day large-scale nudging timescale, a 3-point "buffer zone" for lateral nudging and a 2,0m deep soil model, with 20 levels.

  9. [Historical review of the plague in South America: a little-known disease in Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faccini-Martínez, Álvaro A; Sotomayor, Hugo A

    2013-01-01

    The plague is an infectious disease that has transcended through history and has been responsible for three pandemics with high mortality rates. During the third pandemic that started in Hong Kong (1894), the disease spread through maritime routes to different regions in the world, including South America. In this region, approximately 16 million people are thought to be at risk in relation to this disease due to specific situations like human-rodent coexistence inside houses in rural areas, homes built with inadequate materials that are vulnerable to invasion by these animals, inappropriate storage of crops and an increase in rainfall and deforestation, which allows for the displacement of wild fauna and man invasion of the natural foci of the disease. Between 1994 and 1999, five countries: Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador, Peru and the United States of America, reported approximately 1,700 cases with 79 related deaths. In Colombia we have historical data about an "infectious pneumonia" with high mortality rates that occurred during the same months, for three consecutive years (1913 to 1915) in the departments of Magdalena, Atlántico and Bolívar, located in the Colombian Atlantic coast, which suggested plague, but could not be confirmed.

  10. Rock art at the pleistocene/holocene boundary in Eastern South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Walter A; Araujo, Astolfo G M; Bernardo, Danilo V; Kipnis, Renato; Feathers, James K

    2012-01-01

    Most investigations regarding the first americans have primarily focused on four themes: when the New World was settled by humans; where they came from; how many migrations or colonization pulses from elsewhere were involved in the process; and what kinds of subsistence patterns and material culture they developed during the first millennia of colonization. Little is known, however, about the symbolic world of the first humans who settled the New World, because artistic manifestations either as rock-art, ornaments, and portable art objects dated to the Pleistocene/Holocene transition are exceedingly rare in the Americas. Here we report a pecked anthropomorphic figure engraved in the bedrock of Lapa do Santo, an archaeological site located in Central Brazil. The horizontal projection of the radiocarbon ages obtained at the north profile suggests a minimum age of 9,370 ± 40 BP, (cal BP 10,700 to 10,500) for the petroglyph that is further supported by optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dates from sediment in the same stratigraphic unit, located between two ages from 11.7 ± 0.8 ka BP to 9.9 ± 0.7 ka BP. These data allow us to suggest that the anthropomorphic figure is the oldest reliably dated figurative petroglyph ever found in the New World, indicating that cultural variability during the Pleistocene/Holocene boundary in South America was not restricted to stone tools and subsistence, but also encompassed the symbolic dimension.

  11. [Epidemiology of diabetes mellitus in South America: The experience of Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Uricoechea, Hernando; Casas-Figueroa, Luz Ángela

    According to the International Diabetes Federation, 8.3% of the world population suffers from diabetes mellitus, and it is expected that the number of individuals with the disease will increase to over 592 million. In South and Central America, it is estimated that the increase in the number of cases diagnosed in the period from 2013 to 2035 will be 59.8% (from 24 to 38.5 millions). According to the World Health Organisation, the prevalence of fasting hyperglycaemia in the region of the Americas in 2014 was 9.3% in men and 8.1% in women. The countries with the highest prevalence of diabetes mellitus in adults ≥18years were: Guyana, Surinam, Chile, and Argentina. In Colombia, the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus is variable, depending on the population range assessed and the diagnostic criteria used. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Rock Art at the Pleistocene/Holocene Boundary in Eastern South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Walter A.; Araujo, Astolfo G. M.; Bernardo, Danilo V.; Kipnis, Renato; Feathers, James K.

    2012-01-01

    Background Most investigations regarding the First Americans have primarily focused on four themes: when the New World was settled by humans; where they came from; how many migrations or colonization pulses from elsewhere were involved in the process; and what kinds of subsistence patterns and material culture they developed during the first millennia of colonization. Little is known, however, about the symbolic world of the first humans who settled the New World, because artistic manifestations either as rock-art, ornaments, and portable art objects dated to the Pleistocene/Holocene transition are exceedingly rare in the Americas. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we report a pecked anthropomorphic figure engraved in the bedrock of Lapa do Santo, an archaeological site located in Central Brazil. The horizontal projection of the radiocarbon ages obtained at the north profile suggests a minimum age of 9,370±40 BP, (cal BP 10,700 to 10,500) for the petroglyph that is further supported by optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dates from sediment in the same stratigraphic unit, located between two ages from 11.7±0.8 ka BP to 9.9±0.7 ka BP. Conclusions These data allow us to suggest that the anthropomorphic figure is the oldest reliably dated figurative petroglyph ever found in the New World, indicating that cultural variability during the Pleistocene/Holocene boundary in South America was not restricted to stone tools and subsistence, but also encompassed the symbolic dimension. PMID:22384187

  13. Economic prospects and policy framework of forest biotechnology in the Southern U.S.A. and South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick W. Cubbage; David N. Wear; Zohra Bennadji

    2005-01-01

    An economic framework is presented for analyzing forest biotechnology with a focus on the case of transgenic forest trees in the southeastern U.S., Uruguay, and South America. Prospective economic benefits of forest biotechnology could reach hundreds of millions of dollars per year, but greatly increased research expenditures will also be required to achieve this...

  14. Land cover characterization and mapping of South America for the year 2010 using Landsat 30 m satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Chandra; Long, Jordan

    2014-01-01

    Detailed and accurate land cover and land cover change information is needed for South America because the continent is in constant flux, experiencing some of the highest rates of land cover change and forest loss in the world. The land cover data available for the entire continent are too coarse (250 m to 1 km) for resource managers, government and non-government organizations, and Earth scientists to develop conservation strategies, formulate resource management options, and monitor land cover dynamics. We used Landsat 30 m satellite data of 2010 and prepared the land cover database of South America using state-of-the-science remote sensing techniques. We produced regionally consistent and locally relevant land cover information by processing a large volume of data covering the entire continent. Our analysis revealed that in 2010, 50% of South America was covered by forests, 2.5% was covered by water, and 0.02% was covered by snow and ice. The percent forest area of South America varies from 9.5% in Uruguay to 96.5% in French Guiana. We used very high resolution (strategies, formulating biodiversity conservation strategies, and regular land cover monitoring and forecasting.

  15. Climate variability and human impact in South America during the last 2000 years: synthesis and perspectives from pollen records

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flantua, S.G.A.; Hooghiemstra, H.; Vuille, M.; Behling, H.; Carson, J.F.; Gosling, W.D.; Hoyos, I.; Ledru, M.P.; Montoya, E.; Mayle, F.; Maldonado, A.; Rull, V.; Tonello, M.S.; Whitney, B.S.; González-Arango, C.

    2016-01-01

    An improved understanding of present-day climate variability and change relies on high-quality data sets from the past 2 millennia. Global efforts to model regional climate modes are in the process of being validated against, and integrated with, records of past vegetation change. For South America,

  16. Gastroptychus Cavimurus sp. nov., a new Chirostylid (Crustacea, Decapoda, Anomura) from off the western coast of South America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baba, K.

    1977-01-01

    During the second cruise of the Japanese Research Vessel "Kaiyo Maru" to the western coast of South America in 1968-69, Dr. Osame Tabeta of the Shimonoseki University of Fisheries, then on the staff of the Kyushu University, collected a number of galatheids off the northern Peruvian coast. All of

  17. Brazilian peppertree (Schinus terebinthifolius) in Florida and South America: Evidence of a possible niche shift driven by hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazilian peppertree (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, Anacardiaceae) was introduced into Florida from South America in the 1800s and commercialized as an ornamental plant. Based on herbaria records and available literature, it began to escape cultivation and invade ruderal and natural habitats in t...

  18. Ranking Business and Economics Journals in South America Using the Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Jennifer K.; Pradenas, Lorena; Parada, Victor; Scherer, Robert F.

    2012-01-01

    Access to published research for knowledge creation and education in the administrative science disciplines in South America has been enhanced since the introduction of the Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO). Although SciELO has been available as an online journal indexing and publication service since 1998, there have been no…

  19. Over-harvesting driven by consumer demand leads to population decline: big-leaf mahogany in South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Grogan; Arthur G. Blundell; R. Matthew Landis; Ani Youatt; Raymond E. Gullison; Martha Martinez; Roberto Kometter; Marco Lentini; Richard E. Rice

    2010-01-01

    Consumer demand for the premier neotropical luxury timber, big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla), has driven boom-and-bust logging cycles for centuries, depleting local and regional supplies from Mexico to Bolivia. We revise the standard historic range map for mahogany in South America and estimate the extent to which commercial stocks have been depleted using...

  20. Climate variability and human impact on the environment in South America during the last 2000 years: synthesis and perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flantua, S.G.A.; Hooghiemstra, H.; Vuillle, M.; Behling, H.; Carson, J.F.; Gosling, W.D.; Hoyos, I.; Ledru, M.P.; Montoya, E.; Mayle, F.; Maldonado, A.; Rull, V.; Tonello, M.S.; Whiyney, B.S.; González-Arango, C.

    2015-01-01

    An improved understanding of present-day climate variability and change relies on high-quality data sets from the past two millennia. Global efforts to reconstruct regional climate modes are in the process of validating and integrating paleo-proxies. For South America, however, the full potential of

  1. MTR transport experiences of Transnucleaire in South America and status on the new TN-MTR packaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konirsch, O.; Anne, C. [Transnucleaire, Paris (France)

    1998-07-01

    The present paper describes the last MTR transport operations performed in September 1998 by TRANSNUCLEAIRE and especially from South America (Uruguay and Venezuela) from where MTR spent fuels from Research Reactors were taken in change within a DOE contract for the storage of such material at Savannah River Site in the USA. (author)

  2. Quantitative ethnobotany of palms in northwestern South America: a comparative analysis in Amazonia, Andes and Chocó

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cámara-Leret, Rodrigo

    This Doctoral Thesis is the result of an interdisciplinary work between 2010-2014 to document and analyze the use patterns and traditional knowledge of palms (Arecaceae) in northwestern South America. The work is based on field data collected over 18 months in four countries (Colombia, Ecuador, P...

  3. Space-geodetic estimation of the nazca-south america euler vector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angermann, D.; Klotz, J.; Reigber, C.

    1999-09-01

    GPS data from four sites in the Nazca Plate (Easter Island, Galapagos, Robinson Crusoe and San Felix Islands) and from five sites in the stable core of the South American Plate enabled us to estimate the Euler vector of the Nazca Plate with respect to South America. The observed velocities of Easter Island (6.6 cm/yr at 102.3°), Galapagos (5.1 cm/yr at 90.0°), Robinson Crusoe (6.6 cm/yr at 80.1°) and San Felix (6.0 cm/yr at 82.1°) are significantly slower than the global plate model NUVEL-1A velocites for those four sites. Our estimated Euler pole is located at 48.8°N, 91.7°W with a rate of 0.59°/m.y. The NUVEL-1A and earlier space-geodetic studies give rotation rates that are 20% faster.

  4. Current practice in regional anaesthesia in South America: An online survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corvetto, M A; Carmona, J; Vásquez, M I; Salgueiro, C; Crostón, J; Sosa, R; Folle, V; Altermatt, F R

    2017-01-01

    A survey was conducted in order to obtain a profile of the practice of regional anesthesia in South America, and determine the limitations of its use. After institutional ethics committee approval, a link to an online questionnaire was sent by e-mail to anaesthesiologists in Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Panamá, Paraguay, Perú, and Uruguay. The questionnaire was processed anonymously. A total of 1,260 completed questionnaires were received. The results showed that 97.6% of the anaesthesiologists that responded used regional anaesthesia in clinical practice, 66.9% performed peripheral nerve block (PNB) regularly, 21.6% used continuous PNB techniques, and 4.6% used stimulating catheters. The primary source of training was residency programs. As regards PNB, the most common performed were interscalene (52.3%), axillary (45.1%), femoral (43.2%), and ankle block (43%). As regards the localisation technique employed, 16% used paraesthesia, 44.2% used a peripheral nerve stimulator, and 18.1% ultrasound guidance. Regional anaesthesia and PNB are commonly used among South American anaesthesiologists. Considering that each country has its own profile for use, this profile should guide training in clinical practice, especially in residency programs. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Climate Variability and Inter-Provincial Migration in South America, 1970-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiede, Brian; Gray, Clark; Mueller, Valerie

    2016-11-01

    We examine the effect of climate variability on human migration in South America. Our analyses draw on over 21 million observations of adults aged 15-40 from 25 censuses conducted in eight South American countries. Addressing limitations associated with methodological diversity among prior studies, we apply a common analytic approach and uniform definitions of migration and climate across all countries. We estimate the effects of climate variability on migration overall and also investigate heterogeneity across sex, age, and socioeconomic groups, across countries, and across historical climate conditions. We also disaggregate migration by the rural/urban status of destination. We find that exposure to monthly temperature shocks has the most consistent effects on migration relative to monthly rainfall shocks and gradual changes in climate over multi-year periods. We also find evidence of heterogeneity across demographic groups and countries. Analyses that disaggregate migration by the rural/urban status of destination suggest that much of the climate-related inter-province migration is directed toward urban areas. Overall, our results underscore the complexity of environment-migration linkages and challenge simplistic narratives that envision a linear and monolithic migratory response to changing climates.

  6. Hans Kelsen – The Reception of “Pure Theory” in South America, Particularly in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo de Abreu Boucault

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to examine the reception of « Pure theory of Law », of Hans Kelsen in some South-American countries, throughout institutional approaches and also the diffusion of this theory as well its acceptance by cultural agents who represented academic and professional law environment, in Uruguay, Colombia, Argentina and Brazil. The historical period of this study concerns the early times of 40 till our days. Although the reference of Kelsen’s thought about theory of law may appear as a constant feature on South-American jurists, mainly till the decade of 1980, actually we can identify real problems that claim for a falsehood about the guidelines of the pure theory of law and ambiguities in connection to theoretical issues within positivist traditions in face of authoritarian governments in Latin America.

  7. Extreme rainfall, vulnerability and risk: a continental-scale assessment for South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vörösmarty, Charles J; Bravo de Guenni, Lelys; Wollheim, Wilfred M; Pellerin, Brian; Bjerklie, David; Cardoso, Manoel; D'Almeida, Cassiano; Green, Pamela; Colon, Lilybeth

    2013-11-13

    Extreme weather continues to preoccupy society as a formidable public safety concern bearing huge economic costs. While attention has focused on global climate change and how it could intensify key elements of the water cycle such as precipitation and river discharge, it is the conjunction of geophysical and socioeconomic forces that shapes human sensitivity and risks to weather extremes. We demonstrate here the use of high-resolution geophysical and population datasets together with documentary reports of rainfall-induced damage across South America over a multi-decadal, retrospective time domain (1960-2000). We define and map extreme precipitation hazard, exposure, affectedpopulations, vulnerability and risk, and use these variables to analyse the impact of floods as a water security issue. Geospatial experiments uncover major sources of risk from natural climate variability and population growth, with change in climate extremes bearing a minor role. While rural populations display greatest relative sensitivity to extreme rainfall, urban settings show the highest rates of increasing risk. In the coming decades, rapid urbanization will make South American cities the focal point of future climate threats but also an opportunity for reducing vulnerability, protecting lives and sustaining economic development through both traditional and ecosystem-based disaster risk management systems.

  8. USING SRTM TO QUANTIFY SIZE PARAMETERS AND SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF ENDORHEIC BASINS IN SOUTHERN SOUTH AMERICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Hesse

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The SRTM data set is the highest resolution DEM with global or continental coverage. It is therefore theDEM of choice for continental-scale geomorphological mapping and quantitative analysis. In this study,SRTM data are used for the identification and characterisation of endorheic basins in southern SouthAmerica (south of 19°S. The results show the feasibility of continental-scale quantitative geomorphologybased on SRTM data and provide insights into the distribution of closed basins. The largest endorheicbasin is located in the Puna region and consists of several interconnected sub-basins. This basin accountsfor 38.6 % (7877 km3 of the total volume of the endorheic basins identified in this study. Analyses of thegeographic distribution show a narrow longitudinal distribution between 64.5 and 71.5° W and a multimodallatitudinal distribution which is characterised by two groups of basins at 22.5–27.5°S and 37.5–50.0° Sand an almost complete absence of basins between 27.5 and 37.5° S. Problems and sources ofmisinterpretation arising from data quality and resolution are discussed. Further research, targeting in particularthe genesis and potential for paleoenvironmental reconstruction of closed basins in southern Argentina, iscalled for.

  9. An operational high resolution ensemble kalman filter data assimilation cycle over South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossetin, Camila; Goncalves, Luis; Silveira, Bruna; Vendrasco, Eder; Khamis, Eduardo; Sapucci, Luiz

    2016-04-01

    The brazilian Center for Weather Forecast and Climate Studies (CPTEC/INPE) has recently initiated an effort to develop operationally a high resolution probabilistic mesoscale analysis over the continental South America and portions of the surrounding south Pacific and Atlantic oceans. This work presents a high resolution regional ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) system with the WRF model. It uses the gridpoint statistical interpolation (GSI) mantained by the Developmental Testbed Center (DTC) for observational data processing and observation operators. The initial tests were run at approximately 9 Km of spatial resolution and 20 members with 6-hourly data assimilation cycles using all regional observations and selected satellite radiances (AMSU-A, MHS and HIRS). The impact of the choice of covariance localization and covariance inflation in the model performance is assessed to demonstrate the sensitive to the tunning. A two-weeks simulation is performed to illustrate the system adjustment (spin up) and how the model errors and innovation respond during the first days of run. Furthermore, the relative contribution of satellite brightness temperature assimilation to the analysis increments is also evaluated.

  10. Recent Changes in the Annual Mean Regional Hadley Circulation and Their Impacts on South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Vasques Freitas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This work employs the regional climate model RegCM4 and observational datasets to investigate the impacts of changes in the intensity and poleward edge of regional HC over South America (HCSA on the patterns of wind, geopotential height, precipitation, and temperature during the period 1996–2011. Significant trends of HCSA intensification and poleward expansion are found during the period analyzed. To evaluate the effects of these changes over SA, two composites, representing the intensification and poleward expansion cases, are examined separately. Significant correlations are seen between the temperature, zonal wind, and the HCSA intensity over the northern, central, and southern regions of SA and South Atlantic. Results show that, in both composites, regions with anomalous easterly (westerly winds coming from (towards the Atlantic Ocean have negative (positive correlations with the HCSA intensity and poleward edge. The model performance varies regionally and the southern SA region exhibits better agreement with the observations. The role of the sea surface temperatures in driving the changes in the HCSA is examined. Notable similarity is found in the results for the two cases analyzed, which could indicate that, in most cases, the changes in the intensity and poleward edge of the HCSA are occurring simultaneously.

  11. Restructuring the oil segment in South America: public policy, private capital and energy integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiorotti, A.; Tiomno Tolmasquim, M.; Tiomno Tolmasquim, M.; Alveal, C.

    2006-01-01

    The World Oil Industry (WOI) developed through two types of economic organization, built up around vertically integrated and internationalized enterprises: the US model, based on private international firms, and the model centered on setting up State-run enterprises, initially in the United Kingdom, Argentina and Mexico. However, from the first oil crisis (1973) onwards, the World Oil Industry has gradually been un-bundled through nationalization and the loss of control over the reserves by the oil majors. With this new configuration of the industry, from the 1980's onwards, the strategies of the major international oil companies focused on developing the spot market, while lowering investment and operating costs, introducing correlated diversification strategies, and enhancing industrial concentration through mergers and acquisitions and/or cooperation agreements between companies. The core purpose of these strategic shifts is to obtain control over new oil field areas. The restructuring processes of national oil industries all over the world - particularly in South America - constituted an important drive aligned with these new guidelines, headed up by the global oil operators. This paper analyzes the changes in the South American oil sector during the 1990's, analyzing aspects involved in awarding mineral rights in the upstream segment. Despite similar policies, market deregulation processes follow different patterns. However, the most significant aspect is an increase in the presence of international private capital in the dynamics of this sector, mainly in regional energy integration processes. (authors)

  12. Fossil woods of Detarioideae subfamily (Fabaceae) from El Palmar Formation (Late Pleistocene) in South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, R. Soledad; Brea, Mariana; Kröhling, Daniela M.

    2017-11-01

    The main aim of the present paper is to describe the first Detarioideae fossil woods from El Palmar Formation (Late Pleistocene) in the Uruguay River Basin (Entre Ríos, Argentina). This study is based on five silicified wood specimens preserved in fluvial deposits, which were transported from their growth site. Two new genera and species are described: Paraoxystigma concordiensis gen. nov and sp. nov. has medium-sized vessels, paratracheal axial parenchyma, heterocellular and multiseriate rays, and diffuse axial canals similar in size and shape to vessels, and Gossweilerodendroxylon palmariensis gen. nov and sp. nov. has medium-sized vessels, alternate intervessel pits, paratracheal and apotracheal axial parenchyma, homocellular and uni to-multiseriate rays, and small diffuse axial canals. These Detarioideae fossil records in south-eastern South America support the existence of a very old relationship with the extant West African forests. Eco-anatomical features observed in these fossil woods, along with the climatic information available from the Nearest Living Relatives (NLRs) comparison, suggest warm and humid climatic conditions for the upper-middle basin of the Uruguay River during some periods of the Late Pleistocene.

  13. Extreme rainfall, vulnerability and risk: a continental-scale assessment for South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorosmarty, Charles J.; de Guenni, Lelys Bravo; Wollheim, Wilfred M.; Pellerin, Brian A.; Bjerklie, David M.; Cardoso, Manoel; D'Almeida, Cassiano; Colon, Lilybeth

    2013-01-01

    Extreme weather continues to preoccupy society as a formidable public safety concern bearing huge economic costs. While attention has focused on global climate change and how it could intensify key elements of the water cycle such as precipitation and river discharge, it is the conjunction of geophysical and socioeconomic forces that shapes human sensitivity and risks to weather extremes. We demonstrate here the use of high-resolution geophysical and population datasets together with documentary reports of rainfall-induced damage across South America over a multi-decadal, retrospective time domain (1960–2000). We define and map extreme precipitation hazard, exposure, affectedpopulations, vulnerability and risk, and use these variables to analyse the impact of floods as a water security issue. Geospatial experiments uncover major sources of risk from natural climate variability and population growth, with change in climate extremes bearing a minor role. While rural populations display greatest relative sensitivity to extreme rainfall, urban settings show the highest rates of increasing risk. In the coming decades, rapid urbanization will make South American cities the focal point of future climate threats but also an opportunity for reducing vulnerability, protecting lives and sustaining economic development through both traditional and ecosystem-based disaster risk management systems.

  14. Ancient mitochondrial DNA reveals convergent evolution of giant short-faced bears (Tremarctinae) in North and South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Kieren J; Bray, Sarah C; Bover, Pere; Soibelzon, Leopoldo; Schubert, Blaine W; Prevosti, Francisco; Prieto, Alfredo; Martin, Fabiana; Austin, Jeremy J; Cooper, Alan

    2016-04-01

    The Tremarctinae are a subfamily of bears endemic to the New World, including two of the largest terrestrial mammalian carnivores that have ever lived: the giant, short-faced bears Arctodus simus from North America and Arctotherium angustidens from South America (greater than or equal to 1000 kg). Arctotherium angustidens became extinct during the Early Pleistocene, whereas Arctodus simus went extinct at the very end of the Pleistocene. The only living tremarctine is the spectacled bear (Tremarctos ornatus), a largely herbivorous bear that is today only found in South America. The relationships among the spectacled bears (Tremarctos), South American short-faced bears (Arctotherium) and North American short-faced bears (Arctodus) remain uncertain. In this study, we sequenced a mitochondrial genome from an Arctotherium femur preserved in a Chilean cave. Our molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed that the South American short-faced bears were more closely related to the extant South American spectacled bear than to the North American short-faced bears. This result suggests striking convergent evolution of giant forms in the two groups of short-faced bears (Arctodus and Arctotherium), potentially as an adaptation to dominate competition for megafaunal carcasses. © 2016 The Author(s).

  15. Psychiatric hospital beds and prison populations in South America since 1990: does the Penrose hypothesis apply?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundt, Adrian P; Chow, Winnie S; Arduino, Margarita; Barrionuevo, Hugo; Fritsch, Rosemarie; Girala, Nestor; Minoletti, Alberto; Mitkiewicz, Flávia; Rivera, Guillermo; Tavares, María; Priebe, Stefan

    2015-02-01

    In 1939, English mathematician, geneticist, and psychiatrist Lionel Sharples Penrose hypothesized that the numbers of psychiatric hospital beds and the sizes of prison populations were inversely related; 75 years later, the question arises as to whether the hypothesis applies to recent developments in South America. To explore the possible association of changes in the numbers of psychiatric hospital beds with changes in the sizes of prison populations in South America since 1990. We searched primary sources for the numbers of psychiatric hospital beds in South American countries since 1990 (the year that the Latin American countries signed the Caracas Declaration) and compared these changes against the sizes of prison populations. The associations between the numbers of psychiatric beds and the sizes of prison populations were tested using fixed-effects regression of panel data. Economic variables were considered as covariates. Sufficiently reliable and complete data were obtained from 6 countries: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay, and Uruguay. The numbers of psychiatric beds and the sizes of prison populations. Since 1990, the numbers of psychiatric beds decreased in all 6 countries (ranging from -2.0% to -71.9%), while the sizes of prison populations increased substantially (ranging from 16.1% to 273.0%). Panel data regression analysis across the 6 countries showed a significant inverse relationship between numbers of psychiatric beds and sizes of prison populations. On average, the removal of 1 bed was associated with 5.18 more prisoners (95% CI, 3.10-7.26; P = .001), which was reduced to 2.78 prisoners (95% CI, 2.59-2.97; P prison populations remained practically unchanged when income inequality was considered as a covariate (-4.28 [95% CI, -5.21 to -3.36]; P prison populations have increased against a background of strong economic growth. The changes appear to be associated because the numbers of beds decreased more extensively when and

  16. Warm and Dry Spells (WDS in Austral Winter over Central South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Satyamurty

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The horizontal and vertical structure of unusually warm and dry spells (WDS over the central parts of South America during the winter and post-winter months (JJAS are studied. During WDS the mean temperature and humidity anomalies over central Brazil are about +4.1°C and −13.2%, respectively. The mean duration of WDS is 11 days and their mean frequency is less than one per year during the months of JJAS. Apparently, WDS have no preference for the phase of ENSO. Widespread and persistent subsidence in the middle troposphere is observed in tropical Brazil during WDS, which renders the lower tropospheric air warm and dry. The negative anomalies of the specific humidity are observed to be associated with the subsidence regions. A strong, slow moving ridge in the eastern South Pacific and a low-pressure center in northern Argentina are important surface characteristics during the WDS. A more detailed investigation of two specific WDS events, a strong event (August–September 1999 and a moderate one (June 2002, shows a blocking-like situation in the 500-hPa geopotential and surface pressure fields in the Pacific. The South Atlantic subtropical high somewhat approaches the continent. Strong northerlies over the central and eastern parts of Brazil are also observed in the lower troposphere. During WDS the regional circulation acquires summertime characteristics, except for the absence of precipitation, and the circulation in the meridional plane is in the opposite sense from the Hadley circulation. A frontal system, supported by a 500-hPa trough, advances into central Brazil, causing the dissipation of the anomalous situation.

  17. Imaging the lithosphere and underlying mantle of the South Atlantic, South America and Africa using waveform tomography with massive datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celli, N. L.; Lebedev, S.; Schaeffer, A. J.; Ravenna, M.; Gaina, C.

    2017-12-01

    Recent growth in global seismic station coverage has created dense data sampling of the previously poorly constrained lithosphere and underlying mantle beneath the South Atlantic, South America and Africa. The new data enable us to image the vast region at a new level of detail and address important open questions regarding its lithospheric architecture and mantle dynamics. In order to fully exploit the data sampling, we use an efficient, multimode waveform tomography scheme that enables the extraction of structural information from millions of seismograms and use the inherent data redundancy to minimize effects of errors in the data. Our tomographic model is constrained by waveform fits of over 1.2 million vertical-component seismograms, computed using the Automated Multimode Inversion of surface, S- and multiple S-waves. Each successful seismogram fit provides a set of linear equations describing 1D average velocity perturbations within approximate sensitivity volumes, with respect to a 3D reference model. We then combine all equations into a large linear system and invert jointly for a model of S- and P-wave speeds and azimuthal anisotropy within the lithosphere and underlying mantle. We are now able to image the detailed structure of various African shields. For example, in West Africa, two clearly separate high-velocity units underlay the Reguibat and Man-Léo Shields; in the Congo area, a single high-velocity body, formed by three main units correspond to the Gabon-Cameroon, Bomu-Kibali and Kasai Shields. Strong low-velocity anomalies underlay the Afar Hotspot and the East African Rift; pronounced low velocities are also seen beneath parts of the Sahara Desert. We discuss the shape of the deep Afar anomaly and its possible relationships with the Saharan volcanism and the neighboring Tanzania Craton. In the South Atlantic, we retrieve fine-scale velocity structure along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR), indicative of hotspot-ridge interactions. Major hotspots show

  18. Trees enhance soil carbon sequestration and nutrient cycling in a silvopastoral system in south-western Nicaragua

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoosbeek, Marcel R.; Remme, Roy P.; Rusch, Graciela M.

    2016-01-01

    Tree occurrence in silvopastoral systems of Central America has been under pressure for various reasons including attempts to improve grassland productivity and the need for wood. However, scattered isolated trees are also recognized to provide ecosystem services like shade, fodder and fruits

  19. Regional programme for the eradication of the Carambola fruit fly in South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malavasi, Aldo; Sauers-Muller, Alies van; Midgarden, David; Kellman, Victorine; Didelot, Dominique; Caplong, Phillippe; Ribeiro, Odilson

    2000-01-01

    Bactrocera carambolae Drew and Hancock, the Carambola fruit fly (CFF), was probably introduced into Suriname from Indonesia in the 1960s or 1970s. The most likely mechanism of introduction was people arriving at Suriname from Indonesia by air, through Amsterdam. Any other method of transport would be too lengthy. Air travel was not commonly available to the general Surinamese population before the 1960s. About one-fifth of the Surinamese population is of Indonesian origin, and many strong ties remained between the countries. These ties are loosening with the increasing number of generations after immigration, which occurred in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. The first recorded Bactrocera found in Suriname was in 1975, when flies were reared from a market fruit and preserved unidentified in the Ministry of Agriculture's insect collection. Bactrocera were not recorded again until 1986, when infested fruits were brought to the attention of the Ministry by a homeowner. These specimens were sent to the United States for identification and were identified as Dacus dorsalis. B. carambolae was formally described in 1994 as a species belonging to the B. dorsalis complex (Drew and Hancock 1994). At that time, in 1986, little importance was given to the finding in the United States, perhaps because the identifier was unaware that Suriname is in South America rather than Asia. The international community would only become aware of the establishment of a Dacus/Bactrocera species in the Americas four years later. The population of flies in the Guyanas has now been identified as B. carambolae, and its establishment in South America is a threat to the production and marketing of fruits throughout the tropical and subtropical Americas and the Caribbean (Hancock 1989). It might be expected that the newly established B. carambolae would move rapidly into the tropical forests where there are many species of the native Anastrepha fruit flies and, presumably, many

  20. Parallel Epidemics of Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus USA300 Infection in North and South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planet, Paul J; Diaz, Lorena; Kolokotronis, Sergios-Orestis; Narechania, Apurva; Reyes, Jinnethe; Xing, Galen; Rincon, Sandra; Smith, Hannah; Panesso, Diana; Ryan, Chanelle; Smith, Dylan P; Guzman, Manuel; Zurita, Jeannete; Sebra, Robert; Deikus, Gintaras; Nolan, Rathel L; Tenover, Fred C; Weinstock, George M; Robinson, D Ashley; Arias, Cesar A

    2015-12-15

    The community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) epidemic in the United States is attributed to the spread of the USA300 clone. An epidemic of CA-MRSA closely related to USA300 has occurred in northern South America (USA300 Latin-American variant, USA300-LV). Using phylogenomic analysis, we aimed to understand the relationships between these 2 epidemics. We sequenced the genomes of 51 MRSA clinical isolates collected between 1999 and 2012 from the United States, Colombia, Venezuela, and Ecuador. Phylogenetic analysis was used to infer the relationships and times since the divergence of the major clades. Phylogenetic analyses revealed 2 dominant clades that segregated by geographical region, had a putative common ancestor in 1975, and originated in 1989, in North America, and in 1985, in South America. Emergence of these parallel epidemics coincides with the independent acquisition of the arginine catabolic mobile element (ACME) in North American isolates and a novel copper and mercury resistance (COMER) mobile element in South American isolates. Our results reveal the existence of 2 parallel USA300 epidemics that shared a recent common ancestor. The simultaneous rapid dissemination of these 2 epidemic clades suggests the presence of shared, potentially convergent adaptations that enhance fitness and ability to spread. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. On the Nature of Severe Orographic Thunderstorms near the Andes in Subtropical South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Kristen Lani Emi

    Identifying common features and differences between the mechanisms producing extreme convection near major mountain ranges of the world is an essential step toward a general understanding of orographic precipitation on a global scale. The overarching objective of this dissertation is to understand and examine orographic convective processes in general, while specifically focusing on systems in the lee of the Andes Mountains. Diagnosing the key ingredients necessary for generating high impact weather near extreme topography is crucial to our understanding of orographic precipitating systems. An investigation of the most intense storms in 11 years of TRMM Precipitation Radar (PR) data has shown a tendency for squall lines to initiate and develop east of the Andes with a mesoscale organization similar to storms in the U.S. Great Plains (Rasmussen and Houze 2011). In subtropical South America, however, the topographical influence on the convective initiation and maintenance of the mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) is unique. The Andes and other mountainous terrain of Argentina focus deep convective initiation in the foothills of western Argentina (Romatschke and Houze 2010; Rasmussen and Houze 2011). Subsequent to initiation, the convection often evolves into propagating MCSs similar to those seen over the U.S. Great Plains sometimes producing damaging tornadoes, hail and floods across a wide agricultural region (Rasmussen and Houze 2011; Rasmussen et al. 2014b). The TRMM satellite was designed to determine the spatial and temporal variation of tropical and subtropical rainfall amounts and storm structures around the globe with the goal of understanding the factors controlling the precipitation. However, the TRMM PR algorithm significantly underestimates surface rainfall in deep convection over land (Nesbitt et al. 2004; Iguchi et al. 2009; Kozu et al. 2009). When the algorithm rates are compared to a range of conventional Z-R relations, the rain bias tends to be

  2. Complete molar pregnancy in adolescents from North and South America: Clinical presentation and risk of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Renan Rocha; Maestá, Izildinha; Colón, José; Braga, Antonio; Salazar, Aleydah; Charry, Rafael Cortés; Sun, Sue Yazaki; Goldstein, Donald P; Berkowitz, Ross S

    2016-09-01

    To compare complete hydatidiform mole (CHM) clinical presentation and risk factors associated with GTN development between North American and South American adolescents. This non-concurrent cohort study was undertaken including adolescents with CHM referred to centers in North America (New England Trophoblastic Disease Center, Harvard University, USA), and South America (Botucatu Trophoblastic Disease Center-São Paulo State University, Brazil; Trophoblastic Unit of Central University of Venezuela and Maternidad Concepcion Palacios of Caracas, Venezuela) between 1990 and 2012. Data were obtained from medical records and pathology reports. Study participants were allocated into 2 groups: North America (NA) and South America (SA). In NA and SA, 13.1% and 30.9% of patients with hydatidiform mole were adolescents, respectively. Of these, 77.6% in NA and 86.1% in SA had pathologic diagnosis of CHM (p=0.121). Vaginal bleeding (SA=69% vs NA=51%; p=0.020), anemia (SA=48% vs NA=18%; p<0.001), and elevated serum hCG (SA=232,860mIU/mL vs NA=136,412mIU/mL; p=0.039) were more frequent in SA than in NA. Median gestational age at diagnosis (SA=12weeks, NA=11weeks; p=0.030) differed whereas GTN development rate (SA=20%, NA=27%; p=0.282) showed no significant difference between groups. Compared to NA, medical complications and clinical factors associated with post-molar GTN were more frequent among SA adolescents. Medical complications and clinical factors associated with GTN development were more frequent in SA than in NA adolescents with CHM, suggesting that, in South America, awareness about the importance of diagnosing molar pregnancy early and considering CHM in the differential diagnosis in adolescents suspected to be pregnant should be raised. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Avian Influenza Virus Isolated in Wild Waterfowl in Argentina: Evidence of a potentially unique phylogenetic lineage in South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereda, Ariel J.; Uhart, Marcela; Perez, Alberto A.; Zaccagnini, Maria E.; La Sala, Luciano; Decarre, Julieta; Goijman, Andrea; Solari, Laura; Suarez, Romina; Craig, Maria I.; Vagnozzi, Ariel; Rimondi, Agustina; König, Guido; Terrera, Maria V.; Kaloghlian, Analia; Song, Haichen; Sorrell, Erin M.; Perez, Daniel R.

    2008-01-01

    Avian Influenza (AI) viruses have been sporadically isolated in South America. The most recent reports are from an outbreak in commercial poultry in Chile in 2002 and its putative ancestor from a wild bird in Bolivia in 2001. Extensive surveillance in wild birds was carried out in Argentina during 2006-2007. Using RRT-PCR, 12 AI positive detections were made from cloacal swabs. One of those positive samples yielded an AI virus isolated from a wild kelp gull (Larus dominicanus) captured in the South Atlantic coastline of Argentina. Further characterization by nucleotide sequencing reveals that it belongs to the H13N9 subtype. Phylogenetic analysis of the 8 viral genes suggests that the 6 internal genes are related to the isolates from Chile and Bolivia. The analysis also indicates that a cluster of phylogenetically related AI viruses from South America may have evolved independently, with minimal gene exchange, from influenza viruses in other latitudes. The data produced from our investigations are valuable contributions to the study of AI viruses in South America. PMID:18632129

  4. First case of New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase in Klebsiella pneumoniae from Ecuador: An update for South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Alvarez, Daniel; Reyes, Jorge; Quezada, Viviana; Satán, Carolina; Cevallos, Nelson; Barrera, Sofía; Trueba, Gabriel; Escobar, Luis E; Villacís, José E

    2017-12-01

    To describe a clinical case of Klebsiella pneumoniae harboring a New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM) plasmid in Ecuador and to present a map of reports of NDM isolates in South America. The modified Hodge test, carbapenem inactivation method, imipenem-EDTA disk method (synergy), and Rapidec Carba NP test were used to identify antibiotic resistance mechanisms. The presence of resistance genes was explored with a conjugation assay, and molecular confirmation of NDM was performed by PCR and DNA sequencing. Plasmid characterization was conducted by PCR-based replicon typing. A literature review was performed in Google Scholar and PubMed to identify reports from South America. An HIV-infected patient, who had never traveled abroad, developed a bloodstream infection caused by K. pneumoniae ST147 harboring the NDM-1 resistance gene in a plasmid from the IncA/C group. Local circulation of NDM has also been described in other South American countries, in particular in Colombia and Brazil, although published scientific records were not found for other countries. This report presents the first evidence of autochthonous circulation of the NDM-1 resistance gene harbored by an IncA/C plasmid isolated from a K. pneumoniae ST147 in Ecuador. Efforts should be implemented to monitor and characterize the spatial and temporal distribution of NDM in Ecuador and other countries of South America. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Arboviral Etiologies of Acute Febrile Illnesses in Western South America, 2000–2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forshey, Brett M.; Guevara, Carolina; Laguna-Torres, V. Alberto; Cespedes, Manuel; Vargas, Jorge; Gianella, Alberto; Vallejo, Efrain; Madrid, César; Aguayo, Nicolas; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Suarez, Victor; Morales, Ana Maria; Beingolea, Luis; Reyes, Nora; Perez, Juan; Negrete, Monica; Rocha, Claudio; Morrison, Amy C.; Russell, Kevin L.; J. Blair, Patrick; Olson, James G.; Kochel, Tadeusz J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) are among the most common agents of human febrile illness worldwide and the most important emerging pathogens, causing multiple notable epidemics of human disease over recent decades. Despite the public health relevance, little is know about the geographic distribution, relative impact, and risk factors for arbovirus infection in many regions of the world. Our objectives were to describe the arboviruses associated with acute undifferentiated febrile illness in participating clinics in four countries in South America and to provide detailed epidemiological analysis of arbovirus infection in Iquitos, Peru, where more extensive monitoring was conducted. Methodology/Findings A clinic-based syndromic surveillance system was implemented in 13 locations in Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, and Paraguay. Serum samples and demographic information were collected from febrile participants reporting to local health clinics or hospitals. Acute-phase sera were tested for viral infection by immunofluorescence assay or RT-PCR, while acute- and convalescent-phase sera were tested for pathogen-specific IgM by ELISA. Between May 2000 and December 2007, 20,880 participants were included in the study, with evidence for recent arbovirus infection detected for 6,793 (32.5%). Dengue viruses (Flavivirus) were the most common arbovirus infections, totaling 26.0% of febrile episodes, with DENV-3 as the most common serotype. Alphavirus (Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus [VEEV] and Mayaro virus [MAYV]) and Orthobunyavirus (Oropouche virus [OROV], Group C viruses, and Guaroa virus) infections were both observed in approximately 3% of febrile episodes. In Iquitos, risk factors for VEEV and MAYV infection included being male and reporting to a rural (vs urban) clinic. In contrast, OROV infection was similar between sexes and type of clinic. Conclusions/Significance Our data provide a better understanding of the geographic range of arboviruses in South

  6. Assessing the terrestrial water balance in South America using multi-satellite remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparecida Moreira, Adriana; Ruhoff, Anderson; Cauduro Dias de Paiva, Rodrigo; Severo Correa, Dairan

    2017-04-01

    The hydrological cycle components of the terrestrial water cycle have been estimated with increasingly accuracy through remotely-sensed data, from regional to continental scales and in different time intervals. In this paper, we evaluated the water balance closure using remote sensing data in 28 large basins in South America for the period from 2003 to 2014. We used observed discharge (Q) data, precipitation (P) data from the TRMM Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA 3B43 version 7) with spatial resolution 0.25°, evapotranspiration (ET) data from MOD16, with spatial resolution of 0.05° and terrestrial water storage (TWS) estimations from the Gravity Recovery and climate Experiment (GRACE), with spatial resolution of 300 km. To evaluate the water budget closure, we used the simplified continuity equation (dS/dt=P-ET-Q) at monthly time-scales to analyse the water storage change in time (dS/dt), comparing the results to the TWS change from GRACE. Our results indicate that the water storage change dS/dt computed from remote sensing products showed significant correlations with the terrestrial water storage from GRACE. We found correlations higher than 0.70 in 14 basins, mostly in large basins located in the north of South America (with tropical wet and tropical dry climates), whilst lower correlations were found in Southern Brazil and in smaller basins (usually with subtropical climates). Lastly, we computed the correlation between dS/dt from GRACE and P, ET and Q. Precipitation was the hydrological component that showed better correlations, with 19 basins yielding a correlation higher than 0.70, suggesting that precipitation has a strong influence of the terrestrial water storage in those basins. Discharge measurements also yielded a very good agreement, with correlations higher than 0.63 in almost all basins. Despite the water balance closure based on remote sensing data still remains a challenge due to large biases and uncertainties in the precipitation

  7. The extinction of Equidae and Proboscidea in South America. A test using Carbon isotope data

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    Prado, J. L.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Carbon isotopes, preserved in 166 samples of fossil teeth and bone, provide key data for understanding the ecology of extinct horses and gomphotheres during the Plio-Pleistocene in South America. To analyze the patterns of dietary partitioning throughout this time we divided the samples into 19 groups, taking into account the genus and the age of the corresponding localities. In this study, the diets of both groups are assessed to test extinction hypotheses. The strong resource partitioning among herbivores assumed under Co-evolutionary disequilibrium hypothesis is supported by isotopic data of horses from latest Pleistocene. Hippidon and Equus had very different diets. In contrast, species of gomphotheres from late Pleistocene in South America seem to have had less specialized diets containing a broad mix of both C3 and C4 plants, which is in line with the dietary assumptions of the mosaic-nutrient hypothesis, but does not support the assumptions of Co-evolutionary disequilibrium hypothesis.

    Los isótopos del carbono preservados en 166 muestras de dientes y huesos fósiles son un dato clave para entender la ecología de los de caballos y gonfoterios durante el Plio-Pleistoceno en América del Sur. Para analizar los cambios en las reconstrucciones de la dieta durante este lapso temporal hemos dividido las muestras en 19 grupos, teniendo en cuenta la sistemática y la cronología de cada localidad. En este estudio, las dietas de ambos grupos son evaluadas para probar las hipótesis sobre su extinción. El alto fraccionamiento en el uso de los recursos entre los herbívoros que asume la hipótesis del desequilibrio co-evolutivo es sustentada por los datos isotópicos de los caballos del Pleistoceno tardío. Hippidion y Equus tenían una dieta muy diferente. En contraste, las especies de gonfoterios de finales del Pleistoceno parecen tener una dieta menos especializada con una combinación de

  8. Detection of non-natural springtime precipitation change over northern South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkhordarian, A.; Behrangi, A.; Mechoso, C. R.

    2017-12-01

    Here we determine whether the climate over South America has changed as a result of human activity since the beginning of the industrial revolution. To this end, we assess whether the observed changes are likely to have been due to natural (internal) variability alone, and if not, whether they are consistent with what models simulate as response to anthropogenic and natural forcing. Internal variability is estimated using 12,000-year control runs derived from CMIP5 archive. Results indicate that, in the past decades, trends in springtime (ASO, August-October) precipitation over South America have a magnitude that is beyond the estimated range due to natural (internal) variability or natural forcings alone. Evidence for the presence of an external driving factor is clearly detectable in the observed precipitation record (with less than 5% risk of error). The regression results illustrate the concerted emergence of an anthropogenic signal consistent with greenhouse gas (GHG) in observed decreasing 30-year trends of precipitation ending in 1998 and later on. In addition, the fingerprint of land-use-change signal is detectable in the observed precipitation decrease over 1983-2012. While the influence of GHG signal is detectable in precipitation, an observed decrease up to 10 mm/decade drying over the Amazon region, is much larger than the changes simulated by global and regional climate models as response to GHG forcing. We further show that the projected increasing trend of vapor pressure deficit (VPD), an indicator of background aridity, by the climate models with GHG forcing is much smaller than that observed over the Amazon rainforest. This may imply that models may underestimate the resulting reductions in forest CO2 uptake that could function as a positive feedback to rising temperature and reducing precipitation. Taking the ensemble of 23 IPCC models as a crude metric of probabilities, we further show that with 19 out of 24 models the effect of GS signal

  9. Total electron content responses to HILDCAAs and geomagnetic storms over South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mara de Siqueira Negreti, Patricia; Rodrigues de Paula, Eurico; Nicoli Candido, Claudia Maria

    2017-12-01

    Total electron content (TEC) is extensively used to monitor the ionospheric behavior under geomagnetically quiet and disturbed conditions. This subject is of greatest importance for space weather applications. Under disturbed conditions the two main sources of electric fields, which are responsible for changes in the plasma drifts and for current perturbations, are the short-lived prompt penetration electric fields (PPEFs) and the longer-lasting ionospheric disturbance dynamo (DD) electric fields. Both mechanisms modulate the TEC around the globe and the equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) at low latitudes. In this work we computed vertical absolute TEC over the low latitude of South America. The analysis was performed considering HILDCAA (high-intensity, long-duration, continuous auroral electrojet (AE) activity) events and geomagnetic storms. The characteristics of storm-time TEC and HILDCAA-associated TEC will be presented and discussed. For both case studies presented in this work (March and August 2013) the HILDCAA event follows a geomagnetic storm, and then a global scenario of geomagnetic disturbances will be discussed. Solar wind parameters, geomagnetic indices, O / N2 ratios retrieved by GUVI instrument onboard the TIMED satellite and TEC observations will be analyzed and discussed. Data from the RBMC/IBGE (Brazil) and IGS GNSS networks were used to calculate TEC over South America. We show that a HILDCAA event may generate larger TEC differences compared to the TEC observed during the main phase of the precedent geomagnetic storm; thus, a HILDCAA event may be more effective for ionospheric response in comparison to moderate geomagnetic storms, considering the seasonal conditions. During the August HILDCAA event, TEC enhancements from ˜ 25 to 80 % (compared to quiet time) were observed. These enhancements are much higher than the quiet-time variability observed in the ionosphere. We show that ionosphere is quite sensitive to solar wind forcing and

  10. Disaster resilience assessment and the global agenda: A journey from India to South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanchiotti, Margherita; Torres, Jair; Burton, Christopher; Makarigakis, Alexandros

    2016-04-01

    Governments and stakeholders worldwide are placing great emphasis on fostering the resilience of communities to natural hazards and disasters. This is partially because communities that can increase their resilience are in a better position to withstand the adverse effects of damaging hazard events when they occur. With disaster risk reduction having emerged as a global challenge, the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030 has recognised the need to invest in enhancing disaster resilience as a priority on the international agenda. In order to successfully build community resilience to natural hazards, it then becomes essential to first understand, identify and assess all sets of conditions that contribute to resilience. The ability to measure resilience is increasingly being identified as a key step towards disaster risk reduction as a result. Relatively few studies, however, have been conducted to develop guidelines for measuring the concept, and more research is needed to develop effective tools for assessment of resilience in developing countries. This is because various environmental, built-environment, and social factors will operate and interact differentially across disaster and development contexts. This paper presents preliminary findings from two large projects in which the authors have been involved, namely the 'Enhancing Natural HAzards resilience iN South America' (ENHANS) and 'Deltas, Vulnerability & Climate Change: Migration & Adaptation' (DECCMA) projects. In collaboration with the Global Earthquake Model (GEM), the Understanding and Managing Extremes (UME) School of the Institute for Advanced Study (IUSS) of Pavia and the University of Southampton, UNESCO is working on the development of methods for disaster resilience measurement in developing nations. The studies build on the available literature to provide an ad-hoc conceptual framework for the quantification of community resilience in each study site by means of a bottom

  11. Ecological knowledge and sustainable planning in Nigeria: a reflection on the Yorubas of South-Western Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oladayo Ramon Ibrahim

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In pre-colonial times, African people survived by acquiring and preserving community knowledge of the environment and the relationships between human and non-human elements. The paper is based primarily on secondary data, and examines the relationships between African people, especially Yoruba people of southwestern Nigeria and the land and how understanding this relationship can help our quest for a more effective and sustainable regional planning. The study investigates the indigenous Yoruba Ecological Thoughts and Beliefs and how these affected the ways people have interacted with the environment. The result shows that there is a lot that modern planning can gain from the culture-environmental relationships of the indigenous people. Indigenous knowledge is the cornerstone of several convergent trends in social science thinking and development administration practice. With the failure of grand theories of development, social sciences focus on middle-range theories that are site – and time-specific (indigenous knowledge. Both traditional knowledge and modern science and technology should be complementary in the development process and should be properly integrated. People are the subject of development. Development is supposed to suit the people and not the people to suit development. If Africa does not learn this lesson now, all our efforts at the development will be in vain, because Africa is ultimately only as strong as its communities are.

  12. Inter- and intracontinental migrations and local differentiation have shaped the contemporary epidemiological landscape of canine parvovirus in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grecco, Sofía; Iraola, Gregorio; Decaro, Nicola; Alfieri, Alice; Alfieri, Amauri; Gallo Calderón, Marina; da Silva, Ana Paula; Name, Daniela; Aldaz, Jaime; Calleros, Lucía; Marandino, Ana; Tomás, Gonzalo; Maya, Leticia; Francia, Lourdes; Panzera, Yanina; Pérez, Ruben

    2018-01-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) is a fast-evolving single-stranded DNA virus that causes one of the most significant infectious diseases of dogs. Although the virus dispersed over long distances in the past, current populations are considered to be spatially confined and with only a few instances of migration between specific localities. It is unclear whether these dynamics occur in South America where global studies have not been performed. The aim of this study is to analyze the patterns of genetic variability in South American CPV populations and explore their evolutionary relationships with global strains. Genomic sequences of sixty-three strains from South America and Europe were generated and analyzed using a phylodynamic approach. All the obtained strains belong to the CPV-2a lineage and associate with global strains in four monophyletic groups or clades. European and South American strains from all the countries here analyzed are representative of a widely distributed clade (Eur-I) that emerged in Southern Europe during 1990-98 to later spread to South America in the early 2000s. The emergence and spread of the Eur-I clade were correlated with a significant rise in the CPV effective population size in Europe and South America. The Asia-I clade includes strains from Asia and Uruguay. This clade originated in Asia during the late 1980s and evolved locally before spreading to South America during 2009-10. The third clade (Eur-II) comprises strains from Italy, Brazil, and Ecuador. This clade appears in South America as a consequence of an early introduction from Italy to Ecuador in the middle 1980s and has experienced extensive local genetic differentiation. Some strains from Argentina, Uruguay, and Brazil constitute an exclusive South American clade (SA-I) that emerged in Argentina in the 1990s. These results indicate that the current epidemiological scenario is a consequence of inter- and intracontinental migrations of strains with different geographic and temporal

  13. Spatial and temporal uplift history of South America from calibrated drainage analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Tribaldos, V.; White, N. J.; Roberts, G. G.; Hoggard, M. J.

    2017-06-01

    A multidisciplinary approach is used to analyze the Cenozoic uplift history of South America. Residual depth anomalies of oceanic crust abutting this continent help to determine the pattern of present-day dynamic topography. Admittance analysis and crustal thickness measurements indicate that the elastic thickness of the Borborema and Altiplano regions is ≤10 km with evidence for sub-plate support at longer wavelengths. A drainage inventory of 1827 river profiles is assembled and used to investigate landscape development. Linear inverse modeling enables river profiles to be fitted as a function of the spatial and temporal history of regional uplift. Erosional parameters are calibrated using observations from the Borborema Plateau and tested against continent-wide stratigraphic and thermochronologic constraints. Our results predict that two phases of regional uplift of the Altiplano plateau occurred in Neogene times. Regional uplift of the southern Patagonian Andes also appears to have occurred in Early Miocene times. The consistency between observed and predicted histories for the Borborema, Altiplano, and Patagonian plateaux implies that drainage networks record coherent signals that are amenable to simple modeling strategies. Finally, the predicted pattern of incision across the Amazon catchment constrains solid sedimentary flux at the Foz do Amazonas. Observed and calculated flux estimates match, suggesting that erosion and deposition were triggered by regional Andean uplift during Miocene times.

  14. Intraseasonal Oscillations over South America: A Study with a Regional Climate Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Baode; Chao, Winston

    2003-01-01

    The National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) regional climate model version 2 (RegCM2) is used to investigate the observed characteristics of intraseasonal oscillations over South America. Our study is mainly concentrated on an intraseaonal mode, which is observed to account for a large portion of the intraseasonal variation, to have a standing feature and to be independent of the MJO. The NCEPDOE AMIP-II reanalysis is utilized to provide initial and lateral boundary conditions for the RegCM2 based upon the OOZ, 062, 122 and 182 data.Our results indicate that the intraseasonal oscillation still exists with time- averaged lateral boundary condition, which prevents the MJO and other outside disturbances from entering the model's domain, suggesting a locally forced oscillation responsible for ths intraseasonal mode independent of the MJO. Further experiments show that the annual and daily variabilities and a radiative-convective interaction are not essential to the locally forced intraseasonal oscillation. The intraseasonal oscillations over Amazon in our model essentially result from interactions among atmospheric continental- scale circulation, surface radiation, surface sensible and latent heat fluxes, and cumulus convection. The wavelet analyses of various surface energy fluxes and surface energy budget also verify that the primary cause of intraseasonal oscillation is the interaction of land surface processes with the atmosphere.

  15. First record of Annonaceae wood for the Neogene of South America, Amazon Basin, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Alberto Amaral Soares

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The relief of the regions of Manaus and Itacoatiara, Central Amazon, is supported by Neogene siliciclastic rocks, bounded at the base and top by lateritic paleosols and covered by quaternary sedimentary deposits from the Solimões-Amazon river system. This unit is informally assigned to the Novo Remanso Formation, consists of usually reddish and ferruginized sandstones, conglomerates and pelites, with few identified fossil records, a fact that has hindered its stratigraphic position, and the paleoenvironmental reconstruction of the last phase of the Amazon Basin settling. This study describes, for the first time, the occurrence of fossil wood in outcroppings of the left bank of the Amazon River, where anatomical and morphological data has enabled its characterization to the species level. Thus, the data marks the record of the Annonaceae in South America, as well as the depositional processes related to incorporation of organic material in the sandy layer and the fossilization processes that allowed its preservation. In an unprecedented way, this study has described Duguetiaxylon amazonicum nov. gen and sp. and provided information on the anatomical and systematic character, as well as data on plant-insect interaction, and a better understanding of the family.

  16. Presence of stratospheric humidity in the ozone column depletion on the west coast of South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da Silva, M. Luis; Gutierrez, O. Luis; Morales, S. Luis; Universidad de Chile, Santiago; Torres, C. Arnaldo

    2006-01-01

    The ozone column depletion over the western coast of South America has been previously explained, based on the existence of winds in the area of the depletion, which cause compression and thinning of the ozone layer. However, the presence of humidity and methane transported by these winds to the stratosphere where the ozone depletion is present gives evidence that these compounds also participate in the depletion of the ozone layer. These two compounds, humidity and methane, are analysed during the ozone depletion of January, 1998. It is observed that when humidity presents fluctuations, ozone has fluctuations too. A maximum of humidity corresponds to a minimum of ozone, but there is a shift in altitude between them. This shift is observed in the stratosphere and upper troposphere and corresponds to approximately 500 m. It is important to point out that during this event El Nino was present and the sources of methane are the Amazon forest and the Pacific Ocean. The data for this study was obtained from NASA and HALOE

  17. Mitochondrial DNA phylogeography of Caiman crocodilus in Mesoamerica and South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venegas-Anaya, Miryam; Crawford, Andrew J; Escobedo Galván, Armando H; Sanjur, Oris I; Densmore, Llewellyn D; Bermingham, Eldredge

    2008-12-01

    The Neotropical crocodylian species, Caiman crocodilus, is widely distributed through Mesoamerica, northern South America, and the Amazon basin. Four subspecies are recognized within C. crocodilus, suggesting some geographic variation in morphology. In this study, we utilized mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence data from 45 individuals of C. crocodilus throughout its range to infer its evolutionary history and population structure, as well as to evaluate genealogical support for subspecies and their geographic distributions. Our molecular phylogenetic results identified five mtDNA haplotype clades with a mean sequence divergence of 3.4%, indicating considerable evolutionary independence among phylogeographic lineages. Our results were also broadly consistent with current subspecific taxonomy, with some important additional findings. First, we found substantial genetic structuring within C. c. fuscus from southern Mesoamerica. Second, though we confirmed the existence of a widespread Amazonian clade, we also discovered a cryptic and divergent mtDNA lineage that was indistinguishable from C. c. crocodilus based on external morphology. Third, we confirm the status of C. c. chiapasius as a distinct evolutionary lineage, and provide evidence that C. c. fuscus may be moving northward and hybridizing with C. c. chiapasius in northern Mesoamerica. Finally, our results parallel previous phylogeographic studies of other organisms that have demonstrated significant genetic structure over shorter geographic distances in Mesoamerica compared with Amazonia. We support conservation efforts for all five independent lineages within C. crocodilus, and highlight the subspecies C. c. chiapasius as a unit of particular conservation concern. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Solar ultraviolet radiation: properties, characteristics and amounts observed in Brazil and South America*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa, Marcelo de Paula

    2015-01-01

    The beneficial and harmful effects of human exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation (UV-R) are topics that arouse great interest not only among physicians and scientists, but also the general public and the media. Currently, discussions on vitamin D synthesis (beneficial effect) are confronted with the high and growing number of new cases of non-melanoma skin cancer and other diseases of the skin and eyes (harmful effect) diagnosed each year in Brazil. However, the lack of scientific knowledge on the UV-R in Brazil and South America leads to adoption of protective measures based on studies conducted in Europe and USA, where the amounts of UV-R available at surface and the sun-exposure habits and characteristics of the population are significantly different from those observed in Brazil. In order to circumvent this problem, the Brazilian Society of Dermatology recently published the Brazilian Consensus of Photoprotection based on recent studies performed locally. The main goal of this article is to provide detailed educational information on the main properties and characteristics of UV-R and UV index in a simple language. It also provides: a) a summary of UV-R measurements recently performed in Brazil; b) a comparison with those performed in Europe; and, c) an evaluation to further clarify the assessment of potential harm and health effects owing to chronic exposures. PMID:26131858

  19. Solar ultraviolet radiation: properties, characteristics and amounts observed in Brazil and South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa, Marcelo de Paula

    2015-01-01

    The beneficial and harmful effects of human exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation (UV-R) are topics that arouse great interest not only among physicians and scientists, but also the general public and the media. Currently, discussions on vitamin D synthesis (beneficial effect) are confronted with the high and growing number of new cases of non-melanoma skin cancer and other diseases of the skin and eyes (harmful effect) diagnosed each year in Brazil. However, the lack of scientific knowledge on the UV-R in Brazil and South America leads to adoption of protective measures based on studies conducted in Europe and USA, where the amounts of UV-R available at surface and the sun-exposure habits and characteristics of the population are significantly different from those observed in Brazil. In order to circumvent this problem, the Brazilian Society of Dermatology recently published the Brazilian Consensus of Photoprotection based on recent studies performed locally. The main goal of this article is to provide detailed educational information on the main properties and characteristics of UV-R and UV index in a simple language. It also provides: a) a summary of UV-R measurements recently performed in Brazil; b) a comparison with those performed in Europe; and, c) an evaluation to further clarify the assessment of potential harm and health effects owing to chronic exposures.

  20. Report on the results of the ninth medical examination of atomic bomb survivors in South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, Michiya; Hiyama, Keiko; Matsuo, Kakaru; Yamamoto, Hiroki; Nishida, Masashi; Sasaki, Yoshinobu

    2001-01-01

    The results of the ninth medical examination are reported. Atomic bomb survivors who had emigrated to South America as of November 2000 totaled 180 (153 to Brazil, 4 to Paraguay, 7 to Bolivia, 13 to Argentina, and 3 to Peru). Eighty persons (44.4%) were examined (62 in Brazil, 2 in Paraguay, 6 in Bolivia, 7 in Argentina, and 3 in Peru). The mean age of the males was 71.3 years, and the mean age of the females was 69.7 years. They had hypertension (24.1%), diabetes (10.1%), cancer (8.9%), heart disease (7.6%), and thyroid disease (2.5%). The most common manifestations of illness were fatigue (69.6%), loss of vigor (65.8%), taking medicine (55.7%), and heat intolerance (53.2%). The incident rates of electrocardiographic abnormalities and urine, blood, and biochemical tests abnormalities were almost the same as at the previous examination, and there was no change in the percentage of those who required detailed tests and treatment. When independence in daily life was judged by the criteria of the nursing care insurance system, 68 persons were judged ''independent'', and 7 persons ''handicapped.'' (K.H.)

  1. Southern Annular Mode drives multicentury wildfire activity in southern South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holz, Andrés; Paritsis, Juan; Mundo, Ignacio A; Veblen, Thomas T; Kitzberger, Thomas; Williamson, Grant J; Aráoz, Ezequiel; Bustos-Schindler, Carlos; González, Mauro E; Grau, H Ricardo; Quezada, Juan M

    2017-09-05

    The Southern Annular Mode (SAM) is the main driver of climate variability at mid to high latitudes in the Southern Hemisphere, affecting wildfire activity, which in turn pollutes the air and contributes to human health problems and mortality, and potentially provides strong feedback to the climate system through emissions and land cover changes. Here we report the largest Southern Hemisphere network of annually resolved tree ring fire histories, consisting of 1,767 fire-scarred trees from 97 sites (from 22 °S to 54 °S) in southern South America (SAS), to quantify the coupling of SAM and regional wildfire variability using recently created multicentury proxy indices of SAM for the years 1531-2010 AD. We show that at interannual time scales, as well as at multidecadal time scales across 37-54 °S, latitudinal gradient elevated wildfire activity is synchronous with positive phases of the SAM over the years 1665-1995. Positive phases of the SAM are associated primarily with warm conditions in these biomass-rich forests, in which widespread fire activity depends on fuel desiccation. Climate modeling studies indicate that greenhouse gases will force SAM into its positive phase even if stratospheric ozone returns to normal levels, so that climate conditions conducive to widespread fire activity in SAS will continue throughout the 21st century.

  2. Monitoring strategy for eight amphibian species in French Guiana, South America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie A Courtois

    Full Text Available Although dramatic amphibian declines have been documented worldwide, only few of such events have been quantitatively documented for the tropical forests of South America. This is due partly to the fact that tropical amphibians are patchily distributed and difficult to detect. We tested three methods often used to monitor population trends in amphibian species in a remote lowland tropical forest of French Guiana. These methods are capture-mark-recapture (CMR, estimation of the number of calling males with repeated counts data and distance sampling, and rates of occupancy inferred by presence/absence data. We monitored eight diurnal, terrestrial amphibian species including five Dendrobatidae and three Bufonidae. We found that CMR, the most precise way of estimating population size, can be used only with two species in high density patches where the recapture rate is high enough. Only for one of the species (Dendrobates tinctorius, a low coefficient of variation (CV = 0.19 can be achieved with 15 to 20 capture events. For dendrobatid species with day-calling males, audio surveys yield a better probability of detection with only 8 audio surveys needed; quantitative estimates can be achieved by computing the number of calling males inferred from audio counts or distance sampling analysis. We therefore suggest that an efficient monitoring protocol for Neotropical amphibian species should include a combination of sighting and audio techniques, and we discuss the need of implementing a large-scale monitoring in order to provide a baseline for comparison with future changes.

  3. Monitoring strategy for eight amphibian species in French Guiana, South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtois, Elodie A; Devillechabrolle, Jennifer; Dewynter, Maël; Pineau, Kévin; Gaucher, Philippe; Chave, Jérôme

    2013-01-01

    Although dramatic amphibian declines have been documented worldwide, only few of such events have been quantitatively documented for the tropical forests of South America. This is due partly to the fact that tropical amphibians are patchily distributed and difficult to detect. We tested three methods often used to monitor population trends in amphibian species in a remote lowland tropical forest of French Guiana. These methods are capture-mark-recapture (CMR), estimation of the number of calling males with repeated counts data and distance sampling, and rates of occupancy inferred by presence/absence data. We monitored eight diurnal, terrestrial amphibian species including five Dendrobatidae and three Bufonidae. We found that CMR, the most precise way of estimating population size, can be used only with two species in high density patches where the recapture rate is high enough. Only for one of the species (Dendrobates tinctorius), a low coefficient of variation (CV = 0.19) can be achieved with 15 to 20 capture events. For dendrobatid species with day-calling males, audio surveys yield a better probability of detection with only 8 audio surveys needed; quantitative estimates can be achieved by computing the number of calling males inferred from audio counts or distance sampling analysis. We therefore suggest that an efficient monitoring protocol for Neotropical amphibian species should include a combination of sighting and audio techniques, and we discuss the need of implementing a large-scale monitoring in order to provide a baseline for comparison with future changes.

  4. A scenario elicitation methodology to identify the drivers of electricity infrastructure cost in South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moksnes, Nandi; Taliotis, Constantinos; Broad, Oliver; de Moura, Gustavo; Howells, Mark

    2017-04-01

    Developing a set of scenarios to assess a proposed policy or future development pathways requires a certain level of information, as well as establishing the socio-economic context. As the future is difficult to predict, great care in defining the selected scenarios is needed. Even so it can be difficult to assess if the selected scenario is covering the possible solution space. Instead, this paper's methodology develops a large set of scenarios (324) in OSeMOSYS using the SAMBA 2.0 (South America Model Base) model to assess long-term electricity supply scenarios and applies a scenario-discovery statistical data mining algorithm, Patient Rule Induction Method (PRIM). By creating a multidimensional space, regions related to high and low cost can be identified as well as their key driver. The six key drivers are defined a priori in three (high, medium, low) or two levers (high, low): 1) Demand projected from GDP, population, urbanization and transport, 2) Fossil fuel price, 3) Climate change impact on hydropower, 4) Renewable technology learning rate, 5) Discount rate, 6) CO2 emission targets.

  5. A history of Proterozoic terranes in southern South America: From Rodinia to Gondwana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Casquet

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The role played by Paleoproterozoic cratons in southern South America from the Mesoproterozoic to the Early Cambrian is reconsidered here. This period involved protracted continental amalgamation that led to formation of the supercontinent Rodinia, followed by Neoproterozoic continental break-up, with the consequent opening of Clymene and Iapetus oceans, and finally continental re-assembly as Gondwana through complex oblique collisions in the Late Neoproterozoic to Early Cambrian. The evidence for this is based mainly on a combination of precise U-Pb SHRMP dating and radiogenic isotope data for igneous and metamorphic rocks from a large area extending from the Rio de la Plata craton in the east to the Argentine Precordillera in the west and as far north as Arequipa in Peru. Our interpretation of the paleogeographical and geodynamic evolution invokes a hypothetical Paleoproterozoic block (MARA embracing basement ultimately older than 1.7 Ga in the Western Sierras Pampeanas (Argentina, the Arequipa block (Peru, the Rio Apa block (Brazil, and probably also the Paraguaia block (Bolivia.

  6. El Dorado : Peru is trying to catch Colombia as the must go jurisdiction in South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stastny, R.P.

    2010-01-01

    Peru has vast and largely untapped reserves of crude and natural gas, but it wants foreign help to increase oil production to 500,000 barrels per day in 4 years from the current level of 140,000 barrels per day. Perupetro is a state company in Peru responsible for promoting investment in the petroleum sector. Peru hopes to lure nearly $2 billion in oil investment to its northern Amazon region through 2013. Companies operating in South America have been attracted to Peru in recent years by its exploration potential and one of the best fiscal regimes in the world, at a 5 percent minimum royalty and a 20 percent maximum royalty. However, the government has changed the rules for the blocks offered in the 2010 bid process, increasing the minimum royalty to 15 percent and the maximum to 35 percent. The intent was to bring the higher royalties more in line with Colombia's. However, some analysts claim that Peru lacks the critical mass to justify the increase in royalties. Other challenges facing resource development in Peru include lack of infrastructure and a slow regulatory system. Twenty-five blocks of land are up for bid in 2010, mostly early stage properties. The bidding process will indicate how companies will respond to the new economics of these blocks. 1 tab.

  7. Ecology, livelihoods, and management of the Mauritia flexuosa palm in South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arika Virapongse

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Mauritia flexuosa is a key ecological and economic palm found throughout tropical South America. To inform improved management of M. flexuosa, we conducted a systematic review of published information about the ecology, livelihoods, and management of M. flexuosa, synthesized the information and identified knowledge gaps, and analyzed the spatial distribution of publications. A total of 143 documents (primary research, literature reviews, and grey literature were reviewed. Most published information originates from Peru and Brazil, with a disproportionate number of documents based in the Loreto Department of Peru. Significant geographical gaps in published information exist, especially in the northern portion of the species range. Existing literature emphasizes M. flexuosa fruit, although leaves, oil, and other products play important roles economically. To improve M. flexuosa management, we recommend that future research focuses on: (1 M. flexuosa availability; (2 harvest and cultivation; (3 development of consistent methods and standards; (4 landscape-level issues like land use change; (5 M. flexuosa within broader systems; (6 spatial gaps in research; (7 long-term research; and (8 multi- and interdisciplinary approaches.

  8. Measuring resilience and assessing vulnerability of terrestrial ecosystems to climate change in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjos, Luciano J S; de Toledo, Peter Mann

    2018-01-01

    Climate change has been identified as the primary threat to the integrity and functioning of ecosystems in this century, although there is still much uncertainty about its effects and the degree of vulnerability for different ecosystems to this threat. Here we propose a new methodological approach capable of measuring and mapping the resilience of terrestrial ecosystems at large scales based on their climatic niche. To do this, we used high spatial resolution remote sensing data and ecological niche modeling techniques to calculate and spatialize the resilience of three stable states of ecosystems in South America: forest, savanna, and grassland. Also, we evaluated the sensitivity of ecosystems to climate stress, the likelihood of exposure to non-analogous climatic conditions, and their respective adaptive capacities in the face of climate change. Our results indicate that forests, the most productive and biodiverse terrestrial ecosystems on the earth, are more vulnerable to climate change than savannas or grasslands. Forests showed less resistance to climate stress and a higher chance of exposure to non-analogous climatic conditions. If this scenario occurs, the forest ecosystems would have less chance of adaptation compared to savannas or grasslands because of their narrow climate niche. Therefore, we can conclude that a possible consolidation of non-analogous climatic conditions would lead to a loss of resilience in the forest ecosystem, significantly increasing the chance of a critical transition event to another stable state with a lower density of vegetation cover (e.g., savanna or grassland).

  9. Southern promises: a snapshot of the microbiology research landscape in South America based on bibliometric data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nai, Corrado

    2017-09-01

    Scientists have a single currency for productivity and impact: published articles. In an effort to map the global research landscape in microbiology, and to obviate the current lack of bibliometric analysis in the field, FEMS-the Federation of European Microbiological Societies-generated a dataset encompassing an exhaustive, worldwide list of microbiology studies for 2013-14, which further includes information as author affiliation, funding agency and number of citations. The manually curated database is useful in assessing the impact and regional productivity of microbiology research at different levels. Here, the data for microbiology research in South America are presented and discussed in detail. Based on the analysis, it emerged that despite great degrees of variation between number of published articles among the countries, a more levelled research productivity was observed when considering further dimensions like population size or number of research institutes. Normalised productivity and impact increase in countries with a 'central research hub', i.e. an institute or university producing a substantial portion of the national output (15% or more). From these observations, a possible strategy to increase impact and productivity in (microbiology) research for emerging countries is outlined. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. A multilocus phylogenetic analysis of Escallonia (Escalloniaceae): diversification in montane South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Felipe

    2013-03-01

    The mountains of South America are hotspots of plant diversity. How this diversity originated and evolved, and what roles geographic and environmental factors may have played in the diversification of lineages occurring in these regions, is not well understood. Escallonia, a morphologically and ecologically diverse group of shrubs and trees widely distributed in these mountains, provides an ideal opportunity for studying the historical underpinnings that have shaped the extraordinarily distinctive, diverse, and endangered flora of these regions, and for evaluating the role of abiotic factors in the process of lineage divergence. • I analyzed neutral DNA sequence data from two nuclear loci and one chloroplast locus using maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian phylogenetic approaches. I used a Bayesian approach to analyze the geographic structure of gene trees, and a phylogenetically controlled decomposition of the variance in bioclimatic variables to analyze the eco-climatic structure of gene trees. • I found that Escallonia (1) is monophyletic, (2) has a remarkable level of geographic and climatic phylogenetic structure, (3) likely originated in the tropical Andes, and (4) has a widespread absence of species exclusivity. • Geography played an important role early in the history of Escallonia by separating populations that later diversify likely in isolation. Although geographic isolation was generally accompanied by changes in climate, it is not clear whether environmental gradients along elevation have influenced more recent diversification events or whether species have evolved broader environmental tolerances.

  11. Care of patients with Huntington's disease in South America: a survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Oliveira Horta Maciel

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Huntington's disease (HD is a rare neurodegenerative disease with a multitude of symptoms, which requires access to specialized multidisciplinary care for adequate management. The aim of this study was to survey the characteristics of care in various HD centers in South America (SA. Methods A questionnaire was sent to 24 centers involved in the care for HD patients in SA. Results Of the total 24 centers, 19 (79.2% are academic units. The majority of centers (62.5% are general movement disorders clinics. Multidisciplinary care is available in 19 (79.2% centers and in 20 (83.3% care is provided free of charge. Genetic testing and counseling are available in 25 and 66.6% of centers, respectively. The majority of centers (83.3% have no institutional support for end-stage care. Conclusions Although HD centers in SA are committed to providing multidisciplinary care, access to genetic counseling and end-stage care are lacking in most centers.

  12. Investigations on mechanical biological treatment of waste in South America: Towards more sustainable MSW management strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezama, Alberto; Aguayo, Pablo; Konrad, Odorico; Navia, Rodrigo; Lorber, Karl E.

    2007-01-01

    This work presents an analysis on the suitability of mechanical biological treatment of municipal solid waste in South America, based on two previous experimental investigations carried out in two different countries. The first experiment was performed for determining the mass and volume reduction of MSW in the province of Concepcion (Chile). The implemented bench-scale process consisted of a manual classification and separation stage, followed by an in-vessel biological degradation process. The second experiment consisted of a full-scale experiment performed in the city of Estrela (Brazil), where the existing municipal waste management facility was adapted to enhance the materials sorting and separation. Expressed in wet weight composition, 85.5% of the material input in the first experiment was separated for biological degradation. After 27 days of processing, 60% of the initial mass was reduced through degradation and water evaporation. The final fraction destined for landfilling equals 59% of the total input mass, corresponding to about 50% of the initial volume. In the second experiment, the fraction destined to landfill reaches 46.6% of the total input waste mass, whilst also significantly reducing the total volume to be disposed. These results, and the possible recovery of material streams suitable for recycling or for preparing solid recovered fuels, are the main advantages of the studied process

  13. Multitemporal analysis of PAL images for the study of land cover dynamics in South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobrino, J. A.; Julien, Y.; Morales, L.

    2006-06-01

    Pathfinder AVHHR Land (PAL) database has been used for the retrieval of Land Surface Temperature (LST) over South America, which, along with NDVI parameter, will allow the studying of the evolution of the vegetation between July 1981 and September 2001. To this end, a classification has been built, based on PAL NDVI and Reanalysis air temperature at 2 m height data. This classification takes into account both vegetation and thermal patterns, and has been validated by a comparison with CAZALAC's map of arid zones (Centro del Agua para Zonas Áridas y semiáridas de Latino-América y el Caribe), as well as with Global Land Cover Characteristics' classification built by the USGS (United States Geological Survey). The principal advantage of this new classification is that it is a dynamic classification, that considers the actual state of the cover, since no assumption on land occupation is made for its construction. LST and NDVI yearly and long-term evolutions are analyzed with the help of this classification. Yearly evolutions are compared with Reanalysis air temperature at 2 m height and precipitation, and show good concordance. LST long-term evolution shows to be strongly affected by satellite changes and orbital drift. These latter require an adequate correction to allow deeper study. On the other hand, NDVI does not show this trend, but aerosol absorption from Mount Pinatubo's eruption in June 1991 corrupts temporarily the data. These results also validate the above-mentioned classification.

  14. First evidence of pre-Hispanic dentistry in South America - Insights from Cusco, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, A; Torres Pino, E C; Orellana González, E

    2016-04-01

    Intentional dental modification (IDM) derived from archeological or ethnographic contexts has been extensively documented across the globe. Despite the wealth of information on IDM for personal ornamentation and ritualistic purposes, evidence of IDM for therapeutic reasons among early Native Americans is poorly known and limited to a handful of cases. We report two upper canines from two pre-Hispanic individuals dated to the Late Horizon Period from Cusco (Peru), each showing a conical perforation on its incisal surface. Analyses were performed using traditional radiography, computed tomography and scanning electron microscopy. The depth and symmetrical location of the perforations at the center of the crown suggest that these two teeth were artificially drilled, rather than affected by taphonomic factors. The poor oral health of the individuals, the location of the perforations on the incisal surface, and evidence of intentional manipulation of the pulp chambers (as supported by their overall morphology and presence of striations and deep marks along the walls of the perforations) provide a strong case for the occurrence of prehistoric dentistry in the New World. The two canine teeth reported here represent the first pre-Columbian examples of IDM likely performed to ameliorate a dental pathology (presumably associated with the infection of the dental pulp) found in Peru and in the rest of South America. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Report on the results of the ninth medical examination of atomic bomb survivors in South America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohta, Michiya [Hiroshima Atomic Bomb Hospital (Japan); Hiyama, Keiko; Matsuo, Kakaru; Yamamoto, Hiroki; Nishida, Masashi; Sasaki, Yoshinobu

    2001-06-01

    The results of the ninth medical examination are reported. Atomic bomb survivors who had emigrated to South America as of November 2000 totaled 180 (153 to Brazil, 4 to Paraguay, 7 to Bolivia, 13 to Argentina, and 3 to Peru). Eighty persons (44.4%) were examined (62 in Brazil, 2 in Paraguay, 6 in Bolivia, 7 in Argentina, and 3 in Peru). The mean age of the males was 71.3 years, and the mean age of the females was 69.7 years. They had hypertension (24.1%), diabetes (10.1%), cancer (8.9%), heart disease (7.6%), and thyroid disease (2.5%). The most common manifestations of illness were fatigue (69.6%), loss of vigor (65.8%), taking medicine (55.7%), and heat intolerance (53.2%). The incident rates of electrocardiographic abnormalities and urine, blood, and biochemical tests abnormalities were almost the same as at the previous examination, and there was no change in the percentage of those who required detailed tests and treatment. When independence in daily life was judged by the criteria of the nursing care insurance system, 68 persons were judged ''independent'', and 7 persons ''handicapped.'' (K.H.)

  16. Uranium-series disequilibrium studies in phosphorite nodules from the west coast of South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnett, W.C.; Veeh, H.H.

    1977-01-01

    Sedimentary phosphorites occurring on the sea floor off Peru and Chile have been analyzed for U and Th isotopes, to establish their ages and hence obtain clues for their mode of formation. Fission-track distribution studies indicate that the U is primarily associated with the apatite fraction. Uranium-series disequilibrium methods, therefore, should be applicable, if the U incorporation is syngenetic with the apatite. The fractionation of U isotopes between oxidation states in the relatively young phosphorites from South America is low compared to that in older deposits. This supports the contention of Kolodny et al., (Geochim.Cosmochim.Acta;34:3 (1970)) that the major mechanism of 234 U/ 238 U fractionation is displacement of 234 U atoms into sites where they are more 'oxidizable' than the 238 U parent. Age estimates based on 234 U(IV) and 230 Th contents are internally consistent and range from late Pleistocene to Recent. The results indicate that marine phosphorites are currently forming in this area of intense oceanic upwelling. The age pattern during the last 150,000 yr suggests a correlation with eustatic high sea level stands and implies that conditions were more favourable for apatite genesis in this area during interglacials rather than during glacial times. (author)

  17. The Paleoparasitology in Brazil and Findings in Human Remains from South America: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novo, Shênia Patrícia Corrêa; Ferreira, Luiz Fernando

    2016-10-01

    The review article presents some of the history of how paleoparasitology started in Brazil, making highlight the great responsible Dr. Luiz Fernando Ferreira and Dr. Adauto Araújo, the trajectory of paleoparasitology in Brazil since 1978 and its performance in science to the present day. In sequence, it is made a presentation of parasitological findings on human remains found in archaeological sites in South America, highlighting Brazil, Argentina, Chile, and Peru, where major discoveries have occurred. Many of the parasites found in archaeological material and mentioned in this review went out of Africa with the peopling of Europe and from there they dispersed around the world, where climatic conditions allow the transmission. However, humans have acquired other parasites of animals, since humans invaded new habitats or creating new habits adopting new technologies, thus expanding its range of influence on the environment. Thus, this review article is finalized with information that explain the importance of these findings in the interaction between parasites, human host, and ambient.

  18. Coleopterans Associated with Plants that form Phytotelmata in Subtropical and Temperate Argentina, South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Raúl E.; Fernández, Liliana A.

    2011-01-01

    A list of the most common plants that form phytotelmata and their associated coleopterans (aquatic, semi-aquatic and terrestrial) from the northeastern subtropical and temperate area of Argentina, South America with biological and behavioral observations is presented in this study. Species of Poaceae (n = 3), Bromeliaceae (5), Apiaceae (6), Araceae (2), Urticaceae (1), Marantaceae (1), Arecaceae (1), Dipsacaceae (1) and Cyperaceae (1) were identified as phytotelmata. Aquatic species of Scirtidae (2), Dytiscidae (2), and Hydrophilidae (4), semi-aquatic Chelonariidae (2), and terrestrial species of Carabidae (3), Staphylinidae (5), Histeridae (1), Elateridae (1), Cantharidae (1), Cleridae (1), Tenebrionidae (1), Meloidae (1), Anthicidae (1), Chrysomelidae (3), Curculionidae (7) and Apionidae (1) were identified from six species of Eryngium L. (Apiales: Apiaceae), two species of Guadua Kunth (Poales: Poaceae), Aechmea distichantha Lemaire (Poales: Bromeliaceae), and from fallen leaves of Euterpe edulis Martius (Arecales: Arecaceae) from the temperate and subtropical area. The highest species richness was recorded in Eryngium phytotelmata. Fifteen species of beetles inhabit Eryngium cabrerae Pontiroli, 11 in E. horridum Malme, 7 in E. stenophyllum Urban, 4 in E. aff. serra Chamisso and Schlechtendal., 3 in E. elegans Chamisso and Schlechtendal, 2 in E. eburneum Decne and E. pandanifolium Chamisso and Schlechtendal. From bamboo, 6 species of coleopterans were collected from Guadua trinii (Nees) Nees ex Ruprecht and 4 from G. chacoensis (Rojas) Londoño and Peterson. Three species of aquatic coleopterans were recorded from A. distichantha and only one from E. edulis. PMID:22236084

  19. Phenotypic and Genotypic Characterization of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Clinical Isolates from Northern Colombia, South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio A. Guerra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC are major causes of childhood diarrhea in low and middle income countries including Colombia, South America. To understand the diversity of ETEC strains in the region, clinical isolates obtained from northern Colombia children were evaluated for multiple locus sequencing typing, serotyping, classical and nonclassical virulence genes, and antibiotic susceptibility. Among 40 ETEC clinical isolates evaluated, 21 (52.5% were positive for LT gene, 13 (32.5% for ST gene, and 6 (15% for both ST and LT. The most prevalent colonization surface antigens (CS were CS21 and CFA/I identified in 21 (50% and 13 (32.5% isolates, respectively. The eatA, irp2, and fyuA were the most common nonclassical virulence genes present in more than 60% of the isolates. Ampicillin resistance (80% of the strains was the most frequent phenotype among ETEC strains followed by trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole resistance (52.5%. Based on multiple locus sequencing typing (MLST, we recognize that 6 clonal groups of ETEC clinical isolates circulate in Colombia. ETEC clinical isolates from children in northern Colombia are highly diverse, yet some isolates circulating in the community belong to well-defined clonal groups that share a unique set of virulence factors, serotypes, and MLST sequence types.

  20. Spatial data fusion and analysis for soil characterization: a case study in a coastal basin of south-western Sicily (southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donato Sollitto

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Salinization is one of the most serious problems confronting sustainable agriculture in semi-arid and arid regions. Accurate mapping of soil salinization and the associated risk represent a fundamental step in planning agricultural and remediation activities. Geostatistical analysis is very useful for soil quality assessment because it makes it possible to determine the spatial relationships between selected variables and to produce synthetic maps of spatial variation. The main objective of this paper was to map the soil salinization risk in the Delia-Nivolelli alluvial basin (south-western Sicily, southern Italy, using multivariate geostatistical techniques and a set of topographical, physical and soil hydraulic properties. Elevation data were collected from existing topographic maps and analysed preliminarily to improve the estimate precision of sparsely sampled primary variables. For interpolation multi-collocated cokriging was applied to the dataset, including textural and hydraulic properties and electrical conductivity measurements carried out on 128 collected soil samples, using elevation data as auxiliary variable. Spatial dependence among elevation and physical soil properties was explored with factorial kriging analysis (FKA that could isolate and display the sources of variation acting at different spatial scales. FKA isolated significant regionalised factors which give a concise description of the complex soil physical variability at the different selected spatial scales. These factors mapped, allowed the delineation of zones at different salinisation risk to be managed separately to control and prevent salinization risk. The proposed methodology could be a valid support for land use and soil remediation planning at regional scale.