WorldWideScience

Sample records for southwestern north bengal

  1. Factors influencing woodlands of southwestern North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michele M. Girard; Harold Goetz; Ardell J. Bjugstad

    1987-01-01

    Literature pertaining to woodlands of southwestern North Dakota is reviewed. Woodland species composition and distribution, and factors influencing woodland ecosystems such as climate, logging, fire, and grazing are described. Potential management and improvement techniques using vegetation and livestock manipulation have been suggested.

  2. Hydrography and biogeochemistry of the north western Bay of Bengal and the north eastern Arabian Sea during winter monsoon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Balachandran, K.K.; Laluraj, C.M.; Jyothibabu, R.; Madhu, N.V.; Muraleedharan, K.R.; Vijay, J.G.; Maheswaran, P.A.; Ashraf, T.T.M.; Nair, K.K.C.; Achuthankutty, C.T.

    The north eastern Arabian Sea and the north western Bay of Bengal within the Indian exclusive economic zone were explored for their environmental characteristics during the winter monsoons of 2000 and 2001 respectively. The two regions were found...

  3. Subsurface chlorophyll maxima in the north-western Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarma, V.V.; Aswanikumar, V.

    The depth profiles of phytoplankton pigments in the north-western Bay of Bengal are generally characterizEd. by a subsurface chlorophyll maximum. The occurrence of subsurface chlorophyll maxima is discussed in relation to other information on water...

  4. Remote impact of North Atlantic sea surface temperature on rainfall in southwestern China during boreal spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gang; Chen, Jiepeng; Wang, Xin; Luo, Xia; Yang, Daoyong; Zhou, Wen; Tan, Yanke; Yan, Hongming

    2018-01-01

    As an important oceanic signal, the North Atlantic sea surface temperature (SST) affects not only the climate variability over East China and Northeast China but also can affect climate variability over southwestern China (SWC). Based on station rainfall data and reanalysis datasets, the present study investigates the relationship of North Atlantic SST with SWC rainfall during boreal spring for the period 1979-2016. The results show that there is a significant positive correlation between North Atlantic SST and SWC rainfall during boreal spring. The atmospheric circulation over southern Asia associated with North Atlantic SST is favorable for positive rainfall anomalies. Further analyses show that North Atlantic SST can induce a North Atlantic-western Russia-western Tibetan Plateau-SWC (NRTC) teleconnection wave train from upper level to low level. At low level, two anomalous anticyclones are found over the mid-high latitude of North Atlantic and the western Tibetan Plateau, and two anomalous cyclones are observed over the western Russia and Bay of Bengal (BOB), respectively. The NRTC teleconnection wave train plays a bridging role between the North Atlantic SST and SWC rainfall during boreal spring. Both the observational analysis and two numerical experiments suggest that the North Atlantic SST during boreal spring can induce an anomalous cyclone over BOB by the NRTC teleconnection pattern. The anomalous cyclone over BOB favors moisture transport to SWC, accompanying with significant anomalous ascending motion, and thus results in positive rainfall anomalies in SWC during boreal spring.

  5. Colorectal Cancer: A Study of Risk Factors in a Tertiary Care Hospital of North Bengal

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattacharya, Sumanta; Bhattacharya, Saikat; Basu, Rivu; Bera, Pranati; Halder, Aniket

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Age, sex, living place (urban or rural), smoking, alcohol consumption, dietary pattern, obesity are considered as risk factors for Colorectal cancer. Our study was done to evaluate the association between these risk factors and colorectal cancer in the population of North Bengal.

  6. Upland hardwood habitat types in southwestern North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michele M. Girard; Harold Goetz; Ardell J. Bjugstad

    1985-01-01

    The Daubenmire habitat type method was used to classify the upland hardwood draws of southwestern North Dakota. Preliminary data analysis indicates there are four upland habitat types: Fraxinus pennsylvanica/Prunus virginiana; F. pnnseanica-Ulmus americana/P. virginiana; Populus...

  7. Parasitic prevalences in fresh water prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii in north and south 24 Parganas districts of West Bengal

    OpenAIRE

    Monjit Paul; Mukti Chanda; Joydev Maity; Supriya Sen Gupta; Bidhan Chandra Patra; Gadadhar Dash

    2010-01-01

    The occurrence of different freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) parasites, found during the period from April to August 2007, was investigated in different freshwater wetlands of north and south 24 Parganas districts of West Bengal state in India. Eleven parasites - Zoothamnium, Epistylis, Gregarina, Amphileptus, Dileptus, Myxobolus, Chilodonella, Balladyna, Gozia, Rhabdochona, Indocucullanus, Procamallanus and Cucullanus - were found after examining 1,000 specimens of Macrobrachium ...

  8. Ecosystem biophysical memory in the southwestern North America climate system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forzieri, G; Feyen, L; Vivoni, E R

    2013-01-01

    To elucidate the potential role of vegetation to act as a memory source in the southwestern North America climate system, we explore correlation structures of remotely sensed vegetation dynamics with precipitation, temperature and teleconnection indices over 1982–2006 for six ecoregions. We found that lagged correlations between vegetation dynamics and climate variables are modulated by the dominance of monsoonal or Mediterranean regimes and ecosystem-specific physiological processes. Subtropical and tropical ecosystems exhibit a one month lag positive correlation with precipitation, a zero- to one-month lag negative correlation with temperature, and modest negative effects of sea surface temperature (SST). Mountain forests have a zero month lag negative correlation with precipitation, a zero–one month lag negative correlation with temperature, and no significant correlation with SSTs. Deserts show a strong one–four month lag positive correlation with precipitation, a low zero–two month lag negative correlation with temperature, and a high four–eight month lag positive correlation with SSTs. The ecoregion-specific biophysical memories identified offer an opportunity to improve the predictability of land–atmosphere interactions and vegetation feedbacks onto climate. (letter)

  9. Rill and gully erosion risk of lateritic terrain in South-Western Birbhum District, West Bengal, India

    OpenAIRE

    Jha, V. C.; Kapat, S.

    2009-01-01

    It is a known fact that no part of the earth surface is free from threat.It applies to Birbhum District, West Bengal, Indian Lateritic Terrain also. The existing terrain is characterized by mainly climatogenetic processes. Though the impact of climate change is vital in the shaping of the lesser topographies in the study-area. The study-area is characterized by micro landforms e. g. rills, gullies, water falls, terraces, gorges type features and limestone topographic type features. The denuda...

  10. Surficial clay mineral distribution on the southwestern continental margin of India: evidence of input from the Bay of Bengal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Onkar S.; Gujar, A. R.

    1996-03-01

    Analyses of spatial distribution of clay minerals, sediment texture, and > 63 μm fractions of the grab samples from the S W continental margin of India exhibit: (i) higher contents of illite and chlorite on the lower slope and (ii) a well-defined no-clay zone on the entire shelf. Kaolinite and smectite are also present in significant quantities on the slope with traces of gibbsite and palygorskite in some samples. The high contents of illite and chlorite (clay minerals which are not abundant in the soils and estuarine sediments of this region) in the southern region of the study area are evidence for sediment contribution from the Bay of Bengal waters (BBW), which enter this region after the SW monsoon. Distribution trends of kaolinite, smectite, gibbsite, and laterite granules on the slope are suggestive of contribution from chemically weathered soils of Peninsular India.

  11. Geography of spring landbird migration through riparian habitats in southwestern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan K. Skagen; Jeffrey F. Kelly; Charles van Riper III; Richard L. Hutto; Deborah M. Finch; David J. Krueper; Cynthia P. Melcher

    2005-01-01

    Migration stopover resources, particularly riparian habitats, are critically important to landbirds migrating across the arid southwestern region of North America. To explore the effects of species biogeography and habitat affinity on spring migration patterns, we synthesized existing bird abundance and capture data collected in riparian habitats of the borderlands...

  12. Use of Nonradioactive Detection Method for North- and South-Western Blot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Claudia; Gräfe, Daniel; Bartsch, Holger; Bachmann, Michael P

    2015-01-01

    Many proteins bind to nucleic acids. For the first characterization of novel proteins, a fast and simple technique for testing their nucleic acid binding capabilities is desirable. Here we describe the use of a North-western and South-western blot protocol for the evaluation of the DNA and RNA binding abilities of a novel putative methyl transferase HSPC133 (METTL5).

  13. African catfish Clarias gariepinus farming practices in North and South 24 Parganas districts of West Bengal, India

    OpenAIRE

    Thangapalam Jawahar Abraham; Prakash Kumar Mallick; Pradipta Paul

    2018-01-01

    Clarias gariepinus is widely cultured due to its tolerance to environmental extremes, high production and good feed conversion rate. This communication describes the farming practices of C. gariepinus in North and South 24 Parganas districts of West Bengal. Clarias gariepinus is cultured in ponds of 0.1–0.75 ha, where fingerlings were stocked at a density of 860–1150 cubic meter–1. The current practices of seed transportation were stressful to fish as the majority of the farmers noticed 5–10%...

  14. Intensification of Aila (May 2009) due to a warm core eddy in the north Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sadhuram, Y.; Maneesha, K.; Murty, T.V.R.

    Bengal coast on 26 th May 2009. Details of Storm track, maximum sustainable wind speed (m/sec) and central pressures (mb) are taken from the IMD’s (India Meteorological Department, New Delhi) website, www.imd.gov.in. The data on sea surface height... the data sets (SSHA,TMI SST , Argo data, RAMA buoys data, monthly mean vertical temperature profiles) available on the websites. References Ali,M.M..,Sharma, R. and Cheney,R.:1998, An atlas of the north Indian Ocean eddies from TOPEX altimeter...

  15. Surficial clay mineral distribution on the southwestern continental margin of India: Evidence of input from the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chauhan, O.S.; Gujar, A.R.

    Continental Shelf Research, Vol. 16, No. 3, pp. 321-333, 1996 Copyright © 1995 Elsevier Science Ltd Printed in Great Britain. All rights reserved 0278-4343/96 $9.50 + 0.00 0278-4343(95)00015-1 Surficial clay mineral distribution on the southwestern...) having nickel-filtered CuKa radiation (21.514 A). 326 O.S. Chauhan and A. R. Gujar Standard methods of ethylene glycol treatment were used to aid in identification of expanded clay minerals (Biscaye, 1965; Carol, 1970; Brindly et al., 1968). Weighted...

  16. Roadmap for sustainable water resources in southwestern North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleick, Peter H

    2010-12-14

    The management of water resources in arid and semiarid areas has long been a challenge, from ancient Mesopotamia to the modern southwestern United States. As our understanding of the hydrological and climatological cycles has improved, and our ability to manipulate the hydrologic cycle has increased, so too have the challenges associated with managing a limited natural resource for a growing population. Modern civilization has made remarkable progress in water management in the past few centuries. Burgeoning cities now survive in desert regions, relying on a mix of simple and complex technologies and management systems to bring adequate water and remove wastewater. These systems have permitted agricultural production and urban concentrations to expand in regions previously thought to have inadequate moisture. However, evidence is also mounting that our current management and use of water is unsustainable. Physical, economic, and ecological limits constrain the development of new supplies and additional water withdrawals, even in regions not previously thought vulnerable to water constraints. New kinds of limits are forcing water managers and policy makers to rethink previous assumptions about population, technology, regional planning, and forms of development. In addition, new threats, especially the challenges posed by climatic changes, are now apparent. Sustainably managing and using water in arid and semiarid regions such as the southwestern United States will require new thinking about water in an interdisciplinary and integrated way. The good news is that a wide range of options suggest a roadmap for sustainable water management and use in the coming decades.

  17. Roadmap for sustainable water resources in southwestern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleick, Peter H.

    2010-01-01

    The management of water resources in arid and semiarid areas has long been a challenge, from ancient Mesopotamia to the modern southwestern United States. As our understanding of the hydrological and climatological cycles has improved, and our ability to manipulate the hydrologic cycle has increased, so too have the challenges associated with managing a limited natural resource for a growing population. Modern civilization has made remarkable progress in water management in the past few centuries. Burgeoning cities now survive in desert regions, relying on a mix of simple and complex technologies and management systems to bring adequate water and remove wastewater. These systems have permitted agricultural production and urban concentrations to expand in regions previously thought to have inadequate moisture. However, evidence is also mounting that our current management and use of water is unsustainable. Physical, economic, and ecological limits constrain the development of new supplies and additional water withdrawals, even in regions not previously thought vulnerable to water constraints. New kinds of limits are forcing water managers and policy makers to rethink previous assumptions about population, technology, regional planning, and forms of development. In addition, new threats, especially the challenges posed by climatic changes, are now apparent. Sustainably managing and using water in arid and semiarid regions such as the southwestern United States will require new thinking about water in an interdisciplinary and integrated way. The good news is that a wide range of options suggest a roadmap for sustainable water management and use in the coming decades. PMID:21149725

  18. Report on the survey of abandoned uraniferous lignite mines in southwestern North Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, R.J.; Prochaska, D.; Burgess, J.L.; Patrick, D.

    1986-03-01

    A radiation survey was conducted in October 1983 as part of the proposed reclamation plan of abandoned uraniferous lignite mines in southwestern North Dakota. The survey was made to determine the extent of contamination caused by mining operations in the 1960's. Radiation measurements were made and soil samples were taken at approximately 300 locations around six mine sites comprising eleven lignite mine pits. Toxic element analysis was also done on 50 of the soil samples

  19. Comparative phytosociological investigation of subalpine alder thickets in southwestern Alaska and the North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Stephen S.; Talbot, Sandra L.; Daniëls, F. J. A.

    2005-01-01

    We present the first vegetation analysis of subalpine alder (Alnus viridis) thickets in southwestern Alaska. The data are primarily from mesic, hilly and mountainous sites ranging from the westernmost tip of the Alaska Peninsula to the northern Kenai Peninsula, spanning 1,000 km on an E–W gradient and 700 km on a N–S gradient. 127 relevés from 18 sites represent the range of structural and compositional variation in the matrix of vegetation and landform diversity. Data were analyzed by multivariate and traditional Braun-Blanquet methods. One association is distinguished, Sambuco racemosi-Alnetum viridis ass. nov. with three new subassociations, oplopanacetosum horridi, typicum, and rubetosum spectabilis with the latter subdivided into four variants. These phytocoena are well-differentiated, although they form a syntaxonomical continuum. The composition and structure of these communities are described and interpreted in relation to complex environmental factors; these are analyzed using Jancey's ranking on F-values. Community composition is primarily related to elevation, longitude, soil moisture, and latitude. Phytogeographic comparison of southwestern Alaska alder communities with those elsewhere in the North Pacific suggests a close floristic relationship to those of southcentral, southeastern Alaska and coastal British Columbia, Canada. All these communities belong to the same association, while those of the eastern and southern parts of the Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia belong to a different association. Syntaxonomy of the 4 major communities is discussed. Within the Northern Hemisphere, vascular plant species of southwestern Alaska alder thickets primarily occur in East Asia and North America, 36 %; while 26 % are circumpolar, and 22 % are restricted to North America. From a latitudinal perspective, the distribution of vascular plant species within these alder thickets peaks in the high-subarctic, low-subarctic, and temperate latitudinal zones, with low

  20. A comparison of palmar dermatoglyphics in two ethnic Indian populations of north Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Jaydip; Kanchan, Tanuj; Mondal, Nitish

    2011-01-01

    Dermatoglyphic print comparisons can be utilized to establish personal identification in forensic cases. The northern part of the state of West Bengal, India, is the home to many ethnic populations. Two such populations are the Rajbanshi and the Mech. Palm prints were collected from 192 adult Rajbanshi (105 men and 87 women) and 100 adult Mech (50 men and 50 women) individuals for print comparison using the standard ink and roll print method. The dermatoglyphic variables studied were mainline formulae, termination of mainline, positional variation of axial triradii, and true pattern of hypothenar and thenar configuration area. There were differences between the Rajbanshi and Mech individuals with respect to these dermatoglyphic variables. The uses of these variables appear to be limited only to ethnic identification, not personal identification. The present investigation further highlights the racial affinity, sex, and bilateral differences among Rajbanshi individuals using dermatoglyphic palmar variables. © 2010 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  1. On watermass mixing ratios and regenerated silicon in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, D.P.; Sarma, V.V.; Rao, V.S.; Sudhakar, U.; Gupta, G.V.M.

    Regeneration of silicon on mixing in the Bay of Bengal have been computed from six water masses [Bay of Bengal low saline water (BBLS), Bay of Bengal subsurface water (BBSS), northern southeast high salinity water (NSEHS), north Indian intermediate...

  2. The Cambrian-Ordovician rocks of Sonora, Mexico, and southern Arizona, southwestern margin of North America (Laurentia): chapter 35

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, William R.; Harris, Alta C.; Repetski, John E.; Derby, James R.; Fritz, R.D.; Longacre, S.A.; Morgan, W.A.; Sternbach, C.A.

    2013-01-01

    Cambrian and Ordovician shelf, platform, and basin rocks are present in Sonora, Mexico, and southern Arizona and were deposited on the southwestern continental margin of North America (Laurentia). Cambrian and Ordovician rocks in Sonora, Mexico, are mostly exposed in scattered outcrops in the northern half of the state. Their discontinuous nature results from extensive Quaternary and Tertiary surficial cover, from Tertiary and Mesozoic granitic batholiths in western Sonora, and from widespread Tertiary volcanic deposits in the Sierra Madre Occidental in eastern Sonora. Cambrian and Ordovician shelf rocks were deposited as part of the the southern miogeocline on the southwestern continental margin of North America.

  3. Traditional Practicing with Arsenic Rich Water in Fish Industries Leads to Health Hazards in West Bengal and North-Eastern States of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashyap, C. A.

    2014-12-01

    The supply of good quality food is main necessity for economic and social health of urban and rural population throughout the globe. This study comes to know the severity of As in the west Bengal and north-eastern states of the India. Over the 75% large population of India lives in villages and associated with farming and its related work. West Bengal is the densest populated area of India, fish and rice is the staple food as well as in north-eastern states. For the fulfil demand of fish large population the area are used fisheries as the business. Arsenic contamination in ground water is major growing threat to worldwide drinking water resources. High As contamination in water have been reported in many parts of the world Chandrasekharam et al., 2001; Smedley and Kinniburgh, 2002; Farooq et al., 2010). In context to West Bengal and north-east states of India arsenic is main problem in the food chain. These areas are very rich in arsenic many fold higher concentrations of Arsenic than their respective WHO permissible limits have been reported in the water. Over the 36 million people in Bengal delta are at risk due to drinking of As contaminated water (Nordstrom, 2002). The highest concentration of arsenic (535 μg/L Chandrashekhar et al. 2012) was registered from Ngangkha Lawai Mamang Leikai area of Bishnupur district which is fifty fold of the WHO limit for arsenic and tenfold of Indian permissible limit. With the continuous traditional practicing (As rich water pond) and untreated arsenic rich water in fish industries leads to health hazards. A sustainable development in aquaculture should comprise of various fields including environmental, social, cultural and economic aspects. A scientific study has to be needed for the overcome on this problem and rain harvested water may be used for reduce the arsenic problems in fisheries.

  4. African catfish Clarias gariepinus farming practices in North and South 24 Parganas districts of West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thangapalam Jawahar Abraham

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Clarias gariepinus is widely cultured due to its tolerance to environmental extremes, high production and good feed conversion rate. This communication describes the farming practices of C. gariepinus in North and South 24 Parganas districts of West Bengal. Clarias gariepinus is cultured in ponds of 0.1–0.75 ha, where fingerlings were stocked at a density of 860–1150 cubic meter–1. The current practices of seed transportation were stressful to fish as the majority of the farmers noticed 5–10% mortalities, despite the use of antibiotics. Acclimatization of seeds was practiced by the majority of farmers before stocking. Different feeds including slaughter-house wastes and dead poultry were supplied. Multiple stocking and harvesting were a common practice. Major problems identified were insufficient feed, disease, transport, poor seed quality and lack of financial support. The survival percentage was poor, as 88% of the farmers recorded <40–50% survival at harvest. Dropsy was the most common disease and had a significant impact on economy. Antibiotics or other aquadrugs were frequently used for treatment, although the success varied. In general, the C. gariepinus farming has helped to recycle the wastes generated in and around metropolitan Kolkata and adjacent municipalities into wealth, but it suffers from management issues and huge economic losses. This calls for immediate attention from researchers, administrators and extension personals.

  5. Stillbirth in a Tertiary Care Referral Hospital in North Bengal - A Review of Causes, Risk Factors and Prevention Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shritanu Bhattacharya,

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Stillbirth is one of the most common adverse outcomes of pregnancy, accounting for half of all perinatal mortality. Each year approximately 4 million stillbirths are reported, with 97% occurring in developing countries. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the stillbirth rate, exploring the risk factors and causes of stillbirth and suggest policies to reduce it. Settings and Design: A retrospective study of stillbirth among all deliveries over 5 years at North Bengal Medical College, a referral tertiary care teaching hospital in a rural background. The stillbirth rate and its trend were defined and the probable causes and risk factors were identified. Results: Stillbirth rate is 59.76/1000 live births, and Perinatal Mortality 98.65/1000 births. Of the still births, 59.72% were fresh and 40.27% were macerated. Among the causes of stillbirths, poor antenatal attendance and low socioeconomic status were important; other risk factors included prematurity, PIH, birth asphyxia, poor intrapartum care including prolonged and obstructed labour. In 23% cases, the cause remained unexplained. Conclusion: In addition to poor antenatal care, low socioeconomic condition, poor referral service, suboptimal intrapartum care in health facilities including tertiary centre were mainly responsible for majority of still births which could have been prevented. We speculate that upgrading the existing health system performance, particularly high quality intrapartum care by skilled health personnel, will reduce stillbirths substantially in our institute.

  6. Parasitic prevalences in fresh water prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii in north and south 24 Parganas districts of West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monjit Paul

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of different freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii parasites, found during the period from April to August 2007, was investigated in different freshwater wetlands of north and south 24 Parganas districts of West Bengal state in India. Eleven parasites - Zoothamnium, Epistylis, Gregarina, Amphileptus, Dileptus, Myxobolus, Chilodonella, Balladyna, Gozia, Rhabdochona, Indocucullanus, Procamallanus and Cucullanus - were found after examining 1,000 specimens of Macrobrachium rosenbergii of different-sized groups. The highest prevalence of the parasites was recorded in the size group of 81-85 mm and 136-140 mm. The intensity of ectoparasitic infection was observed to be high with an increase in size. The gills and the surface of the body were mostly infected. Endoparasites were found in the intestinal part, and mostly due to poor raw foods given to the prawns as their diets. The parasites get more shelter and space for them. The highest intensity of those parasites was found in the month of August due to favourable autumnal conditions, with little rain and favourable breeding time of the parasites. Stressed and weak prawns are more vulnerable to infestation under adverse environmental conditions.

  7. Phytoplankton community structure in local water types at a coastal site in north-western Bay of Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baliarsingh, S K; Srichandan, Suchismita; Lotliker, Aneesh A; Sahu, K C; Srinivasa Kumar, T

    2016-07-01

    A comprehensive analysis on seasonal distribution of phytoplankton community structure and their interaction with environmental variables was carried out in two local water types (type 1  30 m isobath) at a coastal site in north-western Bay of Bengal. Phytoplankton community was represented by 211 taxa (146 marine, 37 fresh, 2 brackish, 20 marine-fresh, and 6 marine-brackish-fresh) belonging to seven major groups including 45 potential bloom forming and 22 potential toxin producing species. The seasonal variability depicted enrichment of phytoplankton during pre-monsoon in both water types. Total phytoplankton abundance pattern observed with inter-annual shift during monsoon and post-monsoon period at both water types. In both water types, diatom predominance was observed in terms of species richness and abundance comprising of centric (82 sp.) and pennate (58 sp.) forms. Pennate diatoms, Thalassiothrix longissima and Skeletonema costatum preponderated in both the water types. The diatom abundance was higher in type 1 in comparison to type 2. In general, SiO4 found to fuel growth of the dominant phytoplankton group, diatom in both the water types despite comparative lower concentration of other macronutrients in type 2.

  8. On plate tectonics and the geologic evolution of southwestern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Peter L.

    1991-07-01

    Very rapid subduction of the Farallon plate under southwestern North America between 60 and 40 Ma was accompanied by a relatively low volume of magmatism throughout the southwestern United States and northern Mexico. Between 40 and 20 Ma, when subduction slowed significantly and in one area may have even stopped, magmatism became widespread and voluminous from Nevada and Utah to central Mexico. This correlation of rapid subduction with a relatively low volume of magmatism can be explained by the observation that subduction-related andesitic arc volcanism, often formed in a Laramide-style compressional regime, is relatively low volume compared to continental volcanism. The shallow roots of arc volcanic systems are clearly exposed in the porphyry copper deposits found in currently active arcs and common throughout southwestern North America between 60 and 50 Ma. By 43 Ma, worldwide plate motions changed, the Pacific plate began moving away from North America, and subduction of the Farallon plate slowed. By around 36 Ma, the easternmost part of the East Pacific Rise, which was located between the Pioneer and Murray fracture zones, approached the trench and the young, hot, buoyant lithosphere appears to have clogged part of the subduction zone. Uplift on land became widespread. Voluminous continental magmatism formed the Sierra Madre Occidental (SMO) of Mexico, one of the largest batholiths in the world, as well as volcanic centers now exposed in the San Juan Mountains of Colorado and the Rio Grande Rift of New Mexico. Vectors of motion of the Pacific plate relative to the North American plate determined by Stock and Molnar (1988) are consistent with formation of a transtensional environment along the plate boundary sufficient to create a 100- to 200-km-wide void just landward of the old volcanic arc. While the SMO batholith was forming within this void, the Monterey and Arguello microplates just offshore to the west were broken off from the Farallon plate and rotated

  9. Air Pollution over North-West Bay of Bengal in the Early Post-Monsoon Season Based on NASA MERRAero Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishcha, Pavel; DaSilva, Arlindo M.; Starobinets, Boris; Alpert, Pinhas

    2013-01-01

    The MERRA Aerosol Reanalysis (MERRAero) has been recently developed at NASA's Global Modeling Assimilation Office (GMAO). This reanalysis is based on a version of the GEOS-5 model radiatively coupled with GOCART aerosols, and it includes assimilation of bias-corrected Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT) from the MODIS sensor on both Terra and Aqua satellites. Our main finding is that, in October, in the absence of aerosol sources in north-west Bay of Bengal (BoB), MERRAero showed increasing AOT trends over north-west BoB exceeding those over the east of the Ganges basin. The Ganges basin is characterized by significant population growth accompanied by developing industry, agriculture, and increasing transportation: this has resulted in declining air quality. MERRAero data for the period 2002-2009 was used to study AOT trends over north-west Bay of Bengal (BoB) in the early post-monsoon season. This season is characterized by aerosol transport from the Ganges basin to north-west BoB by prevailing winds; and still significant rainfall of over 150 mmmonth. Different aerosol components showed strong increasing AOT trends over north-west BoB. The following factors contributed to the increasing AOT trend over the area in question in October: an increasing number of days when prevailing winds blew from land to sea, resulting in a drier environment and an increase in air pollution over north-west BoB; wind convergence was observed over north-west BoB causing the accumulation of aerosol particles over that region, when prevailing winds blew from land to sea. MERRAero aerosol reanalysis can be used on a global scale.

  10. The use of antibiotics and disinfectants in the freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii farms of north and south 24 Parganas districts of West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monjit Paul

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii farms and hatcheries of north and south 24 Parganas districts in West Bengal were surveyed for the details of antibiotics and disinfectants used for controlling the prawn diseases and pathogens. During the survey, 4antibiotics and four 4disinfectants were found to be used commonly by the farmers during a 12-month period of study. The chemicals used in the culture systems as antibiotics or disinfectants for the culture water, tanks, other utensils, and others have serious health hazards for both the cultured prawns and human beings. The study also indicates no herbal medicines, and probiotics are being used in prawn farms.

  11. Multi-year predictability of climate, drought, and wildfire in southwestern North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikamoto, Yoshimitsu; Timmermann, Axel; Widlansky, Matthew J; Balmaseda, Magdalena A; Stott, Lowell

    2017-07-26

    Past severe droughts over North America have led to massive water shortages and increases in wildfire frequency. Triggering sources for multi-year droughts in this region include randomly occurring atmospheric blocking patterns, ocean impacts on atmospheric circulation, and climate's response to anthropogenic radiative forcings. A combination of these sources translates into a difficulty to predict the onset and length of such droughts on multi-year timescales. Here we present results from a new multi-year dynamical prediction system that exhibits a high degree of skill in forecasting wildfire probabilities and drought for 10-23 and 10-45 months lead time, which extends far beyond the current seasonal prediction activities for southwestern North America. Using a state-of-the-art earth system model along with 3-dimensional ocean data assimilation and by prescribing the external radiative forcings, this system simulates the observed low-frequency variability of precipitation, soil water, and wildfire probabilities in close agreement with observational records and reanalysis data. The underlying source of multi-year predictability can be traced back to variations of the Atlantic/Pacific sea surface temperature gradient, external radiative forcings, and the low-pass filtering characteristics of soils.

  12. The More Extreme Nature of North American Monsoon Precipitation in the Southwestern United States as Revealed by a Historical Climatology of Simulated Severe Weather Events

    KAUST Repository

    Luong, Thang M.

    2017-07-03

    Long-term changes in North American monsoon (NAM) precipitation intensity in the southwestern United States are evaluated through the use of convective-permitting model simulations of objectively identified severe weather events during

  13. Rill and gully erosion risk of lateritic terrain in south-western Birbhum District, West Bengal, India / Risco a erosão em ravinas e voçorocas nos terrenos lateríticos de South-Western Birbhum District, West Bengal, India

    OpenAIRE

    V. C. Jha; S. Kapat

    2009-01-01

    It is a known fact that no part of the earth surface is free from threat.It applies to Birbhum District,West Bengal, Indian Lateritic Terrain also. The existing terrain is characterized by mainlyclimatogenetic processes. Though the impact of climate change is vital in the shaping of the lessertopographies in the study-area. The study-area is characterized by micro landforms e. g. rills,gullies, water falls, terraces, gorges type features and limestone topographic type features. Thedenudationa...

  14. Identification and interpretation of tectonic features from ERTS-1 imagery: Southwestern North America and the Red Sea area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Gawad, M. (Principal Investigator); Tubbesing, L.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The ERTS-1 imagery was utilized to study major fault and tectonic lines and their intersections in southwestern North America. A system of transverse shear faults was recognized in the California Coast Ranges, the Sierra Nevada, the Great Basin, and Mexico. They are interpreted as expressions of a major left-lateral shear which predated the San Andreas system, the opening of the Gulf of California and Basin and Range rift development. Tectonic models for Basin and Range, Coast Ranges, and Texas-Parras shears were developed. Geological structures and Precambrian metamorphic trend lines of schistosity were studied across the Red Sea rift.

  15. Air pollution modeling over the Ganges basin and north-west Bay of Bengal in the early post-monsoon season using the NASA GEOS-5 model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishcha, Pavel; da Silva, Arlindo; Starobinets, Boris; Alpert, Pinhas

    2014-05-01

    The Ganges basin is characterized by a significant population growth accompanied by developing industry, agriculture, and increasing transportation. This has resulted in increased anthropogenic emissions and declining air quality. The NASA GEOS-5 model was used to extend the MERRA reanalysis with five atmospheric aerosol components (sulfates, organic carbon, black carbon, desert dust, and sea-salt). The model includes assimilation of bias-corrected Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT) from the MODIS sensor on both Terra and Aqua satellites. The obtained eight-year (2002 - 2009) MERRA-driven aerosol dataset (MERRAero) was applied to study AOT and its trends over the Ganges basin and north-west Bay of Bengal (BoB) in the early post-monsoon season. This season is characterized by aerosol transport from the Ganges basin to north-west BoB by prevailing winds; lower cloud fraction compared to the monsoon season; and still significant rainfall of over 150 mm/month. In the early post-monsoon season (October), modeled data showed that AOT was lower over the east of the Ganges basin than over the north-west of the Ganges basin: this was despite the fact that the east of the Ganges basin should have produced higher anthropogenic aerosol emissions due to higher population density, increased industrial output and transportation. This is evidence that higher aerosol emissions do not always correspond to higher AOT over the areas where the effects of meteorological factors on AOT dominate those of aerosol emissions. MODIS AOT assimilation was essential for correcting modeled AOT mainly over the north-west of the Ganges basin, where AOT increments were maximal. Over the east of the Ganges basin and north-west BoB, AOT increments were low and MODIS AOT assimilation did not contribute significantly to modeled AOT. Our analysis showed that increasing AOT trends over north-west BoB (exceeding those over the east of the Ganges basin) were reproduced by GEOS-5, not because of MODIS AOT

  16. Rill and gully erosion risk of lateritic terrain in south-western Birbhum District, West Bengal, India / Risco a erosão em ravinas e voçorocas nos terrenos lateríticos de South-Western Birbhum District, West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. C. Jha

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available It is a known fact that no part of the earth surface is free from threat.It applies to Birbhum District,West Bengal, Indian Lateritic Terrain also. The existing terrain is characterized by mainlyclimatogenetic processes. Though the impact of climate change is vital in the shaping of the lessertopographies in the study-area. The study-area is characterized by micro landforms e. g. rills,gullies, water falls, terraces, gorges type features and limestone topographic type features. Thedenudational processes are very significant in the area in general but the differential erosion isevident in particular. It resembles the topographies with the African and the Brazillian Highlands.This paper interprets the rill and gully erosion risk in the lateritic terrain and their consequencesin regional sustainable development and environmental management.

  17. Contribution to the freshwater gastrotrich fauna of wetland areas of southwestern Ontario (Canada) with redescriptions of seven species and a check-list for North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwank, Peter; Kånneby, Tobias

    2014-06-05

    This study gives additional, detailed information on the freshwater gastrotrich species described and reported from the southwestern regions of Ontario and New Brunswick, Canada by Schwank (1990). Aspidiophorus ontarioniensis, Chaetonotus (Chaetonotus) furculatus, Chaetonotus (Chaetonotus) ontariensis, Chaetonotus (Primochaetus) annae, Ichthydium malleum, Lepidodermella forficulata and Setopus lemnicola are all redescribed. In addition, a complete list of freshwater species currently known from North America is given.

  18. Quantification of human polyomavirus JC virus load in urine and blood samples of healthy tribal populations of North-Eastern part of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattaraj, S; Bera, N K; Dutta, C; Bhattacharjee, S

    2015-01-01

    Human polyomavirus JC (JCV) is a widespread human virus with profound pathogenic potential. A study was undertaken to quantify JCV load in urine and peripheral blood samples of immunocompetent, apparently healthy tribal individuals of North-Eastern part of West Bengal, India for the first time. One hundred and thirteen samples of urine or blood were collected from different tribal groups of this region. For the quantitative estimation of the viral load in each sample, real-time polymerase chain reaction method using the SYBR Green dye was employed. The viral load estimated was found in the range between 3.5 × 102 and 2.12 × 106 copies/ml of samples having a mean and median viral copy numbers of 8.67 × 105 and 9.19 × 105 copies/ml of sample respectively. The mean viral DNA load in urine samples of the studied immunocompetent population was found to be higher than that found in a study conducted in the USA, but lower than similar groups of Italy and healthy adult women in the USA. However when compared with median values of viral DNA loads in urine samples of immunocompetent human subjects of Kuwait, Portugal, and Switzerland the observed viral DNA load was found to be substantially higher.

  19. Environmental magnetic and petroleum hydrocarbons records in sediment cores from the north east coast of Tamilnadu, Bay of Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatachalapathy, R; Veerasingam, S; Basavaiah, N; Ramkumar, T; Deenadayalan, K

    2011-04-01

    In this study, mineral magnetic properties and petroleum hydrocarbons were statistically analysed in four sediment cores (C1, A1, T1 and K1) from the north east coast of Tamilnadu, India to examine the feasibility of PHC concentrations assessment using magnetic susceptibility. The C1 and A1 cores reveal a clear horizon of increase in PHC above 35 and 50 cm respectively suggesting the excess anthropogenic loading occurred in the recent past. Magnetic properties which were enhanced in the upper part of the sediment cores were the result of ferrimagnetic minerals from anthropogenic sources. Factor analysis confirmed that the input of magnetic minerals and petroleum hydrocarbons in Chennai coastal sediments are derived from the same sources. The present study shows that instead of expensive and destructive PHC chemical methods, magnetic susceptibility is found to be a suitable, cheap and rapid method for detailed study of petroleum hydrocarbon contamination in marine sediments. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Chlorophyll Fluorescence Better Captures Seasonal and Interannual Gross Primary Productivity Dynamics Across Dryland Ecosystems of Southwestern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, W. K.; Biederman, J. A.; Scott, R. L.; Moore, D. J. P.; He, M.; Kimball, J. S.; Yan, D.; Hudson, A.; Barnes, M. L.; MacBean, N.; Fox, A. M.; Litvak, M. E.

    2018-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing provides unmatched spatiotemporal information on vegetation gross primary productivity (GPP). Yet understanding of the relationship between GPP and remote sensing observations and how it changes with factors such as scale, biophysical constraint, and vegetation type remains limited. This knowledge gap is especially apparent for dryland ecosystems, which have characteristic high spatiotemporal variability and are under-represented by long-term field measurements. Here we utilize an eddy covariance (EC) data synthesis for southwestern North America in an assessment of how accurately satellite-derived vegetation proxies capture seasonal to interannual GPP dynamics across dryland gradients. We evaluate the enhanced vegetation index, solar-induced fluorescence (SIF), and the photochemical reflectivity index. We find evidence that SIF is more accurately capturing seasonal GPP dynamics particularly for evergreen-dominated EC sites and more accurately estimating the full magnitude of interannual GPP dynamics for all dryland EC sites. These results suggest that incorporation of SIF could significantly improve satellite-based GPP estimates.

  1. Impact of the Desert dust on the summer monsoon system over Southwestern North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Zhao

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The radiative forcing of dust emitted from the Southwest United States (US deserts and its impact on monsoon circulation and precipitation over the North America monsoon (NAM region are simulated using a coupled meteorology and aerosol/chemistry model (WRF-Chem for 15 years (1995–2009. During the monsoon season, dust has a cooling effect (−0.90 W m−2 at the surface, a warming effect (0.40 W m−2 in the atmosphere, and a negative top-of-the-atmosphere (TOA forcing (−0.50 W m−2 over the deserts on 24-h average. Most of the dust emitted from the deserts concentrates below 800 hPa and accumulates over the western slope of the Rocky Mountains and Mexican Plateau. The absorption of shortwave radiation by dust heats the lower atmosphere by up to 0.5 K day−1 over the western slope of the Mountains. Model sensitivity simulations with and without dust for 15 summers (June-July-August show that dust heating of the lower atmosphere over the deserts strengthens the low-level southerly moisture fluxes on both sides of the Sierra Madre Occidental. It also results in an eastward migration of NAM-driven moisture convergence over the western slope of the Mountains. These monsoonal circulation changes lead to a statistically significant increase of precipitation by up to ~40 % over the eastern slope of the Mountains (Arizona-New~Mexico-Texas regions. This study highlights the interaction between dust and the NAM system and motivates further investigation of possible dust feedback on monsoon precipitation under climate change and the mega-drought conditions projected for the future.

  2. Terrestrial carbon balance in a drier world: the effects of water availability in southwestern North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biederman, Joel A; Scott, Russell L; Goulden, Michael L; Vargas, Rodrigo; Litvak, Marcy E; Kolb, Thomas E; Yepez, Enrico A; Oechel, Walter C; Blanken, Peter D; Bell, Tom W; Garatuza-Payan, Jaime; Maurer, Gregory E; Dore, Sabina; Burns, Sean P

    2016-05-01

    Global modeling efforts indicate semiarid regions dominate the increasing trend and interannual variation of net CO2 exchange with the atmosphere, mainly driven by water availability. Many semiarid regions are expected to undergo climatic drying, but the impacts on net CO2 exchange are poorly understood due to limited semiarid flux observations. Here we evaluated 121 site-years of annual eddy covariance measurements of net and gross CO2 exchange (photosynthesis and respiration), precipitation, and evapotranspiration (ET) in 21 semiarid North American ecosystems with an observed range of 100 - 1000 mm in annual precipitation and records of 4-9 years each. In addition to evaluating spatial relationships among CO2 and water fluxes across sites, we separately quantified site-level temporal relationships, representing sensitivity to interannual variation. Across the climatic and ecological gradient, photosynthesis showed a saturating spatial relationship to precipitation, whereas the photosynthesis-ET relationship was linear, suggesting ET was a better proxy for water available to drive CO2 exchanges after hydrologic losses. Both photosynthesis and respiration showed similar site-level sensitivity to interannual changes in ET among the 21 ecosystems. Furthermore, these temporal relationships were not different from the spatial relationships of long-term mean CO2 exchanges with climatic ET. Consequently, a hypothetical 100-mm change in ET, whether short term or long term, was predicted to alter net ecosystem production (NEP) by 64 gCm(-2) yr(-1). Most of the unexplained NEP variability was related to persistent, site-specific function, suggesting prioritization of research on slow-changing controls. Common temporal and spatial sensitivity to water availability increases our confidence that site-level responses to interannual weather can be extrapolated for prediction of CO2 exchanges over decadal and longer timescales relevant to societal response to climate change.

  3. Winter-to-Summer Precipitation Phasing in Southwestern North America: A Multi-Century Perspective from Paleoclimatic Model-Data Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coats, Sloan; Smerdon, Jason E.; Seager, Richard; Griffin, Daniel; Cook, Benjamin I.

    2015-01-01

    The phasing of winter-to-summer precipitation anomalies in the North American monsoon (NAM) region 2 (113.25 deg W-107.75 deg W, 30 deg N-35.25 deg N-NAM2) of southwestern North America is analyzed in fully coupled simulations of the Last Millennium and compared to tree ring reconstructed winter and summer precipitation variability. The models simulate periods with in-phase seasonal precipitation anomalies, but the strength of this relationship is variable on multidecadal time scales, behavior that is also exhibited by the reconstructions. The models, however, are unable to simulate periods with consistently out-of-phase winter-to-summer precipitation anomalies as observed in the latter part of the instrumental interval. The periods with predominantly in-phase winter-to-summer precipitation anomalies in the models are significant against randomness, and while this result is suggestive of a potential for dual-season drought on interannual and longer time scales, models do not consistently exhibit the persistent dual-season drought seen in the dendroclimatic reconstructions. These collective findings indicate that model-derived drought risk assessments may underestimate the potential for dual-season drought in 21st century projections of hydroclimate in the American Southwest and parts of Mexico.

  4. Current velocity and hydrographic observations in the Southwestern North Atlantic Ocean: Subtropical Atlantic Climate Studies (STACS), 1989 (NODC Accession 9100033)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The primary objective of the STACS program are to increase our understanding of the dynamics of the North Atlantic circulation and the role of the ocean circulation...

  5. Particulate carbohydrate in the euphotic zone of the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosle, N; De; Shirodkar, P.V.; Reddy, C.V.G.

    Particulate matter collected from the Bay of Bengal was analysed for carbohydrate and chlorophyll a. The distribution of chlorophyll a was different from that of carbohydrate. Chlorophyll a increased from north to south, whereas carbohydrate levels...

  6. History of psychiatry in Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Gautam Kumar; Ghoshal, Malay; Saha, Gautam; Singh, Om Prakash

    2018-02-01

    The history of psychiatry in Bengal mirrors the history of psychiatry in India. With Bengal being an important location for the East India Company, it became the locus for much infrastructure development, including the setting up of lunatic asylums. This article traces the development of psychiatric care in Bengal, from the early time of private asylums exclusively for Europeans, to psychiatric care in the present time.

  7. Forcing mechanisms of the Bay of Bengal circulation

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vinayachandran, P.N.; Shetye, S.R.; Sengupta, D.; Gadgil, S.

    A state-of-the-art ocean general circulation model, set up for the North Indian Ocean and driven by climatological wind stress simulates most of the observed features of the near-surface circulation of the Bay of Bengal. The prominent features...

  8. Petrography and detrital zircon study of late Carboniferous sequences in the southwestern North China Craton: Implications for the regional tectonic evolution and bauxite genesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Shuhui; Wang, Qingfei; Liu, Xuefei; Feng, Yuewen; Zhang, Ying

    2015-02-01

    The North China Craton (NCC) has been flanked by the North Qilian and North Qinling arc-accretionary belts to the south and southwest since ∼400 Ma. The part of the NCC to the east of the Alax terrane (E-NCC) experienced a long sedimentary hiatus and tectonic quiescence between the Middle Ordovician and the late Carboniferous. The northern margin of the E-NCC was reactivated and uplifted with contemporaneous volcanism during the late Carboniferous, an event that partly induced the transformation of the E-NCC from an erosional platform to a continental sedimentary basin. However, the factors controlling this transformation are still not fully understood. A series of sedimentary rocks overlying Ordovician carbonates in the southwestern E-NCC contains a lower iron-oxide layer and an upper phyllosilicate layer. Detrital zircons from different parts of the profile, from the base to the top of the two layers, have similar U-Pb ages. These zircons have a minimum age of ca. 300 Ma and a prominent peak at ca. 450 Ma, with subordinate peaks at ca. 1000 and 2500 Ma. The near-identical minimum age for the two layers suggests they were semi-simultaneously deposited in the late Carboniferous after the long hiatus in sedimentation. Detrital zircons with ages of ∼450 Ma have initial Hf isotopic compositions that vary from large negative to elevated positive. These data, together with the trace element compositions of these zircons, indicate that these minerals formed in a continental arc environment. Samples from the upper sedimentary layer contain mica group minerals that are weakly buckled and fractured, and have weathered to form clay minerals, including chlorite and illite. This suggests that the protolith of this sedimentary layer was dominated by mica schist or mica-bearing granitoid that most likely located near the adjoined part between the North Qilian and North Qinling arc-accretionary belts. Detrital zircons with the youngest ages (ca. 300 Ma) were considered to

  9. Modelling survival and connectivity of Mnemiopsis leidyi in the south-western North Sea and Scheldt estuaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Molen, J.; van Beek, J.; Augustine, Starrlight

    2015-01-01

    numbers in coastal and offshore waters of the North Sea, but this may change with global warming; however, this result is subject to substantial uncertainty. Further quantitative observational work is needed on the effects of temperature, salinity and food availability on reproduction and on mortality...

  10. Temporal variability in phytoplankton pigments, picoplankton and coccolithophores along a transect through the North Atlantic and tropical southwestern Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandonneau, Yves; Montel, Yves; Blanchot, Jean; Giraudeau, Jacques; Neveux, Jacques

    2006-04-01

    Biogeochemical processes in the sea are triggered in various ways by chlorophyll-containing phytoplankton groups. While the variability of chlorophyll concentration at sea has been observed from satellites for several years, these groups are known only from cruises which are limited in space and time. The Geochemistry, Phytoplankton and Color of the Ocean programme (GeP&CO) was set up to describe and understand the variability of phytoplankton composition on large spatial scales under a multi-year sampling strategy. It was based on sea-surface sampling along the route of the merchant ship Contship London which travelled four times a year from Le Havre (France) to Nouméa (New Caledonia) via New York, Panama and Auckland. Observations included the measurement of photosynthetic pigments, counts of picoplanktonic cells by flow cytometry (Prochlorococcus, Synechococcus, and picoeucaryotes) and counting and identification of coccolithophores. The results confirmed that tropical areas have low seasonal variability and are characterized by relatively high divinyl-chlorophyll a and zeaxanthin concentration and that the variability is strongest at high latitudes where the phytoplankton biomass and population structure are found to have large seasonal cycles. Thus, the spring bloom in the North Atlantic and an austral winter bloom north of New Zealand are marked by chlorophyll concentrations which are often higher than 0.5 μg l -1 and by high concentration of fucoxanthin (a pigment used as an indicator for diatoms), while summer populations are dominated by Prochlorococcus sp. and have low chlorophyll concentrations. Apart from this yearly bloom at temperate latitudes, fucoxanthin is scarce, except in the equatorial upwelling zone in the eastern Pacific Ocean, where it is found in moderate amounts. In this region, relatively high chlorophyll concentrations extend generally as far as 14°S and do not respond to the seasonal strengthening of the equatorial upwelling during

  11. Megadroughts in Southwestern North America in ECHO-G Millennial Simulations and Their Comparison to Proxy Drought Reconstructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coats, Sloan; Smerdon, Jason E.; Seager, Richard; Cook, Benjamin I.; Gozalez-Rouco, J. F.

    2013-01-01

    Simulated hydroclimate variability in millennium-length forced transient and control simulations from the ECHAM and the global Hamburg Ocean Primitive Equation (ECHO-G) coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model (AOGCM) is analyzed and compared to 1000 years of reconstructed Palmer drought severity index (PDSI) variability from the North American Drought Atlas (NADA). The ability of the model to simulate megadroughts in the North American southwest is evaluated. (NASW: 25deg42.5degN, 125deg-105degW). Megadroughts in the ECHO-G AOGCM are found to be similar in duration and magnitude to those estimated from the NADA. The droughts in the forced simulation are not, however, temporally synchronous with those in the paleoclimate record, nor are there significant differences between the drought features simulated in the forced and control runs. These results indicate that model-simulated megadroughts can result from internal variability of the modeled climate system rather than as a response to changes in exogenous forcings. Although the ECHO-G AOGCM is capable of simulating megadroughts through persistent La Nina-like conditions in the tropical Pacific, other mechanisms can produce similarly extreme NASW moisture anomalies in the model. In particular, the lack of low-frequency coherence between NASW soil moisture and simulated modes of climate variability like the El Nino-Southern Oscillation, Pacific decadal oscillation, and Atlantic multidecadal oscillation during identified drought periods suggests that stochastic atmospheric variability can contribute significantly to the occurrence of simulated megadroughts in the NASW. These findings indicate that either an expanded paradigm is needed to understand multidecadal hydroclimate variability in the NASW or AOGCMs may incorrectly simulate the strength and/or dynamics of the connection between NASW hydroclimate variability and the tropical Pacific.

  12. Evidence of a robust relationship between solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence and gross primary productivity across dryland ecosystems of southwestern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, W. K.; Biederman, J. A.; Scott, R. L.; Moore, D. J.; Kimball, J. S.; He, M.; Yan, D.; Hudson, A.; Barnes, M.; MacBean, N.; Fox, A. M.; Litvak, M. E.

    2017-12-01

    Satellite remote sensing provides unmatched spatiotemporal information on multiple facets of vegetation dynamics including seasonal to interannual total photosynthesis, termed gross primary productivity (GPP). Yet, our understanding of the relationship between GPP and remote sensing observations - and how this relationship changes with scale, biophysical constraint, vegetation type, etc. - remains limited. This knowledge gap is especially apparent for dryland ecosystems, which have high spatial and temporal variability and are under-represented by long-term, continuous field measurements. Here, utilizing a new synthesis of eddy covariance flux tower data for southwestern North America, we present a first assessment of the ability of novel satellite remote sensing vegetation proxies to accurately capture seasonal to interannual GPP dynamics across the region. We evaluate the greenness-based Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) and emerging proxies linked to plant physiological function, Solar-Induced Fluorescence (SIF) and Photochemical Reflectivity Index (PRI). We find that SIF observations more consistently correlate with seasonal GPP dynamics (R = 0.90) compared to EVI (R = 0.85) and PRI (R = 0.78). More, we find that SIF observations are also more sensitive to interannual GPP variability (linear slope = 0.80) relative to EVI (linear slope = 0.63) and PRI (linear slope = 0.35). This is likely due to increased sensitivity of SIF to GPP during periods of decoupling between greenness and photosynthesis due to water-limitation / stomatal closure. Conversely, EVI and PRI observations better capture spatial GPP variability between flux tower sites. These results suggest that combinations of these independent vegetation growth proxies could yield synergistic improvements in satellite-based GPP estimates.

  13. Stratigraphy and environments of deposition of the Cretaceous Hell Creek Formation (reconnaissance) and the Paleocene Ludlow Formation (detailed), southwestern North Dakota. Report of investigations No. 56

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, W.L.

    1976-01-01

    The Cretaceous Hell Creek and Paleocene Ludlow Formations of southwestern North Dakota, with the exception of the included lignite beds and minor amounts of concretions and nodules, are almost exclusively clastic sediments and sedimentary rocks. Massive clays, clays alternating with silts and sands, sandstones filling channels and other depressions, sheet sandstones, and lignites are the dominant sediment and rock types present. These sediments and sedimentary rocks were mostly deposited in a continental environment and were largely alluvial, lacustrine or paludal in origin; though marginal marine deposition, in part, is indicated by the occurrence of brackish water faunas in portions of the upper Ludlow Formation. With the possible exception of a persistent lignite near the base, persistent lignites are not present in the Hell Creek Formation. The Ludlow can be subdivided into several informal units, typically coal-bounded, which can be traced laterally over large areas. This informal subdivision permits isolation of stratigraphic units for the study of local environments of deposition. Channel and depression fill sandstones of the Ludlow Formation have a relatively low permeability and a high organic content at the surface and, for this reason, are considered poor prospective uranium host rocks. The lighter colored yellow winnowed sheet sandstones of the Ludlow are more permeable and relatively free of organic matter. They are considered as possible host rocks for uranium occurring in association with an oxidation/reduction interface at shallow depths. The uranium potential is enhanced where the latter sandstones occur along paleodivides which have been overlain by the Oligocene White River Formation, or in local areas where the latter formation is still preserved. Light yellow winnowed sheet sandstones are rare in the Hell Creek Formation, and the chances for uranium prospects in this interval seem correspondingly reduced

  14. CMIP5 land surface models systematically underestimate inter-annual variability of net ecosystem exchange in semi-arid southwestern North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacBean, N.; Scott, R. L.; Biederman, J. A.; Vuichard, N.; Hudson, A.; Barnes, M.; Fox, A. M.; Smith, W. K.; Peylin, P. P.; Maignan, F.; Moore, D. J.

    2017-12-01

    Recent studies based on analysis of atmospheric CO2 inversions, satellite data and terrestrial biosphere model simulations have suggested that semi-arid ecosystems play a dominant role in the interannual variability and long-term trend in the global carbon sink. These studies have largely cited the response of vegetation activity to changing moisture availability as the primary mechanism of variability. However, some land surface models (LSMs) used in these studies have performed poorly in comparison to satellite-based observations of vegetation dynamics in semi-arid regions. Further analysis is therefore needed to ensure semi-arid carbon cycle processes are well represented in global scale LSMs before we can fully establish their contribution to the global carbon cycle. In this study, we evaluated annual net ecosystem exchange (NEE) simulated by CMIP5 land surface models using observations from 20 Ameriflux sites across semi-arid southwestern North America. We found that CMIP5 models systematically underestimate the magnitude and sign of NEE inter-annual variability; therefore, the true role of semi-arid regions in the global carbon cycle may be even more important than previously thought. To diagnose the factors responsible for this bias, we used the ORCHIDEE LSM to test different climate forcing data, prescribed vegetation fractions and model structures. Climate and prescribed vegetation do contribute to uncertainty in annual NEE simulations, but the bias is primarily caused by incorrect timing and magnitude of peak gross carbon fluxes. Modifications to the hydrology scheme improved simulations of soil moisture in comparison to data. This in turn improved the seasonal cycle of carbon uptake due to a more realistic limitation on photosynthesis during water stress. However, the peak fluxes are still too low, and phenology is poorly represented for desert shrubs and grasses. We provide suggestions on model developments needed to tackle these issues in the future.

  15. Expanding dryland ecosystem flux datasets enable novel quantification of water availability and carbon exchange in Southwestern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biederman, J. A.; Scott, R. L.; Smith, W. K.; Litvak, M. E.; MacBean, N.

    2017-12-01

    Global-scale studies suggest that water-limited dryland ecosystems dominate the increasing trend in magnitude and interannual variability of the land CO2 sink. However, the terrestrial biosphere models and remote sensing models used in large-scale analyses are poorly constrained by flux measurements in drylands, which are under-represented in global datasets. In this talk, I will address this gap with eddy covariance data from 30 ecosystems across the Southwest of North America with observed ranges in annual precipitation of 100 - 1000 mm, annual temperatures of 2 - 25 °C, and records of 3 - 10 years each (160 site-years). This extensive dryland dataset enables new approaches including 1) separation of temporal and spatial patterns to infer fast and slow ecosystem responses to change, and 2) partitioning of precipitation into hydrologic losses, evaporation, and ecosystem-available water. I will then compare direct flux measurements with models and remote sensing used to scale fluxes regionally. Combining eddy covariance and streamflow measurements, I will show how evapotranspiration (ET), which is the efflux of soil moisture remaining after hydrologic losses, is a better metric than precipitation of water available to drive ecosystem CO2 exchange. Furthermore, I will present a novel method to partition ET into evaporation and transpiration using the tight coupling of transpiration and photosynthesis. In contrast with typical carbon sink function in wetter, more-studied regions, dryland sites express an annual net carbon uptake varying from -350 to +330 gC m-2. Due to less respiration losses relative to photosynthesis gains during winter, declines in winter precipitation across the Southwest since 1999 are reducing annual net CO2 uptake. Interannual variability of net uptake is larger than for wetter regions, and half the sites pivot between sinks in wet years to sources in dry years. Biospheric and remote sensing models capture only 20-30 % of interannual

  16. The southwestern extension of the Jiao-Liao-Ji belt in the North China Craton: Geochronological and geochemical evidence from the Wuhe Group in the Bengbu area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chaohui; Zhao, Guochun; Liu, Fulai; Cai, Jia

    2018-04-01

    The Wuhe complex is located at the southeastern margin of the North China Craton. The complex consists of metamorphosed Paleoproterozoic potassic granitoids and supracrustal rocks, of which the latter include the Fengyang and Wuhe groups. Meta-mafic rocks from the lower Wuhe Group have igneous zircon U-Pb ages of 2126 ± 37 Ma with εHf(t) values of -6.22 to +8.38, and xenocrystic zircons of 2.39-2.36 Ga, 2.55-2.54 Ga and 2.77-2.69 Ga. Geochemically, the meta-mafic rocks can be classified into two groups. Group 1 island arc tholeiites display flat to slightly right declined REE patterns and moderately negative Nb, Ta, Zr, and Ti anomalies. Group 2 mature arc calcalkaline basalts display strongly fractionated chondrite-normalized REE patterns and evidently negative Nb, Ta and Ti anomalies. These meta-mafic rocks formed by partial melting of sub-arc depleted mantle wedge which had been modified by slab-derived melts at an active continental margin. Depositional age of the group can be constrained in the period of 2.16-2.10 Ga based on ages of the youngest detrital zircons and latter intrusions. U-Pb ages of detrital zircons yield major age peaks of 2.69 Ga and 2.52 Ga, with minor peaks at 2.88 Ga, 2.78 Ga, 2.35 Ga and 2.17 Ga, most of which are derived from the late Mesoarchean to early Paleoproterozoic granitoids in the Wuhe complex and the Jiaodong Terrane. Metamorphic zircons in the marbles coexisting with garnet amphibolites or granulites occur as either single grains or overgrowth (or recrystallization) rims surrounding magmatic zircon cores and yield ages of 1882 ± 19 Ma to 1844 ± 15 Ma. The comparable ca. 2.1 Ga potassic granites with A-type granite affinity, the ca. 2.1 Ga meta-mafic rocks with arc-like geochemical features, the 2.1-1.9 Ga meta-sedimentary units and the 1.9-1.8 Ga subduction- and collision-related granulite-facies metamorphism suggest that the Wuhe complex and the Jiao-Liao-Ji Belt share the same late Paleoproterozoic tectonic evolution

  17. The tectonic origin of the Bay of Bengal and Bangladesh

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Talwani, M.; Desa, M.; Ismaiel, M.; Krishna, K.S.

    of these methods have worked. No drill holes down to basement exist, nor are there seismic refraction measurements that provide velocities of crustal rocks. Ramana et al. [1994] did interpret the magnetic anomalies in the Bay of Bengal, however... (with a gravity low) and the Ninetyeast Ridge (with a gravity high) [Curray et al., 1982]. The Ninetyeast Ridge was created by the Kerguelen hotspot as the Indian plate traveled north over it [Mahoney et al., 1983; Weissel et al., 1991]. There appears...

  18. Primary Schooling in West Bengal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Amartya

    2010-01-01

    With his Nobel Prize award money, Amartya Sen set up the Pratichi Trust which carries out research, advocacy and experimental projects in basic education, primary health care, and women's development in West Bengal and Bangladesh. Professor Sen himself took active interest in this work--helping set the agenda, looking at the evidence from…

  19. An Inter-Block Level Analysis of Regional Disparity in the Youngest Alipurduar District of West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koyel Sam

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Alipurduar (also known as ‘Dooars’ was a subdivision of Jalpaiguri district before its emergence as the new 20th district of West Bengal on 25 June 2014. The districts of North Bengal (including Darjeeling, Jalpaiguri, Coochbehar, Uttar Dinajpur, Dakshin Dinajpur and Malda have been poorly placed in comparison to the state of West Bengal, in terms of Human Development Indicators: low literacy level, poor condition in sanitation, and partly availability of electricity and safe drinking water (Report on Comparative Backwardness of North Bengal Region, Government of India, 2002.  Research on regional disparity is essential for addressing the lacuna in the planning process of development (Sen, 2001. In the present study, an analysis has been made in terms of the inter-block inequality in socio-economic and infrastructural development of Alipurduar district as a newly emerged region.

  20. Evidence for the existence of Persian Gulf Water and Red Sea Water in the Bay of Bengal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Vineet; Shankar, D.; Vinayachandran, P. N.; Kankonkar, A.; Chatterjee, Abhisek; Amol, P.; Almeida, A. M.; Michael, G. S.; Mukherjee, A.; Chatterjee, Meenakshi; Fernandes, R.; Luis, R.; Kamble, Amol; Hegde, A. K.; Chatterjee, Siddhartha; Das, Umasankar; Neema, C. P.

    2017-05-01

    The high-salinity water masses that originate in the North Indian Ocean are Arabian Sea High-Salinity Water (ASHSW), Persian Gulf Water (PGW), and Red Sea Water (RSW). Among them, only ASHSW has been shown to exist in the Bay of Bengal. We use CTD data from recent cruises to show that PGW and RSW also exist in the bay. The presence of RSW is marked by a deviation of the salinity vertical profile from a fitted curve at depths ranging from 500 to 1000 m; this deviation, though small (of the order of 0.005 psu and therefore comparable to the CTD accuracy of 0.003 psu), is an order of magnitude larger than the 0.0003 psu fluctuations associated with the background turbulence or instrument noise in this depth regime, allowing us to infer the existence of RSW throughout the bay. PGW is marked by the presence of a salinity maximum at 200-450 m; in the southwestern bay, PGW can be distinguished from the salinity maximum due to ASHSW because of the intervening Arabian Sea Salinity Minimum. This salinity minimum and the maximum associated with ASHSW disappear east and north of the south-central bay (85°E, 8°N) owing to mixing between the fresher surface waters that are native to the bay (Bay of Bengal Water or BBW) with the high-salinity ASHSW. Hence, ASHSW is not seen as a distinct water mass in the northern and eastern bay and the maximum salinity over most of the bay is associated with PGW. The surface water over most of the bay is therefore a mixture of ASHSW and the low-salinity BBW. As a corollary, we can also infer that the weak oxygen peak seen within the oxygen-minimum zone in the bay at a depth of 250-400 m is associated with PGW. The hydrographic data also show that these three high-salinity water masses are advected into the bay by the Summer Monsoon Current, which is seen to be a deep current extending to 1000 m. These deep currents extend into the northern bay as well, providing a mechanism for spreading ASHSW, PGW, and RSW throughout the bay.

  1. Badis laspiophilus, a new miniature addition to the ichthyofauna of West Bengal, north-eastern India, with observations on its ecology and preliminary notes on its ethology (Actinopterygii: Perciformes: Badidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdesalici, Stefano; Van Der Voort, Stefan

    2015-07-16

    Badis laspiophilus is described from the Torsa River drainage, West Bengal, India. It can be distinguished from congeners by a combination of characters which include a small size (15.7-21.0 mm SL), 14-16 circumpeduncular row scales, interorbital width 6.7-8.9% SL, upper and lower jaws 8.2-9.2 and 10.2-13.4% SL, respectively, presence of two dorsal-fin blotches and a single round blotch on the anal fin, and absence of cleithral, opercle and dorsolateral caudal peduncle blotches. Its benthic ecology is discussed and the Badis singenensis species group is diagnosed, of which B. laspiophilus and B. singenensis are considered members.

  2. Seroepidemiology of bluetongue in South Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkendu Halder

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: With the aim of revealing the epidemiological intricacies of bluetongue (BT in the southern part of West Bengal state, the present study was undertaken to assess seroprevalence of BT along with identification of the vector of the disease, i.e., Culicoides midges available in the region in their breeding season with conducive environmental factors, if any. Materials and Methods: A total of 1509 (sheep-504, goat-1005 samples were collected from three different agroclimatic zones of South Bengal viz. new alluvial, red laterite and coastal saline. To detect anti-BT antibodies in the collected serum samples, indirect-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (i-ELISA was performed. Culicoides midges were collected from those agro-climatic zones of South Bengal for species identification. The meteorological parameters, viz. temperature (maximum and minimum, rainfall and relative humidity of three agro-climatic zones of South Bengal were analyzed for the months of July to December during 2010-2013. Results: The overall seropositivity was 33.13% and 30.24% in sheep and goat, respectively as assessed by i-ELISA. In South Bengal, the predominant species of Culicoides found were Culicoides schultzei, Culicoides palpifer and Culicoides definitus. Conclusion: Since virus transmitting species of Culicoides midges could be detected in South Bengal, besides high seropositivity in ruminants, the possibility of circulating BT virus in South Bengal is quite imminent.

  3. Mesozoic anomalies in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramana, M.V.; Nair, R.R.; Sarma, K.V.L.N.S.; Ramprasad, T.; Krishna, K.S.; Subrahmanyam, V.; D'Cruz, M.; Subrahmanyam, C.; Paul, J.; Subrahmanyam, A.S.; Sekhar, D.V.C.

    The analysis of 8200 line km of total magnetic intensity data in the Bay of Bengal, northeastern Indian Ocean, revealed the presence of approximately N30~'E-trending seafloor spreading type magnetic anomalies. These anomalies resemble the Mesozoic...

  4. Magnetic anomalies in Central Bengal fan

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, T.C.S.; Lakshminarayana, S.; Sarma, K.V.L.N.S.

    Total magnetic field anomalies recorded over the Central Bengal Fan are analysed and the depths to the magnetic basement are computed using the analytical signal and the Werner deconvolution methods. To the west and east of 85 degrees E...

  5. Study of crustal structure and geological implications of southwestern margin of Northeast India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saikia, Sowrav; Baruah, Santanu; Chopra, Sumer; Singh, Upendra K.; Gogoi, Bibhuti; Gohain, Himanata B.

    2018-01-01

    It is noticed that few geophysical studies have been carried out to decipher the crustal structure of southwestern part of the Northeast India comprising of Tripura fold belt and Bengal basin as compared to the Shillong plateau and the Brahmaputra basin. This region has a long history of seismicity that is still continuing. We have determined first-order crustal features in terms of Moho depths ( H) and average VP/VS ratios ( κ) using H- κ stacking technique. The inversion of receiver functions data yields near surface thick sedimentary layer in the Bengal basin, which is nearly absent in the Shillong plateau and Tripura fold belt. Our result suggests that the crust is thicker (38-45 km) in the Tripura fold belt region with higher shear-wave velocity in the lower crust than the Shillong plateau. The distribution of VP/VS ratio indicates heterogeneity throughout the whole region. While low to medium value of Poisson's ratio (1.69-1.75) indicates the presence of felsic crust in the Shillong plateau of the extended Indian Archean crust. The medium to high values of VP/VS ratio (> 1.780) in the Bengal basin and the Tripura fold belt region represent mafic crust during the formation of the Bengal delta and the Tripura fold belt creation in the Precambrian to the Permian age. The depth of the sediments in the Bengal basin is up to 8 km on its eastern margin, which get shallower toward its northeastern and southeastern margins.

  6. The northwest trending north Boquerón Bay-Punta Montalva Fault Zone; A through going active fault system in southwestern Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roig‐Silva, Coral Marie; Asencio, Eugenio; Joyce, James

    2013-01-01

    The North Boquerón Bay–Punta Montalva fault zone has been mapped crossing the Lajas Valley in southwest Puerto Rico. Identification of the fault was based upon detailed analysis of geophysical data, satellite images, and field mapping. The fault zone consists of a series of Cretaceous bedrock faults that reactivated and deformed Miocene limestone and Quaternary alluvial fan sediments. The fault zone is seismically active (local magnitude greater than 5.0) with numerous locally felt earthquakes. Focal mechanism solutions suggest strain partitioning with predominantly east–west left-lateral displacements with small normal faults striking mostly toward the northeast. Northeast-trending fractures and normal faults can be found in intermittent streams that cut through the Quaternary alluvial fan deposits along the southern margin of the Lajas Valley, an east–west-trending 30-km-long fault-controlled depression. Areas of preferred erosion within the alluvial fan trend toward the west-northwest parallel to the onland projection of the North Boquerón Bay fault. The North Boquerón Bay fault aligns with the Punta Montalva fault southeast of the Lajas Valley. Both faults show strong southward tilting of Miocene strata. On the western end, the Northern Boquerón Bay fault is covered with flat-lying Holocene sediments, whereas at the southern end the Punta Montalva fault shows left-lateral displacement of stream drainage on the order of a few hundred meters.

  7. Morphological features in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarma, K.V.L.N.S.; Ramana, M.V.; Subrahmanyam, V.; Krishna, K.S.; Ramprasad, T.; Desa, M.

    to the evolutionary history of the ocean basins. The passive continental margins and some times the deep sea basins adjoining them are generally covered by thick pile of sediments which make it difficult to examine the features associated with the volcanic... basement of the ocean floor. The Bay of Bengal is one such region where a thick pile of Bengal Fan sediments covers the entire basement and renders the ocean floor bathymetry virtually featureless. The sediment cover is exceptionally thick (about...

  8. Nowhere to Go but Up: Impacts of Climate Change on Demographics of a Short-Range Endemic (Crotalus willardi obscurus) in the Sky-Islands of Southwestern North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Mark A; Douglas, Marlis R; Webb, Colleen T; Collyer, Michael L; Holycross, Andrew T; Painter, Charles W; Kamees, Larry K; Douglas, Michael E

    2015-01-01

    Biodiversity elements with narrow niches and restricted distributions (i.e., 'short range endemics,' SREs) are particularly vulnerable to climate change. The New Mexico Ridge-nosed Rattlesnake (Crotalus willardi obscurus, CWO), an SRE listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act within three sky islands of southwestern North America, is constrained at low elevation by drought and at high elevation by wildfire. We combined long-term recapture and molecular data with demographic and niche modeling to gauge its climate-driven status, distribution, and projected longevity. The largest population (Animas) is numerically constricted (N = 151), with few breeding adults (Nb = 24) and an elevated inbreeding coefficient (ΔF = 0.77; 100 years). Mean home range (0.07 km2) is significantly smaller compared to other North American rattlesnakes, and movements are within, not among sky islands. Demographic values, when gauged against those displayed by other endangered/Red-Listed reptiles [e.g., Loggerhead Sea Turtle (Caretta caretta)], are either comparable or markedly lower. Survival rate differs significantly between genders (femaleclimate estimates. While survival is significantly impacted by wildfire at upper elevations, the extinction vortex is driven by small population demographics, a situation comparable to that of the European Adder (Vipera berus), a conservation icon in southern Sweden. Genetic rescue, a management approach successfully employed in similar situations, is ill advised in this situation due to climate-driven habitat change in the sky islands. CWO is a rare organism in a unique environment, with a conserved niche and a predisposition towards extinction. It is a bellwether for the eventual climate-driven collapse of the Madrean pine-oak ecosystem, one of Earth's three recognized megadiversity centers.

  9. Heavy sediment influx during early Holocene: Inference from clay mineral studies in a core from the western Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Reddy, N.P.C.; Rao, K.M.

    Clay mineral studies were carried out in a 650 cm long sediment core collected at a depth of 2200 m from the north-western Bay of Bengal. Illite is the predominant mineral, followed by montmorillonite and chlorite. Illite concentration varies from...

  10. Relationship between summer monsoon rainfall and cyclogenesis over Bay of Bengal during post-monsoon (October-December) season

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sadhuram, Y.; Maneesha, K.

    –Indonesia region (05◦–15◦S; 120◦–160◦E) are useful to predict TNDC during post-monsoon (October– December) season. The influence of ENSO (El-Nino Southern Oscillation) and IOD (Indian Ocean Dipole) on the cyclogenesis over Bay of Bengal were reported earlier...-monsoon (October–December) season for the period, 1984–2013. El-Nino Modoki (Sumesh and Ramesh Kumar 2013) in the cyclogenesis over north Indian Ocean were reported earlier. Li et al. (2015) studied the inter-annual variability of cyclones over Bay of Bengal during...

  11. Conventional nutritional indices and Composite Index of Anthropometric Failure: which seems more appropriate for assessing under-nutrition among children? A cross-sectional study among school children of the Bengalee Muslim Population of North Bengal,Indi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaydip Sen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Stunting, wasting and under-weight have been conventionally utilized to assess the prevalence of under-nutrition among children. As these indices grossly underestimate this prevalence mainly due to overlapping of the children into multiple categories of anthropometric failure, there is a need for an appropriate single measure to assess this prevalence and identify the more susceptible individuals. The present study tries to ascertain whether the use of the Composite Index of Anthropometric Failure (CIAF is more appropriate than the conventional indices for the estimation of under-nutrition among children.

    Methods: The present cross-sectional study was undertaken to compare the prevalence of under-nutrition using both the conventional indices and the CIAF among 1143 children aged between 5 years to 11 years (565 boys; 578 girls belonging to the Bengalee Muslim Population (BMP, and residing in the district of Darjeeling, West Bengal, India. The children were selected using a multi-stage stratified random sampling procedure. The data was collected during the period from February 2009 to May 2010. Height and weight of the children were recorded using standard procedures. The conventional anthropometric indices and the CIAF were compared with the National Center for Health Statistics reference data to determine the prevalence of under-nutrition. A child having a value 2SD’s below that of the reference median in any of these indices was classified as suffering from under-nutrition. All the necessary approvals and consents were obtained from the Gram Panchayets and school authorities, and the study was conducted in accordance with the ethical guidelines for human experiments as laid down in the Helsinki Declaration of 2000.

    Results: Using the conventional indices, the prevalence of under-nutrition was observed to be 17.4% (wasting, 38.5% (stunting and 47.0% (under

  12. Environmental Management Audit: Southwestern Power Administration (Southwestern)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    This report documents the results of the Environmental Management Audit completed for the Southwestern Power Administration. During this Audit, activities and records were reviewed and personnel interviewed. The onsite portion of the Southwestern Audit was conducted from November 30 through December 11, 1992, by the US Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Audit (EH-24). EH-24 carries out independent assessments of Department of Energy (DOE) facilities and activities as part of the Assistant Secretary's Environmental Audit Program. This program is designed to evaluate the status of DOE facilities/activities regarding compliance with laws, regulations, DOE Orders, formal written procedures, compliance agreements, and Best Management Practices (BMPs). This internal oversight function plays an important role in improving the compliance status of DOE operations. The Environmental Management Audit stresses DOE's policy that it is the responsibility of line management to conduct operations in an environmentally sound and safe manner. The Environmental Management Audit focuses on management systems and programs, whereas the Environmental Baseline Audit conducted in March 1991 focused on specific compliance issues. The scope of the Southwestern Environmental Management Audit included a review of all systems and functions necessary for effective environmental management. Specific areas of review included: Organizational Structure; Environmental Commitment; Environmental Protection Programs; Formality of Environmental Programs; Internal and External Communication; Staff Resources, Training, and Development; and Program Evaluation, Reporting, and Corrective Action

  13. Nowhere to Go but Up: Impacts of Climate Change on Demographics of a Short-Range Endemic (Crotalus willardi obscurus in the Sky-Islands of Southwestern North America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Davis

    Full Text Available Biodiversity elements with narrow niches and restricted distributions (i.e., 'short range endemics,' SREs are particularly vulnerable to climate change. The New Mexico Ridge-nosed Rattlesnake (Crotalus willardi obscurus, CWO, an SRE listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act within three sky islands of southwestern North America, is constrained at low elevation by drought and at high elevation by wildfire. We combined long-term recapture and molecular data with demographic and niche modeling to gauge its climate-driven status, distribution, and projected longevity. The largest population (Animas is numerically constricted (N = 151, with few breeding adults (Nb = 24 and an elevated inbreeding coefficient (ΔF = 0.77; 100 years. Mean home range (0.07 km2 is significantly smaller compared to other North American rattlesnakes, and movements are within, not among sky islands. Demographic values, when gauged against those displayed by other endangered/Red-Listed reptiles [e.g., Loggerhead Sea Turtle (Caretta caretta], are either comparable or markedly lower. Survival rate differs significantly between genders (female

  14. Southwestern Grassland Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulette L. Ford; Deborah U. Potter; Rosemary Pendleton; Burton Pendleton; Wayne A. Robbie; Gerald J. Gottfried

    2004-01-01

    This chapter provides a brief overview, and selected in-depth coverage, of the factors and processes that have formed, and continue to shape, our Southwestern grasslands. In general, this chapter looks at how distributions of grasslands are regulated by soils and climate, and modified by disturbance (natural and/or anthropogenic). The attendant ecological components of...

  15. Sediment dispersal pattern in the Bay of Bengal - evidence for commencement of Bengal Fan sedimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, K. S.; Ismaiel, M.; Karlapati, S.; Gopala Rao, D.; Mishra, J.; D, S.

    2015-12-01

    The sediment succession in the Bay of Bengal records signatures corresponding to India-Asia collision, regional climate, and erosional processes of the Himalayan orogeny and the Indian subcontinent. The Bengal Fan - world's largest submarine fan - has been long studied to understand the link between the Himalayan tectonics and Asian monsoon climate, but early phase information of the Himalaya erosion is not retrieved from the Indian Ocean due to lack of deep-core samples. Therefore, the missing corresponding signals hampered the understanding of coupled processes between tectonics, climate and erosion. Seismic reflection profiles and industrial drill wells from the western Bay of Bengal show two different modes of sediment deposition: initially Indian peninsular rivers discharged sediments to the ocean at a rate ~20 m/m.y. until Oligocene-Miocene time (~23 Ma) with the exception of two fairly-enhanced sediment pulses from 65 to 54 and again from 34 to 23 Ma; since 23 Ma the Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers added huge volumes of sediments to the bay with variable rates range from 40 to >1000 m/m.y. Using seismic stratigraphic technique we found a distinct increase in sediment discharge (~140 m/m.y.) at 23 Ma is an important age marker for the onset of Bengal Fan sedimentation as a coupled connection between the Himalayan tectonics and Asian climate. Further rise in sedimentation rate during the period 6.8 - 0.8 Ma is surprisingly not in agreement with the decrease in sediment rate reported at ODP Leg 116 sites in the distal Bengal Fan, but coincident with the change in monsoon intensity. Here we provide well constrained ages for the growth of the Bengal Fan, which can serve as benchmark for interactions between the Himalayan exhumation and Asian climate.

  16. Assessment of seasonal and year-to-year surface salinity signals retrieved from SMOS and Aquarius missions in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Akhil, V.P.; Lengaigne, M.; Durand, F.; Vialard, J.; Chaitanya, A.V.S.; Keerthi, M.G.; Gopalakrishna, V.V.; Boutin, J.; de Boyer, M.C.

    The Bay of Bengal (BoB) exhibits a wide range of sea surface salinity (SSS), with very fresh water induced by heavy monsoonal precipitation and river run-offs to the north, and saltier water to the south. This is a particularly challenging region...

  17. Lateral variation in crustal and mantle structure in Bay of Bengal based on surface wave data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Amit; Mukhopadhyay, Sagarika; Kumar, Naresh; Baidya, P. R.

    2018-01-01

    Surface waves generated by earthquakes that occurred near Sumatra, Andaman-Nicobar Island chain and Sunda arc are used to estimate crustal and upper mantle S wave velocity structure of Bay of Bengal. Records of these seismic events at various stations located along the eastern coast of India and a few stations in the north eastern part of India are selected for such analysis. These stations lie within regional distance of the selected earthquakes. The selected events are shallow focused with magnitude greater than 5.5. Data of 65, 37, 36, 53 and 36 events recorded at Shillong, Bokaro, Visakhapatnam, Chennai and Trivandrum stations respectively are used for this purpose. The ray paths from the earthquake source to the recording stations cover different parts of the Bay of Bengal. Multiple Filtering Technique (MFT) is applied to compute the group velocities of surface waves from the available data. The dispersion curves thus obtained for this data set are within the period range of 15-120 s. Joint inversion of Rayleigh and Love wave group velocity is carried out to obtain the subsurface information in terms of variation of S wave velocity with depth. The estimated S wave velocity at a given depth and layer thickness can be considered to be an average value for the entire path covered by the corresponding ray paths. However, we observe variation in the value of S wave velocity and layer thickness from data recorded at different stations, indicating lateral variation in these two parameters. Thick deposition of sediments is observed along the paths followed by surface waves to Shillong and Bokaro stations. Sediment thickness keeps on decreasing as the surface wave paths move further south. Based on velocity variation the sedimentary layer is further divided in to three parts; on top lay unconsolidated sediment, underlain by consolidated sediment. Below this lies a layer which we consider as meta-sediments. The thickness and velocity of these layers decrease from north

  18. Molecular Characterization of a New Ribotype of Vibrio cholerae O139 Bengal Associated with an Outbreak of Cholera in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Faruque, Shah M.; Siddique, A. K.; Saha, Manujendra N.; Asadulghani; Rahman, M. Mostafizur; Zaman, K.; Albert, M. John; Sack, David A.; Sack, R. Bradley

    1999-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae O139 Bengal initially appeared in the southern coastal region of Bangladesh and spread northward, causing explosive epidemics during 1992 and 1993. The resurgence of V. cholerae O139 during 1995 after its transient displacement by a new clone of El Tor vibrios demonstrated rapid changes in the epidemiology of cholera in Bangladesh. A recent outbreak of cholera in two north-central districts of Bangladesh caused by V. cholerae O139 led us to analyze strains collected from the o...

  19. Southwestern Power Administration Annual Report 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-12-01

    Dear Secretary Chu, I am pleased to present the financial statements and operating data for Southwestern Power Administration (Southwestern) for Fiscal Year (FY) 2008. In FY 2008, Southwestern delivered over 7.3 billion kilowatt-hours of energy to its wholesale customers – nearly 31% more than average due to numerous record rainfall amounts in the southwest region. These record amounts produced revenues which exceeded the average annual revenue requirement by nearly $20 million and resulted in over $200 million in economic benefits to the region. Yet even as Southwestern exceeded its goals of marketing and delivering Federal hydroelectric power to our customers, we stayed focused on safety, security, and reliability. For example, we maintained our nearly 1,400 miles of high-voltage transmission lines, substations, and communications sites while achieving a Recordable Accident Frequency Rate of 0.0, a record that reflects Southwestern’s safety achievement of no recordable injuries for every 200,000 hours worked. We kept our rights-of-way secure from vegetation and other obstacles, work that not only supports our mission but also promotes reliability of the regional and National grid. We exceeded all North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) Control Performance Standards (CPS- 1 and CPS-2), and maintained regulation and reserve obligations and reactive reserve margins to ensure the reliability of the bulk electric system, even during extended periods of restricted hydro operations due to unusually high project inflows. Finally, we continued our partnerships with the Department of Energy, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, our customers, and other Federal power stakeholders, partnerships that are vital to our continued success in marketing and delivering carbon-free, renewable, and domestically produced energy to our customers and to the Nation. Sincerely, Jon Worthington Administrator

  20. A preliminary survey on parasitic occurrence in indigenous climbing perch, Anabas testudineus (Bloch, 1972 from West Bengal state of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basudev Mandal

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe the parasitic infestations of Anabas testudineus (A. testudineus collected from three different fish producing districts of West Bengal state in India. Methods: A total number of 75 specimens of A. testudineus were collected from different floodplain areas of West Bengal, India. These specimens were examined for parasites using established techniques after measuring basic morphometric parameters. Results: A total 165 individual of 20 parasites (13 ectoparasites and 7 endoparasites belonging to 7 phyla were recorded from 64 infected A. testudineus. Among the observed parasites, 8 were protozoan including 3 ciliates; 2 monogenic trematodes, 2 strigeidid trematodes, 1 nematode, 3 crustaceans, 3 myxozoans and 1 echinorhynchus acanthocephalan parasites. The quantitative abundance of parasites were highest in gill (37% followed by body outer layer (35% and intestine (28%. District wise quantitative count of parasites in different investigated organ from A. testudineus revealed that North 24 Parganas is highly infected followed by West Midnapore and East Midnapore. The highest prevalence (% and mean abundance of parasitic occurrence was observed in North 24 Parganas followed by West Midnapore and East Midnapore. The highest mean intensity was found at West Midnapore followed by North 24 Parganas and East Midnapore. Conclusions: Especially West Bengal state of India, inland culture and capture fishery mainly rural based and operated by poor farmers. Developing right kind of interventions and management practice can prevent adverse impact of diseases and assist poor farmers for sustainable production.

  1. Antecedent morphology and active tectonics in the upper Bengal Delta: Multi-temporal controls on river mobility and sediment preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, J.; Goodbred, S. L.; Hartzog, T.; Spiess, V.; Schwenk, T.; Palamenghi, L.; Steckler, M. S.; Seeber, L.; Akhter, S. H.; Mondal, D.; Hossain, S.; Petter, A. L.; Paola, C.

    2012-12-01

    The upper Bengal delta is a tectonically active depositional environment composed of unconsolidated muds and sands constructed by channel migration, avulsion, and overbank processes. These riverine sediments define the channels, floodplains, and terraces that make up the surface morphology of the upper delta plain. Until recently, the stratigraphic architecture underlying this surface morphology was poorly defined, and at present, both the origin of the upland terraces and the nature of the river avulsions continue to be debated. However, stratigraphic results from a 41-well drilling transect and a corresponding high-resolution multichannel seismic expedition in 2011 in north-central Bangladesh have begun to reveal the subsurface distribution of sediments in this dynamic environment. Two adjacent sand-dominated Holocene channel systems, presently occupied by the Jamuna and Old Brahmaputra Rivers, are each bounded by mud-capped morphological features. Pleistocene-aged terraces (Barind and Madhupur Terraces) bound the modern Jamuna River valley on either side. These terraces are composed of fining-upward fluviodeltaic deposits capped by 5-10 m of mud. The Madhupur Terrace also forms the southwestern boundary of the alternate channel course along the Old Brahmaputra, and the northeastern boundary of this valley is formed by a tectonically influenced wedge of Pleistocene mud (Sylhet Basin). This wedge is capped by a thin veneer of Holocene mud interfingered with ephemeral channel sands derived from the overthrusting 2-km high Shillong Anticline. Each of these mud-capped morphological deposits represents an area of the delta that has persisted throughout the Pleistocene; thus we focus on these fine-grained sediments in an effort to understand the long-term transition from surface morphology to preserved stratigraphy. We suggest that these Pleistocene features are an important control on river course mobility, and subsequently, on sediment deposition and preservation, at

  2. Macrobenthos of the shelf off north eastern Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Harkantra, S.N.; Rodrigues, C.L.; Parulekar, A.H.

    .6 (x = 10.61 + or - 3.2 gm/2) and from nil to 12.572 (x = 839 + or - 120 m/2) respectively. Loose sand sheltered rich fauna whereas muddy substrata has very poor fauna. Twenty nine major taxa were identified. Polychaeta formed the dominant group...

  3. The Bengal Submarine Fan, Northeastern Indian ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmel, F. J.; Curray, J. R.

    1984-06-01

    Bengal Submarine Fan, with or without its eastern lobe, the Nicobar Fan, is the largest submarine fan known. Most of its sediment has been supplied by the Ganges and Brahmaputra Rivers, probably since the Early Eocene. The “Swatch-of-No-Ground” submarine canyon connects to only one active fan valley system at a time, without apprent bifurcation over its 2500-km length. The upper fan is comprised of a complex of huge channel-levee wedges of abandoned and buried older systems. A reduction of channel size and morphology occurs at the top of the middle, fan, where meandering and sheet flow become more important.

  4. Convergent strabismus in a white Bengal tiger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernays, M E; Smith, R I

    1999-03-01

    A white Bengal tiger was noted to have a convergent strabismus with poor vision since a cub. The tiger and a littermate with normal colouring and apparently normal eyes were anaesthetised for comparative ocular examination. A fundus typical of colour-dilute cats and dogs was noted in the white tiger. Except for strabismus, no abnormalities were observed. Electroretinography showed similar retinal function in both tigers. Possible causes of strabismus considered were an adaptation to genetically determined abnormal visual pathways related to lack of pigment, abnormalities of the abducent nerves and mechanical restricting conditions of the medial rectus muscles.

  5. Directional characteristics of shallow water waves along southwestern Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Johnson, G.; SanilKumar, V.; Anoop, T.R.; Joseph, J.

    the coast during southwest monsoon season (June–September) and intrusion of moderate easterly winds propagating from Gulf of Thailand over the narrow land mass of Thailand and Myanmar. The reflected wave energy is maximum (14%) during the southwest monsoon...

  6. Southwestern Power Administration Annual Report 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-01-01

    “Renewable energy” isn’t just a catchphrase at Southwestern Power Administration (Southwestern). It describes the hydroelectric energy we market, and the energy that Southwestern’s employees bring to work every day, constantly challenging themselves to become more eff ective and effi cient in providing aff ordable, environmentally clean power to the American people. As Southwestern’s new Administrator, I have had the opportunity to view our operations from a fresh perspective, and I’m proud to share with you how a focus on continual improvement has been evident in accomplishments throughout the agency during fi scal year (FY) 2007. When the North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) implemented new reliability standards, we met applicable implementation dates and exceeded NERC’s control performance standards throughout the year. When tasked with reducing the agency’s carbon footprint, we found ways to achieve an 8.7% reduction in energy intensity from last year without impacting our operational capabilities. And when faced with record-breaking infl ows into the reservoir projects from which we market power, we capitalized on the opportunity to provide customers with signifi cant quantities of supplemental energy. Our supplemental sales this year not only saved customers over $122 million, but increased Southwestern’s revenues -- a huge win-win for Southwestern’s ratepayers and the Nation’s taxpayers alike. Southwestern is proud of its role in protecting National and economic security by contributing to the diverse supply of domestically produced energy, operating and maintaining a safe and reliable transmission system, and ensuring good stewardship of our Nation’s water resources and environment. In FY 2007, Southwestern continued to repay all power costs to the American taxpayers by marketing and delivering approximately 5.6 billion kilowatthours of hydropower at cost-based rates to customers in our six-state region. This energy

  7. Submarine groundwater discharge derived strontium from the Bengal Basin traced in Bay of Bengal water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Ramananda; Mondal, Surajit; Acharya, Shiba Shankar; Lekha, J Sree; Sengupta, Debasis

    2018-03-12

    Evaluating the submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) derived strontium (Sr) flux from the Bengal Basin to the Bay of Bengal (BoB) and determining its isotopic composition is crucial for understanding the marine Sr isotopic evolution over time. Measurements of spatially and temporally distributed water samples collected from the BoB show radiogenic 87 Sr/ 86 Sr, high Sr, calcium (Ca) concentrations and high salinity in samples collected dominantly from 100-120 m depth, which can be explained only by the contribution of saline groundwater from the Bengal Basin. These results provide a direct evidence of the SGD-Sr flux to the BoB. This SGD-Sr flux is however, spatially heterogeneous and using conservative hydrological estimates of the SGD flux to the BoB, we suggest a SGD Sr flux of 13.5-40.5 × 10 5 mol/yr to the BoB. Mass balance calculations using Sr concentrations and 87 Sr/ 86 Sr suggest up to 7% contribution of SGD to the 100-120 m BoB water samples. The identification of SGD at 100-120 m depth also provides an explanation for the anomalous variations in barium (Ba) concentrations and the δ 18 O-salinity relationship in intermediate depths of the BoB.

  8. Primary production in the Bay of Bengal during August 1977

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Devassy, V.P.; Bhattathiri, P.M.A.; Radhakrishna, K.

    Primary production, chlorophyll @ia@@, phaeophytin, phytoplankton and particulate organic carbon (POC) were studied at 14 stations in the Bay of Bengal during August 1977. Column primary production, chlorophyll @ia@@, and phaeopigments varied from 0...

  9. Rose bengal-sensitized nanocrystalline ceria photoanode for dye ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rose bengal-sensitized nanocrystalline ceria photoanode for dye-sensitized solar cell application ... injection and transportation, wide bandgap nanostructured metal oxide semiconductors with dye adsorption surface and higher electron mobility are essential properties for photoanode in dyesensitizedsolar cells (DSSCs).

  10. Canonical sound speed profile for the central Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murty, T.V.R.; PrasannaKumar, S.; Somayajulu, Y.K.; Sastry, J.S.; De Figueiredo, R.J.P.

    Following Munk's canonical theory, an algorithm has been presented for computing sound channel parameters in the western and southern Bay of Bengal. The estimated canonical sound speed profile using these parameters has been compared with computed...

  11. Circulation and geostrophic transport in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, D.P.; Murty, V.S.N.

    Utilising the hydrographic data collected during the early northeast monsoon of 1983 and southwest monsoon of 1984, the circulation of waters of the Bay of Bengal and the associated volume transport have been studied in the upper 1000 m...

  12. DDT residues in sediments from the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarkar, A.; SenGupta, R.

    in the sediments from the Bay of Bengal. Peterson grab and hydrographic winch was used to collect the sediment samples. Each sample was extracted and cleaned. Residues were detected by electron capture gas chromatography. A range variation in the concentration...

  13. Particulate carbohydrate and proteins in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sreepada, R.A.; Rivonker; Parulekar

    -N ratios in the 150 m water column with those observed from other regions (oligotrophic and eutrophic), in addition to phytoplankton cultures, suggests that the Bay of Bengal appears to be oligatrophic rather than eutrophic, with a much higher contribution...

  14. Inflammatory myopathy in a captive Bengal tiger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, I D; Stewart, J D; Carpenter, S

    1982-12-01

    A 9-year-old female Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) was presented with a history of progressive hindlimb weakness and muscle atrophy. Serum muscle enzyme activities were high, and electrophysiologic examination suggested an underlying myopathic process. Muscle biopsy revealed an inflammatory myopathy, with multifocal collections of inflammatory cells. There was severe muscle fiber necrosis with some evidence of regeneration. The cellular infiltrate consisted predominantly of macrophages, with a few lymphocytes and plasma cells. Evidence of parasitism or viral infection was not detected. Despite prolonged corticosteroid therapy, there was no clinical improvement or notable decrease in serum muscle enzymes activities. The tiger was euthanatized, and necropsy revealed generalized muscle inflammation, with no other pertinent findings.

  15. HELMINTHIASIS IN A BENGAL TIGER (PANTHERA TIGRIS TIGRIS - A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivaji Bhattacharya

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available During post mortem examination of a wild male adult Bengal Tiger of Pirkhali of Sundarban Tiger Reserve, West Bengal, India,Toxocara cati and Taenia hydatigena was observed in the stomach and intestine.

  16. HELMINTHIASIS IN A BENGAL TIGER (PANTHERA TIGRIS TIGRIS) - A CASE REPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Shivaji Bhattacharya; B. Dutta; U. Mondal; J. Mukherjee; Malay Mitra

    2012-01-01

    During post mortem examination of a wild male adult Bengal Tiger of Pirkhali of Sundarban Tiger Reserve, West Bengal, India,Toxocara cati and Taenia hydatigena was observed in the stomach and intestine.

  17. Strong variability in bacterioplankton abundance and production in central and western Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fernandes; Ramaiah; Paul, J.T.; Sardessai; Jyothibabu; Gauns, M.

    to low or no nutrient injections into the surface, primary production in Bay of Bengal is reportedly low. As a consequence, the Bay of Bengal is considered as a region of low biological productivity. Along with many biological parameters, bacterioplankton...

  18. Spectrum of hemoglobin variants in the population of northern region of West Bengal: An ethnogenetic proposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bidyut Krishna Goswami

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The birth of transfusion-dependent states of hemoglobinopathies including thalassemias is preventable by population screening and genetic counseling. Magnitude is not addressed in the Northern Region of West Bengal where many ethnic variants inhabit. Aims and Objectives: The aim of the following study is to find out the burden of different entities of hemoglobinopathies, their correlation with ethnicity and the "at risk" groups. Subjects and Methods: A descriptive study was conducted from the Hematology Unit of North Bengal Medical College over 1 year on the subjects underwent screening for hemoglobinopathies for detection of abnormal hemoglobin (Hb variants by "cation-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography" principle along with other relevant tests. Statistical Analysis: Data was analyzed by frequency distribution and Chi-square test assuming P value as 95% of the level of significance using the SPSS version 16 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, Illinois, U.S.A. Result: Abnormal Hb variant was 47.5% among 1872. Hb E trait (34.4% was most common followed by Hb E disease (25.3% and others. Hb E disorders (92.7% were observed mostly among Rajbangsi population while E-β-thalassemias (40% in the Muslims and a heterogeneous pattern noted among tribal and mongoloid. Conclusion: Hb E hemoglobinopathies was high among Rajbangsi and Muslims with identification of some other hemoglobinopathies involving tribal and mongoloid.

  19. A seismotectonic study of the 21 May 2014 Bay of Bengal intraplate earthquake: Evidence of onshore-offshore tectonic linkage and fracture zone reactivation in the northern Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, G.S.; Radhakrishna, M.; Murthy, K.S.R.

    / Accepted: 7 April 2015 / Published online: 21 April 2015 � Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015 Abstract The earthquake of 21 May 2014 (Mw 6.0) in the northern Bay of Bengal (BOB) highlights the importance of studies on intraplate earthquakes... in the north to as much as 1 km toward the south (Curray 1994). Two long and linear (almost N-S oriented) aseismic ridges, such as the 85�E and Ninetyeast ridges, divide the BOB into three major sub-basins Ea st coa st of In dia 21st May 2014...

  20. Tectonics of the Bay of Bengal: New insights from satellite-gravity and ship-borne geophysical data

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Subrahmanyam, C.; Thakur, N.K.; Rao, T.G.; Khanna, R.; Ramana, M.V.; Subrahmanyam, V.

    running the length of the Bengal fan and completely buried under the fan sediments (Fig. 1). One view projects the ridge as a hotspot trace on the ocean floor, con- necting it through the Afanasy-Nikitin seamount in the central Indian Ocean, to either... of 15ºN, with a NE–SW trend in the north and a N–S trend in the south, casts some doubt on the total pull- apart nature of the entire ECMI. Inferences based on examination of bathymetry contours from the con- jugate margins of the Coromandel coast...

  1. Role of upper ocean parameters in the genesis, intensification and tracks of cyclones over the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Maneesha, K.; Sadhuram, Y.; Prasad, K.V.S.R.

    maintained along the track (Figure 5). After formation, in some cases cyclones are sustained even under conditions of low humidity (Figure 6). So, these atmospheric par- ameters are necessary for the formation and sustainability of the cyclones... and was sustained during 9–16 November 2007, during which time it moved north and started intensifying (based on IMD cyclone track data) in the central Bay of Bengal, where UOHCS >250 kj/cm 2 persists (Figure 16). UOHC and S varied from 60–75 kj/cm2 and 3...

  2. Southwestern Power Administration Annual Report 2004-2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2006-01-01

    Confidence Commitment Cooperation These are words that spring to mind regarding Southwestern Power Administration’s performance during fiscal years (FY) 2004-2006 By offering innovative, customer-oriented service, working to improve system reliability and efficiency, and partnering with customers and other Federal power stakeholders, Southwestern has certainly exhibited all three of these qualities during these challenging yet productive years In fact, our cooperative working relationships were critical to our success during the severe and widespread drought conditions which prevailed throughout Southwestern’s marketing area for much of 2005-2006 When we proposed a temporary energy deferral program, our customers came on board by voluntarily taking less Federal hydropower than they were entitled to, enabling us to preserve system storage and fulfill our contract obligations during the crucial summer months of 2006 The U S Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) also helped improve our drought situation by allowing Southwestern more operational flexibility on a regional level Despite the challenges this critical drought period presented, Southwestern remained committed to fulfilling our mission and strategic goals From FY 2004 through FY 2006, we marketed and delivered all available Federal hydropower while meeting and even exceeding the reliability standards of the North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) Our Power Operations Training Center in Springfield, Missouri, was cited as an “Example of Excellence” during a NERC readiness audit in October 2006; and as we have every year since NERC began measuring, Southwestern far exceeded the accepted NERC compliance ratings for power system operations reliability Our commitment to excellence and accountability has kept our repayment goals on target as well Revenues were sufficient to repay all annual expenses and the required principal investment in the Federal hydropower facilities Furthermore, the original

  3. Cambrian trilobites with Siberian affinities, southwestern Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, A.R.; Egbert, R.M.; Sullivan, R.; Knoth, J.S.

    1985-02-01

    Cambrian trilobites occur in two levels (about 7 m apart) in the core of a large, complex anticlinal structure in the area between the Taylor Mountains and the Hoholitna River in southwestern Alaska. The lower collection contains Erbia, Macannaia (a species close to Soviet forms described as Pagetia ferox Lermontova), two species of Kootenia (including one perhaps cospecific with forms from the central Brooks range), and several species of ptychoparioid trilobites. It is clear that biogeographic affinities are with the transitional facies of the eastern Siberian platform and the south Siberian foldbelt. In Soviet terms, the age of the collection falls in a disputed interval called latest Early Cambrian (Tojonian) by some authors, and earliest Middle Cambrian (Amgan) by others. In North American terms, Macannaia is known only from early Middle Cambrian beds. The younger collection contains abundant agnostids, a variety of conocoryphids, Paradoxides, and several species of ptychoparioid trilobites. This is an assemblage of undoubted late Middle Cambrian age, comparable to faunas described from the Maya State of the Siberian platform and the Paradoxides paradoxissimus Stage of the Baltic region. Both faunas are from ocean-facing or outer shelf environments. None of the key non-agnostid or non-pagetiid elements have been seen previously in deposits of Cambrian North America.

  4. Ornamental fish goldfish,Carassius auratusand related parasites in three districts of West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukti Chanda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The lucrative business of ornamental fish culture in West Bengal (Mainly in three districts-Howrah, North and South 24 Parganas are facing loses due to the invasion of different ecto- and endo-parasites. The present study shows that the ornamental fish (Goldfish - Carassius auratus are mainly affected with ecto-parasites like Ichthyophthirius sp., Dactylogyrus sp., Gyrodactylus sp., Argulus sp. and endo-parasites like Procamallanus sp. and Cucullanus sp. The intensity of infection is high in case of Ichthyophthirius sp. and the intensity of the infection is high in summer months when the temperature is high or moderately high. In cooler months the intensity of the infection is lower as because the parasites are unable to breed or scarcity of food particles.

  5. Seasonal forecasting of tropical cyclogenesis over the North Indian ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Over the North Indian Ocean (NIO) and particularly over the Bay of Bengal (BoB), the post-monsoon season from October to December (OND) are known to produce tropical cyclones, which cause damage to life and property over India and many neighbouring countries. The variability of frequency of cyclonicdisturbances ...

  6. Some salient features of the atmosphere observed over the north ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Some salient features of the atmosphere observed over the north Bay of Bengal during BOBMEX. G S Bhat. Centre for Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India. e-mail: bhat@caos.iisc.ernet.in. This paper describes the near surface characteristics and vertical variations based on the ...

  7. Seasonal forecasting of tropical cyclogenesis over the North Indian ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Over the North Indian Ocean (NIO) and particularly over the Bay of Bengal (BoB), the post-monsoon season from October to December (OND) are known to produce tropical cyclones, which cause damage to life and property over India and many neighbouring countries. The variability of frequency of cyclonic disturbances ...

  8. High resolution optically stimulated luminescence dating of a sediment core from the southwestern Sea of Okhotsk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sugisaki, S.; Buylaert, J. P.; Murray, A. S.

    2012-01-01

    in application to a 19 m marine sediment core (MR0604-PC04A) taken from the southwestern Sea of Okhotsk, immediately to the north of Hokkaido, Japan. Fine-grained quartz (4 to 11 mu m) was chosen as the dosimeter, and a single-aliquot regenerative-dose protocol was used for the determination of equivalent dose...

  9. Characteristic mixing triangles in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varkey, M.J.; Sastry, J.S.

    Temperature-salinity structures in the inner part of Bay of Bengal showed complete mixing processes in the upper bay, less than about 600 m can be characterisEd. by a mixing triangle constitutEd. by three characteristic water properties. In outer...

  10. Local Sustainable Energy Assessment of Uttarakhand and West Bengal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jan; Lund, Søren

    The publication reports a sustainable energy assessment at the local project site of the HighARCS project in Nainital, Uttarakhand and Buxa, West Bengal, India. The assessment has been made as a contribution to the elaboration of biodiversity conservation and livelihoods improvement action plans....

  11. Upwelling features near Sri Lanka in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    ShreeRam, P.; Rao, L.V.G.

    , the southwest monsoon in summer and the northeast monsoon in winter. The wind stress associated with these winds cause mass drift of oceanic waters leading to upwelling and downwelling. The upwelling features in the Bay of Bengal with a special mention about...

  12. Physical oceanography of the Bay of Bengal and Andaman Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varkey, M.J.; Murty, V.S.N.; Suryanarayana, A.

    of the hinterland, such as pressure, rainfall, storms, winds, sunshine etc., are presented. The Bay of Bengal and Andaman Sea are divided into two regions, viz., the coastal belt and the opean ocean areas, on the basis of large differences in water properties...

  13. Orographic control of the Bay of Bengal cold pool rainfall

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 126; Issue 8. Orographic control of the Bay of Bengal cold pool ... More interestingly in the absence of WG mountains, the BoB-CP shows a rainfall maxima in the boreal summer similar to that over its surrounding oceans. The WG also impacts the climate over the ...

  14. Distribution of particulate carbohydrate species in the Bay of Bengal

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    into the Bay large quantities of fresh water .... Distribution of temperature, salinity, particulate organic carbon (POC), particulate nitrogen (TPN), C/N ratio, ... of the surface seawater collected at various locations of the Bay of Bengal. TPURA/. Station. Temperature. POC. TPN. C/N. TPCHO. TPURA. TPCHO no. (. ◦. C). Salinity.

  15. Nitrous oxide in the western Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naqvi, S.W.A.; Jayakumar, D.A.; Nair, M.; DileepKumar, M.; George, M.D.

    Extensive observations on nitrous oxide (N@d2@@O) in the atmosphere and waters of the western Bay of Bengal during March-April 1991 yield surface saturations and atmospheric fluxes ranging from 89.3 to 213.9% (mean 125.2%), and from 0.10 to 10...

  16. Late Quaternary sedimentation in eastern Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chauhan, O; Mascarenhas, A; Paropkari, A; Rao, Ch.M.

    This study presents variations in various size measures, calcium carbonate, organic carbon, clay mineralogy and major and trace elements in a core (5.40 m long, 2713 m depth) from the eastern Bay of Bengal. On a CM diagram, the sediments of the core...

  17. Linking Indian rivers vs Bay of Bengal monsoon Activity

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rajamani, V.; Mohanty, U.C.; Ramesh, R.; Bhat, G.S.; Vinayachandran, P.N.; Sengupta, D.; PrasannaKumar, S.; Kolli, R.K.

    : tsnarayana@vsnl.net MEETING REPORT Linking Indian rivers vs Bay of Bengal monsoon activity* In a popular article on ?Interlinking ri v ers: Is it the solution?? ( The Hindu , 26 August 2005), V. Rajamani brought ou t a poss i ble...

  18. Waves off Gopalpur, northern Bay of Bengal during cyclone Phailin.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Amrutha, M.M.; SanilKumar, V.; Anoop, T.R.; Nair, T.M.B.; Nherakkol, A.; Jeyakumar, C.

    The wave statistical parameters during Cyclone Phailin which crossed the northern Bay of Bengal are described based on the Directional Waverider buoy-measured wave data from 8 to 13 October 2013. On 12 October 2013, the cyclone passed within 70 km...

  19. Waves off Puducherry, Bay of Bengal, during cyclone THANE

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SanilKumar, V.; Johnson, G.; Dubhashi, K.K.; Nair, T.M.B.

    We studied the wave characteristics during the very severe cyclonic storm THANE which crossed the east coast of India between Puducherry and Cuddalore based on waves measured at a location in Bay of Bengal at 14 m water depth. Objective of the paper...

  20. Distribution of particulate carbohydrate species in the Bay of Bengal

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    composition of carbohydrates are influenced by several factors including nutrient levels, compo- sition of organisms, growth phase, etc. Carbo- .... particulate uronic acids (TPURA) and TPURA/TPCHO ratio in suspended particulate matter of the surface seawater collected at various locations of the Bay of Bengal. TPURA/.

  1. Nasopharyngeal myxosarcoma in a Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilton, Catherine M; Thompson, Margret S; Meisner, René; Lock, Brad; Lindsay, William A

    2002-12-01

    An 18- to 25-yr-old intact female Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris) was diagnosed antemortem and postmortem with nasopharyngeal myxosarcoma metastatic to the lung, chronic lymphoplasmacytic otitis media, and lymphoplasmacytic and eosinophilic stomatitis. Myxosarcomas are rare in domestic animals and seldom metastasize; this tumor has not been previously reported in an exotic felid. Computed tomography of the skull was used during the diagnoses.

  2. A thymic carcinoid in a Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powe, Joshua; Castleman, William; Fiorello, Christine

    2005-09-01

    An 18-yr-old Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris) presented with acute onset hind limb paresis. Radiographic and ultrasonographic imaging revealed a caudal abdominal aortic thrombus and a cranial mediastinal mass. Necropsy confirmed aortic thrombosis. Necrotizing enteritis and multifocal renal thrombosis were also noted. The cranial mediastinum contained a bilobed mass that histologically and ultrastructurally was consistent with a carcinoid.

  3. Tsunami 2004 and the biological oceanography of Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Stephen, R.; Jayalakshmi, K.J.; Rahman, H.; Karuppasamy, P.K.; Nair, K.K.C.

    /plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 TSUNAMI 2004 AND THE BIOLOGICAL OCEANOGRAPHY OF BAY OF BENGAL ROSAMMA STEPHEN, K.J. JAYALAKSHMI, HABEEB RAHMAN, P.K. KARUPPUSWAMY and K.K.C. NAIR National Institute of Oceanography, Regional Centre, P.B.1913, Dr. Salim Ali Road...

  4. The biology of the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gauns, M.

    This article focusses on the variability in physics and chemistry of the region and investigate its influence on the biology. This article is largely based on the recent observations made during the India JGOFS and BOBPS (Bay of Bengal Process Study...

  5. Inertial-Dissipation flux measurements over south Bay of Bengal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The data were collected on ORV Sagar Kanya during BOBMEX-Pilot cruise during the period 23rd October 1998 to 12th November 1998 over south Bay of Bengal. The fluxes are estimated using the data collected through fast response sensors namely Gill anemometer, Sonic anemometer and IR Hygrometer. In this paper ...

  6. Sub-littoral meiobenthos of the northeastern Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rodrigues, C.L.; Harkantra, S.N.; Parulekar, A.H.

    super(3)m/2 (median = 31.45 x 10 super(3)) Distribution was contagious with varied fauna in the nearshore region On the basis of metabolic index, the food requirement of the benthic community (macro+meio) in the Bay of Bengal was found to be lower than...

  7. Southwestern Power Administration Update, October- December 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2004-12-01

    On October 29, 2004, Southwestern and Southwest Power Pool, Inc. (SPP) reached agreement on interim arrangements to be implemented after the October 31, 2004, expiration of the membership agreement between the two parties. According to Jim McDonald, Director of Southwestern’s Division of Customer Service, the interim agreement forged between Southwestern and SPP seeks to minimize impacts to SPP as well as to Southwestern and its customers while Southwestern and SPP work on a seams/coordination agreement to succeed the expired membership agreement.

  8. Consumption of seeds of southwestern white pine (Pinus strobiformis) by Black Bear (Ursus americanus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, David J.; Arundel, Terry A.

    2013-01-01

    We report a discovery of black bears (Ursus americanus) consuming seeds of southwestern white pine (Pinus strobiformis) on north slopes of the San Francisco Peaks near Flagstaff, Arizona, in high-elevation, mixed-species conifer forest. In one instance, a bear had obtained seeds from cones excavated from a larder horde made by a red squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus). Consumption of seeds of southwestern white pine by bears had not been previously documented. This discovery adds to the number of species of pine used by bears for food as well as the geographic range within which the behavior occurs.

  9. Electron microscopic, genetic and protein expression analyses of Helicobacter acinonychis strains from a Bengal tiger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegtmeyer, Nicole; Rivas Traverso, Francisco; Rohde, Manfred; Oyarzabal, Omar A; Lehn, Norbert; Schneider-Brachert, Wulf; Ferrero, Richard L; Fox, James G; Berg, Douglas E; Backert, Steffen

    2013-01-01

    Colonization by Helicobacter species is commonly noted in many mammals. These infections often remain unrecognized, but can cause severe health complications or more subtle host immune perturbations. The aim of this study was to isolate and characterize putative novel Helicobacter spp. from Bengal tigers in Thailand. Morphological investigation (Gram-staining and electron microscopy) and genetic studies (16SrRNA, 23SrRNA, flagellin, urease and prophage gene analyses, RAPD DNA fingerprinting and restriction fragment polymorphisms) as well as Western blotting were used to characterize the isolated Helicobacters. Electron microscopy revealed spiral-shaped bacteria, which varied in length (2.5-6 µm) and contained up to four monopolar sheathed flagella. The 16SrRNA, 23SrRNA, sequencing and protein expression analyses identified novel H. acinonychis isolates closely related to H. pylori. These Asian isolates are genetically very similar to H. acinonychis strains of other big cats (cheetahs, lions, lion-tiger hybrid and other tigers) from North America and Europe, which is remarkable in the context of the great genetic diversity among worldwide H. pylori strains. We also found by immunoblotting that the Bengal tiger isolates express UreaseA/B, flagellin, BabA adhesin, neutrophil-activating protein NapA, HtrA protease, γ-glutamyl-transpeptidase GGT, Slt lytic transglycosylase and two DNA transfer relaxase orthologs that were known from H. pylori, but not the cag pathogenicity island, nor CagA, VacA, SabA, DupA or OipA proteins. These results give fresh insights into H. acinonychis genetics and the expression of potential pathogenicity-associated factors and their possible pathophysiological relevance in related gastric infections.

  10. Electron microscopic, genetic and protein expression analyses of Helicobacter acinonychis strains from a Bengal tiger.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Tegtmeyer

    Full Text Available Colonization by Helicobacter species is commonly noted in many mammals. These infections often remain unrecognized, but can cause severe health complications or more subtle host immune perturbations. The aim of this study was to isolate and characterize putative novel Helicobacter spp. from Bengal tigers in Thailand. Morphological investigation (Gram-staining and electron microscopy and genetic studies (16SrRNA, 23SrRNA, flagellin, urease and prophage gene analyses, RAPD DNA fingerprinting and restriction fragment polymorphisms as well as Western blotting were used to characterize the isolated Helicobacters. Electron microscopy revealed spiral-shaped bacteria, which varied in length (2.5-6 µm and contained up to four monopolar sheathed flagella. The 16SrRNA, 23SrRNA, sequencing and protein expression analyses identified novel H. acinonychis isolates closely related to H. pylori. These Asian isolates are genetically very similar to H. acinonychis strains of other big cats (cheetahs, lions, lion-tiger hybrid and other tigers from North America and Europe, which is remarkable in the context of the great genetic diversity among worldwide H. pylori strains. We also found by immunoblotting that the Bengal tiger isolates express UreaseA/B, flagellin, BabA adhesin, neutrophil-activating protein NapA, HtrA protease, γ-glutamyl-transpeptidase GGT, Slt lytic transglycosylase and two DNA transfer relaxase orthologs that were known from H. pylori, but not the cag pathogenicity island, nor CagA, VacA, SabA, DupA or OipA proteins. These results give fresh insights into H. acinonychis genetics and the expression of potential pathogenicity-associated factors and their possible pathophysiological relevance in related gastric infections.

  11. Electron Microscopic, Genetic and Protein Expression Analyses of Helicobacter acinonychis Strains from a Bengal Tiger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegtmeyer, Nicole; Rivas Traverso, Francisco; Rohde, Manfred; Oyarzabal, Omar A.; Lehn, Norbert; Schneider-Brachert, Wulf; Ferrero, Richard L.; Fox, James G.; Berg, Douglas E.; Backert, Steffen

    2013-01-01

    Colonization by Helicobacter species is commonly noted in many mammals. These infections often remain unrecognized, but can cause severe health complications or more subtle host immune perturbations. The aim of this study was to isolate and characterize putative novel Helicobacter spp. from Bengal tigers in Thailand. Morphological investigation (Gram-staining and electron microscopy) and genetic studies (16SrRNA, 23SrRNA, flagellin, urease and prophage gene analyses, RAPD DNA fingerprinting and restriction fragment polymorphisms) as well as Western blotting were used to characterize the isolated Helicobacters. Electron microscopy revealed spiral-shaped bacteria, which varied in length (2.5–6 µm) and contained up to four monopolar sheathed flagella. The 16SrRNA, 23SrRNA, sequencing and protein expression analyses identified novel H. acinonychis isolates closely related to H. pylori. These Asian isolates are genetically very similar to H. acinonychis strains of other big cats (cheetahs, lions, lion-tiger hybrid and other tigers) from North America and Europe, which is remarkable in the context of the great genetic diversity among worldwide H. pylori strains. We also found by immunoblotting that the Bengal tiger isolates express UreaseA/B, flagellin, BabA adhesin, neutrophil-activating protein NapA, HtrA protease, γ-glutamyl-transpeptidase GGT, Slt lytic transglycosylase and two DNA transfer relaxase orthologs that were known from H. pylori, but not the cag pathogenicity island, nor CagA, VacA, SabA, DupA or OipA proteins. These results give fresh insights into H. acinonychis genetics and the expression of potential pathogenicity-associated factors and their possible pathophysiological relevance in related gastric infections. PMID:23940723

  12. COMPARATIVE BIOMETRICS AND PERFORMANCES OF THREE COLOUR VARIETIES OF BENGAL GOATS IN THEIR HOME TRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirmal Kumar Tudu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A study has been done in Nadia district, West Bengal, India during January, 2010 to December, 2013 with specific objective to know the comparative biometrics and performances of three colour varieties of Bengal goats in their home tract. The results have been revealed that male goats were significantly (p <_ 0.05 heavier than their female counterparts at all the age groups of three color varieties of Bengal goats studied viz., at birth and at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months of age and also in all types of birth viz., singlet, twins and triplets. Results indicated that the effect of types of birth on birth weight and weight at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months of age was also statistically significant (p <_ 0.05. The effect of coat color (black, brown and white on birth weight and subsequent body weight at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months of age was significant (p <_ 0.05, the weight of White Bengal goat being heavier followed by Brown Bengal goat and then Black Bengal goat at different stages of life. All the body measurements, viz., body length, height at wither, chest girth, ear length, horn length and tail length in three color varieties of Bengal goats were increased with age in both the sexes. The body measurements traits studied were statistically significant (p <_ 0.05 between the male and female in all age groups of three color varieties of Bengal goats where males showed higher measurements than their female counterparts. All the body measurements traits were significantly (p <_ 0.05 different in all age groups among three color varieties of Bengal goats. White Bengal goats showed higher (p <_ 0.05 linear measurements in all the traits in all age groups studied followed by Brown Bengal and Black Bengal goats.

  13. Meningioma in a Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, Erin Y; Baumgartner, Wes A; Lee, Jung Keun; Beasley, Michaela J

    2013-09-01

    A 17-yr-old female ovariectomized Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) was presented dead on arrival to the Mississippi State University College of Veterinary Medicine. The tiger was a resident of a sanctuary for big cats and had a history of juvenile-onset blindness of unknown cause. The tiger suffered two seizures the morning of presentation and expired shortly after resolution of the second seizure. Gross necropsy findings included a meningioma attached to the left frontal bone and associated with the left frontal lobe. Histologically, the mass was composed of meningothelial cells arising from the meninges, forming whorls and streams. Cells often formed syncytia and psammoma bodies were present. Neoplastic cells were immunohistochemically positive for vimentin, S100, and cytokeratin, but negative for GFAP. All findings were consistent with a meningioma. This is the first documentation of a meningioma in a Bengal tiger.

  14. Chronic arsenic toxicity: Studies in West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debendranath Guha Mazumder

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Chronic arsenic toxicity (arsenicosis as a result of drinking arsenic-contaminated groundwater is a major environmental health hazard throughout the world, including India. A lot of research on health effects, including genotoxic effect of chronic arsenic toxicity in humans, have been carried out in West Bengal during the last 2 decades. A review of literature including information available from West Bengal has been made to characterize the problem. Scientific journals, monographs, and proceedings of conferences with regard to human health effects, including genotoxicity, of chronic arsenic toxicity have been reviewed. Pigmentation and keratosis are the specific skin diseases characteristic of chronic arsenic toxicity. However, in West Bengal, it was found to produce various systemic manifestations, such as chronic lung disease, characterized by chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive and/or restrictive pulmonary disease, and bronchiectasis; liver diseases, such as non cirrhotic portal fibrosis; polyneuropathy; peripheral vascular disease; hypertension; nonpitting edema of feet/hands; conjunctival congestion; weakness; and anemia. High concentrations of arsenic, greater than or equal to 200 μg/L, during pregnancy were found to be associated with a sixfold increased risk for stillbirth. Cancers of skin, lung, and urinary bladder are the important cancers associated with this toxicity. Of the various genotoxic effects of arsenic in humans, chromosomal aberration and increased frequency of micronuclei in different cell types have been found to be significant. Various probable mechanisms have been incriminated to cause DNA damage because of chronic arsenic toxicity. The results of the study in West Bengal suggest that deficiency in DNA repair capacity, perturbation of methylation of promoter region of p53 and p16 genes, and genomic methylation alteration may be involved in arsenic-induced disease manifestation in humans. P53 polymorphism has been

  15. Preparation of Labelled I131 Rose-Bengal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayani, Mbutyabo; Chabouri, Galaal.

    1978-01-01

    Rose bengal purified on a Sephadex G-25 column has been labelled with iodine-131. The exchange reaction has been undertaken in an ether - alcohol medium. The influence of different factors (iodine concentration, Psup(h), purity and chemical form of the substratum, reaction rate) on the labelling yield has been studied. Radiochemical yield of 90% have been obtained in some conditions instead of the normal 80% reported in the literature

  16. Bay of Bengal Surface and Thermocline and the Arabian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    oceanographic processes that exchange low salinity surface and upper thermocline water of the Bay of Bengal with the salty Arabian Sea and tropical Indian Ocean...yet so different, one relatively fresh the other salty. The input of freshwater into BoB must be balanced, in quasi-stationary steady state, by...export of freshwater to the Arabian Sea to offset its net evaporation. Complicating the study of the inter-bay exchange is the vigorous mesoscale field

  17. Pericardial mesothelioma in a Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedner, Ellen B; Isaza, Ramiro; Lindsay, William A; Case, Allison L; Decker, Joshua; Roberts, John

    2008-03-01

    A 17-year-old Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris) presented with dyspnea and tachypnea. Radiographs revealed severe pleural and pericardial effusion, but no obvious mass. During attempts to remove the fluid under anesthesia, the cat developed cardiac tamponade and died. At necropsy, a nodular mass was found at the heart base and was identified as a pericardial mesothelioma. This is the first report of this tumor in any large cat.

  18. Disseminated histoplasmosis in a Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Dominique L; Steinberg, Howard; Sladky, Kurt K

    2011-12-01

    Disseminated infection with Histoplasma capsulatum was diagnosed in a 7-yr-old female Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris). Clinical signs were nonspecific with the exception of brief periods of tachypnea for 5 days prior to death. H. capsulatum organisms were found in the lungs, tracheobronchial lymph nodes, and liver. Diagnosis was confirmed by tracheal wash, urine H. capsulatum enzyme immunoassay, and necropsy results. This report represents the first published account of disseminated histoplasmosis in a tiger.

  19. BLOOD PROTEIN TRANSFERRIN POLYMOROPHISM IN BLACK BENGAL GOAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Paul

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was carried out with an aim to explore the polymorphism of a blood protein tranferrin using starch gel electrophoresis technique in a total of unrelated 199 Black Bengal goats available in four different districts of West Bengal, India. Banding patterns of transferrin in starch gel revealed six phenovariants TfAA, TfAB, TfBC, TfBB, TfAC and TfCC comprising of three allelomorphs, TfA, TfB and TfC. The genotype frequencies were found to be observed 0.211, 0.347, 0.136, 0.106, 0.136 and 0.065 for six genotypes and the allelic frequencies were 0.452, 0.347 and 0.201 for three alleles, respectively. Result of Chi-square test revealed that the population under study was in Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium. There were polymorphism in Transferrin protein and the presence of differences among the frequencies of the three alleles by categories could be a source of genetic variation in Black Bengal goat.

  20. A simple technique for counting marine debris at sea reveals steep litter gradients between the Straits of Malacca and the Bay of Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Peter G

    2013-04-15

    A size and distance-based technique was used to assess the distribution, abundance and composition of floating marine debris in the northeast Indian Ocean. Densities of floating litter (>1 cm) were greater and more variable in the Straits of Malacca (578±219 items km(-2)) than in oceanic waters of the Bay of Bengal (8.8±1.4 items km(-2)). The density of debris in the Straits was correlated with terrestrial vegetation, and peaked close to urban centres, indicating the predominance of land-based sources. In the Bay of Bengal, debris density increased north of 17°N mainly due to small fragments probably carried in run-off from the Ganges Delta. The low densities in the Bay of Bengal relative to model predictions may result from biofouling-induced sinking and wind-driven export of debris items. Standardised data collection protocols are needed for counts of floating debris, particularly as regards the size classes used, to facilitate comparisons among studies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Source parameters of the Bay of Bengal earthquake of 21 May 2014 and related seismotectonics of 85°E and 90°E ridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Rajesh; Prajapati, Sanjay Kumar; Srivastava, Hari Narain

    2018-01-01

    Source parameters of the Bay of Bengal earthquake of 21 May 2014 have been studied using full waveform inversion. Its source mechanism thus determined the orientation of the strike slip faulting as NW-SE/NE-SW. The occurrence of past earthquakes along the NE-SW nodal plane suggested its preference as the main fault which could result from the transmission of stresses from the Indian plate boundary. High stress drop of this earthquake (216 bar) is attributed to its location in the intraplate region, strike slip faulting and focus in the colder upper mantle. Comparison of the stress drop of deeper focus Hindukush earthquakes with that of the Bay of Bengal earthquake showed a smaller felt radius due to fractured lithosphere in the Himalayas vis-a-vis more efficient propagation of seismic waves in the peninsular region from the source region of this recent earthquake. The seismological evidence presented for the 85°E and 90°E ridges shows the predominance of strike slip faulting with thrusting on both the ridges. Integrating their source mechanism with that of the May 2014 earthquake, it could be inferred that the Bay of Bengal region (excluding Andaman Sumatra subduction zone) is characterised predominantly by strike slip faulting in the region north of latitude 20°N and strike slip with thrusting in the remaining portion.

  2. Raleio de frutos em lichieira 'Bengal' Thinning fruit in 'Bengal' litchi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Magalhães dos Santos

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Originária da região sudeste da China, a lichieira tem apresentado significativo crescimento em área cultivada nos últimos anos devido aos excelentes sabor e aroma dos frutos. Porém, alternâncias de produção, associadas ao baixo vingamento de frutos, são problemas importantes da cultura. O raleio de frutos pode contribuir para a redução da alternância de produção e aumentar o percentual de frutos comercializáveis e de melhor qualidade, através do ganho em tamanho. Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, avaliar o efeito do raleio de frutos em lichieira 'Bengal' para as condições de cultivo em Viçosa, Minas Gerais. O experimento foi conduzido no delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados, com 5 tratamentos e 7 repetições, sendo cada planta uma repetição. Os tratamentos consistiram em diferentes intensidades de raleio manual representados pelo número de frutos deixados nas panículas do ramo terminal, sendo: T1: 3 frutos/ramo; T2: 6 frutos/ramo; T3: 9 frutos/ramo; T4: 12 frutos/ramo; T5: sem raleio (controle. Analisaramse o comprimento longitudinal e equatorial dos frutos (cm, a massa de fruto (g; a massa da casca, polpa e semente (g; o teor de sólidos solúveis totais (ºBrix; a acidez titulável da polpa (% ácido málico; a percentagem de matéria seca da polpa, casca e semente (% e a percentagem de queda natural (%. Observou-se efeito do raleio somente para as variáveis teor de sólidos solúveis totais, percentagem de queda natural e massa de matéria seca da casca, não se justificando o raleio em frutos de lichieira.Original from the southeast of China, the litchi has been presenting significant growth in the areas cultivated in the last years due to the excellent flavor and aroma of the fruits. However, production alternations, associated to the low setting of fruits, are important problems of the culture. The thinning of fruits can contribute to the reduction of the production alternation and increase both the

  3. Future trends in urbanization and coastal water pollution in the Bay of Bengal: the lived experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zinia, N.J.; Kroeze, C.

    2015-01-01

    The Bay of Bengal includes coastal seas of several countries, including Bangladesh, India, and Myanmar. We present scenarios for future river export of eutrophying nutrients into the Bay of Bengal, and the role of urbanization therein. We used NEWS (Nutrient Export from WaterSheds) model to analyze

  4. A comparative study of vertical stabilities in the Arabian sea and Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sastry, J.S.; Rao, D.P.

    Stabilities in the upper 300 m in the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal are computed and presented seasonwise. The water column in the Bay of Bengal is more strongly stratified than that in the Arabian Sea. These studies suggest that the vertical...

  5. Wind stress, curl and vertical velocity in the Bay of Bengal during southwest monsoon, 1984

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Babu, M.T.; Heblekar, A.K.; Murty, C.S.

    Wind distribution observed during southwest monsoon of 1984 has used to derive the mean wind stress for the season at every 1 degree square grid and curl over the Bay of Bengal. Two regions of maximum wind stress are present over the Bay of Bengal...

  6. Geomorphology and geology of the Bay of Bengal and the Andaman Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, V.P.; Kessarkar, P.M.

    that the continental shelf is relatively wide in the northern Bay of Bengal and in the northern and eastern Andaman Sea and narrow in the western Bay of Bengal. The depth at which shelf break occurs also varies. Several submarine canyons/valleys cut across the shelf...

  7. The use of the milk ring test and rose bengal test in brucellosis control and eradication in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.I.B. Cadmus

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, milk and blood samples collected simultaneously from 532 trade cows to be slaughtered at Bodija abattoir, Ibadan (southwestern, Nigeria were examined for antibodies to Brucella using the milk ring test (MRT and the rose bengal test (RBT. Overall, 18.61%of the milk samples were positive according to the MRT, while 9.77 % of the serum samples were positive according to the RBT. The difference was highly significant (Chi-square value 16.33; P<0.05; only 32 (6.02 % of the samples were positive for both tests. The Red Bororo breed of cattle and the White Fulani had the highest positive rates, namely 20.93 % and 11.69%for the MRT and RBT respectively.No conclusion can be drawn about sensitivity because we do not know the true status of the animals tested. It is, however, obvious that although the MRT and RBT are 1st-line screening tests for brucellosis in cows in some countries, their lack of specificity is of concern. Therefore, the requirement for other confirmatory tests that are more specific should be considered for control and eradication of the disease, especially in Nigeria.

  8. The recycling of chromitites in ophiolites from southwestern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Jiménez, José M.; Camprubí, Antoni; Colás, Vanessa; Griffin, William L.; Proenza, Joaquín A.; O'Reilly, Suzanne Y.; Centeno-García, Elena; García-Casco, Antonio; Belousova, Elena; Talavera, Cristina; Farré-de-Pablo, Júlia; Satsukawa, Takako

    2017-12-01

    Podiform chromitites occur in mantle peridotites of the Late Triassic Puerto Nuevo Ophiolite, Baja California Sur State, Mexico. These are high-Cr chromitites [Cr# (Cr/Cr + Al atomic ratio = 0.61-0.69)] that contain a range of minor- and trace-elements and show whole-rock enrichment in IPGE (Os, Ir, Ru). That are similar to those of high-Cr ophiolitic chromitites crystallised from melts similar to high-Mg island-arc tholeiites (IAT) and boninites in supra-subduction-zone mantle wedges. Crystallisation of these chromitites from S-undersaturated melts is consistent with the presence of abundant inclusions of platinum-group minerals (PGM) such as laurite (RuS2)-erlichmanite (OsS2), osmium and irarsite (IrAsS) in chromite, that yield TMA ≈ TRD model ages peaking at 325 Ma. Thirty-three xenocrystic zircons recovered from mineral concentrates of these chromitites yield ages (2263 ± 44 Ma to 278 ± 4 Ma) and Hf-O compositions [ɛHf(t) = - 18.7 to + 9.1 and 18O values sea) generated during an extensional stage of the Vizcaino intra-oceanic arc ca. 221 Ma ago. The TRD ages at 325 Ma record a partial melting event in the mantle prior to the construction of the Vizcaino intra-oceanic arc, which is probably related to the Permian continental subduction, dated at 311 Ma.

  9. Biofouling community pattern on various metallic surfaces in the coastal waters of Kalpakkam, Southwestern Bay of Bengal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahu, Gouri; Satpathy, K.K.; Mohanty, A.K.; Bindu, V.K.

    2015-01-01

    Biofouling causes great operational hazard in different marine installations across the globe. And the expenditure incurred on combating biofouling is astounding. It is reported that shut down of a 235 MW (e) power station due to fouling, costs about 170 lakhs (at Rs. 3.00 per kw/h) per day. Because of this economic implication, biofouling has been a thrust area of study for the marine researchers. To assess the biofouling pattern, metallic surfaces are the best options because of their extensive use at various installations in the marine environment. Hence, knowledge on qualitative and quantitative aspects of biofouling with respect to metal surfaces is of great value to design an efficient fouling control strategy. Keeping this in mind, nine types of metal (SS-316, SS-304, MS, Titanium, Admiralty Brass, Aluminum Brass, Copper, Monel and Cupro-nickel) panels (12 x 9 x 0.1 cm) were exposed to coastal water of Kalpakkam from MAPS jetty at a depth of 2 m below the lowest low tide. Results indicated that copper based panels were found to be foul-free except monel. Although, fouling settlement was encountered on monel, the adherence was weak. Non-copper based metals showed 100% area coverage with high population density. However, in case of MS, due to exfoliation of corrosion deposits, unevenness in fouling colonization at later stages of development took place, though the early settlement was unaffected by initial corrosion. As expected, Titanium showed high rate of fouling growth along with high fouling diversity compared to other non-copper based metals. Absence of specific foulants such as, crustaceans and algae on Titanium surface reported by others was not observed during our study. The information on Titanium would be handy for Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) cooling water system wherein, the same has been selected as condenser and process water heat exchanger material. For non-copper based alloys including monel the fouling load ranged from 18 to 40 g. 100 cm -2 . The major fouling organisms such as, barnacle, green mussel and ascidian constituted ∼ 70-80% of the total fouling. In the present study, sequence of fouling succession was as follows, barnacle - hydroid - sea anemone - ascidian and finally green mussel (Perna viridis Linn. 1758). The paper also discusses species diversity indices (diversity, richness and evenness) in detail. (author)

  10. Impact of global warming on cyclonic storms over north Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    RameshKumar, M.R.; Sankar, S.

    of storms over the north Indian Ocean for the period 1951 to 2007. Results suggest that the frequency of storms and severe storms do not show a dramatic rise in-spite of substantial increase in the sea surface temperature in the Bay of Bengal from 1951...

  11. Moored Current Observations in the Southern Bay of Bengal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teague, W. J.; Wijesekera, H. W.; Jarosz, E.; Jensen, T.; Wang, D. W.; Fernando, H. J. S.; Hallock, Z.

    2016-02-01

    Deep moorings were deployed in the southern Bay of Bengal by the Naval Research Laboratory as part of the EBOB (Effects of Bay of Bengal Freshwater Flux on Indian Ocean Monsoon) program in an effort facilitated by the Office of Naval Research and also part of the international research program , ASIRI (Air-Sea Interactions in the Northern Indian Ocean; (2013-2017). Six moorings were deployed in December 2013 and recovered in August 2015. Each mooring contained two acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs), an upward -looking 300 kHz ADCP and a downward-looking 75 kHz ADCP, mounted on a flotation ball (at depths ranging from 20 to 75m) which provided current velocity profiles for the upper 500 m of the water column, at water depths of about 3800 m. Additionally, seventeen to nineteen sensors, measuring temperature, salinity, and pressure, were mounted over an interval of about 400m below the ADCPs. Wavelet analyses show significant peaks at periods of about 12 h, 5 d, 40 d, 70 d, and 320 d. The peak at about 12 h is tidal. The 5 d peak is likely related to inertial or atmospheric activity. Large near-surface currents (6 m) in excess of 140 cm/s were observed and were consistent with southwest monsoon winds of 10 to 15 m/s. Currents exceeding 50 cm/s were found down to depths of 80 m. Currents greater than 20 cm/s were common at depths of 450 m. High salinity inflow was observed during the summer monsoon periods. The observed current magnitudes in the interior of the southern Bay of Bengal were similar in magnitude to boundary currents observed near Sri Lanka.

  12. Southwestern Power Administration Annual Report 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-09-01

    Dear Secretary Moniz: I am pleased to present the financial statements and operating data for Southwestern Power Administration (Southwestern) for Fiscal Year (FY) 2012. In FY 2012, Southwestern delivered over 4.1 billion kilowatt-hours of energy to its wholesale customers in Arkansas, Kansas, Louisiana, Missouri, Oklahoma, and Texas, generating $195 million in revenue. In fulfilling its mission to market and reliably deliver renewable Federal hydroelectric power, Southwestern maintains 1,380 miles of high-voltage transmission lines, substations, and communications sites, contributing to the reliability of the regional and National electric grid. Southwestern also actively partners with the Department of Energy, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Southwestern’s customers, and other Federal power stakeholders to most effectively balance their diverse interests with Southwestern’s mission while continuing to maximize Federal assets to repay the Federal investment in the 24 hydropower facilities within Southwestern’s marketing region. Southwestern is proud of its past successes, and we look forward to continuing to serve the Nation’s energy needs in the future. Sincerely, Christopher M. Turner Administrator

  13. Southwestern Power Administration Annual Report 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-09-01

    Dear Secretary Chu: I am pleased to present the financial statements and operating data for Southwestern Power Administration (Southwestern) for Fiscal Year (FY) 2010. In FY 2010, Southwestern delivered nearly 7.6 billion kilowatt-hours of energy to its wholesale customers in Arkansas, Kansas, Louisiana, Missouri, Texas, and Oklahoma, generating $189 million in revenue. In fulfilling its mission to market and reliably deliver renewable Federal hydroelectric power, Southwestern maintains 1,380 miles of high-voltage transmission lines, substations, and communications sites, contributing to the reliability of the regional and National electric grid. Southwestern also actively partners with the Department of Energy, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Southwestern’s customers, and other Federal power stakeholders to most effectively balance their diverse interests with Southwestern’s mission while continuing to maximize Federal assets to repay the Federal investment in the 24 hydropower facilities within Southwestern’s marketing region. Southwestern is proud of its past successes, and we look forward to continuing to serve the Nation’s energy needs in the future. Sincerely, Christopher M. Turner Administrator

  14. Southwestern Power Administration Annual Report 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-04-01

    Dear Secretary Chu: I am pleased to present the financial statements and operating data for Southwestern Power Administration (Southwestern) for Fiscal Year (FY) 2011. In FY 2011, Southwestern delivered over 4.1 billion kilowatt-hours of energy to its wholesale customers in Arkansas, Kansas, Louisiana, Missouri, Oklahoma, and Texas, generating $167 million in revenue. In fulfilling its mission to market and reliably deliver renewable Federal hydroelectric power, Southwestern maintains 1,380 miles of high-voltage transmission lines, substations, and communications sites, contributing to the reliability of the regional and National electric grid. Southwestern also actively partners with the Department of Energy, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Southwestern’s customers, and other Federal power stakeholders to most effectively balance their diverse interests with Southwestern’s mission while continuing to maximize Federal assets to repay the Federal investment in the 24 hydropower facilities within Southwestern’s marketing region. Southwestern is proud of its past successes, and we look forward to continuing to serve the Nation’s energy needs in the future. Sincerely, Christopher M. Turner Administrator

  15. Gravity anomalies and crustal structure of the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Subrahmanyam, V.; Krishna, K.S.; Murthy, I.V.R.; Sarma, K.V.L.N.S.; Desa, M.; Ramana, M.V.; KameshRaju, K.A.

    of Oceanography (NIO), Goa, India. The study con¢rmed strong negative gravity anomalies associated with the 85‡E Ridge, but its structure and density cannot explain them. The Bengal Fan is typical in many ways prompting repeated geological and geophysical in... and Planetary Science Letters 192 (2001) 447^456448 Moore [4] as a subsurface basement rise along the 85‡E longitude, is buried under deep sediment cover of 3^5 km thickness. While the Ninetyeast Ridge is decisively con¢rmed to be an emplace- ment...

  16. Abdominal pythiosis in a Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buergelt, Claus; Powe, Joshua; White, Tamara

    2006-06-01

    An adult Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) housed in an outdoor sanctuary in Florida exhibited vomiting, diarrhea, and weight loss. A clinical workup did not reveal the source of the clinical signs and antibiotic therapy was unrewarding. Radiographs revealed the presence of an abdominal mass. The tiger died during an immobilization for a follow-up clinical examination. A necropsy was performed and tissue samples of intestine and mesenteric lymph nodes were submitted for histopathologic diagnosis. A pyogranulomatous panenteritis and lymphadenitis with intralesional hyphae led to a presumptive etiologic diagnosis of intestinal/abdominal pythiosis. The diagnosis of pythiosis was confirmed by serology and immunoblotting.

  17. Economic benefits of arsenic removal from ground water--a case study from West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Joyashree

    2008-07-01

    People living in almost 50% of the districts in West Bengal are exposed to arsenic contaminated water. This paper seeks to estimate the economic costs imposed by arsenic-related health problems. We use data from a primary survey of 473 households carried out in the districts of North 24 Parganas and Midnapore. We take into account household actions to either decrease the exposure of family members to unsafe water or to alleviate the health effects of consuming arsenic-contaminated water. This allows us to assess the benefits of arsenic-safe water by estimating a three equation system that includes averting actions, medical expenditures and a sickness function. We find that by reducing arsenic concentration to the safe limit of 50 microg/l, a representative household will benefit by Rs 297 ($7) per month. The current cost of supplying filtered piped water by the Kolkata Municipal Corporation to households is Rs 127 ($3) per month per household. Thus, investing in safe drinking water is economically feasible and households are willing to pay for such investments if made aware of the effective gain in welfare. Poor households, who make up the highest proportion of arsenic-affected households and incur the largest number of sick days, will be major beneficiaries of such investments.

  18. Cationic Phosphorus Dendrimer Enhances Photodynamic Activity of Rose Bengal against Basal Cell Carcinoma Cell Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabrzalska, Monika; Janaszewska, Anna; Zablocka, Maria; Mignani, Serge; Majoral, Jean Pierre; Klajnert-Maculewicz, Barbara

    2017-05-01

    In the last couple of decades, photodynamic therapy emerged as a useful tool in the treatment of basal cell carcinoma. However, it still meets limitations due to unfavorable properties of photosensitizers such as poor solubility or lack of selectivity. Dendrimers, polymers widely studied in biomedical field, may play a role as photosensitizer carriers and improve the efficacy of photodynamic treatment. Here, we describe the evaluation of an electrostatic complex of cationic phosphorus dendrimer and rose bengal in such aspects as singlet oxygen production, cellular uptake, and phototoxicity against three basal cell carcinoma cell lines. Rose bengal-cationic dendrimer complex in molar ratio 5:1 was compared to free rose bengal. Obtained results showed that the singlet oxygen production in aqueous medium was significantly higher for the complex than for free rose bengal. The cellular uptake of the complex was 2-7-fold higher compared to a free photosensitizer. Importantly, rose bengal, rose bengal-dendrimer complex, and dendrimer itself showed no dark toxicity against all three cell lines. Moreover, we observed that phototoxicity of the complex was remarkably enhanced presumably due to high cellular uptake. On the basis of the obtained results, we conclude that rose bengal-cationic dendrimer complex has a potential in photodynamic treatment of basal cell carcinoma.

  19. Dual peak cholera transmission in Bengal Delta: A hydroclimatological explanation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akanda, Ali Shafqat; Jutla, Antarpreet Singh; Islam, Shafiqul

    2009-10-01

    Cholera has reemerged as a global killer with the world witnessing an unprecedented rise in cholera infection and transmission since the 1990s. Cholera outbreaks across most affected areas show infection patterns with a single annual peak. However, cholera incidences in the Bengal Delta region, the native homeland of cholera, show bi-annual peaks. The mechanisms behind this unique seasonal dual peak phenomenon in cholera dynamics, especially the role of climatic and hydrologic variables, are not fully understood. Here, we show that low flow in the Brahmaputra and the Ganges during spring is associated with the first outbreaks of cholera in Bangladesh; elevated spring cholera outbreaks are seen in low discharge years. Peak streamflow of these rivers, on the other hand, create a different cholera transmission environment; peak flood volumes and extent of flood-affected areas during monsoon are responsible for autumn cholera outbreaks. Our results demonstrate how regional hydroclimatology may explain the seasonality and dual peaks of cholera incidence in the Bengal Delta region. A quantitative understanding of the relationships among the hydroclimatological drivers and seasonal cholera outbreaks will help early cholera detection and prevention efforts.

  20. Trace metal concentrations in zooplankton from the eastern Arabian Sea and western Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rejomon, G.; Balachandran, K.K.; Nair, M.; Joseph, T.; DineshKumar, P.K.; Achuthankutty, C.T.; Nair, K.K.C.; Pillai, N.G.K.

    continental shelf of 0.5 million km 2 and an exclu- sive economic zone of 2.02 million km 2 . The coastal zone of the country with its wetlands, lagoons, mangroves, sea-grass beds, coral reefs, and shallow bays, creeks, and estuaries is rich in natural sources... program, trace metal distribution in surface seawater and zooplankton of the Bay of Bengal was studied in the Indian exclusive economic zone of the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal. The investigation in the Bay of Bengal (Cruise No. 209, November 2002...

  1. Modern sedimentation and sediment dispersal pattern off southwestern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Sheng-Ting; Su, Chih-Chieh; Tsai, Po-Hsuan; Cheng, Yiya

    2015-04-01

    Taiwan is located at the collision zone between the Eurasian and Philippine Sea Plates and also on the Western North Pacific corridor of typhoons. Every year, three to four typhoons will invaded Taiwan and brought heavy rainfall. The active tectonic setting and climatic conditions create the extremely high sediment yield and export to the ocean. Our study area is located offshore southwestern Taiwan which is mainly composed of a narrow Gaoping Shelf and broad Gaoping Slope. Four major submarine canyons, the Shoshan Submarine Canyon, Kaohsiung Submarine Canyon, Gaoping Submarine Canyon, and Fangliao Submarine Canyon, extended into deep sea, through Penghu Submarine Canyon and subsequently merged into north terminus of Manila Trench. Over 50 box and gravity cores were collected by using R/V Ocean Research 1, 3 and 5 from 2005 to 2014. The cores were split and conducted core description and surface photographs at the Core Laboratory of the Taiwan Ocean Research Institute (TORI). The following analyses, including X-radiography, bulk density, particle size, Pb-210 chronology, were accomplished at the Marine Radioactivity and Sedimentology Lab at the Institute of Oceanography, National Taiwan University. The grain size analysis result shows a finer trend from coastal to deep water , except for the lower Fangliao basin which the grain size is larger than the expected value. According to the previous studies on the Pingtung Earthquake induced submarine geohazard, the Fangliao Submarine Canyon and the Lower Fangliao Basin is an important conduit for gravity flow which triggered large scale submarine cable breakages and left coarse sediments on the passage. By using the excess Pb-210 derived sediment accumulation rates, Huh et al. (2009) suggested the depocenter off the southwestern Taiwan is located at the flank of the Gaoping Canyon over the upper slope with the highest rate >1 cm/yr. In this study we integrate the Pb-210 inventory data which covered the area from the

  2. Surface layer conditions of the atmosphere over western Bay of Bengal during Monex

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Anto, A.F.; Rao, L.V.G.; Somayajulu, Y.K.

    Based on surface meteorological data and wave data collected from 2 stations in the western Bay of Bengal in July 1979, surface layer (SL) conditions of the atmosphere for different situations of surface circulations and the associated sea surface...

  3. Current structure and volume transport across 12 degrees N in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murty, V.S.N.; Suryanarayana, A.; Rao, D.P.

    Geostrophic currents and the associated volume transport across 12 degrees N in the Bay of Bengal during early southwest monsoon (April), southwest monsoon (September) and early northeast monsoon (November) show flow reversal near the east coast...

  4. Hydrography and circulation in the northwestern Bay of Bengal during the retreat of southwest monsoon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murty, V.S.N.; Sarma, Y.V.B.; Babu, M.T.; Rao, D.P.

    The distribution of temperature and salinity in the upper 500 m of the northwestern Bay of Bengal, adjoining the East Coast of India, during the retreat of southwest monsoon (September) of 1983 is presented. This study reveals coastal upwelling...

  5. Sound field computations in the Bay of Bengal using parabolic equation method

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Navelkar, G.S.; Somayajulu, Y.K.; Murty, C.S.

    Effect of the cold core eddy in the Bay of Bengal on acoustic propagation was analysed by parabolic equation (PE) method. Source depth, frequency and propagation range considered respectively for the two numerical experiments are 150 m, 400 Hz, 650...

  6. Estimates of vertical velocities and eddy coefficients in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varkey, M.J.; Sastry, J.S.

    Vertical velocities and eddy coefficients in the intermediate depths of the Bay of Bengal are calculated from mean hydrographic data for 300 miles-squares. The linear current density (sigma- O) versus log-depth plots show steady balance between...

  7. Seasonal and spatial distribution of particulate organic matter in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fernandes, L.; Bhosle, N.B.; Matondkar, S.G.P.; Bhushan, R.

    The temporal, spatial and depth related variation of suspended particulate organic matter (POM) in the Bay of Bengal are assessed in this paper. For this purpose, suspended particulate matter (SPM) samples were collected from eight depths (2 to 1000...

  8. Seasonal cycle of physical forcing and biological response in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrasannaKumar, S.; Nuncio, M.; Narvekar, J.; Ramaiah, N.; Sardessai, S.; Gauns, M.; Fernandes, V.; Paul, J.T.; Jyothibabu, R.; Jayaraj, K.A.

    supported an efficient nutrient supply by cold core eddies. It resulted in the highest mean column integrated chlorophyll as well as primary productivity. Perennially low surface chlorophyll in the Bay of Bengal was largely controlled by the physical...

  9. Is the biological productivity in the Bay of Bengal light limited?

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrasannaKumar, S.; Narvekar, J.; Nuncio, M.; Kumar, A.; Ramaiah, N.; Sardessai, S.; Gauns, M.; Fernandes, V.; Paul, J.

    Recent measurements of chlorophyll, primary productivity (PP) and nutrients along the central Bay of Bengal (BOB) during summer, fall and spring intermonsoons showed that the northern bay becomes less productive compared to the south in summer...

  10. Primary description of surface water phytoplankton pigment patterns in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naik, R.K.; Anil, A.C.; Narale, D.D.; Chitari, R.R.; Kulkarni, V.V.

    Spatial and temporal variations in surface water phytoplankton pigment distribution in the Bay of Bengal were studied during the spring intermonsoon (SpIM, February–April) and the commencement of the summer monsoon (CSM, May–June), using pigment...

  11. Reference sound speed profile and related ray acoustics of Bay of Bengal for tomographic studies

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrasannaKumar, S.; Murty, T.V.R.; Somayajulu, Y.K.; Chodankar, P.V.; Murty, C.S.

    Using the archived hydrographic data, a climatological mean sound speed profile has been developed for the Bay of Bengal which will serve as an input (reference profile) to acoustic models. This profile is depth limited with the effective acoustic...

  12. Total petroleum hydrocarbon in the tissues of some commercially important fishes of the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ansari, Z.A.; Desilva, C.; Badesab, S.

    The level of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) in 27 commercially important fish, crustaceans and cephalopods are reported from Orissa coast, Bay of Bengal to provide the baseline data for oil contamination in marine biota. The results showed...

  13. Can we predict the frequency of cyclones over Bay of Bengal during October-December?

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sadhuram, Y.

    Forecasting cyclone activity in Australian (Nicholls, 1984; 1992) and southern Pacific (Revell and Goulter, 1986) regions with SO (Southern Oscillation) and the influence of El-Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on Bay of Bengal cyclones (Felton et al...

  14. Trace metal dynamics in zooplankton from the Bay of Bengal during summer monsoon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rejomon, G.; DineshKumar, P.K.; Nair, M.; Muraleedharan, K.R.

    comparison of average trace metal concentrations in zooplankton from the Bay of Bengal showed enrichment of Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb in coastal zooplankton may be related to metal absorption from primary producers, and differences in metal...

  15. High new production in the Bay of Bengal: Possible causes and implications

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kumar, S.; Ramesh, R.; Sardessai, S.; Sheshshayee, M.S.

    Oceanography: Biological and Chemical: Biogeochemical cycles (1615); 4870 Oceanography: Biological and Chemical: Stable isotopes. Citation: Kumar, S., R. Ramesh, S. Sardesai, and M. S. Sheshshayee (2004), High new production in the Bay of Bengal: Possible...

  16. Eddy-mediated biological productivity in the Bay of Bengal during fall and spring intermonsoons

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrasannaKumar, S.; Nuncio, M.; Ramaiah, N.; Sardesai, S.; Narvekar, J.; Fernandes, V.; Paul, J.T.

    -1 Eddy-mediated biological productivity in the Bay of Bengal during fall and spring intermonsoons S. Prasanna Kumar, M. Nuncio, N. Ramaiah, S. Sardesai, Jayu Narvekar, Veronica Fernandes, Jane T. Paul National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula...

  17. Coprophagy by Barking Deer Muntiacus vaginalis (Mammalia: Cetartiodactyla: Cervidae) in Buxa Tiger Reserve, West Bengal, India

    OpenAIRE

    Sachin P. Ranade; Vibhu Prakash

    2015-01-01

    A Barking Deer was seen feeding on Asian Elephant’s dung containing partly digested fruits of Dillenia indica at Buxa Tiger Reserve, West Bengal. This case of coprophagy appears to be opportunistic frugivore selection by the deer. 

  18. Surface layer temperature inversion in the Bay of Bengal: Main characteristics and related mechanisms

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pankajakshan, T.; Suresh, I.; Gautham, S.; PrasannaKumar, S.; Lengaigne, M.; Rao, R.R; Neetu, S.; Hegde, A

    Surface layer temperature inversion (SLTI), a warm layer sandwiched between surface and subsurface colder waters, has been reported to frequently occur in conjunction with barrier layers in the Bay of Bengal (BoB), with potentially commensurable...

  19. Casuses of deforestation in southwestern Madagascar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casse, Thorkil; Milhøj, Anders; Ranaivoson, Socrate

    2004-01-01

    Causes of deforestation are discussed in the case of southwestern Madagascar. Distinction is made between direct and indirect causes. The article ends up with an estimation of the value of agricultural land vs. an estimation of benefits from utilisation of non-timber forest products......Causes of deforestation are discussed in the case of southwestern Madagascar. Distinction is made between direct and indirect causes. The article ends up with an estimation of the value of agricultural land vs. an estimation of benefits from utilisation of non-timber forest products...

  20. Status, ecology, and conservation of the southwestern willow flycatcher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah M. Finch; Scott H. Stoleson

    2000-01-01

    This publication was prepared in response to a need expressed by southwestern agencies and organizations for a comprehensive assessment of the population status, history, biology, ecology, habitats, threats, and conservation of the southwestern willow flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus). The southwestern willow flycatcher was federally listed as...

  1. Wind Atlas of Bay of Bengal with Satellite Wind Measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nadi, Navila Rahman

    footstep towards offshore wind energy analysis for this region. Generally, it is difficult to find offshore wind data relative to the wind turbine hub heights, therefore a starting point is necessary to identify the possible wind power density of the region. In such scenario, Synthetic aperture radars (SAR......The objective of this study is to obtain appropriate offshore location in the Bay of Bengal, Bangladesh for further development of wind energy. Through analyzing the previous published works, no offshore wind energy estimation has been found here. That is why, this study can be claimed as the first......) have proven useful. In this study, SAR based dataset- ENVISAT ASAR has been used for Wind Atlas generation. Furthermore, a comparative study has been performed with Global Wind Atlas (GWA) to determine a potential offshore wind farm. Additionally, the annual energy production of that offshore windfarm...

  2. A simple method to forecast the frequency of depressions and cyclones over Bay of Bengal during summer monsoon season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadhuram, Y.; Maneesha, K.; Suneeta, P.

    2018-04-01

    In this study, an attempt has been made to develop a simple multiple regression model to forecast the total number of depressions and cyclones (TNDC) over Bay of Bengal during summer monsoon (June-September) season using the data for the period, 1995-2016. Four potential predictors (zonal wind speed at 850 hPa in May and April SST in the North Australia-Indonesia region, 05°S-15°S; 120°E-160°E; March NINO 3.4 SST and geopotential height at 200 hPa in the region, 0°N-10°N; 80°E-100°E) have been identified to forecast TNDC. A remarkably high multiple correlation coefficient of 0.92 has been observed with the TNDC which explains 85% variability. The methodology has been tested for the recent 5 years (2012-2016) and found a good agreement between the observed and forecast values of TNDC except in 2015 in which the observed and predicted TNDC were 2 and 0, respectively. It is interesting to see high and significant correlations between the above predictors and the genesis potential parameter (GPP) during summer monsoon season. This GPP depends on the relative vorticity at 850 hPa, mid troposphere relative humidity, thermal instability between 850 and 500 hPa, and vertical wind shear between 200 and 850 hPa. It is inferred that the above predictors are influencing the environmental conditions over Bay of Bengal which, in turn, influencing the genesis of cyclones during summer monsoon season. The impact of ENSO (El-Nino-Southern Oscillation) and La-Nina in TNDC is examined and found that the vertical wind shear and relative vorticity are high and the GPP was almost double in ENSO compared with that in La-Nina which favoured high (low) TNDC under ENSO (La-Nina).

  3. Diversity of killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor genes in the Bengali population of northern West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, P; Bhattacharjee, S; Chaudhuri, T K

    2014-12-01

    The Indian Subcontinent exhibits extensive diversity in its culture, religion, ethnicity and linguistic heritage, which symbolizes extensive genetic variations within the populations. The highly polymorphic Killer cell Immunoglobulin-like Receptor (KIR) family plays an important role in tracing genetic differentiation in human population. In this study, we aimed to analyse the KIR gene polymorphism in the Bengali population of northern West Bengal, India. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the KIR gene polymorphism in the Bengalis of West Bengal, India. Herein, we have studied the distribution of 14 KIR genes (KIR3DL1-3DL3, KIR2DL1-2DL5, KIR2DS1-2DS5 AND KIR3DS1) and two pseudogenes (KIR3DP1 and 2DP1) in the Bengalis. Apart from the framework genes (KIR2DL4, 3DL2, 3DL3 and 3DP1), which are present in all the individuals, the gene frequencies of other KIR genes varied between 0.34 and 0.88. Moreover, upon comparing the KIR polymorphism of the Bengalis with the available published data of other world populations, it has been found that the Indo-European-speaking Bengalis from the region share both Dravidian and Indo-Aryan gene pool with considerable influences of mongoloid and European descents. Furthermore, evidences from previously published data on human leucocyte antigen and Y-chromosome haplogroup diversity support the view. Our results will help to understand the genetic background of the Bengali population, in illustrating the population migration events in the eastern and north-eastern part of India, in explaining the extensive genetic admixture amongst the different linguistic groups of the region and also in KIR-related disease researches. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Entomological investigations into an epidemic of Japanese encephalitis (JE in northern districts of West Bengal, India (2011-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Mariappan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Japanese encephalitis (JE is one of the most important arboviral diseases of human beings with outbreaks in many parts of Southeast Asia including India. We present the entomological findings of an outbreak occurred in northern part of West Bengal during 2011-2012 with special emphasis on the role of JE vectors in different seasons. Methods: Adult mosquito collections were made with the help of mouth aspirators, aided by flash lights during day time resting inside human and animal habitations as indoor, and resting outside field grasses, bushes, underneath of culverts and bridges as outdoor, and in and around the pig enclosures and cattle sheds during dusk period in JE affected villages from Cooch Behar, Dakshin Dinajpur, Darjeeling and Jalpaiguri districts in North West Bengal. In all study villages, a long handled with enamel bowl dipper was used to obtain immature stages of mosquitoes from various breeding habitats. Results: A total of 19 different types of mosquito breeding habitats were examined for vectors of JE. From these habitats, 23.7 per cent were positive for breeding during the study period. Overall, nine different species were recorded through emergence, but none was positive for JE virus when subjected for detection of virus. Adult mosquitoes of more than 50 per cent of the potential JE vector species obtained through dusk and the rest through indoor and outdoor collections in all seasons. Altogether, 27 different species were recorded. Most of these were JE vectors. Interpretation & conclusions: Our results showed that in addition to Cx. vishnui subgroup, detection of JE virus antigen in Cx. quinquefasciatus indicated the possible maintenance of JE virus in nature through poor vector mosquitoes throughout the year. Since, all potential vector species reported elsewhere in India were also found in this region and fluctuated in density in different seasons, a proper integrated vector control programme needs

  5. Remarkable Impacts of Indian Ocean Sea Surface Temperature on Interdecadal Variability of Summer Rainfall in Southwestern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingpeng Liu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available During the boreal summer from June to August, rainfall in Southwestern China shows substantial interdecadal variabilities on timescales longer than 10 years. Based on observational analyses and numerical modeling, we investigated the characteristics of interdecadal Southwestern China summer rainfall (SWCSR and its dynamic drivers. We find that the SWCSR is markedly impacted by the interdecadal Indian Ocean basin mode (ID-IOBM of the sea surface temperature (SST, which may induce anomalous inter-hemispheric vertical circulation. During the cold phase of the ID-IOBM, an enhanced lower-level divergence and upper-level convergence exist over the tropical Indian Ocean. The simultaneous lower-level outflow anomalies further converge over the Indo-China peninsula, resulting in an anomalous ascending motion and a lower-level cyclone that contribute to strengthening the eastward moisture transport from the Bay of Bengal to Southwestern China. The joint effects of the anomalous ascending motion and the above-normal moisture transport play a key role in increasing the SWCSR. In summers during the warm phase of the ID-IOBM, the situation is approximately the same, but with opposite polarity. After the beginning of the 1970s, the impacts of interdecadal Indian Ocean dipole (ID-IOD on SWCSR is strengthening. The anomalous vertical circulation associated with the positive (negative phase of ID-IOD is in favor of decreased (increased rainfall in SWC. However, the impacts of ID-IOD on SWCSR is relatively weak before the 1970s, indicating that the ID-IOD is the secondary driver of the interdecadal variability of SWCSR. Modeling results also indicate that the ID-IOBM of SST anomalies is the main driver of interdecadal variability of SWCSR.

  6. Seroprevalence survey of zoonoses in Extremadura, southwestern Spain, 2002-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asencio, Maria Angeles; Herraez, Oscar; Tenias, Jose Maria; Garduño, Eugenio; Huertas, Maria; Carranza, Rafael; Ramos, Julian Mauro

    2015-01-01

    Our aims were to determine the seroprevalence rates for the most common types of zoonosis among the population of Extremadura (southwestern Spain) and to identify the associated risk factors. We conducted a seroepidemiological survey to collect information on family background and the habits of people residing in Extremadura between 2002 and 2003. Antibodies to Brucella were determined by Rose Bengal staining and a standard tube agglutination test; a titer of 1/80 was considered to be positive. Antibody titers for spotted fever, leishmaniasis, echinococcosis, and toxoplasmosis were determined by enzyme-immunoassays. Independent risk factors identified were age (younger age for brucellosis), male gender (brucellosis, spotted fever, and toxoplasmosis), occupation and contact with animals (brucellosis and spotted fever for those in contact with goats, hydatidosis for those in contact with sheep, leishmaniasis for those in contact with dogs, and toxoplasmosis for those in contact with cats and pigs), and consuming contaminated food (brucellosis by eating fresh cheese, hydatidosis by eating homemade sausages, and toxoplasmosis by eating pork). Except for leishmaniasis, the other zoonoses were more prevalent in rural areas, and, with the exception of brucellosis, they were all more prevalent in Badajoz. The distribution of zoonoses in Extremadura was strongly influenced by keeping livestock and eating habits. Thus, brucellosis was more prevalent in Caceres (associated with cheese consumption), while toxoplasmosis (pork consumption) and spotted fever (from hunting) were more common in Badajoz.

  7. Obstetric care practice in Birbhum District, West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharati, Susmita; Pal, Manoranjan; Bharati, Premananda

    2007-08-01

    The study area is the Birbhum district of the State of West Bengal in India. It is one of the backward districts in India. The paper investigates the existing pattern of obstetric health care practices and the factors associated with the utilization of such care. The present analysis includes 495 adult married women of both rural and urban areas of nine Blocks of Birbhum district. Besides performing chi2 tests to see the association of the relevant individual and household characteristics, logistic regression was also carried out to measure the effect of these characteristics on the use of obstetric health care. In Birbhum district of West Bengal 65 percent mothers go to doctors for antenatal check-up during their pregnancy, but only 26 percent mothers deliver their babies in institutions and 30 percent mothers get the help of professional health assistants during delivery. Educated women have emphasized role in the practice of obstetric health care. Husband's education and the standard of living of the family also have some effect on the practice of antenatal check up, place of delivery and assistance of health professional. While most of the family background variables have significant effect on the practice of antenatal check up, these variables do not have much effect on the choice of delivery or seeking assistance of health professionals. Contrary to the popular belief the working status of women does not have favourable influence on the obstetric health care practices. In developing countries like India, it is the poverty, which compels the women to take jobs-that too in low paid jobs especially in rural backward areas. The status of literacy of mothers and standard of living of the family are of prime importance in improving the obstetric health care practices.

  8. Some cogent observations on amoebic hepatopathies using radioactive rose bengal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, B.N.; Jha, B.K.

    1975-08-01

    Amoebic hepatopathies in this paper refers to three clinical syndromes described as hepatic amoebiasis, liver abscess and amoebic hepatitis. Forty-six patients with clinical symptomatology suggestive of amoebic hepatopathy were investigated with /sup 131/I rose bengal. Size, shape, position and parenchymal functions of their livers were estimated by assessing rose bengal blood clearance rate and scanning procedures. It was observed that there was true hepatomegaly and hepatic dysfunction in cases of hepatic abscess but not in amoebic hepatitis patients. Furthermore, hepatic abscess cases always had a ''cold'' area in their liver scans even at very early stage. On the other hand, amoebic hepatitis patients had normal size, shape and function of the liver--which was further confirmed by liver biopsy in five of them. These livers were palpable because of their low anatomical position (Ptosis). All the cases of hepatic abscess (except two) were treated by antiamoebic drugs without resorting to aspiration and serial scans showed complete resolution. Hence it is seen that aspiration in managing these cases (irrespective of the size) in early stages is not indicated at all. Thirty per cent of these patients developed jaundice and again size of the abscess was not critical. Surprisingly, amoebic hepatitis cases also showed improvement to oral anti-amoebic drugs. Liver, if at all involved in these cases, was due to chronic bowel disorders and treatment of bowel gives them symptomatic relief. However, no direct evidence could be brought out to prove existence of amoebic hepatitis by these techniques.

  9. Submesoscale features and their interaction with fronts and internal tides in a high-resolution coupled atmosphere-ocean-wave model of the Bay of Bengal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Tommy G.; Shulman, Igor; Wijesekera, Hemantha W.; Anderson, Stephanie; Ladner, Sherwin

    2018-03-01

    Large freshwater fluxes into the Bay of Bengal by rainfall and river discharges result in strong salinity fronts in the bay. In this study, a high-resolution coupled atmosphere-ocean-wave model with comprehensive physics is used to model the weather, ocean circulation, and wave field in the Bay of Bengal. Our objective is to explore the submesoscale activity that occurs in a realistic coupled model that resolves mesoscales and allows part of the submesoscale field. Horizontal resolution in the atmosphere varies from 2 to 6 km and is 13 km for surface waves, while the ocean model is submesoscale permitting with resolutions as high as 1.5 km and a vertical resolution of 0.5 m in the upper 10 m. In this paper, three different cases of oceanic submesoscale features are discussed. In the first case, heavy rainfall and intense downdrafts produced by atmospheric convection are found to force submesoscale currents, temperature, and salinity anomalies in the oceanic mixed layer and impact the mesoscale flow. In a second case, strong solitary-like waves are generated by semidiurnal tides in the Andaman Sea and interact with mesoscale flows and fronts and affect submesoscale features generated along fronts. A third source of submesoscale variability is found further north in the Bay of Bengal where river outflows help maintain strong salinity gradients throughout the year. For that case, a comparison with satellite observations of sea surface height anomalies, sea surface temperature, and chlorophyll shows that the model captures the observed mesoscale eddy features of the flow field, but in addition, submesoscale upwelling and downwelling patterns associated with ageostrophic secondary circulations along density fronts are also captured by the model.

  10. Geotechnical characteristics of some Southwestern Nigerian clays ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The geotechnical characteristics of some southwestern Nigeria clays were evaluated with a view to determining their suitability for use as barrier soils in waste disposal sites. Clay soils (consisting of twenty disturbed and twenty undisturbed samples) were subjected to grain size, consistency limits and permeability tests.

  11. Pig slaughtering in southwestern Nigeria: peculiarities, animal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pig slaughtering in southwestern Nigeria: peculiarities, animal welfare concerns and public health implications. ... pig slaughtering methods in the three locations vary considerably with some identified areas of animal welfare concerns which include inhumane transportation , restraining, lairaging, and stunning practices.s.

  12. Engaging Southwestern Tribes in Sustainable Water Resources Topics and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karletta Chief

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous peoples in North America have a long history of understanding their societies as having an intimate relationship with their physical environments. Their cultures, traditions, and identities are based on the ecosystems and sacred places that shape their world. Their respect for their ancestors and ‘Mother Earth’ speaks of unique value and knowledge systems different than the value and knowledge systems of the dominant United States settler society. The value and knowledge systems of each indigenous and non-indigenous community are different but collide when water resources are endangered. One of the challenges that face indigenous people regarding the management of water relates to their opposition to the commodification of water for availability to select individuals. External researchers seeking to work with indigenous peoples on water research or management must learn how to design research or water management projects that respect indigenous cultural contexts, histories of interactions with settler governments and researchers, and the current socio-economic and political situations in which indigenous peoples are embedded. They should pay particular attention to the process of collaborating on water resource topics and management with and among indigenous communities while integrating Western and indigenous sciences in ways that are beneficial to both knowledge systems. The objectives of this paper are to (1 to provide an overview of the context of current indigenous water management issues, especially for the U.S. federally recognized tribes in the Southwestern United States; (2 to synthesize approaches to engage indigenous persons, communities, and governments on water resources topics and management; and (3 to compare the successes of engaging Southwestern tribes in five examples to highlight some significant activities for collaborating with tribes on water resources research and management. In discussing the engagement

  13. Refining the Bengal Fan stratigraphy - A first correlation of IODP Expedition 354 results and seismic data from the Bay of Bengal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenk, Tilmann; Spiess, Volkhard; Bergmann, Fenna; France-Lanord, Christian; Klaus, Adam

    2016-04-01

    The Bengal Fan covers the floor of the entire Bay of Bengal from the continental margins of India and Bangladesh to the sediment-filled Sunda Trench off Myanmar and the Andaman Islands, and along the west side of the Ninetyeast Ridge. The deposition and progradation of the Bengal Fan started in the Eocene after the collision of India with Asia resulting in the build-up of the Himalaya and the formation of a large proto-Bay of Bengal. Continued convergence of the Indian and Australian plates with the Southeast Asian plate reduced the size of the bay and focused the source of turbidites finally into the present Bengal Basin, Bangladesh shelf, and the shelf canyon "Swatch of no Ground". Today, the Bengal Fan is mainly fed by the sediment load of the Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers, which drain the Himalayas at its southern and northern slope, respectively, and deliver their load to the delta in the Bengal Basin, to the Bengal Shelf and to the deep sea fan. Thus the Bengal Fan is a suitable recorder to study interactions among the growth of the Himalaya and Tibet, the development of the Asian monsoon, and processes affecting the carbon cycle and global climate. Because sedimentation in the Bengal Fan responds to both, climate and tectonic processes, its terrigenous sediment records the past evolution of both the Himalaya and regional climate. This evolution is also expressed in the stratigraphy of the fan in terms of unconformities and key horizons, average sedimentation rates as a function of distance from the basement ridges at 85°E and 90°E and the presence or absence of channel-levee systems. The histories of the Himalaya/Tibetan system and the Asian monsoon require sampling different periods of time with different levels of precision. Therefore IODP Expedition 354 drilled in February-March 2015 a seven site, 320 km-long transect across the Bengal Fan at 8°N. This strategy has been chosen because sediment transport took place by turbidity currents following

  14. Southwestern Power Administration annual site environmental report CY 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This report provides a synopsis of Southwestern Power Administration's (Southwestern's) effectiveness in managing its operations in an environmentally responsible manner. In CY 1997, the Office of Environmental, Safety, and Health was reorganized and incorporated into the Division of Acquisition and Property. The Division of Acquisition, Property, and Environmental Management maintains responsibility for development, oversight, and implementation of environmental programs. Senior Management at Southwestern has taken actions to increase environmental awareness throughout the organization. During CY 1997, (Southwestern) was not involved in any known programs or activities that had adverse impacts on the environment. The 1997 Environmental Appraisal, a portion of Southwestern's Self-Assessment and Appraisal Program, indicated approximately 90% compliance with Southwestern's written environmental programs. Southwestern continued to function throughout CY 1997 in an operations and maintenance posture with minor substation projects

  15. Southwestern Power Administration site environmental report for calendar year 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    During CY 93, Southwestern was not involved in any programs that had a direct effect on the environment, involving endangered species, protection of wetlands, or increased electromagnetic radiation. Southwestern continued to function throughout the year in an operations and maintenance posture with minor substation projects. Southwestern received an environmental management audit by the Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Audit (EH-24), during CY 1992. The purpose of the audit was to give Southwestern, DOE headquarters, and the Secretary an indication of the status of Southwestern management's effectiveness in discharging its duties in an environmentally responsible manner. The audit identified 17 findings. An action plan was developed and remediation of the findings has been accomplished. Several strengths were identified during the audit with regard to the environmental programs at Southwestern. Most importantly, senior management at Southwestern has taken actions to increase environmental awareness throughout the organization which is evidenced by the creation of the Environmental, Safety, Health, and Security Office

  16. Yttrium and rare earth element partitioning in seawaters from the Bay of Bengal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhaojie; Colin, Christophe; Douville, Eric; Meynadier, Laure; Duchamp-Alphonse, Stéphanie; Sepulcre, Sophie; Wan, Shiming; Song, Lina; Wu, Qiong; Xu, Zhaokai; Bassinot, Frank

    2017-04-01

    The dissolved yttrium (Y) and rare earth element (REE) concentrations of seawater samples collected along a north-south hydrological transect within the Bay of Bengal (BoB) have been analyzed to estimate contributions of the Ganges and Brahmaputra (G-B) river inputs to the dissolved REE distribution of the Northern Indian Ocean. Surface water masses of the BoB are characterized by Y/Ho ratios (84) intermediate between the G-B river suspended sediment (41) and water mass from the South Indian Ocean (93). Covariation of MREE (middle REE, Sm) and LREE (light REE, La) concentrations suggests that the dissolved REEs in surface waters (upper 100 m depth) of the BoB (Sm/La = 0.21) appear to derive mainly from the freshwater discharge of the G-B river system. In contrast, values obtained in the intermediate and deep waters (Sm/La = 0.14) suggest a mixing of dissolved REEs deriving from the release of G-B river suspended particles (Sm/La = 0.16) and the contribution of Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) (Sm/La = 0.12). Consequently, we propose that MREE/MREE* ratios in the BoB waters could be an accurate proxy to trace lithogenic inputs from the G-B river system. The dissolved and particle remineralization Nd fluxes from G-B river system are calculated to constitute about 9% and 4% of the global dissolved river discharge and "boundary inputs" flux. Our estimation indicates that the massive G-B river system inputs could greatly alter the dissolved REEs distribution in the BoB and contribute to the dissolved REEs budget in the ocean.

  17. Distribution of ozone and its precursors over Bay of Bengal during winter 2009: role of meteorology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. David

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of ozone and NO2 were carried out in the marine environment of the Bay of Bengal (BoB during the winter months, December 2008–January 2009, as part of the second Integrated Campaign for Aerosols, gases and Radiation Budget conducted under the Geosphere Biosphere Programme of the Indian Space Research Organization. The ozone mixing ratio was found to be high in the head and the southeast BoB with a mean value of 61 ± 7 ppb and 53 ± 6 ppb, respectively. The mixing ratios of NO2 and CO were also relatively high in these regions. The spatial patterns were examined in the light of airflow patterns, air mass back trajectories and other meteorological conditions and satellite retrieved maps of tropospheric ozone, NO2, CO, and fire count in and around the region. The distribution of these gases was strongly associated with the transport from the adjoining land mass. The anthropogenic activities and forest fires/biomass burning over the Indo Gangetic Plains and other East Asian regions contribute to ozone and its precursors over the BoB. Similarity in the spatial pattern suggests that their source regions could be more or less the same. Most of the diurnal patterns showed decrease of the ozone mixing ratio during noon/afternoon followed by a nighttime increase and a morning high. Over this oceanic region, photochemical production of ozone involving NO2 was not very active. Water vapour played a major role in controlling the variation of ozone. An attempt is made to simulate ozone level over the north and south BoB using the photochemical box model (NCAR-MM. The present observed features were compared with those measured during the earlier cruises conducted in different seasons.

  18. Vertical Structure of Aerosols and Mineral Dust Over the Bay of Bengal From Multisatellite Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmi, N. B.; Nair, Vijayakumar S.; Suresh Babu, S.

    2017-12-01

    The vertical distribution of aerosol and dust extinction coefficient over the Bay of Bengal is examined using the satellite observations (Cloud Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)) for the period from 2006 to 2017. Distinct seasonal pattern is observed in the vertical structure of both aerosol and dust over the Bay of Bengal with an enhancement of 24% in the aerosol extinction above 1 km from winter (December, January and February) to premonsoon (March, April, and May). Significant contribution of dust is observed over the northern Bay of Bengal during premonsoon season where 22% of the total aerosol extinction is contributed by dust aerosols transported from the nearby continental regions. During winter, dust transport is found to be less significant with fractional contribution of 10%-13% to the total aerosol optical depth over the Bay of Bengal. MODIS-derived dust fraction (fine mode based) shows an overestimation up to twofold compared to CALIOP dust fraction (depolarization based), whereas the Goddard Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport-simulated dust fraction underestimates the satellite-derived dust fractions over the Bay of Bengal. Though the long-term variation in dust aerosol showed a decreasing trend over the Bay of Bengal, the confidence level is insufficient in establishing the robustness of the observed trend. However, significant dust-induced heating is observed above the boundary layer during premonsoon season. This dust-induced elevated heating can affect the convection over the Bay of Bengal which will have implication on the monsoon dynamics over the Indian region.

  19. Hydrogeologic characteristics and water levels of Wilcox aquifer in southwestern and northeastern Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Aaron L.; Schrader, Tony P.

    2009-01-01

    The Wilcox Group of Eocene and Paleocene age is located throughout most of southern and eastern Arkansas. The Wilcox Group in southern Arkansas is undifferentiated, while in northeastern Arkansas, the Wilcox Group is subdivided into three units: Flour Island, Fort Pillow Sand, and Old Breastworks Formation. The Wilcox Group crops out in southwestern Arkansas in discontinuous, 1 to 3 mi wide bands. In northeastern Arkansas, the Wilcox Group crops out along a narrow, discontinuous, band along the western edge of Crowleys Ridge. The Wilcox aquifer provides sources of groundwater in southwestern and northeastern Arkansas. In 2005, reported withdrawals from the Wilcox aquifer in Arkansas totaled 27.0 million gallons per day, most of which came from the northeastern area. Major withdrawals from the aquifer were for public supplies with lesser but locally important withdrawals for commercial, domestic, and industrial uses. A study was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Arkansas Natural Resources Commission and the Arkansas Geological Survey to determine the water levels associated with the Wilcox aquifer in southwestern and northeastern Arkansas. During February 2009, 58 water-level measurements were made in wells completed in the Wilcox aquifer. The results from this study and previous studies are presented as potentiometric-surface maps, water-level difference maps, and long-term hydrographs. The direction of groundwater flow in the southwestern area is affected by two potentiometric-surface mounds, one in the north and the other in the southwest, and a cone of depression in the center. The direction of water flowing off of the northern mound of water is generally to the south and east with some to the north. The direction of water flowing off of the southwestern mound is generally to the south and east. The direction of water flowing into the cone of depression is generally from the north, west, and south. The direction of groundwater flow

  20. Melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae), infestation in host fruits in the Southwestern Islands of Japan before the initiation of Island-wide population suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) is a tephritid fruit fly native to the Indo-Malayan region. Its distribution, though, has extended to include Africa, temperate Asia, and a number of Pacific islands. It became established in Japan in 1919 in the Yaeyama Islands and spread north in the Southwestern...

  1. Deep subsurface life in Bengal Fan sediments (IODP Exp. 354)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, R. R.; Heuer, V. B.; Elvert, M.; Kallmeyer, J.; Kitte, J. A.; Wörmer, L.; Hinrichs, K. U.

    2017-12-01

    We collected Bengal Fan sediment samples along a 8°N transect during International Ocean Discovery Program Expedition 354 (February - March 2015, Singapore - Colombo, Sri Lanka) to study subseafloor life in this, as yet unstudied, area. Among other biogeochemical parameters, we quantified microbial biomass by analyzing prokaryotic cells using epifluorescence microscopy after detaching cells from the sediment, and bacterial endospores by analyzing the diagnostic biomarker dipicolinic acid (DPA) by detection of fluorescence of the terbium-DPA complex. To gain understanding of total microbial activity, we quantified hydrogen utilization potential of hydrogenase enzymes, which are ubiquitous in subsurface microorganisms, by using a tritium assay. We measured highest cell concentrations of ca. 108 cells g-1 in shallow sediments close to the seafloor. These concentrations are one to two orders of magnitude lower than in most marine continental margin settings [1]. Similar to the global trend [1], cell concentrations decreased with depth according to a power-law function. Endospore concentrations scattered between ca. 105 and 107 cells g-1 sediment at all sites and depths. We could not observe a clear relationship of endospore concentration and sediment depth; instead, it appears to be linked to lithology and total organic carbon content. Bulk Hydrogenase enzyme activity ranged from nmolar to μmolar range of H2 g-1d-1. Similar to previous observations [2], per-cell hydrogen utilization depends on vertical biogeochemical zones, which could be due to the differences in hydrogen utilization requirements/efficiency of the respective metabolic processes such as sulfate reduction, methanogenesis, fermentation etc. Bengal fan is highly dynamic due to channel and levee systems and the sediments are dominated by turbidites, thick sand layers and hemipelagic deposits, which may control biogeochemical zonation. Based on our microbial biomass and activity data, we suggest that the

  2. The crustal dynamics and the tectonic trends in the Bengal Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Aftab Alam; Chouhan, R. K. S.

    1996-12-01

    Seismological data of the events that took place in the Bengal Basin during 1918 to 1989 have revealed an increased frequency of earthquakes in the last 30 years. The increase in seismic activity is an indication of fresh tectonic activity or propagation of fractures from the adjacent seismic zones. The tectonic trend TT3 as determined from the tectonic flux and from the crustal model is in good coincidence with the NE-SW trending linear zone of gravity high, the zone of Moho upwarping and the location of earthquake events having fault-plane solutions of prominent strike-slip component. It is further observed that most of the earthquakes that occurred in the Bengal Basin in the 20th century follow the tectonic trend TT3. The NE-SW trending tectonic trend TT3 is inferred as one of the most remarkable features in the Bengal Basin. The extension of this trend is well marked by the "Halflong-Disang Thrust" in the NE and by the "Swatch of No-Ground" in the SW. The tectonic flux has also revealed some other striking tectonic trends distributed over broad regions and is not confined to definite geologic or physiographic provinces but instead is transverse to major structural elements of the region, thus forming conjugate sets of active zones. The focal mechanism solutions of 12 earthquake events reveal the nature of faulting which is predominantly strike-slip. The strike-slip fault solutions for most of the events are indicative of a changing pattern from convergence and subduction to strike-slip displacement in the Bengal Basin. The focal mechanism of two events having solutions of strike-slip with a normal fault component located on the tectonic trend TT3, the nature of Moho upwarping and the crustal configuration lend support to a process of crustal extension prevailing in the Bengal Basin. The crustal segment to the east of TT3 is relatively more mobile than that of the crustal segment to the west. The general trend of compression ( P-axis) is N57 °W in the Bengal

  3. Overprint of neotectonism along the course of River Chel, North Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunipa Mandal

    2016-07-01

    The alluvial fan system of the River Chel is comprised of five morphogenetic fans stacked one above another with a tendency to shrink and shift progressively upslope. They differ from each other in terms of tilt, axial orientation, primary depositional surface gradient and convexity in transverse section and thus present a writ of ongoing tectonism. Progressive upward increase in the share of distal crystalline rocks in clast composition within alluvial fan package is a clear proxy for southerly advancement of the MFT. Concomitant increase in maximum clast size is in good agreement with sediment source uplift. All the five fans are, however, dormant now. Present-day River Chel deeply incises through all of them and suggests further basement uplift in the context of frequent evidences of neotectonism all around, although the role of climate remains uncertain in absence of adequate data.

  4. Overprint of neotectonism along the course of River Chel, North Bengal, India

    OpenAIRE

    Sunipa Mandal; Subir Sarkar

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to unveil neotectonic imprints in topography, drainage and sediments in the 46.25 km long course of the River Chel from its source down to its alluvial fan at the base of the Himalayan Mountain Front in the Darjeeling–Jalpaiguri districts of India. A semi-circular ridge delimits its primary catchment. Within confinement of this watershed basin the drainage pattern is composite being convergent along the periphery and divergent on a butte inside. All these geomorphic neotectoni...

  5. Southwestern Institute of Physics annual report 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    In the year 2001, significant progresses in the engineering construction of the HL-2A tokamak were made at the Southwestern Institute of Physics (SWIP). At the same time, the research projects from Nuclear Energy Development Foundation, the National Defense Basic Research Foundation and the National Science Foundation of China were completely fulfilled. In addition 283 papers and reports were contributed, among them, 67 are included in the Annual Report

  6. Considerations of breakthrough orientation on prospecting uranium resources in southwestern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Zexuan; Kang Youchun

    2010-01-01

    Based on the study of metallogenic environment, ore control factors, and metallogenic genesis of uranium deposits, combining with regional geological background, 5 uranium metallogenic belts including Gangdise-Tengchong, Sanjiang, northwest of Sichuan, north of Sichuan, middle of Guizhou and 4 uranium metallogenic prospective belts including Gangdise, Changdu, Changtai-Daocheng and Xikang-Yunnan Axis can be classified in southwestern China. The thought of prospecting uranium resources should aim at strengthening regional geological investigation, selecting favorable metallogenic areas, accelerating regional evaluation and implementing uranium resources survey gradually. The breakthrough orientation includes expanding old mining areas, opening up new bases, prospecting new types, and raising comprehensive value for unconventional uranium resources. (authors)

  7. Comparison of serum and plasma taurine values in Bengal tigers with values in taurine-sufficient and -deficient domestic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickett, J P; Chesney, R W; Beehler, B; Moore, C P; Lippincott, S; Sturman, J; Ketring, K L

    1990-01-15

    A white Bengal tiger was determined to have a central retinal lesion and a central visual defect. Because of the known association between feline central retinal degeneration (CRD) and taurine deficiency in domestic cats, plasma concentrations of taurine were measured in this tiger. Serum concentrations of taurine, methionine, and cystine also were measured in white Bengal tigers, orange Bengal tigers, taurine-sufficient domestic cats, and taurine-deprived and tissue-taurine-depleted visually impaired cats with CRD. Hepatic and brain enzymes responsible for taurine synthesis were identified in tissue specimens from an orange Bengal tiger. Serum taurine concentrations were lower in white vs orange tigers, but were not as low as those in cats with CRD. Thus, we concluded that taurine depletion did not account for the central retinal lesion in the white Bengal tiger.

  8. Reference intervals and allometric scaling of echocardiographic measurements in Bengal cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scansen, Brian A; Morgan, Kyla L

    2015-12-01

    The Bengal is a relatively new hybrid breed, reported to develop hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. The aim of this study was to determine reference intervals for echocardiographic measurements in Bengal cats. Sixty-six apparently healthy Bengal cats. The study included a retrospective review of echocardiograms from 39 Bengal cats evaluated from March 2004 to June 2012 and reported to be normal by a board-certified cardiologist. An additional 27 cats were enrolled prospectively from June 2012 to June 2013. The effects of sex and body weight on linear cardiac dimensions were evaluated by regression analysis. Reference intervals were determined by the robust method with bootstrapping. Allometric equations scaled to body weight were derived for each echocardiographic variable. Intra- and interobserver variability were evaluated by coefficient of variation from 6 of the prospective studies. Reference intervals were determined from all 66 Bengal cats as no significant differences were observed between the retrospective and prospective data. An effect of sex, separate from body weight, was suggested and unique reference intervals for male and female cats were determined. Body weight was a significant co-variate and 95% prediction intervals for linear dimensions were determined by allometric scaling. Coefficients of variation were less than 10% for 2-dimensional variables and less than 18% for M-mode variables. These data provide reference intervals and weight-based 95% prediction intervals for echocardiographic measurements in the Bengal cat, potentially aiding cardiologists who screen this breed in detecting pathologic variants from normal dimensions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Tiger, Bengal and Domestic Cat Embryos Produced by Homospecific and Interspecific Zona-Free Nuclear Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro, L N; Jarazo, J; Buemo, C; Hiriart, M I; Sestelo, A; Salamone, D F

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate three different cloning strategies in the domestic cat (Felis silvestris) and to use the most efficient to generate wild felid embryos by interspecific cloning (iSCNT) using Bengal (a hybrid formed by the cross of Felis silvestris and Prionailurus bengalensis) and tiger (Panthera tigris) donor cells. In experiment 1, zona-free (ZP-free) cloning resulted in higher fusion and expanded blastocyst rates with respect to zona included cloning techniques that involved fusion or injection of the donor cell. In experiment 2, ZP-free iSCNT and embryo aggregation (2X) were assessed. Division velocity and blastocyst rates were increased by embryo aggregation in the three species. Despite fewer tiger embryos than Bengal and cat embryos reached the blastocyst stage, Tiger 2X group increased the percentage of blastocysts with respect to Tiger 1X group (3.2% vs 12.1%, respectively). Moreover, blastocyst cell number was almost duplicated in aggregated embryos with respect to non-aggregated ones within Bengal and tiger groups (278.3 ± 61.9 vs 516.8 ± 103.6 for Bengal 1X and Bengal 2X groups, respectively; 41 vs 220 ± 60 for Tiger 1X and Tiger 2X groups, respectively). OCT4 analysis also revealed that tiger blastocysts had higher proportion of OCT4-positive cells with respect to Bengal blastocysts and cat intracytoplasmic sperm injection blastocysts. In conclusion, ZP-free cloning has improved the quality of cat embryos with respect to the other cloning techniques evaluated and was successfully applied in iSCNT complemented with embryo aggregation. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Distribution of Heavy Metals in Surface Sediments of the Bay of Bengal Coast

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, M. Z. H.; Hasan, M. R.; Khan, M.; Aktar, S.; Fatema, K.

    2017-01-01

    The concentrations of major (Si, Al, Ca, Fe, and K) and minor (Cd, Mn, Ni, Pb, U, Zn, Co, Cr, As, Cu, Rb, Sr, and Zr,) elements in the surficial sediments were studied in an attempt to establish their concentration in the Bengal coast. It was revealed that the majority of the trace elements have been introduced into the Bengal marine from the riverine inflows that are also affected by the impact of industrial, ship breaking yard, gas production plant, and urban wastes. The concentration of he...

  11. Surface freshwater from Bay of Bengal runoff and Indonesian throughflow in the tropical Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sengupta, D.; Raj, B.; Shenoi, S.S.C.

    haloclines in the BoB. If a shallow halocline resists diapycnal mixing, BoB surface water should continue to stay relatively fresh as it travels to remote regions of the tropical IO. Thus it is likely that most present day models underestimate the true reach...]), to examine BoB freshwater balance. 2. Bay of Bengal Freshwater In addition to several major rivers, numerous smaller streams discharge into the Bay of Bengal. The total an- nual continental runoff into the Bay is 2950 km3, obtained by integrating the Dai...

  12. Radiolarian fluxes from the southern Bay of Bengal: sediment trap results

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gupta, S.M.; Mohan, R.; Guptha, M.V.S.

    , salinity and the Q-mode radi- 57 47 olarian factor loading from the surface sediment of 59 0967-0637/02/$ - see front matter r 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.All rights reserved. PII: S 0967-0637(02)00085-7 DSRI : 883 ARTICLE IN PRESS 2 S.M. Gupta et al... in the geological past (Gupta and Bengal.The trap site was situated in oligotrophic 51 Fernandes, 1997).Altho ugh Gupta (1991, 1996) waters in the southern Bay of Bengal, which is 5 and Gupta et al.(1996) have attempted to study devoid of any pronounced upwelling...

  13. Numerical modelling of tides and storm surges in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sindhu, B.

    The destruction due to storm surge flooding is a serious concern along the coast of Bay of Bengal. Amongst other natural disasters affecting the coast of India and Bangladesh, storm surges stand out, so far, as the most damaging and as an agent of death... are at higher risks of flooding during cyclonic events. In addition, tidal ranges in the northern Bay of Bengal are very high and the destruction caused by surges can be massive if the surges occur at the time of high tide. Thus real time monitoring...

  14. Tetralogy of Fallot and atrial septal defect in a white Bengal Tiger cub (Panthera tigris tigris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazzi, Paolo; Lim, Chee K; Steyl, Johan

    2014-03-04

    A 3-week-old female white Bengal Tiger cub (Panthera tigris tigris) presented with acute onset tachypnoea, cyanosis and hypothermia. The cub was severely hypoxaemic with a mixed acid-base disturbance. Echocardiography revealed severe pulmonic stenosis, right ventricular hypertrophy, high membranous ventricular septal defect and an overriding aorta. Additionally, an atrial septal defect was found on necropsy, resulting in the final diagnosis of Tetralogy of Fallot with an atrial septal defect (a subclass of Pentalogy of Fallot). This report is the first to encompass arterial blood gas analysis, thoracic radiographs, echocardiography and necropsy findings in a white Bengal Tiger cub diagnosed with Tetralogy of Fallot with an atrial septal defect.

  15. DETECTION OF CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER VIRUS BY RT-PCR IN WEST BENGAL, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Chowdhury

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Classical swine fever is a deadly disease of swine, caused by a RNA virus. The present study has identified presence of the classical swine fever virus (CSFV in pigs of West Bengal by one step reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR performed using 5’ NTR specific primers. Internal organs from clinically affected pigs were examined from three districts of West Bengal. RT-PCT has identified presence of CSFV in all the tissues examined confirming presence of CSFV in different parts of the state.

  16. Routine primary immunization: status in two district of West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, S; Karmakar, P Roy; Mandal, N K; Roy, R P; Mallik, S; Mandal, A K

    2005-01-01

    The study was conducted at Birbhum and Purba Medinipur districts of West Bengal to assess the routine primary immunization coverage following 40 cluster sampling technique was used to study 320 children in each of the districts. BCG coverage was found to be 79.69% at Birbhum and 84.38% at Purba Medinipur. Only 62.81% children at Birbhum and 67.81% children at Purba Medinipur received all the three primary doses of DPT. Regarding OPV, coverage with three primary doses were only 65% and 66.88% at Birbhum and Purba Medinipur respectively. Measles vaccine coverage was very poor at both the districts, 55.94% at Birbhum and 62.5% at Purba Medinipur. Full primary immunization was observed 53.13% and 61.56% in Birbhum and Purba Medinipur respectively. High drop-out rate was identified as a major deficiency in both the districts. Of the children who received at least one routine vaccine, more than 1/3rd at Birbhum and more than 1/4 th at Purba Medinipur did not turn up later for completion of their primary vaccine doses. It is evident that routine immunization coverage was poor in both the districts and it seems there has been no improvement in situation for last few years. It will influence not only the child morbidity and mortality situation but also will jeopardize the paralytic polio eradication programme. Urgent intervention should be undertaken to address the large number of non-immunized children as well as high proportion of drop-outs.

  17. Mammals of Kalimpong Hills, Darjeeling District, West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.K. Mallick

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Neora Valley National Park (NVNP in the Kalimpong Hills, Darjeeling District, having a wide range of altitudinal variations (183-3,200 m and climatic conditions and forming an ecological trijunction with Sikkim and Bhutan, is the last virgin wilderness in West Bengal. It is a global hotspot for the unique ecosystem, where tropical, sub-tropical, temperate and sub-temperate forests represent a wealth of biodiversity including many threatened and rare mammals. It is the prime habitat of Ailurus fulgens (estimated population 28-32, Neofelis nebulosa (population unassessed, Ursus thibetanus (18, Bos gaurus (81, Hemitragus jemlahicus (32, Naemorhedus goral (73, Capricornis sumatraensis (89, Rusa unicolor (286, Muntiacus vaginalis (590 and Sus scrofa (615. Discovery of Panthera tigris (20 in 1998 prompted the forest department to include NVNP as a sensitive wildlife zone. Many authors recorded the mammalian diversity in Darjeeling District since the mid-nineteenth century, but most of them referred to the Darjeeling Hills. The documentations on Kalimpong Hills are scarce because of the dense canopy, thick undergrowth and inaccessible terrain, particularly in the pristine forests of Neora Valley. Consequently, a comprehensive compendium of the mammals in this region was not prepared. A study was undertaken in 2008-2009 with a view to bridging this knowledge-gap and presenting an updated account of the mammalian species in this new short-listed World Heritage Site and surrounding forests of the Kalimpong Hills based on literature review, questionnaire survey, direct sighting and indirect evidences. During June-October 1916, N.A. Baptista recorded 29 mammalian species (22 genera out of 563 specimens collected, from the region. The present study registered 99 species (68 genera after 94 years.

  18. Risk factors associated with brucellosis among slaughtered cattle: Epidemiological insight from two metropolitan abattoirs in Southwestern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogugua Akwoba Joseph

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate risk factors responsible for the epidemiology of brucellosis among cattle slaughtered in Nigeria in a bid to implement control strategies. Methods: This was a cross-sectional and sero-epidemiological survey of bovine brucellosis in two metropolitan abattoirs in Southwestern Nigeria. Between March and August 2013, cattle were screened for antibodies to Brucella spp. by using Rose Bengal test (RBT, and positive samples were subjected to competitive ELISA (cELISA. Parameters of individual animal were also obtained. Data were analyzed by using STATA version 12 and Chi-square; and logistic regression statistics were used to test association. Results: Overall, 2 480 cattle (1 241 in Oyo; 1 239 in Lagos were screened. Analysis using RBT revealed a total sero-prevalence of 4.9% (121/2 480, with 7.8% and 1.9% from Oyo and Lagos States respectively. The cELISA result supported 77.7% (94/121 (90.7% in Oyo; 25.0% in Lagos of the total RBT positive samples. Logistic regression analysis showed that only sex (P ≤ 0.001 and location (P = 0.001 of animal screened had statistically significant effects on seropositivity to Brucella abortus antibodies. Conclusions: Our findings reveal low sero-prevalence of brucellosis among slaughtered cattle in Southwestern Nigeria. Sex and location of abattoirs where animals are slaughtered are major risk factors to be considered in the epidemiology of the disease. Therefore, to promote public health, trade cattle meant for slaughter in Nigeria and African countries where brucellosis is endemic, should be monitored, and positive animals be excluded from the food chain.

  19. The rare Chrysopidae (Neuroptera) of southwestern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canard, Michel; Letardi, Agostino; Thierry, Dominique

    2007-05-01

    Quantitative surveys of the chrysopid fauna from southwestern Europe, namely the Iberian and Italian peninsulas, France south of 46° N, and the west-Mediterranean Islands, were analysed. A total of 56 species of Chrysopidae were reported, of which three species were abundant. These, Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens, 1836) sensu lato, Dichochrysa prasina (Burmeister, 1839) and D. flavifrons (Brauer, 1850), comprised a large percentage of the specimens. For the rarer species, comments are made on their distributions, the enhanced geographic range of exotic ones, and on levels of endemism and stenotopy.

  20. Desenvolvimento do fruto da lichieira (Litchi chinensis Sonn. 'Bengal' Fruit development in 'Bengal' litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Chamhum Salomão

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o desenvolvimento do fruto da lichieira (Litchi chinensis Sonn. 'Bengal'. Realizaram-se amostragens semanais, com início aos 35 dias após a antese e término no início da senescência dos frutos. A partir do 77º dia após a antese, os frutos foram decompostos em pericarpo, semente e arilo. A antese ocorreu na primeira semana de setembro. Foram ajustados modelos sigmoidais simples para acúmulo de matéria seca, comprimento e diâmetro. Para o acúmulo de matéria seca, uma fase inicial, de crescimento lento, prolongou-se até o 63º dia após a antese e coincidiu com um período de intensa queda natural de frutos. Do 63º ao 98º dia após a antese, houve uma fase de rápido acúmulo de matéria seca. Até o 77º dia, pericarpo e semente foram os principais responsáveis pelo acúmulo de matéria seca. Oitenta e oito por cento do comprimento e 65% do diâmetro máximos foram atingidos nesse período. Do 84º ao 98º dia após a antese, o desenvolvimento do fruto foi determinado basicamente pelo arilo. As dimensões e a matéria seca do fruto estabilizaram-se a partir do 98º dia após a antese. O ponto de colheita comercial dos frutos, caracterizado pela coloração avermelhada do pericarpo, ocorreu a partir do 112º dia após a antese. Verificou-se um quadro senescente nos frutos a partir do 119º dia após a antese.It was studied the fruit development in 'Bengal' litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.. The samples were taken weekly 35 days after anthesis until the beginning of fruit senescence. From the 77th day after anthesis, fruits were decomposed in pericarp, aril and seed. Anthesis occurred in the first week of September. The fruit dry matter, length and diameter followed a single-sigmoid pattern. For dry matter accumulation, an initial phase, of slow growth, ended the 63rd day after anthesis and was coincident with a period of intense fruit drop. The next phase occurred from the 63rd to the 98th day and showed a rapid dry matter

  1. Study of the KIR gene profiles and analysis of the phylogenetic relationships of Rajbanshi population of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, Pokhraj; Bhattacharjee, Soumen; Nayak, Chittaranjan; Chaudhuri, Tapas Kumar

    2013-05-01

    The natural killer (NK) cells have distinct receptors called killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) which are responsible for regulating NK cell responses to infections and malignancy. The extensive variations in the number and type of KIR genes can be used as a tool to understand the differentiation of populations and also for tracing genetic background. In this study, we have aimed to analyze the KIR gene polymorphism in the Rajbanshi population of West Bengal, India. To our knowledge this is the first report on the KIR gene polymorphism in the Rajbanshis, a population widely distributed in the Terai and Dooars region of West Bengal, India. Herein, we have studied the gene distribution of 14 KIR genes (KIR3DL1-3DL3, KIR 2DL1-2DL5, 2DS1-2DS5 and 3DS1) and two pseudogenes (KIR3DP1 and 2DP1). The gene frequencies and genotypic frequencies were calculated, based on which statistical analyses were performed. The presence of a considerable number of genotypic profiles suggests substantial diversity in the KIR gene pool of the Rajbanshis in the region studied. Apart from the framework genes (KIR2DL4, 3DL2, 3DL3 and 3DP1) present in all the individuals, the gene frequencies of other KIR genes varied between 0.84 and 0.15. Moreover the KIR polymorphisms of the Rajbanshis were also compared with that of available published data of the populations of other ethnicities. Though the Rajbanshi population showed a tendency to cluster with other Indian population based on KIR gene frequencies, the influence of Tibeto-Burman Lineage on their KIR genotypic profiles cannot be overlooked. Furthermore, evidences from previously published data on Y chromosome haplogroup diversity study on Rajbanshis support the view. Our results will not only help to understand the genetic background of the Rajbanshi population, but also in tracing the population migration events in the North-Eastern part of India and in illustrating the extensive genetic admixture amongst the different

  2. Diversity and distribution of whiteflies in south-western Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Whiteflies (Aleyrodidae) are major pests of crops in southwestern Nigeria, yet there is scanty information on diversity and distribution of these economic species. Therefore, a study of diversity and distribution of whitefly fauna was carried out in southwestern Nigeria in wet and dry seasons, between May 2007 and June 2012.

  3. Rose Bengal- and Riboflavin-Mediated Photodynamic Therapy to Inhibit Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Keratitis Isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halili, Francisco; Arboleda, Alejandro; Durkee, Heather; Taneja, Mukesh; Miller, Darlene; Alawa, Karam A; Aguilar, Mariela C; Amescua, Guillermo; Flynn, Harry W; Parel, Jean-Marie

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate the in vitro efficacy of rose bengal- and riboflavin-mediated photodynamic therapy for inhibition of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates. Experimental study. Two different multidrug-resistant, clinical MRSA isolates were grown on nutrient agar, prepared in suspension, and adjusted to concentrations of 1.5 × 10(4) colony-forming units per milliliter. Bacterial suspensions were mixed with rose bengal, riboflavin, or water according to experimental group. Tested in triplicate, groups included: Group I, MRSA control; Group II, MRSA with 0.1% rose bengal; Group III, MRSA with 0.03% rose bengal; and Group IV, MRSA with 0.1% riboflavin. All experimental groups were exposed to 3 lighting conditions: dark, ambient room light for 30 minutes, and 5.4 J/cm(2) with either green light-emitting diode (LED) or ultraviolet-A (UV-A) irradiation. Plates were photographed at 72 hours and custom software measured bacterial growth inhibition. Complete growth inhibition of both MRSA strains was demonstrated (1) for both rose bengal concentrations under ambient and green LED irradiation, and (2) for the 0.1% rose bengal in the dark. The 0.03% rose bengal in dark conditions showed complete inhibition of strain 2 but incomplete inhibition of strain 1. Riboflavin showed almost complete inhibition with UV-A irradiation but demonstrated minimal inhibition for both strains in dark and ambient light conditions. Rose bengal- and riboflavin-mediated photodynamic therapy demonstrated complete growth inhibition in vitro of 2 multidrug-resistant MRSA strains. Rose bengal was also effective in dark and ambient conditions. These results may have implications for in vivo therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Observations of wind and waves in the central Bay of Bengal during ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    relation for gross estimation of effective depth within which the sound energy is generally trapped .... variations are considerably high in the northern ... ical Indian Ocean. During July and August, the southwesterly winds sweep the south central Bay of Bengal and the wind speed reaches up to 9 to. 15m/s in July which is the ...

  5. Evidences of climatic variations during Late Pleistocene- Holocene in the eastern Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chauhan, O.S; Borole, D.V.; Gujar, A; Mascarenhas, A; Mislankar, P.G.; Rao, Ch.M.

    Based upon the variations of clay minerals, sediment texture, heavy mineral assemblage and sup(230)Th excess in the Late Pleistocene sediments of a hemipelagic core from the eastern Bay of Bengal (2713 m water depth), 35 cm and 73-78 cm levels...

  6. Atypical ferromanganese micronodules from middle fan-valley system, Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chauhan, O.S; Gujar, A; Rao, Ch.M.

    Ferromanganese micronodules having botryoidal and spheroidal morphogroups have been observed over a 0.22 million km@u2@@ area from the middle fan region of the Bay of Bengal. The bulk micronodules have 26.26% Mn, 1.02% Fe, 1.82% Ca, 0.12% Ni, 0...

  7. Sighting of Elymnias panthera (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae in West Bengal, eastern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B. Roy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Tawny Palmfly butterfly, Elymnias panthera (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae, is a Malayan species that is also known from the Nicobar Islands. Here we report sighting of E. panthera from the Bethuadahari Wildlife Sanctuary in West Bengal, eastern India. This is the first sighting of the species from mainland India, and is a possible range extension of the species into northeastern India.

  8. Transportation scenario of Black Bengal goats in Gabtoli and Sirajganj markets of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Nazmus sakib

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: From this study it is concluded that Black Bengal goats became physically unfit during long time transportation although majority of the farmers took proper management practices. Therefore, changes in behavioral responses might be alleviated through creating awareness to animal raiser as well transporter. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2016; 3(1.000: 38-44

  9. Seasonal cyclogenesis and the role of near-surface stratified layer in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murty, V.S.N.; Sarma, M.S.S.; Tilvi, V.

    The role of the near-surface stratified layer developed due to the spread of low salinity waters under the influence of freshwater influx on the cyclogenesis over the Bay of Bengal is addressed. The seasonal variation of the Effective Oceanic Layer...

  10. Auto-correlation analysis of wave heights in the Bay of Bengal

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tion in numerical models and validation exercises of physical parameters obtained by different means. An auto-correlation analysis of ocean surface winds based on available time series over the Bay of Bengal was reported in our earlier work (Sarkar et al 2002). The present note attempts to carry out a similar exercise for ...

  11. Structure of the oceanic mixed layer in western Bay of Bengal during MONEX

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Anto, A.F.; Somayajulu, Y.K.

    Based on the hourly BT and six hourly CSTD data, collected from two stations in the western Bay of Bengal during July 1979, the diurnal variations of temperature in the oceanic mixed layer (OML) were analysed as a function of the prevailing surface...

  12. Dissolved petroleum hydrocarbons along the oil tanker route in the southern Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Topgi, R.S.; Noronha, R.J.; Fondekar, S.P.; SenGupta, R.

    Concentrations of dissolved petroleum hydrocarbons during 3 cruises (Nos. 51, 66 and 68) of R V Gaveshani, along the oil tanker route, in the southern Bay of Bengal at 0, 10 and 20 m were 19.95 + or - 3.38, 16.78 + or - 2.53 and 13.45 + or - 2.17 mu...

  13. Role of biology in the air–sea carbon flux in the Bay of Bengal and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A physical-biological-chemical model (PBCM)is used for investigating the seasonal cycle of air –sea carbon flux and for assessing the effect of the biological processes on seasonal time scale in the Arabian Sea (AS)and Bay of Bengal (BoB),where the surface waters are subjected to contrasting physical conditions.

  14. Energy and generating mechanism of a subsurface, cold core eddy in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrasannaKumar, S.; Babu, M.T.; Rao, D.P.

    Computation of available potential energy (APE) of a recently observed cold core, subsurface eddy (centered at 17 degrees 40'N and 85 degrees 19'E) in the Bay of Bengal revealed that the energy maxima associated with the eddy was of the order of 1...

  15. Determination of dynamic heights in the Bay of Bengal from XBT profiles and climatological salinities

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ali, M.M.; Gopalakrishna, V.V.; Araligidad, N.; Reddy, G.V.; Salgaonkar, G.

    these voluminous temperature measurements from XBT observations in the computation of DHs, temperature/salinity relations were developed in many oceanic regions. Since such an exercise cannot be carried out in the Bay of Bengal due to the absence of adequate CTD...

  16. N2 production rates limited by nitrite availability in the Bay of Bengal oxygen minimum zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bristow, Laura A.; Callbeck, C. M.; Larsen, M

    2017-01-01

    with isotopically labelled nitrogen compounds and analyse geochemical signatures of these processes in the water column. We find that the Bay of Bengal supports denitrifier and anammox microbial populations, mediating low, but significant N loss. Yet, unlike other oxygen minimum zones, our measurements using...

  17. Filamentous fungal population and species diversity from the continental slope of Bay of Bengal, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Surajit; Lyla, Parameswari Somasundharan; Khan, Syed Ajmal

    2009-03-01

    Filamentous fungal diversity from the sediments of the continental slope of Bay of Bengal was studied. Sediment samples were collected during two voyages in 2004 and 2005. Filamentous fungal population from both the cruises showed a range of 5.17-59.51 CFU/g and 3.47-29.68 CFU/g, respectively. Totally 16 fungal genera were recorded from both the cruises. Aspergillus was found to be the dominant genus and the overall percentage occurrence was as follows: Deuteromycotina 74%, Ascomycotina 17%, Basidiomycotina 4% and non-sporulating 5%. Diversity indices were calculated and during both the cruises species richness ( d) varied from 0.912 to 3.622 and 1.443 to 4.588; evenness ( J') varied from 0.9183 to 1.000 and 0.8322 to 1.000 and Shannon-Wiener index ( H' log 2) varied from 0.9183 to 1.000 and 1.000 to 3.690. The higher diversity was found in Divipoint transect (northern Bay of Bengal). 95% confidence interval and ellipse showed that the stations were well lying within the funnel. Cluster analysis and MDS grouped the northern transects which showed higher diversity. BVSTEP resulted in isolation of 23 species which were most influential in the marine filamentous fungal diversity of the continental slope of Bay of Bengal. Thus, a lower population range and higher diversity of marine filamentous marine fungi in the sediments of the continental slope of Bay of Bengal was recorded.

  18. Role of biology in the air–sea carbon flux in the Bay of Bengal and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A physical-biological-chemical model (PBCM) is used for investigating the seasonal cycle of air–sea carbon flux and for assessing the effect of the biological processes on seasonal time scale in the Arabian Sea (AS) and Bay of Bengal (BoB), where the surface waters are subjected to contrasting physical conditions.

  19. Visible lights induced polymerization reactions: interactions between rose bengal and iron aren complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burget, D.; Grotzinger, C.; Jacques, P.; Fouassier, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    The present paper is devoted to an investigation of the interactions between Rose Bengal (RB) and an Iron aren (Irg(+)) complex that are usable in visible light induced polymerization reactions. Steady state and flash photolysis experiments were performed in order to elucidate the nature of the intermediates formed after light excitation. A complete scheme of evolution of the excited states is discussed

  20. The movement and implications of the Ganges-Bramhaputra runoff on entering the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shetye, S.R.

    The Ganges-Brahmaputra rivers discharge annually approximately 10 sup(2) m sup(3) of freshwater into the Bay of Bengal at its northern end. We propose that the spread of this water, accompaniEd. by mixing with the ambient waters, occurs in three...

  1. The Sex Education Debates: Teaching "Life Style" in West Bengal, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarti, Paromita

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the recent controversies surrounding the decision to introduce sex education in secondary schools in India to combat the rapid spread of HIV and AIDS in the country. While 11 Indian states have banned it, the Left-ruled state of West Bengal has designed a teachers' manual to impart sex education. However, a close analysis of…

  2. Variations of trace gases over the Bay of Bengal during the summer ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    I A Girach

    2018-02-16

    Feb 16, 2018 ... Tropospheric ozone (O3) and Methane (CH4) are important greenhouse gases with radiative forcing .... 2006). The monthly mean tropospheric O3 (mean volume mixing ratios in ppbv) is used in the present ...... monoxide over Bay of Bengal during winter: Role of water vapour and vertical updrafts; J. Atmos.

  3. Distribution and seasonal abundance of carangid larvae in the Arabian sea and Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Peter, K.J.; Balachandran, T.

    Carangid larvae were recorded from 8.8% of the International Indian Ocean Expedition (IIOE) stations in the Arabian Sea and 13.2% in the Bay of Bengal. Their total contribution was 1.1% of the total larvae collected. The highest number of larvae...

  4. Modulation of SST, SSS over northern Bay of Bengal on ISO time scale

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, S.A.; Saha, S.K.; Pokhrel, S.; Sundar, D.; Dhakate, A.R.; Mahapatra, S.; Ali, S.; Chaudhari, H.S.; Shreeram, P.; Suneel, V.; Srikanth, A.S.; Suresh, R.R.V.

    hypothesize that the intra-seasonal rainfall variation modulates the amount of river discharge, which in turn modulates the salinity over northern Bay of Bengal on intra-seasonal time scale. Since surface warming always follows the surface freshening, the time...

  5. Observations of wind and waves in the central Bay of Bengal during ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    experiment lasted for about 45 days and various oceanographic and marine meteorological para- meters including wind and waves were collected onboard two research ships which occupied two predetermined positions in the Bay of Bengal. The primary concern of this field experiment was to study the air-sea coupling ...

  6. Determinants of rural industrial entrepreneurship of farmers in West Bengal: A structural equations approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folmer, H.; Dutta, S.; Oud, J.H.L.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a structural equations model of rural industrial entrepreneurship (RIE) among farmers in the Bardhaman district, West Bengal, India. It identifies the determinants of RIE but also analyzes impacts of RIE on its endogenous determinants. Age, education, marital status, number of

  7. Determinants of Rural Industrial Entrepreneurship of Farmers in West Bengal : A Structural Equations Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folmer, Henk; Dutta, Subrata; Oud, Han

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a structural equations model of rural industrial entrepreneurship (RIE) among farmers in the Bardhaman district, West Bengal, India. It identifies the determinants of RIE but also analyzes impacts of RIE on its endogenous determinants. Age, education, marital status, number of

  8. Fluxes of material in the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal - Sediment trap studies

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaswamy, V.; Nair, R.R.

    , average annual fluxes are highest in the central Bay of Bengal (over 50 g m@u-2@@ y@u-1@@) and are least in the southern part of the Bay (37 g m@u-2@@ y@u-1@@). Particle flux patterns coincide with freshwater discharge patterns of the Ganges...

  9. Detection of Bay of Bengal eddies from TOPEX and in situ observations

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gopalan, A.K.S.; Gopalakrishna, V.V.; Ali, M.M.; Sharma, R.

    TOPEXaltimeterdataandtheexpendablebathythermograph(XBT)temperaturesectionsalongtheMadras–AndamanstrackhavebeenanalyzedtostudytheBayofBengaleddies.Severalcyclonicandanticycloniceddiesareidentibullet5edfromtheTOPEXaltimeterobservations.Theseedieslocatedalongtheship’strackshavesignibullet5cantvariationsinamplitudesandshowgod qualitativeagreementwiththesubsurfaceisothermfeatures(troughsandridges)ofthe insitutemperatureprobullet5les....Duetotheextensivespatialcoverageofremotesensingobservations,theexactpositionandshapeoftheeddiescanbecharacterizedfromaltimeter-derivedSSHobservationswhichisnotpossibleusingthelimited insituprobullet5les.Interannualvariationsinboththepositionsandintensitiesofeddiesareobserved uringthestudyperiod. 1.IntroductionTheBayofBengal,inbullet6uencedbytheseasonalreversingmonsoon...

  10. Detection of Bay of Bengal eddies from TOPEX and insitu observations

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ali, M.M.; Sharma, R.; Gopalakrishna, V.V.

    the subsurface temperature sections and the SSH show prominent eddy signatures. In this investigation, TOPEX altimeter derived SSH and the XBT temperature sections along the Madras Andaman coast have been analysed to study the Bay of Bengal eddies. A well defined...

  11. A modeling study of the processes of surface salinity seasonal cycle in the Bay of Bengal.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Akhil, V.P.; Durand, F.; Lengaigne, M.; Vialard, J.; Keerthi, M.G.; Gopalakrishna, V.V.; Deltel, C.; Papa, F.; Montegut, C.deB.

    of Science, Bangalore, India, 5LOS, IFREMER, Plouzan�e, France Abstract In response to the Indian Monsoon freshwater forcing, the Bay of Bengal exhibits a very strong seasonal cycle in sea surface salinity (SSS), especially near the mouths of the Ganges...

  12. Mesozooplankton production, grazing and respiration in the Bay of Bengal: Implications for net heterotrophy

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fernandes, V.; Ramaiah, N.

    or less invariant in the central and western Bay of Bengal, even as the chl a showed marginal temporal variation. By empirical equation, the mesozooplankton production rate calculated to be 70–246 mg C mg C -2 d-1 is on par...

  13. Recent foraminiferal assemblages from the continental shelf sediments of Madras, Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Setty, M.G.A.P.

    During the 15th cruise of INS Kistna, as part of the International Indian Ocean Expedition, several sub-surface samples were collected, (using LaFond-Dietz snapper), from the continental shelf region of the Bay of Bengal. Samples from two locations...

  14. Chemical absorption of acoustic energy due to an eddy in the western Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrasannaKumar, S.; Navelkar, G.S.; Murty, T.V.R.; Somayajulu, Y.K.; Murty, C

    Acoustic energy losses due to chemical absorption, within the western Bay of Bengal, in the presence of a subsurface meso-scale cold core eddy has been analysed. These estimates, for two different frequencies - 400 Hz and 10 kHz, find applications...

  15. Iodate in inshore and offshore waters of Central Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarma, V.V.

    Biological stripping of iodate in the surface waters is noticed in the inshore and offshore waters of Bay of Bengal. A good correlation is observed between iodate and phosphate and nitrate and the molar ratios determined being NO3: PO4: IO3 = 88...

  16. Acoustic propagation within a surface duct in the western Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrasannaKumar, S.; Navelkar, G.S.; Murty, T.V.R.; Murty, C.S.

    Sound speed structure forms a surface duct in the upper 50 m layer in the western Bay of Bengal during late July. A range-dependent acoustic ray computation shows that some rays emanating from a source within the upper 30 m, get trapped within...

  17. Sound speed structure in the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrasannaKumar, S.; Navelkar, G.S.; Murty, T.V.R.; Somayajulu, Y.K.; Murty, C.S.

    Sound speed computed from annual mean temperature and salinity data of Levitus reveals that spatial variation in the Arabian Sea is greater than that in the Bay of Bengal. Maximum spatial variation of sound speed in the Arabian Sea noticed between...

  18. Carbohydrates in size fractionated dissolved organic matter in a station of the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fernandes, L.; DeSouza, F.; Bhosle, N.B.

    Seawater samples were collected from 4 depths (2, 100, 500 and 1000 m) at one station in the Bay of Bengal. Very high molecular weight (VHMW) (greater than 30 kDa to 0.2 degrees m) and high molecular weight (HMW) (10 to 30 kDa) fractions...

  19. Lithosphere structure and upper mantle characteristics below the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, G.S.; Radhakrishna, M.; Sreejith, K.M.; Krishna, K.S.; Bull, J.M.

    ) and by the loading of ca. 20-km of sediments of the Bengal Fan. Here, we present the results of a combined spatial and spectral domain analysis of residual geoid, bathymetry and gravity data constrained by seismic reflection and refraction data. Self-consistent geoid...

  20. East India Coastal Current induced eddies and their interaction with tropical storms over Bay of Bengal.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Patnaik, K.V.K.R.K.; Maneesha, K.; Sadhuram, Y.; Prasad, K.V.S.R.; Murty, T.V.R.; Rao, V.B.

    of these eddies (warm/cold) in the intensification of the storms over the Bay of Bengal. It is found that in the case of a severe cyclone occurring over the period of 16 to 19 October, 1999 the intensity of the storm was enhanced by 260% due to its interaction...

  1. Storm surge in the Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea: The problem and its prediction

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dube, S.K.; Rao, A.D.; Sinha, P.C.; Murty, T.S.; Bahulayan, N.

    to annual economic losses in these countries. Thus, the real time monitoring and warning of storm surge is of great concern for this region. The goal of this paper is to provide an overview of major aspects of the storm surge problem in the Bay of Bengal...

  2. Controls of dimethyl sulphide in the Bay of Bengal during BOBMEX-Pilot cruise 1998

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shenoy, D.M.; DileepKumar, M.; Sarma, V.V.S.S.

    made on DMS in the Bay of Bengal and the factors regulating its abundance in seawater. Phytoplankton alone does not seem to control the extent of DMS concentrations. We find that changes in salinity could effectively regulate the extent of DMSP...

  3. An experimental study of radiative fluxes in the south Bay of Bengal

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Time series measurements of radiative fluxes were made onboard INS Sagardhwani (SD) in the south Bay of Bengal near DS3 (13°N and 87°E) during the BOBMEX field experiment. An inter- comparison experiment conducted at DS3 showed that the radiative fluxes measured by Kipp and Zonen, Albedo meter and net ...

  4. Particle fluxes in the Bay of Bengal measurEd. by sediment traps

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaswamy, V.; Parthiban, G.

    Particle fluxes were measured between October, 1987 and March, 1988 using six automated time series sediment traps at three locations in the northern, central and southern Bay of Bengal. Particle fluxes varied between 16.8 and 345 mg m/2 day/1...

  5. Biodiversity of benthic polychaetes from the coastal waters of Paradip, Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ingole, B.S.

    Polychaete communities of the subtidal waters off Paradip, Orissa, India (Lat, 20 degrees 05 minutes - 20 degrees 20 minutes N and Long. 86 degrees 35 minutes - 86 degrees 60 minutes E) in the Bay of Bengal were studied on a seasonal basis...

  6. Trace metal concentrations in marine zooplankton from the western Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rejomon, G.; Balachandran, K.K.; Nair, M.; Joseph, T.

    Trace metal contents in zooplankton samples were estimated as a part of Marine Research-Living Resource Programme (MRLR) programme at 24 stations to establish the importance of these metals in the Bay of Bengal. The average concentration of Fe, Co...

  7. Seasonal wave characteristics of the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vijayarajan, P.K.; Varkey, M.J.; Joseph, M.X.

    Wave data reported in the Indian Daily Weather Reports for the period 1960-64 have been used to evaluate seasonal wave characteristics for each 2-degree square areas of the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal. These results are presented in the form...

  8. Coprophagy by Barking Deer Muntiacus vaginalis (Mammalia: Cetartiodactyla: Cervidae in Buxa Tiger Reserve, West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin P. Ranade

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A Barking Deer was seen feeding on Asian Elephant’s dung containing partly digested fruits of Dillenia indica at Buxa Tiger Reserve, West Bengal. This case of coprophagy appears to be opportunistic frugivore selection by the deer. 

  9. A fatal infection in a Bengal tiger resembling cytauxzoonosis in domestic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakob, W; Wesemeier, H H

    1996-05-01

    A young Bengal tiger born and kept in a German zoo had died of an unknown protozoal infection in 1984. Retrospective histological and electron microscopical examination of the organs showed the changes to be identical with those of cytauxzoonosis in domestic cats. This is the first report of fatal cytauxzoonosis in a tiger.

  10. Combination therapy for footpad lesions in a captive Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, David G

    2002-12-01

    A captive adult male Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) was treated for chronic footpad ulcers associated with pacing on concrete cage surfaces. Combination therapy of oral fluoxetine and acepromazine administration to diminate pacing behavior, daily application of moisturizing ointment, and oral vitamin E supplementation resulted in complete resolution of all footpad lesions. Subsequent clinical episodes completely resolved with similar treatments.

  11. Role of biology in the air–sea carbon flux in the Bay of Bengal

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. A physical-biological-chemical model (PBCM)is used for investigating the seasonal cycle of air –sea carbon flux and for assessing the effect of the biological processes on seasonal time scale in the Arabian Sea (AS)and Bay of Bengal (BoB),where the surface waters are subjected to contrasting physical conditions.

  12. Bay of Bengal Monsoon Experiment (BOBMEX)—A component of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Indian Climate Research Programme (ICRP) focuses on the study of climate variability and its impact on agriculture. To address the role of the Bay of Bengal in monsoon variability, a process study was organised during July-August 1999, deploying research ships, buoys, INSAT, coastal radar and conventional ...

  13. Distribution of calanoid copepods in the Arabian sea and Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Stephen, R.

    . Numerical abundance was high in the shelf stations. Secondary production considered in terms of copepod density showed the ratio 2:1 between the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal. The water column from the top layer of thermocline to surface was dominated...

  14. Estimation of sea surface salinity in the Bay of Bengal using Outgoing Longwave Radiation

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murty, V.S.N.; Subrahmanyam, B.; Sarma, M.S.S.; Tilvi, V.; RameshBabu, V.

    -induced precipitation. This study augments the in situ SSS measurements. A preliminary assessment of deriving SSS from OLR is presented for the Bay of Bengal. It is envisaged that the SSS estimated in this way may be useful in improving the existing climatologies...

  15. Upper ocean stratification and circulation in the northern Bay of Bengal during southwest monsoon of 1991

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gopalakrishna, V.V.; Murty, V.S.N.; Sengupta, D.; Shenoy, Shrikant; Araligidad, N.

    During the southwest monsoon (July) of 1991 a large plume (300 x 250 km sup(2)) of warm (greater than 29 degrees C) and less saline (less than 29 PSU) water is noticed in the top 30 m to the east of 87.5 degrees E in the northern Bay of Bengal...

  16. Study of high-resolution satellite geoid and gravity anomaly data over the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Majumdar, T. J.; Krishna, K.S.; Chatterjee, S.; Bhattacharya, R.; Michael, L.

    of the northern Indian Ocean, has been used in the preparation of geoid and free-air gravity maps. In the present work, we have investigated various products of satellite data of the Bay of Bengal, thereby correlated to known plate tectonic feature (Sunda...

  17. Reactive transport modeling of dissolved organic matter and iron in the Bengal Basin and Mahomet Bedrock Valley aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mladenov, N.; Kulkarni, H. V.; Steward, D. R.; Datta, S.

    2016-12-01

    Despite their different geography, geology and hydrology, Bengal Basin (BB) and Mahomet Bedrock Valley (MBV) aquifers have some key processes in common that mobilize arsenic (As) into groundwater. Groundwater flow, transport of sedimentary labile carbon and dissolved organic matter (DOM) through a multi-layer aquifer system, and microbial interactions together play an important role in the discontinuous As distribution. This study characterized and compared the DOM in high and low As groundwaters in BB and MBV aquifers and developed refined hydrogeological flow models for each of the aquifers. Fluorescence indices suggested substantially more humified and decomposed DOM character in high As (>50 ppb) zones than in low As (<50 ppb) zones in both aquifers. Modeling results indicate North-West to South-East flow with velocity of 7.2 cm/day for the BB aquifer and South-East to North-West with velocity of 35 cm/day for the MBV aquifer. A transport model including advection, dispersion, sorption and reaction was developed to understand the distribution of dissolved iron (Fe) in domains. A modified Monod rate law was used to simulate acetotrophic Fe reduction influenced by the presence of humic-like DOM, based on experimental data. The model produced a Fe2+ distribution, which was similar to that observed in high and low As sites in the BB aquifer. Meanwhile, in the MBV aquifer model, the dispersion of Fe2+ was found to be lower due to higher hydraulic gradient. Model results further indicated that in 30 years these processes would mobilize Fe2+ up to 1.4 km and 5 km in BB and MBV aquifers, respectively. While the quality of DOM in the two aquifers showed similarities, diverse flow and transport conditions may result in more localized and widespread distributions of Fe2+ and As in the BB and MBV aquifers respectively.

  18. Arsenic and other heavy metal accumulation in plants and algae growing naturally in contaminated area of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, N K; Raghubanshi, A S; Upadhyay, A K; Rai, U N

    2016-08-01

    The present study was conducted to quantify the arsenic (As) and other heavy metal concentrations in the plants and algae growing naturally in As contaminated blocks of North-24-Pargana and Nandia district, West Bengal, India to assess their bioaccumulation potential. The plant species included five macrophytes and five algae were collected from the nine selected sites for estimation of As and other heavy metals accumulated therein by using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrophotometer (ICP-MS). Results revealed that maximum As concentration (117mgkg(-1)) was recorded in the agricultural soil at the Barasat followed by Beliaghat (111mgkg(-1)) sites of North-24-Pargana. Similarly, concentration of selenium (Si, 249mgkg(-1)), lead (Pb, 79.4mgkg(-1)), chromium (Cr, 138mgkg(-1)) was also found maximum in the soil at Barasat and cadmium (Cd, 163mgkg(-1)) nickel (Ni, 36.5mgkg(-1)) at Vijaynagar site. Among the macrophytes, Eichhornia crassipes found more dominating species in As contaminated area and accumulate As (597mgkg(-1)) in the shoot at kanchrapara site. The Lemna minor found to accumulate maximum As (735mgkg(-1)) in the leaves at Sonadanga and Pistia stratiotes accumulated minimum As (24.5mgkg(-1)) in the fronds from Ranaghat site. In case of diatoms, maximum As (760mgkg(-1)) was accumulated at Kanchrapara site followed by Hydrodictiyon reticulatum (403mgkg(-1)) at the Ranaghat site. High concentration of As and other heavy metal in soil indicates long term effects of irrigation with contaminated ground water, however, high concentration of heavy metals in naturally growing plants and algae revealed their mobilization through leaching and possible food chain contamination. Therefore, efficient heavy metal accumulator macrophytes Eichhornia crassipes, Lemna minor, Spirodela polyrhiza may be exploited in removing metals from contaminated water by developing a plant based treatment system. However, As accumulator algal species may be used as a bioresource for

  19. Miocene denudation history of Himalaya deduced from IODP Exp. 354 Bengal Fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohki, Y.; Cruz, J. W.; Osaki, A.; Manoj, M. C.; Hatano, N.; France-Lanord, C.; Spiess, V.; Klaus, A.

    2017-12-01

    The submarine Bengal Fan is the largest submarine fan on Earth and covers the whole Bay of Bengal. The sediments are fed by the Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers reflecting India-Asia plate collision. The sediments recovered from IODP Expedition 354 Bengal Fan record the uplift history of the Himalayan orogenic system. We examined the chemical composition of detrital garnets in the Miocene deposits from Site U1451, where drilling reached to basal horizon of the fan deposits, in order to reveal the detailed denudation history of Himalayan metamorphic rocks. For this purpose, the comparison of chemical composition between detrital garnet in the Bengal Fan deposits and metamorphic garnet in Himalayan metamorphic rocks was carried out. The chemical composition of the metamorphic garnet from Higher Himalayan Crystalline (HHC) in Karnali and Kaligandaki areas, western Nepal, was examined for chemical reference to detrital garnets in Bengal Fan. The metamorphic garnets in "Formation I (Le Fort, 1975)" in HHC are characterized by almandine-rich garnet with high pyrope content. Also, the garnets in "Formation II" are remarked by two types of garnets, i.e., almandine-rich and grandite-rich garnets. Meanwhile, the composition of garnets in "Formation III" is almandine-rich garnet with low pyrope content. In the Bengal Fan deposits, the characteristic garnets, which show the similarity to the metamorphic garnet in HHC, is not found from the Lower Miocene (Burdigalian) deposits. In the Middle and Upper Miocene deposits, the almandine-rich garnets characteristic in Formation I, are normally included. At the basal part of the Middle Miocene (Langhian), almandine-rich garnets with low pyrope content, suggesting the derivation from Formation III, are remarkable. The grandite-rich garnets from Formation II are sporadically found In the Upper Miocene deposits (Tortonian-Messinian). Above chemical comparison between the detrital garnets in Bengal Fan and metamorphic garnets from HHC

  20. Fe-C-S systematics in Bengal Fan sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volvoikar, S. P.; Mazumdar, A.; Goswami, H.; Pujari, S.; Peketi, A.

    2017-12-01

    Global biogeochemical cycles of iron, carbon and sulfur (Fe-C-S) are interrelated. Sulfate reduction in marine sediments is the major factor controlling the cycling and burial of carbon, sulfur and iron. Organoclastic sulfate reduction and anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) are the two main processes responsible for sulfate reduction in marine sediments. The amount and reactivity of organic matter, iron minerals and concentrations of dissolved sulfide in pore water control the burial of iron sulfide and organic bound sulfur in marine sediments. Here we investigate the sulfidization process in a sediment core from the western part of upper Bay of Bengal fan characterized by efficient burial of organic matter with siliclastic load. A 30 m long sediment core (MD 161/29, Lat. 170 18.04' N, Long. 870 22.56' E, water depth: 2434m) was collected onboard Marion Dufresne (May, 2007) and studied for Fe-S speciation and organic matter characterization. Buffered dithionite extractable iron (FeD) varies from 0.71 to 1.43 wt % (Avg. 0.79 wt %). FeD represents Fe oxides and oxyhydroxides mainly, ferrihydrite, lepidocrocite, goethite and hematite. Acid volatile sulfur (AVS) varies from 0.0015 to 0.63 wt % (avg: 0.058 wt %), while chromium reducible sulfur (CRS) varies from 0.00047 to 0.29 wt % (avg. 0.054 wt %). Based on the vertical distribution patterns of FeD, AVS and CRS, the core is divided into three zones, the lower (3000 to 1833 cm), middle (1833 to 398 cm) and upper (398 cm to surface) zones. FeD shows higher concentration in the lower zone. FeTR (FeOx + FeD + FeCRS + FeAVS) also exhibit higher concentration in this zone, suggesting higher availability of reactive iron for iron sulfide precipitation. AVS, elemental sulfur, spikes of CRS and gradual enrichment of δ34SAVS and δ34SCRS with sharp peaks in-between is noted in the lower zone. The gradual enrichment of δ34SAVS and δ34SCRS is the outcome of late diagenetic pyritization with higher availability of sulfide

  1. Assessing the suitability of benthic foraminiferal morpho-groups to reconstruct paleomonsoon from Bay of Bengal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manasa, M.; Saraswat, Rajeev; Nigam, Rajiv

    2016-04-01

    Temporal changes in benthic foraminiferal morpho-groups were suggested as an effective proxy to reconstruct past monsoon intensity from the Arabian Sea. Here, in order to test the applicability of temporal variation in morpho-groups to reconstruct past monsoon intensity from the Bay of Bengal, we have documented recent benthic foraminiferal distribution from the continental shelf region of the northwestern Bay of Bengal. Based on the external morphology, benthic foraminifera were categorized into rounded symmetrical (RSBF) and angular asymmetrical benthic foraminifera (AABF). Additionally, a few other dominant groups were also identified based on test composition (agglutinated, calcareous) and abundance (Asterorotalids and Nonions). The relative abundance of each group was compared with the ambient physico-chemical conditions, including dissolved oxygen, organic matter, salinity and temperature. We report that the RSBF are abundant in comparatively warm and well oxygenated waters of low salinity, suggesting a preference for high energy environment, whereas AABF dominate relatively cold, hypersaline deeper waters with low dissolved oxygen, indicating a low energy environment. The agglutinated foraminifera, Asterorotalids and Nonions dominate shallow water, low salinity regions, whereas the calcareous benthic foraminiferal abundance increases away from the riverine influx regions. Food availability, as estimated from organic carbon abundance in sediments, has comparatively less influence on faunal distribution in the northwestern Bay of Bengal, as compared to dissolved oxygen, temperature and salinity. We conclude that the factors associated with freshwater influx affect the distribution of benthic foraminiferal morpho-groups in the northwestern Bay of Bengal and thus it can be used to reconstruct past monsoon intensity from the Bay of Bengal.

  2. Distribution of nutrients in the western Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DeSousa, S.N.; Naqvi, S.W.A.; Reddy, C.V.G.

    and low nutrient concentrations increased in thickness from north to south. The intermediate water layer was marked by a steep rise of nutrients associated with oxygen minimum suggesting active decomposition of organic matter.N:P in the upper 75 m...

  3. Cancer mortality and radioactive fallout in southwestern Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado, S.G.; Land, C.E.; McKay, F.W.

    1987-01-01

    Cancer mortality was compared between a three-county region in southwestern Utah and the remainder of Utah in an investigation of reported excess cancer risks associated with residence in southwestern Utah during the period of above-ground nuclear tests at the Nevada Test Site. Because most of the fallout in southwestern Utah was deposited during 1953-1957, comparisons were limited to persons born before 1958, and deaths from leukemia and bone cancer during 1955-1980 and from other cancers during 1964-1980. There was no excess risk of cancer mortality in southwestern Utah, for single or grouped sites, with the single exception of leukemia which showed statistically significant odds ratios of 1.45 based on 62 deaths at all ages, and 2.84 based on nine deaths at ages 0-14. The finding for childhood leukemia was based on different time periods and geographic comparisons from those of two earlier studies in which no such excess was found. Mortality from all cancer sites combined was significantly lower in southwestern Utah than in the remainder of the state, even after adjustment for the higher proportion of (lower risk) Mormons in southwestern Utah. The present results, including the positive association for leukemia, are inconsistent with the high excess risks reported by Johnson (JAMA 1984;251:230-6) based on an interview survey of cancer incidence among long-term Mormon residents of southwestern Utah

  4. Drifting and meandering of Olive Ridley Sea turtles in the Bay of Bengal: Role of oceanic Rossby waves

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ram, P.S.; Rao, S.A.; Sadhuram, Y.

    Olive Ridley turtles in the Bay of Bengal are previously thought to migrate southward from their nesting ground, along the east coast of India (Orissa coast), towards Sri Lanka. Surprisingly, three of the four Platform Transmitter Terminal (PTT...

  5. Environmentally-related seasonal variation in symbiotic associations of heterotrophic dinoflagellates with cyanobacteria in the western Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jyothibabu, R.; Madhu, N.V.; Maheswaran, P.A.; Devi, C.R.A.; Balasubramanian, T.; Nair, K.K.C.; Achuthankutty, C.T.

    In the western Bay of Bengal, some species of heterotrophic dinoflagellates recurrently show symbiotic associations with cyanobacteria (Synechococcus/Synechocystis). The occurrence of these associations is markedly higher during the spring...

  6. Lack of seasonality in phytoplankton standing stock (chlorophyll a) and production in the western Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Madhu, N.V.; Jyothibabu, R.; Maheswaran, P.A.; Gerson, V.J.; Gopalakrishnan, T.C.; Nair, K.K.C.

    The investigations in the western Bay of Bengal (BoB) during summer, winter and spring intermonsoon periods evidenced lack of pronounced seasonal variation in phytoplankton standing stock (chlorophyll a) and primary production. The supply...

  7. Some geodynamic complexities related to the evolution of Bengal Fan and the neotectonic activity of the south Indian shield

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murthy, K.S.R.

    Plate remains remains complex and uresolved. Though recent analysis of few multichannel seismic sections from the Central Bengal Fan could resolve some of the ambiguities, views still differ on several aspects such as the nature and age of the oceanic...

  8. Cathodic protection of mild steel and copper in deep waters of the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sawant, S.S.; Venkat, K.; Wagh, A.B.

    Performance of cathodic protection system to mild steel and copper in deep (> 1000 m) oceanic waters of the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal has been assessed using aluminium and mild steel sacrificial anodes. The corrosion rates of unprotected metals...

  9. Impact of atmospheric and physical forcings on biogeochemical cycling of dissolved oxygen and nutrients in the coastal Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarma, V.V.S.S.; Sridevi, B.; Maneesha, K.; Sridevi, T.; Naidu, S.A; Prasad, V.R.; Venkataramana, V.; Acharya, T.; Bharati, M; Subbaiah, C.V.; Kiran, B.S.; Reddy, N.P.C.; Sarma, V.V.; Sadhuram, Y.; Murty, T.V.R.

    Time-series observations were conducted off Visakhapatnam, central west coast of Bay of Bengal, from October 2007 to April 2009 to examine the influence of physical and atmospheric processes on water column nutrients biogeochemistry. The thermal...

  10. Geology of the Yucca Mountain site area, southwestern Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefer, W.R.; Whitney, J.W.; Buesch, D.C.

    2006-01-01

    Yucca Mountain in southwestern Nevada is a prominent, irregularly shaped upland formed by a thick apron of Miocene pyroclastic-flow and fallout tephra deposits, with minor lava flows, that was segmented by through-going, large-displacement normal faults into a series of north-trending, eastwardly tilted structural blocks. The principal volcanic-rock units are the Tiva Canyon and Topopah Spring Tuffs of the Paintbrush Group, which consist of volumetrically large eruptive sequences derived from compositionally distinct magma bodies in the nearby southwestern Nevada volcanic field, and are classic examples of a magmatic zonation characterized by an upper crystal-rich (>10% crystal fragments) member, a more voluminous lower crystal-poor (Yucca Mountain, constitute the proposed host rock to be excavated for the storage of high-level radioactive wastes. Separation of the tuffaceous rock formations into subunits that allow for detailed mapping and structural interpretations is based on macroscopic features, most importantly the relative abundance of lithophysae and the degree of welding. The latter feature, varying from nonwelded through partly and moderately welded to densely welded, exerts a strong control on matrix porosities and other rock properties that provide essential criteria for distinguishing hydrogeologic and thermal mechanical units, which are of major interest in evaluating the suitability of Yucca Mountain to host a safe and permanent geologic repository for waste storage. A thick and varied sequence of surficial deposits mantle large parts of the Yucca Mountain site area. Mapping of these deposits and associated soils in exposures and in the walls of trenches excavated across buried faults provides evidence for multiple surface-rupturing events along all of the major faults during Pleistocene and Holocene times; these paleoseismic studies form the basis for evaluating the potential for future earthquakes and fault displacements. Thermoluminescence and U

  11. Instantaneous radioiodination of rose bengal at room temperature and a cold-kit therefor. [DOE patent application

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, H. Jr.; Hupf, H.B.; Wanek, P.M.

    The disclosure relates to the radioiodination of rose bengal at room temperature and a cold-kit therefor. A purified rose bengal tablet is stirred into acidified ethanol at or near room temperature, until a suspension forms. Reductant-free /sup 125/I/sup -/ is added and the resulting mixture stands until the exchange label reaction occurs at room temperature. A solution of sterile isotonic phosphate buffer and sodium hydroxide is added and the final resulting mixture is sterilized by filtration.

  12. Southwestern Institute of Physics: Annual Report 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-10-01

    The main achievements of controlled nuclear fusion research are presented for Southwestern Institute of Physics in 1998 year. With the establishment and operation of two auxiliary heating systems (NBI, ICRH), the HL-1M Tokamak is equipped with main auxiliary heating and current driving systems such as NBI, ECRH, ICRH and LHCD etc. . In addition, a variety of advanced fueling system, i.e. , multi-shot pellet and supersonic molecular beam injection, the first wall processing technologies of boronization, siliconization and lithiumization as well as more than 20 diagnostic facilities with partial space-time resolution capability have been established on the device. The construction of a larger Tokamak with divertors, the HL-2A, and its complementary systems are being carried out

  13. Environmental Assessment for power marketing policy for Southwestern Power Administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Southwestern Power Administration (Southwestern) needs to renew expiring power sales contracts with new term (10 year) sales contracts. The existing contracts have been in place for several years and many will expire over the next ten years. Southwestern completed an Environmental Assessment on the existing power allocation in June, 1979 (a copy of the EA is attached), and there are no proposed additions of any major new generation resources, service to discrete major new loads, or major changes in operating parameters, beyond those included in the existing power allocation. Impacts from a no action plan, proposed alternative, and market power for less than 10 years are described

  14. Study on climate change in Southwestern China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zongxing

    2015-03-01

    Nominated by Chinese Academy of Sciences as an outstanding Ph.D. thesis. Offers a needed exploration of the temporal and spatial pattern of climate change in southwestern China. Explores the action mechanism among the large-scale atmospheric circulation system, the complicated topography, human activities and regional climate changes. Analyzes the response of glaciers to climate change from the aspects of morphology of the glacier, glacial mass balance and the process of hydrology. This thesis confirms many changes, including sharp temperature rise, interannual variability of precipitation, extreme climate events and significant decreases of sunshine duration and wind speed in southwestern China, and systemically explores the action mechanism between large-scale atmospheric circulation systems, the complicated topography, human activities and regional climate changes. This study also analyzes the response of glaciers to climate change so that on the one hand it clearly reflects the relationship between glacier morphologic changes and climate change; on the other, it reveals the mechanism of action of climate warming as a balance between energy and matter. The achievements of this study reflect a significant contribution to the body of research on the response of climate in cold regions, glaciers and human activities to a global change against the background of the typical monsoon climate, and have provided scientific basis for predictions, countermeasures against disasters from extreme weather, utilization of water and the establishment of counterplans to slow and adapt to climate change. Zongxing Li works at the Cold and Arid Region Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China.

  15. Study on climate change in Southwestern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Zongxing

    2015-01-01

    Nominated by Chinese Academy of Sciences as an outstanding Ph.D. thesis. Offers a needed exploration of the temporal and spatial pattern of climate change in southwestern China. Explores the action mechanism among the large-scale atmospheric circulation system, the complicated topography, human activities and regional climate changes. Analyzes the response of glaciers to climate change from the aspects of morphology of the glacier, glacial mass balance and the process of hydrology. This thesis confirms many changes, including sharp temperature rise, interannual variability of precipitation, extreme climate events and significant decreases of sunshine duration and wind speed in southwestern China, and systemically explores the action mechanism between large-scale atmospheric circulation systems, the complicated topography, human activities and regional climate changes. This study also analyzes the response of glaciers to climate change so that on the one hand it clearly reflects the relationship between glacier morphologic changes and climate change; on the other, it reveals the mechanism of action of climate warming as a balance between energy and matter. The achievements of this study reflect a significant contribution to the body of research on the response of climate in cold regions, glaciers and human activities to a global change against the background of the typical monsoon climate, and have provided scientific basis for predictions, countermeasures against disasters from extreme weather, utilization of water and the establishment of counterplans to slow and adapt to climate change. Zongxing Li works at the Cold and Arid Region Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China.

  16. Food Security in Households of People Living With Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: A Cross-sectional Study in a Subdivision of Darjeeling District, West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallabi Dasgupta

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS adversely impacts food security in households of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA. Little research has focused on food insecurity among PLWHA in India. The purpose of this study was to identify the prevalence of and factors relating to food security in households of PLWHA in the Siliguri subdivision of Darjeeling, West Bengal, India. Methods: A cross-sectional community-based study was carried out among 173 PLWHA residing in Siliguri and registered at the Anti-retroviral Therapy Centre of North Bengal Medical College & Hospital. Data was collected at the household level with interviews of PLWHA using a food security survey instrument. We analyzed the associations using logistic regression. Results: The prevalence of household food security among the participants was 50.9% (88/173. Five years or more of schooling, higher socioeconomic class and males were found to be significantly associated with a higher likelihood of food security. A later stage of the disease and the presence of other family members with HIV/AIDS were significantly associated with a lower likelihood of food security. The major coping strategies to deal with food insecurity in the acute phase HIV infection included borrowing money (56.1%, followed by spousal support, loans from microfinance institutions, banks, or money lenders, borrowing food, or selling agricultural products. Conclusions: The present study revealed that only about half of households with PLWHA were food secure. Prior interventions relating to periods of food and economic crisis as well as strategies for sustaining food security and economic status are needed in this area.

  17. Investigating Ultra-low Velocity Zones beneath the Southwestern Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, S. E.; Hansen, S. E.; Garnero, E.

    2017-12-01

    The core mantle boundary (CMB), where the solid silicate mantle meets the liquid iron-nickel outer core, represents the largest density contrast on our planet, and it has long been recognized that the CMB is associated with significant structural heterogeneities. One CMB structure of particular interest are ultra low-velocity zones (ULVZs), laterally-varying, 5-50 km thick isolated patches seen in some locations just above the CMB that are associated with increased density and reduced seismic wave velocities. These variable characteristics have led to many questions regarding ULVZ origins, but less than 40% of the CMB has been surveyed for the presence of ULVZs given limited seismic coverage of the lowermost mantle. Therefore, investigations that sample the CMB with new geometries are critical to further our understanding of ULVZs and their potential connection to other deep Earth processes. The Transantarctic Mountains Northern Network (TAMNNET), a 15-station seismic array that was recently deployed in Antarctica, provides a unique dataset to further study ULVZ structure with new and unique path geometry. Core-reflected ScP and PcP phases from the TAMNNET dataset particularly well sample the CMB in the vicinity of New Zealand in the southwestern Pacific, providing coverage between an area to the north where ULVZ structure has been previously identified and another region to the south, which shows no ULVZ evidence. By identifying and modeling pre- and post-cursor ScP and PcP energy, we are exploring a new portion of the CMB with a goal of better understanding potential ULVZ origins. Our study area also crosses the southern boundary of the Pacific Large Low Shear Velocity Province (LLSVP); therefore, our investigations may allow us to examine the possible relationship between LLSVPs and ULVZs.

  18. Profile of hemoglobin D trait in West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuphan K. Dolai

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Hemoglobin (Hb D Punjab is one of the most commonly observed abnormal hemoglobinopathy worldwide. There was no systematic large published study to investigate the characteristic of Hb D Punjab trait in India. This study was conducted in school and college students, newly married couples and pregnant women after proper counseling in the rural areas of West Bengal state in eastern India. Complete blood count was done by Sysmax Automated Hematology Analyzer KX 21 (Sysmex Corp., Kobe, Japan and thalassemia testing was done using high-performance liquid chromatography (Variant TM - Bio-Rad Lab., Hercules, CA, USA. A total of 46,139 individuals were screened for hemoglobinopathies. Hb D trait was found in 0.35%. Hypochromia rather than microcytosis is consistent finding in Hb D trait. Anisocytosis is absent in Hb D trait. In almost all (99.37% cases, Hb D is within 40% of total hemoglobin. This data is likely to be helpful for screening of hemoglobinopathy in resource poor setting.  血红蛋白(Hb D Punjab是全球最普遍的异常血红蛋白病之一。在印度,之前并没有研究D型特征血红蛋白病的大型出版物。本研究在印度东部的西孟加拉邦的农村地区进行,研究对象是接受过相关咨询后的在校生,大学生,新婚夫妇和孕妇。完整的血细胞计数由日本神户市Sysmex公司的KX21自动化血液分析仪完成,血液测试由美国加州赫拉克勒斯Variant-Bio-Rad实验室通过高效液相色谱法完成。总计46139人被筛查,D型特征血红蛋白病的发现率为0.35%。血红蛋白过少而非小红细胞症,是D型特征血红蛋白病的主要症状。红细胞大小不均没有在D型特征血红蛋白病中被检测出。在所有的情况中(99.37%),D型特征血红蛋白占所有血红蛋白总数的40%。这些数据有利于在资源匮乏地区对血红蛋白病的筛查。

  19. Late Quaternary Normal Faulting and Hanging Wall Basin Evolution of the Southwestern Rift Margin from Gravity and Geology, B.C.S., MX and Exploring the Influence of Text-Figure Format on Introductory Geology Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Melanie M. D.

    2011-01-01

    An array of north-striking, left-stepping, active normal faults is situated along the southwestern margin of the Gulf of California. This normal fault system is the marginal fault system of the oblique-divergent plate boundary within the Gulf of California. To better understand the role of upper-crustal processes during development of an obliquely…

  20. The Initiation of Submarine Debris Flow after 2006 Pingtung Earthquake Offshore Southwestern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, C. C.; Liu, J. T.; Chiu, H. T.; Li, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    On 26-27 December 2006, a series of submarine cables were damaged offshore southwestern Taiwan from Gaoping Slope to the northern terminus of the Manila Trench. The cable breakages were caused by gravity flows which triggered by the Pingtung earthquake doublet occurred on 26 December 2006 at 20:26 (21.9°N, 120.6°E; ML 7.0) and 20:34 (21.97°N, 120.42°E; ML 7.0) offshore of Fangliao Twonship and meanwhile the local fishermen reported disturbed waters at the head of Fangliao submarine canyon. Although many researchers conjectured the disturbed waters may cause by the eruption of submarine volcanoes which has been widely discovered off the southwestern Taiwan, the actual mechanism is still unclear. In previous studies, a series of faults, liquefaction strata, pockmarks and acoustically transparent sediments with doming structures were observed at the head of Fanliao submarine canyon and may highly related to the submarine groundwater discharge off southwestern Taiwan. Recently, further multi-beam surveys were conducted at the east of Fangliao submarine canyon head and the result shows large area of seafloor subsidence after Pingtung Earthquake. The area of subsidence is over 60 km2 with maximum depth around 5 meters. The north end of the subsidence is connected to the Fangliao submarine canyon where the first cable was failed (CH-US CN-W2-1: 22°13.287'N, 120°33.722'E) after Pingtung Earthquake. All the evidences point out the large earthquake might triggered liquefaction process and generated large debris flow and swept the submarine cables away from the Fangliao submarine canyon head to the abyss.

  1. Variations in Tectonic Activities of the Central and Southwestern Foothills, Taiwan, Inferred from River Hack Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Chieh Chen

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A longitudinal profile of a river under static equilibrium shows no degradation or aggradation and can be ideally described as a straight line on a semi-logarithmic graph. This type of profile is called a “Hack profile”. If a river runs across uprising active structure systems, its Hack profile becomes convex. Accumulated tectonic strain varies positively with the intensity of the upwarping in Hack-profile convexity. In this paper, we compare curvature changes in Hack profiles of a series of rivers running through faults in the central and southwestern Foothills of Taiwan. Longitudinal profiles of these rivers were derived from two versions of topographic maps (1904 and 1985 and recent DTM data (2000. Prior to comparisons, we calibrated the 1904 topographic map, named “Taiwan Bautu”, by “offsetting” horizontal coordinates north and westward approximately 440 m and then “linear transforming” the elevation values. The Tungtzchiau fault of the central Foothills has remained inactive since 1935. Here relatively high uplift activity near the Wu River is indicated by significantly convex Hack profiles. This strain accumulation can be attributed to a lack of small magnitude earthquakes along the fault over the past 70 years. In the southwestern Foothills, relatively high uplift activity of similar intensity to the central Foothills is indicted near the Neocho River. Significant profiles with concave segments below the ideal graded profiles, at the lower reaches of rivers where continuous small magnitude strain release events have occurred, can only be found along the Sandieh, Neocho and Bazhang rivers in the southwestern Foothills. All these findings indicate that fault systems in the central Foothills tend to be locked and these faults could yield large earthquakes similar to the Chi-Chi event.

  2. Shear wave splitting in the Isparta Angle, southwestern Turkey ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    broadband station in the Isparta Angle,southwestern Turkey.We selected 21 good quality seismic events out of nearly 357 earthquakes and calculated splitting parameters (polarization direction of fast wave, and delay time between fast and ...

  3. Bone foreshafts from a clovis burial in southwestern montana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahren, L; Bonnichsen, R

    1974-10-11

    Formal and functional analyses of bone artifacts from a Clovis burial in southwestern Montana suggest that they were constructed to serve as (detachable or nondetachable) foreshafts for attaching fluted projectile points to lance shafts.

  4. Sonodynamic Excitation of Rose Bengal for Eradication of Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faina Nakonechny

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy based on photosensitizers activated by illumination is limited by poor penetration of visible light through skin and tissues. In order to overcome this problem, Rose Bengal was excited in the dark by 28 kHz ultrasound and was applied for inactivation of bacteria. It is demonstrated, for the first time, that the sonodynamic technique is effective for eradication of Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative Escherichia coli. The net sonodynamic effect was calculated as a 3-4 log10 reduction in bacteria concentration, depending on the cell and the Rose Bengal concentration and the treatment time. Sonodynamic treatment may become a novel and effective form of antimicrobial therapy and can be used for low-temperature sterilization of medical instruments and surgical accessories.

  5. STATE OF FAUNAL STATUS WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO BENGAL TIGER (Panthera tigris tigris IN SUNDARBAN DELTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivaji Bhattacharya

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The mangrove ecology of Sundarban delta is one of the global biodiversity hotspots. The ecology harbours the Bengal Tiger (Panthera tigris tigris besides other. The species is highly threatened as per Red Data Book. The ecology has suffered huge degradation over the years by many known and unknown forces of varying magnitude. Though various efforts are being made to conserve the ecology but yet the degradation could not be checked up to expectation. The effect of degradation is clearly reflected through the status of Panthera tigris tigris in its natural habitat. Hence the different aspects of faunal status with special reference to Bengal Tiger in Sundarban ecology during about last two decades has been searched and discussed briefly.

  6. Panel of polymorphic heterologous microsatellite loci to genotype critically endangered Bengal tiger: a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Mishra, Sudhanshu; Singh, Sujeet Kumar; Munjal, Ashok Kumar; Aspi, Jouni; Goyal, Surendra Prakash

    2014-01-01

    In India, six landscapes and source populations that are important for long-term conservation of Bengal tigers (Panthera tigris tigris) have been identified. Except for a few studies, nothing is known regarding the genetic structure and extent of gene flow among most of the tiger populations across India as the majority of them are small, fragmented and isolated. Thus, individual-based relationships are required to understand the species ecology and biology for planning effective conservation...

  7. Why is the Bay of Bengal less productive during summer monsoon compared to the Arabian Sea?

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrasannaKumar, S.; Muraleedharan, P.M.; Prasad, T.G.; Gauns, M.; Ramaiah, N.; DeSouza, S.N.; Sardessai, S.; Madhupratap, M.

    14C uptake also corroborate this fact (for a review see Madhupratap et al., in press). Although, this has been variedly attributed to the light inhibition due to turbidity and/or cloud cover, narrow shelf etc, the exact physical process is unclear... such as cloud cover, turbidity etc. as speculated earlier could play only a secondary role in regulating the biological production in the Bay of Bengal, in the absence of adequate nutrients in the surface layers. Acknowledgments. Authors thank Ajoy Kumar...

  8. Financial Inclusion in India: A case-study of West Bengal

    OpenAIRE

    Chattopadhyay, Sadhan Kumar

    2011-01-01

    The study observes that although there has been an improvement in outreach activity in the banking sector, the achievement in respect of financial inclusion is not significant in West Bengal. An index of financial inclusion (IFI) has been developed in the study using data on three dimensions of financial inclusion. It is revealed from the index that Kolkata district leads with the highest value of IFI, while rest of the districts show a very low level of financial inclusion. This implies that...

  9. Isolation of Helicobacter canis from a Colony of Bengal Cats with Endemic Diarrhea

    OpenAIRE

    Foley, Janet E.; Marks, Stanley L.; Munson, Linda; Melli, Ann; Dewhirst, Floyd E.; Yu, Shilu; Shen, Zeli; Fox, James G.

    1999-01-01

    On the basis of biochemical, phenotypic, and 16S rRNA analyses, Helicobacter canis was isolated from Bengal cats with and without chronic diarrhea. Because the cats were coinfected with other potential pathogens, including Campylobacter helveticus, and because H. canis was isolated from nondiarrheic cats, the causal role of H. canis in producing the diarrhea could not be proven. Histologically, the colons of the four affected cats were characterized by mild to moderate neutrophilic, plasmacyt...

  10. A Study on Problems of Hijras in West Bengal Based on Neutrosophic Cognitive Maps

    OpenAIRE

    Mondal, Kalyan; Pramanik, Surapati

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with the problems faced by Hijras in West Bengal in order to find its solutions using neutrosophic cognitive maps. Florentin Smarandache and Vasantha Kandasamy studied neutrosophic cognitive map which is an extension of fuzzy cognitive map by incorporating indeterminacy. Hijras is considered as neither man nor woman in biological point of view. They are in special gender identity (third gender) in Indian society. In their daily life, they have to fac...

  11. Cetacean Community Ecology in the Waters of Sri Lanka and the Bay of Bengal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Cetacean Community Ecology in the Waters of Sri Lanka...novaeangliae in the Arabian Sea. Marine Ecology Progress Series 149:13-21. Smith, B. D., B. Ahmed, R. M. Mowgli and S. Strindberg. 2008. Species occurrence...and distributional ecology of nearshore cetaceans in the Bay of Bengal, Bangladesh, with abundance estimates for Irrawaddy dolphins Orcaella

  12. Photocatalytic degradation of rose Bengal by semiconducting zinc sulphide used as a photocatalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Shweta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Various semiconductors have been used as photocatalysts for removal of different dyes from their aqueous solutions. Zinc sulphide semiconductor is used in the present investigation as a photocatalyst for the removal of rose Bengal dye. Effect of different parameters, which affect the rate of reaction; like pH, concentration of dye, amount of semiconductor and light intensity have been studied. A mechanism has also been proposed in which hydroxyl radicals are shown as an active oxidizing species.

  13. Tetralogy of Fallot and Atrial Septal Defect in a White Bengal Tiger Cub (Panthera tigris tigris)

    OpenAIRE

    Pazzi, Paolo; Lim, Chee K; Steyl, Johan

    2014-01-01

    A 3-week-old female white Bengal Tiger cub (Panthera tigris tigris) presented with acute onset tachypnoea, cyanosis and hypothermia. The cub was severely hypoxaemic with a mixed acid–base disturbance. Echocardiography revealed severe pulmonic stenosis, right ventricular hypertrophy, high membranous ventricular septal defect and an overriding aorta. Additionally, an atrial septal defect was found on necropsy, resulting in the final diagnosis of Tetralogy of Fallot with an atrial septal defect ...

  14. A report of hailstorm damage to two species of freshwater sponge (Demospongiae: Haplosclerida: Spongillidae populations of West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumalya Mukherjee

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Selected freshwater bodies in Jagaddal of North 24 Parganas in West Bengal, India are inhabited by two species of sponge, Eunapius carteri (Bowerbank, 1863 and Spongilla alba (Carter, 1849 (Porifera: Demospongiae: Spongillidae. Most of these wetlands are perennial ponds without a history of aquaculture and toxin contamination. On 22 March 2014, the entire area of Jagaddal experienced an unprecedented hailstorm associated with a sharp decline of environmental temperature from 35 0C to 21 0C within 10–15 minutes. The hailstorm associated with torrential rain lasted for about 30 minutes. The natural habitat of the sponge was visited after six hours of the hailstorm in open day light conditions. During the field investigation, we recorded large-scale damage to the populations of E. carteri and S. alba. Macroscopic observation revealed that the fragmentation of body masses were also associated with cellular disintegration of the external surface. Sponge cells were experimentally dissociated from the sponge fragments and subjected to dye exclusion assay. A vital dye (trypan blue exclusion assay of sponge fragments confirmed a high degree of mortality of the cells of E. carteri and S. alba. Hailstorm associated with the decline of environmental temperature down to 21 0C resulted in the mass destruction of these two species of sponges in their natural habitat. Any unprecedented and acute change in the climatic and hydrological parameter may lead to physiological adversity in the freshwater sponge. Subsequently, recovery from cold shock and mechanical stresses was overcome and a regeneration of sponge specimens was recorded within a period of around six months from the date of the hailstorm. 

  15. Extent and Timing of the Last Glacial Maximum in Southwestern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Daniel H.; Peteet, Dorothy M.

    1994-09-01

    A glacier complex composed of confluent alpine glaciers, island ice caps, and piedmont lobes covered much of the Alaska Peninsula and Kodiak Island during the last glacial maximum (LGM). Because this glacier complex formed the southeastern border of Beringia, its dynamics may have been important in the timing and feasibility of the northwest coast route for human migration into lower-latitude North America. Radiocarbon dates from stratigraphic sections on Kodiak Island and in the Bristol Bay lowlands bracket the LGM in southwestern Alaska between 23,000 and 14,700 yr B.P. Reconstruction of ice thickness based on glacier trimlines, moraines, and calculations of basal-shear stress depict the Alaska Peninsula Glacier Complex flowing to the outer edge of the continental shelf in the Gulf of Alaska. Equilibrium-line altitudes (ELAs) were 300 to 700 m lower than today and approached sea level on the southwestern Alaska Peninsula. In northeastern areas where ELAs were higher, bedrock topography largely controlled ice flow except where ice saddles bridged straits and inlets.

  16. Great Excavations: Tales of Early Southwestern Archaeology, 1888-1939, School of American Research Press, 1995

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen E. Nash

    1997-05-01

    Full Text Available Great Excavations: Tales of Early Southwestern Archaeology, 1 888-1939, is an "intentionally selective" account of eight major archaeological expeditions to the Southwest in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. It succeeds in achieving the goals set forth in the prologue. The reader is taken on an "armchair tour"  of early Southwestern excavations in the hope that the resulting "basic understanding of what the early archae­ologists did" will stimulate a desire to "learn more about the intriguing prehistory of the Southwest" (pp. xiii. As a student of the history of North American archaeology, I would be amiss to speak for Elion's "layperson" audience, but my suspicion is that her presentation will indeed stimulate those readers. As an archaeologist, I thoroughly enjoyed this book, and it may well be that Elliott's journalistic approach makes this book more enjoyable because she is able to remain above the level of detail that often burden archaeolo­gists' accounts of these expeditions. I must temper this statement by noting that Elliott's journalistic hyper­ bole and tendency to oversimplify complex research and analysis are at times discomforting.

  17. An Intrathermocline Eddy and a tropical cyclone in the Bay of Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Arnold L; Shroyer, Emily; Murty, V S N

    2017-04-12

    The Bay of Bengal, subjected to monsoonal forcing and tropical cyclones, displays a complex field of ocean eddies. On 5 December 2013 a sub-surface vortex or Intrathermocline Eddy (ITE) composed of water characteristic of the Andaman Sea was observed within the thermocline of the western Bay of Bengal. We propose that the ITE was the product of Tropical Cyclone Lehar interaction on 27 November 2013 with a westward propagating surface eddy from the eastern Bay of Bengal. While Lehar's interaction with the ocean initially removes heat from the upper layers of the eddy, air-sea flux is limited as the deeper portions of the eddy was subducted into the stratified thermocline, inhibiting further interaction with the atmosphere. The ITE core from 30 to 150 m is thus isolated from local air-sea fluxes by strong stratification at the mixed layer base, and its periphery is stable to shear instability, suggestive of longevity and the ability to carry water far distances with minimal modification.

  18. Rose Bengal sensitized niobium pentaoxide photoanode for dye sensitized solar cell application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beedri, Niyamat I.; Sayyed, Suhail A. A. R.; Jadkar, Sandesh R.; Pathan, Habib M.

    2017-05-01

    The present work deals with the study of Nb2O5 photoanode with low cost rose Bengal dye for dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) application. Chemical route was used for preparation of nano-crystalline niobium pentaoxide (Nb2O5) and doctor blade method was employed for deposition of Nb2O5 films. The morphological and structural analysis of Nb2O5 photoanodes were carried out by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) respectively. The SEM micrograph shows spherical granular grains with porous structure useful for dye adsorption. The XRD analysis shows the formation of pure orthorhombic phase of Nb2O5. The band gap value for Nb2O5 photoanode was calculated as 3.2 eV using diffused reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). As an alternative to conventional ruthenium dye, we used rose Bengal (4, 5, 6, 7-tetrachloro- 20, 40, 50, 70 tetra-iodo-fluorescein) dye, which acts as a photo-sensitizer for DSSCs. The absorbance spectra of the rose Bengal dye was investigated by UV-visible spectrophotometer. The cell shows open circuit voltage (Voc), short circuit photocurrent (Jsc) and fill factor around 0.53V, 0.13mA /cm2 and 22% respectively.

  19. Increasing trend of Japanese encephalitis cases in West Bengal, India - a threat to paediatric population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debjani Taraphdar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To detect the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV as the etiologic agent from the acute encephalitis syndrome (AES cases mainly amongst the children and young adults from vaccinated and non-vaccinated districts of West Bengal. Methods: For the detection of JEV, a total of 828 sera were referred from vaccinated and non vaccinated districts of West Bengal during 2005-2011. Japanese encephalitis (JE positive cases were confirmed by ELISA and RT-PCR method. Results: Out of 828 cases, 245 samples were positive by ELISA method and 46 samples were positive by RT-PCR method. Out of 291 total positive cases, 162 (55.6% were below 20 years of age. Initially in 2005, JE cases were highest amongst the children and young adults (0-20 years. After vaccination, although the JE cases declined gradually in the vaccinated districts, but again from 2010, JE cases from the said age group showed an increasing trend from those districts. JE cases were also reported from other endemic zones of this state, which were still non-vaccinated. Conclusions: In West Bengal, JE cases are still predominated among children and young adults till the year 2011. Mass scale vaccination programme and investigation on the circulating strains are essentially required to find out the reasons of increasing tendency of JE cases in this state.

  20. Distribution of Heavy Metals in Surface Sediments of the Bay of Bengal Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Z. H. Khan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The concentrations of major (Si, Al, Ca, Fe, and K and minor (Cd, Mn, Ni, Pb, U, Zn, Co, Cr, As, Cu, Rb, Sr, and Zr, elements in the surficial sediments were studied in an attempt to establish their concentration in the Bengal coast. It was revealed that the majority of the trace elements have been introduced into the Bengal marine from the riverine inflows that are also affected by the impact of industrial, ship breaking yard, gas production plant, and urban wastes. The concentration of heavy metals was measured using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy and Energy Dispersive X-ray fluorescence instruments. The highest concentrations for several trace elements were thus recorded which generally decrease with distance from the coast. It was observed that the heavy metal concentrations in the sediments generally met the criteria of international marine sediment quality. However, both the contamination factor and pollution load index values suggested the elevation of some metals’ concentrations in the region. Constant monitoring of the Bengal coast water quality needs to be recorded with a view to minimizing the risk of health of the population and the detrimental impacts on the aquatic ecosystem.

  1. Distribution of Heavy Metals in Surface Sediments of the Bay of Bengal Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M Z H; Hasan, M R; Khan, M; Aktar, S; Fatema, K

    2017-01-01

    The concentrations of major (Si, Al, Ca, Fe, and K) and minor (Cd, Mn, Ni, Pb, U, Zn, Co, Cr, As, Cu, Rb, Sr, and Zr,) elements in the surficial sediments were studied in an attempt to establish their concentration in the Bengal coast. It was revealed that the majority of the trace elements have been introduced into the Bengal marine from the riverine inflows that are also affected by the impact of industrial, ship breaking yard, gas production plant, and urban wastes. The concentration of heavy metals was measured using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy and Energy Dispersive X-ray fluorescence instruments. The highest concentrations for several trace elements were thus recorded which generally decrease with distance from the coast. It was observed that the heavy metal concentrations in the sediments generally met the criteria of international marine sediment quality. However, both the contamination factor and pollution load index values suggested the elevation of some metals' concentrations in the region. Constant monitoring of the Bengal coast water quality needs to be recorded with a view to minimizing the risk of health of the population and the detrimental impacts on the aquatic ecosystem.

  2. Access and barriers to immunization in West Bengal, India: quality matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, Debjani; Dutta, Arijita

    2013-12-01

    While many studies attempted to evaluate performance of immunization programmes in developing countries by full coverage, there is a growing awareness about the limitations of such evaluation, irrespective of the overall quality of performance. Availability of human resources, equipment, supporting drugs, and training of personnel are considered to be crucial indicators of the quality of immunization programme. Also, maintenance of time schedule has been considered crucial in the context of the quality of immunization. In addition to overall coverage of vaccination, the coverage of immunization given at right time (month-specific) is to be considered with utmost importance. In this paper, District Level Household and Facility Survey-3 (DLHS-3) 2007-2008 data have been used in exploring the quality of immunization in terms of month-specific vaccine coverage and barriers to access in West Bengal, India. In West Bengal, the month-specific coverage stands badly below 20% but the simple non-month-specific coverage is as high as 75%. Among the demand-side factors, birthplace of the child and religion of the household heads came out as significant predictors while, from the supply-side, availability of male health workers and equipment at the subcentres, were the important determinants for month-specific vaccine coverage. Hence, there should be a vigorous attempt to make more focused planning, keeping in mind the nature of the barriers, for improvement of the month-specific coverage in West Bengal.

  3. Evaluation of egg production after adoption of biosecurity strategies by backyard poultry farmers in West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, I; Joardar, S N; Ganguli, D; Das, P K; Sarkar, U

    2015-02-01

    On the basis of identified source of major bacterial infections at four agro-climatic zones in West Bengal the cost-effective biosecurity strategy was formulated for backyard poultry farmers. The aim of the present study was to assess the adoption. So, the study was aimed to detect the adoption level of the formulated biosecurity strategy to mitigate the Salmonella and Escherichia coliweek post-hatch period chicks were contamination level in the sources and its correlation with egg production in West Bengal. A questionnaire was prepared querying regarding the biosecurity measures presently followed by the farmers, if any and egg production of their birds. Subsequent to the interview the formulated biosecurity strategy was conveyed. After 3 months, the interview with the same questionnaire was conducted to the same farmers to detect their adoption level. The change in practices were noted in certain parameters which differs significantly (pbiosecurity strategy in backyard poultry farming in West Bengal can substantially benefit the farmers in terms of increased egg production.

  4. Evaluation of egg production after adoption of biosecurity strategies by backyard poultry farmers in West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Samanta

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: On the basis of identified source of major bacterial infections at four agro-climatic zones in West Bengal the cost-effective biosecurity strategy was formulated for backyard poultry farmers. The aim of the present study was to assess the adoption. So, the study was aimed to detect the adoption level of the formulated biosecurity strategy to mitigate the Salmonella and Escherichia coli contamination level in the sources and its correlation with egg production in West Bengal. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire was prepared querying regarding the biosecurity measures presently followed by the farmers, if any and egg production of their birds. Subsequent to the interview the formulated biosecurity strategy was conveyed. After 3 months, the interview with the same questionnaire was conducted to the same farmers to detect their adoption level. Results: The change in practices were noted in certain parameters which differs significantly (p<0.01 or p<0.05. As a consequence, the average egg production/flock was increased in 3 months after adoption of the strategy (618.2±37.77/flock in comparison to last 3 months average before adoption of the strategy (495.3±30.00/flock which also differs significantly (p<0.01. Conclusion: The present study detected the implementation of the biosecurity strategy in backyard poultry farming in West Bengal can substantially benefit the farmers in terms of increased egg production.

  5. Assessment of oral health status of Santal (tribal) children of West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Shyamapada; Ghosh, Chiranjit; Sarkar, Subrata; Pal, Jayita; Kar, Sudipta; Bazmi, Badruddin Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Santal is the third largest tribal community of India leading a very poor standard of education and life style. There are, however, few population-based studies evaluating the oral health status among Santal children in West Bengal. The aim of the study was to evaluate the oral health status of Santal children of West Bengal by assessing prevalence of dental caries and inflammatory condition of gingival. Santal children aged between 2-14 years (N = 1205) were randomly selected from different Santal communities of West Bengal for this study. The children were divided into three different groups according to dentition. Caries for permanent dentition Decayed Missing Filled Tooth (DMFT), for deciduous dentition decayed extracted filled (def index was used. For mixed dentition DMF and def was measured respectively and then added together. Inflammatory condition of gingival was assessed by papillary marginal attachment (PMA) index. the data was analyzed statistically by SPSS software version 11. The study showed there was no significant difference (P > 0.05) between the average decayed extracted filled teeth (deft)/DMFT for boys and girls in deciduous and permanent dentition. But in mixed dentition this value for the boys was significantly higher (P gingivitis between boys and girls in each dentition group, but mild gingivitis significantly increases from deciduous dentition to mixed to permanent dentition (P <0.001).

  6. Incidence of Japanese Encephalitis among Acute Encephalitis Syndrome Cases in West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhaswati Bandyopadhyay

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives. Japanese encephalitis (JE is the most important cause of acute and epidemic viral encephalitis. Every year sporadic JE cases are reported from the various districts of West Bengal, indicating its endemicity in this state. JE vaccination programme has been undertaken by the State Health Department of West Bengal. This study was aimed at seeing the present scenario of JE among acute encephalitis syndrome (AES cases in West Bengal. Materials and Methods. Blood and/or CSF samples were referred from suspected AES cases to the referral virology laboratory of the Calcutta School of Tropical Medicine from different hospitals of Kolkata. IgM antibody capture ELISA was performed on the CSF and serum samples by JE virus MAC ELISA kit supplied by the National Institute of Virology, Pune. Results. The present study reveals that 22.76% and 5% of the AES cases were positive for JE IgM in 2011 and 2012, respectively. JE is mainly prevalent in children and adolescents below 20 years of age with no gender predilection. Although the percentages of JE positive cases were high in 2011, it sharply decreased thereafter possibly due to better awareness programs, due to mass vaccination, or simply due to natural epidemiological niche periodicity due to herd immunity.

  7. Incidence of Japanese encephalitis among acute encephalitis syndrome cases in West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Bhaswati; Bhattacharyya, Indrani; Adhikary, Srima; Mondal, Saiantani; Konar, Jayashree; Dawar, Nidhi; Biswas, Asit; Bhattacharya, Nemai

    2013-01-01

    Japanese encephalitis (JE) is the most important cause of acute and epidemic viral encephalitis. Every year sporadic JE cases are reported from the various districts of West Bengal, indicating its endemicity in this state. JE vaccination programme has been undertaken by the State Health Department of West Bengal. This study was aimed at seeing the present scenario of JE among acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) cases in West Bengal. Blood and/or CSF samples were referred from suspected AES cases to the referral virology laboratory of the Calcutta School of Tropical Medicine from different hospitals of Kolkata. IgM antibody capture ELISA was performed on the CSF and serum samples by JE virus MAC ELISA kit supplied by the National Institute of Virology, Pune. The present study reveals that 22.76% and 5% of the AES cases were positive for JE IgM in 2011 and 2012, respectively. JE is mainly prevalent in children and adolescents below 20 years of age with no gender predilection. Although the percentages of JE positive cases were high in 2011, it sharply decreased thereafter possibly due to better awareness programs, due to mass vaccination, or simply due to natural epidemiological niche periodicity due to herd immunity.

  8. Genetic diversity of Ascaris in southwestern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betson, Martha; Nejsum, Peter; Llewellyn-Hughes, Julia; Griffin, Claire; Atuhaire, Aaron; Arinaitwe, Moses; Adriko, Moses; Ruggiana, Andrew; Turyakira, Grace; Kabatereine, Narcis B; Stothard, J Russell

    2012-02-01

    Despite the common occurrence of ascariasis in southwestern Uganda, helminth control in the region has been limited. To gain further insights into the genetic diversity of Ascaris in this area, a parasitological survey in mothers (n=41) and children (n=74) living in two villages, Habutobere and Musezero, was carried out. Adult Ascaris worms were collected from infected individuals by chemo-expulsion using pyrantel pamoate treatment. Genetic diversity within these worms was assessed by inspection of DNA sequence variation in a mitochondrial marker and length polymorphism at microsatellite loci. Overall prevalence of ascariasis was 42.5% in mothers and 30.4% in their children and a total of 98 worms was examined from 18 hosts. Sequence analysis of a portion of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene revealed 19 different haplotypes, 13 of which had not been previously encountered. Microsatellite analysis using eight loci provided evidence for high gene flow between worm populations from the two villages but comparing these worms with others obtained in a prior study on Unguja, Zanzibar, confirmed little genetic exchange and mixing of worm populations between the two areas. By adding to our understanding of the genetic diversity of Ascaris in Africa, this study provides useful information for monitoring changes in parasite population structure in the face of ongoing and future control. Copyright © 2011 Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Southwestern USA Drought over Multiple Millennia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzer, M. W.; Kipfmueller, K. F.

    2014-12-01

    Severe to extreme drought conditions currently exist across much of the American West. There is increasing concern that climate change may be worsening droughts in the West and particularly the Southwest. Thus, it is important to understand the role of natural variability and to place current conditions in a long-term context. We present a tree-ring derived reconstruction of regional-scale precipitation for the Southwestern USA over several millennia. A network of 48 tree-ring chronologies from California, Nevada, Utah, Arizona, New Mexico, and Colorado was used. All of the chronologies are at least 1,000 years long. The network was subjected to data reduction through PCA and a "nested" multiple linear regression reconstruction approach. The regression model was able to capture 72% of the variance in September-August precipitation over the last 1,000 years and 53% of the variance over the first millennium of the Common Era. Variance captured and spatial coverage further declined back in time as the shorter chronologies dropped out of the model, eventually reaching 24% of variance captured at 3250 BC. Results show regional droughts on decadal- to multi-decadal scales have been prominent and persistent phenomena in the region over the last several millennia. Anthropogenic warming is likely to exacerbate the effects of future droughts on human and other biotic populations.

  10. Reconstructing Sea Surface Conditions in the Bay of Bengal during the Mid-Pleistocene Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagos, A. D.; Dekens, P.; Reilly, B. T.; Selkin, P. A.; Meynadier, L.; Savian, J. F.

    2017-12-01

    During the Mid-Pleistocene Transition (MPT, 0.8-1.2Ma) Earth's glacial cycles transitioned from responding primarily to 41kyr obliquity cycles to responding to 100kyr eccentricity cycles. In the tropics, sea surface temperature (SST) in the eastern tropical Pacific cooled through the MPT, suggesting a strengthening of the equatorial Pacific zonal temperature gradient (Medina-Elizalde & Lea, 2005). The strong SST gradient would have intensified Walker Cell convection during the MPT and built up latent heat in the western Pacific, which could cause cold SST anomalies in the northern Indian Ocean (Liu et al., 2015). Due to a scarcity of records, it is unclear how climate and oceanic conditions evolved in the Indian Ocean during the MPT. A set of recent IODP expeditions, including 353 and 354, cored sediment from the Bay of Bengal. Several sites recovered by expedition 353 will be ideal for reconstructing monsoon intensity through time, while the expedition 354 cores from a longitudinal transect at 8°N are in a region not directly impacted by changes in freshwater input due to direct precipitation or run off. The sites are influenced by the northeastern migration of equatorial Indian Ocean water via the Southwest Monsoon Current, which supplies significant moisture to the monsoon. Expedition 354's southern Bay of Bengal sites are well situated for better understanding the link between the tropical Indian Ocean and the northern Bay of Bengal. We reconstructed sea surface conditions at IODP site 1452 (8°N, 87°E, 3670m water depth) in the distal Bengal Fan. A 3 meter long section of the core has been identified as the MPT using the Bruhnes/Matuyama, Jaramillo, and Cobb Mountain paleomagnetic reversals (France-Lanord et al., 2016). This section of site 1452 was sampled every 2cm ( 2kyr resolution). Approximately 30 G. sacculifer, a surface dwelling planktonic foraminifera, were picked from the 355-425μm size fraction. We measured Mg/Ca and δ18O on splits of the same

  11. Inventorization of some ayurvedic plants and their ethnomedicinal use in Kakrajhore forest area of West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Soumyajit; Shaw, Rupa; Bala, Sanjay; Mazumdar, Asis

    2017-02-02

    Medicinal Plant resources of forest origin are extensively used in India for various systems of medicine like Ayurveda, Unani, Homeopathy, Allopathy, Siddha and Ethnic etc. The tribal communities around the Kakrajhore forest in West Medinipur district of West Bengal have their own traditional knowledge based system of curing many diseases using the forest based plant resources similar to ayurveda. The forest comprises of one of the unique treasure and rich source of diversified ethno-botanical wealth and therefore extensive studies is required for proper documentation including ethnomedicinal knowledge of local tribes. The present study was initiated with an aim to inventorize the ayurvedic medicinal plant recourses and explore the traditional knowledge of tribal people of Kakrajhore forest to treat several diseases along with the sustainable management and conservation of medicinal plants. The information on the medicinal plant resources were gathered through floristic inventorization with proper sampling method in the study area (N22°42'57.05″, E86°34'58.02″) during the year 2015. For floristic inventorization the study area of 312 ha was delineated by using GPS Receiver. Then total mapped area was divided by virtual grid of 100m apart in both East-West and North-South direction to allocate 60 sample plots by random sampling. In addition to inventorization, the use value (UV) of the species was determined and the informant consensus factor (ICF) was calculated for the medicinal plants found in the study area based on personal interview. Further exploration was carried out to establish linkage with Ayurveda. The present survey has identified 57 numbers of ethno-medicinal plants belonging to 39 families, used for preparing medicinal remedies. The habit of the plants includes 35% trees, 28% shrubs, 23% herbs and 14% climbers. The most frequently utilized plant parts were the Roots & Tuber roots (26%), Stem which includes Bark, Tubers, Bulb, Rhizome, Gum, Wood

  12. A new species of Gnathia (Isopoda: Cymothoida: Gnathiidae) from Okinawajima Island, Ryukyu Archipelago, southwestern Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Yuzo; Tanaka, Katsuhiko; Hirose, Euichi

    2007-12-01

    Gnathia limicola sp. nov. is described from Okinawajima Island, Ryukyu Archipelago, southwestern Japan. Burrows of this species were found in a small intertidal creek bank on a muddy tidal flat near mangrove trees. Adult males differ from those of other Gnathia species in the following features: (1) fine setae cover peduncle articles 1 and 2 of antenna 1, peduncle articles 1-3 of antenna 2, and the erisma of the mandibles; (2) the ventral frontal border of the cephalon is medianly notched, and the lateral parts extend beyond the dorsal frontal border; and (3) the penes are fused into a thin rectangular blade directed posteriorly. Adult females and praniza larvae were also distinguished morphologically from other Gnathia species. Based on field and laboratory observations, the mating behavior of this species appears similar to that of Paragnathia formica (Hesse, 1862), which inhabits salt marshes in Europe and North Africa.

  13. Guest editorial for the special issue ‘‘Tectonics of Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea with special emphasis on coastal and marine geohazards’’

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murthy, K.S.R.; Chaubey, A.K.; Radhakrishna, M.

    The main objective of the Special Issue entitled 'Tectonics of Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea with special emphasis on coastal and marine geohazards' is to bring together the recent research work carried out on marine geohazards in the Bay of Bengal...

  14. Spatio-temporal variations in surface characteristics over the North American Monsoon region

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this paper we summarize the surface characteristics for six locations in western Mexico and southwestern USA (from a subhumid climate in Jalisco, Mexico to the Sonoran Desert climate in Arizona, USA),that lie along a meridional transect within the North American Monsoon (NAM) core region using av...

  15. Phylogeography of Declining Relict and Lowland Leopard Frogs in the Desert Southwest of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    We investigated the phylogeography of the closely related relict leopard frog (Rana onca) and lowland leopard frog (R. yavapaiensis) – two declining anurans from the warm-desert regions of southwestern North America. We used sequence data from two mitochondrial DNA genes to asses...

  16. Eleven bones: More fossil remains of Cave Lions and Cave Hyaenas from the North Sea area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosscha Erdbrink, D.P.

    1983-01-01

    Six fossil Cave Lion bones and five fossil Cave Hyaena bones are described. One lion bone and one hyaena bone were dredged from the Westerschelde ( = Western Scheldt, southwestern part of the Netherlands). The other specimens were recovered from the bottom of the North Sea, in the area West and

  17. A new species of Chaetaglaea (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Noctuinae, Xylenini), from eastern North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stead, Ken H; Troubridge, Jim T

    2016-01-01

    Chaetaglaea tremula (Harvey) occurs through the Gulf States, from southern Florida, west to eastern Texas. Coastal populations, previously referred to Chaetaglaea tremula occurring from the Carolinas, at least as far north as Massachusetts and shoreline dunes in southwestern Ontario are recognized as distinct and described here as Chaetaglaea rhonda. Adults and genitalia are illustrated for Chaetaglaea rhonda and Chaetaglaea tremula.

  18. Assessment of Salinity Distributions and Residual Currents at the Northern Bay of Bengal considering Climate Change Impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Asad Hussain

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The overall objective of the study is to investigate the future salinity distributions and residual flow scenarios in the northern Bay of Bengal taking into consideration of the change in hydrological and meteorological parameters. Observed and projected meteorological data are employed to generate present and future scenarios in the Northern Bay of Bengal. Numerical experiments through a 3D hydrodynamic model show that both during the monsoon as well as during winter periods, residual currents in the Northern Bay of Bengal display an anti-clockwise circulation concentrating at the eastern part of the bay. The Swatch of No Ground appears to have an important influence on the circulation patterns. Future salinity distributions are calculated through employment of projected meteorological data from regional climate model (RCM experiments. It shows considerable increase in salinity level which may hamper the freshwater availability and ecological balance in the region in future.

  19. Serological investigation of bovine brucellosis in three cattle production systems in Yewa Division, south-western Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadmus, Simeon I B; Alabi, Peter I; Adesokan, Hezekiah K; Dale, Emma J; Stack, Judy A

    2013-01-01

    Limited data are available on the risk factors responsible for the occurrence of brucellosis amongst different cattle production systems in Nigeria despite its significant impact on livestock production. Consequently, a cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of bovine brucellosis in three cattle production systems in Yewa Division of Ogun State, south-western Nigeria. A total of 279 blood samples (sedentary = 88; transhumance = 64; trade = 127) were examined for antibodies to Brucella sp. using the Rose Bengal test (RBT) and competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA). Overall, 24 (8.6%) and 16 (5.7%) of the animals tested seropositive for Brucella using RBT and cELISA, respectively. The herd seroprevalences based on RBT and cELISA were 31.6% and 15.8%, respectively. The results using cELISA reveal higher seroprevalence in the trade cattle (7.9%; confidence intervals [CI] = 3.2% - 12.6%) and those in a sedentary system (5.7%; CI = 0.9% - 10.5%) than in cattle kept under a transhumant management system (1.6%; CI = 1.5% - 4.7%). Age (> 3 years; p = 0.043) and breed (Djali; p = 0.038) were statistically significant for seropositivity to brucellosis based on cELISA, but sex (female, p = 0.234), production system (trade and sedentary; p = 0.208) or herd size (> 120; p = 0.359) was not. Since breeding stock is mostly sourced from trade and sedentary cattle, it is important that routine serological screening should be conducted before introducing any animal into an existing herd.

  20. Serological investigation of bovine brucellosis in three cattle production systems in Yewa Division, south-western Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simeon I.B. Cadmus

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Limited data are available on the risk factors responsible for the occurrence of brucellosis amongst different cattle production systems in Nigeria despite its significant impact on livestock production. Consequently, a cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of bovine brucellosis in three cattle production systems in Yewa Division of Ogun State, south-western Nigeria. A total of 279 blood samples (sedentary = 88; transhumance = 64; trade = 127 were examined for antibodies to Brucella sp. using the Rose Bengal test (RBT and competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA. Overall, 24 (8.6% and 16 (5.7% of the animals tested seropositive for Brucella using RBT and cELISA, respectively. The herd seroprevalences based on RBT and cELISA were 31.6% and 15.8%, respectively. The results using cELISA reveal higher seroprevalence in the trade cattle (7.9%; confidence intervals [CI] = 3.2% – 12.6% and those in a sedentary system (5.7%; CI = 0.9% – 10.5% than in cattle kept under a transhumant management system (1.6%; CI = 1.5% – 4.7%. Age (> 3 years; p = 0.043 and breed (Djali; p = 0.038 were statistically significant for seropositivity to brucellosis based on cELISA, but sex (female, p = 0.234, production system (trade and sedentary; p = 0.208 or herd size (> 120; p = 0.359 was not. Since breeding stock is mostly sourced from trade and sedentary cattle, it is important that routine serological screening should be conducted before introducing any animal into an existing herd.

  1. Serological investigation of bovine brucellosis in three cattle production systems in Yewa Division, south-western Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simeon I.B. Cadmus

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Limited data are available on the risk factors responsible for the occurrence of brucellosis amongst different cattle production systems in Nigeria despite its significant impact on livestock production. Consequently, a cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of bovine brucellosis in three cattle production systems in Yewa Division of Ogun State, south-western Nigeria. A total of 279 blood samples (sedentary = 88; transhumance = 64; trade = 127 were examined for antibodies to Brucella sp. using the Rose Bengal test (RBT and competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA. Overall, 24 (8.6% and 16 (5.7% of the animals tested seropositive for Brucella using RBT and cELISA, respectively. The herd seroprevalences based on RBT and cELISA were 31.6% and 15.8%, respectively. The results using cELISA reveal higher seroprevalence in the trade cattle (7.9%; confidence intervals [CI] = 3.2% – 12.6% and those in a sedentary system (5.7%; CI = 0.9% – 10.5% than in cattle kept under a transhumant management system (1.6%; CI = 1.5% – 4.7%. Age (> 3 years; p = 0.043 and breed (Djali; p = 0.038 were statistically significant for seropositivity to brucellosis based on cELISA, but sex (female, p = 0.234, production system (trade and sedentary; p = 0.208 or herd size (> 120; p = 0.359 was not. Since breeding stock is mostly sourced from trade and sedentary cattle, it is important that routine serological screening should be conducted before introducing any animal into an existing herd.

  2. Sero-epidemiological survey and risk factors associated with brucellosis in dogs in south-western Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoola, Modupe Comfort; Ogugua, Akwoba Joseph; Akinseye, Victor Oluwatoyin; Joshua, Tunde Olu; Banuso, Morenikeji Folusho; Adedoyin, Folashade Julianah; Adesokan, Hezekiah Kehinde; Omobowale, Temidayo Olutayo; Abiola, John Olusoji; Otuh, Patricia Ihuaku; Nottidge, Helen Oyebukola; Dale, Emma-Jane; Perrett, Lorraine; Taylor, Andrew; Stack, Judy; Cadmus, Simeon Idowu Babalola

    2016-01-01

    In Nigeria, there is limited information on brucellosis particularly in dogs, despite its public health implications. We undertook a sero-epidemiological survey of brucellosis in dogs to determine the prevalence of the disease and associated risk factors for its occurrence in Nigeria. A cross-sectional study was conducted to screen dogs in south-western Nigeria for antibodies to Brucella sp using the rapid slide agglutination test (RSA) and Rose Bengal test (RBT), with positive samples confirmed respectively by serum agglutination test (SAT) and competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA). Data were analyzed with STATA-12. From the 739 dog sera tested, 81 (10.96%) were positive by RSA and 94 (12.72%) by RBT; these were corroborated with SAT (4/81; 4.94%) and cELISA (1/94; 1.06%), respectively. Logistic regression identified location (OR=0.04; 95% CI: 0.02-0.09), breed (OR=1.71; 95% CI: 1.34-2.19), age (OR=0.10; 95% CI: 0.04-0.30) and management system (OR=8.51; 95% CI: 1.07-68.05) as risk factors for Brucella infection by RSA. However, location (OR=10.83; 95% CI: 5.48-21.39) and history of infertility (OR=2.62; 95% CI: 1.41-4.84) were identified as risk factors using RBT. Given the 10.96% to 12.72% seroprevalence of brucellosis recorded in this study, we advocate control of the disease in dogs, and public health education for those at risk of infection. Again, further studies are required to elucidate the role of dogs in the epidemiology of brucellosis in Nigeria considering the conducive human-animal interface and ecological factors responsible for the transmission of the disease.

  3. Recent Surveys of Sedimentary Records of Himalayan Uplift and Sea Level Changes in the Bay of Bengal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiess, V.; Schwenk, T.; Kudrass, H.; France-Lanord, C.

    2006-12-01

    The Ganges-Brahmaputra River System connects the Himalayan Mountain Range and Tibetan Plateau with the Bay of Bengal, providing sedimentary records of terrestrial climatic conditions and their changes under the strong influence of the monsoonal system to the Bengal sediment fan. The shelf of Bangladesh, the shelf canyon Swatch of no Ground, the continental slope and sedimentary fan receive large volumes of sediments, documenting on different time scales from annual near the shelf to millennial on the slope to million year time scales in the lower fan transport processes, weathering conditions, vegetation and precipitation changes. Research Cruise SO188 with R/V Sonne in June/July 2006 provided new insight into sediment transport processes in the Bengal Fan and deposits suitable to drilling targeting for high resolution studies of terrestrial processes and sea level changes. The survey collected high resolution multichannel seismic data to support an IODP drilling transect at 8°N and to collect further data to reconstruct the source-to-sink fate of sediment in the Himalayan-Bengal System. An extensive high-resolution 3D seismic survey targeted for fine- scale lithology and facies distribution and sediment structures in the vicinity of a meandering channel. Significant subsidence on the Bengal shelf, continuously providing accommodation space over the last few million years, is documented in a dense grid of seismic lines across the Bengal shelf and the Swatch of no Ground shelf canyon. Promising locations for IODP drilling had been investigated and will be integrated in an IODP proposal for shelf, slope and canyon drilling to study the Holocene and pre-Holocene history in up to 1500 m thick sequences.

  4. Seven Global Goals. 2013 annual report, Southwestern Power Administration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-09-01

    For over 70 years, Southwestern has marketed and delivered reliable, renewable, and affordable hydropower, partnering with Federal power stakeholders and others in the industry to make sure the lights stay on. This kind of effective, efficient, and cost conscious operation is made possible only by hard work and dedication. Southwestern employees work individually and as a team to meet seven comprehensive agency goals that touch on all aspects of the agency’s operations. Dubbed the “Seven Global Goals” by Administrator Chris Turner, these objectives identify specific, measurable targets that support Southwestern’s mission and reinforce its responsibilities toward its customers and the Nation.

  5. On the dynamics of the Sri Lanka Dome in the Bay of Bengal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Jessica M.; Subrahmanyam, Bulusu; Murty, V. S. N.

    2017-09-01

    East of Sri Lanka, in the northern Indian Ocean, a cold dome, known as the Sri Lanka Dome (SLD), develops during southwest monsoon season (June-September). The SLD first forms around May, matures in July, and decays around September, in association with the strong cyclonic wind stress curl. In this study, the structure and dynamics of SLD in response to the climatic events such as the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) are examined. Our results reveal that these climatic events modulated the subsurface temperature variability in the thermocline at ˜100 m depth, whose signature was also evident in the satellite-derived sea surface height (SSH) anomaly in the SLD region. We find that the mechanisms for the formation of SLD are consistent with previous research, and there is year-to-year variability in the SLD dynamics. This study also reveals that the atmospheric parameters including vertical wind shear and midtropospheric relative humidity are high over the SLD region and adjacent southern Bay of Bengal and show an upward (increasing) trend over the decades. This has impacted the atmospheric parameters over the northern Bay of Bengal over the decades and as a consequence the total number of monsoon depressions (June-September) decreased over the decades from 1980 to 2015, as reported by the India Meteorological Department, New Delhi. Thus, the new insight emerged from this study is the variability in the cyclogenesis and the occurrence of total number of monsoon depressions over northern Bay of Bengal over the decades is much related to the SLD dynamics.

  6. Detection of emerging antibiotic resistance in bacteria isolated from subclinical mastitis in cattle in West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnab Das

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this work was to detect antibiotic resistance in Gram-negative bacteria isolated from subclinical mastitis in cattle in West Bengal. Materials and Methods: The milk samples were collected from the cattle suffering with subclinical mastitis in West Bengal. The milk samples were inoculated into the nutrient broth and incubated at 37°C. On the next day, the growth was transferred into nutrient agar and MacConkey agar. All the pure cultures obtained from nutrient agar slant were subjected to Gram-staining and standard biochemical tests. All the bacterial isolates were tested in vitro for their sensitivity to different antibiotics commonly used in veterinary practices. All Gram-negative isolates including positive control were subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR for detection of blaCTX-M, blaTEM, blaSHV, blaVIM, tetA, tetB, tetC, and tetM genes considered for extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL, metallo-β-lactamase, and tetracycline resistance. Results: In total, 50 Gram-negative organisms (Escherichia coli, Proteus, Pseudomonas, Klebsiella, and Enterobacter were isolated from milk samples of subclinical mastitis infected cattle. Among these Gram-negative isolates, 48% (24/50 were found either ESBL producing or tetracycline resistant. Out of total 50 Gram-negative isolates, blaCTX-M was detected in 18 (36% isolates, and 6 (12% harbored blaTEM genes in PCR. None of the isolates carried blaSHV genes. Further, in this study, 5 (10% isolates harbored tet(A gene, and 8 (16% isolates carried tet(B gene. No tet(C gene was detected from the isolates. Conclusion: This study showed emerging trend of antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteria associated with subclinical mastitis in cattle in West Bengal, India.

  7. Topical liposomal Rose Bengal for photodynamic white hair removal: randomized, controlled, double-blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samy, Nevien; Fadel, Maha

    2014-04-01

    Blond and white hair removal by laser is a complicated task with weak satisfactory results due to the deficiency in laser-absorbing chromophore. To investigate if repetitive sessions of photodynamic therapy (PDT) using external application of liposomal Rose bengal (RB) photosensitizer followed by intense pulsed light (IPL) exposure enables removal of gray and white hair. Rose bengal loaded in liposomes (LRB) was constructed, prepared in hydrogel, and was studied for some pharmaceutical properties. Penetration and selective hair follicle damage in mice skin were studied. Topical gel containing LRB was used for treating fifteen adult females who were complaining of facial white terminal hair. Unwanted facial hair was treated for three sessions at intervals of 4-6 weeks using intense pulsed light (IPL). At each session, the treatment area was pre-treated with topical LRB gel, while a control group of another 15 patients applied placebo gel before IPL treatment. Evaluations included hair regrowth, which was measured 4 weeks after each treatment session and at 6 months follow-up by counting the number of terminal hair compared with baseline pretreatment values. Treatment outcomes and complications if any were also reported. Average hair regrowth in the LRB group was 56% after 3 treatment cycles. After six-months follow up, average terminal hair count compared with baseline pretreatment showed 40% reduction and no recorded side effects. A significant difference (Phair removal using rose bengal-encapsulated liposomal gel in combination with IPL treatment showed significant efficacy in the treatment of white hair compared with a control group.

  8. Assessment of oral health status of Santal (Tribal children of West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyamapada Mandal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Santal is the third largest tribal community of India leading a very poor standard of education and life style. There are, however, few population-based studies evaluating the oral health status among Santal children in West Bengal. Aims: The aim of the study was to evaluate the oral health status of Santal children of West Bengal by assessing prevalence of dental caries and inflammatory condition of gingival. Settings and Design: Santal children aged between 2-14 years (N = 1205 were randomly selected from different Santal communities of West Bengal for this study. The children were divided into three different groups according to dentition. Materials and Methods: Caries for permanent dentition Decayed Missing Filled Tooth (DMFT, for deciduous dentition decayed extracted filled (def index was used. For mixed dentition DMF and def was measured respectively and then added together. Inflammatory condition of gingival was assessed by papillary marginal attachment (PMA index. Statistical Analysis Used: the data was analyzed statistically by SPSS software version 11. Results: The study showed there was no significant difference (P > 0.05 between the average decayed extracted filled teeth (deft/DMFT for boys and girls in deciduous and permanent dentition. But in mixed dentition this value for the boys was significantly higher (P < 0.001 than girls. ′Z′ values were found to be non significant when compared mild, moderate and severe gingivitis between boys and girls in each dentition group, but mild gingivitis significantly increases from deciduous dentition to mixed to permanent dentition (P <0.001.

  9. Floods of December 1966 in southwestern Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Elmer; Mundorff, J.C.

    1970-01-01

    Severe floods occurred in parts of southwestern Utah on December 5-6, 1966, as a result of precipitation of about 1 inch to more than 12 inches during December 3-6. The flood on the Virgin River was the greatest since the first settlers arrived in 1860.The peak discharge of the Virgin River at Virgin, Utah, was 22,830 cubic feet per second on December 6; this exceeded the previous maximum discharge of 13,500 cubic feet per second on March 3, 1938, and September 17, 1961, and probably has a recurrence interval of 100 years. At eight other gage sites in the flood area, the peak discharge in December 1966 was the highest of record; the recurrence intervals of some of the peak discharges may be 100 years. The flood peaks were generally of short duration and most streams receded to near base flow within 24 hours.The dissolved-solids content was significantly lower in the Virgin River at Virgin than at St. George, about 25 miles downstream; the water was of the calcium sulfate type at both sites. Data for the Santa Clara River above Winsor Dam and the Santa Clara River near Santa Clara show a significant increase in dissolved solids between the two sites. The water above Winsor Dam was of the calcium bicarbonate type, and the water near Santa Clara was of the calcium bicarbonate sulfate type.The suspended-sediment discharge, during the period December 5-8, 1966, at Santa Clara River above Winsor Dam, near Santa Clara was about foyer times greater than all the suspended-sediment discharge during the preceding 3 years ; the suspended-sediment discharge of the Virgin River at Virgin was greater during the 4-day period than during any one of the preceding 3 years.Nearly all the flood damage in the area occurred in the Virgin River basin. According to the Soil Conservation Service, total damage in the Dixie Soil Conservation District in Washington County was about $835,000; 60 percent of the damage was caused by floodwater and 40 percent by deposited sediment.

  10. Hydrogeology of the Markagunt Plateau, Southwestern Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangler, Lawrence E.

    2010-01-01

    The Markagunt Plateau, in southwestern Utah, lies at an altitude of about 9,500 feet and is capped primarily by Quaternary-age basalt that overlies Eocene-age freshwater limestone of the Claron Formation. Over large parts of the Markagunt Plateau, dissolution of the Claron limestone and subsequent collapse of the overlying basalt have produced a terrain characterized by sinkholes as much as 1,000 feet across and 100 feet deep. Numerous large springs discharge from the basalt and underlying limestone on the plateau, including Mammoth Spring, one of the largest springs in Utah, with a discharge that can exceed 300 cubic feet per second. Discharge from Mammoth Spring is from the Claron Formation; however, recharge to the spring largely takes place by both focused and diffuse infiltration through the basalt that caps the limestone. Results of dye tracing to Mammoth Spring indicate that recharge originates largely southwest of the spring outside of the Mammoth Creek watershed, as well as from losing reaches along Mammoth Creek. Maximum groundwater travel time to the spring from dye-tracer tests during the snowmelt runoff period was about 1 week. Specific conductance and water temperature data from the spring show an inverse relation to discharge during snowmelt runoff and rainfall events, also indicating short groundwater residence times. Results of major-ion analyses for samples collected from Mammoth and other springs on the plateau indicate calcium-bicarbonate type water containing low (less than 200 mg/L) dissolved-solids concentrations. Investigations in the Navajo Lake area along the southern margin of the plateau have shown that water losing to sinkholes bifurcates and discharges to both Cascade and Duck Creek Springs, which subsequently flow into the Virgin and Sevier River basins, respectively. Groundwater travel times to these springs, on the basis of dye tracing, were about 8.5 and 53 hours, respectively. Similarly, groundwater travel time from Duck Creek

  11. The energy behind the power. Southwestern Power Administration 1994 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    This is the Southwestern Power Administration 1994 annual report. The topics of the report include a letter to the secretary; an overview including the mission statement, a description of the Southwestern Federal Power System, financial statement, performance measurements, national performance review; year in review, summary of results, financial and statistical data and the Southwestern Power Administration Organization.

  12. Southwestern Avian Community Organization in Exotic Tamarix: Current Patterns and Future Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. A. Walker

    2006-01-01

    Tamarisk (saltcedar: Tamarix), an invasive exotic tree native to the Eastern Hemisphere, is currently the dominant plant species in most southwestern riparian ecosystems at elevations below 1500 m. Tamarisk alters abiotic conditions and the floral composition of native southwestern riparian ecosystems and, in turn, affects native southwestern animal communities....

  13. Panel of polymorphic heterologous microsatellite loci to genotype critically endangered Bengal tiger: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Sudhanshu; Singh, Sujeet Kumar; Munjal, Ashok Kumar; Aspi, Jouni; Goyal, Surendra Prakash

    2014-01-03

    In India, six landscapes and source populations that are important for long-term conservation of Bengal tigers (Panthera tigris tigris) have been identified. Except for a few studies, nothing is known regarding the genetic structure and extent of gene flow among most of the tiger populations across India as the majority of them are small, fragmented and isolated. Thus, individual-based relationships are required to understand the species ecology and biology for planning effective conservation and genetics-based individual identification has been widely used. But this needs screening and describing characteristics of microsatellite loci from DNA from good-quality sources so that the required number of loci can be selected and the genotyping error rate minimized. In the studies so far conducted on the Bengal tiger, a very small number of loci (n = 35) have been tested with high-quality source of DNA, and information on locus-specific characteristics is lacking. The use of such characteristics has been strongly recommended in the literature to minimize the error rate and by the International Society for Forensic Genetics (ISFG) for forensic purposes. Therefore, we describe for the first time locus-specific genetic and genotyping profile characteristics, crucial for population genetic studies, using high-quality source of DNA of the Bengal tiger. We screened 39 heterologous microsatellite loci (Sumatran tiger, domestic cat, Asiatic lion and snow leopard) in captive individuals (n = 8), of which 21 loci are being reported for the first time in the Bengal tiger, providing an additional choice for selection. The mean relatedness coefficient (R = -0.143) indicates that the selected tigers were unrelated. Thirty-four loci were polymorphic, with the number of alleles ranging from 2 to 7 per locus, and the remaining five loci were monomorphic. Based on the PIC values (> 0.500), and other characteristics, we suggest that 16 loci (3 to 7 alleles) be used for genetic

  14. Gender Inequality in India: Evidence from a Rural Survey in West Bengal

    OpenAIRE

    Tisdell, Clement A.

    2000-01-01

    Notes the unfavourable female-male ratio in India and its declining trend. In addition, the convergence of this ratio for the scheduled castes towards that of the general casts is noted as well as the slight decline in this ratio for scheduled tribals. A reason for this trend is suggested. Gender inequality is explored by summarising the results of survey of wives in the Midnapore area of West Bengal. Wives in four villages were interviewed so as to include tribals (Santals) and non-tribals, ...

  15. Observations of barrier layer formation in the Bay of Bengal during summer monsoon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vinayachandran, P.N.; Murty, V.S.N.; RameshBabu, V.

    [Lukas and Lindstrom, 1991]. Application of this definition to the Bay of Bengal gives a barrier layer which is about 25–30 m thick that includes the MHB and the region of weaker salinity gradient below. The vertical gradient of salinity observed... on density is ideal. Two types of definitions can be found in literature for determining the depth of the mixed layer (MLD). In the first, the depth at which density changes by a fixed value from the surface is chosen as the MLD. The second method relies...

  16. Present scenario of hemoglobinopathies in West Bengal, India: An analysis of a large population

    OpenAIRE

    Prakas Kumar Mandal; Suman Kumar Maji; Tuphan Kanti Dolai

    2014-01-01

    Background: To find out the prevalence of hemoglobinopathies by screening large population in West Bengal from Eastern India. Materials and Methods: A total of 50,487 subjects are screened for hemoglobinopathies from June 2010 to August 2013. A 2.5 ml of venous blood samples were collected in the tri-potassium EDTA vacuum container from each subject and tested with automated blood cell counter (Sysmex KX21) for red cell indices. Diagnosis of hemoglobinopathies was done by VARIANT TM (Bio-Rad ...

  17. On the nature of meandering of the springtime western boundary current in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gangopadhyay, A.; BharatRaj, G.N.; Chaudhuri, A.H.; Babu, M.T.; Sengupta, D.

    reversing meander-eddy regimes of the WBC-EICC system of the BoB. [16] Acknowledgments. This work was partially supported by the University of Massachusetts Dartmouth International Office in providing assistance to the international collaborators... anonymous reviewers for their assistance in evaluating this paper. References Babu, M. T., S. Prasanna Kumar, and D. P. Rao (1991), A sub-surface cyclonic eddy in the Bay of Bengal, J. Mar. Res., 49, 404–410. Babu, M. T., Y. V. B. Sarma, V. S. N. Murty...

  18. Evidence of paleo-cold seep activity from the Bay of Bengal, offshore India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mazumdar, A.; Dewangan, P.; Joao, H.M.; Peketi, A.; Khosla, V.R.; Kocherla, M.; Badesab, F.K.; Joshi, R.K.; Roxanne, P.; Ramamurty, P.B.; Karisiddaiah, S.M.; Patil, D.J.; Dayal, A.M.; Ramprasad, T.; Hawkesworth, C.J.; Avanzinelli, R.

    -G basin (Figure 1). A 29.9 m long core was collected on board R/V Marian Dufresne (MD-161: May 2007) using a Giant Calypso piston corer at a water depth of 1033 m (latitude = 15C17651.8624 0 N and longitude = 81C17650.0692 0 E). The core location... was collected using a Seafalcon 11 echosounder. This system produces Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems G 3 mazumdar et al.: paleo– cold seep activity in bay of bengal 10.1029/2008GC002337 2of15 high-resolution, zero-offset acoustic sections...

  19. Seasonal occurrence of unique sediment plume in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sridhar, P.N.; Ali, M.M.; Vethamony, P.; Babu, M.T.; Ramana, I.V.; Jayakumar, S.

    to move southward and dissipate after 15 days. PAGES 22–23 Seasonal Occurrence of Unique Sediment Plume in the Bay of Bengal Fig. 1. (a) Sediment plume and geostrophic currents in the study area on (b) 2 March 2003, (c) 12 March 2003, (d) 1 January 2003... the thermal state of the lithosphere, transform faults, subduction zones, and hot spots. Modern marine heat flow studies com- monly include coincident seafloor and subseafloor mapping and imaging surveys and sediment coring programs that pro- vide material...

  20. Mixed layer variability and chlorophyll a biomass in the Bay of Bengal.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Narvekar, J.; PrasannaKumar, S.

    ), the winds are weak and from northeasterly direc- tion. These northeast trade winds bring cool and dry con- tinental air mass to the Bay of Bengal. The unique feature Published by Copernicus Publications on behalf of the European Geosciences Union. 3820 J... with sufficient details the role of the mixed layer in regulating the basin-wide variability in chlorophyll biomass and primary productivity. It is in this context that the present paper attempts to understand (1) processes con- trolling basin-wide variability...

  1. Lithogenic fluxes in the Bay of Bengal measured by sediment traps

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaswamy, V.; VijayKumar, B.; Parthiban, G.; Ittekkot, V.; Nair, R.R.

    %) Smectites (74%) Smectites (86%) Smectites (38%) Illites (35%) Smectites (48%) Kaolinte (25%) Illite (22%) 80.’ 0 loo0 CBBT 0 WAY OF BENGAL NBBT 0 9’00 too0 Fig. 1. Location of sediment trap moorings used in the present study. Lithogenic... Jan CBBT Lat 13YN 3259 Shallow 955 2304 4 22 Jan 18 Feb Long 84”l’E Deep 2291 968 5 18 Feb 17 Mar 6 17 Mar 13 Apr I 13 Apr 10 May 8 10 May 06 Jun 9 06 Jun 03 Jul 10 03 Jul 30 Jul 11 30 Jul 26 Aug 12 26 Aug 22 Sep 13 22 Sep 19 Ott content...

  2. Determination of inorganic radioiodine in 131I- Rose Bengal and 131I- bromosulphthalein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toledo e Souza, I.T. de; Pereira, N.P.S. de; Silva, C.P.G. da.

    1985-01-01

    A rapid miniaturized chromatographic system was developed for fast determination of the proportion of inorganic radioactive iodide from radiopharmaceuticals 131 I-Rose Bengal and 131 I-Bromosulphthalein. Using 33% W/V aqueous solution of ammonium sulphate pH 7,5 as a solvent Rf values for radiopharmaceuticals, iodide, iodate to Rf 0,0 0,5 0,9 respectively. The chromatographic quality control procedures are easy to use, rapid and can be incorporated in a routine quality control program. (Author) [pt

  3. Meso-scale atmospheric events promote phytoplankton blooms in the coastal Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Maneesha, K.; Sarma, V.V.S.S.; Reddy, N.P.C.; Sadhuram, Y.; Murty, T.V.R.; Sarma, V.V.; DileepKumar, M.

    in summer to equatorward in post-monsoon (Shetye et al 1996). Therefore, irrespective of the place where a cyclone hits the coast, its impact can possibly be observed along the entire Indian coast aided by equatorward/poleward flowing EICC during post... in the coastal and offshore waters, and drainage of terrigenous nutrients after land- fall. These nutrient-rich northern Bay (Bangladesh coast) waters spread all along the west coast of Bay of Bengal aided by the strong equatorward flow of EICC during November...

  4. Caudal cervical disc protrusion in a Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrechts, N E; Berry, W L

    2000-09-01

    A young adult male white Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) presented with hindlimb ataxia. Cervical and lumbar myelography revealed a compressive lesion of the cord at C(6-7). Corticosteroid therapy and confinement failed to provide lasting remission of signs. A modified, inverted cone ventral slot decompression was used to remove the fibrous material causing cord compression at C(6-7). Temporary Horner's syndrome and laryngeal paresis developed postsurgically because of excessive tissue retraction. The animal recovered normal ambulatory function 6 wk after surgery.

  5. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of thoracic chordoma in a Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iseri, Toshie; Shimizu, Junichiro; Akiyoshi, Hideo; Kusuda, Kayo; Hayashi, Akiyoshi; Mie, Keiichiro; Izawa, Takeshi; Kuwamura, Mitsuru; Yamate, Jyoji; Fujimoto, Yuka; Ohashi, Fumihito

    2015-07-01

    A Bengal tiger was presented for evaluation of weakness, ataxia and inappetance. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a mass extending from the T7-8 vertebral body to the left rib and compressing the spinal cord. On CT, the bone destruction and sequestrum were shown. On MRI, the multilobulated mass appeared hypo- to isointense in T1-weighted and hyperintense in T2-weighted images. The tiger died after imaging, most likely from renal failure. Chordoma without metastasis was diagnosed on necropsy. The imaging characteristics were similar to those found in chordoma in humans. This report describes the use of CT and MRI in an exotic species.

  6. Traditional use of medicinal plants as febrifuge by the tribals of Purulia district, West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijit Dey

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Ethnobotanical excursions were carried out among the tribals of Purulia district, West Bengal, India to explore the traditional use of medicinal plants against fever. Methods: With the help of a semi structured questionnaire, informants were interviewed and their indigenous knowledge regarding antipyretic use of plants was documented. Results: A total number of 22 plants used as febrifuge were recorded along with their vernacular names, part(s used, method of preparation and route of administration. Conclusions: Different tribal communities residing in the area were found to possess traditional knowledge of using phytotherapy in the treatment of fevers.

  7. [North] Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-05-01

    In 1985, the population of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea) stood at 20 million, with an annual growth rate of 2.3%. The infant mortality rate was 30/1000 live births and life expectancy was 66 years. The gross national product (GNP) was US$23 billion in 1984, with a per capita GNP of $1175. Both North Korea's labor force and natural resources have been concentrated in recent years on an effort to achieve rapid economic development. During the early 1970s, a large-scale modernization program involving the importation of Western technology, primarily in the heavy industiral sectors of the economy, was attempted and resulted in a massive foreign debt. North Korea has a strongly centralized government under the control of the communist Korean Workers' Party. Literacy in the country is at the 99% level. Medical treatment is free. There is 1 physician/600 population and 1 hospital bed/350 inhabitants.

  8. Streambed infiltration and ground-water flow from the trout creek drainage, an intermittent tributary to the Humboldt River, north-central Nevada: Chapter K in Ground-water recharge in the arid and semiarid southwestern United States (Professional Paper 1703)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prudic, David E.; Niswonger, Richard G.; Harrill, James R.; Wood, James L.; Stonestrom, David A.; Constantz, Jim; Ferré, Ty P.A.; Leake, Stanley A.

    2007-01-01

    Ground water is abundant in many alluvial basins of the Basin and Range Physiographic Province of the western United States. Water enters these basins by infiltration along intermittent and ephemeral channels, which originate in the mountainous regions before crossing alluvial fans and piedmont alluvial plains. Water also enters the basins as subsurface ground-water flow directly from the mountains, where infiltrated precipitation recharges water-bearing rocks and sediments at these higher elevations. Trout Creek, a typical intermittent stream in the Middle Humboldt River Basin in north-central Nevada, was chosen to develop methods of estimating and characterizing streambed infiltration and ground-water recharge in mountainous terrains. Trout Creek has a drainage area of about 4.8 × 107 square meters. Stream gradients range from more than 1 × 10–1 meter per meter in the mountains to 5 × 10–3 meter per meter at the foot of the piedmont alluvial plain. Trout Creek is perennial in short reaches upstream of a northeast-southwest trending normal fault, where perennial springs discharge to the channel. Downstream from the fault, the water table drops below the base of the channel and the stream becomes intermittent.Snowmelt generates streamflow during March and April, when streamflow extends onto the piedmont alluvial plain for several weeks in most years. Rates of streambed infiltration become highest in the lowest reaches, at the foot of the piedmont alluvial plain. The marked increases in infiltration are attributed to increases in streambed permeability together with decreases in channel-bed armoring, the latter which increases the effective area of the channel. Large quartzite cobbles cover the streambed in the upper reaches of the stream and are absent in the lowest reach. Such changes in channel deposits are common where alluvial fans join piedmont alluvial plains. Poorly sorted coarse and fine sediments are deposited near the head of the fan, while

  9. Unstable ground in western North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, Donald E.

    1979-01-01

    Unstable ground in western North Dakota is mainly the result of mass-wasting processes. The units most affected are mudstones, siltstones, and sandstones of the Fort Union Formation. Ground instability generally is indicated by landslides, soil slides, or subsidence. Landslides are mostly of the slump-earthflow type and are localized along the flanks of the high buttes in southwestern North Dakota, including HT (Black) Butte, Chalky Buttes, Sentinel Butte, and East and West Rainy Buttes, and along parts of the valleys of the Des Lacs, Missouri, Little Missouri, and Heart Rivers. Landslides are sparse elsewhere. Soil slides are common in the areas south and southwest of the maximum position of the Pleistocene glacial ice margin on slopes of 15 degrees or more, and have taken place on some slopes as gentle as five degrees. The weathered, exposed surface of the Fort Union Formation seems to be especially susceptible to soil slides. Soil slides constitute the major type of ground instability in southwestern North Dakota. Subsidence is of two types: (1) subsidence over old underground mine workings, and (2) subsidence over naturally ignited and burned underground coal beds. Major subsidence has taken place over old, underground workings near Beulah, Wilton, Lehigh, Haynes, and Belfield, and lesser subsidence near Scranton, and west and north of Bowman. Thickness of overburden above the coal in all these areas is believed to be less than 30 m (100 ft). Subsidence has not taken place over old underground workings along the Des Lacs and-Souris valleys northwest of Minot, where the thickness of overburden is more than 60 m (200 ft). Spectacular subsidence has occurred over a burning underground coal bed at Burning Coal Vein Park near the Little Missouri River, northwest of Amidon.

  10. Validity of mid arm circumference to detect protein energy malnutrition among 8-11 months old infants in a rural medical college of West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadhukhan, Sanjoy Kr; Chatterjee, Chitra; Shrivastava, Prabha; Sardar, Jadav Chandra; Joardar, Gautam Kr; Lahiri, Saibendu

    2010-09-01

    This institution-based cross-sectional observational validation study was conducted in the immunisation clinic of North Bengal Medical College and Hospital, Sushrutanagar. The objective was to identify the validity characteristics of mid arm circumference to detect protein energy malnutrition among 8-11 months infants and to find out a suitable cut-off value if any. Study variables were age, sex, body weight and mid arm circumference. Mid arm circumference was validated against weight for age criteria (gold standard) of malnutrition. The mean mid arm circumference of the infants was found to be almost constant with only about 2.22% change over 4 months, signifying that single cut-off point can be used to detect protein energy malnutrition. Mid arm circumference values from 13.0 to 12.5 cm were found to have the highest accuracy to detect protein energy malnutrition (about 86%). The cut-off values of 12.5 and 12.6 cm were noted to have a sensitivity and specificity of about 52% and 96% respectively, a false negativity of 48% but a false positivity of only 4%. Receiver operating characteristics curve detected 12.5(12.6) cm as the best diagnostic cut-off point which can detect more than 50% of the malnourished babies with very little false positivity/misdiagnosis (only 4%). A simple measuring tape with some reorientation of the health workers can detect the beginning of childhood malnutrition.

  11. Guanophilic fungi in three caves of southwestern Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fifty species of guanophilic (bat guano-loving) fungi were isolated from field-collected samples within three caves in south-western Puerto Rico; most were mitosporic fungi (23 species). The caves studied were Cueva La Tuna (Cabo Rojo), Cueva de Malano (Sistema de Los Chorros, San Germán), and Cuev...

  12. Morphological pattern of endometrial biopsies in southwestern Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Endometrium remains the most sensitive indicator of ovarian function and endometrial biopsy is one of the diagnostic procedures in endometrial pathology. The current study was carried out to examine the morphological pattern of endometrial biopsies in Ibadan, South-western Nigeria and compare the results ...

  13. A review of maternal mortality at Jimma Hospital, Southwestern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A retrospective review of hospital maternal deaths at Jimma Hospital, Southwestern Ethiopia, covering the period from September 1990 to May 1999 was conducted with the objectives of determining the overall maternal mortality rate, observing trend of maternal mortality during the period, and identifying major causes of ...

  14. Fragmentation patterns of evergreen oak woodlands in Southwestern Iberia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costa, A.; Madeira, M.; Lima Santos, J.

    2014-01-01

    Mediterranean evergreen oak woodlands (composed of Quercus suber L. and Quercus rotundifolia Lam.) are becoming increasingly fragmented in the human-modified landscapes of Southwestern Portugal and Spain. Previous studies have largely neglected to assess the spatial changes of oak woodlands...

  15. Estimation of the lion ( Panthera leo ) population in the southwestern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A previous estimate of the lion (Panthera leo) population in the southwestern Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park (KTP) was made over 20 years ago. This together with increased fears regarding the viability of the population as a result of recent killings of roaming animals, an observed increase in non-violent mortalities during ...

  16. Fire and birds in the southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl E. Bock; William M. Block

    2005-01-01

    Fire is an important ecological force in many southwestern ecosystems, but frequencies, sizes, and intensities of fire have been altered historically by grazing, logging, exotic vegetation, and suppression. Prescribed burning should be applied widely, but under experimental conditions that facilitate studying its impacts on birds and other components of biodiversity....

  17. lineament studies of rocks in omifunfun area, southwestern nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF EKWUEME

    under polarizing microscopes. The combination of petrographic and field observations give an insight into the number of episodes of deformation an area has undergone. Remnants of early fractures are preserved in the migmatite gneiss terrain of southwestern Nigeria. Ground truthing serves as a means of confirming what.

  18. Silvics and silviculture in the southwestern pinyon-juniper woodlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald J. Gottfried

    2004-01-01

    Southwestern pinyon-juniper and juniper woodlands cover large areas of the western United States. The woodlands have been viewed as places of beauty and sources of valuable resource products or as weed-dominated landscapes that hinder the production of forage for livestock. They are special places because of the emotions and controversies that encircle their management...

  19. Carbon and nitrogen cycling in southwestern ponderosa fine forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen C. Hart; Paul C. Selmants; Sarah I. Boyle; Steven T. Overby

    2007-01-01

    Ponderosa pine forests of the southwestern United States were historically characterized by relatively open, parklike stands with a bunchgrass-dominated understory. This forest structure was maintained by frequent, low-intensity surface fires. Heavy livestock grazing, fire suppression, and favorable weather conditions following Euro-American settlement in the late 19th...

  20. Evaluation of the tuberculosis control programme in a southwestern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of the tuberculosis control programme in a southwestern State, Nigeria. OK Ige, AA Fashina, MC Asuzu. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jcmphc.v22i1-2.68333 · AJOL African ...

  1. Effects of fire management of southwestern natural resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. S. Krammes

    1990-01-01

    The proceedings is a collection of papers and posters presented at the Symposium on Effects of Fire Management of Southwestern Natural Resources held in Tucson, Arizona, November 15-17, 1988. Included are papers, poster papers and a comprehensive list of references on the effects of fire on: plant succession, cultural resources, hydrology, range and wildlife resources...

  2. Recent emissions research in southwestern shrub and grassland fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    David R. Weise; Wayne Miller; David R. Cocker; Heejung Jung; Seyedehsan Hosseini; Marko Princevac; Robert J. Yokelson; Ian Burling; Sheryl Akagi; Shawn Urbanski; WeiMin Hao

    2015-01-01

    While it is currently challenging to use prescribed burning in chaparral and other southwestern shrub fuel types due to many constraints, any such activities require smoke management planning. Information on fuels and emissions from chaparral were limited and based on older sampling systems. The DoD SERDP program funded a project to measure fuels and smoke emissions in...

  3. Simulating the productivity of desert woody shrubs in southwestern Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the southwestern U.S., many rangelands have converted from native grasslands to woody shrublands dominated by creosotebush (Larrea tridentate) and honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa), threatening ecosystem health. Both creosotebush and mesquite have well-developed long root systems that allow t...

  4. Hydrology of southwestern encinal oak ecosystems: A review and more

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald J. Gottfried; Peter F. Ffolliott; Daniel G. Neary

    2007-01-01

    Information about the hydrology of oak ecosystems of the southwestern United States and northern Mexico is lacking (Lopes and Ffolliott 1992, Baker et al. 1995) even though the woodlands and savannas cover more than 31,000 square miles. These ecosystems generally are found between 4,000 and 7,300 feet in elevation. Precipitation occurs in the winter and summer and...

  5. Inclusive Education Practice in Southwestern Nigeria: A Situational Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeniyi, Samuel Olufemi; Adeyemi, Akinkunmi Oluwadamilare

    2015-01-01

    This study presented situational analysis of inclusive educational practice in southwestern Nigeria. The study employed descriptive survey research design. Samples of 131 teachers, 51 parents and 51 head teachers/principals were purposively selected from State Grammar School, Ipakodo Junior Grammar School, Methodist Grammar School, Ijokodo High…

  6. Cancer distribution pattern in south-western Nigeria | Awodele ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The burden of cancer in Nigeria is appreciable with about 100,000 new cancer cases been reported in the country each year. This study aimed to determine the level of occurrence and pattern of distribution of different cancer types in two major functional cancer registries in south-western Nigeria. A desk review of the level ...

  7. Dating Violence in South-Western Nigeria Tertiary Institutions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examined peace education as a means of curbing gap in knowledge and dating violence in South-western Nigeria tertiary institutions. Economic, social and psychological problems exert enormous pressures on students making them violent or docile in the face of challenges. These factors combine to make ...

  8. Mafic dykes at the southwestern margin of Eastern Ghats belt ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 119; Issue 6. Mafic dykes at the southwestern margin of ... LREE enrichment. In view of the chemical signatures of OIB source, the ma fic dykes could as well be related to continental rifting, around 1.3 Ga, which may have been initiated by intra-plate volcanism.

  9. Information needs of commercial poultry farmers in southwestern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Commercial poultry farming contributes to food security and employment generation but management problems often impede optimal performance. Therefore, the study investigated information needs of commercial poultry farmers in southwestern Nigeria. Multistage sampling procedure was used in selecting 163 members ...

  10. An Old-Growth Definition for Southwestern Subtropical Upland Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    David D. Diamond

    1998-01-01

    Mainly evergreen, broad-leaved forests in the Southwestern United States are restricted to the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas. The soils and long growing season make this region valuable cropland, and, thus, almost all of the area once occupied by this forest type has been converted to row crops. Remaining old-growth forests are usually dominated by some combination...

  11. 2014 annual site environmental report, Southwestern Power Administration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-12-31

    Southwestern Power Administration’s Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) serves as the chief reporting mechanism for site environmental performance information within the Department of Energy and as a valuable resource for shared and collaborative environmental protection and performance information to Agency stakeholders and members of the public living near Southwestern Power Administration’s (Southwestern) facilities and transmission line rights-of-ways. This ASER meets the requirements of Department of Energy (DOE) Order 231.B. Southwestern’s key environmental involvement includes an emphasis on the protection of ecological resources which is effectively accomplished through environmental program elements such as protecting water resources, generation of clean hydropower energy, oil spill prevention practices, elimination of green-house gas emissions, and comprehensive project reviews to ensure the protection of living organisms, migratory birds, Federally threatened or endangered species, and historic or cultural resources. Southwestern continues to actively minimize effects to natural resources and strive for continual improvement in the area of environmental compliance and sustainability while achieving the agency mission to market and deliver Federal hydroelectric power.

  12. Lineament studies of rocks in Omifunfun area, southwestern Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Omifunfun area is situated in the southern part of Ife-Ilesa Schist Belt of the basement complex of southwestern Nigeria. The study area is traversed by the Ifewara Fault Zone which divides the area into east-west with contrasting lithologies that have been variously mylonitized. To the east, is quartzite and to the west ...

  13. Genetic diversity of Ascaris in southwestern Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Betson, Martha; Nejsum, Peter; Llewellyn-Hughes, Julia

    2012-01-01

    Despite the common occurrence of ascariasis in southwestern Uganda, helminth control in the region has been limited. To gain further insights into the genetic diversity of Ascaris in this area, a parasitological survey in mothers (n=41) and children (n=74) living in two villages, Habutobere and M...

  14. lineament studies of rocks in omifunfun area, southwestern nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF EKWUEME

    Omifunfun area is situated in the southern part of Ife-Ilesa Schist Belt of the basement complex of southwestern. Nigeria. The study area is traversed by the Ifewara Fault Zone which divides the area into east-west with contrasting lithologies that have been variously mylonitized. To the east, is quartzite and to the west ...

  15. Edible North

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Anders Kristian

    2012-01-01

    -constitutive role in the formation of publics (Marres 2007) and the ways in which they are themselves reconfigured as ‘matters of concern’ (Latour 2003) in this process. I draw on digital cartographies and fieldwork carried out under the Carlsberg funded project Edible North: Mapping the ’New Nordic Food...

  16. Spatial analysis of the annual and seasonal aridity trends in Extremadura, southwestern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moral, Francisco J.; Paniagua, Luis L.; Rebollo, Francisco J.; García-Martín, Abelardo

    2017-11-01

    The knowledge of drought (or wetness) conditions is necessary not only for a rational use of water resources but also for explaining landscape and ecology characteristics. An increase in aridity in many areas of the world is expected because of climate change (global warming). With the aim of analysing annual and seasonal aridity trends in Extremadura, southwestern Spain, climate data from 81 locations within the 1951-2010 period were used. After computing the De Martonne aridity index at each location, a geographic information system (GIS) and multivariate geostatistics (regression kriging) were utilised to map this index throughout the region. Later, temporal trends were analysed using the Mann-Kendall test, and the Sen's estimator was utilised to estimate the magnitude of trends. Maps of aridity trends were generated by ordinary kriging algorithm, providing a visualisation of detected annual and seasonal tendencies. An increase in aridity, as the De Martonne aridity index decreased, was apparent during the study period, mainly in the more humid locations of the north of the region. An increase of the seasonal De Martonne aridity index was also found, but it was only statistically significant in some locations in spring and summer, with the highest decreasing rate in the north of Extremadura. Change year detection was achieved using cumulative sum graphs, obtaining that firstly the change point occurred in spring, in the mid-1970s, later in the annual period in the late 1970s and finally in summer at the end of the 1980s.

  17. Late Holocene climate variability in the southwestern Mediterranean region: an integrated marine and terrestrial geochemical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Martín-Puertas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A combination of marine (Alboran Sea cores, ODP 976 and TTR 300 G and terrestrial (Zoñar Lake, Andalucia, Spain geochemical proxies provides a high-resolution reconstruction of climate variability and human influence in the southwestern Mediterranean region for the last 4000 years at inter-centennial resolution. Proxies respond to changes in precipitation rather than temperature alone. Our combined terrestrial and marine archive documents a succession of dry and wet periods coherent with the North Atlantic climate signal. A dry period occurred prior to 2.7 cal ka BP – synchronously to the global aridity crisis of the third-millennium BC – and during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (1.4–0.7 cal ka BP. Wetter conditions prevailed from 2.7 to 1.4 cal ka BP. Hydrological signatures during the Little Ice Age are highly variable but consistent with more humidity than the Medieval Climate Anomaly. Additionally, Pb anomalies in sediments at the end of the Bronze Age suggest anthropogenic pollution earlier than the Roman Empire development in the Iberian Peninsula. The Late Holocene climate evolution of the in the study area confirms the see-saw pattern between the eastern and western Mediterranean regions and the higher influence of the North Atlantic dynamics in the western Mediterranean.

  18. Lithospheric structure of the southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Douri, Raed

    This dissertation investigates the crustal structure in the southwestern United States using different geophysical techniques. Surface wave analysis of paths in the SBR, CP, RGR, SRM and GP were conducted. The Moho of TUC-EPT path in the SBR is estimated at 30 km with upper mantle velocity of 7.85 km/sec. The Moho for the TUC-ALQ path is estimated between 29-34 km with upper mantle velocity of 4.2 km/sec. This path passes through SBR, CP and RGR. The Moho for the GOL-ALQ path in the SRM and RGR is estimated between 40-45 km with upper mantle velocity of 7.9 km/sec. The Moho for ALQ-EPT path in the RGR is estimated between 32-37 km/sec showing thinning in crust toward the south. Crustal structure between EPT-JCT shows a gradual increase in velocity over the crust with the Moho estimated at 39-44 km depth, reflecting mostly the stable craton of the GP. The path between ALQ-LUB shows higher velocities in the lower crust of 4.0 km/sec with the Moho estimated at 37-42 km depth which is similar to EPT-JCT, showing the more stable craton of the GP. Shear wave velocities for the GOL-DAL-LUB path derived from the inversion are 3.2 km/sec for the upper crust (17 km thick), 3.9 km/sec for the lower crust (25 km thick), and 4.1 km/sec for the uppermost mantle. Crustal structure for the path LUB-GOL-RCD path derived from the inversion shows a gradual increase of velocity with the Moho estimated at a depth of 42-47 km. Receiver function analysis was conducted for the Lajitas seismic station for all three back azimuths, NW, SE and SW. Moho depth is estimated at 34-36 km with shear wave velocities of 4.2 km/sec in the uppermost mantle for all back azimuths. These results suggest that the RGR extends south, but its effect is minimized compared to the El Paso area. Receiver function results from the ANMO seismic station for all three back azimuths SW, SE and NW show the Moho at a depth of 36 km. Analysis of three seismic lines in southern New Mexico show a Moho depth of 30-32 km

  19. Why Does the Bay of Bengal have a Strong Shallow Stratification?

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Asaro, E. A.

    2016-02-01

    Strong stratification in the upper 20m of the Bay of Bengal during the southwest monsoon limits the depth of mixing, thereby shortening the response time of ocean SST to intraseasonal oscillations and allowing the ocean to play a role in their dynamics. Although freshwater input from rain and from the Ganges-Brahmaputra and Irrawaddy river systems provides the necessary lateral density contrast, the mechanisms by which this is converted to a vertical stratification have remained unclear. One possible mechanism is submesoscale instabilities and eddies that slump horizontal gradients into the vertical at fronts, driven by the available potential energy in the gradient. Another is the vertical shear in the Ekman layer that advects lighter fresher water over denser water, driven by the wind. These two mechanisms have distinctly different physics, time and space scales and driving mechanisms. Here, we examine ship-based and autonomous data from 2014 and 2015 in the Bay of Bengal, taken as part of the ASIRI/OMM project joint between US and Indian scientists for evidence for the importance of these two mechanisms.

  20. Relative Sea Level Trends Along the Coast of the Bay of Bengal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, M.; Calmant, S.; Papa, F.; Delebecque, C.; Islam, A. S.; Shum, C. K.

    2016-12-01

    In the coastal belt of the Bay of Bengal, the sea level rise is one of a major threat, linked to climate change, which drastically affects the livelihoods of millions of people. A comprehensive understanding of sea level trends and its variability in this region is therefore crucial and should help to anticipate the impacts of climate change and implement adaptation strategies. This region is bordered mostly by Bangladesh, India, Malaysia, Myanmar, and Thailand. Here, we revisit the sea level changes in the Bay of Bengal region from tide gauges and satellite altimetry over the period 1993-2014. The 23 monthly mean tide gauge records, used in this study, are retrieved from PSMSL (15 records) and supplemented with Bangladeshi observations (8 records). We show that, over the satellite altimetry era, the sea level interannual/decadal variability is mainly due to ocean thermal expansion variability driven by IOD/ENSO events and their low frequency modulation. We focus on relative sea level rise at major coastal cities and try to separate the climatic signal (long term trend plus interannual/decadal variability) from local effects, in particular vertical land movements. Results from GPS are analysed where available. When no such data exist, vertical land movements are deduced from the combined use of tide gauge and altimetry data. While the analysis is performed over the whole region, a particular attention is given to the low-lyingBangladesh's coastal area.

  1. Serum Chemistry Variables of Bengal Tigers (Panthera tigris tigris Kept in Various Forms of Captivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Farooq*, S. Sajjad1, M. Anwar1 and B.N. Khan2

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available There is a dearth of published literature regarding the effect of captivity on serum chemistry variables of tigers kept in the zoos and wildlife sanctuaries. The present study was hence conducted to determine and compare serum chemistry values in tigers of Bengal origin (Panthera tigris tigris kept in captivity at Lahore zoo (LZ (n=4 and in semi natural environment of Lahore Wildlife Park (LWP (n=6, Pakistan. The tigers kept at LZ had significantly (P<0.05 higher mean concentrations of Cl- (108.6±0.57 versus 105.6±0.49 mmol/l and a significantly lower creatinine (1.78±0.06 versus 3.04±0.35mg/dl and AST values (41.66±0.77 versus 54.88±4.22 U/l than tigers kept at LWP. No other significant differences in serum chemistry were observed for both forms of captivity. Results would be useful for the evaluation of physiological and pathological alterations in wild and captive tiger individuals and populations not only in Pakistan but also for other countries harboring the Bengal tigers.

  2. Understanding the Patterns of Antibiotic Susceptibility of Bacteria Causing Urinary Tract Infection in West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunayana eSaha

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infection (UTI is one of the most common infectious diseases at the community level. In order to assess the adequacy of empirical therapy, the susceptibility of antibiotics and resistance pattern of bacteria responsible for UTI in West Bengal, India, were evaluated throughout the period of 2008-2013. The infection reports belonging to all age groups and both sexes were considered. E. coli was the most abundant uropathogen with a prevalence rate of 67.1%, followed by Klebsiella spp. (22% and Pseudomonas spp. (6%. Penicillin was least effective against UTI-causing E. coli and maximum susceptibility was recorded for the drugs belonging to fourth generation cephalosporins. Other abundant uropathogens, Klebsiella spp., were maximally resistant to broad-spectrum penicillin, followed by aminoglycosides and third generation cephalosporin. The antibiotic resistance pattern of two principal UTI pathogens, E. coli and Klebsiella spp. in West Bengal, appears in general to be similar to that found in other parts of the Globe. Higher than 50% resistance were observed for broad-spectrum penicillin. Fourth generation cephalosporin and macrolides seems to be the choice of drug in treating UTIs in Eastern India. Furthermore, improved maintenance of infection incident logs is needed in Eastern Indian hospitals in order to facilitate regular surveillance of the occurrence of antibiotic resistance patterns, since such levels continue to change.

  3. Total petroleum hydrocarbon in the tissues of some commercially important fishes of the Bay of Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Zakir A; Desilva, Classy; Badesab, Shahin

    2012-11-01

    The present study reports the level of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) in 27 commercially important fish, crustaceans and cephalopods from Orissa coast, Bay of Bengal to provide the baseline data for oil contamination in marine biota. The results showed significant differences in the TPH concentration in different species. Of all fish, Carangoides malabaricus showed the maximum TPH level (av. 13.70 μg g(-1)). In cephalopods, Loligo recorded the maximum TPH (av. 14.87 μg g(-1)) while Metapenaeus dobsoni recorded the maximum TPH (av. 13.18 μg g(-1)) among crustaceans. The concentration of TPH recorded in the present study were higher than the reported values from other studies in Bay of Bengal but were comparable with those of other Indian coast and Gulf water. The species recording maximum concentration and giving significant correlation coefficient may be of interest in oil pollution monitoring and can be used as indicator of hydrocarbon pollution in the region. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Needs assessment report for a young people's sexual health project in West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-12-01

    In collaboration with AIMS Research in Calcutta and with funding support from the West Bengal Sexual Health Project/Department for International Development, UK, the Thoughtshop Foundation conducted a study of the sexual health problems and information needs of young people in urban and rural West Bengal. The study was conducted during March-April 1997, targeting both male and female adolescents in the 12-19 age group, both in and out of school. The study involved a content analysis of letters received by the AIDS, Sex, Knowledge column; focus group discussions; interviews with key personalities who exert major influence on young people; and an institutional analysis of sexual health services available to the target population. The study's findings point to an almost lack of sexual awareness of sexual health issues and knowledge of the human anatomy among the target population and the people who influence them most (e.g., parents and teachers). Very often the very same people discourage young people's access to information about sexual health. While the institutional analysis indicates some progress in the provision of sexual health services to young people (e.g., awareness programs, counseling and condom promotion), access to reliable sources of information, including the mass media, is not available to many of them. full text

  5. Identification of interspecific hybrids between loquat (eriobotrya japonica lindl.) and bengal loquat (e. bengalensis hook.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y.; Deng, Q.; Zeng, J.; Zhang, J.

    2017-01-01

    Loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) is an important subtropical fruit; however, loquat fruitlets are vulnerable to cold injury in winter, which significantly decreases loquat yield in most production regions. In the present study, two loquat cultivars ('Dawuxing' and '4-1-5') and one wild loquat (E. bengalensis Hook., Bengal loquat), were used for interspecific hybridization to produce hybrids with characteristics of spring blooming to avoid cold injury of fruitlets. Hybrid seedlings were derived from direct cross (loquat as female parent and Bengal loquat as male parent) and reciprocal cross. The authenticity of 47 hybrid seedlings was confirmed using inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) molecular markers; and leaf morphological characteristics of the hybrid offspring and parents were preliminarily studied and compared. The results suggested that 23 true direct cross hybrids and 12 true reciprocal cross hybrids were obtained, with hybrid authenticity rates of 100 and 50.0%, respectively. Thus, a novel method of distant hybridization for loquat breeding was developed, and with their various genetic and morphological characteristics these hybrids could be valuable germplasms for horticultural use. (author)

  6. Nature of solute loads in the rivers of the Bengal drainage basin, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Dilip K.; Subramanian, V.

    1997-11-01

    The Bengal drainage basin is geologically one of the youngest and tectonically most active denudation regimes of the world, and encompasses the total lower reaches of the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) drainage basin. The GBM river system contributes around 4.5% of the total annual global freshwater flux to the oceans. The solute load of the GBM river system is dominated by the carbonate weathering products of the transport-limited denudation regime. However, in the Meghna basin, which drains a mountainous region, silicate weathering is slightly more predominant, and the solute load tends to be more influenced by the atmospheric contribution. The river system represents about 5% (152×10 6 t yr -1) of the annual global chemical flux to the world's oceans. The chemical denudation rate of the GBM system in the Bengal basin, is one of the world's highest (79-114 t km -2 yr -1), suggesting intensive weathering and erosion in the drainage basin both in Bangladesh as well as in the hinterlands of India and China.

  7. A study on association of smoking and gastric carcinoma in the residents of West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashis Kumar Saha, Goutam Chatterjee, Subhas Chandra Hazra

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the study is to know the association of tobacco intake in the form of smoking and chewing with gastric carcinoma in West Bengal. Materials and methods: Total 28860 patients (smokers and tobacco chewer 17240, nonsmokers 11620 were interrogated before performing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Among the smokers and tobacco chewers, isolated bidi and cigarette smokers were 5067, 9323 and 2850 respectively. Among 542 gastric cancer cases, smokers were 301 (165 cigarette and 136 bidi smokers and tobacco chewers 82 respectively. Then comparisons were done: 1. to know the incidence of smokers and nonsmokers in total number of patients, the influence of bidi and cigarette smoking on gastric carcinoma, 3] Effects of the early starters and number of cigarettes/bidi per day on gastric carcinogenesis. Again, comparisons were done to know influence of bidi and cigarettes on the sites of gastric carcinoma. Results: Bidi smokers, earlier starters of smoking and significantly (P<0.0001 suffered from gastric carcinoma. Heavy drinkers were mostly affected (P<0.0001. Conclusions: Bidi smokers, young heavy smokers were mostly affected. So there were strong associations between bidi smoking and gastric carcinoma in the residents of West Bengal.

  8. Spectral Wave Characteristics in the Nearshore Waters of Northwestern Bay of Bengal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjali Nair, M.; Sanil Kumar, V.; Amrutha, M. M.

    2018-03-01

    The spectral wave characteristics in the nearshore waters of northwestern Bay of Bengal are presented based on the buoy-measured data from February 2013 to December 2015 off Gopalpur at 15-m water depth. The mean seasonal significant wave height and mean wave period indicate that the occurrence of higher wave heights and wave periods is during the southwest monsoon period (June-September). 74% of the sea surface height variance in a year is a result of waves from 138 to 228° and 16% are from 48 to 138°. Strong inter-annual variability is observed in the monthly average wave parameters due to the occurrence of tropical cyclones. Due to the influence of the tropical cyclone Phailin, maximum significant wave height of 6.7 m is observed on 12 October 2013 and that due to tropical cyclone Hudhud whose track is 250 southwest of the study location is 5.84 m on 12 October 2014. Analysis revealed that a single tropical cyclone influenced the annual maximum significant wave height and not the annual average value which is almost same ( 1 m) in 2014 and 2015. The waves in the northwestern Bay of Bengal are influenced by the southwest and northeast monsoons, southern ocean swells and cyclones.

  9. Establishment and cryopreservation of a fibroblast cell line derived from Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, W J; Liu, C Q; Li, C Y; Liu, D; Zhang, W X; Ma, Y H

    2010-01-01

    The Bengal tiger ear marginal tissue fibroblasts cell line (BTF22), containing 157 tubes of frozen cells, was successfully established by using primary explants technique and cell cryoconservation technology. Biological analysis showed that the population doubling time (PDT) for revival cells was approximately 28 h. Measurement of LDH and MDH isoenzymes showed no cross-contamination among the cells. Karyotyping showed that the frequency of cells with chromosome number 2n = 38 was 90.6-92.2%. Tests for bacteria, fungi, viruses and mycoplasma were negative. Plasmids encoding the fluorescent proteins pEGFP-N3, pEGFP-C1, pECFP-N1, pECFP-mito, pDsRed1-N1, and pEYFP-N1 were transfected into cells to study exogenous gene expression in the cells. The plasmid transfection efficiency was between 4.4% and 31.9%. Every index of the BTF22 cell line meets all the standard quality controls of American type Culture Collection (ATCC). Not only has the germline of this important Bengal tiger species been preserved at the cell level, but also valuable material had been provided for genome, postgenome and somacloning research. Moreover, the establishment of this technical platform would provide both technical and theoretical support for storing the genetic resources of other animals and poultry at the cell level.

  10. Bay of Bengal Exhibits Warming Trend During the Younger Dryas: Implications of AMOC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panmei, Champoungam; Divakar Naidu, Pothuri; Mohtadi, Mahyar

    2017-12-01

    A sharp decline in temperature during the Younger Dryas (YD) preceding the current warmer Holocene is well documented in climate archives from the Northern Hemisphere high latitudes. Although the magnitude of YD cooling varied spatially, the response of YD cooling was well documented in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans but not in the Indian Ocean. Here we investigate whether the modern remote forcing of tropical Indian Ocean sea surface temperature (SST) by Northern Hemisphere climate changes holds true for events such as the YD. Our SST reconstruction from the western Bay of Bengal exhibits an overall warming of ˜1.8°C during the YD. We further compared our data with other existing Mg/Ca-based SST records from the Northern Indian Ocean and found no significant negative SST anomalies in both the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal compared to pre- and post-YD, suggesting that no apparent cooling occurred during the YD in the Northern Indian Ocean. In contrast, most part of the YD exhibits positive SST anomalies in the Northern Indian Ocean that coincide with the slowdown of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation during this period.

  11. The threat from sea and land. Regional report 2: the Bay of Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This article reports on the environmental threat caused by the Bay of Bengal on the economic situation in Bangladesh and India. More than four-fifths of Bangladesh amount to an extended delta at the confluence of one of the largest river systems in the world, comprising the Ganges, Brahmaputra, and Meghna. In the Brahmaputra watershed, the rate of deforestation caused soil erosion in the Himalayas is five times as much as in the geological past. This sediment loading is often considered to be a prime factor in downstream flooding. Because of this, Bangladesh agriculture products were damaged, which led to economic instability. Furthermore, as a result of the combined impacts of population growth, poverty, no land, and inadequate food supplies, many migrated into the neighboring Indian areas. Moreover, the susceptibility of the Bay of Bengal to cyclones has caused a great number of deaths leaving millions of people homeless. Cyclone episodes are expected to be more frequent as global warming continues. Furthermore, Bangladesh was estimated to be only 5 meters above sea level, which is considered vulnerable to sea level rise. On top of these problems, trouble from the other side of Bangladesh was also predicted with the combined outflow of the Ganges, Brahmaputra, and Meghna leading to more national damage.

  12. The dynamics of arsenic in four paddy fields in the Bengal delta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroud, Jacqueline L.; Norton, Gareth J.; Islam, M. Rafiqul; Dasgupta, Tapash; White, Rodger P.; Price, Adam H.; Meharg, Andrew A.; McGrath, Steve P.; Zhao Fangjie

    2011-01-01

    Irrigation with arsenic contaminated groundwater in the Bengal Delta may lead to As accumulation in the soil and rice grain. The dynamics of As concentration and speciation in paddy fields during dry season (boro) rice cultivation were investigated at 4 sites in Bangladesh and West Bengal, India. Three sites which were irrigated with high As groundwater had elevated As concentrations in the soils, showing a significant gradient from the irrigation inlet across the field. Arsenic concentration and speciation in soil pore water varied temporally and spatially; higher As concentrations were associated with an increasing percentage of arsenite, indicating a reductive mobilization. Concentrations of As in rice grain varied by 2-7 fold within individual fields and were poorly related with the soil As concentration. A field site employing alternating flooded-dry irrigation produced the lowest range of grain As concentration, suggesting a lower soil As availability caused by periodic aerobic conditions. - Research highlights: → Irrigation with As-contaminated groundwater resulted in a gradient of As concentration in the soil. → Arsenic concentration in paddy standing water decreased as arsenite was oxidised to arsenate. → Soil pore water As increased with the %arsenite, suggesting reductive mobilisation. → Alternative flooded-dry conditions led to lowest range of As concentration in rice grain. - Spatial variations of arsenic concentrations in paddy soil and waters do not correlate to within-field variations of arsenic concentrations in rice grain.

  13. HAEMATOLOGICAL IMPACT OF NATURALLY OCCURING TICK BORNE HAEMOPARASITIC INFECTIONS IN CATTLE OF WEST BENGAL, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apurba Debbarma

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Haemoparasites reduces productivity and may lead to high mortality among animals. The present study was carried out to evaluate the heamotological change in cattle of different districts in West Bengal, India affected with naturally occurring tick- borne haemoparasitic diseases (TBHD. A total of 310 cattle blood samples were screened for the presence of haemoparasites from July, 2015 to June, 2016. The blood samples were examined for haemoparasites by making thin blood smear and staining with Giemsa’s stain. The result showed that108 (34.84% cattle were found positive with TBHD, out of which 22.9% were Theileria sp, 5.8% were Babesia sp., 11.93% Anaplasma sp., and 5.8% were having mixed infection, respectively. The positive samples were subjected to estimations of haematological parameters i. e. Haemoglobin concentration (Hb, packed cell volume (PCV, total erythrocyte count (TEC and Total leucocytes count (TLC using standard protocol. The haematological analysis showed statistically a significant (p<0.01 decreased levels of Hb, PCV, TEC and TLC in infected groups of cattle compared to infection free group cattle. This is probably the first systematic report in West Bengal, India. The result showed the haemoparasites have a negative impact on haematological parameters. This study may be useful in disease epidemiological map preparation, parasitic control policy preparation of the study areas.

  14. Basin-wide seasonal evolution of the Indian Ocean's phytoplankton blooms

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Levy, M.; Shankar, D.; Andre, J.M.; Shenoi, S.S.C.; Durand, F.; DeBoyer Montegut, C.

    Sri Lanka up to the southwestern Bay of Bengal,244 in the northwest Bay of Bengal, along the coast of Indonesia, and in a subtropical band245 centered on 13.5 ◦ S. During winter (Figure 3b), the main blooms were in the northern246 Arabian Sea... the tongue-shaped region to the east of Sri Lanka (SL), the North West Bay of Bengal278 (NWBoB), a region along the coast of Indonesia (In), and a Tropical Band (TrB) located279 between 10–17 ◦ S.280 In the case of the winter blooms, this method led...

  15. Population dynamics of caribou herds in southwestern Alaska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Valkenburg

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The five naturally occurring and one transplanted caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti herd in southwestern Alaska composed about 20% of Alaska's caribou population in 2001. All five of the naturally occurring herds fluctuated considerably in size between the late 1800s and 2001 and for some herds the data provide an indication of long-term periodic (40-50 year fluctuations. At the present time, the Unimak (UCH and Southern Alaska Peninsula (SAP are recovering from population declines, the Northern Alaska Peninsula Herd (NAP appears to be nearing the end of a protracted decline, and the Mulchatna Herd (MCH appears to now be declining after 20 years of rapid growth. The remaining naturally occurring herd (Kilbuck has virtually disappeared. Nutrition had a significant effect on the size of 4-month-old and 10-month-old calves in the NAP and the Nushagak Peninsula Herd (NPCH and probably also on population growth in at least 4 (SAP, NAP, NPCH, and MCH of the six caribou herds in southwestern Alaska. Predation does not appear to be sufficient to keep caribou herds in southwestern Alaska from expanding, probably because rabies is endemic in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes and is periodically transferred to wolves (Canis lupus and other canids. However, we found evidence that pneumonia and hoof rot may result in significant mortality of caribou in southwestern Alaska, whereas there is no evidence that disease is important in the dynamics of Interior herds. Cooperative conservation programs, such as the Kilbuck Caribou Management Plan, can be successful in restraining traditional harvest and promoting growth in caribou herds. In southwestern Alaska we also found evidence that small caribou herds can be swamped and assimilated by large herds, and fidelity to traditional calving areas can be lost.

  16. Sedimentology and arsenic pollution in the Bengal Basin: insight into arsenic occurrence and subsurface geology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hills, Andrew; McArthur, John

    2014-05-01

    The Bengal delta system is a geologically recent feature overlying a deeply incised palaeo-surface formed during the Last Glacial Maximum. This surface is a series of terraces and valleys created by river incision (Goodbred & Kuehl 2003). The terraces were weathered, forming a thin, indurated laterite deposit (Goodbred & Kuehl 2000) at depths greater than 50 m. McArthur et al. (2008) define this as a palaeosol and have identified it at depths greater than 30 m though out Bangladesh and West Bengal. It has been observed that arsenic concentrations at these sites are lower than the rest of the delta. It has been assumed that the surface morphology at sites where there is a palaeosol are similar and can therefore be characterised by remote sensing, in the form of Google Earth images. Sites were selected in Bangladesh and West Bengal, from work by McArthur et al. (2011); Hoque et al. (2012), where groundwater chemistry and sedimentology data are available making it possible to determine if the subsurface is a palaeo-channel or palaeo-interfluve. Arsenic concentration data have been inputted into Google Earth and the palaeo-channels marked where the arsenic concentration is greater than 10 µg/L, and palaeo-interfluves where arsenic concentration is less than 10 µg/L. The surface morphologies in these domains have been examined for similarities, and it was shown that avulsion scars and abandoned river channels are found where arsenic concentrations are greater than 10 µg/L. Conversely the surrounding areas that are devoid of channel scars have arsenic concentrations less than 10 µg/L. Using the correlation between avulsion features being representative of palaeo-channels and high arsenic concentrations, sites were selected that had a similar surface morphology to the type localities. A comparison of these images and arsenic concentrations showed that the postulate is valid for over 80 percent of cases. Where this is not valid, this could indicate that the subsurface

  17. Models of regional habitat quality and connectivity for pumas (Puma concolor in the southwestern United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett G Dickson

    Full Text Available The impact of landscape changes on the quality and connectivity of habitats for multiple wildlife species is of global conservation concern. In the southwestern United States, pumas (Puma concolor are a well distributed and wide-ranging large carnivore that are sensitive to loss of habitat and to the disruption of pathways that connect their populations. We used an expert-based approach to define and derive variables hypothesized to influence the quality, location, and permeability of habitat for pumas within an area encompassing the entire states of Arizona and New Mexico. Survey results indicated that the presence of woodland and forest cover types, rugged terrain, and canyon bottom and ridgeline topography were expected to be important predictors of both high quality habitat and heightened permeability. As road density, distance to water, or human population density increased, the quality and permeability of habitats were predicted to decline. Using these results, we identified 67 high quality patches across the study area, and applied concepts from electronic circuit theory to estimate regional patterns of connectivity among these patches. Maps of current flow among individual pairs of patches highlighted possible pinch points along two major interstate highways. Current flow summed across all pairs of patches highlighted areas important for keeping the entire network connected, regardless of patch size. Cumulative current flow was highest in Arizona north of the Colorado River and around Grand Canyon National Park, and in the Sky Islands region owing to the many small habitat patches present. Our outputs present a first approximation of habitat quality and connectivity for dispersing pumas in the southwestern United States. Map results can be used to help target finer-scaled analyses in support of planning efforts concerned with the maintenance of puma metapopulation structure, as well as the protection of landscape features that facilitate

  18. Stratigraphy and petroleum possibilities of lower Upper Devonian (Frasnian and lower Framennian) strata, Southwestern Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biller, Edward J.

    1976-01-01

    The lower Upper Devonian rocks in southwestern Utah--the Guilmette Formation and equivalents--represent a final regressive pulse of the major Late Devonian marine inundation of the Western Interior of the United States and record marine carbonate deposition on a wide continental shelf. They consist primarily of limestone, dolomite, and quartz arenite deposited in a shallow north-trending miogeosyncline, which constituted a single major basin of accumulation on this shelf. The Guilmette Formation and equivalents were deposited in shallow normal to hypersaline marine waters. The environments of deposition include: a moderate- to high-energy intertidal environment, a moderate-energy subtidal environment, a lower energy, deeper subtidal environment below effective wave base, and a high-energy environment in local shallow areas of mud mounds and bioherms. The carbonate deposition of the Guilmette Formation and equivalents was interrupted periodically by the deposition of quartz arenites. These may represent the breaking up of the miogeosynclinal-cratonic pattern of deposition. In most areas, the Guilmette and equivalents are overlain by a thin transgressive marine quartz arenite deposit--the Cove Fort Quartzite and basal Leatham equivalent. Previous paleontologic evidence indicated a general Middle to Late Devonian age for the Guilmette Formation. The present study narrows this range and suggests that the age of the Guilmette Formation and its equivalents is late Middle Devonian (Stringocephalus brachiopod zone) to early Late Devonian (Uppermost Palmatolepis gigas conodont zone). Available subsurface data suggest that the petroleum possibilities of the Guilmette Formation and equivalents in southwestern Utah are poor. Several tests have penetrated .the interval with only minor shows of oil in rocks with low porosity and permeability. Nevertheless, many outcrop samples of the same interval, appear to have excellent porosity and permeability and a strongly fetid odor,

  19. Tamarix as habitat for birds: Implications for riparian restoration in the Southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogge, M.K.; Sferra, S.J.; Paxton, E.H.

    2008-01-01

    Exotic vegetation has become a major habitat component in many ecosystems around the world, sometimes dramatically changing the vegetation community structure and composition. In the southwestern United States, riparian ecosystems are undergoing major changes in part due to the establishment and spread of the exotic Tamarix (saltcedar, tamarisk). There are concerns about the suitability of Tamarix as habitat for birds. Although Tamarix habitats tend to support fewer species and individuals than native habitats, Arizona Breeding Bird Atlas data and Birds of North America accounts show that 49 species use Tamarix as breeding habitat. Importantly, the relative use of Tamarix and its quality as habitat vary substantially by geographic location and bird species. Few studies have examined how breeding in Tamarix actually affects bird survivorship and productivity; recent research on Southwestern Willow Flycatchers has found no negative effects from breeding in Tamarix habitats. Therefore, the ecological benefits and costs of Tamarix control are difficult to predict and are likely to be species specific and site specific. Given the likelihood that high-quality native riparian vegetation will not develop at all Tamarix control sites, restoration projects that remove Tamarix but do not assure replacement by high-quality native habitat have the potential to reduce the net riparian habitat value for some local or regional bird populations. Therefore, an assessment of potential negative impacts is important in deciding if exotic control should be conducted. In addition, measurable project objectives, appropriate control and restoration techniques, and robust monitoring are all critical to effective restoration planning and execution. ?? 2008 Society for Ecological Restoration International.

  20. Global Research Initiative in Alpine Environments: A New GLORIA Site in Southwestern Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apple, M. E.; Pullman, T. Y.; Mitman, G. G.

    2007-12-01

    Global climate change is expected to have pronounced effects on the alpine environments and thus the alpine plants of western North America. Predicted responses include an upward migration of treelines, altered species compositions, changes in the percentage of land covered by vegetation, and a change in the phenology of alpine plants. To determine the effects of climate change on the alpine flora of southwestern Montana, we are installing a GLORIA (Global Research Initiative in Alpine Environments) site in order to monitor temperature, species composition, and percent cover of vascular plants, lichens, and mosses along an ascending altitudinal gradient. We are including lichens and mosses because of their importance as ecological indicator species. The abundance and spatial distribution of lichens and mosses provides essential baseline data for long-term monitoring of local and global impacts on the environment. Mt. Fleecer (9250 ft.), which is west of the continental divide and semi-isolated from other peaks in the Anaconda-Pintlar Range, is currently the most likely location for the southwestern Montana GLORIA site. Mt. Fleecer is accessible because it does not have the steep and hazardous glaciated talus cirques that characterize many of the neighboring, higher peaks. However, if an accessible and suitable higher summit is found, then it will be included as the highest summit in the GLORIA site. Interesting species at Mt. Fleecer include the whitebark pine, Pinus albicaulis, which is a keystone species in high mountain ecosystems of the western United States and Canada, the green gentian, Frasera speciosa, and the shooting star, Dodecatheon pulchellum. Data from this site will become part of a global network of GLORIA sites with which we will assess changes in alpine flora. Information gained from this GLORIA site can also be used as a link between studies of alpine climate change and related investigations on the timing of snowmelt and its influence on

  1. A New GLORIA (Global Research Initiative in Alpine Environments Site in Southwestern Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apple, M. E.; Warden, J. E.; Apple, C. J.; Pullman, T. Y.; Gallagher, J. H.

    2008-12-01

    Global climate change is predicted to have a major impact on the alpine environments and plants of western North America. Alpine plant species and treelines may migrate upwards due to warmer temperatures. Species composition, vegetation cover, and the phenology of photosynthesis, flowering, pollination, and seed dispersal may change. The Global Research Initiative in Alpine Environments (GLORIA) is a network of alpine sites established with the goal of understanding the interactions between climate change and alpine plants. The Continental Divide traverses Southwestern Montana, where the flora contains representative species from both sides of the divide. In the summer of 2008, we established a GLORIA site in southwestern Montana east of the Continental Divide with the objective of determining whether the temperature changes at the site, and if so, how temperature changes influence alpine plants. We are monitoring soil temperature along with species composition and percent cover of alpine plants at four sub-summits along an ascending altitudinal gradient. We placed the treeline, lower alpine, and upper alpine sites on Mt. Fleecer (45°49'36.06"N, 112°48'08.18"W, 2886.2 m (9469 ft)) and the highest sub-summit on Keokirk Mountain, (45°35'37.94"N, 112°57'03.89"W, 2987.3 m (9801 ft)) in the Pioneer Range. Interesting species on these mountains include Lewisia pygmaea, the Pygmy Bitterroot, Silene acaulis, the Moss Campion, Eritrichium nanum, the Alpine Forget-Me-Not, Lloydia serotina, the Alpine Lily, and Pinus albicaulis, the Whitebark Pine. This new site will remain in place indefinitely. Baseline and subsequent data from this site will be linked with the global network of GLORIA sites with which we will assess changes in alpine flora.

  2. Groundwater-Mining-Induced Subsidence and Earth Fissures in Cedar Valley, Southwestern Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, T. R.; Inkenbrandt, P.; Lund, W. R.; Lowe, M.; Bowman, S. D.

    2014-12-01

    Groundwater pumping in excess of recharge (groundwater mining) has lowered the potentiometric surface in Cedar Valley, southwestern Utah, by as much as 114 feet since 1939. Lowering the potentiometric surface (head decline) has caused permanent compaction of fine-grained sediments of the Cedar Valley aquifer. Recently acquired interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) imagery shows that land subsidence is occurring over an ~100 square-mile area, including two pronounced subsidence bowls in the northeastern (Enoch graben) and southwestern (Quichapa Lake area) parts of the valley. A lack of accurate historical benchmark elevation data over much of the valley prevents detailed long-term quantification of subsidence. In response to the land subsidence, earth fissures have formed along the margins of the Enoch graben and north and west of Quichapa Lake. Our initial inventory of Cedar Valley fissures, which relied on aerial-photography analysis, identified 3.9 miles of fissures in 2009. With newly acquired light detection and ranging (LiDAR) coverage in 2011, we more than doubled the total length of mapped fissures to 8.3 miles. Fissures on the west side of the Enoch graben exhibit ongoing vertical surface displacement with rates as high as 1.7 inches/year. The largest Enoch-graben-west fissure has displaced street surfaces, curb and gutter, and sidewalks, and has reversed the flow direction of a sewer line in a partially developed subdivision. Several Cedar Valley fissures are closely associated with, and in some places coincident with, mapped Quaternary faults. While the majority of Cedar Valley fissures are mapped in agricultural areas, continued groundwater mining and resultant subsidence will likely cause existing fissures to lengthen and new fissures to form that may eventually impact other developed areas of the valley.

  3. Models of regional habitat quality and connectivity for pumas (Puma concolor) in the southwestern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, Brett G; Roemer, Gary W; McRae, Brad H; Rundall, Jill M

    2013-01-01

    The impact of landscape changes on the quality and connectivity of habitats for multiple wildlife species is of global conservation concern. In the southwestern United States, pumas (Puma concolor) are a well distributed and wide-ranging large carnivore that are sensitive to loss of habitat and to the disruption of pathways that connect their populations. We used an expert-based approach to define and derive variables hypothesized to influence the quality, location, and permeability of habitat for pumas within an area encompassing the entire states of Arizona and New Mexico. Survey results indicated that the presence of woodland and forest cover types, rugged terrain, and canyon bottom and ridgeline topography were expected to be important predictors of both high quality habitat and heightened permeability. As road density, distance to water, or human population density increased, the quality and permeability of habitats were predicted to decline. Using these results, we identified 67 high quality patches across the study area, and applied concepts from electronic circuit theory to estimate regional patterns of connectivity among these patches. Maps of current flow among individual pairs of patches highlighted possible pinch points along two major interstate highways. Current flow summed across all pairs of patches highlighted areas important for keeping the entire network connected, regardless of patch size. Cumulative current flow was highest in Arizona north of the Colorado River and around Grand Canyon National Park, and in the Sky Islands region owing to the many small habitat patches present. Our outputs present a first approximation of habitat quality and connectivity for dispersing pumas in the southwestern United States. Map results can be used to help target finer-scaled analyses in support of planning efforts concerned with the maintenance of puma metapopulation structure, as well as the protection of landscape features that facilitate the dispersal

  4. Salinity maxima associated with some sub-surface water masses in the upper layers of the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varadachari, V.V.R.; Murty, C.S.; Reddy, C.V.G.

    The distribution of some sub-surface water masses in the western bay of Bengal during the south-west monsoon period is presented. Based on the salinity maxima and sigma t values the existence of waters of Persian Gulf and Red Sea origin could...

  5. Hydrographical features of the southern and central Bay of Bengal during the transition period between winter and summer

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, L.V.G.; Jayaraman, R.

    During Feb.-Mar. 1963, INS KISTNA has carried out its 6th and 7th oceanographic cruises in the southern and central parts of Bay of Bengal under the Indian Programme of IIOE. With the physical oceanographic data collected in these cruises...

  6. Towards Ladyland: Rokeya Sakhawat Hossain and the Movement for Women's Education in Bengal, "c." 1900-"c." 1932

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagchi, Barnita

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses the work of Rokeya Sakhawat Hossain (1880-1932), urban Bengali Muslim educator and writer, placing her in the wider context of women organising themselves in associations to create social change through education for women, in the province of undivided Bengal in colonial India, from "c." 1900 to "c." 1932. A…

  7. The increasing impact of food production on nutrient export by rivers to the Bay of Bengal 1970–2050

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sattar, M.A.; Kroeze, C.; Strokal, M.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the impact of food production on river export of nutrients to the coastal waters of the Bay of Bengal in the past (1970 and 2000) and the future (2030 and 2050), and the associated potential for coastal eutrophication. We model nutrient export from land to

  8. Dinoflagellate community structure from the stratified environment of the Bay of Bengal, with special emphasis on harmful algal bloom species

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naik, R.K.; Hegde, S.; Anil, A.C.

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs) have been documented along the coasts of India and the ill effects felt by society at large. Most of these reports are from the Arabian Sea, west coast of India, whereas its counterpart, the Bay of Bengal (BOB), has...

  9. Simulation of barotropic wind-driven circulation in tbe Bay of Bengal and Andaman Sea during premonsoon and postmonsoon seasons

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Unnikrishnan, A.S.; Bahulayan, N.

    Two-dimensional vertically integrated model has been used to simulate depth-mean wind-driven circulation during premonsoon and postmonsoon seasons in the upper layers of the Bay of Bengal and Andaman Sea. The model is integrated for 365 d, forcEd...

  10. Acoustic propagations in the presence of a subsurface cold core eddy in the Bay of Bengal - A case study

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrasannaKumar, S.; Navelkar, G.S.; Murty, T.V.R.; Murty, C.S.

    Acoustic characteristics of a cold core eddy, observed in the Bay of Bengal during southwest monsoon period is studied using CTD data along the western boundary. The presence of eddy brings about a reduction in the ambient sound speEd. by 10 m.s sup...

  11. Sound-speed structure and propagational characteristics of a cold core eddy in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrasannaKumar, S.; Babu, M.T.; Murty, T.V.R.

    An analysis of acoustic characteristics of a cold core eddy in the Bay of Bengal reveals that the eddy introduces in sound-speEd. by about 10 ms-1. The depth of deep sound channel axis beneath eddy remains constant whereas thickness of surface duct...

  12. Evolution of extreme high waters along the east coast of India and at the head of the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Antony, C.; Unnikrishnan, A.S.; Woodworth, P.L.

    . For the other stations, Cox's Bazaar, Paradip Visakhapatnam and Chennai, no significant trends were observed. At inter-annual time scales, changes in extreme high waters in the Bay of Bengal were found to be influenced by the El Niño Southern Oscillation...

  13. Differences in heat budgets of the near-surface Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal: Implications for the summer monsoon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shenoi, S.S.C.; Shankar, D.; Shetye, S.R.

    An analysis of the heat budgets of the near-surface Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal shows significant differences between them during the summer monsoon (June-September). In the Arabian Sea the winds associated with the summer monsoon are stronger...

  14. Intrusion of the Bay of Bengal water into the Arabian Sea during winter monsoon and associated chemical and biological response

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrasannaKumar, S.; Narvekar, J.; Kumar, A.; Shaji, C.; Anand, P.; Sabu, P.; Rijomon, G.; Josia, J.; Jayaraj, K.A.; Radhika, A.; Nair, K.K.C.

    : Physicochemical properties. Citation: Prasanna Kumar, S., et al. (2004), Intrusion of the Bay of Bengal water into the Arabian Sea during winter monsoon and associated chemical and biological response, Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L15304, doi:10.1029/2004GL020247. 1...

  15. Corrosion of metals and alloys in the coastal and deep waters of the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sawant, S.S.; Venkat, K.; Wagh, A.B.

    Corrosion rate of mild steel (MS), stainless steel (SS), copper, brass and cupro-nickel has been determinEd. by exposing metallic coupons in coastal and oceanic waters of the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal. Amongst the metals and alloys under study...

  16. Thermal response of upper layers of Bay of Bengal to forcing of a severe cyclonic storm: A case study

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gopalakrishna, V.V.; Murty, V.S.N.; Sarma, M.S.S.; Sastry, J.S.

    Upper ocean response to forcing of a severe cyclonic storm during May 1990 in the western Bay of Bengal was studied using the XBT data sets collected (4 d after passage of storm) under Indian TOGA programme. A maximum lowering in the sea surface...

  17. Past 20,000-year history of Himalayan aridity: Evidence from oxygen isotope records in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chauhan, O.S.

    Late Quaternary climate history of the Himalayas is inferred from sea surface salinity (SSS) changes determined from the oxygen isotope in planktonic foraminifers, in a turbidity-free, 14C-dated core from the Bay of Bengal. The heaviest d18O...

  18. New technique using [125I]labeled rose bengal for the quantification in blood samples of pipecuronium bromide, a muscle relaxant drug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schopfer, C.; Benakis, A.; Pittet, J.-F.; Tassonyi, E.

    1991-01-01

    A new technique involving the use of [ 125 I]labeled rose bengal for the quantification of pipecuronium bromide (a muscle relaxant drug) is presented. This technique, which is based on the ability of rose bengal to react with pipecuronium and then form a complex which can be extracted into an organic solvent, involves two steps: the purification and labeling of rose bengal with 125 I, and the quantification of pipecuronium. The specific activity of the compound (106 μCi/mg) allows for the quantification of pipecuronium in biological samples at concentrations as low as 5 ng/ml. (author)

  19. Climate induced changes in the circulation and dispersal patterns of the fluvial sources during late Quaternary in the middle Bengal Fan

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chauhan, O.S.; Vogelsang, E

    -1 Climate induced changes in the circulation and dispersal patterns of the fluvial sources during late Quaternary inthemiddleBengalFan Onkar S Chauhan1,asteriskmath and E Vogelsang2 1National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa 403 004, India. 2... con- tributes towards the growth of the Bengal Fan ? the largest of its kind in the world (Van der Borch et al 1974). The Bengal Fan extends for 3000 km N?S and 1430 km E?W at 15openbullet N. Several valleys mark the surface of the fan in the central...

  20. Fluoride-contaminated groundwater of Birbhum district, West Bengal, India: Interpretation of drinking and irrigation suitability and major geochemical processes using principal component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batabyal, Asit Kumar; Gupta, Srimanta

    2017-08-01

    The present research work is confined to a rural tract located in the north-western part of Birbhum district, West Bengal, India. Chemical analysis of the groundwater shows the cations is in the order of Na +  > Ca 2+  > Mg 2+ while for anions it is HCO 3 ─  > Cl ─  > SO 4 2─  > NO 3 ─ . The F ─ concentration was found to vary from 0.01 to 18 mg/L in the pre-monsoon and 0.023 to 19 mg/L in post-monsoon period. 86% of samples show low F ─ content (1.2 mg/L) mainly in the central and north-central parts of the study area at a depth of 46 to 98 m. The prime water type is CaHCO 3 succeeded by F ─ -rich NaHCO 3 and NaCl waters. The suitability analysis reveals that the water at about 81% of the sampling sites is unsuitable for drinking and at 16% of sites unsuitable for irrigation. The alkaline nature of the water and/or elevated concentration of Fe, Mn and F ─ make the water unsuitable for potable purposes while the high F ─ and Na + contents delimit the groundwater for irrigation uses. Multivariate statistical analysis suggests that chemical weathering along with ion exchange is the key process, responsible for mobilization of fluoride in groundwater of the study area.

  1. STUDIES ON BODY GROWTH PATTERN OF BLACK BENGAL GOAT ACCORDING TO AGRO-CLIMATIC ZONES AND REARING PRACTICES IN WEST BENGAL, INDIA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujoy Kumar Sikder

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to investigate the growth performances of Black Bengal goats reared under four different agro-climatic regions of West Bengal as well as different managerial practices during January 2012 to December’2013. Although birth weight did not show significant (p>0.05 variation irrespective of zones and rearing systems, higher birth weight was recorded in Undulating Red and Lateritic zone (1.149±0.036 kg and Coastal Saline zone (1.148±0.053 kg than the Gangetic Alluvial zone (1.115±0.048 kg and Terai-Teesta Alluvial zone (1.047±0.057 kg. The zone-wise variation of body weights at 0-3 months, 3-6 months, 6-9 months and 9-12 month and above age group remained highly significant (p<0.01. At 0-3 months of age group the highest body weight was recorded in Coastal Saline zone (6.368±0.102 kg, followed by Gangetic Alluvial (5.814±0.126 kg, Undulating Red and Lateritic (5.405 ±0.105 kg and Terai-Teesta Alluvial region (4.922±0.098 kg. At 3-6 months of age group the highest body weight was recorded in Gangetic Alluvial Zone (8.699±0108 kg, followed by Coastal Saline (8.580±0.088 kg, Undulating Red and Lateritic (7.519±0.096 kg and Terai-Teesta Alluvial Zone (7.242±0.100 kg. At 6-9 months and 9-12 months and above age the highest body weight was recorded in Coastal Saline zone (11.713 ±0.128 kg and 12.097±0.127 kg followed by Terai-Teesta Alluvial (10.655±0.186 kg and 11.212±0.389 kg, Gangetic Alluvial (10.577±0.157 kg and 10.928±0.197 kg and Undulating Red and Lateritic Zone (9.075±0.107 kg and 9.671±0.116 kg. In all the age groups (except at birth better body growth was observed in case of semi-intensive system of goat rearing.

  2. Impact of remineralization depth on the intensity of oxygen minimum zones in the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, Muchamad Al; Lachkar, Zouhair; Smith, Shafer; Levy, Marina

    2017-04-01

    The combination of high primary productivity and weak oceanic ventilation in the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal in the northern Indian Ocean generates vast areas of depleted dissolved oxygen at depth, known as Oxygen Minimum Zones (OMZs). The Arabian Sea OMZ is the world's thickest and contributes by up to 40% to the global ocean removal of biologically available nitrogen via a process known as denitrification. In contrast, the OMZ in the Bay of Bengal is weaker and is denitrification free. The underlying mechanisms explaining these contrasts remain poorly understood. In the present study, we demonstrate that the deeper remineralization depth (RD) in the Bay of Bengal that results from organic matter aggregation with mineral particles from rivers contributes to weaken its OMZ relative to that in the Arabian Sea. To this end, we conducted a series of eddy-resolving simulations of the Indian Ocean using the Regional Oceanic Modeling System (ROMS) model coupled to a NPZD type ecosystem model. When the RD is set uniformly across both seas, the model fails to reproduce the observed intensity contrasts between the two OMZs, irrespective of the chosen RD value. In contrast, when the RD is allowed to vary spatially between the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal, the contrasting distributions of oxygen and nitrate are correctly reproduced between the two seas, and water column denitrification is simulated exclusively in the Arabian Sea, in agreement with observations. Our findings highlight the need for a dynamic representation of RD in global models that explicitly accounts for spatial variations in organic matter export efficiency. Finally, our study exemplifies how contrasting the biogeochemical conditions in the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal can be used to improve our understanding of the dynamics of OMZs and the drivers of their variability.

  3. Southwestern Power Administration Combined Financial Statements, 2006-2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-09-01

    We have audited the accompanying combined balance sheets of the Southwestern Federal Power System (SWFPS), as of September 30, 2009, 2008, 2007, and 2006, and the related combined statements of revenues and expenses, changes in capitalization, and cash flows for the years then ended. As described in note 1(a), the combined financial statement presentation includes the hydroelectric generation functions of another Federal agency (hereinafter referred to as the generating agency), for which Southwestern Power Administration (Southwestern) markets and transmits power. These combined financial statements are the responsibility of the management of Southwestern and the generating agency. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on these combined financial statements based on our audits. We conducted our audits in accordance with auditing standards generally accepted in the United States of America. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audits to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the combined financial statements are free of material misstatement. An audit includes consideration of internal control over financial reporting as a basis for designing audit procedures that are appropriate in the circumstances, but not for the purpose of expressing an opinion on the effectiveness of Southwestern and the generating agency’s internal control over financial reporting. Accordingly, we express no such opinion. An audit also includes examining, on a test basis, evidence supporting the amounts and disclosures in the combined financial statements, assessing the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall combined financial statement presentation. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion. In our opinion, the combined financial statements referred to above present fairly, in all material respects, the respective financial position of the Southwestern Federal Power

  4. Reconstructing the Glacial Cycle of the Last 150 ka in the Southern Bay of Bengal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, B.; Dekens, P.; Weber, M. E.; Lantzsch, H.; Reilly, B. T.; Das, S. K.; Martos, Y. M.; Williams, T.

    2017-12-01

    The Himalayas and resulting monsoonal climate provide the source and mechanism for sediment deposition in the Bay of Bengal. Sediments from the distal Bengal Fan collected during IODP expedition 354, with the exception the westernmost Site U1454, show a several meter thick, hemipelagic top layer representing the Late Quaternary. This interval has abundant foraminifera throughout and therefore presents a unique opportunity to reconstruct oceanographic conditions, alongside records of terrestrial climate variability. We reconstructed oceanographic conditions at IODP site U1452 (8°N, 87°E, 3671 m water depth), in the southern Bay of Bengal. The age model was constructed by tuning the core's sediment lightness, L*, to the EDML ice core. The Toba Ash 1 (73.7 ka) is an additional constraint leading to an age model with a total of 35 tie points. We sampled the top 3.5 m of sediment at 2 cm resolution, and picked between 8 to 30 tests of the mixed surface layer planktonic foraminifera G. sacculifer from each sample. The tests were cracked open between two glass plates and the sample was homogenized before being split into separate aliquots for d18O and Mg/Ca analysis. Mg/Ca data range from 2.5 to 4.1 mmol/mol and show a SST change of 2-4°C between glacial and interglacial times. The δ18O data range from -2.63 to 0.17‰. The data shows the shift from the cooler glacial period into the warming interglacial period at 15 ka ending the LGM. The apparent late timing of the deglaciation in the record could be an artifact of lower resolution of the δ18O data (compared to the benthic stack). It is also possible the offset in the timing is due to the age model limitations and the assumption of linear sedimentation rates between tie points. We will further explore the age model implications by measuring d18O on benthic foraminifera where available in the sediment core. In collaboration with scientists from IODP Expedition 354, this data can be used to examine the link between

  5. Effect of temperature variation on hormonal concentration at various gestation stages in black Bengal goat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binod Kumar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of risingtemperature on the metabolic as well as the reproductive performance of the black Bengal goat. Materials and Methods: A total 27 numbers of non-pregnant black Bengal goats of the same parity comprised the experimental animals. The selected goats were randomly assigned to 3 groups of 9 each, maintaining uniformity in body weight (average 14-18 kg. Goats in Group-I were kept between the temperature ranges of 35-40°C, in Group-II between 20°Cand 27°C, and Group-III were kept under loose housing system and serve as a control. Goats in all the groups were bred naturally. Blood was collected prior to feeding in the morning on the day 1 (estrus, 20, 45, 90, and 135, expected day of parturition and also 2 days after parturition from goats of all the three groups. Results: It was observed that the level of plasma estrogen decreased (p˂0.05 up to day 45 of gestation, then after increased up to 135 days of gestation and was maximum on expected day of parturition which was significantly (p˂0.05 higher than all the values. Plasma progesterone level increased from day 20 and was the highest on day 90 and then decreased significantly (p˂0.05 on expected date of parturition. The luteinizing hormone value decreased significantly (p˂0.05 on expected day of parturition and day 2 after parturition in all the groups. Follicle stimulating hormone concentration showed a significant (p˂0.05 decrease from day 1 to 2 days after parturition in all the groups. The plasma triiodothyronine (T3 level did not vary between and within the treatment groups at any stage of the experiment. The plasma thyroxine (T4 level varied significantly (p˂0.01 within and (p˂0.05 between groups at all stages of reproduction. A significant (p<0.05 variation in plasma cortisol concentration in all the groups increased significantly until the day of parturition and dropped significantly (p<0.01 in 2 days after

  6. Hydrochemistry of the Bay of Bengal: Possible reasons for a different water-column cycling of carbon and nitrogen from the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, C.K.; Naqvi, S.W.A; DileepKumar, M.; Varaprasad, S; Jayakumar, D.A; George, M.D.; Singbal, S.Y.S

    A study on biogeochemical cycling in the western Bay of Bengal was undertaken during two seasons (pre-southwest monsoon and northeast monsoon of 1991). Relationships of the conservative tracers NO and PO with potential temperature (~f) are used...

  7. Objective mapping of observed sub-surface mesoscale cold core eddy in the Bay of Bengal by stochastic inverse technique with tomographically simulated travel times

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murty, T.V.R.; Rao, M.M.M.; Sadhuram, Y.; Sridevi, B.; Maneesha, K.; SujithKumar, S.; Prasanna, P.L.; Murthy, K.S.R.

    of Bengal during south-west monsoon season and explore possibility to reconstruct the acoustic profile of the eddy by Stochastic Inverse Technique. A simulation experiment on forward and inverse problems for observed sound velocity perturbation field has...

  8. Respiration rates in subsurface waters of the northern Indian Ocean: Evidence for low decomposition rates of organic matter within the water column in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naqvi, S.W.A.; Shailaja, M.S.; DileepKumar, M.; Sengupta, R.

    Depth profiles of activity of the respirtory Electron Transport System (ETS) have been generated at several locations in the northern Indian Ocean. The results reveal much lower ETS activities in subsurface waters of the Bay of Bengal than those...

  9. Estimation of tropical cyclone heat potential in the Bay of Bengal and its role in the genesis and intensification of storms

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sadhuram, Y.; Murthy, T.V.R.; Somayajulu, Y.K.

    In the present study, cyclone heat potential (CHP) in the Bay of Bengal has been estimated for different seasons using Levitus climatology. A good association was noticed between CHP and the efficiency of intensification (i.e the ratio between...

  10. Effects of Seasonal Land Surface Conditions on Hydrometeorological Dynamics in South-western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-21

    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: Arid and semiarid landscapes in regions with seasonal precipitation experience dramatic changes that alter land surface...semiarid landscapes in regions with seasonal precipitation experience dramatic changes that alter land surface conditions, including soil moisture...aerial vehicle data acquisition and high performance computing-based hydrologic modeling designed to capture, account for and predict seasonal variations

  11. Miocene floras from Fingerrock Wash, southwestern Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Jack A.

    1964-01-01

    Two floras of Miocene age, the Fingerrock and Stewart Spring, are found in a stratigraphic section that also contains fossil mammals. The Fingerrock flora occurs in beds below the Stewart Spring local fauna of transitional HemingfordianBarstovian (middle-late Miocene) age, and the Stewart Spring flora occurs above that fauna but below the Cedar Mountain local fauna of Cerrotejonian (earliest Pliocene) age.The late Hemingfordian Fingerrock flora was dominated by the live oak, Quercus chrysolepis, but most of the flora is composed of species found in contemporaneous floras of the Columbia Plateau. These species include lobed Quercus, Carya, Ulmus, Zelkova, Platamis, and Acer. The lack here of certain other species found in this association to the north indicates that the Fingerrock flora lived in a drier climate than prevailed at the same time on the Columbia Plateau. Nevertheless the Fingerrock flora was a warm-temperate mesophytic flora. Twenty-four species are described from the Fingerrock flora, none of which are new. The early, or more probably middle, Barstovian Stewart Spring flora is, besides the expected lacustrine element, dominated by Quercus chrysolepis, Picea breweriana, and Chamaecyparis nootkatensis. This assemblage is typically found only in western Nevada and is further restricted to floras of Barstovian and Clarendonian age. Most of the species in the Stewart Spring flora appear to be descended from northern mesophytic forms, although the flora has a subhumid aspect different from the northern floras. Only a small element in the Stewart Spring flora may contain species of southern origin. Several phylads in the Stewart Spring flora are now found on the margins of and in the Great Basin. The Stewart Spring flora contains 42 described species, 9 of which are new.

  12. Seroprevalence of Oestrus ovis infection in sheep in southwestern Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, C; Steng, G; Prevot, F; Dorchies, P

    2002-12-11

    The aim of the survey was to determine the seroprevalence of Oestrus ovis infection in flocks in southwestern Germany. Serum samples collected from 1497 sheep (>6 months of age) of 110 flocks in 1997 and 1998 were examined for antibodies to crude somatic antigens of O. ovis second-stage larvae using an ELISA test. Data on the farm management were obtained by a questionnaire. Overall, 76% of the flocks had at least one seropositive animal, and the seroprevalence of anti-Oestrus antibodies was 50% in sheep. Flock size was the only risk factor significantly associated with the detection of antibodies. Larger flocks (>50 ewes) were more likely to be seropositive than smaller ones. These results show that Oestrus infections are widespread in sheep in southwestern Germany. Further investigations are required to estimate the economic importance of oestrosis and the efficiency of control measures. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science B.V.

  13. Greetings and Politeness in Doctor-Client Encounters in Southwestern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akin Odebunmi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Doctors and clients sometimes experience interactiveclashes during hospital meetings in South-western Nigerianhospitals because of their divergent culture-constrainedorientation to politeness cues. The goal of this paper is tounpack the discursive elements that characterize interactiveconfluence and divergence in selected consultativeencounters in the hospitals. The findings indicate thatinstitutional and cultural (disalignments occur in respect ofadjacency and non-adjacency pair greetings. In bothgreeting types, face support, threat and stasis are conjointlyco-constituted by doctors and Yoruba clients within theaffordances of the cultural, institutional and situationalcontext of the Southwestern Nigerian hospital setting.Adjacency pair greetings attract mutual interpretingsbetween the parties; interactive disalignments aredifferentially pragmatically accommodated by doctors andclients. In non-adjacency pair greeting, doctors’ threats areco-constituted as appropriate by both parties, theinstitutional power of doctor and shared Western culturalorientation playing significant roles.

  14. Original Article. Identification of Cercospora species in southwestern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrooz Seyed Yousef

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Cercospora species are associated with leaf spot symptoms on various host plants. In this research, nine species of the genus on some medicinal and economic crops were found in different locations in Kohgiluyeh and Boyerahmad Provinces (southwestern Iran and examined according to morphological characteristics of stromata, conidiophores, conidiogenous cells and conidia. Results showed that Cercospora species on Cichorium intybus (C. cichorii and Nasturtium officinale (C. nasturtii are new for the mycobiota of Iran. However, characteristics of Cercospora on Plantago lanceolata are very similar to the description of C. plantaginis, but morphologically indistinguishable from C. apii s. lat. Other species have already been reported from other parts of Iran, but are new in southwestern Iran. Furthermore, Rumex crispus and Trifolium resupinatum are new hosts for C. apii and C. zebrina in Iran, respectively.

  15. Population dynamics of caribou herds in southwestern Alaska

    OpenAIRE

    Valkenburg, Patrick; Sellers, Richard A.; Squibb, Ronald C.; Woolington, James D.; Aderman, Andrew R.; Dale, Bruce W.

    2003-01-01

    The five naturally occurring and one transplanted caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti) herd in southwestern Alaska composed about 20% of Alaska's caribou population in 2001. All five of the naturally occurring herds fluctuated considerably in size between the late 1800s and 2001 and for some herds the data provide an indication of long-term periodic (40-50 year) fluctuations. At the present time, the Unimak (UCH) and Southern Alaska Peninsula (SAP) are recovering from population declines, the N...

  16. Extended megadroughts in the southwestern United States during Pleistocene interglacials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawcett, P.J.; Werne, J.P.; Anderson, R. Scott; Heikoop, J.M.; Brown, E.T.; Berke, M.A.; Smith, S.J.; Goff, F.; Donohoo-Hurley, L.; Cisneros-Dozal, L. M.; Schouten, S.; Damste, J.S.S.; Huang, Y.; Toney, J.; Fessenden, J.; Woldegabriel, G.; Atudorei, V.; Geissman, J.W.; Allen, Craig D.

    2011-01-01

    The potential for increased drought frequency and severity linked to anthropogenic climate change in the semi-arid regions of the southwestern United States (US) is a serious concern. Multi-year droughts during the instrumental period and decadal-length droughts of the past two millennia were shorter and climatically different from the future permanent, ‘dust-bowl-like’ megadrought conditions, lasting decades to a century, that are predicted as a consequence of warming. So far, it has been unclear whether or not such megadroughts occurred in the southwestern US, and, if so, with what regularity and intensity. Here we show that periods of aridity lasting centuries to millennia occurred in the southwestern US during mid-Pleistocene interglacials. Using molecular palaeotemperature proxies to reconstruct the mean annual temperature (MAT) in mid-Pleistocene lacustrine sediment from the Valles Caldera, New Mexico, we found that the driest conditions occurred during the warmest phases of interglacials, when the MAT was comparable to or higher than the modern MAT. A collapse of drought-tolerant C4 plant communities during these warm, dry intervals indicates a significant reduction in summer precipitation, possibly in response to a poleward migration of the subtropical dry zone. Three MAT cycles ∼2 °C in amplitude occurred within Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 11 and seem to correspond to the muted precessional cycles within this interglacial. In comparison with MIS 11, MIS 13 experienced higher precessional-cycle amplitudes, larger variations in MAT (4–6 °C) and a longer period of extended warmth, suggesting that local insolation variations were important to interglacial climatic variability in the southwestern US. Comparison of the early MIS 11 climate record with the Holocene record shows many similarities and implies that, in the absence of anthropogenic forcing, the region should be entering a cooler and wetter phase.

  17. Socioeconomic Condition and Anaemia among the Mahishya Population of Southern West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharati, Premananda; Ghosh, Rohini; Gupta, Ranjan

    2004-03-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted among the Mahishya population of Chakpota village in Southern West Bengal to determine the relationship between socio-economic conditions and certain haematological parameters, haemoglobin level and haemotocrit. Households were divided into high, middle and low socioeconomic groups on the basis of per capita income per year. The demographic data were collected from all the 255 households comprising 404 adult males and 383 adult females (above 20 years of age). Higher values in the parameters were observed among the males in all the three socioeconomic sub-groups. Significant differences in haemoglobin level and haemotocrit of males were observed between the three socioeconomic groups (p= discrimination in food sharing seems to be the major cause for the gender difference in haemoglobin status in all the three economic groups. It is apparent from the study that cultural factors play an important role in determining the haemoglobin status at micro-level, even in high-income households.

  18. Milk marketing under cooperative and non-cooperative marketing channels: Evidence from west Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarker Debnarayan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study is an attempt to empirically investigate the price spread, marketing costs, marketing margins, marketing efficiency, and profit efficiency among market middlemen under cooperative and non-cooperative marketing channels in the domestic trade market of liquid milk in West Bengal. One of the important findings of this study is that, although the inter-market (and intramarket price variation for liquid milk under the cooperative marketing agency in not far from uniformity, and all marketing agencies under cooperative channels receive much lower abnormal profit per unit of milk as compared with non-cooperative channels, the former fails to provide much economic benefit, either to the producer or to the consumer, because of the burden of much higher fixed cost per unit of liquid milk.

  19. Evidence for Wolbachia symbiosis in microfilariae of Wuchereria bancrofti from West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayen, Prajna; Maitra, Sudipta; Datta, Sutapa; Babu, Santi P Sinha

    2010-03-01

    Wolbachia are symbiotic endobacteria that infect the majority of filarial nematodes, including Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi and Onchocerca volvulus. Recent studies have suggested that Wolbachia are necessary for the reproduction and survival of filarial nematodes and have highlighted the use of antibiotic therapy such as tetracycline/doxycycline as a novel method of treatment for infections caused by these organisms. Before such therapy is conceived and implemented on a large scale, it is necessary to assess the prevalence of the endosymbiont in W. bancrofti from different geographical locations. We present data from molecular and electron microscopic studies to provide evidence for Wolbachia symbiosis in W. bancrofti microfilariae collected from two districts (Bankura and Birbhum) of West Bengal, India.

  20. A Study on Problems of Hijras in West Bengal Based on Neutrosophic Cognitive Maps

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    Kalyan Mondal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the problems faced by Hijras in West Bengal in order to find its solutions using neutrosophic cognitive maps. Florentin Smarandache and Vasantha Kandasamy studied neutrosophic cognitive map which is an extension of fuzzy cognitive map by incorporating indeterminacy. Hijras is considered as neither man nor woman in biological point of view. They are in special gender identity (third gender in Indian society. In their daily life, they have to face many of problems in social aspects. Some of the problems namely, absence of social security, education problem, bad habits, health problem, stigma and discrimination, access to information and service problem, violence, Hijra community issues, and sexual behavior problem are considered in this study. Based on the expert’s opinion and the notion of indeterminacy, we formulate neutrosophic cognitive map. Then we studied the effect of two instantaneous state vectors separately on connection matrix E and neutrosophic adjacency matrix N(E.

  1. Diet of Bengal Tigers (Panthera tigris tigris in Chitwan National Park, Nepal

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    Bhandari Shivish

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We studied the diet of the Bengal tigers (Panthera tigris tigris in Chitwan National Park, Nepal, by identifying 109 prey items from 85 tiger scats. Tigers in this region fed upon eight different mammal species. Chital (Axis axis was the major prey with a frequency of 45% of the Tigers’ diet. The occurrence of other prey species included sambar (Cervus unicolor, 23%, wild pig (Sus scrofa, 15%, hog deer (Axis porcinus, 9%, barking deer (Muntiacus muntjak, 4%, and gaur (Bos gaurus, 2%. Tigers also hunted livestock, but this prey comprised a small component of the relative biomass (buffalo 5% and cow 2%. Our study suggests that the tiger depends mostly upon wild prey for its subsistence in the Chitwan National Park, but will also sporadically hunt livestock.

  2. Human and cattle population changes in deltaic West Bengal, India between 1977-1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odend' hal, S.

    1988-03-01

    In 1967-1970, 3.81 km/sup 2/ of a densely populated deltaic area of Hooghly district in West Bengal, India was intensively studied. This same area was resurveyed in 1977 and 1987. From 1977-1987, the human population has increased 10.1%, while the number of households has increased 25%. The total number of children below 10 years of age has diminished. The cattle have increased 26.5%. The number of working-age male cattle has dropped significantly with reliance, primarily on hand tractor power for field cultivation. The number of female cattle has increased substantially. Artificial insemination and the use of temperate breeds of bulls have had an obvious impact. Improvements in the general environment were observed.

  3. Inbreeding effects on palmar dermatoglyphic characters in three endogamous social groups of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banik, S Datta

    2014-02-01

    The present study reports inbreeding effects on mean palmar dermatoglyphic characteristics: triradial count on palm, maximal atd angle, adt angle, td ridge count, ab ridge count, main line index (MLI) and ab ridge breadth. Samples were drawn from adult males belonging to three endogamous sections representing Hindu caste Telaga of Kharagpur (West Midnapore), Ansari Muslims of Nandigram (East Midnapore) and Sheik-Sunni Muslims of Braddhaman in West Bengal, India. Consistent trend of higher mean triradial number, adt angle, and lower mean td ridge count, ab ridge count, and ab ridge breadth was observed in inbred sections compared to their non-inbred relatives in three social groups. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Diversity and community structure of aquatic insects in a pond in Midnapore town, West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, Sarmistha; Pahari, Priti R; Dutta, Tapan Kr; Bhattacharya, Tanmay

    2009-03-01

    In total 20 species of aquatic insects have been recorded from a weed infested pond. Odonata was numerically the most abundant group constituting of 54% of the total aquatic insects even though these belonged to three species. Coleoptera though constituted only 22% of aquatic insects had 10 species. Urothemis signata and Ranatra filliformes were eudominant and dominant species respectively. Hydrometra butlen is recorded from West Bengal for the first time. Five species of Hemiptera, Ranatra filiformes, Ranatra elongata, Diplonychus rusticus, Micronecta merope, Genis nitida and Hydrometra butlen; three species of Odonata, Urothemis signata, Agriocnemis pygmoea and Enllagma parvum and one species of Coleoptera viz., Coplatus indicus have been recorded from Paschim Medinipore district for the first time. Species diversity and evenness indices fluctuated from month to month and from one sampling site to other being <1 suggest a stressed and disturbed environment.

  5. Studies on thyroid activity at sexual maturity in the male and female Bengal goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varshney, V.P.; Pande, J.K.; Sanwal, P.C.

    1980-01-01

    Thyroid activity at sexual maturity in the male and female Black Bengal goats was investigated. No change could be recorded at the attainment of sexual maturity in either of the sexes. The cyclic female goats also failed to reflect any change in the thyroid activity during any phase of the oestrous cycle. Again the male goats also failed to reflect any differences in the thyroid activity from the females, either during their immature, or during their mature life. The observations presented thus reflect that the thyroid activity in goats is not influenced by the attainments of sexual maturity or by the sex, in this species. The thyroid gland activity was assessed by using the in vitro technique of triiodothyronine- 125 I uptake by resin. (author)

  6. CEFTRIAXONE RELATED ADVERSE DRUG REACTIONS IN CHILDREN IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL, KOLKATA, WEST BENGAL, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjan Adhikari

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Ceftriaxone is a third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic, which has broad-spectrum activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. It is a frequently used antibiotic in children worldwide. Studies revealed a number of adverse reactions related to this third generation antibiotic. A survey was done where data related with adverse drug reactions (ADRs were collected for three months from the Department of Pediatrics of a tertiary care hospital, Kolkata, West Bengal, India and then evaluated. In the study, fifteen ADRs were detected. Ceftriaxone itself or its combinations correlated with more than thirty three percent (33.4% adverse reaction cases in this study. Most common adverse drug reactions in the present study population were different types of rashes like urticaria and maculopapular eruptions.

  7. Rose Bengal-decorated silica nanoparticles as photosensitizers for inactivation of gram-positive bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo Yanyan; Zhang Peng [Department of Chemistry, New Mexico Tech, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Rogelj, Snezna, E-mail: pzhang@nmt.edu [Department of Biology, New Mexico Tech, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States)

    2010-02-10

    A new type of photosensitizer, made from Rose Bengal (RB)-decorated silica (SiO{sub 2}-NH{sub 2}-RB) nanoparticles, was developed to inactivate gram-positive bacteria, including Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), with high efficiency through photodynamic action. The nanoparticles were characterized microscopically and spectroscopically to confirm their structures. The characterization of singlet oxygen generated by RB, both free and immobilized on a nanoparticle surface, was performed in the presence of anthracene-9,10-dipropionic acid. The capability of SiO{sub 2}-NH{sub 2}-RB nanoparticles to inactivate bacteria was tested in vitro on both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The results showed that RB-decorated silica nanoparticles can inactivate MRSA and Staphylococcus epidermidis (both gram-positive) very effectively (up to eight-orders-of-magnitude reduction). Photosensitizers of such design should have good potential as antibacterial agents through a photodynamic mechanism.

  8. Anaesthetic management of two Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris cubs for fracture repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gareth E. Zeiler

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This case series describes the anaesthetic management of two sibling Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris cubs that were found to have spontaneous femur fractures due to severe nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism. Both cubs received a combination of medetomidine (25 µg/kg and ketamine (4 mg/kg intramuscularly and were maintained with isoflurane in oxygen. An epidural injection of morphine (0.1 mg/kg and ropivacaine (1.6 mg/kg was administered to both tigers, which allowed a low end-tidal isoflurane concentration to be maintained throughout the femur fracture reduction operations. Both cubs experienced profound bradycardia and hypotension during general anaesthesia, and were unresponsive to anticholinergic treatment. Possible causes for these cardiovascular complications included: drug pharmacodynamics (medetomidine, morphine, isoflurane, decreased sympathetic tone due to the epidural (ropivacaine and hypothermia. These possible causes are discussed in detail.

  9. Sonodynamically-induced cytotoxicity by rose bengal derivative and microbubbles in isolated sarcoma 180 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugita, Nami; Hosokawa, Mami; Sunaga, Naoki; Iwase, Yumiko; Yumita, Nagahiko; Ikeda, Toshihiko; Umemura, Shin-ichiro

    2015-07-01

    It is known that the combination of ultrasound and sonodynamic sensitizer (SDS) is effective in noninvasive tumor treatment, referred to as sonodynamic therapy (SDT). Microbubbles have been used in ultrasound therapy as well. The purpose of this paper is to clarify the effect of microbubbles on SDT. Sarcoma 180 cells were suspended in air-saturated phosphate-buffered saline and exposed to ultrasound with the SDS rose bengal derivative (RBD) in standing wave mode in the presence and absence of microbubbles [sonazoid (SZ)]. The ultrasonically induced cytotoxicity with RBD and SZ was about 20 times higher than without either, and about 80% of the SZ microbubbles were destructed by ultrasonic exposure in as short as five seconds. Since microbubbles induce significant cytotoxicity even with short duration, low intensity ultrasound, the application of microbubbles in SDT shows promise in anti-tumor treatment.

  10. Evaluation of registered visually disabled individuals in a district of West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghosh Sambuddha

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the sociodemographic characteristics, degree and cause of visual disability among certified visually disabled individuals in a rural district of West Bengal, India and to identify possible lacunae, if any, in the existing certification system. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study by secondary data analysis of medical records of 155 visually disabled individuals and their 310 eyes. Demographical features, diagnosis, percentage of visual disability and work activity status of each individual were analyzed. Results: One hundred and thirty one (84.52% individuals had 100% disability. The number of males was significantly higher than that of females. Fifty eight (37.42% individuals were below 21 years of age. Phthisis bulbi was the most common cause followed by microphthalmos. Further, 81.29% patients had the same lesion bilaterally. Conclusion: Patients with higher grades of disability have attended certification boards. A large number of disabled individuals comprised children and young adults. Male gender bias demands concern.

  11. Removal of arsenic from ground water samples collected from West Bengal, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajith, Nicy; Swain, K.K.; Dalvi, Aditi A.; Verma, R.

    2015-01-01

    Arsenic contamination in ground water is one of the major concerns in many parts of the world including Bangladesh and India. Considering the high toxicity of arsenic, World Health Organization (WHO) has set a provisional guideline value of 10 μg L -1 for arsenic in drinking water. Several methods have been adopted for the removal of arsenic from drinking water. Most of the methods fail to remove As(III), the most toxic form of arsenic. An extra oxidative treatment step is essential for effective removal of total arsenic. Manganese dioxide (MnO 2 ) oxidizes As(III) to As(V). Removal of arsenic from water using manganese dioxide has been reported. During this work, removal of arsenic from ground water samples collected from arsenic contaminated area of West Bengal, India were carried out using MnO 2

  12. Physiological responses of coastal phytoplankton (Visakhapatnam, SW Bay of Bengal, India) to experimental copper addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Haimanti; Bandyopadhyay, Debasmita

    2017-10-01

    Trace amount of copper (Cu) is essential for many physiological processes; however, it can be potentially toxic at elevated levels. The impact of variable Cu concentrations on a coastal phytoplankton community was investigated along a coastal transect in SW Bay of Bengal. A small increase in Cu supply enhanced the concentrations of particulate organic carbon, particulate organic nitrogen, biogenic silica, total pigment, phytoplankton cell and total bacterial count. At elevated Cu levels all these parameters were adversely affected. δ 13 C POM and δ 15 N POC reflected a visible signature of both beneficial and toxic impacts of Cu supply. Skeletonema costatum, the dominant diatom species, showed higher tolerance to increasing Cu levels relative to Chaetoceros sp. Cyanobacteria showed greater sensitivity to copper than diatoms. The magnitude of Cu toxicity on the phytoplankton communities was inversely related to the distance from the coast. Co-enrichment of iron alleviated Cu toxicity to phytoplankton. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Idiopathic polyradiculoneuropathy in a Bengal cat: electrophysiological findings and 1 year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granger, Nicolas; Stalin, Catherine E; Brown, Thomas B Harcourt; Jeffery, Nick D

    2008-12-01

    This report describes a rapidly progressive loss of motor function in a 16-month-old male neutered Bengal cat, beginning in the pelvic limbs and progressing to involve all limbs and rendering the cat non-ambulatory. The neurological examination revealed flaccid tetraparesis with decreased spinal reflexes but preserved conscious proprioception and skin sensation. Extensive electrophysiological tests were conducted including electromyography, motor and sensory peripheral nerves potential recordings and 'late' potentials, defining the electrodiagnostic characteristics of this disease. Based on the electrophysiological findings, a generalised proximal and predominantly axonal neuropathy affecting the ventral (motor) nerve roots was suspected. As no aetiology was identified, this disease was classified as idiopathic polyradiculoneuropathy. Over a year, the cat presented three separate episodes of tetraparesis, each with a spontaneous complete recovery, consistent with the reportedly good prognosis for this disease.

  14. N2 production rates limited by nitrite availability in the Bay of Bengal oxygen minimum zone

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bristow, L.A; Callbeck, C.M.; Larsen, M.; Altabet, M.A.; Dekaezemacker, J.; Forth, M.; Gauns, M.; Glud, R.N.; Kuypers, M.M.M.; Lavik, G.; Milucka, J.; Naqvi, S.W.A.; Pratihary, A.K.; Revsbech, N.P.; Thamdrup, B.; Treusch, A.H.; Canfield, D.E.

    . Geosci., vol.10; 2017; 24-29 N2 production rates limited by nitrite availability in the Bay of Bengal oxygen minimum zone L.A. Bristow1,2*, C.M. Callbeck2*, M. Larsen1*, M.A. Altabet3, J. Dekaezemacker2, M. Forth1, M. Gauns4, R.N. Glud1, M... make the BoB a major player in the marine nitrogen cycle. 7    References 1.  Codispoti  LA,  Brandes  JA,  Christensen  JP,  Devol  AH,  Naqvi  SWA,  Paerl  HW,  et  al.  The  oceanic  fixed  nitrogen  and  nitrous  oxide  budgets: Moving  targets...

  15. Bengal Fan sediment transport activity and response to climate forcing inferred from sediment physical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, M. E.; Wiedicke-Hombach, M.; Kudrass, H. R.; Erlenkeuser, H.

    2003-02-01

    We obtained sediment physical properties and geochemical data from 47 piston and gravity cores located in the Bay of Bengal, to study the complex history of the Late Pleistocene run-off from the Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers and its imprint on the Bengal Fan. Grain-size parameters were predicted from core logs of density and velocity to infer sediment transport energy and to distinguish different environments along the 3000-km-long transport path from the delta platform to the lower fan. On the shelf, 27 cores indicate rapidly prograding delta foresets today that contain primarily mud, whereas outer shelf sediment has 25% higher silt contents, indicative of stronger and more stable transport regime, which prevent deposition and expose a Late Pleistocene relic surface. Deposition is currently directed towards the shelf canyon 'Swatch of No Ground', where turbidites are released to the only channel-levee system that is active on the fan during the Holocene. Active growth of the channel-levee system occurred throughout sea-level rise and highstand with a distinct growth phase at the end of the Younger Dryas. Coarse-grained material bypasses the upper fan and upper parts of the middle fan, where particle flow is enhanced as a result of flow-restriction in well-defined channels. Sandier material is deposited mainly as sheet-flow deposits on turbidite-dominated plains at the lower fan. The currently most active part of the fan with 10-40-cm-thick turbidites is documented for the central channel including inner levees (e.g., site 40). Site 47 from the lower fan far to the east of the active channel-levee system indicates the end of turbidite sedimentation at 300 ka for that location. That time corresponds to the sea-level lowering during late isotopic stage 9 when sediment supply to the fan increased and led to channel avulsion farther upstream, probably indicating a close relation of climate variability and fan activity. Pelagic deep-sea sites 22 and 28 contain a 630

  16. Disseminated mycobacteriosis due to Mycobacterium avium in captive Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Ho-Seong; Kim, Yong-Hwan; Park, Nam-Yong

    2006-05-01

    A 2-year-old captive female Bengal Tiger (Panthera tigris) died after prolonged anorexia in the Gwangju Uchi Park Zoo, Gwangju, Republic of Korea. Necropsy revealed multiple nodules of varying sizes in the lung, liver, kidney, and spleen. Histopathologic examination revealed a typical granuloma composed of caseous necrotic areas surrounded by lymphocytes with a few giant cells and foamy macrophages. Periodic acid-Schiff stain and Gomori methenamine silver stain did not reveal any fungal bodies. The Ziehl-Neelsen acid-fast stain revealed few acid-fast organisms in the lung, liver, kidney, and spleen. A polymerase chain reaction assay of the lung, liver, kidney, and spleen yielded a positive result for Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium. This is an unusual case of disseminated infection of a wild mammal with avian mycobacteriosis, and is believed to be most likely associated with the feeding of tigers with culled chickens infected with M. avium.

  17. Chronic encephalomyelitis caused by canine distemper virus in a Bengal tiger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blythe, L L; Schmitz, J A; Roelke, M; Skinner, S

    1983-12-01

    A chronic progressive neurologic disease was observed and monitored for 18 months in a young, tamed Bengal tiger. Clinical, serologic, and neuropathologic evidence of canine distemper virus infection was seen. Clinical signs included convulsions, myoclonus, and slowly progressive ataxia. Marked increases in neutralizing antibodies against canine distemper virus were seen in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid. Neuropathologic findings were nonsuppurative meningoencephalomyelitis, with perivascular cuffing, demyelination, and inclusion bodies typical of canine distemper virus. It was concluded that, in light of this case and an earlier report of canine distemper in lion cubs, vaccination of this subgroup of carnivores with a killed vaccine may be beneficial if exposure to other animals susceptible to canine distemper is anticipated.

  18. Mosquitoes of the mangrove forests of India: part 2--Sundarbans, West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajavel, A R; Natarajan, R; Vaidyanathan, K

    2005-06-01

    Mosquitoes of 19 species belonging to 9 subgenera and 6 genera, Aedes, Aedeomyia, Anopheles, Armigeres, Culex, and Mansonia, were recorded in Sundarbans mangrove forest in West Bengal, India. With 6 and 5 species, respectively, the 2 genera Culex and Anopheles were found to be more diverse while less than 3 species were recorded in the other 4 genera. Adults were mainly collected resting on walls in the guesthouse, tree holes in the forest, landing on humans in the guesthouse, and in the forest, and in light traps. Larvae were obtained from tree holes in the forest. The list of species recorded is not conclusive due to the restriction in access to most parts of the mangroves due to the presence of tigers. The occurrence of the urban species Cx. quinquefasciatus within the Sajnakhali sanctuary is indicative of the need to monitor environmental changes that result with the introduction of man-made facilities.

  19. Anaesthetic management of two Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris cubs for fracture repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gareth E. Zeiler

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This case series describes the anaesthetic management of two sibling Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris cubs that were found to have spontaneous femur fractures due to severe nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism. Both cubs received a combination of medetomidine (25 µg/kg and ketamine (4 mg/kg intramuscularly and were maintained with isoflurane in oxygen. An epidural injection of morphine (0.1 mg/kg and ropivacaine (1.6 mg/kg was administered to both tigers, which allowed a low end-tidal isoflurane concentration to be maintained throughout the femur fracture reduction operations. Both cubs experienced profound bradycardia and hypotension during general anaesthesia, and were unresponsive to anticholinergic treatment. Possible causes for these cardiovascular complications included: drug pharmacodynamics (medetomidine, morphine, isoflurane, decreased sympathetic tone due to the epidural (ropivacaine and hypothermia. These possible causes are discussed in detail.

  20. Chordoma of the thoracic vertebrae in a Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuramochi, Mizuki; Izawa, Takeshi; Hori, Mayuka; Kusuda, Kayo; Shimizu, Junichiro; Iseri, Toshie; Akiyoshi, Hideo; Ohashi, Fumihito; Kuwamura, Mitsuru; Yamate, Jyoji

    2015-07-01

    A 19-year-old female Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) was presented with hind limb weakness, ataxia and respiratory distress. Computed tomography revealed a mass between the left side of the T7 vertebra and the base of the left 7th rib. The tiger then died, and necropsy was performed. Grossly, the vertebral mass was 6 × 5.7 × 3 cm, and invaded the adjacent vertebral bone and compressed the T7 spinal cord. Histologically, the mass was composed of large, clear, vacuolated and polygonal cells with osteochondral matrix. Cellular and nuclear atypia were moderate. The vacuolated cells stained positively for cytokeratin and vimentin and negatively for S-100. Based on these findings, the present case was diagnosed as a vertebral chordoma; the first report in a tiger.

  1. Marked bengal pink. A dynamic test using marking doses; its value in jaundice diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellershohn, C.; Desgrez, A.; Delaloye, B.

    1961-01-01

    The authors do a historic calling back of the differential study of jaundices thanks to the semi logarithmic gradients of expurgation of bromine sulphone-phthalein and thanks to the time of appearance of this material in the bile collected by duodenal tubing. They sum up likewise the foreign works which lead to take the place of this test, the outside count at the level of the head, the liver, and the abdomen after intravenous injection of a running dose of marked Rose Bengal. They specify the technical conditions of this test and report an experience which corroborate its value, its accuracy and the interest of its using in the different types of jaundices (hepatitis and obstructive types). (author) [fr

  2. Serotyping, pathogenicity and antibiogram of Escherichia coli isolated from raw poultry meat in West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, Asim; Mondal, Anjan

    2013-01-01

    This study has been undertaken to isolate and characterise Escherichia coli strains from raw poultry meat in West Bengal, determine their pathogenicity and identify the prevalent serotypes and their antibiogram. A total of 83 raw poultry meat samples were collected from February to July 2004. Thirty-three samples (39.76%) were positive for E. coli. The majority of highly pathogenic E. coli belonged to O3, O6, O25, O73, O120 whereas the highly enteropathogenic E. coli belonged to O6, O25, and O158. Most isolates (84% - 100%) were sensitive to chloramphenicol, amikacin and gentamicin, they were (92% - 100%) also resistant to novobiocin, cefixime, sulphafurazole, vancomycin. Considering the frequency of E. coli serogroups O6, O25, O158 which are important zoonotic pathogens, special attention needs to be paid in order to maintain strict hygienic measures in the retail meat shops, so to avoid serious health risks for the retailers and for the consumers.

  3. Meteorological and oceanographic aspects of a winter storm over the south-western Cape Province, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jury, M.R.; Shillington, F.A.; Prestidge, G.; Maxwell, C.D.

    1986-01-01

    In May the southern hemisphere circumpolar jet stream accelerates in response to a growing temperature gradient between the pole and equator. Initially, the jet stream may 'spin up' in pulses, causing the upper air current to become unstable and to meander equatorwards out of the higher latitudes (40-50 degrees S). Winter storms induced by the jet stream and which move, from west to east, to the south of the African continent are then guided by the upper air currents further north. Between 15 and 17 May 1984, such a sequence of synoptic weather events developed and the south-western Cape came under the influence of the 'roaring 40's'. In this article a chronology of the storm and its meteorological effects are described using data collected at the Koeberg nuclear power station, the Cape Town Airport Weather Office and across the south-western Cape. The destructive effects of the storm, particularly felt along the coast as a result of large swells and a significant storm surge, are discussed

  4. Clinical management of maggot wounds in Bengal Tigers (Panthera tigris tigris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anup Kumar Talukder

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objecitve: Maggot wound is common in domestic and pet animals but report on maggot wound treatment in wildlife species is scanty. The study reported here the surgical and conservative management of maggot wounds including anesthetic protocol and postoperative care in two Bengal tigers (Panthera tigris tigris. Materials and methods: One female and one male tiger were presented with maggot wounds for treatment at the Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Safari Park, Gazipur, Bangladesh. Tigers were anesthetized with combined injection of xylazine (dosed at 1.0 mg/kg bwt, IM and ketamine hydrochloride (dosed at 3.5 mg/kg bwt, IM. Superficial maggots were removed from wounds using sterile tissue forceps. Gauze soaked in oil of turpentine was allowed to remain in each wound pocket for 5 min for the removal of deep-seated maggots. Finally, wounds were dressed with tincture iodine to clean out the dead tissue debris and to induce inflammation for rapid healing. A single subcutaneous injection of ivermectin (dosed at 200 µg/kg bwt, IM was given in each tiger. In addition, long acting oxytetracycline (dosed at 10 mg/kg bwt, IM on 48 h interval for six days, chlorpheniramine maleate (dosed at 1 mg/kg bwt, IM once daily for three days, and ascorbic acid (dosed at 250 mg/tiger, IM once daily for seven days were administered in both tigers. Results: The tigers were recovered successfully without any complications in two weeks following treatment. Conclusion: Surgical management using oil of turpentine and tincture iodine along with parenteral administration of ivermectin, long acting oxytetracycline and chlorpheniramine maleate are effective for successful management of maggot wounds in Bengal tigers. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2017; 4(1.000: 104-109

  5. Evaluation of some selected herbs on arsenic-affected cattle in Nadia District, West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazarika, Jantu M; Sarkar, Prasanta K; Chattopadhyay, Abichal; Mandal, Tapan K; Sarkar, Samar

    2015-04-01

    Arsenic poisoning due to contaminated subsoil water is one of the most alarming environment hazards in West Bengal, India. Cattle are also affected by arsenic due to ingestion of arsenic contaminated water, paddy straw, crops and vegetables. Thirty milch cattle having arsenic content in the range of 3.5 to 4.5 mg/kg in hair were chosen for this experiment from cattle of five respective villages in Nadia District, West Bengal, India. The cattle were divided into three groups containing 10 animals each. Group I cattle were treated with turmeric powder (Curcuma longa) 20 g/day orally for 60 days. Group II cattle were treated with turmeric powder (10 g/day) and Amaranthus spinosus powder (10 g/day) orally for 60 days. Group III cattle were treated with turmeric powder (10 g/day) and Eclipta alba powder (10 g/day) orally for 60 days. Ten apparently healthy milch cows with no history of exposure to arsenic were selected and kept as control group (group IV). Arsenic content in hair, faeces, urine and milk; different biochemical and haematological parameters and DNA fragmentation percentage assay were carried out before commencement of the treatment, after 30 days and after 60 days of treatment. The test drugs were found significantly (p < 0.05) effective to eliminate arsenic from the body and lead to significant improvement in different biochemistry, pathology and DNA fragmentation assay. These drugs also give protection from possible damage caused by arsenic exposure.

  6. Sedimentary Filling of the Submarine Canyon "Swatch of No Ground", Bengal Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palamenghi, L.; Schwenk, T.; Kudrass, H. R.; Spiess, V.

    2008-12-01

    The submarine canyon "Swatch of No Ground" (SoNG), deeply incised into the Bengal Shelf, plays an important role in the source to sink system Himalaya-Bengal Fan by connecting the Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers, which drain the Himalayas, with the largest submarine fan on Earth. It is believed that around one third of the delivered sediments of at least 1 billion ton per year are transported through this canyon to the deep sea fan. In general the SoNG acts as a temporary trap and releases the sediments episodically by turbidity currents to the fan. Transportation of the sediments to the head of the canyon under quite weather conditions is done by tidal currents during high discharge periods. More effective, passages of cyclones remobilize shelf sediments and transport them to the canyon, and trigger also failures in the canyon flanks with consequent mass wasting downward. Finally all processes lead to high sedimentation rates of 50 cm per year in the head of the canyon. To understand the filling architecture and depositional processes, high-resolution multichannel seismic data were collected in summer 2006 in the upper canyon with the German research vessel "Sonne". Additionally, multibeam and sediment echosounder data were gathered, together with gravity cores. Hydroacoustic data and cores were also already collected on cruises in 1994 and 1997 and consequently, some lines and stations were revisited to study the deposition within the last years. The seismic data, shot on a dense grid of lines along and across the axis including flanks and shoulders, reveal a thick (1.5 sec TWT) sedimentary fill. Well stratified layer alternate with transparent to chaotic units intercalated by filled channels. Two main unconformities could be identified in the seismic data. Faulting is also found in the study area, probably caused by sediment compaction. The data set should be used to develop an IODP proposal to drill into this unique high resolution archive.

  7. Bengal Bay clone ST772-MRSA-V outbreak: conserved clone causes investigation challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomfeldt, A; Larssen, K W; Moghen, A; Haugum, K; Steen, T W; Jørgensen, S B; Aamot, H V

    2017-03-01

    The Bengal Bay clone, ST772-MRSA-V, associated with multi-drug resistance, Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) and skin and soft tissue infections, is emerging worldwide. In Norway, a country with low prevalence of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), increased occurrence of ST772-MRSA-V has also caused hospital outbreaks. The conserved nature of this clone challenged the outbreak investigations. To evaluate the usefulness of S. aureus protein A (spa) typing, multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat fingerprinting/analysis (MLVF/MLVA) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) when investigating outbreaks with a conserved MRSA clone. A panel of 25 MRSA isolates collected in 2004-2014, consisting of six hospital outbreak isolates and 19 sporadic isolates, were analysed using spa typing, polymerase chain reaction detection of genes encoding PVL, MLVF/MLVA and PFGE. All isolates were ST772-MRSA-V-t657 and resistant to erythromycin, gentamicin and norfloxacin, and 88% were PVL positive. PFGE could not discriminate between the isolates (≥85% similarity). MLVF resolved five types [Simpson's index of diversity (SID)=0.56], MLVA resolved six types (SID=0.66), and both methods separated the hospital isolates into two defined outbreaks. MLVF/MLVA could not discriminate all epidemiologically unlinked cases and identical genotypes originated from a timespan of 10 years. MLVA was regarded as most suitable due to its higher discriminatory power and ability to provide unambiguous profiles. However, the Bengal Bay clone may require higher resolution methods for exact demarcation of outbreaks due to low diversity among isolates. Copyright © 2016 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging study in a normal Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris) stifle joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arencibia, Alberto; Encinoso, Mario; Jáber, José R; Morales, Daniel; Blanco, Diego; Artiles, Alejandro; Vázquez, José M

    2015-08-11

    The purpose of this study was to describe the normal appearance of the bony and soft tissue structures of the stifle joint of a Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris) by low-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and the use of gross anatomical dissections performed as anatomical reference. A cadaver of a mature female was imaged by MRI using specific sequences as the Spin-echo (SE) T1-weighting and Gradient-echo (GE) STIR T2-weighting sequences in sagittal, dorsal and transverse planes, with a magnet of 0.2 Tesla. The bony and articular structures were identified and labelled on anatomical dissections, as well as on the magnetic resonance (MR) images. MR images showed the bone, articular cartilage, menisci and ligaments of the normal tiger stifle. SE T1-weighted sequence provided excellent resolution of the subchondral bones of the femur, tibia and patella compared with the GE STIR T2-weighted MR images. Articular cartilage and synovial fluid were visualised with high signal intensity in GE STIR T2-weighted sequence, compared with SE T1-weighted sequence where they appeared with intermediate intensity signal. Menisci and ligaments of the stifle joint were visible with low signal intensity in both sequences. The infrapatellar fat pad was hyperintense on SE T1-weighted images and showed low signal intensity on GE STIR T2-weighted images. MRI provided adequate information of the bony and soft tissues structures of Bengal tiger stifle joints. This information can be used as initial anatomic reference for interpretation of MR stifle images and to assist in the diagnosis of diseases of this region.

  9. Nomophobic behaviors among smartphone using medical and engineering students in two colleges of West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Pallabi; Bhattacherjee, Sharmistha; Dasgupta, Samir; Roy, Jayanta Kumar; Mukherjee, Abhijit; Biswas, Romy

    2017-01-01

    Growing smartphone usage among global and Indian college students has resulted in considerable issues of "nomophobia" (NMP) or feelings of discomfort or anxiety experienced by individuals whenever unable to use their smartphones. This significantly impacts their health, work, and study. The objective of this study is to find out the prevalence of NMP among smartphone using medical and engineering undergraduates of West Bengal and to compare the nomophobic behaviors, its predictors, and smartphone usage among them. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 303 medical and 305 engineering undergraduates in West Bengal using a validated NMP questionnaire consisting of four factors. Comparison of means of individual questions and factor scores was done. Nomophobic clusters among the two groups were identified using two-stage cluster analysis. Binary logistic regression was used for comparison of predictors of NMP. Engineering students showed a higher proportion of nomophobics (44.6%) than medical students (42.6%). Significant higher means was observed among engineering students for the factor "giving upconvenience" and individual variables like "scared due to running out of battery," "nervous due to disconnection from online identity," "uncomfortable when unable stay up-to-date with social media" and "anxious when unable to check E-mails." A Higher proportion of nomophobics among both groups were females, those owning smartphone beyond 2 years, having monthly mobile bill above Rs. 200 and spending over 4 h daily on smartphone. NMP has emerged as a significant cause of concern among both the groups. Standardized measures for identification and appropriate psychobehavioral therapy for those seeking help might alleviate the problem.

  10. Timing of fluvial terrace formation and concomitant travertine deposition in the upper Sutlej River (Tirthapuri, southwestern Tibet) and paleoclimatic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhijun; Meyer, Michael C.; Gliganic, Luke A.; Hoffmann, Dirk L.; May, Jan-Hendrik

    2017-08-01

    incision are sensitive indicators of (peak) monsoonal activity and can thus provide valuable insights into past climate change and climate-driven landscape evolution on the southwestern Tibetan Plateau. Comparison of our findings with published data further suggests that monsoon-controlled fluvial aggradation and incision during the early Holocene is synchronous in southwestern Tibet and the adjacent sector of the Himalayan orogen (north-western Sub-to High Himalaya).

  11. Bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) telemetry and associated habitat data collected in a geodatabase from the upper Boise River, southwestern Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCoy, Dorene E.; Shephard, Zachary M.; Benjamin, Joseph R.; Vidergar, Dmitri T.; Prisciandaro, Anthony F.

    2017-03-23

    Bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act, are among the more thermally sensitive of coldwater species in North America. The Boise River upstream of Arrowrock Dam in southwestern Idaho (including Arrowrock Reservoir) provides habitat for one of the southernmost populations of bull trout. The presence of the species in Arrowrock Reservoir poses implications for dam and reservoir operations. From 2011 to 2014, the Bureau of Reclamation and the U.S. Geological Survey collected fish telemetry data to improve understanding of bull trout distribution and movement in Arrowrock Reservoir and in the upper Boise River tributaries. The U.S. Geological Survey compiled the telemetry (fish location) data, along with reservoir elevation, river discharge, precipitation, and water-quality data in a geodatabase. The geodatabase includes metadata compliant with Federal Geographic Data Committee content standards. The Bureau of Reclamation plans to incorporate the data in a decision‑support tool for reservoir management.

  12. The role of forcing agents on biogeochemical variability along the southwestern Adriatic coast: The Gulf of Manfredonia case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specchiulli, Antonietta; Bignami, Francesco; Marini, Mauro; Fabbrocini, Adele; Scirocco, Tommaso; Campanelli, Alessandra; Penna, Pierluigi; Santucci, Angela; D'Adamo, Raffaele

    2016-12-01

    This study investigates how multiple forcing factors such as rivers, surface marine circulation and winds affect hydrology and biogeochemical processes in the Gulf of Manfredonia and the seas around the Gargano peninsula, in the south-western Adriatic Sea. The study adopted an integrated approach, using in situ and remote sensing data, as well as the output of current models. The data reveal variability in the area's hydrography induced by local freshwater sources, the Western Adriatic Current (WAC) flowing from the north along the Italian coast, and the current patterns under different wind regimes. Specifically, exchange with offshore waters in the gulf induces variability in salinity and biogeochemical content, even within the same season, i.e. winter, in our case. This strong dependence on physical and biogeochemical factors makes the Manfredonia-Gargano ecosystem vulnerable to climate change, which could compromise its important role as a nursery area for the Adriatic Sea.

  13. New Spectrophotometric and Conductometric Methods for Macrolide Antibiotics Determination in Pure and Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms Using Rose Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rania A. Sayed

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Two Simple, accurate, precise, and rapid spectrophotometric and conductometric methods were developed for the estimation of erythromycin thiocyanate (I, clarithromycin (II, and azithromycin dihydrate (III in both pure and pharmaceutical dosage forms. The spectrophotometric procedure depends on the reaction of rose bengal and copper with the cited drugs to form stable ternary complexes which are extractable with methylene chloride, and the absorbances were measured at 558, 557, and 560 nm for (I, (II, and (III, respectively. The conductometric method depends on the formation of an ion-pair complex between the studied drug and rose bengal. For the spectrophotometric method, Beer's law was obeyed. The correlation coefficient ( for the studied drugs was found to be 0.9999. The molar absorptivity (, Sandell’s sensitivity, limit of detection (LOD, and limit of quantification (LOQ were also calculated. The proposed methods were successfully applied for the determination of certain pharmaceutical dosage forms containing the studied drugs

  14. Modeling the effect of Rose Bengal on growth and decay patterns of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Akhras, M.-Ali H.; Shorman, Mohammad Al; Masadeh, Majed M.; Aljarrah, Khaled; Ababneh, Zaid

    2018-02-01

    Most infections caused by (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus) are hospital and community acquired infections in patients. Bacterial growths incorporated with photosensitizing material (Rose Bengal) with and without light were investigated. The results demonstrated that the viable counts are increasing in absence of light (in dark) for all samples incorporated with Rose Bengal. Variation in growth phases were noticed as expected, but there is no significant change in decay phases. Convenient and adequate mathematical modeling is in very good agreement with the experimental results and showed to be a very good approach of characterization the growth behaviors of the bacteria. Bandwidths are independent of bacteria group (gram-positive or gram-negative) but it seems totally dependent on the oxygen requirements; an anaerobic bacterium takes broader bandwidths than aerobic bacteria. This concludes that the growth and lethal rates of anaerobic are much greater than aerobic.

  15. Extensional and compressional regime driven left-lateral shear in southwestern Anatolia (eastern Mediterranean): The Burdur-Fethiye Shear Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elitez, İrem; Yaltırak, Cenk; Aktuğ, Bahadır

    2016-10-01

    The tectonic framework of the eastern Mediterranean presented in this paper is based on an active subduction and small underwater hills/mountains on the oceanic crust moving toward the north. The Hellenic Arc, the Anaximander Mountains, the Rhodes and Finike basins, the compressional southern regions of the Western Taurides, and the extensional western Anatolian graben are the main interrelated tectonic structures that are shaped by the complex tectonic regimes. There are still heated debates regarding the structural properties and tectonic evolution of the southwestern Anatolia. GPS velocities and focal mechanisms of earthquakes demonstrate the absence of a single transform fault across the Burdur-Fethiye region; however, hundreds of small faults showing normal and left-lateral oblique slip indicate the presence of a regionally extensive shear zone in southwestern Turkey, which plays an important role in the eastern Mediterranean tectonics. The 300-km-long, 75-90-km-wide NE-SW-trending Burdur-Fethiye Shear Zone developed during the formation of Aegean back-arc extensional system and the thrusting of Western Taurides. Today, the left-lateral differential motion across the Burdur-Fethiye Shear Zone varies from 3 to 4 mm/yr in the north to 8-10 mm/yr in the south. This finding could be attributed to the fact that while the subduction of the African Plate is relatively fast beneath the western Anatolia at the Hellenic Trench, it is slow or locked beneath the Western Taurides. Therefore, the GPS vectors and their distributions on land indicate remarkable velocity differences and enable us to determine the left-lateral shear zone located between the extensional and compressional blocks. Furthermore, this active tectonic regime creates differences in topography. This study also demonstrates how deep structures, such as the continuation of the subduction transform edge propagator (STEP) fault between the Hellenic and Cyprus arcs in the continental area, can come into play

  16. Vyāghranomics in Space and Time : Estimating Habitat Threats for Bengal, Indochinese, Malayan and Sumatran Tigers

    OpenAIRE

    Dasgupta, Susmita; Hammer, Dan; Kraft, Robin; Wheeler, David

    2012-01-01

    As the wild tiger population in tropical Asia dropped from about 100,000 to 3,500 in the last century, the need to conserve tiger habitats poses a challenge for the Global Tiger Recovery Program. This paper develops and uses a high-resolution monthly forest clearing database for 74 tiger habitat areas in ten countries to investigate habitat threats for Bengal, Indochinese, Malayan and Suma...

  17. PARTIAL PURIFICATION AND IMMUNE-BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF ROYAL BENGAL TIGER ( PANTHERA TIGRIS TIGRIS) SERUM IMMUNOGLOBULIN G

    OpenAIRE

    Ekantika Mandal; Subhasis Batabyal; S. Chattopadhyay; S. S. Kesh; Abhijit Barui

    2013-01-01

    In the present study Immunoglobulin G was purified from serum of Royal Bengal Tiger by gel filtration chromatography on Sephacryl S-200. SDS-PAGE analysis showed the molecular weight of purified tiger IgG was 170.52 kDa. The purified Immunoglobulin has been found to be immunereactive by DID test and Western Blot analysis when treated against hyperimmune sera which was raised in rabbit.

  18. Genotyping faecal samples of Bengal tiger Panthera tigris tigris for population estimation: A pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Singh Lalji; Bhagavatula Jyotsna

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Bengal tiger Panthera tigris tigris the National Animal of India, is an endangered species. Estimating populations for such species is the main objective for designing conservation measures and for evaluating those that are already in place. Due to the tiger's cryptic and secretive behaviour, it is not possible to enumerate and monitor its populations through direct observations; instead indirect methods have always been used for studying tigers in the wild. DNA methods ba...

  19. PARTIAL PURIFICATION AND IMMUNE-BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF ROYAL BENGAL TIGER ( PANTHERA TIGRIS TIGRIS SERUM IMMUNOGLOBULIN G

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekantika Mandal

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study Immunoglobulin G was purified from serum of Royal Bengal Tiger by gel filtration chromatography on Sephacryl S-200. SDS-PAGE analysis showed the molecular weight of purified tiger IgG was 170.52 kDa. The purified Immunoglobulin has been found to be immunereactive by DID test and Western Blot analysis when treated against hyperimmune sera which was raised in rabbit.

  20. Arsenic contamination of groundwater and its health impact on residents in a village in West Bengal, India.

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Sengupta, Mrinal Kumar; Ahamed, Sad; Chowdhury, Uttam Kumar; Lodh, Dilip; Hossain, Amir; Das, Bhaskar; Roy, Niladri; Saha, Kshitish Chandra; Palit, Shyamal Kanti; Chakraborti, Dipankar

    2005-01-01

    An in-depth study was carried out in Rajapur, an arsenic-affected village in West Bengal, India, to determine the degree of groundwater contamination with arsenic and the impact of this contamination on residents. The flow injection hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (FI-HG-AAS) method was used to measure arsenic concentrations in water and biological samples. Dermatologists recorded the dermatological features of arsenicosis. Out of a total of 336 hand-pumped tube-wells in Raj...