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Sample records for southwestern quebec canada

  1. Hydraulic properties and scale effects investigation in regional rock aquifers, south-western Quebec, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nastev, M.; Savard, M. M.; Lapcevic, P.; Lefebvre, R.; Martel, R.

    This paper reports on the characterization of hydraulic properties of regional rock aquifers carried out within a groundwater resources assessment project in the St. Lawrence Lowlands of south-western Quebec. To understand the aquifer behavior at both the fracture level and at field scale, hydraulic investigations were carried out using various aquifer tests. The groundwater flow at the local scale is controlled mostly by the fracture system. Results of the constant-head injection tests show a weak decreasing trend of hydraulic conductivity with depth indicating that a major part of the groundwater flow occurs in the first meters of the rock sequence. At the regional scale, the equivalent porous media approach is applicable. The hydraulic conductivity measurements were correlated to the scale of the aquifer tests expressed with the investigated aquifer volume. A simple interpolation procedure for the hydraulic conductivity field was developed based on the distance between field measurements and the tested aquifer volumes. The regional distribution of the hydraulic conductivity for the major fractured aquifer units indicates that dolostone is the most permeable whereas sandstone and crystalline rocks are the least permeable units. Este artículo trata de la caracterización de las propiedades hidráulicas en acuíferos regionales rocosos, la cual se llevó a cabo dentro del proyecto de evaluación de los recursos de agua subterránea en St. Lawrence Lowlands al suroeste de Quebec. Para entender el comportamiento del acuífero tanto a nivel de fractura como a escala del campo, se ejecutaron investigaciones hidráulicas usando varias pruebas de acuífero. El flujo del agua subterránea a escala local está controlado principalmente por el sistema de fracturas. Los resultados de las pruebas de inyección con cabeza constante muestran una tendencia decreciente débil de la conductividad hidráulica con la profundidad, indicando que la mayor parte del flujo de agua

  2. Two Related Occupational Cases of Legionella longbeachae Infection, Quebec, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajoie, Élisabeth; Lord, Judith; Lalancette, Cindy; Marchand, Geneviève; Levac, Éric; Lemieux, Marc-André; Hudson, Patricia; Lajoie, Louise

    2016-01-01

    Two patients with no exposure to gardening compost had related Legionella longbeachae infections in Quebec, Canada. Epidemiologic investigation and laboratory results from patient and soil samples identified the patients’ workplace, a metal recycling plant, as the likely source of infection, indicating a need to suspect occupational exposure for L. longbeachae infections. PMID:27314946

  3. Student Organizations in Canada and Quebec's "Maple Spring"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bégin-Caouette, Olivier; Jones, Glen A.

    2014-01-01

    This article has two major objectives: to describe the structure of the student movement in Canada and the formal role of students in higher education governance, and to describe and analyze the "Maple Spring," the dramatic mobilization of students in opposition to proposed tuition fee increases in Quebec that eventually led to a…

  4. The wind resource assessment program in Quebec Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahawita, R.; Bilodeau, L.; Gaudette, M.; Gratton, Y.; Noel, R.; Quach, T.T.

    1982-09-01

    This paper provides an overview of the wind resource assessment programme undertaken by the provincial power utility Hydro-Quebec, in Quebec, Canada. The methodology used in different phases of the project is enunciated and explained and the results discussed. Supplementary studies of airflow over complex terrain using numerical modelling are described and the results evaluated. Since the program is still far from completion, conclusive statements cannot, at this time, be made about the viability of the wind energy resource. However, tentative conclusions are that wind energy as an alternate source of energy for the province is likely to be commerciaally viable since two of the most important requirements viz, the presence of a good wind regime and the availability of suitable land are satisfied in many regions.

  5. The mining law in Canada and the situation in Quebec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daigneault, Robert

    2013-01-01

    As mining fields in Canada are various and numerous, the author proposes a presentation of the Canadian mining law. He first presents the administrative and legal organization of the Canadian territory with its Provinces, Territories, and sea beds. He briefly describes the distribution of constitutional competencies, outlines some geopolitical peculiarities (notably with respect to land tenure). He addressed the situation of the Quebec Province as far as the mining law is concerned. He notably comments cases which are a matter of public discussion: the acquisition of a mining permit (a claim) by a mining company in a residential area, the search for shale gas in the Saint-Laurent valley, the exploitation of oil sands, a project of pipeline. He comments the legal framework for a claim acquisition, the case of surface mineral substances, and the case of hydrocarbons. He presents and comments the legal regime of environmental authorizations in Quebec

  6. Human papillomavirus variants among Inuit women in northern Quebec, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Barbara; Coutlée, Francois; Franco, Eduardo L; Brassard, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Inuit communities in northern Quebec have high rates of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, cervical cancer and cervical cancer-related mortality as compared to the Canadian population. HPV types can be further classified as intratypic variants based on the extent of homology in their nucleotide sequences. There is limited information on the distribution of intratypic variants in circumpolar areas. Our goal was to describe the HPV intratypic variants and associated baseline characteristics. We collected cervical cell samples in 2002-2006 from 676 Inuit women between the ages of 15 and 69 years in Nunavik. DNA isolates from high-risk HPVs were sequenced to determine the intratypic variant. There were 149 women that were positive for HPVs 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 45, 52, 56 or 58 during follow-up. There were 5 different HPV16 variants, all of European lineage, among the 57 women positive for this type. There were 8 different variants of HPV18 present and all were of European lineage (n=21). The majority of samples of HPV31 (n=52) were of lineage B. The number of isolates and diversity of the other HPV types was low. Age was the only covariate associated with HPV16 variant category. These frequencies are similar to what was seen in another circumpolar region of Canada, although there appears to be less diversity as only European variants were detected. This study shows that most variants were clustered in one lineage for each HPV type.

  7. Net greenhouse gas emissions at Eastmain-1 reservoir, Quebec, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tremblay, Alain; Bastien, Julie; Bonneville, Marie-Claude; del Giorgio, Paul; Demarty, Maud; Garneau, Michelle; Helie, Jean-Francois; Pelletier, Luc; Prairie, Yves; Roulet, Nigel; Strachan, Ian; Teodoru, Cristian

    2010-09-15

    The growing concern regarding the long-term contribution of freshwater reservoirs to atmospheric greenhouse gases (GHG), led Hydro-Quebec, to study net GHG emissions from Eastmain 1 reservoir, which are the emissions related to the creation of a reservoir minus those that would have been emitted or absorbed by the natural systems over a 100-year period. This large study was realized in collaboration with University du Quebec a Montreal, McGill University and Environnement IIlimite Inc. This is a world premiere and the net GHG emissions of EM-1 will be presented in details.

  8. Impact of a multipronged education strategy on antibiotic prescribing in Quebec, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Karl; Blais, Régis; Fortin, Anne; Lantin, Sonia; Gaudet, Michel

    2011-09-01

    Antibiotic overuse and resistance have become a major threat in the last 2 decades. Many programs tried to optimize antibiotic consumption in the inpatient setting, but the outpatient environment that represents the bulk of antibiotic use has been challenging. Following a significant rise of Clostridium difficile infections, all the health care stakeholders in the province of Quebec, Canada initiated a global education program targeting physicians and pharmacists. A bundle approach was used; 11 user-friendly guidelines were produced by a group of experts and sent to all physicians and pharmacists in Quebec in January 2005. Downloadable versions of guidelines were posted on a dedicated Web site. They were promoted by professional organizations, universities, and experts during educational events, and there was strong acceptance by the pharmaceutical industry with a willingness to follow the recommendations in their marketing. The Intercontinental Medical Statistics (IMS) database was used to analyze and compare Quebec's total outpatient prescriptions per 1000 inhabitants with those in the other Canadian provinces for 2 time periods: preintervention (January 2003 to December 2004), and postintervention (February 2005 to December 2007). In 2004, antibiotic consumption per capita was 23.3% higher in Canada generally than in Quebec. After the guidelines dissemination, the gap between Quebec and the other Canadian provinces increased by 4.1 prescriptions/1000 inhabitants (P = .0002), and the trend persisted 36 months later. Antibiotic costs fell $134.5/1000 inhabitants in Quebec compared with the rest of Canada (P = .054). The implementation of guidelines significantly reduced antibiotic prescriptions in Quebec compared with the rest of the country, and there was a strong trend toward significant cost reduction.

  9. Public participation in strategic environmental assessment (SEA): Critical review and the Quebec (Canada) approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauthier, Mario; Simard, Louis; Waaub, Jean-Philippe

    2011-01-01

    It is widely accepted that public participation must be a part of strategic environmental assessment (SEA) procedures, and yet few studies have been conducted on the implementation of SEA public participation procedures. Accordingly, the theoretical and practical aspects of public participation in SEA remain research priorities for environmental policy-making. This paper presents a review of the Quebec (Canada) model of public participation in SEA through an evaluation of six public hearings on proposed directions and policies concerning, respectively, hazardous waste, forest protection, residual materials, energy, water management and pig farming. First, the authors examine the theoretical dimensions of SEA and public participation in the process. Second, they give a summary of the lessons that can be learned from the few Canadian and international experiences. Third, they outline the Quebec experience. Finally, they conclude by evaluating the opportunities and limitations of the Quebec experience and make some recommendations to improve its application.

  10. Host Suitability of 32 Common Weeds to Meloidogyne hapla in Organic Soils of Southwestern Quebec

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bélair, G.; Benoit, D. L.

    1996-01-01

    Thirty-two weeds commonly found in the organic soils of southwestern Quebec were evaluated for host suitability to a local isolate of the northern root-knot nematode Meloidogyne hapla under greenhouse conditions. Galls were observed on the roots of 21 species. Sixteen of the 21 had a reproduction factor (Pf/Pi = final number of M. hapla eggs and juveniles per initial number of M. hapla juveniles per pot) higher than carrot (Pf/Pi = 0.37), the major host crop in this agricultural area. Tomato cv. Rutgers was also included as a susceptible host and had the highest Pf/Pi value of 13.7. Bidens cernua, B. frondosa, B. vulgata, Erysimum cheiranthoides, Eupatorium maculatum, Matricaria matricarioides, Polygonum scabrum, Thalictrum pubescens, Veronica agrestis, and Sium suave are new host records for M. hapla. Bidens cernua, B. frondosa, B. wulgata, D. carota, M. matricarioides, Pasticana sativa, P. scabrum, S. suave, and Thlaspi arvense sustained moderate to high galling by M. hapla and supported high M. hapla production (12.4 ≤ Pf/Pi ≥ 2.9). Capsella bursa-pastoris, Chrysanthemum leucanthemum, Gnaphalium uliginosum, Stellaria media, and Veronica agrestis sustained moderate galling and supported moderate M. hapla reproduction (2.8 ≤ Pf/Pi ≥ 0.5). Chenopodium album, C. glaucum, E. cheiranthoides, P. convolvulus, Portulaca oleracea, and Rorippa islandica supported low reproduction (0.25 ≤ Pf/Pi ≥ 0.02) and sustained low galling. Galling was observed on Senecio vulgaris but no eggs or juveniles; thus, S. vulgaris may be useful as a trap plant. Eupatorium maculatum, and T. pubescens harbored no distinct galling but supported low to moderate M. hapla reproduction, respectively. Amaranthus retroflexus, Ambrosia artemisiifolia, Echinochloa crusgalli, Erigeron canadensis, Oenothera parviflora, Panicum capillare, Setaria glauca, S. viridis, and Solidago canadensis were nonhosts. Our results demonstrate the importance of adequate weed control in an integrated program

  11. Clinical and economic burden of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in Quebec, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarride JE

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Jean-Eric Tarride,1,2 Robert B Hopkins,1,2 Natasha Burke,1,2 Jason R Guertin,3,4 Daria O’Reilly,1,2 Charlene D Fell,5 Genevieve Dion,6 Martin Kolb7 1Department of Health Research Methods, Evidence and Impact, Faculty of Health Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada; 2Programs for Assessment of Technology in Health (PATH, The Research Institute of St. Joe’s Hamilton, St. Joseph’s Healthcare Hamilton, Hamilton, ON, Canada; 3Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Laval University, Quebec City, QC, Canada; 4Centre de recherche du CHU de Québec – Université Laval, Axe Santé des Populations et Pratiques Optimales en Santé, Hôpital du St-Sacrement, Quebec City, QC, Canada; 5Division of Respirology, Department of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada; 6Quebec Heart and Lung Institute, Laval University, Quebec City, QC, Canada; 7Division of Respirology, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada Background: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF, although rare, is a severe and costly disease.Objective: To estimate the clinical and economic burden of IPF over multiple years before and after diagnosis using comprehensive administrative databases for the province of Quebec, Canada.Methods: Several administrative databases from Quebec, providing information on hospital care, community care, and pharmaceuticals, were linked over a 5-year period ending March 31, 2011, which was before approval of antifibrotic drugs in Canada. Prevalent and incident IPF cases were defined using International Classification Disease-10-CA codes and International Classification Disease-9-CM codes. We used a broad definition that excluded cases with subsequent diagnosis of other interstitial lung diseases and a narrow definition that required further diagnostic testing to confirm IPF diagnosis. Incident cases had an IPF code in a particular year without any IPF code in the 2 previous

  12. Variations in demand and provision for publicly funded outpatient musculoskeletal physiotherapy services across Quebec, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deslauriers, Simon; Raymond, Marie-Hélène; Laliberté, Maude; Lavoie, Amélie; Desmeules, François; Feldman, Debbie E; Perreault, Kadija

    2017-12-01

    The prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders is high and expected to increase in the next decade. Persons suffering from musculoskeletal disorders benefit from early physiotherapy services. However, access to publicly funded physiotherapy services has been shown to be compromised by long waiting times and limited availability of resources in many countries around the world. Decisions on resource allocation may create geographic disparities in provision and access to services, which may result in inequity in access. This study aimed to assess variations in demand and provision of publicly funded outpatient physiotherapy services across the province of Quebec, Canada, as well as to assess the demand to provision relationship. We conducted a secondary analysis of data retrieved from the 2008 Quebec Health Survey and data obtained from a survey of hospitals in the province of Quebec in 2015. We used geographic information systems analyses and descriptive analyses to assess geographic variations and the relationship between demand and provision. Our results indicate substantial variations in the provision and demand for physiotherapy services in the province of Quebec. The variations in service provision did not follow the variations in demand. Long waiting times and insufficient provision of services were found in many regions. The variations in provision of physiotherapy services between regions reported in our study did not correspond to the variations in demand. Such geographic variations and demand to provision mismatches may create inequity in access to services, especially for those unable to afford private services. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. The National DNA Data Bank of Canada: a Quebecer perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milot, Emmanuel; Lecomte, Marie M J; Germain, Hugo; Crispino, Frank

    2013-11-20

    The Canadian National DNA Database was created in 1998 and first used in the mid-2000. Under management by the RCMP, the National DNA Data Bank of Canada offers each year satisfactory reported statistics for its use and efficiency. Built on two indexes (convicted offenders and crime scene indexes), the database not only provides increasing matches to offenders or linked traces to the various police forces of the nation, but offers a memory repository for cold cases. Despite these achievements, the data bank is now facing new challenges that will inevitably defy the way the database is currently used. These arise from the increasing power of detection of DNA traces, the diversity of demands from police investigators and the growth of the bank itself. Examples of new requirements from the database now include familial searches, low-copy-number analyses and the correct interpretation of mixed samples. This paper aims to develop on the original way set in Québec to address some of these challenges. Nevertheless, analytic and technological advances will inevitably lead to the introduction of new technologies in forensic laboratories, such as single cell sequencing, phenotyping, and proteomics. Furthermore, it will not only request a new holistic/global approach of the forensic molecular biology sciences (through academia and a more investigative role in the laboratory), but also new legal developments. Far from being exhaustive, this paper highlights some of the current use of the database, its potential for the future, and opportunity to expand as a result of recent technological developments in molecular biology, including, but not limited to DNA identification.

  14. The National DNA Data Bank of Canada: A Quebecer perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel eMilot

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Canadian National DNA Database was created in 1998 and first used in the mid-2000. Under management by the RCMP, the National DNA Data Bank of Canada offers each year satisfactory reported statistics for its use and efficiency. Built on two indexes (convicted offenders and crime scene indexes, the database not only provides increasing matches to offenders or linked traces to the various police forces of the nation, but offers a memory repository for cold cases. Despite these achievements, the data bank is now facing new challenges that will inevitably defy the way the database is currently used. These arise from the increasing power of detection of DNA traces, the diversity of demands from police investigators and the growth of the bank itself. Examples of new requirements from the database now include familial searches, low-copy-number analyses and the correct interpretation of mixed samples. This paper aims to develop on the original way set in Québec to address some of these challenges. Nevertheless, analytic and technological advances will inevitably lead to the introduction of new technologies in forensic laboratories, such as single cell sequencing, phenotyping, and proteomics. Furthermore, it will not only request a new holistic/global approach of the forensic molecular biology sciences (through academia and a more investigative role in the laboratory, but also new legal developments. Far from being exhaustive, this paper highlights some of the current use of the database, its potential for the future, and opportunity to expand as a result of recent technological developments in molecular biology, including, but not limited to DNA identification.

  15. Eastern equine encephalitis virus: high seroprevalence in horses from Southern Quebec, Canada, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocheleau, Jean-Philippe; Arsenault, Julie; Lindsay, L Robbin; DiBernardo, Antonia; Kulkarni, Manisha A; Côté, Nathalie; Michel, Pascal

    2013-10-01

    Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is a highly pathogenic arbovirus that infects humans, horses, and other animals. There has been a significant increase in EEEV activity in southeastern Canada since 2008. Few data are available regarding nonlethal EEEV infections in mammals, and consequently the distribution and pathogenicity spectrum of EEEV infections in these hosts is poorly understood. This cross-sectional study focuses on the evaluation of viral activity in southern Quebec's horses by seroprevalence estimation. A total of 196 horses, 18 months and older, which had never been vaccinated against EEEV and have never traveled outside Canada, were sampled from 92 barns distributed throughout three administrative regions of southern Quebec. Blood samples were taken from each horse and titrated for EEEV antibodies by plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT). Equine population vaccination coverage was estimated by surveying horse owners and equine practitioners. PRNT results revealed an EEEV seroprevalence up to 8.7%, with 95% confidence limits ranging from 4.4% to 13.0%. Vaccination coverage was estimated to be at least 79%. Our study reveals for the first time in Canada a measure of EEEV seroprevalence in horses. High seroprevalence in unvaccinated animals challenges the perception that EEEV is a highly lethal pathogen in horses. Monitoring high-risk vector-borne infections such as EEEV in animal populations can be an important element of a public health surveillance strategy, population risk assessment and early detection of epidemics.

  16. The economic benefits of reducing cardiovascular disease mortality in Quebec, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisclair, David; Décarie, Yann; Laliberté-Auger, François; Michaud, Pierre-Carl; Vincent, Carole

    2018-01-01

    We assess how different scenarios of cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention, aimed at meeting targets set by the World Health Organization (WHO) for 2025), may impact healthcare spending in Quebec, Canada over the 2050 horizon. We provide long-term forecasts of healthcare use and costs at the Quebec population level using a novel dynamic microsimulation model. Using both survey and administrative data, we simulate the evolution of the Quebec population's health status until death, through a series of dynamic transitions that accounts for social and demographic characteristics associated with CVD risk factors. A 25% reduction in CVD mortality between 2012 and 2025 achieved through decreased incidence could contain the pace of healthcare cost growth towards 2050 by nearly 7 percentage points for consultations with a physician, and by almost 9 percentage points for hospitalizations. Over the 2012-2050 period, the present value of cost savings is projected to amount to C$13.1 billion in 2012 dollars. The years of life saved due to improved life expectancy could be worth another C$38.2 billion. Addressing CVD mortality directly instead would bring about higher healthcare costs, but would generate more value in terms of years of life saved, at C$69.6 billion. Potential savings associated with plausible reductions in CVD, aimed at reaching a World Health Organization target over a 12-year period, are sizeable and may help address challenges associated with an aging population.

  17. Temporal trends of alcohol and drug use among Inuit of Northern Quebec, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortin, Marilyn; Bélanger, Richard E; Boucher, Olivier; Muckle, Gina

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol and drug use is a serious health problem for many indigenous populations across Canada, including Inuit. The literature on substance use in these populations is too sparse to devise public health interventions. The present article portrays alcohol and drug use among Inuit living in Nunavik (Northern Quebec) between the 1990s and 2000s, and identifies socio-demographic characteristics related to substance use. The Santé Québec Health Survey (1992) and the Nunavik Inuit Health Survey Qanuippitaa (2004) served as databases for this empirical work. Statistical comparisons were made of substance use variables in the 2 samples. Proportions were compared by chi-square tests (p≤0.05) with benchmarking of statistics for all of Quebec and, when available, all of Canada. Alcohol and drug use among Inuit increased significantly between 1992 and 2004, particularly among young adults. Alcohol users consumed significantly more alcohol per drinking episode than other Canadians in both time periods. Considerable cannabis use was widespread. In 2004, no significant differences in frequencies of heavy drinking episodes were observed by gender, with 60% of drug users consuming alcohol on a regular basis. As in other populations from North America, this study profiles the increase in substance use among Inuit from Nunavik in the first part of the last 20 years. We observed distinct substance use patterns among them in comparison to other Canadians. Such findings, if replicated in the coming years, emphasize the need for major, culturally-relevant public health interventions in this population.

  18. Hydrogeology of the Judith River Formation in southwestern Saskatchewan, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, David; Lypka, Morgan; Ferguson, Grant

    2017-11-01

    The Judith River Formation forms an important regional aquifer in southwestern Saskatchewan, Canada. This aquifer is used for domestic and agricultural purposes in some areas and supports oil and gas production in other areas. As a result, the available data come from a range of sources and integration is required to provide an overview of aquifer characteristics. Here, data from oil and gas databases are combined with data from groundwater resource assessments. Analysis of cores, drill-stem tests and pumping tests provide a good overview of the physical hydrogeology of the Judith River Aquifer. Water chemistry data from oil and gas databases were less helpful in understanding the chemical hydrogeology due contamination of samples and unreliable laboratory analyses. Analytical modeling of past pumping in the aquifer indicates that decreases in hydraulic head exceeding 2 m are possible over distances of 10s of kilometers. Similar decreases in head should be expected for additional large withdrawals of groundwater from the Judith River Aquifer. Long-term groundwater abstraction should be limited by low pumping rates. Higher pumping rates appear to be possible for short-term uses, such as those required by the oil and gas industry.

  19. Report on fine particulates and ozone in Quebec in connection with the Canada Wide Standard : 2009 report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busque, D.; Bisson, M.; Paradis, J.; Proulx, M.; Guay, M.

    2010-05-01

    In June 2000, the federal and provincial governments, with the exception of Quebec, adopted a Canada Wide Standard (CWS) for particulates and ozone and set out to reduce these pollutants by 2010. Although Quebec was not a signatory to the CWS, it acts in coherence with the other governments regarding these air quality standards. Ozone and particulates are the main precursors to smog and are known to cause health and environmental problems. Ozone forms when nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) chemically react, particularly during hot sunny days. The CWS is a strategy to reduce the risk of these pollutants to public health and the environment. In order to apply this standard, Quebec must verify conformity for regions with a population of more than 100,000, which includes 6 regions, notably Montreal, Quebec City, Gatineau, the Saguenay, Sherbrooke and Trois Rivieres. Results of a 2008 study showed that air quality in Gatineau and 3 subregions of Montreal exceeded the allow limit of 65 ppb for ozone. However, ozone concentrations in Quebec City, the Saguenay, Sherbrooke and Trois Rivieres were under the allowable limits. Results of the 2008 study showed that particulate concentration in all regions were blow the allowable limits. This document revealed that there has been an improvement in air quality in terms of ozone and particulates since 2005. Most regions in Quebec were under the allowable limits projected for 2010. 7 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs., 6 appendices.

  20. Quartz OSL dating of late Holocene beach ridges from the Magdalen Islands (Quebec, Canada)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Remillard, A.M.; Buylaert, Jan-Pieter; Murray, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Quartz optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating has been applied to sandy beach ridge systems from the Magdalen Islands in the center of the Gulf of St. Lawrence (Quebec, Canada) to provide the first chronological framework for these features. Nineteen beach ridges (22 samples) from four......). The OSL ages indicate that the ridges were built between 2.6 ± 0.2 ka and 0.40 ± 0.10 ka, i.e. during a period of sea level rise. This rise eroded adjacent sandstone cliffs, which contributed a significant sediment supply to the littoral drift and beaches. Some low-lying coasts in the archipelago...... great potential in this area, and is an appropriate method for establishing precise chronologies for coastal sediments in this region of the Gulf of St. Lawrence. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  1. Socio-medical determinants of hospital utilization in Quebec, Canada, 1970-1975.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, T T; Broida, J

    1986-01-01

    The relationship between ambulatory physician use and hospitalization was studied using aggregate data in the Province of Quebec, Canada. The analysis showed that the introduction of health insurance covering physician services had a negligible influence on hospitalization. The average length of short-term hospital stays was determined by the proportion of aged population, the proportion of English speaking persons, and the prior level of hospitalization in the medical market areas. Overall, hospital discharge rates remained very constant during the period of six years (1970-1975). There were, however, reductions in hospitalization for infectious diseases, diseases of the blood and blood-forming organs, respiratory diseases, and diseases of the skin and subcutaneous tissue, and increases in the hospitalization rates for neoplasms, circulatory system disorders, musculoskeletal conditions, congenital anomalies, and perinatal morbidity and mortality.

  2. Barriers to health-care and psychological distress among mothers living with HIV in Quebec (Canada).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blais, Martin; Fernet, Mylène; Proulx-Boucher, Karène; Lebouché, Bertrand; Rodrigue, Carl; Lapointe, Normand; Otis, Joanne; Samson, Johanne

    2015-01-01

    Health-care providers play a major role in providing good quality care and in preventing psychological distress among mothers living with HIV (MLHIV). The objectives of this study are to explore the impact of health-care services and satisfaction with care providers on psychological distress in MLHIV. One hundred MLHIV were recruited from community and clinical settings in the province of Quebec (Canada). Prevalence estimation of clinical psychological distress and univariate and multivariable logistic regression models were performed to predict clinical psychological distress. Forty-five percent of the participants reported clinical psychological distress. In the multivariable regression, the following variables were significantly associated with psychological distress while controlling for sociodemographic variables: resilience, quality of communication with the care providers, resources, and HIV disclosure concerns. The multivariate results support the key role of personal, structural, and medical resources in understanding psychological distress among MLHIV. Interventions that can support the psychological health of MLHIV are discussed.

  3. Clinical and economic burden of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in Quebec, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarride, Jean-Eric; Hopkins, Robert B; Burke, Natasha; Guertin, Jason R; O'Reilly, Daria; Fell, Charlene D; Dion, Genevieve; Kolb, Martin

    2018-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), although rare, is a severe and costly disease. To estimate the clinical and economic burden of IPF over multiple years before and after diagnosis using comprehensive administrative databases for the province of Quebec, Canada. Several administrative databases from Quebec, providing information on hospital care, community care, and pharmaceuticals, were linked over a 5-year period ending March 31, 2011, which was before approval of antifibrotic drugs in Canada. Prevalent and incident IPF cases were defined using International Classification Disease-10-CA codes and International Classification Disease-9-CM codes. We used a broad definition that excluded cases with subsequent diagnosis of other interstitial lung diseases and a narrow definition that required further diagnostic testing to confirm IPF diagnosis. Incident cases had an IPF code in a particular year without any IPF code in the 2 previous years. Health care resource utilization before and after the index diagnosis date was determined and costs calculated. Costs were expressed in 2016 Canadian dollars. Over 5-years, 10,579 (mean age: 76.4; 58% male) satisfied the broad definition of IPF and 8,683 (mean age: 74.5; 57% male) satisfied the narrow definition (82% of broad). Incidences of IPF overall were 25.8 and 21.7/100,000 population for broad and narrow definitions, respectively. Three-year survival was 40% and 37% in broad and narrow cohorts, respectively. For both cohorts, health care resource utilization and costs increased several years before diagnosis ($2,721 and $7,049/patient 5 years and 2 years prior to diagnosis using a broad definition, respectively) and remained elevated for multiple years post diagnosis ($12,978 and $8,267 at 2 and 3 years postdiagnosis). Health care resource utilization and costs of IPF increase many years prior to diagnosis. Incorporating multiyear annual costs before and after diagnosis results in a higher estimate of the economic burden

  4. Summer outdoor temperature and occupational heat-related illnesses in Quebec (Canada)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam-Poupart, Ariane; Smargiassi, Audrey; Busque, Marc-Antoine; Duguay, Patrice; Fournier, Michel; Zayed, Joseph; Labrèche, France

    2014-01-01

    Background: Predicted rise in global mean temperature and intensification of heat waves associated with climate change present an increasing challenge for occupational health and safety. Although important scientific knowledge has been gathered on the health effects of heat, very few studies have focused on quantifying the association between outdoor heat and mortality or morbidity among workers. Objective: To quantify the association between occupational heat-related illnesses and exposure to summer outdoor temperatures. Methods: We modeled 259 heat-related illnesses compensated by the Workers' Compensation Board of Quebec between May and September, from 1998 to 2010, with maximum daily summer outdoor temperatures in 16 health regions of Quebec (Canada) using generalized linear models with negative binomial distributions, and estimated the pooled effect sizes for all regions combined, by sex and age groups, and for different time lags with random-effect models for meta-analyses. Results: The mean daily compensation count was 0.13 for all regions of Quebec combined. The relationship between daily counts of compensations and maximum daily temperatures was log-linear; the pooled incidence rate ratio (IRR) of daily heat-related compensations per 1 °C increase in daily maximum temperatures was 1.419 (95% CI 1.326 to 1.520). Associations were similar for men and women and by age groups. Increases in daily maximum temperatures at lags 1 and 2 and for two and three-day lag averages were also associated with increases in daily counts of compensations (IRRs of 1.206 to 1.471 for every 1 °C increase in temperature). Conclusion: This study is the first to quantify the association between occupational heat-related illnesses and exposure to summer temperatures in Canada. The model (risk function) developed in this study could be useful to improve the assessment of future impacts of predicted summer outdoor temperatures on workers and vulnerable groups, particularly in

  5. Summer outdoor temperature and occupational heat-related illnesses in Quebec (Canada)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam-Poupart, Ariane [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, School of Public Health, Université de Montréal, Montreal, QC (Canada); Smargiassi, Audrey [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, School of Public Health, Université de Montréal, Montreal, QC (Canada); Institut national de santé publique du Québec (INSPQ), Montreal, QC (Canada); Busque, Marc-Antoine; Duguay, Patrice [Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail (IRSST), Montreal, QC (Canada); Fournier, Michel [Direction de santé publique, Agence de la santé et des services sociaux de Montréal, Montreal, QC (Canada); Zayed, Joseph [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, School of Public Health, Université de Montréal, Montreal, QC (Canada); Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail (IRSST), Montreal, QC (Canada); Labrèche, France, E-mail: labreche.france@irsst.qc.ca [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, School of Public Health, Université de Montréal, Montreal, QC (Canada); Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail (IRSST), Montreal, QC (Canada)

    2014-10-15

    Background: Predicted rise in global mean temperature and intensification of heat waves associated with climate change present an increasing challenge for occupational health and safety. Although important scientific knowledge has been gathered on the health effects of heat, very few studies have focused on quantifying the association between outdoor heat and mortality or morbidity among workers. Objective: To quantify the association between occupational heat-related illnesses and exposure to summer outdoor temperatures. Methods: We modeled 259 heat-related illnesses compensated by the Workers' Compensation Board of Quebec between May and September, from 1998 to 2010, with maximum daily summer outdoor temperatures in 16 health regions of Quebec (Canada) using generalized linear models with negative binomial distributions, and estimated the pooled effect sizes for all regions combined, by sex and age groups, and for different time lags with random-effect models for meta-analyses. Results: The mean daily compensation count was 0.13 for all regions of Quebec combined. The relationship between daily counts of compensations and maximum daily temperatures was log-linear; the pooled incidence rate ratio (IRR) of daily heat-related compensations per 1 °C increase in daily maximum temperatures was 1.419 (95% CI 1.326 to 1.520). Associations were similar for men and women and by age groups. Increases in daily maximum temperatures at lags 1 and 2 and for two and three-day lag averages were also associated with increases in daily counts of compensations (IRRs of 1.206 to 1.471 for every 1 °C increase in temperature). Conclusion: This study is the first to quantify the association between occupational heat-related illnesses and exposure to summer temperatures in Canada. The model (risk function) developed in this study could be useful to improve the assessment of future impacts of predicted summer outdoor temperatures on workers and vulnerable groups, particularly in

  6. Simulating groundwater-peatland interactions in depression and slope peatlands in southern Quebec (Canada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larocque, M.; Quillet, A.; Paniconi, C.

    2013-12-01

    It is crucial to understand hydrogeological interactions between aquifers and peatlands in order to grasp the influence of aquifers in peatland water budgets, to understand the role of groundwater in the evolution or organic matter deposition, and to quantify how a peatland can sustain groundwater levels in a superficial aquifer. These questions have rarely been addressed in literature and there is currently no understanding of which process dominates aquifer-peatland exchanges in different geomorphological settings. The main purpose of the study was to use groundwater flow modeling to answer these questions in two contrasted geological contexts of southern Quebec (Canada). During a three-year study, six peatlands have been instrumented in the Becancour (Centre-du-Quebec) and Amos (Abitibi-Temiscamingue) regions of southern Quebec (Canada). At each site, either one or two transects of six piezometer nests (at 1.20 m depth in the organic deposits and in the mineral deposits below the peat) have been installed, for a total of twelve aquifer-peatland transects of approximately 500 m. The stratigraphy and geometry of the peatland-aquifer system, as well as the hydrodynamic properties of the organic and mineral deposits have been measured at all sites. Groundwater levels have been recorded from autumn 2010 to summer 2012. The Becancour peatlands have developed in depressions while the Amos peatlands have developed through the paludification of esker slopes. The maximum peat thickness measured in the Bécancour peatlands is 6.4 m while it is 4.5 m in the Amos region. In both regions, peatlands are fringed by sandy deposits that extend at least partly under the organic deposits. The thickness of these underlying deposits is not well defined, but available data suggests a metric scale thickness in areas close to the adjacent superficial aquifer. Field data is used to create 2D numerical models in Modflow to simulate flow between the shallow groundwater and the peatland on

  7. Descriptive study of interprofessional collaboration between physicians and osteopaths for the pediatric population in Quebec, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantal Morin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Osteopathy is an increasingly popular healthcare approach that uses a wide variety of therapeutic manual techniques to address pain and somatic dysfunction. In Quebec, Canada, osteopathy is the complementary medicine most often recommended by family physicians. However, factors fostering the development of interprofessional collaboration (IPC between physicians and osteopaths are unknown. This study aimed to describe the current situation in terms of IPC among practitioners working with pediatric patients. Methods A self-administered questionnaire was sent to osteopaths, family physicians, and pediatricians involved with pediatric patients in the province of Quebec. The postal questionnaire captured general knowledge about osteopathy and its practice parameters and role, sources of information, communication aspects including having a professional relationship and referrals, and influence of the upcoming government regulation. Quantitative data from the questionnaires were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Logistic regression model for factors associated with osteopathic referrals and multiple linear regression analyses for the number of correct answers about general osteopathic practice parameters were performed. Results A total of 274 physicians (155 family physicians (response rate 13% and 119 pediatricians (17% and 297 osteopaths (42% completed the survey. According to physicians, osteopathy was most appropriate for musculoskeletal pain (241; 91% and plagiocephaly (235; 88%. Osteopathic referral was positively associated with having a professional relationship (odds ratio [OR] 4.10 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.12; 7.95, p < 0.001, personal consultation (OR 2.58 (95% CI 1.35; 4.93, p = 0.004, community-based practice (OR 1.89 (95% CI 1.03; 3.47, p = 0.040, and belief in the active role of osteopathy for pediatric conditions (OR 1.22 (95% CI 1.01; 1.47, p = 0.042. The majority of physicians (72% and

  8. Genetic diversity of the golden potato cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis and determination of the origin of populations in Quebec, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Annie Christine; Mimee, Benjamin; Montarry, Josselin; Bardou-Valette, Sylvie; Bélair, Guy; Moffett, Peter; Grenier, Eric

    2013-10-01

    The golden cyst nematode (Globodera rostochiensis), native to South America, has been introduced in many parts of the world, including Europe and North America. Recently, it was found for the first time in the province of Quebec, Canada in the locality of St. Amable near Montreal. To date, very few studies have examined the population genetics of this pest. Consequently, there is a lack of knowledge about the genetic structure and evolution of this nematode. In this study, twelve new microsatellite markers were developed in order to explore these questions. These markers were used to genotype fifteen populations originating from different regions of the world, including five from Canada. Within populations, the highest genetic diversity was consistently observed in the populations from Bolivia, the postulated region of origin of the golden nematode, and the lowest in populations from British Columbia (Canada) and New York (USA). The two Quebec populations were very similar to each other and to the population found in Newfoundland, but surprisingly, they were significantly different from three other North American populations including those from New York and British Columbia. Based on our results, we conclude that the golden cyst nematode has been introduced in North America at least twice from distinct regions of the world. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Permafrost, palsas and frost-crack polygons, Salluit, Quebec, Canada, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset includes temperature conditions for ice-wedge cracking, Salluit, northern Quebec. Air temperature, soil temperature, wind speed and direction, July 1989...

  10. Earthquake source parameter and focal mechanism estimates for the Western Quebec Seismic Zone in eastern Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez Padilla, A. M.; Onwuemeka, J.; Liu, Y.; Harrington, R. M.

    2017-12-01

    The Western Quebec Seismic Zone (WQSZ) is a 160-km-wide band of intraplate seismicity extending 500 km from the Adirondack Highlands (United States) to the Laurentian uplands (Canada). Historically, the WQSZ has experienced over fifteen earthquakes above magnitude 5, with the noteworthy MN5.2 Ladysmith event on May 17, 2013. Previous studies have associated seismicity in the area to the reactivation of Early Paleozoic normal faults within a failed Iapetan rift arm, or strength contrasts between mafic intrusions and felsic rocks due to the Mesozoic track of the Great Meteor hotspot. A good understanding of seismicity and its relation to pre-existing structures requires information about event source properties, such as static stress drop and fault plane orientation, which can be constrained via spectral analysis and focal mechanism solutions. Using data recorded by the CNSN and USArray Transportable Array, we first characterize b-value for 709 events between 2012 and 2016 in WQSZ, obtaining a value of 0.75. We then determine corner frequency and seismic moment values by fitting S-wave spectra on transverse components at all stations for 35 events MN 2.7+. We select event pairs with highly similar waveforms, proximal hypocenters, and magnitudes differing by 1-2 units. Our preliminary results using single-station spectra show corner frequencies of 15 to 40 Hz and stress drop values between 7 and 130 MPa, typical of intraplate seismicity. Last, we solve focal mechanism solutions of 35 events with impulsive P-wave arrivals at a minimum of 8 stations using the hybridMT moment tensor inversion algorithm. Our preliminary results suggest predominantly thrust faulting mechanisms, and at times oblique thrust faulting. The P-axis trend of the focal mechanism solutions suggests a principal stress orientation of NE-SW, which is consistent with that derived from focal mechanisms of earthquakes prior to 2013. We plan to fit the event pair spectral ratios to correct for attenuation

  11. The decline of official language minorities in Quebec and English Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaujot, R P

    1982-01-01

    "This paper considers the evolution of French outside of Quebec and the English in Quebec.... The total historical set of national data on ethnicity, mother tongue, knowledge of official languages and home language [is first presented]. The 120 year stability showing French at around 30 percent of the national total is a function of compensating factors including high French fertility and high English immigration. During the 1960s both of these demographic supports disappeared and thus mobility across linguistic lines has become a particularly sensitive issue. "The picture with regard to French outside of Quebec has changed rather radically in the last thirty-five years. For instance, there was one French child to every nine in 1941 and one to every twenty-one children in 1976. While the English of Quebec were once represented in various parts of the province, their strength is now largely limited to the Montreal metropolitan area which includes 76 percent of the English mother tongue group. Outside of Montreal, the English amounted to 7.9 percent of Quebec's population in 1941 and 5.6 percent in 1976. The paper concludes with a discussion of the social factors that underlie these trends and their relevance to the models of institutional and territorial bilingualism." (summary in FRE) excerpt

  12. Emerging arboviruses in Quebec, Canada: assessing public health risk by serology in humans, horses and pet dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocheleau, J P; Michel, P; Lindsay, L R; Drebot, M; Dibernardo, A; Ogden, N H; Fortin, A; Arsenault, J

    2017-10-01

    Periodic outbreaks of West Nile virus (WNV), Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) and to a lesser extent, California serogroup viruses (CSGV), have been reported in parts of Canada in the last decade. This study was designed to provide a broad assessment of arboviral activity in Quebec, Canada, by conducting serological surveys for these arboviruses in 196 horses, 1442 dogs and 485 humans. Sera were screened by a competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and positive samples confirmed by plaque reduction neutralisation tests. The percentage of seropositive samples was 83·7%, 16·5%, 7·1% in horses, 18·8%, 0·6%, 0% in humans, 11·7%, 3·1%, 0% in adult dogs and 2·9%, 0·3%, 0% in juvenile dogs for CSGV, WNV and EEEV, respectively. Serological results in horses and dogs appeared to provide a meaningful assessment of risk to public health posed by multiple arboviruses.

  13. (222)Rn activity in groundwater of the St. Lawrence Lowlands, Quebec, eastern Canada: relation with local geology and health hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinti, Daniele L; Retailleau, Sophie; Barnetche, Diogo; Moreira, Floriane; Moritz, Anja M; Larocque, Marie; Gélinas, Yves; Lefebvre, René; Hélie, Jean-François; Valadez, Arisai

    2014-10-01

    One hundred ninety-eight groundwater wells were sampled to measure the (222)Rn activity in the region between Montreal and Quebec City, eastern Canada. The aim of this study was to relate the spatial distribution of (222)Rn activity to the geology and the hydrogeology of the study area and to estimate the potential health risks associated with (222)Rn in the most populated area of the Province of Quebec. Most of the groundwater samples show low (222)Rn activities with a median value of 8.6 Bq/L. Ninety percent of samples show (222)Rn activity lower than 100 Bq/L, the exposure limit in groundwater recommended by the World Health Organization. A few higher (222)Rn activities (up to 310 Bq/L) have been measured in wells from the Appalachian Mountains and from the magmatic intrusion of Mont-Saint-Hilaire, known for its high level of indoor radon. The spatial distribution of (222)Rn activity seems to be related mainly to lithology differences between U-richer metasediments of the Appalachian Mountains and magmatic intrusions and the carbonaceous silty shales of the St. Lawrence Platform. Radon is slightly enriched in sodium-chlorine waters that evolved at contact with clay-rich formations. (226)Ra, the parent element of (222)Rn could be easily adsorbed on clays, creating a favorable environment for the production and release of (222)Rn into groundwater. The contribution of groundwater radon to indoor radon or by ingestion is minimal except for specific areas near Mont-Saint-Hilaire or in the Appalachian Mountains where this contribution could reach 45% of the total radioactive annual dose. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The changing epidemiology of meningococcal disease in Quebec, Canada, 1991-2011: potential implications of emergence of new strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica Gilca

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In order to inform meningococcal disease prevention strategies, we analysed the epidemiology of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD in the province of Quebec, Canada, 10 years before and 10 years after the introduction of serogroup C conjugate vaccination. METHODOLOGY: IMD cases reported to the provincial notifiable disease registry in 1991-2011 and isolates submitted for laboratory surveillance in 1997-2011 were analysed. Serogrouping, PCR testing and assignment of isolates to sequence types (ST by using multilocus sequence typing (MLST were performed. RESULTS: Yearly overall IMD incidence rates ranged from 2.2-2.3/100,000 in 1991-1992 to 0.49/100,000 in 1999-2000, increasing to 1.04/100,000 in 2011. Among the 945 IMD cases identified by laboratory surveillance in 1997-2011, 68%, 20%, 8%, and 3% were due to serogroups B, C, Y, and W135, respectively. Serogroup C IMD almost disappeared following the implementation of universal childhood immunization with monovalent C conjugate vaccines in 2002. Serogroup B has been responsible for 88% of all IMD cases and 61% of all IMD deaths over the last 3 years. The number and proportion of ST-269 clonal complex has been steadily increasing among the identified clonal complexes of serogroup B IMD since its first identification in 2003, representing 65% of serogroup B IMD in 2011. This clonal complex was first introduced in adolescent and young adults, then spread to other age groups. CONCLUSION: Important changes in the epidemiology of IMD have been observed in Quebec during the last two decades. Serogroup C has been virtually eliminated. In recent years, most cases have been caused by the serogroup B ST-269 clonal complex. Although overall burden of IMD is low, the use of a vaccine with potential broad-spectrum coverage could further reduce the burden of disease. Acceptability, feasibility and cost-effectiveness studies coupled with ongoing clinical and molecular surveillance are necessary in

  15. Association between outdoor ozone and compensated acute respiratory diseases among workers in Quebec (Canada).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam-Poupart, Ariane; Labrèche, France; Busque, Marc-Antoine; Brand, Allan; Duguay, Patrice; Fournier, Michel; Zayed, Joseph; Smargiassi, Audrey

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory effects of ozone in the workplace have not been extensively studied. Our aim was to explore the relationship between daily average ozone levels and compensated acute respiratory problems among workers in Quebec between 2003 and 2010 using a time-stratified case-crossover design. Health data came from the Workers' Compensation Board. Daily concentrations of ozone were estimated using a spatiotemporal model. Conditional logistic regressions, with and without adjustment for temperature, were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs, per 1 ppb increase of ozone), and lag effects were assessed. Relationships with respiratory compensations in all industrial sectors were essentially null. Positive non-statistically significant associations were observed for outdoor sectors, and decreased after controlling for temperature (ORs of 0.98; 1.01 and 1.05 at Lags 0, 1 and 2 respectively). Considering the predicted increase of air pollutant concentrations in the context of climate change, closer investigation should be carried out on outdoor workers.

  16. Drug use and antimicrobial resistance among Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp. isolates from chicken and turkey flocks slaughtered in Quebec, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Boulianne, Martine; Arsenault, Julie; Daignault, Danielle; Archambault, Marie; Letellier, Ann; Dutil, Lucie

    2016-01-01

    An observational study was conducted of chicken and turkey flocks slaughtered at federal processing plants in the province of Quebec, Canada. The objectives were to estimate prevalence of drug use at hatchery and on farm and to identify antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in cecal Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp. isolates and factors associated with AMR. Eighty-two chicken flocks and 59 turkey flocks were sampled. At the hatchery, the most used antimicrobial was ceftiofur in chickens (76% of...

  17. Perceptions of the first family physicians to adopt advanced access in the province of Quebec, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breton, Mylaine; Maillet, Lara; Paré, Isabelle; Abou Malham, Sabina; Touati, Nassera

    2017-10-01

    In Quebec, several primary care physicians have made the transition to the advanced access model to address the crisis of limited access to primary care. The objectives are to describe the implementation of the advanced access model, as perceived by the first family physicians; to analyze the factors influencing the implementation of its principles; and to document the physicians' perceptions of its effects on their practice, colleagues and patients. Qualitative methods were used to explore, through semi-structured interviews, the experiences of 21 family physicians who had made the transition to advanced access. Of the 21 physicians, 16 succeeded in adopting all five advanced access principles to varying degrees. Core implementation issues revolved around the dynamics of collaboration between physicians, nurses and other colleagues. Secretaries' functions, in particular, had to be expanded. Facilitating factors were mainly related to the physicians' leadership and the professional resources available in the organizations. Impediments related to resource availability and team functioning were also encountered. This is the first exploratory study to examine the factors influencing the adoption of the advanced access model conducted with early-adopter family physicians. The lessons drawn will inform discussions on scaling up to other settings experiencing the same problems. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Individual and School Correlates of Adolescent Leisure Time Physical Activity in Quebec, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Massougbodji

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Leisure time physical activity (LTPA correlates have been mostly studied in relation to adolescents’ home neighbourhoods, but not so much in relation to the environment of their schools’ neighbourhoods. We sought to investigate how objective environmental measures of the schools’ vicinity are related to adolescents’ self-reported LTPA. Methods: Individual data from the Quebec High School Students Health Survey (QHSSHS were matched with schools’ socioeconomic indicators, as well as geographic information system-based indicators of their built environments. Self-reported levels of LTPA during the school year were assessed according to intensity, frequency and index of energy expenditure. Associations per gender between covariates and LTPA were estimated using ordinal multilevel regression with multiple imputations. Results: Boys (21% of which were highly active were more active than girls (16% of which were highly active (p ≤ 0.01. The incremental variance between schools explained by the contextual variables in the final models was higher among girls (7.8% than boys (2.8%. The number of parks or green spaces within 750 m around their schools was positively associated with student LTPA in both genders. Conclusions: The promotion of parks around schools seems to be an avenue to be strengthened.

  19. Integration of OHS into Risk Management in an Open-Pit Mining Project in Quebec (Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Badri

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite undeniable progress, the mining industry remains the scene of serious accidents revealing disregard for occupational health and safety (OHS and leaving open the debate regarding the safety of its employees. The San José mine last collapse near Copiapó, Chile on 5 August 2010 and the 69-day rescue operation that followed in order to save 33 miners trapped underground show the serious consequences of neglecting worker health and safety. The aim of this study was to validate a new approach to integrating OHS into risk management in the context of a new open-pit mining project in Quebec, based on analysis of incident and accident reports, semi-structured interviews, questionnaires and collaborative field observations. We propose a new concept, called hazard concentration, based on the number of hazards and their influence. This concept represents the weighted fraction of each category of hazards related to an undesirable event. The weight of each category of hazards is calculated by AHP, a multicriteria method. The proposed approach included the creation of an OHS database for facilitating expert risk management. Reinforcing effects between hazard categories were identified and all potential risks were prioritized. The results provided the company with a rational basis for choosing a suitable accident prevention strategy for its operational activities.

  20. Estimating the mercury exposure dose in a population of migratory bird hunters in the St. Lawrence River region, Quebec, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchesne, J.-F.; Levesque, B.; Gauvin, Denis; Braune, Birgit; Gingras, Suzanne; Dewailly, E.

    2004-01-01

    St. Lawrence River hunters (Quebec, Canada) are exposed to the pollutants, especially mercury, that contaminate birds and fish. However, the health risks of this have remained unclear because of a lack of information about the hunters' duck, geese, and sportfish consumption habits. A nutritional survey was set up to characterize waterfowl and sportfish consumption in St. Lawrence River duck hunters and to estimate their daily exposure to mercury. During the winter of 2000, 512 hunters selected from the Canadian Wildlife Service database completed a self-administered questionnaire. Daily exposure to contaminants was measured using data from the Canadian Wildlife Service (waterfowl) and available data on St. Lawrence River sportfish. The annual average consumption was 7.5 meals of ducks and geese and 8.7 meals of sportfish. The daily exposure to mercury related to waterfowl consumption was below the Canadian tolerable daily intake (TDI) of 0.47 μg/kg body wt/day for all participants. The daily mercury intake associated with fish consumption was greater than the TDI in 2 duck hunters. The daily exposure to mercury was higher than the TDI in 4 participants when both waterfowl and fish consumption were combined. Our results suggest that fish consumption (especially freshwater fish) represents the main source of exposure to pollutants in duck hunters

  1. Surveillance of social and geographic inequalities in housing-related issues: the case of the Eastern Townships, Quebec (Canada).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Mathieu; Généreux, Mélissa; Laverdière, Emélie; Vanasse, Alain

    2014-05-06

    Even though health inequalities are conditioned by many aspects of the environment, much of the existing research focuses on the social environment. This emphasis has the effect to neglect other environmental aspects such as its physical dimension. The physical environment, which is linked to housing conditions, may contribute to the uneven distribution of health. In this study, we examined 19 housing-related issues among a representative sample of 2,000 adults residing in a Quebec (Canada) health region characterized by a mix of rural, semi-rural, and urban areas. The distribution of these issues was examined according to socioeconomic and geographic indicators of social position. Summary measures of inequalities were assessed. Our results showed that the prevalence of nearly all housing-related issues was higher among low-income households compared to more affluent ones. Highly educated individuals showed better housing conditions, whereas different issues tended to cluster in deprived or densely populated areas. To conclude, we observed steep gradients between social class and poor housing conditions. This may explain a substantial part of health inequality on the regional scale. The surveillance of housing-related issues is therefore essential to properly inform and mobilize local stakeholders and to develop interventions that target vulnerable groups on this level.

  2. Water quality impact assessment of agricultural Beneficial Management Practices (BMPs) simulated for a regional catchment in Quebec, Eastern Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Alain N.; Hallema, Dennis W.; Gumiere, Silvio J.; Savary, Stéphane; Hould Gosselin, Gabriel

    2014-05-01

    Water quality has become a matter of increasing concern over the past four decades as a result of the intensification of agriculture, and more particularly so in Canada where agriculture has evolved into the largest non-point source of surface water pollution. The Canadian WEBs project (Watershed Evaluation of Beneficial Management Practices, BMPs) was initiated in order to determine the efficiency of BMPs in improving the surface water quality of rural catchments, and the economic aspects related to their implementation on the same scale. In this contribution we use the integrated watershed modelling platform GIBSI (Gestion Intégrée des Bassins versants à l'aide d'un Système Informatisé) to evaluate the effects of various BMPs on sediment and nutrient yields and, in close relation to this, the surface water quality for the Beaurivage River catchment (718 km2) in Quebec, eastern Canada. A base scenario of the catchment is developed by calibrating the different models of the GIBSI platform, namely HYDROTEL for hydrology, the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) for soil erosion, the Erosion-Productivity Impact Calculator (EPIC) of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) for contaminant transport and fate, and QUAL2E for stream water quality. Four BMPs were analysed: (1) vegetated riparian buffer strips, (2) precision slurry application, (3) transition of all cereal and corn fields to grassland (grassland conversion), and (4) no-tillage on corn fields. Simulations suggest that riparian buffer strips and grassland conversion are more effective in terms of phosphorus, nitrogen and sediment load reduction than precision slurry application and no-tillage on corn fields. The results furthermore indicate the need for a more profound understanding of sediment dynamics in streams and on riparian buffer strips.

  3. Black spruce growth forms as a record of a changing winter environment at treeline, Quebec, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavoie, C.; Payette, S.

    1992-01-01

    The environmental conditions prevailing at treeline in subarctic Quebec have been reconstructed over the past 400 yr through a comparative analysis of tree rings and growth forms of black spruce (Picea mariana [Mill.] B.S.P.). Because black spruce growth forms are closely associated with the winter environment, they are a direct response to conditions of low temperature and windblown snow abrasion affecting living tissues at the snow-air interface. The age structure of supranival shoot populations was closely associated with periods of higher stem survival in winter most likely under snowier and windless conditions. Spruce growth on slopes and in the valley revealed periods of low tree-ring growth between 1601 and 1663 and between 1700 and 1904, respectively. A long-lasting period of low radial growth 1697 and 1939 prevailed in the hilltop site. During the 20th century, spruce height increased from 0.8 to 1.6 m on slopes and in the valley, while the basal level of abrasion from windblown snow increased from 0.1 to 0.5 m, suggesting an increasing trend towards warmer and snowier conditions. Abraded spruces growing during the Little Ice Age (1570-1880) were replaced by symmetrical trees during the 20th century. Supranival skirted and whorled spruces which dominated on the hilltop site during the 16th century reverted to infranival cushion and mat growth forms during the Little Ice Age. These stunted spruces were unable to recover during the recent warming because of their inability to catch enough drifting snow to allow vertical growth

  4. Lead exposure through consumption of big game meat in Quebec, Canada: risk assessment and perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fachehoun, Richard Coovi; Lévesque, Benoit; Dumas, Pierre; St-Louis, Antoine; Dubé, Marjolaine; Ayotte, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Game meat from animals killed by lead ammunition may expose consumers to lead. We assessed the risk related to lead intake from meat consumption of white-tailed deer and moose killed by lead ammunition and documented the perception of hunters and butchers regarding this potential contamination. Information on cervid meat consumption and risk perception were collected using a mailed self-administrated questionnaire which was addressed to a random sample of Quebec hunters. In parallel, 72 samples of white-tailed deer (n = 35) and moose (n = 37) meats were collected from voluntary hunters and analysed for lead content using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. A risk assessment for people consuming lead shot game meat was performed using Monte Carlo simulations. Mean lead levels in white-tailed deer and moose killed by lead ammunition were 0.28 and 0.17 mg kg(-1) respectively. Risk assessment based on declared cervid meat consumption revealed that 1.7% of the surveyed hunters would exceed the dose associated with a 1 mmHg increase in systolic blood pressure (SBP). For consumers of moose meat once, twice or three times a week, simulations predicted that 0.5%, 0.9% and 1.5% of adults would be exposed to a dose associated with a 1 mmHg increase in SBP, whereas 0.9%, 1.9% and 3.3% of children would be exposed to a dose associated with 1 point intelligence quotient (IQ) decrease, respectively. For consumers of deer meat once, twice or three times a week, the proportions were 1.6%, 2.9% and 4% for adults and 2.9%, 5.8% and 7.7% for children, respectively. The consumption of meat from cervids killed with lead ammunition may increase lead exposure and its associated health risks. It would be important to inform the population, particularly hunters, about this potential risk and promote the use of lead-free ammunition.

  5. Actes des Journees de linguistique (Proceedings of the Linguistics Conference) (13th, Quebec, Canada, March 25-26, 1999).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, Eric, Ed.

    Papers on language research in this volume include the following: Pour une comparaison des voyelles nasals du Quebec et du Haut-Jura: observations, methodologie et outils infomatiques (A Comparison of Quebec and Haut-Jura's Nasal Vowels: Observations, Methodologies, and Instrumentation) (Vincent Arnaud and Claude Paradis); Le negociation du sens…

  6. A population-based study of chronic hepatitis C in immigrants and non-immigrants in Quebec, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenaway, Christina; Azoulay, Laurent; Allard, Robert; Cox, Joseph; Tran, Viet Anh; Abou Chakra, Claire Nour; Steele, Russ; Klein, Marina

    2017-02-13

    Immigrants originating from intermediate and high HCV prevalence countries may be at increased risk of exposure to hepatitis C infection (HCV) in their countries of origin, however they are not routinely screened after arrival in most low HCV prevalence host countries. We aimed to describe the epidemiology of HCV in immigrants compared to the Canadian born population. Using the reportable infectious disease database linked to the landed immigration database and several provincial administrative databases, we assembled a cohort of all reported cases of HCV in Quebec, Canada (1998-2008). Underlying co-morbidities were identified in the health services databases. Stratum specific rates of reported cases/100,000, rate ratios (RRs) and trends over the study period were estimated. A total of 20,862 patients with HCV were identified, among whom 1922 (9.2%) were immigrants. Immigrants were older and diagnosed a mean of 9.8 ± 7 years after arrival. The Canadian born population was more likely to have behavior co-morbidities (problematic alcohol or drug use) and HIV co-infection. Immigrants from Sub-Saharan Africa, Asia and Eastern Europe had the highest HCV reported rates with RRs compared to non-immigrants ranging from 1.5 to 1.7. The age and sex adjusted rates decreased by 4.9% per year in non-immigrants but remained unchanged in immigrants. The proportion of HCV occurring in immigrants doubled over the study period from 5 to 11%. Immigrants from intermediate and high HCV prevalence countries are at increased risk for HCV and had a mean delay in diagnosis of almost 10 years after arrival suggesting that they may benefit from targeted HCV screening and earlier linkage to care.

  7. Large-Scale Variations in Lumber Value Recovery of Yellow Birch and Sugar Maple in Quebec, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Hassegawa

    Full Text Available Silvicultural restoration measures have been implemented in the northern hardwoods forests of southern Quebec, Canada, but their financial applicability is often hampered by the depleted state of the resource. To help identify sites most suited for the production of high quality timber, where the potential return on silvicultural investments should be the highest, this study assessed the impact of stand and site characteristics on timber quality in sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh. and yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis Britt.. For this purpose, lumber value recovery (LVR, an estimate of the summed value of boards contained in a unit volume of round wood, was used as an indicator of timber quality. Predictions of LVR were made for yellow birch and sugar maple trees contained in a network of more than 22000 temporary sample plots across the Province. Next, stand-level variables were selected and models to predict LVR were built using the boosted regression trees method. Finally, the occurrence of spatial clusters was verified by a hotspot analysis. Results showed that in both species LVR was positively correlated with the stand age and structural diversity index, and negatively correlated with the number of merchantable stems. Yellow birch had higher LVR in areas with shallower soils, whereas sugar maple had higher LVR in regions with deeper soils. The hotspot analysis indicated that clusters of high and low LVR exist across the province for both species. Although it remains uncertain to what extent the variability of LVR may result from variations in past management practices or in inherent site quality, we argue that efforts to produce high quality timber should be prioritized in sites where LVR is predicted to be the highest.

  8. Large-Scale Variations in Lumber Value Recovery of Yellow Birch and Sugar Maple in Quebec, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassegawa, Mariana; Havreljuk, Filip; Ouimet, Rock; Auty, David; Pothier, David; Achim, Alexis

    2015-01-01

    Silvicultural restoration measures have been implemented in the northern hardwoods forests of southern Quebec, Canada, but their financial applicability is often hampered by the depleted state of the resource. To help identify sites most suited for the production of high quality timber, where the potential return on silvicultural investments should be the highest, this study assessed the impact of stand and site characteristics on timber quality in sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) and yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis Britt.). For this purpose, lumber value recovery (LVR), an estimate of the summed value of boards contained in a unit volume of round wood, was used as an indicator of timber quality. Predictions of LVR were made for yellow birch and sugar maple trees contained in a network of more than 22000 temporary sample plots across the Province. Next, stand-level variables were selected and models to predict LVR were built using the boosted regression trees method. Finally, the occurrence of spatial clusters was verified by a hotspot analysis. Results showed that in both species LVR was positively correlated with the stand age and structural diversity index, and negatively correlated with the number of merchantable stems. Yellow birch had higher LVR in areas with shallower soils, whereas sugar maple had higher LVR in regions with deeper soils. The hotspot analysis indicated that clusters of high and low LVR exist across the province for both species. Although it remains uncertain to what extent the variability of LVR may result from variations in past management practices or in inherent site quality, we argue that efforts to produce high quality timber should be prioritized in sites where LVR is predicted to be the highest.

  9. Net Greenhouse Gas Emissions at the Eastmain 1 Reservoir, Quebec, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strachan, I. B.; Tremblay, A.; Bastien, J.; Bonneville, M.; Del Georgio, P.; Demarty, M.; Garneau, M.; Helie, J.; Pelletier, L.; Prairie, Y.; Roulet, N. T.; Teodoru, C. R.

    2010-12-01

    Canada has much potential to increase its already large use of hydroelectricity for energy production. However, hydroelectricity production in many cases requires the creation of reservoirs that inundate terrestrial ecosystems. While it has been reasonably well established that reservoirs emit GHGs, it has not been established what the net difference between the landscape scale exchange of GHGs would be before and after reservoir creation. Further, there is no indication of how that net difference may change over time from when the reservoir was first created to when it reaches a steady-state condition. A team of University and private sector researchers in partnership with Hydro-Québec has been studying net GHG emissions from the Eastmain 1 reservoir located in the boreal forest region of Québec, Canada. Net emissions are defined as those emitted following the creation of a reservoir minus those that would have been emitted or absorbed by the natural systems over a 100-year period in the absence of the reservoir. Sedimentation rates, emissions at the surface of the reservoir and natural water bodies, the degassing emissions downstream of the power house as well as the emissions/absorption of the natural ecosystems (forest, peatlands, lakes, streams and rivers) before and after the impoundment were measured using different techniques (Eddy covariance, floating chambers, automated systems, etc.). This project provides the first measurements of CO2 and CH4 between a new boreal reservoir and the atmosphere as the reservoir is being created, the development of the methodology to obtain these, and the first attempt at approaching the GHGs emissions from northern hydroelectric reservoirs as a land cover change issue. We will therefore provide: an estimate of the change in GHG source the atmosphere would see; an estimate of the net emissions that can be used for intercomparison of GHG contributions with other modes of power production; and a basis on which to develop

  10. Moderate effect of damming the Romaine River (Quebec, Canada) on coastal plankton dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senneville, Simon; Schloss, Irene R.; St-Onge Drouin, Simon; Bélanger, Simon; Winkler, Gesche; Dumont, Dany; Johnston, Patricia; St-Onge, Isabelle

    2018-04-01

    Rivers' damming disrupts the seasonal cycle of freshwater and nutrient inputs into the marine system, which can lead to changes in coastal plankton dynamics. Here we use a 3-D 5-km resolution coupled biophysical model and downscale it to a 400-m resolution to simulate the effect of damming the Romaine River in Québec, Canada, which discharges on average 327 m3 s-1 of freshwater into the northern Gulf of St. Lawrence. Model results are compared with environmental data obtained from 2 buoys and in situ sampling near the Romaine River mouth during the 2013 spring-summer period. Noteworthy improvements are made to the light attenuation parametrization and the trophic links of the biogeochemical model. The modelled variables reproduced most of the observed levels of variability. Comparisons between natural and regulated discharge simulation show differences in primary production and in the dominance of plankton groups in the Romaine River plume. The maximum increase in primary production when averaged over the inner part of Mingan Archipelago is 41%, but 7.1% when the primary production anomaly is averaged from March to September.

  11. Summer Season Water Temperature Modeling under the Climate Change: Case Study for Fourchue River, Quebec, Canada

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    Jaewon Kwak

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available It is accepted that human-induced climate change is unavoidable and it will have effects on physical, chemical, and biological properties of aquatic habitats. This will be especially important for cold water fishes such as trout. The objective of this study is to simulate water temperature for future periods under the climate change situations. Future water temperature in the Fourchue River (St-Alexandre-de-Kamouraska, QC, Canada were simulated by the CEQUEAU hydrological and water temperature model, using meteorological inputs from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5 Global Circulation Models (GCMs with Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP 2.6, 4.5 and 8.5 climate change scenarios. The result of the study indicated that water temperature in June will increase 0.2–0.7 °C and that in September, median water temperature could decrease by 0.2–1.1 °C. The rise in summer water temperature may be favorable to brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis growth, but several days over the Upper Incipient Lethal Temperature (UILT are also likely to occur. Therefore, flow regulation procedures, including cold water releases from the Morin dam may have to be considered for the Fourchue River.

  12. Ideal and actual involvement of community pharmacists in health promotion and prevention: a cross-sectional study in Quebec, Canada

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    Laliberté Marie-Claude

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An increased interest is observed in broadening community pharmacists' role in public health. To date, little information has been gathered in Canada on community pharmacists' perceptions of their role in health promotion and prevention; however, such data are essential to the development of public-health programs in community pharmacy. A cross-sectional study was therefore conducted to explore the perceptions of community pharmacists in urban and semi-urban areas regarding their ideal and actual levels of involvement in providing health-promotion and prevention services and the barriers to such involvement. Methods Using a five-step modified Dillman's tailored design method, a questionnaire with 28 multiple-choice or open-ended questions (11 pages plus a cover letter was mailed to a random sample of 1,250 pharmacists out of 1,887 community pharmacists practicing in Montreal (Quebec, Canada and surrounding areas. It included questions on pharmacists' ideal level of involvement in providing health-promotion and preventive services; which services were actually offered in their pharmacy, the employees involved, the frequency, and duration of the services; the barriers to the provision of these services in community pharmacy; their opinion regarding the most appropriate health professionals to provide them; and the characteristics of pharmacists, pharmacies and their clientele. Results In all, 571 out of 1,234 (46.3% eligible community pharmacists completed and returned the questionnaire. Most believed they should be very involved in health promotion and prevention, particularly in smoking cessation (84.3%; screening for hypertension (81.8%, diabetes (76.0% and dyslipidemia (56.9%; and sexual health (61.7% to 89.1%; however, fewer respondents reported actually being very involved in providing such services (5.7% [lifestyle, including smoking cessation], 44.5%, 34.8%, 6.5% and 19.3%, respectively. The main barriers to the

  13. Canopy interaction with precipitation and sulphur deposition in two boreal forests of Quebec, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marty, C.; Houle, D.; Duchesne, L.; Gagnon, C.

    2012-01-01

    The interaction of atmospheric sulphur (S) was investigated within the canopies of two boreal forests in Québec, Canada. The net canopy exchange approach, i.e. the difference between S–SO 4 in throughfall and precipitation, suggests high proportion of dry deposition in winter (up to 53%) as compared to summer (1–9%). However, a 3.5‰ decrease in δ 18 O–SO 4 throughfall in summer compared to incident precipitation points towards a much larger proportion of dry deposition during the warm season. We suggest that a significant fraction of dry deposition (about 1.2 kg ha −1 yr −1 , representing 30–40% of annual wet S deposition) which contributed to the decreased δ 18 O–SO 4 in throughfall was taken up by the canopy. Overall, these results showed that, contrary to what is commonly considered, S interchanges in the canopy could be important in boreal forests with low absolute atmospheric S depositions. - Highlights: ► We investigated sulphur interactions with the canopy of two boreal forests, Québec. ► Sulphur interchanges within the canopy were large and vary with seasons. ► About 1.2 kg S–SO 4 ha −1 yr −1 was taken up by the canopy during warm seasons. ► This represents 30–40% of annual wet S–SO 4 deposition. ► Canopy uptake must be considered for sulphur budget estimations in boreal forests. - The equivalent of 30–40% of annual wet S–SO 4 deposition was taken up by the canopy of two boreal forests during warm seasons.

  14. Lay people's interpretation of ethical values related to mass vaccination; the case of A(H1N1) vaccination campaign in the province of Quebec (French Canada).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massé, Raymond; Désy, Michel

    2014-12-01

    Pandemic influenza ethics frameworks are based on respect of values and principles such as regard for autonomy, responsibility, transparency, solidarity and social justice. However, very few studies have addressed the way in which the general population views these moral norms. (i) To analyse the receptiveness of the population of French-speaking Quebecers to certain ethical principles promoted by public health authorities during the AH1N1 vaccination campaign. (ii) To add to the limited number of empirical studies that examine the population's perception of ethical values. Eight months after the end of the AH1N1 vaccination campaign in the Province of Quebec (Canada), 100 French-speaking Quebecers were assembled in ten focus groups. Discussions focussed on the level of respect shown by public health authorities for individual autonomy, the limits of appeals for solidarity, the balance between vaccination efficiency and social justice towards non-prioritized subpopulations, vaccination as a demonstration of civic duty and social responsibility. The population acknowledged a high level of individual responsibility towards family members and agreed to vaccination to protect children and ageing parents. However, the concepts of civic duty and solidarity did not elucidate unanimous support, despite the fact that social justice stood out as a dominant value of public morals. The ethical principles promoted in influenza pandemic ethics frameworks are subject to reinterpretation by the population. An ethic of public health must consider their understanding of the fundamental values that legitimize mass vaccination. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Temporal trends in genital warts among individuals covered by the public prescription drug insurance plan in the province of Quebec, Canada, from 1998 to 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steben, Marc; Ouhoummane, Najwa; Rodier, Caroline; Brassard, Paul

    2013-04-01

    We assessed temporal trend in the incidence and prevalence of genital warts (GWs) in the province of Quebec, Canada, between 1998 and 2007 as a baseline for future assessment of the impact of Quebec human papillomavirus vaccination program. Data on GWs were obtained from the linkage of the physician service claims and the public insurance drug plan databases. Genital warts were identified through a prescription of podofilox, a medical procedure code specific to GWs or a diagnosis code for viral warts followed by a prescription of imiquimod or fluorouracil within 2 weeks. An episode was considered incident if it was preceded by a 12-month interval period free of GWs care. During the study period, a total of 27,138 episodes of GWs occurred among 24,267 individuals. The age-standardized incidence rate increased over time in men and women. The highest incidence was observed in women aged 20 to 24 years (391.9/100,000) and in men aged 25 to 29 years (383.3/100,000). Similar trends in prevalence were observed. The incidence and prevalence of GWs has increased among the population covered by the public insurance drug plan in Quebec.

  16. Prioritizing Sites for Protection and Restoration for Grizzly Bears (Ursus arctos) in Southwestern Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braid, Andrew C R; Nielsen, Scott E

    2015-01-01

    As the influence of human activities on natural systems continues to expand, there is a growing need to prioritize not only pristine sites for protection, but also degraded sites for restoration. We present an approach for simultaneously prioritizing sites for protection and restoration that considers landscape patterns for a threatened population of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) in southwestern Alberta, Canada. We considered tradeoffs between bottom-up (food resource supply) and top-down (mortality risk from roads) factors affecting seasonal habitat quality for bears. Simulated annealing was used to prioritize source-like sites (high habitat productivity, low mortality risk) for protection, as well as sink-like sites (high habitat productivity, high mortality risk) for restoration. Priority source-like habitats identified key conservation areas where future developments should be limited, whereas priority sink-like habitats identified key areas for mitigating road-related mortality risk with access management. Systematic conservation planning methods can be used to complement traditional habitat-based methods for individual focal species by identifying habitats where conservation actions (both protection and restoration) have the highest potential utility.

  17. Which Factors Contribute to Environmental Behaviour of Landowners in Southwestern Ontario, Canada?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebel, Silke; Brick, Jeff; Lantz, Van A.; Trenholm, Ryan

    2017-09-01

    Loss of natural heritage is a problem that is particularly prevalent in areas of high population density. We used a survey to understand the factors that drive environmental behavior of landowners in southwestern Ontario, Canada. The survey, which contained questions about environmental attitude, pro-environmental behavior and demographics, was mailed to 18,090 rural route addresses, and we received 3256 completed surveys (18% response rate). Two types of environmental behavior, namely voluntarily increasing the area of land set aside for conservation, and enrollment in a conservation stewardship program, were significantly correlated with a positive attitude towards conservation. Financial considerations also played a role. We showed that the biggest motivator to enroll in a wetland enhancement program was access to `more information on how the decline in wetland area affects them personally', while `public recognition' was the least motivating factor. We suggest that enrollment in voluntary land stewardship programs might be increased by providing information about the effects of ecosystem loss, and by providing financial incentives for participation. In a larger social context, outreach programs by government agencies could focus on improving pro-environmental attitudes, which in turn is likely to result in more pro-environmental behavior of landowners.

  18. Prioritizing Sites for Protection and Restoration for Grizzly Bears (Ursus arctos in Southwestern Alberta, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew C R Braid

    Full Text Available As the influence of human activities on natural systems continues to expand, there is a growing need to prioritize not only pristine sites for protection, but also degraded sites for restoration. We present an approach for simultaneously prioritizing sites for protection and restoration that considers landscape patterns for a threatened population of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos in southwestern Alberta, Canada. We considered tradeoffs between bottom-up (food resource supply and top-down (mortality risk from roads factors affecting seasonal habitat quality for bears. Simulated annealing was used to prioritize source-like sites (high habitat productivity, low mortality risk for protection, as well as sink-like sites (high habitat productivity, high mortality risk for restoration. Priority source-like habitats identified key conservation areas where future developments should be limited, whereas priority sink-like habitats identified key areas for mitigating road-related mortality risk with access management. Systematic conservation planning methods can be used to complement traditional habitat-based methods for individual focal species by identifying habitats where conservation actions (both protection and restoration have the highest potential utility.

  19. Which Factors Contribute to Environmental Behaviour of Landowners in Southwestern Ontario, Canada?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebel, Silke; Brick, Jeff; Lantz, Van A; Trenholm, Ryan

    2017-09-01

    Loss of natural heritage is a problem that is particularly prevalent in areas of high population density. We used a survey to understand the factors that drive environmental behavior of landowners in southwestern Ontario, Canada. The survey, which contained questions about environmental attitude, pro-environmental behavior and demographics, was mailed to 18,090 rural route addresses, and we received 3256 completed surveys (18% response rate). Two types of environmental behavior, namely voluntarily increasing the area of land set aside for conservation, and enrollment in a conservation stewardship program, were significantly correlated with a positive attitude towards conservation. Financial considerations also played a role. We showed that the biggest motivator to enroll in a wetland enhancement program was access to 'more information on how the decline in wetland area affects them personally', while 'public recognition' was the least motivating factor. We suggest that enrollment in voluntary land stewardship programs might be increased by providing information about the effects of ecosystem loss, and by providing financial incentives for participation. In a larger social context, outreach programs by government agencies could focus on improving pro-environmental attitudes, which in turn is likely to result in more pro-environmental behavior of landowners.

  20. Risk factors and impacts of clinical and subclinical mastitis in commercial meat-producing sheep flocks in Quebec, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenault, Julie; Dubreuil, Pascal; Higgins, Robert; Bélanger, Denise

    2008-11-17

    We conducted a prospective observational study on clinical and subclinical mastitis in 30 commercial meat-producing sheep flocks from 2 regions of the province of Quebec, Canada. A total of 2,792 ewes selected in late gestation were followed from lambing to weaning of lambs. The incidence of clinical mastitis for the total lactation period (average of 58 days) ranged among flocks from 0 to 6.6%, with a median of 1.2%. The most frequently isolated bacteria from the cases of clinical mastitis, in pure or mixed culture, were Mannheimia haemolytica (26%), Staphylococcus aureus (23%), and coagulase-negative staphylococci (17%). Incidence of clinical mastitis was higher in ewes that gave birth to 3 or more lambs and from the Estrie region, and was associated with an increase in ewe mortality, an increase in lamb mortality at the litter level, and a decrease in lamb's weaning weight for lambs born in multiple litter size or from ewes >or=4 years old. Among 354 selected ewes with clinically normal udder at the end of lactation, 28.8% had potentially pathogenic bacteria isolated from milk. The most prevalent bacteria were S. aureus (9.3%) and coagulase-negative staphylococci (9.3%). The risk of having a positive culture in at least one half was different between the two regions. Prevalence of ewes (n=261) with California Mastitis Test (CMT) positive result in at least one half was 24.1 and 14.9% using a cut-off of >or=1+ and >or=2+, respectively. Prevalence of culture-positive udder halves was 11.7% for CMT-negative compared with 53.6% for CMT 3+ halves. CMT status was positively associated with the isolation of coagulase-negative staphylococci, M. haemolytica, S. aureus, and various Streptococcus species, but not with other isolated bacteria. Additionally, prevalence of CMT-positive halves was higher in ewes from the Estrie region, aged of >or=4 years versus 1 year, having clinical mastitis previously detected in the lactation and/or with low body condition score. Lamb

  1. Actes des Journees de Linguistique (Proceedings of the Linguistics Conference) (11th, Quebec, Canada, March 20-21, 1997).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caouette, Claudine, Ed.; Larrivee, Pierre, Ed.

    English translations of articles in French in this issue include these: "Discourse Reported in the Print Media"; "Comparison of Register in Quebec and French Speakers"; "Method of Description of Specialized Verbs in View of Machine Translation Applications"; "Dialectal Areas in the Brazilian State of Rio Grande…

  2. STRUCTURILE DE DEFLECTORI, FACTORI DE ÎMBUNĂTĂŢIRE AI HABITATULUI PISCICOL- STUDIU DE CAZ, RÂUL NICOLET (QUEBEC-CANADA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius DULGHERU

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Deflection structures factors for improve the fish habitat. Case study nicolet river (Quebec-Canada. Există câţiva factori care joacă un rol important în definirea calităţii habitatului fizic al râurilor, speciile de peşti manifestând preferinţe pentru anumite elemente hidraulice (viteză, adâncime, tipul sedimentelor etc. Un habitat sănătos este în mod normal caracterizat printr-o succesiune morfologică de vaduri şi adâncuri cu impact în oxigenarea apei, reproducerea şi hrănirea peştilor etc. Datorită importanţei recreaţionale a pescuitului, în Canada există un număr foarte mare de proiecte de îmbunătăţire a habitatului piscicol. In acest sens, deflectorii amplasaţi în albiile cursurilor de apă s-au dovedit a fi metoda cea mai de succes pentru habitatul păstrăvilor. Pe râul Nicolet (Quebec-Canada a fost monitorizată influenţa unor astfel de structuri inginereşti asupra menţinerii în timp a structurii de adânc. Din analiza evoluţiei morfologice şi morfometrice a adâncurilor (prin folosirea diferitelor ridicări topografice succesive din perioada 2000-2007, rezultă faptul că structurile inginereşti au un rol benefic în menţinerea unui habitat propice pentru peşti.

  3. The Economic Value of the Greater Montreal Blue Network (Quebec, Canada: A Contingent Choice Study Using Real Projects to Estimate Non-Market Aquatic Ecosystem Services Benefits.

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    Thomas G Poder

    Full Text Available This study used a contingent choice method to determine the economic value of improving various ecosystem services (ESs of the Blue Network of Greater Montreal (Quebec, Canada. Three real projects were used and the evaluation focused on six ESs that are related to freshwater aquatic ecosystems: biodiversity, water quality, carbon sequestration, recreational activities, landscape aesthetics and education services. We also estimated the value associated with the superficies of restored sites. We calculated the monetary value that a household would be willing to pay for each additional qualitative or quantitative unit of different ESs, and these marginal values range from $0.11 to $15.39 per household per unit. Thus, under certain assumptions, we determined the monetary values that all Quebec households would allocate to improve each ES in Greater Montreal by one unit. The most valued ES was water quality ($13.5 million, followed by education services ($10.7 million, recreational activities ($8.9 million, landscape aesthetics ($4.1 million, biodiversity ($1.2 million, and carbon sequestration ($0.1 million. Our results ascribe monetary values to improved (or degraded aquatic ecosystems in the Blue Network of Greater Montreal, but can also enhance economic analyses of various aquatic ecosystem restoration and management projects.

  4. The Economic Value of the Greater Montreal Blue Network (Quebec, Canada): A Contingent Choice Study Using Real Projects to Estimate Non-Market Aquatic Ecosystem Services Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poder, Thomas G; Dupras, Jérôme; Fetue Ndefo, Franck; He, Jie

    2016-01-01

    This study used a contingent choice method to determine the economic value of improving various ecosystem services (ESs) of the Blue Network of Greater Montreal (Quebec, Canada). Three real projects were used and the evaluation focused on six ESs that are related to freshwater aquatic ecosystems: biodiversity, water quality, carbon sequestration, recreational activities, landscape aesthetics and education services. We also estimated the value associated with the superficies of restored sites. We calculated the monetary value that a household would be willing to pay for each additional qualitative or quantitative unit of different ESs, and these marginal values range from $0.11 to $15.39 per household per unit. Thus, under certain assumptions, we determined the monetary values that all Quebec households would allocate to improve each ES in Greater Montreal by one unit. The most valued ES was water quality ($13.5 million), followed by education services ($10.7 million), recreational activities ($8.9 million), landscape aesthetics ($4.1 million), biodiversity ($1.2 million), and carbon sequestration ($0.1 million). Our results ascribe monetary values to improved (or degraded) aquatic ecosystems in the Blue Network of Greater Montreal, but can also enhance economic analyses of various aquatic ecosystem restoration and management projects.

  5. School Absenteeism As an Adjunct Surveillance Indicator: Experience during the Second Wave of the 2009 H1N1 Pandemic in Quebec, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kom Mogto, Christelle Aïcha; De Serres, Gaston; Douville Fradet, Monique; Lebel, Germain; Toutant, Steve; Gilca, Rodica; Ouakki, Manale; Janjua, Naveed Zafar; Skowronski, Danuta M.

    2012-01-01

    Background A school absenteeism surveillance system was implemented in the province of Quebec, Canada during the second wave of the 2009 H1N1pandemic. This paper compares this surveillance approach with other available indicators. Method All (3432) elementary and high schools from Quebec were included. Each school was required to report through a web-based system any day where the proportion of students absent for influenza-like illness (ILI) exceeded 10% of current school enrolment. Results Between October 18 and December 12 2009, 35.6% of all schools met the 10% absenteeism threshold. This proportion was greater in elementary compared to high schools (40% vs 19%) and in smaller compared to larger schools (44% vs 22%). The maximum absenteeism rate was reached the first day of reporting or within the next two days in 55% and 31% of schools respectively. The first reports and subsequent peak in school absenteeism provincially preceded the peak in paediatric hospitalization by two and one weeks, respectively. Trends in school surveillance otherwise mirrored other indicators. Conclusion During a pandemic, school outbreak surveillance based on a 10% threshold appears insufficient to trigger timely intervention within a given affected school. However, school surveillance appears well-correlated and slightly anticipatory compared to other population indicators. As such, school absenteeism warrants further evaluation as an adjunct surveillance indicator whose overall utility will depend upon specified objectives, and other existing capacity for monitoring and response. PMID:22479531

  6. Trends in attitudes toward people living with HIV, homophobia, and HIV transmission knowledge in Quebec, Canada (1996, 2002, and 2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrien, Alix; Beaulieu, Marianne; Leaune, Viviane; Perron, Michèle; Dassa, Clément

    2013-01-01

    People living with HIV (PWHIV) face negative attitudes that isolate and discourage them from accessing services. Understanding negative attitudes and the social environment can lead to more effective health promotion strategies and programs. However, a scale to measure attitudes has been lacking. We developed and validated attitudes toward PWHIV Scale to examine trends in attitudes toward PWHIV in Quebec in 1996, 2002, and 2010. We also examined the relationship between negative attitudes toward PWHIV, homophobia, and knowledge about HIV transmission. The scale included 16 items and had a five-factor structure: F1 (fear of being infected), F2 (fear of contact with PWHIV), F3 (prejudicial beliefs toward groups at high risk of HIV), F4 (tolerance regarding sexual mores and behaviors), and F5 (social support for PWHIV). The validity and reliability of the scale were assessed and found to be high. Overall, Quebecers had positive attitudes toward PWHIV, with more negative attitudes observed in subgroups defined as male, ≥50 years of age, homophobia, and below-average knowledge about HIV transmission. Scores were stable between 1996 and 2002, and increased in 2010. Negative attitudes were correlated with higher levels of homophobia and lesser knowledge about HIV transmission. The lowest scores for each factor were observed in the same subgroups that had low overall scores on the Attitudes Scale. The findings from this study can be used to intensify interventions that promote compassion for PWHIV, address attitudes toward homosexuality, and encourage greater knowledge about the transmission of HIV in these subgroups.

  7. Using diatom assemblages and sulphur in sediments to uncover the effects of historical mining on Lake Arnoux (Quebec, Canada: A retrospective of economic benefits versus environmental debt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Brian Hamilton

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring changes in environmental conditions is increasingly important as the Canadian economic infrastructure ramps up exploration and mining development in the more inaccessible northern regions of Canada. Governments are concurrently assessing effects from past mining activities and absorbing the economic cost to society with on-going remediation and monitoring initiatives. The abandoned Aldermac mine in northwestern Quebec, mined from 1932–1943, is an excellent case study for assessing the state of environmental and economic effects of past mining operations. A paleolimnological approach, using diatoms as environmental proxies, was used to evaluate the spatial and temporal impacts on aquatic receiving environments. Based on the inferences drawn from diatom assemblages in Lake Arnoux, prior to mining activity, lake water pH was similar to that of surrounding lakes (circumneutral to weakly acidic. After mining operations terminated, changes in pH and alkalinity in Lake Arnoux coincided with distinct increases in sediment sulphur content. Across a 30- to 40-year span (circa 1940 to 1970s a significant decline in phytoplankton flora coincided with lake acidification and increased clarity of the water column. This resulted in an increase in the benthic diatom population (>90%, replacing the planktonic diatoms. Observed shifts in environmental proxies are concurrent with one, and possibly two, reported tailings pond breaches at the abandoned mine site. Adverse effects of the abandoned Aldermac mine on nearby ecosystems, combined with pressure from local citizens and environmental groups, forced responsible accountability for site restoration led by the Quebec government. Based on the historical period of economic growth, the financial benefits of the Aldermac mine were significant and justify the current pay-it-backward costs for environmental remediation. However, it has now been documented that the pay-it-backward model is not sustainable in

  8. Plasma concentrations of persistent organic pollutants in the Cree of northern Quebec, Canada: results from the multi-community environment-and-health study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberda, Eric N; Tsuji, Leonard J S; Martin, Ian D; Cote, Suzanne; Ayotte, Pierre; Dewailly, Eric; Nieboer, Evert

    2014-02-01

    Historically, resource development has had negative impacts on the traditional lifestyle of First Nation Cree Communities in the Province of Quebec, Canada. In response to the perceived need for fisheries restoration and for managing health concerns associated with environmental pollutants, the Mercury Program in the James Bay Region of Quebec was reconstituted in 2001 and broadened to include a wider range of chemicals of concern. Based on comprehensive surveys of the nine Cree Territory (Eeyou Istchee) communities in this region during the period 2002-2009, blood plasma concentrations are presented of Aroclor 1260, PCB congeners 28, 52, 99, 101, 105, 118, 128, 138, 153, 156, 163, 170, 180, 183, and 187, Aldrin, ß-HCH, α-Chlordane, γ-Chlordane, oxy-Chlordane, trans-Nonachlor, cis-Nonachlor, p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE, Hexachloro benzene (HCB), Mirex, PBB 153, PBDE 47, PBDE 99, PBDE 100, PBDE 153, Toxaphene 26, and Toxaphene 50. The organohalogenated compounds were extracted using solid-phase extraction and cleaned on florisil columns before high resolution HRGC-MS analysis. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to reduce the large number of contaminant variables into a smaller number of uncorrelated variables. ANOVA identified significant differences between age groups, with the older participants having higher body burdens of legacy lipophilic contaminants, but not for the PBDEs. In certain female age groups, plasma concentrations of PBDEs were observed to be lower than for males; conversely, DDT was higher. Among communities, concentrations were different (p<0.001) for all contaminants. This work provides a baseline for the James Bay Eeyou Istchee communities who, to varying degrees, rely on food and other resources from the land and therefore are at higher risk of increased body burdens of legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs). © 2013.

  9. Carbapenem non-susceptible enterobacteriaceae in Quebec, Canada: results of a laboratory surveillance program (2010-2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte Lefebvre

    Full Text Available The emergence and spread of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE represent a major public health concern because these bacteria are usually extensively resistant to most antibiotics. In order to evaluate their dissemination in Quebec, a surveillance program was introduced in 2010. We report the molecular and epidemiological profiles of CPE isolates collected. Between August 2010 and December 2012, a total of 742 non-duplicate isolates non-susceptible to carbapenems were analysed. AmpC β-lactamase and metallo-β-lactamase production were detected by Etest and carbapenemase production by the modified Hodge test (MHT. Antibiotic susceptibility profiles were determined using broth microdilution or Etest. Clonality of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC strains was analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE. The presence of genes encoding carbapenemases as well as other β-lactamases was detected using PCR. Of the 742 isolates tested, 169 (22.8% were CPE. Of these 169 isolates, 151 (89.3% harboured a blaKPC gene while the remaining isolates carried blaSME (n = 9, blaOXA-48 (n = 5, blaNDM (n = 3, and blaNMC (n = 1 genes. Among the 93 KPC strains presenting with a unique pattern (unique PFGE pattern and/or unique antibiotics susceptibility profile, 99% were resistant to ertapenem, 95% to imipenem, 87% to meropenem, 97% to aztreonam, 31% to colistin and 2% to tigecycline. In 19 patients, 2 to 5 KPC strains from different species or with a different PFGE pattern were isolated. CPE strains were present in the province of Quebec with the majority of strains harbouring KPC. Alternately, SME, OXA-48 and NMC containing strains were rarely found.

  10. Isotopic and trace element constraints on the genesis of a boninitic sequence in the Thetford Mines ophiolitic complex, Quebec, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olive, V.; Hebert, R.; Loubet, M.

    1997-01-01

    The Mont Ham Massif (part of the Thetford Mines ophiolite, south Quebec) represents a magmatic sequence made up of tholeiitic and boninitic derived products. A geochemical study confirms the multicomponent mixing models that have been classically advanced for the source of boninites, with slab-derived components added to the main refractory harzburgitic peridotite. An isochron diagram of the boninitic rocks is interpreted as a mixing trend between two components: (i) a light rare earth element (LREE) enriched component (A), interpreted as slab-derived fluid-melts equilibrated with sedimentary materials (ε Nd = -3, 147 Sm/ 144 Nd = 0.140), and (ii) a LREE-depleted component (B) (0.21 147 Sm/ 144 Nd Nd = 9). A multicomponent source is also necessary to explain the Nd-isotope and trace element composition of the tholeiites, which are explained by the melting of a more fertile, Iherzolitic mantle and (or) mid-ocean ridge basalt source (component C), characterized by a large-ion lithophile element depicted pattern and an lapetus mantle Nd isotopic composition (ε Nd = 9), mixed in adequate proportions with the two previously infered slab-derived components (A and B). The genesis of the boninites of Mont Ham is not significantly different from those of boninites located in the Pacific. An intraoceanic subduction zone appears to be an appropriate geodynamic environment for the Mont Ham ophiolitic sequence. (author)

  11. Lessons of the 11 years of environmental monitoring of the Phase 1 LaGrande complex, Quebec, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demers, C.

    1993-01-01

    Phase 1 of the LaGrande complex involves creation of five hydroelectric reservoirs covering 11,335 km 2 in northwestern Quebec. Environmental studies began in 1973, at the same time as construction started. Since 1978, when the first reservoir was filled, an environmental monitoring network has been in place to follow the evolution of the aquatic environment. The network has shown that the water quality has remained adequate for the survival of aquatic organisms. The observed modifications have generally been of weak amplitude in the productive zone of water habitats and have reached their maximum 2-3 y after installation of facilities. For most of the LaGrande reservoirs, the modifications in water quality are related to decomposition of submerged organic matter. In most of the modified environments, an increase in zooplankton biomass has been noted which reached a maximum in the fourth summer season after reservoir filling. Fish populations, after an initial decrease in density, increased in subsequent years to reach a maximum and then declined to a level slightly above the pre-reservoir population

  12. Still-Born Autonomy Insurance Plan in Quebec: An Example of a Public Long-Term Care Insurance System in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hébert, Réjean

    2016-01-01

    Funding long-term care (LTC) is a challenge under the existing Beveridgean universal healthcare system. The Autonomy Insurance (AI) plan developed in Quebec was an attempt to introduce public LTC insurance into our healthcare system. The AI benefit was based on an assessment of the needs of older people and those with disabilities using a disability scale (SMAF) and case-mix classification system (Iso-SMAF Profiles). Under the plan, the benefit would be used to fund public institutions or purchase services from private organizations. Case managers were responsible for assessments and helping users and their families plan services and decide how to use the AI benefit. Funding AI was based on general tax revenues without capitalized funding, under a separate protected budget program. Projections were made for the additional budget needed to support AI, which would have mitigated the forecast increase in LTC spending due to population aging. All the legal, administrative, funding, training and contractual issues were dealt with, for implementation of the plan in April 2015. Unfortunately, the project was still-born for political reasons, but it demonstrates the feasibility of this essential innovation for Canada.

  13. Growth Response of Northern White-Cedar (Thuja occidentalis to Natural Disturbances and Partial Cuts in Mixedwood Stands of Quebec, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Claude Ruel

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Northern white-cedar (Thuja occidentalis is a species of high commercial and ecological value, the abundance of which has been declining since the middle of the 19th century. Very little information regarding its silviculture in mixedwood stands is currently available, even though a significant portion of wood resources comes from these stands. The present study is a retrospective analysis of white-cedar growth in partially harvested mixedwood stands of western Quebec, Canada. Eight stands distributed across two regions were analyzed. Dendrochronological approaches examined long-term diameter growth for sample white-cedar trees and stems of associated species. These approaches were used to reconstruct stand characteristics at the time of harvesting, together with local harvesting intensity. The study demonstrated white-cedar’s capacity to maintain good growth for long periods of time and at large tree sizes. Accession to the upper canopy positions occurs through repeated episodes of suppression/release, most of which seem to be associated with spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana outbreaks. White-cedar response to partial harvesting varies with tree size, residual basal area and species composition. Growth response was generally stronger for small trees, even though large trees still maintained the best diameter growth. Growth of white-cedar was negatively affected by an increase in softwood proportion in basal area. Growth responses to harvesting could be sustained for a period of 20 years.

  14. Initial responses of rove and ground beetles (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Carabidae) to removal of logging residues following clearcut harvesting in the boreal forest of Quebec, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, Timothy T; Klimaszewski, Jan; Thiffault, Evelyne; Bourdon, Caroline; Paré, David; Bousquet, Yves; Venier, Lisa; Titus, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Increased interest in biomass harvesting for bioenergetic applications has raised questions regarding the potential ecological consequences on forest biodiversity. Here we evaluate the initial changes in the abundance, species richness and community composition of rove (Staphylinidae) and ground beetles (Carabidae), immediately following 1) stem-only harvesting (SOH), in which logging debris (i.e., tree tops and branches) are retained on site, and 2) whole-tree harvesting (WTH), in which stems, tops and branches are removed in mature balsam fir stands in Quebec, Canada. Beetles were collected throughout the summer of 2011, one year following harvesting, using pitfall traps. Overall catch rates were greater in uncut forest (Control) than either stem-only or whole-tree harvested sites. Catch rates in WTH were greater than SOH sites. Uncut stands were characterized primarily by five species: Atheta capsularis, Atheta klagesi, Atheta strigosula, Tachinus fumipennis/frigidus complex (Staphylinidae) and to a lesser extent to Pterostichus punctatissimus(Carabidae). Increased catch rates in WTH sites, where post-harvest biomass was less, were attributable to increased catches of rove beetles Pseudopsis subulata, Quedius labradorensis and to a lesser extent Gabrius brevipennis. We were able to characterize differences in beetle assemblages between harvested and non-harvested plots as well as differences between whole tree (WTH) and stem only (SOH) harvested sites where logging residues had been removed or left following harvest. However, the overall assemblage response was largely a recapitulation of the responses of several abundant species.

  15. Initial responses of rove and ground beetles (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Carabidae to removal of logging residues following clearcut harvesting in the boreal forest of Quebec, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Work

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased interest in biomass harvesting for bioenergetic applications has raised questions regarding the potential ecological consequences on forest biodiversity. Here we evaluate the initial changes in the abundance, species richness and community composition of rove (Staphylinidae and ground beetles (Carabidae, immediately following 1 stem-only harvesting (SOH, in which logging debris (i.e., tree tops and branches are retained on site, and 2 whole-tree harvesting (WTH, in which stems, tops and branches are removed in mature balsam fir stands in Quebec, Canada. Beetles were collected throughout the summer of 2011, one year following harvesting, using pitfall traps. Overall catch rates were greater in uncut forest (Control than either stem-only or whole-tree harvested sites. Catch rates in WTH were greater than SOH sites. Uncut stands were characterized primarily by five species: Atheta capsularis, A. klagesi, A. strigosula, Tachinus fumipennis/frigidus complex (Staphylinidae and to a lesser extent to Pterostichus punctatissimus (Carabidae. Increased catch rates in WTH sites, where post-harvest biomass was less, were attributable to increased catches of rove beetles Pseudopsis subulata, Quedius labradorensis and to a lesser extent Gabrius brevipennis. We were able to characterize differences in beetle assemblages between harvested and non-harvested plots as well as differences between whole tree (WTH and stem only (SOH harvested sites where logging residues had been removed or left following harvest. However, the overall assemblage response was largely a recapitulation of the responses of several abundant species.

  16. Estimating the price elasticity of expenditure for prescription drugs in the presence of non-linear price schedules: an illustration from Quebec, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contoyannis, Paul; Hurley, Jeremiah; Grootendorst, Paul; Jeon, Sung-Hee; Tamblyn, Robyn

    2005-09-01

    The price elasticity of demand for prescription drugs is a crucial parameter of interest in designing pharmaceutical benefit plans. Estimating the elasticity using micro-data, however, is challenging because insurance coverage that includes deductibles, co-insurance provisions and maximum expenditure limits create a non-linear price schedule, making price endogenous (a function of drug consumption). In this paper we exploit an exogenous change in cost-sharing within the Quebec (Canada) public Pharmacare program to estimate the price elasticity of expenditure for drugs using IV methods. This approach corrects for the endogeneity of price and incorporates the concept of a 'rational' consumer who factors into consumption decisions the price they expect to face at the margin given their expected needs. The IV method is adapted from an approach developed in the public finance literature used to estimate income responses to changes in tax schedules. The instrument is based on the price an individual would face under the new cost-sharing policy if their consumption remained at the pre-policy level. Our preferred specification leads to expenditure elasticities that are in the low range of previous estimates (between -0.12 and -0.16). Naïve OLS estimates are between 1 and 4 times these magnitudes. (c) 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. The Challenge of Integrating OHS into Industrial Project Risk Management: Proposal of a Methodological Approach to Guide Future Research (Case of Mining Projects in Quebec, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Badri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Although risk management tools are put to good use in many industrial sectors, some large projects have been met with numerous problems due to failure to take occupational health and safety (OHS into consideration. In spite of the high level of risk and uncertainty associated with many industrial projects, the number of studies of methods for managing all known risks systematically remains small. Under effervescent economic conditions, industries must meet several challenges associated with frequent project start-ups. In highly complex and uncertain environments, rigorous management of risk remains indispensable for avoiding threats to the success of projects. Many businesses seek continually to create and improve integrated approaches to risk management. This article puts into perspective the complexity of the challenge of integrating OHS into industrial project risk management. A conceptual and methodological approach is proposed to guide future research focused on meeting this challenge. The approach is based on applying multi-disciplinary research modes to a complex industrial context in order to identify all scenarios likely to contain threats to humans or the environment. A case study is used to illustrate the potential of the proposed approach for application and its contribution to meeting the challenge of taking OHS into consideration. On-site researchers were able to develop a new approach that helped two mining companies in Quebec (Canada to achieve successful integration of OHS into expansion projects.

  18. Characterizing environmental risk factors for West Nile virus in Quebec, Canada, using clinical data in humans and serology in pet dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocheleau, J P; Michel, P; Lindsay, L R; Drebot, M; Dibernardo, A; Ogden, N H; Fortin, A; Arsenault, J

    2017-10-01

    The identification of specific environments sustaining emerging arbovirus amplification and transmission to humans is a key component of public health intervention planning. This study aimed at identifying environmental factors associated with West Nile virus (WNV) infections in southern Quebec, Canada, by modelling and jointly interpreting aggregated clinical data in humans and serological data in pet dogs. Environmental risk factors were estimated in humans by negative binomial regression based on a dataset of 191 human WNV clinical cases reported in the study area between 2011 and 2014. Risk factors for infection in dogs were evaluated by logistic and negative binomial models based on a dataset including WNV serological results from 1442 dogs sampled from the same geographical area in 2013. Forested lands were identified as low-risk environments in humans. Agricultural lands represented higher risk environments for dogs. Environments identified as impacting risk in the current study were somewhat different from those identified in other studies conducted in north-eastern USA, which reported higher risk in suburban environments. In the context of the current study, combining human and animal data allowed a more comprehensive and possibly a more accurate view of environmental WNV risk factors to be obtained than by studying aggregated human data alone.

  19. Perceived barriers to healthcare for persons living in poverty in Quebec, Canada: the EQUIhealThY project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loignon, Christine; Hudon, Catherine; Goulet, Émilie; Boyer, Sophie; De Laat, Marianne; Fournier, Nathalie; Grabovschi, Cristina; Bush, Paula

    2015-01-17

    Ensuring access to timely and appropriate primary healthcare for deprived patients is an issue facing all countries, even those with universal healthcare systems. There is a paucity of information on how patients living in a context of material and social deprivation perceive barriers in the healthcare system. This study combines the perspectives of persons living in poverty and of healthcare providers to explore barriers to responsive care for underserved persons with a view to developing equity-focused primary care. In this participatory action research we used photovoice, together with a method known as 'merging of knowledge and practice' developed by ATD Fourth World, an international community organization working to eradicate poverty. The study was conducted in two teaching primary care practices in the Canadian province of Quebec. Participants consisted of 15 health professionals and six members of ATD Fourth World; approximately 60 group meetings were held. Data were analyzed through thematic analysis, in part with the involvement of persons living in poverty. Three main barriers to responsive care in a context of poverty were highlighted by all participants: the difficult living conditions of people living in poverty, the poor quality of interactions between providers and underserved patients, and the complexity of healthcare system organization and functioning. Our research revealed that unhealthy living conditions prevent persons living in poverty from accessing quality healthcare and maintaining good health. Also, the complexity of the healthcare system's organization and functioning has a negative impact on the interactions with healthcare providers. Changes in policy and practice are needed to address those barriers and to achieve greater equity and provide more responsive care for persons living in poverty.

  20. Physical volcanology of the mafic segment of the subaqueous New Senator caldera, Abitibi greenstone belt, Quebec, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, Lyndsay N; Mueller, Wulf U

    2008-01-01

    Archean calderas provide valuable insight into internal geometries of subaqueous calderas. The New Senator caldera, Abitibi greenstone belt, Canada, is an Archean example of a subaqueous nested caldera with a basal stratigraphy dominated by gabbro-diorite dykes and sills, ponded magmas and basalt and andesite lava flows. The aim of our study is to focus on the use of physical volcanology to differentiate between the various mafic units found at the base of the New Senator caldera. Differentiation between these various mafic units is important from an exploration point of view because in modern subaqueous summit calders (e.g. Axial Seamount) margins of ponded magmas are often sites of VMS formation.

  1. Physical volcanology of the mafic segment of the subaqueous New Senator caldera, Abitibi greenstone belt, Quebec, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Lyndsay N; Mueller, Wulf U [Universite du Quebec a Chicoutimi, 555 boul. du l' Universite, Chicoutimi, Quebec, G7H2B1 (Canada)], E-mail: lyndsay.moore@uqac.ca

    2008-10-01

    Archean calderas provide valuable insight into internal geometries of subaqueous calderas. The New Senator caldera, Abitibi greenstone belt, Canada, is an Archean example of a subaqueous nested caldera with a basal stratigraphy dominated by gabbro-diorite dykes and sills, ponded magmas and basalt and andesite lava flows. The aim of our study is to focus on the use of physical volcanology to differentiate between the various mafic units found at the base of the New Senator caldera. Differentiation between these various mafic units is important from an exploration point of view because in modern subaqueous summit calders (e.g. Axial Seamount) margins of ponded magmas are often sites of VMS formation.

  2. Correlation among genetic, Euclidean, temporal, and herd ownership distances of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus strains in Quebec, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lambert Marie-Ève

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS is a viral disease that has a major economic impact for the swine industry. Its control is mostly directed towards preventing its spread which requires a better understanding of the mechanisms of transmission of the virus between herds. The objectives of this study were to describe the genetic diversity and to assess the correlation among genetic, Euclidean and temporal distances and ownership to better understand pathways of transmission. Results A cross-sectional study was conducted on sites located in a high density area of swine production in Quebec. Geographical coordinates (longitude/latitude, date of submission and ownership were obtained for each site. ORF5 sequencing was attempted on PRRSV positive sites. Proportion of pairwise combinations of strains having ≥98% genetic homology were analysed according to Euclidean distances and ownership. Correlations between genetic, Euclidean and temporal distances and ownership were assessed using Mantel tests on continuous and binary matrices. Sensitivity of the correlations between genetic and Euclidean as well as temporal distances was evaluated for different Euclidean and temporal distance thresholds. An ORF5 sequence was identified for 132 of the 176 (75% PRRSV positive sites; 122 were wild-type strains. The mean (min-max genetic, Euclidean and temporal pairwise distances were 11.6% (0–18.7, 15.0 km (0.04-45.7 and 218 days (0–852, respectively. Significant positive correlations were observed between genetic and ownership, genetic and Euclidean and between genetic and temporal binary distances. The relationship between genetic and ownership suggests either common sources of animals or semen, employees, technical services or vehicles, whereas that between genetic and Euclidean binary distances is compatible with area spread of the virus. The latter correlation was observed only up to 5 km. Conclusions This study

  3. Association between methylmercury and cardiovascular risk factors in a native population of Quebec (Canada): a retrospective evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valera, Beatriz; Dewailly, Eric; Poirier, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggests a negative impact of methylmercury (MeHg) on cardiovascular risk factors such as blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR). This issue is of concern in Arctic populations such as in the Inuit of Nunavik since this contaminant is accumulated in fish and marine mammals, which still represent the subsistence diet of this population. We examined the associations between MeHg and BP and resting HR among Inuit adults. The "Santé Quebec" health survey was conducted in 1992 in the 14 villages of Nunavik and a complete set of data was obtained for 313 Inuit adults≥18 years. Blood samples were collected in order to determine total mercury, lead, total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), fasting glucose and lipid profile while socio-demographic variables were obtained through questionnaires. Anthropometric measurements as well as BP and resting HR were obtained using standardised protocols. Pulse pressure (PP: systolic BP minus diastolic BP) was also calculated. Multiple linear regression was used in order to determine the change in the dependent variables associated with the quartiles of MeHg concentration, taking the quartile 1 as reference. The mean age of the participants was 38±14 years and the sample was composed of 132 men (42.2%) and 181 women (57.8%). MeHg geometric mean was 15.4 μg/L (95%CI: 13.9-17.0) and levels ranged from 0.8 to 112.0 μg/L. Resting HR increased linearly across quartiles of blood MeHg concentration after adjusting for confounders (p for trend=0.02). An increase of 6.9 beats per minute (bpm) between the 4th and 1st quartile was observed after adjusting for confounders. No significant association was observed between blood MeHg and systolic BP, diastolic BP or PP. MeHg was associated with increasing resting HR after considering traditional risk factors as well as other contaminants (lead and total PCBs) and n-3 PUFAs. In contrast, no significant association with blood

  4. Spatiotemporal modeling of ozone levels in Quebec (Canada): a comparison of kriging, land-use regression (LUR), and combined Bayesian maximum entropy-LUR approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam-Poupart, Ariane; Brand, Allan; Fournier, Michel; Jerrett, Michael; Smargiassi, Audrey

    2014-09-01

    Ambient air ozone (O3) is a pulmonary irritant that has been associated with respiratory health effects including increased lung inflammation and permeability, airway hyperreactivity, respiratory symptoms, and decreased lung function. Estimation of O3 exposure is a complex task because the pollutant exhibits complex spatiotemporal patterns. To refine the quality of exposure estimation, various spatiotemporal methods have been developed worldwide. We sought to compare the accuracy of three spatiotemporal models to predict summer ground-level O3 in Quebec, Canada. We developed a land-use mixed-effects regression (LUR) model based on readily available data (air quality and meteorological monitoring data, road networks information, latitude), a Bayesian maximum entropy (BME) model incorporating both O3 monitoring station data and the land-use mixed model outputs (BME-LUR), and a kriging method model based only on available O3 monitoring station data (BME kriging). We performed leave-one-station-out cross-validation and visually assessed the predictive capability of each model by examining the mean temporal and spatial distributions of the average estimated errors. The BME-LUR was the best predictive model (R2 = 0.653) with the lowest root mean-square error (RMSE ;7.06 ppb), followed by the LUR model (R2 = 0.466, RMSE = 8.747) and the BME kriging model (R2 = 0.414, RMSE = 9.164). Our findings suggest that errors of estimation in the interpolation of O3 concentrations with BME can be greatly reduced by incorporating outputs from a LUR model developed with readily available data.

  5. Occurrence of geogenic contaminants in private wells from a crystalline bedrock aquifer in western Quebec, Canada: Geochemical sources and health risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondu, Raphaël; Cloutier, Vincent; Rosa, Eric

    2018-04-01

    Nineteen private wells were investigated in order to evaluate the groundwater quality and the issues associated with well water use in a fractured metasedimentary aquifer of the Canadian Shield, in western Quebec (Canada). Groundwater sampling and analysis reveal that the quality of well water is both a potential aesthetic and health concern for the residents. Aesthetic problems are mainly related to the high levels of hardness and dissolved iron and manganese. Potential health risks are associated with the occurrence of brackish groundwater, high manganese concentrations, and arsenic concentrations exceeding the Canadian guideline value of 10 μg/l. Brackish groundwater is suspected to be derived from the mixing of fresh groundwaters with deep calcium-sodium-chloride brines of the Canadian Shield. The occurrences of iron, manganese and arsenic, primarily derived from the natural weathering of bedrock, are highly dependent on the geochemical conditions in groundwater, particularly the redox potential. Arsenic occurs mainly as arsenite (As(III)) and is thought to be released by the dissolution of iron and manganese oxyhydroxides under reducing conditions. Information obtained from well owners indicates that most households use ion exchange water softeners to minimize aesthetic problems of excessive hardness and dissolved iron and manganese concentrations. Homeowners generally take protective measures to reduce their exposure to arsenic when they are aware of the contamination. The exposure to arsenic and manganese may pose health risks for residents that do not take protective measures. The quality of well water is of paramount importance for human health in rural areas. Information on the contaminant sources and individual mitigation measures is essential to assess the health risks associated with groundwater consumption and to ensure the protection of public health.

  6. Low prevalence of vaccine-type HPV infections in young women following the implementation of a school-based and catch-up vaccination in Quebec, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goggin, P; Sauvageau, C; Gilca, V; Defay, F; Lambert, G; Mathieu-C, S; Guenoun, J; Comète, E; Coutlée, F

    2018-01-02

    In Quebec, Canada, a school-based HPV vaccination for girls has been offered since 2008. The vaccine used in the program targets HPV16/18, responsible for ∼70% of cervical cancers and HPV6/11, responsible for the majority of anogenital warts. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of HPV in vaccinated and unvaccinated women. Women aged 17-29 years were eligible to participate. Participants' age, vaccination status and diverse risk factors were assessed by a computer-assisted questionnaire. Biological specimens were obtained by self-sampling. HPV genotyping was performed by Linear Array. A total of 2,118 women were recruited. 2,042 completed the questionnaire and 1,937 provided a vaginal sample. Vaccination coverage varied from 83.5% in women aged 17-19 to 19.1% in those aged 23-29. The overall prevalence of HPV in sexually active women was 39.4% (95%CI: 37.0-41.7) and 56.7% of infected women had multiple type infections. The prevalence of vaccine HPV types varied by age and vaccination status except for women aged 23-29 for whom similar results were observed. Vaccine HPV types were detected in 0.3%, 1.4% and 10.5% of vaccinated women aged 17-19, 20-23, and 23-29 (pHPV16 or HPV18 were detected in 10 women having received at least one dose of vaccine. Nine of these women were already sexually active at the time of vaccination. Infections with HPV types included in the vaccine are rare in women aged less than 23 years and are virtually absent in those who received at least one dose of vaccine before sexual debut.

  7. Thermal comfort in Quebec City, Canada: sensitivity analysis of the UTCI and other popular thermal comfort indices in a mid-latitude continental city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provençal, Simon; Bergeron, Onil; Leduc, Richard; Barrette, Nathalie

    2016-04-01

    The newly developed Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI), along with the physiological equivalent temperature (PET), the humidex (HX) and the wind chill index (WC), was calculated in Quebec City, Canada, a city with a strong seasonal climatic variability, over a 1-year period. The objective of this study is twofold: evaluate the operational benefits of implementing the UTCI for a climate monitoring program of public comfort and health awareness as opposed to relying on traditional and simple indices, and determine whether thermal comfort monitoring specific to dense urban neighborhoods is necessary to adequately fulfill the goals of the program. In order to do so, an analysis is performed to evaluate each of these indices' sensitivity to the meteorological variables that regulate them in different environments. Overall, the UTCI was found to be slightly more sensitive to mean radiant temperature, moderately more sensitive to humidity and much more sensitive to wind speed than the PET. This dynamic changed slightly depending on the environment and the season. In hot weather, the PET was found to be more sensitive to mean radiant temperature and therefore reached high values that could potentially be hazardous more frequently than the UTCI and the HX. In turn, the UTCI's stronger sensitivity to wind speed makes it a superior index to identify potentially hazardous weather in winter compared to the PET and the WC. Adopting the UTCI broadly would be an improvement over the traditionally popular HX and WC indices. The urban environment produced favorable conditions to sustain heat stress conditions, where the indices reached high values more frequently there than in suburban locations, which advocates for weather monitoring specific to denser urban areas.

  8. Thermal comfort in Quebec City, Canada: sensitivity analysis of the UTCI and other popular thermal comfort indices in a mid-latitude continental city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provençal, Simon; Bergeron, Onil; Leduc, Richard; Barrette, Nathalie

    2016-04-01

    The newly developed Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI), along with the physiological equivalent temperature (PET), the humidex (HX) and the wind chill index (WC), was calculated in Quebec City, Canada, a city with a strong seasonal climatic variability, over a 1-year period. The objective of this study is twofold: evaluate the operational benefits of implementing the UTCI for a climate monitoring program of public comfort and health awareness as opposed to relying on traditional and simple indices, and determine whether thermal comfort monitoring specific to dense urban neighborhoods is necessary to adequately fulfill the goals of the program. In order to do so, an analysis is performed to evaluate each of these indices' sensitivity to the meteorological variables that regulate them in different environments. Overall, the UTCI was found to be slightly more sensitive to mean radiant temperature, moderately more sensitive to humidity and much more sensitive to wind speed than the PET. This dynamic changed slightly depending on the environment and the season. In hot weather, the PET was found to be more sensitive to mean radiant temperature and therefore reached high values that could potentially be hazardous more frequently than the UTCI and the HX. In turn, the UTCI's stronger sensitivity to wind speed makes it a superior index to identify potentially hazardous weather in winter compared to the PET and the WC. Adopting the UTCI broadly would be an improvement over the traditionally popular HX and WC indices. The urban environment produced favorable conditions to sustain heat stress conditions, where the indices reached high values more frequently there than in suburban locations, which advocates for weather monitoring specific to denser urban areas.

  9. Prevalence and risk factors for Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. caecal colonization in broiler chicken and turkey flocks slaughtered in Quebec, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenault, Julie; Letellier, Ann; Quessy, Sylvain; Normand, Valérie; Boulianne, Martine

    2007-10-16

    We conducted an observational study to estimate prevalence and risk factors for Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. caecal colonization in poultry. Eighty-one broiler chicken and 59 turkey flocks selected among flocks slaughtered in the province of Quebec, Canada, were included in the study. Flock status was evaluated by culturing pooled caecal contents from about 30 birds per flock. Exposure to potential risk factors was evaluated with a questionnaire. Odds ratios were computed using multivariable logistic regression. The prevalence of Salmonella-positive flocks was 50% (95% CI: 37, 64) for chickens and 54% (95% CI: 39, 70) for turkeys, respectively. Odds of Salmonella colonization were 2.6 times greater for chicken flocks which failed to lock the chicken house permanently. In turkeys, odds of Salmonella colonization were 4.8-7.7 times greater for flocks which failed to be raised by hatchery. The prevalence of Campylobacter-positive flocks was 35% (95% CI: 22, 49) for chickens and 46% (95% CI: 30, 62) for turkeys. Odds of colonization were 4.1 times higher for chicken flocks raised on farms with professional rodent control and 5.2 times higher for flocks with manure heap >200m from the poultry house, and also increased with the number of birds raised per year on the farm and with the age at slaughter. For turkeys, odds of Campylobacter flock colonization were 3.2 times greater in flocks having a manure heap at

  10. Drug use and antimicrobial resistance among Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp. isolates from chicken and turkey flocks slaughtered in Quebec, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulianne, Martine; Arsenault, Julie; Daignault, Danielle; Archambault, Marie; Letellier, Ann; Dutil, Lucie

    2016-01-01

    An observational study was conducted of chicken and turkey flocks slaughtered at federal processing plants in the province of Quebec, Canada. The objectives were to estimate prevalence of drug use at hatchery and on farm and to identify antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in cecal Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp. isolates and factors associated with AMR. Eighty-two chicken flocks and 59 turkey flocks were sampled. At the hatchery, the most used antimicrobial was ceftiofur in chickens (76% of flocks) and spectinomycin in turkeys (42% of flocks). Virginiamycin was the antimicrobial most frequently added to the feed in both chicken and turkey flocks. At least 1 E. coli isolate resistant to third-generation cephalosporins was present in all chicken flocks and in a third of turkey flocks. Resistance to tetracycline, streptomycin, and sulfisoxazole was detected in > 90% of flocks for E. coli isolates. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) was observed to bacitracin, erythromycin, lincomycin, quinupristin-dalfopristin, and tetracycline in both chicken and turkey flocks for Enterococcus spp. isolates. No resistance to vancomycin was observed. The use of ceftiofur at hatchery was significantly associated with the proportion of ceftiofur-resistant E. coli isolates in chicken flocks. In turkey flocks, ceftiofur resistance was more frequent when turkeys were placed on litter previously used by chickens. Associations between drug use and resistance were observed with tetracycline (turkey) in E. coli isolates and with bacitracin (chicken and turkey), gentamicin (turkey), and tylosin (chicken) in Enterococcus spp. isolates. Further studies are needed to provide producers and veterinarians with alternative management practices and tools in order to reduce the use of antimicrobial feed additives in poultry.

  11. The impact of birch seedlings on evapotranspiration from a mined peatland: an experimental study in southern Quebec, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Fay

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Dense stands of birch (Betula spp. on abandoned peat workings have often been identified as potential barriers to site restoration, but little research has been conducted to evaluate their impact on water resources. The objective of this experimental study was to determine whether birch seedlings established on an abandoned mined peatland in eastern Canada had a significant impact on evapotranspiration. Transpiration rates from birch seedlings planted in containers filled with Sphagnum compost were measured gravimetrically. Unplanted containers were used to similarly measure evaporation rates from bare peat. On average, the measured rates of evaporation (per unit area from peat were 2.5 times the rates of transpiration from birch leaves. However, if the total leaf area of a dense birch population established on an abandoned mined peatland is considered, the total amount of water lost through birch transpiration could be higher than that lost by evaporation from the peat surface. This study provides a rough estimate of potential water losses due to birch seedling transpiration, and indicates that a dense population of birch on a mined peatland may influence site hydrology even at the early establishment phase (seedlings. Consequently, recently abandoned mined peatlands should be restored rapidly to prevent the establishment of birch trees.

  12. Geothermal Energy Potential in Low Enthalpy Areas as a Future Energy Resource: Identifying Feasible Targets, Quebec, Canada, Study Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Majorowicz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Heat flow of the sedimentary succession of the Eastern Canada Sedimentary Basins varies from 40 mW/m2 close to the exposed shield in the north to high 60–70 mW/m2 in the southwest–northeast St. Lawrence corridor. As high fluid flow rates are required for a successful geothermal application, the most important targets are deep existing permeable aquifers rather than hard rock, which would need to be fracked. Unfortunately, the ten most populated Québec urban centers are in the areas where the Grenville (Canadian Shield is exposed or at shallow depths with sedimentary cover where temperatures are 30 °C or less. The city of Drummondville will be the exception, as the basement deepens sharply southwest, and higher temperatures reaching >120 °C are expected in the deep Cambrian sedimentary aquifers near a 4–5-km depth. Deep under the area where such sediments could be occurring under Appalachian nappes, temperatures significantly higher than 140 °C are predicted. In parts of the deep basin, temperatures as high as 80 °C–120 °C exist at depths of 3–4 km, mainly southeast of the major geological boundary: the Logan line. There is a large amount of heat resource at such depths to be considered in this area for district heating.

  13. Spatial variability of soil carbon and nitrogen in two hybrid poplar-hay crop systems in southern Quebec, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winans, K. S.

    2013-12-01

    Canadian agricultural operations contribute approximately 8% of national GHG emissions each year, mainly from fertilizers, enteric fermentation, and manure management (Environment Canada, 2010). With improved management of cropland and forests, it is possible to mitigate GHG emissions through carbon (C) sequestration while enhancing soil and crop productivity. Tree-based intercropped (TBI) systems, consisting of a fast-growing woody species such as poplar (Populus spp.) planted in widely-spaced rows with crops cultivated between tree rows, were one of the technologies prioritized for investigation by the Agreement for the Agricultural Greenhouse Gases Program (AAGGP), because fast growing trees can be a sink for atmospheric carbon-dioxide (CO2) as well as a long-term source of farm income (Montagnini and Nair, 2004). However, there are relatively few estimates of the C sequestration in the trees or due to tree inputs (e.g., fine root turnover, litterfall that gets incorporated into SOC), and hybrid poplars grow exponentially in the first 8-10 years after planting. With the current study, our objectives were (1) to evaluate spatial variation in soil C and nitrogen (N) storage, CO2 and nitrogen oxide (N20), and tree and crop productivity for two hybrid poplar-hay intercrop systems at year 9, comparing TBI vs. non-TBI systems, and (2) to evaluate TBI systems in the current context of C trading markets, which value C sequestration in trees, unharvested crop components, and soils of TBI systems. The study results will provide meaningful measures that indicate changes due to TBI systems in the short-term and in the long-term, in terms of GHG mitigation, enhanced soil and crop productivity, as well as the expected economic returns in TBI systems.

  14. Dynamics of extended-spectrum cephalosporin resistance in pathogenic Escherichia coli isolated from diseased pigs in Quebec, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahanbakhsh, Seyedehameneh; Smith, Matthew G; Kohan-Ghadr, Hamid-Reza; Letellier, Ann; Abraham, Sam; Trott, Darren J; Fairbrother, John Morris

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the evolution with time of ceftiofur-resistant Escherichia coli clinical isolates from pigs in Québec, Canada, between 1997 and 2012 with respect to pathotypes, clones and antimicrobial resistance. Eighty-five ceftiofur-resistant E. coli isolates were obtained from the OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health) Reference Laboratory for Escherichia coli. The most prevalent pathovirotypes were enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC):F4 (40%), extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) (16.5%) and Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC):F18 (8.2%). Susceptibility testing to 15 antimicrobial agents revealed a high prevalence of resistance to 13 antimicrobials, with all isolates being multidrug-resistant. blaCMY-2 (96.5%) was the most frequently detected β-lactamase gene, followed by blaTEM (49.4%) and blaCTX-M (3.5%). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) applied to 45 representative E. coli isolates revealed that resistance to ceftiofur is spread both horizontally and clonally. In addition, the emergence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing E. coli isolates carrying blaCTX-M was observed in 2011 and 2012 in distinct clones. The most predominant plasmid incompatibility (Inc) groups were IncFIB, IncI1, IncA/C and IncFIC. Resistance to gentamicin, kanamycin and chloramphenicol as well as the frequency of blaTEM and IncA/C significantly decreased over the study period, whereas the frequency of IncI1 and multidrug resistance to seven antimicrobial categories significantly increased. These findings reveal that extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant porcine E. coli isolates in Québec belong to several different clones with diverse antimicrobial resistance patterns and plasmids. Furthermore, blaCMY-2 was the major β-lactamase gene in these isolates. From 2011, we report the emergence of blaCTX-M in distinct clones. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  15. Gold contents of sulfide minerals in granitoids from southwestern New Brunswick, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xue-Ming; Lentz, David R.; Sylvester, Paul J.

    2006-07-01

    The abundance of gold and selected trace elements in magmatic sulfide and rock-forming minerals from Silurian-Devonian granitoids in southwestern New Brunswick were quantitatively analyzed by laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma mass-spectrometry. Gold is mainly hosted in sulfide minerals (i.e., chalcopyrite, pyrrhotite, and pyrite), in some cases perhaps as submicron inclusions (nanonuggets). Gold is below detection (caca % qGTbGaaeyzaiaabYgacaqG0baaaOGaeyypa0JaaGymaiaaiwdacaaI % WaGaeyySaeRaaGioaiaaiodacaGGSaGaaeiiaiaabggacaqGUbGaae % izaiaabccacaWGebWaa0baaSqaaiaabgeacaqG1baabaGaaeiCaiaa % bMhacaqGVaGaaeyBaiaabwgacaqGSbGaaeiDaaaakiabg2da9iaaio % dacaaI2aGaaGOmaiabgglaXkaaiMdacaaI2aaaaa!6E8F! D^{{{text{cpy/melt}}}}_{{{text{Au}}}}= 948 ± 269,{text{ }}D^{{{text{po/melt}}}}_{{{text{Au}}}} = 150 ± 83,{text{ and }}D^{{{text{py/melt}}}}_{{{text{Au}}}} = 362 ± 96. This result suggests that gold behavior in the granitoid systems is controlled by the conditions of sulfur saturation during magmatic evolution; the threshold of physiochemical conditions for sulfur saturation in the melts is a key factor affecting gold activity. Gold behaves incompatibly prior to the formation of sulfide liquids or minerals, but it becomes compatible at their appearance. Gold would be enriched in sulfur-undersaturated granitoid magmas during fractionation, partitioning into evolved magmatic fluids and favoring the formation of intrusion-related gold deposits. However, gold becomes depleted in residual melts if these melts become sulfur-saturated during differentiation, leading to gold precipitation in the early sulfide phases of a granitoid suite. Late-stage Cl-bearing magmatic-hydrothermal fluids with low pH and relatively high oxidation state derived from either progressively cooling magmas at depth or convective circulation of meteoric water buffered by reduced carbon-bearing sediments, may scavenge gold from early sulfide minerals. If a significant amount of gold produced in this

  16. Energy in Quebec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The first part of the report is devoted to the energy sector in Quebec overall. Facts and statistical information are included on measuring the total evolution and demand for energy and its division by sector consumption as well as each form of energy in the Quebec market. Also included is a comparison of the balance sheet of energy in Quebec and that of other provinces of Canada and certain countries of the OECD, the evolution of the costs of energy, and an evaluation of the economic repercussions of the energy sector. A particular effort is made in order to prepare a numerical balance sheet of investments in the energy sector of the contribution of energy companies to the economy of Quebec as well as the energy intensity gains. There is also in a section devoted to the consumption of energy, and in particular, two indicators are related to the environmental effects of the consumption of energy including: the amounts of carbon dioxide produced and volatile organic compounds emitted to the atmosphere by the use of combustibles and motor fuels. The data presented in the first part of the report concerns only conventional energy sources such as electricity, gas, and petroleum. The second part of the report bears on the different energy sectors organized according to the form of energy concerned such as electrcity, petroleum, natural gas and non-conventional energy sources, with the intention of affording as complete a view as possible by presenting a tableau of all the recovery activities from their production to their consumption. Included therein are actual statistical evaluations available concerning non-conventional energy

  17. How would the privatization of Hydro-Quebec make Quebecers richer?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, C.

    2009-02-01

    In 1962, a total of 46 companies shared Quebec's electricity production, involving no less than 9,710 megawatts of power. The 4 companies that controlled 85 per cent of this power were Hydro-Quebec, Aluminum Company of Canada (Alcan), Shawinigan Water and Power Company and the Gatineau Power Company. At the time, electricity rates also varied considerably throughout Quebec, being extremely high in regions far from Montreal, which hindered potential industrial development in those areas. This report discussed the privatization of Hydro-Quebec and how it could make Quebecers richer. The report discussed the early days of electricity in Quebec and outlined the reasons that led Quebec to nationalize the production and distribution of electricity and to entrust its management to Hydro-Quebec. A summary of the developments undertaken to enable Hydro-Quebec to substantially boost its exports to the United States following liberalization of the American market toward the end of the twentieth century was also provided. A comparison group of companies in the United States involved in the production, transmission and distribution of electricity was also presented in order to analyze Hydro-Quebec's performance from various standpoints. Other topics that were addressed in the report included operational efficiency; use of capital; the experience of the United Kingdom; the rise in electricity rates; a strategy for privatization; the public offering; and protecting Quebec electricity consumers. The role of the Quebec government and of Hydro-Quebec were also examined. Electricity exports and electricity and aluminum smelters were also assessed. The report noted that Hydro-Quebec's annual profit would shrink from $2,882 million to $709 million if it had to pay the market price for the electricity it obtains from Churchill Falls. 23 tabs., 1 fig., 2 appendices

  18. The gas sector in Quebec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixeira, G.

    2000-05-01

    Natural gas in Canada represents 29% of the primary energy and 42% of the energy used in the industrial sector. The biggest users are the manufacturing industries for which the low cost of natural gas and the quality of products resulting from its use represent a serious advantage in a more and more competitive market. This document takes stock of the situation of natural gas and gas-related technologies in Quebec. The first part recalls the historical evolution of the gas distribution network in Quebec and its present day situation. Then, some technical-economical data about the consumption of natural gas in Quebec are presented according to the sectors of use. The third part treats of the R and D activities linked with the gas sector, in particular the activities of the two main research organizations: the technical centre of natural gas and the research group in gas technologies of the Polytechnique school of Montreal. (J.S.)

  19. Interactions: trade policy and healthcare reform after Chaoulli v. Quebec: is it time for Canada to acknowledge the fragile boundary between health and trade policies and strengthen the separation between private and public health insurance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Mark

    2006-01-01

    The insulation of Canada's healthcare system from trade treaty obligations is crucial to the legitimacy of Canada's trade policy. Legal analysis has suggested, however, that competitive and for-profit delivery of the kind contemplated by the Kirby Report and some provinces may make healthcare more vulnerable to challenges under NAFTA and GATS. The Government of Canada has tried to counter this interpretation by stressing the importance of public financing as the principal criterion for exemption of healthcare from trade treaties, but now the potential for private financing of essential medical services indicated by the Supreme Court's decision in Chaoulli v. Quebec has made that line of argument look risky as well. It is apparent that Canada failed to anticipate the possible interactions of domestic, international and constitutional law when it made commitments in the area of private health insurance at the WTO in 1997. Accordingly, the time has come to acknowledge the fragility of the boundary between health and trade policies, to take the risks and costs associated with trade treaty obligations fully into account when undertaking healthcare reform and to strengthen the separation between private and public health insurance.

  20. Inventory of refrigeration training in Quebec given within the framework of the intervention program of Natural Resources Canada's CETC-Varennes and the AEE of Ressources naturelles du Quebec; Inventaire de la formation en refrigeration au Quebec dans le cadre du programme d'intervention initie par le CTEC-Varennes de ressources naturelles Canada et l'AEE de ressources naturelles du Quebec

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garant, G.J. [Association des Arenas du Quebec Inc., Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2004-03-01

    This paper relates information concerning vocational courses in refrigeration in Quebec, with reference to the newly formed National Committee on Vocational and Technical Educational Programs. The aim of the paper was to collect data on the availability of refrigeration courses. A description of course outlines was provided, with reference to requirements in high school and at the college level. Requirement details for additional courses in heating and electricity refrigeration were also provided. The status of diplomas was also discussed, with reference to employment opportunities in management and analysis upon completion of the Diploma of Collegial Studies, which requires additional courses in energy conservation. Opportunities in the labour market were reviewed, as well as information on privately run courses. Particular reference was made concerning the Canadian Energy Technology Centre (CETC) as a leading research facility for refrigeration concepts and design. It was noted that very few courses on refrigeration technology are offered at the university level, and that currently only one distance education course on refrigeration has been recognized. As a result of this investigation, the Quebec Arena Association has determined that development of new courses is a priority, especially given that only the CETC currently offers courses on refrigeration for arenas and curling rinks. New courses should focus on arena and rink refrigeration technologies, with particular reference to new technologies and developments in energy efficiency. tabs., figs.

  1. Insight conference proceedings : Quebec energy forum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The state of Quebec's energy industry was the focus of this conference which provided an opportunity for participants to exchange their views on a broad range of topics. Recent developments within Quebec's Regie de l'energie and other regulatory frameworks were reviewed and compared with existing frameworks in other jurisdictions in Canada and the United States. One major theme at the conference was electricity supply in Quebec, with particular reference to industrial consumers, large industrial emitters and energy efficiency as it relates to the supply of electricity. Hydro-Quebec presented its position regarding the production of electricity in the province, with emphasis placed on hydroelectric development in James Bay. Administrative and judicial aspects regarding the implementation of power transmission projects were reviewed along with the effects of hydroelectricity on climate change and energy priorities in the Kyoto era. The conference featured 14 presentations, of which 4 were indexed separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  2. Willingness to pay and the sensitivity of willingness to pay for interdisciplinary musculoskeletal clinics: a contingent valuation study in Quebec, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poder, Thomas G; He, Jie

    2016-12-01

    Orthopedics is a discipline that requires a continuum of care in close collaboration with physicians, nurses, and healthcare professionals to ensure effective rehabilitation. In some cases, the wait time for a consultation may be very long, which can jeopardize the patient's rehabilitation and sometimes even cause complications that lead to a loss of autonomy. In Quebec, there is a severe shortage of healthcare professionals-and of orthopedic surgeons, in particular-specializing in musculoskeletal problems. To address this problem, public managers have decided to establish interdisciplinary musculoskeletal clinics in regions outside the two major cities of Montréal and Québec. The major benefits of these clinics are that they reduce the wait time for consultation and treatment while maintaining service quality. Although their benefits are certain, these clinics remain threatened by relatively high initial costs. This study's objective is to evaluate whether the population of Quebec has a quantifiable willingness to pay (WTP) to establish these clinics. To our knowledge, this is the first study of its kind either in the province of Quebec or elsewhere. We selected 3822 subjects randomly within the target population using Internet surveys, telephone surveys and self-administered paper surveys as our methods of recruitment. Three payment vehicles were used and each participant was randomly allocated among these: tax, donation or lump-sum fee. A contingent valuation question using a referendum format with the option "don't know" was used. Econometric estimates were performed using probit and Wang's models. Our results indicate that the population of Quebec may potentially have a mean WTP of 42.3 Canadian dollars per person for such clinics, which would enable a mean reduction from 12 to 4 months of wait time. However, the WTP is found to be very sensitive to the survey mode and the payment vehicle used: about 1.2-2 times more important in the tax and the lump-sum fee

  3. Geomorphic effects and impacts of severe flooding : photographic examples from the Saguenay area, Quebec : Geological Survey of Canada miscellaneous report 62

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, G.R.; Lawrence, D.E.

    1998-01-01

    In July, 1996 the Saguenay-Lac-Saint-Jean area in southern Quebec fell victim to a disastrous flood resulting from heavy rain. In the same year, major flooding occurred along several rivers in British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba. This photographic review of these natural disasters is intended to increase public awareness of the effects of severe flooding, thereby contributing to flood disaster reduction. The photographs show how the flooding caused a wide range of geomorphic changes and impacts which varied from river to river and from one reach to another along the same river. The photos are arranged in order of increasing severity, depicting scenes of the aux Sables, Chicoutimi, du Moulin, a Mars and the Ha Ha rivers. 18 refs., 24 figs

  4. Quebec-USA electricity export contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labbe, J.-F.

    1993-06-01

    Electricity exports from Hydro-Quebec to utilities in the USA significantly affects the economy and environment of Quebec. These exports may be arranged under interconnection agreements to sell excess capacity and production during off-peak periods or under firm sales contracts. Hydro-Quebec exports could also replace power plants that would otherwise be needed in the USA. The economic environment for Hydro-Quebec exports to the USA is reviewed along with the regulatory environment applicable to international trade (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, Canada-USA Free Trade Agreement, North American Free Trade Agreement), Quebec (Canadian federal and provincial law), and the USA (federal and state law). A jurisdictional analysis of power export contracts is then presented, citing examples of contracts already signed by Hydro-Quebec with utilities in New York and New England. Contract law and contract provisions are discussed, including common clauses and particular clauses. Suggestions are made for new clauses that would improve the electricity trade. 215 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs

  5. Refining capacity in Quebec : the Quebec market, industry viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trudelle, F.

    2004-01-01

    Canada's second largest oil refinery is operated by Ultramar Ltd. in Levis, Quebec. The refinery, which supplies 45 per cent of all Quebec's petroleum, distributes its products to Quebec, Ontario and the Maritime provinces. The refinery currently produces 215,000 barrels per day. Ultramar is a division of Valero, an American firm which has a total refining capacity of 2.4 million barrels per day. A summary of the company's petroleum energy distribution, consumption, and reserves was presented and compared with the national and global position. It was noted that world demand for petroleum products increases yearly by 1 to 1.5 per cent while the demand for automobile fuel in North America increases by 2.5 to 3.5 per cent. In the last 10 years, world demand has increased by more than 22 per cent but refining capacity has only increased by 12 per cent. The average profitability of the refining industry from 1992 to 2002 was approximately 5.5 per cent, which limited investments in new refinery installations. Much of the industry's profits have been utilized to modify installations in order to reduce the sulphur content in gasoline and diesel fuels. Furthermore, the obtention of permits to construct new refining installations has become a major obstacle and the ratification of the Kyoto Protocol may signify a 30 per cent reduction in automotive fuel demand. Given this, there is currently some hesitation and uncertainty by the refining industry to proceed with new major installations. tabs., figs

  6. Tuberculosis in Quebec: a review of trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Klotz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to conduct a thorough review on the literature of tuberculosis in Canada and the Province of Quebec. To achieve this aim, an exhaustive literature review of tuberculosis in the Province of Quebec was undertaken. Data was collected with the goal of creating an epidemiological and public health evidence base to forecast the spread of tuberculosis. A keyword search strategy was used to find relevant articles from the peer-reviewed literature using the electronic search engine PubMed and a search of other relevant federal and provincial government databases. Twenty-nine peer-reviewed publications and twenty government reports containing information about the incidence or prevalence of tuberculosis in the Province of Quebec were included in the analysis. An analysis of the data revealed that while tuberculosis rates have been decreasing in both Canada and Quebec with an overall incidence below 3 per 100,000 of population in 2007, among immigrants and the Inuit communities in Quebec, the incidence and prevalence of the disease still remains high and reached 18 per 100,000 and 100 per 100,000, respectively in 2007. In general, while tuberculosis does not pose a significant burden to the general population, it does continue to affect certain sub-groups disproportionately, including select immigrants and Inuit communities in Quebec. Efforts to ensure that cost-effective healthcare interventions are delivered in a timely fashion should be pursued to reduce the associated morbidity and mortality of tuberculosis in the Province of Quebec.

  7. Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thexton, H.E.

    1987-01-01

    The development of CANDU (Canada Deuterium Uranium) type reactors in Canada is traced. What is CANDU? and how does it differ from a pressurized water reactor? Whey did Canada adopt this design? What factors have led to its success? These questions are asked and answered. First the design itself is explained. Technical problems are considered and figures on operating reliability presented. The economic advantages of CANDU are shown by comparing electricity generating costs at CANDU stations with those at coal-fired stations. Future CANDU options are discussed and prospects for CANDU considered. (U.K.)

  8. Contemporary disease management in Quebec.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogovor, Amédé; Savoie, Michelle; Moride, Yola; Krelenbaum, Marilyn; Montague, Terrence

    2008-01-01

    Health or disease management (DM) has emerged as a promising solution to improve the quality of healthcare and patient outcomes in a cost-efficient way. This solution is particularly relevant in the care of our increasing, and aging, patient populations with multiple chronic diseases. This article reviews the recent history and current status of DM in the province of Quebec and summarizes its evolving perspectives and future prospects. Most DM projects in Quebec have developed from a public-private partnership, and they have addressed several disease states. The results of completed programs confirmed the presence of care gaps--the differences between best and usual care in several disease states. They also identified process changes leading to improved practices and enhanced professional satisfaction among stakeholders. Priorities identified for further research include increased knowledge of the underlying causes of care gaps and greater concentration on the measurement of clinical, humanistic and fiscal outcomes and their causal links to DM structures and processes. Although still embryonic in Quebec and Canada, the available evidence suggests that DM partnerships are practical and functional vehicles to expedite knowledge creation and transfer in the care of whole populations of patients. Future projects offer the promise of updated knowledge and continuously improved care and outcomes.

  9. Contribution of suspended particulate matter and zooplankton to MeHg contamination of the food chain in mid-northern Quebec (Canada) reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plourde, Y.; Lucotte, M.; Pichet, P.

    1997-01-01

    The high increase in mercury (Hg) concentrations in fish following the creation of hydroelectric reservoirs was discussed. Flooded forest soils are a major source of mercury contamination of fish after impoundment. Flooding stimulates bacterial activity in the humic horizon of soils and results in the transformation of inorganic mercury into methyl mercury (MeHg), the most toxic form of mercury. The reservoirs of the La Grande hydroelectric complex at James Bay in northern Quebec were sampled and compared to neighbouring natural lakes. Sampling was carried out in 1992 during June, August and September. Results of the analysis revealed an increase in the MeHg concentrations in zooplankton and suspended particulate matter (SPM); mean concentrations were about 5 times higher in the reservoirs than in neighbouring lakes. Although the process is not well understood, it is believed that the MeHg is transferred up the food chain which accounts, in part, for MeHg contamination of fishes. 45 refs., 9 figs

  10. Common challenges for ecological modelling: synthesis of facilitated discussions held at the symposia organized for the 2009 conference of the International Society for Ecological Modelling in Quebec City, Canada, (October 6-9, 2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larocque, Guy R.; Mailly, D.; Yue, T.-X.; Anand, M.; Peng, C.; Kazanci, C.; Etterson, M.; Goethals, P.; Jorgensen, S.E.; Schramski, J.R.; McIntire, E.J.B.; Marceau, D.J.; Chen, B.; Chen, G.Q.; Yang, Z.F.; Novotna, B.; Luckai, N.; Bhatti, Jagtar S.; Liu, J.; Munson, A.; Gordon, Andrew M.; Ascough, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    The eleven symposia organized for the 2009 conference of the International Society for Ecological Modelling (ISEM 2009) held in Quebec City, Canada, October 6–9, 2009, included facilitated discussion sessions following formal presentations. Each symposium focused on a specific subject, and all the subjects could be classified into three broad categories: theoretical development, population dynamics and ecosystem processes. Following discussions with the symposia organizers, which indicated that they all shared similar issues and concerns, the facilitated discussions were task-oriented around four basic questions: (1) key challenges in the research area, (2) generating and sharing new ideas, (3) improving collaboration and networking, and (4) increasing visibility to decision-makers, partners and clients. Common challenges that emerged from the symposia included the need for improved communication and collaboration among different academic disciplines, further progress in both theoretical and practical modelling approaches, and accentuation of technology transfer. Regarding the generation and sharing of new ideas, the main issue that emerged was the type of positive interactions that should be encouraged among potential collaborators. The usefulness of the Internet, particularly for the sharing of open-source software and conducting discussion forums, was highlighted for improving collaboration and networking. Several communication tools are available today, and it is important for modellers to use them more intensively. Visibility can be increased by publishing professional newsletters, maintaining informal contacts with the public, organizing educational sessions in primary and secondary schools, and developing simplified analytical frameworks and pilot studies. Specific issues raised in each symposium are also discussed.

  11. Using 137Cs as a tool for the assessment and the management of erosion/sedimentation risks in view of the restoration of the Rainbow Smelt (Osmerus mordax) fish population in the Boyer River basin (Quebec, Canada)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, C.; Laverdiere, M.R.

    2000-01-01

    The Boyer River (Quebec, Canada) drains a 217 km 2 watershed that is under cultivation at 60%. The last 2 km of the river bed has always been used as a spawning ground by Rainbow Smelts (Osmerus mordax). This fish population, which plays an important ecological role in the St. Lawrence River estuary, has dramatically declined over the last decades. Siltation and excessive algal growth in the spawning area were identified as the most probable causes of the fish population decline; suggesting that soil erosion, nutrient and sediment transport are major factors underlying the environmental problem. In this context, 137 Cs provides an effective tool for investigating the magnitude and spatial distribution of long-term soil redistribution taking place in the watershed. Sampling of cultivated fields, riverbanks, bottom sediments and forested sites were thus undertaken to help understand the erosive behaviour of the watershed. Results obtained so far suggest in-field erosion rates of up to 13 t ha -1 yr -1 with net outputs reaching 11 t ha -1 yr -1 . These results agree well with estimates obtained from the USLE. The 137 Cs data indicate that fields located in the upstream half of the basin produce smaller sediment loadings than those in the downstream portion, despite higher soil erodibilities and more frequent use for annual crops. They also suggest that more than 75% of the sediment deposited in the spawning area originates from cultivated fields, and less than 25% from streambanks. (author)

  12. Tuberculosis in quebec: a review of trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotz, Alexander; Harouna, Abdoulaye; Smith, Andrew F

    2012-06-15

    The aim of this research was to conduct a thorough review on the literature of tuberculosis in Canada and the Province of Quebec. To achieve this aim, an exhaustive literature review of tuberculosis in the Province of Quebec was undertaken. Data was collected with the goal of creating an epidemiological and public health evidence base to forecast the spread of tuberculosis. A keyword search strategy was used to find relevant articles from the peer-reviewed literature using the electronic search engine PubMed and a search of other relevant federal and provincial government databases. Twenty-nine peer-reviewed publications and twenty government reports containing information about the incidence or prevalence of tuberculosis in the Province of Quebec were included in the analysis. An analysis of the data revealed that while tuberculosis rates have been decreasing in both Canada and Quebec with an overall incidence below 3 per 100,000 of population in 2007, among immigrants and the Inuit communities in Quebec, the incidence and prevalence of the disease still remains high and reached 18 per 100,000 and 100 per 100,000, respectively in 2007. In general, while tuberculosis does not pose a significant burden to the general population, it does continue to affect certain sub-groups disproportionately, including select immigrants and Inuit communities in Quebec. Efforts to ensure that cost-effective healthcare interventions are delivered in a timely fashion should be pursued to reduce the associated morbidity and mortality of tuberculosis in the Province of Quebec. Funding for this research was provided to Medmetrics Inc., by McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Génome Québec and the Ministère de Développement Economique, Innovation et Exportation du Gouvernement du Québec. The authors also wish to thank Drs. John White and Marcel Behr, both of McGill University and Dr Suneil Malik of the Infectious Disease Program in the Office of Biotechnology, Genomics and Population

  13. Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, J.

    1991-01-01

    Canada, while professing a non-nuclear policy for its own armed forces, is, none the less, a member of a nuclear alliance. The security gained through participation in such arrangements does not come cost-free, despite the common view that countries such as Canada enjoy a free ride. Being under the nuclear umbrella, as this paper seeks to illustrate, does generate its own problems and costs. For example, does influence stem from the actual possession of nuclear weapons (albeit under US control), from support of the concept of nuclear deterrence and its infrastructure, or from possessing territory that is of strategic importance to a more powerful ally? Does the Canadian experience serve as a model for countries that are in close proximity to an existing or threshold nuclear power? Much depends on the willingness of a country to participate in the nuclear infrastructure associated with the acquisition of nuclear weapons for security purposes. It must accept the underlying rationale or logic of nuclear deterrence and the constraints on alternative security options that this imposes and it must also recognize that reliance on nuclear deterrence for military security seven if one seeks to emulate Canada and become a non-nuclear weapon state in a nuclear alliance can produce strains in its own right. The case of Canada shows that a country seeking security through such means should be aware of, and reflect upon, the fact that what appears to be a free ride does not come free of charge. However, a country may have other options in it, military security that have neither historically or geostrategically been available to Canada

  14. Impact of an Immunization Campaign to Control an Increased Incidence of Serogroup B Meningococcal Disease in One Region of Quebec, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Wals, Philippe; Deceuninck, Geneviève; Lefebvre, Brigitte; Tsang, Raymond; Law, Dennis; De Serres, Gaston; Gilca, Vladimir; Gilca, Rodica; Boulianne, Nicole

    2017-05-01

    Invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) incidence increased in Quebec, starting in 2003, and was caused by a serogroup B sequence type 269 clone. The Saguenay-Lac-Saint-Jean (SLSJ) region was particularly affected with a rate of 3.4 per 100000 person-years in 2006-2013. In May 2014, an immunization campaign was launched in SLSJ, using the 4-component protein-based meningococcal vaccine (MenB-4C). We aimed to evaluate the impact of the campaign 2 years after its initiation. Immunization registry data and serogroup B invasive meningococcal disease (B-IMD) cases notified to public health authorities and confirmed by culture or polymerase chain reaction from July 1996 to December 2016 were analyzed, including a multivariate Poisson regression model of incidence rates. By the end of the campaign, 82% of the 59000 targeted SLSJ residents between 2 months and 20 years of age had been immunized. Following the initiation of the campaign, no B-IMD case occurred among vaccinees, whereas 2 cases were reported among unvaccinated adult SLSJ residents, and a third case in an unvaccinated child who had stayed in the region during the week prior to disease onset, in 2015. B-IMD incidence decreased in all other regions in the years 2015-2016 but sporadic cases continued to occur. A multivariate analysis showed a significant effect of the campaign in the SLSJ region (relative B-IMD risk: 0.22; P = .04). Results suggest a high level of protection provided by MenB-4C following mass vaccination at regional level. This, along with reassuring safety data, supports the current recommendations for MenB-4C use for controlling outbreaks caused by clones covered by the vaccine. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Consumption of freshwater fish by recreational and native freshwater anglers in the upper St-Maurice (Quebec, Canada) and estimation of the intake of methylmercury in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loranger, S.; Houde, L.; Schetagne, R.

    1995-01-01

    Hydro-Quebec is planning to build two hydroelectric reservoirs in the upper Saint-Maurice River, which would flood about 80% of the surrounding area. The methylmercury (MeHg) content in freshwater fish will therefore tend to increase during the first few years. This development will have a direct impact on the amount of MeHg that the actual users of this river section are exposed to. The objective of this study is to assess the consumption of local fish of these target groups using a Monte-Carlo approach. This study is part of a larger research project aimed at assessing human exposure and the health risks related to MeHg contamination in local fish. The fish consumption rate for recreational freshwater anglers was calculated using the duration of the average annual fishing trip, the average number of catches per species, the average fish weight per species exceeding a specific length of fish usually caught, and the edible portion of fish consumed. This rate was calculated for the native communities based on the total number of meals per year per species, the average fish weight per species, and the edible portion. Based on these calculations, average intake for sport fishermen is estimated at 6.9 g/day (sd = 6.4). This value is 5 to 25 times lower on average than for other North American native communities. However, it must be pointed out that the food habits of the native population were very similar to those of non-native populations; less than 30% of the food comes from traditional sources

  16. Molecular and microscopic analysis of the gut contents of abundant rove beetle species (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae in the boreal balsam fir forest of Quebec, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Klimaszewski

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Experimental research on beetle responses to removal of logging residues following clearcut harvesting in the boreal balsam fir forest of Quebec revealed several abundant rove beetle (Staphylinidae species potentially important for long-term monitoring. To understand the trophic affiliations of these species in forest ecosystems, it was necessary to analyze their gut contents. We used microscopic and molecular (DNA methods to identify the gut contents of the following rove beetles: Atheta capsularis Klimaszew­ski, Atheta klagesi Bernhauer, Oxypoda grandipennis (Casey, Bryophacis smetanai Campbell, Ischnosoma longicorne (Mäklin, Mycetoporus montanus Luze, Tachinus frigidus Erichson, Tachinus fumipennis (Say, Tachinus quebecensis Robert, and Pseudopsis subulata Herman. We found no apparent arthropod fragments within the guts; however, a number of fungi were identified by DNA sequences, including filamentous fungi and budding yeasts [Ascomycota: Candida derodonti Suh & Blackwell (accession number FJ623605, Candida mesenterica (Geiger Diddens & Lodder (accession number FM178362, Candida railenensis Ramirez and Gonzáles (accession number JX455763, Candida sophie-reginae Ramirez & González (accession number HQ652073, Candida sp. (accession number AY498864, Pichia delftensis Beech (accession number AY923246, Pichia membranifaciens Hansen (accession number JQ26345, Pichia misumaiensis Y. Sasaki and Tak. Yoshida ex Kurtzman 2000 (accession number U73581, Pichia sp. (accession number AM261630, Cladosporium sp. (accession number KF367501, Acremonium psammosporum W. Gams (accession number GU566287, Alternaria sp. (accession number GU584946, Aspergillus versicolor Bubak (accession number AJ937750, and Aspergillus amstelodami (L. Mangin Thom and Church (accession number HQ728257]. In addition, two species of bacteria [Bradyrhizobium japonicum (KirchnerJordan (accession number BA000040 and Serratia marcescens Bizio accession number CP003942] were found in

  17. Lesion Distribution and Epidemiology of Mycobacterium bovis in Elk and White-Tailed Deer in South-Western Manitoba, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd K. Shury

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Surveillance for Mycobacterium bovis in free-ranging elk (Cervus elaphus and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus from south-western Manitoba was carried out from 1997 to 2010 to describe the lesions, epidemiology, and geographic distribution of disease. Tissues were cultured from animals killed by hunters, culled for management, blood-tested, or found opportunistically. Period prevalence in elk was approximately six times higher than deer, suggesting a significant reservoir role for elk, but that infected deer may also be involved. Prevalence was consistently higher in elk compared to deer in a small core area and prevalence declines since 2003 are likely due to a combination of management factors instituted during that time. Older age classes and animals sampled from the core area were at significantly higher risk of being culture positive. Positive elk and deer were more likely to be found through blood testing, opportunistic surveillance, and culling compared to hunting. No non-lesioned, culture-positive elk were detected in this study compared to previous studies in red deer.

  18. More damnation in Quebec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnham, N.

    1998-01-01

    The controversy over Hydro-Quebec's plan to divert eight more rivers to generate more electricity for export to the United States was discussed. Hydro-Quebec would like to proceed with the projects in order to capitalize on the recently deregulated American energy market. Hydro-Quebec currently produces more electricity than it requires to service domestic demand. Therefore, the majority of the newly generated power will likely be exported. Hydro-Quebec's strategic plan states that it intends to undertake diversion projects in the James Bay region. Critics of the plan argue that developing all of the province's remaining hydroelectric potential would jeopardize the environment and the aboriginal communities of the region. On the other side, Hydro-Quebec maintains that hydroelectric development has not upset the ecological balance in northern Quebec. Several secondary impacts of hydroelectric development were also described. Quebec's newly created Energy Board (Regie de l'energie) will encourage discussions between consumers, industry and environmentalists to debate Quebec's energy issues, as well as oversee and regulate retail prices, exports, investments and investment priorities

  19. An Innovative Approach to Addressing Childhood Obesity: A Knowledge-Based Infrastructure for Supporting Multi-Stakeholder Partnership Decision-Making in Quebec, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nii Antiaye Addy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Multi-stakeholder partnerships (MSPs have become a widespread means for deploying policies in a whole of society strategy to address the complex problem of childhood obesity. However, decision-making in MSPs is fraught with challenges, as decision-makers are faced with complexity, and have to reconcile disparate conceptualizations of knowledge across multiple sectors with diverse sets of indicators and data. These challenges can be addressed by supporting MSPs with innovative tools for obtaining, organizing and using data to inform decision-making. The purpose of this paper is to describe and analyze the development of a knowledge-based infrastructure to support MSP decision-making processes. The paper emerged from a study to define specifications for a knowledge-based infrastructure to provide decision support for community-level MSPs in the Canadian province of Quebec. As part of the study, a process assessment was conducted to understand the needs of communities as they collect, organize, and analyze data to make decisions about their priorities. The result of this process is a “portrait”, which is an epidemiological profile of health and nutrition in their community. Portraits inform strategic planning and development of interventions, and are used to assess the impact of interventions. Our key findings indicate ambiguities and disagreement among MSP decision-makers regarding causal relationships between actions and outcomes, and the relevant data needed for making decisions. MSP decision-makers expressed a desire for easy-to-use tools that facilitate the collection, organization, synthesis, and analysis of data, to enable decision-making in a timely manner. Findings inform conceptual modeling and ontological analysis to capture the domain knowledge and specify relationships between actions and outcomes. This modeling and analysis provide the foundation for an ontology, encoded using OWL 2 Web Ontology Language. The ontology is developed

  20. An application of the edge effect in measuring accessibility to multiple food retailer types in Southwestern Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Trends in food retailing associated with the consolidation of smaller-format retailers into fewer, larger-format supercentres have left some rural areas with fewer sources of nutritious, affordable food. Access to nutritious, affordable food is essential for good dietary habits and combating health issues such as type-2 diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease. Many studies on food environments use inaccurate or incomplete methods for locating food retailers, which may be responsible for mischaracterising food deserts. This study uses databases of every residence in and every food retailer in and around Middlesex County, Ontario, Canada. Residences were geocoded to their precise address, and network analysis techniques were performed in a geographic information system (GIS) to determine distances between every residence and different types of food retailers (grocery stores, fast food, fruit and vegetable sources, grocery stores plus fruit and vegetable sources, variety stores), both when considering and neglecting facilities outside the area of study, to account for a deficiency in analysis termed the 'edge effect'. Results Analysis of household accessibility to food outlets by neighbourhood socioeconomic distress level indicated that residents in the most distressed neighbourhoods tended to have better accessibility to all types of food retailers. In the most distressed neighbourhoods, 79 percent of residences were within walking distance of a grocery store, compared to only 10 percent in the least distressed neighbourhoods. When the edge effect was neglected, 37 percent of distance estimates proved inaccurate. Average accessibility to all food retailer types improved dramatically when food outlets adjacent to the study area were considered, thereby controlling for the edge effect. Conclusion By neglecting to consider food retailers just outside study area boundaries, previous studies may significantly over-report the actual distance necessary to

  1. An application of the edge effect in measuring accessibility to multiple food retailer types in southwestern Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Richard C; Gilliland, Jason A; Arku, Godwin

    2011-05-15

    Trends in food retailing associated with the consolidation of smaller-format retailers into fewer, larger-format supercentres have left some rural areas with fewer sources of nutritious, affordable food. Access to nutritious, affordable food is essential for good dietary habits and combating health issues such as type-2 diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease. Many studies on food environments use inaccurate or incomplete methods for locating food retailers, which may be responsible for mischaracterising food deserts. This study uses databases of every residence in and every food retailer in and around Middlesex County, Ontario, Canada. Residences were geocoded to their precise address, and network analysis techniques were performed in a geographic information system (GIS) to determine distances between every residence and different types of food retailers (grocery stores, fast food, fruit and vegetable sources, grocery stores plus fruit and vegetable sources, variety stores), both when considering and neglecting facilities outside the area of study, to account for a deficiency in analysis termed the 'edge effect'. Analysis of household accessibility to food outlets by neighbourhood socioeconomic distress level indicated that residents in the most distressed neighbourhoods tended to have better accessibility to all types of food retailers. In the most distressed neighbourhoods, 79 percent of residences were within walking distance of a grocery store, compared to only 10 percent in the least distressed neighbourhoods. When the edge effect was neglected, 37 percent of distance estimates proved inaccurate. Average accessibility to all food retailer types improved dramatically when food outlets adjacent to the study area were considered, thereby controlling for the edge effect. By neglecting to consider food retailers just outside study area boundaries, previous studies may significantly over-report the actual distance necessary to travel for food. Research on

  2. An application of the edge effect in measuring accessibility to multiple food retailer types in Southwestern Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arku Godwin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trends in food retailing associated with the consolidation of smaller-format retailers into fewer, larger-format supercentres have left some rural areas with fewer sources of nutritious, affordable food. Access to nutritious, affordable food is essential for good dietary habits and combating health issues such as type-2 diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease. Many studies on food environments use inaccurate or incomplete methods for locating food retailers, which may be responsible for mischaracterising food deserts. This study uses databases of every residence in and every food retailer in and around Middlesex County, Ontario, Canada. Residences were geocoded to their precise address, and network analysis techniques were performed in a geographic information system (GIS to determine distances between every residence and different types of food retailers (grocery stores, fast food, fruit and vegetable sources, grocery stores plus fruit and vegetable sources, variety stores, both when considering and neglecting facilities outside the area of study, to account for a deficiency in analysis termed the 'edge effect'. Results Analysis of household accessibility to food outlets by neighbourhood socioeconomic distress level indicated that residents in the most distressed neighbourhoods tended to have better accessibility to all types of food retailers. In the most distressed neighbourhoods, 79 percent of residences were within walking distance of a grocery store, compared to only 10 percent in the least distressed neighbourhoods. When the edge effect was neglected, 37 percent of distance estimates proved inaccurate. Average accessibility to all food retailer types improved dramatically when food outlets adjacent to the study area were considered, thereby controlling for the edge effect. Conclusion By neglecting to consider food retailers just outside study area boundaries, previous studies may significantly over-report the

  3. Three-dimensional hydrogeological modeling to assess the elevated-water-table technique for controlling acid generation from an abandoned tailings site in Quebec, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethier, Marie-Pier; Bussière, Bruno; Broda, Stefan; Aubertin, Michel

    2018-01-01

    The Manitou Mine sulphidic-tailings storage facility No. 2, near Val D'Or, Canada, was reclaimed in 2009 by elevating the water table and applying a monolayer cover made of tailings from nearby Goldex Mine. Previous studies showed that production of acid mine drainage can be controlled by lowering the oxygen flux through Manitou tailings with a water table maintained at the interface between the cover and reactive tailings. Simulations of different scenarios were performed using numerical hydrogeological modeling to evaluate the capacity of the reclamation works to maintain the phreatic surface at this interface. A large-scale numerical model was constructed and calibrated using 3 years of field measurements. This model reproduced the field measurements, including the existence of a western zone on the site where the phreatic level targeted is not always met during the summer. A sensitivity analysis was performed to assess the response of the model to varying saturated hydraulic conductivities, porosities, and grain-size distributions. Higher variations of the hydraulic heads, with respect to the calibrated scenario results, were observed when simulating a looser or coarser cover material. Long-term responses were simulated using: the normal climatic data, data for a normal climate with a 2-month dry spell, and a simplified climate-change case. Environmental quality targets were reached less frequently during summer for the dry spell simulation as well as for the simplified climate-change scenario. This study illustrates how numerical simulations can be used as a key tool to assess the eventual performance of various mine-site reclamation scenarios.

  4. Blood and hair mercury concentrations among Cree First Nations of Eeyou Istchee (Quebec, Canada): time trends, prenatal exposure and links to local fish consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripley, Susannah; Robinson, Elizabeth; Johnson-Down, Louise; Andermann, Anne; Ayotte, Pierre; Lucas, Michel; Nieboer, Evert

    2018-12-01

    To describe exposure to methylmercury among Cree, focusing on women of childbearing age, we used data from 2 studies. Multiple regression was employed to examine associations between blood and hair mercury concentrations and consumption of locally harvested fish. Approximately 9.9% of non-pregnant women aged 15-44 y and 3.9% of pregnant women required follow-up according to Health Canada's blood mercury guidance value of 40 nmol/L. 8% of hair mercury observations in the non-pregnant women and 2.5% among pregnant women exceeded the equivalent threshold of 10 nmol/g. The geometric mean blood mercury concentration was 12.7 nmol/L in 1,429 persons aged 8 and over, and 17.7 nmol/L in adults aged 18 and older. The proportion of hair mercury concentrations greater than 12.5 nmol/g decreased in all age-sex groups when comparing the 2002-2009 data to published values for 1993-1994. Among women of childbearing age, local fish consumption was associated with increased blood and hair mercury concentrations. While over 90% of women of childbearing age in this population have acceptable levels of mercury, ongoing intake of mercury suggests that their consumption of fish with known high mercury content be minimised. Reducing consumption of fish known to be high in mercury content needs to be balanced with promoting ongoing connection to Cree culture and land-based activities that are also important determinants of health.

  5. Streptococcus suis Meningitis: First Case Reported in Quebec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Michaud

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Very few Streptococcus suis infections in humans have been reported in Canada, although the condition is frequent in pigs. Meningitis, often accompanied by severe hearing loss, is the most common clinical manifestation. The disease is an occupational illness affecting persons in contact with pigs and may be underdiagnosed because of misidentification of the responsible bacterium. Since Quebec is the leading province for swine production in Canada, physicians and microbiologists should be aware of this infection, especially when a streptococcal meningitis is diagnosed in swine workers. The first case of S suis type 2 meningitis reported in Quebec is described.

  6. Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maciej, H.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the Canadian oil and natural gas sector is in for another grim year in 1992. Further streamlining to enhance operating efficiencies and control costs is the first order of the day. About $4 billion worth of producing properties remains on the market, as corporate focus continues to shift to core properties. New management structures put in place in the last two years will be severely tested to improve the sector's financial performance. Massive write-downs in 1990 and 1991 have put balance sheets in much better shape for improved financial performance in the future. Although new long-term debt exceeded redemptions in 1991, largely because of debt- financing of major capital projects, individually most companies are in better shape through significant debt repayment or restructuring. The substantial reductions in interest rates will also help to enhance discretionary cash flow. At this stage, everything appears to be in place to expect that 1992 will represent the bottom of the down-cycle for Canada

  7. Hydro-Quebec looks to integrated development of Quebec and its regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bissonnette, Lise

    1995-01-01

    Hydro-Quebec's telecommunication system, the largest private telecommunications network in Canada, was discussed. The network was set up to assure safety and efficiency of the power plants and energy transmission and distribution lines. By the year 2000 Hydro-Quebec will need electronic links with all its industrial, commercial and residential customers in order to guarantee competitive service and full customer satisfaction. Investments of about one half billion dollars have been earmarked to boost the capacity of their telecommunications grid and meet steadily growing needs. As a result of the very difficult negotiations to resolve the native land claims issue, Hydro-Quebec was forced to adapt a strict and far-reaching environmental policy, which is now beginning to pay off not only in environmental terms, but also in terms of goodwill among actual and prospective customers. As a result of these huge infrastructure projects Hydro Quebec will be in a position to guarantee people access to energy at a price that is among the lowest in the world. Although demand growth could slow, demand itself will not wane. As part of this overall strategy, Hydro-Quebec plans to defer large-scale projects, instead, for the foreseeable future it will concentrate on smaller power plants, some of which could be built on rivers that have already been tamed

  8. Quebec-Vermont dispute may upset export plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McArthur, D.; Salaff, S.

    1999-01-01

    A major trade dispute between Hydro-Quebec and a group of Vermont utilities arising out of Hydro-Quebec's inability to live up to its contractual obligations to supply electricity to the Vermont group during the January 1998 ice storm is discussed. The Vermont Group initiated legal action against Hydro-Quebec, claiming refund of $ 27 million and termination of the contract . The Vermont utilities claim that the storm has revealed the weakness of the design, construction, operation and maintenance of Hydro-Quebec's transmission system. In its defence, Hydro-Quebec asserts that its transmission system meets industry standards, considers the storm 'an act of God' and invoked 'force majeure' when it ceased supplying power to Vermont last year. Hydro-Quebec further alleges that the Vermont utilities are using the storm as a pretext to end or renegotiate the contract. Hydro-Quebec asked the Canadian government to intervene under NAFTA, alleging trade harassment by the Vermont Public Service Commission (VPSC) when it restricted Vermont utility rate increases. In a countermove, Vermont U.S. Senator Jim Jeffords threatened future power exports by Canada to the U.S. for pursuing a NAFTA complaint, thereby hoping to influence negotiations between Hydro-Quebec and the Vermont utilities. The latest development in this dispute, which potentially threatens the development of 4000 MW of new hydroelectric development at Churchill Falls, Labrador, is that the dispute may now be settled with an auctioning of the contract. If the U.S. were to block the import of new power from Churchill Falls, the project could be jeopardized. However, the contract auction may well avoid such major international ramifications and a full-fledged trade war between Canada and the United States

  9. Proceedings of the 2008 Annual Meeting of the Canadian Mathematics Education Study Group = Actes de la Rencontre Annuelle 2008 du Groupe Canadien d'Etude en Didactique des Mathematiques (32nd, Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada, May 23-27, 2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liljedahl, Peter, Ed.; Oesterle, Susan, Ed.; Berneche, Christian, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This submission contains the Proceedings of the 2008 Annual Meeting of the Canadian Mathematics Education Study Group (CMESG), held at the Universite de Sherbrooke in Sherbrooke, Quebec. The CMESG is a group of mathematicians and mathematics educators who meet annually to discuss mathematics education issues at all levels of learning. The aims of…

  10. Upper Paleozoic mafic and intermediate volcanic rocks of the Mount Pleasant caldera associated with the Sn-W deposit in southwestern New Brunswick (Canada): Petrogenesis and metallogenic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dostal, Jaroslav; Jutras, Pierre

    2016-10-01

    Upper Paleozoic ( 365 Ma) mafic and intermediate volcanic rocks of the Piskahegan Group constitute a subordinate part of the Mount Pleasant caldera, which is associated with a significant polymetallic deposit (tungsten-molybdenum-bismuth zones 33 Mt ore with 0.21% W, 0.1% Mo and 0.08% Bi and tin-indium zones 4.8 Mt with 0.82% Sn and 129 g/t In) in southwestern New Brunswick (Canada). The epicontinental caldera complex formed during the opening of the late Paleozoic Maritimes Basin in the northern Appalachians. The mafic and intermediate rocks make up two compositionally distinct associations. The first association includes evolved rift-related continental tholeiitic basalts, and the second association comprises calc-alkaline andesites, although both associations were emplaced penecontemporaneously. The basalts have low Mg# 0.34-0.40, smooth chondrite-normalized REE patterns with (La/Yb)n 5-6, primitive mantle-normalized trace element patterns without noticeable negative Nb-Ta anomalies, and their ɛNd(T) ranges from + 2.5 to + 2.2. The basalts were generated by partial melting of a transition zone between spinel and garnet mantle peridotite at a depth of 70-90 km. The calc-alkaline andesites of the second association have chondrite-normalized REE patterns that are more fractionated, with (La/Yb)n 7-8.5, but without significant negative Eu anomalies. Compared to the basaltic rocks, they have lower ɛNd(T) values, ranging from + 0.5 to + 1.9, and their mantle-normalized trace element plots show negative Nb-Ta anomalies. The ɛNd(T) values display negative correlations with indicators of crustal contamination, such as Th/La, Th/Nb and SiO2. The andesitic rocks are interpreted to have formed by assimilation-fractional crystallization processes, which resulted in the contamination of a precursor basaltic magma with crustal material. The parent basaltic magma for both suites underwent a different evolution. The tholeiitic basalts experienced shallow-seated fractional

  11. The gasoline retail market in Quebec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapointe, A.

    1998-06-01

    A comprehensive study of the current status of the gasoline market in Quebec was presented. The study includes: (1) a review of the evolution of the retail market since the 1960s, (2) the development of a highly competitive sales environment, (3) a discussion of governmental interventions in the retail sales of gasoline, and (4) a discussion of the problems associated with the imposition of a minimum gasoline price. The low increase in demand for gasoline in Quebec since the 1980s has led to a considerable restructuring of the gasoline market. Consumers have little loyalty to specific brands but seek the lowest prices or prefer the outlets that offer the widest variety of associated services such as convenience stores, fast-food and car washes. Gasoline has clearly become a commodity in Quebec. An econometric model of gasoline price adjustments for the Montreal and Toronto urban areas and a summary of government interventions in the retail marketing of gasoline in Canada and the USA are included as appendices. tabs

  12. [Hospital pharmacists' perception of pharmacovigilance in Quebec].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerruti, L; Lebel, D; Bussières, J-F

    2016-03-01

    To assess the pharmacovigilance perception of Quebec's hospital pharmacists. Cross-sectional study. A questionnaire with 16 questions was developed in order to assess respondents' perception of their ability to practice pharmacovigilance, factors that can influence adverse drug reactions reporting and measures to increase reporting rate. The online questionnaire was sent to hospital pharmacist from Quebec in April 2014. The results were presented in the form of descriptive data. A total of 179/252 (71%) hospital pharmacists responded. More than 90% of respondents considered that they were able to practice all activities related to pharmacovigilance. During one year of practice, 98% of respondents faced at least one serious or unexpected adverse drug reaction and 77% notified at least one adverse drug reaction to Health Canada. The factors encouraging more than 89% of respondents to notify were: the severity, the rapidity of onset, the visibility of the reaction, the fact that the adverse drug reaction was unexpected or due to a recent marketed drug. More than 69% of respondents considered the overwork as the principal obstacle to the notification. The majority of respondents supported the implementation of 13/14 measures in order to increase reporting rate. Hospital pharmacists from Quebec presented a favorable ability to practice pharmacovigilance. Analysis of their perception of pharmacovigilance helped to identify improvements, such as the implementation of a pharmacovigilance coordinator in the health center. Copyright © 2015 Académie Nationale de Pharmacie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Quebec's electricity exports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Averyt, W.F.

    1992-01-01

    In 1987 Hydro-Quebec exported over 16 TWh to New England and New York and it plans to export 3,500 MW of firm power, not interruptible, by the early 2000s. It estimates that the northeast US market has an additional potential of 9,000 MW. The export market has become more difficult than anticipated. The federal/state regulatory framework for electricity generation was changing - it encouraged small scale generation, cogeneration and conservation which decreased demand. Demand for power imports has also been influenced by pricing judgements and avoided costs. Environmental concerns and Native protest have become increasingly important factors affecting future export sales and hence the proposed James Bay developments. Regulatory changes affecting supply and pricing, concerns about continental impacts, about further development of electrical sources together with Native requirements will further complicate the Quebec-US electricity trade. (author)

  14. Hydro-Quebec is profitable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poirier, M.

    1997-01-01

    The pros and cons of the potential privatisation of Hydro-Quebec were discussed. A brief review of charges of less than competent management, low profitability and the corporation's recent administrative restructuring was presented. The general thrust of the argument was that Hydro-Quebec plays a crucial role in the economic development of Quebec, it can be made to be more profitable and that for the good of Quebec it should continue as a public corporation under the control of the provincial government

  15. Doyon report clears Quebec NUGs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McArthur, D; Salaff, S

    1997-06-01

    In mid-1995 the Parti Quebecois, then in opposition, claimed evidence of influence peddling, international drug money laundering, kickbacks and fraud in Quebec`s independent power program. It also claimed evidence of irregularities at Hydro-Quebec in its procedures for approving hydropower projects. The Liberal Quebec government of the day ordered a public inquiry, led by Quebec superior court judge Francois Doyon. He submitted the Commission`s final report in April 1997. The report exonerated Hydro-Quebec and the province`s independent power industry of any criminal wrong doing regarding their respect for legal and regulatory directives and the `ethical norms and practices` of sound business management. In its 600-plus page report, the Doyon Commission found that while there was a certain lack of administrative rigor which allowed certain Hydro-Quebec executives to put themselves in questionable conflict-of-interest situations, their actions were not illegal. The current Parti Quebecois Government accepted the report and its recommendation concerning tightening conflict-of-interest guidelines. The current Liberal opposition in the National Assembly charged that the conclusions of the Commission were a foregone conclusion since the demand for the inquiry was politically motivated right from the beginning.

  16. Coastal conduit in southwestern Hudson Bay (Canada) in summer: Rapid transit of freshwater and significant loss of colored dissolved organic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granskog, Mats A.; MacDonald, Robie W.; Kuzyk, Zou Zou A.; Senneville, Simon; Mundy, Christopher-John; Barber, David G.; Stern, Gary A.; Saucier, Francois

    2009-08-01

    Distributions of freshwater (sea-ice melt and runoff) were investigated along inshore-offshore sections in southwestern Hudson Bay for fall conditions. Conductivity-temperature-density profiles and bottle samples collected for salinity, oxygen isotope (δ18O), and colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) analyses were used to discriminate between contributions of river water (RW) and sea-ice melt (SIM). Stations had a fresh summer surface mixed layer 5-25 m thick overlying a cold subsurface layer indicative of the previous winter's polar mixed layer (PML). The fraction of RW decreased strongly with distance from shore, while the opposite was true for SIM. The majority of RW was constrained in a coastal domain within 100-150 km from shore, which, because of high alongshore velocities, accounts for the majority of freshwater and volume transports. On the basis of freshwater inventories and composition, brine and RW accumulate in the PML over winter because of ice formation and downward mixing. The summer surface circulation results in an annual net export of SIM from the region. Residence times for freshwater components in the southwestern sector of the bay, based on currents derived from a 3-D ocean model for Hudson Bay, are about 1-10 months, implying rapid transit of freshwater. Despite the short residence time for RW (1-3 months), CDOM is significantly photobleached and provides an unreliable tracer for RW. Photobleaching represents an important sink for dissolved organic carbon entering from rivers and could, in part, explain why Hudson Bay is only a minor sink for atmospheric CO2 in the open water season.

  17. Hydro-Quebec looks south

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, P.

    1997-01-01

    The recent introduction of Hydro-Quebec, the Canadian utility, into selling cheap electric power in the United States (US) deregulated power market is described, following applications to the US Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. As its prices are so much cheaper than its US competitors, it is expected that the company will soon have many willing customers across the USA. Hydro-Quebec will remain a publicly owned utility, but has experienced restructuring in order to meet this new competitive challenge. (UK)

  18. The potential for electricity market restructuring in Quebec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, C.R.; Leach, A.

    2007-01-01

    Throughout the world, electricity market liberalization has taken place or is currently underway. However, in Canada, the province of Quebec has undertaken limited restructuring measures. Considerable debate as to the potential for further market restructuring has been ongoing. This article discussed the potential for future electricity market restructuring in Quebec where competition in electricity supply has resulted in 3 categories of supply distribution, including a block of energy and power known as the heritage pool. This article considered the political economy of the abolishment if the heritage pool requirement, which caps wholesale prices. The article presented a statistical overview of Quebec's electricity market and discussed the regulatory environment. It also identified the potential for market restructuring and the establishment of a competitive wholesale market. It was concluded that Quebecers could significantly benefit from any restructuring initiative that involved the elimination of the Heritage Pool requirement if the extra rents were properly redistributed and that production sector restructuring would be difficult. 37 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs

  19. Rural emergency care 360°: mobilising healthcare professionals, decision-makers, patients and citizens to improve rural emergency care in the province of Quebec, Canada: a qualitative study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleet, Richard; Dupuis, Gilles; Fortin, Jean-Paul; Gravel, Jocelyn; Ouimet, Mathieu; Poitras, Julien; Légaré, France

    2017-08-17

    Emergency departments (EDs) are an important safety net for rural populations. Results of our earlier studies suggest that rural Canadian hospitals have limited access to advanced imaging services and intensive care units and that patients are transferred over large distances. They also revealed significant geographical variations in rural services. In the absence of national standards, our studies raise questions about inequities in rural access to emergency services and the risks for citizens. Our goal is to build recommendations for improving services by mobilising stakeholders interested in rural emergency care. With help and full engagement of stakeholders, we will (1) identify solutions for improving quality and performance in rural EDs; (2) formulate and prioritise recommendations; (3) transfer knowledge of the recommendations to rural EDs and support operationalisation and (4) assess knowledge transfer and explore further impacts of this participatory action research project. We will use a participatory action research approach. We will plan for a governance structure that includes all stakeholders’ representatives, so throughout this project, stakeholders are fully engaged at every step. Our sample will be 26 EDs in rural Quebec. We will conduct semistructured individual and focus group interviews with relevant and representative participants, including patients and citizens (estimated n=200). Interviews will be thematically analysed to extract potential solutions and other qualitative information.An expert panel (±15) will use an analysis grid to develop consensus recommendations from solutions suggested and will evaluate feasibility, impacts, costs, conditions for implementation and establish monitoring indicators. Recommendations will be transferred to stakeholders using tailored knowledge translation strategies (web platform, meetings and so on). This study will result in a comprehensive consensus list of feasible and high

  20. New Quebec renewable energy organization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McArthur, D.; Salaff, S.

    1998-04-01

    The recent formation of the Quebec Association for the Production of Renewable Energy (l`Association quebecoise de la production d`energie renouvelable - AQPER) was announced. The Association is becoming the centre of the Quebec private electricity generation industry. By communicating the industry`s message to the public the organization gives much needed visibility to renewable resources, new forms of energy and sustainable development. The new group is an outgrowth of the former Quebec Association of Private Hydroelectricity Producers. In its new reincarnation, the organization represents all forms of renewables, small and medium hydro, wind, solar, forest and agricultural biomass and urban waste. With deregulation of the electricity market, specifically the creation of the Regie de l`energie` in Quebec, the wider role is a welcome boost for renewable energy development in the province. In one of its first actions the AQPER recommended that all hydroelectric sites up to 50 MW be reserved for development exclusively by the private sector, in conformity with the Quebec energy policy announced in 1996.

  1. A cross-sectional study examining the prevalence and risk factors for anti-microbial-resistant generic Escherichia coli in domestic dogs that frequent dog parks in three cities in south-western Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procter, T D; Pearl, D L; Finley, R L; Leonard, E K; Janecko, N; Reid-Smith, R J; Weese, J S; Peregrine, A S; Sargeant, J M

    2014-06-01

    Anti-microbial resistance can threaten health by limiting treatment options and increasing the risk of hospitalization and severity of infection. Companion animals can shed anti-microbial-resistant bacteria that may result in the exposure of other dogs and humans to anti-microbial-resistant genes. The prevalence of anti-microbial-resistant generic Escherichia coli in the faeces of dogs that visited dog parks in south-western Ontario was examined and risk factors for shedding anti-microbial-resistant generic E. coli identified. From May to August 2009, canine faecal samples were collected at ten dog parks in three cities in south-western Ontario, Canada. Owners completed a questionnaire related to pet characteristics and management factors including recent treatment with antibiotics. Faecal samples were collected from 251 dogs, and 189 surveys were completed. Generic E. coli was isolated from 237 of the faecal samples, and up to three isolates per sample were tested for anti-microbial susceptibility. Eighty-nine percent of isolates were pan-susceptible; 82.3% of dogs shed isolates that were pan-susceptible. Multiclass resistance was detected in 7.2% of the isolates from 10.1% of the dogs. Based on multilevel multivariable logistic regression, a risk factor for the shedding of generic E. coli resistant to ampicillin was attending dog day care. Risk factors for the shedding of E. coli resistant to at least one anti-microbial included attending dog day care and being a large mixed breed dog, whereas consumption of commercial dry and home cooked diets was protective factor. In a multilevel multivariable model for the shedding of multiclass-resistant E. coli, exposure to compost and being a large mixed breed dog were risk factors, while consumption of a commercial dry diet was a sparing factor. Pet dogs are a potential reservoir of anti-microbial-resistant generic E. coli; some dog characteristics and management factors are associated with the prevalence of anti

  2. Interactions: Trade Policy and Healthcare Reform After Chaoulli v. Quebec: Is it time for Canada to acknowledge the fragile boundary between health and trade policies and strengthen the separation between private and public health insurance?

    OpenAIRE

    Crawford, Mark

    2006-01-01

    The insulation of Canada’s healthcare system from trade treaty obligations is crucial to the legitimacy of Canada’s trade policy. Legal analysis has suggested, however, that competitive and for-profit delivery of the kind contemplated by the Kirby Report and some provinces may make healthcare more vulnerable to challenges under NAFTA and GATS. The Government of Canada has tried to counter this interpretation by stressing the importance of public financing as the principal criterion for exempt...

  3. Hydro-Quebec's environmental policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-10-01

    Hydro-Quebec established a new environmental policy on August 1, 1996. A summary of the policy was presented. According to this policy statement the utility undertakes to recognize the environmental implications of its activities and assumes responsibilities for these implications by integrating them into its corporate decision-making processes. The following general principles and means of implementation have been highlighted: (1) sustainable development, (2) strict, responsible environmental management, (3) environmental research, (4) enhancement of activities and facilities, (5) information, consultation and dialogue, and (6) environmental responsibility of Hydro-Quebec personnel, subsidiaries and business partners

  4. Wind potential assessment of Quebec Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilinca, A.; Chaumel, J.-L.; Retiveau, J.-L.

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents the development of a comprehensive wind atlas of the Province of Quebec. This study differs from previous studies by 1) use of a standard classification index to categorize the wind resource, 2) extensive review of surface and upper air data available for the Province to define the wind resource, and 3) integration of available wind data with the topography of the Province. The wind resource in the Province of Quebec is classified using the scheme proposed by Battelle-Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The Battelle-PNL classification is a numerical one which includes rankings from Wind Power Class 1 (lowest) to Wind Power Class 7 (highest). Associated with each numerical classification is a range of wind power and associated mean wind speed at 10 m and 50 m above ground level. For this study, a classification for 30 m above ground level was interpolated and used. A significant amount of wind data was gathered for the Province. These data were obtained from Atmospheric Environment Service (AES), Canada, from wind project developers, and from climatological summaries of surface and upper air data. A total of 35 primary data sites were selected in the Province. Although a number of wind data sites in the Province were identified and used in the analysis, large areas of the Province lacked any specific wind information. The Province was divided into grid blocks having dimensions of 1/4 o latitude by 1/3 o longitude. Each grid block is assigned a numerical Wind Power Class value ranging from 1 to 7. This value is based on the integration of the available wind data and the topography within the square. The majority of the Province was classified as 1 or 2. Coastal locations and topographic features in the interior of the Province typically have Wind Power Class 3 or higher. (author)

  5. Town and Citadel of Quebec

    OpenAIRE

    Vallée Louis-Prudent, 1837-1905, photographer

    2003-01-01

    230 x 176 mm. A view looking across the St. Lawrence towards the town and Citadel of Quebec, with shipping at anchor in the river. A photograph taken from the Grand Trunk Railway Depot, Point Lewis, probably in 1870. In the foreground railway lines run down to wharves beside the terminal.

  6. Evaluating the market transformation impacts of a DSM program in the Province of Quebec

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baillargeon, P.; Michaud, N. [Econoler, 160 St-Paul Street, Quebec, QC, G1K 3W1 (Canada); Schmitt, B. [Hydro-Quebec, Complexe Desjardins, East Tower, C.P. 10000, Place Desjardins, Montreal, QC, H5B 1H7 (Canada); Megdal, L. [Megdal and Associates, 198 High Street, Acton, MA 01720 (United States)

    2012-01-15

    In 2006, Hydro-Quebec introduced a large DSM program on the market to promote the adoption of compact fluorescent lamps in Quebec households. After 3 years of program implementation, there was significant indication on the part of market actors that the promotional campaign component was quite effective in transforming the Quebec market. Hydro-Quebec therefore decided to modify its approach to program evaluation to include the quantification of market effects. Econoler led a team including American partners, Opinion Dynamics Inc. and Megdal and Associates to conduct an evaluation of program impacts on market transformation. An evaluation strategy was designed where different research tools would be integrated to determine market evolution over the two previous years. Each research method was used to determine an estimate of program impacts, then triangulated with other approaches to determine the most appropriate impact evaluation method regarding the Hydro-Quebec program. Research efforts included a non-participant survey, interviews at manufacturer headquarters across Canada, interviews with banner distributor representatives across Canada, the collection of sales and market share data from manufacturers and retailers as well as secondary research to identify other players that could influence the market. The evaluation revealed that savings of 168 GWh could be attributed to direct and indirect impacts of the program for the 2006-2007 period.

  7. Factors associated with HPV vaccination among adult women in Quebec.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiely, Marilou; Sauvageau, Chantal; Dubé, Eve; Deceuninck, Genevieve; De Wals, Philippe

    2013-07-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are the most common sexually transmitted infections in North America and are associated with cervical cancer. A publicly-funded HPV immunization program was launched in the province of Quebec, Canada, in the fall of 2008. The aim of this study was to explore factors associated with HPV immunization among young adult women not targeted by this program. A questionnaire was mailed to 2400 24-y-old women randomly selected from the Quebec provincial health insurance database and 56% responded. Factors associated with vaccination status were analyzed using a multivariate logistic regression model. Few women had received at least one dose of HPV vaccine among the 1347 respondents. Age at first sexual intercourse ≥ 20 y, participating in cervical cancer screening, higher education level, being born in Quebec and some positive beliefs about HPV were associated with vaccination. The rate of immunization in women who had to pay for the HPV vaccine was very low and was associated with characteristics that are generally associated with a lower risk for HPV infection and cervical cancer. Efforts are needed to reach at-risk adult women.

  8. The petrochemical industry in Quebec : from yesterday to today

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giard, P.

    1992-01-01

    A historical account of the development of the chemical industry in Quebec from the year 1800 to the present was presented. The emphasis was on the development of the petrochemical industry after 1945. The earliest signs of chemical manufacturing in Quebec appeared in 1800 with the opening of the Wadsworth and Lyman pharmaceutical laboratories followed by several manufacturers of soap, paint, sugar, rubber, cement and explosive products. In 1900 the acetylene-based carbon chemistry industry was established in the Shawinigan region. The petrochemical industry in Quebec was born in 1952 with the opening in Montreal of a cumene and phenol plant by Shawinigan Chemicals and British American Oil, peaking in 1976 with six producing refineries in east Montreal. At that time, Montreal represented the largest refining centre in Canada with a combined capacity of 600,000 barrels per year. Since then, four of these refineries have closed but the province remains an important centre particularly in the manufacturing of oil-derived plastic products. Tables and maps showing the development and distribution of petrochemical manufacturing and the location of oil pipelines in the Montreal area, at various times since 1946, are included. 11 figs

  9. Architecture at Hydro-Quebec

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    Architecture at Hydro-Quebec is concerned not only with combining function and aesthetics in designing buildings and other structures for an electrical utility, but also to satisfy technical and administrative needs and to help solve contemporary problems such as the rational use of energy. Examples are presented of Hydro-Quebec's architectural accomplishments in the design of hydroelectric power stations and their surrounding landscapes, thermal power stations, transmission substations, research and testing facilities, and administrative buildings. It is shown how some buildings are designed to adapt to local environments and to conserve energy. The utility's policy of conserving installations of historic value, such as certain pre-1930 power stations, is illustrated, and aspects of its general architectural policy are outlined. 20 figs.

  10. Paper presented to the Commission des transports et de l'environnement in the context of the general consultation concerning the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol in Quebec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-02-01

    Climate change is a major issue facing Quebec's population and future generations. The scientific community generally agrees on the negative effects resulting from global climate change on human health, the environment and the economy. In 1997, the Kyoto Protocol was adopted by industrialized countries, whereby countries agreed to reduce their emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) by a certain percentage, calculated from 1990 levels. In the case of Canada, this percentage was 6 per cent, for the first commitment period covering 2008-2012. Quebec's performance on the issue of GHG emissions compares favorably to that of other Canadian provinces, even to that of other industrialized countries. Canada ratified the Kyoto Protocol in December 2002. The Quebec National Assembly called for a parliamentary committee to meet on 18 February 2003 on the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol. Hydro-Quebec, since 1997, has favored the ratification of the Kyoto Protocol by the Canadian government. In this document, Hydro-Quebec makes its position known in the context of this debate and the commercial context of the electric power industry in 2003. The first section of the document was devoted to the favorable performance of Hydro-Quebec, on the retroactive and prospective aspects of GHG emissions with regard to the entire electric power industry in Canada. In the second section, an explanation was provided, in the context of deregulation of the electricity market in North America, on the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol in Quebec and in Canada and how it becomes a major commercial issue for Hydro-Quebec. The analysis was conducted in light of the mandate of Hydro-Quebec to provide a secure and reliable service to its customers. refs., 1 fig

  11. Proceedings of the wind energy industry conference : develop, innovate, export : held in conjunction with Quebec's first wind energy industry gala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This conference was dedicated to the wind energy industry and business opportunities in Quebec, the rest of Canada and abroad. It was held in conjunction with Quebec's first wind energy industry gala which highlighted the organizations and individuals that have made outstanding contributions to the wind power sector in Quebec over the past three years. The entire conference focused on current and future requests for proposals in Quebec, innovation, and exports. Some fifteen reputed speakers shared their knowledge and experience regarding technological development and technical support available in Quebec. It was intended to clarify current and future issues affecting the wind power industry and to build key relations with leading wind energy players. The sessions of the conference were entitled: the wind energy industry in Quebec and Canada; issues surrounding requests for proposals; the players involved in the request for proposals; visual impacts of wind farms; data transmission during wind farm construction; innovating to move ahead of the crowd; innovation in practice; exporting as a means of development; and, exports in practice. A tour of the Baie-des-Sable wind farm was also provided. The conference featured 24 presentations, of which 2 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  12. Portrait of rural emergency departments in Quebec and utilisation of the Quebec Emergency Department Management Guide: a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleet, Richard; Archambault, Patrick; Légaré, France; Chauny, Jean-Marc; Lévesque, Jean-Frédéric; Ouimet, Mathieu; Dupuis, Gilles; Haggerty, Jeannie; Poitras, Julien; Tanguay, Alain; Simard-Racine, Geneviève; Gauthier, Josée

    2013-01-01

    Emergency departments are important safety nets for people who live in rural areas. Moreover, a serious problem in access to healthcare services has emerged in these regions. The challenges of providing access to quality rural emergency care include recruitment and retention issues, lack of advanced imagery technology, lack of specialist support and the heavy reliance on ambulance transport over great distances. The Quebec Ministry of Health and Social Services published a new version of the Emergency Department Management Guide, a document designed to improve the emergency department management and to humanise emergency department care and services. In particular, the Guide recommends solutions to problems that plague rural emergency departments. Unfortunately, no studies have evaluated the implementation of the proposed recommendations. To develop a comprehensive portrait of all rural emergency departments in Quebec, data will be gathered from databases at the Quebec Ministry of Health and Social Services, the Quebec Trauma Registry and from emergency departments and ambulance services managers. Statistics Canada data will be used to describe populations and rural regions. To evaluate the use of the 2006 Emergency Department Management Guide and the implementation of its various recommendations, an online survey and a phone interview will be administered to emergency department managers. Two online surveys will evaluate quality of work life among physicians and nurses working at rural emergency departments. Quality-of-care indicators will be collected from databases and patient medical files. Data will be analysed using statistical (descriptive and inferential) procedures. This protocol has been approved by the CSSS Alphonse-Desjardins research ethics committee (Project MP-HDL-1213-011). The results will be published in peer-reviewed scientific journals and presented at one or more scientific conferences.

  13. Quebec industry and climatic changes : Quebec Industry Working Group on Climatic Changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-03-01

    Global climatic change is a phenomenon greatly influenced by greenhouse gas emissions resulting from human activity and the natural greenhouse effect necessary to sustain life on the planet. Carbon dioxide emissions in the atmosphere now exceed the levels prior to the industrial revolution by 31 per cent. Half of this increase occurred during the past 30 years, while the average temperature increased by 0.3 to 0.6 degrees C. By using climate change models, scientists have linked this increase to the increase in the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and predict that the average temperature will rise by 1 to 3.5 degrees C during the next century with increases of 5 to 10 degrees C being felt in certain parts of Canada. In an effort to curb the emissions of carbon dioxide, the Quebec Industry Working Group on Climatic Change was created to represent different sectors of the industry, including energy, metallurgy, aluminium, cement, environment, mines, plastics, petrochemicals, pulp and paper, and manufacturing. The group worked at meeting the following objectives: (1) to examine the possibilities of reducing greenhouse gases emissions in the industrial sector, (2) to propose and evaluate measures and initiatives for the reduction of greenhouse gases emissions including their cost, impact and potential timetable for implementation, (3) to identify new and promising technologies in the field of greenhouse gases reduction, (4) to identify business opportunities and risks for industry in Quebec, and (5) to recommend an implementation strategy for the Kyoto Protocol for each sector, in terms of reduction measures that would be economical and in agreement with the various plans in place at the federal, provincial and municipal levels. A total of 22 recommendations were proposed covering the entire spectrum of the mandate. 15 tabs, 2 appendices

  14. A recente reforma dos serviços de saúde na província do Québec, Canadá: as fronteiras da preservação de um sistema público Recent health services reform in Quebec Province, Canada: on the frontier of preserving a public system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonor Minho Conill

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho analisa mudanças recentes no sistema de saúde canadense por meio do estudo de caso do Quebec. Última província a adotar princípios federais de universalização, integralidade e gestão pública, sua reforma realizada em 1971 ultrapassou esses objetivos com características inovadoras. Na década de 80 e início dos anos 90, ocorrem avaliações nessa província e no conjunto canadense, iniciando-se um período de transformações. As principais medidas em curso são descritas: descentralização e gestão regional, virada ambulatorial, redução seletiva da oferta, novos mecanismos de alocação de recursos e de controle social. Observa-se uma tendência para um ambiente de competição pública, mas o modo de regulação adotado não corresponde aos principais modelos discutidos para países centrais. Em um cenário de restrições orçamentárias, medidas tecnocraticamente definidas permitiram acomodar interesses, preservando princípios norteadores do sistema. Essa constatação é uma contribuição importante da análise comparada para reformas de países periféricos. Relações dessas medidas com a tendência de controle de custos e políticas de ajustes são apontadas, discutindo-se implicações nos serviços.This paper analyzes recent changes in the Canadian health system through a case study of Quebec. As the last Province to adopt federal principles of universal coverage, comprehensiveness, and public management, its reform, conducted in 1971, met these objectives by means of key innovations. In the 1980s and early 90s, a process of health services evaluation in this Province and in Canada as a whole launched a period of extensive changes. The relevant measures are described herein: decentralization and regional management, "clinical shift", selective reduction in the supply of services, and new mechanisms for resource allocation and social control. There is a tendency towards an environment of public competition

  15. The Quebec National Library on the Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieran, Shirley; Sauve, Diane

    1997-01-01

    Provides an overview of the Quebec National Library (Bibliotheque Nationale du Quebec, or BNQ) Web site. Highlights include issues related to content, design, and technology; IRIS, the BNQ online public access catalog; development of the multimedia catalog; software; digitization of documents; links to bibliographic records; and future…

  16. Quebec inventory of greenhouse gas emissions in 2008 and their evolution since 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leblond, V.; Paradis, J.; Bougie, R.; Goulet, M.; Leclerc, N.; Nolet, E.

    2010-11-01

    This document presented an inventory of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions produced by human activity in Quebec between 1990 and 2008. In 2008, 82.7 Mt of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) equivalent were released in Quebec, which represents a 1.2 percent reduction from 1990 levels. Quebec had the second lowest GHG emissions per capita in 2008 and was 1 of only 3 only provinces in Canada to have a reduction in GHG emissions since 1990. This document also presented data regarding GHG emissions released by sector, notably from industrial combustion such as the TransCanada Energy cogeneration facilities; industrial processes; residential, commercial and institutional buildings; agriculture; sanitary landfills; and electric power production. Quebec's reduction in GHG emissions can be attributed primarily to advances in energy efficiency technology that have been adopted by the industrial sector. In addition, some industrial combustion facilities have been closed and landfill facilities have begun to use systems to capture methane gas. In contrast, automobile traffic increased over the study period, and was responsible for an important increase in GHG emissions since 1990. 6 tabs., 4 figs.

  17. The core health science library in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntley, J L

    1974-04-01

    Core lists in Canada are characterized by regional differences. The lists of current importance are: (1) the British Columbia acquisitions guide for hospital libraries, (2) three Saskatchewan lists for hospitals of different sizes, (3) a core list recommended for Ontario hospitals, (4) Quebec core lists, including French language lists.

  18. Toward Embracing Multiple Perspectives in World History Curricula: Interrogating Representations of Intercultural Exchanges between Ancient Civilizations in Quebec Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdou, Ehaab D.

    2017-01-01

    Guided by critical discourse analysis, this study analyzes how ancient civilizations are constructed in high school history textbooks used in Quebec, Canada. The findings suggest that the narrative generally ignores 2-way intercultural exchanges. The narrative is also Eurocentric, silencing sub-Saharan Africa's contributions and nonmaterial…

  19. Hydro-Quebec's buyback tariff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    Hydro-Quebec had an installed electric generation capacity of 25,682 MW in 1990, of which 23,927 MW was hydraulic. Of the 26 thermal power plants, 22 are in remote communities on islands or in the north part of the province. The utility's development plan predicts an annual growth in demand of 2.6% to reach ca 200 TWh in 2006; this demand would be reduced to ca 180 TWh by energy efficiency measures. To increase capacity, Hydro-Quebec can utilize the hydro generation potential of its large rivers, of which 18,000 MW is economically viable, and its small rivers. Of the 10,000 MW theoretical potential of the latter, a large fraction cannot be economically developed under existing conditions. The utility has a policy to purchase energy as a function of the price of fossil fuel. For wind energy, this price was 4.22 cents/kWh in 1991; this price will be increased annually according to the inflation index. In its isolated sites such as the Magdalen Islands, current costs of diesel-generated electricity are at least 5.5 cents/kWh. There are possibilities for installing wind plants in isolated regions but their automatic control systems need to be improved for achieving a larger utilization factor relative to diesel generation and their cost needs to be reduced. 1 tab

  20. Photovoltaic energy potential of Quebec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Royer, J.; Thomas, R.

    1993-01-01

    Results are presented from a study concerning the potential of photovoltaic (PV) energy in Quebec to the year 2010. The different PV applications which are or will be economically viable in Quebec for the study period are identified and evaluated in comparison with the conventional energy sources used for these applications. Two penetration scenarios are proposed. One considers little change at the level of policies established for commercialization of PV sources, and the other considers certain measures which accelerate the implementation of PV technology in certain niches. While the off-grid market is already motivated to adopt PV technology for economic reasons, it is forecast that all encouragement from lowering costs would accelerate PV sales, offering a larger purchasing power to all interested parties. Above all, lowered PV costs would open up the network market. Photovoltaics would have access to a much larger market, which will accelerate changes in the very nature of the industry and bring with it new reductions in the costs of producing PV systems. 5 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs

  1. The nuclear industry in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.; Broughton, W.

    1992-01-01

    The nuclear industry in Canada comprises three identifiable groups: (1) Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), (2) electrical utilities that use nuclear power plants, (3) private engineering and manufacturing companies. At the end of World War II, AECL was charged with investigating and developing peaceful uses of atomic power. Included in the results is the Canada deuterium uranium (CANDU) reactor, a peculiarly Canadian design. The AECL maintains research capability and operates as the prime nuclear steam supply system supplier. Utilities in three Canadian provinces operate nuclear power plants, New Brunswick, Quebec, and Ontario, with the majority in Ontario. From the beginning of the nuclear program in Canada, private industry has been an important partner to AECL and the utilities, filling roles as manufacturing subcontractors and as component designers. The prime objective of this paper is to illuminate the role of private industry in developing and maintaining a competitive world-class nuclear industry

  2. Drinking water intake by infants living in rural Quebec (Canada).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levallois, Patrick; Gingras, Suzanne; Caron, Madeleine; Phaneuf, Denise

    2008-07-01

    Drinking water is a potential source of toxic contaminant and it is well known that water intake on a body weight basis decreases rapidly with increasing age. Nevertheless, few studies have been conducted on water intake of very young infants who might be particularly sensitive to some toxic chemicals. The objective of this study was to describe the mean and distribution of total water intake of 2-month old infants living in agricultural areas. Mothers (n=642) of 8 to 9 week old infants were interviewed by phone to evaluate their feeding practice, including juice and cereal intake. There were 393 infants (61%) who drank some quantity of water and 278 (43%) consumed formula reconstituted with water. For formula-fed infants, the 10, 50 and 90th percentiles of daily water intake were 79, 112, and 179 ml/kg respectively. These values are much higher than the intake recommended by US EPA for infants under one year (US EPA, 1997). This study demonstrates the importance of considering water distribution intake in very young infants who may be particularly susceptible to water contaminants.

  3. GPS coordinate time series measurements in Ontario and Quebec, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samadi Alinia, Hadis; Tiampo, Kristy F.; James, Thomas S.

    2017-06-01

    New precise network solutions for continuous GPS (cGPS) stations distributed in eastern Ontario and western Québec provide constraints on the regional three-dimensional crustal velocity field. Five years of continuous observations at fourteen cGPS sites were analyzed using Bernese GPS processing software. Several different sub-networks were chosen from these stations, and the data were processed and compared to in order to select the optimal configuration to accurately estimate the vertical and horizontal station velocities and minimize the associated errors. The coordinate time series were then compared to the crustal motions from global solutions and the optimized solution is presented here. A noise analysis model with power-law and white noise, which best describes the noise characteristics of all three components, was employed for the GPS time series analysis. The linear trend, associated uncertainties, and the spectral index of the power-law noise were calculated using a maximum likelihood estimation approach. The residual horizontal velocities, after removal of rigid plate motion, have a magnitude consistent with expected glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA). The vertical velocities increase from subsidence of almost 1.9 mm/year south of the Great Lakes to uplift near Hudson Bay, where the highest rate is approximately 10.9 mm/year. The residual horizontal velocities range from approximately 0.5 mm/year, oriented south-southeastward, at the Great Lakes to nearly 1.5 mm/year directed toward the interior of Hudson Bay at stations adjacent to its shoreline. Here, the velocity uncertainties are estimated at less than 0.6 mm/year for the horizontal component and 1.1 mm/year for the vertical component. A comparison between the observed velocities and GIA model predictions, for a limited range of Earth models, shows a better fit to the observations for the Earth model with the smallest upper mantle viscosity and the largest lower mantle viscosity. However, the pattern of horizontal deformation is not well explained in the north, along Hudson Bay, suggesting that revisions to the ice thickness history are needed to improve the fit to observations.

  4. Regional Variations in the Prevalence of Major Congenital Malformations in Quebec: The Importance of Fetal Growth Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jin-Ping; Sheehy, Odile; Bérard, Anick

    2015-01-01

    Congenital anomalies are the consequence of a complex interaction between genetic predisposition and fetal environment. Based on the Congenital Anomalies Surveillance in Canada Report, between 1998 and 2007 the rate of congenital heart defects in Quebec was significantly higher than the Canadian average; no data on the overall prevalence of congenital anomalies for Quebec or data on regional variations in any province are available. To estimate the prevalence of major congenital malformations (MCMs) in all of the 17 administrative regions of Quebec. Using data from the Quebec Pregnancy Cohort, we included infants if they were born between January 1, 1998 and December 31, 2008. MCMs were identified within the infant's first year of life using validated ICD-9 and ICD-10 codes. The rate of MCMs was calculated and stratified on Quebec's administrative regions. Among 152,353 eligible infants, the prevalence of MCMs was 36.6 (all rates were reported as per 1,000 live births). The regions with the highest rate of MCMs were Lanaudière (48.1), Laval (45.8), and Mauricie (45.1). Regions with the lowest rate were Outaouais (13.4), Côte-Nord (19.1), Abitibi-Témiscamingue (27.5), Gaspésie-îles-de-la-Madeleine (27.9), and Saguenay-Lac-Saint-Jean (28.9). Congenital heart defects (10.3) and musculoskeletal anomalies (12.6) were the most common. Laval had the highest rate of heart defects (16.1), and Lanaudière had the highest rate of musculoskeletal anomalies (22.0). The central regions of Quebec had high rate of MCMs, whereas the relatively genetically homogenous peripheral regions of Quebec had lower rate of MCM, suggesting the importance of fetal growth environment in the etiology of MCMs in Quebec.

  5. Quebec mental health services networks: models and implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Josée Fleury

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In the transformation of health care systems, the introduction of integrated service networks is considered to be one of the main solutions for enhancing efficiency. In the last few years, a wealth of literature has emerged on the topic of services integration. However, the question of how integrated service networks should be modelled to suit different implementation contexts has barely been touched. To fill that gap, this article presents four models for the organization of mental health integrated networks. Data sources: The proposed models are drawn from three recently published studies on mental health integrated services in the province of Quebec (Canada with the author as principal investigator. Description: Following an explanation of the concept of integrated service network and a description of the Quebec context for mental health networks, the models, applicable in all settings: rural, urban or semi-urban, and metropolitan, and summarized in four figures, are presented. Discussion and conclusion: To apply the models successfully, the necessity of rallying all the actors of a system, from the strategic, tactical and operational levels, according to the type of integration involved: functional/administrative, clinical and physician-system is highlighted. The importance of formalizing activities among organizations and actors in a network and reinforcing the governing mechanisms at the local level is also underlined. Finally, a number of integration strategies and key conditions of success to operationalize integrated service networks are suggested.

  6. Quebec's petrochemical industry: prospects and challenges: proceedings of the workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    A review of the present status of Quebec's petrochemical industry was presented, including an historical perspective of the development of the industry. In terms of economic importance, the petrochemical industry in the province of Quebec occupies fifth place and is primarily concentrated in the Montreal region. The industry peaked in 1976 with six producing refineries in east Montreal. At that time, Montreal represented the largest refining centre in Canada with a combined capacity of 600,000 barrels per year. Although four of these refineries have closed, the province remains an important centre particularly in the manufacturing of oil-derived plastic products. The objective of this workshop was to throw light on the challenges and the strategic economic potential of the Montreal region, to obtain the views of experienced industry insiders regarding the extent of changes that globalization of the industry has produced and the kind of conditions that would have to be created to ensure that the Montreal region can continue to compete in the global market place. Recent initiatives and investments by the Canadian Government in the petrochemical sector were also summarized. tabs., figs

  7. El actor aglutinante: Nacionalismo y sociedad civil en Quebec.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Giori

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to reconstruct the history of civil society in Quebec (Canada to relate it with nationalism, the rise of the welfare state, trade unions, Catholic Church and civil society, the dynamic forces of society. Through in-depth interviews with key leaders, exploration of institutional archives and specific literature, we work with a particular case that, when compared to Catalonia, will allow us to evaluate the importance of civil society within nationalism. This actor is not usually considered as the central subject of researches and rarely token into account, unlike political parties, their leaders or intellectuals. Currently, in a context of crisis of the state and political parties, it has begun to be considered that civil society can be a key factor for its ability to produce alliances between sectors, build hegemony and dialogue directly with the population. The study is divided into four parts: 1 the development of the theoretical framework along with the construction of the object of study and the hypotheses; 2 an analysis about the importance of the involvement of civil society in the construction of the nationalist movement in Quebec; 3 a comparison with the Catalan case; and, 4 finally some conclusions.

  8. Shakespearean dramaturgies in Quebec Shakespearean dramaturgies in Quebec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lois Sherlow

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available “It is just this which characterizes translation: the fact that it must be perpetually redone. I feel it to be an image of Art itself, of theatrical Art, which is the art of infinite variety. Everything must be played again and again, everything must be taken up and retranslated.” An Interview with Antoine Vitez, “The Duty to Translate.” Since 1980, the theatre of the province of Quebec has been in thegrip of a passion for Shakespeare. During this period, Shakespeare’s texts have often been retranslated and have also been vehicles for radical challenges to theatrical conventions. Best known among these experiments internationally are the productions of director Robert Lepage, among them his Shakespeare cycle (Coriolan, Macbeth, La Tempête performed in Mauberge, France (1992, Japanese versions of Macbeth and The Tempest staged in Tokyo (1993, and, above all, his A Midsummer Night’s Dream (with its infamous ‘mudwrestling’ scenes at the National Theatre, London (1993. “It is just this which characterizes translation: the fact that it must be perpetually redone. I feel it to be an image of Art itself, of theatrical Art, which is the art of infinite variety. Everything must be played again and again, everything must be taken up and retranslated.” An Interview with Antoine Vitez, “The Duty to Translate.” Since 1980, the theatre of the province of Quebec has been in thegrip of a passion for Shakespeare. During this period, Shakespeare’s texts have often been retranslated and have also been vehicles for radical challenges to theatrical conventions. Best known among these experiments internationally are the productions of director Robert Lepage, among them his Shakespeare cycle (Coriolan, Macbeth, La Tempête performed in Mauberge, France (1992, Japanese versions of Macbeth and The Tempest staged in Tokyo (1993, and, above all, his A Midsummer Night’s Dream (with its infamous ‘mudwrestling’ scenes

  9. Big and Little Feet Provincial Profiles: Quebec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Dobson

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This communiqué provides a summary of the production- and consumption-based greenhouse gas emissions accounts for Quebec, as well as their associated trade flows. It is part of a series of communiqués profiling the Canadian provinces and territories.1 In simplest terms, a production-based emissions account measures the quantity of greenhouse gas emissions produced in Quebec. In contrast, a consumption-based emissions account measures the quantity of greenhouse gas emissions generated during the production process for final goods and services that are consumed in Quebec through household purchases, investment by firms and government spending. Trade flows refer to the movement of emissions that are produced in Quebec but which support consumption in a different province, territory or country (and vice versa. For example, emissions associated with the production of a Quebec manufactured good that is exported to Ontario for sale are recorded as a trade flow from Quebec to Ontario. Moving in the opposite direction, emissions associated with the production of motor gasoline in New Brunswick that is exported to Quebec for sale are recorded as a trade flow from New Brunswick to Quebec. For further details on these results in a national context, the methodology for generating them and their policy implications, please see the companion papers to this communiqué series: (1 Fellows and Dobson (2017; and (2 Dobson and Fellows (2017. Additionally, the consumption emissions and trade flow data for each of the provinces and territories are available at: http://www.policyschool.ca/embodied-emissions-inputs-outputs-datatables-2004-2011/.

  10. Eastern Canada natural gas developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wall, A.

    2001-01-01

    This power point presentation addressed the following topics regarding development of natural gas in eastern Canada: (1) the 18 Tcf of proven natural gas reserves at Sable Island, (2) Canadian markets benefiting from the Maritimes and Northeast Pipeline (M and NP), (3) a 20 year franchise agreement between Enbridge Gas and the government of New Brunswick, (4) the 25 year provincial franchise agreement by Sempra Atlantic Gas, and (5) Sable Island's influence on central Canada. The Sable Offshore Energy Project (SOEP) is now producing about 540,000 MMBtu/day from 6 fields. Plans for Tier 2 expansion are underway. Firm contracts for the M and NP are scheduled to transport gas from the SOEP to markets in Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Maine and New Hampshire. Sable gas is also a potential supply for the Quebec market. Gaz Metropolitain and Enbridge have proposed to build the Cartier Pipeline from the Quebec/New Brunswick border to Quebec City. It is unlikely that Sable Island supply will directly serve the Ontario market. Canadian customers for Sable gas and M and NP service include pulp and paper companies, oil refineries, power generators and local distribution companies (LDC), with the majority of demand coming form the electric power industry. tabs., figs

  11. [To become a psychiatrist in Quebec in the 50s to 60s].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucet, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    The author is the witness of a historic period of the psychiatry in the province of Quebec in Canada, widely francophone. He describes the context, the training in psychiatry, and the care. In Quebec, in the 1950s, the psychiatry did not exist as such as speciality. There was however a discipline: the neuropsychiatry. It was managed by the neurologists who agreed to take care of cases of psychiatry, which few doctors wanted to treat at this moment. The religious and rural society in Quebec of the 1950s got ready for the "Revolution tranquille". The latter finally burst after 1960. But the artistic environment was already in full excitement, and from 1948, it showed its opposition to the values which were current with the publication of the Refus global. Among the signatories of the latter, we find Bruno Cormier as medical student who will become, after 1950, a psychiatrist and a psychoanalyst. To become a psychiatrist, it was necessary to be trained as an intern in a residency program in the USA, UK or in France. The residency in the United States in the 1950s represented a great adventure for the young doctors of Quebec, especially for the French speakers. At the end of 1950s, the pharmacology emerged. However, he described his own experience as an observer or an actor with ECT, Sakel cure and about the lobotomy.

  12. Summary of thirty years of environmental knowledge acquired by Hydro-Quebec in large hydroelectric projects in northern regions; Synthese de trente annees de connaissances environnementales acquises par Hydro-Quebec reliees aux grands amenagements hydroelectriques en milieu nordique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demers, C. [Hydro-Quebec, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2003-12-01

    Power generation in Canada is a provincial responsibility. Since Quebec does not possess petroleum, natural gas or coal deposits, the Quebec government decided, in the 1970s, to develop hydroelectric resources in the northern regions of the province. This paper presents a brief historical overview of the hydroelectric development of the La Grande River project, also referred to as the James Bay project. Located approximately 1000 kilometres north of Montreal, the La Grande project lies in a humid continental climate with an average winter temperature of - 23 Celsius and an average summer temperature of 14 Celsius. The construction of the dam was not preceded by an environmental impact assessment, but environmental data was collected for the first time before construction began. It was an opportunity for all environmental sciences to develop inventory methodologies and analysis techniques specific to northern regions applicable to hydroelectric development. This project also required the signing of the James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement by the governments of Canada and Quebec, Hydro-Quebec, and the Crees and Inuit of Quebec. The Agreement covers an area of 1 million square kilometres. As a result, Hydro-Quebec has become, over the past 30 years, a leader in environmental assessments and studies in the province. In northern Quebec, a hydroelectric reservoir constitutes an ecosystem whose biological productivity is comparable to a natural lake or ecosystem of equal area. During the first 5 years after flooding, reservoirs possess water quality slightly below that of a natural lake, but still favorable to biological development. The flooding of areas and the subsequent organic degradation promote mercury methylation and its accumulation in the food chain. The emissions of greenhouse gases by northern reservoirs are minimal compared to tropical reservoirs. The fauna in northern Quebec suffered habitat loss, but none became endangered. No Aboriginal community

  13. The burgeoning field of transdisciplinary adaptation research in Quebec (1998–: a climate change-related public health narrative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gosselin P

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Pierre Gosselin1–3, Diane Bélanger1,3,4, Véronique Lapaige1,5,6, Yolaine Labbé11Quebec National Public Health Institute, Quebec, 2Laval University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Quebec, 3National Institute of Scientific Research, Water-Earth-Environment Centre, Quebec, 4Research Centre of the Quebec University Hospital Centre, Quebec, 5University of Montreal, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, Montreal, 6Fernand-Seguin Research Centre, Montreal, QC, CanadaAbstract: This paper presents a public health narrative on Quebec’s new climatic conditions and human health, and describes the transdisciplinary nature of the climate change adaptation research currently being adopted in Quebec, characterized by the three phases of problem identification, problem investigation, and problem transformation. A transdisciplinary approach is essential for dealing with complex ill-defined problems concerning human–environment interactions (for example, climate change, for allowing joint research, collective leadership, complex collaborations, and significant exchanges among scientists, decision makers, and knowledge users. Such an approach is widely supported in theory but has proved to be extremely difficult to implement in practice, and those who attempt it have met with heavy resistance, succeeding when they find the occasional opportunity within institutional or social contexts. In this paper we narrate the ongoing struggle involved in tackling the negative effects of climate change in multi-actor contexts at local and regional levels, a struggle that began in a quiet way in 1998. The paper will describe how public health adaptation research is supporting transdisciplinary action and implementation while also preparing for the future, and how this interaction to tackle a life-world problem (adaptation of the Quebec public health sector to climate change in multi-actors contexts has progressively been

  14. Strategies for the development of Quebec`s petrochemical industry: education and environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Connor, J.A. [Canadian Chemical Producer`s Association (Canada)

    1992-12-31

    One of the key challenges not only for the Quebec but for the Canadian petrochemical industry will be the challenge to increase the number of students pursuing science or engineering as fields of study. According to this author, there is a crisis in science and technology education in Canada. The ability of Canadian students to compete with their peers around the world is steadily diminishing as a result of the undue emphasis on student attitudes and self-esteem in Canadian schools, as opposed to European and Asian schools which focus on conveying specific skills. He advocates a shift in attitude away from simply more money spent on education towards concern with what and how well students are learning. It was suggested that the educational system must take into account the demands of the market place in fashioning the curricula. If students are to function in the real world where performance is evaluated, the educational system will have to change to reflect the fact that the market and society reward people in proportion to their contribution. The relationship between environmental concern and education was also explored, and the inclusion of environmental issues in the classroom curriculum was recommended. As a topic for curricula, the environment is subject to broad-ranging and often conflicting views regarding its problems and their causes, effects and remedies. Nevertheless, it is not a transient issue to be dismissed as a fad. Rather, it is an issue here to stay, hence it should play a more formalized role at all levels of the curriculum from primary schools to colleges and universities.

  15. Q fever in Quebec (1989–93: Report of 14 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Goyette

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Q fever, a zoonosis acquired by inhalation of the rickettsia Coxiella burnetii, is rarely diagnosed in Canada. The world incidence has been increasing since 1960, because of progressive dissemination of this microorganism in animal populations, particularly domestic ruminants. Some recent outbreaks were caused by cats. Of 14 cases reported in Quebec between 1989 and the beginning of 1993, nine occurred successively in an 18-month period in the rural region surrounding Trois-Rivières, after contact with livestock or cats. These cases are reported here, with the results of serological screening of the workers of an abattoir where one of the cases worked. Five additional cases reported in Quebec during the same period are briefly reviewed.

  16. Environmental Management Audit: Southwestern Power Administration (Southwestern)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    This report documents the results of the Environmental Management Audit completed for the Southwestern Power Administration. During this Audit, activities and records were reviewed and personnel interviewed. The onsite portion of the Southwestern Audit was conducted from November 30 through December 11, 1992, by the US Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Audit (EH-24). EH-24 carries out independent assessments of Department of Energy (DOE) facilities and activities as part of the Assistant Secretary's Environmental Audit Program. This program is designed to evaluate the status of DOE facilities/activities regarding compliance with laws, regulations, DOE Orders, formal written procedures, compliance agreements, and Best Management Practices (BMPs). This internal oversight function plays an important role in improving the compliance status of DOE operations. The Environmental Management Audit stresses DOE's policy that it is the responsibility of line management to conduct operations in an environmentally sound and safe manner. The Environmental Management Audit focuses on management systems and programs, whereas the Environmental Baseline Audit conducted in March 1991 focused on specific compliance issues. The scope of the Southwestern Environmental Management Audit included a review of all systems and functions necessary for effective environmental management. Specific areas of review included: Organizational Structure; Environmental Commitment; Environmental Protection Programs; Formality of Environmental Programs; Internal and External Communication; Staff Resources, Training, and Development; and Program Evaluation, Reporting, and Corrective Action

  17. Mergers and integrated care: the Quebec experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demers, Louis

    2013-01-01

    As a researcher, I have studied the efforts to increase the integration of health and social services in Quebec, as well as the mergers in the Quebec healthcare system. These mergers have often been presented as a necessary transition to break down the silos that compartmentalize the services dispensed by various organisations. A review of the studies about mergers and integrated care projects in the Quebec healthcare system, since its inception, show that mergers cannot facilitate integrated care unless they are desired and represent for all of the actors involved an appropriate way to deal with service organisation problems. Otherwise, mergers impede integrated care by creating increased bureaucratisation and standardisation and by triggering conflicts and mistrust among the staff of the merged organisations. It is then preferable to let local actors select the most appropriate organisational integration model for their specific context and offer them resources and incentives to cooperate.

  18. Mergers and integrated care: the Quebec experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis Demers

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available As a researcher, I have studied the efforts to increase the integration of health and social services in Quebec, as well as the mergers in the Quebec healthcare system. These mergers have often been presented as a necessary transition to break down the silos that compartmentalize the services dispensed by various organisations. A review of the studies about mergers and integrated care projects in the Quebec healthcare system, since its inception, show that mergers cannot facilitate integrated care unless they are desired and represent for all of the actors involved an appropriate way to deal with service organisation problems. Otherwise, mergers impede integrated care by creating increased bureaucratisation and standardisation and by triggering conflicts and mistrust among the staff of the merged organisations. It is then preferable to let local actors select the most appropriate organisational integration model for their specific context and offer them resources and incentives to cooperate.

  19. Tritium activities in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gierszewski, P.

    1995-01-01

    Canadian tritium activites comprise three major interests: utilites, light manufacturers, and fusion. There are 21 operating CANDU reactors in Canada; 19 with Ontario Hydro and one each with Hydro Quebec and New Brunswick Power. There are two light manufacturers, two primary tritium research facilities (at AECL Chalk River and Ontario Hydro Technologies), and a number of industry and universities involved in design, construction, and general support of the other tritium activities. The largest tritum program is in support of the CANDU reactors, which generate tritium in the heavy water as a by-product of normal operation. Currently, there are about 12 kg of tritium locked up in the heavy water coolant and moderator of these reactors. The fusion work is complementary to the light manufacturing, and is concerned with tritium handling for the ITER program. This included design, development and application of technologies related to Isotope Separation, tritium handling, (tritiated) gas separation, tritium-materials interaction, and plasma fueling

  20. Projets Pilotes Quebecois Portant sur L'Integration Scolaire aux Niveaux Pre-Scolaire et Primaire (Quebec Pilot Projects on Mainstreaming of Preschool and Primary-Level Schoolchildren).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-Laurent, Lise; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This article synthesizes 55 Quebec (Canada) pilot projects on mainstreaming of pupils with learning disabilities, behavior disorders, physical or sensorial handicaps, or mental handicaps, at preschool and elementary levels. It focuses on extent of integration, interventions, training and support for teachers, and evaluation methodology used.…

  1. Physical activity assessment and counseling in Quebec family medicine groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillot, Aurélie; Baillargeon, Jean-Patrice; Paré, Alex; Poder, Thomas G; Brown, Christine; Langlois, Marie-France

    2018-05-01

    To determine how often primary health care providers (PHCPs) in family medicine groups (FMGs) assess physical activity (PA) levels, provide PA counseling (PAC), and refer patients to exercise professionals; to describe patients' PA levels, physical fitness, and satisfaction regarding their PA management in FMGs; to describe available PA materials in FMGs and PHCPs' PAC self-efficacy and PA knowledge; and to identify characteristics of patients and PHCPs that determine the assessment of PA and PAC provided by PHCPs. Cross-sectional study using questionnaires and a medical chart audit. Ten FMGs within the Integrated University Health Network of the Centre hospitalier universitaire de Sherbrooke in Quebec. Forty FPs, 24 nurses, and 439 patients. Assessment of PA level and PAC provided by PHCPs. Overall, 51.9% of the patients had had their PA level assessed during the past 18 months, but only 21.6% received PAC from at least 1 of the PHCPs. Similar percentages were found among the inactive (n = 244) and more active (n = 195) patients. The median PAC self-efficacy score of PHCPs was 70.2% (interquartile range 52.0% to 84.7%) and the median PA knowledge score was 45.8% (interquartile range 41.7% to 54.2%), with no significant differences between nurses and FPs. In multivariate analysis, 34% of the variance in PAC provided was explained by assessment of PA level, overweight or obese status, type 2 diabetes or prediabetes, less FP experience, lower patient annual family income, more nurse encounters, and a higher patient physical component summary of quality of life. The rates of assessment of PA and provision of PAC in Quebec FMGs were low, even though most of the patients were inactive. Initiatives to support PHCPs and more resources to assess PA levels and provide PAC should be implemented. Copyright© the College of Family Physicians of Canada.

  2. Training of nuclear power plant personnel in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tennant, D.

    1993-01-01

    All of the utilities, Ontario Hydro, Hydro Quebec and New Brunswick Power, operating Nuclear Power Plants in Canada have Training Centres which provide training for all of their plant personnel whose job activities could affect plant and personnel safety. This report points out the methods used for training, which generally conform to that described by the IAEA as a Systematic Approach to Training (SAT)

  3. Quebec Gentilly 2 nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labbe, J.A.

    Modifications and commissioning of the Gentilly reactor are described. The Gentilly reactor is owned by AECL, not Quebec Hydro, and has served as a prototype reactor. The Gentilly-2 reactor is a 'packaged' 600 MWe PHW reactor similar to Pickering-1, etc. Interesting aspects of construction and purchasing of equipment are described. (E.C.B.)

  4. Association between junk food consumption and fast-food outlet access near school among Quebec secondary-school children: findings from the Quebec Health Survey of High School Students (QHSHSS) 2010-11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutumisu, Nicoleta; Traoré, Issouf; Paquette, Marie-Claude; Cazale, Linda; Camirand, Hélène; Lalonde, Benoit; Robitaille, Eric

    2017-04-01

    We investigated the association between junk food consumption at lunchtime (JCL) and fast-food outlet access near school among secondary-school children in Quebec. A geographic information system database was used to characterize the food environment around a sub-sample of 374 public schools in which 26 655 students were enrolled. The outcome variable was JCL during the previous week, dichotomized into low JCL (none or once) v. high JCL (twice or more). Access to fast-food outlets near school was assessed using an existing database of fast-food outlets in Quebec. Covariates included student (age, sex and self-rated perceived health), family (familial status and parental education) and school (urban/rural status and deprivation) variables. Hierarchical logistic regression models were employed for analyses using PROC GLIMMIX of SAS version 9.3. Province of Quebec, Canada. We used data from the Quebec Health Survey of High School Students (QHSHSS) 2010-11, a survey of secondary-school Quebec students. Exposure to two or more fast-food outlets within a radius of 750 m around schools was associated with a higher likelihood of excess JCL (OR=1·50; 95 % CI 1·28, 1·75), controlling for the characteristics of the students, their families and their schools. The food environment surrounding schools can constitute a target for interventions to improve food choices among secondary-school children living in the province of Quebec. Transforming environments around schools to promote healthy eating includes modifying zoning regulations that restrict access to fast-food outlets around schools.

  5. The Legal Framework for Groundwater Allocation in Quebec: Towards Integrated Water Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Tremblay

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at providing a model of the legal framework for groundwater allocation in the province of Quebec (Canada, identifying its potential deficiencies and suggesting possible improvements. In Quebec, groundwater is a res communis. The right to use it is tied to real estate property. This right forms the basis of the legal framework for the management of groundwater quantity. However, according to statutory law, the actual use of groundwater also depends on governmental authorisations that limit quantities used. The main statutory instrument for managing the resource is the Groundwater Catchment Regulation (GWCR, which aims at conflict prevention between first users and new users by means of governmental authorisations. In agricultural areas, an additional authorisation regime indirectly prioritises agricultural groundwater uses. Finally, legal mechanisms addressing conflicts between water users rely on the general litigation framework provided by Quebec law without establishing an order of priority for the different uses of the resource. According to Integrated Water Resources Management, four aspects of the legal framework for groundwater quantity management can be modified to increase the efficiency of the allocation regime: 1 provisions should be made to preserve a residual environmental flow; 2 an order of priority should be established between the different uses to minimise conflict; 3 the scope of the regime should be extended to all groundwater users to increase its efficiency; 4 stakeholders should participate in the management of the resource.

  6. Abiotic variables accounting for presence of the exotic rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss in Eastern Quebec Rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thibault I.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Rainbow trout is an exotic fish species that has been introduced in Quebec (Canada since 1893–1894. Despite spatially-restricted stocking for recreational fishing, the species has spread throughout the Saint Lawrence River. In this study, the relationship between rainbow trout occurrence (presence or absence and abiotic variables (river geomorphology and climate was examined for 91 coastal rivers throughout Eastern Quebec in order to determine which variables promote or impede the ongoing invasion process. Results revealed that rainbow trout presence in Eastern Quebec was primarily determined by geomorphological parameters. The invader’s presence was strongly related to the presence of tributaries (especially larger ones. To a lesser extent, the presence of rainbow trout was positively related to warm spring and summer temperatures and negatively related to the peak flood date occurring during the egg deposition period (May. This study proposes a parsimonious modelling approach to identify which environmental parameters favour the spreading of an invader, even when a limited dataset is available due to the incomplete invasion process.

  7. [Quebec Pregnancy Cohort: prevalence of medication use during gestation and pregnancy outcomes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bérard, Anick; Sheehy, Odile

    2014-01-01

    Many women are exposed to medications during pregnancy. The Quebec Pregnancy Cohort (QPC) is a prospective population-based cohort which includes all data on pregnancies and children between January 1997 and December 2008. We linked four administrative databases in Quebec, Canada: RAMQ (medical and pharmaceutical), MED-ECHO (hospitalizations), ISQ (births/deaths), and MELS (Ministry of Education). Pregnancies included were covered by the Quebec prescription drug insurance plan (36% of women aged 15-45 years) from 12 months prior until the end of pregnancy. We analyzed 97,680 pregnancies. Prevalence of medication use was 74% pre-pregnancy, 56% during pregnancy, and 80% post-pregnancy. Most frequently used medications during pregnancy were antibiotics (47%), antiemetic drugs (23%), and non-steroïdal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) [17%]. Medication users were more likely to have spontaneous abortions, preterm births, children with congenital malformations and postpartum depression than non-users (ppregnancy. The QPC is a powerful tool for perinatal pharmacoepidemiological research. © 2014 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  8. Hydro-Quebec's Strategic Plan 2002-2006 : summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    A corporate profile of Hydro-Quebec was presented and the strategy that the utility will adopt for the 2002-2006 period was summarized. The utility plans to maintain its service quality and sustain environmental quality while developing a world class enterprise. Quebec has adopted a heritage pool giving Quebec consumers access to a maximum of 165 TWh of electricity per year at an average commodity rate of 2.79 cents per kilowatt-hour, the lowest rate for such a large amount of energy in North America. Above that volume, supply for the Quebec market will be ensured through competitive bidding, leading to the signing of supply contracts based on market price. Hydro-Quebec's strategy reflects the business opportunities open to Hydro-Quebec given its traditional activities in the province, the restructuring of North American energy markets, and the emergence of Quebec as a major energy hub. The business opportunities come from the fact that demand for electricity in Quebec is growing and from the opening of markets close to Quebec. Investment outlook in hydroelectric generation and transmission also appears to be profitable. It is likely that investment will be needed to build infrastructure. Hydro-Quebec is also working with its qualified workforce to develop a world-class international activity base. tabs., figs

  9. Wheeling in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fytche, E.L.

    1991-01-01

    The quest for economic efficiency, or lowest cost, in the electricity supply industry is furthered by trading between high and low cost utilities, one aspect being transporting or wheeling power through the transmission system of a third party. Some of the pressures and constraints limiting wheeling are discussed. A simple formula is presented for determining whether trading and wheeling are worthwhile. It is demonstrated for assumed capital and operating cost levels, the viability of nine cases where bulk power or economy energy would need to be wheeled across provincial boundaries in order to reach potential buyers. Wheeling in Canada is different from the situation in the USA, due to large distances spanned by Canadian utilities and because most are provincial crown corporations, with different territorial interests and profit motivations than investor-owned utilities. Most trading in electricity has been between contiguous neighbours, for mutual advantage. New technology allows power transmission over distances of up to 1000 miles, and the economics of Canada's electrical supply could be improved, with means including access to low cost coal of Alberta, and remote hydro in British Columbia, Manitoba, Quebec and Labrador. Nuclear plants could be located anywhere but suffer from an unfriendly public attitude. A bridge across the Prairies appears uneconomic due to cost of transmission, and also due to low valuation given to Alberta coal. 7 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  10. Survival of female mallards along the Vermont–Quebec border region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longcore, Jerry R.; McAuley, Daniel G.; Heisey, Dennis M.; Bunck, Christine M.; Clugston, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding effects of location and timing of harvest seasons on mortality of ducks and geese from hunting is important in forming regulations that sustain viable waterfowl populations throughout their range. During 1990 and 1991 we alternately marked 80 hatching year (HY), female mallards along the Vermont–Quebec border; half with radio-transmitters and bands and half with only aluminum leg bands. We monitored radio-marked ducks daily and recorded survival status weekly for 15 weeks from August until December each year. Mallard mortalities began 25 September when the hunting season opened in the Province of Quebec, Canada. Overall survival of mallards at week 10 did not differ between years (0.51 in 1990 vs. 0.43 in 1991) or differ from that of HY American black ducks (0.44 females, 0.42 males) based on proportional hazard analysis in a Bayesian framework. The mortality rates for mallards from hunting (0.47) and causes unrelated to hunting (0.06) were similar between years and to those rates for HY black ducks at that same site. Hunter harvest accounted for most of the mortality recorded during this study and illegal feeding (i.e., baiting) at sites just before and during the hunting season was observed. Females with lower body condition index had greater mortality rates; a 1-standard-deviation increase in condition index would reduce mortality hazard by about 29%. Management options that may increase mallard survival in the area include lowering daily bag limit in Quebec and suspending split hunting seasons in Vermont that increase harvest, delaying opening date of hunting in Quebec to allow for increased body condition before hunting season opens, and improving enforcement of baiting restrictions.

  11. Public health impact assessment of a proposed cogeneration plant in the Quebec city metropolitan area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lajoie, P; Bolduc, D; Gauvin, D; Guerrier, P; Gauthier, R [Quebec Public Health Center, Ste-Foy (Canada); Laflamme, P [Laval Univ. (Canada). Dept. of Preventive Medicine

    1996-12-31

    In 1994, public hearings were held in Quebec city concerning a 120 megawatt (MW) gas cogeneration project that was to be coupled with an already existing pulp and paper mill in the downtown area. Cogeneration plants are often described as highly beneficial from the point of view of local environment. It is well known that the burning of natural gas emits far less sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and particulate matters (PM) than the combustion of oil or coal. The proposed plant would use high pressure vapour from a nearby incinerator plant and natural gas to produce low pressure vapor for the paper mill industry as well as electricity. The cogeneration plant would allow the paper mill to stop burning heavy oil. By using natural gas instead of heavy oil, the new cogeneration-paper mill complex (CPC) is expected to reinforce the recent trend and willingness towards improving downtown air quality. On the other hand, the CPC would emit more CO{sub 2}, due to the production of additional electricity. According to the Rio de Janeiro Agreement ratified in 1988, Canada is committed to stabilize its greenhouse gas emissions by the year 2000. Nevertheless, the cogeneration file is a new option considered by the Quebec Provincial Governement in its last energy triennal plan. However, it must be specified that the Province of Quebec contributes to less than 15 % of the total Canadian CO{sub 2} production although it represents more than 25 % of its population. Furthermore the maximum production of electricity by this file has been set to 250 MW. It is a very small fraction of the total production of electricity in Quebec, which is 200 TW

  12. Public health impact assessment of a proposed cogeneration plant in the Quebec city metropolitan area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lajoie, P.; Bolduc, D.; Gauvin, D.; Guerrier, P.; Gauthier, R. [Quebec Public Health Center, Ste-Foy (Canada); Laflamme, P. [Laval Univ. (Canada). Dept. of Preventive Medicine

    1995-12-31

    In 1994, public hearings were held in Quebec city concerning a 120 megawatt (MW) gas cogeneration project that was to be coupled with an already existing pulp and paper mill in the downtown area. Cogeneration plants are often described as highly beneficial from the point of view of local environment. It is well known that the burning of natural gas emits far less sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and particulate matters (PM) than the combustion of oil or coal. The proposed plant would use high pressure vapour from a nearby incinerator plant and natural gas to produce low pressure vapor for the paper mill industry as well as electricity. The cogeneration plant would allow the paper mill to stop burning heavy oil. By using natural gas instead of heavy oil, the new cogeneration-paper mill complex (CPC) is expected to reinforce the recent trend and willingness towards improving downtown air quality. On the other hand, the CPC would emit more CO{sub 2}, due to the production of additional electricity. According to the Rio de Janeiro Agreement ratified in 1988, Canada is committed to stabilize its greenhouse gas emissions by the year 2000. Nevertheless, the cogeneration file is a new option considered by the Quebec Provincial Governement in its last energy triennal plan. However, it must be specified that the Province of Quebec contributes to less than 15 % of the total Canadian CO{sub 2} production although it represents more than 25 % of its population. Furthermore the maximum production of electricity by this file has been set to 250 MW. It is a very small fraction of the total production of electricity in Quebec, which is 200 TW

  13. Canada's directory of ethanol-blended fuel retailers (December 1998)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-12-01

    This publication serves as a directory of ethanol-blended gasoline retailers in Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta, British Columbia, and the Yukon. The listings include the name and address of the retailer. The listing is organized by province and cities, beginning with the Yukon in the west and proceeding east to Quebec. A list of bulk purchase facilities of ethanol-blended fuels is also included. As of December 1998, there were a total of 929 retail outlets for ethanol blended gasoline in Canada

  14. Hydro-Quebec annual report, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    An overview is presented of the activities of Hydro-Quebec for the year ended December 31, 1993, as well as its financial status. Export sales of electricity to other Canadian provinces and the USA are reported. Research programs and demonstration projects are described, as well as the utility's international activities. Environmental and economic considerations for the province are presented. Financial data includes total sales, sales by sector, export sales, and rate changes. A financial statement is included. In 1993, total sales volume was 152.1 TWh, or 7.5 TWh more than in 1992, for a total sales revenue of $7,004 million, an increase of 3.5% over 1992. Sales in Quebec increased 5 TWh, with nearly all of this increase coming from the industrial sector. Exports outside of Quebec totalled 15 TWh, or 20% more than in 1992. The largest increase in exports was in the form of short-term sales to the USA. Expenditures in 1993 were $3,761 million, only slightly more than in 1992. Facilities commissioned in 1993 included the Brisay power plant, two of six units at the Laforge-1 plant, and the north portion of the 12th transmission line from the LaGrande complex. Total installed capacity of the Hydro-Quebec system reached 29,131 MW, and total power produced was 131.6 TWh. Total length of transmission and distribution lines in 1993 reached 29,869 km and 100,908 km respectively. 9 figs., 17 tabs

  15. Industry reorganization in Quebec : an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanoue, R.

    2002-01-01

    In 2001 the diversified markets in Quebec totaled 12.6 billion $CAN. This included electricity sales at 62.3 per cent, sales of natural gas at 8.8 per cent, and sales of electricity to the United States at 24.8 per cent. The paper included several view graphs depicting the average price of electricity by province and state, as well as regional transmission organizations. Tables outlining the restructuring and regulatory processes in Quebec from the fall of 1996 to 2000 were included along with an outline of the strategic plan and implications of Bill 116. A graph depicting Hydro-Quebec distribution and call for tenders for an additional 4100 MW from 2000 to 2016 was presented along with a list of accepted bids with the company name, location and type of power generation (hydraulic with reservoir, run-of-river, cogeneration-natural gas, or biomass). Other calls for tenders include an additional 1000 MW of renewable wind power. 3 tabs., 4 figs

  16. Insight conference reports : Quebec energy forum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The focus of this conference was placed on the state of the energy industry in Quebec. It provided an opportunity for speakers and participants to exchange their views on a variety of topics. The recent developments of the Regie de l'energie and other regulatory frameworks were reviewed, and comparisons established with the existing framework in other jurisdictions such as Ontario and Alberta. The next major theme discussed was electricity supply in Quebec, where the viewpoint of industrial consumers was presented, and energy efficiency as it relates to the supply of electricity was also on the agenda. Hydro-Quebec presented its perspectives concerning the production of electricity in the province, with emphasis placed on hydroelectric development in James Bay. The Inuit perspective on sustainable development of Nunavik, effective risk management and private electricity production were discussed. Administrative and judicial constraints applicable to the implementation of projects on linear energy transmission were reviewed, as were the effects of hydroelectricity on climate change and energy priorities in the Kyoto era. Wind energy was reviewed, followed by hydrogen energy. A total of nine presentations were included in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  17. Insight conference reports : Quebec energy forum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    The focus of this conference was placed on the state of the energy industry in Quebec. It provided an opportunity for speakers and participants to exchange their views on a variety of topics. The recent developments of the Regie de l'energie and other regulatory frameworks were reviewed, and comparisons established with the existing framework in other jurisdictions such as Ontario and Alberta. The next major theme discussed was electricity supply in Quebec, where the viewpoint of industrial consumers was presented, and energy efficiency as it relates to the supply of electricity was also on the agenda. Hydro-Quebec presented its perspectives concerning the production of electricity in the province, with emphasis placed on hydroelectric development in James Bay. The Inuit perspective on sustainable development of Nunavik, effective risk management and private electricity production were discussed. Administrative and judicial constraints applicable to the implementation of projects on linear energy transmission were reviewed, as were the effects of hydroelectricity on climate change and energy priorities in the Kyoto era. Wind energy was reviewed, followed by hydrogen energy. A total of nine presentations were included in this database. refs., tabs., figs.

  18. Globalización, sistemas productivos locales y dinámicas territoriales: miradas cruzadas en Québec, Canadá, y en sud-oeste francés. / Globalization, local production systems and territorial dynamics: Perspectives in Quebec, Canada, and south-west of France.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume, Régis

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo es un extracto de una investigación mayor (citada que trata de esclarecer, a partir del análisis de casos concretos comparables en Québec y en el Sud-Oeste francés, el impacto territorial de mutaciones económicas que se expresan en un contexto de competencia exacerbada y (re activan un juego de actores locales cuya ambición es doble. Se trata, en el marco de una acción pública renovada, de reforzar la dimensión relacional interna a esas configuraciones territoriales y de suscitar una mejor conectividad con las redes productivas que se desarrollan a escala planetaria./This is an extract of a larger investigation that seeks to clarify the impact on the territory that economic mutations might generate in two specific cases: Quebec and south western France.

  19. Section 2: Institut de Recherche d'Hydro-Quebec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruvada, P.S.

    1991-01-01

    The results performed by the Institut de Recherche d'Hydro-Quebec as part of the Canada-wide effort to characterize electric and magnetic field levels in different environments are reported. In addition to developing instrumentation for 24 hour recording of fields, measurements were carried out in domestic, light industrial, and agricultural environments as well as in generating stations, substations and under power transmission and distribution lines. Measurements in eighteen dwellings, ranging from single family houses to apartments, displayed average electric fields of less than 12 V/m, while average magnetic fields ranged between 0.04 and 9 milligauss. Magnetic fields measured in offices, light industrial and agricultural environments also fell in the same range. Highest magnetic fields were measured in generating stations, with levels up to 1,200 mG. Field levels up to 140 mG were measured in high voltage substations, while levels at the fenced boundary were below 6.2 mG. Magnetic fields under power transmission and distribution lines are reasonably symmetric and similar to theoretical profiles. 31 figs., 4 tabs

  20. Public/private partnerships for prescription drug coverage: policy formulation and outcomes in Quebec's universal drug insurance program, with comparisons to the Medicare prescription drug program in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomey, Marie-Pascale; Forest, Pierre-Gerlier; Palley, Howard A; Martin, Elisabeth

    2007-09-01

    In January 1997, the government of Quebec, Canada, implemented a public/private prescription drug program that covered the entire population of the province. Under this program, the public sector collaborates with private insurers to protect all Quebecers from the high cost of drugs. This article outlines the principal features and history of the Quebec plan and draws parallels between the factors that led to its emergence and those that led to the passage of the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement and Modernization Act (MMA) in the United States. It also discusses the challenges and similarities of both programs and analyzes Quebec's ten years of experience to identify adjustments that may help U.S. policymakers optimize the MMA.

  1. Delinquent behaviors among students exposed to family violence in Quebec schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cénat, Jude Mary; Hébert, Martine; Blais, Martin; Lavoie, Francine; Guerrier, Mireille

    2016-01-01

    Objective Juvenile delinquency is one of the major public concerns in many countries. This study aims to document the association between exposure to interparental violence and delinquent behaviors among high school students in Quebec (Canada). Methods A representative sample of 8194 students aged 14–20 years was recruited in Quebec (Canada) high schools. Participants completed a questionnaire describing delinquent behaviors as well as exposure to interparental psychological and physical violence. Findings Overall, one out of two participants has experienced delinquent behaviors and 61.8% of them have reported having been exposed to at least one of the two forms of family violence. Overall, youth exposed to interparental violence are more likely to experience delinquent behaviors. Both psychological and physical interparental violence were significantly and independently associated with delinquent behaviors. Conclusion The findings of this study point out the vulnerability of youth exposed to interparental violence. They also highlight the need in the prevention of juvenile delinquency to focus not only on youth but also on both parents that may have been involved in family violence. PMID:28111591

  2. Correlates of bullying in Quebec high school students: The vulnerability of sexual-minority youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cénat, Jude Mary; Blais, Martin; Hébert, Martine; Lavoie, Francine; Guerrier, Mireille

    2015-09-01

    Bullying has become a significant public health issue, particularly among youth. This study documents cyberbullying, homophobic bullying and bullying at school or elsewhere and their correlates among both heterosexual and sexual-minority high school students in Quebec (Canada). A representative sample of 8194 students aged 14-20 years was recruited in Quebec (Canada) high schools. We assessed cyberbullying, homophobic bullying and bullying at school or elsewhere in the past 12 months and their association with current self-esteem and psychological distress as well as suicidal ideations. Bullying at school or elsewhere was the most common form of bullying (26.1%), followed by cyberbullying (22.9%) and homophobic bullying (3.6%). Overall, girls and sexual-minority youth were more likely to experience cyberbullying and other forms of bullying as well as psychological distress, low self-esteem and suicidal ideations. The three forms of bullying were significantly and independently associated with all mental health outcomes. The results underscore the relevance of taking into account gender and sexual orientation variations in efforts to prevent bullying experience and its consequences. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Masters of convenience: competition, including a rising star from Quebec, improves the service station breed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laverty Wilson, K.

    2002-06-03

    After a decade of extensive dismantling and reconstruction, changes in the downstream refining and marketing side of the petroleum industry have progressed to the point where downstream assets are once again considered to be among the strongest and most vital parts of the industry. Merchandising has become a way of life in gasoline service stations to the point where the service station of the 21. century will likely carry mass-consumption items from panty hose to sandwiches in addition to gasoline. Petro-Canada is in the forefront of rolling out the new-image service stations, while high traffic Esso locations are adding cafes serving doughnuts, muffins, bagels, soup and sandwiches in partnership with the Tim Horton's chain. In Canada, Quebec is way ahead of the other provinces in setting the high tone in the business of catering to consumers on wheels as demonstrated by the 1,932 retail sites of 'Couche-Tard', a name synonymous with gas pumps, fresh coffee and the myriad items offered in traditional convenience stores. With a total of 1,693 stores in Canada, 239 in the United States, 13,000 plus employees and more than 800 gas pumps (80 of them branded to in-house gasoline) Couche-Tard is the ninth largest convenience retailer in North America. The article describes the rise to prominence of the Couche-Tard empire, explains why circumstances in Quebec were ripe for this type of development, and offers a glimpse into the future of the likely further development of the retail gasoline market in the rest of Canada.

  4. Pipelines to eastern Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsason, J.

    1998-01-01

    This presentation focused on four main topics: (1) the existing path of pipelines to eastern Canada, (2) the Chicago hub, (3) transport alternatives, and (4) the Vector Pipeline' expansion plans. In the eastern Canadian market, TransCanada Pipelines dominates 96 per cent of the market share and is effectively immune to expansion costs. Issues regarding the attractiveness of the Chicago hub were addressed. One attractive feature is that the Chicago hub has access to multiple supply basins including western Canada, the Gulf Coast, the mid-continent, and the Rockies. Regarding Vector Pipelines' future plans, the company proposes to construct 343 miles of pipeline from Joliet, Illinois to Dawn, Ontario. Project description included discussion of some of the perceived advantages of this route, namely, extensive storage in Michigan and south-western Ontario, the fact that the proposed pipeline traverses major markets which would mitigate excess capacity concerns, arbitrage opportunities, cost effective expansion capability reducing tolls, and likely lower landed costs in Ontario. Project schedule, costs, rates and tariffs are also discussed. tabs., figs

  5. Hydro-Quebec : annual report 1998 : for today and tomorrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Hydro-Quebec is a publicly owned company with a single shareholder, the Quebec government. In 1998, the utility had over 31,400 MW in installed capacity, ranking it among North America's largest distributors of electrical energy. This report provides a review of progress and financial highlights including revenue, expenditure, financial expenses, net income, total assets, long term debt, shareholder's equity and the overall financial position of the utility. In 1998 sales totaled 161.4 TWh, with Quebec markets accounting for more than 88 percent and sales, outside Quebec accounting for 11.5 per cent. Three factors related to weather impacted the utility in 1998. The first was mild weather which brought down domestic and agricultural power consumption by 3 TWh compared with the average recorded in the past half-century. The second was low precipitation which caused Hydro-Quebec to turn to means other than hydroelectric generation to supply power to Quebec customers. These included start-up generation of the Tracy thermal generating station, reduction of sales on short-term markets outside Quebec, and electricity purchases on external markets. The third factor was the ice storm of January 1998, which caused significant damage to part of Hydro-Quebec's transmission and distribution systems. Throughout the year, Hydro-Quebec worked in reinforcing its power lines to prevent repetition of the devastation that occurred during the ice storm. In spite of the events of January 1998, the Utility remains committed to the growth and profitability orientations laid out in its Strategic Plan for 1998-2002. Significant progress was made in consolidating the Utility's position in international markets. Productive partnerships have been established with the Quebec Federation of Labour Solidarity Fund, and with Gaz de France. A network of international partners in a score of countries also has been developed. Hydro-Quebec has completed most of its preparations for Year 2000 readiness

  6. Methodology developed to make the Quebec indoor radon potential map

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drolet, Jean-Philippe, E-mail: jean-philippe.drolet@ete.inrs.ca [Institut national de la recherche scientifique, Eau Terre Environnement Research Centre (ETE-INRS), 490 de la Couronne, G1K 9A9 Quebec (Canada); Martel, Richard [Institut national de la recherche scientifique, Eau Terre Environnement Research Centre (ETE-INRS), 490 de la Couronne, G1K 9A9 Quebec (Canada); Poulin, Patrick [Institut national de santé publique du Québec (INSPQ), 945 avenue Wolfe, G1V 5B3 Quebec (Canada); Dessau, Jean-Claude [Agence de la santé et des services sociaux des Laurentides, 1000 rue Labelle, J7Z 5 N6 Saint-Jérome (Canada)

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents a relevant approach to predict the indoor radon potential based on the combination of the radiogeochemical data and the indoor radon measurements in the Quebec province territory (Canada). The Quebec ministry of health asked for such a map to identify the radon-prone areas to manage the risk for the population related to indoor radon exposure. Three radiogeochemical criteria including (1) equivalent uranium (eU) concentration from airborne surface gamma-ray surveys, (2) uranium concentration measurements in sediments, (3) bedrock and surficial geology were combined with 3082 basement radon concentration measurements to identify the radon-prone areas. It was shown that it is possible to determine thresholds for the three criteria that implied statistically significant different levels of radon potential using Kruskal–Wallis one way analyses of variance by ranks. The three discretized radiogeochemical datasets were combined into a total predicted radon potential that sampled 98% of the studied area. The combination process was also based on Kruskal–Wallis one way ANOVA. Four statistically significant different predicted radon potential levels were created: low, medium, high and very high. Respectively 10 and 13% of the dwellings exceed the Canadian radon guideline of 200 Bq/m{sup 3} in low and medium predicted radon potentials. These proportions rise up to 22 and 45% respectively for high and very high predicted radon potentials. This predictive map of indoor radon potential based on the radiogeochemical data was validated using a map of confirmed radon exposure in homes based on the basement radon measurements. It was shown that the map of predicted radon potential based on the radiogeochemical data was reliable to identify radon-prone areas even in zones where no indoor radon measurement exists. - Highlights: • 5 radiogeochemical datasets were used to map the geogenic indoor radon potential. • An indoor radon potential was determined for

  7. Methodology developed to make the Quebec indoor radon potential map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drolet, Jean-Philippe; Martel, Richard; Poulin, Patrick; Dessau, Jean-Claude

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a relevant approach to predict the indoor radon potential based on the combination of the radiogeochemical data and the indoor radon measurements in the Quebec province territory (Canada). The Quebec ministry of health asked for such a map to identify the radon-prone areas to manage the risk for the population related to indoor radon exposure. Three radiogeochemical criteria including (1) equivalent uranium (eU) concentration from airborne surface gamma-ray surveys, (2) uranium concentration measurements in sediments, (3) bedrock and surficial geology were combined with 3082 basement radon concentration measurements to identify the radon-prone areas. It was shown that it is possible to determine thresholds for the three criteria that implied statistically significant different levels of radon potential using Kruskal–Wallis one way analyses of variance by ranks. The three discretized radiogeochemical datasets were combined into a total predicted radon potential that sampled 98% of the studied area. The combination process was also based on Kruskal–Wallis one way ANOVA. Four statistically significant different predicted radon potential levels were created: low, medium, high and very high. Respectively 10 and 13% of the dwellings exceed the Canadian radon guideline of 200 Bq/m 3 in low and medium predicted radon potentials. These proportions rise up to 22 and 45% respectively for high and very high predicted radon potentials. This predictive map of indoor radon potential based on the radiogeochemical data was validated using a map of confirmed radon exposure in homes based on the basement radon measurements. It was shown that the map of predicted radon potential based on the radiogeochemical data was reliable to identify radon-prone areas even in zones where no indoor radon measurement exists. - Highlights: • 5 radiogeochemical datasets were used to map the geogenic indoor radon potential. • An indoor radon potential was determined for each

  8. Origine et evolution du bilinguisme judiciaire au Quebec (Origin and Evolution of Judicial Bilingualism in Quebec).

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Laurent, Gilles

    The history and conditions of the use of English and French in the exercise of justice in Quebec are outlined in the context of the problems, sociopolitical realities, and procedural impact of language usage. The history is chronicled in six segments: 1760-1764, a period of British military government and political standoff between British and…

  9. Using energy to build the Quebec of tomorrow : Quebec energy strategy 2006-2015 : summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-05-01

    A summary of Quebec's energy strategy was presented. The principal objective of the strategy is to strengthen energy supply security, while making better use of energy as a lever for economic development. The strategy prioritized the development of hydro-electricity, wind energy potential, hydrocarbon reserves, and the diversification of natural gas supplies. Greater communication between government agencies, local communities and First Nations groups was recommended. Energy efficiency measures were outlined. The strategy emphasized Quebec's future role as a leader in the sustainable development field. It was stated that electricity rates will be set at a level that promotes the interests of Quebec while ensuring proper management of resources, improved price signals and customer protection. Orientations and priority actions to achieve the strategy's objectives include: (1) resumption and acceleration of developing hydroelectric potential through a variety of new projects totalling 4500 MW within the next 5 years, (2) the exploitation of Quebec's estimated 4000 MW of potential wind power, (3) increasing the overall energy efficiency target by a factor of 8 compared to current targets to allow for $2.5 billion in annual savings for consumers, (4) supporting and promoting innovation financed through part of the levy garnered on all forms of energy with a particular priority on biomass energy development, (5) developing the oil and gas resources in the Gulf of St. Lawrence and estuary, and (6) responding more effectively to the predicament of low-income households.

  10. J'ai le gout du Quebec (I Am in the Mood for Quebec)!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetu de Labsade, Francoise

    1981-01-01

    Hails the vitality of the French language in the Quebec region as it manifests itself through advertisements, from political slogans to storefront signs. Discusses the relationship between the language of the Quebecois and their culture, and offers an effective visual commentary through numerous illustrations. (MES)

  11. Characterisation of the energy use of arenas in the province of Quebec : Synthesis report; Caracterisation energetique des arenas du Quebec : Rapport synthese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dussault, F.; Chalifour, A.

    2000-10-24

    Arenas, or skating rinks, represent a type of building with physical characteristics and uses which are relatively homogeneous throughout the country. This study revealed that the time is ripe to improve the energy efficiency of skating rinks in Quebec, and thereby gain environmental benefits through the more efficient use of refrigerants can cause damage to the environment. The aim of the study was to better define the technologies in use and the operating strategies and retrofitting techniques currently applied in the industry in order to provide guidance for an eventual Intervention Program in Refrigeration in Skating Rinks in Quebec. Background information was provided by the authors in section 1, followed by the mandate in section 2. The methodology used to carry out the study was described in section 3. The report examined four broad areas: the market, technical assistance, training, and partnerships. Each of these topics was reviewed in detail in section 4. A synthesis of the interventions was provided in section 5. The authors indicate that this project should be considered while Canada is attempting to meet its environmental commitments in the wake of increases in energy prices. Plans should be focused on measurable results within reasonable financial constraints. 13 figs.

  12. The Ne3LS Network, Quebec's initiative to evaluate the impact and promote a responsible and sustainable development of nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, Charles-Anica; Emond, Claude; Battista, Renaldo; Parizeau, Marie-Helene; Beaudry, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    The spectacular progress made by nanosciences and nanotechnologies elicits as much hope and fear. Consequently, a great number of research and training initiatives on the ethical, environmental, economic, legal and social issues regarding nanotechnology development (Ne 3 LS) are emerging worldwide. In Quebec, Canada, a Task Force was mandated by NanoQuebec to conceive a Ne 3 LS research and training strategy to assess those issues. This Task Force brought together experts from universities, governments or industry working in nanosciences and nanotechnologies or in Ne 3 LS. Their resulting action plan, made public in November 2006, contained several recommendations, including the creation of a knowledge network (Ne 3 LS Network). In the following years, after consulting with numerous key players concerned with the possible impacts of nanosciences and nanotechnologies in Quebec, the Ne 3 LS Network was launched in January 2010 in partnership with the Fonds quebecois de la recherche sur la nature et les technologies, the Fonds quebecois de la recherche sur la societe et la culture and the Fonds de la recherche en sante du Quebec, NanoQuebec, the Institut de recherche Robert-Sauve en sante et en securite du travail as well as the University of Montreal. Its objectives are to 1) Foster the development of Ne 3 LS research activities (grants and fellowships); 2) Spearhead the Canadian and international Ne 3 LS network; 3) Take part in the training of researchers and experts; 4) Encourage the creation of interactive tools for the general public; 5) Facilitate collaboration between decision-makers and experts; 6) Involve the scientific community through a host of activities (symposium, conferences, thematic events); 7) Build multidisciplinary research teams to evaluate the impact of nanotechnology.

  13. Wind vision 2025 : a realistic goal for Quebec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafrance, G.; Nolet, J.F.; Cote, G.

    2010-01-01

    The province of Quebec aims to have 4000 MW of wind energy interconnected to the electricity grid by 2015, and hopes to have 12,000 MW by 2025. This PowerPoint presentation explored some of the technical issues that may challenge the province's wind energy goals. The last decade has seen Quebec dominated by a tight supply and demand electricity market and a wholesale market dominated by short term contracts. Quebec aims to create surplus energy for exportation as well as to have 10 percent of the Hydro-Quebec power system supplied by wind resources. Electricity demand is expected to increase over the next decade. Quebec's wind resource development represents an alternative strategy to the development of hydro-electric resources. Strategic planning is needed to develop Quebec's integration potential. However, high standards are needed to ensure the reliability of the province's large electricity system, which is vulnerable to extreme weather events and technical failures. Various power contracts and agreements are being explored by Hydro-Quebec in order to supply power reliably during peak periods. Details of studies conducted to assess Quebec's wind power potential in relation to the electricity system were discussed, and the impact of wind power on the system was evaluated. refs., tabs., figs.

  14. MARKAL-QUEBEC dictionary and data base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haurie, A

    1985-07-01

    This two-part volume contains the data base of the MARKAL-QUEBEC energy modeling program. The first part, which constitutes the MARKAL dictionary, contains the list of all classes and their members. The second part contains the complete data set, presented as input tables to meet the requirements of the model. The tables are regrouped in sections in accordance with the class definition: in this way, one can find successively the tables SRC, CON, PRC, DMD, and ADRATIO (one table TCH is associated with each of the first four classes). At the beginning of each section, a brief description of the input data is given.

  15. Hydro-Quebec : positioning and strategic planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanoue, R.

    1998-01-01

    Hydro-Quebec's corporate concerns for 1998-2002 were highlighted. The Corporation's strategic plan envisages that within the next decade, the utility will boost sales by 25 per cent with an investment of $13.2 billion in new generation projects. The electric utility plans to build on past experience and maintain its electricity rates and service quality. Sustaining environmental quality while developing into a world class enterprise remains a major objective of the utility. Research and development will also continue to be an integral part of the utility's operations. Tabs., figs

  16. Hydro-Quebec opens up, expects positive reaction from FERC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McArthur, D.; Salaff, S.

    1997-01-01

    Hydro-Quebec Energy Services US (HQUS), the marketing arm of Hydro-Quebec, amended its application for a power marketing licence with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), by offering to open up five per cent of the wholesale Quebec electricity market to competition. The Corporation hopes that its revised application will satisfy FERC to grant HQUS a power marketer licence, with the right to sell electricity in the US at market-based rates. Hydro-Quebec insiders believe that in addition to opening up the market to competition, thereby equalizing market conditions on both sides of the border, the Corporation's chances of receiving the licence also have been improved by the creation of the provincial energy board (Regie de l'energie) which in future will regulate electricity and gas transmission through Quebec, and establish transmission tariffs. FERC ruling is expected within 60 days of the March 7, 1997 amended application

  17. The development of the wind power industry in Quebec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-05-01

    This analysis examined the current situation of wind power development in the province of Quebec and presented a qualitative assessment of the economic repercussions in terms of employment, investments and environmental and social impacts. The development of the wind power industry in Quebec gained momentum in 2003 when the provincial government expressed support for fast growth of wind power. In response, Hydro-Quebec launched an invitation to interested stakeholders to tender for 1000 MW of wind power projects to be installed between 2006 and 2012. The invitation was a great success, with more than 4000 MW of projects filed. The average price of the selected offers was 6.5 cents per kWh for 990 MW in 8 projects. The economic repercussions related to construction of wind farms in the Gaspe was discussed along with indirect and induced economic repercussions for suppliers and subcontractors in the entire province. It was noted that Quebec is already a leader in the field of electricity and wind energy consultation. Stimulated by these successes, the government of Quebec recently raised its target for wind power development to 2,500 MW. Therefore, taking into account the wind developments already supported by Hydro-Quebec, the installed wind capacity in Quebec is expected to reach more than 4000 MW by 2015, with an investment by the wind power industry of more than 5.8 billion dollars. The wind power industry is expected to generate 45,000 direct or indirect jobs for more than a 20 year period. Presently, the government of Quebec supports the establishment of a local wind market to promote free competition, energy diversity, and coexistence of key players. As its international support mechanism, Quebec chose to integrate regional economic development criteria with the price of electricity. In the long term, the wind industry could constitute a key element in Quebec's sustainable energy development plan. 9 refs., 1 tab

  18. Hydro-Quebec 2005 annual report : people with energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Hydro-Quebec generates, transmits and distributes electricity mainly produced by renewable energy sources. Its sole shareholder is the Quebec government. This annual report reviewed the operations of Hydro-Quebec, and provided data on energy sales, production and details of the utility's environmental programs. Information on Hydro-Quebec subsidiaries in 2005 was presented in the following separate sections: Hydro-Quebec Production; Hydro-Quebec TransEnergie; Hydro-Quebec Distribution; Hydro-Quebec Equipement; and the Societe d'energie de la Baie James. In 2005, Hydro-Quebec Distribution signed contracts for an initial block of 990 MW of wind power and issued a tender call for an additional 2000 MW of wind power. A generator balancing service was created and authorized by the Regie de l'energie. Hydro-Quebec customers have achieved energy savings of nearly 450 GWh in 2005. The commissioning of Toulnustouc generating station was achieved 5 months ahead of schedule. The 526 MW facility will generate 2.7 TWh annually. Work at the Chute-Allard and Rapide-des-Coeurs sites has continued, as well as construction at Mercier and Peribonka and Eastmain-1. Income from continuing operations came to $2.25 billion, a $124 million increase that was attributed to a rise in domestic sales and net short-term exports. The income was offset by higher pension expenses, depreciation and amortization, as well as by cost of supply on external markets and financial expenses. All other operating expenses were lower than in 2004. Capital spending for the transmission system reached its highest level since 1997, with $793 million invested, including $336 million to meet growth. Data on the company's financial performance, executive changes and reorganization were provided. Financial statements included a review and analysis of financial transactions, an auditor's report, as well as customary notes to the consolidated financial statement including balance sheets, assets, liabilities and

  19. Ambient air quality in Lower Town Quebec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebez, S.

    2007-01-01

    A municipal waste incinerator near Lower Town Quebec has been identified as a major source of air pollution, notably emissions of dioxins, furans, nitrogen oxides (NOx), volatile organic matter (VOC) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Combustion fumes contain gases such as carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ), as well as dusts, fly ash and particulate matter that is easily airborne. The risks associated with poor air quality have been evaluated along with the effects of pollutants on young children, pregnant women, senior citizens and those with cardiac problems. Some studies have reported that exposure to NOx may cause lung cancer and certain VOCs can irritate the respiratory tract system. Air quality tests have also revealed the presence of mercury. In combination, all these pollutants create smog. The concrete actions that have been taken to address smog issues were discussed. The distance between the incinerator and different residential areas within Lower Town Quebec have been measured along with air quality. Health risks were found to be higher in areas closer to the incinerator. Major modifications have been recommended in order to reduce pollution emissions from the incinerator. These include modernizing the equipment, installing proper scrubbers, and to ultimately the close the incinerator if it continues to underperform. refs., tabs., figs

  20. Quebec's new contaminated sites policy : special report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    Quebec's new contaminated site policy sets out a broad new set of requirements with which industry will have to comply. The new policy entitled 'Politique de protection des sols et de rehabilitation des terrains contamines' is much more comprehensive and detailed than its 1988 predecessor and contains many new elements. The policy seeks to maintain soil and groundwater quality criteria and focuses on the protection of clean commercial and industrial sites through pollution prevention actions. It also takes into account progress which has been made since the inventory of contaminated sites across Quebec. It considers the characteristics of each site and the problems posed by ongoing disposal of contaminated soils in landfills and advances in treatment technologies. The issue of who is responsible for contaminated sites is addressed and the requirements for responsible parties are described in detail. Risk assessment was also introduced as a tool for remediation planning in some cases. The new policy stresses prevention, and attempts to clearly outline site characterization and remediation duties for new and existing industries that pose potential risk of soil and groundwater contamination. 2 tabs., 2 figs

  1. Hydro-Quebec annual report 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    Progress in providing services, in financial and human relations management aspects, and future outlook for Hydro-Quebec was summarized in the 1995 annual report. Environmental policy of the Corporation was updated to reflect international concepts of sustainable development and environment management. A program was launched to remove, recycle and eliminate contaminants. Although generating systems will not be expanded between 1997 and the year 2000, existing generating facilities will be revitalized to improve their capacity and performance. As part of aggressive marketing of surplus capacity abroad, the creation during the past year of the first U.S. subsidiary, HQ Energy Services, was announced. Net income for the year was reported at $390 million, decreased by $277 million since 1994, due to financial pressure created by the commissioning of installations, including those at Phase II of the La Grande complex, and the slowdown in electricity sales in Quebec. A net income of close to $500 million was forecast for 1996. To achieve this target the Corporation announced plans to reduce operating expenses, an exercise which will include staff reductions and a wage freeze. tabs., figs

  2. Hydro-Quebec and energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    There is growing awareness that energy efficiency is both profitable and environmentally beneficial. In this year's Development Plan, Hydro-Quebec is proposing an Energy Efficiency Project made up of marketing programs designed for all markets throughout the final decade of the 20th century. This Project will have two aspects: energy efficiency and consumption management. Hydro-Quebec aims to reach an energy-efficiency level of 12.9 terawatt hours per year by 1999, fully 55% of its 23-terawatt hour potential. Over the next 10 years the utility intends to spend $1.8 billion for this purpose. Cumulative anticipated energy savings should be in the vicinity of 70 terawatt hours for the coming decade, and more than 130 terawatt hours for the first decade of the next century. Of the overall goal of 12.9 terawatt hours for Horizon 1999, energy savings of 9.0 terawatt hours should be the direct result of this year's proposed marketing programs, and will account for the bulk of anticipated investments. The remaining 3.9 terawatt hours will be gained as customers acquire better electrical appliance and accessory (household appliances, home insulation) buying habits

  3. Perceptions of the Quebec population regarding the development of the electric power industry in Quebec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefebvre, M.; Deland, I.

    2000-04-01

    In March 2000 the Association de l'industrie electrique du Quebec hired the strategic marketing firm of Leger and Leger to conduct a survey of the Quebec population with the following three objectives in mind: (1) to evaluate the general opinion of the Quebec population regarding the development of new hydroelectric projects, (2) to determine the public opinion regarding the exportation of electricity, and (3) to evaluate the public opinion regarding certain hydroelectric projects that were already underway. 1000 adults were polled. It was determined that a large majority (84.2 per cent) of Quebecers are in favour of new hydroelectric development in the province as long as certain conditions are respected, such as maintaining jobs and not incurring an increase in the price of electricity. It was also determined that Quebecers are under the impression that the province exports much more electricity than it actually does. 66 per cent of the population believe that the province is exporting more than 20 per cent of its electric power production outside of the province. In reality, the province exports on average 10 per cent of its production. 71.5 per cent of Quebecers agree to new projects of exportation as long as the projects do not decrease the capacity for the province to fulfill its own power needs. In terms of environmental perceptions, hydroelectric power is considered to be the second least polluting source of energy both from an air pollution and visual pollution point of view. 72.6 per cent of the people said that hydro produces less greenhouse gases than electricity produced by natural gas or coal. Also 83.4 per cent recognized that hydro is a renewable resource. In general, the people surveyed were also in agreement with the development of new transmission lines. 86.8 per cent agreed with the construction of a transmission line between the Laurentians and the Outaouais. The polls are accurate to 3.1 per cent precision 19 times out of 20. tabs., figs

  4. Hydro-Quebec strategic plan 2006-2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Hydro-Quebec produces, transmits and distributes electricity through the use of renewable energy sources, particularly hydroelectricity. It also conducts research in energy related fields. This document listed the strategic plan for Hydro-Quebec's 4 main divisions: Hydro-Quebec Production, Hydro-Quebec TransEnergie, Hydro-Quebec Distribution and Hydro-Quebec Energy Society of Bay James. The 2006 to 2010 strategic plan continues to focus on 3 main priorities: energy efficiency; complementary development of hydroelectricity and wind power; and, technological innovation. Hydro-Quebec's objectives also include strengthening the security of Quebec's energy supply and making use of energy as a lever for economic development. The plan for Hydro-Quebec Production calls for accelerating the development of major hydroelectric projects and promoting other renewable forms of energy such as wind power and ensuring the efficiency and reliability of the generating fleet. The utility's objective is to reach 4.7 TWh in energy savings by 2010 and to work toward a target of 8 TWh by 2015. The plan also involves a portfolio of hydroelectric projects totaling 5,400 MW. The plan includes complementary development and integration of 4,000 MW of windpower by 2015. The plan for Hydro-Quebec TransEnergie calls for system reliability and becoming a world benchmark for quality and reliability in wind power integration and deployment of new technologies to enhance performance. The plan for Hydro-Quebec Distribution calls for more efficient use of electricity, increase customer satisfaction and meet electricity needs through the use of renewable energy sources. The utility has made a commitment for 2006 to 2010 to a net income of $2.5 billion per year for a total of $12.5 billion, and a capital investment of 19.4 billion. This paper outlined the contribution of each division to net income and listed the economic benefits for the 2006 to 2010 period. In 2006, the Quebec Energy Board authorized

  5. Fusion Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-07-01

    This first issue of a quarterly newsletter announces the startup of the Tokamak de Varennes, describes Canada's national fusion program, and outlines the Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Program. A map gives the location of the eleven principal fusion centres in Canada. (L.L.)

  6. Architecture at Hydro-Quebec. L'architecture a Hydro-Quebec

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    Architecture at Hydro-Quebec is concerned not only with combining function and aesthetics in designing buildings and other structures for an electrical utility, but also to satisfy technical and administrative needs and to help solve contemporary problems such as the rational use of energy. Examples are presented of Hydro-Quebec's architectural accomplishments in the design of hydroelectric power stations and their surrounding landscapes, thermal power stations, transmission substations, research and testing facilities, and administrative buildings. It is shown how some buildings are designed to adapt to local environments and to conserve energy. The utility's policy of conserving installations of historic value, such as certain pre-1930 power stations, is illustrated, and aspects of its general architectural policy are outlined. 20 figs.

  7. The Quebec Association of Gastroenterology Position Paper on Colorectal Cancer Screening - 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AN Barkun

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer is a leading cause of death and the third most common cancer in Canada. Evidence suggests that screening can reduce mortality rates and the cost effectiveness of a program compares favourably with initiatives for breast and cervical cancer. The objectives of the Association des gastro-entérologues du Québec Task Force were to determine the need for a policy on screening for colorectal cancer in Quebec, to evaluate the testing methods available and to propose one or more of these alternatives as part of a formal screening program, if indicated. Fecal occult blood testing (FOBT, endoscopy (including sigmoidoscopy and colonoscopy, barium enema and virtual colonoscopy were considered. Although most clinical efficacy data are available for FOBT and sigmoidoscopy, there are limitations to programs based on these strategies. FOBT has a high false positive rate and a low detection yield, and even a combination of these strategies will miss 24% of cancers. Colonoscopy is the best strategy to both detect and remove polyps and to diagnose colorectal cancer, with double contrast barium enema also being a sensitive detection method. The Task Force recommended the establishment, in Quebec, of a screening program with five- to 10-yearly double contrast barium enema or 10-yearly colonoscopy for individuals aged 50 years or older at low risk. The program should include outcome monitoring, public and professional education to increase awareness and promote compliance, and central coordination with other provincial programs. The program should be evaluated; specific billing codes for screening for colorectal cancer would help facilitate this. Formal feasibility, effectiveness and cost-effectiveness studies in Quebec are now warranted.

  8. Genomic characterization of a large outbreak of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 strains in Quebec City, 2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Lévesque

    Full Text Available During the summer of 2012, a major Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 outbreak occurred in Quebec City, Canada, which caused 182 declared cases of Legionnaire's disease and included 13 fatalities. Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 isolates from 23 patients as well as from 32 cooling towers located in the vicinity of the outbreak were recovered for analysis. In addition, 6 isolates from the 1996 Quebec City outbreak and 4 isolates from patients unrelated to both outbreaks were added to allow comparison. We characterized the isolates using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, sequence-based typing, and whole genome sequencing. The comparison of patients-isolated strains to cooling tower isolates allowed the identification of the tower that was the source of the outbreak. Legionella pneumophila strain Quebec 2012 was identified as a ST-62 by sequence-based typing methodology. Two new Legionellaceae plasmids were found only in the epidemic strain. The LVH type IV secretion system was found in the 2012 outbreak isolates but not in the ones from the 1996 outbreak and only in half of the contemporary human isolates. The epidemic strains replicated more efficiently and were more cytotoxic to human macrophages than the environmental strains tested. At least four Icm/Dot effectors in the epidemic strains were absent in the environmental strains suggesting that some effectors could impact the intracellular replication in human macrophages. Sequence-based typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis combined with whole genome sequencing allowed the identification and the analysis of the causative strain including its likely environmental source.

  9. Investigating Socioeconomic Position in Dental Caries and Traumatic Dental Injury among Children in Quebec.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Rosa, P; Rousseau, Marie-Claude; Edasseri, A; Henderson, M; Nicolau, B

    2017-12-01

    Socioeconomic position (SEP) is inversely associated with most oral health outcomes, but the patterns of association may vary depending on the specific outcome. We estimated associations between SEP and two oral health outcomes, dental caries and traumatic dental injuries (TDI), in Quebec children. We used data from the baseline visit of the QUALITY (QUebec Adipose and Lifestyle Investigation in Youth) Cohort, an ongoing study in Montreal and Quebec, Canada. The analytical sample included 590 children aged 8-10 years. Data on parents' SEP (household income, education) and children's health behaviours and involvement in sports were obtained through questionnaires and interviews. Oral health outcomes (dental caries and TDI in permanent teeth) were assessed by clinical oral exam. Negative binomial regression was used to model dental caries (DMFS index) and number of teeth with TDI adjusting for selected covariates. The mean (SD) DMFS and number of TDI were 0.61 (1.43) and 0.12 (0.43), respectively. Compared to the upper quartile of income, children in the lower quartile had a DMFS approximately 3 times higher (PRR=2.68, 95% CI: 1.43, 5.04). Adjusting for oral health and nutritional behaviours had no effect. Conversely, children in the highest income quartile had a 3 times higher number of teeth with TDI compared to the lowest quartile (PRR=3.14, 95% CI: 1.22, 8.08). Physical activity did not explain this relationship. Parents' education was not associated with dental caries or TDI. SEP seems to play a different role in the cause of dental caries and TDI. Copyright© 2017 Dennis Barber Ltd.

  10. The treatment of conduct disorder: Perspectives from across Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Moretti, M. M.; Emmrys, C.; Grizenko, N.; Holland, R.; Moore, K.; Shamsie, J.; Hamilton, H.

    1997-01-01

    Provides a synopsis of treatment programs for conduct-disordered children in Canada. Five groups of authors from British Columbia, Ontario, Quebec, and New Brunswick describe their approaches to the treatment of children with conduct disorder. All programs emphasize the need to use multimodal treatment schemes, including day and short-term residential care, as well as the need to base programs on identified factors associated with the development of conduct disorder.

  11. Las incubadoras de las empresas de Quebec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Parra Restrepo

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Este articulo contiene información de las incubadoras de empresas especialmente aquellas encontradas en Quebec. A través de los 80's, el concepto de incubadoras de empresas fue introducido en América por expertos en el desarrollo económico. Sus metas fueron el estudio de los efectos del desempleo resultante de la quiebra de plantas industriales o del uso del proceso de producción automático por parte de las grandes compañías. Además se esperaba crear empleo para los inmigrantes. El campo más prometedor de estas experiencias se encuentra en el desarrollo de alta tecnología industrial, especialmente en electrónica, microprocesadores y software para sistemas de computación. Esta área también cubre las industrias innovadoras.

  12. Electricity/natural gas competition in Quebec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, J.-T.

    1992-01-01

    The evolution of energy market shares (electricity, natural gas and oil products) in Quebec's residential and commercial sectors in the 1980s shows that energy source relative prices have influenced consumer behavior as expected. A set of comparisons from space and water heating markets in these sectors with regard to prices paid by consumers and costs incurred by society in general is presented. For the residential sector, it is seen that consumers pay only a fraction of the cost for electric space and water heating; the same service could be provided at smaller cost by natural gas. For the commercial sector, the electricity and natural gas tariffs convey the appropriate message with respect to the cost incurred in providing the service. 6 refs., 7 tabs

  13. Quebec firm develops satellite monitoring system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2004-09-01

    Satellite-based technology that gives project owners an affordable way to monitor and control wind turbine operation, even in remote sites, is announced. Called Satwind, the system can be adapted to any scale, ranging from simple, low-cost units for small wind turbines to advanced versions designed to handle more complex wind-diesel installations, as well as large turbines used in offshore projects. Current installations include a turbine in the Tunisian desert and two Quebec wind-diesel plants accessible only by helicopter. The system can be operated directly from a cell-phone, in a user-friendly Internet manner, without the need to be connected to a complex centralized wind farm monitoring system.

  14. Quebec residential electricity demand: a microeconometric approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, J.T.; Bolduc, D.; Belanger, D.

    1996-01-01

    An economic analysis of Quebec residential electricity demand was studied by micro-simulation models. These structural models describe all components which lead to decisions upon durable holdings and electric appliance usage. The demand for space and water heating systems was evaluated. Recent price change in favour of energy sources other than electricity were taken into account. Price and income elasticity ratios were found to be low, as expected when estimating short term use. The role played by socio-economic variables on the choice of space-water heating systems and electricity use was also examined. Recent conversions have indicated a trend toward preference by households in favour of natural gas or oil over electricity. 18 refs., 5 tabs., 1 fig

  15. Practices of Disciplinarity and Interdisciplinarity in Quebec Elementary Schools: Results of Twenty Years of Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Lenoir

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a synthesis of different research projects that have been carried out inthe province of Quebec, Canada over the past 20 years concerning the representations and practices ofelementary teachers regarding the relative importance given to subject matter and the use ofinterdisciplinarity in their teaching practice. The first section will explain the context of the Quebecschool system on a socio-historical and political level and review the emergence of the concept ofinterdisciplinarity in Quebec. The second section will present succinctly the different research projectsthat have been conducted since 1980 and the conceptual framework they were based on. The thirdsection will consider the main results of the various research projects from two angles: first, therepresentations and practices of the teachers regarding interdisciplinarity; secondly, the relativeimportance and role that the teachers give to interdisciplinarity. In the conclusion, we will highlightamong other things the central position teachers give to the role of socialization and their minimalconsideration for the teaching of disciplinary knowledge.

  16. Prevalence and co-occurrence of violence against children in the Quebec population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourigny, Marc; Hébert, Martine; Joly, Jacques; Cyr, Mireille; Baril, Karine

    2008-08-01

    A literature review on the incidence of different forms of child maltreatment revealed that rates in Australia and Quebec (Canada) were similar. This study sought to determine the prevalence and co-occurrence of various forms of violence (physical, sexual and psychological) and explore gender and age difference. A telephone inquiry was conducted with a representative sample of 1,002 adults from the province of Quebec. More than one in three adults (37%) reported having experienced at least one of three forms of violence in childhood. Twelve per cent (12%) of the adults experienced two forms of violence while 4% of the respondents reported having experienced all three forms of violence in childhood. Psychological violence (22%) was the form most frequently reported, followed by physical violence (19%) and sexual violence (16%). The different prevalence rates did not vary as a function of age. However, regarding gender, women were more likely to report having been sexually victimised (rape and fondling) and less likely to report having experienced physical violence. A lower percentage of women reported having sustained no form of childhood victimisation and a higher percentage of women reported have experienced both sexual and psychological violence compared to men. These results, including both the global rates and those particular to each gender, are comparable to findings in similar North American studies. The co-occurrence rates noted are salient enough to necessitate particular attention to diverse clinical clientele and need to be considered in future research exploring the risk factors of violence and its subsequent repercussions.

  17. Financial profile of Hydro-Quebec : 1998-2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Hydro-Quebec is a publicly owned company with a single shareholder, the Quebec government. It is ranked among North America's largest distributors of green energy. This report provides financial highlights including revenue, expenditure, net income, total assets, long term debt, shareholder's equity and the financial position of the utility. Operating statistics are also provided. This includes electricity sold both in and out of Quebec, total installed capacity, peak requirements for winter, total number of customer accounts, and the number of permanent employees. Because of the January ice storm, Hydro-Quebec's major priority in 1998 was to reinforce its transmission and distribution system to meet customer expectations. From February to December 1998, about 3,000 km of line were built, rebuilt or consolidated. By 2001, the utility will have looped several of its high-voltage transmission systems. Plans are also underway to build four new high-voltage lines and an interconnection with Ontario, using advanced technologies. tabs., figs

  18. Times are changing, Hydro-Quebec multiplies its assets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefevre, M.

    1997-01-01

    Hydro-Quebec''s advance into the North American and world multi-energy market began with the purchase of an interest in the natural gas holding company Noverco, a commercial partnership with Gaz de France, and marketing agreements with Enron and Trigen in the United States. Hydro-Quebec, the world''s sixth largest electric utility, aims to become a multi-energy enterprise selling not only electricity, but also natural gas, oil and certain renewable forms of energy. Currently, Hydro-Quebec is licensed to make border sales of electricity at regulated prices. Through the US Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), Hydro-Quebec will be able also to sell electricity through wholesale spot contracts with electricity marketers such as Trigen and Enron

  19. The implications of the nuclear option in Quebec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Quebec depends on fossil fuels which come from outside Quebec for its energy supply. It has available significant hydraulic resources, but they should be totally harnessed within 30 years; therefore, other energy sources must be found. The nuclear route can provide a way for Quebec to meet its future needs. From the technical, economic, security of supply, and side benefit points of view, the recourse to nuclear seems reasonable and even advantageous. From a socio-political point of view, however, the risks inherent in the use of nuclear energy are extremely important and need well-informed public discussion. In the meantime Quebec ought to stress the other sources that are available (hydroelectricity) or likely to be available (Canadian gas) while these sources can still be used at a reasonable price [fr

  20. The secret of business success in Quebec : its transparency!

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahey, R.

    2004-01-01

    The role of La Federation Canadienne de l'Entreprise Independante, a non-partisan, not public-funded organization was presented. Members of the Federation are from various economic sectors, covering all regions in Quebec. It participates in Quebec's La Regie de l'energie's review processes and activities, and raises questions as issues arise. Its role constitutes one of the better methods in supervising tender invitation process to ensure regulations are followed to achieve transparency. (author)

  1. The CC-Bio Project: Studying the Effects of Climate Change on Quebec Biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc Vescovi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Anticipating the effects of climate change on biodiversity is now critical for managing wild species and ecosystems. Climate change is a global driver and thus affects biodiversity globally. However, land-use planners and natural resource managers need regional or even local predictions. This provides scientists with formidable challenges given the poor documentation of biodiversity and its complex relationships with climate. We are approaching this problem in Quebec, Canada, through the CC-Bio Project (http://cc‑bio.uqar.ca/, using a boundary organization as a catalyst for team work involving climate modelers, biologists, naturalists, and biodiversity managers. In this paper we present the CC-Bio Project and its general approach, some preliminary results, the emerging hypothesis of the northern biodiversity paradox (a potential increase of biodiversity in northern ecosystems due to climate change, and an early assessment of the conservation implications generated by our team work.

  2. Quebec region's shoreline segmentation in the St. Lawrence River : response tool for oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laforest, S.; Martin, V.

    2004-01-01

    Environment Canada, the Canadian Coast Guard, and the Eastern Canada Response Corporation are developing and refining pre-spill databases containing information about physical shoreline characteristics. Automated links between these pre-spill shoreline characteristic databases and computerized shoreline assessment tools have also been created using Geographical Information System (GIS) technology. The pre-spill databases can be used for planning shoreline cleanup operations. A training exercise, designed to evaluate a spill management system integrating the Quebec region pre-spill shoreline database and the ShoreAssess R shoreline assessment system was performed by Eastern Canada Response Corporation during an aerial survey where shoreline was segmented into digitized information. The cartography of segmentation covers the fluvial part of the St. Lawrence River. The oil spill-oriented database includes geomorphologic information from the supratidal to the lower intertidal zones. It also includes some statistical information and other requirements for cleanup operations. The computerized shoreline assessment tools made it possible to evaluate the length and type of shoreline that would potentially be impacted by oil. The tools also made it possible to assess the shoreline treatment methods most likely to be used, and evaluate the probable duration of the cleanup operation. The training exercise demonstrated that the integration of the databases is a valuable tool during the early phases of an oil spill response. 9 refs., 3 figs

  3. Contribution to Quebec's economic development: Development plan 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The activities of Hydro-Quebec are analyzed from the standpoint of their contribution to economic development and their support of regional development. The structuring effects of Hydro-Quebec's electricity supply activities are described, specifically the utility's role as an employer and an important agent of economic development by virtue of its purchasing power. The role played by research and development activities in the technological development of Quebec is discussed along with the contribution of those activities to new industrial developments. Finally, the impacts of electricity use on industrial development are considered. An analysis is presented of Hydro-Quebec's marketing activities and the options they afford. These marketing activities are aimed mainly at supporting economic development. The availability of reasonably priced electricity enhances the competitiveness of all industrial sectors, especially those for which electricity is a factor in siting. Furthermore, Hydro-Quebec can use its marketing activities to reinforce this comparative advantage. Hydro-Quebec can also support regional development by decentralizing operations, standardizing rates, and extending its marketing activities to the regions. 2 tabs

  4. Hydro-Quebec International : taking up the challenges of globalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpentier, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    With the ever increasing demand for electricity, it is estimated that the world''s electrical generating capacity will grow by about 1,000,000 MW over the next eight years. This represents a 40 per cent increase over today''s capacity. Hydro-Quebec is determined to stake its place in international markets and to maximize the profits from the strong expertise gained during the construction of Quebec''s major electric facilities. The venture into international markets is primarily a commercial strategy. To that effect, Hydro-Quebec plans to invest up to $300 million in international projects around the world so that after five years it can have major interests and assets totaling $12 billion or more. China, North Africa and the Middle East are some of the market that Hydro-Quebec wishes to enter in the years ahead. The Eastern European and Southeast Asian markets are also worthy of interest. It was pointed out that Hydro-Quebec is not the only large electric utility turning to world market to pursue its growth. French, Spanish and American companies are also presently investing billions of dollars in the world market

  5. Hydro-Quebec International : taking up the challenges of globalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpentier, J.M.

    1997-12-31

    With the ever increasing demand for electricity, it is estimated that the world`s electrical generating capacity will grow by about 1,000,000 MW over the next eight years. This represents a 40 per cent increase over today`s capacity. Hydro-Quebec is determined to stake its place in international markets and to maximize the profits from the strong expertise gained during the construction of Quebec`s major electric facilities. The venture into international markets is primarily a commercial strategy. To that effect, Hydro-Quebec plans to invest up to $300 million in international projects around the world so that after five years it can have major interests and assets totaling $12 billion or more. China, North Africa and the Middle East are some of the market that Hydro-Quebec wishes to enter in the years ahead. The Eastern European and Southeast Asian markets are also worthy of interest. It was pointed out that Hydro-Quebec is not the only large electric utility turning to world market to pursue its growth. French, Spanish and American companies are also presently investing billions of dollars in the world market.

  6. Inequality in Fetal Autopsy in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auger, Nathalie; Tiandrazana, Rémi-Claude; Healy-Profitós, Jessica; Costopoulos, André

    2016-01-01

    Inequality in use of fetal autopsy is poorly understood, despite the importance of autopsy in establishing the cause of stillbirth for future prevention. We examined fetal autopsy rates between linguistic minorities in Quebec, Canada, and assessed trends over three decades. Using registry data on 11,992 stillbirths from 1981-2011, we calculated fetal autopsy rates for Francophones, Anglophones, and Allophones by decade. We found lower fetal autopsy rates for Allophones (54.4%) than Francophones (68.5%) and Anglophones (63.4%), but rates decreased over time for all language groups. After 2000, Allophones had 25% higher risk of non-autopsy relative to Francophones, with 8.8 fewer autopsies for every 100 stillbirths. Allophones who were not autopsied had 32% higher risk of having an undetermined cause of death. Inequality in use of fetal autopsy may be widespread for minorities in Canada. Efforts to decrease stillbirth in minorities may require policies to increase autopsy rates.

  7. Hydro-Quebec annual report, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    This annual report for the Quebec electric utility presents an overview of the year's activities and its financial status, including export sales of electricity to New Brunswick, Ontario, New York State, and the New England states. Research programs and demonstration projects are described, as well as the utility's activities in Africa and Asia. Environmental and economic considerations for the province are presented. Financial data includes total sales, sales by sector, export sales, and rate changes. A financial statement is included. In 1991, public controversy arose over electricity exports, risk-and-profit sharing contracts with some industrial customers, and the impacts of hydroelectric development. A net income of $760 million was achieved, representing an 88.1% increase over the previous year when exceptional measures were required to offset cumulative years of low runoff. These measures were suspended in late 1990 but low 1991 precipitation forced the continued purchase of backup electricity. Energy efficiency programs resulted in savings equivalent to energy consumed by a town of 13,000 people. Exports accounted for 7.2% of total sales in 1991. The first three generating units of LaGrande-2-A, totalling 999 MW, were commissioned. The groundwork has been laid for the vast corporate strategy of total customer satisfaction entitled Defi performance. In 1991, annual interruption time per customer dropped to 5.32 hours. 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. Earthquake-induced liquefaction in Ferland, Quebec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuttle, M.; Seeber, L.

    1991-02-01

    Detailed geological investigations are under way at a number of liquefaction sites in the Ferland-Boilleau valley, Quebec, where sand boils, ground cracks and liquefaction-related damages to homes were documented immediately following the Ms=6.0, Mblg=6.5 Saguenay earthquake of November 25, 1988. To date, results obtained from these subsurface investigations of sand boils at two sites in Ferland, located about 26 km from the epicentre, indicate that: the Saguenay earthquake induced liquefaction in late-Pleistocene and Holocene sediments which was recorded as sand dikes, sills and vents in near-surface sediments and soils; earthquake-induced liquefaction and ground failure have occurred in this area at least three times in the past 10,000 years; and, the size and morphology of liquefaction features and the liquefaction susceptibility of source layers of the features may be indicative of the intensity of ground shaking. These preliminary results are very promising and suggest that with continued research liquefaction features will become a useful tool in glaciated terrains, such as northeastern North America, for determining not only the timing and location but also the size of past earthquakes

  9. Social acceptance and population confidence in telehealth in Quebec.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poder, Thomas G; Bellemare, Christian A; Bédard, Suzanne K; Lemieux, Renald

    2015-02-21

    Access to healthcare in remote areas is difficult and telehealth could be a promising avenue if accepted by the population. The aim of this study is to assess social acceptance and population confidence in telehealth in the Province of Quebec. We conducted a survey using a questionnaire assessing the social acceptance of and confidence level in telehealth. Two strategies were used: 1) paper questionnaires were sent to two hospitals in Quebec; and 2) online questionnaires were randomly sent by a firm specialized in online survey to a representative sample of the population of the Province of Quebec. Respondents were all residents of the Province of Quebec and 18 years and older. Questions were scored with a four-level Likert scale. A total of 1816 questionnaires were analyzed (229 written and 1,587 online questionnaires). The socio-demographic variables in our samples, especially the online questionnaires, were fairly representative of Quebec's population. Overall, social acceptance scored at 77.71% and confidence level at 65.76%. Both scores were higher in the case of treatment (3 scenarios were proposed) vs. diagnosis (p < 0.05). No difference was found when respondents were asked to respond for themselves and for a member of their family, which demonstrates a true interest in telehealth in Quebec. In addition, we found a significant difference (p < 0.05) between written and online questionnaires regarding social acceptance (80.75% vs. 77.33%) and confidence level (74.84% vs. 64.55%). These differences may be due to social desirability or avidity bias in the written questionnaires. Our results suggest that the population in Quebec encourages the development of telehealth for real time diagnosis and long distance treatment for regions deprived of healthcare professionals.

  10. Hydro-Quebec proudly celebrates 50 years of service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    The history of the electric utility Hydro-Quebec is reviewed from its creation in 1944 as the Hydroelectric Commission of Quebec. The utility inherited an installed capacity of 696 MW and it first went about standardizing electricity supply conditions and establishing equal rates in the Montreal area. It began major construction projects in the mid-1950s with the Bersimis and Carillon hydroelectric plants. By 1962, installed capacity reached 3,657 MW. In 1963, Hydro-Quebec bought 10 private electricity distribution companies, 45 cooperatives, and a series of private or municipal systems. In 1965, the utility commissioned the world's first 735-kV transmission line. In 1967, Hydro-Quebec opened its research institute, and another laboratory specializing in electrotechnologies was opened in 1987. The 1970s were noted for the James Bay hydroelectric projects, the development of which was eventually governed by the landmark James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement of 1975. Electricity exports greatly expanded in the 1970s and early 1980s as larger hydroelectric projects came on stream. Challenges of the 1990s include service quality, environmental issues, energy efficiency, and conservation. Hydro-Quebec's Energy Efficiency Project has a target of annual savings of 9.3 TWh by the year 2000. Energy efficiency and power system upgrading are priorities for serving future customer needs. Hydro-Quebec continues to promote hydroelectric power as the cheapest, most environmentally benign form of energy and future generating stations in progress include phase II of the LaGrande complex (to be completed 1996). 2 figs

  11. Immigration policies of the government of Quebec in the context of Canadian multicultural policies. Contextual Notes for a social work ethnic environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique E. Raya Lozano

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The English-speaking Canada and the rebellious Frenchspeaking «province» of Quebec are going through a broad and deep identity crisis that dates back to the 19th century, but intensified in the new age of globalization. A country created by immigration, it is still a country of immigration and one of the most multiethnic countries in the world. Multiculturalism is the model of political management that belongs to this diversity and the ideology that legitimates it —a Canadian inventio— at the same time that it recognizes, ignores and eludes the internal conflict —the Canada-Quebec conflict— that implicitly determines the differentiated migratory policies of both political communities. On its part, Quebequian multiculturalism («interculturalism» shows two different models (pro-assimilation and pro differentiation. These tensions, ambiguities, and diversity of models shape the current Canadian and Quebequian debate about citizenship, which conditions and functions as a frame of reference for social work (professional social intervention with immigrants, very developed both in theory and in practice in this American country, and that is aware of the political challenges offered by multiculturalism in Ottawa and Quebec. The study and evaluation of this dynamic reality can be extremely useful in Europe, both North and South, for working out public policies and organizing social work in a multiethnic environment.

  12. Quebec energy development in a sustainable development context; Le developpement energetique du Quebec dans un contexte de developpement durable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laplatte, Benjamin; Bourque, Francis; Granger, Francois P.

    2010-09-15

    Quebec is a net importer of oil and it is clear that the reduction of its dependence with regards to hydrocarbons must be a main preoccupation. Moreover, the energy consumption per habitant of Quebec is higher than that of the majority of the other developed countries. This analysis looks at the choice on offer to the society of the province of Quebec, in terms of energy resources and technologies of today and tomorrow, in a context of sustainable development. [French] Le Quebec est un importateur net de petrole et il est clair que la reduction de sa dependance a l'egard des hydrocarbures doit etre une preoccupation de premier plan. De plus, la consommation energetique par habitant du Quebec est plus elevee que celle de la majorite des autres pays developpes. La presente analyse adresse les choix qui s'offrent a la societe quebecoise, en matiere de ressources et de technologies de l'energie d'aujourd'hui et de demain, dans un contexte de developpement durable.

  13. Hydro-Quebec line crew returns home from Haiti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horne, D.

    2005-04-01

    This article recounted the experience of a 14-member Hydro-Quebec line crew and support group that travelled to Haiti in November 2004 to help re-establish essential electricity services. The work was conducted together with Electricite d'Haiti (EDH). The team installed 400 poles, 10 km of conductors and 85 transformers, restoring service to water pumps; La Providence and Raboteau hospitals; a centre housing Doctors without borders; a CARE distribution centre; and several convents and schools. The installation of street lights at strategic points allowed lighting to be restored in several districts of Gonaives. Hydro-Quebec was able to extend their mission to Haiti and purchase more poles and transformers with the help of a $500,000 contribution from the Canadian International Development Agency. Hydro-Quebec was the only company who came to the aid of EDH. The total budget for the project was $4 million. 2 figs.

  14. AQUIFER IN AJAOKUTA, SOUTHWESTERN NIGERIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2005-03-08

    Mar 8, 2005 ... To establish the feasibility of water supply in a basement complex area ofAjaokuta, Southwestern Nigeria, pumping test results were used to investigate the storage properties and groundwater potential of the aquifer. The aquifer system consists of weathered and weathered/fractured zone of decomposed ...

  15. Invitations to tenders from Hydro-Quebec: many projects, little MW?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turmel, A.

    2004-01-01

    Topics discussed include the regulatory and jurisdictional framework governing the tendering process, and the difficulties involved in filing applications. The roles of Hydro-Quebec, the Quebec government, and the Quebec government's economic regulation agency, Regie de l'energie were covered

  16. The Practice of School Psychology in Quebec English Schools: Current Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Cindy A.

    2016-01-01

    In Quebec, school psychology is alive and well. This article outlines current challenges and opportunities related to the practice of psychology in Quebec English schools. Changes to the practice of psychology in Quebec over the last decade have had an impact on the delivery of psychological services in schools. Modifications of the admission…

  17. TransCanada Corporation 2003 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This annual report presents financial information from TransCanada Corp., along with a review of its operations throughout 2003 and a summary of the how the company performed in terms of providing natural gas transmission and power services in North America. In 2003, TransCanada increased earnings from continuing operations by 7 per cent. It maintained a strong cash flow and continued to strengthen its balance sheet. More than 1.2 billion was invested and dividends were increased by 7 per cent in January 2004, for a total return to shareholders of 27 per cent, including dividends. In 2003, TransCanada also increased its ownership interest in Foothills Pipe Lines Ltd. to 100 per cent from 50 per cent. It secured a position in the Mackenzie Gas Pipeline Project and progressed the development of multiple liquefied natural gas projects in the northeast United States and eastern Canada. The company acquired 31.6 per cent interest in Bruce Power, adding nearly 1,500 megawatts base load generation to its portfolio. Plans are underway for cogeneration plants in Quebec, New Brunswick and Alberta. This report summarized the company's energy resource activities and presented an operations review as well as consolidated financial statements and common share information. This included the utility's assets, liabilities, revenues, expenses and cash flows. Revenue and expenditure statements were summarized by source. tabs., figs

  18. Aquatic characterization for resources at risk in eastern Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraser, A S

    1986-12-01

    To ascertain quantitative estimates of resources at risk for eastern Canada, linkage must be made between geological terrain sensitivity to acid deposition and water chemistry. An evaluation has been made of watershed areas principally in the Province of Quebec to identify and characterize factors related to LRTAP effects. The watershed areas are geographically located within the bounds of the high sulphate deposition zone of the continental plume. To identify specific test watersheds for detailed analysis, alkalinity frequency distributions were computed. A selection of watersheds has been made that spans the Pre-Cambrian shield region of the Laurentian highlands, the St. Lawrence lowlands and the Gaspe Peninsula. There is evidence that areas in the far eastern areas of Quebec, removed from strong anthropogenic sources may be considered as approaching critical levels of alkalinity. Ionic composition for selected watersheds display similar chemical characteristics. These differences have been assessed in light of the common effects of sulphate deposition. 11 references.

  19. Contagious comments: what was the online buzz about the 2011 Quebec measles outbreak?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer A Pereira

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although interruption of endemic measles was achieved in the Americas in 2002, Quebec experienced an outbreak in 2011 of 776 reported cases; 80% of these individuals had not been fully vaccinated. We analyzed readers' online responses to Canadian news articles regarding the outbreak to better understand public perceptions of measles and vaccination. METHODS: We searched Canadian online English and French news sites for articles posted between April 2011 and March 2012 containing the words "measles" and "Quebec". We included articles that i concerned the outbreak or related vaccination strategies; and ii generated at least ten comments. Two English and two bilingual researchers coded the unedited comments, categorizing codes to allow themes to emerge. RESULTS: We analyzed 448 comments from 188 individuals, in response to three French articles and six English articles; 112 individuals expressed positive perceptions of measles vaccination (2.2 comments/person, 38 were negative (4.2 comments/person, 11 had mixed feelings (1.5 comments/person, and 27 expressed no opinion (1.1 comments/person. Vaccine-supportive themes involved the success of vaccination in preventing disease spread, societal responsibility to vaccinate for herd immunity, and refutation of the autism link. Those against measles vaccination felt it was a personal rather than societal choice, and conveyed a distrust of vaccine manufacturers, believing that measles infection is not only safe but safer than vaccination. Commenters with mixed feelings expressed uncertainty of the infection's severity, and varied in support of all vaccines based on perceived risk/benefit ratios. CONCLUSION: The anti-vaccine minority's volume of comments translates to a disproportionately high representation on online boards. Public health messages should address concerns by emphasizing that immunization is always a personal choice in Canada, and that the pharmaceutical industry is strictly

  20. Gender Difference in Internet Use and Internet Problems among Quebec High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, Magali; Brunelle, Natacha; Tremblay, Joel; Leclerc, Danielle; Cousineau, Marie-Marthe; Khazaal, Yasser; Légaré, Andrée-Anne; Rousseau, Michel; Berbiche, Djamal

    2016-10-01

    There are presently no data available concerning Internet addiction (IA) problems among adolescents in Canada and the province of Quebec. The goal of this study is thus to document and compare the influence of gender on Internet use and addiction. The study data were collected from a larger research project on gambling among adolescents. Activities conducted online (applications used and time spent) as well as answers to the Internet Addiction Test (IAT) were collected from 3938 adolescents from grades 9 to 11. The two most often employed cut-off points for the IAT in the literature were documented: (40-69 and 70+) and (50+). Boys spent significantly more time on the Internet than did girls. A greater proportion of the girls made intense use of social networks, whereas a greater proportion of the boys made intense use of massively multiplayer online role-playing games, online games, and adult sites. The proportion of adolescents with a potential IA problem varied according to the cut-off employed. When the cut-off was set at 70+, 1.3% of the adolescents were considered to have an IA, while 41.7% were seen to be at risk. At a 50+ cut-off, 18% of the adolescents were considered to have a problem. There was no significant difference between the genders concerning the proportion of adolescents considered to be at risk or presenting IA problems. Finally, analysis of the percentile ranks would seem to show that a cut-off of 50+ better describes the category of young people at risk. The results of this study make it possible to document Internet use and IA in a large number of Quebec adolescents. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. Rates of stillbirth by gestational age and cause in Inuit and First Nations populations in Quebec.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auger, Nathalie; Park, Alison L; Zoungrana, Hamado; McHugh, Nancy Gros-Louis; Luo, Zhong-Cheng

    2013-04-02

    Inuit and First Nations populations have higher rates of stillbirth than non-Aboriginal populations in Canada do, but little is known about the timing and cause of stillbirth in Aboriginal populations. We compared gestational age- and cause-specific stillbirth rates in Inuit and First Nations populations with the rates in the non-Aboriginal population in Quebec. Data included singleton stillbirths and live births at 24 or more gestational weeks among Quebec residents from 1981 to 2009. We calculated odds ratios (ORs), rate differences and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the retrospective cohort of Inuit and First Nations births relative to non-Aboriginal births using fetuses at risk (i.e., ongoing pregnancies) as denominators and adjusting for maternal characteristics. The main outcomes were stillbirth by gestational age (24-27, 28-36, ≥ 37 wk) and cause of death. Rates of stillbirth per 1000 births were greater among Inuit (6.8) and First Nations (5.7) than among non-Aboriginal (3.6) residents. Relative to the non-Aboriginal population, the risk of stillbirth was greater at term (≥ 37 wk) than before term for both Inuit (OR 3.1, 95% CI 1.9 to 4.8) and First Nations (OR 2.6, 95% CI 2.1 to 3.3) populations. Causes most strongly associated with stillbirth were poor fetal growth, placental disorders and congenital anomalies among the Inuit, and hypertension and diabetes among the First Nations residents. Stillbirth rates in Aboriginal populations were particularly high at term gestation. Poor fetal growth, placental disorders and congenital anomalies were important causes of stillbirth among the Inuit, and diabetic and hypertensive complications were important causes in the First Nations population. Prevention may require improvements in pregnancy and obstetric care.

  2. Molecular Typing of Legionella pneumophila Isolates in the Province of Quebec from 2005 to 2015.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Lévesque

    Full Text Available Legionella is found in natural and man-made aquatic environments, such as cooling towers and hot water plumbing infrastructures. Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 (Lp1 is the most common etiological agent causing waterborne disease in the United States and Canada. This study reports the molecular characterization of Lp strains during a 10 year period. We conducted sequence-based typing (SBT analysis on a large set of Lp isolates (n = 284 to investigate the province of Quebec sequence types (STs distribution in order to identify dominant clusters. From 2005 to 2015, 181 clinical Lp isolates were typed by SBT (141 sporadic cases and 40 outbreak related cases. From the same period of time, 103 environmental isolates were also typed. Amongst the 108 sporadic cases of Lp1 typed, ST-62 was the most frequent (16.6%, followed by ST-213 (10.2%, ST-1 (8.3% and ST-37 (8.3%. Amongst other serogroups (SG, ST-1327 (SG5 (27.3% and ST-378 (SG10 (12.2% were the most frequent. From the environmental isolates, ST-1 represent the more frequent SBT type (26.5%. Unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA dendrogram from the 108 sporadic cases of SG1 contains 4 major clusters (A to D of related STs. Cluster B contains the majority of the strains (n = 61 and the three most frequent STs in our database (ST-62, ST-213 and ST-1. During the study period, we observed an important increase in the incidence rate in Quebec. All the community associated outbreaks, potentially or confirmed to be associated with a cooling tower were caused by Lp1 strains, by opposition to hospital associated outbreaks that were caused by serogroups of Lp other than SG1. The recent major Quebec City outbreak caused by ST-62, and the fact that this genotype is the most common in the province supports whole genome sequencing characterization of this particular sequence type in order to understand its evolution and associated virulence factors.

  3. A Tale of Two Logics: Social Reproduction and Mobilisation in University Access in Quebec, 1945-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laplante, Benoît; Doray, Pierre; Bastien, Nicolas; Chenard, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    The 2012 Quebec students' protests against university tuition fees fostered a debate on access to higher education in Quebec, and specifically on the Quebec "educational lag". Using census data, we show that degree-holding is the same among Quebec French-speaking and Ontario English-speaking populations. Using event history analysis, we…

  4. Proposed Hydro-Quebec development plan, 1993: Proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Quebec government now requires Hydro-Quebec to submit a development plan every three years instead of annually, in order to permit more in-depth studies and a broader consultation with interested parties. In the first of such three-year plans, a series of plan proposals is presented which was developed after a year of consultation with various groups on four fundamental matters: energy efficiency, means of generation, electro-intensive industries, and electricity exports. Options for meeting future demand at Hydro-Quebec are assessed, including the construction of new generation and transmission facilities, rehabilitation of existing facilities, improving electrical energy efficiency, and conservation strategies. These options are considered while applying the principle of sustainable development that respects the environment. Hydroelectricity will continue to be emphasized as the main source of generation since hydroelectric facilities offer distinct advantages in terms of costs, environmental impacts, and economic spinoffs. The proposed plan also presents objectives and strategies for improving the quality of service and internal operations. Financial forecasts for Hydro-Quebec are proposed which take into account the forecast changes in the utility's cost and revenue factors and its self-financing requirements. 5 figs., 15 tabs

  5. An Asset Management System for School Buildings in Quebec

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbasi, Dino; Marchand, Gilles

    2005-01-01

    Presented here are the major reasons why an asset management system (AMS) is needed, a brief history of their evolution and a description of the initiative undertaken by Quebec to implement such a system. The appendix contains the recommended basic requirements for an asset management system. (Contains 1 figure and 4 footnotes.)

  6. Mandatory Driver Training and Road Safety: The Quebec Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potvin, Louise; And Others

    1988-01-01

    1983 legislation making driver training courses mandatory for any person in Quebec seeking a first driver's license had no effect on the risk of accident or the mortality/morbidity rate for newly licensed drivers over 18. However, since 1983 more women under 18 are becoming licensed, and their risks may be increased. (Author/BJV)

  7. Status of wind energy in Nordic communities in Quebec

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaumel, J.L. [Quebec Univ., Rimouski, PQ (Canada). Wind Energy Group

    2003-07-01

    Remote and nordic communities in Quebec include Inuit villages, the Lower North Coast, Anticosti Island, Magdalen Islands, and the James Bay region. Annual wind speed in each of these communities is more than 8.5 m/s which is ideal for wind power generation. However, wind energy projects that were underway have been abandoned for a variety of reasons. Hydro-Quebec has decided to invest in power lines to link villages in the Lower North coast. The electric utility is not interested in wind energy for the Magdalen Islands because of an existing large diesel power station. Likewise, Anticosti Island has a completely automated small diesel plant. Nordic Innu Villages are making money with fuel sales to Hydro-Quebec and have no economic interest in wind energy. Other barriers to development include a lack of government support and lack of interest in small wind projects. In addition, turbine manufacturers have not lobbied for wind energy development in Quebec's nordic communities. However, the potential exists for future development as innovations are rendering wind power more adaptable to community needs. Off-grid technology is also available. 2 figs.

  8. [An essay on Quebec's demographic development from 1534 to 2034].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbonneau, H

    1984-04-01

    A general review of the development of the population of Quebec since 1534 is presented in the form of separate summaries for each 50-year period. Topics discussed include sources of data, estimates of the North American Indian population, and estimates of immigration. Some consideration is given to projections to the year 2034. (summary in ENG, SPA)

  9. Forecast electricity demand in Quebec: Development plan 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Demographic, economic, and energy prospects are the determining factors in estimating demand for electricity in Quebec. In average scenarios developed for 1992-2010, the Quebec population will grow 0.5%/y and the gross domestic product will increase 2.6%/y. Firm electricity sales by Hydro-Quebec will grow to 197.9 TWh by 2010, or 2.2%/y. Sales in the residential and farm sectors should grow 1.3%/y and sales in the general and institutional sectors should rise by 2.2%/y. Electricity demand in the industrial sector, rising at an estimated 2.9%/y in 1992-2010, is chiefly responsible for the anticipated growth in Hydro-Quebec's overall sales. The nonferrous smelting, refining, chemicals, and paper industries will account for ca 60% of this growth. In the municipal services and public transportation sectors, demand should grow 3.3%/y, and over half the growth forecast in this sector can be attributed to the impact that new uses of electricity are expected to have after 2005. High- and low-growth scenarios offer alternative visions of demand growth based on different but equally valid assumptions about demographic and economic growth. In terms of firm electricity sales, the high- and low-growth scenarios differ by 50 TWh in 2010. Hydro-Quebec has retained two strategic orientations that will influence growth in electricity sales: the development of industrial markets and extension of the energy-savings objective of 9.3 TWh forecast to the year 2000. Taking these two orientations into account, the growth rate for electricity sales in the average scenario would be 1.8%/y rather than 2.2%/y. 25 figs., 81 tabs

  10. The implications of the nuclear option in Quebec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauvageau, P.A.; Boivin, M.

    1979-10-01

    Problems concerning the nuclear option as a component of the energy balance of Quebec are presented. The demand for electrical energy for the periods 1977-1985 and 1985-2000, the energy resources of Quebec, and an analysis of nuclear fission energy are considered. In 1978 65.5 percent of Quebec's energy needs were supplied by imported petroleum, 7.1 percent by imported gas, and 1.4 percent by imported coal. Hydroelectricity supplied 21.9 percent of the energy budget in 1976. According to projections electricity's share will be around 41 percent in 1990 after conservation, and approximately 50 percent in 2000, while petroleum and gas will have 44 percent, new energies 5 percent, and coal 1 percent. The acceptability of nuclear power can be broken down into six factors, for each of which a decision criterion can be recognized: technical feasibility, economic feasibility, security of supply, side effects for Quebec, human and ecological risks, and socio-political factors. The first four criteria are acceptable and even in certain cases desirable. The acceptability of risks is subjective and should be a collective decision, and therefore is policitcal. Even if Quebec does not need nuclear at the present or in the next decade, it is still a form of energy which it will be necessary to come to terms with eventually. Thus it is important to maintain the capacity to have recourse to it, and to start a program of public dialogue by setting up a 'Permanent Council for Energy Forecasting'. The democratic participation of a well-informed population in a neutral and objective nuclear debate is thus essential. (LL)

  11. Marginal-cost pricing for Hydro-Quebec residential customers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paquin, C.

    1994-02-01

    An option available to governments and to utilities such as Hydro-Quebec for responding to objectives of energy efficiency is the adoption of marginal cost pricing. Compared to currently used price structures, marginal cost pricing will allow improvement of price signals and assure an optimal utilization of the resource. That type of pricing could be economically beneficial but may not be desirable from the point of view of revenue distribution. Taking account of Hydro-Quebec's cost structure, pure marginal cost pricing would generate an income that would be strongly contested on equity grounds. For example, it would raise prices 60% for residential customers. Faced with this possibility, an analysis is presented of the impact of a peak-offpeak pricing (or pure marginal cost pricing) on Hydro-Quebec's residential customer energy bills. The marginal costs of Hydro-Quebec are calculated by the method of Bernard and Chatel (1985) and analysis of the results is based on Friedman and Weare (1993). A sample of 28,417 residential customers from a 1989 Hydro-Quebec survey is used in the study. Two scenarios are analyzed; the first allowing comparison of the energy bill only on the basis of marginal costs and of average costs, and the second allowing comparison of the impact of marginal cost pricing on the total bill. In the first scenario, the impact translates into a 31% increase in energy bills for the entire customer class considered; in addition, this impact is inversely proportional to the revenue class. In the second scenario, the increase is 24%. 33 refs., 10 figs., 53 tabs

  12. Normative data for the Clock Drawing Test for French-Quebec mid- and older aged healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcotte, Valérie; Gagnon, Marie-Eve; Joubert, Sven; Rouleau, Isabelle; Gagnon, Jean-François; Escudier, Frédérique; Koski, Lisa; Potvin, Olivier; Macoir, Joël; Hudon, Carol

    2018-05-09

    The Clock Drawing Test (CDT) is frequently used to screen for cognitive impairment, however, normative data for Rouleau et al.'s scoring system are scarce. The present study aims to provide norms for Rouleau et al.'s scoring system that are tailored to Quebec French-speaking mid- and older aged healthy adults. Six researchers from various research centers across the Province of Quebec (Canada) sent anonymous data for 593 (391 women) healthy community-dwelling volunteers (age range: 43-93 years; education range: 5-23 years) who completed the CDT 'drawing on command' version. This command version (setting the clock hands to 11:10, without a pre-drawn circle) was administrated as part of a more extensive neuropsychological assessment, or along with cognitive screening instruments. Each drawn clock was scored according to the quantitative criteria set by Rouleau et al.'s scoring system. CDT scores were significantly correlated with age (r(592) = -.132, p = .001) and years of education (r(592) = .116, p = .005), but not with sex (r(592) = .065, p = .112). Since data were skewed towards higher test scores, the percentiles method was used for analysis. Percentile ranks stratified by age and education are presented. These normative data for Rouleau et al.'s scoring system will contribute towards adequately screening for cognitive decline in Quebec French-speaking healthy adults, by also taking into account individual characteristics such as age and education.

  13. Think-Tank: The Present and Future of University Adult Education Programs in Quebec. Proceedings = Journee d'etude: le present et l'avenior des programmes universitaires en andragogie au Quebec. Rapport (Montreal, Quebec, April 26, 1988).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Pierre; Heft, Riva

    These proceedings, presented in English and French, summarize a seminar on the present and future of adult education programs in Quebec. Six Quebec universities were represented. The conference was opened by Dr. Pierre Simon, who introduced the theme and rationale of the day-long workshop. Dr. Charles Bertrand welcomed the participants,…

  14. Social Studies in Quebec: How to Break the Chains of Oppression of Visible Minorities and of the Quebec Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallerand, Viviane

    2016-01-01

    Despite having multiculturalism as a core value, the province of Quebec has significant issues affecting the inclusion of visible minorities, such as positive discrimination, reasonable accommodation, and the fact of cultural divide. The presence of these minority groups brings out the tension between respecting differences and protecting…

  15. Electricity production shows improvement across Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    In the first half of 1991, electricity production from Canadian utilities improved substantially compared to the first half of 1990. Canada was a net importer of 5332 GWh in January-June 1990 while it was a net exporter of 5250 GWh in January-June 1991. The largest single factor in this reversal is the improved performance of Ontario Hydro's CANDU reactors. Total acid gas emissions by Ontario Hydro for 1991 are expected to total 240,000 tonnes, about the same as 1990, but at much higher capacity factors. A combination of recession, private power generation, and the startup of the Seabrook nuclear station have put a brake on power exports to the USA. New Brunswick Power exports were not only affected by the new capacity at Seabrook but also because of low water conditions at its hydroelectric plants. Hydro-Quebec generated 300 GWh more hydraulic energy in June 1991 than in June 1990 and its Gentilly-2 nuclear station has been operating at 96.7% capacity. The Quebec utility exported 1215 GWh to the USA and 2121 GWh to other Canadian utilities in January-June 1991, compared to 1602 GWh and 2232 GWh resspectively in January-June 1990. 1 tab

  16. Southwestern Power Administration Update, October- December 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2004-12-01

    On October 29, 2004, Southwestern and Southwest Power Pool, Inc. (SPP) reached agreement on interim arrangements to be implemented after the October 31, 2004, expiration of the membership agreement between the two parties. According to Jim McDonald, Director of Southwestern’s Division of Customer Service, the interim agreement forged between Southwestern and SPP seeks to minimize impacts to SPP as well as to Southwestern and its customers while Southwestern and SPP work on a seams/coordination agreement to succeed the expired membership agreement.

  17. Projected Changes to Streamflow Characteristics in Quebec Basins as Simulated by the Canadian Regional Climate Model (CRCM4)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huziy, O.; Sushama, L.; Khaliq, M.; Lehner, B.; Laprise, R.; Roy, R.

    2011-12-01

    According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2007), an intensification of the global hydrological cycle and increase in precipitation for some regions around the world, including the northern mid- to high-latitudes, is expected in future climate. This will have an impact on mean and extreme flow characteristics, which need to be assessed for better development of adaptation strategies. Analysis of the mean and extreme streamflow characteristics for Quebec (North-eastern Canada) basins in current climate and their projected changes in future climate are assessed using a 10 member ensemble of current (1970 - 1999) and future (2041 - 2070) Canadian RCM (CRCM4) simulations. Validation of streamflow characteristics, performed by comparing modeled values with those observed, available from the Centre d'expertise hydrique du Quebec (CEHQ) shows that the model captures reasonably well the high flows. Results suggest increase in mean and 10 year return levels of 1 day high flows, which appear significant for most of the northern basins.

  18. Canada's population: growth and dualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaujot, R P

    1978-04-01

    In Canada the current 1.3% population growth rate is causing some concern. Those concerned argue that such a rate of growth in combination with high levels of consumption could jeopardize the country's resource base and its comfortable style of living. Many Canadians are questioning high levels of immigration, for now that the fertility level is below replacement level, net immigration contributes substantially to population growth (over 1/3 in 1976). The growing proportion of non-Europeans among recent immigrants is causing resentment, and, in a tight job market, immigrants are regarded as threats to the World War 2 baby boom cohort who are now at working ages. The baby boom generation also puts stress on housing and health services, and it will increase the need for pension checks as it ages. Although French fertility is no longer high and immigration is no longer dominated by the British, the French group's 200-year struggle to preserve its identity continues on in the current effort of the Quebec government to enforce the use of French language by law within that province. Geography and climate dictate another demographic fact that divides the country and pervades its history. In addition to intense regionalism, uneven population distribution is responsible for 2 other concerns: the rapid growth of several already large cities and depopulation of many small communities. Focus in this discussion is on Canada's population growth in the past and as projected for the future, historical and current fertility, mortality and immigration trends, the search for a new immigration policy, the impact of the baby boom generation on the population's age structure and the problems this creates, and recent shifts in population distribution and in the country's ethnic and linguistic makeup. The population policy proposals evolved thus far involve to a great extent the use of immigration as a lever for achieving given population objectives.

  19. Hydro-Quebec annual report, 1991. Hydro-Quebec rapport annuel, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    This annual report for the Quebec electric utility presents an overview of the year's activities and its financial status, including export sales of electricity to New Brunswick, Ontario, New York State, and the New England states. Research programs and demonstration projects are described, as well as the utility's activities in Africa and Asia. Environmental and economic considerations for the province are presented. Financial data includes total sales, sales by sector, export sales, and rate changes. A financial statement is included. In 1991, public controversy arose over electricity exports, risk-and-profit sharing contracts with some industrial customers, and the impacts of hydroelectric development. A net income of $760 million was achieved, representing an 88.1% increase over the previous year when exceptional measures were required to offset cumulative years of low runoff. These measures were suspended in late 1990 but low 1991 precipitation forced the continued purchase of backup electricity. Energy efficiency programs resulted in savings equivalent to energy consumed by a town of 13,000 people. Exports accounted for 7.2% of total sales in 1991. The first three generating units of LaGrande-2-A, totalling 999 MW, were commissioned. The groundwork has been laid for the vast corporate strategy of total customer satisfaction entitled Defi performance. In 1991, annual interruption time per customer dropped to 5.32 hours. 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. A Comparison of Fertility in Canada and Australia, 1926-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter McDonald

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Canada and Australia are countries that, through their histories, have had many similarities as described later in the paper. However, they have two obvious differences. First, Australia has no equivalent to the province of Quebec and is not bi-lingual[B1] . If Quebec’s fertility trend was a mirror image of the trends in other provinces in Canada, this would not present a difficulty but, as we demonstrate in this article, the differences between fertility trends in Quebec and the other Canadian provinces go some way towards explaining the historical differences between the Canadian and Australian fertility trends, but only until 1960.  [B1]2 nations rather than province

  1. Liberalization of electricity markets in Quebec and France: crossed prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caron, Jocelyn

    2011-01-01

    This essay focuses on the liberalization of electricity markets in Quebec and France. As in most Western states, Quebec and France have undertaken reforms to liberalize their domestic electricity markets. Starting from a similar arrangement, namely occupied by a state monopoly, the French and Quebecois markets have evolved into a more or less liberalized model. What were the changes brought about by these reforms? What reasons have motivated them? What is the functioning of the model in place in both states? What are the prospects for these markets? To identify the issues of these reforms, this essay will be divided into four chapters. The first chapter will discuss the organization of markets in Quebec and French before the liberalizing reforms: in addition to the organization as such, this chapter will address the reasons why the two states have chosen a market controlled by the state. It emerges from this chapter that both states nationalized and regulated the electricity market to promote economic development and quality standards for a service considered public. The second chapter will examine the genesis of liberalization reforms, the different models of market organization and a summary of selected experiences of liberalization that took place both before those of Quebec and France ones. The diversity of market models and the pitfalls have lived through some states raised the fact that successful liberalization reforms is a complex process. The third chapter will analyse the reforms that changed markets in Quebec and France and more specifically, the organization of the market that has resulted. It is established that if the two markets have been forced to reform themselves by forces outside the two states, the paths that were taken differ greatly. Finally, the fourth chapter will conduct an initial assessment of the reforms and provide some forecast for the future. The reforms that have taken place in both states have produced satisfactory results taking

  2. The control of emissions from nuclear power reactors in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorman, D.J.; Neil, B.C.J.; Chatterjee, R.M.

    1988-01-01

    Nuclear power reactors in Canada are of the CANDU pressurised heavy water design. These are located in the provinces of Ontario, Quebec, and New Brunswick. Most of the nuclear generating capacity is in the province of Ontario which has 16 commissioned reactors with a total capacity of 11,500 MWe. There are four reactors under construction with an additional capacity of 3400 MWe. Nuclear power currently accounts for approximately 50% of the electrical power generation of Ontario. Regulation of the reactors is a Federal Government responsibility administered by the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) which licenses the reactors and sets occupational and public dose limits

  3. A review of existing renewable energy facilities in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyboer, J.; Pape-Salmon, A.

    2003-05-01

    This first annual report on renewable energy in the Canadian electricity sector includes records from 629 power plants across Canada. Renewable energy sources include wind, hydroelectricity, wood residue biomass, landfill/sewage gas, solar photovoltaic, municipal solid waste, and tidal energy. The data in this report was acquired from Statistics Canada and other public information sources. For each of the 629 renewable energy power plants, this report states its type of renewable energy, the province, the name of the project, its location, its operator, electrical generating capacity, number of generating units, average annual electricity production, and the year it began operation. The majority (64 per cent) of Canada's total installed power capacity comes from renewable energy sources, with the dominant source being hydroelectricity. Manitoba has the highest portion of renewable energy at almost 98 per cent of its installed electrical capacity. Nearly half of Canada's renewable power capacity is in Quebec, followed by 18 per cent in British Columbia. Nova Scotia has Canada's only tidal power plant. Approximately 80 per cent of the total installed renewable energy power capacity in Canada is owned by integrated electric utilities. Eleven per cent is owned by renewable electricity generating companies, 5 per cent is owned by aluminium companies, and 3 per cent is owned by pulp and paper companies. The rest is owned by diversified electricity generators. It is expected that with the ratification of the Kyoto Protocol interest in renewable energy will grow. 6 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs., 1 appendix

  4. Asbestos fibres in indoor and outdoor air and the epidemiology of asbestos-related diseases in Quebec : summary and recommendation of the reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeGuire, L.; Lajoie, P.; Lemieux, C.; Poulin, M.

    2004-07-01

    in the incidence of mesothelioma of the pleura among Quebec men between 1982 and 1996. There is a higher rate of the disease in Quebec than in the rest of Canada and in several other countries, indicating a need to monitor the evolution of this cancer in the coming years. In the last decade, the number of workers with an asbestos-related disease of recognized occupational origin has also increased.

  5. Methane and carbon dioxide exchange in a post-extraction, unrestored peatland in Eastern Quebec, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Tracy; Strachan, Ian; Strack, Maria

    2017-04-01

    Peatlands, in their pristine state, are important long-term sinks of carbon. The extraction of peat for agricultural purposes or for biofuel leads to a shift in the carbon dynamics. Changes in environmental conditions post extraction may also allow for invasive species to establish and spread across the peatland. Many studies have shown the benefits and advantages of various restoration management practices, but few studies have explored the carbon exchange from unrestored peatlands. Our study reports the methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes from a post-extraction, unrestored peatland in Eastern Québec at both the plant community scale using static chambers, and at the ecosystem scale using an eddy covariance flux tower, over two complete years. Extraction of the Saint-Alexandre-de-Kamouraska peatland (SAK) started in the early 1970's and was halted in 1999. No restoration efforts have been implemented and the remnant ditches remain unblocked. The site consists of sparse patches of Eriophorum and a vast area of bare peat. Consequently, SAK is an overall source of carbon to the atmosphere, releasing an annual total of 153 g C m-2 and 241 g C m-2 in CO2 emissions for 2014 and 2015, respectively, and an average annual total of 1 g C m-2yr-1 in CH4 emissions. Phragmites and Typha, both invasive species, have established themselves in the ditches and are sources of methane; partly explaining the increased emissions in carbon fluxes to the atmosphere post extraction. Results from this study will help managers assess the importance of post-extraction peatland restoration, by comparing the differences in CO2 and CH4 exchange between restored and unrestored peatlands.

  6. Using ASR Technology in Language Training for Specific Purposes: A Perspective from Quebec, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Nicholas R.; Trofimovich, Pavel; Cedergren, Henrietta; Gatbonton, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    For many patients throughout the world, access to healthcare depends on the patients" and healthcare providers' ability to communicate efficiently in each other's language. One way to reduce linguistic barriers to healthcare access is to increase the number of linguistically and culturally competent healthcare professionals. Conspicuously…

  7. The Cultural and Educational Transitioning of First Generation Immigrant Undergraduate Students in Quebec, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinacore, Ada L.; Lerner, Sasha

    2013-01-01

    The diversity of Canadian society and the significance of education for occupational mobility have prompted investigations into immigrant's educational attainment, yet little research examines immigrant post-secondary students. This phenomenological study illuminates the institutional, societal, educational, and psychosocial barriers facing…

  8. Distribution of some radionuclides in the St. Lawrence estuary, Quebec, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serodes, J.B.; Roy, J.C.

    1983-01-01

    The distribution of γ-emitting radionuclides in the St. Lawrence estuary was studied in 1978 and 1979, by means of double sampling and the flocculation and centrifugation of very large volumes of water. Eleven radionuclides were detected, originating from a variety of sources, including soil erosion and nuclear weapons testing. The concentrations measured in 1979 were higher than those of 1978; the 21st Chinese nuclear test could be responsible for the increase of some radionuclides. Concentrations decrease markedly from the freshwater part to the marine region of the estuary. Dilution by oceanic waters, relative affinity with suspended matter and radioactive decay are the principal mechanisms involved in the distribution patterns. Cesium-137, 144 Ce, 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 228 Th are strongly associated with suspended matter, while about two thirds of 7 Be, 106 Ru and 235 U are present in the liquid phase. Results suggest that 235 U is released from sediments in the maximum turbidity zone

  9. Five years of research in energy plantation in southern Quebec (Canada)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labrecque, M.; Teodorescu, T.I. [Jardin Botanique de Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    1993-12-31

    Since 1989, short rotation and intensive culture (SRIC) techniques have been experimented to grow various fast growing species of trees and shrubs for energy plantation or environmental purposes. The objectives were to evaluate the biomass productivity with respect to (1) different weed control methods during the establishment phase; (2) drainage conditions and soil quality of the plantation site; and (3) frequency of coppicing. Native or introduced species of willows and various species of shrubs, such as honeysuckle and cornel, were grown in an experimental design in the nursery of the Montreal Botanical Garden on former agricultural land. Productivity, in tons of dry material per hectare, was evaluated and compared by harvesting shoot and branch samples at the end of each growing season. Weed control is essential to the establishment of trees in SRIC. When weed repression was applied during the two first growing seasons, biomass productivity was 4 to 5 times greater than the biomass produced on the control plot of the well drained site. With good weed control, willows can yield more than 20 tons of dry material on well drained site and near 15 tons on a poorly drained site, only two years after plantation. The growth potential of shrub species is also interesting. Some of them were able to produce up to 10 tons of dry biomass per hectare per year, which is appreciable considering that such species can be used on marginal lands and for the fixation of river banks. Frequency of coppicing also influences productivity. For willows, we determined that three-year rotation cycle allowed the highest biomass productivity. Shrubs should be coppiced each year to obtain the best results. Fast growing species and SRIC techniques are not only a good way of producing wood and alcohol for energy but they also represent a way of rapidly colonizing degraded or marginal sites and of fixing river banks.

  10. Adaptation potential to climate change of the Peribonka River (Quebec, Canada) water resources system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minville, M.; Krau, S.; Brissette, F.; Leconte, R.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of climatic change on the Peribonka water resources system. The impacts of climatic change on hydroelectric power reservoir operations in the region were assessed using a set of operating rules optimized for future hydrological regimes. Thirty climate change projections from 5 climate models, 2 greenhouse gas (GHG) scenarios, and 3 temporal horizons were used in the study. Climatic change projections were then downscaled using the Delta approach and coupled to a stochastic weather generator developed to account for natural variabilities in local climates. A lumped hydrological model was used to simulate future hydrological regimes. A stochastic dynamic programming technique was then used to optimize reservoir operating rules for various time series of future river flows. The operating rules were then used in conjunction with a river system simulation tool in order to determine reservoir and hydroelectric production scenarios under different climatic change regimes. Results of the study showed significant increases in hydroelectricity production for most of the climate change projections. However, nonproductive spillage was also increased. Reservoir reliability was also reduced. tabs., figs

  11. Stereo Pair, with Topographic Height as Color, Manicouagan Crater, Quebec, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Manicouagan Crater is one of the world's largest and oldest known impact craters and perhaps the one most readily apparent to astronauts in orbit. The age of the impact is estimated at 214 million years before present. Since then erosion has removed about one kilometer (0.6 miles) of rock from the region and has created a topographic pattern that follows the structural pattern of the crater. A ring depression (prominently seen as green) encloses a central peak. The ring depression now hosts the Manicouagan Reservoir and so appears as a distinct ring lake to astronauts and as a smooth and flat feature in this topographic visualization. A fine pattern of topographic striations trending south-southeast, most prominent within the crater itself, indicates the flow direction of glaciers that covered this area during the last ice age. Three visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading, color coding, and synthetic stereoscopy. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the north-south direction. Northern slopes appear bright and southern slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow, red, and magenta, to blue at the highest elevations. The stereoscopic effect was then created by generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. The image can be seen in 3-D by viewing the left image with the right eye and the right image with the left eye (cross-eyed viewing) or by downloading, printing, and splitting the image pair and viewing them with a stereoscope. When stereoscopically merged, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Total topographic relief from the ring lake level to the central crater peak is about 600 meters (2000 feet). Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. The mission used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency of the U.S. Department of Defense, and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, D.C. Size: 222 by 138 kilometers (138 by 87 miles) Location: 50 to 52 degrees North latitude, 68 to 70 degrees West longitude Orientation: North toward the top Image Data: Shaded and colored SRTM elevation model Date Acquired: February 2000

  12. The Quebec connection : though based in Canada, all of ProSep's sales are foreign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2010-01-01

    Montreal-based ProSep Inc. developed a method for stripping hydrocarbons from water. The potential uses for the technology include oil spill cleanups and cleaning bilge water and industrial wash water. Seven years ago, ProSep targeted the Alberta oilsands and the North Sea markets with its technology because water produced with bitumen from steam assisted gravity drainage wells had to be purified before going back into the steam boilers for re-injection, and new regulations in the North Sea were requiring operators to reduce hydrocarbon discharges into the ocean. Upon selling a few units to large companies operating in the North Sea, ProSep sold several units to a large national oil company in the Middle East. As stock spiked in 2006, the company raised substantial capital and acquired Pure Group AS of Stavanger, Norway, in 2007. Pure Group's leading technology for oil, gas and water treatment is called the CTour, which mixes condensate with produced water to improve coalescence of dispersed and dissolved oil droplets. In the Middle East, Aramco has successfully tested ProSep's ProSalt system as a means of saving millions of gallons of wash water per year. Also in the Middle East, ProSep sold a TORR unit as part of a package to Al-Rashed Company, a leading contractor in Kuwait. The contract was to supply a complete crude oil processing train for separation, dehydration and desalting at Kuwait Oil Company's Ratqa and Abdali facility in northern Kuwait. The TORR is designed to remove dispersed hydrocarbons from produced water without the use of chemicals. 2 figs.

  13. Hydrological response to dynamical downscaling of climate model outputs: A case study for western and eastern snowmelt-dominated Canada catchments

    OpenAIRE

    Magali Troin; Daniel Caya; Juan Alberto Velázquez; François Brissette

    2015-01-01

    Study region: An analysis of hydrological response to a dynamically downscaled multi-member multi-model global climate model (GCM) ensemble of simulations based on the Canadian Regional Climate Model (CRCM) is presented for three snowmelt-dominated basins in Canada. The basins are situated in the western mountainous (British Columbia) and eastern level (Quebec) regions in Canada, providing comprehensive experiments to validate the CRCM over various topographic features. Study focus: The ev...

  14. Biomass energy: status and future trends for Quebec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bissonnette, V.

    1996-01-01

    The current status of biomass energy in the Province of Quebec was reviewed. For electrical energy production uses, biomass combustibles include peat, forestry, agro-food and urban waste products. These materials are used directly as combustibles in the production of electricity, or are first processed through gasification, pyrolysis, anaerobic digestion or fermentation into combustible products. In Quebec, 176.2 MW of electricity is produced yearly from biomass materials, mostly waste products of the forestry industry. New biomass avenues are actively being explored, including bio- gases produced from municipal landfill sites, gasification of used automobile tires and combustion of demolition waste. Although their contribution is minimal, biomass materials can nevertheless contribute a few hundred megawatts of energy to the Province's overall energy budget. 2 figs

  15. Economic impact of Hydro-Quebec's nuclear activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emard, R.

    1994-01-01

    Gentilly 2 nuclear power plant has benefited the regions of Becancour and Trois Rivieres, with spin-off at the provincial level. Gentilly 2 is Hydro Quebec's only nuclear plant. Its 675 MW provide nearly 3% of Hydro Quebec's production. Over 664 permanent jobs were created, 70% of them highly specialized and multi-skilled. In 1993, out of C$99 spent, 57.3 were for wages, 16.3 for equipment and supplies (including fuel and heavy water), 18 for professional services provided by AECL and others, and the remainder included fees, permits, contract work, and miscellaneous. Gentilly 2 has fostered technological development and inventions which are used at other CANDU stations. 7 ills

  16. An environmental data base for all Hydro-Quebec reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demers, C.

    1988-01-01

    Hydro-Quebec has created two management positions specifically for reservoirs, namely Reservoir Ecology Advisor and Reservoir Management Advisor. To assist management decisions, a means was required of bringing together all existing environmental information for each reservoir operated by Hydro-Quebec, including storage reservoirs, auxiliary reservoirs and forebays. A relational database using Reflex software was developed on a network of Macintosh computers. The database contains five blocks of information: general information, and physical, physiochemical, biologic and socioeconomic characteristics for each reservoir. Data will be collected on over 100 sites, and the tool will form the basis for developing a medium-range study program on reservoir ecology. The program must take into account the physical, biological and socioeconomic aspects of the environment, as well as the concerns of management personnel operating the reservoirs, the local population, reservoir users, and various government departments. 2 figs

  17. Should the gap be filled between guidelines and actual practice for management of low back pain in primary care? The Quebec experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossignol, M; Abenhaim, L; Bonvalot, Y; Gobeille, D; Shrier, I

    1996-12-15

    A prospective cohort study. To describe health services utilization for low back pain in the province of Quebec, Canada, and to compare it with North American guidelines. The Quebec Task Force and the Agency for Health Care Planning and Research (United States) published guidelines for the management of low back pain in 1987 and 1994, respectively. A cohort of 2147 adults with low back pain identified at the Quebec Worker's Compensation Board were selected randomly and observed over 2 years' time for their health care utilization profile. During the study period, 57.8% of the workers still under active care 7 weeks after their back injury had not yet been referred to a specialist. Specialized imaging techniques were obtained by 4.5% of the patients, with a delay of 7 weeks or more in 66% of them. Surgery was performed on 1.6% of the patients. The presence of an initial specific diagnosis and proximity to a university hospital significantly increased utilization rate and reduced the delays. Health services utilization for back pain in Quebec was equal or lower to what currently is practiced elsewhere, but access to specialists was not meeting the current recommendations. This would represent a 12% net increase in new specialist contacts and a quicker access in 39% who saw a specialist. Before such an effort can be considered, health care planners will need a better definition of the role of the specialist consultation in the guidelines and scientific evidence specifically addressing their benefit in primary care, especially in the absence of a specific diagnosis.

  18. Defense plan of Hydro-Quebec for extreme contingencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trudel, Guilles; Bernard, Serge; Portales, Esteban

    2000-01-01

    In the last years, Hydro-Quebec it undertook an important program to improve the dependability of their net of energy transport. They concentrated the efforts on increasing the capacity of the net resist in the event of carries to an extreme contingency caused in general by multiple incidents or for successive disconnection of the lines of energy transport. To neutralize these contingencies, Hydro-Quebec it adopted a series of special measures that are contained under the general title of Plan of Defense for Extreme Contingencies. The objective of this plan is to detect the incidents that surpass the capacity of the net. It is completely automatic and it is based mainly in: A system of automatic disconnection of generation and tele-shot of loads; A system of automatic maneuver (opening and closing) of inductances shunt of 735 kw; A system of disconnection of loads for low voltage; A system of disconnection of loads for low frequency. The present document summarizes the orientations that there is taking Hydro-Quebec to protect its net in the event of extreme contingencies and it describes the different automatism that they are adopts, in particular the system automatic disconnection of generation and tele-shot of loads (RPTC) that is one of the main components of the defense plan. The system RPTC detects the simultaneous loss of several lines directly in 15 substations of 735 kw. It understands four places of automatic disconnection of generation and a centralized system of tele-shot of loads

  19. A hopeful Quebec gets ready to produce gaz naturel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, L.

    2010-01-01

    Quebec's natural gas industry is poised to expand as a result of a breakthrough well drilled in the Utica shale gas play in February 2010. The well has produced more than 12 million cubic feet per day. The Quebec Oil and Gas Association (QOGA) was formed in 2009, and has lobbied the provincial government to keep royalty rates at between 10 to 12.5 per cent. A task force has also been deployed to ensure the development of a prompt regulatory process. It is hoped that increased investment will encourage more drilling activity in the province. Quebec consumes approximately 200 billion cubic feet of natural gas per year. Increased sales are expected to come from new residential construction, where 1 in 5 homes are now being equipped with gas-fired heating. The QOGA is currently designing a training program for potential rig workers. Studies have indicated that gas royalties collected by the provincial government could exceed $1 billion per year in the future. 1 fig.

  20. Advisory panel on the proposed New Brunswick - Quebec electricity transaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganong, D.A.

    2010-01-01

    NB Power was faced with major financial and technical challenges in generation that would lead to significant rate increases over several years to come. In 2009, the governments of New Brunswick and Quebec proposed an agreement whereby Hydro-Quebec would acquire most of the assets of NB Power and provide a guaranteed electricity supply at a set price to the province. The proposal involved the sale of NB Power's hydro generation facilities, 2 diesel peaking plants and the Point Lepreau nuclear generating facility. It also included a guaranteed bulk electricity supply of 14 Terawatt-hours per year by Hydro-Quebec at a blended rate of 7.35 cents per kilowatt-hour. The new Brunswick government would retain ownership of the fossil-fuelled power plants, the NB Power transmission assets and the NB Power distribution assets and customer sales. A 6-person independent panel was asked to examine the proposal. This report addresses the proposed agreement as presented to the Panel up to January 26, 2010. The panel conducted an independent and objective examination of the financial implications; long-term effects on electricity rates; New Brunswick's control of energy policies; environmental impacts; short-and long-term risks and avoided risks; and benefits and costs to the provincial economy. The Panel drew its conclusions and recommendations on the basis of available information. The Panel concluded that the benefits to New Brunswick contribute to real and positive value to New Brunswick over business as usual. tabs., figs.

  1. The viewpoint of the big industrial consumers in Quebec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulanger, L.

    2002-01-01

    The nature of the industrial market in Quebec was described along with a look at the competitive positioning of industrial electricity prices in the province. A discussion of the interventions made by the Association Quebecoise de Consommateurs Industriels d'Electricite (AQCIE) and the Association des Industries Forestieres du Quebec (AIFQ) for improving the competitiveness of industrial prices was provided. The plan designed to ensure the security of supply was reviewed, and advice was offered on ways to minimize the price increases, namely in the transmission, in the demand for review of transmission cost, and production. The author indicated that Hydro-Quebec was proposing the uniform cost structure without specific allocation of cost to the various functions of the network depending on the services offered. The proposed alternative is a grouped cost structure which would better reflect the costs incurred linked to the effective utilization of each of the major functions of the network. The author proposed an interim rebate of 25 per cent. Under the rebate policy, the author stated that the rebates must promote the optimum utilization of the network and the maximization of revenues rather than discouraging its use. tabs., figs

  2. Anthropogenic Disturbances Create a New Vegetation Toposequence in the Gatineau River Valley, Quebec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Laflamme

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study measured changes in forest composition that have occurred since the preindustrial era along the toposequence of the Gatineau River Valley, Quebec, Canada (5650 km2, based on survey records prior to colonization (1804–1864 and recent forest inventories (1982–2006. Changes in forest cover composition over time were found to be specific to toposequence position. Maple and red oak are now more frequent on upper toposequence positions (+26%, +21%, respectively, whereas yellow birch, eastern hemlock, and American beech declined markedly (−34% to −17%. Poplar is more frequent throughout the landscape, but particularly on mid-toposequence positions (+40%. In contrast, white pine, frequent on all toposequence positions in the preindustrial forest, is now confined to shallow and coarse-textured soils (−20%. The preindustrial forest types of the study area were mostly dominated by maple, yellow birch, and beech, with strong components of white pine, hemlock, and eastern white cedar, either as dominant or codominant species. In a context of ongoing anthropogenic disturbances and environmental changes, it is probably not possible to restore many of these types, except where targeted silvicultural interventions could increase the presence of certain species. The new forest types observed should be managed to ensure continuity of vital ecosystem services and functions as disturbance regimes evolve.

  3. Scavenging of gaseous mercury by acidic snow at Kuujjuarapik, Northern Quebec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahoutifard, Nazafarin; Poissant, Laurier; Scott, Susannah L.

    2006-01-01

    One fate of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) in the Arctic has been identified as gas phase oxidation by halogen-containing radicals, leading to abrupt atmospheric mercury depletion concurrent with ozone depletion. Rapid deposition of oxidized mercury leads to snow enrichment in mercury. In this report, we describe experiments that demonstrate the ability of snow to directly scavenge atmospheric mercury. The study was conducted at Kuujjuarapik, Quebec, Canada (latitude 55 o 17'N). A mercury depletion event (MDE) caused the mercury concentration in the surface snow of the coastal snowpack to double, from (9.4 ± 2.0) to (19.2 ± 1.7) ng/L. Independent of the MDE, mercury concentrations increased five-fold, from (10.0 ± 0.1) to (51.4 ± 6.0) ng/L, upon spiking the snow with 500 μM hydrogen peroxide under solar irradiation. Total organic carbon in the spiked irradiated snow samples also decreased, consistent with the formation of strongly oxidizing species. The role of the snowpack in releasing GEM to the atmosphere has been reported; these findings suggest that snow may also play a role in enhancing deposition of mercury

  4. The impact of the Kyoto Protocol on the Quebec electricity market : business opportunities, protection of reference levels, and trading of emission credits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legault, R. F.

    2003-01-01

    Helimax Energy is a consulting company located in Montreal, Quebec specializing in wind energy on the national and international scene. In Canada, Helimax has worked (or is currently working) in seven provinces. To date, 96 contracts in renewable energy sources have been fulfilled throughout the world, of which 66 projects deal with wind energy. Several factors explain the growth of wind energy. These include a constant reduction of cost, Kyoto Protocol (environmental conscience), energy policies, social acceptance, technological maturity, reliability, and availability of funds to name a few. Europe is the world leader in the wind energy market. Canada represents a market ripe for expansion. The Kyoto Protocol was discussed and the relative value of carbon credits was examined with the help of a graph. The value of carbon credits remains marginal in the context of clean development mechanisms, unless a very polluting technology (in terms of carbon emissions) is replaced and the credit carbon cost is relatively high. tabs., figs

  5. Canada's ethanol retail directory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    A directory was published listing all ethanol-blended gasoline retailers in Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta, British Columbia, and the Yukon. The listings include the name and address of the retailer. A list of bulk purchase facilities of ethanol-blended fuels is also included

  6. A review of renewable energy in Canada, 1990-2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyboer, J.; Rivers, N.; Muncaster, K.; Bennett, M.; Bennett, S.

    2004-10-01

    This paper provides a comprehensive database of renewable energy facilities in Canada by province and by resource type. It considers technologies used for power generation or cogeneration, renewable energy heating systems, hydrogen generation and transportation fuels. Renewable energy technologies convert naturally regenerating resources into useful energy such as electricity, thermal energy, hydrogen or bio-fuels. The database contains information on renewable power operations in Canada over a scale of 100 kilowatts of rated capacity. Smaller applications have been included for run-of-river, hydro, earth, wind and solar power. There are 753 records for renewable energy facilities in Canada, including wind, hydroelectricity, wood residue biomass, landfill/sewage gas, solar photovoltaic, municipal solid waste, and tidal energy. The data in this report was acquired from Statistics Canada and other public information sources. For each of the 753 renewable energy power plants, this report states its type of renewable energy, the province, the name of the project, its location, its operator, electrical generating capacity, number of generating units, average annual electricity production, and the year it began operation. Canada currently has an installed electrical capacity of 115 GW, of which renewable energy sources constitute 76 per cent with the dominant source being hydroelectricity. Manitoba has the highest portion of renewable energy in its installed electrical capacity. Approximately 40 per cent Canada's renewable power capacity is in Quebec, followed by 15 per cent in British Columbia. Nova Scotia has Canada's only tidal power plant. Most of the installed renewable energy power capacity in Canada is owned by integrated electric utilities and a small percentage is owned by renewable electricity generating companies, aluminium companies, pulp and paper companies or diversified electricity generators. It is expected that interest in renewable energy will grow with

  7. Disparities in the burden of HIV/AIDS in Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert S Hogg

    Full Text Available We aimed to characterize changes in patterns of new HIV diagnoses, HIV-related mortality, and HAART use in Canada from 1995 to 2008.Data on new HIV diagnoses were obtained from Health Canada, HIV-related mortality statistics were obtained from Statistics Canada, and information on the number of people on HAART was obtained from the single antiretroviral distribution site in British Columbia (BC, and the Intercontinental Marketing Services Health for Ontario and Quebec. Trends of new HIV-positive tests were assessed using Spearman rank correlations and the association between the number of individuals on HAART and new HIV diagnoses were estimated using generalized estimating equations (GEE.A total of 34,502 new HIV diagnoses were observed. Rates of death in BC are higher than those in Ontario and Quebec with the rate being 2.03 versus 1.06 and 1.21 per 100,000 population, respectively. The number of HIV infected individuals on HAART increased from 5,091 in 1996 to 20,481 in 2008 in the three provinces (4 fold increase. BC was the only province with a statistically significant decrease (trend test p<0.0001 in the rate of new HIV diagnoses from 18.05 to 7.94 new diagnoses per 100,000 population. Our analysis showed that for each 10% increment in HAART coverage the rate of new HIV diagnoses decreased by 8% (95% CI: 2.4%, 13.3%Except for British Columbia, the number of new HIV diagnoses per year has remained relatively stable across Canada over the study period. The decline in the rate of new HIV diagnoses per year may be in part attributed to the greater expansion of HAART coverage in this province.

  8. Integration of potential field and seismic data for hydrocarbon exploration in the Miguasha area, Appalachian Gaspe belt, Quebec

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    St-Laurent, C.; Adam, E. [Hydro-Quebec, Ste-Foy, PQ (Canada). Petrole et Gaz

    2005-07-01

    In 2003, Hydro-Quebec acquired about 100 km of seismic data and 2,300 km{sup 2} of aeromagnetic data to begin exploration for oil and gas in the Miguasha area of the southwestern part of the Gaspe Peninsula. A discrepancy exists within the prospective area between the observed orientation of formational contacts in outcrop and moderately-dipping reflectors observed on seismic surveys. According to magnetic data, there is only 1 weakly-magnetic zone that is composed of felsic to intermediate volcanic rocks. A 3-D inversion of the total magnetic field was undertaken to obtain the subsurface distribution of magnetic rocks before drilling 2 exploratory wells in 2004. The inversion results were validated by performing 2.5-D modelling along selected traverses and through correlation with depth-converted seismic sections. The 3-D magnetic inversion is a cost-effective method of obtaining a 3-D subsurface image of this weakly-magnetic volcanic zone. Valuable information regarding the depth of the magnetic zone was obtained by combining magnetic inversion results with the seismic data. This study revealed the effectiveness of this approach in discriminating sediments with potential hydrocarbon reservoirs from non-prospective, magnetic volcanic rocks.

  9. Canada as a continental supplier of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winser, N.

    2002-01-01

    The US federal objectives for a national energy grid are presented. The objectives include an effective, large liquid market with a dramatic improvement in transmission capability and economics. Other objectives include market confidence and excellent reliability and safety. This Power Point presentation describes the management of super regional transmission organizations (RTOs), and large international transmission companies (ITCs) with reference to the benefits of fully functioning ITCs. A graph depicting UK congestion costs reveals that since April 1994, customers have saved at least $700 million and shareholders have gained at least $150 million. UK controllable operating costs have halved, with a 37 per cent real reduction in transmission costs to customers. Canada is a major exporter of electricity to the United States with most of the exports going to the Northeast USA. A graph depicting Canadian versus US electricity volumes indicates that net exports have declined since 2000. Total next export in 2001 was C$2.4 bn. In 2000 it was C$3.4 bn. The Canada-Northeast USA interface capability was also presented for New Brunswick, Ontario and Quebec with exports to Main, Vermont and New York. The constraints within US transmission is the fact that transmission networks limit power flows. The author also discusses regulatory developments in the United States, with reference to RTOs, standard market design, procedural standardization, and focus by the Northeast transmission owners on developing an ITC. 2 tabs., 4 figs

  10. Canada as a continental supplier of energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winser, N. [Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (United States)

    2002-07-01

    The US federal objectives for a national energy grid are presented. The objectives include an effective, large liquid market with a dramatic improvement in transmission capability and economics. Other objectives include market confidence and excellent reliability and safety. This Power Point presentation describes the management of super regional transmission organizations (RTOs), and large international transmission companies (ITCs) with reference to the benefits of fully functioning ITCs. A graph depicting UK congestion costs reveals that since April 1994, customers have saved at least $700 million and shareholders have gained at least $150 million. UK controllable operating costs have halved, with a 37 per cent real reduction in transmission costs to customers. Canada is a major exporter of electricity to the United States with most of the exports going to the Northeast USA. A graph depicting Canadian versus US electricity volumes indicates that net exports have declined since 2000. Total next export in 2001 was C$2.4 bn. In 2000 it was C$3.4 bn. The Canada-Northeast USA interface capability was also presented for New Brunswick, Ontario and Quebec with exports to Main, Vermont and New York. The constraints within US transmission is the fact that transmission networks limit power flows. The author also discusses regulatory developments in the United States, with reference to RTOs, standard market design, procedural standardization, and focus by the Northeast transmission owners on developing an ITC. 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  11. A Quebec survey of issues in cancer pain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Neil; Ayoub, Joseph; Farley, Justine; Foucault, Claudette; Lesage, Pauline; Mayo, Nancy

    2002-01-01

    We report the results of a cancer pain survey mailed to Quebec hematologist-oncologists and palliative care physicians in 1999. The survey was designed to sample views on the current status of pain management and on obstacles to the provision of adequate pain relief for patients. The survey, formulated by an ethics network centered at the Clinical Research Institute of Montreal, was distributed to all members of the Association of Hematologist-Oncologists of Quebec and to all physician members of the Quebec Palliative Care Association. Responses were obtained from 138 Palliative Care Association members (response rate 61%) and 76 hematologist-oncologists (response rate 45%). Major obstacles reported included inadequate assessment of both contributory psychosocial issues and severity of pain, patient reluctance to take opioids, and inadequate access to non-drug techniques for pain relief. Access to opioids was not regarded as a problem. Both groups felt generally competent in their ability to manage various aspects of cancer pain therapy. They gave little credit to their formal medical school or residency training. Fifty-six percent of the palliative care group and 57% of the hemato-oncologists rated their medical school experience as only "poor" or "fair" on a 4-point scale. Residency ratings were modestly better. We conclude that medical faculties should assign a high priority to teaching health professionals patient assessment techniques. Simple symptom assessment scales should be routinely used in oncology/palliative care practice. Medical school training in pain management is not highly regarded and should be enhanced. We also note that, based on response to the scenario of a patient presenting with severe pain, many physicians, while feeling competent in the use of opioids, may be overly conservative in their initial use.

  12. Hydro-Quebec 2004 annual report : growing strong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This report provides a consolidated review of the operations of Hydro-Quebec, with a focus on energy production, energy sales, and environmental commitment. Hydro-Quebec is a major producer, transmission provider and distributor of electricity, conducting research and promotional activities in energy and energy transformation and conservation. The Quebec government is its sole shareholder. The company is divided into six divisions and now competes freely with other power producers, while its transmission and distribution remain regulated. Sales totalled $10.7 billion, up 1.8 per cent over 2003. Net income rose to $2.4 billion, up $497 million over 2003, the increase being largely due to lower financial expenses and the disposal of interests in Noverco. Dividends declared amounted to $1.3 billion, or 55 per cent of net income. Cash from operations totaled $4.0 billion, Sources of revenue also included the sale of interests in Noverco, and investment in Meiya Power Company, with the consequent repayment of nearly $1 billion in debt. Major projects of 2004 included the start of operations at the Rocher-de-Grand-Mere generating station as well as work proceeding on Eastmain-1, Peribonka, Toulnustouc and Mercier. Other projects included a partnership with the Crees of Eeyou and the filing of the Energy Efficiency Plan 2005-2010. This annual report presented the company's financial performance, executive changes and reorganization. Financial statements included a review and analysis of financial transactions, the auditor's report as well as customary notes to the consolidated financial statement including balance sheets, assets, liabilities and capital. tabs., figs

  13. Origine Historique de la Situation Linguistique Quebecoise (Historical Origins of the Language Situation in Quebec)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbeil, Jean Claude

    1976-01-01

    The language situation in Quebec is discussed from the point of view of the influence of the British conquest, the history of education in the province, the make-up of the working class, and the position of Quebec in the North American continent. (Text is in French.) (CDSH/CLK)

  14. Impacts of and adaptation to GHG climate change on the ski and golf recreational activities and the tourism industry : a case study in Quebec

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, B.; Bryant, C.; Andre, P.; Thouez, J.P.; Savoie, M.; Tapes, V.; Granjon, D.; Pecheux, I.; Davey, N. [Montreal Univ., PQ (Canada). Dept. of Geography

    2006-03-31

    The ski and golf industries in southern Quebec are 2 major sectors of the province's tourism industry and both are sensitive to climate change. The impacts that are attributable to future climate change can significantly affect the profitability and viability of these recreational activities in southern Quebec. This paper presented the results of detailed studies conducted in regions around Montreal, Quebec City and the Eastern Townships in which the diagnostic outputs of 2 coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (GCM) were used to analyze the impact of climate change on the ski and golf industries. The models were used for 3 time periods: a control period from 1961 to 1990; a short term future period from 2010 to 2039; and a long-term future period from 2040-2069. The climate variables chosen for the impacts and adaptation studies included maximum and minimum air temperature, precipitation, atmospheric humidity and wind speeds. Environment Canada provided the data for the control period, and the gaps for missing data were filled by regression analyses between neighbouring stations. The outputs of the 2 GCMs were used to determine the changes in the selected climate variables for the 2 future time periods. Irrigation requirements for the golfing season were calculated for each of the stations within the study area for the 3 time periods. The study showed that future climate change and variability will have significant impacts on these 2 key sectors in southern Quebec. The important changes in variety of key climate variables and parameters, mainly temperature and precipitation, will cause negative impacts, more so for the ski industry as opposed to the golf sector. There will be a significant reduction in the length of the ski season in the future, and snow-making may be the only possibility for some of the 84 ski centers in southern Quebec to continue to operate. However, less intense cold may favour the number of skiable days for certain centres

  15. Development of Quebec's energy in a sustainable development context : summary; Le developpement energetique du Quebec dans un contexte de developpement durable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaillancourt, K.; Lemieux, D.; Lambert, N.; Lachance, J.G. [Eco Ressources Consultants, Montreal, PQ (Canada); Bourque, F.; Benoit, P.A. [Reseau des ingenieurs du Quebec, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2009-04-30

    As a net energy importer, issues of energy security are becoming increasingly important in Quebec. Since Quebec's energy policy is largely based on the development of hydropower, its energy development has already been consistent with sustainable development. Industry remains the largest energy consumer in Quebec, followed by the transportation sector, and the residential, commercial and agricultural sectors. Total energy consumption in the province is expected to increase by 1.2 per cent annually between 2001-2016. Although competitive electricity prices in Quebec have contributed to strengthening the provincial economy, it has been argued that the low price of electricity does not promote energy efficiency nor the development of alternative energy sources. Quebec imports all of its crude oil and natural gas. Energy production in the province is currently confined to electricity generation and refining of petroleum products at 3 main refineries. In 2005, the installed electrical capacity was 92.2 per cent hydropower, 5.3 per cent thermal power, 1.5 per cent nuclear power, and 0.9 per cent wind power. The vast majority of this installed capacity (78 per cent) is owned by Hydro-Quebec. Wind capacity is expected to reach 3,500 MW by 2017, representing about 8 per cent of Quebec's total electrical capacity. Guidelines have been identified in Quebec's energy strategy for 2006-2015 to promote energy efficiency and innovation of new energy technologies covering all markets and all forms of energy, including geothermal energy, solar energy and ethanol produced from forest residues, agricultural wastes and municipal wastes. The government's overall goal is to generate both energy savings and a reduction in annual greenhouse gas emissions.

  16. Analysis of the Hydro-Quebec development plan 1992-2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, J.-T.; Genest-Laplante, E.

    1994-01-01

    In November 1992, the Quebec provincial utility Hydro-Quebec presented its development plan for the 1992-2010 period and shortly thereafter introduced its 1993-1995 energy efficiency commitments. The plan is analyzed using a model that incorporates the main institutional features of electricity price setting. Two scenarios are constructed. The first incorporates Hydro-Quebec's electricity demand forecast and the second allows electricity demand to respond to its price. A comparative analysis shows that electricity demand in the province should increase faster than forecast by Hydro-Quebec until 2010. In fact, demand could exceed the predicted level by ca 16 TWh, or 8.6%. This larger increase is due to a fall in the real price of electricity, itself caused by a government imposed fall in the real unit cost of the utility's operation. This last constraint is the real challenge faced by Hydro-Quebec. 12 refs., 7 tabs

  17. CNS members promoting nuclear energy in public debate - an example from Quebec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franta, J.; Sabourin, G.; Saint-Denis, M.

    2006-01-01

    For approximately two years, several members of the Quebec branch of the Canadian Nuclear Society have publicly expressed their views in favour of nuclear energy in Quebec. This paper summarizes their participation in the BAPE public hearings on the environment ('Bureau d'Audience Publique sur l'Environnement'), in the hearings of a Quebec Parliamentary Commission on economy and labour, and in the United Nations Conference on Climate Change in December 2005 in Montreal. The focus is mainly on a debate around the possible refurbishment of the Gentilly-2 nuclear power plant, the only operating nuclear plant in Quebec. Antinuclear groups are well organized and their message is transmitted loudly to the public by the mainstream media. Industry professionals must therefore express themselves publicly to counterbalance this biased message. In conclusion, we see a need for the formation of a coalition of all who support nuclear power in Quebec to support the refurbishment of Gentilly-2. (author)

  18. CNS members promoting nuclear energy in public debate - an example from Quebec

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franta, J.; Sabourin, G.; Saint-Denis, M. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    For approximately two years, several members of the Quebec branch of the Canadian Nuclear Society have publicly expressed their views in favour of nuclear energy in Quebec. This paper summarizes their participation in the BAPE public hearings on the environment ('Bureau d'Audience Publique sur l'Environnement'), in the hearings of a Quebec Parliamentary Commission on economy and labour, and in the United Nations Conference on Climate Change in December 2005 in Montreal. The focus is mainly on a debate around the possible refurbishment of the Gentilly-2 nuclear power plant, the only operating nuclear plant in Quebec. Antinuclear groups are well organized and their message is transmitted loudly to the public by the mainstream media. Industry professionals must therefore express themselves publicly to counterbalance this biased message. In conclusion, we see a need for the formation of a coalition of all who support nuclear power in Quebec to support the refurbishment of Gentilly-2. (author)

  19. Southwestern Power Administration Annual Report 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-09-01

    Dear Secretary Moniz: I am pleased to present the financial statements and operating data for Southwestern Power Administration (Southwestern) for Fiscal Year (FY) 2012. In FY 2012, Southwestern delivered over 4.1 billion kilowatt-hours of energy to its wholesale customers in Arkansas, Kansas, Louisiana, Missouri, Oklahoma, and Texas, generating $195 million in revenue. In fulfilling its mission to market and reliably deliver renewable Federal hydroelectric power, Southwestern maintains 1,380 miles of high-voltage transmission lines, substations, and communications sites, contributing to the reliability of the regional and National electric grid. Southwestern also actively partners with the Department of Energy, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Southwestern’s customers, and other Federal power stakeholders to most effectively balance their diverse interests with Southwestern’s mission while continuing to maximize Federal assets to repay the Federal investment in the 24 hydropower facilities within Southwestern’s marketing region. Southwestern is proud of its past successes, and we look forward to continuing to serve the Nation’s energy needs in the future. Sincerely, Christopher M. Turner Administrator

  20. Southwestern Power Administration Annual Report 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-09-01

    Dear Secretary Chu: I am pleased to present the financial statements and operating data for Southwestern Power Administration (Southwestern) for Fiscal Year (FY) 2010. In FY 2010, Southwestern delivered nearly 7.6 billion kilowatt-hours of energy to its wholesale customers in Arkansas, Kansas, Louisiana, Missouri, Texas, and Oklahoma, generating $189 million in revenue. In fulfilling its mission to market and reliably deliver renewable Federal hydroelectric power, Southwestern maintains 1,380 miles of high-voltage transmission lines, substations, and communications sites, contributing to the reliability of the regional and National electric grid. Southwestern also actively partners with the Department of Energy, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Southwestern’s customers, and other Federal power stakeholders to most effectively balance their diverse interests with Southwestern’s mission while continuing to maximize Federal assets to repay the Federal investment in the 24 hydropower facilities within Southwestern’s marketing region. Southwestern is proud of its past successes, and we look forward to continuing to serve the Nation’s energy needs in the future. Sincerely, Christopher M. Turner Administrator

  1. Southwestern Power Administration Annual Report 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-04-01

    Dear Secretary Chu: I am pleased to present the financial statements and operating data for Southwestern Power Administration (Southwestern) for Fiscal Year (FY) 2011. In FY 2011, Southwestern delivered over 4.1 billion kilowatt-hours of energy to its wholesale customers in Arkansas, Kansas, Louisiana, Missouri, Oklahoma, and Texas, generating $167 million in revenue. In fulfilling its mission to market and reliably deliver renewable Federal hydroelectric power, Southwestern maintains 1,380 miles of high-voltage transmission lines, substations, and communications sites, contributing to the reliability of the regional and National electric grid. Southwestern also actively partners with the Department of Energy, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Southwestern’s customers, and other Federal power stakeholders to most effectively balance their diverse interests with Southwestern’s mission while continuing to maximize Federal assets to repay the Federal investment in the 24 hydropower facilities within Southwestern’s marketing region. Southwestern is proud of its past successes, and we look forward to continuing to serve the Nation’s energy needs in the future. Sincerely, Christopher M. Turner Administrator

  2. ASA24-Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Canadian adaptation of the Automated Self-Administered 24-hour Dietary Assessment Tool (ASA24-Canada), developed by the Food Directorate at Health Canada in collaboration with NCI, has been freely available since April 2014.

  3. Economic evaluation of vaccines in Canada: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chit, Ayman; Lee, Jason K H; Shim, Minsup; Nguyen, Van Hai; Grootendorst, Paul; Wu, Jianhong; Van Exan, Robert; Langley, Joanne M

    2016-05-03

    Economic evaluations should form part of the basis for public health decision making on new vaccine programs. While Canada's national immunization advisory committee does not systematically include economic evaluations in immunization decision making, there is increasing interest in adopting them. We therefore sought to examine the extent and quality of economic evaluations of vaccines in Canada. We conducted a systematic review of economic evaluations of vaccines in Canada to determine and summarize: comprehensiveness across jurisdictions, studied vaccines, funding sources, study designs, research quality, and changes over time. Searches in multiple databases were conducted using the terms "vaccine," "economics" and "Canada." Descriptive data from eligible manuscripts was abstracted and three authors independently evaluated manuscript quality using a 7-point Likert-type scale scoring tool based on criteria from the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). 42/175 articles met the search criteria. Of these, Canada-wide studies were most common (25/42), while provincial studies largely focused on the three populous provinces of Ontario, Quebec and British Columbia. The most common funding source was industry (17/42), followed by government (7/42). 38 studies used mathematical models estimating expected economic benefit while 4 studies examined post-hoc data on established programs. Studies covered 10 diseases, with 28/42 addressing pediatric vaccines. Many studies considered cost-utility (22/42) and the majority of these studies reported favorable economic results (16/22). The mean quality score was 5.9/7 and was consistent over publication date, funding sources, and disease areas. We observed diverse approaches to evaluate vaccine economics in Canada. Given the increased complexity of economic studies evaluating vaccines and the impact of results on public health practice, Canada needs improved, transparent and consistent processes

  4. Progress in electronic medical record adoption in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    To determine the rate of adoption of electronic medical records (EMRs) by physicians across Canada, provincial incentives, and perceived benefits of and barriers to EMR adoption. Data on EMR adoption in Canada were collected from CINAHL, MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, the Health Council of Canada, Canada Health Infoway, government websites, regional EMR associations, and health professional association websites. After removal of duplicate articles, 236 documents were found matching the original search. After using the filter Canada, 12 documents remained. Additional documents were obtained from each province's EMR website and from the Canada Health Infoway website. Since 2006, Canadian EMR adoption rates have increased from about 20% of practitioners to an estimated 62% of practitioners in 2013, with substantial regional disparities ranging from roughly 40% of physicians in New Brunswick and Quebec to more than 75% of physicians in Alberta. Provincial incentives vary widely but appear to have only a weak relationship with the rate of adoption. Many adopters use only a fraction of their software's available functions. User-cited benefits to adoption include time savings, improved record keeping, heightened patient safety, and confidence in retrieved data when EMRs are used efficiently. Barriers to adoption include financial and time constraints, lack of knowledgeable support personnel, and lack of interoperability with hospital and pharmacy systems. Canadian physicians remain at the stage of EMR adoption. Progression in EMR use requires experienced, knowledgeable technical support during implementation, and financial support for the transcription of patient data from paper to electronic media. The interoperability of EMR offerings for hospitals, pharmacies, and clinics is the rate-limiting factor in achieving a unified EMR solution for Canada.

  5. Rate proposal for 1993 and 1994 [Hydro-Quebec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    In its development plan, Hydro-Quebec has the goal of aligning its average rate increases with the inflation rate over the period 1993-2000. The near- and long-term evolution of rates must also follow the evolution of the costs of supply and assure the financial stability of the utility. The average annual increase target prices for 1993-95 is 3.5%. In 1993, the increase in supply cost is attributable to startup of service from the LaGrande 2-A and Becancour stations, as well as to energy efficiency programs and improvements in quality of service. In 1994-95, supply cost increases are related mainly to the second phase of the LaGrande complex. The present rate proposal is for two years and assures that rates will not increase beyond the projected rates of inflation of 2.3% for 1993 and 2.7% for 1994. Hydro-Quebec also has a long-term objective of gradually reducing cross-subsidization that exists among different tariff categories. A slight differentiation of rate increases in the various categories is proposed to reduce this cross-subsidization. The proposed rate increases are expected to bring additional revenues of $152 million for 1993/94 and $186 million for 1994/95. 3 figs., 35 tabs

  6. Fusion Canada issue 21

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-08-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue Europe proposes Canada`s participation in ITER, tritium for JET, CCFM/TdeV-Tokamak helium pumping and TdeV update, ITER-related R and D at CFFTP, ITER Deputy Director visits Canada, NFP Director to Chair IFRC, Award for Akira Hirose. 3 figs.

  7. Cross-cultural perspectives on decision making regarding noninvasive prenatal testing: A comparative study of Lebanon and Quebec.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidar, Hazar; Vanstone, Meredith; Laberge, Anne-Marie; Bibeau, Gilles; Ghulmiyyah, Labib; Ravitsky, Vardit

    2018-01-01

    Noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT), based on the detection of cell-free fetal DNA in maternal blood, has transformed the landscape of prenatal care by offering clinical benefits (noninvasive, high specificity and sensitivity, early detection of abnormalities) compared to existing prenatal screening tests. NIPT has expanded rapidly and is currently commercially available in most of the world. As NIPT spreads globally, culturally sensitive and ethically sound implementation will require policies that take into consideration the social and cultural context of prenatal testing decisions. In a Western context, the main ethical argument for providing access and public funding of prenatal tests is the promotion of reproductive autonomy (also referred to as "procreative liberty" and "reproductive freedom"), by enabling pregnant women and couples to access information about the fetus in order to choose a certain course of action for pregnancy management (continuation of pregnancy and preparation for birth or termination). So how is the framework of reproductive autonomy operationalized in non-Western cultural contexts? We used Quebec, Canada, and Beirut, Lebanon, for case studies to explore what ethical considerations related to reproductive autonomy should guide the implementation of the test in various cultural contexts. To answer this question, we conducted a qualitative study to (1) explore the perceptions, values, and preferences of pregnant women and their partners about NIPT and (2) examine how these values and perceptions influence reproductive autonomy and decision making in relation to NIPT in these two different cultural settings, Lebanon and Quebec. Our findings may guide health care professionals in providing counseling and in helping women and their partners make better informed prenatal testing decisions. Further, at a policy level, such understanding might inform the development of local guidelines and policies that are appropriate to each context.

  8. Disclosure experience in a convenience sample of Quebec-born women living with HIV: a phenomenological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouleau, Geneviève; Côté, José; Cara, Chantal

    2012-10-18

    In Canada, there has been a considerable increase in the number of women infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Within a stigmatized social context, disclosure of HIV positivity is still a prevailing concern among women. Little is known about the global understanding of how French-speaking, Quebec-born women living with HIV, live their serostatus disclosure experience. The aim of this qualitative study is to describe and understand the disclosure experience of these women. We conducted semi-structured interviews with seven women. A convenience sample of French-speaking, Quebec-born women was chosen because they all responded to the criteria of wishing to share their disclosure experience. The mean age of the participants was 46 years old (SD±12). They lived with HIV for an average of 10 years; time since diagnosis varied from 8 months to 23 years. Two out of four mothers had given birth to HIV positive children. Data analysis proposed by van Manen was performed to discover the essential themes of the experience. Seven themes were identified to understand the experience of disclosure in women: 1) Respecting for self and confidants; 2) Feeling apprehension; 3) Exercising control to ensure protection; 4) Deliberately engaging in a process of disclosure/non-disclosure; 5) Exposing oneself to stigma and social exclusion; 6) Suffering internally; and 7) Benefitting from the positive effects of one's decision. For these women, disclosing their HIV status meant: Living the ambivalence of a paradoxical process of revealing/concealing, in a state of profound suffering, exacerbated by stigma, while also being enriched by the benefits attained. Understanding the experience of disclosure in WLHIV is important to guide actions in the practice to support and accompany these women in their unique reality. Health professionals have to broaden their role and work on individual, interpersonal, inter-organizational and intersectoral levels. Mobilization of actors from

  9. Disclosure experience in a convenience sample of quebec-born women living with HIV: a phenomenological study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background In Canada, there has been a considerable increase in the number of women infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Within a stigmatized social context, disclosure of HIV positivity is still a prevailing concern among women. Little is known about the global understanding of how French-speaking, Quebec-born women living with HIV, live their serostatus disclosure experience. The aim of this qualitative study is to describe and understand the disclosure experience of these women. Methods We conducted semi-structured interviews with seven women. A convenience sample of French-speaking, Quebec-born women was chosen because they all responded to the criteria of wishing to share their disclosure experience. The mean age of the participants was 46 years old (SD±12). They lived with HIV for an average of 10 years; time since diagnosis varied from 8 months to 23 years. Two out of four mothers had given birth to HIV positive children. Data analysis proposed by van Manen was performed to discover the essential themes of the experience. Results Seven themes were identified to understand the experience of disclosure in women: 1) Respecting for self and confidants; 2) Feeling apprehension; 3) Exercising control to ensure protection; 4) Deliberately engaging in a process of disclosure/non-disclosure; 5) Exposing oneself to stigma and social exclusion; 6) Suffering internally; and 7) Benefitting from the positive effects of one’s decision. For these women, disclosing their HIV status meant: Living the ambivalence of a paradoxical process of revealing/concealing, in a state of profound suffering, exacerbated by stigma, while also being enriched by the benefits attained. Conclusions Understanding the experience of disclosure in WLHIV is important to guide actions in the practice to support and accompany these women in their unique reality. Health professionals have to broaden their role and work on individual, interpersonal, inter-organizational and

  10. The Challenges of a Complex and Innovative Telehealth Project: A Qualitative Evaluation of the Eastern Quebec Telepathology Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alami, Hassane; Fortin, Jean-Paul; Gagnon, Marie-Pierre; Pollender, Hugo; Têtu, Bernard; Tanguay, France

    2017-09-13

    The Eastern Quebec Telepathology Network (EQTN) has been implemented in the province of Quebec (Canada) to support pathology and surgery practices in hospitals that are lack of pathologists, especially in rural and remote areas. This network includes 22 hospitals and serves a population of 1.7 million inhabitants spread over a vast territory. An evaluation of this network was conducted in order to identify and analyze the factors and issues associated with its implementation and deployment, as well as those related to its sustainability and expansion. Qualitative evaluative research based on a case study using: (1) historical analysis of the project documentation (newsletters, minutes of meetings, articles, ministerial documents, etc); (2) participation in meetings of the committee in charge of telehealth programs and the project; and (3) interviews, focus groups, and discussions with different stakeholders, including decision-makers, clinical and administrative project managers, clinicians (pathologists and surgeons), and technologists. Data from all these sources were cross-checked and synthesized through an integrative and interpretative process. The evaluation revealed numerous socio-political, regulatory, organizational, governance, clinical, professional, economic, legal and technological challenges related to the emergence and implementation of the project. In addition to technical considerations, the development of this network was associated with major changes and transformations of production procedures, delivery and organization of services, clinical practices, working methods, and clinicaladministrative processes and cultures (professional/organizational). The EQTN reflects the complex, structuring, and innovative projects that organizations and health systems are required to implement today. Future works should be more sensitive to the complexity associated with the emergence of telehealth networks and no longer reduce them to technological

  11. Migration stopover ecology of western avian populations: A southwestern migration workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skagen, Susan K.; Melcher, Cynthia P.; Hazelwood, Rob

    2004-01-01

    The importance of migration stopover sites in ensuring that migratory birds successfully accomplish their journeys between breeding and non-breeding ranges has come to the forefront of avian research. Migratory birds that breed in western United States (US) and Canada and overwinter primarily in western Mexico migrate across the arid region of northern Mexico and southwestern US. Many of these migrants use lowland riparian stopover habitats, which comprise less than 0.1% of the western U.S. landscape. These habitats represent a significant conservation priority.

  12. Cooperative strategies for forest science management and leadership in an increasingly complex and globalized world: Proceedings of a workshop; 23- 26 August 1998; Quebec City, Quebec, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane G. Eskew; David R. DeYoe; Denver P. Burns; Jean-Claude Mercier

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this workshop was to develop organizational networks to help achieve best practices in management and leadership of forest research and foster continuous learning toward that goal through organizational benchmarking. The papers and notes herein document the presentations and discussions of the workshop.

  13. Psychological stress in hydro workers of the 1998 ice storm : a longitudinal investigation (Quebec)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benzimra, Y.

    2003-07-01

    This thesis examined occupational stress in terms of the stressful transactions that take place between workers and their workplace. In particular, it documented some of the experiences of hydro workers during the ice storm of 1998 which hit eastern Canada. In addition to identifying stressors, this study assessed the worker's levels of psychological stress and distress 5 and 10 months following the storm. It also examined differences in psychological stress and distress levels between workers with different levels of exposure to the storm. The added contribution of appraised extra-organization stressors to the prediction of psychological stress was also assessed along with the added contribution of extra-organizational sources of support to the prediction of psychological stress. The objective was to test an integrative model of workplace stress and overall distress to better understand the relationship between psychological stress and distress levels over time. Two phases of data, 5 months apart, were collected from full-time employees of Hydro-Quebec, including both men and women who filled out questionnaires about perceived social support and other indicators of overall stress. The results revealed different experiences of the recovery effort workers during and after the ice storm. The experiences of different groups of workers varied depending on the type and degree of involvement in the recovery efforts from the storm. The results emphasized the importance of considering appraised organization stressors when predicting psychological stress. The study revealed that psychological stress 5 months following the ice storm did not add significantly to the prediction of psychological distress 5 months later, once the contribution of psychological distress at the first phase was accounted for.

  14. Speech Recognition for Medical Dictation: Overview in Quebec and Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poder, Thomas G; Fisette, Jean-François; Déry, Véronique

    2018-04-03

    Speech recognition is increasingly used in medical reporting. The aim of this article is to identify in the literature the strengths and weaknesses of this technology, as well as barriers to and facilitators of its implementation. A systematic review of systematic reviews was performed using PubMed, Scopus, the Cochrane Library and the Center for Reviews and Dissemination through August 2017. The gray literature has also been consulted. The quality of systematic reviews has been assessed with the AMSTAR checklist. The main inclusion criterion was use of speech recognition for medical reporting (front-end or back-end). A survey has also been conducted in Quebec, Canada, to identify the dissemination of this technology in this province, as well as the factors leading to the success or failure of its implementation. Five systematic reviews were identified. These reviews indicated a high level of heterogeneity across studies. The quality of the studies reported was generally poor. Speech recognition is not as accurate as human transcription, but it can dramatically reduce turnaround times for reporting. In front-end use, medical doctors need to spend more time on dictation and correction than required with human transcription. With speech recognition, major errors occur up to three times more frequently. In back-end use, a potential increase in productivity of transcriptionists was noted. In conclusion, speech recognition offers several advantages for medical reporting. However, these advantages are countered by an increased burden on medical doctors and by risks of additional errors in medical reports. It is also hard to identify for which medical specialties and which clinical activities the use of speech recognition will be the most beneficial.

  15. Strategies for the development of Quebec's petrochemical industry: education and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connor, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    One of the key challenges not only for the Quebec but for the Canadian petrochemical industry will be the challenge to increase the number of students pursuing science or engineering as fields of study. According to this author, there is a crisis in science and technology education in Canada. The ability of Canadian students to compete with their peers around the world is steadily diminishing as a result of the undue emphasis on student attitudes and self-esteem in Canadian schools, as opposed to European and Asian schools which focus on conveying specific skills. He advocates a shift in attitude away from simply more money spent on education towards concern with what and how well students are learning. It was suggested that the educational system must take into account the demands of the market place in fashioning the curricula. If students are to function in the real world where performance is evaluated, the educational system will have to change to reflect the fact that the market and society reward people in proportion to their contribution. The relationship between environmental concern and education was also explored, and the inclusion of environmental issues in the classroom curriculum was recommended. As a topic for curricula, the environment is subject to broad-ranging and often conflicting views regarding its problems and their causes, effects and remedies. Nevertheless, it is not a transient issue to be dismissed as a fad. Rather, it is an issue here to stay, hence it should play a more formalized role at all levels of the curriculum from primary schools to colleges and universities

  16. Inuit women's attitudes and experiences towards cervical cancer and prevention strategies in Nunavik, Quebec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Cerigo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To describe the attitudes about and experiences with cervical cancer, Pap smear screenings and the HPV vaccine among a sample of Inuit women from Nunavik, Quebec, Canada. We also evaluated demographic and social predictors of maternal interest in HPV vaccination. Study design: A mixed method design was used with a cross-sectional survey and focus group interviews. Methods: Women were recruited through convenience sampling at 2 recruitment sites in Nunavik from March 2008 to June 2009. Differences in women's responses by age, education, and marital status were assessed. Unconditional logistic regression was used to determine predictors of women's interest in HPV vaccination for their children. Results: Questionnaires were completed by 175 women aged 18–63, and of these women a total of 6 women aged 31–55 participated in 2 focus groups. Almost half the survey participants had heard of cervical cancer. Women often reported feelings of embarrassment and pain during the Pap smear and older women were more likely to feel embarrassed than younger women. Only 27% of women had heard of the HPV vaccine, and 72% of these women were interested in vaccinating their child for HPV. No statistically significant predictors of maternal interest in HPV vaccination were found. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that health service planners and providers in Nunavik should be aware of potential barriers to Pap smear attendance, especially in the older age groups. Given the low awareness of cervical cancer, the Pap smear and the HPV vaccine, education on cervical cancer and prevention strategies may be beneficial.

  17. Canadian federalism and the Canadian health care program: a comparison of Ontario and Quebec.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palley, H A

    1987-01-01

    The Quebec and Ontario health insurance and health service delivery systems, developed within the parameters of federal regulations and national financial subsidies, provide generally universal and comprehensive basic hospital and medical benefits and increasingly provide for the delivery of long-term care services. Within a framework of cooperative federalism, the health care systems of Ontario and Quebec have developed uniquely. In terms of vital statistics, the health of Ontario and Quebec residents generally is comparable. In viewing expenditures, Quebec has a more clearly articulated plan for providing accessible services to low-income persons and for integrating health and social services, although it has faced some difficulties in seeking to achieve the latter goal. Its plans for decentralized services are counter-balanced by a strong provincial role in health policy decision-making. Quebec's political culture also allows the province to play a stronger role in hospital planning and in the regulation of physician income than one finds in Ontario. These political dynamics allow Quebec an advantage in control of costs. In Ontario, in spite of some recent setbacks, physician interests and hospital sector interests play a more active role in health system bargaining and are usually able to influence remuneration and resource allocation decisions more than physician interests and hospital sector interests in Quebec.

  18. Quebec petroleum regulations to be amended this spring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubois, Y.A.; Meighen, M.

    1996-01-01

    Amendments proposed by the Government of Quebec with respect to petroleum products regulations were described. The amending regulation provides a list of works which will no longer require ministerial authorization such as the removal of petroleum equipment, the installation of spill prevention systems, electrical works and repair of fueling areas, loading and unloading zones. An owner will not be required to remove an unused underground petroleum storage tank if it can be shown that it is impervious according to prescribed pressure tests, and that the period during which the equipment has been unused does not exceed five years. The draft regulations also provide precautionary measures that have to be taken prior to abandoning a tank

  19. Hydro-Quebec's survey on outage cost in industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naggar, R.

    1990-01-01

    In 1989 Hydro-Quebec completed a survey on the cost of power interruptions to its industrial customers. A total of 11,000 firms formed the base of the survey, which was reduced to 1,647 for analysis purposes. The questionnaire was designed around the concept of representation of knowledge. The costs of various situations were inferred for every enterprise on the basis of knowledge obtained through the surveys. The results of the survey describe the variation in costs of interruption as a function of time of occurrence, duration and advance notice. These costs are expressed in terms of a reference case by the equivalent hourly cost. The magnitude of the cost of the reference interruption is designated the reference cost of undelivered energy. This paper describes the methodology of the survey but does not include survey results. 4 refs., 2 tabs

  20. Teaching smoking cessation to future nurses: Quebec educators' beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepage, Mario; Dumas, Louise; Saint-Pierre, Chantal

    2015-03-01

    Smoking cessation strategies are barely discussed in nursing education programs, even though initial education shapes how future professionals practice their profession. The aim of this research is to describe the practices, attitudes, and beliefs of nursing educators of Quebec with regard to smoking cessation strategies in initial nursing education. A descriptive design was chosen along with an online questionnaire. A total of 278 educators (20.8%) participated in the survey. Although educators recognize the importance of incorporating smoking cessation strategies into their teaching practice, they allocate an average of only one hour per year to the topic. Tobacco use is addressed mostly in terms of risk factors, with little focus on how to help patients quit. The perceived obstacles are related to false beliefs and a lack of knowledge. The results of this study demonstrate the need to raise educators' awareness of the importance of incorporating smoking cessation strategies into classroom teaching. © The Author(s) 2013.

  1. Trichinella Surveillance in Black Bears ( Ursus americanus ) from the Dehcho Region, Northwest Territories, Canada, 2002-15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larter, Nicholas C; Elkin, Brett T; Forbes, Lorry B; Wagner, Brent; Allaire, Danny G

    2017-04-01

    We used muscle digestion to test black bears ( Ursus americanus ) from the southwestern Northwest Territories, Canada, for Trichinella. Results showed a prevalence of 4.1%. Some bears had infection intensities of more than one larva per gram of muscle tissue; this level in meat is considered to pose a human consumption safety risk.

  2. Casuses of deforestation in southwestern Madagascar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casse, Thorkil; Milhøj, Anders; Ranaivoson, Socrate

    2004-01-01

    Causes of deforestation are discussed in the case of southwestern Madagascar. Distinction is made between direct and indirect causes. The article ends up with an estimation of the value of agricultural land vs. an estimation of benefits from utilisation of non-timber forest products......Causes of deforestation are discussed in the case of southwestern Madagascar. Distinction is made between direct and indirect causes. The article ends up with an estimation of the value of agricultural land vs. an estimation of benefits from utilisation of non-timber forest products...

  3. A dynamic model for organic waste management in Quebec (D-MOWIQ) as a tool to review environmental, societal and economic perspectives of a waste management policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hénault-Ethier, Louise; Martin, Jean-Philippe; Housset, Johann

    2017-08-01

    A dynamic systems model of organic waste management for the province of Quebec, Canada, was built. Six distinct modules taking into account social, economical and environmental issues and perspectives were included. Five scenarios were designed and tested to identify the potential consequences of different governmental and demographic combinations of decisions over time. Among these scenarios, one examines Quebec's organic waste management policy (2011-2015), while the other scenarios represent business as usual or emphasize ecology, economy or social benefits in the decision-making process. Model outputs suggest that the current governmental policy should yield favorable environmental benefits, energy production and waste valorization. The projections stemming from the current policy action plan approach the benefits gained by another scenario emphasizing the environmental aspects in the decision-making process. As expected, without the current policy and action plan in place, or business as usual, little improvements are expected in waste management compared to current trends, and strictly emphasizing economic imperatives does not favor sustainable organic waste management. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Balancing work and family in the low-wage service sector: the role of legislated and collectively-bargained norms in Quebec.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Stéphanie

    2011-01-01

    This paper looks at the role of legislated norms of general application in shaping "family-friendly" workplaces and their interaction with collectively-bargained standards in the retail service sector and more specifically, in a single unionized retail sector in Quebec, Canada. The methodology used is traditional legal research methodology: analysis of laws, collective agreements and case law. The principal norms examined concern parental and family leave, working time and disparities between different employment statuses. A series of legislative provisions have been adopted in Quebec over the last 30 years whose objectives are the improvement of family-related leave and the reduction of working time. Unions have also negotiated provisions in collective agreements with these same goals. In the low-wage retail sector studied, the working time standards negotiated between the unions and the employers reflect the characteristics of the sector, most notably extended opening hours, seven days a week. Predictability of hours also varies according to employment status. Such issues as family-unfriendly working time arrangements (last-minute scheduling, asocial hours, etc.) and the need for flexibility in family-related leave are insufficiently taken into account by the legislated and bargained provisions. A fine analysis and comprehension of existing formal regulation, be it legislated or collectively-bargained, is required to fully understand workers' experiences with work-family balance and to identify the gaps between formal norms and the needs expressed by workers with respect to work-family balance.

  5. Status, ecology, and conservation of the southwestern willow flycatcher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah M. Finch; Scott H. Stoleson

    2000-01-01

    This publication was prepared in response to a need expressed by southwestern agencies and organizations for a comprehensive assessment of the population status, history, biology, ecology, habitats, threats, and conservation of the southwestern willow flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus). The southwestern willow flycatcher was federally listed as...

  6. Canada's Fusion Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, D. P.

    1990-01-01

    Canada's fusion strategy is based on developing specialized technologies in well-defined areas and supplying these technologies to international fusion projects. Two areas are specially emphasized in Canada: engineered fusion system technologies, and specific magnetic confinement and materials studies. The Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Project focuses on the first of these areas. It tritium and fusion reactor fuel systems, remote maintenance and related safety studies. In the second area, the Centre Canadian de fusion magnetique operates the Tokamak de Varennes, the main magnetic fusion device in Canada. Both projects are partnerships linking the Government of Canada, represented by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, and provincial governments, electrical utilities, universities and industry. Canada's program has extensive international links, through which it collaborates with the major world fusion programs, including participation in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor project

  7. Fusion Canada issue 13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on Canada's plans to participate in the Engineering Design Activities (EDA), bilateral meetings with Canada and the U.S., committee meeting with Canada-Europe, an update at Tokamak de Varennes on Plasma Biasing experiments and boronized graphite tests, fusion materials research at the University of Toronto using a dual beam accelerator and a review of the CFFTP and the CCFM. 2 figs

  8. Lyme Disease: Knowledge and Practices of Family Practitioners in Southern Quebec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile Ferrouillet

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Public health authorities in Quebec have responded to the progressive emergence of Lyme disease (LD with surveillance activities and education for family physicians (FPs who are key actors in both vigilance and case management.

  9. Memoir of the energy sector in Quebec : context, issues and questionings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This document provides a progress report on the directions and means taken by Hydro-Quebec to achieve its goals and fulfill its mission established in its strategic plan according to three areas of activities: distribution, transport and production of electricity. The document examines the safety and effectiveness of renewable energy sources such as hydroelectricity and wind. It discusses projects that are currently under development, advantages of the hydroelectricity, how to maintain the reliability of the grid system; how to ensure the availability and capacity of networks, and risk management connected to hydraulics. It examines Hydro-Quebec's contribution to economic development and creation of value for shareholders including its investment plan, partners and leadership efforts, the beneficial effects of purchasing wind power, safeguarding the competitive position of electricity, growing Quebec's exports of electricity, and how hydroelectricity provides important sources of value creation for shareholders and Hydro-Quebec. 2 figs., tabs., 5 appendices

  10. Management of New Symptoms of Dyspepsia in the Elderly in Quebec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques LeLorier

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To use the Régie de l'assurance-maladie du Québec (RAMQ database to study the clinical strategies used by Quebec physicians in the management of dyspepsia in the elderly.

  11. [The capitalist development of regions and labor force mobility in Quebec, from 1966 to 1976].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giguere, A

    1987-04-01

    "In this paper the author presents a study of the spatial mobility of the Quebec population between 1966 and 1976, in the light of regional capitalist development. Based on an empirical operationalization of the concepts of mobility and development, the author demonstrates that Quebec presents a very irregular distribution of its poles of development over its territory, and that the mobility of the work force is in the image of this distribution. A few regions within the Montreal metropolitan area have attained a relatively evolved state of capitalist development and consequently are able to attract within their limits a large majority of migrants moving inside of or toward Quebec. In contrast, it can be observed that the majority of the regions in Quebec may be qualified as 'underdeveloped', and that their net mobility figures are negative." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND SPA) excerpt

  12. Blastomycosis in Quebec (1981–90: Report of 23 Cases and Review of Published Cases from Quebec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G St-Germain

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-three cases of blastomycosis were reported in a survey conducted in the province of Quebec from 1981–90. Thirteen patients resided south of the St Lawrence River and the other 10, north. Two small geographical clusters were apparent in and around the cities of Sherbrooke and Quebec. The male to female ratio was 1.6:1 and the median age was 47 years (range 26 to 77. Lung involvement was observed in 19 cases and was the only site involved in 11. Cutaneous manifestations were reported in 11 cases while bone infection (three cases and central nervous system (CNS infections were also noted. Diagnosis was confirmed by culture in 21 cases and by histopathology in two cases. Of the 21 culture-positive cases, 12 strains of Blastomyces dermatitidis were isolated from lungs, nine from skin, and one each from bone and brain. Serodiagnostic tests by immunodiffusion or complement fixation were positive for only one of the 10 patients known to have been tested. Ten patients were treated with amphotericin B, 11 with ketoconazole, one with fluconazole and eight underwent surgery. While amphotericin B was used in eight of the 10 earliest treated cases, ketoconazole was administered in 10 of the 13 more recent cases. Of the patients for whom follow-up data have been obtained, 21 are reported cured (one of whom was not treated and one patient died of another cause. This survey confirms that blastomycosis is a rare disease in this endemic area and that patterns of therapy are changing.

  13. Chalifoux Dairy and Hydro-Quebec, partners in innovation; Laiterie Chalifoux et Hydro-Quebec, partenaires dans l`innovation des entreprises quebecoises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1996-12-31

    Recently, Chalifoux Dairy of Sorel, Quebec, invested, with the help of Hydro-Quebec, in three new technologies to increase the energy efficiency of the production line. A summary of these technological improvements was presented. The three new technologies were induction heating pasteurization, ultraviolet sterilization and ultrafiltration. Ultra-high temperature (UHT) induction heating is now used to pasteurize cream and chocolate milk. This new pasteurization method has reduced product returns from 5 per cent to nil. UHT cream is packaged in small disposable containers that are previously sterilized by a radiant ultraviolet source. An ultrafiltration method also has been implemented for production of specialty cheese at the dairy. This process yields 20 per cent more production with 30 per cent less energy than traditional methods. Hydro-Quebec assisted Chalifoux Dairy with a subsidy of $596,000 for these energy-efficiency modifications.

  14. Flow-through shares to sustain petroleum and gas exploration in Quebec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    On March 25, 1997, the Quebec government announced tax advantages related to petroleum and natural gas exploration expenditures incurred in Quebec. The government introduced flow-through shares which allow a tax deduction of up to 175 per cent. This incentive was created to promote investment in the province. This pamphlet summarizes the treatment of the capital gains and shows the tax deductions applicable for the 1998 taxation year

  15. Studying the cumulative environmental effects of Hydro-Quebec's installations plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubeau, D.

    1992-01-01

    The study of the cumulative environmental effects that have been integrated with technical and economic analyses include mercury, land use in the region (territory), natural landscapes, cultural heritages, forest dynamics, regional economies and ways of life. Requests and petitions from the public about Hydro-Quebec projects fall into four categories: welfare of communities, impact on the land, environmental responsibility and preservation of plant and animal species. The cooperation of all concerned is necessary for Hydro-Quebec's developments. (author)

  16. Mutation profiles of phenylketonuria in Quebec populations: Evidence of stratification and novel mutations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozen, R.; Mascisch, A.; Scriver, C.R. (McGill Univ., Montreal (Canada)); Lambert, M. (Hopital Ste-Justine, Montreal (Canada)); Laframboise, R. (Centre Hospitalier Universite Laval, Quebec (Canada))

    1994-08-01

    Independent phenylketonuria (PKU) chromosomes (n=109) representing 80% of a proband cohort in Quebec province carry 18 different identified mutations in 20 different mutation/haplotype combinations. The study reported here, the third in a series on Quebec populations, was done in the Montreal region and predominantly on French Canadians. It has identified three novel mutations (A309D, D338Y, and 1054/1055delG [352fs]) and one unusual mutation/RFLP haplotype combination (E280K on Hp 2). The relative frequencies and distribution of PKU mutations were then compared in three regions and population subsets (eastern Quebec, French Canadian; western Quebec, French Canadian; and Montreal, non-French Canadian). The distributions of the prevalent and rare mutations are nonrandom and provide evidence for genetic stratification. The latter and the presence of eight unusual mutation/haplotype combinations in Quebec families with European ancestries (the aforementioned four and M1V, 165T, S349P, and R408W on Hp 1) corroborate demographic and anthropologic evidence, from elsewhere, for different origins of French Canadians in eastern and western Quebec. 29 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  17. Factors influencing woodlands of southwestern North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michele M. Girard; Harold Goetz; Ardell J. Bjugstad

    1987-01-01

    Literature pertaining to woodlands of southwestern North Dakota is reviewed. Woodland species composition and distribution, and factors influencing woodland ecosystems such as climate, logging, fire, and grazing are described. Potential management and improvement techniques using vegetation and livestock manipulation have been suggested.

  18. Southwestern Institute of Physics annual report (2000)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The research results and engineering progress of SWIP (Southwestern Institute of Physics) during the year of 2000 was summarized in this annual report. The contents divided into five parts: 1. tokamak experimental diagnoses and tokamak engineering; 2. fusion reactor and fusion reactor materials; 3. plasma theory and calculation; 4. technique development and application; 5. appendix 31 theses and presented in this report

  19. Who, or What, Is to Blame for the Accumulation of Debt in Ontario and Quebec (and What Will It Take to Stop the Bleeding?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald D. Kneebone

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available What is the main reason for government debt accumulation in Canada? Is the main driver of debt the public policy choices made by governments, or are non-policy factors, like interest rates and the economic environment to blame? Answering this question is the first step for governments burdened by high levels of government debt to introduce policies aimed at getting that debt under control. The effort to curtail debts in the mid-1990s prompted research into the sources of debt accumulation. The goal of this research was to determine whether the cause of debt was a set of poor fiscal policy choices in the form of overly generous social programs and/or insufficient taxation, an overly tight monetary policy driving up interest costs on existing debt and slowing growth, or simply bad luck in the form of unavoidable world events. That research aspired to identify the sources of debt accumulation so those mistakes, once identified, might be avoided in the future. This paper looks at Ontario and Quebec; two provinces with high and growing debt to GDP ratios and representing the two largest provincial economies in Canada. Introducing an original data set describing the finances of these governments over the period 1980-81 to 2011-12 and a new approach for identifying the causes of debt accumulation, this paper finds that the causes are disproportionate policy based. Finally, this paper offers a way out of debt for these governments. The solutions demand difficult policy choices; choices that will require a significantly heavier burden be borne by the citizens and taxpayers of Ontario than those in Quebec.

  20. Southwestern Power Administration annual site environmental report CY 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This report provides a synopsis of Southwestern Power Administration's (Southwestern's) effectiveness in managing its operations in an environmentally responsible manner. In CY 1997, the Office of Environmental, Safety, and Health was reorganized and incorporated into the Division of Acquisition and Property. The Division of Acquisition, Property, and Environmental Management maintains responsibility for development, oversight, and implementation of environmental programs. Senior Management at Southwestern has taken actions to increase environmental awareness throughout the organization. During CY 1997, (Southwestern) was not involved in any known programs or activities that had adverse impacts on the environment. The 1997 Environmental Appraisal, a portion of Southwestern's Self-Assessment and Appraisal Program, indicated approximately 90% compliance with Southwestern's written environmental programs. Southwestern continued to function throughout CY 1997 in an operations and maintenance posture with minor substation projects

  1. Southwestern Power Administration site environmental report for calendar year 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    During CY 93, Southwestern was not involved in any programs that had a direct effect on the environment, involving endangered species, protection of wetlands, or increased electromagnetic radiation. Southwestern continued to function throughout the year in an operations and maintenance posture with minor substation projects. Southwestern received an environmental management audit by the Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Audit (EH-24), during CY 1992. The purpose of the audit was to give Southwestern, DOE headquarters, and the Secretary an indication of the status of Southwestern management's effectiveness in discharging its duties in an environmentally responsible manner. The audit identified 17 findings. An action plan was developed and remediation of the findings has been accomplished. Several strengths were identified during the audit with regard to the environmental programs at Southwestern. Most importantly, senior management at Southwestern has taken actions to increase environmental awareness throughout the organization which is evidenced by the creation of the Environmental, Safety, Health, and Security Office

  2. Fusion Canada issue 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-08-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue are Canada-ITER contributions, NET Fuel Processing Loop, Bilateral Meeting for Canada-Europe, report from Tokamak de Varennes and a report from the University of Toronto on materials research for Fusion Reactors. 3 figs

  3. Fusion Canada issue 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-08-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue are Canada-ITER contributions, NET Fuel Processing Loop, Bilateral Meeting for Canada-Europe, report from Tokamak de Varennes and a report from the University of Toronto on materials research for Fusion Reactors. 3 figs.

  4. Fusion Canada issue 21

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue Europe proposes Canada's participation in ITER, tritium for JET, CCFM/TdeV-Tokamak helium pumping and TdeV update, ITER-related R and D at CFFTP, ITER Deputy Director visits Canada, NFP Director to Chair IFRC, Award for Akira Hirose. 3 figs

  5. Fusion Canada issue 14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-05-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on a fusion cooperation agreement between Japan and Canada, an update at Tokamak de Varennes on plasma biasing experiments and boronization tests and a collaboration between Canada and the U.S. on a compact toroid fuelling gun. 4 figs

  6. Ilot de Chaleur a Quebec: Cas d'hiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leduc, Richard; Jacques, Ghislain; Ferland, Michel; Le Lièvre, Claude

    1981-11-01

    This paper describes the urban heat island in Quebec City on a typical clear winter night. This is a follow-up to a study made on a summer night in August 1980; the reader will find a detailed description of the region in Leduc et al. (1980). On February 25, 1980 at 21:30 EST, nearly 200 measurements of temperature were taken at preselected points by 17 mobile observers; a mini-sonde was launched near the Duberger meteorological tower while upper air data were obtained from a sonde launched at Valcartier CFB. Additional data were available from the five regular climatological stations in greater Quebec City and from 2 other thermographs in order to evaluate cooling rates. On the day of the 25th, a developing low pressure area over the eastern coast brought cold air from the northwest toward Quebec City. On that day, the maximum temperature was - 1 °C while the minimum on the following night dropped to - 19 °C. At the time of the experiment, the sky was clear and the winds were westerly at 1.5 m s-1 at the surface and northwesterly at 6 m s-1 at 122 m. A strong inversion was present in the lowest 200 m while upper inversions were noted on the upper air sounding. As noted in the summer experiment, cooling rates, according to the Oke et al. (1972) criteria, reflected a rural behaviour at all stations equipped with a thermograph. It is to be noted that no data on cooling rates are available for the highly urbanized sectors. One notes a relatively warm zone in the downtown area where temperature reached - 8 °C; there is also a cold zone, at the same location as during the summer experiment. The mean temperature gradient between the urban and rural sectors was 5 °C, which is comparable with that observed in August 1979 (6 °C). Thus, the urban heat island does not seem to be more intense in winter than in summer. Relatively large areas of uniform temperature were detected at places where the summer experiment indicated sharp spatial contrasts; this could be

  7. Immigration and cultural policies: a bone of contention between the Province of Quebec and the Canadian federal government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, L

    1995-01-01

    "This article addresses the way in which the Province of Quebec has obtained increasing power in the area of immigration.... Data from interviews with key members of [the Ministry of Immigration] and from selected documents are drawn on to illustrate Quebec's cultural politics. The Quebec position on the question of immigration as it has evolved in the context of immigration policies defined by the federal government in Ottawa is examined.... In particular, the present article considers how attempts to construct a cultural identity and a nation-state in Quebec have had important consequences for immigration policy and for attitudes and policies concerning Quebec's cultural minorities. The emergence of the notion of 'cultural communities' as a result of the constitutional rivalry and the on-going struggle for legitimacy between Quebec and Ottawa is also explored." excerpt

  8. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited annual report 2000-2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This is the annual report of the Atomic Energy of Canada Limited for the year ending March 31, 2001 and summarizes the activities of AECL during the period 2000-2001. The activities covered in this report include the CANDU reactor business, with progress being reported in the construction of two CANDU 6 reactors for the Qinshan CANDU project in China, the anticipated completion of Cernavoda unit 2, the completion of spent fuel storage at Cernavoda unit 1 in Romania, as well as the service business with New Brunswick Power, Ontario Power Generation, Bruce Power and Hydro Quebec in the refurbishment of operating, CANDU reactors. In the R and D programs discussions continue on funding for the Canadian Neutron Facility for Materials Research (CNF) and progress on the Maple medical isotope reactor

  9. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited annual report 2000-2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This is the annual report of the Atomic Energy of Canada Limited for the year ending March 31, 2001 and summarizes the activities of AECL during the period 2000-2001. The activities covered in this report include the CANDU reactor business, with progress being reported in the construction of two CANDU 6 reactors for the Qinshan CANDU project in China, the anticipated completion of Cernavoda unit 2, the completion of spent fuel storage at Cernavoda unit 1 in Romania, as well as the service business with New Brunswick Power, Ontario Power Generation, Bruce Power and Hydro Quebec in the refurbishment of operating, CANDU reactors. In the R and D programs discussions continue on funding for the Canadian Neutron Facility for Materials Research (CNF) and progress on the Maple medical isotope reactor.

  10. Acceptance of Prostitution and Its Social Determinants in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Liqun; Lu, Ruibin; Mei, Xiaohan

    2017-08-01

    The nature of collective perception of prostitution is understudied in Canada. Except some rudimentary reports on the percentages of the key legal options, multivariate analysis has never been used to analyze the details of public opinion on prostitution. The current study explores the trend of public attitude toward prostitution acceptability in Canada over a 25-year span and examines the social determinants of the acceptability of prostitution, using structural equation modeling (SEM), which allows researchers to elaborate both direct and indirect effects (through mediating variables) on the outcome variable. Results show that the public has become more acceptant of prostitution over time. In addition, the less religious, less authoritarian, and more educated are more acceptant of prostitution than the more religious, more authoritarian, and less well educated. The effects of religiosity and authoritarianism mediate out the direct effects of age, gender, gender equality, marriage, marriage as an outdated institution, Quebec, race, and tolerance. The findings may serve as a reference point for the law reform regarding the regulation of prostitution in Canada.

  11. Assessing the role of large hydro in Canada's electricity future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee Pochih

    1992-01-01

    Electric power in Canada was first generated by steam in the 1880s. The use of hydroelectricity spread rapidly due to abundant water resources and the nationalization of power companies by the provinces; by 1920, 97% of Canadian electricity production came from hydroelectric plants. Thermal generation became competitive by the 1960s, when most of the best hydro sites had been developed, and nuclear generation also started gaining a share of the market. By 1991, hydroelectricity's share of Canadian power production had declined to around 60%. Hydroelectric power has long been used as an instrument of Canadian industrial policy. Given the amount and importance of utility capital expenditures, it was recognized that hydropower development could serve such policy objectives as job creation, industrial development, and macroeconomic stabilization. Creation of provincially owned utilities led to construction of large hydroelectric projects, notably in Quebec, British Columbia, Manitoba, and Newfoundland. The 20 largest hydroelectric power plants in Canada have a total installed capacity of 35,704 MW, representing ca 59% of Canada's total 1991 hydro capacity. The construction of such large projects is not expected to proceed as quickly as in the past because of environmental concerns. However, a number of factors favor continuation of development of hydro resources: a remaining potential estimated at ca 44,000 MW; simplification of electricity export regulations; more stringent air pollution standards that favor non-polluting energy sources; and a moratorium on nuclear power plants in Ontario. 4 tabs

  12. Canada's hydrocarbon processing evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, T.H.; Horton, R.

    2000-01-01

    The development of petroleum refining, petrochemicals and natural gas industries in Canada are discussed together with future issues and prospects. Figures give data on (a) refined products trade 1998; (b) refining capacity; (c) product demand 1980-1999; (d) refinery crude runs and capacity; (e) refining and marketing, historical returns 1993-1999; (f) processing power index for Canada and USA; (g) ethylene capacity; (eye) Montreal petrochemical capacities; (j) Sarnia petrochemical capacities in 2000; (k) Alberta petrochemicals capacities 2001; (l) ethylene net equivalent trade; (m) ethylene costs 1999 for W. Canada and other countries. It was concluded that the hydrocarbon processing business continues to expand in Canada and natural gas processing is likely to increase. Petrochemicals may expand in W. Canada, possibly using feed stock from the Far North. Offshore developments may stimulate new processing on the E. Coast

  13. Energy in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-11-01

    This discussion paper was prepared by the Department of Energy, Mines and Resources Canada to provide information about Canada's resource potential, the contribution of energy to the Canadian economy, Canada's place in the world energy market, and the outlook for the development of Canadian energy resources. In addition, it provides background information on issues such as: energy and the environment, energy security, Canadian ownership of energy resources, energy R and D, and energy conservation. Finally, it concludes with an indication of some of the key challenges facing the energy sector. The paper is intended to inform the public and to serve as a reference document for those participating in the review of Canada's energy options. The paper was prepared before Canada and the U.S. agreed in principle on a free trade agreement (FTA) and does not include a discussion of the FTA or its potential impacts on the energy sector

  14. Climate and Physiography Predict Mercury Concentrations in Game Fish Species in Quebec Lakes Better than Anthropogenic Disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucotte, Marc; Paquet, Serge; Moingt, Matthieu

    2016-05-01

    The fluctuations of mercury levels (Hg) in fish consumed by sport fishers in North-Eastern America depend upon a plethora of interrelated biological and abiological factors. To identify the dominant factors ultimately controlling fish Hg concentrations, we compiled mercury levels (Hg) during the 1976-2010 period in 90 large natural lakes in Quebec (Canada) for two major game species: northern pike (Esox lucius) and walleye (Sander vitreus). Our statistical analysis included 28 geographic information system variables and 15 climatic variables, including sulfate deposition. Higher winter temperatures explained 36% of the variability in higher walleye growth rates, in turn accounting for 54% of the variability in lower Hg concentrations. For northern pike, the dominance of a flat topography in the watershed explained 31% of the variability in lower Hg concentrations. Higher mean annual temperatures explained 27% of the variability in higher pike Hg concentrations. Pelagic versus littoral preferred habitats for walleye and pike respectively could explain the contrasted effect of temperature between the two species. Heavy logging could only explain 2% of the increase in walleye Hg concentrations. The influence of mining on fish Hg concentrations appeared to be masked by climatic effects.

  15. Addressing Complex Societal Problems: Enabling Multiple Dimensions of Proximity to Sustain Partnerships for Collective Impact in Quebec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nii A. Addy

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable solutions for complex societal problems, like poverty, require informing stakeholders about progress and changes needed as they collaborate. Yet, inter-organizational collaboration researchers highlight monumental challenges in measuring seemingly intangible factors during collective impact processes. We grapple with the question: How can decision-makers coherently conceptualize and measure seemingly intangible factors to sustain partnerships for the emergence of collective impact? We conducted an inductive process case study to address this question, analyzing data from documents, observations, and interviews of 24 philanthropy leaders and multiple stakeholders in a decades-long partnership involving Canada’s largest private family foundation, government and community networks, and during which a “collective impact project” emerged in Quebec Province, Canada. The multidimensional proximity framework provided an analytical lens. During the first phase of the partnership studied, there was a lack of baseline measurement of largely qualitative factors—conceptualized as cognitive, social, and institutional proximity between stakeholders—which evaluations suggested were important for explaining which community networks successfully brought about desired outcomes. Non-measurement of these factors was a problem in providing evidence for sustained engagement of stakeholders, such as government and local businesses. We develop a multidimensional proximity model that coherently conceptualizes qualitative proximity factors, for measuring their change over time.

  16. Determining appropriate wind turbine setback distances: Perspectives from municipal planners in the Canadian provinces of Nova Scotia, Ontario, and Quebec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, Ian; Betts, Stephen; Rapaport, Eric

    2012-01-01

    This paper uses a series of interviews to investigate how municipal planners in three Canadian provinces (Nova Scotia, Quebec, and Ontario) influence setbacks that regulate appropriate locations for wind turbines. Setbacks are provisions in local land use policies that dictate required separation distances between wind turbines and other land uses. Results of the study indicate that planners are not using a consistent method to ascertain appropriate distances and are often constrained by a lack of experience, resources, and expertise. These findings have important implications for wind energy regulation. Setbacks are intended to reasonably protect the public from the impacts of wind turbines, while allowing for some development. Municipalities in Canada may be best placed to consider local impacts of wind power, but the challenges identified raise concerns about potential arbitrariness. Setbacks that are unjustifiably high can unnecessarily close off territory and limit the ability to reach renewable energy targets. Taking regulatory power away from municipalities, as has happened in Ontario, can facilitate achievement of provincial targets, but may also increase opposition to projects at the local level. - Highlights: ► Inconsistent methods used for establishing wind turbine setbacks. ► Most common method used is a review of other setback by-laws. ► Barriers to implementation of setbacks include knowledge, resources, and consensus. ► Recommend documentation of planning process in setting setbacks.

  17. The Rise and Fall of Social Assistance Use in Canada, 1969-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald D. Kneebone

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Between 1994 and 2008, social-assistance usage rates across Canada fell at a remarkable rate, with the fraction of the non-elderly population drawing social assistance dropping by half over the 14-year period. Because social assistance can be considered the final layer of the public social safety net — designed to catch those people in need of support but unable to find it from family, friends or non-government agencies — such a dramatic decline in social-assistance usage deserves attention and explanation. Is it a positive sign suggesting that the country has made significant strides in keeping people from needing to receive social assistance or is it a sign that public policies have simply made it too difficult for those deserving of support to receive it? We do not try to answer these questions in this briefing note. Our goal is rather more modest; to simply draw attention to a dramatic fall in social assistance usage across Canada to levels not seen since the early 1970s. While the fall in social assistance usage has been observed right across Canada, the pattern and magnitude of change has varied by province. For example, despite being subject to similar economic forces, Ontario and Quebec have seen very different patterns in their respective social-assistance usage rates. In Ontario, social assistance use was traditionally much lower than in Quebec but this changed in the 1990s. Although both provinces suffered a serious recession in the early 1990s, the social assistance usage rate increased more and did so more quickly than in Quebec. In recovery, the social assistance usage rate has fallen steadily in Quebec and is today at the level it was in 1970. In Ontario, the social assistance usage rate fell but plateaued at a level higher than pre-recession levels. Today the rate in Ontario continues to climb, is higher than in Quebec, and is well above what it was in 1970. These two provinces, with similar economies but having quite

  18. Ammonia emissions from livestock industries in Canada: Feasibility of abatement strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carew, Richard

    2010-01-01

    An updated national ammonia (NH 3 ) emissions inventory was employed to study the relationship between NH 3 emissions and livestock industries in Canada. Emissions from animal agriculture accounted for 322 kilotonnes (kt) or 64% of Canadian NH 3 emissions in 2002. Cattle and swine accounted for the bulk of livestock emissions. The provinces of Alberta, Ontario, Quebec, and Saskatchewan accounted for 28.1%, 22.0%, 18.7%, and 13.1% of total livestock emissions, respectively. Emissions from Ontario and Quebec were attributed to the intensive production of dairy, hogs and poultry. Dairy cattle emissions per hectolitre of milk were higher in Ontario and Quebec than in other provinces, while swine emissions per livestock unit were higher than either beef or dairy cattle. A review of the abatement literature indicated diet manipulation to improve N efficiency and land spreading methods are very effective techniques to lower NH 3 emissions. Future research is required to evaluate the feasibility of biofilters and feces/urine separation methods. - Livestock NH 3 emissions are higher in areas characterized by intensive livestock production with diet manipulation and land spreading offering the greatest potential for NH 3 abatement options.

  19. Hydro-Quebec inspection robot RIT-LRG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Champagne, D.; Rinfret, F.; Bourgault, Y.G.

    2008-01-01

    Hydro Quebec's Research Centre (IREQ), has developed a variety of inspection tools over the years. The Metar bracelet for the feeder tubes, the REC robot for the heat exchanger and the RIT robot for the Delayed Neutron system just to name a few. This paper discusses with the successful deployment of the Camera Probe Positioning robot for Visual Inspection of the sample lines of the delayed neutron system of CANDU power plants. This RIT robot has three possible configurations (Face, Cabinet and LRG configurations) and has remained a prototype version although it has been used over the years in many outage inspection campaigns since 1997. The main advantages of using this robot are: the significant reduction in radiation exposure, the high quality of the data collected and the archiving of inspection data for further analysis and reports. In 2007, Gentilly-2 (G-2), decided to industrialize the LRG configuration of the RIT robot and to designate it the standard tool for the inspection of the Delayed Neutron System. An improved RIT-LRG robot, along with its control box and command station was developed. The software had to be rewritten requiring an ergonomics analysis of user tasks, work station and interface display. These issues included both physical and cognitive requirements aspects. The two principal topics of this paper will be on the Inspection Robot Technology developed and highlights of the 2008 outage inspection campaign. (author)

  20. Advocacy coalitions and wind power development: Insights from Quebec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jegen, Maya; Audet, Gabriel

    2011-01-01

    This article addresses the issue of wind energy acceptance in the Canadian province of Quebec and, in particular, the impact of different models of wind power development on the degree of social acceptance. We show that the dominant advocacy coalition, which favors a hard path energy development in general, enforces a large-scale development of wind energy. Two other coalitions - a soft path coalition and a nationalist coalition - oppose this development, but not wind energy per se. We argue that difference in belief systems explains their opposition rather than planning issues or NIMBY concerns. We also contend that, despite its predominance over (wind) energy policy, the hard path coalition is willing to learn and make concessions towards the soft path coalition, but not towards the nationalist coalition. - Highlights: → We address social acceptance of wind energy. → We illustrate the interaction of advocacy coalitions. → Different advocacy coalitions support different models of wind energy development. → Models of wind energy development influence the degree of social acceptance. → Opposition is not aimed at wind energy per se, but at the hard path model.

  1. Combining the Power of Wind and Water in Quebec

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard, D.

    2007-07-01

    Wind varies and is impossible to store, major factors that have curbed and continue to curb the development of wind power. Hydroelectric generating stations with reservoirs, on the other hand, are quite capable of adjusting their output and can thus buffer fluctuations in consumption or in the output of other generating facilities on the grid. Combining wind power and hydropower thus involves using hydroelectric generating stations to offset the intermittent nature of wind power. The consumer, however, does not automatically reap the benefits of this complementarity. To achieve this, Quebec has implemented a 1,000-MW balancing agreement between the hydropower producer and the electricity distributor, which has signed wind power purchase agreements. The balancing agreement establishes two charges: one based on firming capacity provided by the producer and another linked to errors in the forecast of wind power generation that the distributor makes each day. This structure compensates the producer for the reduced margin of flexibility it has to engage in energy trading. (auth)

  2. Disappearance of PAHs in a contaminated soil from Mascouche, Quebec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yong, R.N.; Tousignant, L.P.; Leduc, R.; Chan, E.C.S.

    1991-01-01

    Of the 365 sites classified by the Quebec Ministry of the Environment in 1984 and 1985 as contaminated, 62 are considered hazardous. This paper reports that the site chosen is one of these 62 sites and is located in the Mascouche municipality north of the city of Montreal. In 1969, permission was received to operate an incinerator for liquid wastes from the petroleum refineries. However, it was discovered that after a year of operation the incinerator did not perform well and spilled liquid wastes into the surrounding soil. In 1974, the incinerator was shut down and all operations ceased. In addition to the incinerator, two open-air storage basins and numerous solid waste deposits occupy the present site. These basins were fissured at several places and consequently leaked liquid petroleum wastes into the groundwater. In periods of heavy rain, the basins overflowed onto the surrounding soil terrain. In 1986, the liquid waste inside the basins was transferred into large metal containers and left on site, and the basins and the incinerator were then covered with sand. The site, which occupies an area of approximately 80 hectares, is mainly flat, with a few marshlike areas. The first 2 m of soil depth in this area consists of a sandy soil underlain by 12 to 15 m of clay

  3. Hydro-Quebec inspection robot RIT-LRG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Champagne, D., E-mail: champagne.dominique@ireq.ca [Inst. de recherche d' Hydro-Quebec, Quebec (Canada); Rinfret, F.; Bourgault, Y.G., E-mail: rinfret.francois@hydro.qc.ca, E-mail: bourgault.yves.g@hydro.qc.ca [Hydro-Quebec, Becancour, Quebec (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Hydro Quebec's Research Centre (IREQ), has developed a variety of inspection tools over the years. The Metar bracelet for the feeder tubes, the REC robot for the heat exchanger and the RIT robot for the Delayed Neutron system just to name a few. This paper discusses with the successful deployment of the Camera Probe Positioning robot for Visual Inspection of the sample lines of the delayed neutron system of CANDU power plants. This RIT robot has three possible configurations (Face, Cabinet and LRG configurations) and has remained a prototype version although it has been used over the years in many outage inspection campaigns since 1997. The main advantages of using this robot are: the significant reduction in radiation exposure, the high quality of the data collected and the archiving of inspection data for further analysis and reports. In 2007, Gentilly-2 (G-2), decided to industrialize the LRG configuration of the RIT robot and to designate it the standard tool for the inspection of the Delayed Neutron System. An improved RIT-LRG robot, along with its control box and command station was developed. The software had to be rewritten requiring an ergonomics analysis of user tasks, work station and interface display. These issues included both physical and cognitive requirements aspects. The two principal topics of this paper will be on the Inspection Robot Technology developed and highlights of the 2008 outage inspection campaign. (author)

  4. Professional development in the context of Healthy Schools in Quebec.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschesnes, Marthe; Tessier, Caroline; Couturier, Yves; Martin, Catherine

    2015-06-01

    This article reports preliminary research results on a professional development (PD) model as a mechanism for supporting absorption of the Healthy School (HS) approach into school functioning. The purpose of our study was to document the model implementation process and understand whether it influenced, or not, the accompanied actors' knowledge and practices about HS. The theoretical basis of the model and a description of its implementation, its appreciation by actors and its influence on their knowledge and confidence are presented. The research was conducted in three Quebec schools that had adopted this approach for at least 2 years. Multiple case study methodology, with pre- (T0) and post- (T1) intervention comparison, was adopted. The results disclose that the PD model implemented, which involves socio-constructivist accompaniment, has several assets that support the acquisition and application of new knowledge related to HS in order to promote its absorption within schools. Our findings indicate that PD likely reinforced the actors' knowledge and understanding as well as their confidence. The lessons drawn from the evaluation of this PD model could serve to enhance accompaniment methods implemented to promote the absorption of such initiatives in schools. Our data highlight the relevance and effectiveness of accompaniment anchored in action, calling for practice based on reflection and expert recommendations to meet the objectives of health and academic success. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. A leitura das obras completas em contexto escolar no Quebec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Dezutter

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available No Quebec, as recentes reformas curriculares testemunham as elevadas exigências quanto ao número de obras completas a serem lidas no período de formação pré-universitária, e dedicam uma grande liberdade aos professores para a seleção dos títulos. Fundamentamo-nos aqui sobre os resultados de uma vasta pesquisa para estabelecer a situação das exigências dos professores em matéria de leitura das obras, das finalidades associadas a esta prática e do corpus escolhido. Os professores do primário e do secundário visam ao desenvolvimento do prazer da leitura; aqueles do colegial, à constituição de uma cultura literária de base: a primeira centra-se na literatura quebequense enquanto a segunda leva em consideração o patrimônio francês.

  6. L'evaluation de la competence linguistique des membres des ordres professionnels au Quebec (The Quebec Region Evaluation of Professional Personnel's Language Proficiency).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gareau, Claude

    1981-01-01

    Describes a testing program designed to assess the French language proficiency of professionals desiring to practice in the Quebec region. Discusses the criteria used for the construction, administration, and scoring of the tests in compliance with the 1977 French language legislation. (MES)

  7. Políticas de permanência na Universidade. Sucesso, perseverança e abandono: uma breve aproximação à questão no Quebec, Canadá.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Wilson Rodrigues de Melo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article submission seeks to develop an appreciation for students policies of staying at the university in the context of North America with the focus in the province of Quebec, Canada. The mirror of the theme focuses on studies developped on success, perseverance and the abandonment of higher education. The study produced results from a brief examination focused on the theoretical discussion. To make the collection of texts one "search engine" that uses the ERIC data base. A bit more specific was found in the "engine" Atrium of the Université de Montréal. Google Scholar was consulted for a more general exploitation of the object of study. As the focused interest thematic was in Canada and Quebec a number of articles and selected texts was disregarded. Preserved the proportions noted challenges in the context of reference lend themselves to study the problem in Brazil, as well. Although the realities are different actions to enhance the permanence and perseverance lend themselves compared to combat the abandonment of higher education.

  8. ATLAS-Canada Network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gable, I; Sobie, R J [HEPnet/Canada, Victoria, BC (Canada); Bedinelli, M; Butterworth, S; Groer, L; Kupchinsky, V [University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Caron, B; McDonald, S; Payne, C [TRIUMF Laboratory, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Chambers, R [University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Fitzgerald, B [University of Victoria, Victoria, BC (Canada); Hatem, R; Marshall, P; Pobric, D [CANARIE Inc., Ottawa, ON (Canada); Maddalena, P; Mercure, P; Robertson, S; Rochefort, M [McGill University, Montreal, QC (Canada); McWilliam, D [BCNet, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Siegert, M [Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC (Canada)], E-mail: igable@uvic.ca (and others)

    2008-12-15

    The ATLAS-Canada computing model consists of a WLCG Tier-1 computing centre located at the TRIUMF Laboratory in Vancouver, Canada, and two distributed Tier-2 computing centres in eastern and western Canadian universities. The TRIUMF Tier-1 is connected to the CERN Tier-0 via a 10G dedicated circuit provided by CANARIE. The Canadian institutions hosting Tier-2 facilities are connected to TRIUMF via 1G lightpaths, and routing between Tier-2s occurs through TRIUMF. This paper discusses the architecture of the ATLAS-Canada network, the challenges of building the network, and the future plans.

  9. Canada's nuclear export policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, R W; Wonder, E F [Carleton Univ., Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    1978-01-01

    The factors influencing the evolution of Canada's nuclear export policy are examined. Initially, nuclear technology was exported to establish an industry in Canada and to share the technology with other countries. After 1974 an increasingly broad range of political and social factors were taken into account and safeguards became the dominant factor. The indirect impacts of the new policy fall into two groups. One consists of the effects of Canada's leadership in taking a tough stand on safeguards. The second group of effects involve the concern of other countries about access to secure energy supplies and advanced technology.

  10. Canada's nuclear export policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, R.W.; Wonder, E.F.

    1978-01-01

    The factors influencing the evolution of Canada's nuclear export policy are examined. Initially, nuclear technology was exported to establish an industry in Canada and to share the technology with other countries. After 1974 an increasingly broad range of political and social factors were taken into account and safeguards became the dominant factor. The indirect impacts of the new policy fall into two groups. One consists of the effects of Canada's leadership in taking a tough stand on safeguards. The second group of effects involve the concern of other countries about access to secure energy supplies and advanced technology. (O.T.)

  11. Radiation oncology in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, Meredith; Gospodarowicz, Mary

    2018-01-01

    In this article we provide an overview of the Canadian healthcare system and the cancer care system in Canada as it pertains to the governance, funding and delivery of radiotherapy programmes. We also review the training and practice for radiation oncologists, medical physicists and radiation therapists in Canada. We describe the clinical practice of radiation medicine from patients' referral, assessment, case conferences and the radiotherapy process. Finally, we provide an overview of the practice culture for Radiation Oncology in Canada. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Canada's hydrogen energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimmel, T.B.

    2009-01-01

    Canada produces the most hydrogen per capita of any Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) country. The majority of this hydrogen is produced by steam methane reforming for industrial use (predominantly oil upgrading and fertilizer production). Canada also has a world leading hydrogen and fuel cell sector. This sector is seeking new methods for making hydrogen for its future energy needs. The paper will discuss Canada's hydrogen and fuel cell sector in the context of its capabilities, its demonstration and commercialization activities and its stature on the world stage. (author)

  13. Canadá-Quebec: identidades problemáticas Canadá-Quebec: identidades problemáticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eurídice Figueiredo

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente texto é tentar dimensionar uma velha dicotomia que consiste em conceber o Canadá como uma país bicéfalo:de um lado o “Canadá”, em que se fala inglês, de outro lado o Quebec, em que se fala francês. Esse dualismo simplista se acentuou após a chamada Revolução Tranqüila em 1960 quando a identidade do canadense francês, até então representado como um povo oprimido e humilhado pelo Outro, o inglês, minoria em seu próprio país, se transforma no quebequense moderno e ativo, maioria em seu “Estado”, que detém o poder para definir os rumos de seu destino. Não mais voltado para um passado de derrotas mas projetando-se para um futuro de sucesso. Assim nas duas campanhas para os referendos de 1980 e 1995, afirmava-se a reivindicação pela soberania, para, transnsformando-se em Estado-Nação, se desvencilhar deste Outro incômodo, que o impede de se gerir de forma autônoma.

  14. Southwestern Power Administration Annual Report 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-12-01

    Dear Secretary Chu, I am pleased to present the financial statements and operating data for Southwestern Power Administration (Southwestern) for Fiscal Year (FY) 2008. In FY 2008, Southwestern delivered over 7.3 billion kilowatt-hours of energy to its wholesale customers – nearly 31% more than average due to numerous record rainfall amounts in the southwest region. These record amounts produced revenues which exceeded the average annual revenue requirement by nearly $20 million and resulted in over $200 million in economic benefits to the region. Yet even as Southwestern exceeded its goals of marketing and delivering Federal hydroelectric power to our customers, we stayed focused on safety, security, and reliability. For example, we maintained our nearly 1,400 miles of high-voltage transmission lines, substations, and communications sites while achieving a Recordable Accident Frequency Rate of 0.0, a record that reflects Southwestern’s safety achievement of no recordable injuries for every 200,000 hours worked. We kept our rights-of-way secure from vegetation and other obstacles, work that not only supports our mission but also promotes reliability of the regional and National grid. We exceeded all North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) Control Performance Standards (CPS- 1 and CPS-2), and maintained regulation and reserve obligations and reactive reserve margins to ensure the reliability of the bulk electric system, even during extended periods of restricted hydro operations due to unusually high project inflows. Finally, we continued our partnerships with the Department of Energy, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, our customers, and other Federal power stakeholders, partnerships that are vital to our continued success in marketing and delivering carbon-free, renewable, and domestically produced energy to our customers and to the Nation. Sincerely, Jon Worthington Administrator

  15. Southwestern Institute of Physics annual report 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    In the year 2001, significant progresses in the engineering construction of the HL-2A tokamak were made at the Southwestern Institute of Physics (SWIP). At the same time, the research projects from Nuclear Energy Development Foundation, the National Defense Basic Research Foundation and the National Science Foundation of China were completely fulfilled. In addition 283 papers and reports were contributed, among them, 67 are included in the Annual Report

  16. Canada's nuclear power programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peden, W.

    1976-01-01

    Although Canada has developed the CANDU type reactor, and has an ambitious programme of nuclear power plant construction, there has been virtually no nuclear controversy. This progress was seen as a means to bring Canada out of the 'resource cow' era, and onto a more equal footing with technologically elite nations. However the Indian nuclear explosion test, waste storage problems, contamination problems arising from use of uranium ore processing waste as land fill and subsidised sale of nuclear power plants to Argentina and South Korea have initiated public and parliamentary interest. Some economists have also maintained that Canada is approaching over-supply of nuclear power and over-investment in plant. Canada has no official overall energy production plan and alternative sources have not been evaluated. (JIW)

  17. Fusion Canada issue 20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    Fusion Canada's publication of the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is the CFFTP Industrial Impact Study, CCFM/TdeV Update:helium pumping, research funds, and deuterium in beryllium - high temperature behaviour. 3 figs

  18. Higher profits, lower bills : a new electricity strategy for Hydro-Quebec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Quebec is the fourth largest producer of hydro-electricity in the world, and has among the lowest electricity rates in North America. In 2008, 89 percent of the electricity produced by Hydro-Quebec was sold in the province, and the remainder was exported. In 2009, the electric utility released its strategic plan for 2009 to 2013. Hydro-Quebec's net profits are forecast to decline by 24 percent by 2013 and electricity rates are forecast to rise by 8.5 percent. Since Hydro-Quebec has already developed all of the province's low-cost hydroelectric resources, it can no longer increase profits and lower rates by building new hydropower production stations. In order to continue to prosper, the utility will invest in energy efficiency and better coordination of its power system with Ontario's. Increased electricity exports from Hydro-Quebec will help both Ontario and the United States reduce their greenhouse gas emissions by displacing fossil power generation. 25 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs.

  19. Opening new horizons, building new synergies : 1998 annual report of Hydro-Quebec International

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Hydro-Quebec International (HQI) was established in 1978 as a wholly owned subsidiary of Hydro-Quebec. Its mission is to contribute to Hydro-Quebec's growth and profitability by investing in energy partnerships and by selling Hydro-Quebec expertise internationally. This annual report presents highlights of the company's operations, balance sheet, financial position, and investments. 1998 proved to be a year of market development and prospecting which yielded promising results. The expanded scope of the company that now includes investment and infrastructure construction was already generating $ 26 million in economic spinoff for Quebec. The report highlights HQI's involvement in Europe, the Middle East, Africa, and Asia. Great strides have been made also in ensuring the most rigorous practices possible to assess and manage risk and to bolster the company's ability to take unforeseen events in stride. On the investment side, in 1998, the first year of its involvement as an investor, HQI initiated investments amounting to $137 million. Plans are to double that figure in 1999. tabs., figs

  20. Disclosure experience in a convenience sample of quebec-born women living with HIV: a phenomenological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rouleau Geneviève

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Canada, there has been a considerable increase in the number of women infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. Within a stigmatized social context, disclosure of HIV positivity is still a prevailing concern among women. Little is known about the global understanding of how French-speaking, Quebec-born women living with HIV, live their serostatus disclosure experience. The aim of this qualitative study is to describe and understand the disclosure experience of these women. Methods We conducted semi-structured interviews with seven women. A convenience sample of French-speaking, Quebec-born women was chosen because they all responded to the criteria of wishing to share their disclosure experience. The mean age of the participants was 46 years old (SD±12. They lived with HIV for an average of 10 years; time since diagnosis varied from 8 months to 23 years. Two out of four mothers had given birth to HIV positive children. Data analysis proposed by van Manen was performed to discover the essential themes of the experience. Results Seven themes were identified to understand the experience of disclosure in women: 1 Respecting for self and confidants; 2 Feeling apprehension; 3 Exercising control to ensure protection; 4 Deliberately engaging in a process of disclosure/non-disclosure; 5 Exposing oneself to stigma and social exclusion; 6 Suffering internally; and 7 Benefitting from the positive effects of one’s decision. For these women, disclosing their HIV status meant: Living the ambivalence of a paradoxical process of revealing/concealing, in a state of profound suffering, exacerbated by stigma, while also being enriched by the benefits attained. Conclusions Understanding the experience of disclosure in WLHIV is important to guide actions in the practice to support and accompany these women in their unique reality. Health professionals have to broaden their role and work on individual, interpersonal, inter

  1. Wait times in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKinnon, Janice Christine

    2017-07-01

    A significant barrier to accessing healthcare in Canada is long waiting lists, which can be linked to the way that Medicare was structured. After significant pressure, provincial governments began to address wait times. An example of a successful strategy to reduce wait times for elective surgery is the Saskatchewan Surgical Initiative, which saw wait times in the province change from being among the longest in Canada to the shortest.

  2. Canada's radiation scandal?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-12-01

    In July 1990, Greenpeace distributed a 16-page treatise entitled 'Canada's Radiation Scandal' to a wide audience. The bottom line of the Greenpeace critique was that 'Canada's radiation limits are among the worst in the developed world'. This is a commentary on the Greenpeace pamphlet from the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB), the body that sets and enforces radiation standards covering the use of nuclear energy in Canadian industry, science and medicine

  3. Uranium in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-09-01

    In 1974 the Minister of Energy, Mines and Resources (EMR) established a Uranium Resource Appraisal Group (URAG) within EMR to audit annually Canada's uranium resources for the purpose of implementing the federal government's uranium export policy. A major objective of this policy was to ensure that Canadian uranium supplies would be sufficient to meet the needs of Canada's nuclear power program. As projections of installed nuclear power growth in Canada over the long term have been successively revised downwards (the concern about domestic security of supply is less relevant now than it was 10 years ago) and as Canadian uranium supply capabilities have expanded significantly. Canada has maintained its status as the western world's leading exporter of uranium and has become the world's leading producer. Domestic uranium resource estimates have increased to 551 000 tonnes U recoverable from mineable ore since URAG completed its last formal assessment (1982). In 1984, Canada's five primary uranium producers employed some 5800 people at their mining and milling operations, and produced concentrates containing some 11 170 tU. It is evident from URAG's 1984 assessment that Canada's known uranium resources, recoverable at uranium prices of $150/kg U or less, are more than sufficient to meet the 30-year fuelling requirements of those reactors that are either in opertaion now or committed or expected to be in-service by 1995. A substantial portion of Canada's identified uranium resources, recoverable within the same price range, is thus surplus to Canadian needs and available for export. Sales worth close to $1 billion annually are assured. Uranium exploration expenditures in Canada in 1983 and 1984 were an estimated $41 million and $35 million, respectively, down markedly from the $128 million reported for 1980. Exploration drilling and surface development drilling in 1983 and 1984 were reported to be 153 000 m and 197 000 m, respectively, some 85% of which was in

  4. Terrorism in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollek, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews terrorism in Canada, assessing the incidence and nature of terrorist activity, the potential targets of terrorist attacks, risk factors to Canadian nationals and institutions, and the responses of the Canadian government in dealing with the threat and the effectiveness of those responses. Despite the fact that there have been no recent high-profile terrorist events in Canada, this country has a serious terrorism problem, the key manifestation of which is the multitude of terrorist organizations that have designated Canada as a base of operations. In addition, Canadians have been attacked overseas and Canadian organizations, both local and abroad, are potential targets of terrorist activity. Canadian attempts to deal with terrorism through foreign and domestic policy have been ineffective, primarily because the policies have been poorly enforced. Until recently, terrorist organizations legally could raise funds in Canada, in direct contravention of international treaties signed by Canada. It is possible that the ineffectiveness in enforcing the anti-terrorism legislation stems from hope that placating terrorist organizations, and the countries that support them, will prevent Canada from becoming a target. Unfortunately evidence from other countries has shown this strategy to be ineffective.

  5. Southwestern Power Administration Annual Report 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-01-01

    “Renewable energy” isn’t just a catchphrase at Southwestern Power Administration (Southwestern). It describes the hydroelectric energy we market, and the energy that Southwestern’s employees bring to work every day, constantly challenging themselves to become more eff ective and effi cient in providing aff ordable, environmentally clean power to the American people. As Southwestern’s new Administrator, I have had the opportunity to view our operations from a fresh perspective, and I’m proud to share with you how a focus on continual improvement has been evident in accomplishments throughout the agency during fi scal year (FY) 2007. When the North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) implemented new reliability standards, we met applicable implementation dates and exceeded NERC’s control performance standards throughout the year. When tasked with reducing the agency’s carbon footprint, we found ways to achieve an 8.7% reduction in energy intensity from last year without impacting our operational capabilities. And when faced with record-breaking infl ows into the reservoir projects from which we market power, we capitalized on the opportunity to provide customers with signifi cant quantities of supplemental energy. Our supplemental sales this year not only saved customers over $122 million, but increased Southwestern’s revenues -- a huge win-win for Southwestern’s ratepayers and the Nation’s taxpayers alike. Southwestern is proud of its role in protecting National and economic security by contributing to the diverse supply of domestically produced energy, operating and maintaining a safe and reliable transmission system, and ensuring good stewardship of our Nation’s water resources and environment. In FY 2007, Southwestern continued to repay all power costs to the American taxpayers by marketing and delivering approximately 5.6 billion kilowatthours of hydropower at cost-based rates to customers in our six-state region. This energy

  6. Hydro-Quebec: research and development highlights 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    1998 confirmed once again that any planning in R and D must take into consideration unforeseen events. Actions are measured against their profitability, and R and D must contribute to increasing a company's competitive edge by providing it with new sources of revenue, by ensuring that it benefits from real savings and coming up with the best possible solutions to its technological problems. Hydro-Quebec's results attest to the fact that R and D is an investment that contributes to the utility's profitability. Whether trying to reduce maintenance costs through robot systems or cameras, improving injection methods for repairing dams, developing monitoring systems or new devices aimed at increasing the availability of equipment or reducing the environmental impact of its installations, the company's R and D projects have helped maintain its position as a world leader in the generation and transmission of hydroelectric power. The company is counting on technological innovation to boost the revenues of th e utility's business units. Examples include the work done to optimize the management of energy reserves, increase the network's load-flow capacity and flexibility, generate an electrical supply that meets international standards, and offer alternative distribution system solutions. Other projects involve improving turbine efficiency by modelling fluid flow, devising methods for forecasting natural inflows, analyzing losses in saturation transformers, developing the intelligent power system, and studying transient stability in real time, load frequency control, and customized power quality. Further projects are aimed at developing technologies and services that increase client loyalty and expand the client base such as research into energy management for low income clients, use of geothermal energy, new applications for electrotechnologies, electromagnetic compatibility, drive power and applications of lignin

  7. Hydro-Quebec: research and development highlights 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    1998 confirmed once again that any planning in R and D must take into consideration unforeseen events. Actions are measured against their profitability, and R and D must contribute to increasing a company's competitive edge by providing it with new sources of revenue, by ensuring that it benefits from real savings and coming up with the best possible solutions to its technological problems. Hydro-Quebec's results attest to the fact that R and D is an investment that contributes to the utility's profitability. Whether trying to reduce maintenance costs through robot systems or cameras, improving injection methods for repairing dams, developing monitoring systems or new devices aimed at increasing the availability of equipment or reducing the environmental impact of its installations, the company's R and D projects have helped maintain its position as a world leader in the generation and transmission of hydroelectric power. The company is counting on technological innovation to boost the revenues of the utility's business units. Examples include the work done to optimize the management of energy reserves, increase the network's load-flow capacity and flexibility, generate an electrical supply that meets international standards, and offer alternative distribution system solutions. Other projects involve improving turbine efficiency by modelling fluid flow, devising methods for forecasting natural inflows, analyzing losses in saturation transformers, developing the intelligent power system, and studying transient stability in real time, load frequency control, and customized power quality. Further projects are aimed at developing technologies and services that increase client loyalty and expand the client base such as research into energy management for low income clients, use of geothermal energy, new applications for electrotechnologies, electromagnetic compatibility, drive power and applications of lignin.

  8. Coli see des Bois-Francs Victoriaville, Quebec : major retrofit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This profile presented details of a major retrofit of the Colisee des Bois-Francs Ice Rink in Victoriaville, Quebec. The retrofit included the recovery of heat rejected from the refrigeration system; extensive integration of the refrigeration system with heating, ventilation, and dehumidification systems; short-term heat storage; and the installation of a variable condensing temperature and pressure system. Characteristics of the arena were presented, including details of annual energy consumption, energy costs, and the surface area of the building, which was built in 1978. Annual energy costs for the building were estimated at $90,000. The overall cost of the retrofit was $693,300, with technical support provided by the CANMET Energy Technology Centre. Two factory-built commercial refrigeration systems were installed using floating head pressure. Heat transfer fluid in the cold secondary loop was a mixture of water and methanol, while the warm secondary loop contained a mixture of water and ethylene glycol. Energy efficiency measures included using condensation heat rejected in the warm secondary loop and transferred through a coil in the ventilation duct. A simplified system schematic was presented. Building energy consumption savings were estimated at 14 per cent savings for 50 per cent greater cooling capacity compared with the previous system. The use of modular package refrigeration units confined the refrigerant in the mechanical room and reduced the amount of refrigerant required by 70 per cent. Potential refrigerant leaks were also reduced. With the older system, leaks accounted for 120 t equivalent of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) released per year. Additional benefits of the new system include better quality ice, a more reliable system and greater comfort for spectators. 2 figs.

  9. Disease characterization of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients in Quebec.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, R; Bernatsky, S; Rahme, E

    2017-08-01

    Objective Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease characterized by an array of organ manifestations that can appear during flares and disappear during remissions. The objectives of this study were: (i) to examine SLE manifestation groups longitudinally in an SLE cohort; and (ii) to assess the association between early antimalarial treatment and renal manifestations. Methods Seven SLE manifestation groups-cutaneous, hematologic, lung, musculoskeletal, neuropsychiatric, serositis, renal-were tracked using Kaplan-Meier survival curves in an incident SLE cohort from Quebec health administrative data ( n = 2010). A subgroup with provincial drug insurance coverage was followed over time to examine the association between early antimalarial treatment (within three months after SLE diagnosis) and renal manifestations using a Cox proportional hazards survival model. Results Cutaneous manifestations was the most common manifestation at SLE diagnosis (30.0%, 95% CI: 27.7-32.2%). About two-thirds (66.2%, 95% CI: 63.4-68.9%) of patients had evidence of at least one SLE manifestation at diagnosis, which increased to 87.2% (95% CI: 84.2-90.3%) by the end of follow-up. After adjusting for age, sex, early concomitant systemic steroid therapy, Charlson comorbidity index, primary care visits in the year prior and other SLE manifestations at baseline, no statistically significant association was established between antimalarial therapy and renal manifestations. Conclusion This study provides insight regarding organ manifestations within a population-based sample. Most patients identified with SLE had other diagnostic evidence that supports an underlying diagnosis of SLE. No protective effects for antimalarial agents against renal manifestations could be established in this population-based cohort.

  10. Hydro-Quebec to complete series compensation protection by 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Champagne, L

    1991-09-01

    Hydro-Quebec's 735-kV transmission system is characterized by remote hydroelectric power plants located far north of main load centers, making it difficult to maintain dynamic stability of the system in the case of faults. The utility is planning to install series compensation on its 735-kV network from 1992 to 1995 in order to correct for the reactive impedance of the transmission lines, thereby removing load electrically closer to the points of generation. Series compensation in the form of capacitor banks with overvoltage protection will be installed at line ends and will replace large numbers of conventional electromagnetic or electronic distance relays currently used as line protection equipment. Three Manicouagan-Levis lines and the Micoua-Laurentides line will be center-compensated at 17%. A total of thirty-seven 735-kV lines will be series-compensated at ca 40%. Two separate sets of tests were conducted to select the new series compensation system. Following a market study, eight systems of line protection relays were selected as most likely to operate on a series compensated system. All were performance tested on a transient network analyzer in a simulation involving all components of the 735-kV system with some exceptions. Relays singled out in standard tests were put to a series of more specific tests on the Abitibi-LaVerendrye line, where the largest number of relay malfunctions had been recorded. A current differential relay and a superimposed directional relay were recommended as the two primary protective systems to be installed. Backup protection will be provided by using one of the distance relays with memory polarization. 3 figs.

  11. Characteristics of Intracrater Thermal Anomalies in Southwestern Margaritifer Terra

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, M. L.; Hamilton, V. E.

    2005-03-01

    We use thermophysical properties, albedo, short wavelength emissivity, composition, and geomorphology to understand the formation of anomalously warm intracrater deposits in southwestern Margaritifer Terra.

  12. Psychopathology and Suicide among Quebec Physicians: A Nested Case Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Gagné

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To describe a psychiatric profile and characteristics of physicians who killed themselves in Quebec between 1992 and 2009. Method. The cases of 36 physicians (7 females and 29 males and 36 nonphysicians who committed suicide were matched for age and gender and examined in a nested case control design. All subjects were judged as definite suicide by the Quebec Coroner Head Office. Consensus regarding DSM-IV diagnoses was established by two forensic psychiatrists. Results. Rates of all Axis I diagnoses were 83% for physicians and 91% for nonphysicians at the time of suicide. Major depressive disorders were the most frequently observed pathology in both groups (61% and 56%, resp.. Conclusions. Physicians and nonphysicians who committed suicide in Quebec suffered from the same type of psychiatric disorder at the time of killing themselves. The findings advocate strongly for more efficient suicide prevention measures including early detection and treatment of mood disorders for the physicians.

  13. Cost-benefit analysis of Hydro-Quebec's energy conservation programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsenault, E.

    1993-09-01

    A cost-benefit analysis is presented of the energy conservation programs of Hydro-Quebec for 1991 to 2010. Three possible scenarios are simulated. In the first scenario, Hydro-Quebec data are used without modification. In the second, the simulation is carried out in the absence of the Hydro-Quebec programs, and in the third, it is assumed that any economies achieved are only for the short term. A comparison between these simulations allows determination of results concerning the advantages and the costs which the programs introduce for the three groups comprising society: the consumer, the producer, and the government. The results of these comparisons show that the consumer, the producer, and the whole society gain benefits from the energy conservation programs, while the government loses. 13 refs., 13 figs., 14 tabs

  14. Proposed Hydro-Quebec development plan, 1990-1992: Horizon 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The supply and demand for electric power in Quebec are reviewed and forecasts of future demand are established, using various scenarios of demographic, economic, and energy development. Options for meeting future demand at Hydro-Quebec are assessed, including the construction of new generation and transmission facilities, rehabilitation of existing facilities, improving electrical energy efficiency, and conservation strategies. These options are considered while applying the principle of sustainable development that respects the environment. In addition, objectives and strategies are presented for improving the quality of service and internal operations. Financial forecasts for Hydro-Quebec are proposed which take into account the forecast changes in the utility's cost and revenue factors and its self-financing requirements. 36 figs., 54 tabs

  15. Natural resources: adjusting and innovating - Hydro-Quebec in the global age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouellet, D.

    1995-01-01

    Although it is believed that the information economy is replacing the mass economy, many companies continue to grow on economies based on natural resources. Recent aggressive growth by Hydro-Quebec in the highly competitive market for energy products was singled out as one of the success stories. Among other things, Hydro-Quebec was reported to focus attention on the globalization of electricity products, particularly in Asia, Europe and Africa. The corporation was said to cooperate with other utilities companies such as Ontario Hydro and Power Asia Assets Corporation to diversify its markets abroad. Hydro-Quebec is also marketing new products, developed in its laboratories and by subsidiaries, such as power system simulators and power system planning and management systems, on a global scale

  16. St. René: the Patron Saint of Anaesthetists and a Patron Saint of Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calverley, R K

    1980-01-01

    René Goupil, the Patron Saint of Anaesthetists, and a Patron Saint of Canada, was born in Angers, France in 1608 and studied surgery. He joined the Jesuits as a donné or volunteer worker in 1640 and served in the then tiny colony of Quebec as one of the first medical workers of Canada. After earning meritorious praise for his skills, he again volunteered to attend the Hurons at Sainte Marie, a mission far beyond the frontiers. René's canoe party was ambushed. He was captured by the Mohawks and endured eight weeks of cruel torture before being killed on September 29, 1642. René was the first of eight North American martyrs whose dedication was recognized by canonization in 1930. St. René was appointed Patron Saint of Anaesthetists in 1951.

  17. Uranium in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-09-01

    Canadian uranium exploration and development efforts in 1985 and 1986 resulted in a significant increase in estimates of measured uranium resources. New discoveries have more than made up for production during 1985 and 1986, and for the elimination of some resources from the overall estimates, due to the sustained upward pressure on production costs and the stagnation of uranium prices in real terms. Canada possesses a large portion of the world's uranium resources that are of current economic interest and remains the major focus of inter-national uranium exploration activity. Expenditures for uranium exploration in Canada in 1985 and 1986 were $32 million and $33 million, respectively. Although much lower than the $130 million total reported for 1979, expenditures for 1987 are forecast to increase. Exploration and surface development drilling in 1985 and 1986 were reported to be 183 000 m and 165σ2 000 m, respectively, 85 per cent of which was in Saskatchewan. Canada has maintained its position as the world's leading producer and exporter of uranium. By the year 2000, Canada's annual uranium requirements will be about 2 100 tU. Canada's known uranium resources are more than sufficient to meet the 30-year fuel requirements of those reactors in Canada that are either in operation now or expected to be in service by the late 1990s. A substantial portion of Canada's identified uranium resources is thus surplus to Canadian needs and available for export. Annual sales currently approach $1 billion, of which exports account for 85 per cent. Forward domestic and export contract commitments totalled 73 000 tU and 62 000 tU, respectively, as of early 1987

  18. Canada, a big energy consumer : a regional perspective : analysis in brief

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menard, M.

    2005-01-01

    Canada's energy consumption in 2002 ranked almost equal to that of the United States. This high energy consumption can be attributed to long winters, long travel distances and an economy based on high energy consuming industries such as mining, forestry, petrochemical, pulp and paper, aluminium smelters, refining and steel manufacturing. This report describes the energy consumption in various regions of Canada between 1990 and 2003, a time in which total energy consumption increased by 23 per cent. This increase in energy was compared to variations in population and economic activity. The largest increase in energy consumption occurred in Alberta due to a surge in population and economic expansion in high energy consuming industries such as the petroleum and oil sands industry. Saskatchewan had the second-highest increase in energy consumption followed by Quebec, Ontario and British Columbia. The lowest increase in energy consumption was in the northern region and Manitoba. Canada has made a commitment to the Kyoto Protocol to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 6 per cent. As a large consumer of energy from non-renewable energy resources, Canada is looking into substituting energy types that emit fewer greenhouse gases in order to meet this target. The report revealed that Canada's energy profile is not the same across the country and varies in terms of economy, weather, geography, geology and energy sources. refs., tabs., figs

  19. Ethical considerations in the regulation of euthanasia and physician-assisted death in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Joshua T; Foreman, Thomas; Kekewich, Michael

    2015-11-01

    On February 6th 2015 the Supreme Court of Canada (SCC) released their decision on Carter v Canada (Attorney General) to uphold a judgment from a lower court which determined that the current prohibition in Canada on physician-assisted dying violated the s. 7 [Charter of Rights and Freedoms] rights of competent adults whose medical condition causes intolerable suffering. The purpose of this piece is to briefly examine current regulations from Oregon (USA), Belgium, and the Netherlands, in which physician-assisted death and/or euthanasia is currently permitted, as well as from the province of Quebec which recently passed Bill-52, "An Act Respecting End-of-Life Care." We present ethical considerations that would be pertinent in the development of policies and regulations across Canada in light of this SCC decision: patient and provider autonomy, determining a relevant decision-making standard for practice, and explicating challenges with the SCC criteria for assisted-death eligibility with special consideration to the provision of assisted-death, and review of assisted-death cases. [It is not the goal of this paper to address all questions related to the regulation and policy development of euthanasia and assisted death in Canada, but rather to stimulate and guide the conversations in these areas for policy makers, professional bodies, and regulators.]. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Hydropower developments in Canada: number, size and jurisdictional and ecological distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Peter G.; Hanneman, Matt; Cheng, Ryan [Global Forest Watch Canada (Canada)

    2011-08-15

    For over 200 years, energy production and consumption, along with all human activities, have been contributing to global warming. This report is part of a project that examines 10 major energy sectors to provide information on Canada's energy options in the face of climate change; this present study gives information on hydropower reservoirs and associated dams in Canada. The mapping, jurisdictional and ecological distribution of reservoirs and dams across Canada is provided herein. Canada's hydropower installations are composed of 271 large hydropower facilities covering 58,015 km2 with a capacity of 71,857 MW, accounting for 44% of Canada's total technical hydroelectric capacity. Quebec, Ontario and British Columbia are the provinces with the most large hydropower dams; 19% of the watersheds are occupied in part by hydropower reservoirs and the taiga shield, boreal shield and montane cordillera ecozones contain most of the reservoir areas. The majority of future developments are expected to be built within 5km of intact forest landscapes.

  1. CONCEPTUAL DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE PACIFIC, ATLANTIC AND ARCTIC TSUNAMI WARNING SYSTEMS FOR CANADA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.S. Murty

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Canada has coastlines on three of the four oceans on the globe, namely, the Pacific, Atlantic and Arctic oceans. The Pacific and Atlantic oceans are connected to the Arctic Ocean in the north, but still they are three distinct oceans, and need three individual tsunami warning systems. Tsunamis in the Arctic Ocean are not as well documented as in the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. From what is known, tsunamis in the Arctic Ocean are rare and probably are small in amplitude. Because of very low population density, around the Canadian Arctic, at present, there is no priority for a tsunami warning system for Arctic Canada. For the Pacific Ocean, a tsunami warning system is in existence since 1948. In at least one sense, the warning aspects of the tsunami warning system for the Pacific coast of Canada, is relatively simple and straight forward, because it involves only the federal government (PSEPC and the provincial government of British Columbia (PEP. For the Atlantic Ocean, A tsunami warning system is now being established. The warning aspects will be some what more complex for eastern Canada, since it not only involves the federal government, but also five provinces, namely, Newfoundland and Labrador, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island and Quebec. The Alaska tsunami warning center (ATWC in Palmer, Alaska, provides tsunami warnings for both Pacific and Atlantic Canada.

  2. Radiological impact of diagnostic nuclear medicine technology on the Quebec population (patients and workers) in 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renaud, L.; Blanchette, J.

    1992-01-01

    Using the results of a six month survey on the doses received by non-monitored hospital workers from diagnostic nuclear medicine patients (DNMP) in three hospitals and published statistics on Quebec's workers and hospitals, an evaluation of the radiological impact of DNMP has been calculated on the Quebec's population. In 1989, diagnostic nuclear medicine gave an average of 6.4 mSv/act or a total of 2,800 sv-man. The diagnostic nuclear medicine technologists' community received 0.4 Sv-man and the non-monitored hospital workers 1.7 Sv-man from the DNMP in the same year. (author)

  3. Towards a Community-Based Dementia Care Strategy: A Perspective from Quebec.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godard-Sebillotte, Claire; Vedel, Isabelle; Bergman, Howard

    Morton-Chang et al. highlighted in their article the key strategic pillars of a community-based dementia care strategy: put "people first," support informal caregiving and enable "ground up" innovation and change. In our commentary, we draw upon our experience as authors of the Quebec Alzheimer Plan and evaluators of its implementation by the Quebec Ministry of Health and Social Services (MSSS). To us, a sustainable dementia care strategy entails a patient-centred approach, grounded in primary care, caring for persons with dementia at every stage of the disease. Implementation of such a strategy requires an ongoing effort to allow innovation adoption by clinicians and organizations.

  4. Introduction of remote meter reading for Hydro-Quebec's residential customers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hache, R.; Pouliot, D.

    1992-01-01

    In 1986 Hydro-Quebec set a province-wide objective, under its program to improve the quality of customer service, to achieve 95% billing based on real readings. Using market studies, Hydro-Quebec was able to determine a population (approximately 10% of customers) of hard-to-access meters. To reach the objective, they examined the options of using additional human resources or using new technology. In 1988, they decided to adopt inbound technology (TELEREADER) and carry out a pilot project to validate certain aspects of the technology. This document gives an introduction to TELEREADER, along with its requirements, parameters and information on its installation.

  5. Pricing of alcohol in Canada: A comparison of provincial policies and harm-reduction opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesbrecht, Norman; Wettlaufer, Ashley; Thomas, Gerald; Stockwell, Tim; Thompson, Kara; April, Nicole; Asbridge, Mark; Cukier, Samantha; Mann, Robert; McAllister, Janet; Murie, Andrew; Pauley, Chris; Plamondon, Laurie; Vallance, Kate

    2016-05-01

    Alcohol pricing is an effective prevention policy. This paper compares the 10 Canadian provinces on three research-based alcohol pricing policies-minimum pricing, pricing by alcohol content and maintaining prices relative to inflation. The selection of these three policies was based on systematic reviews and seminal research papers. Provincial data for 2012 were obtained from Statistics Canada and relevant provincial ministries, subsequently sent to provincial authorities for verification, and then scored by team members. All provinces, except for Alberta, have minimum prices for at least one beverage type sold in off-premise outlets. All provinces, except for British Columbia and Quebec, have separate (and higher) minimum pricing for on-premise establishments. Regarding pricing on alcohol content, western and central provinces typically scored higher than provinces in Eastern Canada. Generally, minimum prices were lower than the recommended $1.50 per standard drink for off-premise outlets and $3.00 per standard drink in on-premise venues. Seven of 10 provinces scored 60% or higher compared to the ideal on indexing prices to inflation. Prices for a representative basket of alcohol products in Ontario and Quebec have lagged significantly behind inflation since 2006. While examples of evidence-based alcohol pricing policies can be found in every jurisdiction in Canada, significant inter-provincial variation leaves substantial unrealised potential for further reducing alcohol-related harm and costs. This comparative assessment of alcohol price policies provides clear indications of how individual provinces could adjust their pricing policies and practices to improve public health and safety. [Giesbrecht N, Wettlaufer A, Thomas G, Stockwell T, Thompson K, April N, Asbridge M, Cukier S, Mann R, McAllister J, Murie A, Pauley C, Plamondon L, Vallance K. Pricing of alcohol in Canada: A comparison of provincial policies and harm-reduction opportunities. Drug Alcohol Rev

  6. Canada's uranium policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, K.L.; Williams, R.M.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an update on the Canadian Government policies which affect the uranium industry and, where appropriate, to provide some background on the development of these policies. This review is timely because of two recent announcements by the Minister of Energy, Mines and Resources - one concerning the Canadian Government's renewed commitment to maintain the nuclear power option for Canada, and the other concerning some adjustments to Canada's uranium export policy. The future of Canada's nuclear industry was subject to a thorough review by the Canadian Government during 1989. This review occurred at a time when environmental issues were attracting increasing attention around the world, and the environmental advantages of nuclear power were becoming increasingly recognised. The strong support for the nuclear industry in Canada is consistent with the government's long-standing efforts to maintain Canada's position as a reliable and competitive supplier of uranium. This paper is particularly devoted to an outline of the results of the uranium export policy review. (author)

  7. Building Canada: Phase One

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2004-04-15

    The 'Building Canada' program modelled after the 'Building America' program, aims at increasing energy efficiency and affordability, primarily for single family homes. The program takes a holistic and whole house view, employing a systems approach and is committed to continuous improvement through testing, evaluation, retesting and novel construction practices. The program's objective is to re-engineer house designs so that builders can take advantage of advanced products and achieve maximum efficiency. Building Canada aims to achieve its objectives through partnership with the housing industry, focusing on increasing energy efficiency while reducing construction time, using and wasting fewer materials, forestalling call backs, and reducing overall costs. The Building Canada procedures encompass marketing, research of builder's operations, re-engineering mechanical systems, framing components and techniques, moisture control and thermal performance, construction, resolution of problems in re-engineered homes, and discussion of results in demonstration homes. The program as a whole is built on the feasibility study of a Building Canada program carried out in Nova Scotia and Ontario. Some of the results of this pilot study summarized in this report indicate that the Building Canada is not suitable for use by small builders. Benefits are most likely to be realized by only by builders constructing more than 100 homes annually.

  8. National Pharmacare in Canada: 2019 or Bust?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owen Adams

    2017-03-01

    even be the appropriate Canadian system, particularly in light of how significant a factor private coverage already is in Canada. A pharmacare plan might include anything from the drastic step of eliminating all private coverage and subsidizing all prescription medicine for all patients regardless of income, to a much narrower program that covers some portion of the cost of only some drugs, for some income levels. There are also countless different possible models between those two. The matter of how much each level of government, provincial/territorial or federal, would be responsible for funding drugs is a whole other, rather thorny matter. The timing of this latest discussion about pharmacare — stimulated mainly by recent proposals and fuelled by the success of the pan-Canadian Pharmaceutical Alliance in negotiating better bulk drug prices — is also particularly unfavourable. There has been a sudden shift in the dynamic between the federal government and the provinces, where before premiers stood together and collectively bargained with the federal government for health-care funding, but recently splintered and are now making individual deals (while Quebec continues to insist that it must have complete freedom from Ottawa to design its own health system. The difficult fiscal situation across Canada, with so many governments running up debts, would also seem to make it highly unlikely that there will be much enthusiasm for embarking on a new and sizeable social program costing billions of dollars a year. Lacking enough leaders to passionately champion it, and with a public generally uninterested and very unclear on what a national pharmacare program would even entail, it seems that the current discussion about implementing a pharmacare system may come to a stall, like so many discussions before it

  9. Internalized Homophobia as a Partial Mediator between Homophobic Bullying and Self-Esteem among Sexual Minority Youths in Quebec (Canada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blais, Martin; Gervais, Jesse; Hébert, Martine

    2016-01-01

    Verbal/psychological homophobic bullying is widespread among sexual minority youths. Homophobic bullying has been associated with both high internalized homophobia and low self-esteem. The objectives were to document verbal/psychological homophobic bullying among sexual minority youths and to model the relationships between homophobic bullying, internalized homophobia and self-esteem. Method: A community sample of 300 sexual minority youths aged 14 to 22 years old was used. A structural equations model was tested using a nonlinear, robust estimator implemented in Mplus. The model postulated that homophobic bullying impacts self-esteem both directly and indirectly, via internalized homophobia. Results: 60.7% of the sample reported at least on form of verbal/psychological homophobic bullying. The model explained 29% of the variance of self-esteem, 19.6% of the variance of internalized homophobia and 5.3% of the verbal/psychological homophobic bullying. The model suggests that the relationship between verbal/psychological homophobic bullying and self-esteem is partially mediated by internalized homophobia. Conclusion: Our results underscore the importance of initiatives to prevent homophobic bullying in order to prevent its negative effects on well-being of sexual minority youths. PMID:24714888

  10. Wastewater sludge fertilization: Biomass productivity and heavy metal bioaccumulation in two Salix species grown in southern Quebec (Canada)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teodorescu, T.I.; Labrecque, M.; Daigle, S.; Poisson, G.

    1993-01-01

    More than other kind of trees, fast growing tree species, such as willows, can profit from sludge application. While sludges are good fertilizers, they may also contain heavy metals which could reduce productivity and cause risks to the environment. The main aims of the present research were to study: (1) the production capacity of Salix discolor and Salix viminalis when supplied with various amounts of dried and pelleted sludge; (2) the uptake, and accumulation of heavy metals. Unrooted cuttings were planted on sandy soil in large plastic pots and grown in outdoors for 20-week period. Five doses of sludge were applied: equivalent of 200 (T1), 160 (T2), 120 (T3), 80 (T4) and 40 (T5) kg N per ha. Trees which received the largest amount of sludge showed the best growth results. The stem-branch biomass was significantly higher for Salix viminalis. The relationship between the total yield biomass Y (t/ha) and the rate of fertilization X (kg N/ha) is linear. The regression equations of prediction biomass production were established as following: Salix discolor Y = 1.807 + 0.037X and Salix viminalis Y = 2.578 + 0.042X. For both species, greatest stems-branch biomass per gram of N applied were produced by treatments 1 and 2. The amount of nitrogen per leaf area (N/LA) and per leaf dry weight (N/LW), were higher for Salix viminalis which leads us believe that its photosynthetic activity was better. The transfer coefficient did not vary between the species but was significantly different for Cd and Zn. The plants were able to absorb Cd and Zn but less of Ni, Hg and Cu and Pb. It was concluded that the dried and pelleted sludge can be a good fertilizer. The treatment is beneficial when Salix discolor and particulary Salix viminalis are used as vegetation filters for wastewater sludge purification and production purposes

  11. Actes des Journees de linguistique (Proceedings of the Linguistics Conference) (12th, Quebec City, Canada, March 26-27, 1998).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boissonneault, Chantal, Ed.

    Papers on language research include: "L'expression de l'opposition en Latin" ("The Expression of Opposition in Latin" (Claude Begin); "Le francais de l'Abitibi: characteristiques phonetiques et origine socio-geographique des locuteurs" ("The French of Abitibi: Phonetic Characteristics and Socio-Geographic Origin…

  12. Actes des Journees de linguistique (Proceedings of the Linguistics Conference) (14th, Quebec, Canada, March 23-24, 2000).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perron, Veronique, Ed.

    Papers on language research in this volume include the following: Phonetique ou phonologie: le chva dans les emprunts anglais en portugais (Phonetics or Phonology: The Schwa in English Loan Words to Portuguese) (Pascale Belanger); NewsExpert: exemple de l'application de la linguistique informatique a Internet (NewsExpert: An Example of Its…

  13. Uniportal video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery: safety, efficacy and learning curve during the first 250 cases in Quebec, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drevet, Gabrielle; Ugalde Figueroa, Paula

    2016-03-01

    Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) using a single incision (uniportal) may result in better pain control, earlier mobilization and shorter hospital stays. Here, we review the safety and efficiency of our initial experience with uniportal VATS and evaluate our learning curve. We conducted a retrospective review of uniportal VATS using a prospectively maintained departmental database and analyzed patients who had undergone a lung anatomic resection separately from patients who underwent other resections. To assess the learning curve, we compared the first 10 months of the study period with the second 10 months. From January 2014 to August 2015, 250 patients underwent intended uniportal VATS, including 180 lung anatomic resections (72%) and 70 other resections (28%). Lung anatomic resection was successfully completed using uniportal VATS in 153 patients (85%), which comprised all the anatomic segmentectomies (29 patients), 80% (4 of 5) of the pneumonectomies and 82% (120 of 146) of the lobectomies attempted. The majority of lung anatomic resections that required conversion to thoracotomy occurred in the first half of our study period. Seventy patients underwent other uniportal VATS resections. Wedge resections were the most common of these procedures (25 patients, 35.7%). Although 24 of the 70 patients (34%) required the placement of additional ports, none required conversion to thoracotomy. Uniportal VATS was safe and feasible for both standard and complex pulmonary resections. However, when used for pulmonary anatomic resections, uniportal VATS entails a steep learning curve.

  14. The Quebec connection : though based in Canada, all of ProSep's sales are foreign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2010-04-15

    Montreal-based ProSep Inc. developed a method for stripping hydrocarbons from water. The potential uses for the technology include oil spill cleanups and cleaning bilge water and industrial wash water. Seven years ago, ProSep targeted the Alberta oilsands and the North Sea markets with its technology because water produced with bitumen from steam assisted gravity drainage wells had to be purified before going back into the steam boilers for re-injection, and new regulations in the North Sea were requiring operators to reduce hydrocarbon discharges into the ocean. Upon selling a few units to large companies operating in the North Sea, ProSep sold several units to a large national oil company in the Middle East. As stock spiked in 2006, the company raised substantial capital and acquired Pure Group AS of Stavanger, Norway, in 2007. Pure Group's leading technology for oil, gas and water treatment is called the CTour, which mixes condensate with produced water to improve coalescence of dispersed and dissolved oil droplets. In the Middle East, Aramco has successfully tested ProSep's ProSalt system as a means of saving millions of gallons of wash water per year. Also in the Middle East, ProSep sold a TORR unit as part of a package to Al-Rashed Company, a leading contractor in Kuwait. The contract was to supply a complete crude oil processing train for separation, dehydration and desalting at Kuwait Oil Company's Ratqa and Abdali facility in northern Kuwait. The TORR is designed to remove dispersed hydrocarbons from produced water without the use of chemicals. 2 figs.

  15. Fifty-year spatiotemporal analysis of landscape changes in the Mont Saint-Hilaire UNESCO Biosphere Reserve (Quebec, Canada).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béliveau, Marc; Germain, Daniel; Ianăş, Ana-Neli

    2017-05-01

    Diachronic analysis with a GIS-based classification of land-use changes based on aerial photographs, orthophotos, topographic maps, geotechnical reports, urban plans, and using landscape metrics has permitted insight into the driving forces responsible for landscape fragmentation in the Mont Saint-Hilaire (MSH) Biosphere Reserve over the period 1958-2015. Although the occurrence of exogenous factors, such as extreme weather and fires, can have a significant influence on the fragmentation of the territory in time and space, the accelerated development of the built environment (+470%) is nevertheless found to be primarily responsible for landscape fragmentation and the loss of areas formerly occupied by orchards, agriculture, and woodlands. The landscape metrics used corroborate these results, with a simplification of the shape of polygons, and once again reveal the difficulties of harmonizing different land uses. MSH has become somewhat of a forest island in a sea of residential development and agriculture. To counter this isolation of fragmented habitat components, forest corridors have been proposed and developed for the Biosphere Reserve and particularly for the core area. Two corridors, to the north and south, are used to connect the protected area and other wooded areas at the regional scale, in order to promote genetic exchange between populations of various species. In that regard, the forest buffer zone around the hill continues to play a key role and has great ecological value for species and ecological preservation and conservation. However, appropriate management and landscape preservation actions should recognize and focus on landscape composition and the associated geographical configuration.

  16. Actes des Journees de linguistique (Proceedings of the Linguistics Conference) (15th, Quebec, Canada, March 15-16, 2001).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulet, Marie-Josee, Ed.

    Papers on language research in this volume include the following: "Temporalite en francais de France. Differences dans la conceptualisation du temps et son expression dans un texte narratif oral" ("Differences in the Conceptualization of Time and Its Expression in Oral Narratives") (Natalia Dankova); "La traduction des…

  17. Urban quality of life and industrial project management: the case of Alcan aluminium smelter in Alma, Quebec, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simard, M.

    2003-01-01

    This quality-of-life study involving the population of Alma (30 126 inhabitants) is part of a five-year, multidisciplinary research program entitled 'Modelisation du suivi des impacts sociaux de l'aluminerie Alma'. The goal of this research program is to document the social impacts arising from the establishment of the Alcan industrial mega-complex in Alma (see Map 1). The Alma smelter began operation in 2001. It employs 865 people and has a production capacity of 407 000 MT of aluminium ingots. The research program is being carried out in parallel with the project, rather than retroactively. Thus, various thematic reports have been published on topics such as the project's economic spin-off and changes in the housing and transportation sectors. More specifically, this study aims to gauge the perceptions of Alma residents regarding their quality of life as stakeholders. In order to ensure that the study produced a more accurate indication of the community's evolution and to tie the study in with the various phases of the implementation of this industrial mega-project, it was conducted in three parts, i.e., in 1998, 2000 and 2002, corresponding to the planning, construction and operation phases. (author)

  18. Seamless electricity trade between Canada and US Northeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, J.-T.; Clavet, Frederic; Ondo, J.-C.

    2005-01-01

    We analyze how the wholesale electricity market deregulation could modify exchanges between three Canadian regions (Ontario, Quebec and New Brunswick) and two US regions (New York and New England), on the base of their loads and available resources when the regulatory change took place in 1997. We find that the pre-1997 exchanges already made possible fuel cost savings of $397.2 million per year while deregulation adds annual savings of $358.7 million. Canadian regions are the main beneficiaries under the assumption that exports are priced at the marginal costs of the importing regions. Imports from the Canadian regions, although significant, are not large enough to lower the marginal costs of the US regions. Hence electricity deregulation across the border should not significantly decrease prices in the US regions although the latter are becoming more dependent upon imports from Canada. Greenhouse gas emissions increase by 4.3 Mt CO 2 eq. in the wake of the open wholesale electricity market because of the low cost of coal, particularly in Ontario. Environmental concerns and the limited availability of additional hydroelectric power in Canada could change the trade patterns as electricity demand continue to grow

  19. A Bibliometric Analysis of Digestive Health Research in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Désirée Tuitt

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Measurement of the impact and influence of medical/scientific journals, and of individual researchers has become more widely practiced in recent decades. This is driven, in part, by the increased availability of data regarding citations of research articles, and by increased competition for research funding. Digestive disease research has been identified as a particularly strong discipline in Canada. The authors collected quantitative data on the impact and influence of Canadian digestive health research. The present study involved an analysis of the research impact (Hirsch factor and research influence (Influence factor of 106 digestive health researchers in Canada. Rankings of the top 25 researchers on the basis of the two metrics were dominated by the larger research groups at the University of Toronto (Toronto, Ontario, McMaster University (Hamilton, Ontario, and the Universities of Calgary (Calgary, Alberta and Alberta (Edmonton, Alberta, but with representation by other research groups at the Universities of Manitoba (Winnipeg, Manitoba, Western Ontario (London, Ontario and McGill University (Montreal, Quebec. Female and male researchers had similar scores for the two metrics, as did basic scientists versus clinical investigators. Strategic recruitment, particularly of established investigators, can have a major impact on the ranking of research groups. Comparing these metrics over different time frames can provide insights into the vulnerabilities and strengths of research groups.

  20. Alkali aggregate reactivity in concrete structures in western Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, D.R.; Empey, D.

    1989-01-01

    In several regions of Canada, particularly parts of Ontario, Quebec and the Maritime Provinces, research, testing and evaluation of aged concrete structures in the field has shown that alkali aggregate reactivity can give rise to pronounced concrete deterioration, particularly in hydraulic structures subjected to saturation or alternate wetting and drying such as locks, dams, canals, etc. Concrete deterioration is mainly caused by alkali-silica reactions and alkali-carbonate reactions, but a third type of deterioration involves slow/late expanding alkali-silicate/silica reactivity. The alkalies NaOH and KOH in the concrete pore solutions are mainly responsible for attack on expansive rocks and minerals in concrete. Methods for evaluating alkali-aggregate reaction potential in aggregates, and field and laboratory methods for detecting deterioration are discussed. Examples of alkali-aggregate reactions in structures is western Canada are detailed, including a water reservoir at Canadian Forces Base Chilliwack in British Columbia, the Oldman River diversion and flume, the Lundbreck Falls Bridge, and the St Mary's Reservoir spillway, all in southern Alberta. Mitigative measures include avoidance of use of suspect aggregates, but if this cannot be avoided it is recommended to keep the total alkalies in the concrete as low as possible and minimize opportunities for saturation of concrete by moisture. 16 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab

  1. Canada's domestic nuclear issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The Interfaith Program for Public Awareness of Nuclear Issues (IPPANI) is a committee of representatives of religious groups in Toronto, a group of people concerned about the moral and ethical implications of the operation of Canada's nuclear industry and of its exports to other countries. The faith groups represented are the Anglican Diocese of Toronto, the Baha'i Community of Canada, the Jewish Community of Toronto, the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Toronto and the United Church of Canada Toronto Conference. Wishing to encourage the Canadian government to enquire into this broad question, the faith groups established IPPANI and assigned to it the task of enhancing their knowledge of the nuclear industry. IPPANI was to develop an effective set of questions to be placed before governments and to promote public discussion so that governments might become more responsive to these issues

  2. Cardiac Rehabilitation Series: Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Sherry L.; Bennett, Stephanie; Ardern, Chris I.; Clark, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is among the leading causes of mortality and morbidity in Canada. Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) has a long robust history here, and there are established clinical practice guidelines. While the effectiveness of CR in the Canadian context is clear, only 34% of eligible patients participate, and strategies to increase access for under-represented groups (e.g., women, ethnic minority groups) are not yet universally applied. Identified CR barriers include lack of referral and physician recommendation, travel and distance, and low perceived need. Indeed there is now a national policy position recommending systematic inpatient referral to CR in Canada. Recent development of 30 CR Quality Indicators and the burgeoning national CR registry will enable further measurement and improvement of the quality of CR care in Canada. Finally, the Canadian Association of CR is one of the founding members of the International Council of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation, to promote CR globally. PMID:24607018

  3. Comparative phytosociological investigation of subalpine alder thickets in southwestern Alaska and the North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Stephen S.; Talbot, Sandra L.; Daniëls, F. J. A.

    2005-01-01

    We present the first vegetation analysis of subalpine alder (Alnus viridis) thickets in southwestern Alaska. The data are primarily from mesic, hilly and mountainous sites ranging from the westernmost tip of the Alaska Peninsula to the northern Kenai Peninsula, spanning 1,000 km on an E–W gradient and 700 km on a N–S gradient. 127 relevés from 18 sites represent the range of structural and compositional variation in the matrix of vegetation and landform diversity. Data were analyzed by multivariate and traditional Braun-Blanquet methods. One association is distinguished, Sambuco racemosi-Alnetum viridis ass. nov. with three new subassociations, oplopanacetosum horridi, typicum, and rubetosum spectabilis with the latter subdivided into four variants. These phytocoena are well-differentiated, although they form a syntaxonomical continuum. The composition and structure of these communities are described and interpreted in relation to complex environmental factors; these are analyzed using Jancey's ranking on F-values. Community composition is primarily related to elevation, longitude, soil moisture, and latitude. Phytogeographic comparison of southwestern Alaska alder communities with those elsewhere in the North Pacific suggests a close floristic relationship to those of southcentral, southeastern Alaska and coastal British Columbia, Canada. All these communities belong to the same association, while those of the eastern and southern parts of the Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia belong to a different association. Syntaxonomy of the 4 major communities is discussed. Within the Northern Hemisphere, vascular plant species of southwestern Alaska alder thickets primarily occur in East Asia and North America, 36 %; while 26 % are circumpolar, and 22 % are restricted to North America. From a latitudinal perspective, the distribution of vascular plant species within these alder thickets peaks in the high-subarctic, low-subarctic, and temperate latitudinal zones, with low

  4. Canada Among Nations 2014. Crisis and Reform: Canada and the ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    28 mai 2014 ... This 28th edition of the Canada Among Nations series examines the 2008 global financial crisis, its impact on Canada, and the country's historic and current role in the international financial system.

  5. Transformational Leadership and Teacher Motivation in Southwestern Arizona High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Catherine L.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between transformational leadership and teacher motivation in Southwestern Arizona high schools. Teachers in a school district in Southwestern Arizona comprised of high schools were surveyed using two instruments, Leithwood and Jantzi's (1998) The Leadership and Management of Schools in…

  6. Some lessons in artificial regeneration from southwestern Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    William I. Stein

    1955-01-01

    Natural reproduction has often proved undependable for restocking cutovers and burns in the mixed-conifer forest types of southwestern Oregon. These types, covering 6,000 square miles of productive forest land in the five southwestern Oregon counties, are composed of many species--principally Douglas fir, Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco;...

  7. Rural versus urban academic hospital mortality following stroke in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleet, Richard; Bussières, Sylvain; Tounkara, Fatoumata Korika; Turcotte, Stéphane; Légaré, France; Plant, Jeff; Poitras, Julien; Archambault, Patrick M; Dupuis, Gilles

    2018-01-01

    Stroke is one of the leading causes of death in Canada. While stroke care has improved dramatically over the last decade, outcomes following stroke among patients treated in rural hospitals have not yet been reported in Canada. To describe variation in 30-day post-stroke in-hospital mortality rates between rural and urban academic hospitals in Canada. We also examined 24/7 in-hospital access to CT scanners and selected services in rural hospitals. We included Canadian Institute for Health Information (CIHI) data on adjusted 30-day in-hospital mortality following stroke from 2007 to 2011 for all acute care hospitals in Canada excluding Quebec and the Territories. We categorized rural hospitals as those located in rural small towns providing 24/7 emergency physician coverage with inpatient beds. Urban hospitals were academic centres designated as Level 1 or 2 trauma centres. We computed descriptive data on local access to a CT scanner and other services and compared mean 30-day adjusted post-stroke mortality rates for rural and urban hospitals to the overall Canadian rate. A total of 286 rural hospitals (3.4 million emergency department (ED) visits/year) and 24 urban hospitals (1.5 million ED visits/year) met inclusion criteria. From 2007 to 2011, 30-day in-hospital mortality rates following stroke were significantly higher in rural than in urban hospitals and higher than the Canadian average for every year except 2008 (rural average range = 18.26 to 21.04 and urban average range = 14.11 to 16.78). Only 11% of rural hospitals had a CT-scanner, 1% had MRI, 21% had in-hospital ICU, 94% had laboratory and 92% had basic x-ray facilities. Rural hospitals in Canada had higher 30-day in-hospital mortality rates following stroke than urban academic hospitals and the Canadian average. Rural hospitals also have very limited local access to CT scanners and ICUs. These rural/urban discrepancies are cause for concern in the context of Canada's universal health care system.

  8. Important facts on Canada's natural resources (as of November 2004)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This brochure presents a statistical account of Canada's natural resources sector, including the forest sector, mineral and mining sector, and energy producing sector. Canada's natural resources sectors and allied industries have contributed significantly to the country's economic growth and job creation for several decades. This brochure includes facts for 2003 and information on gross domestic products, direct employment, new capital investment, trade, imports, and balance of trade for each of the 3 sectors. The national economic importance of each sector was also outlined. In 2003, the forest sector contributed $33.7 billion to the Canadian economy (3 per cent of the national gross domestic product). Forest products were a major contributor to Canada's surplus balance of trade in 2003, with major commodities being softwood lumber, newsprint and wood pulp. Canada is also among the largest mining nations in the world, producing more than 60 minerals and metals. In 2003, the value of production from Canadian mining, mineral-processing and metal producing industries was about $50 billion (4 per cent of the national gross domestic product). The brochure includes a table that ranks 2003 world production and exports of uranium, nickel, zinc, gold, copper, potash, asbestos, gypsum and salt. Approximately 80 per cent of Canada's mineral production is exported. The brochure also presents data on the remaining established reserves in 2002 for natural gas (59.8 trillion cubic feet), crude oil (179.1 billion barrels), and primary energy production by commodity. These were 41.5 per cent gas, 32.9 per cent petroleum, 9.5 per cent electricity, 9.0 per cent coal, and 4.0 per cent wood waste. Alberta accounted for 63 per cent of total energy production, followed by British Columbia at 13 per cent, Saskatchewan at 9 per cent, Quebec at 4 per cent, and Ontario at 2 per cent. The international importance of geomatics and geoscience in Canada was also highlighted. This sector

  9. Understanding the Difficulties Hindering Inter-Agency Collaboration for Students with Special Needs in Quebec

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetreault, Sylvie; Patenaude, David; McLaughlin, Dayna; Freeman, Andrew; Gascon, Hubert; Beaupré, Pauline; Carrière, Monique; Deschênes, Pascale Marier

    2015-01-01

    In 2003, the government of Quebec established the "Agreement for the Complementarity of Services Between the Health and Social Services Network and the Education Network" to define principles and obligations for inter-agency collaboration aimed at students with special needs and their families. This study documents the perspectives of…

  10. The 12th 735-kV transmission line project: Hydro-Quebec network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Hydro-Quebec is proposing to construct a 735-kV transmission line from the Chissibi station near the LG3 hydroelectric power plant to the Jacques-Cartier station near Quebec City. The width of the right-of-way will generally be 90 m and it is intended to install the line in two stages. The Chissibi-Chibougamau section should enter service in 1993 and the Chibougamau-Cartier section in 1994. The cost of the line is estimated at $1.21 billion, of which $900 million is for line construction and $310 million for station equipment. Prospective corridors for the line route have been selected, portions of which enable twinning with Hydro-Quebec's existing 9th 735-kV line. A series of hearings on the environmental and other impacts of the power line project was held by the Bureau d'audiences publiques sur l'environnement and results are summarized along with the views of the Bureau. The summary describes the justification for the project, the choice of the transmission line route, the evaluation of the impacts of the project on the natural and human environments, health effects due to magnetic fields, and effects on the economic development of northern Quebec. Recommendations are given for mitigating the impacts of the project. 13 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs

  11. Participation and environment: The realization of environmental public audiences in the United States, Quebec and Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer de Lemos, Chelen

    2001-01-01

    This article examines three experiences accomplishment of environmental public hearings as mechanisms of society participation in discussion and decision-making concerning the environmental problems: the United States experience, the Quebec experience and the Brazil experience. The analysis focuses the most significant aspects of the citizen participation for the state environment management and effective resolution of the environmental problems

  12. Applying the Quebec Task Force criteria as a frame of reference for studies of whiplash injuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versteegen, GJ; van Es, FD; Kingma, J; Meijler, WJ; ten Duis, HJ

    Research prior to 1995 showed a diversity of either inclusion or exclusion criteria (or both) for diagnosing whiplash injury. As a consequence, the Quebec Task Force (QTF) developed expert-based criteria, which may be considered as a the 'new' gold standard. Here, we examined the inclusion criteria

  13. Energy efficiency at Hydro-Quebec: Why forget the substitution of electricity by natural gas?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, J.-T.

    1994-01-01

    Hydro-Quebec has launched an energy program which will cost $1.9 billion and which intends to save 9.3 TWh of electricity consumption by the year 2000, equivalent to 5.6% of the forecasted electricity consumption. The program only considers electricity and ignores other energy sources. An analysis is conducted to determine whether the subsidies that Hydro-Quebec is prepared to spend in each sector of the program would be sufficient to make up the difference between the cost of electricity and that of natural gas for the end-user. A positive response to this question will allow identification of a less costly way that Hydro-Quebec could realize its energy efficiency objectives. The analysis takes into account the marginal cost of electricity production, the average cost of energy efficiency measures, electricity prices, and the prices of natural gas and of gas-burning equipment. The results of a detailed analysis of four typical cases in the residential and commercial sectors indicate that market segments exist in which an energy efficiency program that includes substitution of other forms of energy for electricity would be preferable to a simple reduction in electricity consumption. However, the rationale for the Hydro-Quebec program is that electricity prices are based on historical average costs; as a result, electricity prices are lower than marginal costs. This problem should be addressed before considering expensive energy efficiency programs where the least-cost alternative is not even considered. 5 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  14. The impact of the development of external markets for electricity on the domestic price in Quebec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    St-Amour, Y.

    1990-03-01

    A study was conducted to establish the sensitivity of the average price of electricity in the domestic Quebec market with respect to the volume of electricity exported. Economic data are presented on electricity in relation to other forms of energy in the northwest North American continental framework. The state of electricity exports and the hydroelectric potential of Quebec with respect to the capacity of neighboring networks to utilize this potential are discussed. CANREM (Canadian Regionalized Electricity Model) is described and used to simulate the effect of electric power exports on the Quebec electricity price over a 23-year period starting in 1987. Three simulation scenarios are presented and analyzed. The results obtained indicate a significant increase in the domestic price during the time that generation and transmission installation is being carried out. In contrast, during the years when service is offered, the slowing of the increase in the price of electricity is the determining factor with regard to the net social gain which can be achieved over the long term for Quebec society. 75 refs., 10 figs., 18 tabs

  15. Tensions between Teaching Sexuality Education and Neoliberal Policy Reform in Quebec's Professional Competencies for Beginning Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Dan; McGray. Robert

    2015-01-01

    This research draws into question the effects that neoliberal policy reforms--with an emphasis on individual and measurable "competencies"--has on new teachers teaching sexuality education in Quebec. While we examine professional competencies that teachers can use to define their mandate for teaching sexuality education as a beginning…

  16. Analyzing Constructions of Polytheistic and Monotheistic Religious Traditions: A Critical Multicultural Approach to Textbooks in Quebec

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdou, Ehaab D.; Chan, W. Y. Alice

    2017-01-01

    How are religious traditions and exchanges between them constructed in textbooks used in Quebec? Through a critical discourse analysis of History and Citizenship Education, and Ethics and Religious Culture textbooks, we find that the Abrahamic monotheistic tradition is valorized, while non-Abrahamic monotheistic traditions and polytheism are…

  17. Lambs to the Slaughter? Young Francophones and the Role of English in Quebec Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakes, Leigh

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a resurgence of fears concerning the status of English in Quebec. Unlike in the past, many now claim that it is francophones themselves who risk undermining the achievements of 30 years of successful status planning. The finger is pointed in particular at young francophones, accused of adopting an unfettered…

  18. Crossing the Line in Quebec and Catalonia: The Consequences of the Linguistically "Mixed" Marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Paul E.

    2000-01-01

    The linguistically mixed marriage stands at he crossroads of important factors in the future of French in North American and Catalan in Europe: reversing language shift. While Quebec and Catalonia appear strikingly similar, strong evidence indicates that demographic, linguistic, socioeconomic, and even lifestyle factors may make linguistic exogamy…

  19. The take-over of Gaz Metropolitain by Hydro-Quebec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, J-T.

    1997-01-01

    The implications of a take-over of Gaz Metropolitain by Hydro-Quebec in early 1997 and the pricing of electricity and natural gas in Quebec were discussed. In January 1997, Hydro-Quebec purchased all the shares in Noverco that were formerly owned by SOQUIP. With this purchase, Hydro-Quebec became the major share holder in Noverco, the company that controls Gaz Metropolitain. This type of take-over, where an electrical utility purchases the interests in a natural gas distributor, has also been observed in the United States and is believed to be a consequence of the recent deregulation of the electricity market. In the near future, it is believed that consumers will probably pay for equivalent energy use (like heating or cooling) rather than separate tariffs for electricity or natural gas consumption. The recent popularity of gas-fueled electrical cogenerating stations is also believed to be an important factor in this take-over. 1 ref., 3 tabs

  20. The residential dual-energy program of Hydro-Quebec: An economic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergeron, C.; Bernard, J.-T.

    1991-01-01

    Higher than expected electricity consumption in recent years and increasing objections to capacity expansion on environmental grounds have led Quebec's government-owned electric utility, Hydro-Quebec, to launch an innovative program to reduce peak period residential electric heating demand. When the outside temperature drops below -12 degree C, customers who have opted for the program are charged 10 cents/kWh for their electricity (substantially above the 4.46 cents/kWh paid by normal residential customers) and they are automatically switched to a non-electric heating source, whereas above -12 degree C they pay 2.75 cents/kWh for all uses. A cost benefit analysis of this dual energy program finds that if, as Hydro-Quebec forecasts, 150,000 residential customers were to opt for this program, they would benefit by $19.0 million per year, while the utility and the government would lose $21.6 million and $1.6 million respectively, with a total net loss to Quebec society of $4.25 million a year. 12 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs

  1. List of realizations of French and Quebec towns; Repertoires de realisations de villes francaises et quebecoises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The aims of this list is to offer to the local governments information on realizations concerning the energy efficiency, in order to allow the identification of operators and technical solutions and methodologies, in relation with the sites where they are implemented. It increases also the knowledge on experiments and allows the comparative evaluation between French and Quebec realizations. (A.L.B.)

  2. University Reform in Quebec: The Strike at Laval 1976. Yale Higher Education Research Group Working Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Geoffrey J.

    Quebec colleges remained firmly entrenched in the pure classicism of prerevolutionary France until well into the twentieth century. Formal Roman Catholic Church control of Laval University, a Jesuit university, ceased in 1965 at a time when the institution and its administration were expanding greatly, and the faculty quickly began to resent the…

  3. Shunning the Bird's Eye View: General Science in the Schools of Ontario and Quebec

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Michelle

    2013-04-01

    This paper considers the adoption of general science courses in two Canadian provinces, Ontario and Quebec, during the 1930s. In Ontario, a few science teachers had followed the early general science movements in the United States and Britain with interest. During the 1930s, several developments made the cross-disciplinary, applied thrust of general science particularly appealing to Ontario educationists. These developments included a new demand for vocational education, renewed reservations about pedagogical rationales based on transfer of training, and a growing professional divide between high school science teachers and university scientists. Around the same time, scientists in the Quebec's French-language universities were engaged in a concerted campaign to expand the place of science in the province's francophone secondary schools. The province's prestigious classical colleges, which were the scientists' principal target for reform, privileged an inductive view of science that had little in common with the applied, cross-disciplinary emphasis of the general science courses gaining support in English-speaking school systems. In 1934, however, a popular American general science textbook was adopted in a workers' cooperative devoted to adult education. Comparing the fate of general science within these two education systems draws attention to the fact that general science made inroads in francophone Quebec but had little influence in public and private schools. In light of the growing support general science enjoyed elsewhere, we are led to explore why general science met with little overt interest by Quebec scientists pushing for school science reform during the 1930s.

  4. Co-operative Education in the Pulp and Paper Sector in Quebec.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savoie-Zajc, Lorraine; Dolbec, Andre

    2003-01-01

    A cooperative education program involved student practica in Quebec pulp and paper mills. Using the concept of community of practice and a typology of work experience, data from 175 students indicated that schools and workplaces placed traditional roles regarding theory and practice. Organizational cultures remained separate and opportunities for…

  5. Nunavik: Inuit-Controlled Education in Arctic Quebec. Northern Lights Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vick-Westgate, Ann

    This book documents the debate among the Inuit of Nunavik (northern Quebec) over the purposes, strengths, and weaknesses of public schools in their 14 arctic communities. The book begins with a summary of the history of education in Nunavik, including traditional Inuit methods and purposes of education. The 14 communities comprise the Kativik…

  6. Prenatal Exposure of the Northern Quebec Inuit Infants to Environmental Contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muckle, Gina; Ayotte, Pierre; Dewailly, Eric; Jacobson, Sandra W.; Jacobson, Joseph L.

    2001-01-01

    Through their marine-based diet, the Inuit of Nunavik (Quebec) are exposed to neurotoxic environmental contaminants that impact cognitive development. Mercury levels in Nunavik Inuit mothers and newborns were higher than in U.S. and Canadian populations but lower than in previous Arctic samples. Lead, polychlorinated biphenyls, chorinated…

  7. Ethics Education Seen through the Lens of Habermas's Conception of Practical Reason: The Quebec Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Nancy; Morris, Ronald W.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the Quebec Education Program (QEP), particularly the new course in ethics and religious culture (ERC), in the light of Habermas's conception of the moral and ethical uses of practical reason. Habermas's discursive theory of morality is used to assess the program's understanding of what it means to be competent in moral matters.…

  8. Tracking exposure to child poverty during the first 10 years of life in a Quebec birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Séguin, Louise; Nikiema, Beatrice; Gauvin, Lise; Lambert, Marie; Thanh Tu, Mai; Kakinami, Lisa; Paradis, Gilles

    2012-04-27

    Early childhood poverty is associated with adult chronic diseases. The objectives of this study were to examine patterns of exposure to poverty during the first 10 years of life in the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development (QLSCD) cohort according to three measures of poverty and to explore family characteristics associated with different poverty exposures. Data from 1,334 participants from the QLSCD were collected annually at home from ages 5 months through 10 years. Household income (previous 12 months) and sources of income were recorded at each data round. Poverty status was operationalized as 1) living below the low income cut-off of Statistics Canada, 2) receiving social welfare and 3) being in the lowest quintile of socio-economic status. We plotted trends in the prevalence of child poverty over time. We used latent class growth modelling to identify subgroups with similar poverty trajectories. Duration of poverty according to each measure was computed separately for early childhood, middle childhood, and the entire 10 years of life. Four trajectories of poverty were identified: stable poor, decreasing likelihood, increasing likelihood, and never poor. The three measures of poverty do not cover the same population, yet the characteristics of those identified as poor are similar. Children of non-European, immigrant mothers were most likely to be poor, and there was a higher likelihood of children from single-parent families to live in chronic poverty during the first 10 years. A large proportion of children are exposed to poverty before 10 years of age. More effective public policies could reduce child poverty.

  9. Influence of intensive fishing on the partitioning of mercury and methylmercury in three lakes of Northern Quebec

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surette, Celine [COMERN, Universite du Quebec a Montreal, c.p. 8888, succ. Centre-Ville, Montreal, Quebec, H3C 3P8 (Canada)]. E-mail: surettc@umoncton.ca; Lucotte, Marc [COMERN, Universite du Quebec a Montreal, c.p. 8888, succ. Centre-Ville, Montreal, Quebec, H3C 3P8 (Canada); Tremblay, A. [Environment Unit, Dams and Environment Direction, Hydro-Quebec Production 75 Rene-Levesque West, 10th floor, Montreal, Quebec, H2Z 1A4 (Canada)

    2006-09-01

    It has been demonstrated that intensive fishing, i.e., removing more than 25% of the fish biomass, can reduce mercury levels in predator fish in a lake. We test here the hypothesis that, by removing an important part of the fish biomass from a lake, a significant amount of methylmercury can be eliminated, therefore reducing the mercury available to the remaining biota, at least in the short term. A mass burden approach is used to evaluate the partitioning of total mercury and methylmercury in natural lake ecosystems. Three small natural lakes from the James Bay territory, in northern Quebec, Canada, were selected for intensive fishing. Mercury (Hg) and methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations were evaluated for sediments, water column (dissolved fraction and suspended particulate matter), plankton, aquatic invertebrates, and fish. Biomasses were determined for fish, plankton, and aquatic invertebrates. Two case scenarios are presented using different mercury contributions from the sediment component (1 cm depth, and no sediment). Our results for the scenario including the sediment contribution show that lake sediments represent over 98% of the total mercury while the biotic components represent less than 0.1% of the same burden. For methylmercury, fish account for up to 5% of the burden, while sediments make up 84.6% to 93.1%. If we put aside the sediment contribution, the methylmercury in fish partitioning can represent up to 48%. As for invertebrates, they can account for up to 48% of the total MeHg burden. We do not observe any change in the partitionings or the quantities of Hg and MeHg before and after fishing in either of the two case scenarios even when we do not take into account dynamics of the ecosystems. This will be all the more the case when the dynamics of the system are included in the analyses. Therefore, biological parameters such as growth rates or fish diet must be considered.

  10. Nutrient Patterns and Their Food Sources in Older Persons from France and Quebec: Dietary and Lifestyle Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Allès

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dietary and nutrient patterns have been linked to health outcomes related to aging. Food intake is influenced by environmental and genetic factors. The aim of the present study was to compare nutrient patterns across two elderly populations sharing a common ancestral cultural background, but living in different environments. Methods: The diet quality, lifestyle and socioeconomic characteristics of participants from the Three-City Study (3C, France, n = 1712 and the Québec Longitudinal Study on Nutrition and Successful Aging (NuAge, Quebec, Canada, n = 1596 were analyzed. Nutrient patterns and their food sources were identified in the two samples using principal component analysis. Diet quality was compared across sample-specific patterns by describing weekly food intake and associations with the Canadian Healthy Eating Index (C-HEI. Results: Three nutrient patterns were retained in each study: a healthy, a Western and a more traditional pattern. These patterns accounted for 50.1% and 53.5% of the total variance in 3C and NuAge, respectively. Higher education and non-physical occupations over lifetime were associated with healthy patterns in both studies. Other characteristics such as living alone, having a body mass index lower than 25 and being an ex-smoker were associated with the healthy pattern in NuAge. No association between these characteristics and the nutrient patterns was noted in 3C. The healthy and Western patterns from each sample also showed an inverse association with C-HEI. Conclusion: The two healthy patterns showed important similarities: adequate food variety, consumption of healthy foods and associations with common sociodemographic factors. This work highlights that nutrient patterns derived using a posteriori methods may be useful to compare the nutritional quality of the diet of distinct populations.

  11. Nutrient Patterns and Their Food Sources in Older Persons from France and Quebec: Dietary and Lifestyle Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allès, Benjamin; Samieri, Cécilia; Lorrain, Simon; Jutand, Marthe-Aline; Carmichael, Pierre-Hugues; Shatenstein, Bryna; Gaudreau, Pierrette; Payette, Hélène; Laurin, Danielle; Barberger-Gateau, Pascale

    2016-04-19

    Dietary and nutrient patterns have been linked to health outcomes related to aging. Food intake is influenced by environmental and genetic factors. The aim of the present study was to compare nutrient patterns across two elderly populations sharing a common ancestral cultural background, but living in different environments. The diet quality, lifestyle and socioeconomic characteristics of participants from the Three-City Study (3C, France, n = 1712) and the Québec Longitudinal Study on Nutrition and Successful Aging (NuAge, Quebec, Canada, n = 1596) were analyzed. Nutrient patterns and their food sources were identified in the two samples using principal component analysis. Diet quality was compared across sample-specific patterns by describing weekly food intake and associations with the Canadian Healthy Eating Index (C-HEI). Three nutrient patterns were retained in each study: a healthy, a Western and a more traditional pattern. These patterns accounted for 50.1% and 53.5% of the total variance in 3C and NuAge, respectively. Higher education and non-physical occupations over lifetime were associated with healthy patterns in both studies. Other characteristics such as living alone, having a body mass index lower than 25 and being an ex-smoker were associated with the healthy pattern in NuAge. No association between these characteristics and the nutrient patterns was noted in 3C. The healthy and Western patterns from each sample also showed an inverse association with C-HEI. The two healthy patterns showed important similarities: adequate food variety, consumption of healthy foods and associations with common sociodemographic factors. This work highlights that nutrient patterns derived using a posteriori methods may be useful to compare the nutritional quality of the diet of distinct populations.

  12. Influence of intensive fishing on the partitioning of mercury and methylmercury in three lakes of Northern Quebec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surette, Celine; Lucotte, Marc; Tremblay, A.

    2006-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that intensive fishing, i.e., removing more than 25% of the fish biomass, can reduce mercury levels in predator fish in a lake. We test here the hypothesis that, by removing an important part of the fish biomass from a lake, a significant amount of methylmercury can be eliminated, therefore reducing the mercury available to the remaining biota, at least in the short term. A mass burden approach is used to evaluate the partitioning of total mercury and methylmercury in natural lake ecosystems. Three small natural lakes from the James Bay territory, in northern Quebec, Canada, were selected for intensive fishing. Mercury (Hg) and methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations were evaluated for sediments, water column (dissolved fraction and suspended particulate matter), plankton, aquatic invertebrates, and fish. Biomasses were determined for fish, plankton, and aquatic invertebrates. Two case scenarios are presented using different mercury contributions from the sediment component (1 cm depth, and no sediment). Our results for the scenario including the sediment contribution show that lake sediments represent over 98% of the total mercury while the biotic components represent less than 0.1% of the same burden. For methylmercury, fish account for up to 5% of the burden, while sediments make up 84.6% to 93.1%. If we put aside the sediment contribution, the methylmercury in fish partitioning can represent up to 48%. As for invertebrates, they can account for up to 48% of the total MeHg burden. We do not observe any change in the partitionings or the quantities of Hg and MeHg before and after fishing in either of the two case scenarios even when we do not take into account dynamics of the ecosystems. This will be all the more the case when the dynamics of the system are included in the analyses. Therefore, biological parameters such as growth rates or fish diet must be considered

  13. Nuclear power in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The Canadian Nuclear Association believes that the CANDU nuclear power generation system can play a major role in achieving energy self-sufficiency in Canada. The benefits of nuclear power, factors affecting projections of electric power demand, risks and benefits relative to other conventional and non-conventional energy sources, power economics, and uranium supply are discussed from a Canadian perspective. (LL)

  14. Fusion Canada issue 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-05-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue are CFFTP highlights on the Karlsruhe Isotope Separation System, a report on ITER tritium process systems, an experimental update on Tokamak de Varennes and Canada-U.S. bilateral technical collaboration topics. 2 figs

  15. Fusion Canada issue 17

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on increased funding for the Canadian Fusion Program, news of the compact Toroid fuelling gun, an update on Tokamak de Varennes, the Canada - U.S. fusion meeting, measurements of plasma flow velocity, and replaceable Tokamak divertors. 4 figs

  16. Fusion Canada issue 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-11-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on availability of Canadian Tritium, an ITER update, a CCFM update on Tokamak and the new team organization, an international report on Fusion in Canada and a Laser Fusion Project at the University of Toronto. 3 figs.

  17. Suicide in Canada

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leenaars, Antoon A

    1998-01-01

    ... provides long-awaited information that focuses specifically on Canada. It addresses suicide as a multidimensional problem with biological, psychological, cultural, sociological, personal, and philosophical aspects. The contributions integrate both critical analysis and personal experience. There are accounts from Inuit elders, fr...

  18. Fusion Canada issue 22

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-10-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue a bi-lateral meeting between Canada and Japan, water and hydrogen detritiation, in-situ tokamak surface analysis, an update of CCFM/TdeV and tritium accounting Industry guidance in Fusion, fast probe for plasma-surface interaction. 4 figs

  19. Fusion Canada issue 28

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue the Canada - US fusion meeting in Montreal, fusion breeder work in Chile, new management at CFFTP, fast electrons in tokamaks: new data from TdeV, a program review of CCFM and Velikhov to address Montreal fusion meeting. 1 fig

  20. Fusion Canada issue 17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-05-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on increased funding for the Canadian Fusion Program, news of the compact Toroid fuelling gun, an update on Tokamak de Varennes, the Canada - U.S. fusion meeting, measurements of plasma flow velocity, and replaceable Tokamak divertors. 4 figs.

  1. Coal in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salaff, S.

    1991-01-01

    This article examines the potential market for coal-fired independent power projects in western Canada. The topics of the article include emissions issues, export potential for power produced, and financial and other assistance to independent power producers offered by British Columbia Hydro and coal mining companies in the region, including financing of projects and power distribution services including connecting to the USA grids

  2. Fusion Canada issue 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-05-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue are CFFTP highlights on the Karlsruhe Isotope Separation System, a report on ITER tritium process systems, an experimental update on Tokamak de Varennes and Canada-U.S. bilateral technical collaboration topics. 2 figs.

  3. Nuclear technology in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This pamphlet provides a summary of the research being carried out by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited. The design and development of the CANDU type reactor are highlighted and the contribution of nuclear technology to medicine, agriculture and the Canadian economy is briefly discussed

  4. Fusion Canada issue 26

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue tritium supply for Japanese research, Canada to host the 1995 IAEA Conference on Tritium, studies on the tokamak divertor and edge plasma studies, a tritium field release study, erosion studies on plasma facing materials, G. Pacher returns to CCFM and an update on CCFM/TdeV

  5. Indian Arts in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawow, 1974

    1974-01-01

    A recent publication, "Indian Arts in Canada", examines some of the forces, both past and present, which are not only affecting American Indian artists today, but which will also profoundly influence their future. The review presents a few of the illustrations used in the book, along with the Introduction and the Foreword. (KM)

  6. The butterflies of Canada

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Layberry, Ross A; Hall, Peter W; Lafontaine, J. Donald

    1998-01-01

    ... for the close to three hundred butterfly species recorded in Canada, including descriptions of early stages, subspecies, and key features that help distinguish similar species. Each species of butterfly has an individual distribution map, generated from a database of more than 90,000 location records. More than just a field guide to identifying Canadian butterfli...

  7. Fusion Canada issue 22

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-10-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue a bi-lateral meeting between Canada and Japan, water and hydrogen detritiation, in-situ tokamak surface analysis, an update of CCFM/TdeV and tritium accounting Industry guidance in Fusion, fast probe for plasma-surface interaction. 4 figs.

  8. Fusion Canada issue 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-11-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on availability of Canadian Tritium, an ITER update, a CCFM update on Tokamak and the new team organization, an international report on Fusion in Canada and a Laser Fusion Project at the University of Toronto. 3 figs

  9. Canada`s greenhouse gas emissions inventory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaques, A. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    1998-09-01

    In 1994, Canada was the seventh largest global emitter of CO{sub 2}. The Kyoto Protocol has made it necessary to continue to improve methods for developing emissions inventories. An emissions inventory was defined as `a comprehensive account of air pollutant emissions and associated data from sources within the inventory area over a specified time frame that can be used to determine the effect of emissions on the environment`. The general approach is to compile large-scale emission estimates under averaged conditions for collective sources and sectors, using data that is available on a sectoral, provincial and national basis. Ideally, continuous emission monitors should be used to develop emissions inventories. Other needed improvements include additional research on emissions data, and increased support for international negotiations on reporting policies and related methodologies, verification procedures and adjustments. 1 ref., 5 figs.

  10. Nuclear regulatory developments in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binder, M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper from CNSC discusses nuclear regulatory developments in Canada. It starts with the Fukushima accident and the effect on the nuclear sector. It summarises what CNSC has done, what it has learned and their plans going forward. It has made recommendations to IAEA for international enhancements to regulatory procedures. It outline the activities of Canada's nuclear power plants, Canada's uranium projects, deep geological repository and waste management as well as nuclear research in Canada.

  11. Uranium in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    In 1988 Canada's five uranium producers reported output of concentrate containing a record 12,470 metric tons of uranium (tU), or about one third of total Western world production. Shipments exceeded 13,200 tU, valued at $Cdn 1.1 billion. Most of Canada's uranium output is available for export for peaceful purposes, as domestic requirements represent about 15 percent of production. The six uranium marketers signed new sales contracts for over 11,000 tU, mostly destined for the United States. Annual exports peaked in 1987 at 12,790 tU, falling back to 10,430 tU in 1988. Forward domestic and export contract commitments were more than 70,000 tU and 60,000 tU, respectively, as of early 1989. The uranium industry in Canada was restructured and consolidated by merger and acquisition, including the formation of Cameco. Three uranium projects were also advanced. The Athabasca Basin is the primary target for the discovery of high-grade low-cost uranium deposits. Discovery of new reserves in 1987 and 1988 did not fully replace the record output over the two-year period. The estimate of overall resources as of January 1989 was down by 4 percent from January 1987 to a total (measured, indicated and inferred) of 544,000 tU. Exploration expenditures reached $Cdn 37 million in 1987 and $59 million in 1988, due largely to the test mining programs at the Cigar Lake and Midwest projects in Saskatchewan. Spot market prices fell to all-time lows from 1987 to mid-1989, and there is little sign of relief. Canadian uranium production capability could fall below 12,000 tU before the late 1990s; however, should market conditions warrant output could be increased beyond 15,000 tU. Canada's known uranium resources are more than sufficient to meet the 30-year fuel requirements of those reactors in Canada that are now or are expected to be in service by the late 1990s. There is significant potential for discovering additional uranium resources. Canada's uranium production is equivalent, in

  12. Canada country report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cottrill, Cheryl

    2008-01-01

    1 - Nuclear 2007 highlights: New Build Applications and Environmental Assessments (Ontario Power Generation (OPG), Bruce Power, Bruce Power Alberta), Refurbishments (Bruce Power's Bruce A Units 1 and 2 Restart Project, NB Power's Refurbishment of Point Lepreau, New Brunswick, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) NRU 50. Anniversary, expansion of the solid radioactive waste storage facilities at Gentilly-2 nuclear generating station, Ontario Power Generation (OPG) Deep Geologic Repository..); 2. Nuclear overview: a. Energy policy (Future of nuclear power, state of the projects, schedule, Refurbishment), b. Public acceptance, Statements from Government Officials in Canada; c. Nuclear equipment (number and type); d. Nuclear waste management, Deep Geologic Repository; e. Nuclear research at AECL; f. Other nuclear activities (Cameco Corporation, MDS Nordion); 3. Nuclear competencies; 4. WIN 2007 Main Achievements: GIRLS Science Club, Skills Canada, WiN-Canada Web site, Book Launch, WINFO, 2007 WiN-Canada conference 4 - Summary: - 14.6% of Canada's electricity is provided by Candu nuclear reactors; Nuclear equipment: 10 Research or isotope producing reactors - Pool-Type; Slowpoke 2; Sub-Critical assembly; NRU; and Maple; 22 Candu reactors providing electricity production - 18 of which are currently operating. Public acceptance: 41% feel nuclear should play more of a role, 67% support refurbishment, 48% support new build, 13% point gender gap in support, with men supporting more than women. Energy policy: Future of nuclear power - recognition that nuclear is part of the solution across Canada; New Build - 3 applications to regulator to prepare a site for new build, in Provinces of Ontario and Alberta, with one feasibility study underway in New Brunswick; Refurbishment - Provinces of Ontario (2010) and New Brunswick (2009). Nuclear waste management policy: Proposal submitted to regulator to prepare, construct and operate a deep geologic disposal facility in Ontario

  13. Impact of climate change on operations and planning of Hydro-Quebec's generation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raymond, M.P.; Houle, B.; Robert, S.

    2008-01-01

    Studies that are underway at OURANOS indicate that some of the probable climate change scenarios in the coming years will have an effect on Quebec's watersheds hydrology and on temperatures. For Hydro-Quebec, who draws more than 95% of its generation from hydraulic resources and whose electricity loads depend pretty much on temperatures, such climate changes will definitely have a significant impact on many aspects of the planning and operations of its system. Our presentation will be divided into three parts. First, to bridge the gap between climate change scientists and water managers, we will present a list of the types of parameters needed from the scientists in order for the water managers to assess the impacts of climate changes on a hydroelectric system such as Hydro-Quebec's. These parameters will include changes in annual and seasonal distribution and variability of natural inflows and, most importantly, the timing of the changes in the coming years. The second part will focus on the types of adaptive decisions and strategies that will have to be taken ahead of time in order to implement the changes on a hydroelectric generation system such as Hydro-Quebec's. They will cover different areas such as generation planning, operations planning and optimization, refurbishment and replacement of infrastructures, dam safety, flood control and protection, maintenance planning and reliability. Finally, we will present more specific results of the impact of some climate change scenarios on Hydro-Quebec's overall generation system, showing differences between regions, and a case study on one of its river systems. (author)

  14. Electric power in Canada 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Electric power in Canada is given a comprehensive review by the Electricity Branch of the Department of Natural Resources Canada. The Electric Power Industry is scrutinized for electricity consumption, generation, trade and pricing across all of Canada. 98 tabs. 26 figs

  15. Electric power in Canada 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    Electric power in Canada is given a comprehensive review by the Electricity Branch of the Department of Natural Resources Canada. The Electric Power Industry is scrutinized for electricity consumption, generation, trade and pricing across all of Canada. 98 tabs. 26 figs.

  16. Economical and technical origins of the electricity sector nationalization in Quebec: the mixed regime experience, from 1944 to 1963

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellavance, Claude

    2003-01-01

    For almost twenty years (1944-1963), private and public firms coexisted in the electricity sector in Quebec. We would like, in this article, to relate the growth of a state company (Hydro-Quebec) to the decline of the private sector, the networks' interconnection, and the confirmation of the hydraulic channel as the quasi unique source of primary energy for electricity production in that province. We will also check whether the mixed regime really was a case of 'yardstick competition' or not. Finally, we will examine the accuracy of the 'natural monopoly' concept as applied to the evolution of the electricity sector in Quebec before the second nationalization in 1963

  17. Canada's directory of ethanol retailers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-07-01

    This document is a directory listing all ethanol-blended gasoline retailers in Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta, British Columbia, and the Yukon. The listings include the name and address of the retailer by province from west to east. Appendices providing a list of bulk purchase facilities of ethanol-blended fuels was also included, as well as a list of ethanol-blended gasoline retailers

  18. Cancer mortality and radioactive fallout in southwestern Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado, S.G.; Land, C.E.; McKay, F.W.

    1987-01-01

    Cancer mortality was compared between a three-county region in southwestern Utah and the remainder of Utah in an investigation of reported excess cancer risks associated with residence in southwestern Utah during the period of above-ground nuclear tests at the Nevada Test Site. Because most of the fallout in southwestern Utah was deposited during 1953-1957, comparisons were limited to persons born before 1958, and deaths from leukemia and bone cancer during 1955-1980 and from other cancers during 1964-1980. There was no excess risk of cancer mortality in southwestern Utah, for single or grouped sites, with the single exception of leukemia which showed statistically significant odds ratios of 1.45 based on 62 deaths at all ages, and 2.84 based on nine deaths at ages 0-14. The finding for childhood leukemia was based on different time periods and geographic comparisons from those of two earlier studies in which no such excess was found. Mortality from all cancer sites combined was significantly lower in southwestern Utah than in the remainder of the state, even after adjustment for the higher proportion of (lower risk) Mormons in southwestern Utah. The present results, including the positive association for leukemia, are inconsistent with the high excess risks reported by Johnson (JAMA 1984;251:230-6) based on an interview survey of cancer incidence among long-term Mormon residents of southwestern Utah

  19. How much are we spending? The estimation of research expenditures on cardiovascular disease in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a leading cause of death in Canada and is a priority area for medical research. The research funding landscape in Canada has changed quite a bit over the last few decades, as have funding levels. Our objective was to estimate the magnitude of expenditures on CVD research for the public and charitable (not-for profit) sectors in Canada between 1975 and 2005. Methods To estimate research expenditures for the public and charitable sectors, we compiled a complete list of granting agencies in Canada, contacted each agency and the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR), and extracted data from the organizations’ annual reports and the Reference Lists of health research in Canada. Two independent reviewers scanned all grant and fellowship/scholarship titles (and summary/key words, when available) of all research projects funded to determine their inclusion in our analysis; only grants and fellowships/scholarships that focused on heart and peripheral vascular diseases were selected. Results Public/charitable sector funding increased 7.5 times, from close to $13 million (in constant dollars) in 1975 to almost $96 million (in constant dollars) in 2005 (base year). The Medical Research Council of Canada (MRCC)/CIHR and the Heart & Stroke Foundation of Canada have been the main founders of this type of research during our analysis period; the Alberta Heritage Foundation for Medical Research and the Fonds de la recherche en santé du Quebec have played major roles at the provincial level. The Indirect Costs Research Program and Canada Foundation for Innovation have played major roles in terms of funding in the last years of our analysis. Conclusion Public/charitable-funded research expenditures devoted to CVD have increased substantially over the last three decades. By international standards, the evidence suggests Canada spends less on health-related research than the UK and the US, at least in absolute terms. However, this

  20. Southwestern Institute of Physics: Annual Report 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-10-01

    The main achievements of controlled nuclear fusion research are presented for Southwestern Institute of Physics in 1998 year. With the establishment and operation of two auxiliary heating systems (NBI, ICRH), the HL-1M Tokamak is equipped with main auxiliary heating and current driving systems such as NBI, ECRH, ICRH and LHCD etc. . In addition, a variety of advanced fueling system, i.e. , multi-shot pellet and supersonic molecular beam injection, the first wall processing technologies of boronization, siliconization and lithiumization as well as more than 20 diagnostic facilities with partial space-time resolution capability have been established on the device. The construction of a larger Tokamak with divertors, the HL-2A, and its complementary systems are being carried out