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Sample records for southwestern arizona evidence

  1. Transformational Leadership and Teacher Motivation in Southwestern Arizona High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Catherine L.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between transformational leadership and teacher motivation in Southwestern Arizona high schools. Teachers in a school district in Southwestern Arizona comprised of high schools were surveyed using two instruments, Leithwood and Jantzi's (1998) The Leadership and Management of Schools in…

  2. The Cambrian-Ordovician rocks of Sonora, Mexico, and southern Arizona, southwestern margin of North America (Laurentia): chapter 35

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, William R.; Harris, Alta C.; Repetski, John E.; Derby, James R.; Fritz, R.D.; Longacre, S.A.; Morgan, W.A.; Sternbach, C.A.

    2013-01-01

    Cambrian and Ordovician shelf, platform, and basin rocks are present in Sonora, Mexico, and southern Arizona and were deposited on the southwestern continental margin of North America (Laurentia). Cambrian and Ordovician rocks in Sonora, Mexico, are mostly exposed in scattered outcrops in the northern half of the state. Their discontinuous nature results from extensive Quaternary and Tertiary surficial cover, from Tertiary and Mesozoic granitic batholiths in western Sonora, and from widespread Tertiary volcanic deposits in the Sierra Madre Occidental in eastern Sonora. Cambrian and Ordovician shelf rocks were deposited as part of the the southern miogeocline on the southwestern continental margin of North America.

  3. Costs, emissions reductions, and vehicle repair: evidence from Arizona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, A; McConnell, V; Harrington, W

    2000-04-01

    The Arizona inspection and maintenance (I/M) program provides one of the first opportunities to examine the costs and effectiveness of vehicle emission repair. This paper examines various aspects of emission reductions, fuel economy improvements, and repair costs, drawing data from over 80,000 vehicles that failed the I/M test in Arizona between 1995 and the first half of 1996. We summarize the wealth of data on repair from the Arizona program and highlight its limitations. Because missing or incomplete cost information has been a serious shortcoming for the evaluation of I/M programs, we develop a method for estimating repair costs when they are not reported. We find surprising evidence that almost one quarter of all vehicles that take the I/M test are never observed to pass the test. Using a statistical analysis, we provide some information about the differences between the vehicles that pass and those that do not. Older, more polluting vehicles are much more likely never to pass the I/M test, and their expected repair costs are much higher than those for newer cars. This paper summarizes the evidence on costs and emission reductions in the Arizona program, comparing costs and emissions reductions between cars and trucks. Finally, we examine the potential for more cost-effective repair, first through an analysis of tightening I/M cut points and then by calculating the cost savings of achieving different emission reduction goals when the most cost-effective repairs are made first.

  4. Mesozoic mammals from Arizona: new evidence on Mammalian evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, F A; Crompton, A W; Downs, W R

    1983-12-16

    Knowledge of early mammalian evolution has been based on Old World Late Triassic-Early Jurassic faunas. The discovery of mammalian fossils of approximately equivalent age in the Kayenta Formation of northeastern Arizona gives evidence of greater diversity than known previously. A new taxon documents the development of an angular region of the jaw as a neomorphic process, and represents an intermediate stage in the origin of mammalian jaw musculature.

  5. Evidences linking ENSO and coral growth in the Southwestern-South Atlantic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evangelista, H. [LARAMG, Laboratorio de Radioecologia e Mudancas Globais/DBB/UERJ. Pav. HLC, Subsolo, Maracana, RJ (Brazil); Godiva, D. [LARAMG, Laboratorio de Radioecologia e Mudancas Globais/DBB/UERJ. Pav. HLC, Subsolo, Maracana, RJ (Brazil); Universidade Federal Fluminense, Outeiro Sao Joao Batista, s/n, Centro, Departamento de Geoquimica Ambiental, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Sifeddine, A. [IRD, Institut de Recherche Pour le Developpement, UR055 Paleotropique, Bondy (France); Universidade Federal Fluminense, Outeiro Sao Joao Batista, s/n, Centro, Departamento de Geoquimica Ambiental, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Leao, Z.M.A.N.; Kikuchi, R.K.P. [UFBA/Instituto de Geociencias. Rua Barao de Geremoabo, s/n, Federacao, Salvador, BA (Brazil); Rigozo, N.R. [LARAMG, Laboratorio de Radioecologia e Mudancas Globais/DBB/UERJ. Pav. HLC, Subsolo, Maracana, RJ (Brazil); FAETEC, Faculdade de Educacao e Tecnologia Thereza Porto Marques, Jacarei, SP (Brazil); Segal, B. [UFRJ/Museu Nacional/Setor de Celenterologia/Departamento de Invertebrados, Quinta da Boa Vista s/n, Sao Cristovao, RJ (Brazil); Ambrizzi, T. [USP/Department of Atmospheric Sciences, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Kampel, M. [INPE/Divisao de Sensoriamento Remoto, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Cornec, F. le [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Outeiro Sao Joao Batista, s/n, Centro, Departamento de Geoquimica Ambiental, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2007-12-15

    Physical and biological changes in the marine environment, induced by oceanic-atmospheric processes, can be imprinted in massive coral skeletons. Herein, we present an evidence of potential El Nino impacts at the Southwestern South Atlantic Ocean (SWSA) inferred from the sclerochronology of the reef coral Favia leptophylla. The application of spectral analysis (wavelet decomposition and the iterative regression) to coral growth length and to meteorological-oceanographic parameters (air temperature, sea surface temperature and precipitation) as well as to Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) and solar irradiation indicated a major significant inverse relationship between SOI and coral growth length at the 4-8 years frequency band. We propose here that coral growth length from the SWSA could be affected by El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events through an ''atmospheric bridge'', in contrast to its direct effect at the Pacific Ocean, related to the increase in sea surface temperature. (orig.)

  6. Serological Evidence of Lyssaviruses among Bats on Southwestern Indian Ocean Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mélade, Julien; McCulloch, Stewart; Ramasindrazana, Beza; Lagadec, Erwan; Turpin, Magali; Pascalis, Hervé; Goodman, Steven M; Markotter, Wanda; Dellagi, Koussay

    2016-01-01

    We provide serological evidence of lyssavirus circulation among bats on southwestern Indian Ocean (SWIO) islands. A total of 572 bats belonging to 22 species were collected on Anjouan, Mayotte, La Réunion, Mauritius, Mahé and Madagascar and screened by the Rapid Fluorescent Focus Inhibition Test for the presence of neutralising antibodies against the two main rabies related lyssaviruses circulating on the African continent: Duvenhage lyssavirus (DUVV) and Lagos bat lyssavirus (LBV), representing phylogroups I and II, respectively. A total of 97 and 42 sera were able to neutralise DUVV and LBV, respectively. No serum neutralised both DUVV and LBV but most DUVV-seropositive bats (n = 32/220) also neutralised European bat lyssavirus 1 (EBLV-1) but not Rabies lyssavirus (RABV), the prototypic lyssavirus of phylogroup I. These results highlight that lyssaviruses belonging to phylogroups I and II circulate in regional bat populations and that the putative phylogroup I lyssavirus is antigenically closer to DUVV and EBLV-1 than to RABV. Variation between bat species, roost sites and bioclimatic regions were observed. All brain samples tested by RT-PCR specific for lyssavirus RNA were negative.

  7. Serological Evidence of Lyssaviruses among Bats on Southwestern Indian Ocean Islands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Mélade

    Full Text Available We provide serological evidence of lyssavirus circulation among bats on southwestern Indian Ocean (SWIO islands. A total of 572 bats belonging to 22 species were collected on Anjouan, Mayotte, La Réunion, Mauritius, Mahé and Madagascar and screened by the Rapid Fluorescent Focus Inhibition Test for the presence of neutralising antibodies against the two main rabies related lyssaviruses circulating on the African continent: Duvenhage lyssavirus (DUVV and Lagos bat lyssavirus (LBV, representing phylogroups I and II, respectively. A total of 97 and 42 sera were able to neutralise DUVV and LBV, respectively. No serum neutralised both DUVV and LBV but most DUVV-seropositive bats (n = 32/220 also neutralised European bat lyssavirus 1 (EBLV-1 but not Rabies lyssavirus (RABV, the prototypic lyssavirus of phylogroup I. These results highlight that lyssaviruses belonging to phylogroups I and II circulate in regional bat populations and that the putative phylogroup I lyssavirus is antigenically closer to DUVV and EBLV-1 than to RABV. Variation between bat species, roost sites and bioclimatic regions were observed. All brain samples tested by RT-PCR specific for lyssavirus RNA were negative.

  8. Late Pleistocene lithostratigraphy and sequences in the southwestern Mesopotamia (Argentina): Evidences of the last interglacial stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernesto, Brunetto; Soledad, Ferrero Brenda; Ignacio, Noriega Jorge

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to show the stratigraphic record of the Late Pleistocene corresponding to the distal region of the Paraná River basin. It displays sedimentological, paleontological and geochronological evidences that characterise the last interglacial-glacial cycle. In particular, strong environmental records are shown for the Last Interglacial Stage (LIS). Salto Ander Egg Formation (SAEF) is defined as a new lithostratigraphic unit representative of the Late Pleistocene in southwestern Mesopotamia. This unit is formed of complex fluvial deposits, which contains a heterogeneous collection of sub-environments, of ages ranging from 120 to 60 ky BP. The clast-supported gravel facies containing sparse boulders indicate high flow during a humid climate. The large and middle-scale architectures of fluvial sedimentary bodies evidence the relationship between the sediment accommodation and the sea level oscillations. Three sub-sequences identified in the succession suggest a transgressive trend during the MIS5e, a highstand stage in MIS5c, and a minor transgressive cycle during MIS3. A Brazilian faunal association collected at the bottom of the sequence and sedimentological interpretations display wet and warm climatic conditions, typical of tropical or subtropical environments. Such environmental conditions are characteristic of the maximum of the last interglacial stage (MIS5e) and show a signal stronger than the signal of the current interglacial stage. All these data show a direct correlation between the increases of paleodischarges and the elevation of the sea level. The whole sequence is completed with transitional swampy deposits, accumulated probably during the MIS3/MIS2 transition, and the typical loess of the Tezanos Pinto Formation, mantled during the Last Maximum Glacial.

  9. Floristic indicators of tropical landuse systems: Evidence from mining areas in Southwestern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sehinde Akinbiola

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Most forests in the tropics have not only been reduced in size but have also experienced forest degradation. The delicate balance of the components of the forest ecosystem has been altered largely by the landuse systems which have resulted in the disappearance of some species and the introduction of new ones. In order to understand the influence of human disturbance caused by artisanal mining on plant biodiversity and the physical environment, this study assessed changes in vegetation characteristics using plant functional groups, such as invasive, pioneer and understory species. The study was conducted at two sites in two Southwestern states of Nigeria, Itagunmodi in Atakumosa West Local Government Area of Osun State and Olode in Oluyole Local Government Area of Oyo State. Complete enumerations of woody, non-woody and herbaceous plant species were carried out in 20 m by 20 m plots selected using stratified random sampling as representative of landuse classes: freshly mined (6 months and a control plot (secondary forest. The results showed that the control plot in Itagunmodi had undergone degradation as indicated by the presence of Alchornea laxiflora, Geophilia obvallata, Musa sapientum,Elaeis guineensis and Keetia hispida. However, if left undisturbed, it has the potential of regeneration back to its original state because of its woody tree species composition and lianas (Triclisia gilletii. In addition the forest soils in the mines had been exposed to direct insolation for a long period, and the soil structure and texture have been affected, consequently altering the viability of the seed bank. Poaceae and Papilionoideae were the most common in the freshly mined plots while invasive species were the most common in abandoned mined plots. In conclusion, the floristic composition in the mining sites has been altered and there was no clear evidence that regrowth would bring restoration of the lost ecosystem services.

  10. Contrasting evidence of Holocene ice margin retreat, south-western Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levy, L. B.; Larsen, N. K.; Davidson, T. A.

    2017-01-01

    Constraining the Greenland Ice Sheet's (GrIS) response to Holocene climate change provides calibrations for ice sheet models that hindcast past ice margin fluctuations. Ice sheet models predict enhanced ice retreat in south-western Greenland during the middle Holocene; however, few geological...... observations corroborating the extensive retreat are available. We present new data from lake sediment cores from the Isua region, south-western Greenland, which provide constraints on Holocene fluctuations of the GrIS margins. Our data indicate that the main GrIS margin was 30 km west of its present...

  11. Paleomagnetic evidence bearing on Tertiary tectonics of the Tihamat Asir coastal plain, southwestern Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, K.S.; Blank, H.R.

    1982-01-01

    Paleomagnetic directions determined for an upper Oligocene to lower Miocene dike swarm and from two lower Miocene layered gabbros in the Tihamat Asir coastal plain of southwestern Saudi Arabia are used to test several hypotheses concerning the tectonics of rifting along the eastern margin of the Red Sea. The dikes and gabbros were emplaced during the initial phases of Red Sea rifting and may mark the transition between continental and oceanic crust. Although these rocks have been hydrothermally altered to varying degrees, reliable remanent directions after alternating-field demagnetization were obtained for 23 dikes and for gabbros at Jabal at Tirf and Wadi Liyyah. Twelve of the dikes are reversely magnetized. After the directions of the reversely magnetized dikes are inverted 180?, the mean direction calculated for the normal dikes is approximately 24? more downward than that calculated for the reversed dikes. This result is similar to that found for the As Sarat volcanic field, 100 km to the north, and may be due to a displaced dipole source for the field. The unrotated mean remanent direction for the dikes (inverting reversed dike directions 180?) is D (declination) = 353.2? and I (inclination) = 6.8? with a95 (radius of the cone of 95 percent confidence) = 8.9? whereas directions from the Jabal at Tirf and Wadi Liyyah gabbros lie at D = 176.2?, I = -1.6? (a95 = 7 1 ?) and D = 17.1?, I = 16.3? (a 95 = 8.7?), respectively. Comparing these results with the results from the As Sarat volcanic field, all the paleomagnetic evidence supports a model for approximately 20 ? of westward tilting of the Wadi Damad and Wadi Jizan areas after the emplacement of the Jabal at Tiff gabbro. The Wadi Liyyah area may have been tilted even more toward the Red Sea. The paleomagnetic directions from three widely separated localities in the Jabal at Tirf gabbro are not significantly different, a fact which indicates that the body cooled in approximately its present bowl shape. Evidence

  12. Estimating Full IM240 Emissions from Partial Test Results: Evidence from Arizona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Amy W; Harrington, Winston; McConnell, Virginia

    1999-10-01

    The expense and inconvenience of enhanced-vehicle-emissions testing using the full 240-second dynamometer test has led states to search for ways to shorten the test process. In fact, all states that currently use the IM240 allow some type of fast-pass, usually as early in the test as second 31, and Arizona has allowed vehicles to fast-fail after second 93. While these shorter tests save states millions of dollars in inspection lanes and driver costs, there is a loss of information since test results are no longer comparable across vehicles. This paper presents a methodology for estimating full 240-second results from partial-test results for three pollutants: HC, CO, and NO x . If states can convert all tests to consistent IM240 readings, they will be able to better characterize fleet emissions and to evaluate the impact of inspection and maintenance and other programs on emissions over time. Using a random sample of vehicles in Arizona which received full 240-second tests, we use regression analysis to estimate the relationship between emissions at second 240 and emissions at earlier seconds in the test. We examine the influence of other variables such as age, model-year group, and the pollution level itself on this relationship. We also use the estimated coefficients in several applications. First, we try to shed light on the frequent assertion that the results of the dynamometer test provide guidance for vehicle repair of failing vehicles. Using a probit analysis, we find that the probability that a failing vehicle will pass the test on the first retest is greater the longer the test has progressed. Second, we test the accuracy of our estimates for forecasting fleet emissions from partial-test emissions results in Arizona. We find forecasted fleet average emissions to be very close to the actual fleet averages for light-duty vehicles, but not quite as good for trucks, particularly when NO x emissions are forecast.

  13. Geochemical evidence for diversity of dust sources in the southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reheis, M.C.; Budahn, J.R.; Lamothe, P.J.

    2002-01-01

    Several potential dust sources, including generic sources of sparsely vegetated alluvium, playa deposits, and anthropogenic emissions, as well as the area around Owens Lake, California, affect the composition of modern dust in the southwestern United States. A comparison of geochemical analyses of modern and old (a few thousand years) dust with samples of potential local sources suggests that dusts reflect four primary sources: (1) alluvial sediments (represented by Hf, K, Rb, Zr, and rare-earth elements, (2) playas, most of which produce calcareous dust (Sr, associated with Ca), (3) the area of Owens (dry) Lake, a human-induced playa (As, Ba, Li, Pb, Sb, and Sr), and (4) anthropogenic and/or volcanic emissions (As, Cr, Ni, and Sb). A comparison of dust and source samples with previous analyses shows that Owens (dry) Lake and mining wastes from the adjacent Cerro Gordo mining district are the primary sources of As, Ba, Li, and Pb in dusts from Owens Valley. Decreases in dust contents of As, Ba, and Sb with distance from Owens Valley suggest that dust from southern Owens Valley is being transported at least 400 km to the east. Samples of old dust that accumulated before European settlement are distinctly lower in As, Ba, and Sb abundances relative to modern dust, likely due to modern transport of dust from Owens Valley. Thus, southern Owens Valley appears to be an important, geochemically distinct, point source for regional dust in the southwestern United States. Copyright ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  14. Who benefits from free institutional delivery? evidence from a cross sectional survey of North Central and Southwestern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayi, Anthony I; Akpan, Wilson

    2017-09-02

    The reasons for low utilisation of maternal health services in settings where the user-fee removal policy has been implemented continue to generate scholarly debates. Evidence of whether user-fee removal benefits the poor women in underserved settings is scanty and inconsistent. This article examines use of maternal health care services in the context of free maternal healthcare and profiles the beneficiaries of user-fee removal. The study adopted a descriptive design. A three-stage cluster sampling method was used to select a representative sample of 1227 women who gave birth between 2011 and 2015. Questionnaires were administered using a face-to-face interview approach and data generated were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The analysis shows that the use of maternal healthcare services has improved considerably in North Central and Southwestern Nigeria. While socioeconomic and geographical inequality in the use of maternal healthcare services appear to be disappearing in Southwestern Nigeria, it appears to be widening in North Central Nigeria. The findings indicate that 33.6% of women reported to have benefitted from the free child-delivery programme; however, substantial variation exists across the two regions. The proportion of beneficiaries of user-fee removal policy was highest in urban areas (35.9%), among women belonging to the middle income category (38.3%), among women who gave birth in primary health centres (63.1%) and among women who resided in communities where there was availability of health facilities (37.2%). The study concludes that low coverage of the free maternal health programme, especially among women of low socioeconomic status residing in underserved settings is among the reasons for persistent poor maternal health outcomes in the context of free maternal healthcare. A model towards improving maternal health in underserved settings, especially in North Central Nigeria, would entail provisioning of health facilities

  15. Source of arsenic-bearing pyrite in southwestern Vermont, USA: Sulfur isotope evidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mango, Helen, E-mail: helen.mango@castleton.edu [Department of Natural Sciences, Castleton State College, 233 South Street, Castleton, VT 05735 (United States); Ryan, Peter, E-mail: pryan@middlebury.edu [Department of Geology, Middlebury College, 276 Bicentennial Way, Middlebury, VT 05753 (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Arsenic-bearing pyrite is the source of arsenic in groundwater produced in late Cambrian and Ordovician gray and black slates and phyllites in the Taconic region of southwestern Vermont, USA. The aim of this study is to analyze the sulfur isotopic composition of this pyrite and determine if a relationship exists between pyrite δ{sup 34}S and arsenic content. Pyrite occurs in both sedimentary/diagenetic (bedding-parallel layers and framboids) and low-grade metamorphic (porphyroblast) forms, and contains up to > 2000 ppm As. The sulfur isotopic composition of arsenic-bearing pyrite ranges from − 5.2‰ to 63‰. In the marine environment, the sulfur in sedimentary pyrite becomes increasingly enriched in {sup 34}S as the geochemical environment becomes increasingly anoxic. There is a positive correlation between δ{sup 34}S and arsenic content in the Taconic pyrite, suggesting that uptake of arsenic by pyrite increased as the environment became more reducing. This increased anoxia may have been due to a rise in sea level and/or tectonic activity during the late Cambrian and Ordovician. Low-grade metamorphism appears to have little effect on sulfur isotope composition, but does correlate with lower arsenic content in pyrite. New groundwater wells drilled in this region should therefore avoid gray and black slates and phyllites that contain sedimentary/diagenetic pyrite with heavy δ{sup 34}S values. - Highlights: • Pyrite is the source of arsenic in groundwater in the Taconic region of Vermont, USA. • As-bearing pyrite δ{sup 34}S = – 5.2 to 63‰ with higher {sup 34}S as environment becomes more anoxic. • High sea level, tectonic activity create anoxia, with incorporation of As into pyrite. • New wells should avoid slate/phyllite containing sedimentary pyrite with heavy δ{sup 34}S.

  16. Source of arsenic-bearing pyrite in southwestern Vermont, USA: Sulfur isotope evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mango, Helen; Ryan, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Arsenic-bearing pyrite is the source of arsenic in groundwater produced in late Cambrian and Ordovician gray and black slates and phyllites in the Taconic region of southwestern Vermont, USA. The aim of this study is to analyze the sulfur isotopic composition of this pyrite and determine if a relationship exists between pyrite δ 34 S and arsenic content. Pyrite occurs in both sedimentary/diagenetic (bedding-parallel layers and framboids) and low-grade metamorphic (porphyroblast) forms, and contains up to > 2000 ppm As. The sulfur isotopic composition of arsenic-bearing pyrite ranges from − 5.2‰ to 63‰. In the marine environment, the sulfur in sedimentary pyrite becomes increasingly enriched in 34 S as the geochemical environment becomes increasingly anoxic. There is a positive correlation between δ 34 S and arsenic content in the Taconic pyrite, suggesting that uptake of arsenic by pyrite increased as the environment became more reducing. This increased anoxia may have been due to a rise in sea level and/or tectonic activity during the late Cambrian and Ordovician. Low-grade metamorphism appears to have little effect on sulfur isotope composition, but does correlate with lower arsenic content in pyrite. New groundwater wells drilled in this region should therefore avoid gray and black slates and phyllites that contain sedimentary/diagenetic pyrite with heavy δ 34 S values. - Highlights: • Pyrite is the source of arsenic in groundwater in the Taconic region of Vermont, USA. • As-bearing pyrite δ 34 S = – 5.2 to 63‰ with higher 34 S as environment becomes more anoxic. • High sea level, tectonic activity create anoxia, with incorporation of As into pyrite. • New wells should avoid slate/phyllite containing sedimentary pyrite with heavy δ 34 S

  17. Radiocarbon evidence of the Middle to Upper Palaeolithic transition in Southwestern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jöris, Olaf

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper we systematically evaluate the radiometric database underlying the Middle to Upper Palaeolithc transition in southwestern Europe.The different models which attempt to explain the demographical processes underlying this transition rely to a large degree on radiocarbon chronology. We observe that: 1 with increasing age, dates on bone samples show large offsets against those on charcoal, often underestimating these for several thousand years BP and; 2 there is no proof for a persistence of Middle Palaeolithic industries into the time of the earliest Aurignacian in SW Europe. These data contradict the “Ebro- Frontier” model that distinguishes Late Middle Palaeolithic industries in the SW of the Iberian Peninsula from early Aurignacian ones in the NE. On the contrary, our data 3 imply a model of interregional shifts of populations contracting during severe cold and arid phases and expanding under warmer, interstadial conditions, raising ideas on a regional in situ development of the SW European Aurignacian out of Latest Middle Palaeolithic industries made by Neanderthals some 40.0 kyr cal BC.

    Se presenta un estudio sistemático sobre la información radiometrica disponible para la transición Paleolítico Medio-Paleolítico Superior en el Suroeste de Europa. Los diferentes modelos para explicar el proceso demográfico que subyace en esta transición dependen en gran medida de la cronología radiocarbónica. Se observa que: 1 a mayor antiguedad las fechas sobre hueso muestran una mayor desvisación frente a las muestras sobre carbón, a menudo infravalorando estas varios miles de años BP y 2 que no hay pruebas de perduración de industrias de Paleolítico Medio durante las fases tempranas del Auriñaciense en el SW de Europa. Estos datos contradicen el modelo de “frontera del Ebro” que distingue industrias de Paleolítico Medio Tardío en el SW de la Península Ibérica de las industrias del Auriñaciense temprano

  18. Arizona transportation history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    The Arizona transportation history project was conceived in anticipation of Arizonas centennial, which will be : celebrated in 2012. Following approval of the Arizona Centennial Plan in 2007, the Arizona Department of : Transportation (ADOT) recog...

  19. Zimbabwe culture before Mapungubwe: new evidence from Mapela Hill, South-Western Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirikure, Shadreck; Manyanga, Munyaradzi; Pollard, A Mark; Bandama, Foreman; Mahachi, Godfrey; Pikirayi, Innocent

    2014-01-01

    Across the globe, the emergence of complex societies excites intense academic debate in archaeology and allied disciplines. Not surprisingly, in southern Africa the traditional assumption that the evolution of socio-political complexity began with ideological transformations from K2 to Mapungubwe between CE1200 and 1220 is clouded in controversy. It is believed that the K2-Mapungubwe transitions crystallised class distinction and sacred leadership, thought to be the key elements of the Zimbabwe culture on Mapungubwe Hill long before they emerged anywhere else. From Mapungubwe (CE1220-1290), the Zimbabwe culture was expressed at Great Zimbabwe (CE1300-1450) and eventually Khami (CE1450-1820). However, new fieldwork at Mapela Hill, when coupled with a Bayesian chronology, offers tremendous fresh insights which refute this orthodoxy. Firstly, Mapela possesses enormous prestige stone-walled terraces whose initial construction date from the 11th century CE, almost two hundred years earlier than Mapungubwe. Secondly, the basal levels of the Mapela terraces and hilltop contain élite solid dhaka (adobe) floors associated with K2 pottery and glass beads. Thirdly, with a hilltop and flat area occupation since the 11th century CE, Mapela exhibits evidence of class distinction and sacred leadership earlier than K2 and Mapungubwe, the supposed propagators of the Zimbabwe culture. Fourthly, Mapungubwe material culture only appeared later in the Mapela sequence and therefore post-dates the earliest appearance of stone walling and dhaka floors at the site. Since stone walls, dhaka floors and class distinction are the essence of the Zimbabwe culture, their earlier appearance at Mapela suggests that Mapungubwe can no longer be regarded as the sole cradle of the Zimbabwe culture. This demands not just fresh ways of accounting for the rise of socio-political complexity in southern Africa, but also significant adjustments to existing models.

  20. A plan for landscape fire restoration in the Southwestern Borderlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald J. Gottfried; Larry S. Allen

    2009-01-01

    Fires were prevalent in the Southwestern Borderlands of Arizona and New Mexico prior to the arrival of European-American settlers in the 1880s. The almost total exclusion of fires for more than 100 years has been linked to declines in biological diversity and a loss of productivity associated with the encroachment of woody vegetation into the grasslands and open...

  1. Silviculture of southwestern ponderosa pine: The status of our knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert H. Schubert

    1974-01-01

    Describes the status of our knowledge of ponderosa pine silviculture in the southwestern States of Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, and Utah. Economic value, impact on other uses, and the timber resource are discussed first, followed by ecological background, site quality, growth and yield, and silviculture and management. Relevant literature is discussed along with...

  2. Penstemon lanceolatus Benth. or P. ramosus Crosswhite in Arizona and New Mexico, a peripheral or endemic species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. L. Anderson; S. Richmond-Williams; O. Williams

    2007-01-01

    The red-flowered member of Penstemon sect. Chamaeleon from southeastern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico has been treated taxonomically both as part of the Mexican species, P. lanceolatus Benth., and as a separate species, P. ramosus Crosswhite. Under the former treatment the Arizona and New Mexico populations are peripheral populations of a primarily Mexican...

  3. The Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station's Southwestern Borderlands Ecosystem Management Project: building on ten years of success [Abstract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald J. Gottfried; Carleton B. Edminster

    2005-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service initiated the Southwestern Borderlands Ecosystem Management Project in 1994. The Project concentrates on the unique, relatively unfragmented landscape of exceptional biological diversity in southeastern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico. Its mission is to: "Contribute to the scientific basis for developing and implementing a comprehensive...

  4. First report of the white pine blister rust pathogen, Cronartium ribicola, in Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. L. Fairweather; Brian Geils

    2011-01-01

    White pine blister rust, caused by Cronartium ribicola J.C. Fisch., was found on southwestern white pine (Pinus flexilis James var. reflexa Engelm., synonym P. strobiformis Engelm.) near Hawley Lake, Arizona (Apache County, White Mountains, 34.024°N, 109.776°W, elevation 2,357 m) in April 2009. Although white pines in the Southwest (Arizona and New Mexico) have been...

  5. Available data support protection of the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher under the Endangered Species Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theimer, Tad C.; Smith, Aaron D.; Mahoney, Sean M.; Ironside, Kirsten E.

    2016-01-01

    Zink (2015) argued there was no evidence for genetic, morphological, or ecological differentiation between the federally endangered Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus) and other Willow Flycatcher subspecies. Using the same data, we show there is a step-cline in both the frequency of a mtDNA haplotype and in plumage variation roughly concordant with the currently recognized boundary between E. t. extimus and E. t adastus, the subspecies with which it shares the longest common boundary. The geographical pattern of plumage variation is also concordant with previous song analyses differentiating those 2 subspecies and identified birds in one low-latitude, high-elevation site in Arizona as the northern subspecies. We also demonstrate that the ecological niche modeling approach used by Zink yields the same result whether applied to the 2 flycatcher subspecies or to 2 unrelated species, E. t. extimus and Yellow Warbler (Setophaga petechia). As a result, any interpretation of those results as evidence for lack of ecological niche differentiation among Willow Flycatcher subspecies would also indicate no differentiation among recognized species and would therefore be an inappropriate standard for delineating subspecies. We agree that many analytical techniques now available to examine genetic, morphological, and ecological differentiation would improve our understanding of the distinctness (or lack thereof) of Willow Flycatcher subspecies, but we argue that currently available evidence supports protection of the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher under the Endangered Species Act.

  6. Early atmospheric metal pollution provides evidence for Chalcolithic/Bronze Age mining and metallurgy in Southwestern Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez Cortizas, Antonio, E-mail: antonio.martinez.cortizas@usc.es [Departamento de Edafoloxía e Química Agrícola, Facultade de Bioloxía, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Campus Sur s/n, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); López-Merino, Lourdes, E-mail: lourdes.lopez-merino@brunel.ac.uk [Institute of Environment, Health and Societies, Brunel University London, UB8 3PH Uxbridge (United Kingdom); Bindler, Richard, E-mail: richard.bindler@umu.se [Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umeå University, Umeå (Sweden); Mighall, Tim, E-mail: t.mighall@abdn.ac.uk [Department of Geography & Environment, School of Geosciences, University of Aberdeen, Elphinstone Road, Aberdeen AB24 3UF (United Kingdom); Kylander, Malin E., E-mail: malin.kylander@geo.su.se [Department of Geological Sciences and the Bolin Centre for Climate Research, Stockholm University, SE-10691, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2016-03-01

    Although archaeological research suggests that mining/metallurgy already started in the Chalcolithic (3rd millennium BC), the earliest atmospheric metal pollution in SW Europe has thus far been dated to ~ 3500–3200 cal. yr. BP in paleo-environmental archives. A low intensity, non-extensive mining/metallurgy and the lack of appropriately located archives may be responsible for this mismatch. We have analysed the older section (> 2100 cal. yr. BP) of a peat record from La Molina (Asturias, Spain), a mire located in the proximity (35–100 km) of mines which were exploited in the Chalcolithic/Bronze Age, with the aim of assessing evidence of this early mining/metallurgy. Analyses included the determination of C as a proxy for organic matter content, lithogenic elements (Si, Al, Ti) as markers of mineral matter, and trace metals (Cr, Cu, Zn, Pb) and stable Pb isotopes as tracers of atmospheric metal pollution. From ~ 8000 to ~ 4980 cal. yr. BP the Pb composition is similar to that of the underlying sediments (Pb 15 ± 4 μg g{sup −1}; {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb 1.204 ± 0.002). A sustained period of low {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb ratios occurred from ~ 4980 to ~ 2470 cal. yr. BP, which can be divided into four phases: Chalcolithic (~ 4980–3700 cal. yr. BP), {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb ratios decline to 1.175 and Pb/Al ratios increase; Early Bronze Age (~ 3700–3500 cal. yr. BP), {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb increase to 1.192 and metal/Al ratios remain stable; Late Bronze Age (~ 3500–2800 cal. yr. BP), {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb decline to their lowest values (1.167) while Pb/Al and Zn/Al increase; and Early Iron Age (~ 2800–2470 cal. yr. BP), {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb increase to 1.186, most metal/Al ratios decrease but Zn/Al shows a peak. At the beginning of the Late Iron Age, {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb ratios and metal enrichments show a rapid return to pre-anthropogenic values. These results provide evidence of regional/local atmospheric metal pollution triggered by the

  7. Early atmospheric metal pollution provides evidence for Chalcolithic/Bronze Age mining and metallurgy in Southwestern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Cortizas, Antonio; López-Merino, Lourdes; Bindler, Richard; Mighall, Tim; Kylander, Malin E

    2016-03-01

    Although archaeological research suggests that mining/metallurgy already started in the Chalcolithic (3rd millennium BC), the earliest atmospheric metal pollution in SW Europe has thus far been dated to ~3500-3200 cal.yr. BP in paleo-environmental archives. A low intensity, non-extensive mining/metallurgy and the lack of appropriately located archives may be responsible for this mismatch. We have analysed the older section (>2100 cal.yr. BP) of a peat record from La Molina (Asturias, Spain), a mire located in the proximity (35-100 km) of mines which were exploited in the Chalcolithic/Bronze Age, with the aim of assessing evidence of this early mining/metallurgy. Analyses included the determination of C as a proxy for organic matter content, lithogenic elements (Si, Al, Ti) as markers of mineral matter, and trace metals (Cr, Cu, Zn, Pb) and stable Pb isotopes as tracers of atmospheric metal pollution. From ~8000 to ~4980 cal.yr. BP the Pb composition is similar to that of the underlying sediments (Pb 15 ± 4 μg g(-1); (206)Pb/(207)Pb 1.204 ± 0.002). A sustained period of low (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratios occurred from ~4980 to ~2470 cal.yr. BP, which can be divided into four phases: Chalcolithic (~4980-3700 cal.yr. BP), (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratios decline to 1.175 and Pb/Al ratios increase; Early Bronze Age (~3700-3500 cal.yr. BP), (206)Pb/(207)Pb increase to 1.192 and metal/Al ratios remain stable; Late Bronze Age (~3500-2800 cal.yr. BP), (206)Pb/(207)Pb decline to their lowest values (1.167) while Pb/Al and Zn/Al increase; and Early Iron Age (~2800-2470 cal.yr. BP), (206)Pb/(207)Pb increase to 1.186, most metal/Al ratios decrease but Zn/Al shows a peak. At the beginning of the Late Iron Age, (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratios and metal enrichments show a rapid return to pre-anthropogenic values. These results provide evidence of regional/local atmospheric metal pollution triggered by the earliest phases of mining/metallurgy in the area, and reconcile paleo-environmental and

  8. Continental basinal origin of ore fluids from southwestern Massif central fluorite veins (Albigeois, France): evidence from fluid inclusion and stable isotope analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz, M.; Boyce, A.J.; Courjault-Rade, P.; Fallick, A.E.; Tollon, F.

    1999-01-01

    The most important fluorspar mining district in France is located in the Palaeozoic basement of the Albigeois in southwestern French Massif Central. The massive fluorite is hosted within large E-W striking fractures, crosscutting Cambro-Ordovician clastics, associated with large zones of hypersilicified tectonic breccia which form the wall of the mined deposits. Fluid inclusion data for pre-fluorite and fluorite stage fluids have salinities between 20-26 wt% NaCl equiv., with homogenisation temperatures between 85-170C. Furthermore, low first ice melting temperatures (around -50C) indicates the presence of significant CaCl 2 and possibly MgCl 2 together with NaCl. Calculated fluid δ 18 O for pre-fluorite quartz ranges from -9.1per thousand to -5.2per thousand, with δD between -55per thousand to -64per thousand, placing the data directly on the present day meteoric water line. Fluorite stage fluids have δ 18 O between +0.1per thousand to +3.2per thousand, and δD ranging from -53per thousand to -75per thousand, indicating an interacted meteoric fluid origin. Combining the fluid inclusion and stable isotope data illustrates that the main fluorite depositing fluid has characteristics typical of a basinal brine. The authors have no evidence that a magmatic system was involved in the deposit genesis. The proposed model highlights that mineralisation was related to major Mesozoic extensional events coinciding with the gradual opening of the Atlantic and Tethys oceans. In order to account for the chemistry of the fluids, and the siting of the deposits, the authors postulate a genetic relationship with local, continental, evaporite-bearing basins coincident with, and controlled by the E-W fractures. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  9. A 300 kyr record of aridity and wind strength in southwestern Africa: evidence from grain-size distributions of sediments on Walvis Ridge, SE Atlantic.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stuut, J.-B. W.; Prins, M.A.; Schneider, R.S.; Weltje, G.J.; Jansen, J.H.F.; Postma, G.

    2002-01-01

    The terrigenous fraction of sediments recovered from Walvis Ridge, SE Atlantic Ocean, reveals a history of southwestern African climate of the last 300 kyr. End-member modelling of a data set of grain-size distributions (n = 428) results in three end members. The two coarsest end members are

  10. A centennial record of anthropogenic impacts and extreme weather events in southwestern Taiwan: Evidence from sedimentary molecular markers in coastal margin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuo, Li-Jung; Lee, Chon-Lin; Louchouarn, Patrick; Huh, Chih-An; Liu, James T.; Chen, Jian-Cheng; Lee, Kun-Je

    2014-09-15

    A 100-year history of human and natural disturbances in southwestern Taiwan was reconstructed using a suite of molecular markers in four dated sediment cores from the upper slope region off the Gaoping River mouth. Trends in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) tracked Taiwan's industrialization/urbanization starting in the 1970s, and the enactment of environmental regulatory policies thereafter.

  11. The southwestern extension of the Jiao-Liao-Ji belt in the North China Craton: Geochronological and geochemical evidence from the Wuhe Group in the Bengbu area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chaohui; Zhao, Guochun; Liu, Fulai; Cai, Jia

    2018-04-01

    The Wuhe complex is located at the southeastern margin of the North China Craton. The complex consists of metamorphosed Paleoproterozoic potassic granitoids and supracrustal rocks, of which the latter include the Fengyang and Wuhe groups. Meta-mafic rocks from the lower Wuhe Group have igneous zircon U-Pb ages of 2126 ± 37 Ma with εHf(t) values of -6.22 to +8.38, and xenocrystic zircons of 2.39-2.36 Ga, 2.55-2.54 Ga and 2.77-2.69 Ga. Geochemically, the meta-mafic rocks can be classified into two groups. Group 1 island arc tholeiites display flat to slightly right declined REE patterns and moderately negative Nb, Ta, Zr, and Ti anomalies. Group 2 mature arc calcalkaline basalts display strongly fractionated chondrite-normalized REE patterns and evidently negative Nb, Ta and Ti anomalies. These meta-mafic rocks formed by partial melting of sub-arc depleted mantle wedge which had been modified by slab-derived melts at an active continental margin. Depositional age of the group can be constrained in the period of 2.16-2.10 Ga based on ages of the youngest detrital zircons and latter intrusions. U-Pb ages of detrital zircons yield major age peaks of 2.69 Ga and 2.52 Ga, with minor peaks at 2.88 Ga, 2.78 Ga, 2.35 Ga and 2.17 Ga, most of which are derived from the late Mesoarchean to early Paleoproterozoic granitoids in the Wuhe complex and the Jiaodong Terrane. Metamorphic zircons in the marbles coexisting with garnet amphibolites or granulites occur as either single grains or overgrowth (or recrystallization) rims surrounding magmatic zircon cores and yield ages of 1882 ± 19 Ma to 1844 ± 15 Ma. The comparable ca. 2.1 Ga potassic granites with A-type granite affinity, the ca. 2.1 Ga meta-mafic rocks with arc-like geochemical features, the 2.1-1.9 Ga meta-sedimentary units and the 1.9-1.8 Ga subduction- and collision-related granulite-facies metamorphism suggest that the Wuhe complex and the Jiao-Liao-Ji Belt share the same late Paleoproterozoic tectonic evolution

  12. Tree canopy types constrain plant distributions in ponderosa pine-Gambel oak forests, northern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott R. Abella

    2009-01-01

    Trees in many forests affect the soils and plants below their canopies. In current high-density southwestern ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests, managers have opportunities to enhance multiple ecosystem values by manipulating tree density, distribution, and canopy cover through tree thinning. I performed a study in northern Arizona ponderosa...

  13. Effectiveness of litter removal to prevent cambial kill-caused mortality in northern Arizona ponderosa pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    James F. Fowler; Carolyn Hull Sieg; Linda L. Wadleigh

    2010-01-01

    Removal of deep litter and duff from the base of mature southwestern ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws.) is commonly recommended to reduce mortality after prescribed burns, but experimental studies that quantify the effectiveness of such practices in reducing mortality are lacking. After a pilot study on each of four sites in northern Arizona, we monitored 15-16...

  14. On-site energy consumption and selected emissions at softwood sawmills in the southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan Loeffler; Nathaniel Anderson; Todd A. Morgan; Colin B. Sorenson

    2016-01-01

    Presently there is a lack of information describing US southwestern energy consumption and emissions generated from the sawmilling industry. This article uses a mail survey of softwood sawmills in the states of Arizona, Colorado, and New Mexico to develop a profile of on-site energy consumption and selected emissions for the industry. Energy consumption is...

  15. Environmental Management Audit: Southwestern Power Administration (Southwestern)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    This report documents the results of the Environmental Management Audit completed for the Southwestern Power Administration. During this Audit, activities and records were reviewed and personnel interviewed. The onsite portion of the Southwestern Audit was conducted from November 30 through December 11, 1992, by the US Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Audit (EH-24). EH-24 carries out independent assessments of Department of Energy (DOE) facilities and activities as part of the Assistant Secretary's Environmental Audit Program. This program is designed to evaluate the status of DOE facilities/activities regarding compliance with laws, regulations, DOE Orders, formal written procedures, compliance agreements, and Best Management Practices (BMPs). This internal oversight function plays an important role in improving the compliance status of DOE operations. The Environmental Management Audit stresses DOE's policy that it is the responsibility of line management to conduct operations in an environmentally sound and safe manner. The Environmental Management Audit focuses on management systems and programs, whereas the Environmental Baseline Audit conducted in March 1991 focused on specific compliance issues. The scope of the Southwestern Environmental Management Audit included a review of all systems and functions necessary for effective environmental management. Specific areas of review included: Organizational Structure; Environmental Commitment; Environmental Protection Programs; Formality of Environmental Programs; Internal and External Communication; Staff Resources, Training, and Development; and Program Evaluation, Reporting, and Corrective Action

  16. An early cretaceous phase of accelerated erosion on the south-western margin of Africa: evidence from apatite fission track analysis and the offshore sedimentary record

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.W.; Gleadow, A.J.W.; Rust, D.J.; Summerfield, M.A.; De Wit, M.C.J.

    1990-01-01

    Apatite fission track ages and confined track length distributions have been determined for rock samples from the south-western continental margin of Africa. The apatite ages fall into two groups, one having early Cretaceous ages and mean confined track lengths of ∼ 14 μm with very few short tracks, and the other having older ages with confined track length distributions containing a significant proportion of strongly annealed tracks (<10 μm). In any particular area the older apatite ages only occur above a critical threshold elevation, forming a regional pattern in the data and indicating cooling of the upper few kilometres of the crust during the early cretaceous. This episode of cooling is shown to have been the consequence of an accelerated phase of erosion associated with the early stages of rifting and break-up of Gondwana, and correlates with sedimentation patterns derived from borehole data for the adjacent offshore basin. (author)

  17. An early cretaceous phase of accelerated erosion on the south-western margin of Africa: evidence from apatite fission track analysis and the offshore sedimentary record

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, R.W.; Gleadow, A.J.W. (La Trobe Univ., Bundoora (Australia)); Rust, D.J.; Summerfield, M.A. (Edinburgh Univ. (UK)); De Wit, M.C.J. (De Beers Consolidated Mines Ltd., Kimberley (South Africa))

    1990-01-01

    Apatite fission track ages and confined track length distributions have been determined for rock samples from the south-western continental margin of Africa. The apatite ages fall into two groups, one having early Cretaceous ages and mean confined track lengths of {approx} 14 {mu}m with very few short tracks, and the other having older ages with confined track length distributions containing a significant proportion of strongly annealed tracks (<10 {mu}m). In any particular area the older apatite ages only occur above a critical threshold elevation, forming a regional pattern in the data and indicating cooling of the upper few kilometres of the crust during the early cretaceous. This episode of cooling is shown to have been the consequence of an accelerated phase of erosion associated with the early stages of rifting and break-up of Gondwana, and correlates with sedimentation patterns derived from borehole data for the adjacent offshore basin. (author).

  18. New Evidence of Regional Geological Structures Inferred from Reprocessing and Resistivity Data Interpretation in the Chingshui-Sanshing-Hanchi Area of Southwestern Ilan County, NE Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gong-Ruei Ho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Ilan Plain is located at the southwestern tip of the back arc basin of the Okinawa Trough, which propagates westward into the Taiwan orogen. A long discussed issue concerns whether the opening normal-fault system of the Okinawa Trough propagates and transforms into the thrust-fault system of the Taiwan orogen. We have reprocessed and inverted resistivity measurements from a series of surveys conducted in the 1970s around the Chingshui-Sanshing-Hanchi area of southwestern Ilan County. The 2D and 3D inverted resistivity images reveal the regional structures. A major conductive structure dipping toward the northwest at an angle of 30° - 40° is located at the expected site of the Niudou Fault separating the Early Miocene Szeleng and Kangkou Formations from the Lushan Formation in the Sanshing area, which dip direction of two conductive structures with a dipping angle of 50° - 70° were coinciding with the dip direction of normal faults identified from the field surveys. In addition three high-angle discontinuity structures, dipping toward the north with an angle of 60° - 80° can be identified in the resistivity profile along Hanchi. We tend to suggest these structures as the extended portions of the normal faults that have been identified under the unconsolidated sediments in the Ilan Plain. Resistivity profiles from the Chingshuichi area reveal the existence of the vertical Chingshuichi, the Dachi, and the Xiaonanauo Fault. Hot springs were found in the junction area of the Chingshuichi and the Xiaonanauo Fault. The junction region of these two fault systems is the potential Chingshui geothermal field that provides fluid geothermals from the deep.

  19. A Mesozoic orogenic cycle from post-collision to subduction in the southwestern Korean Peninsula: New structural, geochemical, and chronological evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seung-Ik; Kwon, Sanghoon; Kim, Sung Won; Hong, Paul S.; Santosh, M.

    2018-05-01

    The Early to Middle Mesozoic basins, distributed sporadically over the Korean Peninsula, preserve important records of the tectonic history of some of the major orogenic belts in East Asia. Here we present a comprehensive study of the structural, geochemical, geochronological, and paleontological features of a volcano-sedimentary package, belonging to the Oseosan Volcanic Complex of the Early to Middle Mesozoic Chungnam Basin, within the Mesozoic subduction-collision orogen in the southwestern Korean Peninsula. The zircon U-Pb data from rhyolitic volcanic rocks of the complex suggest Early to Middle Jurassic emplacement age of ca. 178-172 Ma, harmonious with plant fossil taxa found from the overlying tuffaceous sedimentary rock. The geochemical data for the rhyolitic volcanic rocks are indicative of volcanic arc setting, implying that the Chungnam Basin has experienced an intra-arc subsidence during the basin-expanding stage by subduction of the Paleo-Pacific (Izanagi) Plate. The Jurassic arc-related Oseosan Volcanic Complex was structurally stacked by the older Late Triassic to Early Jurassic post-collisional basin-fill of the Nampo Group by the Jangsan fault during basin inversion. The Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous K-feldspar and illite K-Ar ages marked the timing of inversion tectonics, contemporaneous with the magmatic quiescence in the southern Korean Peninsula, likely due to flat-lying or low-angle subduction. The basin evolution history preserved in the Mesozoic Chungnam Basin reflects a Mesozoic orogenic cycle from post-collision to subduction in the southwestern Korean Peninsula. This, in turn, provides a better understanding of the spatial and temporal changes in Mesozoic tectonic environments along the East Asian continental margin.

  20. Serologic evidence for exposure to Rickettsia rickettsii in eastern Arizona and recent emergence of Rocky Mountain spotted fever in this region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demma, Linda J; Traeger, Marc; Blau, Dianna; Gordon, Rondeen; Johnson, Brian; Dickson, Jeff; Ethelbah, Rudy; Piontkowski, Stephen; Levy, Craig; Nicholson, William L; Duncan, Christopher; Heath, Karen; Cheek, James; Swerdlow, David L; McQuiston, Jennifer H

    2006-01-01

    During 2002 through 2004, 15 patients with Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) were identified in a rural community in Arizona where the disease had not been previously reported. The outbreak was associated with Rickettsia rickettsii in an unexpected tick vector, the brown dog tick (Rhipicephalus sanguineus), which had not been previously associated with RMSF transmission in the United States. We investigated the extent of exposure to R. rickettsii in the local area through serologic evaluations of children and dogs in 2003-2004, and in canine sera from 1996. Antibodies to R. rickettsii at titers > or = 32 were detected in 10% of children and 70% of dogs in the outbreak community and 16% of children and 57% of dogs in a neighboring community. In comparison, only 5% of canine samples from 1996 had anti-R. rickettsii antibodies at titers > or = 32. These results suggest that exposures to RMSF have increased over the past 9 years, and that RMSF may now be endemic in this region.

  1. Detection of Mycoplasma gallisepticum in House Finches ( Haemorhous mexicanus) from Arizona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staley, Molly; Bonneaud, Camille; McGraw, Kevin J; Vleck, Carol M; Hill, Geoffrey E

    2018-03-01

    In 1994, an endemic poultry pathogen, Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), was identified as the causative agent of a novel disease in house finches ( Haemorhous mexicanus). After an initial outbreak in Maryland, MG spread rapidly throughout eastern North American populations of house finches. Subsequently, MG spread slowly through the northern interior of North America and then into the Pacific Northwest, finally reaching California in 2006. Until 2009, there were no reports of MG in the southwestern United States east of California. In August 2011, after reports of house finches displaying conjunctivitis characteristic of MG infection in Arizona, we trapped house finches at bird feeders in central Arizona (Tempe) and southern Arizona (Tucson and Green Valley) to assay for MG infection. Upon capture, we noted whether birds exhibited conjunctivitis, and we collected choanal swabs to test for the presence of MG DNA using PCR. We detected MG in finches captured from Green Valley (in ∼12% of birds captured), but not in finches from Tucson or Tempe. Based on resampling of house finches at these sites in July 2014, we suggest that central Arizona finches likely remain unexposed to MG. We also suggest that low urban connectivity between arid habitats of southern and central Arizona or a reduction in the prevalence of MG after its initial arrival in Arizona may be limiting the spread of MG from south to north in Arizona. In addition, the observed conjunctivitis-like signs in house finches that were negative for MG by PCR may be caused primarily by avian pox virus.

  2. The Virtual Arizona Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, M. L.; Davis, R.; Conway, F. M.; Bellasai, R.

    2012-12-01

    To commemorate the once-in-a-lifetime event of Arizona's hundredth birthday, the Centennial Commission and the Governor of Arizona envisioned a museum and companion website that would capture the state's history, celebrate its people, and embrace its future. Working with world-renowned museum designers, the state began to seek ideas from across Arizona to create plans for a journey of discovery through science and the humanities. The museum would introduce visitors to some of the people who nurtured the state through its early years and others who are innovating its tomorrows. Showcases would include the resources and experiences that shaped the state's history and are transforming its present day, highlighting the ingenuity that tamed the wild frontier and is envisioning Arizona's next frontiers through science and technology. The Arizona Experience (www.arizonaexperience.org) was initially intended to serve as the web presence for the physical museum, but as delays occurred with the physical museum, the site has quickly developed an identify of its own as an interactive, multimedia experience, reaching a wider audience with functions that would be difficult or expensive to produce in a museum. As leaders in scientific and technological innovation in the state, the Arizona Geological Survey was tasked with designing and creating the Arizona Experience site. The general themes remain the same; however, the site has added content and applications that are better suited to the online environment in order to create a rich, dynamic supplement to a physical museum experience. The website offers the features and displays of the future museum with the interactive nature and learning environment of the web. This provides an encyclopedic overview of the State of Arizona by subject matter experts in a manner that is free and open to the public and erases socio-economic, political, and physical boundaries. Over the Centennial Year of 2012 the site will release a new theme and

  3. Isotopic disequilibrium among commingled hybrid magmas: Evidence for a two-stage magma mixing-commingling process in the Mt. Perkins Pluton, Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metcalf, R.V.; Smith, E.I.; Reed, R.C.

    1995-01-01

    The syn-extensional Miocene Mt. Perkins pluton, northwestern Arizona, cooled rapidly due to its small size (6 km 2 ) and shallow emplacement (7.5 km) and allows examination of commingled rocks that experienced little isotopic exchange. Within the pluton, quartz dioritic to granodioritic host rocks (58-68 wt% SiO 2 ) enclose dioritic enclaves (50-55 wt% SiO 2 ) and a portion contains enclave-free granodiorite (70-74 wt% SiO 2 ). Fine-grained, crenulate enclave margins and a lack of advanced mixing structures (e.g., schlieren, flow fabrics, etc.) indicate an incipient stage of commingling. Isotopic variation between enclaves and enclosing host rocks is large (6.8 to 10.6 ε Nd units; 0.0036 to 0.0046 87 Sr/ 86 Sr units), suggesting isotopic disequilibrium. Comparison of an enclave core and rim suggests that isotopic exchange with the host magma was limited to the enclave rim. Enclaves and hosts collectively form a calc-alkaline suite exhibiting a large range of ε Nd (+1.2 to -12.5) and initial 87 Sr/ 86 Sr (0.705 to 0.71267) with a correlation among ε Nd , initial 87 Sr/ 86 Sr, and major and trace element compositions. Modeling suggests that the suite formed by magma hybridization involving magma mixing accompanied by fractional crystallization. The magma mixing must have predated commingling at the present exposure level and indicates a larger mixing chamber at depth. Isotopic and trace element data suggests mixing end-members were asthenospheric mantle-derived mafic and crustal-derived felsic magmas. Fractional crystallization facilitated mixing by reducing the rheological contrasts between the mafic and felsic mixing end-members. 58 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs

  4. Comparison of traditional and ET-based irrigation scheduling of surface-irrigated cotton in the arid southwestern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of irrigation scheduling tools to produce cotton under-surface irrigation in the arid southwesternUSA is minimal. In the State of Arizona, where traditional irrigation scheduling is the norm, producersuse an average of 1460 mm annually to grow a cotton crop. The purpose of this paper was to ...

  5. Arizona/New Mexico Plateau Ecoregion: Chapter 26 in Status and trends of land change in the Western United States--1973 to 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhlman, Jana; Gass, Leila; Middleton, Barry

    2012-01-01

    Situated between ecoregions of distinctly different topographies and climates, the Arizona/New Mexico Plateau Ecoregion represents a large area of approximately 192,869 km2 (74,467 mi2) that stretches across northern Arizona, central and northwestern New Mexico, and parts of southwestern Colorado; in addition, a small part extends into southeastern Nevada (fig. 1) (Omernik, 1987; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1997). Forested, mountainous terrain borders the ecoregion on the northeast (Southern Rockies Ecoregion) and southwest (Arizona/New Mexico Mountains Ecoregion). Warmer and drier climates exist to the south (Chihuahuan Deserts Ecoregion) and west (Mojave Basin and Range Ecoregion). The semiarid grasslands of the western Great Plains are to the east (Southwestern Tablelands Ecoregion), and the tablelands of the Colorado Plateau in Utah and western Colorado lie to the north (Colorado Plateaus Ecoregion). The Arizona/New Mexico Plateau Ecoregion occupies a significant portion of the southern half of the Colorado Plateau.

  6. Hydrogeology of the Mogollon Highlands, central Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, John T.C.; Steinkampf, William C.; Flynn, Marilyn E.

    2005-01-01

    The Mogollon Highlands, 4,855 square miles of rugged, mountainous terrain at the southern edge of the Colorado Plateau in central Arizona, is characterized by a bedrock-dominated hydrologic system that results in an incompletely integrated regional ground-water system, flashy streamflow, and various local water-bearing zones that are sensitive to drought. Increased demand on the water resources of the area as a result of recreational activities and population growth have made necessary an increased understanding of the hydrogeology of the region. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a study of the geology and hydrology of the region in cooperation with the Arizona Department of Water Resources under the auspices of the Arizona Rural Watershed Initiative, a program launched in 1998 to assist rural areas in dealing with water-resources issues. The study involved the analysis of geologic maps, surface-water and ground-water flow, and water and rock chemical data and spatial relationships to characterize the hydrogeologic framework. The study area includes the southwestern corner of the Colorado Plateau and the Mogollon Rim, which is the eroded edge of the plateau. A 3,000- to 4,000-foot sequence of early to late Paleozoic sedimentary rocks forms the generally south-facing scarp of the Mogollon Rim. The area adjacent to the edge of the Mogollon Rim is an erosional landscape of rolling, step-like terrain exposing Proterozoic metamorphic and granitic rocks. Farther south, the Sierra Ancha and Mazatzal Mountain ranges, which are composed of various Proterozoic rocks, flank an alluvial basin filled with late Cenozoic sediments and volcanic flows. Eight streams with perennial to intermittent to ephemeral flow drain upland regions of the Mogollon Rim and flow into the Salt River on the southern boundary or the Verde River on the western boundary. Ground-water flow paths generally are controlled by large-scale fracture systems or by karst features in carbonate rocks. Stream

  7. A centennial record of anthropogenic impacts and extreme weather events in southwestern Taiwan: Evidence from sedimentary molecular markers in coastal margin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuo, Li-Jung; Lee, Chon-Lin; Louchouarn, Patrick; Huh, Chih-An; Liu, James T.; Chen, Jian-Cheng; Lee, Kun-Je

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Historical reconstruction of human and natural disturbances in SW Taiwan. • Comparative analysis of PAHs and lignin to evaluate sources/processes. • Distinct timing of PAH maxima between western Pacific, Europe and North America. • Consistently low (Ad/Al) v suggests quick transport of TOM by mountainous rivers. • Both PAHs and lignin point to turbidite flows driven by typhoon floods. - Abstract: A 100-year history of human and natural disturbances in southwestern Taiwan was reconstructed using a suite of molecular markers in four dated sediment cores from the upper slope region off the Gaoping River mouth. Trends in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) tracked Taiwan’s industrialization/urbanization starting in the 1970s, and the enactment of environmental regulatory policies thereafter. The predominant pyrogenic sources include vehicular, smelter, and coal combustion but spatial differences are observed among sub-regions of the shelf. Profiles of lignin oxidation products (LOPs) point to a significant increase in terrestrial organic matter inputs driven by land development after the 1970s. Low lignin diagenetic signature ratios [(Ad/Al) v ] in all sediments suggest quick transport of fresh plant material from land to sea via mountainous rivers. Shifts in PAHs, LOPs, and radionuclides in recent sediments reveal the deposition of turbidites resulting from typhoon-induced floods. Multiproxy analysis illustrates the interplay between anthropogenic activities and natural processes

  8. A centennial record of anthropogenic impacts and extreme weather events in southwestern Taiwan: evidence from sedimentary molecular markers in coastal margin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Li-Jung; Lee, Chon-Lin; Louchouarn, Patrick; Huh, Chih-An; Liu, James T; Chen, Jian-Cheng; Lee, Kun-Je

    2014-09-15

    A 100-year history of human and natural disturbances in southwestern Taiwan was reconstructed using a suite of molecular markers in four dated sediment cores from the upper slope region off the Gaoping River mouth. Trends in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) tracked Taiwan's industrialization/urbanization starting in the 1970s, and the enactment of environmental regulatory policies thereafter. The predominant pyrogenic sources include vehicular, smelter, and coal combustion but spatial differences are observed among sub-regions of the shelf. Profiles of lignin oxidation products (LOPs) point to a significant increase in terrestrial organic matter inputs driven by land development after the 1970s. Low lignin diagenetic signature ratios [(Ad/Al)v] in all sediments suggest quick transport of fresh plant material from land to sea via mountainous rivers. Shifts in PAHs, LOPs, and radionuclides in recent sediments reveal the deposition of turbidites resulting from typhoon-induced floods. Multiproxy analysis illustrates the interplay between anthropogenic activities and natural processes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Kaljujooniste keskus Arizonas / Andres Kurg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kurg, Andres, 1975-

    1998-01-01

    Arhitekt William Bruderi projekteeritud kaljujooniste uurimis- ja eksponeerimiskeskus Phoenixis, Arizonas säilitab kivijooniseid, mille autoriteks olid sealset piirkonda kuni 16. sajandini asustanud hohokamid

  10. Consumption of seeds of southwestern white pine (Pinus strobiformis) by Black Bear (Ursus americanus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, David J.; Arundel, Terry A.

    2013-01-01

    We report a discovery of black bears (Ursus americanus) consuming seeds of southwestern white pine (Pinus strobiformis) on north slopes of the San Francisco Peaks near Flagstaff, Arizona, in high-elevation, mixed-species conifer forest. In one instance, a bear had obtained seeds from cones excavated from a larder horde made by a red squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus). Consumption of seeds of southwestern white pine by bears had not been previously documented. This discovery adds to the number of species of pine used by bears for food as well as the geographic range within which the behavior occurs.

  11. Evidence of a robust relationship between solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence and gross primary productivity across dryland ecosystems of southwestern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, W. K.; Biederman, J. A.; Scott, R. L.; Moore, D. J.; Kimball, J. S.; He, M.; Yan, D.; Hudson, A.; Barnes, M.; MacBean, N.; Fox, A. M.; Litvak, M. E.

    2017-12-01

    Satellite remote sensing provides unmatched spatiotemporal information on multiple facets of vegetation dynamics including seasonal to interannual total photosynthesis, termed gross primary productivity (GPP). Yet, our understanding of the relationship between GPP and remote sensing observations - and how this relationship changes with scale, biophysical constraint, vegetation type, etc. - remains limited. This knowledge gap is especially apparent for dryland ecosystems, which have high spatial and temporal variability and are under-represented by long-term, continuous field measurements. Here, utilizing a new synthesis of eddy covariance flux tower data for southwestern North America, we present a first assessment of the ability of novel satellite remote sensing vegetation proxies to accurately capture seasonal to interannual GPP dynamics across the region. We evaluate the greenness-based Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) and emerging proxies linked to plant physiological function, Solar-Induced Fluorescence (SIF) and Photochemical Reflectivity Index (PRI). We find that SIF observations more consistently correlate with seasonal GPP dynamics (R = 0.90) compared to EVI (R = 0.85) and PRI (R = 0.78). More, we find that SIF observations are also more sensitive to interannual GPP variability (linear slope = 0.80) relative to EVI (linear slope = 0.63) and PRI (linear slope = 0.35). This is likely due to increased sensitivity of SIF to GPP during periods of decoupling between greenness and photosynthesis due to water-limitation / stomatal closure. Conversely, EVI and PRI observations better capture spatial GPP variability between flux tower sites. These results suggest that combinations of these independent vegetation growth proxies could yield synergistic improvements in satellite-based GPP estimates.

  12. Geographic disparities of asthma prevalence in south-western United States of America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Lung-Chang; Alamgir, Hasanat

    2014-11-01

    Asthma is one of the most prevalent chronic diseases in the United States of America (USA), and many of its risk factors have so far been investigated and identified; however, evidence is limited on how spatial disparities impact the disease. The purpose of this study was to provide scientific evidence on the location influence on asthma in the four states of southwestern USA (California, Arizona, New Mexico and Texas) which, together, include 360 counties. The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System database for these four states covering the period of 2000 to 2011 was used in this analysis, and a Bayesian structured additive regression model was applied to analyse by a geographical information system. After adjusting for individual characteristics, socioeconomic status and health behaviour, this study found higher odds associated with asthma and a likely cluster around the Bay Area in California, while lower odds appeared in several counties around the larger cities of Texas, such as Dallas, Houston and San Antonio. The significance map shows 43 of 360 counties (11.9%) to be high-risk areas for asthma. The level of geographical disparities demonstrates that the county risk of asthma prevalence varies significantly and can be about 19.9% (95% confidence interval: 15.3-25.8) higher or lower than the overall asthma prevalence. We provide an efficient method to utilise and interpret the existing surveillance data on asthma. Visualisation by maps may help deliver future interventions on targeted areas and vulnerable populations to reduce geographical disparities in the burden of asthma.

  13. Arizona Conserve Water Educators Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Project WET Foundation, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This award-winning, 350-page, full-color book provides a thorough study of Arizona water resources from a water conservation perspective. Its background section contains maps, graphs, diagrams and photos that facilitate the teaching of 15 interactive, multi-disciplinary lessons to K-12 students. In addition, 10 Arizona case studies are highlighted…

  14. Potential of breccia pipes in the Mohawk Canyon Area, Hualapai Indian Reservation, Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenrich, K.J.; Billingsley, G.H.; Van Gosen, B.S.

    1990-01-01

    The Hualapai Indian Reservation is on the southwestern corner of the Colorado Plateau in northern Arizona. Hundreds of solution-collapse breccia pipes crop out in the canyons and on the plateaus of northern Arizona. The pipes originated in the Mississippian Redwall Limestone and stoped their way upward through the upper Paleozoic strata, locally extending into the Triassic Moenkopi and Chinle Formations. The occurrence of high-grade U ore, associated with potentially economic concentrations of Cu, Ag, Pb, Zn, V, Co, and Ni in some of these pipes, has stimulated mining activity in northern Arizona despite the depressed market for most of these metals. Two breccia pipes, 241, and 242, have significant mineralized rock exposed on the Esplanade erosion surface; unfortunately, their economic potential is questionable because of their inaccessibility at the bottom of Mohawk Canyon. All warrant further exploration

  15. Arizona/New Mexico Mountains Ecoregion: Chapter 10 in Status and trends of land change in the Western United States--1973 to 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhlman, Jana; Gass, Leila; Middleton, Barry

    2012-01-01

    As the name suggests, the Arizona/New Mexico Mountains Ecoregion includes much of the mountainous regions of these two states, plus a very small part in the Guadalupe Mountains of northwestern Texas. Several isolated areas of higher terrain in Arizona and New Mexico are also included in the ecoregion, which occupies approximately 108,432 km2 (41,866 mi2) (Omernik, 1987; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1997). The ecoregion is bounded on the south by the Sonoran Basin and Range, Madrean Archipelago, and Chihuahuan Deserts Ecoregions; to the north, the ecoregion is both bounded and surrounded by the Arizona/New Mexico Plateau Ecoregion (fig. 1). The ecoregion encompasses the largest contiguous ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forest in the United States (Strom and Fulé, 2007), which stretches from Williams, Arizona, along the Mogollon Rim, Arizona, into southwestern New Mexico, north and west of Silver City, New Mexico.

  16. Ecoregions of Arizona (poster)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Glenn E.; Omernik, James M.; Johnson, Colleen Burch; Turner, Dale S.

    2014-01-01

    Ecoregions denote areas of general similarity in ecosystems and in the type, quality, and quantity of environmental resources; they are designed to serve as a spatial framework for the research, assessment, management, and monitoring of ecosystems and ecosystem components. By recognizing the spatial differences in the capacities and potentials of ecosystems, ecoregions stratify the environment by its probable response to disturbance. These general purpose regions are critical for structuring and implementing ecosystem management strategies across federal agencies, state agencies, and nongovernment organizations that are responsible for different types of resources within the same geographical areas. The Arizona ecoregion map was compiled at a scale of 1:250,000. It revises and subdivides an earlier national ecoregion map that was originally compiled at a smaller scale. The approach used to compile this map is based on the premise that ecological regions can be identified through the analysis of the spatial patterns and the composition of biotic and abiotic phenomena that affect or reflect differences in ecosystem quality and integrity. These phenomena include geology, physiography, vegetation, climate, soils, land use, wildlife, and hydrology. The relative importance of each characteristic varies from one ecological region to another regardless of the hierarchical level. A Roman numeral hierarchical scheme has been adopted for different levels of ecological regions. Level I is the coarsest level, dividing North America into 15 ecological regions. Level II divides the continent into 50 regions. At level III, the continental United States contains 105 ecoregions and the conterminous United States has 85 ecoregions. Level IV is a further subdivision of level III ecoregions. Arizona contains arid deserts and canyonlands, semiarid shrub- and grass-covered plains, woodland- and shrubland-covered hills, lava fields and volcanic plateaus, forested mountains, glaciated

  17. July 2016 Arizona thoracic society notes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after first 150 words. The July 2016 Arizona Thoracic Society meeting was held on Wednesday, July 27, 2016 at the Scottsdale Shea Hospital beginning at 6:30 PM. This was a dinner meeting with case presentations. There were 14 in attendance representing the pulmonary, critical care, sleep, and radiology communities. Prior to the case presentations, a discussion was held on 4 issues. First, Dr. Rick Robbins gave a summary of ATS Hill Day. During Hill Day a presentation was given by a representative from the Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids. Their web site lists tobacco company contributions to members of Congress on their web site. Dr. Gary Ewart from the ATS office in Washington gave a presentation on the Traditional Cigar Manufacturing and Small Business Jobs Preservation Act before Congress (aka the Cigar Bill which the ATS opposes. He noted that cosponsors for the bill included several Congressmen from Southwestern states. Dr. Robbins combined the two ...

  18. Genetic variation in the endangered Southwestern Willow Flycatcher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Joseph; Miller, Mark P.; Paxton, E.H.; Sogge, M.K.; Keim, Paul

    2000-01-01

    The Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus) is an endangered Neotropical migrant that breeds in isolated remnants of dense riparian habitat in the southwestern United States. We estimated genetic variation at 20 breeding sites of the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (290 individuals) using 38 amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs). Our results suggest that considerable genetic diversity exists within the subspecies and within local breeding sites. Statistical analyses of genetic variation revealed only slight, although significant, differentiation among breeding sites (Mantel's r = 0.0705, P UPGMA cluster analysis of the AFLP markers indicates that extensive gene flow has occurred among breeding sites. No one site stood out as being genetically unique or isolated. Therefore, the small level of genetic structure that we detected may not be biologically significant. Ongoing field studies are consistent with this conclusion. Of the banded birds that were resighted or recaptured in Arizona during the 1996 to 1998 breeding seasons, one-third moved between breeding sites and two-thirds were philopatric. Low differentiation may be the result of historically high rangewide diversity followed by recent geographic isolation of breeding sites, although observational data indicate that gene flow is a current phenomenon. Our data suggest that breeding groups of E. t. extimus act as a metapopulation.

  19. The Rheological Evolution of Brittle-Ductile Transition Rocks During the Earthquake Cycle: Evidence for a Ductile Precursor to Pseudotachylyte in an Extensional Fault System, South Mountains, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Craig A.; Miranda, Elena A.

    2017-12-01

    We investigate how the rheological evolution of shear zone rocks from beneath the brittle-ductile transition (BDT) is affected by coeval ductile shear and pseudotachylyte development associated with seismicity during the earthquake cycle. We focus our study on footwall rocks of the South Mountains core complex, and we use electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analyses to examine how strain is localized in granodiorite mylonites both prior to and during pseudotachylyte development beneath the BDT. In mylonites that are host to pseudotachylytes, deformation is partitioned into quartz, where quartz exhibits crystallographic-preferred orientation patterns and microstructures indicative of dynamic recrystallization during dislocation creep. Grain size reduction during dynamic recrystallization led to the onset of grain boundary sliding (GBS) accommodated by fluid-assisted grain size-sensitive (GSS) creep, localizing strain in quartz-rich layers prior to pseudotachylyte development. The foliation-parallel zones of GBS in the host mylonites, and the presence of GBS traits in polycrystalline quartz survivor clasts indicate that GBS zones were the ductile precursors to in situ pseudotachylyte generation. During pseudotachylyte development, strain was partitioned into the melt phase, and GSS deformation in the survivor clasts continued until crystallization of melt impeded flow, inducing pseudotachylyte development in other GBS zones. We interpret the coeval pseudotachylytes with ductile precursors as evidence of seismic events near the BDT. Grain size piezometry yields high differential stresses in both host mylonites ( 160 MPa) and pseudotachylyte survivor clasts (> 200 MPa), consistent with high stresses during interseismic and coseismic phases of the earthquake cycle, respectively.

  20. Evidence of carbamate resistance in urban populations of Anopheles gambiae s.s. mosquitoes resistant to DDT and deltamethrin insecticides in Lagos, South-Western Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oduola Adedayo O

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Resistance monitoring is essential in ensuring the success of insecticide based vector control programmes. This study was carried out to assess the susceptibility status of urban populations of Anopheles gambiae to carbamate insecticide being considered for vector control in mosquito populations previously reported to be resistant to DDT and permethrin. Methods Two – three day old adult female Anopheles mosquitoes reared from larval collections in 11 study sites from Local Government Areas of Lagos were exposed to test papers impregnated with DDT 4%, deltamethrin 0.05% and propoxur 0.1% insecticides. Additional tests were carried out to determine the susceptibility status of the Anopheles gambiae population to bendiocarb insecticide. Members of the A. gambiae complex, the molecular forms, were identified by PCR assays. The involvement of metabolic enzymes in carbamate resistance was assessed using Piperonyl butoxide (PBO synergist assays. The presence of kdr-w/e and ace-1R point mutations responsible for DDT-pyrethroid and carbamate resistance mechanisms was also investigated by PCR. Results Propoxur resistance was found in 10 out of the 11 study sites. Resistance to three classes of insecticides was observed in five urban localities. Mortality rates in mosquitoes exposed to deltamethrin and propoxur did not show any significant difference (P > 0.05 but was significantly higher (P A. gambiae s.s (M form. The kdr -w point mutation at allelic frequencies between 45%-77% was identified as one of the resistant mechanisms responsible for DDT and pyrethroid resistance. Ace-1R point mutation was absent in the carbamate resistant population. However, the possible involvement of metabolic resistance was confirmed by synergistic assays conducted. Conclusion Evidence of carbamate resistance in A. gambiae populations already harbouring resistance to DDT and permethrin is a clear indication that calls for the implementation of

  1. Rickettsia parkeri Rickettsiosis, Arizona, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrick, Kristen L; Pena, Sandra A; Yaglom, Hayley D; Layton, Brent J; Moors, Amanda; Loftis, Amanda D; Condit, Marah E; Singleton, Joseph; Kato, Cecilia Y; Denison, Amy M; Ng, Dianna; Mertins, James W; Paddock, Christopher D

    2016-05-01

    In the United States, all previously reported cases of Rickettsia parkeri rickettsiosis have been linked to transmission by the Gulf Coast tick (Amblyomma maculatum). Here we describe 1 confirmed and 1 probable case of R. parkeri rickettsiosis acquired in a mountainous region of southern Arizona, well beyond the recognized geographic range of A. maculatum ticks. The likely vector for these 2 infections was identified as the Amblyomma triste tick, a Neotropical species only recently recognized in the United States. Identification of R. parkeri rickettsiosis in southern Arizona demonstrates a need for local ecologic and epidemiologic assessments to better understand geographic distribution and define public health risk. Education and outreach aimed at persons recreating or working in this region of southern Arizona would improve awareness and promote prevention of tickborne rickettsioses.

  2. The Uneven Performance of Arizona's Charter Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chingos, Matthew M.; West, Martin R.

    2015-01-01

    Arizona enrolls a larger share of its students in charter schools than any other state in the country, but no comprehensive examination exists of the impact of those schools on student achievement. Using student-level data covering all Arizona students from 2006 to 2012, we find that the performance of charter schools in Arizona in improving…

  3. Quantifying the Carbon Balance of Forest Restoration and Wildfire under Projected Climate in the Fire-Prone Southwestern US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurteau, Matthew D

    2017-01-01

    Climate projections for the southwestern US suggest a warmer, drier future and have the potential to impact forest carbon (C) sequestration and post-fire C recovery. Restoring forest structure and surface fire regimes initially decreases total ecosystem carbon (TEC), but can stabilize the remaining C by moderating wildfire behavior. Previous research has demonstrated that fire maintained forests can store more C over time than fire suppressed forests in the presence of wildfire. However, because the climate future is uncertain, I sought to determine the efficacy of forest management to moderate fire behavior and its effect on forest C dynamics under current and projected climate. I used the LANDIS-II model to simulate carbon dynamics under early (2010-2019), mid (2050-2059), and late (2090-2099) century climate projections for a ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) dominated landscape in northern Arizona. I ran 100-year simulations with two different treatments (control, thin and burn) and a 1 in 50 chance of wildfire occurring. I found that control TEC had a consistent decline throughout the simulation period, regardless of climate. Thin and burn TEC increased following treatment implementation and showed more differentiation than the control in response to climate, with late-century climate having the lowest TEC. Treatment efficacy, as measured by mean fire severity, was not impacted by climate. Fire effects were evident in the cumulative net ecosystem exchange (NEE) for the different treatments. Over the simulation period, 32.8-48.9% of the control landscape was either C neutral or a C source to the atmosphere and greater than 90% of the thin and burn landscape was a moderate C sink. These results suggest that in southwestern ponderosa pine, restoring forest structure and surface fire regimes provides a reasonable hedge against the uncertainty of future climate change for maintaining the forest C sink.

  4. Quantifying the Carbon Balance of Forest Restoration and Wildfire under Projected Climate in the Fire-Prone Southwestern US.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew D Hurteau

    Full Text Available Climate projections for the southwestern US suggest a warmer, drier future and have the potential to impact forest carbon (C sequestration and post-fire C recovery. Restoring forest structure and surface fire regimes initially decreases total ecosystem carbon (TEC, but can stabilize the remaining C by moderating wildfire behavior. Previous research has demonstrated that fire maintained forests can store more C over time than fire suppressed forests in the presence of wildfire. However, because the climate future is uncertain, I sought to determine the efficacy of forest management to moderate fire behavior and its effect on forest C dynamics under current and projected climate. I used the LANDIS-II model to simulate carbon dynamics under early (2010-2019, mid (2050-2059, and late (2090-2099 century climate projections for a ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa dominated landscape in northern Arizona. I ran 100-year simulations with two different treatments (control, thin and burn and a 1 in 50 chance of wildfire occurring. I found that control TEC had a consistent decline throughout the simulation period, regardless of climate. Thin and burn TEC increased following treatment implementation and showed more differentiation than the control in response to climate, with late-century climate having the lowest TEC. Treatment efficacy, as measured by mean fire severity, was not impacted by climate. Fire effects were evident in the cumulative net ecosystem exchange (NEE for the different treatments. Over the simulation period, 32.8-48.9% of the control landscape was either C neutral or a C source to the atmosphere and greater than 90% of the thin and burn landscape was a moderate C sink. These results suggest that in southwestern ponderosa pine, restoring forest structure and surface fire regimes provides a reasonable hedge against the uncertainty of future climate change for maintaining the forest C sink.

  5. Genetic Differentiation, Isolation-by-Distance, and Metapopulation Dynamics of the Arizona Treefrog (Hyla wrightorum in an Isolated Portion of Its Range.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meryl C Mims

    Full Text Available Population attributes such as diversity, connectivity, and structure are important components of understanding species persistence and vulnerability to extinction. Hyla wrightorum, the Arizona treefrog, is native to the southwestern United States and Mexico, and an isolated group of populations exists in the Huachuca Mountains and Canelo Hills (HMCH of southeastern Arizona, USA. Due to concerns about declining observations of the species within the isolated HMCH portion of its range, the HMCH group is currently a candidate for federal protection under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. We present results of a genetic study examining population diversity, structure, and connectivity within the HMCH region. We sampled DNA from H. wrightorum larvae and adults from ten distinct locations, 8 of which were breeding sites and 4 of which were previously undescribed localities for the species. We developed and genotyped 17 polymorphic microsatellite loci and quantified genetic diversity, population differentiation, and landscape influences on population genetic structure. We found evidence of larger than expected effective population sizes, significant genetic differentiation between populations, and evidence of distance being the primary driver of genetic structure of populations with some influence of slope and canopy cover. We found little evidence of recent genetic bottlenecks, and individual-based analyses indicate admixture between populations despite significant genetic differentiation. These patterns may indicate that the breeding sites within the Huachuca Mountains constitute a metapopulation. We suggest that the HMCH region may contain larger and more connected breeding populations than previously understood, but the dynamics of this system and the limited geographic extent of the HMCH group justify current concern for the persistence of the species in this region. Efforts to ensure availability of high-quality breeding habitats and control for

  6. Southwestern Power Administration Annual Report 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-01-01

    “Renewable energy” isn’t just a catchphrase at Southwestern Power Administration (Southwestern). It describes the hydroelectric energy we market, and the energy that Southwestern’s employees bring to work every day, constantly challenging themselves to become more eff ective and effi cient in providing aff ordable, environmentally clean power to the American people. As Southwestern’s new Administrator, I have had the opportunity to view our operations from a fresh perspective, and I’m proud to share with you how a focus on continual improvement has been evident in accomplishments throughout the agency during fi scal year (FY) 2007. When the North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) implemented new reliability standards, we met applicable implementation dates and exceeded NERC’s control performance standards throughout the year. When tasked with reducing the agency’s carbon footprint, we found ways to achieve an 8.7% reduction in energy intensity from last year without impacting our operational capabilities. And when faced with record-breaking infl ows into the reservoir projects from which we market power, we capitalized on the opportunity to provide customers with signifi cant quantities of supplemental energy. Our supplemental sales this year not only saved customers over $122 million, but increased Southwestern’s revenues -- a huge win-win for Southwestern’s ratepayers and the Nation’s taxpayers alike. Southwestern is proud of its role in protecting National and economic security by contributing to the diverse supply of domestically produced energy, operating and maintaining a safe and reliable transmission system, and ensuring good stewardship of our Nation’s water resources and environment. In FY 2007, Southwestern continued to repay all power costs to the American taxpayers by marketing and delivering approximately 5.6 billion kilowatthours of hydropower at cost-based rates to customers in our six-state region. This energy

  7. Argumentation in Miranda v. Arizona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, William L.

    1991-01-01

    Investigates the argumentation advanced in briefs, oral arguments, and the Supreme Court's opinion in the case of Miranda versus Arizona. Considers the background of the case, analyzes the argumentation and its influences on the court, and stresses the importance of viewing the Supreme Court as an active participant in the decision-making process.…

  8. Boots on the Ground: Arizona

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-12-26

    In this podcast, we talk to CDC public health advisor Lisa Speissegger about her response efforts during the 2013 Arizona wildfires.  Created: 12/26/2013 by Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (PHPR).   Date Released: 12/26/2013.

  9. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-16

    Energy used by Arizona single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  10. A Melioidosis Case in Arizona

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-10-03

    David Blaney, Medical Officer, Bacterial Special Pathogens Branch, discusses an unusual melioidosis case in Arizona.  Created: 10/3/2011 by National Center for Emerging Zoonotic and Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 10/5/2011.

  11. Arizona TeleMedicine Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arizona Univ., Tucson. Coll. of Medicine.

    Designed to provide health services for American Indians living on rurally isolated reservations, the Arizona TeleMedicine Project proposes to link Phoenix and Tucson medical centers, via a statewide telecommunications system, with the Hopi, San Carlos Apache, Papago, Navajo, and White Mountain Apache reservations. Advisory boards are being…

  12. Ephemeral-stream channel and basin-floor infiltration and recharge in the Sierra Vista subwatershed of the Upper San Pedro Basin, Southeastern Arizona: Chapter J in Ground-water recharge in the arid and semiarid southwestern United States (Professional Paper 1703)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coes, A.L.; Pool, D.R.; Stonestrom, David A.; Constantz, Jim; Ferré, Ty P.A.; Leake, Stanley A.

    2007-01-01

    The timing and location of streamflow in the San Pedro River are partially dependent on the aerial distribution of recharge in the Sierra Vista subwatershed. Previous investigators have assumed that recharge in the subwatershed occurs only along the mountain fronts by way of stream-channel infiltration near the contact between low-permeability rocks of the mountains and the basin fill. Recent studies in other alluvial basins of the Southwestern United States, however, have shown that significant recharge can occur through the sediments of ephemeral stream channels at locations several kilometers distant from the mountains. The purpose of this study was to characterize the spatial distribution of infiltration and subsequent recharge through the ephemeral channels in the Sierra Vista subwatershed.Infiltration fluxes in ephemeral channels and through the basin floor of the subwatershed were estimated by using several methods. Data collected during the drilling and coring of 16 boreholes included physical, thermal, and hydraulic properties of sediments; chloride concentrations of sediments; and pore-water stable-isotope values and tritium activity. Surface and subsurface sediment temperatures were continuously measured at each borehole.Twelve boreholes were drilled in five ephemeral stream channels to estimate infiltration within ephemeral channels. Active infiltration was verified to at least 20 meters at 11 of the 12 borehole sites on the basis of low sediment-chloride concentrations, high soil-water contents, and pore-water tritium activity similar to present-day precipitation. Consolidated sediments at the twelfth site prevented core recovery and estimation of infiltration. Analytical and numerical methods were applied to determine the surface infiltration flux required to produce the observed sediment-temperature fluctuations at six sites. Infiltration fluxes were determined for summer ephemeral flow events only because no winter flows were recorded at the sites

  13. Impaired Water 303(d) Polygons, Arizona, 2004, Arizona Department of Environmental Quality

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Arizona 303(d) waterbodies for 2004. These include lakes, reservoirs, ponds, etc. The 303(d) list is a related table to the feature class AZ_303d_04_area. Arizona's...

  14. Habitat and sex differences in physiological condition of breeding Southwestern Willow Flycatchers (Empidonax traillii extimus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, J.C.; Sogge, M.K.; Kern, M.D.

    2005-01-01

    The Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus; here- after “flycatcher”) is a federally listed endangered species that breeds in densely vegetated riparian habitats dominated by native and exotic plants, including introduced monotypic saltcedar (Tamarix ramosissima). Some workers have theorized that saltcedar is unsuitable habitat for the flycatcher, primarily because it generally supports a smaller and less diverse invertebrate community (the flycatcher's food base) than native habitats (e.g. Salix spp.). However, differences in insect communities between native and saltcedar habitats are not proof that saltcedar habitats are inferior. The only way to evaluate whether the habitats differ in dietary or energetic quality is to document actual food limitation or its manifestations. Measurements of an individual's body condition and metabolic state can serve as indicators of environmental stressors, such as food limitation and environmental extremes. We captured 130 flycatchers breeding in native and saltcedar habitats in Arizona and New Mexico and measured 12 variables of physiological condition. These variables included body mass, fat level, body condition index, hematocrit, plasma triglycerides, plasma free fatty acids and glycerol, plasma glucose and beta-hydroxybutyrate, plasma uric acid, total leukocyte count, and heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratio. We found substantial sex-based differences in the condition of male and female flycatchers. Ten of the 12 measures of physiological condition differed significantly between the sexes. In all cases where male and female condition differed (except mass), the differences suggest that males were in poorer condition than females. We found few habitat-based differences in flycatcher condition. Only 3 of the 12 physiological condition indices differed significantly between habitats. Our data show that, at least in some parts of the flycatcher's range, there is no evidence that flycatchers breeding in

  15. Water uptake in woody riparian phreatophytes of the southwestern United States: a stable isotope study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busch, D.E.; Ingraham, N.L.; Smith, S.D.

    1992-01-01

    Alluvial forest associations are often dominated by woody phreatophytes, plants that are tightly linked to aquifers for water uptake. Anthropogenic hydrological alterations (e.g., water impoundment or diversion) are of clear importance to riparian ecosystem function. Because decreased frequency of flooding and depression of water tables may, in effect, sever riparian plants from their natural water sources, research was undertaken to determine water uptake patterns for the dominant native and introduced woody taxa of riparian plant communities of the southwestern United States. At floodplain study sites along the Bill Williams and lower Colorado Rivers (Arizona, USA), naturally occurring D and 18 O were used to distinguish among potential water sources. Isotopic ratios from potential uptake locations were compared to water extracted from the dominant woody taxa of the study area (Populus fremontii, Salix gooddingii, and Tamarix ramosissima) to elucidate patterns of water absorption. Isotopic composition of water obtained from sapwood cores did not differ significantly from heartwood or branch water, suggesting that heartwood water exchange, stem capacitance, and phloem sap mixing may be inconsequential in actively transpiring Salix and Populus. There was evidence for close hydrologic linkage of river, ground, and soil water during the early part of the growing season. Surface soils exhibited D enrichment due to cumulative exposure to evaporation as the growing season progressed. Isotopic ratios of water extracted from Populus and Salix did not exhibit isotopic enrichment and were not significantly different from groundwater or saturated soil water sources, indicating a phreatophytic uptake pattern. Associations of isotopic ratios with water relations parameters indicated high levels of canopy evaporation and possible use of moisture from unsaturated alluvial soils in addition to groundwater in Tamarix. (author)

  16. Population dynamics of caribou herds in southwestern Alaska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Valkenburg

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The five naturally occurring and one transplanted caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti herd in southwestern Alaska composed about 20% of Alaska's caribou population in 2001. All five of the naturally occurring herds fluctuated considerably in size between the late 1800s and 2001 and for some herds the data provide an indication of long-term periodic (40-50 year fluctuations. At the present time, the Unimak (UCH and Southern Alaska Peninsula (SAP are recovering from population declines, the Northern Alaska Peninsula Herd (NAP appears to be nearing the end of a protracted decline, and the Mulchatna Herd (MCH appears to now be declining after 20 years of rapid growth. The remaining naturally occurring herd (Kilbuck has virtually disappeared. Nutrition had a significant effect on the size of 4-month-old and 10-month-old calves in the NAP and the Nushagak Peninsula Herd (NPCH and probably also on population growth in at least 4 (SAP, NAP, NPCH, and MCH of the six caribou herds in southwestern Alaska. Predation does not appear to be sufficient to keep caribou herds in southwestern Alaska from expanding, probably because rabies is endemic in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes and is periodically transferred to wolves (Canis lupus and other canids. However, we found evidence that pneumonia and hoof rot may result in significant mortality of caribou in southwestern Alaska, whereas there is no evidence that disease is important in the dynamics of Interior herds. Cooperative conservation programs, such as the Kilbuck Caribou Management Plan, can be successful in restraining traditional harvest and promoting growth in caribou herds. In southwestern Alaska we also found evidence that small caribou herds can be swamped and assimilated by large herds, and fidelity to traditional calving areas can be lost.

  17. NORTH END ROADLESS AREA, ARIZONA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewes, Harald; Bigsby, P.R.

    1984-01-01

    Studies conducted in the North End Roadless Area, Arizona indicate probable or substantiated metallic mineral-resource potential in about one-fifth of the area. The area has potential for disseminated or stockwork-type molybdenum mineralization, copper-lead-zinc-silver veins, lead-zinc-silver limestone replacement deposits, and tungsten-bearing contact metamorphic skarn deposits. The area also contains cement rock and marble dimension stone, but has only slight promise for the occurrence of petroleum and natural gas.

  18. AQUIFER IN AJAOKUTA, SOUTHWESTERN NIGERIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2005-03-08

    Mar 8, 2005 ... To establish the feasibility of water supply in a basement complex area ofAjaokuta, Southwestern Nigeria, pumping test results were used to investigate the storage properties and groundwater potential of the aquifer. The aquifer system consists of weathered and weathered/fractured zone of decomposed ...

  19. 76 FR 28210 - Eastern Arizona Counties Resource Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Eastern Arizona Counties Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Eastern Arizona Counties will meet...: Julia Faith Rivera, RAC Program Manager, Eastern Arizona Counties Resource Advisory Committee, Apache...

  20. 76 FR 41755 - Eastern Arizona Counties Resource Advisory; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Eastern Arizona Counties Resource Advisory; Meeting AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Eastern Arizona Counties Resource... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Julia Faith Rivera, RAC Program Manager, Eastern Arizona Counties Resource...

  1. OSUN STATE, SOUTHWESTERN NIGERIA.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    garnet schists. (b) A volcano-sedimentary western facies composed ... aim of this work to describe the occurrence of pseudotachylite ... In some localities, it occurs in close association with ..... Evidence for late Precambrian plate tectonics in West. , Africa. ... Closure and Continental Collision in the 1 loggar-lforas. Segment ...

  2. 77 FR 51966 - Eastern Arizona Resource Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Eastern Arizona Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Eastern Arizona Resource Advisory Committee...

  3. The Chuar Petroleum System, Arizona and Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillis, Paul G.

    2016-01-01

    The Neoproterozoic Chuar Group consists of marine mudstone, sandstone and dolomitic strata divided into the Galeros and Kwagunt Formations, and is exposed only in the eastern Grand Canyon, Arizona. Research by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in the late 1980s identified strata within the group to be possible petroleum source rocks, and in particular the Walcott Member of the Kwagunt Formation. Industry interest in a Chuar oil play led to several exploratory wells drilled in the 1990s in southern Utah and northern Arizona to test the overlying Cambrian Tapeats Sandstone reservoir, and confirm the existence of the Chuar in subcrop. USGS geochemical analyses of Tapeats oil shows in two wells have been tentatively correlated to Chuar bitumen extracts. Distribution of the Chuar in the subsurface is poorly constrained with only five well penetrations, but recently published gravity/aeromagnetic interpretations provide further insight into the Chuar subcrop distribution. The Chuar petroleum system was reexamined as part of the USGS Paradox Basin resource assessment in 2011. A map was constructed to delineate the Chuar petroleum system that encompasses the projected Chuar source rock distribution and all oil shows in the Tapeats Sandstone, assuming that the Chuar is the most likely source for such oil shows. Two hypothetical plays were recognized but not assessed: (1) a conventional play with a Chuar source and Tapeats reservoir, and (2) an unconventional play with a Chuar source and reservoir. The conventional play has been discouraging because most surface structures have been tested by drilling with minimal petroleum shows, and there is some evidence that petroleum may have been flushed by CO2 from Tertiary volcanism. The unconventional play is untested and remains promising even though the subcrop distribution of source facies within the Chuar Group is largely unknown.

  4. Genetic diversity of Ascaris in southwestern Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Betson, Martha; Nejsum, Peter; Llewellyn-Hughes, Julia

    2012-01-01

    . Microsatellite analysis using eight loci provided evidence for high gene flow between worm populations from the two villages but comparing these worms with others obtained in a prior study on Unguja, Zanzibar, confirmed little genetic exchange and mixing of worm populations between the two areas. By adding......Despite the common occurrence of ascariasis in southwestern Uganda, helminth control in the region has been limited. To gain further insights into the genetic diversity of Ascaris in this area, a parasitological survey in mothers (n=41) and children (n=74) living in two villages, Habutobere...... and Musezero, was carried out. Adult Ascaris worms were collected from infected individuals by chemo-expulsion using pyrantel pamoate treatment. Genetic diversity within these worms was assessed by inspection of DNA sequence variation in a mitochondrial marker and length polymorphism at microsatellite loci...

  5. Assessment of selected inorganic constituents in streams in the Central Arizona Basins Study Area, Arizona and northern Mexico, through 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anning, David W.

    2003-01-01

    streamflow, season, water management, stream permanence, and land and water use. Dissolved-oxygen percent saturation, pH, and nutrient concentrations were dependent on stream regulation, stream permanence, and upstream disposal of wastewater. Seasonality and correlation with streamflow were dependant on stream regulation, stream permanence, and upstream disposal of wastewater. Temporal trends in streamflow, stream properties, and water-chemistry constituent concentrations were common in streams in the Central Arizona Basins study area. Temporal trends in the streamflow of unregulated perennial reaches in the Central Highlands tended to be higher from 1900 through the 1930s, lower from the 1940s through the 1970s, and high again after the 1970s. This is similar to the pattern observed for the mean annual precipitation for the Southwestern United States and indicates long-term trends in flow of streams draining the Central Highlands were driven by long-term trends in climate. Streamflow increased over the period of record at stations on effluent-dependent reaches as a result of the increase in the urban population and associated wastewater returns to the Salt and Gila Rivers in the Phoenix metropolitan area and the Santa Cruz River in the Tucson metropolitan area. Concentrations of dissolved solids decreased in the Salt River below Stewart Mountain Dam and in the Verde River below Bartlett Dam. This decrease represents an improvement in the water quality and resulted from a concurrent increase in the amount of runoff entering the reservoirs. Stream loads of water-chemistry constituents were compared at different locations along the streams with one another, and stream loads were compared to upstream inputs of the constituent from natural and anthropogenic sources to determine the relative importance of different sources and to determine the fate of the water-chemistry constituent. Of the dissolved solids transported into the Basin and Range Lowlands each year

  6. Biogeography of amphibians and reptiles in Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric W. Stitt; Theresa M. Mau-Crimmins; Don E. Swann

    2005-01-01

    We examined patterns of species richness for amphibians and reptiles in Arizona and evaluated patterns in species distribution between ecoregions based on species range size. In Arizona, the Sonoran Desert has the highest herpetofauna diversity, and the southern ecoregions are more similar than other regions. There appear to be distinct low- and mid-elevational...

  7. Geoscience Education Research, Development, and Practice at Arizona State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semken, S. C.; Reynolds, S. J.; Johnson, J.; Baker, D. R.; Luft, J.; Middleton, J.

    2009-12-01

    Geoscience education research and professional development thrive in an authentically trans-disciplinary environment at Arizona State University (ASU), benefiting from a long history of mutual professional respect and collaboration among STEM disciplinary researchers and STEM education researchers--many of whom hold national and international stature. Earth science education majors (pre-service teachers), geoscience-education graduate students, and practicing STEM teachers richly benefit from this interaction, which includes team teaching of methods and research courses, joint mentoring of graduate students, and collaboration on professional development projects and externally funded research. The geologically, culturally, and historically rich Southwest offers a superb setting for studies of formal and informal teaching and learning, and ASU graduates the most STEM teachers of any university in the region. Research on geoscience teaching and learning at ASU is primarily conducted by three geoscience faculty in the School of Earth and Space Exploration and three science-education faculty in the Mary Lou Fulton Institute and Graduate School of Education. Additional collaborators are based in the College of Teacher Education and Leadership, other STEM schools and departments, and the Center for Research on Education in Science, Mathematics, Engineering, and Technology (CRESMET). Funding sources include NSF, NASA, US Dept Ed, Arizona Board of Regents, and corporations such as Resolution Copper. Current areas of active research at ASU include: Visualization in geoscience learning; Place attachment and sense of place in geoscience learning; Affective domain in geoscience learning; Culturally based differences in geoscience concepts; Use of annotated concept sketches in learning, teaching, and assessment; Student interactions with textbooks in introductory courses; Strategic recruitment and retention of secondary-school Earth science teachers; Research-based professional

  8. Comparison of breast and cervical cancer screening utilization among rural and urban Hispanic and American Indian women in the Southwestern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuño, Tomas; Gerald, Joe K; Harris, Robin; Martinez, Maria Elena; Estrada, Antonio; García, Francisco

    2012-08-01

    Rural Hispanic and American Indian (AI) women are at risk of non-participation in cancer screening programs. The objective of this study was to compare breast and cervical cancer screening utilization among Hispanic and AI women that reside in rural areas of the Southwestern United States to their urban counterparts and to assess characteristics that influence cancer screening. This study utilizes Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) data from 2006 to 2008 for Arizona and New Mexico. The BRFSS is a federally funded telephone survey to collect data on risk factors contributing to the leading causes of death and chronic diseases. Rural Hispanic and AI populations reported some differences in screening rates compared with their urban counterparts. Among Hispanic women, 58 % of rural residents reported having had a mammogram within the past year, compared with 66 % of urban residents. Among AI women, 81 % of rural residents had ever had a mammogram, compared with 89 % of urban residents. Rural AI women were less likely to have ever had a mammogram (OR = 0.5; 95 % CI = 0.3-0.9) compared with urban AI women. Rural Hispanic women were less likely to have had a mammogram within 1 year (OR = 0.7; 95 % CI = 0.5-0.9) compared with urban Hispanic women. Results suggest that rural Hispanic women were less likely to have had a Pap smear within 3 years (OR = 0.7; 95 % CI = 0.4-1.3) compared with urban Hispanic women. Our results provide some evidence that Hispanic and AI women that reside in rural areas of the Southwestern United States have lower rates of breast and cervical cancer screening use compared with their urban counterparts. Special efforts are needed to identify ways to overcome barriers to breast and cervical cancer screening for rural Hispanic and AI women.

  9. Electromagnetic analysis of groundwater on the Arizona-Utah border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Vis, T.; Porter, R. C.; Macy, J. P.

    2016-12-01

    Understanding subsurface structure and groundwater flow is an essential part of managing groundwater resources, especially in southwestern United States where supply is limited and demand is increasing. This study describes the preliminary results of a transient electromagnetic survey conducted on the Arizona-Utah border to better understand the groundwater system which supplies water to many wells and springs in the region. Electromagnetic surveys are ideal for groundwater investigations because they can locate and characterize areas of high conductivity, which often are indicative of groundwater. The study area is on the southwestern margin of the Colorado Plateau and consists of uplifted, flat-lying sedimentary units. Regionally, groundwater is located within the Navajo Sandstone and underlying Kayenta Formation as an unconfined aquifer that extends from Pipe Springs National Monument north to the East Fork of the Virgin River. This area is characterized by step-like structural blocks that accommodate small amounts of extension and are bounded by long north-south-trending normal faults. The Sevier Fault runs through the sedimentary units near the study area and has been shown to influence groundwater movement by offsetting permeable units west of the fault adjacent to impermeable units east of the fault. Electromagnetic measurements were recorded with a Zonge GDP-32 receiver at 30 receiver locations at 16 and 32 Hz with a 100mx100m transmitter loop. These data were used to create a subsurface conductivity model. Water levels from local wells and local geologic data were utilized to relate the geophysical data to the groundwater system. Preliminary results define the depth to water table and the location of the groundwater divide between the groundwater that flows north towards the springs that feed the East Fork of the Virgin River and the groundwater that flows south towards Pipe Springs National Monument.

  10. Isotopic paleoecology of Clovis mammoths from Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Jessica Z.; Longstaffe, Fred J.; Ballenger, Jesse A. M.; Vance Haynes, C., Jr.

    2011-11-01

    The causes of megafaunal extinctions in North America have been widely debated but remain poorly understood. Mammoths (Mammuthus spp.) in the American Southwest were hunted by Clovis people during a period of rapid climate change, just before the regional onset of Younger Dryas cooling and mammoth extirpation. Thus, these mammoths may provide key insights into late Pleistocene extinction processes. Here we reconstruct the seasonal diet and climatic conditions experienced by mammoths in the San Pedro Valley of Arizona, using the carbon (13C/12C) and oxygen (18O/16O) isotope compositions of tooth enamel. These records suggest that Clovis mammoths experienced a warm, dry climate with sufficient summer rainfall to support seasonal C4 plant growth. Monsoon intensity may have been reduced relative to the preceding time period, but there is no isotopic evidence for severe drought. However, it is possible that the "Clovis drought", inferred from stratigraphic evidence, occurred suddenly at the end of the animals' lives and thus was not recorded in the enamel isotopic compositions. Unlike mammoths that lived before the Last Glacial Maximum, Clovis mammoths regularly increased C4 grass consumption during summer, probably seeking seasonally green grasslands farther from the river valley. This predictable seasonal behavior may have made mammoths easier to locate by Clovis hunters. Furthermore, Clovis mammoths probably had no previous experience of such sudden climatic change as is believed to have occurred at the time of their extinction.

  11. Southwestern Power Administration Update, October- December 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2004-12-01

    On October 29, 2004, Southwestern and Southwest Power Pool, Inc. (SPP) reached agreement on interim arrangements to be implemented after the October 31, 2004, expiration of the membership agreement between the two parties. According to Jim McDonald, Director of Southwestern’s Division of Customer Service, the interim agreement forged between Southwestern and SPP seeks to minimize impacts to SPP as well as to Southwestern and its customers while Southwestern and SPP work on a seams/coordination agreement to succeed the expired membership agreement.

  12. Southwestern Low-level Radioactive Waste Disposal Compact Consent Act. Introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, Second Session, September 26, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    The Committee on Energy and Commerce recommends passage of H.R.5232 to grant the consent of the Congress to the Southwestern Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Compact. The compact includes the states of California and Arizona, but North and South Dakota are eligible upon ratification by their legislatures. The compact agreement provides that California will host the disposal facility for the first 30 years. Unless California elects to continue hosting the facility, Arizona (or the member state other than California which generates the largest amount of low-level waste) is required to host the facility for the next 30 years. A site outside Needles, California near the Arizona border has been selected for the initial facility

  13. Evident?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plant, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Quality assurance and evidence in career guidance in Europe are often seen as self-evident approaches, but particular interests lie behind......Quality assurance and evidence in career guidance in Europe are often seen as self-evident approaches, but particular interests lie behind...

  14. Genetic analysis of a novel Xylella fastidiosa subspecies found in the southwestern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Jennifer J; Goldberg, Natalie P; Kemp, John D; Radionenko, Maxim; French, Jason M; Olsen, Mary W; Hanson, Stephen F

    2009-09-01

    Xylella fastidiosa, the causal agent of several scorch diseases, is associated with leaf scorch symptoms in Chitalpa tashkentensis, a common ornamental landscape plant used throughout the southwestern United States. For a number of years, many chitalpa trees in southern New Mexico and Arizona exhibited leaf scorch symptoms, and the results from a regional survey show that chitalpa trees from New Mexico, Arizona, and California are frequently infected with X. fastidiosa. Phylogenetic analysis of multiple loci was used to compare the X. fastidiosa infecting chitalpa strains from New Mexico, Arizona, and trees imported into New Mexico nurseries with previously reported X. fastidiosa strains. Loci analyzed included the 16S ribosome, 16S-23S ribosomal intergenic spacer region, gyrase-B, simple sequence repeat sequences, X. fastidiosa-specific sequences, and the virulence-associated protein (VapD). This analysis indicates that the X. fastidiosa isolates associated with infected chitalpa trees in the Southwest are a highly related group that is distinct from the four previously defined taxons X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa (piercei), X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex, X. fastidiosa subsp. sandyi, and X. fastidiosa subsp. pauca. Therefore, the classification proposed for this new subspecies is X. fastidiosa subsp. tashke.

  15. Life history attributes of Arizona Grasshopper Sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum ammolegus) and comparisons with other North American subspecies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruth, Janet M.

    2017-01-01

    Ammodramus savannarum ammolegus—commonly referred to as the Arizona Grasshopper Sparrow—occurs in the desert and plains grasslands of southeastern Arizona, southwestern New Mexico, and northern Sonora, Mexico. Although a subspecies of conservation concern, this is the first intensive study of its life history and breeding ecology, providing baseline data and facilitating comparisons with other North American Grasshopper Sparrow subspecies. Specifically, I found A. s. ammolegus males generally weighed less than other subspecies (16.0 ± 0.8 g) but with intermediate exposed culmen length (11.6 ± 0.5 mm) and wing chord length similar to the other two migratory subspecies (62.7 ± 1.5 mm). Territory size for A. s. ammolegus was 0.72 ± 0.37 ha, with some variation between sites and among years, possibly indicating variation in habitat quality across spatial and temporal scales. The return rate for A. s. ammolegus males was 39.2%. Nest initiation for A. s. ammolegus was early to mid-July after the monsoons had begun. Domed nests were constructed on the ground, primarily under native bunch grasses, and frequently with a tunnel extending beyond the nest rim, with nest openings oriented north. Clutch size was 3.97 ± 0.68, with no evidence of Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater) nest parasitism. Extreme climate factors in the arid Southwest may have affected the life history and morphology of A. s. ammolegus as compared to other subspecies, influencing body size and mass, culmen length, breeding phenology, and nest orientation. Other geographic variation occurred in return rates, clutch size, and nest parasitism rates. The baseline data for A. s. ammolegus obtained in this study will inform future taxonomic and ecological studies as well as conservation planning. Comparisons of A. s. ammolegus morphometrics with those of other subspecies will assist field biologists in distinguishing among subspecies where they overlap, especially on wintering grounds.

  16. Climate change effects in the southwestern states of New Mexico, Arizona, Utah, Nevada, California and Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    On February 7, 2014 Thomas J. Vilsack, Secretary of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, created seven regional hubs across the U.S. The directors of the regional climate hubs are either from the Agricultural Research Service (ARS) or the U.S. Forest Service. In addition to regional hubs, there are...

  17. Coccidiodomycosis in Arizona 2007-2008

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast looks at the impact of Coccidioidomycosis, or Valley Fever, in Arizona in 2007 and early 2008. CDC epidemiologist Dr. Tom Chiller discusses what researchers learned about this fungal disease.

  18. March 2014 Arizona thoracic society notes

    OpenAIRE

    Robbins RA

    2014-01-01

    No abstract available. Article truncated after 150 words. The March 2014 Arizona Thoracic Society meeting was a special meeting. In conjunction with the Valley Fever Center for Excellence and the Arizona Respiratory Center the Eighteenth Annual Farness Lecture was held in the Sonntag Pavilion at St. Joseph's Hospital at 6 PM on Friday, April 4, 2014. The guest speaker was Antonio "Tony" Catanzaro, MD from the University of California San Diego and current president of the Cocci Study Group. T...

  19. Southwestern Power Administration Combined Financial Statements, 2006-2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-09-01

    We have audited the accompanying combined balance sheets of the Southwestern Federal Power System (SWFPS), as of September 30, 2009, 2008, 2007, and 2006, and the related combined statements of revenues and expenses, changes in capitalization, and cash flows for the years then ended. As described in note 1(a), the combined financial statement presentation includes the hydroelectric generation functions of another Federal agency (hereinafter referred to as the generating agency), for which Southwestern Power Administration (Southwestern) markets and transmits power. These combined financial statements are the responsibility of the management of Southwestern and the generating agency. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on these combined financial statements based on our audits. We conducted our audits in accordance with auditing standards generally accepted in the United States of America. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audits to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the combined financial statements are free of material misstatement. An audit includes consideration of internal control over financial reporting as a basis for designing audit procedures that are appropriate in the circumstances, but not for the purpose of expressing an opinion on the effectiveness of Southwestern and the generating agency’s internal control over financial reporting. Accordingly, we express no such opinion. An audit also includes examining, on a test basis, evidence supporting the amounts and disclosures in the combined financial statements, assessing the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall combined financial statement presentation. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion. In our opinion, the combined financial statements referred to above present fairly, in all material respects, the respective financial position of the Southwestern Federal Power

  20. Biogeomorphic feedbacks in the Southwestern USA: exploring the mechanisms of geomorphic change and the effectiveness of mitigation measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, D. J.; Diehl, R. M.; Topping, D. J.

    2017-12-01

    Water development and the proliferation of riparian plants have resulted in extensive geomorphic change to rivers worldwide. In many dryland rivers of the Southwestern U.S., these phenomena have contributed to conditions of sediment accumulation leading to channel narrowing, floodplain aggradation, and loss of fluvial habitat. Using a series of field and laboratory measurements, we demonstrate how biogeomorphic feedbacks have promoted channel contraction. Experimental evidence shows that vegetation can have a substantial effect on local hydraulics and sediment-transport fields, depending on plant morphology, but that the impact of plants on physical processes is mediated by flow and sediment supply. In the Little Colorado River in Arizona, water management practices, variations in climate/hydrology, and the resultant expansion of riparian vegetation have resulted in channel narrowing, increases in sinuosity and drag, and decreases in channel slope. These changes have created a biogeomorphic feedback by disrupting downstream flood conveyance; flood travel time has increased resulting in flow attenuation, declines in peak discharge, and continued sediment accumulation at large scales. In the Rio Grande in Big Bend National Park, channel narrowing and floodplain aggradation has led to the loss of channel capacity and an increase in overbank flooding even though discharges have declined. Vegetation expansion into channel environments has exacerbated this condition by reducing channel-margin flow velocities, increasing sediment deposition, and reducing bank erosion thereby creating a biogeomorphic feedback leading to additional narrowing. An understanding of the mechanisms that have driven geomorphic changes in river channels may help to formulate effective mitigation measures. Vegetation removal can have local and reach-scale effects on channel morphology; however, the effectiveness of these actions is dependent upon many variables including the flow regime and

  1. 76 FR 28079 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Arizona State Museum, University of Arizona...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... Arizona State Museum, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, that meet the definitions of unassociated... 4 eagle feathers, 1 stone purifying bowl, 3 medicine man's baskets, 1 medicine basket lid, 4 medicine man's basket fragments, 1 animal bone, 2 carved animal effigies, 1 carved human effigy, 1 feather...

  2. COMPARISONS OF PESTICIDE LEVELS AND EXPOSURES IN NHEXAS ARIZONA AND ARIZONA-MEXICO BORDER POPULATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The distributions of organophosphate (OP) insecticides chlorpyrifos and diazinon in exposure matrices such as indoor air, house dust, food, and water have been determined for 416 homes in the general Arizona population, and for 87 homes along the Arizona-Mexico border. The con...

  3. The impact of Arizona Highways Magazine's facebook page.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    This project examined the relationship between use of the Arizona Highways magazine (AHM) Facebook Page and the decision to : travel to or within Arizona. Key purposes were to: (1) provide a thorough understanding of AHM Facebook Page users, includin...

  4. 21 CFR 866.3035 - Arizona spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3035 Arizona spp... antisera and antigens used to identify Arizona spp. in cultured isolates derived from clinical specimens...

  5. Southwestern Power Administration Annual Report 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-09-01

    Dear Secretary Moniz: I am pleased to present the financial statements and operating data for Southwestern Power Administration (Southwestern) for Fiscal Year (FY) 2012. In FY 2012, Southwestern delivered over 4.1 billion kilowatt-hours of energy to its wholesale customers in Arkansas, Kansas, Louisiana, Missouri, Oklahoma, and Texas, generating $195 million in revenue. In fulfilling its mission to market and reliably deliver renewable Federal hydroelectric power, Southwestern maintains 1,380 miles of high-voltage transmission lines, substations, and communications sites, contributing to the reliability of the regional and National electric grid. Southwestern also actively partners with the Department of Energy, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Southwestern’s customers, and other Federal power stakeholders to most effectively balance their diverse interests with Southwestern’s mission while continuing to maximize Federal assets to repay the Federal investment in the 24 hydropower facilities within Southwestern’s marketing region. Southwestern is proud of its past successes, and we look forward to continuing to serve the Nation’s energy needs in the future. Sincerely, Christopher M. Turner Administrator

  6. Southwestern Power Administration Annual Report 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-09-01

    Dear Secretary Chu: I am pleased to present the financial statements and operating data for Southwestern Power Administration (Southwestern) for Fiscal Year (FY) 2010. In FY 2010, Southwestern delivered nearly 7.6 billion kilowatt-hours of energy to its wholesale customers in Arkansas, Kansas, Louisiana, Missouri, Texas, and Oklahoma, generating $189 million in revenue. In fulfilling its mission to market and reliably deliver renewable Federal hydroelectric power, Southwestern maintains 1,380 miles of high-voltage transmission lines, substations, and communications sites, contributing to the reliability of the regional and National electric grid. Southwestern also actively partners with the Department of Energy, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Southwestern’s customers, and other Federal power stakeholders to most effectively balance their diverse interests with Southwestern’s mission while continuing to maximize Federal assets to repay the Federal investment in the 24 hydropower facilities within Southwestern’s marketing region. Southwestern is proud of its past successes, and we look forward to continuing to serve the Nation’s energy needs in the future. Sincerely, Christopher M. Turner Administrator

  7. Southwestern Power Administration Annual Report 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-04-01

    Dear Secretary Chu: I am pleased to present the financial statements and operating data for Southwestern Power Administration (Southwestern) for Fiscal Year (FY) 2011. In FY 2011, Southwestern delivered over 4.1 billion kilowatt-hours of energy to its wholesale customers in Arkansas, Kansas, Louisiana, Missouri, Oklahoma, and Texas, generating $167 million in revenue. In fulfilling its mission to market and reliably deliver renewable Federal hydroelectric power, Southwestern maintains 1,380 miles of high-voltage transmission lines, substations, and communications sites, contributing to the reliability of the regional and National electric grid. Southwestern also actively partners with the Department of Energy, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Southwestern’s customers, and other Federal power stakeholders to most effectively balance their diverse interests with Southwestern’s mission while continuing to maximize Federal assets to repay the Federal investment in the 24 hydropower facilities within Southwestern’s marketing region. Southwestern is proud of its past successes, and we look forward to continuing to serve the Nation’s energy needs in the future. Sincerely, Christopher M. Turner Administrator

  8. March 2014 Arizona thoracic society notes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after 150 words. The March 2014 Arizona Thoracic Society meeting was a special meeting. In conjunction with the Valley Fever Center for Excellence and the Arizona Respiratory Center the Eighteenth Annual Farness Lecture was held in the Sonntag Pavilion at St. Joseph's Hospital at 6 PM on Friday, April 4, 2014. The guest speaker was Antonio "Tony" Catanzaro, MD from the University of California San Diego and current president of the Cocci Study Group. There were 57 in attendance representing the pulmonary, critical care, sleep, and infectious disease communities. After opening remarks by Arizona Thoracic Society president, Lewis Wesselius (a former fellow under Dr. Catanzaro at UCSD, John Galgiani, director of the Valley Fever Center for Excellence, gave a brief history of the Farness lecture before introducing Dr. Catanzaro. The lecture is named for Orin J. Farness, a Tucson physician, who was the first to report culture positive coccidioidomycosis (cocci or Valley Fever. ...

  9. Projecting climate effects on birds and reptiles of the Southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Riper, Charles; Hatten, James R.; Giermakowski, J. Tomasz; Mattson, David; Holmes, Jennifer A.; Johnson, Matthew J.; Nowak, Erika M.; Ironside, Kirsten; Peters, Michael; Heinrich, Paul; Cole, K.L.; Truettner, C.; Schwalbe, Cecil R.

    2014-01-01

    are presently considered candidates for prospective endangerment. We project range losses of over 40 percent, from its current extent of occurrence, for the plateau striped whiptail, Arizona black rattlesnake, and common lesser earless lizard. Currently, these reptile species are thought to be common or at least locally abundant throughout their ranges. The total contribution of plants in each distribution model was very small, but models that contained at least one plant always outperformed models with only physical variables (climatic or landscape). The magnitude of change in projected range increased further into the future, especially when a plant was in the model. Among bird species, those that had the strongest association with a landscape feature during the breeding season, such as terrain ruggedness and insolation, exhibited the smallest contractions in projected breeding range in the future. In contrast, bird species that had weak associations with landscape features, but strong climatic associations, suffered the greatest breeding range contractions. Thus, landscape effects appeared to buffer some of the negative effects of climate change for some species. Among bird species, magnitude of change in projected breeding range was positively related to the annual average temperature of their baseline distribution, thus species with the warmest breeding ranges exhibited the greatest changes in future breeding ranges. This pattern was not evident for reptiles, but might exist if additional species were included in the model. Our results provide managers with a series of projected range maps that will enable scientists, concerned citizens, and wildlife managers to identify what the potential effects of climate change will be on bird and reptile distributions in the Western United States. We hope that our results can be used in proactive ways to mitigate some of the potential effects of climate change on selected species.

  10. Potential Carbon Stock Changes in Arizona's Ecosystems Due to Projected Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, B. K.; Ironside, K.; Hungate, B. A.; Hurteau, M.; Koch, G. W.

    2011-12-01

    Climate change can alter the role of plants and soils as sources or sinks of atmospheric carbon dioxide and result in changes in long-term carbon storage. To understand the sensitivity of Arizona's ecosystems to climate change, we quantified the present carbon stocks in Arizona's major ecosystem types using the NASA-CASA (Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach) model. Carbon stocks for each vegetation type included surface mineral soil, dead wood litter, standing wood and live leaf biomass. The total Arizona ecosystem carbon stock is presently 1775 MMtC, 545 MMtC of which is in Pinus ponderosa and Pinus edulis forests and woodlands. Evergreen forest vegetation, predominately Pinus ponderosa, has the largest current C density at 11.3 kgC/m2, while Pinus edulis woodlands have a C density of 6.0 kgC/m2. A change in climate will impact the suitable range for each tree species, and consequentially the amount of C stored. Present habitat ranges for these tree species are projected to have widespread mortality and likely will be replaced by herbaceous species, resulting in a loss of C stored. We evaluated the C storage implications over the 2010 to 2099 period of climate change based on output from GCMs with contrasting projections for the southwestern US: MPI-ECHAM5, which projects warming and reduced precipitation, and UKMO-HadGEM, which projects warming and increased precipitation. These projected changes are end points of a spectrum of possible future climate scenarios. The vegetation distribution models used describe potential suitable habitat, and we assumed that the growth rate for each vegetation type would be one-third of the way to full C density for each 30 year period up to 2099. With increasing temperature and decreasing precipitation predictions under the MPI-ECHAM5 model, P. ponderosa and P. edulis vegetation show a decrease in carbon stored from 545 MMtC presently to 116 MMtC. With the combined increase in temperature and precipitation, C storage in these

  11. 30 CFR 903.700 - Arizona Federal program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Resources has jurisdiction over the mining of minerals, and oil and gas under Title 27 of the Arizona....700 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE ARIZONA § 903.700 Arizona Federal...

  12. 75 FR 18145 - Eastern Arizona Counties Resource Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Eastern Arizona Counties Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Eastern Arizona Counties Resource... Rivera, Coordinator, Eastern Arizona Counties Resource Advisory Committee, c/o Forest Service, USDA, P.O...

  13. Energy Fuels Nuclear, Inc. Arizona Strip Operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pool, T.C.

    1993-01-01

    Founded in 1975 by uranium pioneer, Robert W. Adams, Energy Fuels Nuclear, Inc. (EFNI) emerged as the largest US uranium mining company by the mid-1980s. Confronting the challenges of declining uranium market prices and the development of high-grade ore bodies in Australia and Canada, EFNI aggressively pursued exploration and development of breccia-pipe ore bodies in Northwestern Arizona. As a result, EFNI's production for the Arizona Strip of 18.9 million pounds U 3 O 8 over the period 1980 through 1991, maintained the company's status as a leading US uranium producer

  14. Sequentially and alternatively developed heights for two representative bench marks: near Palmdale, California and along the Bill Williams River, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Thomas D.; Elliot, Michael R.

    1985-01-01

    This report consists chiefly of 41 tables that both describe and fully document the reconstructions of a series of alternately developed heights based on levelings leading into two representative bench marks in the southwestern United States. One of these marks, 3219, Vincent, California (fig. 1), lies within the area of the Pacific-North American plate boundary; the other, 22Q, Bill Williams River, Arizona (fig. 1), falls within what is believed to be a singularly stable section of southwestern Arizona. Because the levelings that produced these heights were characterized by especially disparate routes with respect to both terrain and climate, the resulting heights provide a test for the existence and magnitude of path-dependent error in geodetic leveling. These two marks were chosen both because of their relative stability with respect to adjacent marks and because their tectonic stability (or instability) can be inferred from the geologic record. Specifically, we can reasonably speculate that 3219 may have sustained measurably significant tectonic displacements during the 20th century, whereas 22Q probably has remained virtually invariant with respect to any fixed datum during the same period. Bench mark 3219 is a standard Geological Survey iron post stamped "3219" near the Southern Pacific Railroad station at Vincent (U.S. Geological Survey, 1898, p. 392); 22Q is a brass cap stamped "22Q (MWD)" set in a concrete post located in a gully immediately north of the Bill Williams River, Arizona (USC&GS Quad. 34114). 3219 was established by the Geological Survey no later than 1897 (Gannett and Baldwin, 1907, p. 365); 22Q was established by the Metropolitan Water District of southern California in advance of the 1931 control surveys along the projected route of the Colorado River Aqueduct.

  15. Impact of the Gulf of California SST on simulating precipitation and crop productivity in the Southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S.; Kim, J.; Prasad, A. K.; Stack, D. H.; El-Askary, H. M.; Kafatos, M.

    2012-12-01

    Like other ecosystems, agricultural productivity is substantially affected by climate factors. Therefore, accurate climatic data (i.e. precipitation, temperature, and radiation) is crucial to simulating crop yields. In order to understand and anticipate climate change and its impacts on agricultural productivity in the Southwestern United States, the WRF regional climate model (RCM) and the Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator (APSIM) were employed for simulating crop production. 19 years of WRF RCM output show that there is a strong dry bias during the warm season, especially in Arizona. Consequently, the APSIM crop model indicates very low crop yields in this region. We suspect that the coarse resolution of reanalysis data could not resolve the relatively warm Sea Surface Temperature (SST) in the Gulf of California (GC), causing the SST to be up to 10 degrees lower than the climatology. In the Southwestern United States, a significant amount of precipitation is associated with North American Monsoon (NAM). During the monsoon season, the low-level moisture is advected to the Southwestern United States via the GC, which is known to be the dominant moisture source. Thus, high-resolution SST data in the GC is required for RCM simulations to accurately represent a reasonable amount of precipitation in the region, allowing reliable evaluation of the impacts on regional ecosystems.and evaluate impacts on regional ecosystems. To evaluate the influence of SST on agriculture in the Southwestern U.S., two sets of numerical simulations were constructed: a control, using unresolved SST of GC, and daily updated SST data from the MODIS satellite sensor. The meteorological drivers from each of the 6 year RCM runs were provided as input to the APSIM model to determine the crop yield. Analyses of the simulated crop production, and the interannual variation of the meteorological drivers, demonstrate the influence of SST on crop yields in the Southwestern United States.

  16. Models of regional habitat quality and connectivity for pumas (Puma concolor) in the southwestern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, Brett G; Roemer, Gary W; McRae, Brad H; Rundall, Jill M

    2013-01-01

    The impact of landscape changes on the quality and connectivity of habitats for multiple wildlife species is of global conservation concern. In the southwestern United States, pumas (Puma concolor) are a well distributed and wide-ranging large carnivore that are sensitive to loss of habitat and to the disruption of pathways that connect their populations. We used an expert-based approach to define and derive variables hypothesized to influence the quality, location, and permeability of habitat for pumas within an area encompassing the entire states of Arizona and New Mexico. Survey results indicated that the presence of woodland and forest cover types, rugged terrain, and canyon bottom and ridgeline topography were expected to be important predictors of both high quality habitat and heightened permeability. As road density, distance to water, or human population density increased, the quality and permeability of habitats were predicted to decline. Using these results, we identified 67 high quality patches across the study area, and applied concepts from electronic circuit theory to estimate regional patterns of connectivity among these patches. Maps of current flow among individual pairs of patches highlighted possible pinch points along two major interstate highways. Current flow summed across all pairs of patches highlighted areas important for keeping the entire network connected, regardless of patch size. Cumulative current flow was highest in Arizona north of the Colorado River and around Grand Canyon National Park, and in the Sky Islands region owing to the many small habitat patches present. Our outputs present a first approximation of habitat quality and connectivity for dispersing pumas in the southwestern United States. Map results can be used to help target finer-scaled analyses in support of planning efforts concerned with the maintenance of puma metapopulation structure, as well as the protection of landscape features that facilitate the dispersal

  17. Models of regional habitat quality and connectivity for pumas (Puma concolor in the southwestern United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett G Dickson

    Full Text Available The impact of landscape changes on the quality and connectivity of habitats for multiple wildlife species is of global conservation concern. In the southwestern United States, pumas (Puma concolor are a well distributed and wide-ranging large carnivore that are sensitive to loss of habitat and to the disruption of pathways that connect their populations. We used an expert-based approach to define and derive variables hypothesized to influence the quality, location, and permeability of habitat for pumas within an area encompassing the entire states of Arizona and New Mexico. Survey results indicated that the presence of woodland and forest cover types, rugged terrain, and canyon bottom and ridgeline topography were expected to be important predictors of both high quality habitat and heightened permeability. As road density, distance to water, or human population density increased, the quality and permeability of habitats were predicted to decline. Using these results, we identified 67 high quality patches across the study area, and applied concepts from electronic circuit theory to estimate regional patterns of connectivity among these patches. Maps of current flow among individual pairs of patches highlighted possible pinch points along two major interstate highways. Current flow summed across all pairs of patches highlighted areas important for keeping the entire network connected, regardless of patch size. Cumulative current flow was highest in Arizona north of the Colorado River and around Grand Canyon National Park, and in the Sky Islands region owing to the many small habitat patches present. Our outputs present a first approximation of habitat quality and connectivity for dispersing pumas in the southwestern United States. Map results can be used to help target finer-scaled analyses in support of planning efforts concerned with the maintenance of puma metapopulation structure, as well as the protection of landscape features that facilitate

  18. Lower Colorado River GRP Dams and Water Retention Structures, Arizona, 2012, Arizona Department of Environmental Quality

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Location of dams and water retention structures as compiled from multiple sources by the Arizona Department of Environmental Quality (ADEQ). The data are "sensitive"...

  19. Arizona Public Library Statistics, 2000-2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Jan, Comp.

    These statistics were compiled from information supplied by Arizona's public libraries. The document is divided according to the following county groups: Apache, Cochise; Coconino, Gila; Graham, Greenlee, La Paz; Maricopa; Mohave, Navajo; Pima, Pinal; Santa Cruz, Yavapai; and Yuma. Statistics are presented on the following: general information;…

  20. Arizona Public Library Statistics. 1994-1995.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arizona State Dept. of Library and Archives, Phoenix.

    The statistics in this document were provided by Arizona public libraries for 1994-95. The counties are grouped as follows: Apache, Cochise,and Coconino; Gila, Graham, Greenlee, and La Paz; Maricopa and Mohave; Navajo, Pima, and Pinal; and Santa Cruz, Yavapai, and Yuma. The following data is presented in table form for each of the five groups: (1)…

  1. Arizona Public Library Statistics, 1999-2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arizona State Dept. of Library, Archives and Public Records, Phoenix.

    These statistics were compiled from information supplied by Arizona's public libraries. The document is divided according to the following county groups: Apache, Cochise; Coconino, Gila; Graham, Greenlee, La Paz; Maricopa; Mohave, Navajo; Pima, Pinal; Santa Cruz, Yavapai; Yuma. Statistics are presented on the following: general information;…

  2. Arizona Public Library Statistics, 1995-1996.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arizona State Dept. of Library, Archives and Public Records, Phoenix.

    The statistics in this document were provided by Arizona public libraries for 1995-96. The counties are grouped as follows: Apache, Cochise, and Coconino; Gila, Graham, Greenlee, and La Paz; Maricopa and Mohave; Navajo, Pima, and Pinal; and Santa Cruz, Yavapai, and Yuma. The following data is presented in table form for each of the five groups:…

  3. Marginalizing TESOL: Preservice Teacher Training in Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz de Figueiredo, Eduardo H.; Hammill, Matthew J.; Fredricks, Daisy E.

    2011-01-01

    This pilot study investigated the attitudes of preservice teachers at a major university in Arizona concerning the Structured English Immersion (SEI) program that is now being used with English language learners (ELLs). Using a survey, we examined how preservice teachers feel about potentially working with ELLs in this SEI context. We focused on…

  4. Arizona's Forgotten Children: Promises To Keep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Children's Action Alliance, Phoenix, AZ.

    This report provides an Arizona perspective on the implications and effects of homelessness on children and youth, whether they live with their families or on their own. Statistics on homeless families are provided, and issues affecting homeless families are discussed. These issues involve shelters, child care, education, and health. Issues that…

  5. Turnover of Public School Superintendents in Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Joyce Ntsoaki

    2013-01-01

    This study used a descriptive qualitative design utilizing a phenomenological approach to determine and examine the reasons behind the voluntary or involuntary turnover of Arizona school superintendents. Open-ended questions were used to interview five superintendents who had left their districts between 2008 and 2013 about their perceptions on…

  6. Coccidiodomycosis in Arizona 2007-2008

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-10-13

    This podcast looks at the impact of Coccidioidomycosis, or Valley Fever, in Arizona in 2007 and early 2008. CDC epidemiologist Dr. Tom Chiller discusses what researchers learned about this fungal disease.  Created: 10/13/2010 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 10/27/2010.

  7. 50 CFR 32.22 - Arizona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of the State quail season. C. Big Game Hunting. We allow hunting of desert bighorn sheep in Arizona... the refuge from June 1 through August 19. C. Big Game Hunting. We allow hunting of mule and white... regulations subject to the following conditions: 1. You may only hunt feral hog during big game seasons. Each...

  8. Phytophthora Species in Rivers and Streams of the Southwestern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamler, Rio A; Sanogo, Soumalia; Goldberg, Natalie P; Randall, Jennifer J

    2016-08-01

    Phytophthora species were isolated from rivers and streams in the southwestern United States by leaf baiting and identified by sequence analysis of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) ribosomal DNA (rDNA). The major waterways examined included the Rio Grande River, Gila River, Colorado River, and San Juan River. The most prevalent species identified in rivers and streams were Phytophthora lacustris and P. riparia, both members of Phytophthora ITS clade 6. P. gonapodyides, P. cinnamomi, and an uncharacterized Phytophthora species in clade 9 were also recovered. In addition, six isolates recovered from the Rio Grande River were shown to be hybrids of P. lacustris × P. riparia Pathogenicity assays using P. riparia and P. lacustris failed to produce any disease symptoms on commonly grown crops in the southwestern United States. Inoculation of Capsicum annuum with P. riparia was shown to inhibit disease symptom development when subsequently challenged with P. capsici, a pathogenic Phytophthora species. Many Phytophthora species are significant plant pathogens causing disease on a large variety of crops worldwide. Closer examinations of streams, rivers, and forest soils have also identified numerous Phytophthora species that do not appear to be phytopathogens and likely act as early saprophytes in aquatic and saturated environments. To date, the Phytophthora species composition in rivers and streams of the southwestern United States has not been evaluated. This article details a study to determine the identity and prevalence of Phytophthora species in rivers and streams located in New Mexico, Arizona, Colorado, Utah, and Texas. Isolated species were evaluated for pathogenicity on crop plants and for their potential to act as biological control agents. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  9. Casuses of deforestation in southwestern Madagascar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casse, Thorkil; Milhøj, Anders; Ranaivoson, Socrate

    2004-01-01

    Causes of deforestation are discussed in the case of southwestern Madagascar. Distinction is made between direct and indirect causes. The article ends up with an estimation of the value of agricultural land vs. an estimation of benefits from utilisation of non-timber forest products......Causes of deforestation are discussed in the case of southwestern Madagascar. Distinction is made between direct and indirect causes. The article ends up with an estimation of the value of agricultural land vs. an estimation of benefits from utilisation of non-timber forest products...

  10. Status, ecology, and conservation of the southwestern willow flycatcher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah M. Finch; Scott H. Stoleson

    2000-01-01

    This publication was prepared in response to a need expressed by southwestern agencies and organizations for a comprehensive assessment of the population status, history, biology, ecology, habitats, threats, and conservation of the southwestern willow flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus). The southwestern willow flycatcher was federally listed as...

  11. National uranium resource evaluation: Clifton Quadrangle, Arizona and New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, D.L.; Foster, M.

    1982-05-01

    The Clifton Quadrangle, Arizona and New Mexico, was evaluated to identify environments and delineate areas favorable for uranium deposits. The evaluation used criteria formulated for the National Uranium Resource Evaluation program. Evidence for the evaluation was based on surface studies, hydrogeochemical and stream-sediment reconnaissance, and aerial radiometric surveys. The quadrangle encompasses parts of three physiographic provinces: the Colorado Plateau, the transition zone, and the Basin and Range. The one environment determined, during the present study, to be favorable for uranium deposits is the Whitewater Creek member of the Cooney tuff, which is favorable for magmatic-hydrothermal uranium deposits on the west side of the Bursum caldera. No other areas were favorable for uranium deposits in sandstone, limestone, volcanogenic, igneous, or metamorphic environments. The subsurface is unevaluated because of lack of information, as are areas where access is a constraint

  12. Using a remote sensing/GIS model to predict southwestern Willow Flycatcher breeding habitat along the Rio Grande, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatten, James R.; Sogge, Mark K.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction The Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus; hereafter SWFL) is a federally endangered bird (USFWS 1995) that breeds in riparian areas in portions of New Mexico, Arizona, southwestern Colorado, extreme southern Utah and Nevada, and southern California (USFWS 2002). Across this range, it uses a variety of plant species as nesting/breeding habitat, but in all cases prefers sites with dense vegetation, high canopy, and proximity to surface water or saturated soils (Sogge and Marshall 2000). As of 2005, the known rangewide breeding population of SWFLs was roughly 1,214 territories, with approximately 393 territories distributed among 36 sites in New Mexico (Durst et al. 2006), primarily along the Rio Grande. One of the key challenges facing the management and conservation of the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher is that riparian areas are dynamic, with individual habitat patches subject to cycles of creation, growth, and loss due to drought, flooding, fire, and other disturbances. Former breeding patches can lose suitability, and new habitat can develop within a matter of only a few years, especially in reservoir drawdown zones. Therefore, measuring and predicting flycatcher habitat - either to discover areas that might support SWFLs, or to identify areas that may develop into appropriate habitat - requires knowledge of recent/current habitat conditions and an understanding of the factors that determine flycatcher use of riparian breeding sites. In the past, much of the determination of whether a riparian site is likely to support breeding flycatchers has been based on qualitative criteria (for example, 'dense vegetation' or 'large patches'). These determinations often require on-the-ground field evaluations by local or regional SWFL experts. While this has proven valuable in locating many of the currently known breeding sites, it is difficult or impossible to apply this approach effectively over large geographic areas (for example, the

  13. The Secant Rate of Corrosion: Correlating Observations of the USS Arizona Submerged in Pearl Harbor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Donald L.; DeAngelis, Robert J.; Medlin, Dana J.; Johnson, Jon E.; Carr, James D.; Conlin, David L.

    2018-03-01

    Contrary to previous linear projections of steel corrosion in seawater, analysis of an inert marker embedded in USS Arizona concretion since the 7 December 1941 attack on Pearl Harbor reveals evidence that the effective corrosion rate decreases with time. The secant rate of corrosion, or SRC correlation, derived from this discovery could have a significant impact on failure analysis investigations for concreted shipwrecks or underwater structures. The correlation yields a lower rate of metal thinning than predicted. Development of the correlation is described.

  14. Factors influencing woodlands of southwestern North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michele M. Girard; Harold Goetz; Ardell J. Bjugstad

    1987-01-01

    Literature pertaining to woodlands of southwestern North Dakota is reviewed. Woodland species composition and distribution, and factors influencing woodland ecosystems such as climate, logging, fire, and grazing are described. Potential management and improvement techniques using vegetation and livestock manipulation have been suggested.

  15. Southwestern Institute of Physics annual report (2000)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The research results and engineering progress of SWIP (Southwestern Institute of Physics) during the year of 2000 was summarized in this annual report. The contents divided into five parts: 1. tokamak experimental diagnoses and tokamak engineering; 2. fusion reactor and fusion reactor materials; 3. plasma theory and calculation; 4. technique development and application; 5. appendix 31 theses and presented in this report

  16. Job satisfaction among Arizona adult nurse practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiestel, Charlotte

    2007-01-01

    A literature review for studies of job satisfaction among nurse practitioners (NPs) suggests that the true determinants of job satisfaction have not been discovered. The purpose of this study was to determine job satisfaction among adult health NPs (ANPs) practicing in Arizona. The Misener nurse practitioner job satisfaction scale was mailed to 329 Arizona ANPs who were certified by the Arizona State Board of Nursing (47% response rate). The mean overall satisfaction score was 4.69 out of a possible score of 6.0 for very satisfied. Differences in employer type, gender, annual income, membership in professional nursing organization, or full-time versus part-time employment status did not result in significantly different scores on the job satisfaction scale in this group. A deep and sustained nursing shortage, the exodus of experienced nurses from the profession, and a projected shortage of primary care providers have generated interest among professional groups, private and government healthcare commissions, and the healthcare industry in determining what factors may influence an individual to choose and remain active in nursing practice. Researchers, educators, employers, and the healthcare industry must look beyond well-worn assumptions about job satisfaction to explore what the individual NP finds satisfying about his or her role.

  17. University of Arizona Compressed Air Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, Joseph [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Muralidharan, Krishna [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    2012-12-31

    Boiled down to its essentials, the grant’s purpose was to develop and demonstrate the viability of compressed air energy storage (CAES) for use in renewable energy development. While everyone agrees that energy storage is the key component to enable widespread adoption of renewable energy sources, the development of a viable scalable technology has been missing. The Department of Energy has focused on expanded battery research and improved forecasting, and the utilities have deployed renewable energy resources only to the extent of satisfying Renewable Portfolio Standards. The lack of dispatchability of solar and wind-based electricity generation has drastically increased the cost of operation with these components. It is now clear that energy storage coupled with accurate solar and wind forecasting make up the only combination that can succeed in dispatchable renewable energy resources. Conventional batteries scale linearly in size, so the price becomes a barrier for large systems. Flow batteries scale sub-linearly and promise to be useful if their performance can be shown to provide sufficient support for solar and wind-base electricity generation resources. Compressed air energy storage provides the most desirable answer in terms of scalability and performance in all areas except efficiency. With the support of the DOE, Tucson Electric Power and Science Foundation Arizona, the Arizona Research Institute for Solar Energy (AzRISE) at the University of Arizona has had the opportunity to investigate CAES as a potential energy storage resource.

  18. September 2017 Arizona thoracic society notes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. The September 2017 Arizona Thoracic Society meeting was held on Wednesday, September 27, 2017 at the HonorHealth Rehabilitation Hospital beginning at 6:30 PM. This was a dinner meeting with case presentations. There were 16 in attendance representing the pulmonary, critical care, sleep, and radiology communities. There was a discussion of the Tobacco 21 bill which had been introduced the last session in the Arizona State Legislature. Since it seems likely that the bill will be reintroduced, the Arizona Thoracic Society will support the bill in the future. Dr. Rick Robbins announced that the SWJPCC has applied to be included in PubMed. In addition, Dr. Robbins was assigned the task of tracking down the campaign contributions to congressional members from the tobacco PAC before the next election. There were 7 case presentations: 1.\tAshley L. Garrett, MD, pulmonary fellow at Mayo, presented an elderly man with insulin-dependent diabetes who felt he …

  19. April 2014 Arizona thoracic society notes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. The April 2014 Arizona Thoracic Society meeting was held on Wednesday, 4/23/2014 at Scottsdale Shea Hospital beginning at 6:30 PM. There were 15 in attendance representing the pulmonary, critical care, sleep, pathology and radiology communities. It was announced that there will be a wine tasting with the California, New Mexico and Colorado Thoracic Societies at the American Thoracic Society International Meeting. The tasting will be led by Peter Wagner and is scheduled for the Cobalt Room in the Hilton San Diego Bayfront on Tuesday, May 20, from 4-8 PM. Guideline development was again discussed. The consensus was to await publication of the IDSA Cocci Guidelines and respond appropriately. George Parides, Arizona Chapter Representative, gave a presentation on Hill Day. Representatives of the Arizona, New Mexico and Washington Thoracic Societies met with their Congressional delegations, including Rep. David Schweikert, to discuss the Cigar Bill, NIH funding, and the Medicare Sustainable Growth ...

  20. Southwestern Power Administration annual site environmental report CY 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This report provides a synopsis of Southwestern Power Administration's (Southwestern's) effectiveness in managing its operations in an environmentally responsible manner. In CY 1997, the Office of Environmental, Safety, and Health was reorganized and incorporated into the Division of Acquisition and Property. The Division of Acquisition, Property, and Environmental Management maintains responsibility for development, oversight, and implementation of environmental programs. Senior Management at Southwestern has taken actions to increase environmental awareness throughout the organization. During CY 1997, (Southwestern) was not involved in any known programs or activities that had adverse impacts on the environment. The 1997 Environmental Appraisal, a portion of Southwestern's Self-Assessment and Appraisal Program, indicated approximately 90% compliance with Southwestern's written environmental programs. Southwestern continued to function throughout CY 1997 in an operations and maintenance posture with minor substation projects

  1. Southwestern Power Administration site environmental report for calendar year 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    During CY 93, Southwestern was not involved in any programs that had a direct effect on the environment, involving endangered species, protection of wetlands, or increased electromagnetic radiation. Southwestern continued to function throughout the year in an operations and maintenance posture with minor substation projects. Southwestern received an environmental management audit by the Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Audit (EH-24), during CY 1992. The purpose of the audit was to give Southwestern, DOE headquarters, and the Secretary an indication of the status of Southwestern management's effectiveness in discharging its duties in an environmentally responsible manner. The audit identified 17 findings. An action plan was developed and remediation of the findings has been accomplished. Several strengths were identified during the audit with regard to the environmental programs at Southwestern. Most importantly, senior management at Southwestern has taken actions to increase environmental awareness throughout the organization which is evidenced by the creation of the Environmental, Safety, Health, and Security Office

  2. What moves you Arizona : long-range transportation plan : 2010-2035.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    "What Moves You Arizona is the Arizona Department of Transportations (ADOT) Long-Range Transportation Plan (LRTP). The LRTP, or Plan, defines visionary, yet pragmatic, investment choices Arizona will make over the next 25 years to maintain a...

  3. How Arizona's Dropout Crisis Affects Communities, Creates Economic Losses for the State of Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    WestEd, 2014

    2014-01-01

    One-in-five of Arizona's youth did not complete high school and a similarly large proportion of the state's youth is disconnected from either work or education. These youth face higher risks of unemployment and economic insecurity and are more reliant on government supports. This situation, which fails to ensure that the state's youth are…

  4. Examining Arizona's Policy Response Post "Flores v. Arizona" in Educating K-12 English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Silva, Margarita; Gomez, Laura; Cisneros, Jesus

    2014-01-01

    This article provides an analysis of Arizona's policy response in educating English language learners by conducting a narrative review. A critical Latina/o theory approach was used to analyze the data. This study reveals 5 salient policy responses: (a) severely limit bilingual education, (b) develop controversial funding solutions, (c) implement a…

  5. The impact of Arizona Highways Magazine on tourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to: 1) examine the effect of Arizona Highways Magazine (AHM) on tourism, 2) determine trip : characteristics of AHM subscribers traveling in Arizona, and 3) calculate a benefit/cost ratio for AHM based on the : magazine...

  6. To Learn and Earn: Arizona's Unfinished Business in Human Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    Raising Arizona was the challenge of the 20th century. Sustaining Arizona is now the challenge of the 21st. A crucial part of that task is not just understanding today's knowledge economy, but mastering it. Ray and Charles Eames, the creative geniuses behind many iconic 20th century designs, debuted their film "Powers of 10" in 1977. In…

  7. Innovations in Arizona's Accountability Policies and Frameworks for Alternative Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlessman, Amy

    2014-01-01

    This study presents Arizona's innovations in academic accountability policy and academic accountability frameworks for alternative schools. A timeline of statutes and regulations including the State Board of Education approved alternative school definition provides Arizona's context for alternative school accountability policy and frameworks.…

  8. 7 CFR 1131.2 - Arizona marketing area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Arizona marketing area. 1131.2 Section 1131.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE ARIZONA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating...

  9. 32 CFR 705.31 - USS Arizona Memorial, Pearl Harbor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false USS Arizona Memorial, Pearl Harbor. 705.31... NAVY REGULATIONS AND OFFICIAL RECORDS PUBLIC AFFAIRS REGULATIONS § 705.31 USS Arizona Memorial, Pearl Harbor. (a) Limited space and the desirability of keeping the Memorial simple and dignified require the...

  10. Arizona TeleMedicine Network: System Procurement Specifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlantic Research Corp., Alexandria, VA.

    Providing general specifications and system descriptions for segments within the Arizona TeleMedicine Project (a telecommunication system designed to deliver health services to rurally isolated American Indians in Arizona), this document, when used with the appropriate route segment document, will completely describe the project's required…

  11. Untangling the web...spiders in Arizona fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many kinds of arthropod natural enemies (predators and parasitoids) inhabit crop fields in Arizona and can have a large negative impact on several pest insect species that also infest these crops. Many different species of spiders are common in cotton, alfalfa and other crops in Arizona. Among the ...

  12. Southwestern Power Administration Annual Report 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-12-01

    Dear Secretary Chu, I am pleased to present the financial statements and operating data for Southwestern Power Administration (Southwestern) for Fiscal Year (FY) 2008. In FY 2008, Southwestern delivered over 7.3 billion kilowatt-hours of energy to its wholesale customers – nearly 31% more than average due to numerous record rainfall amounts in the southwest region. These record amounts produced revenues which exceeded the average annual revenue requirement by nearly $20 million and resulted in over $200 million in economic benefits to the region. Yet even as Southwestern exceeded its goals of marketing and delivering Federal hydroelectric power to our customers, we stayed focused on safety, security, and reliability. For example, we maintained our nearly 1,400 miles of high-voltage transmission lines, substations, and communications sites while achieving a Recordable Accident Frequency Rate of 0.0, a record that reflects Southwestern’s safety achievement of no recordable injuries for every 200,000 hours worked. We kept our rights-of-way secure from vegetation and other obstacles, work that not only supports our mission but also promotes reliability of the regional and National grid. We exceeded all North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) Control Performance Standards (CPS- 1 and CPS-2), and maintained regulation and reserve obligations and reactive reserve margins to ensure the reliability of the bulk electric system, even during extended periods of restricted hydro operations due to unusually high project inflows. Finally, we continued our partnerships with the Department of Energy, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, our customers, and other Federal power stakeholders, partnerships that are vital to our continued success in marketing and delivering carbon-free, renewable, and domestically produced energy to our customers and to the Nation. Sincerely, Jon Worthington Administrator

  13. Southwestern Institute of Physics annual report 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    In the year 2001, significant progresses in the engineering construction of the HL-2A tokamak were made at the Southwestern Institute of Physics (SWIP). At the same time, the research projects from Nuclear Energy Development Foundation, the National Defense Basic Research Foundation and the National Science Foundation of China were completely fulfilled. In addition 283 papers and reports were contributed, among them, 67 are included in the Annual Report

  14. Integrating solar PV (photovoltaics) in utility system operations: Analytical framework and Arizona case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jing; Botterud, Audun; Mills, Andrew; Zhou, Zhi; Hodge, Bri-Mathias; Heaney, Mike

    2015-01-01

    A systematic framework is proposed to estimate the impact on operating costs due to uncertainty and variability in renewable resources. The framework quantifies the integration costs associated with sub-hourly variability and uncertainty as well as day-ahead forecasting errors in solar PV (photovoltaics) power. A case study illustrates how changes in system operations may affect these costs for a utility in the southwestern United States (Arizona Public Service Company). We conduct an extensive sensitivity analysis under different assumptions about balancing reserves, system flexibility, fuel prices, and forecasting errors. We find that high solar PV penetrations may lead to operational challenges, particularly during low-load and high solar periods. Increased system flexibility is essential for minimizing integration costs and maintaining reliability. In a set of sensitivity cases where such flexibility is provided, in part, by flexible operations of nuclear power plants, the estimated integration costs vary between $1.0 and $4.4/MWh-PV for a PV penetration level of 17%. The integration costs are primarily due to higher needs for hour-ahead balancing reserves to address the increased sub-hourly variability and uncertainty in the PV resource. - Highlights: • We propose an analytical framework to estimate grid integration costs for solar PV. • Increased operating costs from variability and uncertainty in solar PV are computed. • A case study of a utility in Arizona is conducted. • Grid integration costs are found in the $1.0–4.4/MWh range for a 17% PV penetration. • Increased system flexibility is essential for minimizing grid integration costs

  15. Heavy metals and metalloids in egg contents and eggshells of passerine birds from Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora, Miguel A.

    2003-01-01

    High concentrations of Sr in eggshells may be associated with lower hatching success of some passerine birds. - Concentrations of inorganic elements were determined in eggs of passerine birds including the endangered southwestern willow flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus) from four regions in Arizona. The main aim of the study was to determine the distribution of metals in egg contents and eggshells, with emphasis on the deposition of Sr in eggshells. Seventy eggs of 11 passerine species were collected at four nesting locations during 2000. Aluminum, Ba, Cr, Cu, Mn, Se, Sr, and Zn, were detected primarily in egg contents of all bird species. Arsenic, Ni, Pb, and V were detected primarily in eggshells. A proportion of most inorganic elements accumulated in the eggshell. Concentrations of Ba, Cu, Mn, Se, Sr, and Zn in egg contents and As, Ba, Cu, and V in eggshells of yellow-breasted chats (Icteria virens) were similar among locations. However, concentrations of Mn, Ni, Sr, and Zn in eggshells were significant different among locations. Except for Cu, Mn, Se, and Zn, concentrations of inorganic elements were 2-35 times greater in eggshells than in eggs. Most concentrations of metals and metalloids in eggs and eggshells of all the bird species were below levels known to affect reproduction or that have other deleterious effects. However, I found somewhat elevated concentrations of Sr in eggshells (highest mean=1505 μg/g dw, n=3) of yellow-breasted chats and willow flycatchers, and in egg contents of yellow warblers (Dendroica petechia) and song sparrows (Melospiza melodia). Whether current observed concentrations of Sr in eggshells are affecting nesting birds in Arizona remains to be determined. Strontium and other metals could be associated with lower hatching success in some areas. This study shows that a proportion of many inorganic elements accumulates in the eggshell and that the potential effects on the proper structure and functioning of the eggshell

  16. Heavy metals and metalloids in egg contents and eggshells of passerine birds from Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Miguel A.

    2003-01-01

    Concentrations of inorganic elements were determined in eggs of passerine birds including the endangered southwestern willow flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus) from four regions in Arizona. The main aim of the study was to determine the distribution of metals in egg contents and eggshells, with emphasis on the deposition of Sr in eggshells. Seventy eggs of 11 passerine species were collected at four nesting locations during 2000. Aluminum, Ba, Cr, Cu, Mn, Se, Sr, and Zn, were detected primarily in egg contents of all bird species. Arsenic, Ni, Pb, and V were detected primarily in eggshells. A proportion of most inorganic elements accumulated in the eggshell. Concentrations of Ba, Cu, Mn, Se, Sr, and Zn in egg contents and As, Ba, Cu, and V in eggshells of yellow-breasted chats (Icteria virens) were similar among locations. However, concentrations of Mn, Ni, Sr, and Zn in eggshells were significant different among locations. Except for Cu, Mn, Se, and Zn, concentrations of inorganic elements were 2–35 times greater in eggshells than in eggs. Most concentrations of metals and metalloids in eggs and eggshells of all the bird species were below levels known to affect reproduction or that have other deleterious effects. However, I found somewhat elevated concentrations of Sr in eggshells (highest mean=1505 μg/g dw, n=3) of yellow-breasted chats and willow flycatchers, and in egg contents of yellow warblers (Dendroica petechia) and song sparrows (Melospiza melodia). Whether current observed concentrations of Sr in eggshells are affecting nesting birds in Arizona remains to be determined. Strontium and other metals could be associated with lower hatching success in some areas. This study shows that a proportion of many inorganic elements accumulates in the eggshell and that the potential effects on the proper structure and functioning of the eggshell should not be ignored.

  17. UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA HIGH ENERGY PHYSICS PROGRAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutherfoord, John P. [University of Arizona; Johns, Kenneth A. [University of Arizona; Shupe, Michael A. [University of Arizona; Cheu, Elliott C. [University of Arizona; Varnes, Erich W. [University of Arizona; Dienes, Keith [University of Arizona; Su, Shufang [University of Arizona; Toussaint, William Doug [University of Arizona; Sarcevic, Ina [University of Arizona

    2013-07-29

    The High Energy Physics Group at the University of Arizona has conducted forefront research in elementary particle physics. Our theorists have developed new ideas in lattice QCD, SUSY phenomenology, string theory phenomenology, extra spatial dimensions, dark matter, and neutrino astrophysics. The experimentalists produced significant physics results on the ATLAS experiment at CERN's Large Hadron Collider and on the D0 experiment at the Fermilab Tevatron. In addition, the experimentalists were leaders in detector development and construction, and on service roles in these experiments.

  18. National uranium resource evaluation: Nogales Quadrangle, Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luning, R.H.; Brouillard, L.A.

    1982-04-01

    Literature research, surface geologic investigations, rock sampling, and radiometric surveys were conducted in the Nogales Quadrangle, Arizona, to identify environments and to delineate areas favorable for uranium deposits according to criteria formulated during the National Uranium Resource Evaluation program. The studies were augmented by aerial radiometric and hydrogeochemical and stream-sediment surveys. No favorable environments were identified. Environments that do display favorable characteristics include magmatic-hydrothermal and authigenic environments in Precambrian and Jurassic intrusives, as well as in certain Mesozoic and Cenozoic igneous and sedimentary rocks

  19. 78 FR 21412 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate a Cultural Item: Arizona State Museum, University of Arizona...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    ..., has determined that the cultural item listed in this notice meets the definition of unassociated... the control of the Arizona State Museum, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, that meets the definition... material culture are consistent with the Hohokam archaeological tradition and indicate occupation between...

  20. Characteristics of Intracrater Thermal Anomalies in Southwestern Margaritifer Terra

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, M. L.; Hamilton, V. E.

    2005-03-01

    We use thermophysical properties, albedo, short wavelength emissivity, composition, and geomorphology to understand the formation of anomalously warm intracrater deposits in southwestern Margaritifer Terra.

  1. September 2013 Arizona thoracic society notes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. The September Arizona Thoracic Society meeting was held on Wednesday, 9/25/2013 at Shea Hospital beginning at 6:30 PM. There were 13 in attendance representing the pulmonary, critical care, sleep, and pathology communities. After a brief discussion, Gerry Swartzberg was selected as Arizona’s 2014 nominee for Clinician of the Year. There was 1 case presented: Dr. Thomas Colby, pulmonary pathologist from Mayo Clinic Arizona, presented the case of a 67 year old woman with multiple pulmonary nodules. The largest was 1.2 cm CT scan. She had a fine needle aspiration of one of the nodules. The pathology revealed spindle-shaped cells which were synaptophysin + (also known as the major synaptic vesicle protein p38. Synaptophysin marks neuroendocrine tissue and on this basis the patient was diagnosed with multiple carcinoid tumors. Aguayo et al. (1 described six patients with diffuse hyperplasia and dysplasia of pulmonary neuroendocrine cells, multiple carcinoid tumorlets, and peribronchiolar fibrosis …

  2. November 2017 Arizona thoracic society notes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after 150 words. The November 2017 Arizona Thoracic Society meeting was held on Wednesday, November 15, 2017 at the HonorHealth Rehabilitation Hospital beginning at 6:30 PM. This was a dinner meeting with a lecture followed by case presentations. There were 15 in attendance representing the pulmonary, critical care, sleep, allergy, infectious disease and radiology communities. At the beginning of the meeting several issues were discussed: 1. CME offered by the Southwest Journal of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine (SWJPCC is currently offered to only the Southwest state thoracic societies and the Mayo Clinic. After discussion it was felt that this restriction of access was no longer appropriate and CME credits should be available to all. 2. Efforts continue to obtain CME for the Arizona Thoracic Society meetings. Our Chapter Representative, Dr. Gerry Schwartzberg, is approaching this with the American Thoracic Society. Locally, HonorHealth sent out a survey on CME needs. Members were encouraged …

  3. January 2017 Arizona thoracic society notes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesselius LJ

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after 150 words. The January 2017 Arizona Thoracic Society meeting was held on Wednesday, January 25, 2017 at the HonorHealth Rehabilitation Hospital beginning at 6:30 PM. This was a dinner meeting (prime rib with case presentations. There was a good attendance representing the pulmonary, critical care, sleep, and radiology communities. There was a discussion of supporting the Tobacco 21 bill which has been introduced into the Arizona State Legislature. There was unanimous support for this bill. Another bill to allow school nurses to administer an albuterol inhaler without a doctor’s prescription was also discussed but the members wanted more information. The new CDC Ventilator-Associated Events (VAE criteria were also discussed. Before endorsing or opposing the this as a measure, the members wished more information. It was decided that a decision on both would be postponed until discussed at the next meeting. Three cases were presented: 1. Dr. Lewis Wesselius from the Mayo Clinic …

  4. October 2012 Arizona thoracic society notes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. A dinner meeting was held on 10/24/2012 at Scottsdale Shea beginning at 6:30 PM. There were 23 in attendance representing the pulmonary, critical care, sleep, infectious disease, pathology, and radiology communities. An announcement was made that the Colorado Thoracic Society has accepted an invitation to partner with the Arizona and New Mexico Thoracic Societies in the Southwest Journal of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine. Discussions continue to be held regarding a combined Arizona Thoracic Society meeting with Tucson either in Casa Grande or electronically. Six cases were presented: Dr. Tim Kuberski, chief of Infectious Disease at Maricopa Medical Center, presented a 48 year old female who had been ill for 2 weeks. A CT of the chest revealed a left lower lobe nodule and a CT of the abdomen showed hydronephrosis and a pelvic mass. Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA was elevated. All turned out to be coccidioidomycosis on biopsy. CEA decreased …

  5. Tamarix as habitat for birds: Implications for riparian restoration in the Southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogge, M.K.; Sferra, S.J.; Paxton, E.H.

    2008-01-01

    Exotic vegetation has become a major habitat component in many ecosystems around the world, sometimes dramatically changing the vegetation community structure and composition. In the southwestern United States, riparian ecosystems are undergoing major changes in part due to the establishment and spread of the exotic Tamarix (saltcedar, tamarisk). There are concerns about the suitability of Tamarix as habitat for birds. Although Tamarix habitats tend to support fewer species and individuals than native habitats, Arizona Breeding Bird Atlas data and Birds of North America accounts show that 49 species use Tamarix as breeding habitat. Importantly, the relative use of Tamarix and its quality as habitat vary substantially by geographic location and bird species. Few studies have examined how breeding in Tamarix actually affects bird survivorship and productivity; recent research on Southwestern Willow Flycatchers has found no negative effects from breeding in Tamarix habitats. Therefore, the ecological benefits and costs of Tamarix control are difficult to predict and are likely to be species specific and site specific. Given the likelihood that high-quality native riparian vegetation will not develop at all Tamarix control sites, restoration projects that remove Tamarix but do not assure replacement by high-quality native habitat have the potential to reduce the net riparian habitat value for some local or regional bird populations. Therefore, an assessment of potential negative impacts is important in deciding if exotic control should be conducted. In addition, measurable project objectives, appropriate control and restoration techniques, and robust monitoring are all critical to effective restoration planning and execution. ?? 2008 Society for Ecological Restoration International.

  6. Statistical Analysis of Terrestrial Water Storage Change Over Southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eibedingil, I. G.; Mubako, S. T.; Hargrove, W. L.; Espino, A. C.

    2017-12-01

    A warming trend over recent decades has aggravated water resource challenges in the arid southwestern region of the United States (U.S.). An increase in temperature, coupled with decreasing snowpack and rainfall have impacted the region's cities, ecosystems, and agriculture. The region is the largest contributor of agricultural products to the U.S. market resulting from irrigation. Water use through irrigation is stressing already limited terrestrial water resources. Population growth in recent decades has also led to increased water demand. This study utilizes products of the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) twin satellites experiment in MATLAB and ArcGIS to examine terrestrial water storage changes in the southwestern region of the U.S., comprised of the eight states of Texas, California, Nevada, Utah, Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, and Oklahoma. Linear trend analysis was applied to the equivalent water-height data of terrestrial water storage changes (TWSC), precipitation, and air temperature. Correlation analysis was performed on couplings of TWSC - precipitation and TWSC - air temperature to examine the impact of temperature and precipitation on the region's water resources. Our preliminary results show a decreasing trend of TWSC from April 2002 to July 2016 in almost all parts of the region. Precipitation shows a decreasing trend from March 2000 to March 2017 for most of the region, except for sparse areas of increased precipitation near the northwestern coast of California, and a belt running from Oklahoma through the middle of Texas to the El Paso/New Mexico border. From April 2002 to December 2014, air temperature exhibited a negative trend for most of the region, except a larger part of California and a small location in central Texas. Correlation between TWSC and precipitation was mostly positive, but a negative trend was observed when TWSC and air temperature were correlated. The study contributes to the understanding of terrestrial water

  7. Skin and fur bacterial diversity and community structure on American southwestern bats: effects of habitat, geography and bat traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ara S. Winter

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms that reside on and in mammals, such as bats, have the potential to influence their host’s health and to provide defenses against invading pathogens. However, we have little understanding of the skin and fur bacterial microbiota on bats, or factors that influence the structure of these communities. The southwestern United States offers excellent sites for the study of external bat bacterial microbiota due to the diversity of bat species, the variety of abiotic and biotic factors that may govern bat bacterial microbiota communities, and the lack of the newly emergent fungal disease in bats, white-nose syndrome (WNS, in the southwest. To test these variables, we used 16S rRNA gene 454 pyrosequencing from swabs of external skin and fur surfaces from 163 bats from 13 species sampled from southeastern New Mexico to northwestern Arizona. Community similarity patterns, random forest models, and generalized linear mixed-effects models show that factors such as location (e.g., cave-caught versus surface-netted and ecoregion are major contributors to the structure of bacterial communities on bats. Bats caught in caves had a distinct microbial community compared to those that were netted on the surface. Our results provide a first insight into the distribution of skin and fur bat bacteria in the WNS-free environment of New Mexico and Arizona. More importantly, it provides a baseline of bat external microbiota that can be explored for potential natural defenses against pathogens.

  8. Skin and fur bacterial diversity and community structure on American southwestern bats: effects of habitat, geography and bat traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Ara S; Hathaway, Jennifer J M; Kimble, Jason C; Buecher, Debbie C; Valdez, Ernest W; Porras-Alfaro, Andrea; Young, Jesse M; Read, Kaitlyn J H; Northup, Diana E

    2017-01-01

    Microorganisms that reside on and in mammals, such as bats, have the potential to influence their host's health and to provide defenses against invading pathogens. However, we have little understanding of the skin and fur bacterial microbiota on bats, or factors that influence the structure of these communities. The southwestern United States offers excellent sites for the study of external bat bacterial microbiota due to the diversity of bat species, the variety of abiotic and biotic factors that may govern bat bacterial microbiota communities, and the lack of the newly emergent fungal disease in bats, white-nose syndrome (WNS), in the southwest. To test these variables, we used 16S rRNA gene 454 pyrosequencing from swabs of external skin and fur surfaces from 163 bats from 13 species sampled from southeastern New Mexico to northwestern Arizona. Community similarity patterns, random forest models, and generalized linear mixed-effects models show that factors such as location (e.g., cave-caught versus surface-netted) and ecoregion are major contributors to the structure of bacterial communities on bats. Bats caught in caves had a distinct microbial community compared to those that were netted on the surface. Our results provide a first insight into the distribution of skin and fur bat bacteria in the WNS-free environment of New Mexico and Arizona. More importantly, it provides a baseline of bat external microbiota that can be explored for potential natural defenses against pathogens.

  9. Solar energy system performance evaluation: Seasonal report for Elcam Tempe Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The solar system, Elcam-Tempe, was designed by Elcam Incorporated, Santa Barbara, California, to supply commercial domestic hot water heating systems to the Agriculture Department residence at Arizona State University. The building is a single story residence located at the agriculture experiment farm of the Arizona State University. The energy system's four modes of operation are described. Electrical energy savings at the site was a net of 5.54 million Btu after the 0.17 million Btu of operating energy required to operate collector loop circulating pump were subtracted. The energy savings due to solar was less than the system's potential. On an average, twice as much hot water could have been used with significant solar energy contribution. The system corrosion and deposits caused by using dissimilar metals in the collector loop was the only problem noted with the Elcam-Tempe system.

  10. Plant-Wide Energy Efficiency Assessment at the Arizona Portland Cement Plant in Rillito, Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen J. Coppinger, P.E.; Bruce Colburn, Ph.D., P.E., CEM

    2007-05-17

    A Department of Energy Plant-wide Assessment was undertaken by Arizona Portland Cement (APC) beginning in May 2005. The assessment was performed at APC’s cement production facility in Rillito, Arizona. The assessment included a compressed air evaluation along with a detailed process audit of plant operations and equipment. The purpose of this Energy Survey was to identify a series of energy cost savings opportunities at the Plant, and provide preliminary cost and savings estimates for the work. The assessment was successful in identifying projects that could provide annual savings of over $2.7 million at an estimated capital cost of $4.3 million. If implemented, these projects could amount to a savings of over 4.9 million kWh/yr and 384,420 MMBtu/year.

  11. New hairworm (Nematomorpha, Gordiida) species described from the Arizona Madrean Sky Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanteson-Franz, Rachel J; Marquez, Destinie A; Goldstein, Craig I; Andreas Schmidt-Rhaesa; Bolek, Matthew G; Hanelt, Ben

    2018-01-01

    Gordiids, or freshwater hairworms, are members of the phylum Nematomorpha that use terrestrial definitive hosts (arthropods) and live as adults in rivers, lakes, or streams. The genus Paragordius consists of 18 species, one of which was described from the Nearctic in 1851. More than 150 years later, we are describing a second Paragordius species from a unique habitat within the Nearctic; the Madrean Sky Island complex. The Madrean Sky Islands are a series of isolated high mountains in northern Mexico and the southwestern United States (Arizona and New Mexico), and are well known for their high diversity and endemicity. The new species is described based on both molecular data (COI barcoding) and morphological characters of the eggs, larvae, cysts, and adults. Adult females have unique small oblong mounds present on the interior of the trifurcating lobes with randomly dispersed long hairs extending from the furrows between the mounds. Marked genetic differences support observed morphological differences. This species represents the second new hairworm to be described from the Madrean Sky Islands, and it may represent the first endemic hairworm from this biodiversity hotspot.

  12. The influence of current and future climate on the spatial distribution of coccidioidomycosis in the southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorris, M. E.; Hoffman, F. M.; Zender, C. S.; Treseder, K. K.; Randerson, J. T.

    2017-12-01

    Coccidioidomycosis, otherwise known as valley fever, is an infectious fungal disease currently endemic to the southwestern U.S. The magnitude, spatial distribution, and seasonality of valley fever incidence is shaped by variations in regional climate. As such, climate change may cause new communities to become at risk for contracting this disease. Humans contract valley fever by inhaling fungal spores of the genus Coccidioides. Coccidioides grow in the soil as a mycelium, and when stressed, autolyze into spores 2-5 µm in length. Spores can become airborne from any natural or anthropogenic soil disturbance, which can be exacerbated by dry soil conditions. Understanding the relationship between climate and valley fever incidence is critical for future disease risk management. We explored several multivariate techniques to create a predictive model of county-level valley fever incidence throughout the southwestern U.S., including Arizona, California, New Mexico, Nevada, and Utah. We incorporated surface air temperature, precipitation, soil moisture, surface dust concentrations, leaf area index, and the amount of agricultural land, all of which influence valley fever incidence. A log-linear regression model that incorporated surface air temperature, soil moisture, surface dust concentration, and the amount of agricultural land explained 34% of the county-level variance in annual average valley fever incidence. We used this model to predict valley fever incidence for the Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 using simulation output from the Community Earth System Model. In our analysis, we describe how regional hotspots of valley fever incidence may shift with sustained warming and drying in the southwestern U.S. Our predictive model of valley fever incidence may help mitigate future health impacts of valley fever by informing health officials and policy makers of the climate conditions suitable for disease outbreak.

  13. Geospatial data to support analysis of water-quality conditions in basin-fill aquifers in the southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Tim S.; Anning, David W.

    2009-01-01

    The Southwest Principal Aquifers study area consists of most of California and Nevada and parts of Utah, Arizona, New Mexico, and Colorado; it is about 409,000 square miles. The Basin-fill aquifers extend through about 201,000 square miles of the study area and are the primary source of water for cities and agricultural communities in basins in the arid and semiarid southwestern United States (Southwest). The demand on limited ground-water resources in areas in the southwestern United States has increased significantly. This increased demand underscores the importance of understanding factors that affect the water quality in basin-fill aquifers in the region, which are being studied through the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program. As a part of this study, spatial datasets of natural and anthropogenic factors that may affect ground-water quality of the basin-fill aquifers in the southwestern United States were developed. These data include physical characteristics of the region, such as geology, elevation, and precipitation, as well as anthropogenic factors, including population, land use, and water use. Spatial statistics for the alluvial basins in the Southwest have been calculated using the datasets. This information provides a foundation for the development of conceptual and statistical models that relate natural and anthropogenic factors to ground-water quality across the Southwest. A geographic information system (GIS) was used to determine and illustrate the spatial distribution of these basin-fill variables across the region. One hundred-meter resolution raster data layers that represent the spatial characteristics of the basins' boundaries, drainage areas, population densities, land use, and water use were developed for the entire Southwest.

  14. Some lessons in artificial regeneration from southwestern Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    William I. Stein

    1955-01-01

    Natural reproduction has often proved undependable for restocking cutovers and burns in the mixed-conifer forest types of southwestern Oregon. These types, covering 6,000 square miles of productive forest land in the five southwestern Oregon counties, are composed of many species--principally Douglas fir, Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco;...

  15. Maps of estimated nitrate and arsenic concentrations in basin-fill aquifers of the southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beisner, Kimberly R.; Anning, David W.; Paul, Angela P.; McKinney, Tim S.; Huntington, Jena M.; Bexfield, Laura M.; Thiros, Susan A.

    2012-01-01

    Human-health concerns and economic considerations associated with meeting drinking-water standards motivated a study of the vulnerability of basin-fill aquifers to nitrate contamination and arsenic enrichment in the southwestern United States. Statistical models were developed by using the random forest classifier algorithm to predict concentrations of nitrate and arsenic across a model grid representing about 190,600 square miles of basin-fill aquifers in parts of Arizona, California, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, and Utah. The statistical models, referred to as classifiers, reflect natural and human-related factors that affect aquifer vulnerability to contamination and relate nitrate and arsenic concentrations to explanatory variables representing local- and basin-scale measures of source and aquifer susceptibility conditions. Geochemical variables were not used in concentration predictions because they were not available for the entire study area. The models were calibrated to assess model accuracy on the basis of measured values.Only 2 percent of the area underlain by basin-fill aquifers in the study area was predicted to equal or exceed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking-water standard for nitrate as N (10 milligrams per liter), whereas 43 percent of the area was predicted to equal or exceed the standard for arsenic (10 micrograms per liter). Areas predicted to equal or exceed the drinking-water standard for nitrate include basins in central Arizona near Phoenix; the San Joaquin Valley, the Santa Ana Inland, and San Jacinto Basins of California; and the San Luis Valley of Colorado. Much of the area predicted to equal or exceed the drinking-water standard for arsenic is within a belt of basins along the western portion of the Basin and Range Physiographic Province that includes almost all of Nevada and parts of California and Arizona. Predicted nitrate and arsenic concentrations are substantially lower than the drinking-water standards in much of

  16. National uranium resource evaluation Prescott Quadrangle Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    May, R.T.; White, D.L.; Nystrom, R.J.

    1982-01-01

    The Prescott Quadrangle was evaluated for uranium favorability by means of a literature search, examination of uranium occurrences, regional geochemical sampling of Precambrian rocks, limited rubidium-strontium studies, scintillometer traverses, measurement of stratigraphic sections, subsurface studies, and an aerial radiometric survey. A limited well-water sampling program for Cenozoic basins was also conducted. Favorability criteria used were those developed for the National Uranium Resource Evaluation. Five geologic environments are favorable for uranium. Three are in Tertiary rocks of the Date Creek-Artillery Basin, Big Sandy Valley, and Walnut Grove Basin. Two are in Precambrian rocks in the Bagdad and Wickenburg areas. Unfavorable areas include the southwestern crystalline terrane, the Paleozoic and Mesozoic beds, and metamorphic and plutonic Precambrian rocks of the Bradshaw and Weaver Mountains. Unevaluated areas are the basalt-covered mesas, alluvium-mantled Cenozoic basins, the Hualapai Mountains, and the Kellwebb Mine

  17. Migrating birds’ use of stopover habitat in the southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruth, Janet M.; Diehl, R.H.; Felix, R.K.

    2012-01-01

    In the arid Southwest, migratory birds are known to use riparian stopover habitats; we know less about how migrants use other habitat types during migratory stopover. Using radar data and satellite land-cover data, we determined the habitats with which birds are associated during migration stopover. Bird densities differed significantly by habitat type at all sites in at least one season. In parts of Arizona and New Mexico upland forest supported high densities of migrants, especially in fall. Developed habitat, in areas with little upland forest, also supported high densities of migrants. Scrub/shrub and grassland habitats supported low to intermediate densities, but because these habitat types dominate the Southwestern landscape, they may provide stopover habitat for larger numbers of migratory birds than previously recognized. These results are complicated by continuing challenges related to target identity (i.e., distinguishing among birds, arthropods and bats). Our results suggest that it is too simplistic to (1) consider the arid West as a largely inhospitable landscape in which there are only relatively small oases of habitat that provide the resources needed by all migrants, (2) think of western riparian and upland forests as supporting the majority of migrants in all cases, and (3) consider a particular habitat unimportant for stopover solely on the basis of low densities of migrants.

  18. Rainfall simulation experiments in the southwestern USA using the Walnut Gulch Rainfall Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyakov, Viktor; Stone, Jeffry; Holifield Collins, Chandra; Nearing, Mark A.; Paige, Ginger; Buono, Jared; Gomez-Pond, Rae-Landa

    2018-01-01

    This dataset contains hydrological, erosion, vegetation, ground cover, and other supplementary information from 272 rainfall simulation experiments conducted on 23 semiarid rangeland locations in Arizona and Nevada between 2002 and 2013. On 30 % of the plots, simulations were conducted up to five times during the decade of study. The rainfall was generated using the Walnut Gulch Rainfall Simulator on 2 m by 6 m plots. Simulation sites included brush and grassland areas with various degrees of disturbance by grazing, wildfire, or brush removal. This dataset advances our understanding of basic hydrological and biological processes that drive soil erosion on arid rangelands. It can be used to estimate runoff, infiltration, and erosion rates at a variety of ecological sites in the Southwestern USA. The inclusion of wildfire and brush treatment locations combined with long-term observations makes it important for studying vegetation recovery, ecological transitions, and the effect of management. It is also a valuable resource for erosion model parameterization and validation. The dataset is available from the National Agricultural Library at https://data.nal.usda.gov/search/type/dataset (DOI: https://doi.org/10.15482/USDA.ADC/1358583).

  19. On long-term evolution of seasonal precipitation in southwestern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Valero

    1996-09-01

    Full Text Available Annual cycles in long time series of precipitation from sixteen southwest European observatories have been analysed using complex demodulation. The stations have been clustered into two distinct regions and a hybrid one. They are referred to as the southwestern Europe precipitation Atlantic regime (SEPAR and the southwestern Europe precipitation Mediterranean regime (SEPMER, with the hybrid regime referred to in terms of the mean amplitude ratios between semiannual and annual rainfall components. Some evidence of linking between seasonal cycle harmonic amplitudes and the zonal circulation has been found for SEPAR stations and a more obscured relationship for the SEPMER region. Within the SEPAR region the strength of the relationship is diminished towards the north. A trend analysis of the amplitudes against time since 1920 has also been carried out and the results reveal a divergent pattern in trends between annual and semiannual component amplitudes for the SEPAR region. In fact, both an increasing annual-amplitude trend and a decreasing semiannual-amplitude trend are observed, in each case statistically significant. The fact that the seasonal cycle variability of rainfall in southwestern Europe becomes more sensitive southwards to changes in atmospheric zonal circulation over the North Atlantic might, in our opinion, be related to the swing of the circumpolar vortex.

  20. Cancer mortality and radioactive fallout in southwestern Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado, S.G.; Land, C.E.; McKay, F.W.

    1987-01-01

    Cancer mortality was compared between a three-county region in southwestern Utah and the remainder of Utah in an investigation of reported excess cancer risks associated with residence in southwestern Utah during the period of above-ground nuclear tests at the Nevada Test Site. Because most of the fallout in southwestern Utah was deposited during 1953-1957, comparisons were limited to persons born before 1958, and deaths from leukemia and bone cancer during 1955-1980 and from other cancers during 1964-1980. There was no excess risk of cancer mortality in southwestern Utah, for single or grouped sites, with the single exception of leukemia which showed statistically significant odds ratios of 1.45 based on 62 deaths at all ages, and 2.84 based on nine deaths at ages 0-14. The finding for childhood leukemia was based on different time periods and geographic comparisons from those of two earlier studies in which no such excess was found. Mortality from all cancer sites combined was significantly lower in southwestern Utah than in the remainder of the state, even after adjustment for the higher proportion of (lower risk) Mormons in southwestern Utah. The present results, including the positive association for leukemia, are inconsistent with the high excess risks reported by Johnson (JAMA 1984;251:230-6) based on an interview survey of cancer incidence among long-term Mormon residents of southwestern Utah

  1. Arizona geothermal institutional handbook: Arizona geothermal commercialization planning team, January 1-December 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malysa, L.

    1980-05-01

    The purpose of this handbook is to assist in understanding the various procedures and requirements necessary for the development of geothermal energy in the State of Arizona. It contains the names of key persons and agencies who are directly or indirectly involved in the institutional process. A detailed assessment of all agencies and the role they play in geothermal energy development is provided. The handbook is divided into four sections: State and Local rules and regulations, the Federal rules and regulations, references, and a technical bibliography. (MHR)

  2. Southwestern Institute of Physics: Annual Report 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-10-01

    The main achievements of controlled nuclear fusion research are presented for Southwestern Institute of Physics in 1998 year. With the establishment and operation of two auxiliary heating systems (NBI, ICRH), the HL-1M Tokamak is equipped with main auxiliary heating and current driving systems such as NBI, ECRH, ICRH and LHCD etc. . In addition, a variety of advanced fueling system, i.e. , multi-shot pellet and supersonic molecular beam injection, the first wall processing technologies of boronization, siliconization and lithiumization as well as more than 20 diagnostic facilities with partial space-time resolution capability have been established on the device. The construction of a larger Tokamak with divertors, the HL-2A, and its complementary systems are being carried out

  3. Environmental Assessment for power marketing policy for Southwestern Power Administration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-01

    Southwestern Power Administration (Southwestern) needs to renew expiring power sales contracts with new term (10 year) sales contracts. The existing contracts have been in place for several years and many will expire over the next ten years. Southwestern completed an Environmental Assessment on the existing power allocation in June, 1979 (a copy of the EA is attached), and there are no proposed additions of any major new generation resources, service to discrete major new loads, or major changes in operating parameters, beyond those included in the existing power allocation. Impacts from a no action plan, proposed alternative, and market power for less than 10 years are described.

  4. Environmental Assessment for power marketing policy for Southwestern Power Administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Southwestern Power Administration (Southwestern) needs to renew expiring power sales contracts with new term (10 year) sales contracts. The existing contracts have been in place for several years and many will expire over the next ten years. Southwestern completed an Environmental Assessment on the existing power allocation in June, 1979 (a copy of the EA is attached), and there are no proposed additions of any major new generation resources, service to discrete major new loads, or major changes in operating parameters, beyond those included in the existing power allocation. Impacts from a no action plan, proposed alternative, and market power for less than 10 years are described

  5. Study on climate change in Southwestern China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zongxing

    2015-03-01

    Nominated by Chinese Academy of Sciences as an outstanding Ph.D. thesis. Offers a needed exploration of the temporal and spatial pattern of climate change in southwestern China. Explores the action mechanism among the large-scale atmospheric circulation system, the complicated topography, human activities and regional climate changes. Analyzes the response of glaciers to climate change from the aspects of morphology of the glacier, glacial mass balance and the process of hydrology. This thesis confirms many changes, including sharp temperature rise, interannual variability of precipitation, extreme climate events and significant decreases of sunshine duration and wind speed in southwestern China, and systemically explores the action mechanism between large-scale atmospheric circulation systems, the complicated topography, human activities and regional climate changes. This study also analyzes the response of glaciers to climate change so that on the one hand it clearly reflects the relationship between glacier morphologic changes and climate change; on the other, it reveals the mechanism of action of climate warming as a balance between energy and matter. The achievements of this study reflect a significant contribution to the body of research on the response of climate in cold regions, glaciers and human activities to a global change against the background of the typical monsoon climate, and have provided scientific basis for predictions, countermeasures against disasters from extreme weather, utilization of water and the establishment of counterplans to slow and adapt to climate change. Zongxing Li works at the Cold and Arid Region Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China.

  6. Study on climate change in Southwestern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Zongxing

    2015-01-01

    Nominated by Chinese Academy of Sciences as an outstanding Ph.D. thesis. Offers a needed exploration of the temporal and spatial pattern of climate change in southwestern China. Explores the action mechanism among the large-scale atmospheric circulation system, the complicated topography, human activities and regional climate changes. Analyzes the response of glaciers to climate change from the aspects of morphology of the glacier, glacial mass balance and the process of hydrology. This thesis confirms many changes, including sharp temperature rise, interannual variability of precipitation, extreme climate events and significant decreases of sunshine duration and wind speed in southwestern China, and systemically explores the action mechanism between large-scale atmospheric circulation systems, the complicated topography, human activities and regional climate changes. This study also analyzes the response of glaciers to climate change so that on the one hand it clearly reflects the relationship between glacier morphologic changes and climate change; on the other, it reveals the mechanism of action of climate warming as a balance between energy and matter. The achievements of this study reflect a significant contribution to the body of research on the response of climate in cold regions, glaciers and human activities to a global change against the background of the typical monsoon climate, and have provided scientific basis for predictions, countermeasures against disasters from extreme weather, utilization of water and the establishment of counterplans to slow and adapt to climate change. Zongxing Li works at the Cold and Arid Region Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China.

  7. November 2015 Arizona thoracic society notes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after 150 words. The November 2015 Arizona Thoracic Society meeting was held on Wednesday, November 18, 2015 at the Scottsdale Shea Hospital beginning at 6:30 PM. This was a dinner meeting with case presentations. There were 14 in attendance representing the pulmonary, critical care, sleep, and radiology communities. There were 3 case presentations: 1. Dr. Gerald Schwartzberg presented a case of a 56-year-old man with a history of diabetes, alcoholism and tobacco abuse who has a history of Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare (MAI with a residual thin-walled cavity in his right upper lobe (RUL. After quitting drinking and smoking and years of being asymptomatic, he presented with hemoptysis. Chest x-ray showed increasing density in the RUL. CT scan showed an intracavitary density in his previous cavity presumably a fungus ball. Sputum cultures are pending. Discussion followed on management of fungus balls. Bronchoscopy was recommended to view the bronchial anatomy to exclude other diagnosis as well ...

  8. Active mines in Arizona - 1993. Directory 40

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, K.A.; Niemuth, N.J.; Bain, D.R.

    1992-01-01

    A directory of the active mines in Arizona is presented. The directory was compiled in November, 1992 from field visits and information received by the Department's technical staff. For the purpose of this directory, an active mine is defined as a mine in continuous operation, either in production or under full-time development for production. Custom milling operations that are active or available on a full-time basis are also included in the directory. It is acknowledged that there are additional mines not listed that are in an exploration, evaluation, or part-time development phase. There are others where production is on an intermittent basis that are not listed. The report is dependent on the cooperation of government agencies, private industry, and individuals who voluntarily provide information on their projects and activities. The directory is arranged alphabetically by company name. Each listing includes corporate addresses, mine name and location, operation description, and key personnel. The listing for the sand and gravel operations include name, address, and phone number

  9. Crotalid envenomation: the southern Arizona experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokish, J T; Benjamin, J; Walter, F

    2001-01-01

    To review a regional experience with the treatment of snakebites. Five major southern Arizona hospitals, including two Level I trauma centers. A review of all snakebite admissions over a five-year period was performed. During the period reviewed, 164 patients were admitted for snakebites. Rattlesnakes were responsible for 98 percent of identified envenomations. Thirty-six percent of the patients were transported by air to the admitting facility. Eighty percent of patients were admitted to the intensive care unit for an average of 1.6 days. Total hospital stays averaged 2.8 days. Ninety percent of patients received antivenin, usually only on the day of admission. Of those receiving antivenin, 20 percent had an anaphylactoid reaction, and 1 percent required readmission for serum sickness. Laboratory evaluation indicated abnormalities in platelet count, coagulation parameters, and fibrinogen levels, but these rarely required treatment. Thirteen percent of patients underwent surgical intervention, including a 4 percent fasciotomy rate, and a single amputation. The use of field treatment, including "cut and suck," tourniquets, and cryotherapy, increased the likelihood of surgery. The authors concluded that the intensive care unit and helicopter transport system were overused. They recommend that established objective envenomation severity scores be used to dictate patient treatment, specifically the use of antivenin.

  10. National uranium resource evaluation: Williams quadrangle, Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neill, A.J.; Nystrom, R.J.; Thiede, D.S.

    1981-03-01

    Geologic environments of the Williams Quadrangle, Arizona, were evaluated for uranium favorability by means of literature research, uranium-occurrence investigation and other surface studies, subsurface studies, aerial radiometric data, hydrogeochemical data, and rock-sample analytic data. Favorability criteria are those of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation program. Three geologic environments are favorable for uranium: the Tertiary fluvial rocks of the Colorado Plateau where they unconformably overlie impermeable bed rock (for channel-controlled peneconcordant deposits); collapse breccia pipes in Paleozoic strata of the Colorado Plateau (for vein-type deposits in sedimentary rocks); and Precambrian crystalline rocks of the Hualapai, Peacock, and Aquarius Mountains, and Cottonwood and Grand Wash Cliffs (for magmatic-hydrothermal deposits). Unfavorable geologic environments are: Tertiary and Quaternary volcanic rocks, Tertiary and Quaternary sedimentary rocks of the Colorado Plateau, nearly all Paleozoic and Mesozoic sedimentary rocks, and the Precambrian-Cambrian unconformity of the Grand Wash Cliffs area. Tertiary rocks in Cenozoic basins and Precambrian crystalline rocks in the Grand Canyon region and in parts of the Aquarius Mountains and Cottonwood and Grand Wash Cliffs are unevaluated

  11. October 2013 Arizona thoracic society notes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after 150 words. The October Arizona Thoracic Society meeting was held on Wednesday, 10/23/2013 at Shea Hospital beginning at 6:30 PM. There were 21 in attendance representing the pulmonary, critical care, sleep, and thoracic surgery communities. A proposal was made to decrease the number of meetings from 10 to 8 per year. After a brief discussion, this was adopted. Dr. Parides will try and coordinate these changes with Tucson. Meetings were announced for December in Tucson, January in Carmel, February in Albuquerque, and April in Phoenix. A suggestion was made to have a separate area for meetings on the SWJPCC website. There were 2 cases presented-both by Nick Sparacino, a first year fellow at Good Samaritan/VA. 1. The first case was a 48 year old man admitted to podiatry for chronic diabetic foot ulcers. His preoperative chest x-ray revealed multiple pulmonary nodules. Importantly, he had a history of working in a brake pad …

  12. Causes of sinks near Tucson, Arizona, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, J.P.; Pool, D.R.; Konieczki, A.D.; Carpenter, M.C.

    1998-01-01

    Land subsidence in the form of sinks has occurred on and near farmlands near Tucson, Pima County, Arizona, USA. The sinks occur in alluvial deposits along the flood plain of the Santa Cruz River, and have made farmlands dangerous and unsuitable for farming. More than 1700 sinks are confined to the flood plain of the Santa Cruz River and are grouped along two north-northwestward-trending bands that are approximately parallel to the river and other flood-plain drainages. An estimated 17,000 m3 of sediment have been removed in the formation of the sinks. Thirteen trenches were dug to depths of 4-6 m to characterize near-surface sediments in sink and nonsink areas. Sediments below about 2 m included a large percentage of dispersive clays in sink areas. Sediments in nonsink areas contain a large component of medium- to coarse-grained, moderately to well sorted sand that probably fills a paleochannel. Electromagnetic surveys support the association of silts and clays in sink areas that are highly electrically conductive relative to sand in nonsink areas. Sinks probably are caused by the near-surface process of subsurface erosion of dispersive sediments along pre-existing cracks in predominantly silt and clay sediments. The pre-existing cracks probably result from desiccation or tension that developed during periods of water-table decline and channel incision during the past 100 years or in earlier periods.

  13. September 2012 Arizona thoracic society notes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. A dinner meeting was held on 9/26//2012 at Scottsdale Shea beginning at 6:30 PM. There were 18 in attendance representing the pulmonary, critical care, sleep, pathology, and radiology communities.A discussion was held on Pending Premium Cigar Legislation HR. 1639 and S.1461, the "Traditional Cigar Manufacturing and Small Business Jobs Preservation Act of 2011”. This bill would exempt "premium cigars" from FDA oversight. The definition of premium cigars is so broad that candy flavored cigars, cigarillos and blunts would be exempted from FDA regulation. Teenage cigar smoking is increasing and this legislation may result in a further increase. The Arizona Thoracic Society is opposed to this bill. Dr. Robbins is to put a link on the Southwest Journal of Pulmonary and Critical Care website linking to the ATS website. This will enable members to contact their Congressmen opposing this legislation. A discussion was also held on a proposed combined Tucson/Phoenix …

  14. Using Molecular Genetic Markers to Resolve a Subspecies Boundary: The Northern Boundary of the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher in the Four-Corner States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, Eben H.; Sogge, Mark K.; Theimer, Tad C.; Girard, Jessica; Keim, Paul

    2008-01-01

    *Executive Summary* The northern boundary of the endangered Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus) is currently approximated as running through southern Colorado and Utah, but the exact placement is uncertain because this subspecies shares a border with the more northern and non-endangered E. t. adastus. To help resolve this issue, we evaluated the geographic distribution of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA by sampling breeding sites across the four-corner states (Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, and Utah). We found that breeding sites clustered into two major groups generally consistent with the currently designated boundary, with the exception of three sites situated along the current boundary. However, delineating a precise boundary that would separate the two subspecies is made difficult because (1) we found evidence for a region of intergradation along the boundary area, suggesting the boundary is not discreet, and (2) the boundary region is sparsely populated, with too few extant breeding populations to precisely locate a boundary. The boundary region encompasses an area where elevation changes markedly over relatively short distances, with low elevation deserts to the south and more mesic, higher elevation habitats to the north. We hypothesized that latitudinal and elevational differences and their concomitant ecological effects could form an ecological barrier that inhibited gene flow between the subspecies, forming the basis for the subspecies boundary. We modeled changes in geographic patterns of genetic markers as a function of latitude and elevation finding significant support for this relationship. The model was brought into a GIS environment to create multiple subspecies boundaries, with the strength of each predicted boundary evaluated on the basis of how much genetic variation it explained. The candidate boundary that accounted for the most genetic variation was situated generally near the currently recognized subspecies boundary

  15. 78 FR 48326 - Partial Disapproval of State Implementation Plan; Arizona; Regional Haze Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-08

    ... Disapproval of State Implementation Plan; Arizona; Regional Haze Requirements AGENCY: Environmental Protection... behalf of National Parks Conservation Association, Sierra Club, Physicians for Social Responsibility... Haze State Implementation Plan Revision submitted by the Arizona Department of Environmental Quality on...

  16. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Arizona. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Arizona.

  17. Effects of reintroduced beaver (Castor canadensis) on riparian bird community structure along the upper San Pedro River, southeastern Arizona and northern Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Glenn E.; van Riper, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Chapter 1.—We measured bird abundance and richness along the upper San Pedro River in 2005 and 2006, in order to document how beavers (Castor canadensis) may act as ecosystem engineers after their reintroduction to a desert riparian area in the Southwestern United States. In areas where beavers colonized, we found higher bird abundance and richness of bird groups, such as all breeding birds, insectivorous birds, and riparian specialists, and higher relative abundance of many individual species—including several avian species of conservation concern. Chapter 2.—We conducted bird surveys in riparian areas along the upper San Pedro River in southeastern Arizona (United States) and northern Sonora (Mexico) in order to describe factors influencing bird community dynamics and the distribution and abundance of species, particularly those of conservation concern. These surveys were also used to document the effects of the ecosystem-altering activities of a recently reintroduced beavers (Castor canadensis). Chapter 3.—We reviewed Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus) nest records and investigated the potential for future breeding along the upper San Pedro River in southeastern Arizona, where in July 2005 we encountered the southernmost verifiable nest attempt for the species. Continued conservation and management of the area’s riparian vegetation and surface water has potential to contribute additional breeding sites for this endangered Willow Flycatcher subspecies. Given the nest record along the upper San Pedro River and the presence of high-density breeding sites to the north, the native cottonwood-willow forests of the upper San Pedro River could become increasingly important to E. t. extimus recovery, especially considering the anticipated effect of the tamarisk leaf beetle (Diorhabda carinulata) on riparian habitat north of the region.

  18. Integrated solid waste management of Scottsdale, Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The subject document reports the results of an in-depth investigation of the fiscal year 1992 cost of the city of Scottsdale, Arizona, integrated municipal solid waste management (IMSWM) system, the energy consumed to operate the system, and the environmental performance requirements for each of the system`s waste-processing and disposal facilities. The document reports actual data from records kept by participants. Every effort was made to minimize the use of assumptions, and no attempt is made to interpret the data reported. Analytical approaches are documented so that interested analysts may per-form manipulation or further analysis of the data. As such, the report is a reference document for municipal solid waste (MSW) management professionals who are interested in the actual costs and energy consumption, for a 1-year period, of an operating IMSWM system. The report is organized into two main parts. The first part is the executive summary and case study portion of the report. The executive summary provides a basic description of the study area and selected economic and energy information. Within the case study are detailed descriptions of each component operating during the study period; the quantities of solid waste collected, processed, and marketed within the study boundaries; the cost of MSW in Scottsdale; an energy usage analysis; a review of federal, state, and local environmental requirement compliance; a reference section; and a glossary of terms. The second part of the report focuses on a more detailed discourse on the above topics. In addition, the methodology used to determine the economic costs and energy consumption of the system components is found in the second portion of this report. The methodology created for this project will be helpful for those professionals who wish to break out the costs of their own integrated systems.

  19. An Archaeological Sample Survey of the Whitlow Ranch Reservoir, Pinal County, Arizona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-09-01

    in situ Hohokam developme,z. The Salado concept itself may be questioned; Hohokam and Salade cc-stitute similar manifes- tations and the criteria for...Gila Aqueducts, Agua Fria River to Gila River, Arizona. Arizona State University Anthropological Research Paper 1. Forrester, J. D. 1962 Folio of...Weaver, Donald E., Jr. 1974 Archaeological investigations at the Westwing site, AZ T:7:27 (ASU), Agua Fria River Valley, Arizona. Arizona State Univer

  20. Causes of sinks near Tucson, Arizona, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, John P.; Pool, Donald R.; Konieczki, A. D.; Carpenter, Michael C.

    Land subsidence in the form of sinks has occurred on and near farmlands near Tucson, Pima County, Arizona, USA. The sinks occur in alluvial deposits along the flood plain of the Santa Cruz River, and have made farmlands dangerous and unsuitable for farming. More than 1700 sinks are confined to the flood plain of the Santa Cruz River and are grouped along two north-northwestward-trending bands that are approximately parallel to the river and other flood-plain drainages. An estimated 17,000m3 of sediment have been removed in the formation of the sinks. Thirteen trenches were dug to depths of 4-6m to characterize near-surface sediments in sink and nonsink areas. Sediments below about 2m included a large percentage of dispersive clays in sink areas. Sediments in nonsink areas contain a large component of medium- to coarse-grained, moderately to well sorted sand that probably fills a paleochannel. Electromagnetic surveys support the association of silts and clays in sink areas that are highly electrically conductive relative to sand in nonsink areas. Sinks probably are caused by the near-surface process of subsurface erosion of dispersive sediments along pre-existing cracks in predominantly silt and clay sediments. The pre-existing cracks probably result from desiccation or tension that developed during periods of water-table decline and channel incision during the past 100 years or in earlier periods. Résumé Des effondrements en forme d'entonnoir se sont produits sur et près d'exploitations agricoles de Pima (Arizona). Ces entonnoirs apparaissent dans les alluvions le long de la plaine d'inondation de la rivière Santa Cruz ; ils ont rendu ces terrains dangereux et inexploitables pour l'agriculture. Plus de 1700 entonnoirs existent dans la plaine d'inondation de la rivière Santa Cruz et sont groupés en deux bandes orientées nord-nord-ouest, approximativement parallèles à la rivière et aux autres chenaux de la plaine d'inondation. Un volume de sédiments estim

  1. An Autosomal Factor from Drosophila Arizonae Restores Normal Spermatogenesis in Drosophila Mojavensis Males Carrying the D. Arizonae Y Chromosome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantazidis, A. C.; Galanopoulos, V. K.; Zouros, E.

    1993-01-01

    Males of Drosophila mojavensis whose Y chromosome is replaced by the Y chromosome of the sibling species Drosophila arizonae are sterile. It is shown that genetic material from the fourth chromosome of D. arizonae is necessary and sufficient, in single dose, to restore fertility in these males. In introgression and mapping experiments this material segregates as a single Mendelian factor (sperm motility factor, SMF). Light and electron microscopy studies of spermatogenesis in D. mojavensis males whose Y chromosome is replaced by introgression with the Y chromosome of D. arizonae (these males are symbolized as mojY(a)) revealed postmeiotic abnormalities all of which are restored when the SMF of D. arizonae is co-introgressed (these males are symbolized as mojY(a)SMF(a)). The number of mature sperm per bundle in mojY(a)SMF(a) is slightly less than in pure D. mojavensis and is even smaller in males whose fertility is rescued by introgression of the entire fourth chromosome of D. arizonae. These observations establish an interspecific incompatibility between the Y chromosome and an autosomal factor (or more than one tightly linked factors) that can be useful for the study of the evolution of male hybrid sterility in Drosophila and the genetic control of spermatogenesis. PMID:8514139

  2. Effects on Funding Equity of the Arizona Tax Credit Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glen Y. Wilson

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the results from the first year (1998 of the Arizona Education Tax Credit program. The tax credit law allows individuals a dollar- for-dollar tax credit of $500 for donations to private schools and a dollar-for-dollar tax credit of $200 for donations to public schools. Although one justification for this statute was that it would help lower income students, the primary beneficiaries of this program tend to be the relatively well off. The author concludes that Arizona's tax credit law increases educational funding inequity in Arizona. Data for 1999, only recently made available, show a 159.1 percent increase in total contributions and an exacerbation of the trends noted here.

  3. 75 FR 64681 - Pistachios Grown in California, Arizona, and New Mexico; Continuance Referendum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-20

    ... Service 7 CFR Part 983 [Doc. No. AMS-FV-10-0077; FV10-983-3 CR] Pistachios Grown in California, Arizona..., Arizona, and New Mexico pistachio producers to determine whether they favor continuance of the marketing order regulating the handling of pistachios grown in California, Arizona, and New Mexico. DATES: The...

  4. Minority Student Progress Report 2009: A Snapshot of Arizona's Educational Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morel-Seytoux, Sylvie

    2009-01-01

    The Arizona Minority Education Policy Analysis Center (AMEPAC) is a policy center of the Arizona Commission for Postsecondary Education. AMEPAC's mission is to stimulate, through studies, statewide discussion, and debate, constructive improvement of Arizona minority students' early awareness, access, and achievement throughout the educational…

  5. Evaluating the ecological economic success of riparian restoration projects in Arizona (Abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary B. Snider

    2000-01-01

    The past 4 years the Arizona Water Protection Fund provided more than $25 million to individuals and organizations for stream and riparian restoration projects in Arizona. Information which increases the awareness of the value of Arizona's riparian systems is crucial to the incorporation of ecosystem services into decision-making frameworks, which are largely...

  6. Arizona Likely Voter Survey on Proposed Legislation to Enhance School Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenski, Margaret C.

    2005-01-01

    This report contains the results of a telephone survey of 602 likely Arizona voters on various measures to enhance school choice in Arizona. This research was conducted by Arizona Opinion of Tucson for The Milton and Rose D. Friedman Foundation of Indianapolis. All fieldwork was conducted on March 23-26, and 28-29, 2005 by DataCall Inc. of…

  7. Cambrian trilobites with Siberian affinities, southwestern Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, A.R.; Egbert, R.M.; Sullivan, R.; Knoth, J.S.

    1985-02-01

    Cambrian trilobites occur in two levels (about 7 m apart) in the core of a large, complex anticlinal structure in the area between the Taylor Mountains and the Hoholitna River in southwestern Alaska. The lower collection contains Erbia, Macannaia (a species close to Soviet forms described as Pagetia ferox Lermontova), two species of Kootenia (including one perhaps cospecific with forms from the central Brooks range), and several species of ptychoparioid trilobites. It is clear that biogeographic affinities are with the transitional facies of the eastern Siberian platform and the south Siberian foldbelt. In Soviet terms, the age of the collection falls in a disputed interval called latest Early Cambrian (Tojonian) by some authors, and earliest Middle Cambrian (Amgan) by others. In North American terms, Macannaia is known only from early Middle Cambrian beds. The younger collection contains abundant agnostids, a variety of conocoryphids, Paradoxides, and several species of ptychoparioid trilobites. This is an assemblage of undoubted late Middle Cambrian age, comparable to faunas described from the Maya State of the Siberian platform and the Paradoxides paradoxissimus Stage of the Baltic region. Both faunas are from ocean-facing or outer shelf environments. None of the key non-agnostid or non-pagetiid elements have been seen previously in deposits of Cambrian North America.

  8. Carbon Stocks and Climate Change: Management Implications in Northern Arizona Ponderosa Pine Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Bagdon

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Researchers have observed climate-driven shifts of forest types to higher elevations in the Southwestern US and predict further migration coupled with large-scale mortality events proportional to increases in radiative forcing. Range contractions of forests are likely to impact the total carbon stored within a stand. This study examines the dynamics of Pinus ponderosa stands under three climate change scenarios in Northern Arizona using the Climate Forest Vegetation Simulator (Climate-FVS model to project changes in carbon pools. A sample of 90 stands were grouped according to three elevational ranges; low- (1951 to 2194 m, mid- (2194 to 2499 m, and high- (2499 to 2682 m. elevation stands. Growth, mortality, and carbon stores were simulated in the Climate-FVS over a 100 year timespan. We further simulated three management scenarios for each elevational gradient and climate scenario. Management included (1 a no-management scenario, (2 an intensive-management scenario characterized by thinning from below to a residual basal area (BA of 18 m2/ha in conjunction with a prescribed burn every 10 years, and (3 a moderate-management scenario characterized by a thin-from-below treatment to a residual BA of 28 m2/ha coupled with a prescribed burn every 20 years. Results indicate that any increase in aridity due to climate change will produce substantial mortality throughout the elevational range of ponderosa pine stands, with lower elevation stands projected to experience the most devastating effects. Management was only effective for the intensive-management scenario; stands receiving this treatment schedule maintained moderately consistent levels of basal area and demonstrated a higher level of resilience to climate change relative to the two other management scenarios. The results of this study indicate that management can improve resiliency to climate change, however, resource managers may need to employ more intensive thinning treatments than

  9. Radiological survey of the inactive uranium-mill tailings at Tuba City, Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haywood, F.F.; Jones, T.D.; Hubbard, H.M. Jr.; Ellis, B.S.; Shinpaugh, W.H.

    1980-01-01

    Results of a radiological survey of the inactive uranium-mill site at Tuba City, Arizona, conducted in March 1976, are presented. Spread of tailings was detected in all directions by means of direct gamma measurements at 1 m above the ground and by determinations of the 226 Ra concentration in surface soil and sediment samples. In the direction toward which prevailing winds blow, the northeast, evidence of transportation of tailings was found at least 3.2 km from the tailings pile. Toward the north, south, and west, the spread was 300 to 400 m. Evidence of movement of tailings by water to offsite locations was also found. The concentration of 226 Ra in all water samples was well below the concentration guide for drinking water. The calculated subsoil distribution of 226 Ra in 14 holes, based on gamma monitoring data obtained by Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc., is presented graphically and compared with available analytical data

  10. 3D View of Grand Canyon, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The Grand Canyon is one of North America's most spectacular geologic features. Carved primarily by the Colorado River over the past six million years, the canyon sports vertical drops of 5,000 feet and spans a 445-kilometer-long stretch of Arizona desert. The strata along the steep walls of the canyon form a record of geologic time from the Paleozoic Era (250 million years ago) to the Precambrian (1.7 billion years ago).The above view was acquired by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument aboard the Terra spacecraft. Visible and near infrared data were combined to form an image that simulates the natural colors of water and vegetation. Rock colors, however, are not accurate. The image data were combined with elevation data to produce this perspective view, with no vertical exaggeration, looking from above the South Rim up Bright Angel Canyon towards the North Rim. The light lines on the plateau at lower right are the roads around the Canyon View Information Plaza. The Bright Angel Trail, which reaches the Colorado in 11.3 kilometers, can be seen dropping into the canyon over Plateau Point at bottom center. The blue and black areas on the North Rim indicate a forest fire that was smoldering as the data were acquired on May 12, 2000.Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as

  11. Late Pleistocene paleohydrology near the boundary of the Sonoran and Chihuahuan Deserts, southeastern Arizona, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigati, Jeffery S.; Bright, Jordon E.; Shanahan, Timothy M.; Mahan, Shannon

    2009-01-01

    Ground-water discharge (GWD) deposits form in arid environments as water tables rise and approach or breach the ground surface during periods of enhanced effective precipitation. Where preserved, these deposits contain information on the timing and elevation of past ground-water fluctuations. Here we report on the investigation of a series of GWD deposits that are exposed in discontinuous outcrops along a ???150-km stretch of the San Pedro Valley in southeastern Arizona, near the boundary of the Sonoran and Chihuahuan Deserts. Chronologic, isotopic, geochemical, faunal assemblage (ostracodes and gastropods), and sedimentological evidence collectively suggest that the elevation of the regional water table in the valley rose in response to a change in climate ???50 ka ago and remained relatively high for the next ???35 ka before falling during the B??lling-Aller??d warm period, rebounding briefly during the Younger Dryas cold event, and falling again at the onset of the Holocene. The timing of these hydrologic changes coincides closely with variations in ??18O values of calcite from a nearby speleothem to the west and changes in lake levels at pluvial Lake Cochise to the east. Thus, in southeastern Arizona, the assumption that changes in climate are reflected in all aspects of the hydrologic cycle of a region simultaneously is validated. The timing of these changes also broadly coincides with variations in the GISP2 ??18O record, which supports the hypothesis that atmospheric teleconnections existed between the North Atlantic and the deserts of the American Southwest during the late Pleistocene.

  12. Medical Cannabis in Arizona: Patient Characteristics, Perceptions, and Impressions of Medical Cannabis Legalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troutt, William D; DiDonato, Matthew D

    2015-01-01

    Many advances have been made toward understanding the benefits of medical cannabis. However, less is known about medical cannabis patients themselves. Prior research has uncovered many important patient characteristics, but most of that work has been conducted with participants in California, who may not represent medical cannabis patients throughout the United States. Furthermore, it is unknown if medical cannabis legalization, which typically imposes strict regulations on cannabis cultivation and sale, impacts patients' experiences acquiring and using cannabis. The goal of this study was to address these limitations by (1) examining the characteristics, perceptions, and behaviors of medical cannabis patients in Arizona; and (2) questioning participants with a history of cannabis use regarding their experiences with cannabis before and after legalization. Patients in Arizona share many characteristics with those in California, but also key differences, such as average age and degree of cannabis consumption. Participants also had positive perceptions of the effect of medical cannabis legalization, reporting that feelings of safety and awareness were higher after legalization compared to before. The results are discussed in relation to evidence from patients in other states and in terms of their potential policy implications.

  13. 33 CFR 100.1102 - Marine Events on the Colorado River, between Davis Dam (Bullhead City, Arizona) and Headgate Dam...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... River, between Davis Dam (Bullhead City, Arizona) and Headgate Dam (Parker, Arizona). 100.1102 Section... MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.1102 Marine Events on the Colorado River, between Davis Dam (Bullhead City, Arizona) and Headgate Dam (Parker, Arizona). (a) General. Sponsors are...

  14. The importance of ants in cave ecology, with new records and behavioral observations of ants in Arizona caves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert B. Pape

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The importance of ants as elements in cave ecology has been mostly unrecognized. A global list of ant species recorded from caves, compiled from a review of existing literature, is presented. This paper also reviews what is currently known about ants occurring in Arizona (USA caves. The diversity and distribution represented in these records suggests ants are relatively common cave visitors (trogloxenes. A general utilization of caves by ants within both temperate and tropical latitudes may be inferred from this combined evidence. Observations of ant behavior in Arizona caves demonstrate a low level and sporadic, but persistent, use of these habitats and their contained resources by individual ant colonies. Documentation of Neivamyrmex sp. preying on cave-inhabiting arthropods is reported here for the first time. Observations of hypogeic army ants in caves suggests they may not penetrate to great vertical depth in search of prey, but can be persistent occupants in relatively shallow, horizontal sections of caves where they may prey on endemic cave animals. First cave records for ten ant species are reported from Arizona caves. These include two species of Neivamyrmex (N. nigrescens Cresson and Neivamyrmex sp.; Formicidae: Dorylinae, four myrmicines (Pheidole portalensis Wilson, Pheidole cf. porcula Wheeler, Solenopsis aurea Wheeler and Stenamma sp. Westwood, one dolichoderine (Forelius keiferi Wheeler and three formicines (Lasius arizonicus Wheeler, L. sitiens Wilson, and Camponotus sp. Mayr.

  15. Climate change, fire management, and ecological services in the southwestern US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurteau, Matthew D.; Bradford, John B.; Fulé, Peter Z.; Taylor, Alan H.; Martin, Katherine L.

    2014-01-01

    The diverse forest types of the southwestern US are inseparable from fire. Across climate zones in California, Nevada, Arizona, and New Mexico, fire suppression has left many forest types out of sync with their historic fire regimes. As a result, high fuel loads place them at risk of severe fire, particularly as fire activity increases due to climate change. A legacy of fire exclusion coupled with a warming climate has led to increasingly large and severe wildfires in many southwest forest types. Climate change projections include an extended fire season length due to earlier snowmelt and a general drying trend due to rising temperatures. This suggests the future will be warmer and drier regardless of changes in precipitation. Hotter, drier conditions are likely to increase forest flammability, at least initially. Changes in climate alone have the potential to alter the distribution of vegetation types within the region, and climate-driven shifts in vegetation distribution are likely to be accelerated when coupled with stand-replacing fire. Regardless of the rate of change, the interaction of climate and fire and their effects on Southwest ecosystems will alter the provisioning of ecosystem services, including carbon storage and biodiversity. Interactions between climate, fire, and vegetation growth provide a source of great uncertainty in projecting future fire activity in the region, as post-fire forest recovery is strongly influenced by climate and subsequent fire frequency. Severe fire can be mitigated with fuels management including prescribed fire, thinning, and wildfire management, but new strategies are needed to ensure the effectiveness of treatments across landscapes. We review the current understanding of the relationship between fire and climate in the Southwest, both historical and projected. We then discuss the potential implications of climate change for fire management and examine the potential effects of climate change and fire on ecosystem

  16. Arizona Traffic Safety Education, K-8. Passenger Safety, Grade 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa Public Schools, AZ.

    One in a series designed to assist Arizona elementary and junior high school teachers in developing children's traffic safety skills, this curriculum guide contains four lessons and an appendix of school bus safety tips for use in grade 3. Introductory information provided for the teacher includes basic highway safety concepts, stressing…

  17. 75 FR 51840 - State of Arizona Resource Advisory Council Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-23

    ... Policy and Management Act of 1976 and the Federal Advisory Committee Act of 1972, the U.S. Department of... on the BLM Arizona National Landscape Conservation System (NLCS), Update on the Renewable Energy... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [LLAZ910000.L12100000.XP0000LXSS150A00006100...

  18. 78 FR 44964 - State of Arizona Resource Advisory Council Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-25

    ... Assessment/Landscape Approach; and Arizona Renewable Energy programs; Use and Formation of Subcommittees on... of 1976 and the Federal Advisory Committee Act of 1972, the U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [LLAZ910000.L12100000.XP0000LXSS150A00006100...

  19. Prevalence of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae in desert bighorn sheep in Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justice-Allen, Anne E.; Luedtke, Clint J.; Overstreet, Matthew; Cain, James W.; Stephenson, Thomas R.

    2011-01-01

    To assess the potential for an epizootic of pneumonia to result from either natural immigration or translocation, we compared the seroprevalence to Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae in several populations of desert bighorn sheep in Arizona. We collected blood samples and nasal or oropharyngeal swabs from 124 desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis nelsoni) from 6 populations in Arizona in 2009 and 2010. M. ovipneumoniae organisms were detected by PCR in 22%, whereas antibodies to M. ovipneumoniae were detected in 47% of tested bighorn sheep. Mycoplasma antibodies were not found in 2 of 6 populations, indicating some bighorn sheep populations in Arizona are naïve to this bacterium. In contrast, others had seroprevalence rates up to 80%. We were able to compare seroprevalence rates and titers over time in 9 individuals (7 individuals included in the 124 bighorn sheep sampled in 2009 and 2010, and 2 individuals originally captured in 2006). Antibody titers persisted for 12 months in individuals from the Kofa National Wildlife Refuge (n = 7) while antibody titers appeared to decline in the Kanab Creek population (n = 2). M. ovipneumoniae is present or has been present in several, but not all, populations of bighorn sheep in Arizona. The results demonstrate the importance of routine health testing for future translocation efforts to reduce disease risk for naive populations.

  20. Developing a Distributed Computing Architecture at Arizona State University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armann, Neil; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Development of Arizona State University's computing architecture, designed to ensure that all new distributed computing pieces will work together, is described. Aspects discussed include the business rationale, the general architectural approach, characteristics and objectives of the architecture, specific services, and impact on the university…

  1. Monitoring update on four listed plants on the Arizona Strip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee E. Hughes

    2001-01-01

    Four listed plants on the Arizona Strip are being monitored for various population characteristics. Pediocactus sileri Engelm. L. Benson and P. bradyi L. Benson have been monitored since 1985-86, Asclepias welshii N & P Holmgren since 1989, and Cycladenia humilis Benth. var. jonesii Welsh & Atwood since 1993. The two pediocactus species were monitored in plots...

  2. Digital Learning Compass: Distance Education State Almanac 2017. Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaman, Julia E.; Seaman, Jeff

    2017-01-01

    This brief report uses data collected under the U.S. Department of Education's National Center for Educational Statistics (NCES) Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) Fall Enrollment survey to highlight distance education data in the state of Arizona . The sample for this analysis is comprised of all active, degree-granting…

  3. Lowland riparian herpetofaunas: the San Pedro River in southeastern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip C. Rosen

    2005-01-01

    Previous work has shown that southeastern Arizona has a characteristic, high diversity lowland riparian herpetofauna with 62-68 or more species along major stream corridors, and 46-54 species in shorter reaches within single biomes, based on intensive fieldwork and museum record surveys. The San Pedro River supports this characteristic herpetofauna, at least some of...

  4. Food habits of Bald Eagles breeding in the Arizona desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teryl G. Grubb

    1995-01-01

    Of 1814 foraging attempts, prey captures, or nest deliveries by Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) in 14 Arizona breeding areas during 1983-1985, 1471 observations were identifiable to at least class: fish (76%), mammal (18%), bird (4%), and reptile/amphibian (2%). Forty-five species were recorded: catfish (Ictalurus punctatus, Pylodictis olivaris), suckers (...

  5. UMTRA water sampling and analysis plan, Tuba City, Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide background, guidance, and justification for fiscal year (FY) 1994 water sampling activities for the uranium mil tailings site at Tuba City, Arizona. This sampling and analysis plan will form the basis for groundwater sampling and analysis work orders to be implemented in FY94

  6. Restrictive Language Policy in Practice: English Learners in Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heineke, Amy J.

    2016-01-01

    As the most restrictive language policy context in the United States, Arizona's monolingual and prescriptive approach to teaching English learners continues to capture international attention. More than five school years after initial implementation, this study uses qualitative data from the individuals doing the policy work to provide a holistic…

  7. Food habits of bald eagles wintering in northern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teryl G. Grubb; Roy G. Lopez

    2000-01-01

    We used pellets collected from roosts to supplement incidental foraging observations to identify prey species of Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucoughalus) and to evaluate spatial and temporal trends in their food habits while wintering in northern Arizona between 1994-96. We analyzed 1057 pellets collected from 14 roosts, and identified five mammal and...

  8. Arizona State's Origins Project Starts with a Big Bang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangan, Katherine

    2009-01-01

    For 12 hours at Arizona State University, a sold-out crowd of 3,000 people gave a group of famous scientists a pop-star welcome, cheering their remarks and lining up for autographs after a day full of discussion about black holes, string theory, and evolutionary biology. At a time when program cuts and faculty layoffs dominate the headlines of…

  9. Arizona TeleMedicine Network: Engineering Master Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlantic Research Corp., Alexandria, VA.

    As the planning document for establishing a statewide health communications system initially servicing the Papago, San Carlos and White Mountain Apache, Navajo, and Hopi reservations, this document prescribes the communications services to be provided by the Arizona TeleMedicine Network. Specifications include: (1) communications services for each…

  10. Arizona Commission of Indian Affairs 1982 Annual Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arizona Commission of Indian Affairs, Phoenix.

    Designed to provide insight into the proceedings, transactions, and findings of the Arizona Commission of Indian Affairs, this 1981-82 annual report reflects the Commission's efforts to improve communications, understanding and working relationships between tribes and state government to provide tribes with technical assistance. The report…

  11. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Arizona Transportation Data for Alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel (B20 and above) 3 74 Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) 12 17 Electric 399 45 Ethanol (E85) 19 2 Arizona Videos on YouTube Video thumbnail for Phoenix Utility Fleet Drives Smarter with Biodiesel Phoenix Utility Fleet Drives Smarter with Biodiesel Aug. 26, 2017 https://www.youtube.com/embed/4pUL3sb4RA4 Video

  12. Language Ideologies of Arizona Voters, Language Managers, and Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimmons-Doolan, Shannon

    2014-01-01

    Arizona is the site of many explicit language policies as well as ongoing scholarly discussions of related language ideologies--beliefs about the role of language in society. This study adds a critical piece to the investigation of the role of ideologies in language policy processes by thoroughly documenting language ideologies expressed by a…

  13. Investigating Ultra-low Velocity Zones beneath the Southwestern Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, S. E.; Hansen, S. E.; Garnero, E.

    2017-12-01

    The core mantle boundary (CMB), where the solid silicate mantle meets the liquid iron-nickel outer core, represents the largest density contrast on our planet, and it has long been recognized that the CMB is associated with significant structural heterogeneities. One CMB structure of particular interest are ultra low-velocity zones (ULVZs), laterally-varying, 5-50 km thick isolated patches seen in some locations just above the CMB that are associated with increased density and reduced seismic wave velocities. These variable characteristics have led to many questions regarding ULVZ origins, but less than 40% of the CMB has been surveyed for the presence of ULVZs given limited seismic coverage of the lowermost mantle. Therefore, investigations that sample the CMB with new geometries are critical to further our understanding of ULVZs and their potential connection to other deep Earth processes. The Transantarctic Mountains Northern Network (TAMNNET), a 15-station seismic array that was recently deployed in Antarctica, provides a unique dataset to further study ULVZ structure with new and unique path geometry. Core-reflected ScP and PcP phases from the TAMNNET dataset particularly well sample the CMB in the vicinity of New Zealand in the southwestern Pacific, providing coverage between an area to the north where ULVZ structure has been previously identified and another region to the south, which shows no ULVZ evidence. By identifying and modeling pre- and post-cursor ScP and PcP energy, we are exploring a new portion of the CMB with a goal of better understanding potential ULVZ origins. Our study area also crosses the southern boundary of the Pacific Large Low Shear Velocity Province (LLSVP); therefore, our investigations may allow us to examine the possible relationship between LLSVPs and ULVZs.

  14. Pattern of corrosive ingestion in southwestern Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlBinali Ali M; AlShehri, Mohammed A; AlFifi, Suliman H; Abdelmoneim, Ismail; Shomrani, Ali S

    2009-01-01

    Ingested corrosive material is a major pediatric emergency all over the world. The corrosive material can cause damage to the digestive tract, ranging from minor injury to strictures, and sometimes even death. We aimed to review the pattern of corrosive ingestion in children who had been admitted to Aseer Central Hospital in the Southwestern region of Saudi Arabia. This is a retrospective study of all children who had been admitted with a history of corrosive ingestion to Aseer Central Hospital over a period of five years period from 1990 to 1995. The records of 72 patients (38 males and 34 females) were reviewed. The data included age, sex, time lapse till admission, action taken by parents, presenting symptoms, general management given to the child, barium study, endoscopy, and the postcorrosive ingestion outcome of the child. The mean age of the pediatric patients was 28 + - 20 months. Different types of corrosives were encountered. The most common type was 5.25% hypochlorite in 36 patients (50%), kerosene in 12 patients (16.7%), caustic soda in nine patients (12.5%), hydrogen chloride and N-alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride (HC and ADB) in eight patients (11.1%), and other material in seven patients (9.7%). Endoscopy was done in 30 patients (31.7%), 14 of whom were abnormal. Barium swallow was performed in 11 patients; five of them showed strictures that required frequent dilatation whereas one needed interposition surgery. Corrosive injury is still a major pediatric emergency among young children. It carries a major risk of complications (mainly stricture) and requires standardized management based on evidence-based medicine. (author)

  15. Judicial Performance Review in Arizona: A Critical Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca White Berch

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Judicial performance evaluations are a relatively new tool for assessing judges and providing information to voters to help them determine whether to retain judges in contested or retention elections. Arizona implemented its judicial evaluation program about 20 years ago, and since that time, the state has continually strived to improve its process. The result is that today Arizona has one of the most progressive and comprehensive judicial performance evaluation programs in the United States. This article takes a critical look at the strengths and weaknesses of Arizona’s program, keeping in mind two key values that the system seeks to protect: judicial accountability and judicial independence. Las evaluaciones del rendimiento judicial son una herramienta relativamente nueva para evaluar a los jueces y ofrecer información a los votantes, que les ayude a decidir si quieren reelegir a los jueces en las elecciones. Arizona implementó su programa de evaluación judicial hace unos 20 años, y desde ese momento, el Estado se ha esforzado continuamente en mejorar el proceso. El resultado es que hoy en día, Arizona tiene uno de los programas de evaluación del rendimiento judicial más progresistas e integrales de los Estados Unidos. Este artículo ofrece una mirada crítica a las fortalezas y debilidades del programa de Arizona, teniendo en cuenta dos valores clave que el sistema trata de proteger: la responsabilidad judicial y la independencia judicial. DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2533868

  16. Predicted nitrate and arsenic concentrations in basin-fill aquifers of the Southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anning, David W.; Paul, Angela P.; McKinney, Tim S.; Huntington, Jena M.; Bexfield, Laura M.; Thiros, Susan A.

    2012-01-01

    The National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting a regional analysis of water quality in the principal aquifer systems across the United States. The Southwest Principal Aquifers (SWPA) study is building a better understanding of the susceptibility and vulnerability of basin-fill aquifers in the region to groundwater contamination by synthesizing baseline knowledge of groundwater-quality conditions in 16 basins previously studied by the NAWQA Program. The improved understanding of aquifer susceptibility and vulnerability to contamination is assisting in the development of tools that water managers can use to assess and protect the quality of groundwater resources.Human-health concerns and economic considerations associated with meeting drinking-water standards motivated a study of the vulnerability of basin-fill aquifers to nitrate con­tamination and arsenic enrichment in the southwestern United States. Statistical models were developed by using the random forest classifier algorithm to predict concentrations of nitrate and arsenic across a model grid that represents about 190,600 square miles of basin-fill aquifers in parts of Arizona, California, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, and Utah. The statistical models, referred to as classifiers, reflect natural and human-related factors that affect aquifer vulnerability to contamina­tion and relate nitrate and arsenic concentrations to explana­tory variables representing local- and basin-scale measures of source, aquifer susceptibility, and geochemical conditions. The classifiers were unbiased and fit the observed data well, and misclassifications were primarily due to statistical sampling error in the training datasets.The classifiers were designed to predict concentrations to be in one of six classes for nitrate, and one of seven classes for arsenic. Each classification scheme allowed for identification of areas with concentrations that were equal to or exceeding

  17. Plant population and habitat characteristics of the endemic Sonoran Desert cactus Peniocereus striatus in Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Greta; Rutman, Sue; Munson, Seth M.

    2010-01-01

    Peniocereus striatus (Brandegee) Buxb. (Cactaceae) is an endemic Sonoran Desert cactus that reaches its northern range limit in southwestern Arizona. One U.S. population occupies a small area of Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument near the U.S./Mexico international boundary, which has been monitored since 1939. An extensive survey conducted in 2002, covering 177 ha, resulted in the discovery of 88 new plants, in addition to the relocation of 57 plants found in previous surveys. Despite potential increases in population size and spatial distribution, mean plant height and number of basal stems has not significantly changed in recent years. Bud scars revealed that a majority of the population was sexually mature. Peniocereus striatus occurrence increased with decreasing slope, spanned every slope aspect, and was highest on rocky soils, but was noticeably low on west and northwest slopes and areas where severe land degradation had previously occurred. Over half of P. striatus plants were nursed by shrubs and subshrubs, while 40% occurred under leguminous trees. A severe frost in January 2002 top-killed 19% of the population, with the greatest damage in drainage bottoms. However, long-term (1944–2002) climate records show that there has been an overall increase in the number of frost free days in the region, which, coupled with land use change, has implications for the future health of this population.

  18. Seven Global Goals. 2013 annual report, Southwestern Power Administration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-09-01

    For over 70 years, Southwestern has marketed and delivered reliable, renewable, and affordable hydropower, partnering with Federal power stakeholders and others in the industry to make sure the lights stay on. This kind of effective, efficient, and cost conscious operation is made possible only by hard work and dedication. Southwestern employees work individually and as a team to meet seven comprehensive agency goals that touch on all aspects of the agency’s operations. Dubbed the “Seven Global Goals” by Administrator Chris Turner, these objectives identify specific, measurable targets that support Southwestern’s mission and reinforce its responsibilities toward its customers and the Nation.

  19. Traditional cultural use as a tool for inferring biogeography and provenance: a case study involving painted turtles (Chrysemys picta) and Hopi Native American culture in Arizona, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovich, Jeffrey E.; LaRue, Charles T.; Drost, Charles A.; Arundel, Terence R.

    2014-01-01

    Inferring the natural distribution and native status of organisms is complicated by the role of ancient and modern humans in utilization and translocation. Archaeological data and traditional cultural use provide tools for resolving these issues. Although the painted turtle (Chrysemys picta) has a transcontinental range in the United States, populations in the Desert Southwest are scattered and isolated. This pattern may be related to the fragmentation of a more continuous distribution as a result of climate change after the Pleistocene, or translocation by Native Americans who used turtles for food and ceremonial purposes. Because of these conflicting or potentially confounded possibilities, the distribution and status of C. picta as a native species in the state of Arizona has been questioned in the herpetological literature. We present evidence of a population that once occurred in the vicinity of Winslow, Arizona, far from current remnant populations on the upper Little Colorado River. Members of the Native American Hopi tribe are known to have hunted turtles for ceremonial purposes in this area as far back as AD 1290 and possibly earlier. Remains of C. picta are known from several pueblos in the vicinity including Homol'ovi, Awatovi, and Walpi. Given the great age of records for C. picta in Arizona and the concordance of its fragmented and isolated distribution with other reptiles in the region, we conclude that painted turtles are part of the native fauna of Arizona.

  20. Southwestern Avian Community Organization in Exotic Tamarix: Current Patterns and Future Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. A. Walker

    2006-01-01

    Tamarisk (saltcedar: Tamarix), an invasive exotic tree native to the Eastern Hemisphere, is currently the dominant plant species in most southwestern riparian ecosystems at elevations below 1500 m. Tamarisk alters abiotic conditions and the floral composition of native southwestern riparian ecosystems and, in turn, affects native southwestern animal communities....

  1. The energy behind the power. Southwestern Power Administration 1994 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    This is the Southwestern Power Administration 1994 annual report. The topics of the report include a letter to the secretary; an overview including the mission statement, a description of the Southwestern Federal Power System, financial statement, performance measurements, national performance review; year in review, summary of results, financial and statistical data and the Southwestern Power Administration Organization.

  2. Floods of December 1966 in southwestern Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Elmer; Mundorff, J.C.

    1970-01-01

    Severe floods occurred in parts of southwestern Utah on December 5-6, 1966, as a result of precipitation of about 1 inch to more than 12 inches during December 3-6. The flood on the Virgin River was the greatest since the first settlers arrived in 1860.The peak discharge of the Virgin River at Virgin, Utah, was 22,830 cubic feet per second on December 6; this exceeded the previous maximum discharge of 13,500 cubic feet per second on March 3, 1938, and September 17, 1961, and probably has a recurrence interval of 100 years. At eight other gage sites in the flood area, the peak discharge in December 1966 was the highest of record; the recurrence intervals of some of the peak discharges may be 100 years. The flood peaks were generally of short duration and most streams receded to near base flow within 24 hours.The dissolved-solids content was significantly lower in the Virgin River at Virgin than at St. George, about 25 miles downstream; the water was of the calcium sulfate type at both sites. Data for the Santa Clara River above Winsor Dam and the Santa Clara River near Santa Clara show a significant increase in dissolved solids between the two sites. The water above Winsor Dam was of the calcium bicarbonate type, and the water near Santa Clara was of the calcium bicarbonate sulfate type.The suspended-sediment discharge, during the period December 5-8, 1966, at Santa Clara River above Winsor Dam, near Santa Clara was about foyer times greater than all the suspended-sediment discharge during the preceding 3 years ; the suspended-sediment discharge of the Virgin River at Virgin was greater during the 4-day period than during any one of the preceding 3 years.Nearly all the flood damage in the area occurred in the Virgin River basin. According to the Soil Conservation Service, total damage in the Dixie Soil Conservation District in Washington County was about $835,000; 60 percent of the damage was caused by floodwater and 40 percent by deposited sediment.

  3. The impact of language and high-stakes testing policies on elementary school English language learners in Arizona.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne E. Wright

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available This article reports the results of a survey of third-grade teachers of English Language Learners (ELLs in Arizona regarding school language and accountability policies—Proposition 203, which restricts bilingual education and mandates sheltered English Immersion; the federal No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB; and Arizona LEARNS, the state’s high-stakes testing and accountability program. The instrument, consisting of 126 survey questions plus open-ended interview question, was designed to obtain teacher’s views, to ascertain the impact of these polices, and to explore their effectiveness in improving the education of ELL students. The survey was administered via telephone to 40 teacher participants from different urban, rural and reservation schools across the state. Each participant represents the elementary school in their respective school district which has the largest population of ELL students. Analyses of both quantitative and qualitative data reveal that these policies have mostly resulted in confusion in schools throughout the state over what is and is not allowed, and what constitutes quality instruction for ELLs, that there is little evidence that such policies have led to improvements in the education of ELL students, and that these policies may be causing more harm than good. Specifically, teachers report they have been given little to no guidance over what constitutes sheltered English immersion, and provide evidence that most ELL students in their schools are receiving mainstream sink-or-swim instruction. In terms of accountability, while the overwhelming majority of teachers support the general principle, they believe that high-stakes tests are inappropriate for ELLs and participants provided evidence that the focus on testing is leading to instruction practices for ELLs which fail to meet their unique linguistic and academic needs. The article concludes with suggestions for needed changes to improve the quality of

  4. Arizona Libraries: Books to Bytes. Contributed Papers Presented at the AzLA Annual Conference (Phoenix, Arizona, November 17-18, 1995).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Carol, Ed.

    This document contains three papers presented at the 1995 Arizona Library Association conference. Papers include: (1) "ERLs and URLs: ASU Libraries Database Delivery Through Web Technology" (Dennis Brunning & Philip Konomos), which illustrates how and why the libraries at Arizona State University developed a world wide web server and…

  5. Rocky Mountain spotted fever in Arizona: documentation of heavy environmental infestations of Rhipicephalus sanguineus at an endemic site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, William L; Paddock, Christopher D; Demma, Linda; Traeger, Marc; Johnson, Brian; Dickson, Jeffrey; McQuiston, Jennifer; Swerdlow, David

    2006-10-01

    A recent epidemiologic investigation identified 16 cases and 2 deaths from Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) in two eastern Arizona communities. Prevalence studies were conducted by collecting free-living ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) from the home sites of RMSF patients and from other home sites within the community. Dry ice traps and flagging confirmed heavy infestations at many of the home sites. Only Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks were identified and all developmental stages were detected. It is evident that under certain circumstances, this species does transmit Rickettsia rickettsii to humans and deserves reconsideration as a vector in other geographic areas.

  6. Presence of Antibiotics in Shallow Groundwater in the Northern and Southwestern Regions of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang; Lang, Hang; Liu, Fei; Jin, Song; Yan, Tao

    2018-05-01

    Antibiotics are widely used, and there is a serious concern about its adverse impacts on the environment and human health. To our knowledge, prior to this work, there was no evidence of the potential presence of antibiotics in groundwater in China, despite populous speculations. This study reported the detection of 35 target antibiotics of 6 groups (chloramphenicois, lincosamides, marcrolides, quinolones, sulfonamides, and tetracyclines), in shallow groundwater samples collected in northern and southwestern China. Thirty-four of thirty-five target antibiotics were detected in the groundwater samples; 73 of 74 monitoring wells contained at least one antibiotic; and at least two antibiotics were detected in 72 of the 74 wells. Ofloxacin (1199.7 ng/L), lincomycin (860.7 ng/L), and norfloxacin (441.9 ng/L) as well as antibiotics with the highest detection frequency such as sulfapyridine (70%), norfloxacin (69%), and lincomycin (64%) were detected at elevated concentrations. The highest detection frequency and concentration of lincosamides were observed in those groundwater samples, but no clear distribution patterns were observed for the six antibiotic groups. Moreover, shallow groundwater in southwestern China seemed to contain most antibiotics, likely due to the high antibiotics discharge and frequent exchange of groundwater with surface matrices. The findings from this work suggest that groundwater in China has been widely contaminated by antibiotics, and presumably other pharmaceutical compounds that have not been investigated to date. © 2017, National Ground Water Association.

  7. A biomarker stable isotope record of late Quaternary climate and organic matter export in Southwestern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Q.; Hren, M. T.; Lin, A. T.; Eley, Y.; Yu, S. W.; Harris, G.

    2017-12-01

    We present new leaf wax n-alkane hydrogen (δD) and carbon (δ13C) isotopic data from a 36-m-long core from off-shore southwestern Taiwan to evaluate late Quaternary changes in climate and the source of organic matter exported from the landscape. The core (MD178-3291) is located on the flank of the Gaoping Submarine Canyon that connects with the Gaoping river catchment in southwestern Taiwan. The sediment deposition in this core spans the last 26 kyr, providing a unique record of glacial-interglacial changes in organic matter export from the Taiwan orogen. The δD and δ13C both show a shift in isotopic compositions at 15 kyr, that coincides with the shift in planktonic foraminifera δ18O record from the same core as well as the global sea level. We therefore interpret this dominant shift as affected by the global glacial to interglacial transition. Following by this transition and through the interglacial period, both biomarker δD and δ13C data record fluctuations that we suggest result from short timescale changes in the distribution of organic inputs to the offshore site. This change in source is most likely caused by increases in storm and landslide frequency or intensity during warmer intervals. This interpretation is supported by terrestrial records that show an increase in landslides in the Gaoping catchment and evidence for enhanced rainfall intensity and a corresponding increase in the frequency of turbidity currents.

  8. Climate and glacier change in southwestern China during the past several decades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zongxing; He Yuanqing; An Wenling; Zhang Wei; Wang Yan; Wang Shijin; Liu Huancai; Cao Weihong; Wang Shuxin; Du Jiankuo; Song Linlin; Catto, Norm; Theakstone, Wilfred H

    2011-01-01

    Glaciers are distributed in the Nyainqntanglha Mountains, Himalayas, Tanggula Mountains, Gangdise Mountains and Hengduan Mountains in Southwestern China. Daily temperature and precipitation data from 111 stations, together with the records of glacier changes, indicate that temperature patterns during 1961–2008 were consistent with warming at a statistically significant level. Seasonal warming was greatest in autumn and winter. Temperature rise showed a significant relationship with sea surface temperature in the Western Pacific, net longwave radiation flux, altitude, sunshine hours, strengthening anticyclonic circulations in summer and anomalous cyclonic circulation in winter. The increase was more apparent in higher altitude areas than in lower ones. Precipitation variations were less marked than those of temperature, generally showing weak decreasing trends during 1961–2008. Increasing trends were apparent only in spring and winter, when regional trends of precipitation increases with altitude also were evident. The strengthening Western Pacific Subtropical Highs were related to precipitation variation. Against the background of increasing temperature, especially the increasing warming with altitude, the fronts of 32 glaciers and areas of 13 glacial basins have retreated, mass losses of 10 glaciers have been considerable, glacial lakes in six regions have expanded and melt water discharge of four basins has also increased, but these glaciers and basins in our study are only a fraction of the retreating glaciers over southwestern China.

  9. What drives low-severity fire in the southwestern USA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sean A. Parks; Solomon Z. Dobrowski; Matthew H. Panunto

    2018-01-01

    Many dry conifer forests in the southwestern USA and elsewhere historically (prior to the late 1800’s) experienced fairly frequent surface fire at intervals ranging from roughly five to 30 years. Due to more than 100 years of successful fire exclusion, however, many of these forests are now denser and more homogenous, and therefore they have a greater probability of...

  10. Strategic nutrient management of field pea in southwestern Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Strategic nutrient management of field pea in southwestern Uganda. ... African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... Strategic nutrient management requires that the most limiting nutrient is known in order to provide a foundation for designing effective and sustainable soil fertility management ...

  11. Morphological pattern of endometrial biopsies in southwestern Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Endometrium remains the most sensitive indicator of ovarian function and endometrial biopsy is one of the diagnostic procedures in endometrial pathology. The current study was carried out to examine the morphological pattern of endometrial biopsies in Ibadan, South-western Nigeria and compare the results ...

  12. Fire and birds in the southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl E. Bock; William M. Block

    2005-01-01

    Fire is an important ecological force in many southwestern ecosystems, but frequencies, sizes, and intensities of fire have been altered historically by grazing, logging, exotic vegetation, and suppression. Prescribed burning should be applied widely, but under experimental conditions that facilitate studying its impacts on birds and other components of biodiversity....

  13. Hydrology of southwestern encinal oak ecosystems: A review and more

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald J. Gottfried; Peter F. Ffolliott; Daniel G. Neary

    2007-01-01

    Information about the hydrology of oak ecosystems of the southwestern United States and northern Mexico is lacking (Lopes and Ffolliott 1992, Baker et al. 1995) even though the woodlands and savannas cover more than 31,000 square miles. These ecosystems generally are found between 4,000 and 7,300 feet in elevation. Precipitation occurs in the winter and summer and...

  14. A review of maternal mortality at Jimma Hospital, Southwestern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A retrospective review of hospital maternal deaths at Jimma Hospital, Southwestern Ethiopia, covering the period from September 1990 to May 1999 was conducted with the objectives of determining the overall maternal mortality rate, observing trend of maternal mortality during the period, and identifying major causes of ...

  15. Silvics and silviculture in the southwestern pinyon-juniper woodlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald J. Gottfried

    2004-01-01

    Southwestern pinyon-juniper and juniper woodlands cover large areas of the western United States. The woodlands have been viewed as places of beauty and sources of valuable resource products or as weed-dominated landscapes that hinder the production of forage for livestock. They are special places because of the emotions and controversies that encircle their management...

  16. Analysis of Culex and Aedes mosquitoes in southwestern Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Amplification and transmission of West Nile virus (WNV) by mosquitoes are driven by presence and number of viraemic/susceptible avian hosts. Methods: in order to predict risk of WNV infection to humans, we collected mosquitoes from horse stables in Lagos and Ibadan, southwestern Nigeria. The mosquitoes ...

  17. Carbon and nitrogen cycling in southwestern ponderosa fine forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen C. Hart; Paul C. Selmants; Sarah I. Boyle; Steven T. Overby

    2007-01-01

    Ponderosa pine forests of the southwestern United States were historically characterized by relatively open, parklike stands with a bunchgrass-dominated understory. This forest structure was maintained by frequent, low-intensity surface fires. Heavy livestock grazing, fire suppression, and favorable weather conditions following Euro-American settlement in the late 19th...

  18. Upland hardwood habitat types in southwestern North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michele M. Girard; Harold Goetz; Ardell J. Bjugstad

    1985-01-01

    The Daubenmire habitat type method was used to classify the upland hardwood draws of southwestern North Dakota. Preliminary data analysis indicates there are four upland habitat types: Fraxinus pennsylvanica/Prunus virginiana; F. pnnseanica-Ulmus americana/P. virginiana; Populus...

  19. Recent emissions research in southwestern shrub and grassland fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    David R. Weise; Wayne Miller; David R. Cocker; Heejung Jung; Seyedehsan Hosseini; Marko Princevac; Robert J. Yokelson; Ian Burling; Sheryl Akagi; Shawn Urbanski; WeiMin Hao

    2015-01-01

    While it is currently challenging to use prescribed burning in chaparral and other southwestern shrub fuel types due to many constraints, any such activities require smoke management planning. Information on fuels and emissions from chaparral were limited and based on older sampling systems. The DoD SERDP program funded a project to measure fuels and smoke emissions in...

  20. Simulating the productivity of desert woody shrubs in southwestern Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the southwestern U.S., many rangelands have converted from native grasslands to woody shrublands dominated by creosotebush (Larrea tridentate) and honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa), threatening ecosystem health. Both creosotebush and mesquite have well-developed long root systems that allow t...

  1. Cancer distribution pattern in south-western Nigeria | Awodele ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The burden of cancer in Nigeria is appreciable with about 100,000 new cancer cases been reported in the country each year. This study aimed to determine the level of occurrence and pattern of distribution of different cancer types in two major functional cancer registries in south-western Nigeria. A desk review of the level ...

  2. Estimation of the lion ( Panthera leo ) population in the southwestern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A previous estimate of the lion (Panthera leo) population in the southwestern Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park (KTP) was made over 20 years ago. This together with increased fears regarding the viability of the population as a result of recent killings of roaming animals, an observed increase in non-violent mortalities during ...

  3. 2014 annual site environmental report, Southwestern Power Administration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-12-31

    Southwestern Power Administration’s Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) serves as the chief reporting mechanism for site environmental performance information within the Department of Energy and as a valuable resource for shared and collaborative environmental protection and performance information to Agency stakeholders and members of the public living near Southwestern Power Administration’s (Southwestern) facilities and transmission line rights-of-ways. This ASER meets the requirements of Department of Energy (DOE) Order 231.B. Southwestern’s key environmental involvement includes an emphasis on the protection of ecological resources which is effectively accomplished through environmental program elements such as protecting water resources, generation of clean hydropower energy, oil spill prevention practices, elimination of green-house gas emissions, and comprehensive project reviews to ensure the protection of living organisms, migratory birds, Federally threatened or endangered species, and historic or cultural resources. Southwestern continues to actively minimize effects to natural resources and strive for continual improvement in the area of environmental compliance and sustainability while achieving the agency mission to market and deliver Federal hydroelectric power.

  4. Fragmentation patterns of evergreen oak woodlands in Southwestern Iberia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costa, A.; Madeira, M.; Lima Santos, J.

    2014-01-01

    Mediterranean evergreen oak woodlands (composed of Quercus suber L. and Quercus rotundifolia Lam.) are becoming increasingly fragmented in the human-modified landscapes of Southwestern Portugal and Spain. Previous studies have largely neglected to assess the spatial changes of oak woodlands...... patterns of oak recruitment and therefore, its study may be helpful in highlighting future baselines for the sustainable management of oak woodlands....

  5. Prevalence of Infertility in Women in a Southwestern Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence and common causes of infertility in women aged between 15 and 55 years was assessed in four hospital centers in Osun State, located in the SouthWestern part of Nigeria. A survey of a consecutive sample of 200 cases of infertility were carried out in four hospital centers with a total of 50 cases of infertility ...

  6. Dark Sky Collaborators: Arizona (AZ) Observatories, Communities, and Businesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Castillo, Elizabeth Alvarez; Corbally, Christopher; Falco, Emilio E.; Green, Richard F.; Hall, Jeffrey C.; Williams, G. Grant

    2015-03-01

    With outdoor lighting ordinances in Arizona first in place around observatories in 1958 and 1972, then throughout the state since 1986, Arizonans have extensive experience working with communities and businesses to preserve our dark skies. Though communities are committed to the astronomy sector in our state, astronomers must collaborate with other stakeholders to implement solutions. Ongoing education and public outreach is necessary to enable ordinance updates as technology changes. Despite significant population increases, sky brightness measurements over the last 20 years show that ordinance updates are worth our efforts as we seek to maintain high quality skies around our observatories. Collaborations are being forged and actions taken to promote astronomy for the longer term in Arizona.

  7. Environmental tolerance of an invasive riparian tree and its potential for continued spread in the southwestern US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, L.V.; Cooper, D.J.

    2010-01-01

    Questions: Exotic plant invasion may be aided by facilitation and broad tolerance of environmental conditions, yet these processes are poorly understood in species-rich ecosystems such as riparian zones. In the southwestern United States (US) two plant species have invaded riparian zones: tamarisk (Tamarix ramosissima, T. chinensis, and their hybrids) and Russian olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia). We addressed the following questions: (1) is Russian olive able to tolerate drier and shadier conditions than cottonwood and tamarisk? (2) Can tamarisk and cottonwood facilitate Russian olive invasion? Location: Arid riparian zones, southwestern US. Methods: We analyzed riparian tree seedling requirements in a controlled experiment, performed empirical field studies, and analyzed stable oxygen isotopes to determine the water sources used by Russian olive. Results: Russian olive survival was significantly higher in dense shade and low moisture conditions than tamarisk and cottonwood. Field observations indicated Russian olive established where flooding cannot occur, and under dense canopies of tamarisk, cottonwood, and Russian olive. Tamarisk and native riparian plant species seedlings cannot establish in these dry, shaded habitats. Russian olive can rely on upper soil water until 15 years of age, before utilizing groundwater. Conclusions: We demonstrate that even though there is little evidence of facilitation by cottonwood and tamarisk, Russian olive is able to tolerate dense shade and low moisture conditions better than tamarisk and cottonwood. There is great potential for continued spread of Russian olive throughout the southwestern US because large areas of suitable habitat exist that are not yet inhabited by this species. ?? 2010 International Association for Vegetation Science.

  8. Student research in criticality safety at the University of Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hetrick, D.L.

    1997-01-01

    A very brief progress report on four University of Arizona student projects is given. Improvements were made in simulations of power pulses in aqueous solutions, including the TWODANT model. TWODANT calculations were performed to investigate the effect of assembly shape on the expansion coefficient of reactivity for solutions. Preliminary calculations were made of critical heights for the Los Alamos SHEBA assembly. Calculations to support French experiments to measure temperature coefficients of dilute plutonium solutions confirmed feasibility

  9. Wintering bald eagle trends in northern Arizona, 1975-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teryl G. Grubb

    2003-01-01

    Between 1975 and 2000, 4,525 sightings of wintering bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) were recorded at Mormon Lake in northern Arizona. Numbers of wintering eagles fluctuated little in the 20 years from 1975 through 1994 (5.5 ± 3.0 mean sightings per day). However, during the winters of 1995 through 1997 local record highs of 59 to 118 eagles...

  10. Ice fishing by wintering Bald Eagles in Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teryl G. Grubb; Roy G. Lopez

    1997-01-01

    Northern Arizona winters vary within and between years with occasional heavy snows (up to 0.6 m) and extreme cold (overnight lows -18 to -29°C) interspersed with dry periods, mild temperatures (daytime highs reaching 10°C), and general loss of snow cover at all but highest elevations. Lakes in the area may freeze and thaw partially or totally several times during a...

  11. Moral Consideration Regarding the Arizona Tax Credit Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony G. Rud

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available I begin by commenting on the language used, both by the Arizona tax credit law, and by our commentators, and then turn to a discussion of a factor I believe fuels the impetus for sectarian education. I end with a consideration of questions related to the social, cognitive, and moral costs of such privatization, in contrast to a democratic commitment to education.

  12. Southwestern Power Administration Annual Report 2004-2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2006-01-01

    Confidence Commitment Cooperation These are words that spring to mind regarding Southwestern Power Administration’s performance during fiscal years (FY) 2004-2006 By offering innovative, customer-oriented service, working to improve system reliability and efficiency, and partnering with customers and other Federal power stakeholders, Southwestern has certainly exhibited all three of these qualities during these challenging yet productive years In fact, our cooperative working relationships were critical to our success during the severe and widespread drought conditions which prevailed throughout Southwestern’s marketing area for much of 2005-2006 When we proposed a temporary energy deferral program, our customers came on board by voluntarily taking less Federal hydropower than they were entitled to, enabling us to preserve system storage and fulfill our contract obligations during the crucial summer months of 2006 The U S Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) also helped improve our drought situation by allowing Southwestern more operational flexibility on a regional level Despite the challenges this critical drought period presented, Southwestern remained committed to fulfilling our mission and strategic goals From FY 2004 through FY 2006, we marketed and delivered all available Federal hydropower while meeting and even exceeding the reliability standards of the North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) Our Power Operations Training Center in Springfield, Missouri, was cited as an “Example of Excellence” during a NERC readiness audit in October 2006; and as we have every year since NERC began measuring, Southwestern far exceeded the accepted NERC compliance ratings for power system operations reliability Our commitment to excellence and accountability has kept our repayment goals on target as well Revenues were sufficient to repay all annual expenses and the required principal investment in the Federal hydropower facilities Furthermore, the original

  13. Mapping the Geothermal System Using AMT and MT in the Mapamyum (QP Field, Lake Manasarovar, Southwestern Tibet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanfang He

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Southwestern Tibet plays a crucial role in the protection of the ecological environment and biodiversity of Southern Asia but lacks energy in terms of both power and fuel. The widely distributed geothermal resources in this region could be considered as potential alternative sources of power and heat. However, most of the known geothermal fields in Southwestern Tibet are poorly prospected and currently almost no geothermal energy is exploited. Here we present a case study mapping the Mapamyum (QP geothermal field of Southwestern Tibet using audio magnetotellurics (AMT and magnetotellurics (MT methods. AMT in the frequency range 11.5–11,500 Hz was used to map the upper part of this geothermal reservoir to a depth of 1000 m, and MT in the frequency range 0.001–320 Hz was used to map the heat source, thermal fluid path, and lower part of the geothermal reservoir to a depth greater than 1000 m. Data from 1300 MT and 680 AMT stations were acquired around the geothermal field. Bostick conversion with electromagnetic array profiling (EMAP filtering and nonlinear conjugate gradient inversion (NLCGI was used for data inversion. The AMT and MT results presented here elucidate the geoelectric structure of the QP geothermal field, and provide a background for understanding the reservoir, the thermal fluid path, and the heat source of the geothermal system. We identified a low resistivity anomaly characterized by resistivity in the range of 1–8 Ω∙m at a depth greater than 7 km. This feature was interpreted as a potential reflection of the partially melted magma in the upper crust, which might correlate to mantle upwelling along the Karakorum fault. It is likely that the magma is the heat source of the QP geothermal system, and potentially provides new geophysical evidence to understand the occurrence of the partially melted magmas in the upper crust in Southwestern Tibet.

  14. Tobacco Control in Transition: Public Support and Governmental Disarray in Arizona 1997-2007

    OpenAIRE

    Hendlin M.Sc., Yogi H.; Barnes, Richard L JD; Glantz, Stanton A. Ph.D.

    2008-01-01

    • Tobacco control in Arizona flourished from 1997-2007, thanks to public support at the ballot box and the hard work of Arizonan tobacco control activists. • Arizona's state-run Tobacco Education and Prevention Program (TEPP), created by Proposition 200 in 1994 from 23% of a 40 cent tobacco tax increase, provided a key component in Arizona tobacco control, spending between $15 and $36 million annually. • Tobacco control advocacy between 1997 and 2007 resulted in more than tr...

  15. Evaluating and monitoring forest fuel treatments using remote sensing applications in Arizona, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrakis, Roy; Villarreal, Miguel; Wu, Zhuoting; Hetzler, Robert; Middleton, Barry R.; Norman, Laura M.

    2018-01-01

    The practice of fire suppression across the western United States over the past century has led to dense forests, and when coupled with drought has contributed to an increase in large and destructive wildfires. Forest management efforts aimed at reducing flammable fuels through various fuel treatments can help to restore frequent fire regimes and increase forest resilience. Our research examines how different fuel treatments influenced burn severity and post-fire vegetative stand dynamics on the San Carlos Apache Reservation, in east-central Arizona, U.S.A. Our methods included the use of multitemporal remote sensing data and cloud computing to evaluate burn severity and post-fire vegetation conditions as well as statistical analyses. We investigated how forest thinning, commercial harvesting, prescribed burning, and resource benefit burning (managed wildfire) related to satellite measured burn severity (the difference Normalized Burn Ratio – dNBR) following the 2013 Creek Fire and used spectral measures of post-fire stand dynamics to track changes in land surface characteristics (i.e., brightness, greenness and wetness). We found strong negative relationships between dNBR and post-fire greenness and wetness, and a positive non-linear relationship between dNBR and brightness, with greater variability at higher severities. Fire severity and post-fire surface changes also differed by treatment type. Our results showed harvested and thinned sites that were not treated with prescribed fire had the highest severity fire. When harvesting was followed by a prescribed burn, the sites experienced lower burn severity and reduced post-fire changes in vegetation greenness and wetness. Areas that had previously experienced resource benefit burns had the lowest burn severities and the highest post-fire greenness measurements compared to all other treatments, except for where the prescribed burn had occurred. These results suggest that fire treatments may be most effective at

  16. Groundwater budgets for Detrital, Hualapai, and Sacramento Valleys, Mohave County, Arizona, 2007-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Bradley D.; Truini, Margot

    2011-01-01

    The United States Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Arizona Department of Water Resources, initiated an investigation of the hydrogeology and water resources of Detrital, Hualapai, and Sacramento Valleys in northwestern Arizona in 2005, and this report is part of that investigation. Water budgets were developed for Detrital, Hualapai, and Sacramento Valleys to provide a generalized understanding of the groundwater systems in this rural area that has shown some evidence of human-induced water-level declines. The valleys are within the Basin and Range physiographic province and consist of thick sequences of permeable alluvial sediment deposited into basins bounded by relatively less permeable igneous and metamorphic rocks. Long-term natural recharge rates (1940-2008) for the alluvial aquifers were estimated to be 1,400 acre-feet per year (acre-ft/yr) for Detrital Valley, 5,700 acre-ft/yr for Hualapai Valley, and 6,000 acre-ft/yr for Sacramento Valley. Natural discharge rates were assumed to be equal to natural recharge rates, on the basis of the assumption that all groundwater withdrawals to date have obtained water from groundwater storage. Groundwater withdrawals (2007-08) for the alluvial aquifers were less than 300 acre-ft/yr for Detrital Valley, about 9,800 acre-ft/yr for Hualapai Valley, and about 4,500 acre-ft/yr for Sacramento Valley. Incidental recharge from leaking water-supply pipes, septic systems, and wastewater-treatment plants accounted for about 35 percent of total recharge (2007-08) across the study area. Natural recharge and discharge values in this study were 24-50 percent higher than values in most previously published studies. Water budgets present a spatially and temporally "lumped" view of water resources and incorporate many sources of uncertainty in this study area where only limited data presently are available.

  17. Abstracts for the October 2012 meeting on Volcanism in the American Southwest, Flagstaff, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenstern, Jacob B.

    2013-01-01

    Though volcanic eruptions are comparatively rare in the American Southwest, the States of Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, Nevada, and Utah host Holocene volcanic eruption deposits and are vulnerable to future volcanic activity. Compared with other parts of the western United States, comparatively little research has been focused on this area, and eruption probabilities are poorly constrained. Monitoring infrastructure consists of a variety of local seismic networks, and ”backbone“ geodetic networks with little integration. Emergency response planning for volcanic unrest has received little attention by either Federal or State agencies. On October 18–20, 2012, 90 people met at the U.S. Geological Survey campus in Flagstaff, Arizona, providing an opportunity for volcanologists, land managers, and emergency responders to meet, converse, and begin to plan protocols for any future activity. Geologists contributed data on recent findings of eruptive ages, eruption probabilities, and hazards extents (plume heights, ash dispersal). Geophysicists discussed evidence for magma intrusions from seismic, geodetic, and other geophysical techniques. Network operators publicized their recent work and the relevance of their equipment to volcanic regions. Land managers and emergency responders shared their experiences with emergency planning for earthquakes. The meeting was organized out of the recognition that little attention had been paid to planning for or mitigation of volcanic hazards in the American Southwest. Moreover, few geological meetings have hosted a session specifically devoted to this topic. This volume represents one official outcome of the meeting—a collection of abstracts related to talks and poster presentations shared during the first two days of the meeting. In addition, this report includes the meeting agenda as a record of the proceedings. One additional intended outcome will be greater discussion and coordination among emergency responders, geologists

  18. Arizona Registered Dietitians Show Gaps in Knowledge of Bean Health Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Sharon V.; Dougherty, Mariah K.

    2018-01-01

    Registered Dietitians (RDs) promote nutrition practices and policies and can influence food consumption patterns to include nutrient dense foods such as beans. Although many evidence-based health benefits of bean consumption (e.g., cholesterol reduction, glycemic control) have been demonstrated, there is limited research on the knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions of RDs regarding the inclusion of beans in a healthy diet. To fill this existing research gap, this cross-sectional survey explored the perceptions, knowledge, and attitudes of 296 RDs in Arizona, USA, toward beans. The RDs largely held positive attitudes toward the healthfulness of beans and were aware of many health benefits. Some gaps in awareness were evident, including effect on cancer risk, intestinal health benefits, folate content, and application with celiac disease patients. RDs with greater personal bean consumption had significantly higher bean health benefit knowledge. Twenty-nine percent of the RDs did not know the meaning of ‘legume’, and over two-thirds could not define the term ‘pulse’. It is essential that RDs have up-to-date, evidence-based information regarding bean benefits to provide appropriate education to patients, clients, and the public. PMID:29316699

  19. Arizona Registered Dietitians Show Gaps in Knowledge of Bean Health Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna M. Winham

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Registered Dietitians (RDs promote nutrition practices and policies and can influence food consumption patterns to include nutrient dense foods such as beans. Although many evidence-based health benefits of bean consumption (e.g., cholesterol reduction, glycemic control have been demonstrated, there is limited research on the knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions of RDs regarding the inclusion of beans in a healthy diet. To fill this existing research gap, this cross-sectional survey explored the perceptions, knowledge, and attitudes of 296 RDs in Arizona, USA, toward beans. The RDs largely held positive attitudes toward the healthfulness of beans and were aware of many health benefits. Some gaps in awareness were evident, including effect on cancer risk, intestinal health benefits, folate content, and application with celiac disease patients. RDs with greater personal bean consumption had significantly higher bean health benefit knowledge. Twenty-nine percent of the RDs did not know the meaning of ‘legume’, and over two-thirds could not define the term ‘pulse’. It is essential that RDs have up-to-date, evidence-based information regarding bean benefits to provide appropriate education to patients, clients, and the public.

  20. Greetings and Politeness in Doctor-Client Encounters in Southwestern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akin Odebunmi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Doctors and clients sometimes experience interactiveclashes during hospital meetings in South-western Nigerianhospitals because of their divergent culture-constrainedorientation to politeness cues. The goal of this paper is tounpack the discursive elements that characterize interactiveconfluence and divergence in selected consultativeencounters in the hospitals. The findings indicate thatinstitutional and cultural (disalignments occur in respect ofadjacency and non-adjacency pair greetings. In bothgreeting types, face support, threat and stasis are conjointlyco-constituted by doctors and Yoruba clients within theaffordances of the cultural, institutional and situationalcontext of the Southwestern Nigerian hospital setting.Adjacency pair greetings attract mutual interpretingsbetween the parties; interactive disalignments aredifferentially pragmatically accommodated by doctors andclients. In non-adjacency pair greeting, doctors’ threats areco-constituted as appropriate by both parties, theinstitutional power of doctor and shared Western culturalorientation playing significant roles.

  1. Entomologic Inoculation Rates of Anopheles arabiensis in Southwestern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Ulesido, Fekadu Massebo; Balkew, Meshesha; Gebre-Michael, Teshome; Lindtjørn, Bernt

    2013-01-01

    We collected anophelines every second week for one year from randomly selected houses in southwestern Ethiopia by using Centers for Disease Control (CDC) light traps, pyrethrum spray catches, and artificial pit shelter constructions to detect circumsporozoite proteins and estimate entomologic inoculation rates (EIRs). Of 3,678 Anopheles arabiensis tested for circumsporozoite proteins, 11 were positive for Plasmodium falciparum and three for P. vivax. The estimated annual P. falciparum EIR of ...

  2. The migration response to the Legal Arizona Workers Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Mark; Wright, Richard; Townley, Matthew; Copeland, Kristy

    2014-01-01

    The 2008 Legal Arizona Workers Act (LAWA) requires all public and private employers to authenticate the legal status of their workers using the federal employment verification system known as E-Verify. With LAWA, Arizona became the first state to have a universal mandate for employment verification. While LAWA targets unauthorized workers, most of whom are Latino immigrants, other groups could experience LAWA’s effects, such as those who share households with undocumented workers. In addition, employers may seek to minimize their risk of LAWA penalties by not hiring those who appear to them as more likely to be unauthorized, such as naturalized Latino immigrants and US-born Latinos. Existing research has found a reduction in foreign-born Latino employment and population in response to LAWA. This paper asks a different question: have groups that are most likely to be affected by the law migrated to other states? We find a significant and sustained increase in the internal outmigration rate from Arizona of foreign-born, noncitizen Latinos - the group most likely to include the unauthorized - after the passage of LAWA. There was no significant LAWA internal migration response by foreign-born Latino citizens. US-born Latinos showed some signs of a LAWA-induced internal migration response after the law went into effect, but it is not sustained. The results indicate that local and state immigration policy can alter the settlement geography of the foreign born. This leads us to speculate about how immigrant settlement may adjust in the coming years to the intersecting geographies of post-recession economic opportunity and tiered immigration policies. PMID:25018590

  3. 77 FR 22676 - Revisions to the Arizona State Implementation Plan, Pinal County Air Quality Control District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ... the Arizona State Implementation Plan, Pinal County Air Quality Control District AGENCY: Environmental... disapproval of a revision to the Pinal County Air Quality Control District portion of the Arizona State... the Control Officer to determine whether the manner of control of fugitive emissions is satisfactory...

  4. Dreamy Draw Dam - Master Plan and Feature Design, New River and Phoenix City Streams, Arizona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    and New and Apr. 1983 Agua Fria River below the Arizona Canal Diversion Channel Part 5 - Arizona Canal Diversion Dec. 1983 Channel (including Cave...basin and can be tapped for potable water for recreation use. Electric lines are located approximately 2 miles from the basin at 19th Street and Northern

  5. 76 FR 34181 - Pistachios Grown in California, Arizona, and New Mexico; Proposed Amendments to Marketing Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-13

    ...; FV11-983-1 PR] Pistachios Grown in California, Arizona, and New Mexico; Proposed Amendments to... amendments to Marketing Agreement and Order No. 983, which regulates the handling of pistachios grown in California, Arizona, and New Mexico, were proposed by the Administrative Committee for Pistachios (Committee...

  6. 75 FR 68681 - Pistachios Grown in California, Arizona, and New Mexico; Modification of the Aflatoxin Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-09

    ... FIR] Pistachios Grown in California, Arizona, and New Mexico; Modification of the Aflatoxin..., Arizona, and New Mexico pistachio marketing order (order). The interim rule streamlined the aflatoxin sampling and testing procedures under the order's rules and regulations for pistachios to be shipped for...

  7. 76 FR 9694 - Prevailing Rate Systems; Redefinition of the Northeastern Arizona and Colorado Appropriated Fund...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-22

    ... 3206-AM33 Prevailing Rate Systems; Redefinition of the Northeastern Arizona and Colorado Appropriated... changes are based on recent consensus recommendations of the Federal Prevailing Rate Advisory Committee to... Northeastern Arizona wage area. The Federal Prevailing Rate Advisory Committee (FPRAC), the national labor...

  8. Safe, Healthy and Ready to Succeed: Arizona School Readiness Key Performance Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliore, Donna E.

    2006-01-01

    "Safe, Healthy and Ready to Succeed: Arizona School Readiness Key Performance Indicators" presents a set of baseline measurements that gauge how well a statewide system of school readiness supports is addressing issues that affect Arizona children's readiness for school. The Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) measure the system, rather…

  9. Consequences of Arizona's Immigration Policy on Social Capital among Mexican Mothers with Unauthorized Immigration Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Carmen R.; Padilla, Brian; Valentine, Jessa Lewis

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the consequences of increasingly restrictive immigration policies on social capital among Mexican mothers with unauthorized immigrant status in Arizona. Three focus groups conducted in Arizona explore how mothers' experiences with immigration policies have affected their neighborhood, community, and family ties. Focus group…

  10. Tensions between Policy and Workplace Opportunities in Rural Arizona: Does Public Policy Ignore Social Equality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danzig, Arnold; Vandegrift, Judith A.

    Resources available to Arizona through the School-to-Work Opportunities Act will not be concentrated in rural communities, although their educational and economic development needs are proportionately greater. Absent from education reform bills pending in the Arizona House and Senate is any reference to school-to-work transition or any explicit…

  11. GATEWAY Demonstrations: Trial Demonstration of Area Lighting Retrofit, Yuma Border Patrol, Yuma, Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkerson, A. M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McCullough, J. J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-12-31

    Along the Yuma Sector Border Patrol Area in Yuma, Arizona, the GATEWAY program conducted a trial demonstration in which the incumbent quartz metal halide area lighting was replaced with LED at three pole locations at the Yuma Sector Border Patrol Area in Yuma, Arizona. The retrofit was documented to better understand LED technology performance in high-temperature environments.

  12. The Invisible Revolving Door: The Issue of Teacher Attrition in English Language Development Classrooms in Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heineke, Amy J.

    2018-01-01

    The most restrictive language policy context in the United States, Arizona's monolingual and prescriptive approach to teaching English learners continues to capture national and international attention. Five school years removed from the initial implementation, this study aimed to understand the complexities of Arizona language policy in…

  13. Bark beetle-caused mortality in a drought-affected ponderosa pine landscape in Arizona, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose F. Negron; Joel D. McMillin; John A. Anhold; Dave Coulson

    2009-01-01

    Extensive ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) mortality associated with a widespread severe drought and increased bark beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) populations occurred in Arizona from 2001 to 2004. A complex of Ips beetles including: the Arizona fivespined ips, Ips lecontei Swaine...

  14. Use and Impact of English-Language Learner Assessment in Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Stephen B.

    2009-01-01

    The Arizona English-Language Learner Assessment (AZELLA) is the backbone of Arizona's new English-language learner (ELL) policy in that it is used to assess students' English-language proficiency in order to place them into groups for English-language instruction and to determine when they have become proficient in English. This paper evaluates a…

  15. 78 FR 72579 - Revisions to the Arizona State Implementation Plan, Maricopa County Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-03

    ... present several concerns regarding Arizona's efforts to reduce PM 10 pollution. Specifically, the comments... reduce the harmful effects of pollution in Arizona. However, we have no authority to require such... contain any unfunded mandate or significantly or uniquely affect small governments, as described in the...

  16. 77 FR 62452 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of Arizona; Prevention of Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-15

    ... Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of Arizona; Prevention of Air Pollution Emergency Episodes AGENCY... (SIP) revision submitted by the State of Arizona to address the requirements regarding air pollution... air pollution emergency episodes in CAA section 110(a)(2)(G). Section 110(a)(2)(G) requires that each...

  17. Ecology and conservation of the cactus ferruginous pygmy-owl in Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean-Luc E. Cartron; Deborah M. Finch

    2000-01-01

    This report is the result of a cooperative effort by the Rocky Mountain Research Station and the USDA Forest Service Region 3, with participation by the Arizona Game and Fish Department and the Bureau of Land Management. It assesses the state of knowledge related to the conservation status of the cactus ferruginous pygmy-owl in Arizona. The population decline of this...

  18. Exploring Arizona K-12 Virtual Educator Experiences and Perspectives Developing Collaborative Learning Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Deborah Iyron

    2015-01-01

    Arizona Online Instruction (AOI) provided an instructional alternative to nearly fifty thousand K-12 students in Arizona during the 2012-2013 school year. Growth in online education underscores the importance of evolving the role of the K-12 virtual teacher as the human agent (Turvey, 2008) demonstrating social learning theory (Bandura, 1977) by…

  19. Achievement Gap Projection for Standardized Testing through Logistic Regression within a Large Arizona School District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellermeyer, Steven Bruce

    2011-01-01

    In the last few decades high-stakes testing has become more political than educational. The Districts within Arizona are bound by the mandates of both AZ LEARNS and the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001. At the time of this writing, both legislative mandates relied on the Arizona Instrument for Measuring Standards (AIMS) as State Tests for gauging…

  20. School Finance in Arizona: A State-Local Partnership. A Special Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Education Association, Washington, DC. Commission on Professional Rights and Responsibilities.

    This report discusses the dispute in Arizona over the 1967 legislation regulating educational finance and offers alternatives to that legislation. The document describes factors and issues relevant to an understanding of the present dispute, defines accepted principles of educational finance, provides factual information about Arizona's support of…

  1. UAV lidar and hyperspectral fusion for forest monitoring in the southwestern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankey, Temuulen T.; Donager, Jonathon; McVay, Jason L.; Sankey, Joel B.

    2017-01-01

    Forest vegetation classification and structure measurements are fundamental steps for planning, monitoring, and evaluating large-scale forest changes including restoration treatments. High spatial and spectral resolution remote sensing data are critically needed to classify vegetation and measure their 3-dimensional (3D) canopy structure at the level of individual species. Here we test high-resolution lidar, hyperspectral, and multispectral data collected from unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) and demonstrate a lidar-hyperspectral image fusion method in treated and control forests with varying tree density and canopy cover as well as in an ecotone environment to represent a gradient of vegetation and topography in northern Arizona, U.S.A. The fusion performs better (88% overall accuracy) than either data type alone, particularly for species with similar spectral signatures, but different canopy sizes. The lidar data provides estimates of individual tree height (R2 = 0.90; RMSE = 2.3 m) and crown diameter (R2 = 0.72; RMSE = 0.71 m) as well as total tree canopy cover (R2 = 0.87; RMSE = 9.5%) and tree density (R2 = 0.77; RMSE = 0.69 trees/cell) in 10 m cells across thin only, burn only, thin-and-burn, and control treatments, where tree cover and density ranged between 22 and 50% and 1–3.5 trees/cell, respectively. The lidar data also produces highly accurate digital elevation model (DEM) (R2 = 0.92; RMSE = 0.75 m). In comparison, 3D data derived from the multispectral data via structure-from-motion produced lower correlations with field-measured variables, especially in dense and structurally complex forests. The lidar, hyperspectral, and multispectral sensors, and the methods demonstrated here can be widely applied across a gradient of vegetation and topography for monitoring landscapes undergoing large-scale changes such as the forests in the southwestern U.S.A.

  2. High-Risk Populations: The Pimas of Arizona and Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Leslie O; Chaudhari, Lisa S

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this review is first, to broadly summarize the long-term commitment that began in 1965 to studying type 2 diabetes and obesity through the cooperation of the Pima Indians of Arizona, and second, to discuss the investigations with the Pima Indians of Mexico that started in 1991. The later studies emphasize gene-environment interactions in the pathogenesis of these metabolic disorders. Through the participation of both groups of Pimas, the researchers made key findings with regard to the epidemiology, physiology, clinical assessment and genetics of type 2 diabetes and obesity.

  3. Seismic scanning tunneling macroscope - Elastic simulations and Arizona mine test

    KAUST Repository

    Hanafy, Sherif M.; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2012-01-01

    Elastic seismic simulations and field data tests are used to validate the theory of a seismic scanning tunneling macroscope (SSTM). For nearfield elastic simulation, the SSTM results show superresolution to be better than λ/8 if the only scattered data are used as input data. If the direct P and S waves are muted then the resolution of the scatterer locations are within about λ/5. Seismic data collected in an Arizona tunnel showed a superresolution limit of at least λ/19. These test results are consistent with the theory of the SSTM and suggest that the SSTM can be a tool used by geophysicists as a probe for near-field scatterers.

  4. Salmonella arizonaeInfection In A Guinea Pig Breeding Unit

    OpenAIRE

    GÜREL, Aydın; AYYILDIZ, Gülbin

    1998-01-01

    Salmonella arizonae infection was detected in guinea pigs kept for breeding. Two months old 50 quinea pigs were died in the breedig unit. Three death and 2 live guinea pigs were brought to Veterinary Faculty of İstanbul. The live 2 were euthanasied and necropcy was performed on all guinea pigs. The fluid about 50 cc. in the abdomen, the necrosis and pseudomembranes in the liver and spleen were observed. On histopathology, the foci of various coagulative necrosis were seen in the liver. The...

  5. Arizona Geology Trip - February 25-28, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Gretchen A.; Ross, Amy J.

    2008-01-01

    A variety of hardware developers, crew, mission planners, and headquarters personnel traveled to Gila Bend, Arizona, in February 2008 for a CxP Lunar Surface Systems Team geology experience. Participating in this field trip were the CxP Space Suit System (EC5) leads: Thomas (PLSS) and Ross (PGS), who presented the activities and findings learned from being in the field during this KC. As for the design of a new spacesuit system, this allowed the engineers to understand the demands this type of activity will have on NASA's hardware, systems, and planning efforts. The engineers also experienced the methods and tools required for lunar surface activity.

  6. Research on Structure Innovation of Agricultural Organization in China's Southwestern Mountainous Regions

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Qiang; Luo, Min; Wang, Ping

    2012-01-01

    Taking agricultural organization in China's southwestern mountainous regions as research object, on the basis of analysis of the status quo of agricultural organization development in China's southwestern mountainous regions, we use related theoretical knowledge on economics and organization science, we probe into the process of innovation and mechanism of action concerning the structure of agricultural organization in China's southwestern mountainous regions over the past 30 years. Finally w...

  7. A user need study and system plan for an Arizona Natural Resources Information System report to the Arizona state legislature

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    A survey instrument was developed and implemented in order to evaluate the current needs for natural resource information in Arizona and to determine which state agencies have information systems capable of coordinating, accessing and analyzing the data. Data and format requirements were determined for the following categories: air quality, animals, cultural resources, geology, land use, soils, water, vegetation, ownership, and social and economic aspects. Hardware and software capabilities were assessed and a data processing plan was developed. Possible future applications with the next generation LANDSAT were also identified.

  8. Water-quality assessment of the Central Arizona Basins, Arizona and northern Mexico; environmental setting and overview of water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordy, Gail E.; Rees, Julie A.; Edmonds, Robert J.; Gebler, Joseph B.; Wirt, Laurie; Gellenbeck, Dorinda J.; Anning, David W.

    1998-01-01

    The Central Arizona Basins study area in central and southern Arizona and northern Mexico is one of 60 study units that are part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment program. The purpose of this report is to describe the physical, chemical, and environmental characteristics that may affect water quality in the Central Arizona Basins study area and present an overview of water quality. Covering 34,700 square miles, the study area is characterized by generally north to northwestward-trending mountain ranges separated by broad, gently sloping alluvial valleys. Most of the perennial rivers and streams are in the northern part of the study area. Rivers and streams in the south are predominantly intermittent or ephemeral and flow in response to precipitation such as summer thunderstorms. Effluent-dependent streams do provide perennial flow in some reaches. The major aquifers in the study area are in the basin-fill deposits that may be as much as 12,000 feet thick. The 1990 population in the study area was about 3.45 million, and about 61 percent of the total was in Maricopa County (Phoenix and surrounding cities). Extensive population growth over the past decade has resulted in a twofold increase in urban land areas and increased municipal water use; however, agriculture remains the major water use. Seventy-three percent of all water with drawn in the study area during 1990 was used for agricultural purposes. The largest rivers in the study area-the Gila, Salt, and Verde-are perennial near their headwaters but become intermittent downstream because of impoundments and artificial diversions. As a result, the Central Arizona Basins study area is unique compared to less arid basins because the mean surface-water outflow is only 528 cubic feet per second from a total drainage area of 49,650 square miles. Peak flows in the northern part of the study area are the result of snowmelt runoff; whereas, summer thunderstorms account for the peak flows in

  9. WRF-Chem Model Simulations of Arizona Dust Storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohebbi, A.; Chang, H. I.; Hondula, D.

    2017-12-01

    The online Weather Research and Forecasting model with coupled chemistry module (WRF-Chem) is applied to simulate the transport, deposition and emission of the dust aerosols in an intense dust outbreak event that took place on July 5th, 2011 over Arizona. Goddard Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART), Air Force Weather Agency (AFWA), and University of Cologne (UoC) parameterization schemes for dust emission were evaluated. The model was found to simulate well the synoptic meteorological conditions also widely documented in previous studies. The chemistry module performance in reproducing the atmospheric desert dust load was evaluated using the horizontal field of the Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro (MODIS) radiometer Terra/Aqua and Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) satellites employing standard Dark Target (DT) and Deep Blue (DB) algorithms. To assess the temporal variability of the dust storm, Particulate Matter mass concentration data (PM10 and PM2.5) from Arizona Department of Environmental Quality (AZDEQ) ground-based air quality stations were used. The promising performance of WRF-Chem indicate that the model is capable of simulating the right timing and loading of a dust event in the planetary-boundary-layer (PBL) which can be used to forecast approaching severe dust events and to communicate an effective early warning.

  10. Nesting habitat and productivity of Swainson's Hawks in southeastern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Catherine; Boal, Clint W.; DeStefano, Stephen; Hobbs, Royden J.

    2013-01-01

    We studied Swainson's Hawks (Buteo swainsoni) in southeastern Arizona to assess the status of the local breeding population. Nest success (≥1 young fledged) was 44.4% in 1999 with an average of 1.43 ± 0.09 (SE) young produced per successful pair. Productivity was similar in 2000, with 58.2% nesting success and 1.83 ± 0.09 fledglings per successful pair. Mesquite (Prosopis velutina) and cottonwood (Populus fremontii) accounted for >50% of 167 nest trees. Nest trees were taller than surrounding trees and random trees, and overall there was more vegetative cover at nest sites than random sites. This apparent requirement for cover around nest sites could be important for management of the species in Arizona. However, any need for cover at nest sites must be balanced with the need for open areas for foraging. Density of nesting Swainson's Hawks was higher in agriculture than in grasslands and desert scrub. Breeding pairs had similar success in agricultural and nonagricultural areas, but the effect of rapid and widespread land-use change on breeding distribution and productivity continues to be a concern throughout the range of the species.

  11. Constraints to the possible alternatives from Arizona agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, K.E.

    1979-01-01

    The problems plaguing Arizona agriculture are outlined including the primary factors of declining groundwater supplies and increasing costs of energy to pump irrigation water. Two alternatives are suggested. The first alternative is to reduce or stabilize energy costs, an event that the authors acknowledge as being rather unlikely. Pumping costs using various fuels during the period 1891 to 1978 are reviewed. The second alternative involves developing cultivation techniques for drought-resistant plants native to arid regions, plants which have economic potential. Most of these plants would require little irrigation under cultivation and could substitute for cash crops being cultivated under heavy irrigation in Arizona. Four of these plants native to arid regions in the United States are discussed in some detail. Guayule (Parthenium argentatum) is a known rubber producer. Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) produces a liquid wax similar to the oil of the sperm whale, an endangered species. The gopher plant (Euphorbia lathyrus) is a potential producer of petrochemical feedstock for use as an energy source. Finally the buffalo gourd (Cucurbita foetidissima) is a possible source of food for both humans and livestock.

  12. Mapping seepage through the River Reservoir Dam near Eagar, Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rollins, P.

    2005-06-30

    This article describes the actions taken to address an unusual amount of water seepage from the left abutment weir-box of the River Reservoir dam built in 1896 near Eagar, Arizona. Upon noting the seepage in March 2004, the operator, Round Valley Water Users Association, contacted the State of Arizona who funded the investigation and subsequent remediation activities through an emergency fund. The dam was originally built with local materials and did not include a clay core. It was modified at least four times. The embankment sits on basalt bedrock and consists of clayey soils within a rock-fill shell. AquaTrack technology developed by Willowstick Technologies was used to assess the deteriorating situation. AquaTrack uses a low voltage, low amperage audio-frequency electrical current to energize the groundwater or seepage. This made it possible to follow the path of groundwater between the electrodes. A magnetic field was created which made it possible to locate and map the field measurements. The measured magnetic field data was processed, contoured and correlated to other hydrogeologic information. This identified the extent and preferential flow paths of the seepage. The survey pinpointed the area with the greatest leakage in both the horizontal and vertical directions. Fluorescent dyes were also used for tracer work to confirm previous findings that showed a serious seepage problem. The water of the reservoir was lowered to perform remedial measures to eliminate the risk of immediate failure. Funding for a more permanent repair is pending. 10 figs.

  13. The geology and ore deposits of the Bisbee quadrangle, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransome, Frederick Leslie

    1904-01-01

    The Bisbee quadrangle lies in Cochise County, in the southeastern part of Arizona, within what has been called in a previous paper the mountain region of the Territory. It is inclosed between meridians 109 ° 45' and 110 ° 00' and parallels 31° 30' and 31 ° 20', the latter being locally the Mexican boundary line. The area of the quadrangle is about 170 square miles, and includes the southeastern half of the Mule Mountains, one of the smaller of the isolated ranges so characteristic of the mountain region of Arizona. The Mule Mountains, while less markedly linear than the Dragoon, Huachuca, Chiricahua, and other neighboring ranges, have a general northwest-southeast trend. They may be considered as extending from the old mining town of Tombstone to the Mexican border, a distance of about 30 miles. On the northeast they are separated by the broad fiat floor of Sulphur Spring Valley form the Chiricahua Range, and on the southwest by the similar broad valley of the Rio San Pedro from the Huachuca Range (Pl. V, A). 

  14. Arizona Twin Project: a focus on early resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Clifford, Sierra; McDonald, Kristy; O'Brien, T Caitlin; Valiente, Carlos

    2013-02-01

    The Arizona Twin Project is an ongoing longitudinal study designed to elucidate the genetic and environmental influences underlying the development of early competence and resilience to common mental and physical health problems during infancy and childhood. Participants are a sample of 600 twins (25% Hispanic) recruited from birth records in the state of Arizona, United States. Primary caregivers were interviewed on twins' development and early social environments when twins were 12 and 30 months of age. Measures include indices of prenatal and obstetrical risk coded from hospital medical records, as well as primary caregiver-report questionnaires assessing multiple indicators of environmental risk and resilience (e.g., parental warmth and control, family and social support), twins' developmental maturity, temperament, health, behavior problems, and competencies. Preliminary findings highlight the importance of the early environment for infant and toddler health and well-being, both directly and as a moderator of genetic influences. Future directions include a third longitudinal assessment in middle childhood examining daily bidirectional relations between sleep, health behaviors, stress, and mood.

  15. Stratigraphy and petroleum possibilities of lower Upper Devonian (Frasnian and lower Framennian) strata, Southwestern Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biller, Edward J.

    1976-01-01

    The lower Upper Devonian rocks in southwestern Utah--the Guilmette Formation and equivalents--represent a final regressive pulse of the major Late Devonian marine inundation of the Western Interior of the United States and record marine carbonate deposition on a wide continental shelf. They consist primarily of limestone, dolomite, and quartz arenite deposited in a shallow north-trending miogeosyncline, which constituted a single major basin of accumulation on this shelf. The Guilmette Formation and equivalents were deposited in shallow normal to hypersaline marine waters. The environments of deposition include: a moderate- to high-energy intertidal environment, a moderate-energy subtidal environment, a lower energy, deeper subtidal environment below effective wave base, and a high-energy environment in local shallow areas of mud mounds and bioherms. The carbonate deposition of the Guilmette Formation and equivalents was interrupted periodically by the deposition of quartz arenites. These may represent the breaking up of the miogeosynclinal-cratonic pattern of deposition. In most areas, the Guilmette and equivalents are overlain by a thin transgressive marine quartz arenite deposit--the Cove Fort Quartzite and basal Leatham equivalent. Previous paleontologic evidence indicated a general Middle to Late Devonian age for the Guilmette Formation. The present study narrows this range and suggests that the age of the Guilmette Formation and its equivalents is late Middle Devonian (Stringocephalus brachiopod zone) to early Late Devonian (Uppermost Palmatolepis gigas conodont zone). Available subsurface data suggest that the petroleum possibilities of the Guilmette Formation and equivalents in southwestern Utah are poor. Several tests have penetrated .the interval with only minor shows of oil in rocks with low porosity and permeability. Nevertheless, many outcrop samples of the same interval, appear to have excellent porosity and permeability and a strongly fetid odor,

  16. Evaluation of shrub and tree species used for revegetating copper mine wastes in the south-western United States. [Dodonea viscosa (L. ) Jacq. , Baccharis sarothroides Gray, Cerdicium microphyllum Torr. , and Nicotiana glauca Grah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norem, M A; Day, A D; Ludeke, K L

    1982-12-01

    The revegetation work begun in 1970 at Cyprus Pima Mine, an open pit copper mine south-west of Tucson, Arizona, was evaluated to determine the effects of slope aspect and mining waste material on plant survival and growth. Only one shrub, Dodonea viscosa (L.) Jacq. (hopbush), survived on the east slope. Baccharis sarothroides Gray (desert broom) was prolific on the north aspect. Cerdicium microphyllum Torr. (palo verde) survived best on the east slope and Nicotiana glauca Grah. (desert tobacco) survived only on the north slope. The survival of the other tree species was not affected by slope aspect. Slope exposure did not affect tree size, except for Eucalyptus microtheca Muell. (tiny capsule eucalyptus) which grew larger on the north slope. E. rostrata Schlechtend (red gum eucalyptus) grew taller in overburden than in tailing on the east slope. Differences in soil material within each slope exposure did not significantly affect growth of the other tree species. In semi-arid regions, such as south-western Arizona, even slight differences in available moisture may determine the survival of a plant species in the area. (Refs. 11).

  17. Dwarf mistletoe effects on fuel loadings in ponderosa pine forests in northern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chad Hoffman; Robert Mathiasen; Carolyn Hull Sieg

    2007-01-01

    Southwestern dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium vaginatum (Willd.) J. Presl ssp. cryptopodum) infests about 0.9 million ha in the southwestern United States. Several studies suggest that dwarf mistletoes affect forest fuels and fire behavior; however, few studies have quantified these effects. We compared surface fuel loadings and...

  18. Native American lithic procurement along the international border in the boot heel region of southwestern New Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. E. Zeigler

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Multidisciplinary field projects can be very useful to a more fundamental understanding of the world around us, though these projects are not as common as they should be. In particular, the combination of archeology and geology combines our understanding of human behavior and human use of the landscape with an intimate knowledge of geologic processes and the materials available for human use in order to gain a broader understanding of human-Earth interaction. Here we present data from a cross-disciplinary project that uses a common dataset, archeological artifacts, to explore the anthropological and geologic implications of useage patterns. Archeological excavations and surveys conducted by the Office of Contract Archeology in 2007 along the route of the proposed international border fence reveal patterns of use of geologic materials by Archaic, Formative and Protohistoric Native Americans in the Boot Heel of southwestern New Mexico. Thousands of artifacts were recorded in multiple sites from Guadalupe Pass in the southern Peloncillo Mountains to the Carrizalillo Hills west of Columbus. We identified the lithologies of artifacts, ranging from projectile points to groundstones, and then constructed material movement maps based on either known procurement sites ("quarries" or outcrops identified as the closest source to a given site for each lithology. Not unexpectedly, the majority of the rock types utilized by native peoples are local siliceous volcanic materials. However, several artifacts constructed from obsidian were transported into the region from northern Mexico and eastern Arizona, indicating long-distance travel and/or trade routes. We also examine useage pattern difference between Archaic, Formative and Protohistoric sites. Additionally, a dramatic change in distribution of sources for geologic materials occurs between one pre-Spanish site and one post-Spanish site that are adjacent to one another.

  19. Cool-season precipitation in the southwestern USA since AD 1000: comparison of linear and nonlinear techniques for reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Fenbiao; Cavazos, Tereza; Hughes, Malcolm K.; Comrie, Andrew C.; Funkhouser, Gary

    2002-11-01

    A 1000 year reconstruction of cool-season (November-April) precipitation was developed for each climate division in Arizona and New Mexico from a network of 19 tree-ring chronologies in the southwestern USA. Linear regression (LR) and artificial neural network (NN) models were used to identify the cool-season precipitation signal in tree rings. Using 1931-88 records, the stepwise LR model was cross-validated with a leave-one-out procedure and the NN was validated with a bootstrap technique. The final models were also independently validated using the 1896-1930 precipitation data. In most of the climate divisions, both techniques can successfully reconstruct dry and normal years, and the NN seems to capture large precipitation events and more variability better than the LR. In the 1000 year reconstructions the NN also produces more distinctive wet events and more variability, whereas the LR produces more distinctive dry events. The 1000 year reconstructed precipitation from the two models shows several sustained dry and wet periods comparable to the 1950s drought (e.g. 16th century mega drought) and to the post-1976 wet period (e.g. 1330s, 1610s). The impact of extreme periods on the environment may be stronger during sudden reversals from dry to wet, which were not uncommon throughout the millennium, such as the 1610s wet interval that followed the 16th century mega drought. The instrumental records suggest that strong dry to wet precipitation reversals in the past 1000 years might be linked to strong shifts from cold to warm El Niño-southern oscillation events and from a negative to positive Pacific decadal oscillation.

  20. Effects of Climate Variability and Accelerated Forest Thinning on Watershed-Scale Runoff in Southwestern USA Ponderosa Pine Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, Marcos D.; Marshall, Robert M.; O'Donnell, Frances; Smith, Edward B.; Haney, Jeanmarie A.; Gori, David F.

    2014-01-01

    The recent mortality of up to 20% of forests and woodlands in the southwestern United States, along with declining stream flows and projected future water shortages, heightens the need to understand how management practices can enhance forest resilience and functioning under unprecedented scales of drought and wildfire. To address this challenge, a combination of mechanical thinning and fire treatments are planned for 238,000 hectares (588,000 acres) of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests across central Arizona, USA. Mechanical thinning can increase runoff at fine scales, as well as reduce fire risk and tree water stress during drought, but the effects of this practice have not been studied at scales commensurate with recent forest disturbances or under a highly variable climate. Modifying a historical runoff model, we constructed scenarios to estimate increases in runoff from thinning ponderosa pine at the landscape and watershed scales based on driving variables: pace, extent and intensity of forest treatments and variability in winter precipitation. We found that runoff on thinned forests was about 20% greater than unthinned forests, regardless of whether treatments occurred in a drought or pluvial period. The magnitude of this increase is similar to observed declines in snowpack for the region, suggesting that accelerated thinning may lessen runoff losses due to warming effects. Gains in runoff were temporary (six years after treatment) and modest when compared to mean annual runoff from the study watersheds (0–3%). Nonetheless gains observed during drought periods could play a role in augmenting river flows on a seasonal basis, improving conditions for water-dependent natural resources, as well as benefit water supplies for downstream communities. Results of this study and others suggest that accelerated forest thinning at large scales could improve the water balance and resilience of forests and sustain the ecosystem services they provide. PMID

  1. Effects of climate variability and accelerated forest thinning on watershed-scale runoff in southwestern USA ponderosa pine forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos D Robles

    Full Text Available The recent mortality of up to 20% of forests and woodlands in the southwestern United States, along with declining stream flows and projected future water shortages, heightens the need to understand how management practices can enhance forest resilience and functioning under unprecedented scales of drought and wildfire. To address this challenge, a combination of mechanical thinning and fire treatments are planned for 238,000 hectares (588,000 acres of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa forests across central Arizona, USA. Mechanical thinning can increase runoff at fine scales, as well as reduce fire risk and tree water stress during drought, but the effects of this practice have not been studied at scales commensurate with recent forest disturbances or under a highly variable climate. Modifying a historical runoff model, we constructed scenarios to estimate increases in runoff from thinning ponderosa pine at the landscape and watershed scales based on driving variables: pace, extent and intensity of forest treatments and variability in winter precipitation. We found that runoff on thinned forests was about 20% greater than unthinned forests, regardless of whether treatments occurred in a drought or pluvial period. The magnitude of this increase is similar to observed declines in snowpack for the region, suggesting that accelerated thinning may lessen runoff losses due to warming effects. Gains in runoff were temporary (six years after treatment and modest when compared to mean annual runoff from the study watersheds (0-3%. Nonetheless gains observed during drought periods could play a role in augmenting river flows on a seasonal basis, improving conditions for water-dependent natural resources, as well as benefit water supplies for downstream communities. Results of this study and others suggest that accelerated forest thinning at large scales could improve the water balance and resilience of forests and sustain the ecosystem services they provide.

  2. Effects of climate variability and accelerated forest thinning on watershed-scale runoff in southwestern USA ponderosa pine forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, Marcos D; Marshall, Robert M; O'Donnell, Frances; Smith, Edward B; Haney, Jeanmarie A; Gori, David F

    2014-01-01

    The recent mortality of up to 20% of forests and woodlands in the southwestern United States, along with declining stream flows and projected future water shortages, heightens the need to understand how management practices can enhance forest resilience and functioning under unprecedented scales of drought and wildfire. To address this challenge, a combination of mechanical thinning and fire treatments are planned for 238,000 hectares (588,000 acres) of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests across central Arizona, USA. Mechanical thinning can increase runoff at fine scales, as well as reduce fire risk and tree water stress during drought, but the effects of this practice have not been studied at scales commensurate with recent forest disturbances or under a highly variable climate. Modifying a historical runoff model, we constructed scenarios to estimate increases in runoff from thinning ponderosa pine at the landscape and watershed scales based on driving variables: pace, extent and intensity of forest treatments and variability in winter precipitation. We found that runoff on thinned forests was about 20% greater than unthinned forests, regardless of whether treatments occurred in a drought or pluvial period. The magnitude of this increase is similar to observed declines in snowpack for the region, suggesting that accelerated thinning may lessen runoff losses due to warming effects. Gains in runoff were temporary (six years after treatment) and modest when compared to mean annual runoff from the study watersheds (0-3%). Nonetheless gains observed during drought periods could play a role in augmenting river flows on a seasonal basis, improving conditions for water-dependent natural resources, as well as benefit water supplies for downstream communities. Results of this study and others suggest that accelerated forest thinning at large scales could improve the water balance and resilience of forests and sustain the ecosystem services they provide.

  3. Oxygen isotopic ratios of quartz from wind-erosive soils of southwestern United States in relation to aerosol dust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sridhar, K.; Jackson, M.L.; Clayton, R.N.; Gillette, D.A.; Hawley, J.W.

    1978-01-01

    The oxygen isotopic ratios (expressed as parts per thousand relative to mean ocean water, SMOW, delta/sup 18/O) of the quartz from 13 soils undergoing much wind erosion during the study period of 1972-1975 in four southwestern states and from comparison areas were determined. The delta/sup 18/O for quartz from eight Texas (TX) and Arizona (AZ) soils range from 13.0 to 15.9 /sup 0///sub 00/. The quartz of the sands and silts coarser than 20 ..mu..m from three of the soils had delta/sup 18/O values ranging from 13.1 to 15.1 /sup 0///sub 00/, characteristic of an ultimate igneous-metamorphic origin. The delta/sup 18/O values increase greatly with decreasing particle size of quartz from three soils ranging from loamy fine sand to loam to clay in texture. The delta/sup 18/O of the 1-10 ..mu..m quartz fraction (aerosol size) ranged from 19.2 to 20.2 /sup 0///sub 00/ (19.55 +- 0.28 /sup 0///sub 00/; +- sigma) for the thirteen soils most affected by dust storms. The oxygen isotopic ratios of 1-10 ..mu..m quartz from three Hawaiian soils and two sediments from Lake Waiau occurring at 3,970 m altitude on the Mauna Kea summit on the Island of Hawaii give a delta/sup 18/O mean of 18.3 +- 0.2 /sup 0///sub 00/.

  4. Settlement of the USS Arizona, Pearl Harbor, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carkin, Brad A.; Kayen, Robert E.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in collaboration with the National Park Service Submerged Resources Center, undertook investigations at the USS Arizona Memorial at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, in 2002, 2003, and 2005 to characterize geological factors affecting the deterioration and movement of the hull of the USS Arizona. Since sinking on the morning of December 7, 1941, the hull of the USS Arizona has been slowly but steadily disappearing below the surface of Pearl Harbor. Continuous sediment coring at three of four locations around the hull of the Arizona was only partially successful, but it was sufficient to identify a varied sedimentary substrate beneath the hull. A boring near the stern reveals a thick, continuous sequence of soft, gray clay to the bottom of the boring. In contrast, borings near the bow and starboard side, below about 5 meters subbottom depth, indicate the presence of very stiff, brown clay and coral debris and an absence of soft clay. Multisensor core logger scanning of the recovered cores distinguishes the lower density of the soft, gray clay at the stern from the higher density of the stiff, brown clays and coral debris at the bow and starboard side. Uniaxial consolidation testing of the soft gray clay indicates a normally consolidated sequence, whereas the stiff, brown clay and coral debris are overconsolidated. Profiles of shear wave velocity vs. depth obtained through spectral analysis of interface wave testing around the perimeter of the hull in 2005 identified areas of higher velocity, stiffer sediment at the bow and starboard side, which correspond to the dense, stiff clay recovered near the bow and starboard borings. Low shear-wave velocities at the port midship and quarter of the hull correlate with the lower density, softer sediment recovered from the boring at the stern. Cross sections of the subbottom of the Memorial combine results from the sediment borings and geophysical surveys and depict a wedge of soft clay unconformably overlying

  5. The migration, dissolution, and fate of chlorinated solvents in the urbanized alluvial valleys of the southwestern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, R. E.

    The migration, dissolution, and subsequent fate of spilled chlorinated solvents in the urban alluvial valleys of the southwestern U.S. appear to be governed by a unique set of hydrogeologic and geochemical processes occurring within terrigeneous clastic depositional systems. The alluvial and lacustrine fill of the basins, the trapping of solvents in fine-grained sediments beneath the urbanized valley centers, the oxic conditions typical of the deeper alluvium, and the contaminant-transport patterns produced by large-scale basin pumping combine to produce long aqueous-phase plumes derived from the dissolution of trapped chlorinated solvents. Although of limited aqueous solubility, these dense solvents are sufficiently mobile and soluble in the southwestern alluvial valleys to have produced aqueous plumes that have migrated several kilometers through the deeper alluvium and have contaminated valuable water-supply well fields in California, Arizona, and New Mexico. The typical length of these plumes and the presence of oxic groundwater indicate that it is unlikely that natural attenuation will be a practical remedial option in the southwestern alluvial valleys or in other alluvial systems in which similar hydrogeologic and geochemical conditions exist. Résumé La migration, la dissolution et l'évolution consécutive des rejets de solvants chlorés dans les vallées alluviales du sud-ouest des États-Unis paraissent déterminées par un même ensemble de processus hydrogéologiques et géochimiques intervenant dans des formations de dépôts clastiques terrigènes. Les remplissages alluviaux et lacustres des bassins, le piégeage des solvants par des sédiments fins sous les centres des vallées urbanisées, les conditions oxiques typiques des alluvions plus profondes et les types de transport de contaminants provoqués par le pompage à l'échelle du bassin se combinent pour produire des panaches, étendus dans la phase aqueuse, provenant de la dissolution de

  6. Awareness and implementation of tobacco dependence treatment guidelines in Arizona: Healthcare Systems Survey 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menke J Michael

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper presents findings from the Tobacco Control in Arizona Healthcare Systems Survey, conducted in 2000. The purpose of the survey was to assess the status of Arizona healthcare systems' awareness and implementation of tobacco cessation and prevention measures. Methods The 20-item survey was developed by The University of Arizona HealthCare Partnership in collaboration with the Arizona Department of Health Services Bureau of Tobacco Education and Prevention. It was mailed to representatives of Arizona's 40 healthcare systems, including commercial and Medicare managed care organizations, "managed Medicaid" organizations, Veterans Affairs Health Care Systems, and Indian Health Service Medical Centers. Thirty-three healthcare systems (83% completed the survey. Results The majority of healthcare systems reported awareness of at least one tobacco cessation and prevention clinical practice guideline, but only one third reported full guideline implementation. While a majority covered some form of behavioral therapy, less than half reported covering tobacco treatment medications. "Managed Medicaid" organizations administered through the Arizona Health Care Cost Containment System were significantly less likely to offer coverage for behavioral therapy and less likely to cover pharmacotherapy than were their non-Medicaid counterparts in managed care, Veterans Affairs Health Care Systems and Indian Health Service Medical Centers. Conclusion Arizona healthcare system coverage for tobacco cessation in the year 2000 was comparable to national survey findings of the same year. The findings that only 10% of "Managed Medicaid" organizations covered tobacco treatment medication and were significantly less likely to cover behavioral therapy were important given the nearly double smoking prevalence among Medicaid patients. Throughout the years of the program, the strategic plan of the Arizona Department of Health Services Bureau of Tobacco

  7. Disposal and reclamation of southwestern coal and uranium wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wewerka, E.M.

    1979-01-01

    The types of solid wastes and effluents produced by the southwestern coal and uranium mining and milling industries are considered, and the current methods for the disposal and reclamation of these materials discussed. The major means of disposing of the solid wastes from both industries is by land fill or in some instances ponding. Sludges or aqueous wastes are normally discharged into settling and evaporative ponds. Basic reclamation measures for nearly all coal and uranium waste disposal sites include solids stabilization, compacting, grading, soil preparation, and revegetation. Impermeable liners and caps are beginning to be applied to disposal sites for some of the more harmful coal and uranium waste materials

  8. Factorial's composition of Lake Abha, Southwestern Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Beheiry, M.A.H

    2007-01-01

    The study analyzes the vegetation along Lake Abha in Southwestern Saudi Arabia. A total of 42 plant species were recorded. The annuals decrease and the biennials and perennials increase along the moisture gradient form the terraces to the free-water zone. Six vegetation clusters were identified. The most important are clusters which were identified by the presence of the following species: Phragmites australis, Juncus punctorius, Typha domingensis, Cyperus rotundus, Datura innoxia, Cynodon dactylon, Cornulaca monacantha and Potamogeton nododsus. Each of these communities has been analyzed by classification and ordination techniques and its habitat described and discussed. (author)

  9. Salary survey of the Medical Library Group of Southern California and Arizona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J L; Connolly, B F; Davis, M; Graham, E; Wheeler, S

    1984-01-01

    The 1982 salary survey of the Medical Library Group of Southern California and Arizona (MLGSCA) indicates that 211 health sciences librarians in Southern California and Arizona earned a mean annual salary of $20,910 for 1982. Data analysis shows a positive correlation between salary and educational level. Other factors found to affect salary were job history, number of positions held, MLA certification, and professional responsibility. Age, gender, and MLA certification did not have a consistent positive correlation with salary. Results indicate that the salaries of hospital librarians are, on the average, roughly comparable to those of academic librarians in Southern California and Arizona. PMID:6743878

  10. A habitat overlap analysis derived from Maxent for Tamarisk and the South-western Willow Flycatcher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia York; Paul Evangelista; Sunil Kumar; James Graham; Curtis Flather; Thomas Stohlgren

    2011-01-01

    Biologic control of the introduced and invasive, woody plant tamarisk (Tamarix spp, saltcedar) in south-western states is controversial because it affects habitat of the federally endangered South-western Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus). These songbirds sometimes nest in tamarisk where floodplain-level invasion replaces native habitats. Biologic control...

  11. Carbon isotopes from fossil packrat pellets and elevational movements of Utah agave plants reveal the Younger Dryas cold period in Grand Canyon, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, K.L.; Arundel, S.T.

    2005-01-01

    Carbon isotopes in rodent fecal pellets were measured on packrat (Neotoma spp.) middens from the Grand Canyon, Arizona. The pellet samples reflect the abundance of cold-intolerant C4 and Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plant species relative to the predominant C3 vegetation in the packrat diet. The temporal sequence of isotopic results suggests a temperature decline followed by a sharp increase corresponding to the B??lling/Aller??d-Younger Dryas - early Holocene sequence. This pattern was then tested using the past distribution of Utah agave (Agave utahensis). Spatial analyses of the range of this temperature-sensitive CAM species demonstrate that its upper elevational limit is controlled by winter minimum temperature. Applying this paleotemperature proxy to the past elevational limits of Utah agave suggests that minimum winter temperatures were ???8??C below modern values during the Last Glacial Maximum, 4.5-6.5 ??C below modern during the B??lling/Aller??d, and 7.5-8.7 ??C below modern during the early Younger Dryas. As the Younger Dryas terminated, temperatures warmed ???4 ??C between ca. 11.8 ka and 11.5 ka. These extreme fluctuations in winter minimum temperature have not been generally accepted for terrestrial paleoecological records from the arid southwestern United States, likely because of large statistical uncertainties of older radiocarbon results and reliance on proxies for summer temperatures, which were less affected. ?? 2005 Geological Society of America.

  12. Laser altimeter measurements at Walnut Gulch Watershed, Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritchie, J.C.; Humes, K.S.; Weltz, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    Measurements of landscape surface roughness properties are necessary for understanding many watershed processes. This paper reviews the use of an airborne laser altimeter to measure topography and surface roughness properties of the landscape at Walnut Gulch Watershed in Arizona. Airborne laser data were used to measure macro and micro topography as well as canopy topography, height, cover, and distribution. Macro topography of landscape profiles for segments up to 5 km (3 mi) were measured and were in agreement with available topographic maps but provided more detail. Gullies and stream channel cross-sections and their associated floodplains were measured. Laser measurements of vegetation properties (height and cover) were highly correlated with ground measurements. Landscape segments for any length can be used to measure these landscape roughness properties. Airborne laser altimeter measurements of landscape profiles can provide detailed information on watershed surface properties for improving the management of watersheds. (author)

  13. Factors Influencing Water Consumption in Multifamily Housing in Tempe Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentz, E. A.

    2012-12-01

    Central to the "Smart Growth" movement is that compact development reduces vehicle miles traveled, carbon emissions, and water use. Empirical efforts to evaluate compact development have examined residential densities, but have not distinguished decreasing lot sizes from multifamily apartments as mechanisms for compact development. Efforts to link design features to water use have emphasized single-family at the expense of multifamily housing. This study isolates the determinants of water use in large (>50) unit apartment complexes in the city of Tempe, Arizona. In July 2007, per-bedroom water use increased with pool area, dishwashers, in-unit laundry facilities, and irrigated landscaping. We explain nearly 50% of the variation in water use with these variables. These results inform public policy for reducing water use in multifamily housing structures, suggesting strategies to construct and market "green" apartment units.

  14. Progress in Dark Sky Protection in Southern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Richard F.; Allen, L.; Alvarez Del Castillo, E. M.; Brocious, D. K.; Corbally, C. J.; Davis, D. R.; Falco, E. E.; Gabor, P.; Hall, J. C.; Jannuzi, B.; Larson, S. M.; Mighell, K. J.; Nance, C.; Shankland, P. D.; Walker, C. E.; Williams, G.; Zaritsky, D. F.

    2014-01-01

    Arizona has many observatories dedicated to scientific research and a rapidly growing population. Continuous interaction with governmental entities and education of the public are required to take advantage of the good intentions of lighting control ordinances in place around the state. We give several recent examples of active engagement of observatories: * Interaction of Mt. Graham International Observatory with the State prison and major copper mine. * Interaction of Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, acting on behalf of MMT Observatory and Steward Observatory, with the US Forest Service on the prospects of developing the Rosemont Copper Mine * Defense of the Outdoor Lighting and Sign Codes in Pima County and the City of Tucson * Coordinated observatory approach to statewide issues, including the establishment of radial zones of protection from LED billboards around observatory sites.

  15. UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Tuba City, Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-02-01

    Planned, routine ground water sampling activities at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site in Tuba City, Arizona, are described in the following sections of this water sampling and analysis plan (WSAP). This plan identifies and justifies the sampling locations, analytical parameters, detection limits, and sampling frequency for the stations routinely monitored at the site. The ground water data are used for site characterization and risk assessment. The regulatory basis for routine ground water monitoring at UMTRA Project sites is derived from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations in 40 CFR Part 192 (1994) and the final EPA standards of 1995 (60 FR 2854). Sampling procedures are guided by the UMTRA Project standard operating procedures (SOP) (JEG, n.d.), and the most effective technical approach for the site

  16. Francisella tularensis subsp. novicida isolated from a human in Arizona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birdsell Dawn N

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Francisella tularensis is the etiologic agent of tularemia and is classified as a select agent by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Currently four known subspecies of F. tularensis that differ in virulence and geographical distribution are recognized:tularensis (type A, holarctica (type B, mediasiatica, and novicida. Because of the Select Agent status and differences in virulence and geographical location, the molecular analysis of any clinical case of tularemia is of particular interest. We analyzed an unusual Francisella clinical isolate from a human infection in Arizona using multiple DNA-based approaches. Findings We report that the isolate is F. tularensis subsp. novicida, a subspecies that is rarely isolated. Conclusion The rarity of this novicida subspecies in clinical settings makes each case study important for our understanding of its role in disease and its genetic relationship with other F. tularensis subspecies.

  17. Distributed photovoltaic system evaluation by Arizona Public Service Company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambeth, R.; Lepley, T.

    1993-01-01

    Arizona Public Service Company (APS) has performed a study of the APS system to (1) determine whether APS has high-value distributed applications of photovoltaics (PV), (2) quantify the value of a distributed PV system, (3) compare the APS results with the earlier PG ampersand E results and (4) estimate whether there will be significant market for these applications at APS. The study confirmed that there is a value to distributing PV generation throughout the utility distribution system. The breakeven cost for a PV system in APS' best location is $3.44/watt, in 1996 dollars. Feeders which meet all the criteria and which will be eligible for full benefits are relatively rare. However, a PV system will usually have more value if it is distributed rather than installed at a central station site

  18. Arizona Education Tax Credit and Hidden Considerations of Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele S. Moses

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available The current debate over market-based ideas for educational reform is examined, focusing specifically on the recent movement toward education tax credits. Viewing the Arizona education tax credit law as a voucher plan in sheep's clothing, I argue that the concept of justice underlying the law is a crucial issue largely missing from the school choice debate. I question the libertarian conception of justice assumed by voucher and tax credit advocates, and argue instead that a contemporary liberal democratic conception of justice ought to undergird attempts at school reform. A call for educators and policymakers to concentrate energies on efforts to help needy students rather than on efforts to channel tax dollars toward self- interested ends concludes the article.

  19. 78 FR 65703 - Notice of Availability of the Idaho and Southwestern Montana Greater Sage-Grouse Draft Land Use...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    ...] Notice of Availability of the Idaho and Southwestern Montana Greater Sage-Grouse Draft Land Use Plan... Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for managing Greater Sage- Grouse (GRSG) in the Idaho and Southwestern... Southwestern Montana Greater Sage-Grouse Draft LUP Amendments/Draft EIS by any of the following methods: Email...

  20. Characteristics of regional aerosols: Southern Arizona and eastern Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhakar, Gouri

    Atmospheric aerosols impact the quality of our life in many direct and indirect ways. Inhalation of aerosols can have harmful effects on human health. Aerosols also have climatic impacts by absorbing or scattering solar radiation, or more indirectly through their interactions with clouds. Despite a better understanding of several relevant aerosol properties and processes in the past years, they remain the largest uncertainty in the estimate of global radiative forcing. The uncertainties arise because although aerosols are ubiquitous in the Earth's atmosphere they are highly variable in space, time and their physicochemical properties. This makes in-situ measurements of aerosols vital in our effort towards reducing uncertainties in the estimate of global radiative forcing due to aerosols. This study is an effort to characterize atmospheric aerosols at a regional scale, in southern Arizona and eastern Pacific Ocean, based on ground and airborne observations of aerosols. Metals and metalloids in particles with aerodynamic diameter (Dp) smaller than 2.5 μm are found to be ubiquitous in southern Arizona. The major sources of the elements considered in the study are identified to be crustal dust, smelting/mining activities and fuel combustion. The spatial and temporal variability in the mass concentrations of these elements depend both on the source strength and meteorological conditions. Aircraft measurements of aerosol and cloud properties collected during various field campaigns over the eastern Pacific Ocean are used to study the sources of nitrate in stratocumulus cloud water and the relevant processes. The major sources of nitrate in cloud water in the region are emissions from ships and wildfires. Different pathways for nitrate to enter cloud water and the role of meteorology in these processes are examined. Observations of microphysical properties of ambient aerosols in ship plumes are examined. The study shows that there is an enhancement in the number

  1. Preliminary experiences with 222Rn gas in Arizona homes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kearfott, K.J.

    1989-01-01

    Results of a survey of 222Rn gas using four-day charcoal canister tests in 759 Arizona homes are reported. Although the study was not random with respect to population or land area, it was useful in identifying areas at risk and locating several homes having elevated indoor 222Rn air concentrations. Approximately 18% of the homes tested exceeded 150 Bq m-3 (4 pCi L-1), with 7% exceeding 300 Bq m-3 (8 pCi L-1). Several Arizona cities had larger fractions of homes exceeding 150 Bq m-3 (4 pCi L-1), such as Carefree and Cave Creek (23%), Paradise Valley (30%), Payson (33%), and Prescott (31%). The Granite Dells and Groom Creek areas of Prescott had in excess of 40-60% of the houses tested exceeding 150 Bq m-3 (4 pCi L-1). Elevated 222Rn concentrations were measured for a variety of home types having different construction materials. Private well water was identified as a potentially significant source of 222Rn gas in Prescott homes, with water from one well testing over 3.5 MBq m-3 (94,000 pCi L-1). A 222Rn concentration in air exceeding 410,000 Bq m-3 (11,000 pCi L-1) was measured using a four-day charcoal canister test in a house in Prescott which had a well opening into a living space. Additional measurements in this 150-m3 dwelling revealed a strikingly heterogeneous 222Rn concentration. The excessive 222Rn level in the dwelling was reduced to less than 190 Bq m-3 (5.2 pCi L-1) by sealing the well head with caulking and providing passive ventilation through a pipe

  2. Centro Valley Phoenix, Arizona – (EE.UU.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Welton Becket y Asociados, Arquitectos e ingenieros

    1974-10-01

    Full Text Available This office building is the administrative Centre for the National Valley Bank, Arizona. Being 155 m in height it is at present the highest building in the state. The construction consists of three towers, respectively 35, 37 and 39 storeys high, connected by means of a subterranean passage with an 8-storeyed parking building with a capacity of 1,700 vehicles. The first structure is of concrete in its nucleus and is enclosed by curtain walls which gives it a surface with extraordinary reflections. The entire parking building is of unfaced concrete. The bank occupies the floors 3-12, floor 36 and 38 and the remaining premises are for rent.Este edificio de oficinas es la central administrativa de la banca Valley National, de Arizona. Con 155 m de altura es, actualmente, el más alto del estado. Consta de tres torres de 35,37 y 39 plantas, adosadas y enlazadas, mediante un paso subterráneo, a un bloque de aparcamiento con ocho alturas y capacidad para 1.700 automóviles. El primero tiene estructura de hormigón en su núcleo central de comunicación vertical y cerramientos de muro-cortina, lo que le confiere una fisonomía brillante y reflectante de gran espectacularidad. El aparcamiento es todo él de hormigón visto. La banca ocupa las plantas 3 a 12, la 36 y la 38, destinándose el resto a alquiler.

  3. Astrobiology at Arizona State University: An Overview of Accomplishments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Jack

    2005-01-01

    During our five years as an NAI charter member, Arizona State University sponsored a broadly-based program of research and training in Astrobiology to address the origin, evolution and distribution of life in the Solar System. With such a large, diverse and active team, it is not possible in a reasonable space, to cover all details of progress made over the entire five years. The following paragraphs provide an overview update of the specific research areas pursued by the Arizona State University (ASU) Astrobiology team at the end of Year 5 and at the end of the 4 month and subsequent no cost month extensions. for a more detailed review, the reader is referred to the individual annual reports (and Executive Summaries) submitted to the NAI at the end of each of our five years of membership. Appended in electronic form is our complete publication record for all five years, plus a tabulation of undergraduates, graduate students and post-docs supported by our program during this time. The overarching theme of ASU s Astrobiology program was "Exploring the Living Universe: Studies of the Origin, Evolution and Distribution of Life in the Solar System". The NAi-funded research effort was organized under three basic sub- themes: 1. Origins of the Basic Building Blocks of Life. 2. Early Biosphere Evolution. and 3. Exploring for Life in the Solar System. These sub-theme areas were in turn, subdivided into Co-lead research modules. In the paragraphs that follow, accomplishments for individual research modules are briefly outlined, and the key participants presented in tabular form. As noted, publications for each module are appended in hard copy and digital formats, under the name(s) of lead co-Is.

  4. Deep groundwater quantity and quality in the southwestern US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, M.; Ayars, J. E.; Jackson, R. B.

    2017-12-01

    Groundwater demands are growing in many arid regions and adaptation through the use of non-traditional resources during extreme droughts is increasingly common. One such resource is deep groundwater, which we define as deeper than 300 m and up to several kilometer-depths. Although deep groundwater has been studied in the context of oil and gas, geothermal, waste disposal, and other uses, it remains poorly characterized, especially for the purposes of human consumption and irrigation uses. Therefore, we evaluate deep groundwater quantity and quality within these contexts. We compile and analyze data from water management agencies and oil and gas-based sources for the southwestern US, with a detailed look at California's Central Valley. We also use crop tolerance thresholds to evaluate deep groundwater quality for irrigation purposes. We find fresh and usable groundwater volume estimates in California's Central Valley to increase by three- and four-fold respectively when depths of up to 3 km are considered. Of the ten basins in the southwestern US with the most data, we find that the Great Basin has the greatest proportions of fresh and usable deep groundwater. Given the potentially large deep groundwater volumes, it is important to characterize the resource, guard against subsidence where extracted, and protect it for use in decades and centuries to come.

  5. St. Louis encephalitis virus possibly transmitted through blood transfusion-Arizona, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkat, Heather; Adams, Laura; Sunenshine, Rebecca; Krow-Lucal, Elisabeth; Levy, Craig; Kafenbaum, Tammy; Sylvester, Tammy; Smith, Kirk; Townsend, John; Dosmann, Melissa; Kamel, Hany; Patron, Roberto; Kuehnert, Matthew; Annambhotla, Pallavi; Basavaraju, Sridhar V; Rabe, Ingrid B

    2017-12-01

    St. Louis encephalitis virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that infrequently causes epidemic central nervous system infections. In the United States, blood donors are not screened for St. Louis encephalitis virus infection, and transmission through blood transfusion has not been reported. During September 2015, St. Louis encephalitis virus infection was confirmed in an Arizona kidney transplant recipient. An investigation was initiated to determine the infection source. The patient was interviewed, and medical records were reviewed. To determine the likelihood of mosquito-borne infection, mosquito surveillance data collected at patient and blood donor residences in timeframes consistent with their possible exposure periods were reviewed. To investigate other routes of exposure, organ and blood donor and recipient specimens were obtained and tested for evidence of St. Louis encephalitis virus infection. The patient presented with symptoms of central nervous system infection. Recent St. Louis encephalitis virus infection was serologically confirmed. The organ donor and three other organ recipients showed no laboratory or clinical evidence of St. Louis encephalitis virus infection. Among four donors of blood products received by the patient via transfusion, one donor had a serologically confirmed, recent St. Louis encephalitis virus infection. Exposure to an infected mosquito was unlikely based on the patient's minimal outdoor exposure. In addition, no St. Louis encephalitis virus-infected mosquito pools were identified around the patient's residence. This investigation provides evidence of the first reported possible case of St. Louis encephalitis virus transmission through blood product transfusion. Health care providers and public health professionals should maintain heightened awareness for St. Louis encephalitis virus transmission through blood transfusion in settings where outbreaks are identified. © 2017 AABB.

  6. 77 FR 72511 - Approval, Disapproval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Arizona; Regional...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-05

    ... wilderness areas designated as Class I areas. Arizona has a wealth of such areas. The three power plants... commenters (American Coalition for Clean Coal Electricity (ACCCE), AEPCO, APS, AUG, Navajo Nation, PacifiCorp...

  7. 76 FR 23623 - Backcountry Management Plan, Environmental Impact Statement, Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-27

    ...-7945, [email protected] or Rachel Bennett, Environmental Protection Specialist, P.O. Box 129, Grand Canyon, Arizona 86023, 928-638-7326, Rachel[email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: If you wish to...

  8. Solving the Policy Implementation Problem: The Case of Arizona Charter Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garn, Gregg A.

    1999-01-01

    Analyzes how Arizona charter school policymakers succeeded in preserving the legislative intentions of the state's charter school program. Identifies four key features of policy implementation that created the charter school policy: communication, financial resources, implementor attitudes, and bureaucratic structure. (SLD)

  9. The Arizona Universities Library Consortium patron-driven e-book model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanne Richardson

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Building on Arizona State University's patron-driven acquisitions (PDA initiative in 2009, the Arizona Universities Library Consortium, in partnership with the Ingram Content Group, created a cooperative patron-driven model to acquire electronic books (e-books. The model provides the opportunity for faculty and students at the universities governed by the Arizona Board of Regents (ABOR to access a core of e-books made accessible through resource discovery services and online catalogs. These books are available for significantly less than a single ABOR university would expend for the same materials. The patron-driven model described is one of many evolving models in digital scholarship, and, although the Arizona Universities Library Consortium reports a successful experience, patron-driven models pose questions to stakeholders in the academic publishing industry.

  10. Arizona State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive-waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-10-01

    The Arizona State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Arizona. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Arizona. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Arizona

  11. Simultaneous occurrence of Salmonella arizonae in a sulfur crested cockatoo (Cacatua galerita galerita) and iguanas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orós, J; Rodríguez, J L; Fernández, A; Herráez, P; Espinosa de los Monteros, A; Jacobson, E R

    1998-01-01

    A case of fatal hepatitis in a captive sulfur crested cockatoo (Cacatua galerita galerita) in which Salmonella arizonae was microbiologically and immunohistochemically detected is described. The death of the cockatoo was closely related to the arrival of a group of 10 green iguanas (Iguana iguana) at a pet shop, and no previous clinical signs were observed in the cockatoo. The most important lesion observed at necropsy of the cockatoo was a multifocal necrotic hepatitis. Salmonella arizonae was isolated from the liver of the cockatoo and was detected immunohistochemically mainly around the edges of necrotic foci. Four iguanas died 3 days later showing a severe enteritis, and Salmonella arizonae was isolated from these lesions. The importance of quarantine and, because of pathogens such as Salmonella, the need to house reptiles at a distance from avian species, mainly psittacids, are reinforced. This is the first report of Salmonella arizonae infection in a cockatoo.

  12. Independent Confirmatory Survey Report for the University of Arizona Nuclear Reactor Laboratory, Tucson, Arizona DCN:2051-SR-01-0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altic, Nick A.

    2011-01-01

    The University of Arizona (University) research reactor is a TRIGA swimming pool type reactor designed by General Atomics and constructed at the University in 1958. The reactor first went into operation in December of 1958 under U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) license R-52 until final shut down on May 18, 2010. Initial site characterization activities were conducted in February 2009 during ongoing reactor operations to assess the radiological status of the Nuclear Reactor Laboratory (NRL) excluding the reactor tank, associated components, and operating systems. Additional post-shutdown characterization activities were performed to complete characterization activities as well as verify assumptions made in the Decommissioning Plan (DP) that were based on a separate activation analysis (ESI 2009 and WMG 2009). Final status survey (FSS) activities began shortly after the issuance of the FSS plan in May 2011. The contractor completed measurement and sampling activities during the week of August 29, 2011.

  13. Flagstaff 10 x 20 NTMS area Arizona: data report (abbreviated)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thayer, P.A.; Cook, J.R.

    1980-07-01

    Sampling in the northern half of the quadrangle was restricted to areas outside the Hopi Indian Reservation. Surface sediment samples were collected at 977 sites, at a target sampling density of one site per 13 square kilometers. Ground water samples were collected at 45 sites in the southwestern part of the quadrangle. Neutron activation analysis results are given for uranium and 16 other elements in sediments, and for uranium and 9 other elements in ground water. Mass spectrometry results are given for helium in ground water. Field measurements and observations are reported for each site. Analytical data and field measurements are presented in tables and maps. Data from ground water sites include: water chemistry measurements (pH, conductivity, and alkalinity); physical measurements where applicable (water temperature, well description, and scintillometer reading); and elemental analyses (U, Al, Br, Cl, Dy, F, He, Mg, Mn, Na, and V). Data from sediment sites include: stream water chemistry measurements from sites where water was available; and elemental analyses for sediment samples (U, Th, Hf, Al, Ce, Dy, Eu, Fe, La, Lu, Mn, Sc, Sm, Na, Ti, V, and Yb). Sample site descriptors are also tabulated. Areal distribution maps, histograms, and cumulative frequency plots for most elements; U/Th, U/Hf, U/(Th + Hf), and Th/La ratios; and scintillometer readings at sediment sample sites are included.Uranium concentrations in sediments of the Flagstaff quadrangle are relatively low, with a maximum value of 11 ppM. The mean of the logs of uranium values in sediments is 0.35, which corresponds to a value of about 2.2 ppM. Highest values occur in areas underlain by Quaternary volcanics and alluvium in the south-western part of the quadrangle, and in lacustrine deposits in the Hopi Buttes area on the eastern edge of the quadrangle. Both of these areas have known uranium occurrences

  14. The coal mining industry in the north of Colorado and Arizona; Steinkohlenbergbau im Norden Colorados und Arizonas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dressel, S.; Tschauder, A. [Kali und Salz AG Werk Werra, Philippsthal (Germany)

    2000-10-12

    A study tour in autumn 1999, which was undertaken following the award of the Helmuth Burkhardt prize of Wirtschaftsvereinigung Bergbau e.V. to the authors, comprised visits to potash, molybdenum, lead, zinc, copper ore and coal mines in the mid-west of the USA. The Black Mesa Mine and Kayenta Mine of Peabody Western Coal Company in the Navajo Reserve in the north of Arizona, the Trapper Mine Inc. near Craig and the Twentymile Coal Company near Steamboat Springs, Colorado are described in this report. In addition to a brief description of the geology the coal winning is considered in greater detail. The Twentymile Coal Company was asked to explain the reasons for the successful operation of the colliery, which produces more than 5 mill. t anthracite per year by long wall working. (orig.) [German] Eine Exkursion im Herbst 1999, die durch die Verleihung des Helmuth-Burkhard-Preises der Wirtschaftsvereinigung Bergbau e.V. an Bergassessor Andreas Tschauder zustande kam, fuehrte zu Kali-, Molybdaen-,Blei-, Zink-, Kupfererz- sowie Steinkohlenbergwerken im Mittleren Westen der USA. In diesem Bericht wird auf die Steinkohlenbergwerke Black Mesa Mine und Kayenta Mine der Peabody Western Coal Company im Navajo Reservat im Norden Arizonas, der Trapper Mine Inc. bei Craig sowie der Twentymile Coal Company, nahe Steamboat Springs, Colorado, eingegangen. Neben einer kurzen Abhandlung ueber die Geologie wird die Gewinnung naeher betrachtet. Bei der Twentymile Coal Company wird die Frage gestellt, welches die Gruende fuer die erfolgreiche Arbeit des Bergwerks sind, die im Langfrontabbau pro Jahr mehr als 5 Mill. t Glanzkohle gewinnt. (orig.)

  15. Pork meat as a potential source of Salmonella enterica subsp. arizonae infection in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelopoulou, Grammato; Kritas, Spyridon; Govaris, Alexander; Burriel, Angeliki R

    2014-03-01

    Salmonella enterica subsp. arizonae was isolated from 13 of 123 slaughtered pigs in central Greece. The samples cultured were feces, ileum tissue, mesenteric lymph nodes, and gallbladder swabs. A total of 74 isolates from 492 samples were identified as Salmonella spp. by use of standard laboratory culture media and two commercial micromethods and by use of a polyvalent slide agglutination test for the detection of O and H antigens. Among them were 19 (25.68%) suspected to be S. enterica subsp. arizonae according to analysis with standard laboratory culture media. Of those, 14 were identified as S. enterica subsp. arizonae by the API 20E (bioMérieux, France) and the Microgen GnA+B-ID (Microgen Bioproducts, Ltd., United Kingdom) identification systems. All the isolates were tested for resistance to 23 antimicrobials. Strains identified as S. enterica subsp. arizonae were resistant to 17 (70.8%) antibiotics. The highest proportions of resistance were observed for sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (71.4%), tetracycline (71.4%), ampicillin (64.3%), and amoxicillin (57.1%). Two isolates were resistant to aztreonam (7.1%) and tigecycline (7.1%), used only for the treatment of humans. Thus, pork meat may play a role in the transmission of antibiotic-resistant S. enterica subsp. arizonae to human consumers. This is the first report of S. enterica subsp. arizonae isolation from pigs.

  16. Ecological restoration of southwestern ponderosa pine ecosystems: A broad perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Craig D.; Savage, Melissa; Falk, Donald A.; Suckling, Kieran F.; Swetnam, Thomas W.; Schulke, Todd; Stacey, Peter B.; Morgan, Penelope; Hoffman, Martos; Klingel, Jon T.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to promote a broad and flexible perspective on ecological restoration of Southwestern (U.S.) ponderosa pine forests. Ponderosa pine forests in the region have been radically altered by Euro-American land uses, including livestock grazing, fire suppression, and logging. Dense thickets of young trees now abound, old-growth and biodiversity have declined, and human and ecological communities are increasingly vulnerable to destructive crown fires. A consensus has emerged that it is urgent to restore more natural conditions to these forests. Efforts to restore Southwestern forests will require extensive projects employing varying combinations of young-tree thinning and reintroduction of low-intensity fires. Treatments must be flexible enough to recognize and accommodate: high levels of natural heterogeneity; dynamic ecosystems; wildlife and other biodiversity considerations; scientific uncertainty; and the challenges of on-the-ground implementation. Ecological restoration should reset ecosystem trends toward an envelope of “natural variability,” including the reestablishment of natural processes. Reconstructed historic reference conditions are best used as general guides rather than rigid restoration prescriptions. In the long term, the best way to align forest conditions to track ongoing climate changes is to restore fire, which naturally correlates with current climate. Some stands need substantial structural manipulation (thinning) before fire can safely be reintroduced. In other areas, such as large wilderness and roadless areas, fire alone may suffice as the main tool of ecological restoration, recreating the natural interaction of structure and process. Impatience, overreaction to crown fire risks, extractive economics, or hubris could lead to widespread application of highly intrusive treatments that may further damage forest ecosystems. Investments in research and monitoring of restoration treatments are essential to refine

  17. Holocene RSL variation on southwestern Disko Island (Greenland)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emerich Souza, Priscila; Nielsen, Lars; Kroon, Aart

    We investigate RSL variations during the Holocene in Lakse Bugt by assessing topography, internal structure, and luminescence ages of fossil beach ridges and the modern beach. Lakse Bugt (Bay) lies on the southwestern coast of Disko Island in a mesotidal regime and a mild wave climate. Beach ridges...... are widespread over the marine terrace, extending from ~40 above sea level (m asl). The most recent ridges terminate either at the beach or at the coastal sandy cliffs ~8 m asl immediately behind the modern beach. These ridges are covered mainly by rounded boulders; the terrain surfaces of the swales have...... clearly been deformed by freezing and thawing processes, in contrast to those of the ridge crests, which are relatively smooth. High-resolution reflection GPR data and high resolution topographical data were collected along cross-shore transects using a shielded 250 MHz antennae system and a DGPS system...

  18. Algae from the arid southwestern United States: an annotated bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, W.H.; Gaines, S.R.

    1983-06-01

    Desert algae are attractive biomass producers for capturing solar energy through photosynthesis of organic matter. They are probably capable of higher yields and efficiencies of light utilization than higher plants, and are already adapted to extremes of sunlight intensity, salinity and temperature such as are found in the desert. This report consists of an annotated bibliography of the literature on algae from the arid southwestern United States. It was prepared in anticipation of efforts to isolate desert algae and study their yields in the laboratory. These steps are necessary prior to setting up outdoor algal culture ponds. Desert areas are attractive for such applications because land, sunlight, and, to some extent, water resources are abundant there. References are sorted by state.

  19. Macrofungi in the lateritic scrub jungles of southwestern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Greeshma

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A pilot study on macrofungi in scrub jungles (with and without fire-impact in lateritic region of southwestern coast of India was carried out.  Out of 11 species in 10 genera recovered, six and five species were confined to scrub jungle and fire-impacted scrub jungle, respectively.  An ectomycorrhizal Amanita sp. was the most frequent in scrub jungle associated with exotic (Acacia auriculiformis and A. mangium and plantation (Anacardium occidentale trees.  Based on traditional knowledge, it is a highly edible and nutritional delicacy in the coastal regions.  Astraeus odoratus was another common ectomycorrhizal fungus in native trees Hopea ponga, which was recovered from the fire-impacted scrub jungle and is possibly edible.  Edible termite mound mushroom Termitomyces striatus was also common in the fire-impacted scrub jungle.  Chlorophyllum molybdites was the most frequent mushroom in the fire-impacted scrub jungle.  

  20. Uranium favorability of southwestern Oklahoma and north-central Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanton, G.D.; Brogdon, L.D.; Quick, J.V.; Thomas, N.G.; Martin, T.S.

    1977-10-01

    Results are presented of a project to identify and delineate units and (or) facies that are favorable for uranium in the Upper Pennsylvanian and Lower Permian strata of north-central Texas and southwestern Oklahoma. To aid in this evaluation, an assessment of the probable uranium rocks (Wichita and Arbuckle Mountains) was necessary. Surface samples were collected from igneous and sedimentary rocks. Stream-sediment samples were also collected. However, the main emphasis of the investigation of the sedimentary units was on the identification of sedimentary facies trends in the subsurface and an evaluation of the uranium favorability within units studied. The area investigated centers along the Red River, the boundary between Texas and Oklahoma. The project area encompasses approximately 17,000 sq. mi. It includes all or parts of Cooke, Montague, Clay, Wichita, Wilbarger, Hardeman, Baylor, Knox, and Archer Counties in Texas and Love, Jefferson, Cotton, Tillman, Jackson, Stephens, Carter, Comanche, Harmon, and Greer Counties in Oklahoma

  1. Lithospheric Strength Beneath the Zagros Mountains of Southwestern Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, A. N.; Nyblade, A.; Brazier, R.; Rodgers, A.; Al-Amri, A.

    2006-05-01

    The Zagros Mountain Belt of southwestern Iran is among the most seismically active mountain belts in the world. Early seismic studies of this area found that the lithosphere underlying the Zagros Mountains follows the "jelly sandwich" model, having a strong upper crust and a strong lithospheric mantle, separated by a weak lower crust. More recent studies, which analyzed earthquakes originating within the Zagros Mountains that were recorded at teleseismic distances, however, found that these earthquakes occurred only within the upper crust, thus indicating that the strength of the Zagros Mountains' lithosphere lies only within the upper crust, in accordance with the "creme brulee" lithospheric model. Preliminary analysis of regionally recorded earthquakes that originated within the Zagros Mountains is presented here. Using earthquakes recorded at regional distances will allow the analysis of a larger dataset than has been used in previous studies. Preliminary results show earthquakes occurring throughout the crust and possibly extending into the upper mantle.

  2. Surficial geologic map of the Dillingham quadrangle, southwestern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Frederic H.

    2018-05-14

    The geologic map of the Dillingham quadrangle in southwestern Alaska shows surficial unconsolidated deposits, many of which are alluvial or glacial in nature. The map area, part of Alaska that was largely not glaciated during the late Wisconsin glaciation, has a long history reflecting local and more distant glaciations. Late Wisconsin glacial deposits have limited extent in the eastern part of the quadrangle, but are quite extensive in the western part of the quadrangle. This map and accompanying digital files are the result of the interpretation of black and white aerial photographs from the 1950s as well as more modern imagery. Limited new field mapping in the area was conducted as part of a bedrock mapping project in the northeastern part of the quadrangle; however, extensive aerial photographic interpretation represents the bulk of the mapping effort.

  3. Guanophilic fungi in three caves of southwestern Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieves-Rivera Angel M.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Fifty species of guanophilic (bat guano-loving fungi were isolated from field-collected samples within three caves in southwesternPuerto Rico; most were mitosporic fungi (23 species. The caves studied were Cueva La Tuna (Cabo Rojo, Cueva de Malano(Sistema de Los Chorros, San Germán, and Cueva Viento (El Convento Cave-Spring System, Guayanilla-Peñuelas. The mostconspicuous fungus by far was the zygomycete Circinella umbellata (Mucorales. Circinella umbellata dominated the bat guanoincubation chambers (Petri dishes lined with sterile filter paper moistened with sterile water at ambient laboratory conditions.Nineteen species of basidiomycetes (e.g., Ganoderma cf. resinaceum, Geastrum cf. minimum, Lepiota sp., Polyporus sp., Ramariasp. and three species of ascomycetes (Hypoxylon sp., Xylaria anisopleura, and X. kegeliana were also recorded. They were foundon soil, rotting leaves, bark and rotting wood, buried in bat guano located below natural skylights or sinkholes.

  4. LEXICOGRAPHICAL STUDIES ON THE SOUTHWESTERN DIALECTS OF THE UKRAINIAN LANGUAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasyl Greshchuk

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the issue of compiling the Southwestern dialect dictionaries. A survey of the history of the dialect dictionaries from the mid-nineteenth century to the present is given. The scientific background and principles of compiling the dictionaries in question are analyzed. Special attention is given to dictionary register, dictionary entry structure, description of semantic properties of registered words, illustrative material, word passport. It has been established that many aspects of the Hutsul dialects are reflected in different lexicographical works, though a big academic dictionary still needs to be written. There exist big differential dictionaries of the Boyko, Bukovynian, Upper Dniestrian dialects. The Transcarpathian and Lemko dialects are less closely studied in this respect. There have been carried out some lexicographical studies of the Podillian, Pokuttian, Southern Volynian dialects and the dialects of the Sian river basin; further research is certainly needed to provide a firm basis for compiling dictionaries of these dialects.

  5. Paleozoic stratigraphy of two areas in southwestern Indiana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Droste, J.B.

    1976-09-01

    Two areas recommended for evaluation as solid waste disposal sites lie along the strike of Paleozoic rocks in southwestern Indiana. Thin Pennsylvanian rocks and rocks of the upper Mississippian are at the bedrock surface in maturely dissected uplands in both areas. The gross subsurface stratigraphy beneath both areas is the same, but facies and thickness variation in some of the subsurface Paleozoic units provide for some minor differences between the areas. Thick middle Mississippi carbonates grade downward into clastics of lower Mississippian (Borden Group) and upper Devonian (New Albany Shale) rocks. Middle Devonian and Silurian rocks are dominated by carbonate lithologies. Upper Ordovician (Maquoketa Group) overly carbonates of middle Ordovician age. Thick siltstone and shale of the Borden Group-New Albany Shale zone and Maquoketa Group rocks should be suitable for repository development

  6. Feasibility study of wind-generated electricity for rural applications in southwestern Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohring, G. W.

    The parameters associated with domestic production of wind generated electricity for direct use by small farms and rural homes in the southwestern Ohio region are discussed. The project involves direct utility interfaced electricity generation from a horizontal axis, down-wind, fixed pitch, wind powered induction generator system. Goals of the project are to determine: the ability to produce useful amounts of domestic wind generated electricity in the southwestern Ohio region; economic justification for domestic wind generated electrical production; and the potential of domestic wind generated electricity for reducing dependence on non-renewable energy resources in the southwestern Ohio region.

  7. Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter in Southwestern Greenland Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osburn, C. L.; Giles, M. E.; Underwood, G. J. C.

    2014-12-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is an important property of Arctic lake ecosystems, originating from allochthonous inputs from catchments and autochthonous production by plankton in the water column. Little is known about the quality of DOM in Arctic lakes that lack substantial inputs from catchments and such lakes are abundant in southwestern Greenland. Colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM), the fraction that absorbs ultraviolet (UV) and visible light, is the controlling factor for the optical properties of many surface waters and as well informs on the quality of DOM. We examined the quality of CDOM in 21 lakes in southwestern Greenland, from the ice sheet to the coast, as part of a larger study examining the role of DOM in regulating microbial communities in these lakes. DOM was size fractioned and absorbance and fluorescence was measured on each size fraction, as well as on bulk DOM. The specific ultraviolet absorbance (SUVA) at 254 nm (SUVA254), computed by normalizing absorption (a254) to dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration, provided an estimate of the aromatic carbon content of DOM. SUVA values were generally CDOM fluorescence was used to determine the relative abundance of allochthonous and autochthonous DOM in all size fractions. Younger lakes near the ice sheet and lakes near the coast had lower amounts of CDOM and appeared more microbial in quality. However, lakes centrally located between the ice sheet and the coast had the highest CDOM concentrations and exhibited strong humic fluorescence. Overall distinct differences in CDOM quality were observed between lake locations and among DOM size fractions.

  8. [Giant-cell arteritis: a descriptive study in southwestern Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo Romero, J M; Magro Ledesma, D; Ramos Salado, J L; Bureo Dacal, J C; de Dios Arrebola García, J; Bureo Dacal, P; Pérez Miranda, M

    2000-02-01

    To study the clinical and laboratory features of a series of patients with giant cell arteritis (GCA) or temporal arteritis in south-western Spain (Extremadura). Retrospective study of 25 patients with GCA diagnosed by temporal artery biopsy between 1990 and 1998. Nine patients were males and 16 (64%) females. Sixteen cases (64%) presented polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR). Other clinical findings were: fever/febricula (64%), constitutional syndrome (64%), new headache (96%), visual symptoms (48%), jaw claudication (17%) and abnormal temporal arteries (17%). All patients had an ESR of more than 50 mm/hour and a raised C-reactive protein. Thirteen patients (52%) had anemia (hemoglobin level < 12 g/dl). Eleven cases (44%) presented a platelet count higher than 400,000/mm3. Four patients (16%) had an elevated AST and/or ALT levels and 8 patients (32%) had an elevated GGT and/or alkaline phosphatase levels. In patients with PMR, there was a higher frequency of constitutional syndrome (81 vs 33%, p = 0.02). In females, there was a higher frequency of anemia (75 vs 11%, p < 0.01), platelet count higher than 400,000/mm3 (75 vs 0%, p < 0.01) and elevated AST and/or ALT (25 vs 0%, p < 0.01) and elevated GGT and/or alkaline phosphatase (50 vs 0%, p < 0.01) levels. The clinical and laboratory features of GCA in our series of patients in south-western Spain are similar to that described in other spanish populations, with the exception of a slightly higher frequency of PMR and a lower frequency of jaw claudication and abnormal temporal arteries. In our study, the clinical picture of GCA was more severe in patients with PMR and in females.

  9. Towards a delimitation of southwestern Nigeria into hydrological regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunkoya, O. O.

    1988-05-01

    Fifteen third-order drainage basins (1:50,000) on the Basement Complex rocks of southwestern Nigeria are classified into hydrological regions using hydrologic response parameters of average daily mean specific discharge ( QA); daily mean specific discharges equalled or exceeded 90% ( Q90), 50% ( Q50) and 10% ( Q10) of the study period; variability index of flow ( VI); recession constant ( K) of flow from peak discharge at the end of the rainy season to minimum discharge in the dry season; total annual runoff ( RO); total runoff within the dry season ( DSRO); dry season runoff as a percentage of total annual runoff (% DSRO); runoff coefficient ( ROC); and, number of days during the study period when there was no flow ( NFD). An ordination technique and a classification algorithm derived from cluster analysis technique and incorporating the analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests to determine the level of significance of the homogeneity of derived classes, were used to classify the fifteen basins into five hydrologically homogeneous regions. The constituent basins of each region were observed to share common basin geology. It was observed that those drainage basins having at least 50% of their basin area underlain by quartzitic rocks form two groups and have the most desirable or optimal hydrologic response patterns, desirability or optimality being in terms of ability to potentially meet water resource development requirements (i.e. high perennial discharge, low variability and large groundwater contribution to stream flow). The basins predominantly underlain by granite-gneisses and amphibolitic rocks have much poorer hydrologic response patterns. Hydrological regionalization in southwestern Nigeria appears to be influenced by drainage basin geology while percentage area of the basin underlain by massive quartzites could be used as an index of occurrence of desirable hydrologic response pattern.

  10. Conceptual understanding and groundwater quality of selected basin-fill aquifers in the Southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiros, Susan A.; Bexfield, Laura M.; Anning, David W.; Huntington, Jena M.

    2010-01-01

    The National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program of the U.S. Geological Survey has been conducting a regional analysis of water quality in the principal aquifer systems in the southwestern United States (hereinafter, “Southwest”) since 2005. Part of the NAWQA Program, the objective of the Southwest Principal Aquifers (SWPA) study is to develop a better understanding of water quality in basin-fill aquifers in the region by synthesizing information from case studies of 15 basins into a common set of important natural and human-related factors found to affect groundwater quality.The synthesis consists of three major components:1. Summary of current knowledge about the groundwater systems, and the status of, changes in, and influential factors affecting quality of groundwater in basin-fill aquifers in 15 basins previously studied by NAWQA (this report).2. Development of a conceptual model of the primary natural and human-related factors commonly affecting groundwater quality, thereby building a regional understanding of the susceptibility and vulnerability of basin-fill aquifers to contaminants.3. Development of statistical models that relate the concentration or occurrence of specific chemical constituents in groundwater to natural and human-related factors linked to the susceptibility and vulnerability of basin-fill aquifers to contamination.Basin-fill aquifers occur in about 200,000 mi2 of the 410,000 mi2 SWPA study area and are the primary source of groundwater supply for cities and agricultural communities. Four of the principal aquifers or aquifer systems of the United States are included in the basin-fill aquifers of the study area: (1) the Basin and Range basin-fill aquifers in California, Nevada, Utah, and Arizona; (2) the Rio Grande aquifer system in New Mexico and Colorado; (3) the California Coastal Basin aquifers; and (4) the Central Valley aquifer system in California. Because of the generally limited availability of surface-water supplies in

  11. Partial cranium of Cercopithecoides kimeui Leakey, 1982 from Rawi Gully, southwestern Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Stephen R; Plummer, Thomas; Bishop, Laura C; Ditchfield, Peter; Ferraro, Joseph; Hicks, Jason

    2003-11-01

    The Rawi Gully, located on the Homa Peninsula in southwestern Kenya, has produced several fossil elements of a large cercopithecid from sediments approximately 2.5 million years old (Ma). Nearly all of these elements appear to represent a single adult male individual of the colobine species Cercopithecoides kimeui Leakey, 1982. Part of the face, mandible, dentition, and several small postcranial fragments were collected by the Homa Peninsula Paleoanthropological Project (HPPP) in 1994 and 1995. This individual also appears to be represented by material collected in two previous expeditions to the site, one led by David Pilbeam in the 1970s and an earlier expedition led by L.S.B. Leakey in 1933. This specimen may extend the first appearance of C. kimeui by approximately 500 Kyr, and provides the first evidence for much of the male facial morphology in this species. Furthermore, Rawi may represent a more wooded habitat than the other occurrences of C. kimeui at Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania, and Koobi Fora, Kenya, indicating that C. kimeui may have been relatively flexible in its habitat preferences. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Transverse grooved artefacts from southwestern Asia and northern Eurasia: Common traits and the reconstruction of function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Usacheva

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Transverse grooved artefacts (TGA appeared as a new cultural element in Mesolithic-Proto-Neolithic sites in southwestern Asia. We know of similar artefacts from northern Africa. Hundreds of TGA have also been found in northern Eurasia. Some common traits were found in specimens from far apart territories, such as the non-abrasive heat-resistant nature of the raw materials, specificity of fragmentation without any signs of physical impact, the standard size of the grooves, association with a specific type of landscape, the similar economic level of the societies with which the items are associated, and use-wear marks in the grooves. Based on these regularities we can speak of a single main function for these artefacts which support the earlier reconstruction of R.L. and R.S. Solecki, suggesting that grooved stones were used for straightening cane and reed shafts under heating. Other evidence and traces that have been identified on the surface of TGA outside the groove could be associated with a variety of additional functions.

  13. Habitat selection and diurnal refugia of gray foxes in southwestern Georgia, USA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas R Deuel

    Full Text Available Understanding habitat selection of gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus is essential to evaluate their potential response to changes in land use and predator communities. Few studies have evaluated temporal habitat selection or explicitly identified habitats used by gray foxes for diurnal refugia. We used GPS collars to obtain location data for 34 gray foxes (20 males and 14 females from February 2014 to December 2015 to evaluate temporal (seasonal and diel habitat selection and selection of diurnal refugia in southwestern Georgia, USA. We analyzed habitat selection at 2 levels, selection of a core area within the home range and selection of locations within the home range. Habitat selection was non-random (P 0.05. Hardwoods, human use (i.e., areas associated with regular human activity such as buildings, lawns, parking areas, etc., and roads were selected (P 0.05. Selection of habitats for diurnal refugia did not vary seasonally or by sex (P > 0.05, with foxes selecting (P < 0.05 areas near hardwood forests, roads, agriculture, human use, pastures/food plots, and shrub scrub habitats. Gray foxes were observed on the ground while resting, and we found no evidence of gray foxes diurnally resting in trees. Our results suggest that on our study area, gray foxes are an edge species that prefer forests with a hardwood component in areas near human use and roads.

  14. Seroprevalence of Burkholderia pseudomallei among Adults in Coastal Areas in Southwestern India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalwaje Eshwara Vandana

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Although melioidosis, is an important disease in many Southeast Asian countries and Australia, there is limited data on its prevalence and disease burden in India. However, an increase in case reports of melioidosis in recent years indicates its endemicity in India.A population-based cross-sectional seroprevalence study was undertaken to determine the seroprevalence of B. pseudomallei by indirect haemagglutination assay and to investigate the associated risk determinants. Subjects were 711 adults aged 18 to 65 years residing in Udupi district, located in south-western coast of India.Overall, 29% of the study subjects were seropositive (titer ≥20. Females were twice as likely to be seropositive compared to males. Rates of seroprevalence were similar in farmers and non-farmers. Besides gardening, other factors including socio-demographic, occupational and environmental factors did not show any relationship with seropositive status.There is a serological evidence of exposure to B. pseudomallei among adults in India. While the bacterium inhabits soil, exposure to the agent is not limited to farmers. Non-occupational exposure might play an important role in eliciting antibody response to the bacterium and may also be an important factor in disease causation.

  15. Evaluation of geothermal energy in Arizona. Arizona geothermal planning/commercialization team. Quarterly topical progress report, July 1-September 30, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, D.H.; Mancini, F.; Goldstone, L.A.; Malysa, L.

    1980-01-01

    Progress is reviewed on the following: area development plans, evaluation of geothermal applications, continued evaluation of geothermal resources, engineering and economic analyses, technical assistance in the state of Arizona, the impact of various growth patterns upon geothermal energy development, and the outreach program. (MHR)

  16. What influences climate and glacier change in southwestern China?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasunari, Teppei J.

    2011-12-01

    The subject of climate change in the Tibetan Plateau (TP) and Himalayas has taken on increasing importance because of the availability of water resources from their mountain glaciers (Immerzeel et al 2010). Many of the glaciers over these regions have been retreating, while some are advancing and stable (Yao et al 2004, Scherler et al 2011). Other studies report that some glaciers in the Himalayas show acceleration of their shrinkage (e.g., Fujita and Nuimura 2011). However, the causes of glacier melting are still difficult to grasp because of the complexity of climatic change and its influence on glacier issues. Despite this, it is vital that we pursue further study to enable future predictions of glacier changes. The paper entitled 'Climate and glacier change in southwestern China during the past several decades' by Li et al (2011) provided carefully analyzed, quality controlled, long-term data on atmospheric temperature and precipitation during the period 1961-2008. The data were obtained from 111 Chinese stations. The researchers performed systematic analyses of temperature and precipitation over the whole southwestern Chinese domain. They discussed those changes in terms of other meteorological components such as atmospheric circulation patterns, radiation and altitude difference, and then showed how these factors could contribute to climate and glacier changes in the region. Air temperature and precipitation are strongly associated with glacier mass balance because of heat balance and the addition of mass when it snows. Temperature warming trends over many places in southwestern China were unequivocally dominant in all seasons and at higher altitudes. This indicates that the heat contribution to the glaciers has been increasing. On the other hand, precipitation has a wider variability in time and space. It is more difficult to clearly understand the effect of precipitation on the climate and glacier melting characteristics in the whole of southwestern China

  17. LED Street Lighting Solutions: Flagstaff, Arizona as a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jeffrey C.

    2018-01-01

    Dark-sky protection in Flagstaff, Arizona extends back to 1958, with the first ordinance in the City banning advertising floodlights. The current ordinance, adopted in 1989, is comprehensive and has played a critical role in maintaining the quality of the night sky for astronomy, tourism, public enjoyment, and other purposes. Flagstaff, like many communities around the world, is now working on a transition from legacy bulb-based technology to LED for its outdoor lighting. The City, Lowell Observatory, the U. S. Naval Observatory, and the Flagstaff Dark Skies Coalition have been working intensively for two years to identify an LED-based street lighting solution that will preserve the City's dark skies while meeting municipal needs. We will soon be installing test fixtures for an innovative solution incorporating narrow-band amber LED and modest amounts of low-CCT white LED. In this talk, I will review the types of LEDs available for outdoor lighting and discuss the plans for Flagstaff's street lighting in the LED era, which we hope will be a model for communities worldwide.

  18. Socioeconomic impact of photovoltaic power at Schuchulik, Arizona. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahr, D.; Garrett, B.G.; Chrisman, C.

    1980-10-01

    Schuchuli, a small remote village on the Papago Indian Reservation in southwest Arizona, is 27 kilometers (17 miles) from the nearest available utility power. In some respects, Schuchuli resembles many of the rural villages in other parts of the world. For example, it's relatively small in size (about 60 residents), composed of a number of extended family groupings, and remotely situated relative to major population centers (190 km, or 120 miles, from Tucson). Its lack of conventional power is due to the prohibitive cost of supplying a small electrical load with a long-distance distribution line. Furthermore, alternate energy sources are expensive and place a burden on the resources of the villagers. On December 16, 1978, as part of a federally funded project, a solar cell power system was put into operation at Schuchuli. The system powers the village water pump, lighting for homes ad other village buildings, family refrigerators and a communal washing machine and sewing machine. The project, managed for the US Department of Energy by the NASA Lewis Research Center, provided for a one-year socio-economic study to assess the impact of a relatively small amount of electricity on the basic living environment of the villagers. The results of that study are presented, including village history, group life, energy use in general and the use of the photovoltaic-powered appliances. No significant impacts due to the photovoltaic power system were observed.

  19. Molecular detection of airborne Coccidioides in Tucson, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Nancy A.; Griffin, Dale W.; Barker, Bridget M.; Loparev, Vladimir N.; Litvintseva, Anastasia P.

    2016-01-01

    Environmental surveillance of the soil-dwelling fungus Coccidioides is essential for the prevention of Valley fever, a disease primarily caused by inhalation of the arthroconidia. Methods for collecting and detectingCoccidioides in soil samples are currently in use by several laboratories; however, a method utilizing current air sampling technologies has not been formally demonstrated for the capture of airborne arthroconidia. In this study, we collected air/dust samples at two sites (Site A and Site B) in the endemic region of Tucson, Arizona, and tested a variety of air samplers and membrane matrices. We then employed a single-tube nested qPCR assay for molecular detection. At both sites, numerous soil samples (n = 10 at Site A and n = 24 at Site B) were collected and Coccidioides was detected in two samples (20%) at Site A and in eight samples (33%) at Site B. Of the 25 air/dust samples collected at both sites using five different air sampling methods, we detected Coccidioides in three samples from site B. All three samples were collected using a high-volume sampler with glass-fiber filters. In this report, we describe these methods and propose the use of these air sampling and molecular detection strategies for environmental surveillance of Coccidioides.

  20. UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Monument Valley, Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    The Monument Valley Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site in Cane Valley is a former uranium mill that has undergone surface remediation in the form of tailings and contaminated materials removal. Contaminated materials from the Monument Valley (Arizona) UMTRA Project site have been transported to the Mexican Hat (Utah) UMTRA Project site for consolidation with the Mexican Hat tailings. Tailings removal was completed in February 1994. Three geologic units at the site contain water: the unconsolidated eolian and alluvial deposits (alluvial aquifer), the Shinarump Conglomerate (Shinarump Member), and the De Chelly Sandstone. Water quality analyses indicate the contaminant plume has migrated north of the site and is mainly in the alluvial aquifer. An upward hydraulic gradient in the De Chelly Sandstone provides some protection to that aquifer. This water sampling and analysis plan recommends sampling domestic wells, monitor wells, and surface water in April and September 1994. The purpose of sampling is to continue periodic monitoring for the surface program, evaluate changes to water quality for site characterization, and provide data for the baseline risk assessment. Samples taken in April will be representative of high ground water levels and samples taken in September will be representative of low ground water levels. Filtered and nonfiltered samples will be analyzed for plume indicator parameters and baseline risk assessment parameters

  1. Arizona Public Service - Alternative Fuel (Hydrogen) Pilot Plant Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James E. Francfort

    2003-12-01

    Hydrogen has promise to be the fuel of the future. Its use as a chemical reagent and as a rocket propellant has grown to over eight million metric tons per year in the United States. Although use of hydrogen is abundant, it has not been used extensively as a transportation fuel. To assess the viability of hydrogen as a transportation fuel and the viability of producing hydrogen using off-peak electric energy, Pinnacle West Capital Corporation (PNW) and its electric utility subsidiary, Arizona Public Service (APS) designed, constructed, and operates a hydrogen and compressed natural gas fueling station—the APS Alternative Fuel Pilot Plant. This report summarizes the design of the APS Alternative Fuel Pilot Plant and presents lessons learned from its design and construction. Electric Transportation Applications prepared this report under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory manages these activities for the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity.

  2. Subsidence characterization and modeling for engineered facilities in Arizona, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Rucker

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Several engineered facilities located on deep alluvial basins in southern Arizona, including flood retention structures (FRS and a coal ash disposal facility, have been impacted by up to as much as 1.8 m of differential land subsidence and associated earth fissuring. Compressible basin alluvium depths are as deep as about 300 m, and historic groundwater level declines due to pumping range from 60 to more than 100 m at these facilities. Addressing earth fissure-inducing ground strain has required alluvium modulus characterization to support finite element modeling. The authors have developed Percolation Theory-based methodologies to use effective stress and generalized geo-material types to estimate alluvium modulus as a function of alluvium lithology, depth and groundwater level. Alluvial material modulus behavior may be characterized as high modulus gravel-dominated, low modulus sand-dominated, or very low modulus fines-dominated (silts and clays alluvium. Applied at specific aquifer stress points, such as significant pumping wells, this parameter characterization and quantification facilitates subsidence magnitude modeling at its' sources. Modeled subsidence is then propagated over time across the basin from the source(s using a time delay exponential decay function similar to the soil mechanics consolidation coefficient, only applied laterally. This approach has expanded subsidence modeling capabilities on scales of engineered facilities of less than 2 to more than 15 km.

  3. Geographic disparities of asthma prevalence in south-western United States of America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lung-Chang Chien

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is one of the most prevalent chronic diseases in the United States of America (USA, and many of its risk factors have so far been investigated and identified; however, evidence is limited on how spatial disparities impact the disease. The purpose of this study was to provide scientific evidence on the location influence on asthma in the four states of south- western USA (California, Arizona, New Mexico and Texas which, together, include 360 counties. The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System database for these four states covering the period of 2000 to 2011 was used in this analysis, and a Bayesian structured additive regression model was applied to analyse by a geographical information system. After adjusting for individual characteristics, socioeconomic status and health behaviour, this study found higher odds associated with asth- ma and a likely cluster around the Bay Area in California, while lower odds appeared in several counties around the larger cities of Texas, such as Dallas, Houston and San Antonio. The significance map shows 43 of 360 counties (11.9% to be high-risk areas for asthma. The level of geographical disparities demonstrates that the county risk of asthma prevalence varies significantly and can be about 19.9% (95% confidence interval: 15.3-25.8 higher or lower than the overall asthma prevalence. We provide an efficient method to utilise and interpret the existing surveillance data on asthma. Visualisation by maps may help deliver future interventions on targeted areas and vulnerable populations to reduce geographical disparities in the burden of asthma.

  4. Reactivation of precambrian faults on the southwestern continental margin of India: Evidence from gravity anomalies

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Subrahmanyam, V.; Ramana, M.V.; Rao, D.G.

    con- fi~ration of the western continental margin, with various structural styles, has been considered as a single unit, even though there exists a difference of opinion about the origin and evolution of the Chagos-Laccadive Ridge complex...’tVATION OF PRECAMBRIAN FAULTS ON THE SW CON~~E~AL MARGIN OF INDIA 337 shelf break due to the steep topographic relief of shelf. Furthermore, the gradients might have played a dominant role in shaping the bathymetry when the block movement took place along the pre...

  5. Two new species of Indonemoura (Plecoptera: Nemouridae) from Yunnan Province of southwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weihai; Wu, Limin; Yang, Ding

    2017-02-09

    Two new species of the nemourid genus Indonemoura are described, Indonemoura curvispina sp. nov. and I. spirocornua sp. nov., from the Gaoligong Mountains of Yunnan Province of southwestern China. The taxonomic relationships with related species are discussed.

  6. Morphological and interlayer geochemical studies on manganese nodules from the southwestern Carlsberg ridge

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Valsangkar, A.B.; Rajamanickam, G.V.; Karisiddaiah, S.M.; Siddiquie, H.N.

    Mixed facies of manganese nodules from the southwestern Carlberg Ridge have been analysed for Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Co and Zn. Seventy one analyses including the averages presented for outer layer, inner layer and near-core material. Morphological studies...

  7. Seasonal mixed layer heat balance of the southwestern tropical Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Foltz, G.R.; Vialard, J.; PraveenKumar, B.; McPhaden, M.J.

    from a long-term moored buoy are used in conjunction with satellite, in situ, and atmospheric reanalysis datasets to analyze the seasonal mixed layer heat balance in the thermocline ridge region of the southwestern tropical Indian Ocean. This region...

  8. Aeolian deposition of Arabia and Somalia sediments on the southwestern continental margin of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chauhan, O.S.

    Kaolinite, smectite, illite and chlorite as major clay minerals and palygorskite and gibbsite in minor quantities have been recorded from the slope of southwestern continental margin of India. Contribution of kaolinite, smectite and gibbsite is from...

  9. Drought responses of conifers in ecotone forests of northern Arizona: tree ring growth and leaf delta13C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Henry D; Kolb, Thomas E

    2004-07-01

    We sought to understand differences in tree response to meteorological drought among species and soil types at two ecotone forests in northern Arizona, the pinyon-juniper woodland/ponderosa pine ecotone, and the higher elevation, wetter, ponderosa pine/mixed conifer ecotone. We used two approaches that provide different information about drought response: the ratio of standardized radial growth in wet years to dry years (W:D) for the period between years 1950 and 2000 as a measure of growth response to drought, and delta13C in leaves formed in non-drought (2001) and drought (2002) years as a measure of change in water use efficiency (WUE) in response to drought. W:D and leaf delta13C response to drought for Pinus edulis and P. ponderosa did not differ for trees growing on coarse-texture soils derived from cinders compared with finer textured soils derived from flow basalts or sedimentary rocks. P. ponderosa growing near its low elevation range limit at the pinyon-juniper woodland/ponderosa pine ecotone had a greater growth response to drought (higher W:D) and a larger increase in WUE in response to drought than co-occurring P. edulis growing near its high elevation range limit. P. flexilis and Pseudotsuga menziesii growing near their low elevation range limit at the ponderosa pine/mixed conifer ecotone had a larger growth response to drought than co-occurring P. ponderosa growing near its high elevation range limit. Increases in WUE in response to drought were similar for all species at the ponderosa pine/mixed conifer ecotone. Low elevation populations of P. ponderosa had greater growth response to drought than high-elevation populations, whereas populations had a similar increase in WUE in response to drought. Our findings of different responses to drought among co-occurring tree species and between low- and high-elevation populations are interpreted in the context of drought impacts on montane coniferous forests of the southwestern USA.

  10. Genetic and morphological contrasts between wild and anthropogenic populations of Agave parryi var. huachucensis in south-eastern Arizona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Kathleen C; Trapnell, Dorset W; Hamrick, J L; Hodgson, Wendy C

    2014-05-01

    At least seven species of Agave, including A. parryi, were cultivated prehistorically in Arizona, serving as important sources of food and fibre. Many relict populations from ancient cultivation remain in the modern landscape, offering a unique opportunity to study pre-Columbian plant manipulation practices. This study examined genetic and morphological variation in six A. p. var. huachucensis populations of unknown origin to compare them with previous work on A. parryi populations of known origin, to infer their cultivation history and to determine whether artificial selection is evident in populations potentially managed by early agriculturalists. Six A. p. var. huachucensis and 17 A. parryi populations were sampled, and morphometric, allozyme and microsatellite data were used to compare morphology and genetic structure in purportedly anthropogenic and wild populations, as well as in the two taxa. Analysis of molecular variance and Bayesian clustering were performed to partition variation associated with taxonomic identity and hypothesized evolutionary history, to highlight patterns of similarity among populations and to identify potential wild sources for the planting stock. A p. var. huachucensis and A. parryi populations differed significantly both morphologically and genetically. Like A. parryi, wild A. p. var. huachucensis populations were more genetically diverse than the inferred anthropogenic populations, with greater expected heterozygosity, percentage of polymorphic loci and number of alleles. Inferred anthropogenic populations exhibited many traits indicative of past active cultivation: greater morphological uniformity, fixed heterozygosity for several loci (non-existent in wild populations), fewer multilocus genotypes and strong differentiation among populations. Where archaeological information is lacking, the genetic signature of many Agave populations in Arizona can be used to infer their evolutionary history and to identify potentially fruitful

  11. Presence of the dinosaur Scelidosaurus indicates Jurassic age for the Kayenta Formation (Glen Canyon Group, northern Arizona)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padian, Kevin

    1989-05-01

    The Glen Canyon Group (Moenave, Wingate, Kayenta and Navajo Formations) of northern Arizona represents an extensive outcrop of early Mesozoic age terrestrial sediments. The age of these formations has long been disputed because independent stratigraphic data from marine tie-ins, paleobotanical and palynological evidence, and radiometric calibrations have been scanty or absent. The fauna of the Kayenta Formation in particular has been problematic because it has appeared to contain both typical Late Triassic and Early Jurassic taxa Here I report that the principal evidence for Late Triassic taxa, dermal scutes previously assigned to an aetosaur, in fact belongs to the thyreophoran ornithischian dinosaur Scelidosaurus, previously known only as a washed-in form found in marine sediments in the Early Jurassic of England. The presence of this dinosaur represents the first vertebrate biostratigraphic tie-in of the Glen Canyon Group horizons with reliably dated marine deposits in Europe. Together with revised systematic assessments of other vertebrates and independent evidence from fossil pollen, it supports an Early Jurassic age for the Kayenta Formation and most or all of the Glen Canyon Group.

  12. First diagnostic marine reptile remains from the Aalenian (Middle Jurassic): a new ichthyosaur from southwestern Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Erin E; Fernández, Marta S; Schoch, Rainer R

    2012-01-01

    The Middle Jurassic was a critical time in the evolutionary history of ichthyosaurs. During this time interval, the diverse, well-studied faunas of the Lower Jurassic were entirely replaced by ophthalmosaurids, a new group that arose sometime prior to the Aalenian-Bajocian boundary and by the latest middle Jurassic comprised the only surviving group of ichthyosaurs. Thus, the Middle Jurassic Aalenian-Bathonian interval (176-165 million years ago) comprises the time frame during which ophthalmosaurids not only originated but also achieved taxonomic dominance. However, diagnostic ichthyosaur remains have been described previously from only a single locality from this interval, from the Bajocian of Argentina. In this paper, we describe a new species of ichthyosaur based on a partial articulated specimen from the Middle Jurassic of southwestern Germany. This specimen was recovered from the Opalinuston Formation (early Aalenian) and is referable to Stenopterygius aaleniensis sp. nov. reflecting features of the skull and forefin. The genus Stenopterygius is diverse and abundant in the Lower Jurassic of Europe, but its presence has not previously been confirmed in younger (Middle Jurassic) rocks from the northern hemisphere. This specimen represents the only diagnostic ichthyosaur remains reported from the Aalenian. It bears numerous similarities in size and in morphology to the Lower Jurassic species of the genus Stenopterygius and provides additional evidence that the major ecological changes hypothesized to have occurred at the end of the Toarcian took place sometime after this point and most likely did not occur suddenly. There is currently no evidence for the presence of ophthalmosaurids in the northern hemisphere during the Aalenian-Bathonian interval.

  13. First diagnostic marine reptile remains from the Aalenian (Middle Jurassic: a new ichthyosaur from southwestern Germany.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin E Maxwell

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Middle Jurassic was a critical time in the evolutionary history of ichthyosaurs. During this time interval, the diverse, well-studied faunas of the Lower Jurassic were entirely replaced by ophthalmosaurids, a new group that arose sometime prior to the Aalenian-Bajocian boundary and by the latest middle Jurassic comprised the only surviving group of ichthyosaurs. Thus, the Middle Jurassic Aalenian-Bathonian interval (176-165 million years ago comprises the time frame during which ophthalmosaurids not only originated but also achieved taxonomic dominance. However, diagnostic ichthyosaur remains have been described previously from only a single locality from this interval, from the Bajocian of Argentina. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this paper, we describe a new species of ichthyosaur based on a partial articulated specimen from the Middle Jurassic of southwestern Germany. This specimen was recovered from the Opalinuston Formation (early Aalenian and is referable to Stenopterygius aaleniensis sp. nov. reflecting features of the skull and forefin. The genus Stenopterygius is diverse and abundant in the Lower Jurassic of Europe, but its presence has not previously been confirmed in younger (Middle Jurassic rocks from the northern hemisphere. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This specimen represents the only diagnostic ichthyosaur remains reported from the Aalenian. It bears numerous similarities in size and in morphology to the Lower Jurassic species of the genus Stenopterygius and provides additional evidence that the major ecological changes hypothesized to have occurred at the end of the Toarcian took place sometime after this point and most likely did not occur suddenly. There is currently no evidence for the presence of ophthalmosaurids in the northern hemisphere during the Aalenian-Bathonian interval.

  14. Hydrology of the middle San Pedro area, southeastern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordova, Jeffrey T.; Dickinson, Jesse; Beisner, Kimberly R.; Hopkins, Candice B.; Kennedy, Jeffrey R.; Pool, Donald R.; Glenn, Edward P.; Nagler, Pamela L.; Thomas, Blakemore E.

    2015-05-05

    In the middle San Pedro Watershed in southeastern Arizona, groundwater is the primary source of water supply for municipal, domestic, industrial, and agricultural use. The watershed comprises two smaller subareas, the Benson subarea and the Narrows-Redington subarea. Early 21st century projections for heavy population growth in the watershed have not yet become a reality, but increased groundwater withdrawals could have undesired consequences - such as decreased base flow to the San Pedro River, and groundwater-level declines - that would lead to the need to deepen existing wells. This report describes the hydrology, hydrochemistry, water quality, and development of a groundwater budget for the middle San Pedro Watershed, focusing primarily on the elements of groundwater movement that could be most useful for the development of a groundwater modelPrecipitation data from Tombstone, Arizona, and base flow at the stream-gaging station on the San Pedro River at Charleston both show relatively dry periods during the 1960s through the mid-1980s and in the mid-1990s to 2009, and wetter periods from the mid-1980s through the mid-1990s. Water levels in four out of five wells near the mountain fronts show cyclical patterns of recharge, with rates of recharge greatest in the early 1980s through the mid-1990s. Three wells near the San Pedro River recorded their lowest levels during the 1950s to the mid-1960s. The water-level record from one well, completed in the confined part of the coarse-grained lower basin fill, showed a decline of approximately 21 meters.Annual flow of the San Pedro River, measured at the Charleston and Redington gages, has decreased since the 1940s. The median annual streamflow and base flow at the gaging station on the river near Tombstone has decreased by 50 percent between the periods 1968–1986 and 1997–2009. Estimates of streamflow infiltration along the San Pedro River during 1914–2009 have decreased 44 percent, with the largest decreases in

  15. Aquifer test at well SMW-1 near Moenkopi, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruth, Rob; Bills, Donald J.

    2012-01-01

    The Hopi villages of Lower Moencopi and Upper Moenkopi are on the Hopi Indian Reservation south of Tuba City in northern Arizona. These adjacent Hopi villages, located west and north of the confluence of Pasture Canyon Wash and Moenkopi Wash, are dependent on groundwater withdrawals from three wells that penetrate the N aquifer and from two springs that discharge from the N aquifer. The N aquifer is the principal aquifer in this region of northern Arizona and is composed of thick beds of sandstone between less permeable layers of siltstone and mudstone. The fine-grained character of the N aquifer inhibits rapid movement of water and large yields to wells; however, the aquifer is moderately productive at yields generally less than 25 gallons per minute in the study area. In recent years, the water level has declined in the three public-supply wells and the flow from the springs has decreased, causing concern that the current water supply will not be able to accommodate peak demand and allow for residential and economic growth. In addition to the challenge imposed by declining groundwater levels, the water-supply wells and springs are located about 2 miles downgradient from the Tuba City Landfill site where studies are ongoing to determine if uranium and other metals in groundwater beneath the landfill are higher than regional concentrations in the N aquifer. In August 2008, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Hopi Tribe, conducted an aquifer test on well SMW-1, designed to help the Hopi Tribe determine the potential yield and water quality of the N aquifer south of Moenkopi Wash as a possible source of additional water supply. Well SMW-1 was drilled south of Moenkopi Wash to a depth of 760 feet below land surface before being backfilled and cased to about 300 feet. The well penetrates, in descending order, the Navajo Sandstone and the Kayenta Formation, both units of the N aquifer. The pre-test water level in the well was 99.15 feet below land

  16. The development of renewable resources at Arizona public service company

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herb Hayden, P.E. [Arizona Public Service Company, (United states)

    1995-12-31

    Arizona Public Service (APS) has been pursuing the development of solar energy for many years, through feasibility studies, solar monitoring, photovoltaics testing, demonstration projects, and internal applications of solar. Key examples are our comparative testing of photovoltaics (PV) at our Solar Test And Research (STAR) Center, the construction of a 225 kW grid-connected PV system, about 20 kW of rooftop PV systems at several customers properties, our participation in the development of Solar Central Receiver technology, and two recent studies on the value of solar in centralized and distributed generation. The costs and performance of solar technologies has been steadily improving, and there are current needs for energy services in APS service territory which cannot be economically served by power line extensions. These off-grid demands provide an opportunity for the initial application of solar for customer service, which can expand as costs are further reduced. It is expected that with continued development support, the costs of solar will decrease to a level which will be competitive in certain grid-connected applications before 2000. Recently, APS established a goal of installing 12 megawatts of solar by 2000 in applications that are cost-effective or can be made cost effective, for the economic and environmental benefit of our customers and shareholders. In order to achieve this goal, APS will develop cooperative working relationships with suppliers and other utilities that have a similar interest in the cost-effective use of solar energy for customer service. [Espanol] Servicios Publicos de Arizona (APS) ha proseguido el desarrollo de la energia solar desde hace muchos anos a traves de estudios de factibilidad, monitoreo solar, prueba de equipos fotovoltaicos, proyectos de demostracion y aplicaciones internas de energia solar. Son ejemplos importantes nuestras pruebas comparativas de fotovoltaicos (PV) en nuestro Centro de Pruebas e Investigaciones

  17. The development of renewable resources at Arizona public service company

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herb Hayden, P E [Arizona Public Service Company, (United states)

    1996-12-31

    Arizona Public Service (APS) has been pursuing the development of solar energy for many years, through feasibility studies, solar monitoring, photovoltaics testing, demonstration projects, and internal applications of solar. Key examples are our comparative testing of photovoltaics (PV) at our Solar Test And Research (STAR) Center, the construction of a 225 kW grid-connected PV system, about 20 kW of rooftop PV systems at several customers properties, our participation in the development of Solar Central Receiver technology, and two recent studies on the value of solar in centralized and distributed generation. The costs and performance of solar technologies has been steadily improving, and there are current needs for energy services in APS service territory which cannot be economically served by power line extensions. These off-grid demands provide an opportunity for the initial application of solar for customer service, which can expand as costs are further reduced. It is expected that with continued development support, the costs of solar will decrease to a level which will be competitive in certain grid-connected applications before 2000. Recently, APS established a goal of installing 12 megawatts of solar by 2000 in applications that are cost-effective or can be made cost effective, for the economic and environmental benefit of our customers and shareholders. In order to achieve this goal, APS will develop cooperative working relationships with suppliers and other utilities that have a similar interest in the cost-effective use of solar energy for customer service. [Espanol] Servicios Publicos de Arizona (APS) ha proseguido el desarrollo de la energia solar desde hace muchos anos a traves de estudios de factibilidad, monitoreo solar, prueba de equipos fotovoltaicos, proyectos de demostracion y aplicaciones internas de energia solar. Son ejemplos importantes nuestras pruebas comparativas de fotovoltaicos (PV) en nuestro Centro de Pruebas e Investigaciones

  18. Preparing Physics and Chemistry Teachers at the University of Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novodvorsky, Ingrid

    2006-04-01

    Beginning in 2000, science majors at the University of Arizona who wish to teach in middle or high schools have enrolled in the College of Science Teacher Preparation Program (CoS TPP). Students in the program take General Education courses, content courses, and science pedagogy courses that make them eligible for teacher certification. Students can remain in their science degree programs, and take the required science pedagogy courses, or they can enroll in a BS in Science Education degree that includes the pedagogy courses, with concentrations available in Biology, Chemistry, Earth Science, and Physics. Science educators from six different departments, two permanent Adjunct Instructors, and two Teachers in Residence teach the program's courses. (One of the Teachers in Residence is supported by the PhysTEC project.) Most of the pedagogy courses include field experiences in area science classrooms; the program works with some 115 mentor teachers from throughout the Tucson area, who host preservice teachers in their field experiences. In the first six years of the program, 14 program graduates have been chemistry and physics teachers. This compares to a total of six chemistry and physics teachers produced by the College of Education program in the four years preceding the creation of the CoS TPP. In this presentation, I will describe the unique features of the courses that prospective chemistry and physics teachers take and the field experiences in which they participate. In addition, I will describe how PhysTEC-supplied resources have been used to improve the program, and the ways in which we are assessing the program's success.

  19. Machine Learning to Assess Grassland Productivity in Southeastern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce-Campos, G. E.; Heilman, P.; Armendariz, G.; Moser, E.; Archer, V.; Vaughan, R.

    2015-12-01

    We present preliminary results of machine learning (ML) techniques modeling the combined effects of climate, management, and inherent potential on productivity of grazed semi-arid grasslands in southeastern Arizona. Our goal is to support public land managers determine if agency management policies are meeting objectives and where to focus attention. Monitoring in the field is becoming more and more limited in space and time. Remotely sensed data cover the entire allotments and go back in time, but do not consider the key issue of species composition. By estimating expected vegetative production as a function of site potential and climatic inputs, management skill can be assessed through time, across individual allotments, and between allotments. Here we present the use of Random Forest (RF) as the main ML technique, in this case for the purpose of regression. Our response variable is the maximum annual NDVI, a surrogate for grassland productivity, as generated by the Google Earth Engine cloud computing platform based on Landsat 5, 7, and 8 datasets. PRISM 33-year normal precipitation (1980-2013) was resampled to the Landsat scale. In addition, the GRIDMET climate dataset was the source for the calculation of the annual SPEI (Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index), a drought index. We also included information about landscape position, aspect, streams, ponds, roads and fire disturbances as part of the modeling process. Our results show that in terms of variable importance, the 33-year normal precipitation, along with SPEI, are the most important features affecting grasslands productivity within the study area. The RF approach was compared to a linear regression model with the same variables. The linear model resulted in an r2 = 0.41, whereas RF showed a significant improvement with an r2 = 0.79. We continue refining the model by comparison with aerial photography and to include grazing intensity and infrastructure from units/allotments to assess the

  20. Passionate Perspectives: Global Change Emersion in Southwestern Dust and Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, J. M.; Little, L. J.

    2014-12-01

    "Tell me, and I'll forget. Show me, and I may remember. But involve me, and I'll understand" (attributed to various philosophers). How many professors have shared 20-30 days traveling, hiking, camping, and Coleman stove cooking with 25-50 young adults? Sixteen times! Way over a year on a field trip…holy sh*t! Tired… but happy. We have offered an extended camping field trip that feature the highlands and deserts of Utah, Arizona, Mexico and California; with side trips to Colorado and New Mexico. Two science and one social science courses focus on global environmental change, water and human development. The discussion will center on the short and long term evolution(s) that have occurred: who, what, where, when and why, and perhaps most important, HOW! These tours are amazing learning experiences that go way beyond any classroom. Many of our students have found the expedition to be life changing - or life awakening. Hopefully we can squeeze the essence into our few minutes of fame :) "Once more I am roaring drunk with the lust of life and adventure and unbearable beauty... Adventure seems to beset me on all quarters without my even searching for it... Though not all my days are as wild as this, each one holds its surprises, and I have seen almost more beauty than I can bear." - Everett Reuss

  1. 76 FR 57001 - Pistachios Grown in California, Arizona, and New Mexico; Proposed Amendment of Marketing Order No...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-15

    ... Service 7 CFR Part 983 [Doc. No. AMS-FV-10-0099; FV11-983-1 PR] Pistachios Grown in California, Arizona... pistachios grown in California, Arizona, and New Mexico, and provides growers with the opportunity to vote in... Administrative Committee for Pistachios (Committee), which is responsible for local administration of the order...

  2. 75 FR 13606 - Arizona Public Service Company, Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station, Units 1, 2, and 3...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket Nos. STN 50-528, STN 50-529, and STN 50-530; NRC-2010-0114] Arizona Public Service Company, Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station, Units 1, 2, and 3; Environmental...-74, issued to Arizona Public Service Company (APS, the licensee), for operation of the Palo Verde...

  3. Changes in forest species composition and structure after stand-replacing wildfire in the mountains of southeastern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald D. Quinn; Lin Wu

    2005-01-01

    A wildfire in the Chiricahua Mountains of southeastern Arizona apparently altered the long-term structure of the forest. The pre-fire canopy forest, which had not burned for 100 years, was an even mixture of Arizona pines and Rocky Mountain Douglas-firs. A decade later the new forest was numerically dominated by quaking aspen seedlings in clumps separated by persistent...

  4. 75 FR 15745 - Arizona Public Service Company, et al. Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station, Units 1, 2, and 3...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    ...] Arizona Public Service Company, et al. Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station, Units 1, 2, and 3; Exemption 1.0 Background The Arizona Public Service Company (APS, the licensee) is the holder of Facility... Generating Station (PVNGS), Units 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The licenses provide, among other things, that...

  5. 75 FR 8149 - Arizona Public Service Company, et al. Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station, Units 1, 2, and 3...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ...] Arizona Public Service Company, et al. Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station, Units 1, 2, and 3... NPF-74, issued to the Arizona Public Service Company (APS, or the licensee), for operation of the Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station (PVNGS, the facility), Units 1, 2, and 3, respectively, located in...

  6. 75 FR 53985 - Arizona Public Service Company, et al., Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station, Unit 3; Temporary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-02

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. STN 50-530; NRC-2010-0281] Arizona Public Service Company, et al., Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station, Unit 3; Temporary Exemption 1.0 Background Arizona Public Service Company (APS, the licensee) is the holder of Facility Operating License No. NPF-74, which...

  7. 78 FR 14820 - Proclaiming Certain Lands as Reservation for the Tohono O'odham Nation of Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-07

    ... the Tohono O'odham Nation of Arizona AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... Affairs proclaimed approximately 642.27 acres, more or less, as the Tohono O'odham Nation Indian Reservation for the Tohono O'odham Nation Tribe of Indians of Arizona on February 28, 2013. DATE: The...

  8. Highlights of the Winter 1984 Meeting. Business-Higher Education Forum (Scottsdale, Arizona, January 26-28, 1984).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Business-Higher Education Forum, Washington, DC.

    Discussions of the Business-Higher Education Forum winter 1984 meeting are summarized. The Forum is a select group of about 80 chief executive officers from the largest corporations and higher education institutions in the United States. Welcoming remarks delivered by Arizona Governor Bruce E. Babbitt briefly address Arizona's future in…

  9. 78 FR 65963 - Foreign-Trade Zone 277-Western Maricopa County, Arizona; Schoeller Arca Systems, Inc. (Plastic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [B-64-2013] Foreign-Trade Zone 277--Western Maricopa County, Arizona; Schoeller Arca Systems, Inc. (Plastic Containers Production); Goodyear, Arizona On June 13, 2013, the Greater Maricopa Foreign Trade Zone, Inc., grantee of FTZ 277, submitted a...

  10. 77 FR 74457 - Foreign-Trade Zone 75-Phoenix, Arizona Application for Expansion (New Magnet Site) Under...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    ..., Arizona Application for Expansion (New Magnet Site) Under Alternative Site Framework An application has...) adopted by the Board (15 CFR 400.2(c)) to include a new magnet site in Phoenix, Arizona. The application... zone project includes the following magnet sites: Site 1 (338 acres)--within the 550-acre Phoenix Sky...

  11. 75 FR 39244 - Arizona Public Service Company, Sequent Energy Management, L.P.; Notice of Joint Petition for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. PR10-45-000] Arizona Public Service Company, Sequent Energy Management, L.P.; Notice of Joint Petition for Clarification, or in the Alternative, Request for Limited Waiver June 30, 2010. Take notice that on June 25, 2010, Arizona Public...

  12. 77 FR 7600 - Notice of Segregation of Public Lands in the State of Arizona for the Restoration Design Energy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-13

    ...] Notice of Segregation of Public Lands in the State of Arizona for the Restoration Design Energy Project... Arizona from all forms of appropriation under the public land laws, including the mining law, but... the Restoration Design Energy Project (RDEP). The public lands contained in this segregation total...

  13. Contributions of the College of Agriculture, University of Arizona, to education, research, and technology transfer in watershed management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eugene Sander

    2000-01-01

    The College of Agriculture, University of Arizona, has been heavily involved in providing research, education, and outreach concerning the management of watersheds. The Barr Report of 1956, a cooperative effort of the Salt River Project, the State Land Department and the University of Arizona, was a significant beginning that addressed the productivity of watersheds in...

  14. Kigali and Phoenix: Historical Similarities between Pre-Genocide Rwanda and Arizona's Anti-Immigrant Wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Eric

    2018-01-01

    Historical events in Arizona, including very recent ones, are eerily similar to those of Rwanda. In this article, stories of Arizona's political history are relayed while recalling those leading to Rwanda's genocide. The stories include references to key roles education policy has played in the oppression of students labeled Tutsi and students…

  15. 76 FR 38416 - Notice of Segregation of Public Lands in the States of Arizona, California, Colorado, Nevada, New...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-30

    ... Segregation of Public Lands in the States of Arizona, California, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, and Utah... laws, but not the mineral leasing or material sales acts, for a period of 2 years for the purpose of..., approximately 677,384 acres of public lands located in the States of Arizona, California, Colorado, Nevada, New...

  16. The Migrant Border Crossing Study: A methodological overview of research along the Sonora-Arizona border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Daniel E; Slack, Jeremy; Beyerlein, Kraig; Vandervoet, Prescott; Klingman, Kristin; Molina, Paola; Manning, Shiras; Burham, Melissa; Walzak, Kylie; Valencia, Kristen; Gamboa, Lorenzo

    2017-07-01

    Increased border enforcement efforts have redistributed unauthorized Mexican migration to the United States (US) away from traditional points of crossing, such as San Diego and El Paso, and into more remote areas along the US-Mexico border, including southern Arizona. Yet relatively little quantitative scholarly work exists examining Mexican migrants' crossing, apprehension, and repatriation experiences in southern Arizona. We contend that if scholars truly want to understand the experiences of unauthorized migrants in transit, such migrants should be interviewed either at the border after being removed from the US, or during their trajectories across the border, or both. This paper provides a methodological overview of the Migrant Border Crossing Study (MBCS), a unique data source on Mexican migrants who attempted an unauthorized crossing along the Sonora-Arizona border, were apprehended, and repatriated to Nogales, Sonora in 2007-09. We also discuss substantive and theoretical contributions of the MBCS.

  17. Monitoring surface-water quality in Arizona: the fixed-station network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadayon, Saeid

    2000-01-01

    Arizona is an arid State in which economic development is influenced largely by the quantity and quality of water and the location of adequate water supplies. In 1995, surface water supplied about 58 percent of total withdrawals in Arizona. Of the total amount of surface water used in 1995, about 89 percent was for agriculture, 10 percent for public supply, and 1 percent for industrial supply (including mining and thermoelectric; Solley and others, 1998). As a result of rapid population growth in Arizona, historic agricultural lands in the Phoenix (Maricopa County) and Tucson (Pima County) areas are now being developed for residential and commercial use; thus, the amount of water used for public supply is increasing. The Clean Water Act was established by U.S. Congress (1972) in response to public concern about water-pollution control. The act defines a process by which the United States Congress and the citizens are informed of the Nation’s progress in restoring and maintaining the quality of our waters. The Arizona Department of Environmental Quality (ADEQ) is the State-designated agency for this process and, as a result, has developed a monitoring program to assess water quality in Arizona. The ADEQ is required to submit a water-quality assessment report to the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) every 2 years. The USEPA summarizes the reports from each State and submits a report to the Congress characterizing water quality in the United States. These reports serve to inform Congress and the public of the Nation’s progress toward the restoration and maintenance of water quality in the United States (Arizona Department of Environmental Quality, 1998).

  18. Southwestern Federal Power System 1995 Financial Statement audit under the Chief Financial Officers Act (WR-FC-96-02)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-22

    The Southwestern Federal Power System encompasses the operation of 24 hydroelectric power plants by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the marketing of power and energy from those plants by the Southwestern Power Administration of the U.S. Department of Energy. To integrate the operation of these hydroelectric generating plants and to transmit power from the dams to its customers, Southwestern Power Administration (Southwestern) maintains 2,220 kilometers (1,380 miles) of high-voltage transmission lines, 24 substations, and 46 microwave and VHF radio sites. Southwestern`s headquarters are in Tulsa, Oklahoma; its dispatch center is in Springfield, Missouri; and its maintenance crews are based in Jonesboro, Arkansas, in Gore and Tupelo, Oklahoma, and in Springfield, Missouri. Three offices - Power Marketing and Delivery, Maintenance, and Administration and Rates - are responsible for meeting Southwestern`s mission. Twelve of the 24 generating plants are scheduled directly by Southwestern, and a total of 19 contribute to the interconnected system operations. Generation at the five remaining projects (Denison, Narrows, Sam Rayburn, Whitney, and Willis) is used to serve specific customer loads. At the end of fiscal year 1995, Southwestern marketed power and energy to 10 generation and transmission cooperatives, one distribution cooperative, three military installations, 44 municipal utilities, and three municipal utility joint-action agencies. One of the joint-action agencies has its own allocation of power from Southwestern; the other two serve 33 municipal utilities to whom Southwestern has allocated power. The total number of power allocation customers is 92. Additionally, excess energy is occasionally sold to non-allocation utilities.

  19. Attitude to rehabilitative counselling in southwestern Nigerian prisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Alao, Kayode; F Adebowale, Olusegun

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to examine the attitudes of prison inmates and warders (prison staff) to rehabilitative counselling and its relationship to their prison status on one hand and their educational attainment on the other. The study adopts a descriptive survey research design. In all 123 prison inmates and 110 warders were selected by stratified random sampling from Osogbo prison headquarters, as well as Ilesa and Ile-Ife prisons in southwestern Nigeria. Data were collected through a self-constructed questionnaire titled "inmate and prison staff attitude to rehabilitation counselling". Data collected were analysed using percentages and χ2 statistics. The results showed that the prison inmates and staff possessed positive attitude to rehabilitative counselling. No significant difference was found between the attitudes of prison inmates and staff members or on the basis of their prison statuses. However, the study found a significant relationship between the prison inmates' attitude to rehabilitative counselling and their educational attainment. Research LIMITATIONS/IMPLICATIONS: Statutory provision needs be made for professional rehabilitative counselling in Nigerian prisons in contrast to the religious instructions currently being allowed prisoners. Educational opportunities should be provided to ensure that the knowledge so obtained complements the rehabilitative counselling. Originality/value - This paper fulfils an identified need to study the attitude towards rehabilitative counselling.

  20. Ecosystem biophysical memory in the southwestern North America climate system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forzieri, G; Feyen, L; Vivoni, E R

    2013-01-01

    To elucidate the potential role of vegetation to act as a memory source in the southwestern North America climate system, we explore correlation structures of remotely sensed vegetation dynamics with precipitation, temperature and teleconnection indices over 1982–2006 for six ecoregions. We found that lagged correlations between vegetation dynamics and climate variables are modulated by the dominance of monsoonal or Mediterranean regimes and ecosystem-specific physiological processes. Subtropical and tropical ecosystems exhibit a one month lag positive correlation with precipitation, a zero- to one-month lag negative correlation with temperature, and modest negative effects of sea surface temperature (SST). Mountain forests have a zero month lag negative correlation with precipitation, a zero–one month lag negative correlation with temperature, and no significant correlation with SSTs. Deserts show a strong one–four month lag positive correlation with precipitation, a low zero–two month lag negative correlation with temperature, and a high four–eight month lag positive correlation with SSTs. The ecoregion-specific biophysical memories identified offer an opportunity to improve the predictability of land–atmosphere interactions and vegetation feedbacks onto climate. (letter)

  1. MIDDLE TRIASSIC AUTOCLASTIC DEPOSITS FROM SOUTHWESTERN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duje Smirčić

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Middle Triassic volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks have been recognized at several localities near Bosansko Grahovo, in southwestern part of Bosnia and Herzegovina in the External Dinarides. Peculiar types of autoclastic rocks were investigated. These are peperites and hyaloclastites. Regarding specific structures, mineral composition and micropetrographic characteristics it was possible to further differentiate hyaloclastites into in situ hyaloclastites and slightly resedimented hyaloclastites that represent genetic succession. All rock types occurred in a deep sea troughs that formed as a consequence of Middle Triassic extensional tectonic and rift related wrench faulting. In situ hyaloclastites and slightly resedimented hyaloclastites were formed due to quenching at the contact of lava effusions with sea water. Genesis of peperites is related to lava emplacement in unconsolidated water saturated lime mudstones that were deposited in deep sea basin. All investigated rock types represent first findings of autoclastic deposits in the External Dinarides. Biostratigraphic constraints achieved by means of conodont species Neogondolella excentrica, Paragondolella excelsa, Paragondolella trammeri and Gladigondolella tethydis indicate Late Anisian to Early Ladinian interval of the autoclastic deposits from Bosansko Grahovo.

  2. Drought-induced vegetation stress in southwestern North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiaoyang; Goldberg, Mitchell; Tarpley, Dan; Kogan, Felix; Yu Yunyue; Friedl, Mark A; Morisette, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    Trends towards earlier greenup and increased average greenness have been widely reported in both humid and dry ecosystems. By analyzing NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer) data from 1982 to 2007, we report complex trends in both the growing season amplitude and seasonally integrated vegetation greenness in southwestern North America and further highlight regions consistently experiencing drought stress. In particular, greenness measurements from 1982 to 2007 show an increasing trend in grasslands but a decreasing trend in shrublands. However, vegetation greenness in this period has experienced a strong cycle, increasing from 1982 to 1993 but decreasing from 1993 to 2007. The significant decrease during the last decade has reduced vegetation greenness by 6% in shrublands and 13% in grasslands (16% and 21%, respectively, in the severe drought years). The greenness cycle correlates to both annual precipitation and dry season length derived from NOAA North America Regional Reanalysis data. If drought events continue as predicted by climate models, they will exacerbate ecosystem degradation and reduce carbon uptake.

  3. Is southwestern China experiencing more frequent precipitation extremes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Meixian; Xu, Xianli; Wang, Kelin; Sun, Alexander Y; Liu, Wen; Zhang, Xiaoyan

    2014-01-01

    Climate extremes have and will continue to cause severe damages to buildings and natural environments around the world. A full knowledge of the probability of the climate extremes is important for the management and mitigation of natural hazards. Based on Mann–Kendall trend test and copulas, this study investigated the characteristics of precipitation extremes as well as their implications in southwestern China (Yunnan, Guangxi and Guizhou Province), through analyzing the changing trends and probabilistic characteristics of six indices, including the consecutive dry days, consecutive wet days, annual total wet day precipitation, heavy precipitation days (R25), max 5 day precipitation amount (Rx5) and the rainy days (RDs). Results showed that the study area had generally become drier (regional mean annual precipitation decreased by 11.4 mm per decade) and experienced enhanced precipitation extremes in the past 60 years. Relatively higher risk of drought in Yuanan and flood in Guangxi was observed, respectively. However, the changing trends of the precipitation extremes were not spatially uniform: increasing risk of extreme wet events for Guangxi and Guizhou, and increasing probability of concurrent extreme wet and dry events for Yunnan. Meanwhile, trend analyses of the 10 year return levels of the selected indices implied that the severity of droughts decreased in Yunnan but increased significantly in Guangxi and Guizhou, and the severity of floods increased in Yunnan and Guangxi in the past decades. Hence, the policy-makers need to be aware of the different characterizations and the spatial heterogeneity of the precipitation extremes. (letters)

  4. Entomologic inoculation rates of Anopheles arabiensis in southwestern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massebo, Fekadu; Balkew, Meshesha; Gebre-Michael, Teshome; Lindtjørn, Bernt

    2013-09-01

    We collected anophelines every second week for one year from randomly selected houses in southwestern Ethiopia by using Centers for Disease Control (CDC) light traps, pyrethrum spray catches, and artificial pit shelter constructions to detect circumsporozoite proteins and estimate entomologic inoculation rates (EIRs). Of 3,678 Anopheles arabiensis tested for circumsporozoite proteins, 11 were positive for Plasmodium falciparum and three for P. vivax. The estimated annual P. falciparum EIR of An. arabiensis was 17.1 infectious bites per person per year (95% confidence interval = 7.03-34.6) based on CDC light traps and 0.1 infectious bites per person per year based on pyrethrum spray catches. The P. falciparum EIRs from CDC light traps varied from 0 infectious bites per person per year (in 60% of houses) to 73.2 infectious bites per person per year in the house nearest the breeding sites. Risk of exposure to infectious bites was higher in wet months than dry months, with a peak in April (9.6 infectious bites per person per month), the period of highest mosquito density.

  5. Hydrogeology of the Judith River Formation in southwestern Saskatchewan, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, David; Lypka, Morgan; Ferguson, Grant

    2017-11-01

    The Judith River Formation forms an important regional aquifer in southwestern Saskatchewan, Canada. This aquifer is used for domestic and agricultural purposes in some areas and supports oil and gas production in other areas. As a result, the available data come from a range of sources and integration is required to provide an overview of aquifer characteristics. Here, data from oil and gas databases are combined with data from groundwater resource assessments. Analysis of cores, drill-stem tests and pumping tests provide a good overview of the physical hydrogeology of the Judith River Aquifer. Water chemistry data from oil and gas databases were less helpful in understanding the chemical hydrogeology due contamination of samples and unreliable laboratory analyses. Analytical modeling of past pumping in the aquifer indicates that decreases in hydraulic head exceeding 2 m are possible over distances of 10s of kilometers. Similar decreases in head should be expected for additional large withdrawals of groundwater from the Judith River Aquifer. Long-term groundwater abstraction should be limited by low pumping rates. Higher pumping rates appear to be possible for short-term uses, such as those required by the oil and gas industry.

  6. The melliferous potential of apiflora of southwestern Vojvodina (Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mačukanović-Jocić Marina P.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The individual and community-level melliferous potential of apiflora was evaluated in southwestern Vojvodina in order to assess its significance and contribution to the bee pasture. Seven plant communities belonging to ruderal, segetal and floodplain type of vegetation, with a total of 279 plant species were registered. Apifloristic and phytocoenological investigations included the determination and analysis of honey plants using the following parameters: total number, percentage, abundance and frequency of these species in the communities, as well as their intensity of pollen and nectar production. The coenotic coefficient of melliferousness (CCm indicating the melliferous potential of each community, was calculated based on the above parameters. Although the greatest number of melliferous species was found in the ass. Chenopodio-Ambrosietum artemisiifoliae (132, the highest percentage (80% of them was registered in the ass. Consolido-Polygonetum avicularis. Considering the coefficients of nectar and pollen production, the most valuable honey plants commonly present in the majority of communities were: Cirsium arvense, Rubus caesius, Lythrum salicaria, Daucus carota, Trifolium pratense, Dipsacus laciniatus, Medicago sativa, Asclepias syriaca, Cichorium intybus and Taraxacum officinale. The low abundance and frequency of melliferous species within the Consolido-Polygonetum avicularis, Polygonetum convolvulo-avicularis and Populetum nigrae-albae communities indicated their poor contribution to the bee pasture. Within ruderal vegetation, the highest CCm was registered in Amorpho-Typhaetum, providing, theoretically, the richest food resource for the honeybees in the investigated area. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 46009 i br. 173018

  7. Source rock potential of middle cretaceous rocks in Southwestern Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyman, T.S.; Palacas, J.G.; Tysdal, R.G.; Perry, W.J.; Pawlewicz, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    The middle Cretaceous in southwestern Montana is composed of a marine and nonmarine succession of predominantly clastic rocks that were deposited along the western margin of the Western Interior Seaway. In places, middle Cretaceous rocks contain appreciable total organic carbon (TOC), such as 5.59% for the Mowry Shale and 8.11% for the Frontier Formation in the Madison Range. Most samples, however, exhibit less than 1.0% TOC. The genetic or hydrocarbon potential (S1+S2) of all the samples analyzed, except one, yield less than 1 mg HC/g rock, strongly indicating poor potential for generating commercial amounts of hydrocarbons. Out of 51 samples analyzed, only one (a Thermopolis Shale sample from the Snowcrest Range) showed a moderate petroleum potential of 3.1 mg HC/g rock. Most of the middle Cretaceous samples are thermally immature to marginally mature, with vitrinite reflectance ranging from about 0.4 to 0.6% Ro. Maturity is high in the Pioneer Mountains, where vitrinite reflectance averages 3.4% Ro, and at Big Sky Montana, where vitrinite reflectance averages 2.5% Ro. At both localities, high Ro values are due to local heat sources, such as the Pioneer batholith in the Pioneer Mountains.

  8. An Ethnographic Meta-Synthesis of Three Southwestern Rural Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averill, Jennifer B

    2016-01-01

    The objectives were to synthesize cumulative findings across three critical ethnographic, community-partnered studies in the southwestern United States and to describe the process of meta-ethnography for that analysis. The meta-ethnography followed the design of Noblit and Hare for constructing an analysis of composite data, informed by community-based participatory research and Stringer's ethnographic strategies of Look-Think-Act. The three studies occurred in rural settings of Colorado and New Mexico, engaging 129 total participants, along with community organizations and agencies as partners. Methods consisted of detailed review of each original study, mapping of major concepts and themes, and general analysis, interpretation, and synthesis across the studies. Overall themes were: health is the capacity to care for oneself and do work, meaningful relationships are key in health care interactions, patterns of discrimination persist in rural settings, poor literacy and health literacy are barriers, and food insecurity is a growing concern for older rural adults. Resolutions involve practice, policy, and research and must incorporate all stakeholder groups in rural settings; a participatory approach is critical to prioritize and impact existing inequities; and work is needed to extend education and understanding of multiple cultures, groups, customs, and rural contexts. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Prediction of domestic violence against married women in southwestern Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izmirli, Gulsen O; Sonmez, Yonca; Sezik, Mekin

    2014-12-01

    To determine the prevalence of, and independent risk factors for various domestic violence categories among married women of reproductive age in southwestern Turkey. The present cross-sectional study included 260 randomly selected women registered to a family physician in the district of Gönen, Isparta. During home visits between October 1 and December 31, 2012, the women completed a questionnaire that included between four and eight questions for each violence category (physical, verbal, economic, emotional, and sexual) to assess the lifetime presence of domestic violence. Logistic regression models with backward elimination were constructed to define independent risk factors for domestic violence. In total, 176 (67.7%) women reported any type of domestic violence at least once in their lifetime. Verbal/psychological abuse was the most frequent type (reported by 121 [46.5%] women). Living in a village, young age (19-29 years) of the husband, adolescent age (violence. Attention should be given to area of residence, age of both partners at marriage, adolescent marriage, and husband characteristics during screening for domestic violence. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Some geophysical constraints to dynamic processes in the Southwestern Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Chiozzi

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available The total tectonic subsidence, thermal state and seismotectonic regime have been analysed to better constrain the dynamic processes which originated the basins of the Southwestern Mediterranean. It is argued that backarc extension and oceanic spreading are the possible and main processes which took place within a compressional framework, driven by the interaction between the African and European plates. As inferred by both subsidence and heat-flux data, in the central part of the Algerian-Balearic basin the crust is oceanic, 20 Ma old on average, originated by a spreading phase, which also affected the Ligurian-Provençal basin. The Alboran basin, which is underlain by stretched continental crust, shows an intermediate seismic activity and a few deep events, explainable by a gravitational collapse of cold lithosphere. After a review of the most recent geodynamical hypotheses, an evolutionary scheme is attempted envisaging the lateral continental escape of the Gibraltar arc. Within a convergent tectonic framework, some lithospheric material could translate almost perpendicular to the convergence direction, and undergo a lateral subduction process, secondary to the main boundary between plates.

  11. 77 FR 21911 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of Arizona; Prevention of Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-12

    ...EPA is proposing to approve the State Implementation Plan (SIP) revision submitted by the State of Arizona to address the requirements regarding air pollution emergency episodes in Clean Air Act (CAA or Act) section 110(a)(2)(G). Section 110(a)(2)(G) of the Act requires that each SIP provide for authority comparable to that in section 303 of the Act and adequate contingency plans to implement such authority. EPA is proposing to approve Arizona's SIP revision as meeting the authority and contingency plans for the 1997 8-hour ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS or standards).

  12. Taxing the Establishment Clause: —Revolutionary Decision of the Arizona Supreme Court

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin G. Welner

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the nature and implications of a 1999 decision of the Arizona Supreme Court, upholding the constitutionality of a state tax credit statute. The statute offers a $500 tax credit to taxpayers who donate money to non-profit organizations which, in turn, donate the money in grants to students in order to help defray the costs of attending private and parochial schools. The author concludes that the Arizona decision elevates cleverness in devising a statutory scheme above the substance of long-established constitutional doctrine.

  13. Variation in woody plant mortality and dieback from severe drought among soils, plant groups, and species within a northern Arizona ecotone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koepke, Dan F; Kolb, Thomas E; Adams, Henry D

    2010-08-01

    Vegetation change from drought-induced mortality can alter ecosystem community structure, biodiversity, and services. Although drought-induced mortality of woody plants has increased globally with recent warming, influences of soil type, tree and shrub groups, and species are poorly understood. Following the severe 2002 drought in northern Arizona, we surveyed woody plant mortality and canopy dieback of live trees and shrubs at the forest-woodland ecotone on soils derived from three soil parent materials (cinder, flow basalt, sedimentary) that differed in texture and rockiness. Our first of three major findings was that soil parent material had little effect on mortality of both trees and shrubs, yet canopy dieback of trees was influenced by parent material; dieback was highest on the cinder for pinyon pine (Pinus edulis) and one-seed juniper (Juniperus monosperma). Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) dieback was not sensitive to parent material. Second, shrubs had similar mortality, but greater canopy dieback, than trees. Third, pinyon and ponderosa pines had greater mortality than juniper, yet juniper had greater dieback, reflecting different hydraulic characteristics among these tree species. Our results show that impacts of severe drought on woody plants differed among tree species and tree and shrub groups, and such impacts were widespread over different soils in the southwestern U.S. Increasing frequency of severe drought with climate warming will likely cause similar mortality to trees and shrubs over major soil types at the forest-woodland ecotone in this region, but due to greater mortality of other tree species, tree cover will shift from a mixture of species to dominance by junipers and shrubs. Surviving junipers and shrubs will also likely have diminished leaf area due to canopy dieback.

  14. Ground-Dwelling Arthropod Communities of a Sky Island Mountain Range in Southeastern Arizona, USA: Obtaining a Baseline for Assessing the Effects of Climate Change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallace M Meyer

    Full Text Available The few studies that have addressed past effects of climate change on species distributions have mostly focused on plants due to the rarity of historical faunal baselines. However, hyperdiverse groups like Arthropoda are vital to monitor in order to understand climate change impacts on biodiversity. This is the first investigation of ground-dwelling arthropod (GDA assemblages along the full elevation gradient of a mountain range in the Madrean Sky Island Region, establishing a baseline for monitoring future changes in GDA biodiversity. To determine how GDA assemblages relate to elevation, season, abiotic variables, and corresponding biomes, GDA were collected for two weeks in both spring (May and summer (September 2011 in the Santa Catalina Mountains, Arizona, using pitfall traps at 66 sites in six distinct upland (non-riparian/non-wet canyon biomes. Four arthropod taxa: (1 beetles (Coleoptera, (2 spiders (Araneae, (3 grasshoppers and crickets (Orthoptera, and (4 millipedes and centipedes (Myriapoda were assessed together and separately to determine if there are similar patterns across taxonomic groups. We collected 335 species of GDA: 192/3793 (species/specimens Coleoptera, 102/1329 Araneae, 25/523 Orthoptera, and 16/697 Myriapoda. GDA assemblages differed among all biomes and between seasons. Fifty-three percent (178 species and 76% (254 species of all GDA species were found in only one biome and during only one season, respectively. While composition of arthropod assemblages is tied to biome and season, individual groups do not show fully concordant patterns. Seventeen percent of the GDA species occurred only in the two highest-elevation biomes (Pine and Mixed Conifer Forests. Because these high elevation biomes are most threatened by climate change and they harbor a large percentage of unique arthropod species (11-25% depending on taxon, significant loss in arthropod diversity is likely in the Santa Catalina Mountains and other isolated

  15. Conflation and aggregation of spatial data improve predictive models for species with limited habitats: a case of the threatened yellow-billed cuckoo in Arizona, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal, Miguel L.; van Riper, Charles; Petrakis, Roy E.

    2013-01-01

    Riparian vegetation provides important wildlife habitat in the Southwestern United States, but limited distributions and spatial complexity often leads to inaccurate representation in maps used to guide conservation. We test the use of data conflation and aggregation on multiple vegetation/land-cover maps to improve the accuracy of habitat models for the threatened western yellow-billed cuckoo (Coccyzus americanus occidentalis). We used species observations (n = 479) from a state-wide survey to develop habitat models from 1) three vegetation/land-cover maps produced at different geographic scales ranging from state to national, and 2) new aggregate maps defined by the spatial agreement of cover types, which were defined as high (agreement = all data sets), moderate (agreement ≥ 2), and low (no agreement required). Model accuracies, predicted habitat locations, and total area of predicted habitat varied considerably, illustrating the effects of input data quality on habitat predictions and resulting potential impacts on conservation planning. Habitat models based on aggregated and conflated data were more accurate and had higher model sensitivity than original vegetation/land-cover, but this accuracy came at the cost of reduced geographic extent of predicted habitat. Using the highest performing models, we assessed cuckoo habitat preference and distribution in Arizona and found that major watersheds containing high-probably habitat are fragmented by a wide swath of low-probability habitat. Focus on riparian restoration in these areas could provide more breeding habitat for the threatened cuckoo, offset potential future habitat losses in adjacent watershed, and increase regional connectivity for other threatened vertebrates that also use riparian corridors.

  16. The California-Arizona Minority Partnership for Astronomy Research and Education (CAMPARE): an Educational Experience for Undergraduates at the University of Arizona Alumni Association's Astronomy Camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemon, Courtney; McCarthy, D.; Rudolph, A.

    2011-01-01

    The California-Arizona Minority Partnership for Astronomy Research and Education (CAMPARE) is an NSF-funded partnership between the Astronomy Program at Cal Poly Pomona (CPP) and the University of Arizona Steward Observatory designed to promote participation of underrepresented minorities (including women) in astronomy research and education. As part of the education component of the program, CPP undergraduate physics majors and minors are eligible to work as a counselor at the University of Arizona's Astronomy Camp, one of the premier astronomy outreach opportunities in the world. CAMPARE students have the opportunity to work in this learn-by-doing environment with a wide range of students to gain first hand experience of teaching astronomy to students of a wide variety of ages in highly structured educational setting. Cal Poly Pomona students who are interested in education, both formal and informal, work in a variety of camps, from Girl Scout camps to camps for advanced high school students, to further their understanding of what it means to be a professional in the field of education. The CAMPARE student who participated in this program during summer 2010 had the opportunity to work under Dr. Don McCarthy, camp director of University of Arizona's Astronomy Camps for 20 years, and observe the interpersonal relations between campers and staff that is so vital to the learning the students receive. Through these observations, the CAMPARE student was able to learn to gauge students' interest in the material, and experience real life teaching and learning scenarios in the informal education realm.

  17. Early irrigation systems in southeastern Arizona: the ostracode perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios-Fest, Manuel R.; Mabry, Jonathan B.; Nials, Fred; Holmlund, James P.; Miksa, Elizabeth; Davis, Owen K.

    2001-10-01

    For the first time, the Early Agricultural Period (1200 BC-150 AD) canal irrigation in the Santa Cruz River Valley, southeastern Arizona, is documented through ostracode paleoecology. Interpretations based on ostracode paleoecology and taphonomy are supported by anthropological, sedimentological, geomorphological, and palynological information, and were used to determine the environmental history of the northern Tucson Basin during the time span represented by the sequence of canals at Las Capas (site AZ AA:12:753 ASM). We also attempt to elucidate based on archaeological artifacts if the Hohokam or a previous civilization built the canals. Between 3000 and 2400 radiocarbon years BP, at least three episodes of canal operation are defined by ostracode assemblages and pollen records. Modern (mid-late 20th century) canals supported no ostracodes, probably because of temporally brief canal operation from local wells. Three stages of water management are well defined during prehistoric canal operation. Ostracode faunal associations indicate that prehistoric peoples first operated their irrigation systems in a simple, 'opportunistic' mode (diversion of ephemeral flows following storms), and later in a complex, 'functional' mode (carefully timed diversions of perennial flows). The geomorphological reconstruction indicates that these canals had a minimum length of 1.1 km, and were possibly twice as long. The hydraulic reconstruction of these canals suggests that they had similar gradients (0.05-0.1%) to later prehistoric canals in the same valley. Discharges were also respectable. When flowing at bank-full, the largest canal provided an acre-foot of water in about 2.3 h; when flowing half-full (probably a more realistic assumption), it produced an acre-foot of water in about 8.6 h. Palynological records of the oldest canals (here identified as Features 3 and 4; 3000-2500 years BP) indicate they were used temporarily, since riparian vegetation did not grow consistently in

  18. Origins of the Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruikshank, Dale P.; Hartmann, William K.

    2014-11-01

    The roots of the Lunar and Planetary Laboratory (LPL) extend deep into the rich fabric of G. P. Kuiper’s view of the Earth as a planet and planetary systems as expected companions to most stars, as well as the post-war emergent technology of infrared detectors suitable for astronomy. These concepts and events began with Kuiper’s theoretical work at Yerkes Observatory on the origin of the Solar System, his discovery of two planetary satellites and observational work with his near-infrared spectrometer on the then-new McDonald 82-inch telescope in the mid- to late-1940s. A grant for the production of a photographic atlas of the Moon in the mid-1950s enabled him to assemble the best existing images of the Moon and acquire new photographs. This brought E. A. Whitaker and D. W. G. Arthur to Yerkes. Others who joined in the lunar work were geologist Carl S. Huzzen and grad student E. P. Moore, as well as undergrad summer students A. B. Binder and D. P. Cruikshank (both in 1958). The Atlas was published in 1959, and work began on an orthographic lunar atlas. Kuiper’s view of planetary science as an interdisciplinary enterprise encompassing astronomy, geology, and atmospheric physics inspired his vision of a research institution and an academic curriculum tuned to the combination of all the scientific disciplines embraced in a comprehensive study of the planets. Arrangements were made with the University of Arizona (UA) to establish LPL in affiliation with the widely recognized Inst. of Atmospheric Physics. Kuiper moved to the UA in late 1960, taking the lunar experts, graduate student T. C. Owen (planetary atmospheres), and associate B. M. Middlehurst along. G. van Biesbroeck also joined the migration to Tucson; Binder and Cruikshank followed along as new grad students. Astronomy grad student W. K. Hartmann came into the academic program at UA and the research group at LPL in 1961. Senior faculty affiliating with LPL in the earliest years were T. Gehrels, A. B

  19. Migration of recharge waters downgradient from the Santa Catalina Mountains into the Tucson basin aquifer, Arizona, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Erin E. B.; Long, Austin; Eastoe, Chris; Bassett, R. L.

    Aquifers in the arid alluvial basins of the southwestern U.S. are recharged predominantly by infiltration from streams and playas within the basins and by water entering along the margins of the basins. The Tucson basin of southeastern Arizona is such a basin. The Santa Catalina Mountains form the northern boundary of this basin and receive more than twice as much precipitation (ca. 700mm/year) as does the basin itself (ca. 300mm/year). In this study environmental isotopes were employed to investigate the migration of precipitation basinward through shallow joints and fractures. Water samples were obtained from springs and runoff in the Santa Catalina Mountains and from wells in the foothills of the Santa Catalina Mountains. Stable isotopes (δD and δ18O) and thermonuclear-bomb-produced tritium enabled qualitative characterization of flow paths and flow velocities. Stable-isotope measurements show no direct altitude effect. Tritium values indicate that although a few springs and wells discharge pre-bomb water, most springs discharge waters from the 1960s or later. Résumé La recharge des aquifères des bassins alluviaux arides du sud-ouest des États-Unis est assurée surtout à partir des lits des cours d'eau et des playas dans les bassins, ainsi que par l'eau entrant à la bordure de ces bassins. Le bassin du Tucson, dans le sud-est de l'Arizona, est l'un de ceux-ci. La chaîne montagneuse de Santa Catalina constitue la limite nord de ce bassin et reçoit plus de deux fois plus de précipitations (environ 700mm/an) que le bassin (environ 300mm/an). Dans cette étude, les isotopes du milieu ont été utilisés pour analyser le déplacement de l'eau de pluie vers le bassin au travers des fissures et des fractures proches de la surface. Des échantillons d'eau ont été prélevés dans les sources et dans l'écoulement de surface de la chaîne montagneuse et dans des puits au pied de la chaîne. Les isotopes stables (δD et δ18O) et le tritium d

  20. A century of changing flows: Forest management changed flow magnitudes and warming advanced the timing of flow in a southwestern US river.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos D Robles

    Full Text Available The continued provision of water from rivers in the southwestern United States to downstream cities, natural communities and species is at risk due to higher temperatures and drought conditions in recent decades. Snowpack and snowfall levels have declined, snowmelt and peak spring flows are arriving earlier, and summer flows have declined. Concurrent to climate change and variation, a century of fire suppression has resulted in dramatic changes to forest conditions, and yet, few studies have focused on determining the degree to which changing forests have altered flows. In this study, we evaluated changes in flow, climate, and forest conditions in the Salt River in central Arizona from 1914-2012 to compare and evaluate the effects of changing forest conditions and temperatures on flows. After using linear regression models to remove the influence of precipitation and temperature, we estimated that annual flows declined by 8-29% from 1914-1963, coincident with a 2-fold increase in basal area, a 2-3-fold increase in canopy cover, and at least a 10-fold increase in forest density within ponderosa pine forests. Streamflow volumes declined by 37-56% in summer and fall months during this period. Declines in climate-adjusted flows reversed at mid-century when spring and annual flows increased by 10-31% from 1964-2012, perhaps due to more winter rainfall. Additionally, peak spring flows occurred about 12 days earlier in this period than in the previous period, coincident with winter and spring temperatures that increased by 1-2°C. While uncertainties remain, this study adds to the knowledge gained in other regions that forest change has had effects on flow that were on par with climate variability and, in the case of mid-century declines, well before the influence of anthropogenic warming. Current large-scale forest restoration projects hold some promise of recovering seasonal flows.

  1. Impacts of projected mid-century temperatures on thermal regimes for select specialty and fieldcrops common to the southwestern U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, E.; Lopez-Brody, N.; Dialesandro, J.; Steele, C. M.; Rango, A.

    2015-12-01

    The impacts of projected temperature increases in agricultural ecosystems are complex, varyingby region, cropping system, crop growth stage and humidity. We analyze the impacts of mid-century temperature increases on crops grown in five southwestern states: Arizona, California,New Mexico, Nevada and Utah. Here we present a spatial impact assessment of commonsouthwestern specialty (grapes, almonds and tomatoes) and field (alfalfa, cotton and corn)crops. This analysis includes three main components: development of empirical temperaturethresholds for each crop, classification of predicted future climate conditions according to thesethresholds, and mapping the probable impacts of these climatic changes on each crop. We use30m spatial resolution 2012 crop distribution and seasonal minimum and maximumtemperature normals (1970 to 2000) to define the current thermal envelopes for each crop.These represent the temperature range for each season where 95% of each crop is presentlygrown. Seasonal period change analysis of mid-century temperatures changes downscaled from20 CMIP5 models (RCP8.5) estimate future temperatures. Change detection maps representareas predicted to become more or less suitable, or remain unchanged. Based upon mid-centurytemperature changes, total regional suitable area declined for all crops except cotton, whichincreased by 20%. For each crop there are locations which change to and from optimal thermalenvelope conditions. More than 80% of the acres currently growing tomatoes and almonds willshift outside the present 95% thermal range. Fewer acres currently growing alfalfa (14%) andcotton (20%) will shift outside the present 95% thermal range by midcentury. Crops outsidepresent thermal envelopes by midcentury may adapt, possibly aided by adaptation technologiessuch as misters or shade structures, to the new temperature regime or growers may elect togrow alternate crops better suited to future thermal envelopes.

  2. Effects of natural and human factors on groundwater quality of basin-fill aquifers in the southwestern United States-conceptual models for selected contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bexfield, Laura M.; Thiros, Susan A.; Anning, David W.; Huntington, Jena M.; McKinney, Tim S.

    2011-01-01

    As part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program, the Southwest Principal Aquifers (SWPA) study is building a better understanding of the factors that affect water quality in basin-fill aquifers in the Southwestern United States. The SWPA study area includes four principal aquifers of the United States: the Basin and Range basin-fill aquifers in California, Nevada, Utah, and Arizona; the Rio Grande aquifer system in New Mexico and Colorado; and the California Coastal Basin and Central Valley aquifer systems in California. Similarities in the hydrogeology, land- and water-use practices, and water-quality issues for alluvial basins within the study area allow for regional analysis through synthesis of the baseline knowledge of groundwater-quality conditions in basins previously studied by the NAWQA Program. Resulting improvements in the understanding of the sources, movement, and fate of contaminants are assisting in the development of tools used to assess aquifer susceptibility and vulnerability.This report synthesizes previously published information about the groundwater systems and water quality of 15 information-rich basin-fill aquifers (SWPA case-study basins) into conceptual models of the primary natural and human factors commonly affecting groundwater quality with respect to selected contaminants, thereby helping to build a regional understanding of the susceptibility and vulnerability of basin-fill aquifers to those contaminants. Four relatively common contaminants (dissolved solids, nitrate, arsenic, and uranium) and two contaminant classes (volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and pesticide compounds) were investigated for sources and controls affecting their occurrence and distribution above specified levels of concern in groundwater of the case-study basins. Conceptual models of factors that are important to aquifer vulnerability with respect to those contaminants and contaminant classes were subsequently formed. The

  3. Climate change and runoff in south-western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberstein, R. P.; Aryal, S. K.; Durrant, J.; Pearcey, M.; Braccia, M.; Charles, S. P.; Boniecka, L.; Hodgson, G. A.; Bari, M. A.; Viney, N. R.; McFarlane, D. J.

    2012-12-01

    SummaryThis paper presents the results of computer simulations of runoff from 13 major fresh and brackish river basins in south-western Australia (SWA) under climate projections obtained from 15 GCMs with three future global warming scenarios equivalent to global temperature rises of 0.7 °C, 1.0 °C and 1.3 °C by 2030. The objective was to apply an efficient methodology, consistent across a large region, to examine the implications of the best available projections in climate trends for future surface water resources. An ensemble of rainfall-runoff models was calibrated on stream flow data from 1975 to 2007 from 106 gauged catchments distributed throughout the basins of the study area. The sensitivity of runoff to projected changes in mean annual rainfall is examined using the climate 'elasticity' concept. Averaged across the study area, all 15 GCMs project declines in rainfall under all global warming scenarios with a median decline of 8% resulting in a median decline in runoff of 25%. Such uniformity in projections from GCMs is unusual. Over SWA the average annual runoff under the 5th wettest and 5th driest of the 45 projections of the 2030 climate declines by 10 and 42%, respectively. Under the 5th driest projection the runoff decline ranges from 53% in the northern region to 40% in the southern region. Strong regional variations in climate sensitivity are found with the proportional decline in runoff greatest in the northern region and the greatest volumetric declines in the wetter basins in the south. Since the mid 1970s stream flows into the major water supply reservoirs in SWA have declined by more than 50% following a 16% rainfall reduction. This has already had major implications for water resources planning and for the preservation of aquatic and riparian ecosystems in the region. Our results indicate that this reduction in runoff is likely to continue if future climate projections eventuate.

  4. Uranium Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance in southwestern Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broxton, D.E.

    1978-02-01

    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory conducted a Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance in southwestern Montana from early August to mid-October of 1976. A total of 1240 water and 1933 sediment samples were collected from 1994 locations at a nominal density of one location per 10 km/sup 2/. The water samples were collected from streams, wells, and springs; sediment samples were taken at streams and springs. All samples were analyzed at Los Alamos for total uranium by fluorometry or delayed-neutron counting. The uranium content of water samples ranges from below the detection limit (less than 0.3 ppB) to 45.30 ppB and has a mean value of 1.40 ppB. The uranium content of the sediment samples ranges between 0.20 and 206.80 ppM and averages 6.12 ppM. The chosen uranium anomaly threshold value was 7 ppB for surface waters (streams), 9 ppB for groundwaters (wells and springs), and 25 ppM for all sediment samples. The study area consists of the following lithologic groups: Precambrian basement complex, Precambrian Belt metasediments, Paleozoic and Mesozoic shelf sediments, Cretaceous and early Tertiary volcanic and plutonic rocks, Laramide orogenic clastic sediments, and middle to late Tertiary volcanic rocks and intermontane basin sediments. Most of the anomalous water and sediment samples with well-developed dispersion trains occur in areas underlain by or adjacent to silicic plutonic rocks of the Idaho and Boulder batholiths. These anomalies may indicate the presence of uraniferous veins and pegmatites similar to those already known to exist in the area. Fewer anomalous water samples occur in areas underlain by Precambrian basement complex and Tertiary basin fill.

  5. The 2010 spring drought reduced primary productivity in southwestern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Li; Li Jing; Xiao Jingfeng; Wang Kun; Lei Liping; Guo Huadong

    2012-01-01

    Many parts of the world experience frequent and severe droughts. Summer drought can significantly reduce primary productivity and carbon sequestration capacity. The impacts of spring droughts, however, have received much less attention. A severe and sustained spring drought occurred in southwestern China in 2010. Here we examine the influence of this spring drought on the primary productivity of terrestrial ecosystems using data on climate, vegetation greenness and productivity. We first assess the spatial extent, duration and severity of the drought using precipitation data and the Palmer drought severity index. We then examine the impacts of the drought on terrestrial ecosystems using satellite data for the period 2000–2010. Our results show that the spring drought substantially reduced the enhanced vegetation index (EVI) and gross primary productivity (GPP) during spring 2010 (March–May). Both EVI and GPP also substantially declined in the summer and did not fully recover from the drought stress until August. The drought reduced regional annual GPP and net primary productivity (NPP) in 2010 by 65 and 46 Tg C yr −1 , respectively. Both annual GPP and NPP in 2010 were the lowest over the period 2000–2010. The negative effects of the drought on annual primary productivity were partly offset by the remarkably high productivity in August and September caused by the exceptionally wet conditions in late summer and early fall and the farming practices adopted to mitigate drought effects. Our results show that, like summer droughts, spring droughts can also have significant impacts on vegetation productivity and terrestrial carbon cycling. (letter)

  6. Favorability for uranium in tertiary sedimentary rocks, southwestern Montana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wopat, M.A.; Curry, W.E.; Robins, J.W.; Marjaniemi, D.K.

    1977-10-01

    Tertiary sedimentary rocks in the basins of southwestern Montana were studied to determine their favorability for potential uranium resources. Uranium in the Tertiary sedimentary rocks was probably derived from the Boulder batholith and from silicic volcanic material. The batholith contains numerous uranium occurrences and is the most favorable plutonic source for uranium in the study area. Subjective favorability categories of good, moderate, and poor, based on the number and type of favorable criteria present, were used to classify the rock sequences studied. Rocks judged to have good favorability for uranium deposits are (1) Eocene and Oligocene strata and undifferentiated Tertiary rocks in the western Three Forks basin and (2) Oligocene rocks in the Helena basin. Rocks having moderate favorability consist of (1) Eocene and Oligocene strata in the Jefferson River, Beaverhead River, and lower Ruby River basins, (2) Oligocene rocks in the Townsend and Clarkston basins, (3) Miocene and Pliocene rocks in the Upper Ruby River basin, and (4) all Tertiary sedimentary formations in the eastern Three Forks basin, and in the Grasshopper Creek, Horse Prairie, Medicine Lodge Creek, Big Sheep Creek, Deer Lodge, Big Hole River, and Bull Creek basins. The following have poor favorability: (1) the Beaverhead Conglomerate in the Red Rock and Centennial basins, (2) Eocene and Oligocene rocks in the Upper Ruby River basin, (3) Miocene and Pliocene rocks in the Townsend, Clarkston, Smith River, and Divide Creek basins, (4) Miocene through Pleistocene rocks in the Jefferson River, Beaverhead River, and Lower Ruby River basins, and (5) all Tertiary sedimentary rocks in the Boulder River, Sage Creek, Muddy Creek, Madison River, Flint Creek, Gold Creek, and Bitterroot basins

  7. Natural radioactivity releases from lignite power plants in Southwestern Anatolia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaprak, G.; Guer, F.; Cam, F.; Candan, O.

    2006-01-01

    The Mugla basin is one of the most productive lignite basins in Southwestern Anatolia, Turkey. Mining activities started in 1979 and total reserves were estimated during exploration at 767.5 million tonnes. Total mean annual lignite production of the Mugla basin is estimated at about 10 million tonnes per year. Most of the lignite production supplies three thermal power plants (Yatagan 630 MW, Yenikoey 420 MW, Kemerkoey 630 MW) with a total capacity of 1680 MW. It is well known that the lignite contains naturally occurring primordial radionuclides arising from the uranium and thorium series as well as from 4 0K. Lignite burning is, therefore, one of the sources of technologically enhanced exposure to humans from natural radionuclides. The investigation reported here deals with the determination of the 2 26Ra, 2 32Th and 4 0K concentrations in the lignite feeding 3 thermal power plants in Mugla region and in the product ash. Samples of lignite feeding the power plants and fly and bottom ashes produced in the same power plants were collected over a period of 1 year and therefore systematic sampling allowed for the determination of mean representative values for the natural radioactivity content of above materials and also estimation of the radioactivity releases to the environment. Furthermore, grid soil sampling within 10-15 km around the power plants allowed for the mapping of the surface soil activity of natural radionuclides. Dosimetric calculations from terrestrial gamma radiation for the population living around the power plants were performed based on the guidance of UNSCEAR 2000 report

  8. Orchid conservation in the biodiversity hotspot of southwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiang; Chen, Jin; Corlett, Richard T; Fan, XuLi; Yu, DongLi; Yang, HongPei; Gao, JiangYun

    2015-12-01

    Xishuangbanna is on the northern margins of tropical Asia in southwestern China and has the largest area of tropical forest remaining in the country. It is in the Indo-Burma hotspot and contains 16% of China's vascular flora in biodiversity. To understand the effects of land-use change and collection on orchid species diversity and determine protection priorities, we conducted systematic field surveys, observed markets, interviewed orchid collectors, and then determined the conservation status of all orchids. We identified 426 orchid species in 115 genera in Xishuangbanna: 31% of all orchid species that occur in China. Species richness was highest at 1000-1200 m elevation. Three orchid species were assessed as possibly extinct in the wild, 15 as critically endangered, 82 as endangered, 124 as vulnerable, 186 as least concern, and 16 as data deficient. Declines over 20 years in harvested species suggested over-collection was the major threat, and utility value (i.e., medicinal or ornamental value) was significantly related to endangerment. Expansion of rubber tree plantations was less of a threat to orchids than to other taxa because only 75 orchid species (17.6%) occurred below the 1000-m-elevation ceiling for rubber cultivation, and most of these (46) occurred in nature reserves. However, climate change is projected to lift this ceiling to around 1300 m by 2050, and the limited area at higher elevations reduces the potential for upslope range expansion. The Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden is committed to achieving zero plant extinctions in Xishuangbanna, and orchids are a high priority. Appropriate in and ex situ conservation strategies, including new protected areas and seed banking, have been developed for every threatened orchid species and are being implemented. © 2015 Society for Conservation Biology.

  9. Investigation of the Meers fault in southwestern Oklahoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luza, K.V.; Madole, R.F.; Crone, A.J.

    1987-08-01

    The Meers fault is part of a major system of NW-trending faults that form the boundary between the Wichita Mountains and the Anadarko basin in southwestern Oklahoma. A portion of the Meers fault is exposed at the surface in northern Comanche County and strikes approximately N. 60 0 W. where it offsets Permian conglomerate and shale for at least 26 km. The scarp on the fault is consistently down to the south, with a maximum relief of 5 m near the center of the fault trace. Quaternary stratigraphic relationships and 10 14 C age dates constrain the age of the last movement of the Meers fault. The last movement postdates the Browns Creek Alluvium, late Pleistocene to early Holocene, and predates the East Cache Alluvium, 100 to 800 yr B.P. Fan alluvium, produced by the last fault movement, buried a soil that dates between 1400 and 1100 yr B.P. Two trenches excavated across the scarp near Canyon Creek document the near-surface deformation and provide some general information on recurrence. Trench 1 was excavated in the lower Holocene part of the Browns Creek Alluvium, and trench 2 was excavated in unnamed gravels thought to be upper Pleistocene. Flexing and warping was the dominant mode of deformation that produced the scarp. The stratigraphy in both trenches indicates one surface-faulting event, which implies a lengthy recurrence interval for surface faulting on this part of the fault. Organic-rich material from two samples that postdate the last fault movement yielded 14 C ages between 1600 and 1300 yr B.P. These dates are in excellent agreement with the dates obtained from soils buried by the fault-related fan alluvium

  10. Uranium Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance in southwestern Montana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broxton, D.E.

    1978-02-01

    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory conducted a Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance in southwestern Montana from early August to mid-October of 1976. A total of 1240 water and 1933 sediment samples were collected from 1994 locations at a nominal density of one location per 10 km 2 . The water samples were collected from streams, wells, and springs; sediment samples were taken at streams and springs. All samples were analyzed at Los Alamos for total uranium by fluorometry or delayed-neutron counting. The uranium content of water samples ranges from below the detection limit (less than 0.3 ppB) to 45.30 ppB and has a mean value of 1.40 ppB. The uranium content of the sediment samples ranges between 0.20 and 206.80 ppM and averages 6.12 ppM. The chosen uranium anomaly threshold value was 7 ppB for surface waters (streams), 9 ppB for groundwaters (wells and springs), and 25 ppM for all sediment samples. The study area consists of the following lithologic groups: Precambrian basement complex, Precambrian Belt metasediments, Paleozoic and Mesozoic shelf sediments, Cretaceous and early Tertiary volcanic and plutonic rocks, Laramide orogenic clastic sediments, and middle to late Tertiary volcanic rocks and intermontane basin sediments. Most of the anomalous water and sediment samples with well-developed dispersion trains occur in areas underlain by or adjacent to silicic plutonic rocks of the Idaho and Boulder batholiths. These anomalies may indicate the presence of uraniferous veins and pegmatites similar to those already known to exist in the area. Fewer anomalous water samples occur in areas underlain by Precambrian basement complex and Tertiary basin fill

  11. Demography of Northern Spotted Owls in southwestern Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabel, Cynthia J.; Salmons, Susan E.; Forsman, Eric D.; DeStefano, Stephen; Raphael, Martin G.; Gutierrez, R.J.

    1996-01-01

    Northern Spotted Owls (Strix occidentalis caurina) are associated with lower elevation, commercially valuable, late-successional coniferous forests in the Pacific Northwest. Meta-analyses of demographic parameters indicate that Northern Spotted Owl populations are declining throughout their range (Anderson and Burnham 1992, Burnham et al. this volume). Recent research has attempted to determine whether management activities have affected the viability of Spotted Owl populations, and results have led to development of conservation plans for the species (Dawson et al. 1987, Thomas et al. 1990, Murphy and Noon 1992, USDI 1992, Thomas et al. 1993b).In the Recovery Plan for the Northern Spotted Owl (USDI 1992b) threats to the species were identified as small population sizes, declining populations, limited amounts of habitat, continued loss and fragmentation of habitat, geographically isolated populations, and predation and competition from other avian species. Weather and fire are natural processes that also may affect reproductive success of Spotted Owls. Weather may be a factor in the high annual variability in fecundity of Spotted Owls, as has been suggested for other predatory bird species (Newton, 1979, 1986). However, these factors have not been addressed in previous studies of Spotted Owls.Our objectives were to estimate survival, fecundity, and annual rates of population change (l) for resident, territorial female Spotted Owls at two study areas in the coastal mountains of southwestern Oregon. We tested if the amount of rainfall was correlated with reproduction of Spotted Owls. While surveying for Spotted Owls, we documented the increased presence of Barred Owls (Strix varia), a potential competitor of Spotted Owls.

  12. Geomorphic Proxies to Test Strain Accommodation in Southwestern Puerto Rico from Digital Elevation Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios Galindez, I. M.; Xue, L.; Laó-Dávila, D. A.

    2017-12-01

    The Puerto Rico and the Virgin Island microplate is located in at the northeastern corner of the Caribbean plate boundary with North America is placed within an oblique subduction zone in which strain patterns remain unresolved. Seismic hazard is a major concern in the region as seen from the seismic history of the Caribbean-North America plate boundary zone. Most of the tectonic models of the microplate show the accommodation of strain occurring offshore, despite evidence from seismic activity, trench studies, and geodetic studies suggesting the existence of strain accomodation in southwest Puerto Rico. These studies also suggest active faulting specially in the western part of the island, but limited work has been done regarding their mechanism. Therefore, this work aims to define and map these active faults in western Puerto Rico by integrating data from analysis of fluvial terrains, and detailed mapping using digital elevation model (DEM) extracted from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and LIDAR data. The goal is to (1) identify structural features such as surface lineaments and fault scarps for the Cerro Goden fault, South Lajas fault, and other active faults in the western of Puerto Rico, (2) correlate these information with the distribution pattern and values of the geomorphic proxies, including Chi integral (χ), normalized steepness (ksn) and Asymmetric factor (AF). Our preliminary results from geomorphic proxies and Lidar data provide some insight of the displacement and stage of activities of these faults (e.g. Boqueron-Punta Malva Fault and Cerro Goden fault). Also, the anomaly of the geomorphic proxies generally correlate with the locations of the landslides in the southwestern Puerto Rico. The geomorphic model of this work include new information of active faulting fundamental to produce better seismic hazards maps. Additionally, active tectonics studies are vital to issue and adjust construction buildings codes and zonification codes.

  13. Diversity and Distribution Patterns of Cetaceans in the Subtropical Southwestern Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf and Slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Tullio, Juliana Couto; Gandra, Tiago B. R.; Zerbini, Alexandre N.; Secchi, Eduardo R.

    2016-01-01

    Temporal and spatial patterns of cetacean diversity and distribution were investigated through eight ship-based surveys carried out during spring and autumn between 2009 and 2014 on the outer continental shelf (~150m) and slope (1500m) off southeastern and southern Brazil (~23°S to ~34°S). The survey area was divided into southeast and south areas according to their oceanographic characteristics. Twenty-one species were observed in 503 sightings. The overall number of species was similar between the two areas, though it was higher in the spring in the south area. Five species were dominant and diversity varied more seasonally than spatially. ANOVA and kernel analyses showed that overall cetacean densities were higher in spring compared to autumn. Physeter macrocephalus, the most frequent species, concentrated throughout the south area at depths over 1000m in both seasons. Despite the overlapped occurrence at a broader scale, small delphinids presented latitudinal and in-offshore gradients as well as seasonal variation in distribution patterns, which could indicate habitat partitioning between some species. Delphinus delphis was only recorded in the south and its density decreased in areas where the presence of Stenella frontalis increased, mainly beyond the 250m isobath. Densities of S. longirostris and S. attenuata increased in lower latitudes and beyond the shelf break. The large delphinids Tursiops truncatus and Globicephala melas formed mixed groups in many occasions and were observed along the study area around depths of 500m. Grampus griseus was twice as frequent in the south area and densities increased in waters deeper than 600m. As expected, densities of both small and large migratory whales were higher during spring, over the continental slope, in the southeast area. The results presented here provided strong evidence on the importance of the outer continental shelf and slope to a diverse community of cetaceans occurring in the subtropical Southwestern

  14. Perceptions of health and illness among the Konso people of southwestern Ethiopia: persistence and change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workneh, Tebaber; Emirie, Guday; Kaba, Mirgissa; Mekonnen, Yalemtsehay; Kloos, Helmut

    2018-02-26

    Cross-cultural studies indicate that every culture has its own particular explanations for health and illness and its own healing strategies. The Konso people have always practiced indigenous medicine and have multifaceted accounts or multiple dimensions of illness perceptions and health-care beliefs and practices. This paper describes how perceptions of health and illness are instrumental in health and treatment outcomes among the Konso people in southwestern Ethiopia. Results may provide an understanding of the perceptions of health and illness in relation to the local cosmology, religion, and environment. The ethnographic method was employed to generate evidence, complemented by focus group discussions, in-depth interviews, and direct observation. Thematic analysis was employed to categorize and interpret the data. Findings indicate that the Konso people's worldview, particularly as it relates to health, illness, and healing systems, is closely linked to their day-to-day lives. Older people believe illnesses are caused by a range of supernatural forces, including the wrath of God or local gods, oritta (spirit possession), and karayitta (ancestral spirits), and they use culturally prescribed treatment. Young and formally educated members of the community attribute causes of diseases to germitta (germs) and factorta (bacteria) and tend to seek treatment mostly in modern health facilities. Perceptions of health and illness as well as of healing are part of Konso people's worldview. Local communities comprehend health problems and solutions within their cultural frame of reference, which has changed over the years. The Konso people associate their health situations with socio-cultural and religious factors. The individual's behavior and interactions with the social, natural, and supernatural powers affect the well-being of the whole group. The individual, the family, the clan leaders, and the deceased are intimately linked to one's culturally based health beliefs

  15. Pliocene taxodiaceous fossil wood from southwestern Ukraine and its palaeoenvironmental implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Tiemei

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Mineralized wood collected from Late Pliocene strata near Gorbki village in the Transcarpathian region of Beregovo Kholmogor'e in southwestern Ukraine was anatomically studied and identified. The wood possesses distinctive anatomical features and has distinct growth rings with an abrupt transition from early- to late-wood. Wood consists of tracheids with 1–3 seriate, dominating bi-seriate, opposite pits on the radial walls and taxodioid cross-field pitting, indentures present. Rays are uni-seriate and 1 to 73 cells high. Ray parenchyma horizontal walls thin and smooth. Axial parenchyma distributed in early- and late-wood and is solitary and diffuse, with end walls nearly smooth or slightly nodular. The combination of features observed in the wood indicates it belongs to the conifer family Taxodiaceae and is most similar to modern Sequoia and assigned to the fossil genus Sequoioxylon. Comparison with species of Sequoioxylon show it is most similar to Sequoioxylon burejense, but ray tracheids were not found in our specimens. We describe the specimens here as Sequoioxylon cf. s. burejense noting this similarity. Extant Sequoia is distributed in the northern California coastal forest eco-region of northern California and southern Oregon in the United States where they usually grow in a unique environment with heavy seasonal precipitation (2500 mm annually, cool coastal air and fog drip. This study supplies magafossil evidence of Sequoioxylon as an element of the Late Pliocene forest community in Ukraine and indicates a climate with heavy seasonal precipitation and fog drip.

  16. Resources Management for Income Optimization on Smallholder Food Crop Farms in South-Western Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeniyi, OR.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural mobilization based purely on resources availability factor alone may falter due to inadequate attention that is hitherto paid to other complementary factors. Empirical evidence from the current study conducted on typical small-holder farms in South-western Nigeria has shown that while the availability of the required input resources were essential in raising income on small-holder farms, resources management choice factor was the most relatively crucial. With better choice of management and careful selection of enterprises, the current level of available resources at the disposal of small-holder farmers in the study area was adequate to make them economically viable and improve their potential savings. Income realizable with 'better' management plan option was N 359,761.79 per hectare while ₦ 164,213.88 per hectare was earned with the current level of resources use and enterprise combination. The better management plan recommended the cultivation of cassava/yam (0.59 ha., maize/cassava (0.34 ha., Banana-plantain (0.26 ha and maize/cocoyam (0.22 ha on 1.42 hectares of land instead of the current 2.37 hectares (67% increase cultivated mostly to sole cropping. However, the additional human and financial requirements of the proposed better management plan called for dedicated and active government action programmes in form of provision of most input needs of farmers at subsidized rates, provision of extension and training in modern farm management and organization techniques and establishment of advisory service centers to monitor and supervise the use of resource inputs on farms.

  17. Linking Curriculum and Learning to Facilities: Arizona State University's GK-12 Sustainable Schools Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elser, Monica M.; Pollari, Lynette; Frisk, Erin; Wood, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Arizona State University's "Sustainability Science for Sustainable Schools program" brings together graduate students, sustainability researchers, high school teachers and students, and school or district administrators in a project designed to address the challenge of becoming a "sustainable school." Funded by the National…

  18. 76 FR 37853 - Arizona Public Service Company; Notice of Consideration of Issuance of Amendment to Facility...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-28

    ...] Arizona Public Service Company; Notice of Consideration of Issuance of Amendment to Facility Operating License, Proposed No Significant Hazards Consideration Determination, and Opportunity for a Hearing AGENCY... consideration. Under the Commission's regulations in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR...

  19. Simulating Revenue and Expenditure Limit Projections for a Community College in Arizona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gose, Frank J.

    In 1980, the Constitution of the State of Arizona was amended to establish expenditure limits for a number of political entities, including community colleges. Limits were also established on revenue derived from local tax levies. Concern that limitations on revenue and expenditures could place real constraints on community college operations…

  20. 75 FR 11554 - Notice of Intent to Repatriate Cultural Items: Museum of Northern Arizona, Flagstaff, AZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-11

    ... continue to be used by traditional Navajo religious practitioners. Based on the sacred esoteric knowledge... Northern Arizona, Flagstaff, AZ, that meet the definitions of ``sacred objects'' and ``objects of cultural... the area of Farmington, NM. The 29 cultural items are 4 watercolors of sacred Navajo Yei figures and...

  1. Changing the Image of School Lunch: Arizona Meets the Marketing Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Shelley B.

    1988-01-01

    Arizona's Future for Child Nutrition organization hired a professional public relations and advertising agency to increase student participation in school lunches. After, the opinions and needs of students were researched, and the agency launched a campaign that featured radio advertising, television and radio talk shows, and press coverage, with…

  2. Cave Buttes Dam Master Plan, Phoenix, Arizona and Vicinity (Including New River).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-01

    New River Dam (including May 1982 New River to Skunk Creek) Part 4--Skunk Creek and New and July 1984 Agua Fria Rivers below the Arizona Canal...Groundwater is a potential source, as existing wells in the area provided potable water for homes. D. WASTE TREATMENT SYSTEM The type and extent of

  3. Factors Affecting Student Academic Success in Gateway Courses at Northern Arizona University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benford, Russell; Gess-Newsome, Julie

    2006-01-01

    Students in gateway business, math, and science courses at Northern Arizona University receive non-passing grades (grades of D, F, and W) at high rates. To identify possible trends in demographic groups that receive DFWs and to investigate why students receive DFWs in these courses, a student survey was administered to 719 students in 7 gateway…

  4. 76 FR 9772 - Adequacy of Arizona Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-22

    ... Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of... Region IX is proposing to approve a modification to Arizona's municipal solid waste landfill (MSWLF... final rule amending the municipal solid waste landfill criteria at 40 CFR 258.4 to allow for RD&D...

  5. 77 FR 65875 - Adequacy of Arizona Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-31

    ... Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice... modification to Arizona's municipal solid waste landfill (MSWLF) permit program to allow the State to issue... amending the municipal solid waste landfill criteria at 40 CFR 258.4 to allow for Research, Development...

  6. 77 FR 21841 - Pistachios Grown in California, Arizona, and New Mexico; Decreased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-12

    ... FIR] Pistachios Grown in California, Arizona, and New Mexico; Decreased Assessment Rate AGENCY... the assessment rate established for the Administrative Committee for Pistachios (Committee) for the 2011-12 and subsequent production years from $0.0007 to $0.0005 per pound of assessed weight pistachios...

  7. 76 FR 60361 - Pistachios Grown in California, Arizona, and New Mexico; Decreased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ...; FV-983-2 IR] Pistachios Grown in California, Arizona, and New Mexico; Decreased Assessment Rate...: This rule decreases the assessment rate established for the Administrative Committee for Pistachios... weight pistachios. The Committee locally administers the marketing order which regulates the handling of...

  8. History, extent, and future of Arizona BLM-managed roadless areas in the Madrean Archipelago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevor Hare; Cory Jones

    2005-01-01

    Roadless areas of southeastern Arizona managed by the Bureau of Land Management are becoming rare. Fragmentation by roads and development, all-terrain vehicle use, erosion, and altered hydrology are a few of the causes of loss and degradation of roadless areas. The history of BLM and publicly identified roadless areas includes the passage of the Wilderness Act of 1964...

  9. Application of Canal Automation at the Central Arizona Irrigation and Drainage District

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Central Arizona Irrigation and Drainage District (CAIDD) began delivering water to users in 1987. Although designed for automatic control, the system was run manually until a homemade SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) system was developed by a district employee. In 2002, problem...

  10. 75 FR 7303 - Drake Cement, LLC-Acquisition Exemption-Clarkdale Arizona Central Railroad, LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board [STB Finance Docket No. 35350] Drake Cement, LLC--Acquisition Exemption--Clarkdale Arizona Central Railroad, LLC Drake Cement, LLC (DC), a..., Drake Switching Company, LLC --Operation Exemption-- Drake Cement, LLC. DC certifies that the projected...

  11. Quantitative Analysis of Variables Affecting Nursing Program Completion at Arizona State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Cheryl

    2013-01-01

    This study is designed to understand the patterns of selection, preparation, retention and graduation of undergraduate pre-licensure clinical nursing students in the College of Nursing and Health Innovation at Arizona State University enrolled in 2007 and 2008. The resulting patterns may guide policy decision making regarding future cohorts in…

  12. Indian Woman Today; Southwest Indian Women's Conference (Window Rock, Arizona, September 24-25, 1975).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975

    Describing the activities and responses of American Indian women attending the 1975 Southwest Indian Women's Conference in Window Rock, Arizona, these proceedings present the following: (1) the keynote address (focus is on program funding and Indian female civil rights, self-concept, and cultural background); (2) observations derived from…

  13. 75 FR 9388 - Prescott National Forest, Bradshaw Ranger District; Arizona; Bradshaw Vegetation Management Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-02

    ...; Arizona; Bradshaw Vegetation Management Project AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of intent to prepare an environmental impact statement. SUMMARY: This project is a proposal to improve the health of.... The project area encompasses about 55,554 acres. Within the project area, the proposal is to...

  14. Assessing Factors That Influence the Recruitment of Majors from Introductory Geology Classes at Northern Arizona University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoisch, Thomas D.; Bowie, James I.

    2010-01-01

    In order to guide the formulation of strategies for recruiting undergraduates into the geology program at Northern Arizona University, we surveyed 783 students in introductory geology classes and 23 geology majors in their junior and senior years. Our analysis shows that ~7% of students in the introductory classes are possible candidates for…

  15. 76 FR 12369 - Certification of the Attorney General; Maricopa County, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Certification of the Attorney General; Maricopa County, Arizona In... within the scope of the determinations of the Attorney General and the Director of the Census made under... September 23, 1975 (40 FR 43746). Dated: March 3, 2011. Eric H. Holder Jr., Attorney General of the United...

  16. Arizona Head Start for Homeless Children and Families Project. 1994-95 Evaluation Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulholland, Lori; Greene, Andrea

    Homeless families with children comprise the fastest growing segment of the United States homeless population. This study evaluated Year 1 of the Arizona Head Start for Homeless Children and Families Project, designed to meet educational and social needs of homeless children and families, and to assist Head Start agencies in developing effective…

  17. Arizona Head Start for Homeless Children and Families Project. 1995-96 Evaluation Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulholland, Lori

    Homeless families with children constitute the fastest growing segment of the United States homeless population. This study evaluated Year 2 of the Arizona Head Start for Homeless Children and Families Project, designed to meet educational and social needs of homeless children and families, and to assist Head Start agencies in developing effective…

  18. Preliminary assessment of changes in a lizard assemblage at an ecotone in southeastern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence L. C. Jones

    2013-01-01

    The Madrean Archipelago and its associated valleys have the highest diversity of lizards in the United States. This is due to a convergence of ecoregions in an area that provides excellent environmental conditions for life history needs of terrestrial ectotherms. The study area, near Safford, Arizona, is known to have about 20 species of sympatric lizards, although...

  19. The Education of English Language Learners in Arizona: A History of Underachievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Eugene E.; Lawton, Kerry; Diniz De Figueriedo, Eduardo H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The state of Arizona has recently mandated the Structured English Immersion Model (SEI) in the state's public schools, and as a result the local flexibility that existed regarding the choice of program models for ELLs has ended. In the school year 2008-09, these regulations were made even more restrictive after the implementation of…

  20. 75 FR 52045 - Arizona Public Service Company, Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station, Unit 3; Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-24

    ... Company, Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station, Unit 3; Environmental Assessment and Finding of No.... NPF-74, issued to Arizona Public Service Company (APS, the licensee), for operation of Palo Verde... Statement for the Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station, NUREG-0841, dated February 1982. Agencies and...

  1. 76 FR 1197 - Arizona Public Service Company, Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station; Notice of Availability of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-07

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket Nos. 50-528, 50-529, 50-530; NRC-2009-0012] Arizona Public Service Company, Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station; Notice of Availability of the Final Supplement 43... of operation for the Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station (PVNGS). Possible alternatives to the...

  2. School-to-Work Transition in Arizona: Does Public Policy Ignore Social Equality for Rural Populations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danzig, Arnold; Vandegrift, Judith A.

    1995-01-01

    Public policy implications for Arizona of the School-to-Work Opportunities Act are explored, specifically with regard to rural areas. It is argued that should additional resources become available to the state, population-based allocations to rural areas are likely to be insufficient for meaningful educational and economic-development reform. (SLD)

  3. The influence of parent material on vegetation response 15 years after the Dude Fire, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson M. Leonard; Alvin L. Medina; Daniel G. Neary; Aregai Tecle

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effects of two types of parent material, sandstone and limestone, on the response of vegetation growth after the 1990 Dude Fire in central Arizona. The operating hypothesis of the study was that, given the right conditions, severe wildfire can trigger vegetation type conversion. Overall, three patterns emerged: (1) oak density increased by 413%...

  4. 75 FR 52550 - Land Acquisitions; Tohono O'odham Nation, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Land Acquisitions; Tohono O'odham Nation... consisting of 53.54 acres of land into trust for the Tohono O'odham Nation of Arizona on July 23, 2010. This...--Indian Affairs decided to accept Parcel 2, consisting of 53.54 acres of land into trust for the Tohono O...

  5. Assessment of Training Needs for Arizona Student Financial Aid Practitioners. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenske, Robert H.

    The present and future training needs of financial aid practitioners (financial aid officers, counselors, and support staff personnel) at Arizona colleges and government agencies were assessed. Attention was directed to the literature on training and programs for financial aid practitioners, as well as the possibilities of developing a…

  6. A Study of Post-Graduate Plans of Arizona High School Seniors. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenske, Robert H.; And Others

    A study undertaken in Arizona in 1975 was comprised of two parts, a pilot study and a comprehensive survey of high school students. It had as an overall objective to provide a data resource useful to all citizens and postsecondary institutions, to manpower and employment agencies, and to the state's high schools for program planning and…

  7. "Keeping up the Good Fight": The Said and Unsaid in "Flores v. Arizona"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Melinda Hollis; Aletheiani, Dinny Risri; Carlson, David Lee; Ewbank, Ann Dutton

    2014-01-01

    The authors' purpose in this article is to interrogate the mediated and political discourses that emerged alongside the "Flores v. Arizona" case. The authors endeavor to offer another voice, framework and approach that may help sustain a continuous, paramount conversation concerning the educational rights of English language learners and…

  8. Overstated Optimism: Arizona's Structured English Immersion Program under "Horne v. Flores"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Jill Kerper

    2010-01-01

    This article is an analysis of the educational implications of the Supreme Court (USSC) decision in "Horne v. Flores" (2009). The USSC remanded the Arizona case to the lower court, requiring a rehearing of petitioners' request for relief from the court's oversight of AZ's "structured English immersion" (SEI) program mandated…

  9. 77 FR 45326 - Approval, Disapproval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Arizona; Regional...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-31

    ... available in either location (e.g., Confidential Business Information). To inspect the hard copy materials..., Disapproval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Arizona; Regional Haze State and Federal Implementation Plans AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule; notice of additional...

  10. 78 FR 39707 - Foreign-Trade Zone (FTZ) 277-Western Maricopa County, Arizona; Notification of Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-02

    ....; (Plastic Containers) Goodyear, Arizona The Greater Maricopa Foreign Trade Zone, Inc. (GMFTZ), grantee of... application is currently pending to expand FTZ 277 and include the Schoeller Arca facility as a usage-driven... plastic containers for industrial/commercial materials handling applications. Pursuant to 15 CFR 400.14(b...

  11. Remembering Pearl Harbor: The USS Arizona Memorial. Teaching with Historic Places.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vierra, John, Jr.

    This lesson describes and discusses the submerged remains of the battleship USS Arizona which rests on the silt of Pearl Harbor (Hawaii), just as it had settled on December 7, 1941, the day Japan attacked the U.S. fleet and began the Pacific battles of World War II. The lesson is based on the National Register of Historic Places registration file,…

  12. Tree mortality in drought-stressed mixed-conifer and ponderosa pine forests, Arizona, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph L. Ganey; Scott C. Vojta

    2011-01-01

    We monitored tree mortality in northern Arizona (USA) mixed-conifer and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws) forests from 1997 to 2007, a period of severe drought in this area. Mortality was pervasive, occurring on 100 and 98% of 53 mixed-conifer and 60 ponderosa pine plots (1-ha each), respectively. Most mortality was attributable to a suite of forest...

  13. Coarse woody debris assay in northern Arizona mixed-conifer and ponderosa pine forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph L. Ganey; Scott C. Vojta

    2010-01-01

    Coarse woody debris (CWD) provides important ecosystem services in forests and affects fire behavior, yet information on amounts and types of CWD typically is limited. To provide such information, we sampled logs and stumps in mixed-conifer and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests in north-central Arizona. Spatial variability was prominent for all CWD parameters....

  14. Effects of the Chytrid fungus on the Tarahumara frog (Rana tarahumarae) in Arizona and Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen F. Hale; Philip C. Rosen; James L. Jarchow; Gregory A. Bradley

    2005-01-01

    We conducted histological analyses on museum specimens collected 1975-1999 from 10 sites in Arizona and Sonora to test for the pathogenic chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis) in ranid frogs, focusing on the Tarahumara frog (Rana tarahumarae). During 1981-2000, frogs displaying disease signs were found in the field, and...

  15. 78 FR 29292 - Partial Approval and Partial Disapproval of Air Quality State Implementation Plans; Arizona...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-20

    ... Smelter, American Smelting and Refining Company (ASARCO) Hayden Smelter, Catalyst Paper, and Arizona... Smelter, ASARCO Hayden Smelter, Catalyst Paper, and AEPCO Apache Generating Station. In summary, we propose to approve a revised set of BART-eligible units for the Miami and Hayden smelters; the State's...

  16. Risk Assessment Stability: A Revalidation Study of the Arizona Risk/Needs Assessment Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwalbe, Craig S.

    2009-01-01

    The actuarial method is the gold standard for risk assessment in child welfare, juvenile justice, and criminal justice. It produces risk classifications that are highly predictive and that may be robust to sampling error. This article reports a revalidation study of the Arizona Risk/Needs Assessment instrument, an actuarial instrument for juvenile…

  17. "By the Time I Get to Arizona": Race, Language, and Education in America's Racist State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammarota, Julio; Aguilera, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on research projects conducted primarily by first and second generation Mexican American high school students who document how school relationships are shaped by Arizona's racist political discourses. They conducted observations of their school experiences and then wrote up what they were observing in field notes. Field note…

  18. State Education Policy Formation: The Case of Arizona's English Language Learner Legislation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Stephen B.

    2012-01-01

    This historical case study focuses on policy making at the state level by analyzing the development of a new policy for English language learners (ELLs) in Arizona. "New institutionalism" is used as a framework, with political culture and educational regimes acting as environmental factors affecting state policy choices. Key events…

  19. Education Policies and Policy Making in Arizona: Report on a Survey of Education Policy Actors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Stephen B.

    2011-01-01

    This study provides an objective look at the education policies adopted by the State of Arizona since 2000, describes participants in the policy-making process, and identifies policy options for the future. The framework of the study uses a typology of educational policies with seven categories: school building and facilities, curriculum…

  20. Servant Leadership as Defined by K-12 ACSI Christian School Administrators in Arizona, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temperley, Austin J.

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to understand how ACSI certified Christian School leaders in Arizona lead their schools. There are a variety of leadership models available. Servant leadership, being a fairly recent phenomenon has been studied and implemented by numerous organizations and leaders with great organizational success and buy in. One area of…