WorldWideScience

Sample records for southern space observatory

  1. European Southern Observatory

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1970-01-01

    Professor A. Blaauw, Director general of the European Southern Observatory, with George Hampton on his right, signs the Agreement covering collaboration with CERN in the construction of the large telescope to be installed at the ESO Observatory in Chile.

  2. Analysis of geomagnetic storm variations and count-rate of cosmic ray muons recorded at the Brazilian southern space observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frigo, Everton; Savian, Jairo Francisco; Silva, Marlos Rockenbach da; Lago, Alisson dal; Trivedi, Nalin Babulal; Schuch, Nelson Jorge

    2007-01-01

    An analysis of geomagnetic storm variations and the count rate of cosmic ray muons recorded at the Brazilian Southern Space Observatory -OES/CRS/INPE-MCT, in Sao Martinho da Serra, RS during the month of November 2004, is presented in this paper. The geomagnetic measurements are done by a three component low noise fluxgate magnetometer and the count rates of cosmic ray muons are recorded by a muon scintillator telescope - MST, both instruments installed at the Observatory. The fluxgate magnetometer measures variations in the three orthogonal components of Earth magnetic field, H (North-South), D (East-West) and Z (Vertical), with data sampling rate of 0.5 Hz. The muon scintillator telescope records hourly count rates. The arrival of a solar disturbance can be identified by observing the decrease in the muon count rate. The goal of this work is to describe the physical morphology and phenomenology observed during the geomagnetic storm of November 2004, using the H component of the geomagnetic field and vertical channel V of the multi-directional muon detector in South of Brazil. (author)

  3. Analysis of geomagnetic storm variations and count-rate of cosmic ray muons recorded at the Brazilian southern space observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frigo, Everton [University of Sao Paulo, USP, Institute of Astronomy, Geophysics and Atmospheric Sciences, IAG/USP, Department of Geophysics, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Savian, Jairo Francisco [Space Science Laboratory of Santa Maria, LACESM/CT, Southern Regional Space Research Center, CRS/INPE, MCT, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Silva, Marlos Rockenbach da; Lago, Alisson dal; Trivedi, Nalin Babulal [National Institute for Space Research, INPE/MCT, Division of Space Geophysics, DGE, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Schuch, Nelson Jorge, E-mail: efrigo@iag.usp.br, E-mail: savian@lacesm.ufsm.br, E-mail: njschuch@lacesm.ufsm.br, E-mail: marlos@dge.inpe.br, E-mail: dallago@dge.inpe.br, E-mail: trivedi@dge.inpe.br [Southern Regional Space Research Center, CRS/INPE, MCT, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil)

    2007-07-01

    An analysis of geomagnetic storm variations and the count rate of cosmic ray muons recorded at the Brazilian Southern Space Observatory -OES/CRS/INPE-MCT, in Sao Martinho da Serra, RS during the month of November 2004, is presented in this paper. The geomagnetic measurements are done by a three component low noise fluxgate magnetometer and the count rates of cosmic ray muons are recorded by a muon scintillator telescope - MST, both instruments installed at the Observatory. The fluxgate magnetometer measures variations in the three orthogonal components of Earth magnetic field, H (North-South), D (East-West) and Z (Vertical), with data sampling rate of 0.5 Hz. The muon scintillator telescope records hourly count rates. The arrival of a solar disturbance can be identified by observing the decrease in the muon count rate. The goal of this work is to describe the physical morphology and phenomenology observed during the geomagnetic storm of November 2004, using the H component of the geomagnetic field and vertical channel V of the multi-directional muon detector in South of Brazil. (author)

  4. Radio quite site qualification for the Brasilian Southern Space Observatory by monitoring the low frequency 10-240 MHz Eletromagnetic Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Rosa, Guilherme Simon; Schuch, Nelson Jorge; Espindola Antunes, Cassio; Gomes, Natanael

    The monitoring of the level of the radio interference in the Site of the Brazilian Southern Space Observatory - SSO/CRS/CIE/INPE - MCT, (29S, 53W), São Martinho da Serra, RS, in south a of Brazil, aims to gather spectral data for the Observatory's Site qualification as a radio quite site for installation of Radio Astronomy instrumentation, free of radio noise. The determination of the radio interference level is being conducted by using a spectrum analyzer and Omni directional antennas remotely controlled through a GPIB interface, via IEEE 488 bus, and programs written in C language. That procedure allows the scanning of the Electromagnetic Spectrum power over the examined frequency range from 10 - 240MHz. The methodology for these tests was to amplify the radio signal from the antenna by a block amplifier. Subsequently, the received signals are evaluated by the spectrum analyzer. A dedicated PC computer is used for the control and data acquisition, with the developed software. The data are instantly stored in digital format and remotely transferred via VNC software from the SSO-Observatory Site to the Radio Frequency and Telecommunication Laboratory at the Southern Regional Space Research Center - CRS/CIE/INPE - MCT, in Santa Maria, RS, for analysis and storage on the radio interference data base for long period. It is compared the SSO's Electromagnetic Spectrum data obtained since the beginning of the 1990's decade, before the Site constructions, with the current observed data. Some radio transmissions were found in the observed frequency range due to some local FMs, mostly between 93.5 MHz to 105.7 MHz, which were observed in previous monitoring. A good evidence of the site quality is the fact that the power of the Electromagnetic Spectrum is much lower than that measured at the Radio Frequency and Telecommunication Laboratory, in Santa Maria, RS, where the signals do not exceed -60 dB. On the Site of the SSO, due to the low power observed, weak radio signals

  5. Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Deep Space Climate ObserVatoRy (DSCOVR) satellite is a NOAA operated asset at the first Lagrange (L1) point. The primary space weather instrument is the PlasMag...

  6. Early German Plans for a Southern Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfschmidt, Gudrun

    As early as the 18th and 19th centuries, French and English observers were active in South Africa. Around the beginning of the 20th century the Heidelberg astronomer Max Wolf (1863-1932) proposed a southern observatory. In 1907 Hermann Carl Vogel (1841-1907), director of the Astrophysical Observatory Potsdam, suggested a southern station in Spain. His ideas for building an observatory in Windhuk for photographing the sky and measuring the solar constant were taken over by the Göttingen astronomers. In 1910 Karl Schwarzschild (1873-1916), after having visited the observatories in America, pointed out the usefulness of an observatory in South West Africa, where it would have better weather than in Germany and also give access to the southern sky. Seeing tests were begun in 1910 by Potsdam astronomers, but WW I stopped the plans. In 1928 Erwin Finlay-Freundlich (1885-1964), inspired by the Hamburg astronomer Walter Baade (1893-1960), worked out a detailed plan for a southern observatory with a reflecting telescope, spectrographs and an astrograph with an objective prism. Paul Guthnick (1879-1947), director of the Berlin observatory, in cooperation with APO Potsdam and Hamburg, made a site survey to Africa in 1929 and found the conditions in Windhuk to be ideal. Observations were started in the 1930s by Berlin and Breslau astronomers, but were stopped by WW II. In the 1950s, astronomers from Hamburg and The Netherlands renewed the discussion in the framework of European cooperation, and this led to the founding of ESO in 1963, as is well described by Blaauw (1991). Blaauw, Adriaan: ESO's Early History. The European Southern Observatory from Concept to Reality. Garching bei München: ESO 1991.

  7. Early German plans for southern observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfschmidt, G.

    2002-07-01

    As early as the 18th and 19th centuries, French and English observers were active in South Africa. Around the beginning of the 20th century, Heidelberg and Potsdam astronomers proposed a southern observatory. Then Göttingen astronomers suggested building an observatory in Windhoek for photographing the sky and measuring the solar constant. In 1910 Karl Schwarzschild (1873-1916), after a visit to observatories in the United States, pointed out the usefulness of an observatory in South West Africa, in a climate superior to that in Germany, giving German astronomers access to the southern sky. Seeing tests were begun in 1910 by Potsdam astronomers, but WW I stopped the plans. In 1928 Erwin Finlay-Freundlich (1885-1964), inspired by the Hamburg astronomer Walter Baade (1893-1960), worked out a detailed plan for a southern observatory with a reflecting telescope, spectrographs and an astrograph with an objective prism. Paul Guthnick (1879-1947), director of the Berlin observatory, in cooperation with APO Potsdam and Hamburg, made a site survey to Africa in 1929 and found the conditions in Windhoek to be ideal. Observations were started in the 1930s by Berlin and Breslau astronomers, but were stopped by WW II. In the 1950s, astronomers from Hamburg and The Netherlands renewed the discussion in the framework of European cooperation, and this led to the founding of ESO in 1963.

  8. Space astrophysical observatory 'Orion-2'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurzadyan, G.A.; Jarakyan, A.L.; Krmoyan, M.N.; Kashin, A.L.; Loretsyan, G.M.; Ohanesyan, J.B.

    1976-01-01

    Ultraviolet spectrograms of a large number of faint stars up to 13sup(m) were obtained in the wavelengths 2000-5000 A by means of the space observatory 'Orion-2' installed in the spaceship 'Soyuz-13' with two spacemen on board. The paper deals with a description of the operation modes of this observatory, the designs and basic schemes of the scientific and auxiliary device and the method of combining the work of the flight engineer and the automation system of the observatory itself. It also treats of the combination of the particular parts of 'Orion-2' observatory on board the spaceship and the measures taken to provide for its normal functioning in terms of the space flight. A detailed description is given of the optical, electrical and mechanical schemes of the devices - meniscus telescope with an objective prism, stellar diffraction spectrographs, single-coordinate and two-coordinate stellar and solar transducers, control panel, control systems, etc. The paper also provides the functional scheme of astronavigation, six-wheel stabilization, the design of mounting (assembling) the stabilized platform carrying the telescopes and the drives used in it. Problems relating to the observation program in orbit, the ballistic provision of initial data, and control of the operation of the observatory are also dealt with. In addition, the paper carries information of the photomaterials used, the methods of their energy calibration, standardization and the like. Matters of pre-start tests of apparatus, the preparation of the spacemen for conducting astronomical observations with the given devices, etc. are likewise dwelt on. The paper ends with a brief survey of the results obtained and the elaboration of the observed material. (Auth.)

  9. Brazil to Join the European Southern Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    The Federative Republic of Brazil has yesterday signed the formal accession agreement paving the way for it to become a Member State of the European Southern Observatory (ESO). Following government ratification Brazil will become the fifteenth Member State and the first from outside Europe. On 29 December 2010, at a ceremony in Brasilia, the Brazilian Minister of Science and Technology, Sergio Machado Rezende and the ESO Director General, Tim de Zeeuw signed the formal accession agreement aiming to make Brazil a Member State of the European Southern Observatory. Brazil will become the fifteen Member State and the first from outside Europe. Since the agreement means accession to an international convention, the agreement must now be submitted to the Brazilian Parliament for ratification [1]. The signing of the agreement followed the unanimous approval by the ESO Council during an extraordinary meeting on 21 December 2010. "Joining ESO will give new impetus to the development of science, technology and innovation in Brazil as part of the considerable efforts our government is making to keep the country advancing in these strategic areas," says Rezende. The European Southern Observatory has a long history of successful involvement with South America, ever since Chile was selected as the best site for its observatories in 1963. Until now, however, no non-European country has joined ESO as a Member State. "The membership of Brazil will give the vibrant Brazilian astronomical community full access to the most productive observatory in the world and open up opportunities for Brazilian high-tech industry to contribute to the European Extremely Large Telescope project. It will also bring new resources and skills to the organisation at the right time for them to make a major contribution to this exciting project," adds ESO Director General, Tim de Zeeuw. The European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) telescope design phase was recently completed and a major review was

  10. Temperature effect correction for the cosmic ray muon data observed at the Brazilian Southern Space Observatory in São Martinho da Serra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braga, C R; Dal Lago, A; Kuwabara, T; Schuch, N J; Munakata, K

    2013-01-01

    The negative atmospheric temperature effect observed in the muon intensity measured by surface-level detectors is related to the atmospheric expansion during summer periods. According the first explanation given, the path of muons from the higher atmospheric level (where they are generated) to the ground becomes longer, and more muons decay, leading to a muon intensity decrease. A significant negative correlation, therefore, is expected between the altitude of the equi-pressure surface and the muon intensity. We compared measurements of the altitude of 100 hPa equi-pressure surface and data from the multidirectional muon detector installed at the Brazilian Southern Space Observatory in São Martinho da Serra, RS. Significant correlation coefficient were found (up to 0.95) when using data observed in 2008. For comparison, data from the multidirectional muon detector of Nagoya, located in the opposite hemisphere, is studied and an anti-phase in the cosmic ray variation related with the temperature effect is expected between data from detectors of Nagoya and São Martinho da Serra. The temperature influence is higher for the directional channels of Nagoya than for ones of São Martinho da Serra.

  11. The Arecibo Observatory Space Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Ford, Linda A.; Fernanda Zambrano Marin, Luisa; Aponte Hernandez, Betzaida; Soto, Sujeily; Rivera-Valentin, Edgard G.

    2016-10-01

    The Arecibo Observatory Space Academy (AOSA) is an intense fifteen-week pre-college research program for qualified high school students residing in Puerto Rico, which includes ten days for hands-on, on site research activities. Our mission is to prepare students for their professional careers by allowing them to receive an independent and collaborative research experience on topics related to the multidisciplinary field of space science. Our objectives are to (1) supplement the student's STEM education via inquiry-based learning and indirect teaching methods, (2) immerse students in an ESL environment, further developing their verbal and written presentation skills, and (3) foster in every student an interest in the STEM fields by harnessing their natural curiosity and knowledge in order to further develop their critical thinking and investigation skills. Students interested in participating in the program go through an application, interview and trial period before being offered admission. They are welcomed as candidates the first weeks, and later become cadets while experiencing designing, proposing, and conducting research projects focusing in fields like Physics, Astronomy, Geology, Chemistry, and Engineering. Each individual is evaluated with program compatibility based on peer interaction, preparation, participation, and contribution to class, group dynamics, attitude, challenges, and inquiry. This helps to ensure that specialized attention can be given to students who demonstrate a dedication and desire to learn. Deciding how to proceed in the face of setbacks and unexpected problems is central to the learning experience. At the end of the semester, students present their research to the program mentors, peers, and scientific staff. This year, AOSA students also focused on science communication and were trained by NASA's FameLab. Students additionally presented their research at this year's International Space Development Conference (ISDC), which was held in

  12. Integration of space geodesy: a US National Geodetic Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunck, Thomas P.; Neilan, Ruth

    2003-01-01

    In the interest of improving the performance and efficiency of space geodesy a diverse group in the U.S., in collaboration with IGGOS, has begun to establish a unified National Geodetic Observatory (NGO).

  13. Use of libration-point orbits for space observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquhar, Robert W.; Dunham, David W.

    1990-01-01

    The sun-earth libration points, L1 and L2, are located 1.5 million kilometers from the earth toward and away from the sun. Halo orbits about these points have significant advantages for space observatories in terms of viewing geometry, thermal and radiation environment, and delta-V expediture.

  14. Highly Adjustable Systems: An Architecture for Future Space Observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenberg, Jonathan; Conti, Alberto; Redding, David; Lawrence, Charles R.; Hachkowski, Roman; Laskin, Robert; Steeves, John

    2017-06-01

    Mission costs for ground breaking space astronomical observatories are increasing to the point of unsustainability. We are investigating the use of adjustable or correctable systems as a means to reduce development and therefore mission costs. The poster introduces the promise and possibility of realizing a “net zero CTE” system for the general problem of observatory design and introduces the basic systems architecture we are considering. This poster concludes with an overview of our planned study and demonstrations for proving the value and worth of highly adjustable telescopes and systems ahead of the upcoming decadal survey.

  15. The SOAR Telescope Project Southern Observatory for Astronomical Research (SOAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-03-21

    completed SOAR dome and facility. 2. Dome The preliminary design of the dome was handled by M3 (US). A Brazilian firm, Equatorial Sistemas led the...for the Gemini Telescope during construction, now Project Manager at the National Solar Observatory • Robert Shelton, Provost of the University on

  16. NASA Space Observatories Glimpse Faint Afterglow of Nearby Stellar Explosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-01

    creation of chemical elements such as oxygen through nuclear reactions in their cores. Such observations also help reveal how the interstellar medium (the gas that occupies the vast spaces between the stars) is enriched with chemical elements because of supernova explosions. Later on, these elements are incorporated into new generations of stars and their accompanying planets. Visible only from Earth's southern hemisphere, the LMC is an irregular galaxy lying about 160,000 light-years from the Milky Way. The supernova remnant appears to be about 3,000 years old, but since its light took 160,000 years to reach us, the explosion actually occurred some 163,000 years ago. This composite image of N132D was created by the Hubble Heritage team from visible-light data taken in January 2004 with Hubble's Advanced Camera for Surveys, and X-ray images obtained in July 2000 by Chandra's Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer. This marks the first Hubble Heritage image that combines pictures taken by two separate space observatories. The Hubble data include color filters that sample starlight in the blue, green, and red portions of the spectrum, as well as the pink emission from glowing hydrogen gas. The Chandra data are assigned blue in the color composite, in accordance with the much higher energy of the X-rays, emitted from extremely hot gas. This gas does not emit a significant amount of optical light, and was only detected by Chandra. Image Credit: NASA, ESA, and The Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA) Acknowledgment: J.C. Green (Univ. of Colorado) and the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) GTO team; NASA/CXO/SAO Electronic image files, video, illustrations and additional information are available at: http://hubblesite.org/news/2005/30 http://heritage.stsci.edu/2005/30 The Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. (AURA), for NASA, under contract with the Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. The Hubble

  17. A future large-aperture UVOIR space observatory: reference designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rioux, Norman; Thronson, Harley; Feinberg, Lee; Stahl, H. Philip; Redding, Dave; Jones, Andrew; Sturm, James; Collins, Christine; Liu, Alice

    2015-09-01

    Our joint NASA GSFC/JPL/MSFC/STScI study team has used community-provided science goals to derive mission needs, requirements, and candidate mission architectures for a future large-aperture, non-cryogenic UVOIR space observatory. We describe the feasibility assessment of system thermal and dynamic stability for supporting coronagraphy. The observatory is in a Sun-Earth L2 orbit providing a stable thermal environment and excellent field of regard. Reference designs include a 36-segment 9.2 m aperture telescope that stows within a five meter diameter launch vehicle fairing. Performance needs developed under the study are traceable to a variety of reference designs including options for a monolithic primary mirror.

  18. Footprint Database and web services for the Herschel space observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verebélyi, Erika; Dobos, László; Kiss, Csaba

    2015-08-01

    Using all telemetry and observational meta-data, we created a searchable database of Herschel observation footprints. Data from the Herschel space observatory is freely available for everyone but no uniformly processed catalog of all observations has been published yet. As a first step, we unified the data model for all three Herschel instruments in all observation modes and compiled a database of sky coverage information. As opposed to methods using a pixellation of the sphere, in our database, sky coverage is stored in exact geometric form allowing for precise area calculations. Indexing of the footprints allows for very fast search among observations based on pointing, time, sky coverage overlap and meta-data. This enables us, for example, to find moving objects easily in Herschel fields. The database is accessible via a web site and also as a set of REST web service functions which makes it usable from program clients like Python or IDL scripts. Data is available in various formats including Virtual Observatory standards.

  19. Integration of space geodesy: A US National Geodetic Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunck, Thomas P.; Neilan, Ruth E.

    2005-11-01

    In the interest of improving the performance and efficiency of space geodesy a diverse group in the US, in collaboration with IGGOS, has begun to establish a unified National Geodetic Observatory (NGO). To launch this effort an international team will conduct a multi-year program of research into the technical issues of integrating SLR, VLBI, and GPS geodesy to produce a unified set of global geodetic products. The goal is to improve measurement accuracy by up to an order of magnitude while lowering the cost to current sponsors. A secondary goal is to expand and diversify international sponsorship of space geodesy. Principal benefits will be to open new vistas of research in geodynamics and surface change while freeing scarce NASA funds for scientific studies. NGO will proceed in partnership with, and under the auspices of, the International Association of Geodesy (IAG) as an element of the Integrated Global Geodetic Observation System project. The collaboration will be conducted within, and will make full use of, the IAG's existing international services: the IGS, IVS, ILRS, and IERS. Seed funding for organizational activities and technical analysis will come from NASA's Solid Earth and Natural Hazards Program. Additional funds to develop an integrated geodetic data system known as Inter-service Data Integration for Geodetic Operations (INDIGO), will come from a separate NASA program in Earth science information technology. INDIGO will offer ready access to the full variety of NASA's space geodetic data and will extend the GPS Seamless Archive (GSAC) philosophy to all space geodetic data types.

  20. Measuring the Microlensing Parallax from Various Space Observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachelet, E.; Hinse, T. C.; Street, R.

    2018-05-01

    A few observational methods allow the measurement of the mass and distance of the lens-star for a microlensing event. A first estimate can be obtained by measuring the microlensing parallax effect produced by either the motion of the Earth (annual parallax) or the contemporaneous observation of the lensing event from two (or more) observatories (space or terrestrial parallax) sufficiently separated from each other. Further developing ideas originally outlined by Gould as well as Mogavero & Beaulieu, we review the possibility of measuring systematically the microlensing parallax using a telescope based on the Moon surface and other space-based observing platforms, including the upcoming WFIRST space-telescope. We first generalize the Fisher matrix formulation and present results demonstrating the advantage for each observing scenario. We conclude by outlining the limitation of the Fisher matrix analysis when submitted to a practical data modeling process. By considering a lunar-based parallax observation, we find that parameter correlations introduce a significant loss in detection efficiency of the probed lunar parallax effect.

  1. The Pushchino Radio Astronomy Observatory of the P N Lebedev Physical Institute Astro Space Center: yesterday, today, and tomorrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagkesamanskii, Rustam D

    2009-01-01

    The development of Russian (formerly Soviet) radio astronomy is indissolubly linked with the P N Lebedev Physical Institute (LPI), Russian Academy of Sciences. From the late 1940s, the institute conducted most of its radio astronomy research in the Crimea, at stations or on field trips; in the late 1950s, the center of gravity of research moved to the southern Moscow region, where one of the largest radio astronomy observatories in the country and in the world was developed within less than twenty years. The observatory unique instrumentation system is briefly reviewed in a historical perspective. Key research areas and some major achievements are outlined, and the prospects of the observatory as (currently) part of the LPI Astro Space Center are examined. (conferences and symposia)

  2. The Pushchino Radio Astronomy Observatory of the P N Lebedev Physical Institute Astro Space Center: yesterday, today, and tomorrow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dagkesamanskii, Rustam D [Pushchino Radio Astronomy Observatory, Astro Space Center, Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino, Moscow region (Russian Federation)

    2009-11-30

    The development of Russian (formerly Soviet) radio astronomy is indissolubly linked with the P N Lebedev Physical Institute (LPI), Russian Academy of Sciences. From the late 1940s, the institute conducted most of its radio astronomy research in the Crimea, at stations or on field trips; in the late 1950s, the center of gravity of research moved to the southern Moscow region, where one of the largest radio astronomy observatories in the country and in the world was developed within less than twenty years. The observatory unique instrumentation system is briefly reviewed in a historical perspective. Key research areas and some major achievements are outlined, and the prospects of the observatory as (currently) part of the LPI Astro Space Center are examined. (conferences and symposia)

  3. Possible Space-Based Gravitational-Wave Observatory Mission Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livas, Jeffrey C.

    2015-08-01

    The existence of gravitational waves was established by the discovery of the Binary Pulsar PSR 1913+16 by Hulse and Taylor in 1974, for which they were awarded the 1983 Nobel Prize. However, it is the exploitation of these gravitational waves for the extraction of the astrophysical parameters of the sources that will open the first new astronomical window since the development of gamma ray telescopes in the 1970’s and enable a new era of discovery and understanding of the Universe. Direct detection is expected in at least two frequency bands from the ground before the end of the decade with Advanced LIGO and Pulsar Timing Arrays. However, many of the most exciting sources will be continuously observable in the band from 0.1-100 mHz, accessible only from space due to seismic noise and gravity gradients in that band that disturb ground-based observatories. This talk will discuss a possible mission concept developed from the original Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) reference mission but updated to reduce risk and cost.

  4. Possible Space-Based Gravitational-Wave Observatory Mission Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livas, Jeffrey C.

    2015-01-01

    The existence of gravitational waves was established by the discovery of the Binary Pulsar PSR 1913+16 by Hulse and Taylor in 1974, for which they were awarded the 1983 Nobel Prize. However, it is the exploitation of these gravitational waves for the extraction of the astrophysical parameters of the sources that will open the first new astronomical window since the development of gamma ray telescopes in the 1970's and enable a new era of discovery and understanding of the Universe. Direct detection is expected in at least two frequency bands from the ground before the end of the decade with Advanced LIGO and Pulsar Timing Arrays. However, many of the most exciting sources will be continuously observable in the band from 0.1-100 mHz, accessible only from space due to seismic noise and gravity gradients in that band that disturb groundbased observatories. This talk will discuss a possible mission concept developed from the original Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) reference mission but updated to reduce risk and cost.

  5. Microbial Observatory (ISS-MO): Study of BSL-2 bacterial isolates from the International Space Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In an on-going Microbial Observatory experimental investigation on the International Space Station (ISS) multiple bacterial isolates of Biosafety Level 2 (BSL-2)...

  6. Augmentation of Virtual Space Physics Observatory Services to Expand Data Access Capabilities, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aquilent, Inc. proposes to support the effort of Virtual Space Physics Observatory (VSPO) by developing services to expand the VSPO search capabilities, developing...

  7. Investigating Near Space Interaction Regions: Developing a Remote Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallant, M.; Mierkiewicz, E. J.; Oliversen, R. J.; Jaehnig, K.; Percival, J.; Harlander, J.; Englert, C. R.; Kallio, R.; Roesler, F. L.; Nossal, S. M.; Gardner, D.; Rosborough, S.

    2016-12-01

    The Investigating Near Space Interaction Regions (INSpIRe) effort will (1) establish an adaptable research station capable of contributing to terrestrial and planetary aeronomy; (2) integrate two state-of-the-art second generation Fabry-Perot (FP) and Spatial Heteorodyne Spectrometers (SHS) into a remotely operable configuration; (3) deploy this instrumentation to a clear-air site, establishing a stable, well-calibrated observatory; (4) embark on a series of observations designed to contribute to three major areas of geocoronal research: geocoronal physics, structure/coupling, and variability. This poster describes the development of the INSpIRe remote observatory. Based at Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University (ERAU), initiative INSpIRe provides a platform to encourage the next generation of researchers to apply knowledge gained in the classroom to real-world science and engineering. Students at ERAU contribute to the INSpIRe effort's hardware and software needs. Mechanical/optical systems are in design to bring light to any of four instruments. Control software is in development to allow remote users to control everything from dome and optical system operations to calibration and data collection. In April 2016, we also installed and tested our first science instrument in the INSpIRe trailer, the Redline DASH Demonstration Instrument (REDDI). REDDI uses Doppler Asymmetric Spatial Heterodyne (DASH) spectroscopy, and its deployment as part of INSpIRe is a collaborative research effort between the Naval Research Lab, St Cloud State University, and ERAU. Similar to a stepped Michelson device, REDDI measures oxygen (630.0 nm) winds from the thermosphere. REDDI is currently mounted in a temporary location under INSpIRe's main siderostat until its entrance optical system can be modified. First light tests produced good signal-to-noise fringes in ten minute integrations, indicating that we will soon be able to measure thermospheric winds from our Daytona Beach testing site

  8. Solaris: a global network of autonomous observatories in the southern hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozłowski, S. K.; Sybilski, P.; Konacki, Maciej; Pawłaszek, R. K.; Ratajczak, Milena; Helminiak, K. G.

    2014-07-01

    We present Project Solaris, a network of four autonomous observatories in the Southern Hemisphere. The Project's primary goal is to detect and characterize circumbinary planets using the eclipse timing approach. This method requires high-cadence and long time-span photometric coverage of the binaries' eclipses, hence the observatories are located at sites having similar separation in longitude and nearly identical latitudes: South African Astronómical Observatory, Republic of South Africa (Solaris-1 and -2), Siding Spring Observatory, Australia (Solaris-3) and Complejo Astronomico El Leoncito, Argentina (Solaris-4). The headquarters coordinating and monitoring the network is based in Toruń, Poland. All four sites are operational as of December 2013. The instrument and hardware configurations are nearly identical. Each site is equipped with a 0.5-m Ritchey-Chrétien or Schmidt-Cassegrain optical tube assembly mounted on a direct-drive modified German equatorial mount along with a set of instruments. Computer, power and networking components are installed in rack cabinets. Everything is housed in sandwiched fiberglass clamshell 3.5-m diameter robotized domes. The Argentinian site is additionally equipped with a 20-ft office container. We discuss the design requirements of robotic observatories aimed to operate autonomously as a global network with concentration on efficiency, robustness and modularity. We also present a newly introduced spectroscopic mode of operation commissioned on the Solaris-1 telescope. Using a compact échelle spectrograph (20 000 resolution) mounted directly on the imaging train of the telescope, we are able to remotely acquire spectra. A fully robotic spectroscopic mode is planned for 2015.

  9. Inventing a space mission the story of the Herschel space observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Minier, Vincent; Bontems, Vincent; de Graauw, Thijs; Griffin, Matt; Helmich, Frank; Pilbratt, Göran; Volonte, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    This book describes prominent technological achievements within a very successful space science mission: the Herschel space observatory. Focusing on the various processes of innovation it offers an analysis and discussion of the social, technological and scientific context of the mission that paved the way to its development. It addresses the key question raised by these processes in our modern society, i.e.: how knowledge management of innovation set the conditions for inventing the future? In that respect the book is based on a transdisciplinary analysis of the programmatic complexity of Herschel, with inputs from space scientists, managers, philosophers, and engineers. This book is addressed to decision makers, not only in space science, but also in other industries and sciences using or building large machines. It is also addressed to space engineers and scientists as well as students in science and management.

  10. KMTNET: A Network of 1.6 m Wide-Field Optical Telescopes Installed at Three Southern Observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung-Lee; Lee, Chung-Uk; Park, Byeong-Gon; Kim, Dong-Jin; Cha, Sang-Mok; Lee, Yongseok; Han, Cheongho; Chun, Moo-Young; Yuk, Insoo

    2016-02-01

    The Korea Microlensing Telescope Network (KMTNet) is a wide-field photometric system installed by the Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI). Here, we present the overall technical specifications of the KMTNet observation system, test observation results, data transfer and image processing procedure, and finally, the KMTNet science programs. The system consists of three 1.6 m wide-field optical telescopes equipped with mosaic CCD cameras of 18k by 18k pixels. Each telescope provides a 2.0 by 2.0 square degree field of view. We have finished installing all three telescopes and cameras sequentially at the Cerro-Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) in Chile, the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) in South Africa, and the Siding Spring Observatory (SSO) in Australia. This network of telescopes, which is spread over three different continents at a similar latitude of about -30 degrees, enables 24-hour continuous monitoring of targets observable in the Southern Hemisphere. The test observations showed good image quality that meets the seeing requirement of less than 1.0 arcsec in I-band. All of the observation data are transferred to the KMTNet data center at KASI via the international network communication and are processed with the KMTNet data pipeline. The primary scientific goal of the KMTNet is to discover numerous extrasolar planets toward the Galactic bulge by using the gravitational microlensing technique, especially earth-mass planets in the habitable zone. During the non-bulge season, the system is used for wide-field photometric survey science on supernovae, asteroids, and external galaxies.

  11. Observatory may help unravel the mystery of space particles

    CERN Multimedia

    Lavine, G

    2004-01-01

    "University of Utah researchers, along with colleagues at several Japanese and U.S. universities, will create an $18 million cosmic ray observatory in Millard County. The Japanese government has committed $12 million, with the remainder expected to come from U.S. government grants" (1 page).

  12. ESA's X-ray space observatory XMM takes first pictures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-02-01

    functioning of the observatory. The Optical Monitor also simultaneously viewed the same regions. One RGS spectrometer obtained its first spectra on 25 January; the other will be commissioned at the start of February. This initial series of short and long duration exposures have delighted the Project management team and the scientists even more. First analyses confirm that the spacecraft is extremely stable, the XMM telescopes are focusing perfectly, and the EPIC cameras, Optical Monitor and RGS spectrometers are working exactly as expected. The Science Operations Centre infrastructure, processing and archiving the science data telemetry from the spacecraft, is also performing well. Initial inspection of the first commissioning images immediately showed some unique X-ray views of several celestial objects, to be presented on 9 February. The occasion will give Principal Investigators and Project management the opportunity to comment on the pictures and the excellent start of the XMM mission. The Calibration and Performance Verification phase for XMM's science instruments is to begin on 3 March, with routine science operations starting in June. Press is invited to attend to the press conference that will be held at the Villafranca/ Madrid- Vilspa facility (ESA's Satellite Tracking Station) Apartado 50727, E-2 080 MADRID, Spain. The press event will be broadcast to the other ESA establishments: ESA Headquarters, Paris; ESA/ ESTEC (Space Expo), Noordwijk, the Netherlands; ESA/ESOC, Darmstadt, Germany and ESA/ESRIN, Frascati, Italy. Media representatives wishing to attend the event are kindly requested to fill out the attached reply from and fax it back to the establishment of their choice.

  13. Asteroid Lightcurve Analysis at the Oakley Southern Sky Observatory: 2008 October thru 2009 March

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbo, Landry; Green, Dawson; Kragh, Katherine; Krotz, Jonathan; Meiers, Andrew; Patino, Bernadette; Pligge, Zachary; Shaffer, Nelson; Ditteon, Richard

    2009-10-01

    Photometric data for 39 asteroids were collected over 37 nights of observing during 2008 October thru 2009 March at the Oakley Southern Sky Observatory. The asteroids were: 239 Adrastea, 875 Nymphe, 1051 Merope, 1167 Dubiago, 1574 Meyer, 1590 Tsiolkovskaja, 1845 Helewalda, 2294 Andronikov, 2303 Retsina, 2345 Fucik, 2666 Gramme, 2679 Kittisvaara, 3062 Wren, 3162 Nostalgia, 3259 Brownlee, 3376 Armandhammer, 3453 Dostoevsky, 3527 McCord, 3560 Chengian, 3614 Tumilty, 3713 Pieters, 4164 Shilov, 4542 Mossotti, 5133 Phillipadams, 5236 Yoko, 5619 Shair, 5875 Kruga, 6071 Sakitama, 6400 Georgealexander, 6821 Ranevskaya, 6976 Kanatsu, 7087 Lewotsky, (7569) 1989 BK, (7949) 1992 SU, 9780 Bandersnatch, (16182) 2000 AH137, 17770 Baume, 18434 Mikesandras, and (34036) 2000 OX27.

  14. The Plate Boundary Observatory Student Field Assistant Program in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seider, E. L.

    2007-12-01

    Each summer, UNAVCO hires students as part of the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) Student Field Assistant Program. PBO, the geodetic component of the NSF-funded EarthScope project, involves the reconnaissance, permitting, installation, documentation, and maintenance of 880 permanent GPS stations in five years. During the summer 2007, nine students from around the US and Puerto Rico were hired to assist PBO engineers during the busy summer field season. From June to September, students worked closely with PBO field engineers to install and maintain permanent GPS stations in all regions of PBO, including Alaska. The PBO Student Field Assistant Program provides students with professional hands-on field experience as well as continuing education in the geosciences. It also gives students a glimpse into the increasing technologies available to the science community, the scope of geophysical research utilizing these technologies, and the field techniques necessary to complete this research. Students in the PBO Field Assistant Program are involved in all aspects of GPS support, including in-warehouse preparation and in-field installations and maintenance. Students are taught practical skills such as drilling, wiring, welding, hardware configuration, documentation, and proper field safety procedures needed to construct permanent GPS stations. These real world experiences provide the students with technical and professional skills that are not always available to them in a classroom, and will benefit them greatly in their future studies and careers. The 2007 summer field season in Southern California consisted of over 35 GPS permanent station installations. To date, the Southern California region of PBO has installed over 190 GPS stations. This poster presentation will highlight the experiences gained by the Southern California student field assistants, while supporting PBO- Southern California GPS installations in the Mohave Desert and the Inyo National Forest.

  15. Optimal Electric Field Estimation for Exoplanet Imaging Observatories in Space

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The discovery and characterization of Earth-like planets around other stars is a high priority in modern astronomy. While over 900 confirmed exoplanets have been...

  16. Soil Moisture/ Tree Water Status Dynamics in Mid-Latitude Montane Forest, Southern Sierra Critical Zone Observatory, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartsough, P. C.; Malazian, A.; Meadows, M. W.; Roudneva, K.; Storch, J.; Bales, R. C.; Hopmans, J. W.

    2010-12-01

    As part of an effort to understand the root-water-nutrient interactions in the multi-dimensional soil/vegetation system surrounding large trees, in August 2008 we instrumented a mature white fir (Abies concolor) and the surrounding soil to better define the water balance in a single tree. In July 2010, we instrumented a second tree, a Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) in shallower soils on a drier, exposed slope. The trees are located in a mixed-conifer forest at an elevation of 2000m in the Southern Sierra Critical Zone Observatory. The deployment of more than 250 sensors to measure temperature, volumetric water content, matric potential, and snow depth surrounding the two trees complements sap-flow measurements in the trunk and stem-water-potential measurements in the canopy to capture the seasonal cycles of soil wetting and drying. We show here the results of a multi-year deployment of soil moisture sensors as critical integrators of hydrologic/ biotic interaction in a forested catchment. Sensor networks such as deployed here are a valuable tool in closing the water budget in dynamic forested catchments. While the exchange of energy, water and carbon is continuous, the pertinent fluxes are strongly heterogeneous in both space and time. Thus, the prediction of the behavior of the system across multiple scales constitutes a major challenge.

  17. Equatorial secondary cosmic ray observatory to study space weather and terrestrial events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vichare, Geeta; Bhaskar, Ankush; Datar, Gauri; Raghav, Anil; Nair, K. U.; Selvaraj, C.; Ananthi, M.; Sinha, A. K.; Paranjape, M.; Gawade, T.; Anil Kumar, C. P.; Panneerselvam, C.; Sathishkumar, S.; Gurubaran, S.

    2018-05-01

    Recently, equatorial secondary cosmic ray observatory has been established at Equatorial Geophysical Research Laboratory (EGRL), Tirunelveli, (Geographic Coordinates: 8.71°N, 77.76°E), to study secondary cosmic rays (SCR) produced due to the interaction of primary cosmic rays with the Earth's atmosphere. EGRL is a regional center of Indian Institute of Geomagnetism (IIG), located near the equator in the Southern part of India. Two NaI(Tl) scintillation detectors are installed inside the temperature controlled environment. One detector is cylindrical in shape of size 7.62 cm × 7.62 cm and another one is rectangular cuboid of 10.16 cm × 10.16 cm × 40.64 cm size. Besides NaI(Tl) detectors, various other research facilities such as the Geomagnetic observatory, Medium Frequency Radar System, Digital Ionosonde, All-sky airglow imager, Atmospheric electricity laboratory to measure the near-Earth atmospheric electric fields are also available at EGRL. With the accessibility of multi- instrument facilities, the objective is set to understand the relationship between SCR and various atmospheric and ionospheric processes, during space weather and terrestrial events. For gamma-ray spectroscopy, it is important to test the performance of the NaI(Tl) scintillation detectors and to calibrate the gamma-ray spectrum in terms of energy. The present article describes the details of the experimental setup installed near the equator to study cosmic rays, along with the performance testing and calibration of the detectors under various conditions. A systematic shift in the gain is observed with varying temperature of the detector system. It is found that the detector's response to the variations in the temperature is not just linear or non-linear type, but it depends on the history of the variation, indicating temperature hysteresis effects on NaI detector and PMT system. This signifies the importance of isothermal environment while studying SCR flux using NaI(Tl) detectors

  18. The SAFARI imaging spectrometer for the SPICA space observatory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelfsema, Pieter; Giard, Martin; Najarro, Francisco; Wafelbakker, Kees; Jellema, Willem; Jackson, Brian; Swinyard, Bruce; Audard, Marc; Doi, Yasuo; Griffin, Matt; Helmich, Frank; Kerschbaum, Franz; Meyer, Michael; Naylor, David; Nielsen, Hans; Olofsson, Göran; Poglitsch, Albrecht; Spinoglio, Luigi; Vandenbussche, Bart; Isaak, Kate; Goicoechea, Javier R.

    The Japanese SPace Infrared telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics, SPICA, will provide astronomers with a long awaited new window on the universe. Having a large cold telescope cooled to only 6K above absolute zero, SPICA will provide a unique environment where instruments are limited only by the

  19. Observatory data as a proxy of space weather parameters: The importance of historical archives

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hejda, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 20, Č. 2 (2016), s. 47-53 ISSN 0257-7968 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2010008 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : geomagnetic observatory * geomagnetic indices * sunspot members * space weather Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography OBOR OECD: Physical geography

  20. Observations of the Hubble Deep Field with the Infrared Space Observatory .2. Source detection and photometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldschmidt, P.; Oliver, S.J.; Serjeant, S.B.G.

    1997-01-01

    We present positions and fluxes of point sources found in the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) images of the Hubble Deep Field (HDF) at 6.7 and 15 mu m. We have constructed algorithmically selected 'complete' flux-limited samples of 19 sources in the 15-mu m image, and seven sources in the 6.7-mu m...

  1. The World Space Observatory Ultraviolet (WSO-UV), as a bridge to future UV astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shustov, B.; Gómez de Castro, A. I.; Sachkov, M.; Vallejo, J. C.; Marcos-Arenal, P.; Kanev, E.; Savanov, I.; Shugarov, A.; Sichevskii, S.

    2018-04-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) astronomy is a vital branch of space astronomy. Many dozens of short-term UV-experiments in space, as well as long-term observatories, have brought a very important knowledge on the physics and chemistry of the Universe during the last decades. Unfortunately, no large UV-observatories are planned to be launched by most of space agencies in the coming 10-15 years. Conversely, the large UVOIR observatories of the future will appear not earlier than in 2030s. This paper briefly describes the projects that have been proposed by various groups. We conclude that the World Space Observatory-Ultraviolet (WSO-UV) will be the only 2-m class UV telescope with capabilities similar to those of the HST for the next decade. The WSO-UV has been described in detail in previous publications, and this paper updates the main characteristics of its instruments and the current state of the whole project. It also addresses the major science topics that have been included in the core program of the WSO-UV, making this core program very relevant to the current state of the UV-astronomy. Finally, we also present here the ground segment architecture that will implement this program.

  2. DAMPE: A gamma and cosmic ray observatory in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Urso, D.; Dampe Collaboration

    2017-05-01

    DAMPE (DArk Matter Particle Explorer) is one of the five satellite missions in the framework of the Strategic Pioneer Research Program in Space Science of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS). Launched on December 17th 2015 at 08:12 Beijing time, it is taking data into a sun-synchronous orbit, at the altitude of 500km. The main scientific objective of DAMPE is to detect electrons and photons in the range 5GeV-10TeV with unprecedented energy resolution, in order to identify possible Dark Matter signatures. It will also measure the flux of nuclei up to 100TeV with excellent energy resolution. The satellite is equipped with a powerful space telescope for high energy gamma-ray, electron and cosmic rays detection. It consists of a plastic scintillator strips detector (PSD) that serves as anti-coincidence detector, a silicon-tungsten tracker (STK), a BGO imaging calorimeter of about 32 radiation lengths, and a neutron detector. With its excellent photon detection capability and its detector performances (at 100GeV energy resolution ˜1% , angular resolution ˜0.1° , the DAMPE mission is well placed to make strong contributions to high-energy gamma-ray observations: it covers the gap between space and ground observation; it will allow to detect a line signature in the gamma-ray spectrum, if present, in the sub-TeV to TeV region; it will allow a high precision gamma-ray astronomy. A report on the mission goals and status will be discussed, together with in-orbit first data coming from space.

  3. NASA X-Ray Observatory Completes Tests Under Harsh Simulated Space Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-07-01

    NASA's most powerful X-ray observatory has successfully completed a month-long series of tests in the extreme heat, cold, and airless conditions it will encounter in space during its five-year mission to shed new light on some of the darkest mysteries of the universe. The Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility was put through the rigorous testing as it was alternately heated and cooled in a special vacuum chamber at TRW Space and Electronics Group in Redondo Beach, Calif., NASA's prime contractor for the observatory. "Successful completion of thermal vacuum testing marks a significant step in readying the observatory for launch aboard the Space Shuttle in January," said Fred Wojtalik, manager of the Observatory Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala. "The observatory is a complex, highly sophisticated, precision instrument," explained Wojtalik. "We are pleased with the outcome of the testing, and are very proud of the tremendous team of NASA and contractor technicians, engineers and scientists that came together and worked hard to meet this challenging task." Testing began in May after the observatory was raised into the 60-foot thermal vacuum chamber at TRW. Testing was completed on June 20. During the tests the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility was exposed to 232 degree heat and 195 degree below zero Fahrenheit cold. During four temperature cycles, all elements of the observatory - the spacecraft, telescope, and science instruments - were checked out. Computer commands directing the observatory to perform certain functions were sent from test consoles at TRW to all Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility components. A team of contractor and NASA engineers and scientists monitored and evaluated the results. Commands were also sent from, and test data monitored at, the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility Operations Control Center in Cambridge, Mass., as part of the test series. The observatory will be managed and controlled from

  4. The Virtual Space Physics Observatory: Quick Access to Data and Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornwell, Carl; Roberts, D. Aaron; McGuire, Robert E.

    2006-01-01

    The Virtual Space Physics Observatory (VSPO; see http://vspo.gsfc.nasa.gov) has grown to provide a way to find and access about 375 data products and services from over 100 spacecraft/observatories in space and solar physics. The datasets are mainly chosen to be the most requested, and include most of the publicly available data products from operating NASA Heliophysics spacecraft as well as from solar observatories measuring across the frequency spectrum. Service links include a "quick orbits" page that uses SSCWeb Web Services to provide a rapid answer to questions such as "What spacecraft were in orbit in July 1992?" and "Where were Geotail, Cluster, and Polar on 2 June 2001?" These queries are linked back to the data search page. The VSPO interface provides many ways of looking for data based on terms used in a registry of resources using the SPASE Data Model that will be the standard for Heliophysics Virtual Observatories. VSPO itself is accessible via an API that allows other applications to use it as a Web Service; this has been implemented in one instance using the ViSBARD visualization program. The VSPO will become part of the Space Physics Data Facility, and will continue to expand its access to data. A challenge for all VOs will be to provide uniform access to data at the variable level, and we will be addressing this question in a number of ways.

  5. TRW Ships NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory To Kennedy Space Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-04-01

    Two U.S. Air Force C-5 Galaxy transport planes carrying the observatory and its ground support equipment landed at Kennedy's Space Shuttle Landing Facility at 2:40 p.m. EST this afternoon. REDONDO BEACH, CA.--(Business Wire)--Feb. 4, 1999--TRW has shipped NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory ("Chandra") to the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), in Florida, in preparation for a Space Shuttle launch later this year. The 45-foot-tall, 5-ton science satellite will provide astronomers with new information on supernova remnants, the surroundings of black holes, and other celestial phenomena that produce vast quantities of X-rays. Cradled safely in the cargo hold of a tractor-trailer rig called the Space Cargo Transportation System (SCTS), NASA's newest space telescope was ferried on Feb. 4 from Los Angeles International Airport to KSC aboard an Air Force C-5 Galaxy transporter. The SCTS, an Air Force container, closely resembles the size and shape of the Shuttle cargo bay. Over the next few months, Chandra will undergo final tests at KSC and be mated to a Boeing-provided Inertial Upper Stage for launch aboard Space Shuttle Columbia. A launch date for the Space Shuttle STS-93 mission is expected to be announced later this week. The third in NASA's family of Great Observatories that includes the Hubble Space Telescope and the TRW-built Compton Gamma Ray observatory, Chandra will use the world's most powerful X-ray telescope to allow scientists to "see" and monitor cosmic events that are invisible to conventional optical telescopes. Chandra's X-ray images will yield new insight into celestial phenomena such as the temperature and extent of gas clouds that comprise clusters of galaxies and the superheating of gas and dust particles as they swirl into black holes. A TRW-led team that includes the Eastman Kodak Co., Raytheon Optical Systems Inc., and Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corp. designed and built the Chandra X-ray Observatory for NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. The

  6. Application of Compressive Sensing to Gravitational Microlensing Data and Implications for Miniaturized Space Observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korde-Patel, Asmita (Inventor); Barry, Richard K.; Mohsenin, Tinoosh

    2016-01-01

    Compressive Sensing is a technique for simultaneous acquisition and compression of data that is sparse or can be made sparse in some domain. It is currently under intense development and has been profitably employed for industrial and medical applications. We here describe the use of this technique for the processing of astronomical data. We outline the procedure as applied to exoplanet gravitational microlensing and analyze measurement results and uncertainty values. We describe implications for on-spacecraft data processing for space observatories. Our findings suggest that application of these techniques may yield significant, enabling benefits especially for power and volume-limited space applications such as miniaturized or micro-constellation satellites.

  7. Developing a NASA strategy for the verification of large space telescope observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crooke, Julie A.; Gunderson, Johanna A.; Hagopian, John G.; Levine, Marie

    2006-06-01

    In July 2005, the Office of Program Analysis and Evaluation (PA&E) at NASA Headquarters was directed to develop a strategy for verification of the performance of large space telescope observatories, which occurs predominantly in a thermal vacuum test facility. A mission model of the expected astronomical observatory missions over the next 20 years was identified along with performance, facility and resource requirements. Ground testing versus alternatives was analyzed to determine the pros, cons and break points in the verification process. Existing facilities and their capabilities were examined across NASA, industry and other government agencies as well as the future demand for these facilities across NASA's Mission Directorates. Options were developed to meet the full suite of mission verification requirements, and performance, cost, risk and other analyses were performed. Findings and recommendations from the study were presented to the NASA Administrator and the NASA Strategic Management Council (SMC) in February 2006. This paper details the analysis, results, and findings from this study.

  8. An Engineering Design Reference Mission for a Future Large-Aperture UVOIR Space Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thronson, Harley A.; Bolcar, Matthew R.; Clampin, Mark; Crooke, Julie A.; Redding, David; Rioux, Norman; Stahl, H. Philip

    2016-01-01

    From the 2010 NRC Decadal Survey and the NASA Thirty-Year Roadmap, Enduring Quests, Daring Visions, to the recent AURA report, From Cosmic Birth to Living Earths, multiple community assessments have recommended development of a large-aperture UVOIR space observatory capable of achieving a broad range of compelling scientific goals. Of these priority science goals, the most technically challenging is the search for spectroscopic biomarkers in the atmospheres of exoplanets in the solar neighborhood. Here we present an engineering design reference mission (EDRM) for the Advanced Technology Large-Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST), which was conceived from the start as capable of breakthrough science paired with an emphasis on cost control and cost effectiveness. An EDRM allows the engineering design trade space to be explored in depth to determine what are the most demanding requirements and where there are opportunities for margin against requirements. Our joint NASA GSFC/JPL/MSFC/STScI study team has used community-provided science goals to derive mission needs, requirements, and candidate mission architectures for a future large-aperture, non-cryogenic UVOIR space observatory. The ATLAST observatory is designed to operate at a Sun-Earth L2 orbit, which provides a stable thermal environment and excellent field of regard. Our reference designs have emphasized a serviceable 36-segment 9.2 m aperture telescope that stows within a five-meter diameter launch vehicle fairing. As part of our cost-management effort, this particular reference mission builds upon the engineering design for JWST. Moreover, it is scalable to a variety of launch vehicle fairings. Performance needs developed under the study are traceable to a variety of additional reference designs, including options for a monolithic primary mirror.

  9. Calibration of a novel type of bolometer arrays for the Herschel space observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billot, Nicolas

    2007-01-01

    The Herschel mission is a major project at the core of the European Space Agency (ESA) scientific program. The space telescope will perform observations of the universes in the far-infrared regime of the electromagnetic spectrum, which still remains little-known today. Among the many research institutes involved in the development and exploitation of this challenging observatory, the CEA designed a novel type of bolometric detectors to equip the photometer of the PACS instrument on-board the Herschel satellite. During my thesis, my task was twofold, I developed a characterisation procedure that takes advantage of unique features of CEA filled bolometer arrays and I applied it to calibrate the PACS photometer and optimize its performances in the various observing modes open to the scientific community. In this manuscript, I present the basics of infrared astronomy from its very beginning in 1800 to the European Space Agency's Herschel Space Observatory. Then, I describe past and present developments in cryogenic bolometers, emphasising new concepts introduced by CEA. I follow with an explanation of the working principles of CEA bolometer arrays, a prerequisite to grasp the strategy of the characterisation procedure that we developed. Then I expose and analyse thoroughly the results that we obtained during the calibration campaign of the PACS photometer. Finally, I express detector performances in terms of 'observational' performances that future PACS users can comprehend. (author) [fr

  10. Observatories and Telescopes of Modern Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leverington, David

    2016-11-01

    Preface; Part I. Optical Observatories: 1. Palomar Mountain Observatory; 2. The United States Optical Observatory; 3. From the Next Generation Telescope to Gemini and SOAR; 4. Competing primary mirror designs; 5. Active optics, adaptive optics and other technical innovations; 6. European Northern Observatory and Calar Alto; 7. European Southern Observatory; 8. Mauna Kea Observatory; 9. Australian optical observatories; 10. Mount Hopkins' Whipple Observatory and the MMT; 11. Apache Point Observatory; 12. Carnegie Southern Observatory (Las Campanas); 13. Mount Graham International Optical Observatory; 14. Modern optical interferometers; 15. Solar observatories; Part II. Radio Observatories: 16. Australian radio observatories; 17. Cambridge Mullard Radio Observatory; 18. Jodrell Bank; 19. Early radio observatories away from the Australian-British axis; 20. The American National Radio Astronomy Observatory; 21. Owens Valley and Mauna Kea; 22. Further North and Central American observatories; 23. Further European and Asian radio observatories; 24. ALMA and the South Pole; Name index; Optical observatory and telescope index; Radio observatory and telescope index; General index.

  11. Lessons Learned to Date in Developing the Virtual Space Physics Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornwell, C.; Roberts, D. A.; King, J.; Smith, A.

    2005-12-01

    We now have an operational Virtual Space Physics Observatory that provides users the ability to search for and retrieve data from hundreds of space and solar physics data products based on specific terms or a Google-like interface. Lessons learned in building VSPO include: (a) A very close and highly interactive collaboration between scientists and information technologists in the definition and development of services is essential. (b) Constructing a Data Model acceptable to a broad community is very important but very difficult. Variations in usage are inevitable and must be dealt with through translations; this is especially true for the description of variables within data products. (c) Higher-order queries (searches based on events, positions, comparisons of measurements, etc.) are possible, and have been implemented in various systems; currently we see these as being separate from the basic data finding and retrieval services. (d) Building a Virtual Observatory is often more a matter of the tedious details of product descriptions than an exercise in implementing fancy middleware. Paying a knowledgeable third party to build registries can be more efficient than working directly with providers, and automated tools can help but do not solve all the problems. (e) The success of the VO effort in space and solar physics, as elsewhere, will depend on whether the scientific communities involved use and critique the services so that they will come to meet a real need for the integration of resources to solve new scientific problems of perceived importance.

  12. Infrared astronomy seeing the heat : from William Herschel to the Herschel space observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Clements, David L

    2014-01-01

    Uncover the Secrets of the Universe Hidden at Wavelengths beyond Our Optical GazeWilliam Herschel's discovery of infrared light in 1800 led to the development of astronomy at wavelengths other than the optical. Infrared Astronomy - Seeing the Heat: from William Herschel to the Herschel Space Observatory explores the work in astronomy that relies on observations in the infrared. Author David L. Clements, a distinguished academic and science fiction writer, delves into how the universe works, from the planets in our own Solar System to the universe as a whole. The book first presents the major t

  13. The Footprint Database and Web Services of the Herschel Space Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobos, László; Varga-Verebélyi, Erika; Verdugo, Eva; Teyssier, David; Exter, Katrina; Valtchanov, Ivan; Budavári, Tamás; Kiss, Csaba

    2016-10-01

    Data from the Herschel Space Observatory is freely available to the public but no uniformly processed catalogue of the observations has been published so far. To date, the Herschel Science Archive does not contain the exact sky coverage (footprint) of individual observations and supports search for measurements based on bounding circles only. Drawing on previous experience in implementing footprint databases, we built the Herschel Footprint Database and Web Services for the Herschel Space Observatory to provide efficient search capabilities for typical astronomical queries. The database was designed with the following main goals in mind: (a) provide a unified data model for meta-data of all instruments and observational modes, (b) quickly find observations covering a selected object and its neighbourhood, (c) quickly find every observation in a larger area of the sky, (d) allow for finding solar system objects crossing observation fields. As a first step, we developed a unified data model of observations of all three Herschel instruments for all pointing and instrument modes. Then, using telescope pointing information and observational meta-data, we compiled a database of footprints. As opposed to methods using pixellation of the sphere, we represent sky coverage in an exact geometric form allowing for precise area calculations. For easier handling of Herschel observation footprints with rather complex shapes, two algorithms were implemented to reduce the outline. Furthermore, a new visualisation tool to plot footprints with various spherical projections was developed. Indexing of the footprints using Hierarchical Triangular Mesh makes it possible to quickly find observations based on sky coverage, time and meta-data. The database is accessible via a web site http://herschel.vo.elte.hu and also as a set of REST web service functions, which makes it readily usable from programming environments such as Python or IDL. The web service allows downloading footprint data

  14. Deep Impact as a World Observatory Event: Synergies in Space, Time, and Wavelength

    CERN Document Server

    Käufl, H.U; ESO/VUB Conference

    2009-01-01

    In the context of the NASA Deep Impact space mission, comet 9P/Tempel1 has been at the focus of an unprecedented worldwide long-term multi-wavelength observation campaign. The comet was also studied throughout its perihelion passage by various sources including the Deep Impact mission itself, the Hubble Space Telescope, Spitzer, Rosetta, XMM and all major ground-based observatories in a wavelength band from cm-wave radio astronomy to x-rays. This book includes the proceedings of a meeting that brought together an audience of theoreticians and observers - across the electromagnetic spectrum and from different sites and projects - to make full use of the massive ground-based observing data set. The coherent presentation of all data sets illustrates and examines the various observational constraints on modelling the cometary nucleus, cometary gas, cometary plasma, cometary dust, and the comet's surface and its activity.

  15. A Space Weather mission concept: Observatories of the Solar Corona and Active Regions (OSCAR)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strugarek, Antoine; Janitzek, Nils; Lee, Arrow

    2015-01-01

    advancements in the field of solar physics, improvements of the current CME prediction models, and provide data for reliable space weather forecasting. These objectives are achieved by utilising two spacecraft with identical instrumentation, located at a heliocentric orbital distance of 1 AU from the Sun......Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) and Corotating Interaction Regions (CIRs) are major sources of magnetic storms on Earth and are therefore considered to be the most dangerous space weather events. The Observatories of Solar Corona and Active Regions (OSCAR) mission is designed to identify the 3D...... structure of coronal loops and to study the trigger mechanisms of CMEs in solar Active Regions (ARs) as well as their evolution and propagation processes in the inner heliosphere. It also aims to provide monitoring and forecasting of geo-effective CMEs and CIRs. OSCAR would contribute to significant...

  16. Perspectives for Distributed Observations of Near-Earth Space Using a Russian-Cuban Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisikalo, D. V.; Savanov, I. S.; Naroenkov, S. A.; Nalivkin, M. A.; Shugarov, A. S.; Bakhtigaraev, N. S.; Levkina, P. A.; Ibragimov, M. A.; Kil'pio, E. Yu.; Sachkov, M. E.; Kartashova, A. P.; Fateeva, A. M.; Uratsuka, Marta R. Rodriguez; Estrada, Ramses Zaldivar; Diaz, Antonio Alonsa; Rodríguez, Omar Pons; Figuera, Fidel Hernandes; Garcia, Maritza Garcia

    2018-06-01

    The creation of a specialized network of large, wide-angle telescopes for distributed observations of near-Earth space using a Russian-Cuban Observatory is considered. An extremely important goal of routine monitoring of near-Earth and near-Sun space is warding off threats with both natural and technogenic origins. Natural threats are associated with asteroids or comets, and technogenic threats with man-made debris in near-Earth space. A modern network of ground-based optical instruments designed to ward off such threats must: (a) have a global and, if possible, uniform geographic distribution, (b) be suitable for wide-angle, high-accuracy precision survey observations, and (c) be created and operated within a single network-oriented framework. Experience at the Institute of Astronomy on the development of one-meter-class wide-angle telescopes and elements of a super-wide-angle telescope cluster is applied to determine preferences for the composition of each node of such a network. The efficiency of distributed observations in attaining maximally accurate predictions of the motions of potentially dangerous celestial bodies as they approach the Earth and in observations of space debris and man-made satellites is estimated. The first estimates of astroclimatic conditions at the proposed site of the future Russian-Cuban Observatory in the mountains of the Sierra del Rosario Biosphere Reserve are obtained. Special attention is given to the possible use of the network to carry out a wide range of astrophysical studies, including optical support for the localization of gravitational waves and other transient events.

  17. "Lomonosov" Satellite—Space Observatory to Study Extreme Phenomena in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadovnichii, V. A.; Panasyuk, M. I.; Amelyushkin, A. M.; Bogomolov, V. V.; Benghin, V. V.; Garipov, G. K.; Kalegaev, V. V.; Klimov, P. A.; Khrenov, B. A.; Petrov, V. L.; Sharakin, S. A.; Shirokov, A. V.; Svertilov, S. I.; Zotov, M. Y.; Yashin, I. V.; Gorbovskoy, E. S.; Lipunov, V. M.; Park, I. H.; Lee, J.; Jeong, S.; Kim, M. B.; Jeong, H. M.; Shprits, Y. Y.; Angelopoulos, V.; Russell, C. T.; Runov, A.; Turner, D.; Strangeway, R. J.; Caron, R.; Biktemerova, S.; Grinyuk, A.; Lavrova, M.; Tkachev, L.; Tkachenko, A.; Martinez, O.; Salazar, H.; Ponce, E.

    2017-11-01

    The "Lomonosov" space project is lead by Lomonosov Moscow State University in collaboration with the following key partners: Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Russia, University of California, Los Angeles (USA), University of Pueblo (Mexico), Sungkyunkwan University (Republic of Korea) and with Russian space industry organizations to study some of extreme phenomena in space related to astrophysics, astroparticle physics, space physics, and space biology. The primary goals of this experiment are to study: Ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECR) in the energy range of the Greizen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin (GZK) cutoff; Ultraviolet (UV) transient luminous events in the upper atmosphere; Multi-wavelength study of gamma-ray bursts in visible, UV, gamma, and X-rays; Energetic trapped and precipitated radiation (electrons and protons) at low-Earth orbit (LEO) in connection with global geomagnetic disturbances; Multicomponent radiation doses along the orbit of spacecraft under different geomagnetic conditions and testing of space segments of optical observations of space-debris and other space objects; Instrumental vestibular-sensor conflict of zero-gravity phenomena during space flight. This paper is directed towards the general description of both scientific goals of the project and scientific equipment on board the satellite. The following papers of this issue are devoted to detailed descriptions of scientific instruments.

  18. The dimensionality of stellar chemical space using spectra from the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price-Jones, Natalie; Bovy, Jo

    2018-03-01

    Chemical tagging of stars based on their similar compositions can offer new insights about the star formation and dynamical history of the Milky Way. We investigate the feasibility of identifying groups of stars in chemical space by forgoing the use of model derived abundances in favour of direct analysis of spectra. This facilitates the propagation of measurement uncertainties and does not pre-suppose knowledge of which elements are important for distinguishing stars in chemical space. We use ˜16 000 red giant and red clump H-band spectra from the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) and perform polynomial fits to remove trends not due to abundance-ratio variations. Using expectation maximized principal component analysis, we find principal components with high signal in the wavelength regions most important for distinguishing between stars. Different subsamples of red giant and red clump stars are all consistent with needing about 10 principal components to accurately model the spectra above the level of the measurement uncertainties. The dimensionality of stellar chemical space that can be investigated in the H band is therefore ≲10. For APOGEE observations with typical signal-to-noise ratios of 100, the number of chemical space cells within which stars cannot be distinguished is approximately 1010±2 × (5 ± 2)n - 10 with n the number of principal components. This high dimensionality and the fine-grained sampling of chemical space are a promising first step towards chemical tagging based on spectra alone.

  19. Linking space observations to volcano observatories in Latin America: Results from the CEOS DRM Volcano Pilot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, F.; Pritchard, M. E.; Biggs, J.; Arnold, D. W. D.; Poland, M. P.; Ebmeier, S. K.; Wauthier, C.; Wnuk, K.; Parker, A. L.; Amelug, F.; Sansosti, E.; Mothes, P. A.; Macedo, O.; Lara, L.; Zoffoli, S.; Aguilar, V.

    2015-12-01

    Within Latin American, about 315 volcanoes that have been active in the Holocene, but according to the United Nations Global Assessment of Risk 2015 report (GAR15) 202 of these volcanoes have no seismic, deformation or gas monitoring. Following the 2012 Santorini Report on satellite Earth Observation and Geohazards, the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) has developed a 3-year pilot project to demonstrate how satellite observations can be used to monitor large numbers of volcanoes cost-effectively, particularly in areas with scarce instrumentation and/or difficult access. The pilot aims to improve disaster risk management (DRM) by working directly with the volcano observatories that are governmentally responsible for volcano monitoring, and the project is possible thanks to data provided at no cost by international space agencies (ESA, CSA, ASI, DLR, JAXA, NASA, CNES). Here we highlight several examples of how satellite observations have been used by volcano observatories during the last 18 months to monitor volcanoes and respond to crises -- for example the 2013-2014 unrest episode at Cerro Negro/Chiles (Ecuador-Colombia border); the 2015 eruptions of Villarrica and Calbuco volcanoes, Chile; the 2013-present unrest and eruptions at Sabancaya and Ubinas volcanoes, Peru; the 2015 unrest at Guallatiri volcano, Chile; and the 2012-present rapid uplift at Cordon Caulle, Chile. Our primary tool is measurements of ground deformation made by Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) but thermal and outgassing data have been used in a few cases. InSAR data have helped to determine the alert level at these volcanoes, served as an independent check on ground sensors, guided the deployment of ground instruments, and aided situational awareness. We will describe several lessons learned about the type of data products and information that are most needed by the volcano observatories in different countries.

  20. LISA Pathfinder: An important first step towards a space-based gravitational wave observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, James

    2017-08-01

    ESA's LISA Pathfinder mission was launched on Dec 3rd, 2015 and completed earlier this Summer. During this relatively short mission, Pathfinder at its two science payloads, Europe's LISA Technology Package and NASA's Disturbance Reduction System, demonstrated several techniques and technologies that enable development of a future space-based gravitational wave observatory. Most notably, Pathfinder demonstrated that the technique of drag-free flight could be utilized to place a test mass in near-perfect free-fall, with residual accelerations at the femto-g level in the milliHertz band. Additionally, technologies such as precision bonded optical structures for metrology, micropropulsion systems, and non-contact charge control, were successfully tested, retiring risk for LISA. In this talk, I will present an overview of Pathfinder's results to date and some perspective on how this success will be leveraged into realizing LISA.

  1. The jewel on the mountaintop the European Southern Observatory through fifty years

    CERN Document Server

    Madsen, Claus

    2013-01-01

    Authored by ESO senior advisor Claus Madsen, the present book comprises 576 action-packed pages of ESO history and dramatic stories about the people behind the organisation. This is the ultimate historical account about ESO and its telescopes in the southern hemisphere, but also about a truly remarkable European success story in research. Spanning the range from the first telescopes to the future platforms of the next generation, it shows how the improvement of the telescopes leads to a continuously changing view of the Universe. With 150 photos and illustrations. Produced especially for ESO's

  2. GISMO, an ELT in space: a giant (30-m) far-infrared and submillimeter space observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawarden, Timothy G.; Johnstone, Callum; Johnstone, Graeme

    2004-07-01

    We describe GISMO, a concept for a 30-m class achromatic diffractive Fesnel space telescope operating in the far-IR and submillimeter from ~20 μm to ~700 μm. The concept is based on the precepts of Hyde (1999). It involves two units, the Lens and Instrument spacecraft, 3 km apart in a halo orbit around the Earth-Sun L2 point. The primary lens, L1, is a 30.1-m, 32-zone f/100 Fresnel lens, fabricated from ultra-high molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMW-PE). It is 1.0 to 3.4 mm thick (the features are 2.4 mm high for a "design wavelength" of 1.2 mm) and made in 5 strips linked by fabric hinges. It is stowed for launch by folding and rolling. It is deployed warm, unrolled by pneumatic or mechanical means, unfolded by carbon-fiber struts with Shape Memory Alloy hinges and stiffened until cold by a peripheral inflatable ring. Re-oriented edgeways-on to the Sun behind a 5-layer sunshade, L1 will then cool by radiation to space, approaching ~10K after 200 - 300 days. The low equilibrium temperature occurs because the lens is very thin and has a huge view factor to space but a small one to the sunshade. The Instrument spacecraft resembles a smaller, colder (~4K) version of the James Webb Space Telescope and shares features of a concept for the SAFIR mission. A near-field Ritchey-Chretien telescope with a 3-segment off-axis 6m x 3m primary acts as field lens, re-imaging L1 on a 30-cm f/1 Fresnel Corrector lens of equal and opposite dispersion, producing an achromatic beam which is directed to a focal plane equipped with imaging and spectroscopic instruments. The "design wavelength" of the telescope is 1.2 mm and it is employed at its second and higher harmonics. The shortest wavelength, ~20μm, is set by the transmission properties of the lens material (illustrated here) and determines the design tolerances of the optical system. The overall mass is estimated at ~5 tonnes and the stowed length around 14 m. Technical challenges and areas of uncertainty for the design concept

  3. Space volcano observatory (SVO): a metric resolution system on-board a micro/mini-satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briole, P.; Cerutti-Maori, G.; Kasser, M.

    2017-11-01

    1500 volcanoes on the Earth are potentially active, one third of them have been active during this century and about 70 are presently erupting. At the beginning of the third millenium, 10% of the world population will be living in areas directly threatened by volcanoes, without considering the effects of eruptions on climate or air-trafic for example. The understanding of volcanic eruptions, a major challenge in geoscience, demands continuous monitoring of active volcanoes. The only way to provide global, continuous, real time and all-weather information on volcanoes is to set up a Space Volcano Observatory closely connected to the ground observatories. Spaceborne observations are mandatory and implement the ground ones as well as airborne ones that can be implemented on a limited set of volcanoes. SVO goal is to monitor both the deformations and the changes in thermal radiance at optical wavelengths from high temperature surfaces of the active volcanic zones. For that, we propose to map at high resolution (1 to 1,5 m pixel size) the topography (stereoscopic observation) and the thermal anomalies (pixel-integrated temperatures above 450°C) of active volcanic areas in a size of 6 x 6 km to 12 x 12 km, large enough for monitoring most of the target features. A return time of 1 to 3 days will allow to get a monitoring useful for hazard mitigation. The paper will present the concept of the optical payload, compatible with a micro/mini satellite (mass in the range 100 - 400 kg), budget for the use of Proteus platform in the case of minisatellite approach will be given and also in the case of CNES microsat platform family. This kind of design could be used for other applications like high resolution imagery on a limited zone for military purpose, GIS, evolution cadaster…

  4. Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory: Fast Response Space Missions for Early Time Phase of Gamma Ray Bursts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, I.H.; Ahmad, S.; Barrillon, P.

    2013-01-01

    One of the unexplored domains in the study of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) is the early time phase of the optical light curve. We have proposed Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory (UFFO) to address this question through extraordinary opportunities presented by a series of small space missions. The UFFO...

  5. Management of the camera electronics programme for the World Space Observatory ultraviolet WUVS instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Gayatri; Clapp, Matthew; Salter, Mike; Waltham, Nick; Beardsley, Sarah

    2016-08-01

    World Space Observatory Ultraviolet (WSO-UV) is a major international collaboration led by Russia and will study the universe at ultraviolet wavelengths between 115 nm and 320 nm. The WSO Ultraviolet Spectrograph (WUVS) subsystem is led by a consortium of Russian institutes and consists of three spectrographs. RAL Space is contracted by e2v technologies Ltd to provide the CCD readout electronics for each of the three WUVS channels. The programme involves the design, manufacturing, assembly and testing of each Camera Electronics Box (CEB), its associated Interconnection Module (ICM), Electrical Ground Support Equipment (EGSE) and harness. An overview of the programme will be presented, from the initial design phase culminating in the development of an Engineering Model (EM) through qualification whereby an Engineering Qualification Model (EQM) will undergo environmental testing to characterize the performance of the CEB against the space environment, to the delivery of the Flight Models (FMs). The paper will discuss the challenges faced managing a large, dynamic project. This includes managing significant changes in fundamental requirements mid-programme as a result of external political issues which forced a complete re-design of an existing CEB with extensive space heritage but containing many ITAR controlled electronic components to a new, more efficient solution, free of ITAR controlled parts. The methodology and processes used to ensure the demanding schedule is maintained through each stage of the project will be presented including an insight into planning, decision-making, communication, risk management, and resource management; all essential to the continued success of the programme.

  6. Far-infrared photometry of OJ 287 with the Herschel Space Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidger, Mark; Zola, Staszek; Valtonen, Mauri; Lähteenmäki, Anne; Järvelä, Emilia; Tornikoski, Merja; Tammi, Joni; Liakos, Alexis; Poyner, Gary

    2018-03-01

    Context. The blazar OJ 287 has shown a ≈12 year quasi-periodicity over more than a century, in addition to the common properties of violent variability in all frequency ranges. It is the strongest known candidate to have a binary singularity in its central engine. Aim. We aim to better understand the different emission components by searching for correlated variability in the flux over four decades of frequency measurements. Methods: We combined data at frequencies from the millimetric to the visible to characterise the multifrequency light curve in April and May 2010. This includes the only photometric observations of OJ 287 made with the Herschel Space Observatory: five epochs of data obtained over 33 days at 250, 350, and 500 μm with Herschel-SPIRE. Results: Although we find that the variability at 37 GHz on timescales of a few weeks correlates with the visible to near-IR spectral energy distribution, there is a small degree of reddening in the continuum at lower flux levels that is revealed by the decreasing rate of decline in the light curve at lower frequencies. However, we see no clear evidence that a rapid flare detected in the light curve during our monitoring in the visible to near-IR light curve is seen either in the Herschel data or at 37 GHz, suggesting a low-frequency cut-off in the spectrum of such flares. Conclusions.We see only marginal evidence of variability in the observations with Herschel over a month, although this may be principally due to the poor sampling. The spectral energy distribution between 37 GHz and the visible can be characterised by two components of approximately constant spectral index: a visible to far-IR component of spectral index α = -0.95, and a far-IR to millimetric spectral index of α = -0.43. There is no evidence of an excess of emission that would be consistent with the 60 μmdust bump found in many active galactic nuclei. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European

  7. Spectroscopic characterization of extrasolar planets from ground-, space- and airborne-based observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angerhausen, Daniel

    2010-11-01

    This thesis deals with techniques and results of observations of exoplanets from several platforms. In this work I present and then attempt solutions to particular issues and problems connected to ground- and space-based approaches to spectroscopic characterization of extrasolar planets. Furthermore, I present the future prospects of the airborne observatory, SOFIA, in this field of astronomy. The first part of this thesis covers results of an exploratory study to use near-infrared integral-field-spectroscopy to observe transiting extrasolar planets. I demonstrate how adaptive-optics assisted integral field spectroscopy compares with other spectroscopic techniques currently applied, foremost being slit spectroscopy. An advanced reduction method using elements of a spectral-differential decorrelation and optimized observation strategies is discussed. This concept was tested with K-Band time series observations of secondary eclipses of HD 209458b and HD 189733b obtained with the SINFONI at the Very Large Telescope (VLT), at spectral resolution of R~3000. In ground-based near infrared (NIR) observations, there is considerable likelihood of confusion between telluric absorption features and spectral features in the targeted object. I describe a detailed method that can cope with such confusion by a forward modelling approach employing Earth transmission models. In space-based transit spectroscopy with Hubble's NICMOS instrument, the main source of systematic noise is the perturbation in the instrument's configuration due to the near Earth orbital motion of the spacecraft. I present an extension to a pre-existing data analysis sequence that has allowed me to extract a NIR transmission spectrum of the hot-Neptune class planet GJ 436b from a data set that was highly corrupted by the above mentioned effects. Satisfyingly, I was able to obtain statistical consistency in spectra (acquired over a broad wavelength grid) over two distinct observing visits by HST. Earlier

  8. Water in massive star-forming regions with Herschel Space Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavarria, L.; Herpin, F.; Bontemps, S.; Jacq, T.; Baudry, A.; Braine, J.; van der Tak, F.; Wyrowski, F.; van Dishoeck, E. F.

    2011-05-01

    High-mass stars formation process is much less understood than the low-mass case: short timescales, high opacities and long distance to the sources challenge the study of young massive stars. The instruments on board the Heschel Space Observatory permit us to investigate molecular species at high spectral resolution in the sub-milimeter wavelengths. Water, one of the most abundant molecules in the Universe, might elucidate key episodes in the process of stellar birth and it may play a major role in the formation of high-mass stars. This contribution presents the first results of the Heschel Space Observatory key-program WISH (Water In Star forming regions with Herschel) concerning high-mass protostars. The program main purpose is to follow the process of star formation during the various stages using the water molecule as a physical diagnostic throughout the evolution. In general, we aim to adress the following questions: How does protostars interact with their environment ? How and where water is formed ? How is it transported from cloud to disk ? When and where water becomes a dominant cooling or heating agent ? We use the HIFI and PACS instruments to obtain maps and spectra of ~20 water lines in ~20 massive protostars spanning a large range in physical parameters, from pre-stellar cores to UCHII regions. I will review the status of the program and focus specifically on the spectroscopic results. I will show how powerful are the HIFI high-resolution spectral observations to resolve different physical source components such as the dense core, the outflows and the extended cold cloud around the high-mass object. We derive water abundances between 10-7 and 10-9 in the outer envelope. The abundance variations derived from our models suggest that different chemical mechanisms are at work on these scales (e.g. evaporation of water-rich icy grain mantles). The detection and derived abundance ratios for rare isotopologues will be discussed. Finally, a comparison in tems

  9. A Dedicated Space Observatory For Time-domain Solar System Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Michael H.; Ádámkovics, M.; Benecchi, S.; Bjoraker, G.; Clarke, J. T.; de Pater, I.; Hendrix, A. R.; Marchis, F.; McGrath, M.; Noll, K.; Rages, K. A.; Retherford, K.; Smith, E. H.; Strange, N. J.

    2009-09-01

    Time-variable phenomena with scales ranging from minutes to decades have led to a large fraction of recent advances in many aspects of solar system science. We present the scientific motivation for a dedicated space observatory for solar system science. This facility will ideally conduct repeated imaging and spectroscopic observations over a period of 10 years or more. It will execute a selection of long-term projects with interleaved scheduling, resulting in the acquisition of data sets with consistent calibration, long baselines, and optimized sampling intervals. A sparse aperture telescope would be an ideal configuration for the mission, trading decreased sensitivity for reduced payload mass, while preserving spatial resolution. Ultraviolet capability is essential, especially once the Hubble Space Telescope retires. Specific investigations will include volcanism and cryovolcanism (on targets including Io, Titan, Venus, Mars, and Enceladus); zonal flow, vortices, and storm evolution on the giant planets; seasonal cycles in planetary atmospheres; mutual events and orbit determination of multiple small solar system bodies; auroral activity and solar wind interactions; and cometary evolution. The mission will produce a wealth of data products--such as multi-year time-lapse movies of planetary atmospheres--with significant education and public outreach potential. Existing and planned ground- and space-based facilities are not suitable for these time-domain optimized planetary dynamics studies for numerous reasons, including: oversubscription by astrophysical users, field-of-regard limitations, sensitive detector saturation limits that preclude bright planetary targets, and limited mission duration. The abstract author list is a preliminary group of scientists who have shown interest in prior presentations on this topic; interested parties may contact the lead author by 1 September to sign the associated Planetary Science Decadal Survey white paper or by 1 October to

  10. Griffith Observatory: Hollywood's Celestial Theater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, Emily A.; Dr. Stuart W. Leslie

    2018-01-01

    The Griffith Observatory, perched atop the Hollywood Hills, is perhaps the most recognizable observatory in the world. Since opening in 1935, this Los Angeles icon has brought millions of visitors closer to the heavens. Through an analysis of planning documentation, internal newsletters, media coverage, programming and exhibition design, I demonstrate how the Observatory’s Southern California location shaped its form and function. The astronomical community at nearby Mt. Wilson Observatory and Caltech informed the selection of instrumentation and programming, especially for presentations with the Observatory’s Zeiss Planetarium, the second installed in the United States. Meanwhile the Observatory staff called upon some of Hollywood’s best artists, model makers, and scriptwriters to translate the latest astronomical discoveries into spectacular audiovisual experiences, which were enhanced with Space Age technological displays on loan from Southern California’s aerospace companies. The influences of these three communities- professional astronomy, entertainment, and aerospace- persist today and continue to make Griffith Observatory one of the premiere sites of public astronomy in the country.

  11. The JEM-EUSO mission: a space observatory to study the origin of Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertaina, M. [Department of Physics, University of Torino and INFN, Torino (Italy); Parizot, E. [APC, Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/Irfu, Obs de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cité (France)

    2014-11-15

    The Extreme Universe Space Observatory (EUSO) onboard the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM-EUSO) of the International Space Station (ISS) is an innovative space-based mission with the aim of detecting Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECRs) from the ISS, by using the Earth's atmosphere as a calorimeter viewed by a fluorescence telescope. An observatory able to produce an arrival direction map with more than several hundreds events above 5 × 10{sup 19} eV would give important information on the origin of the UHECRs and identify structures in the sky map that contain information about the source density and/or distribution. This is likely to lead to an understanding of the acceleration mechanisms with a high potential for producing discoveries in astrophysics and/or fundamental physics. The scientific motivations of the mission as well as the current development status of the instrument and its performance are reviewed.

  12. The JEM-EUSO mission: a space observatory to study the origin of Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertaina, M.; Parizot, E.

    2014-01-01

    The Extreme Universe Space Observatory (EUSO) onboard the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM-EUSO) of the International Space Station (ISS) is an innovative space-based mission with the aim of detecting Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECRs) from the ISS, by using the Earth's atmosphere as a calorimeter viewed by a fluorescence telescope. An observatory able to produce an arrival direction map with more than several hundreds events above 5 × 10 19 eV would give important information on the origin of the UHECRs and identify structures in the sky map that contain information about the source density and/or distribution. This is likely to lead to an understanding of the acceleration mechanisms with a high potential for producing discoveries in astrophysics and/or fundamental physics. The scientific motivations of the mission as well as the current development status of the instrument and its performance are reviewed

  13. Hot-electron bolometer terahertz mixers for the Herschel Space Observatory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherednichenko, Sergey; Drakinskiy, Vladimir; Berg, Therese; Khosropanah, Pourya; Kollberg, Erik

    2008-03-01

    We report on low noise terahertz mixers (1.4-1.9 THz) developed for the heterodyne spectrometer onboard the Herschel Space Observatory. The mixers employ double slot antenna integrated superconducting hot-electron bolometers (HEBs) made of thin NbN films. The mixer performance was characterized in terms of detection sensitivity across the entire rf band by using a Fourier transform spectrometer (from 0.5 to 2.5 THz, with 30 GHz resolution) and also by measuring the mixer noise temperature at a limited number of discrete frequencies. The lowest mixer noise temperature recorded was 750 K [double sideband (DSB)] at 1.6 THz and 950 K DSB at 1.9 THz local oscillator (LO) frequencies. Averaged across the intermediate frequency band of 2.4-4.8 GHz, the mixer noise temperature was 1100 K DSB at 1.6 THz and 1450 K DSB at 1.9 THz LO frequencies. The HEB heterodyne receiver stability has been analyzed and compared to the HEB stability in the direct detection mode. The optimal local oscillator power was determined and found to be in a 200-500 nW range.

  14. Dust Temperatures in the Infrared Space Observatory Atlas of Bright Spiral Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Bendo, G J; Wells, M; Gallais, P; Haas, M; Heras, A M; Klaas, U; Laureijs, R J; Leech, K; Lemke, D; Metcalfe, L; Rowan-Robinson, M; Schulz, B; Telesco, C M; Bendo, George J.; Joseph, Robert D.; Wells, Martyn; Gallais, Pascal; Haas, Martin; Heras, Ana M.; Klaas, Ulrich; Laureijs, Rene J.; Leech, Kieron; Lemke, Dietrich; Metcalfe, Leo; Rowan-Robinson, Michael; Schulz, Bernhard; Telesco, Charles

    2003-01-01

    We examine far-infrared and submillimeter spectral energy distributions for galaxies in the Infrared Space Observatory Atlas of Bright Spiral Galaxies. For the 71 galaxies where we had complete 60-180 micron data, we fit blackbodies with lambda^-1 emissivities and average temperatures of 31 K or lambda^-2 emissivities and average temperatures of 22 K. Except for high temperatures determined in some early-type galaxies, the temperatures show no dependence on any galaxy characteristic. For the 60-850 micron range in eight galaxies, we fit blackbodies with lambda^-1, lambda-2, and lambda^-beta (with beta variable) emissivities to the data. The best results were with the lambda^-beta emissivities, where the temperatures were ~30 K and the emissivity coefficient beta ranged from 0.9 to 1.9. These results produced gas to dust ratios that ranged from 150 to 580, which were consistent with the ratio for the Milky Way and which exhibited relatively little dispersion compared to fits with fixed emissivities.

  15. First extragalactic detection of submillimeter CH rotational lines from the Herschel space observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rangwala, Naseem; Maloney, Philip R.; Glenn, Jason; Kamenetzky, Julia [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, 1255 38th street, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States); Wilson, Christine D.; Schirm, Maximilien R. P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, L8S 4M1 (Canada); Spinoglio, Luigi; Pereira Santaella, Miguel [Istituto di Fisica dello Spazio Interplanetario, INAF, Via del Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Roma (Italy)

    2014-06-20

    We present the first extragalactic detections of several CH rotational transitions in the far-infrared in four nearby galaxies, NGC 1068, Arp 220, M82, and NGC 253, using the Herschel Space Observatory. The CH lines in all four galaxies are a factor of 2-4 brighter than the adjacent HCN and HCO{sup +} J = 6-5 lines (also detected in the same spectra). In the star-formation-dominated galaxies, M82, NGC 253, and Arp 220, the CH/CO abundance ratio is low (∼10{sup –5}), implying that the CH is primarily arising in diffuse and translucent gas where the chemistry is driven by UV radiation as found in the Milky Way interstellar matter. In NGC 1068, which has a luminous active galactic nucleus (AGN), the CH/CO ratio is an order of magnitude higher, suggesting that CH formation is driven by an X-ray-dominated region (XDR). Our XDR models show that both the CH and CO abundances in NGC 1068 can be explained by an XDR-driven chemistry for gas densities and molecular hydrogen column densities that are well constrained by the CO observations. We conclude that the CH/CO ratio may a good indicator of the presence of AGN in galaxies. We also discuss the feasibility of detecting CH in intermediate- to high-z galaxies with ALMA.

  16. Real Time Space Weather Support for Chandra X-ray Observatory Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dell, S. L.; Miller, S.; Minow, J. I.; Wolk, S.; Aldcroft, T. L.; Spitzbart, B. D.; Swartz, D. A.

    2012-12-01

    NASA launched the Chandra X-ray Observatory in July 1999. Soon after first light in August 1999, however, degradation in the energy resolution and charge transfer efficiency of the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) x-ray detectors was observed. The source of the degradation was quickly identified as radiation damage in the charge-transfer channel of the front-illuminated CCDs, by weakly penetrating ("soft", 100-500 keV) protons as Chandra passed through the Earth's radiation belts and ring currents. As soft protons were not considered a risk to spacecraft health before launch, the only on-board radiation monitoring system is the Electron, Proton, and Helium Instrument (EPHIN) which was included on Chandra with the primary purpose of monitoring energetic solar particle events. Further damage to the ACIS detector has been successfully mitigated through a combination of careful mission planning, autonomous on-board radiation protection, and manual intervention based upon real-time monitoring of the soft-proton environment. The AE-8 and AP-8 trapped radiation models and Chandra Radiation Models are used to schedule science operations in regions of low proton flux. EPHIN has been used as the primary autonomous in-situ radiation trigger; but, it is not sensitive to the soft protons that damage the front-illuminated CCDs. Monitoring of near-real-time space weather data sources provides critical information on the proton environment outside the Earth's magnetosphere due to solar proton events and other phenomena. The operations team uses data from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) to provide near-real-time monitoring of the proton environment; however, these data do not give a representative measure of the soft-proton (real-time data provided by NOAA's Space Weather Prediction Center. This presentation will discuss radiation mitigation against proton damage, including models and real-time data sources used to protect the ACIS detector

  17. Future space missions and ground observatory for measurements of coronal magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fineschi, Silvano; Gibson, Sarah; Bemporad, Alessandro; Zhukov, Andrei; Damé, Luc; Susino, Roberto; Larruquert, Juan

    2016-07-01

    This presentation gives an overview of the near-future perspectives for probing coronal magnetism from space missions (i.e., SCORE and ASPIICS) and ground-based observatory (ESCAPE). Spectro-polarimetric imaging of coronal emission-lines in the visible-light wavelength-band provides an important diagnostics tool of the coronal magnetism. The interpretation in terms of Hanle and Zeeman effect of the line-polarization in forbidden emission-lines yields information on the direction and strength of the coronal magnetic field. As study case, this presentation will describe the Torino Coronal Magnetograph (CorMag) for the spectro-polarimetric observation of the FeXIV, 530.3 nm, forbidden emission-line. CorMag - consisting of a Liquid Crystal (LC) Lyot filter and a LC linear polarimeter. The CorMag filter is part of the ESCAPE experiment to be based at the French-Italian Concordia base in Antarctica. The linear polarization by resonance scattering of coronal permitted line-emission in the ultraviolet (UV)can be modified by magnetic fields through the Hanle effect. Space-based UV spectro-polarimeters would provide an additional tool for the disgnostics of coronal magnetism. As a case study of space-borne UV spectro-polarimeters, this presentation will describe the future upgrade of the Sounding-rocket Coronagraphic Experiment (SCORE) to include new generation, high-efficiency UV polarizer with the capability of imaging polarimetry of the HI Lyman-α, 121.6 nm. SCORE is a multi-wavelength imager for the emission-lines, HeII 30.4 nm and HI 121.6 nm, and visible-light broad-band emission of the polarized K-corona. SCORE has flown successfully in 2009. The second lauch is scheduled in 2016. Proba-3 is the other future solar mission that would provide the opportunity of diagnosing the coronal magnetic field. Proba-3 is the first precision formation-flying mission to launched in 2019). A pair of satellites will fly together maintaining a fixed configuration as a 'large rigid

  18. Real Time Space Weather Support for Chandra X-Ray Observatory Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dell, Stephen L.; Minow, Joseph I.; Miller, J. Scott; Wolk, Scott J.; Aldcroft, Thomas L.; Spitzbart, Bradley D.; Swartz. Douglas A.

    2012-01-01

    NASA launched the Chandra X-ray Observatory in July 1999. Soon after first light in August 1999, however, degradation in the energy resolution and charge transfer efficiency of the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) x-ray detectors was observed. The source of the degradation was quickly identified as radiation damage in the charge-transfer channel of the front-illuminated CCDs, by weakly penetrating ( soft , 100 500 keV) protons as Chandra passed through the Earth s radiation belts and ring currents. As soft protons were not considered a risk to spacecraft health before launch, the only on-board radiation monitoring system is the Electron, Proton, and Helium Instrument (EPHIN) which was included on Chandra with the primary purpose of monitoring energetic solar particle events. Further damage to the ACIS detector has been successfully mitigated through a combination of careful mission planning, autonomous on-board radiation protection, and manual intervention based upon real-time monitoring of the soft-proton environment. The AE-8 and AP-8 trapped radiation models and Chandra Radiation Models are used to schedule science operations in regions of low proton flux. EPHIN has been used as the primary autonomous in-situ radiation trigger; but, it is not sensitive to the soft protons that damage the front-illuminated CCDs. Monitoring of near-real-time space weather data sources provides critical information on the proton environment outside the Earth s magnetosphere due to solar proton events and other phenomena. The operations team uses data from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) to provide near-real-time monitoring of the proton environment; however, these data do not give a representative measure of the soft-proton (real-time data provided by NOAA s Space Weather Prediction Center. This presentation describes the radiation mitigation strategies to minimize the proton damage in the ACIS CCD detectors and the importance of real-time data

  19. Landscape response to tipping points in granite weathering: The case of stepped topography in the Southern Sierra Critical Zone Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jessup, Barbara S.; Jesse Hahm, W.; Miller, Scott N.; Kirchner, James W.; Riebe, Clifford S.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → This work tests a decades-old hypothesis in which relief development in the southern Sierra Nevada is attributed to differential weathering of bare and soil-mantled granite. → Terrain analysis shows that the landscape is organized into a sequence of steep steps and gentle treads, consistent with the hypothesis. → Cosmogenic nuclides show that bare granite erodes more slowly than its soil-mantled counterparts, as required by the hypothesis.However, steps erode more quickly than treads, undermining the explanation for the origins of the stepped topography. - Abstract: The dynamics of granitic landscapes are modulated by bimodal weathering, which produces patchy granular soils and expanses of bare rock ranging from meter-scale boulders to mountain-scale domes. We used terrain analysis and with cosmogenic nuclide measurements of erosion rates to quantitatively explore Wahrhaftig's decades-old hypothesis for the development of 'stepped topography' by differential weathering of bare and soil-mantled granite. According to Wahrhaftig's hypothesis, bare granite weathers slower than soil-mantled granite; thus random erosional exposure of bare rock leads to an alternating sequence of steep, slowly weathering bedrock 'steps' and gently sloped, but rapidly weathering, soil-mantled 'treads.' Our investigation focused on the terrain surrounding the Southern Sierra Critical Zone Observatory (CZO), which is underlain by granitic bedrock and lies outside the limits of recent glaciation, in the heart of the stepped topography described by Wahrhaftig. Our digital terrain analysis confirms that steep steps often grade into gentle treads, consistent with Wahrhaftig's hypothesis. However, we observe a mix-and-match of soil and bare rock on treads and steps, contrary to one of the hypothesis' major underpinnings - that bare rock should be much more common on steps than on treads. Moreover, the data show that bare rock is not as common as expected at step tops

  20. Spatial Variability of Soil-Water Storage in the Southern Sierra Critical Zone Observatory: Measurement and Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oroza, C.; Bales, R. C.; Zheng, Z.; Glaser, S. D.

    2017-12-01

    Predicting the spatial distribution of soil moisture in mountain environments is confounded by multiple factors, including complex topography, spatial variably of soil texture, sub-surface flow paths, and snow-soil interactions. While remote-sensing tools such as passive-microwave monitoring can measure spatial variability of soil moisture, they only capture near-surface soil layers. Large-scale sensor networks are increasingly providing soil-moisture measurements at high temporal resolution across a broader range of depths than are accessible from remote sensing. It may be possible to combine these in-situ measurements with high-resolution LIDAR topography and canopy cover to estimate the spatial distribution of soil moisture at high spatial resolution at multiple depths. We study the feasibility of this approach using six years (2009-2014) of daily volumetric water content measurements at 10-, 30-, and 60-cm depths from the Southern Sierra Critical Zone Observatory. A non-parametric, multivariate regression algorithm, Random Forest, was used to predict the spatial distribution of depth-integrated soil-water storage, based on the in-situ measurements and a combination of node attributes (topographic wetness, northness, elevation, soil texture, and location with respect to canopy cover). We observe predictable patterns of predictor accuracy and independent variable ranking during the six-year study period. Predictor accuracy is highest during the snow-cover and early recession periods but declines during the dry period. Soil texture has consistently high feature importance. Other landscape attributes exhibit seasonal trends: northness peaks during the wet-up period, and elevation and topographic-wetness index peak during the recession and dry period, respectively.

  1. GOT C+: A Herschel Space Observatory Key Program to Study the Diffuse ISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, William; Velusamy, T.; Goldsmith, P. F.; Li, D.; Pineda, J.; Yorke, H.

    2010-01-01

    Star formation activity is regulated by pressures in the interstellar medium, which in turn depend on heating and cooling rates, modulated by the gravitational potential, and shock and turbulent pressures. To understand these processes we need information about the diffuse atomic and diffuse molecular gas cloud properties. The ionized carbon CII fine structure line at 1.9 THz is an important tracer of the atomic gas in the diffuse regions and the atomic to molecular cloud transformation. Furthermore, C+ is a major ISM coolant, the Galaxy's strongest emission line, with a total luminosity about a 1000 times that of CO J=1-0. Galactic Observations of the Terahertz C+ Line (GOT C+) is a Herschel Space Observatory Open Time Key Program to study the diffuse interstellar medium by sampling CII line emission throughout the Galactic disk. GOT C+ will obtain high spectral resolution CII using the Heterodyne Instrument for the Far Infrared (HIFI) instrument. It employees deep integrations, wide velocity coverage (350 km s-1) with 0.22 km s-1 resolution, and systematic sparse sampling of the Galactic disk together with observations of selected targets, of over 900 lines of sight. It will be a resource of the atomic gas properties, in the (a) Galactic disk, (b) Galaxy's central 300pc, (c) Galactic warp, (d) high latitude HI clouds, and (e) Photon Dominated Regions (PDRs). Along with HI, CO isotopes, and CI spectra, our C+ data will provide the astronomical community with a rich statistical database of diffuse cloud properties, for understanding the role of barometric pressure and turbulence in cloud evolution in the Galactic ISM and, by extension, other galaxies. The GOT C+ project will provide a template for future even larger-scale CII surveys. This research was conducted at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology and is supported by a NASA grant.

  2. Early Mission Maneuver Operations for the Deep Space Climate Observatory Sun-Earth L1 Libration Point Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Craig; Case, Sara; Reagoso, John; Webster, Cassandra

    2015-01-01

    The Deep Space Climate Observatory mission launched on February 11, 2015, and inserted onto a transfer trajectory toward a Lissajous orbit around the Sun-Earth L1 libration point. This paper presents an overview of the baseline transfer orbit and early mission maneuver operations leading up to the start of nominal science orbit operations. In particular, the analysis and performance of the spacecraft insertion, mid-course correction maneuvers, and the deep-space Lissajous orbit insertion maneuvers are discussed, com-paring the baseline orbit with actual mission results and highlighting mission and operations constraints..

  3. ESA presents INTEGRAL, its space observatory for Gamma-ray astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-09-01

    more strange than the energetic radiation coming from the centre of distant galaxies are flashes of extremely powerful radiation that suddenly appear somewhere on the gamma-sky and disappear again after a short time. These gamma-bursts seem to be the biggest observed explosions in the Universe. But nobody knows their source. Integral will help to solve this long-standing mystery. ESA, the pioneer in gamma-ray astronomy The satellite as it can now be seen at ESA's test centre is five meters high and weighs more than four tonnes. Two main instruments observe the gamma-rays. An imager will give the sharpest gamma-ray images. It is provided by a consortium led by an Italian scientist. Gamma-rays ignore lenses and mirror, so INTEGRAL makes its images with so-called coded-masks. A coded-mask telescope is basically a pinhole camera, but with a larger aperture, i.e. many pinholes. A spectrometer will gauge gamma-ray energies extremely precisely. It is developed by a team of scientists under joint French-German leadership and will be a 100 times more sensitive than the previous high spectral resolution space instrument. It is made of a high-purity Germanium detector that has to be cooled down to minus 188 degree Celsius. These two gamma-ray-instruments are supported by two monitor instruments that play a crucial role in the detection and identification of the gamma-ray sources. An X-ray monitor developed in Denmark will observe X-rays, still powerful but less energetic than gamma-rays. An optical telescope provided by Spain will observe the visible light emitted by the energetic objects. Switzerland will host the Integral Science Data Centre which will preprocess and distribute the scientific data. The mission is conceived as an observatory led by ESA with Russia contributing the launcher and NASA providing tracking support with its Deep Space Network. Alenia Aerospazio in Turin, Italy is ESA's prime contractor for building INTEGRAL. Launch by a Russian Proton rocket from

  4. The Pierre Auger Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hojvat, C.

    1997-03-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory is an international collaboration for the detailed study of the highest energy cosmic rays. It will operate at two similar sites, one in the northern hemisphere and one in the southern hemisphere. The Observatory is designed to collect a statistically significant data set of events with energies greater than 10 19 eV and with equal exposures for the northern and southern skies

  5. Peering into space with the Morocco Oukaïmeden Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benkhaldoun, Zouhair

    2018-05-01

    Moroccan scientific production in astronomy and astrophysics has shown sustained growth since the late 1980s. This growth is largely due to the dynamism of an increasingly entrepreneurial community and to the creation of an astronomical observatory in the Moroccan Atlas Mountains.

  6. Landscape response to tipping points in granite weathering: The case of stepped topography in the Southern Sierra Critical Zone Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jessup, Barbara S.; Jesse Hahm, W. [Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States); Miller, Scott N. [Department of Renewable Resources, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States); Kirchner, James W. [Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research, Zuercherstrasse 111, CH-8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland)] [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Riebe, Clifford S., E-mail: criebe@uwyo.edu [Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States)

    2011-06-15

    Highlights: > This work tests a decades-old hypothesis in which relief development in the southern Sierra Nevada is attributed to differential weathering of bare and soil-mantled granite. > Terrain analysis shows that the landscape is organized into a sequence of steep steps and gentle treads, consistent with the hypothesis. > Cosmogenic nuclides show that bare granite erodes more slowly than its soil-mantled counterparts, as required by the hypothesis.However, steps erode more quickly than treads, undermining the explanation for the origins of the stepped topography. - Abstract: The dynamics of granitic landscapes are modulated by bimodal weathering, which produces patchy granular soils and expanses of bare rock ranging from meter-scale boulders to mountain-scale domes. We used terrain analysis and with cosmogenic nuclide measurements of erosion rates to quantitatively explore Wahrhaftig's decades-old hypothesis for the development of 'stepped topography' by differential weathering of bare and soil-mantled granite. According to Wahrhaftig's hypothesis, bare granite weathers slower than soil-mantled granite; thus random erosional exposure of bare rock leads to an alternating sequence of steep, slowly weathering bedrock 'steps' and gently sloped, but rapidly weathering, soil-mantled 'treads.' Our investigation focused on the terrain surrounding the Southern Sierra Critical Zone Observatory (CZO), which is underlain by granitic bedrock and lies outside the limits of recent glaciation, in the heart of the stepped topography described by Wahrhaftig. Our digital terrain analysis confirms that steep steps often grade into gentle treads, consistent with Wahrhaftig's hypothesis. However, we observe a mix-and-match of soil and bare rock on treads and steps, contrary to one of the hypothesis' major underpinnings - that bare rock should be much more common on steps than on treads. Moreover, the data show that bare rock is not

  7. James Webb Space Telescope Core 2 Test - Cryogenic Thermal Balance Test of the Observatorys Core Area Thermal Control Hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleveland, Paul; Parrish, Keith; Thomson, Shaun; Marsh, James; Comber, Brian

    2016-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), successor to the Hubble Space Telescope, will be the largest astronomical telescope ever sent into space. To observe the very first light of the early universe, JWST requires a large deployed 6.5-meter primary mirror cryogenically cooled to less than 50 Kelvin. Three scientific instruments are further cooled via a large radiator system to less than 40 Kelvin. A fourth scientific instrument is cooled to less than 7 Kelvin using a combination pulse-tube Joule-Thomson mechanical cooler. Passive cryogenic cooling enables the large scale of the telescope which must be highly folded for launch on an Ariane 5 launch vehicle and deployed once on orbit during its journey to the second Earth-Sun Lagrange point. Passive cooling of the observatory is enabled by the deployment of a large tennis court sized five layer Sunshield combined with the use of a network of high efficiency radiators. A high purity aluminum heat strap system connects the three instrument's detector systems to the radiator systems to dissipate less than a single watt of parasitic and instrument dissipated heat. JWST's large scale features, while enabling passive cooling, also prevent the typical flight configuration fully-deployed thermal balance test that is the keystone of most space missions' thermal verification plans. This paper describes the JWST Core 2 Test, which is a cryogenic thermal balance test of a full size, high fidelity engineering model of the Observatory's 'Core' area thermal control hardware. The 'Core' area is the key mechanical and cryogenic interface area between all Observatory elements. The 'Core' area thermal control hardware allows for temperature transition of 300K to approximately 50 K by attenuating heat from the room temperature IEC (instrument electronics) and the Spacecraft Bus. Since the flight hardware is not available for test, the Core 2 test uses high fidelity and flight-like reproductions.

  8. How to find and type red/brown dwarf stars in near-infrared imaging space observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willemn Holwerda, Benne; Ryan, Russell; Bridge, Joanna; Pirzkal, Nor; Kenworthy, Matthew; Andersen, Morten; Wilkins, Stephen; Trenti, Michele; Meshkat, Tiffany; Bernard, Stephanie; Smit, Renske

    2018-01-01

    Here we evaluate the near-infrared colors of brown dwarfs as observed with four major infrared imaging space observatories: the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), the EUCLID mission, and the WFIRST telescope. We use the splat ISPEX spectroscopic library to map out the colors of the M, L, and T-type brown dwarfs. We identify which color-color combination is optimal for identifying broad type and which single color is optimal to then identify the subtype (e.g., T0-9). We evaluate each observatory separately as well as the the narrow-field (HST and JWST) and wide-field (EULID and WFIRST) combinations.HST filters used thus far for high-redshift searches (e.g. CANDELS and BoRG) are close to optimal within the available filter combinations. A clear improvement over HST is one of two broad/medium filter combinations on JWST: pairing F140M with either F150W or F162M discriminates well between brown dwarf subtypes. The improvement of JWST the filter set over the HST one is so marked that any combination of HST and JWST filters does not improve the classification.The EUCLID filter set alone performs poorly in terms of typing brown dwarfs and WFIRST performs only marginally better, despite a wider selection of filters. A combined EUCLID and WFIRST observation, using WFIRST's W146 and F062 and EUCLID's Y-band, allows for a much better discrimination between broad brown dwarf categories. In this respect, WFIRST acts as a targeted follow-up observatory for the all-sky EUCLID survey. However, subsequent subtyping with the combination of EUCLID and WFIRST observations remains uncertain due to the lack of medium or narrow-band filters in this wavelength range. We argue that a medium band added to the WFIRST filter selection would greatly improve its ability to preselect against brown dwarfs in high-latitude surveys.

  9. Observations of the Hubble Deep Field with the Infrared Space Observatory .1. Data reduction, maps and sky coverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serjeant, S.B.G.; Eaton, N.; Oliver, S.J.

    1997-01-01

    We present deep imaging at 6.7 and 15 mu m from the CAM instrument on the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO), centred on the Hubble Deep Field (HDF). These are the deepest integrations published to date at these wavelengths in any region of sky. We discuss the observational strategy and the data...... reduction. The observed source density appears to approach the CAM confusion limit at 15 mu m, and fluctuations in the 6.7-mu m sky background may be identifiable with similar spatial fluctuations in the HDF galaxy counts. ISO appears to be detecting comparable field galaxy populations to the HDF, and our...

  10. Evolution of interstellar dust in light of Herschel Space Observatory data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arab, Heddy

    2012-01-01

    Interstellar dust grains are nanometer to micrometer sized particles. Although a weak proportion of the total interstellar mass is at solid state, dust plays a fundamental role in the evolution of the interstellar medium (ISM) and of the galaxy itself. Grains can be observed in the UV and visible wavelength through extinction whereas their emission is in the infrared to submillimeter range. Astrophysical observations combined to numerical models and laboratory studies of dust analogs improve our comprehension of the nature and the physics of interstellar grains. For example, evidence of dust evolution in the interstellar medium are now numerous, even if the physical processes responsible of this evolution are still poorly understood. Understanding how grains evolve with physical conditions requires observations of various environments. Photodissociation regions (PDRs) are zones of the ISM where the radiation field and the local density vary on short spatial scales (∼10''- 20''). Moreover the many gas tracers offer the opportunity to constraint efficiently the physical conditions within PDRs. Past missions such as ISO and Spitzer allow to study the evolution of dust in the near-Infrared range. At longer wavelengths, where the emission is dominated by the grains at thermal equilibrium with the radiation, instruments rarely resolved the spatial emission in PDRs. PACS and SPIRE instruments onboard Herschel Space Observatory provide spectro-photometric data between 70 and 500 μm. Their high spatial resolution (from 5 to 35 arcmin) makes these observations ideal for the study of dust evolution in PDRs. We present here an analysis of Herschel observations of three PDRs: the Orion Bar, the Horsehead and NGC 7023 East, characterized by different physical conditions. By combining these data with shorter wavelength observations from Spitzer, we can study the dust emission spectrum from 3.6 to 500 μm at different positions within the PDR. Intensity profiles are extracted

  11. RadioAstron and millimetron space observatories: Multiverse models and the search for life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kardashev, N. S.

    2017-04-01

    The transition from the radio to the millimeter and submillimeter ranges is very promising for studies of galactic nuclei, as well as detailed studies of processes related to supermassive black holes, wormholes, and possible manifestations of multi-element Universe (Multiverse) models. This is shown by observations with the largest interferometer available—RadioAstron observatory—that will be used for the scientific program forMillimetron observatory. Observations have also shown the promise of this range for studies of the formation and evolution of planetary systems and searches for manifestations of intelligent life. This is caused by the requirements to use a large amount of condensedmatter and energy in large-scale technological activities. This range can also be used efficiently in the organisation of optimal channels for the transmission of information.

  12. Observations of the Hubble Deep Field with the Infrared Space Observatory .4. Association of sources with Hubble Deep Field galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, R.G.; Oliver, S.J.; Serjeant, S.B.G.

    1997-01-01

    We discuss the identification of sources detected by the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) at 6.7 and 15 mu m in the Hubble Deep Field (HDF) region. We conservatively associate ISO sources with objects in existing optical and near-infrared HDF catalogues using the likelihood ratio method, confirming...... these results (and, in one case, clarifying them) with independent visual searches, We find 15 ISO sources to be reliably associated with bright [I-814(AB) HDF, and one with an I-814(AB)=19.9 star, while a further 11 are associated with objects in the Hubble Flanking Fields (10 galaxies...... and one star), Amongst optically bright HDF galaxies, ISO tends to detect luminous, star-forming galaxies at fairly high redshift and with disturbed morphologies, in preference to nearby ellipticals....

  13. Astronomy and space sciences studies - use of a remotely controlled robotic observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priskitch, Ray

    Trinity College in Perth, Western Australia, has designed a self-paced online astronomy and space science course in response to the Earth & Beyond strand of the State's Curriculum Framework learning environment. The course also provides senior physics students the opportunity to undertake research that contributes towards their school-based assessment. Special features of the course include use of the first remotely controlled robotic telescope in a secondary school within Australia, and direct real time links to NASA's Johnson Space Centre. The quantum leap in telescope design and control technology introduces users, especially school students, to a means of data collection and processing that hitherto was in the realm of the professional astronomer. No longer must students be, both in time and space, located at the telescope when an event is taking place. Convenience of use and the high quality of data allows students to undertake scientific investigations that were impractical or of dubious quality beforehand. The Astronomy and Space Sciences course at Trinity offers students the opportunity to explore the solar system and the universe beyond whilst also incorporating a wide range of subjects other than science per se such as mathematics, computing, geography, multimedia, religious education and art. Skills developed in this course are of practical value, such as image processing, and the context of the studies serve to illuminate and stimulate student awareness of our unique environment and its finiteness.

  14. Space Active Optics: toward optimized correcting mirrors for future large spaceborne observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laslandes, Marie; Hugot, Emmanuel; Ferrari, Marc; Lemaitre, Gérard; Liotard, Arnaud

    2011-10-01

    Wave-front correction in optical instruments is often needed, either to compensate Optical Path Differences, off-axis aberrations or mirrors deformations. Active optics techniques are developed to allow efficient corrections with deformable mirrors. In this paper, we will present the conception of particular deformation systems which could be used in space telescopes and instruments in order to improve their performances while allowing relaxing specifications on the global system stability. A first section will be dedicated to the design and performance analysis of an active mirror specifically designed to compensate for aberrations that might appear in future 3m-class space telescopes, due to lightweight primary mirrors, thermal variations or weightless conditions. A second section will be dedicated to a brand new design of active mirror, able to compensate for given combinations of aberrations with a single actuator. If the aberrations to be corrected in an instrument and their evolutions are known in advance, an optimal system geometry can be determined thanks to the elasticity theory and Finite Element Analysis.

  15. Italian Physical Society DAMPE: A gamma and cosmic ray observatory in space

    CERN Document Server

    D'Urso, D

    2017-01-01

    DAMPE (DArk Matter Particle Explorer) is one of the five satellite missions in the framework of the Strategic Pioneer Research Program in Space Science of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS). Launched on December 17th 2015 at 08:12 Beijing time, it is taking data into a sun-synchronous orbit, at the altitude of 500 km. The main scientific objective of DAMPE is to detect electrons and photons in the range 5 GeV–10TeV with unprecedented energy resolution, in order to identify possible Dark Matter signatures. It will also measure the flux of nuclei up to 100TeV with excellent energy resolution. The satellite is equipped with a powerful space telescope for high energy gamma-ray, electron and cosmic rays detection. It consists of a plastic scintillator strips detector (PSD) that serves as anticoincidence detector, a silicon-tungsten tracker (STK), a BGO imaging calorimeter of about 32 radiation lengths, and a neutron detector. With its excellent photon detection capability and its detector performances (at 100...

  16. Infrared-faint radio sources remain undetected at far-infrared wavelengths. Deep photometric observations using the Herschel Space Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, A.; Norris, R. P.; Middelberg, E.; Spitler, L. R.; Leipski, C.; Parker, Q. A.

    2015-08-01

    Context. Showing 1.4 GHz flux densities in the range of a few to a few tens of mJy, infrared-faint radio sources (IFRS) are a type of galaxy characterised by faint or absent near-infrared counterparts and consequently extreme radio-to-infrared flux density ratios up to several thousand. Recent studies showed that IFRS are radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs) at redshifts ≳2, potentially linked to high-redshift radio galaxies (HzRGs). Aims: This work explores the far-infrared emission of IFRS, providing crucial information on the star forming and AGN activity of IFRS. Furthermore, the data enable examining the putative relationship between IFRS and HzRGs and testing whether IFRS are more distant or fainter siblings of these massive galaxies. Methods: A sample of six IFRS was observed with the Herschel Space Observatory between 100 μm and 500 μm. Using these results, we constrained the nature of IFRS by modelling their broad-band spectral energy distribution (SED). Furthermore, we set an upper limit on their infrared SED and decomposed their emission into contributions from an AGN and from star forming activity. Results: All six observed IFRS were undetected in all five Herschel far-infrared channels (stacking limits: σ = 0.74 mJy at 100 μm, σ = 3.45 mJy at 500 μm). Based on our SED modelling, we ruled out the following objects to explain the photometric characteristics of IFRS: (a) known radio-loud quasars and compact steep-spectrum sources at any redshift; (b) starburst galaxies with and without an AGN and Seyfert galaxies at any redshift, even if the templates were modified; and (c) known HzRGs at z ≲ 10.5. We find that the IFRS analysed in this work can only be explained by objects that fulfil the selection criteria of HzRGs. More precisely, IFRS could be (a) known HzRGs at very high redshifts (z ≳ 10.5); (b) low-luminosity siblings of HzRGs with additional dust obscuration at lower redshifts; (c) scaled or unscaled versions of Cygnus A at any

  17. Space-based observatories providing key data for climate change applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecomte, J.; Juillet, J. J.

    2016-12-01

    The Sentinel-1 & 3 mission are part of the Copernicus program, previously known as GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security), whose overall objective is to support Europe's goals regarding sustainable development and global governance of the environment by providing timely and quality data, information, services and knowledge. This European Earth Observation program is led by the European Commission and the space infrastructure is developed under the European Space Agency leadership. Many services will be developed through the Copernicus program among different thematic areas. The climate change is one of this thematic area and the Sentinel-1 & 3 satellites will provide key space-based observations in this area. The Sentinel-1 mission is based on a constellation of 2 identical satellites each one embarking C-SAR Instrument and provides capability for continuous radar mapping of the Earth with enhanced revisit frequency, coverage, timeliness and reliability for operational services and applications requiring long time series. In particular, Sentinel 1 provides all-weather, day-and-night estimates of soil moisture, wind speed and direction, sea ice, continental ice sheets and glaciers. The Sentinel-3 mission will mainly be devoted to the provision of Ocean observation data in routine, long term (20 years of operations) and continuous fashion with a consistent quality and a very high level of availability. Among these data, very accurate surface temperatures and topography measurements will be provided and will constitute key indicators, once ingested in climate change models, for identifying climate drivers and expected climate impacts. The paper will briefly recall the satellite architectures, their main characteristics and performance. The inflight performance and key features of their images or data of the 3 satellites namely Sentinel 1A, 1B and 3A will be reviewed to demonstrate the quality and high scientific potential of the data as well as their

  18. A Cluster Of Activities On Coma From The Hubble Space Telescope, StarDate, And McDonald Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemenway, Mary Kay; Jogee, S.; Fricke, K.; Preston, S.

    2011-01-01

    With a goal of providing a vast audience of students, teachers, the general public, and Spanish-speakers with activities to learn about research on the Coma cluster of galaxies based on the HST ACS Treasury survey of Coma, McDonald Observatory used a many-faceted approach. Since this research offered an unprecedented legacy dataset, part of the challenge was to convey the importance of this project to a diverse audience. The methodology was to create different products for different (overlapping) audiences. Five radio programs were produced in English and Spanish for distribution on over 500 radio stations in the US and Mexico with a listening audience of over 2 million; in addition to the radio listeners, there were over 13,000 downloads of the English scripts and almost 6000 of the Spanish. Images were prepared for use in the StarDate Online Astronomy Picture of the Week, for ViewSpace (used in museums), and for the StarDate/Universo Teacher Guide. A high-school level activity on the Coma Cluster was prepared and distributed both on-line and in an upgraded printed version of the StarDate/Universo Teacher Guide. This guide has been distributed to over 1700 teachers nationally. A YouTube video about careers and research in astronomy using the Coma cluster as an example was produced. Just as the activities were varied, so were the evaluation methods. This material is based upon work supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under Grant/Contract/Agreement No. HST-EO-10861.35-A issued through the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

  19. Non-sky-averaged sensitivity curves for space-based gravitational-wave observatories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallisneri, Michele; Galley, Chad R

    2012-01-01

    The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is used in gravitational-wave observations as the basic figure of merit for detection confidence and, together with the Fisher matrix, for the amount of physical information that can be extracted from a detected signal. SNRs are usually computed from a sensitivity curve, which describes the gravitational-wave amplitude needed by a monochromatic source of given frequency to achieve a threshold SNR. Although the term 'sensitivity' is used loosely to refer to the detector's noise spectral density, the two quantities are not the same: the sensitivity includes also the frequency- and orientation-dependent response of the detector to gravitational waves and takes into account the duration of observation. For interferometric space-based detectors similar to LISA, which are sensitive to long-lived signals and have constantly changing position and orientation, exact SNRs need to be computed on a source-by-source basis. For convenience, most authors prefer to work with sky-averaged sensitivities, accepting inaccurate SNRs for individual sources and giving up control over the statistical distribution of SNRs for source populations. In this paper, we describe a straightforward end-to-end recipe to compute the non-sky-averaged sensitivity of interferometric space-based detectors of any geometry. This recipe includes the effects of spacecraft motion and of seasonal variations in the partially subtracted confusion foreground from Galactic binaries, and it can be used to generate a sampling distribution of sensitivities for a given source population. In effect, we derive error bars for the sky-averaged sensitivity curve, which provide a stringent statistical interpretation for previously unqualified statements about sky-averaged SNRs. As a worked-out example, we consider isotropic and Galactic-disk populations of monochromatic sources, as observed with the 'classic LISA' configuration. We confirm that the (standard) inverse-rms average sensitivity

  20. Advanced Environmentally Resistant Lithium Fluoride Mirror Coatings for the Next Generation of Broadband Space Observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Brian; Quijada, Manuel A.; Hennessy, John; Egan, Arika; Del Hoyo, Javier G.

    2017-01-01

    Recent advances in the physical vapor deposition (PVD) of protective fluoride films have raised the far-ultraviolet (FUV: 912-1600 A) reflectivity of aluminum-based mirrors closer to the theoretical limit. The greatest gains, at more than 20%, have come for lithium fluoride-protected aluminum, which has the shortest wavelength cutoff of any conventional overcoat. Despite the success of the NASA FUSE mission, the use of lithium fluoride (LiF)-based optics is rare, as LiF is hygroscopic and requires handling procedures that can drive risk. With NASA now studying two large mission concepts for astronomy, Large UV-Optical-IR Surveyor (LUVOIR) and the Habitable Exoplanet Imaging Mission (HabEx), which mandate throughput down to 1000 , the development of LiF-based coatings becomes crucial. This paper discusses steps that are being taken to qualify these new enhanced LiF-protected aluminum (eLiF) mirror coatings for flight. In addition to quantifying the hygroscopic degradation, we have developed a new method of protecting eLiF with an ultrathin (10-20 A) capping layer of a nonhygroscopic material to increase durability. We report on the performance of eLiF-based optics and assess the steps that need to be taken to qualify such coatings for LUVOIR, HabEx, and other FUV-sensitive space missions.

  1. Utilization of Solar Dynamics Observatory space weather digital image data for comparative analysis with application to Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekoyan, V.; Dehipawala, S.; Liu, Ernest; Tulsee, Vivek; Armendariz, R.; Tremberger, G.; Holden, T.; Marchese, P.; Cheung, T.

    2012-10-01

    Digital solar image data is available to users with access to standard, mass-market software. Many scientific projects utilize the Flexible Image Transport System (FITS) format, which requires specialized software typically used in astrophysical research. Data in the FITS format includes photometric and spatial calibration information, which may not be useful to researchers working with self-calibrated, comparative approaches. This project examines the advantages of using mass-market software with readily downloadable image data from the Solar Dynamics Observatory for comparative analysis over with the use of specialized software capable of reading data in the FITS format. Comparative analyses of brightness statistics that describe the solar disk in the study of magnetic energy using algorithms included in mass-market software have been shown to give results similar to analyses using FITS data. The entanglement of magnetic energy associated with solar eruptions, as well as the development of such eruptions, has been characterized successfully using mass-market software. The proposed algorithm would help to establish a publicly accessible, computing network that could assist in exploratory studies of all FITS data. The advances in computer, cell phone and tablet technology could incorporate such an approach readily for the enhancement of high school and first-year college space weather education on a global scale. Application to ground based data such as that contained in the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey is discussed.

  2. Assessment of space proton radiation-induced charge transfer inefficiency in the CCD204 for the Euclid space observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gow, J P D; Murray, N J; Holland, A D; Hall, D J; Cropper, M; Burt, D; Hopkinson, G; Duvet, L

    2012-01-01

    Euclid is a medium class European Space Agency mission candidate for launch in 2019 with a primary goal to study the dark universe using the weak lensing and baryonic acoustic oscillations techniques. Weak lensing depends on accurate shape measurements of distant galaxies. Therefore it is beneficial that the effects of radiation-induced charge transfer inefficiency (CTI) in the Euclid CCDs over the course of the 5 year mission at L2 are understood. This will allow, through experimental analysis and modelling techniques, the effects of radiation induced CTI on shape to be decoupled from those of mass inhomogeneities along the line-of-sight. This paper discusses a selection of work from the study that has been undertaken using the e2v CCD204 as part of the initial proton radiation damage assessment for Euclid. The experimental arrangement and procedure are described followed by the results obtained, thereby allowing recommendations to be made on the CCD operating temperature, to provide an insight into CTI effects using an optical background, to assess the benefits of using charge injection on CTI recovery and the effect of the use of two different methods of serial clocking on serial CTI. This work will form the basis of a comparison with a p-channel CCD204 fabricated using the same mask set as the n-channel equivalent. A custom CCD has been designed, based on this work and discussions between e2v technologies plc. and the Euclid consortium, and designated the CCD273.

  3. Whales from space: counting southern right whales by satellite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fretwell, Peter T; Staniland, Iain J; Forcada, Jaume

    2014-01-01

    We describe a method of identifying and counting whales using very high resolution satellite imagery through the example of southern right whales breeding in part of the Golfo Nuevo, Península Valdés in Argentina. Southern right whales have been extensively hunted over the last 300 years and although numbers have recovered from near extinction in the early 20(th) century, current populations are fragmented and are estimated at only a small fraction of pre-hunting total. Recent extreme right whale calf mortality events at Península Valdés, which constitutes the largest single population, have raised fresh concern for the future of the species. The WorldView2 satellite has a maximum 50 cm resolution and a water penetrating coastal band in the far-blue part of the spectrum that allows it to see deeper into the water column. Using an image covering 113 km², we identified 55 probable whales and 23 other features that are possibly whales, with a further 13 objects that are only detected by the coastal band. Comparison of a number of classification techniques, to automatically detect whale-like objects, showed that a simple thresholding technique of the panchromatic and coastal band delivered the best results. This is the first successful study using satellite imagery to count whales; a pragmatic, transferable method using this rapidly advancing technology that has major implications for future surveys of cetacean populations.

  4. Cloud Height Retrieval with Oxygen A and B Bands for the Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuekui; Marshak, Alexander; Mao, Jianping; Lyapustin, Alexei; Herman, Jay

    2012-01-01

    Planned to fly in 2014, the Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR) would see the whole sunlit half of the Earth from the L 1 Lagrangian point and would provide simultaneous data on cloud and aerosol properties with its Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera (EPIC). EPIC images the Earth on a 2Kx2K CCD array, which gives a horizontal resolution of about 10 km at nadir. A filter-wheel provides consecutive images in 10 spectral channels ranging from the UV to the near-IR, including the oxygen A and B bands. This paper presents a study of retrieving cloud height with EPIC's oxygen A and B bands. As the first step, we analyzed the effect of cloud optical and geometrical properties, sun-view geometry, and surface type on the cloud height determination. Second, we developed two cloud height retrieval algorithms that are based on the Mixed Lambertian-Equivalent Reflectivity (MLER) concept: one utilizes the absolute radiances at the Oxygen A and B bands and the other uses the radiance ratios between the absorption and reference channels of the two bands. Third, we applied the algorithms to the simulated EPIC data and to the data from SCanning Imaging Absorption SpectroMeter for Atmospheric CartograpHY (SCIAMACHY) observations. Results show that oxygen A and B bands complement each other: A band is better suited for retrievals over ocean, while B band is better over vegetated land due to a much darker surface. Improvements to the MLER model, including corrections to surface contribution and photon path inside clouds, will also be discussed.

  5. Processes controlling silicon isotopic fractionation in a forested tropical watershed: Mule Hole Critical Zone Observatory (Southern India)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riotte, Jean; Meunier, Jean-Dominique; Zambardi, Thomas; Audry, Stéphane; Barboni, Doris; Anupama, Krishnamurthy; Prasad, Srinivasan; Chmeleff, Jérôme; Poitrasson, Franck; Sekhar, Muddu; Braun, Jean-Jacques

    2018-05-01

    Assessing the dynamics of the silica cycle in the critical zone remains challenging, particularly within the soil, where multiple processes are involved. To improve our understanding of this cycle in the Tropics, and more specifically the role played by vegetation, we combined elemental Si mass balance with the δ30Si signatures of the compartments involved in the water-plant-rock interactions of a tropical forested watershed, Mule Hole (Southern India). To accomplish this, we analysed (1) the δ30Si values of present-day litter phytoliths from tree leaves and grass, as well as soil amorphous silica (ASi); (2) the Si isotope fractionation induced by phytolith dissolution; (3) the silicon mass balance inferred from isotopes at the soil-plant scale; and (4) the consistency between water sources and the δ30Si signatures in the ephemeral stream. The δ30Si values of present-day litter phytoliths and soil ASi vary within a narrow range of 1.10-1.40‰ for all samples, but two deep vertisol samples which likely trapped phytoliths from different vegetation growing under more humid conditions, as indicated by pollen analysis. A homogeneous signature of litter is a minimum condition for using δ30Si as a proxy for the litter/phytolith source of Si. However, litter-ash dissolution experiments demonstrate that the incipient dissolution of phytoliths fractionates Si isotopes, with the preferential dissolution of 28Si over 30Si yielding δ30Si values as low as -1.41‰. Values close to the whole-sample signatures, i.e., above 1‰, were recovered in the solution after a few hours of water-ash interaction. At the soil-plant scale, the average δ30Si value of soil-infiltrating solutions is slightly lighter than the average phytolith signature, which suggests phytoliths as the source of soil dissolved Si. The isotopic budget of dissolved Si within the soil layer, which was obtained based on previous elemental fluxes, is imbalanced. Equilibrating the isotopic budget would imply

  6. The Descent of the Serpent: Using a Successful Ancient Solar Observatories Webcast from Chichen Itza to Highlight Space Weather Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, I.; Higdon, R.; Cline, T.

    2006-12-01

    Over the past seven years, NASA's Sun-Earth Connection Education Forum has sponsored and coordinated education and public outreach events to highlight NASA's heliophysics research and discoveries. Our strategy involves using celestial events, such as total solar eclipses and the Transit of Venus, as well as Sun-Earth Day during the March Equinox, to engage K-12 schools and the general public in space science activities, demonstrations, and interactions with space scientists. In collaboration with partners that include the Exploratorium and other museums, Ideum, NASA TV, NASA heliophysics missions, and others, we produce webcasts, other multi-media, and print resources for use by school and informal educators nation-wide and internationally. We provide training and professional development to K-12 educators, museum personnel, amateur astronomers, Girl Scout leaders, etc., so they can implement their own outreach programs taking advantage of our resources. A coordinated approach promotes multiple programs occurring each year under a common theme. As part of an Ancient Observatories theme in 2005, we have successfully featured solar alignments with ancient structures made by indigenous cultures that mark the equinoxes and/or solstices in cultural and historical parks in the Americas. In partnership with the Exploratorium, we produced broadcast-quality and webcast programming during the March equinox that shared heliophysics within a broad cultural context with formal and informal education audiences internationally. The program: "Descent of the Serpent" featured the light and shadow effect at sunset that takes place during the spring equinox at the Pyramid of El Castillo, in Chichén Itzá (México). This program made unique and authentic cultural connections to the knowledge of solar astronomy of the Maya, the living Mayan culture of today, and the importance of the Sun across the ages. We involved Sun-Earth Connection scientists, their missions, and research

  7. Contamination control requirements implementation for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), part 2: spacecraft, sunshield, observatory, and launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooldridge, Eve M.; Schweiss, Andrea; Henderson-Nelson, Kelly; Woronowicz, Michael; Patel, Jignasha; Macias, Matthew; McGregor, R. Daniel; Farmer, Greg; Schmeitzky, Olivier; Jensen, Peter; Rumler, Peter; Romero, Beatriz; Breton, Jacques

    2014-09-01

    This paper will continue from Part 1 of JWST contamination control implementation. In addition to optics, instruments, and thermal vacuum testing, JWST also requires contamination control for a spacecraft that must be vented carefully in order to maintain solar array and thermal radiator thermal properties; a tennis court-sized sunshield made with 1-2 mil Kapton™ layers that must be manufactured and maintained clean; an observatory that must be integrated, stowed and transported to South America; and a rocket that typically launches commercial payloads without contamination sensitivity. An overview of plans developed to implement contamination control for the JWST spacecraft, sunshield, observatory and launch vehicle will be presented.

  8. Solar thermal space heating combined with swimming pool heating: A promising solution for southern Europe climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, M.J.; Neves, Ana [INETI/DER, Lisboa (Portugal)

    2006-07-01

    The system concept evaluation performed focused on systems that can provide hot water, space heating and swimming-pool heating, and are designed for application in southern climates specifically for single-family houses. Due to the climate characteristics of southern Europe, space heating is required only for a few months in the year. In this evaluation it was considered a six month period for space heating and, on the other six months, swimming pool heating was considered. This type of systems are applicable to a niche market of people who are building their houses as single-family houses and want also to take profit of the good climate conditions for the use of solar energy. It is common that the construction of a swimming pool is also planned and constructed. The evaluation is made considering as reference system a factory made with 4m{sup 2} collector area and 300 l storage tank. The system in evaluation offers extra service - space heating and swimming pool heating and is formed by a collector field and a combistore providing solar hot water preparation and space heating in the winter period and providing also swimming pool heating in the summer period. The evaluation made shows that in southern Europe climates this system will give extra service in comparison to the traditional solar systems used and can be economically interesting.

  9. Luciola Hypertelescope Space Observatory. Versatile, Upgradable High-Resolution Imaging,from Stars to Deep-Field Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labeyrie, Antoine; Le Coroller, Herve; Dejonghe, Julien; Lardiere, Olivier; Aime, Claude; Dohlen, Kjetil; Mourard, Denis; Lyon, Richard; Carpenter, Kenneth G.

    2008-01-01

    Luciola is a large (one kilometer) "multi-aperture densified-pupil imaging interferometer", or "hypertelescope" employing many small apertures, rather than a few large ones, for obtaining direct snapshot images with a high information content. A diluted collector mirror, deployed in space as a flotilla of small mirrors, focuses a sky image which is exploited by several beam-combiner spaceships. Each contains a pupil densifier micro-lens array to avoid the diffractive spread and image attenuation caused by the small sub-apertures. The elucidation of hypertelescope imaging properties during the last decade has shown that many small apertures tend to be far more efficient, regarding the science yield, than a few large ones providing a comparable collecting area. For similar underlying physical reasons, radio-astronomy has also evolved in the direction of many-antenna systems such as the proposed Low Frequency Array having hundreds of thousands of individual receivers . With its high limiting magnitude, reaching the mv=30 limit of HST when 100 collectors of 25cm will match its collecting area, high-resolution direct imaging in multiple channels, broad spectral coverage from the 1200 Angstrom ultra-violet to the 20 micron infra-red, apodization, coronagraphic and spectroscopic capabilities, the proposed hypertelescope observatory addresses very broad and innovative science covering different areas of ESA s Cosmic Vision program. In the initial phase, a focal spacecraft covering the UV to near IR spectral range of EMCCD photon-counting cameras ( currently 200 to 1000nm), will image details on the surface of many stars, as well as their environment, including multiple stars and clusters. Spectra will be obtained for each resel. It will also image neutron star, black-hole and micro-quasar candidates, as well as active galactic nuclei, quasars, gravitational lenses, and other Cosmic Vision targets observable with the initial modest crowding limit. With subsequent upgrade

  10. The South African astronomical observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feast, M.

    1985-01-01

    A few examples of the activities of the South African Astronomical Observatory are discussed. This includes the studying of stellar evolution, dust around stars, the determination of distances to galaxies and collaboration with space experiments

  11. Microbial Observatory (ISS-MO): Draft Genome Sequence of two Aspergillus fumigatus Strains Isolated from the International Space Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aspergillus fumigatus is a saprophytic filamentous fungus that is ubiquitous outdoors (soil decaying vegetation) and indoors (hospitals simulated closed habitats...

  12. Observations of the Hubble Deep Field with the Infrared Space Observatory .5. Spectral energy distributions, starburst models and star formation history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rowan Robinson, M.; Mann, R.G.; Oliver, S.J.

    1997-01-01

    We have modelled the spectral energy distributions of the 13 Hubble Deep Field (HDF) galaxies reliably detected by the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). For two galaxies the emission detected by ISO is consistent with being starlight or the infrared 'cirrus' in the galaxies. For the remaining II...... galaxies there is a clear midinfrared excess, which we interpret as emission from dust associated with a strong starburst. 10 of these galaxies are spirals or interacting pairs, while the remaining one is an elliptical with a prominent nucleus and broad emission lines. We give a new discussion of how...... compared with nearby normal galaxies, We discuss the implications of our detections for the history of star and heavy element formation in the Universe, Although uncertainties in the calibration, reliability of source detection, associations and starburst models remain, it is clear that dust plays...

  13. Using futures methods to create transformative spaces: visions of a good Anthropocene in southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura M. Pereira

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The unique challenges posed by the Anthropocene require creative ways of engaging with the future and bringing about transformative change. Envisioning positive futures is a first step in creating a shared understanding and commitment that enables radical transformations toward sustainability in a world defined by complexity, diversity, and uncertainty. However, to create a transformative space in which truly unknowable futures can be explored, new experimental approaches are needed that go beyond merely extrapolating from the present into archetypal scenarios of the future. Here, we present a process of creative visioning where participatory methods and tools from the field of futures studies were combined in a novel way to create and facilitate a transformative space, with the aim of generating positive narrative visions for southern Africa. We convened a diverse group of participants in a workshop designed to develop radically different scenarios of good Anthropocenes, based on existing "seeds" of the future in the present. These seeds are innovative initiatives, practices, and ideas that are present in the world today, but are not currently widespread or dominant. As a result of a carefully facilitated process that encouraged a multiplicity of perspectives, creative immersion, and grappling with deeply held assumptions, four radical visions for southern Africa were produced. Although these futures are highly innovative and exploratory, they still link back to current real-world initiatives and contexts. The key learning that arose from this experience was the importance of the imagination for transformative thinking, the need to capitalize on diversity to push boundaries, and finally, the importance of creating a space that enables participants to engage with emotions, beliefs, and complexity. This method of engagement with the future has the potential to create transformative spaces that inspire and empower people to act toward positive

  14. A kilo-pixel imaging system for future space based far-infrared observatories using microwave kinetic inductance detectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baselmans, J.J.A.; Bueno, J.; Yates, Stephen J.C.; Yurduseven, O.; Llombart Juan, N.; Karatsu, K.; Baryshev, A. M.; Ferrarini, L; Endo, A.; Thoen, D.J.; de Visser, P.J.; Janssen, R.M.J.; Murugesan, V.; Driessen, E.F.C.; Coiffard, G.; Martin-Pintado, J.; Hargrave, P.; Griffin, M.

    2017-01-01

    Aims. Future astrophysics and cosmic microwave background space missions operating in the far-infrared to millimetre part of the spectrum will require very large arrays of ultra-sensitive detectors in combination with high multiplexing factors and efficient low-noise and low-power readout systems.

  15. A kilo-pixel imaging system for future space based far-infrared observatories using microwave kinetic inductance detectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baselmans, J. J. A.; Bueno, J.; Yates, S. J. C.; Yurduseven, O.; Llombart, N.; Karatsu, K.; Baryshev, A. M.; Ferrari, L.; Endo, A.; Thoen, D. J.; de Visser, P. J.; Janssen, R. M. J.; Murugesan, V.; Driessen, E. F. C.; Coiffard, G.; Martin-Pintado, J.; Hargrave, P.; Griffin, M.

    Aims: Future astrophysics and cosmic microwave background space missions operating in the far-infrared to millimetre part of the spectrum will require very large arrays of ultra-sensitive detectors in combination with high multiplexing factors and efficient low-noise and low-power readout systems.

  16. Daily variation characteristics at polar geomagnetic observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepidi, S.; Cafarella, L.; Pietrolungo, M.; Di Mauro, D.

    2011-08-01

    This paper is based on the statistical analysis of the diurnal variation as observed at six polar geomagnetic observatories, three in the Northern and three in the Southern hemisphere. Data are for 2006, a year of low geomagnetic activity. We compared the Italian observatory Mario Zucchelli Station (TNB; corrected geomagnetic latitude: 80.0°S), the French-Italian observatory Dome C (DMC; 88.9°S), the French observatory Dumont D'Urville (DRV; 80.4°S) and the three Canadian observatories, Resolute Bay (RES; 83.0°N), Cambridge Bay (CBB; 77.0°N) and Alert (ALE, 87.2°N). The aim of this work was to highlight analogies and differences in daily variation as observed at the different observatories during low geomagnetic activity year, also considering Interplanetary Magnetic Field conditions and geomagnetic indices.

  17. Spatial and space-time clustering of tuberculosis in Gurage Zone, Southern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadesse, Sebsibe; Enqueselassie, Fikre; Hagos, Seifu

    2018-01-01

    Spatial targeting is advocated as an effective method that contributes for achieving tuberculosis control in high-burden countries. However, there is a paucity of studies clarifying the spatial nature of the disease in these countries. This study aims to identify the location, size and risk of purely spatial and space-time clusters for high occurrence of tuberculosis in Gurage Zone, Southern Ethiopia during 2007 to 2016. A total of 15,805 patient data that were retrieved from unit TB registers were included in the final analyses. The spatial and space-time cluster analyses were performed using the global Moran's I, Getis-Ord [Formula: see text] and Kulldorff's scan statistics. Eleven purely spatial and three space-time clusters were detected (P <0.001).The clusters were concentrated in border areas of the Gurage Zone. There were considerable spatial variations in the risk of tuberculosis by year during the study period. This study showed that tuberculosis clusters were mainly concentrated at border areas of the Gurage Zone during the study period, suggesting that there has been sustained transmission of the disease within these locations. The findings may help intensify the implementation of tuberculosis control activities in these locations. Further study is warranted to explore the roles of various ecological factors on the observed spatial distribution of tuberculosis.

  18. ESO's Two Observatories Merge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-02-01

    On February 1, 2005, the European Southern Observatory (ESO) has merged its two observatories, La Silla and Paranal, into one. This move will help Europe's prime organisation for astronomy to better manage its many and diverse projects by deploying available resources more efficiently where and when they are needed. The merged observatory will be known as the La Silla Paranal Observatory. Catherine Cesarsky, ESO's Director General, comments the new development: "The merging, which was planned during the past year with the deep involvement of all the staff, has created unified maintenance and engineering (including software, mechanics, electronics and optics) departments across the two sites, further increasing the already very high efficiency of our telescopes. It is my great pleasure to commend the excellent work of Jorge Melnick, former director of the La Silla Observatory, and of Roberto Gilmozzi, the director of Paranal." ESO's headquarters are located in Garching, in the vicinity of Munich (Bavaria, Germany), and this intergovernmental organisation has established itself as a world-leader in astronomy. Created in 1962, ESO is now supported by eleven member states (Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, The Netherlands, Portugal, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom). It operates major telescopes on two remote sites, all located in Chile: La Silla, about 600 km north of Santiago and at an altitude of 2400m; Paranal, a 2600m high mountain in the Atacama Desert 120 km south of the coastal city of Antofagasta. Most recently, ESO has started the construction of an observatory at Chajnantor, a 5000m high site, also in the Atacama Desert. La Silla, north of the town of La Serena, has been the bastion of the organization's facilities since 1964. It is the site of two of the most productive 4-m class telescopes in the world, the New Technology Telescope (NTT) - the first major telescope equipped with active optics - and the 3.6-m, which hosts HARPS

  19. 195-Year History of Mykolayiv Observatory: Events and People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shulga, O.V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic stages of the history of the Mykolaiv Astronomical Observatory are shown. The main results of the Observatory activities are presented by the catalogs of star positions, major and minor planets in the Solar system, space objects in the Earth orbit. The information on the qualitative and quantitative structure of the Observatory, cooperation with the observatories of Ukraine and foreign countries as well as major projects carried out in the Observatory is provided.

  20. Infrared Space Observatory Observations of Far-Infrared Rotational Emission Lines of Water Vapor toward the Supergiant Star VY Canis Majoris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufeld, David A.; Feuchtgruber, Helmut; Harwit, Martin; Melnick, Gary J.

    1999-06-01

    We report the detection of numerous far-infrared emission lines of water vapor toward the supergiant star VY Canis Majoris. A 29.5-45 μm grating scan of VY CMa, obtained using the Short-Wavelength Spectrometer (SWS) of the Infrared Space Observatory at a spectral resolving power λ/Δλ of ~2000, reveals at least 41 spectral features due to water vapor that together radiate a total luminosity of ~25 Lsolar. In addition to pure rotational transitions within the ground vibrational state, these features include rotational transitions within the (010) excited vibrational state. The spectrum also shows the 2Π1/2(J=5/2)VY CMa were carried out in the instrument's Fabry-Perot mode for three water transitions: the 725-616 line at 29.8367 μm, the 441-312 line at 31.7721 μm, and the 432-303 line at 40.6909 μm. The higher spectral resolving power λ/Δλ of approximately 30,000 thereby obtained permits the line profiles to be resolved spectrally for the first time and reveals the ``P Cygni'' profiles that are characteristic of emission from an outflowing envelope. Based on observations with ISO, an ESA project with instruments funded by ESA Member States (especially the PI countries: France, Germany, the Netherlands, and the UK) with the participation of ISAS and NASA.

  1. Using stochastic space-time models to map extreme precipitation in southern Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Costa

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The topographic characteristics and spatial climatic diversity are significant in the South of continental Portugal where the rainfall regime is typically Mediterranean. Direct sequential cosimulation is proposed for mapping an extreme precipitation index in southern Portugal using elevation as auxiliary information. The analysed index (R5D can be considered a flood indicator because it provides a measure of medium-term precipitation total. The methodology accounts for local data variability and incorporates space-time models that allow capturing long-term trends of extreme precipitation, and local changes in the relationship between elevation and extreme precipitation through time. Annual gridded datasets of the flood indicator are produced from 1940 to 1999 on 800 m×800 m grids by using the space-time relationship between elevation and the index. Uncertainty evaluations of the proposed scenarios are also produced for each year. The results indicate that the relationship between elevation and extreme precipitation varies locally and has decreased through time over the study region. In wetter years the flood indicator exhibits the highest values in mountainous regions of the South, while in drier years the spatial pattern of extreme precipitation has much less variability over the study region. The uncertainty of extreme precipitation estimates also varies in time and space, and in earlier decades is strongly dependent on the density of the monitoring stations network. The produced maps will be useful in regional and local studies related to climate change, desertification, land and water resources management, hydrological modelling, and flood mitigation planning.

  2. Co-location of space geodetic techniques carried out at the Geodetic Observatory Wettzell using a closure in time and a multi-technique reference target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodet, J.; Schreiber, K. U.; Eckl, J.; Plötz, C.; Mähler, S.; Schüler, T.; Klügel, T.; Riepl, S.

    2018-01-01

    variable system delays. The main motivation for the newly established central reference target, locked to the station clock, is the combination of all space geodetic instruments at a single reference point at the observatory. On top of that it provides the unique capability to perform a closure measurement based on the observation of time.

  3. Enhanced Spectral Analysis of SEP Reservoir Events by OMNIWeb Multi-Source Browse Services of the Space Physics Data Facility and the Virtual Energetic Particle Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, John F.; Papitashvili, Natalia E.; Johnson, Rita C.; McGuire, Robert

    2015-04-01

    The NASA Space Physics Data Facility and Virtual Energetic Particle Observatory (VEPO) have jointly upgraded the highly used OMNIWeb services for heliospheric solar wind data to also include energetic electron, proton, and heavier ion data in a variety of graphical browse formats. The underlying OMNI and VEPO data now span just over a half century from 1963 to the present. The new services include overlay of differential flux spectra from multiple instruments and spacecraft, scatter plots of fluxes from two user-selected energy channels, distribution function histograms of selected parameters, and spectrograms of flux vs. energy and time. Users can also overlay directional flux spectra from different angular channels. Data from most current and some past (Helios 1&2, Pioneer 10&11) heliospheric spacecraft and instruments are wholly or partially covered by these evolving new services. The traditional OMNI service of correlating magnetic field and plasma data from L1 to 1 AU solar wind sources is also being extended for other spacecraft, e.g. Voyager 1 and 2, to correlations with energetic particle channels. The user capability is, for example, demonstrated to rapidly scan through particle flux spectra from consecutive time periods for so-called “reservoir” events, in which solar energetic particle flux spectra converge in shape and amplitude from multiple spacecraft sources within the inner heliosphere. Such events are important for understanding spectral evolution of global heliospheric events and for intercalibration of flux data from multiple instruments of the same and different spacecraft. These services are accessible at http://omniweb.gsfc.nasa.gov/. SPDF and VEPO are separately accessible at http://spdf.gsfc.nasa.gov/ and http://vepo.gsfc.nasa.gov/.In the future we will propose to extend OMNIWeb particle flux data coverage to the plasma and suprathermal energy range.

  4. Operations of and Future Plans for the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham, : J.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Aguirre, C.; Ahn, E.J.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.

    2009-06-01

    These are presentations to be presented at the 31st International Cosmic Ray Conference, in Lodz, Poland during July 2009. It consists of the following presentations: (1) Performance and operation of the Surface Detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory; (2) Extension of the Pierre Auger Observatory using high-elevation fluorescence telescopes (HEAT); (3) AMIGA - Auger Muons and Infill for the Ground Array of the Pierre Auger Observatory; (4) Radio detection of Cosmic Rays at the southern Auger Observatory; (5) Hardware Developments for the AMIGA enhancement at the Pierre Auger Observatory; (6) A simulation of the fluorescence detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory using GEANT 4; (7) Education and Public Outreach at the Pierre Auger Observatory; (8) BATATA: A device to characterize the punch-through observed in underground muon detectors and to operate as a prototype for AMIGA; and (9) Progress with the Northern Part of the Pierre Auger Observatory.

  5. Study on Geomagnetic Space Observatories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Thomas; Blanke, M.; Wisniewski, Rafal

    1996-01-01

    Magnetometry was one of the objectives of the Aristoteles mission endorsed at the 1991 Earth Observation User Consultation meeting.......Magnetometry was one of the objectives of the Aristoteles mission endorsed at the 1991 Earth Observation User Consultation meeting....

  6. Analysis of air mass trajectories to explain observed variability of tritium in precipitation at the Southern Sierra Critical Zone Observatory, California, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Ate; Thaw, Melissa; Esser, Brad

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the behavior of tritium, a radioactive isotope of hydrogen, in the environment is important to evaluate the exposure risk of anthropogenic releases, and for its application as a tracer in hydrology and oceanography. To understand and predict the variability of tritium in precipitation, HYSPLIT air mass trajectories were analyzed for 16 aggregate precipitation samples collected over a 2 year period at irregular intervals at a research site located at 2000 m elevation in the southern Sierra Nevada (California, USA). Attributing the variation in tritium to specific source areas confirms the hypothesis that higher latitude or inland sources bring higher tritium levels in precipitation than precipitation originating in the lower latitude Pacific Ocean. In this case, the source of precipitation accounts for 79% of the variation observed in tritium concentrations. Air mass trajectory analysis is a promising tool to improve the predictions of tritium in precipitation at unmonitored locations and thoroughly understand the processes controlling transport of tritium in the environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Exploring the Digital Universe with Europe's Astrophysical Virtual Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-12-01

    need for virtual observatories has also been recognised by other astronomical communities. The National Science Foundation in the USA has awarded $10 million (EUR 11.4 m) for a National Virtual Observatory (NVO). The AVO project team has formed a close alliance with the NVO and both teams have representatives on each other's committees. It is clear to the NVO and AVO communities that there are no intrinsic boundaries to the virtual observatory concept and that all astronomers should be working towards a truly global virtual observatory that will enable new science to be carried out on the wealth of astronomical data held in the growing number of first-class international astronomical archives. AVO involves six partner organisations led by the European Southern Observatory (ESO) in Munich. The other partner organisations are the European Space Agency (ESA), the United Kingdom's ASTROGRID consortium, the CNRS-supported Centre de Données Astronomiques de Strasbourg (CDS) at the University Louis Pasteur in Strasbourg, the CNRS-supported TERAPIX astronomical data centre at the Institut d'Astrophysique in Paris and the Jodrell Bank Observatory at the University of Manchester. Note for editors A 13-minute background video (broadcast PAL) is available from ESO PR and the Hubble European Space Agency Information Centre (addresses below). It will also be transmitted via satellite on Wednesday 12 December 2001 from 12:00 to 12:15 CET on the ESA TV Service: http://television.esa.int

  8. A method of retrieving cloud top height and cloud geometrical thickness with oxygen A and B bands for the Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR) mission: Radiative transfer simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yuekui; Marshak, Alexander; Mao, Jianping; Lyapustin, Alexei; Herman, Jay

    2013-01-01

    The Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera (EPIC) onboard the Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR) was designed to measure the atmosphere and surface properties over the whole sunlit half of the Earth from the L1 Lagrangian point. It has 10 spectral channels ranging from the UV to the near-IR, including two pairs of oxygen (O 2 ) A-band (779.5 and 764 nm) and B-band (680 and 687.75 nm) reference and absorption channels selected for the cloud height measurements. This paper presents the radiative transfer analysis pertinent to retrieving cloud top height and cloud geometrical thickness with EPIC A- and B-band observations. Due to photon cloud penetration, retrievals from either O 2 A- or B-band channels alone gives the corresponding cloud centroid height, which is lower than the cloud top. However, we show both the sum and the difference between the retrieved cloud centroid heights in the A and B bands are functions of cloud top height and cloud geometrical thickness. Based on this fact, the paper develops a new method to retrieve cloud top height and cloud geometrical thickness simultaneously for fully cloudy scenes over ocean surface. First, cloud centroid heights are calculated for both A and B bands using the ratios between the reflectances of the absorbing and reference channels; then the cloud top height and the cloud geometrical thickness are retrieved from the two dimensional look up tables that relate the sum and the difference between the retrieved centroid heights for A and B bands to the cloud top height and the cloud geometrical thickness. This method is applicable for clouds thicker than an optical depth of 5. -- Highlights: ► EPIC onboard DSCOVR is equipped with O 2 A and B band channels. ► Photon cloud penetration depths of A and B bands contain information of cloud thickness. ► A method is developed to retrieve cloud top height and cloud geometrical thickness with EPIC O 2 A- and B-band

  9. Private Observatories in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijsdijk, C.

    2016-12-01

    Descriptions of private observatories in South Africa, written by their owners. Positions, equipment descriptions and observing programmes are given. Included are: Klein Karoo Observatory (B. Monard), Cederberg Observatory (various), Centurion Planetary and Lunar Observatory (C. Foster), Le Marischel Observatory (L. Ferreira), Sterkastaaing Observatory (M. Streicher), Henley on Klip (B. Fraser), Archer Observatory (B. Dumas), Overbeek Observatory (A. Overbeek), Overberg Observatory (A. van Staden), St Cyprian's School Observatory, Fisherhaven Small Telescope Observatory (J. Retief), COSPAR 0433 (G. Roberts), COSPAR 0434 (I. Roberts), Weltevreden Karoo Observatory (D. Bullis), Winobs (M. Shafer)

  10. (Re)creating Spaces for "uMunthu": Postcolonial Theory and Environmental Education in Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayira, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Colonialism goes beyond territorial conquest: it affects one's epistemological stance, worldviews and perceptions. Although most African countries gained independence in the 1960s, the impacts of colonialism continue to be present through modern-day globalization as a form of neocolonialism. Education systems in many countries in southern Africa…

  11. Detection of ultra-high-energy cosmic radiation at the Pierre Auger Observatory, theoretical study of its propagation through extragalactic space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allard, D.

    2004-10-01

    The Pierre Auger observatory's main aim is to observe the ultra-energetic cosmic ray spectrum with high statistics. Indeed, the spectrum around 10 20 eV is so far only poorly known, due to low statistics and the expected GZK (Gneisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin) cut-off is for the time being not clearly observed. The first part will deal with propagation of charged (protons and nuclei) ultra-energetic cosmic rays in the extragalactic medium. We will investigate the influence of physical parameters, such as the composition of cosmic ray fluxes, on the highest energy spectrum shape. The influence of the turbulent extragalactic magnetic fields on the spectrum of the clusters will also be studied. We will also investigate the possibility to observe gamma ray bursts with the Pierre Auger Observatory by using the single particle technique. We will show how galactic gamma ray bursts could become a persistent and quasi-isotropic source due to the 'Compton trail' induced by Compton scattering of the primary photon beam in the interstellar medium. In the section devoted to simulations, we will develop methods to reconstruct air showers and identify primary cosmic rays. We will also study the aperture of the Surface Detector of the Pierre Auger observatory. Finally, we will use the methods developed in the previous chapters to analyze the data of the year 2004 and will give preliminary results. (author)

  12. A framework for cross-observatory volcanological database management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliotta, Marco Antonio; Amore, Mauro; Cannavò, Flavio; Cassisi, Carmelo; D'Agostino, Marcello; Dolce, Mario; Mastrolia, Andrea; Mangiagli, Salvatore; Messina, Giuseppe; Montalto, Placido; Fabio Pisciotta, Antonino; Prestifilippo, Michele; Rossi, Massimo; Scarpato, Giovanni; Torrisi, Orazio

    2017-04-01

    In the last years, it has been clearly shown how the multiparametric approach is the winning strategy to investigate the complex dynamics of the volcanic systems. This involves the use of different sensor networks, each one dedicated to the acquisition of particular data useful for research and monitoring. The increasing interest devoted to the study of volcanological phenomena led the constitution of different research organizations or observatories, also relative to the same volcanoes, which acquire large amounts of data from sensor networks for the multiparametric monitoring. At INGV we developed a framework, hereinafter called TSDSystem (Time Series Database System), which allows to acquire data streams from several geophysical and geochemical permanent sensor networks (also represented by different data sources such as ASCII, ODBC, URL etc.), located on the main volcanic areas of Southern Italy, and relate them within a relational database management system. Furthermore, spatial data related to different dataset are managed using a GIS module for sharing and visualization purpose. The standardization provides the ability to perform operations, such as query and visualization, of many measures synchronizing them using a common space and time scale. In order to share data between INGV observatories, and also with Civil Protection, whose activity is related on the same volcanic districts, we designed a "Master View" system that, starting from the implementation of a number of instances of the TSDSystem framework (one for each observatory), makes possible the joint interrogation of data, both temporal and spatial, on instances located in different observatories, through the use of web services technology (RESTful, SOAP). Similarly, it provides metadata for equipment using standard schemas (such as FDSN StationXML). The "Master View" is also responsible for managing the data policy through a "who owns what" system, which allows you to associate viewing/download of

  13. Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    This photograph shows the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (GRO) being deployed by the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) arm aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis during the STS-37 mission in April 1991. The GRO reentered Earth atmosphere and ended its successful mission in June 2000. For nearly 9 years, the GRO Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE), designed and built by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), kept an unblinking watch on the universe to alert scientists to the invisible, mysterious gamma-ray bursts that had puzzled them for decades. By studying gamma-rays from objects like black holes, pulsars, quasars, neutron stars, and other exotic objects, scientists could discover clues to the birth, evolution, and death of stars, galaxies, and the universe. The gamma-ray instrument was one of four major science instruments aboard the Compton. It consisted of eight detectors, or modules, located at each corner of the rectangular satellite to simultaneously scan the entire universe for bursts of gamma-rays ranging in duration from fractions of a second to minutes. In January 1999, the instrument, via the Internet, cued a computer-controlled telescope at Las Alamos National Laboratory in Los Alamos, New Mexico, within 20 seconds of registering a burst. With this capability, the gamma-ray experiment came to serve as a gamma-ray burst alert for the Hubble Space Telescope, the Chandra X-Ray Observatory, and major gound-based observatories around the world. Thirty-seven universities, observatories, and NASA centers in 19 states, and 11 more institutions in Europe and Russia, participated in the BATSE science program.

  14. Socioeconomic Inequalities in Green Space Quality and Accessibility-Evidence from a Southern European City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffimann, Elaine; Barros, Henrique; Ribeiro, Ana Isabel

    2017-08-15

    Background : The provision of green spaces is an important health promotion strategy to encourage physical activity and to improve population health. Green space provision has to be based on the principle of equity. This study investigated the presence of socioeconomic inequalities in geographic accessibility and quality of green spaces across Porto neighbourhoods (Portugal). Methods : Accessibility was evaluated using a Geographic Information System and all the green spaces were audited using the Public Open Space Tool. Kendall's tau-b correlation coefficients and ordinal regression were used to test whether socioeconomic differences in green space quality and accessibility were statistically significant. Results : Although the majority of the neighbourhoods had an accessible green space, mean distance to green space increased with neighbourhood deprivation. Additionally, green spaces in the more deprived neighbourhoods presented significantly more safety concerns, signs of damage, lack of equipment to engage in active leisure activities, and had significantly less amenities such as seating, toilets, cafés, etc. Conclusions : Residents from low socioeconomic positions seem to suffer from a double jeopardy; they lack both individual and community resources. Our results have important planning implications and might contribute to understanding why deprived communities have lower physical activity levels and poorer health.

  15. Microbial Observatory (ISS-MO): Molecular characterization of Bacillus issensis sp. nov. isolated from various quarters of the International Space Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — As part of an ongoing effort to catalogue microbial communities inhabiting the International Space Station (ISS) crew-associated environmental samples were collected...

  16. Exploring the Digital Universe with Europe's Astrophysical Virtual Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-12-01

    organisations are the European Space Agency (ESA) , the United Kingdom's ASTROGRID consortium, the CNRS-supported Centre de Données Astronomiques de Strasbourg (CDS) at the University Louis Pasteur in Strasbourg (France), the CNRS-supported TERAPIX astronomical data centre at the Institut d'Astrophysique in Paris and the Jodrell Bank Observatory of the Victoria University of Manchester (UK). Note [1]: This is a joint Press Release issued by the European Southern Observatory (ESO), the Hubble European Space Agency Information Centre, ASTROGRID, CDS, TERAPIX/CNRS and the University of Manchester. A 13 minute background video (broadcast PAL) is available from ESO PR and the Hubble European Space Agency Information Centre (addresses below). This will also be transmitted via satellite Wednesday 12 December 2001 from 12:00 to 12:15 CET on "ESA TV Service", cf. http://television.esa.int. An international conference, "Toward an International Virtual Observatory" will take place at ESO (Garching, Germany) on June 10 - 14, 2002. Contacts AVO Contacts Peter Quinn European Southern Observatory Garching, Germany Tel.: +4989-3200-6509 email: pjq@eso.org Piero Benvenuti Space Telescope-European Coordinating Facility Garching, Germany Tel.: +49-89-3200-6290 email: pbenvenu@eso.org Andy Lawrence (on behalf of The ASTROGRID Consortium) Institute for Astronomy University of Edinburgh United Kingdom Tel.: +44-131-668-8346/56 email: al@roe.ac.uk Francoise Genova Centre de Données Astronomiques de Strasbourg (CDS) France Tel.: +33-390-24-24-76 email: genova@astro.u-strasbg.fr Yannick Mellier CNRS, Delegation Paris A (CNRSDR01-Terapix)/IAP/INSU France Tel.: +33-1-44-32-81-40 email: mellier@iap.fr Phil Diamond University of Manchester/Jodrell Bank Observatory United Kingdom Tel.: +44-147-757-2625 email: pdiamond@jb.man.ac.uk PR Contacts Richard West European Southern Observatory Garching, Germany Tel.: +49-89-3200-6276 email: rwest@eso.org Lars Lindberg Christensen Hubble European Space Agency

  17. Application of Space Technology to Discovery of Ancient Desert Trade Routes in the Southern Arabian Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, Ronald; Crippen, Robert; Hedges, George; Zarins, Juris

    1997-01-01

    Over the last decade, an unusual combination of historical research, traditional archaeology, and application of space technolgy has demonstrated the existence of trans-desert trade routes in the sourthern Arabian peninsula.

  18. The Russian-Ukrainian Observatories Network for the European Astronomical Observatory Route Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrievsky, S. M.; Bondar, N. I.; Karetnikov, V. G.; Kazantseva, L. V.; Nefedyev, Y. A.; Pinigin, G. I.; Pozhalova, Zh. A.; Rostopchina-Shakhovskay, A. N.; Stepanov, A. V.; Tolbin, S. V.

    2011-09-01

    In 2004,the Center of UNESCO World Heritage has announced a new initiative "Astronomy & World Heritage" directed for search and preserving of objects,referred to astronomy,its history in a global value,historical and cultural properties. There were defined a strategy of thematic programme "Initiative" and general criteria for selecting of ancient astronomical objects and observatories. In particular, properties that are situated or have significance in relation to celestial objects or astronomical events; representations of sky and/or celestial bodies and astronomical events; observatories and instruments; properties closely connected with the history of astronomy. In 2005-2006,in accordance with the program "Initiative", information about outstanding properties connected with astronomy have been collected.In Ukraine such work was organized by astronomical expert group in Nikolaev Astronomical Observatory. In 2007, Nikolaev observatory was included to the Tentative List of UNESCO under # 5116. Later, in 2008, the network of four astronomical observatories of Ukraine in Kiev,Crimea, Nikolaev and Odessa,considering their high authenticities and integrities,was included to the Tentative List of UNESCO under # 5267 "Astronomical Observatories of Ukraine". In 2008-2009, a new project "Thematic Study" was opened as a successor of "Initiative". It includes all fields of astronomical heritage from earlier prehistory to the Space astronomy (14 themes in total). We present the Ukraine-Russian Observatories network for the "European astronomical observatory Route project". From Russia two observatories are presented: Kazan Observatory and Pulkovo Observatory in the theme "Astronomy from the Renaissance to the mid-twentieth century".The description of astronomical observatories of Ukraine is given in accordance with the project "Thematic study"; the theme "Astronomy from the Renaissance to the mid-twentieth century" - astronomical observatories in Kiev,Nikolaev and Odessa; the

  19. Short-Term Space-Use Patterns of Translocated Mojave Desert Tortoise in Southern California.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew L Farnsworth

    Full Text Available Increasingly, renewable energy comprises a larger share of global energy production. Across the western United States, public lands are being developed to support renewable energy production. Where there are conflicts with threatened or endangered species, translocation can be used in an attempt to mitigate negative effects. For the threatened Mojave desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii, we sought to compare habitat- and space-use patterns between short-distance translocated, resident, and control groups. We tested for differences in home range size based on utilization distributions and used linear mixed-effects models to compare space-use intensity, while controlling for demographic and environmental variables. In addition, we examined mean movement distances as well as home range overlap between years and for male and female tortoises in each study group. During the first active season post-translocation, home range size was greater and space-use intensity was lower for translocated tortoises than resident and control groups. These patterns were not present in the second season. In both years, there was no difference in home range size or space-use intensity between control and resident groups. Translocation typically resulted in one active season of questing followed by a second active season characterized by space-use patterns that were indistinguishable from control tortoises. Across both years, the number of times a tortoise was found in a burrow was positively related to greater space-use intensity. Minimizing the time required for translocated tortoises to exhibit patterns similar to non-translocated individuals may have strong implications for conservation by reducing exposure to adverse environmental conditions and predation. With ongoing development, our results can be used to guide future efforts aimed at understanding how translocation strategies influence patterns of animal space use.

  20. Geomagnetic secular variation at the African observatories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haile, T.

    2002-10-01

    Geomagnetic data from ten observatories in the African continent with time series data length of more than three decades have been analysed. All-day annual mean values of the D, H and Z components were used to study secular variations in the African region. The residuals in D, H and Z components obtained after removing polynomial fits have been examined in relation to the sunspot cycle. The occurrence of the 1969-1970 worldwide geomagnetic impulse in each observatory is studied. It is found that the secular variation in the field can be represented for most of the observatories with polynomials of second or third degree. Departures from these trends are observed over the Southern African region where strong local magnetic anomalies have been observed. The residuals in the geomagnetic field components have been shown to exhibit parallelism with the periods corresponding to double solar cycle for some of the stations. A clear latitudinal distribution in the geomagnetic component that exhibits the 1969-70 jerk is shown. The jerk appears in the plots of the first differences in H for the southern most observatories of Hermanus, Hartebeesthoek, and Tsuemb, while the Z plots show the jerk for near equatorial and equatorial stations of Antananarivo, Luanda Belas, Bangui and Addis Ababa. There is some indication for this jerk in the first difference plots of D for the northern stations of M'Bour and Tamanrasset. The plots of D rather strongly suggest the presence of a jerk around 1980 at most of the stations. (author)

  1. SPASE and the Heliophysics Virtual Observatories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J R Thieman

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The Space Physics Archive Search and Extract (SPASE project has developed an information model for interoperable access and retrieval of data within the Heliophysics (also known as space and solar physics science community. The diversity of science data archives within this community has led to the establishment of many virtual observatories to coordinate the data pathways within Heliophysics subdisciplines, such as magnetospheres, waves, radiation belts, etc. The SPASE information model provides a semantic layer and common language for data descriptions so that searches might be made across the whole of the heliophysics data environment, especially through the virtual observatories.

  2. Framework for TV white space spectrum access in Southern African Development Community (SADC)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Masonta, MT

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The global migration of television (TV) from analogue to digital broadcast will see a large amount of TV spectrum available (called TV white space - TVWS) for other services such as mobile and broadband wireless access (BWA). Leading spectrum...

  3. The white space opportunity in Southern Africa: measurements with Meraka cognitive radio platform

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Masonta, MT

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available space is available and how can it be used opportunistically and dynamically without causing harmful interference to licensed users? In this paper, we present work that is currently ongoing in our research lab with regard to the use of cognitive radio...

  4. A space-borne, multi-parameter, Virtual Volcano Observatory for the real-time, anywhere-anytime support to decision-making during eruptive crises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrucci, F.; Tampellini, M.; Loughlin, S. C.; Tait, S.; Theys, N.; Valks, P.; Hirn, B.

    2013-12-01

    The EVOSS consortium of academic, industrial and institutional partners in Europe and Africa, has created a satellite-based volcano observatory, designed to support crisis management within the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) framework of the European Commission. Data from 8 different payloads orbiting on 14 satellite platforms (SEVIRI on-board MSG-1, -2 and -3, MODIS on-board Terra and Aqua, GOME-2 and IASI onboard MetOp-A, OMI on-board Aura, Cosmo-SkyMED/1, /2, /3 and /4, JAMI on-board MTSAT-1 and -2, and, until April 8th2012, SCHIAMACHY on-board ENVISAT) acquired at 5 different down-link stations, are disseminated to and automatically processed at 6 locations in 4 countries. The results are sent, in four separate geographic data streams (high-temperature thermal anomalies, volcanic Sulfur dioxide daily fluxes, volcanic ash and ground deformation), to a central facility called VVO, the 'Virtual Volcano Observatory'. This system operates 24H/24-7D/7 since September 2011 on all volcanoes in Europe, Africa, the Lesser Antilles, and the oceans around them, and during this interval has detected, measured and monitored all subaerial eruptions occurred in this region (44 over 45 certified, with overall detection and processing efficiency of ~97%). EVOSS borne realtime information is delivered to a group of 14 qualified end users, bearing the direct or indirect responsibility of monitoring and managing volcano emergencies, and of advising governments in Comoros, DR Congo, Djibouti, Ethiopia, Montserrat, Uganda, Tanzania, France and Iceland. We present the full set of eruptions detected and monitored - from 2004 to present - by multispectral payloads SEVIRI onboard the geostationary platforms of the MSG constellation, for developing and fine tuning-up the EVOSS system along with its real-time, pre- and post-processing automated algorithms. The set includes 91% of subaerial eruptions occurred at 15 volcanoes (Piton de la Fournaise, Karthala, Jebel al

  5. TENCompetence Competence Observatory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervenne, Luk

    2010-01-01

    Vervenne, L. (2007) TENCompetence Competence Observatory. Sources available http://tencompetence.cvs.sourceforge.net/viewvc/tencompetence/wp8/org.tencompetence.co/. Available under the three clause BSD license, copyright TENCompetence Foundation.

  6. Long Baseline Observatory (LBO)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Long Baseline Observatory (LBO) comprises ten radio telescopes spanning 5,351 miles. It's the world's largest, sharpest, dedicated telescope array. With an eye...

  7. SPACE VELOCITIES OF SOUTHERN GLOBULAR CLUSTERS. VII. NGC 6397, NGC 6626 (M28), AND NGC 6656 (M22)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casetti-Dinescu, Dana I.; Girard, Terrence M.; Van Altena, William F. [Astronomy Department, Yale University, P.O. Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520-8101 (United States); Jilkova, Lucie [Department of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kotlarska 2, CZ-61137 Brno (Czech Republic); Podesta, Federico; Lopez, Carlos E., E-mail: dana.casetti@yale.edu, E-mail: terry.girard@yale.edu, E-mail: william.vanaltena@yale.edu, E-mail: jilkoval@physics.muni.cz [Universidad National de San Juan, Observatorio Astronomico ' ' Felix Aguilar' ' and Yale Southern Observatory, Chimbas, 5413 San Juan (Argentina)

    2013-08-01

    We have measured the absolute proper motions of globular clusters NGC 6397, NGC 6626 (M22), and NGC 6656 (M28) as part of our ongoing Southern Proper-Motion Program. The reference system is the ICRS via Hipparcos stars for these three low-Galactic-latitude clusters. Formal errors range between {approx}0.3 and 0.7 mas yr{sup -1}. Notable is the result for NGC 6397, which differs by 2.5 mas yr{sup -1} from two Hubble Space Telescope determinations while agreeing with previous ground-based ones. We determine orbits for all three clusters in an axisymmetric and barred model of the Galaxy and discuss these in the context of globular-cluster formation. M22 is a well-known cluster with an iron abundance spread; such clusters are now believed to have formed in massive parent systems that can retain ejecta of core-collapsed supernovae. We find that the five currently accepted globular clusters with iron/calcium abundance spread show orbits unrelated to each other, thus suggesting at least five independent, massive progenitors that have contributed to the build-up of the Milky-Way halo.

  8. An international network of magnetic observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Jeffrey J.; Chulliat, A.

    2013-01-01

    Since its formation in the late 1980s, the International Real-Time Magnetic Observatory Network (INTERMAGNET), a voluntary consortium of geophysical institutes from around the world, has promoted the operation of magnetic observatories according to modern standards [eg. Rasson, 2007]. INTERMAGNET institutes have cooperatively developed infrastructure for data exchange and management ads well as methods for data processing and checking. INTERMAGNET institute have also helped to expand global geomagnetic monitoring capacity, most notably by assisting magnetic observatory institutes in economically developing countries by working directly with local geophysicists. Today the INTERMAGNET consortium encompasses 57 institutes from 40 countries supporting 120 observatories (see Figures 1a and 1b). INTERMAGNET data record a wide variety of time series signals related to a host of different physical processes in the Earth's interiors and in the Earth's surrounding space environment [e.g., Love, 2008]. Observatory data have always had a diverse user community, and to meet evolving demand, INTERMAGNET has recently coordinated the introduction of several new data services.

  9. Press Meeting 20 January 2003: First Light for Europe's Virtual Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-12-01

    Video News Release 11:40 Demonstration of the AVO prototype, Nicholas Walton (University of Cambridge) 12:00 Q&A, including interview possibilities with the scientists 12:30-13:45 Buffet lunch, including individual hands-on demos 14:00 Science Demo (also open to interested journalists) For more information about Virtual Observatories and the AVO, see the website or the explanation below. Notes to editors The AVO involves several partner organisations led by the European Southern Observatory (ESO). The other partner organisations are the European Space Agency (ESA), AstroGrid (funded by PPARC as part of the UK's E-Science programme), the CNRS-supported Centre de Données Astronomiques de Strasbourg (CDS), the University Louis Pasteur in Strasbourg, France, the CNRS-supported TERAPIX astronomical data centre at the Institut d'Astrophysique in Paris, France, and the Jodrell Bank Observatory of the Victoria University of Manchester, United Kingdom. Note [1]: This is a joint Press Release issued by the European Southern Observatory (ESO), the Hubble European Space Agency Information Centre, AstroGrid, CDS, TERAPIX/CNRS and the University of Manchester. Science Contacts Peter J. Quinn European Southern Observatory (ESO) Garching, Germany Tel: +49-89-3200 -6509 email: pjq@eso.org Phil Diamond University of Manchester/Jodrell Bank Observatory United Kingdom Tel: +44-147-757-26-25 (0147 in the United Kingdom) email: pdiamond@jb.man.ac.uk Press contacts Ian Morison University of Manchester/Jodrell Bank Observatory United Kingdom Tel: +44-147-757-26-10 (0147 in the United Kingdom) E-mail: email: im@jb.man.ac.uk Lars Lindberg Christensen Hubble European Space Agency Information Centre Garching, Germany Tel: +49-89-3200-6306 (089 in Germany) Cellular (24 hr): +49-173-3872-621 (0173 in Germany) email: lars@eso.org Richard West (ESO EPR Dept.) ESO EPR Dept. Garching, Germany Phone: +49-89-3200-6276 email: rwest@eso.org Background information What is a Virtual Observatory? - A short

  10. US Naval Observatory Hourly Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hourly observations journal from the National Observatory in Washington DC. The observatory is the first station in the United States to produce hourly observations...

  11. National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

    CERN Document Server

    Haubold, Hans J; UN/ESA/NASA Workshop on the International Heliophysical Year 2007 and Basic Space Science, hosted by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

    2010-01-01

    This book represents Volume II of the Proceedings of the UN/ESA/NASA Workshop on the International Heliophysical Year 2007 and Basic Space Science, hosted by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Tokyo, 18 - 22 June, 2007. It covers two programme topics explored in this and past workshops of this nature: (i) non-extensive statistical mechanics as applicable to astrophysics, addressing q-distribution, fractional reaction and diffusion, and the reaction coefficient, as well as the Mittag-Leffler function and (ii) the TRIPOD concept, developed for astronomical telescope facilities. The companion publication, Volume I of the proceedings of this workshop, is a special issue in the journal Earth, Moon, and Planets, Volume 104, Numbers 1-4, April 2009.

  12. Autonomous Infrastructure for Observatory Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaman, R.

    This is an era of rapid change from ancient human-mediated modes of astronomical practice to a vision of ever larger time domain surveys, ever bigger "big data", to increasing numbers of robotic telescopes and astronomical automation on every mountaintop. Over the past decades, facets of a new autonomous astronomical toolkit have been prototyped and deployed in support of numerous space missions. Remote and queue observing modes have gained significant market share on the ground. Archives and data-mining are becoming ubiquitous; astroinformatic techniques and virtual observatory standards and protocols are areas of active development. Astronomers and engineers, planetary and solar scientists, and researchers from communities as diverse as particle physics and exobiology are collaborating on a vast range of "multi-messenger" science. What then is missing?

  13. Recent Results from the Pierre Auger observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kampert, Karl-Heinz

    2010-01-01

    The Pierre Auger observatory is a hybrid air shower experiment which uses multiple detection techniques to investigate the origin, spectrum, and composition of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays. We present recent results on these topics and discuss their implications to the understanding the origin of the most energetic particles in nature as well as for physics beyond the Standard Model, such as violation of Lorentz invariance and 'top-down' models of cosmic ray production. Future plans, including enhancements underway at the southern site in Argentina will be presented. (author)

  14. Expanding the HAWC Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, Johanna [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-17

    The High Altitude Water Cherenkov Gamma-Ray Observatory is expanding its current array of 300 water tanks to include 350 outrigger tanks to increase sensitivity to gamma rays above 10 TeV. This involves creating and testing hardware with which to build the new tanks, including photomultiplier tubes, high voltage supply units, and flash analog to digital converters. My responsibilities this summer included preparing, testing and calibrating that equipment.

  15. South African Astronomical Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    Work at the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) in recent years, by both staff and visitors, has made major contributions to the fields of astrophysics and astronomy. During 1986 the SAAO has been involved in studies of the following: galaxies; celestial x-ray sources; magellanic clouds; pulsating variables; galactic structure; binary star phenomena; nebulae and interstellar matter; stellar astrophysics; open clusters; globular clusters, and solar systems

  16. NASA's Contribution to Global Space Geodesy Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosworth, John M.

    1999-01-01

    The NASA Space Geodesy program continues to be a major provider of space geodetic data for the international earth science community. NASA operates high performance Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR), Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) and Global Positioning System (GPS) ground receivers at well over 30 locations around the world and works in close cooperation with space geodetic observatories around the world. NASA has also always been at the forefront in the quest for technical improvement and innovation in the space geodesy technologies to make them even more productive, accurate and economical. This presentation will highlight the current status of NASA's networks; the plans for partnerships with international groups in the southern hemisphere to improve the geographic distribution of space geodesy sites and the status of the technological improvements in SLR and VLBI that will support the new scientific thrusts proposed by interdisciplinary earth scientists. In addition, the expanding role of the NASA Space geodesy data archive, the CDDIS will be described.

  17. Astronomical publications of Melbourne Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andropoulos, Jenny Ioanna

    2014-05-01

    During the second half of the 19th century and the first half of the 20th century, four well-equipped government observatories were maintained in Australia - in Melbourne, Sydney, Adelaide and Perth. These institutions conducted astronomical observations, often in the course of providing a local time service, and they also collected and collated meteorological data. As well, some of these observatories were involved at times in geodetic surveying, geomagnetic recording, gravity measurements, seismology, tide recording and physical standards, so the term "observatory" was being used in a rather broad sense! Despite the international renown that once applied to Williamstown and Melbourne Observatories, relatively little has been written by modern-day scholars about astronomical activities at these observatories. This research is intended to rectify this situation to some extent by gathering, cataloguing and analysing the published astronomical output of the two Observatories to see what contributions they made to science and society. It also compares their contributions with those of Sydney, Adelaide and Perth Observatories. Overall, Williamstown and Melbourne Observatories produced a prodigious amount of material on astronomy in scientific and technical journals, in reports and in newspapers. The other observatories more or less did likewise, so no observatory of those studied markedly outperformed the others in the long term, especially when account is taken of their relative resourcing in staff and equipment.

  18. Sudbury neutrino observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewan, G.T.; Mak, H.B.; Robertson, B.C.

    1985-07-01

    This report discusses the proposal to construct a unique neutrino observatory. The observatory would contain a Cerenkov detector which would be located 2070 m below the earth's surface in an INCO mine at Creighton near Sudbury and would contain 1000 tons of D20 which is an excellent target material. Neutrinos carry detailed information in their spectra on the reactions taking place deep in the interstellar interior and also provide information on supernova explosions. In addition to their role as astrophysical probes a knowledge of the properties of neutrinos is crucial to theories of grand unification. There are three main objectives of the laboratory. The prime objective will be to study B electron neutrinos from the sun by a direct counting method that will measure their energy and direction. The second major objective will be to establish if electron neutrinos change into other neutrino species in transit from the sun to the earth. Finally it is hoped to be able to observe a supernova with the proposed detector. The features of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory which make it unique are its high sensitivity to electron neutrinos and its ability to detect all other types of neutrinos of energy greater than 2.2 MeV. In section II of this proposal the major physics objectives are discussed in greater detail. A conceptual design for the detector, and measurements and calculations which establish the feasibility of the neutrino experiments are presented in section III. Section IV is comprised of a discussion on the possible location of the laboratory and Section V contains a brief indication of the main areas to be studied in Phase II of the design study

  19. Sudbury neutrino observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewan, G.T.; Evans, H.C.; Lee, H.W.

    1986-10-01

    This report is a supplement to a report (SNO-85-3 (Sudbury Neutrino Observatory)) which contained the results of a feasibility study on the construction of a deep underground neutrino observatory based on a 1000 ton heavy water Cerenkov detector. Neutrinos carry detailed information in their spectra on the reactions taking place deep in the interstellar interior and also provide information on supernova explosions. In addition to their role as astrophysical probes, a knowledge of the properties of neutrinos is crucial to theories of grand unification. The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory is unique in its high sensitivity to electron neutrinos and its ability to detect all other types of neutrinos of energy greater than 2.2 MeV. The results of the July 1985 study indicated that the project is technically feasible in that the proposed detector can measure the direction and energy of electron neutrinos above 7 MeV and the scientific programs will make significant contributions to physics and astrophysics. This present report contains new information obtained since the 1985 feasibility study. The enhanced conversion of neutrinos in the sun and the new physics that could be learned using the heavy water detector are discussed in the physics section. The other sections will discuss progress in the areas of practical importance in achieving the physics objectives such as new techniques to measure, monitor and remove low levels of radioactivity in detector components, ideas on calibration of the detector and so forth. The section entitled Administration contains a membership list of the working groups within the SNO collaboration

  20. The Observatory Health Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Murianni

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: The number of indicators aiming to provide a clear picture of healthcare needs and the quality and efficiency of healthcare systems and services has proliferated in recent years. The activity of the National Observatory on Health Status in the Italian Regions is multidisciplinary, involving around 280 public health care experts, clinicians, demographers, epidemiologists, mathematicians, statisticians and economists who with their different competencies, and scientific interests aim to improve the collective health of individuals and their conditions through the use of “core indicators”. The main outcome of the National Observatory on Health Status in the Italian Regions is the “Osservasalute Report – a report on health status and the quality of healthcare assistance in the Italian Regions”.

    Methods: The Report adopts a comparative analysis, methodology and internationally validated indicators.

    Results: The results of Observatory Report show it is necessary:

    • to improve the monitoring of primary health care services (where the chronic disease could be cared through implementation of clinical path;

     • to improve in certain areas of hospital care such as caesarean deliveries, as well as the average length of stay in the pre-intervention phase, etc.;

    • to try to be more focused on the patients/citizens in our health care services; • to practice more geographical interventions to reduce the North-South divide as well as reduce gender inequity.

    Conclusions: The health status of Italian people is good with positive results and outcomes, but in the meantime some further efforts should be done especially in the South that still has to improve the quality and the organization of health care services. There are huge differences in accuracy and therefore usefulness of the reported data, both between diseases and between

  1. Reengineering observatory operations for the time domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaman, Robert L.; Vestrand, W. T.; Hessman, Frederic V.

    2014-07-01

    Observatories are complex scientific and technical institutions serving diverse users and purposes. Their telescopes, instruments, software, and human resources engage in interwoven workflows over a broad range of timescales. These workflows have been tuned to be responsive to concepts of observatory operations that were applicable when various assets were commissioned, years or decades in the past. The astronomical community is entering an era of rapid change increasingly characterized by large time domain surveys, robotic telescopes and automated infrastructures, and - most significantly - of operating modes and scientific consortia that span our individual facilities, joining them into complex network entities. Observatories must adapt and numerous initiatives are in progress that focus on redesigning individual components out of the astronomical toolkit. New instrumentation is both more capable and more complex than ever, and even simple instruments may have powerful observation scripting capabilities. Remote and queue observing modes are now widespread. Data archives are becoming ubiquitous. Virtual observatory standards and protocols and astroinformatics data-mining techniques layered on these are areas of active development. Indeed, new large-aperture ground-based telescopes may be as expensive as space missions and have similarly formal project management processes and large data management requirements. This piecewise approach is not enough. Whatever challenges of funding or politics facing the national and international astronomical communities it will be more efficient - scientifically as well as in the usual figures of merit of cost, schedule, performance, and risks - to explicitly address the systems engineering of the astronomical community as a whole.

  2. THE VOLATILE COMPOSITION OF COMET C/2003 K4 (LINEAR) AT NEAR-IR WAVELENGTHS—COMPARISONS WITH RESULTS FROM THE NANÇAY RADIO TELESCOPE AND FROM THE ODIN, SPITZER, AND SOHO SPACE OBSERVATORIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paganini, L.; Mumma, M. J.; Villanueva, G. L.; DiSanti, M. A.; Bonev, B. P., E-mail: lucas.paganini@nasa.gov [Goddard Center for Astrobiology, NASA GSFC, MS 690, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2015-07-20

    We observed comet C/2003 K4 (LINEAR) using NIRSPEC at the Keck Observatory on UT 2004 November 28, when the comet was at 1.28 AU from the Sun (post-perihelion) and 1.38 AU from Earth. We detected six gaseous species (H{sub 2}O, OH*, C{sub 2}H{sub 6}, CH{sub 3}OH, CH{sub 4}, and HCN) and obtained upper limits for three others (H{sub 2}CO, C{sub 2}H{sub 2}, and NH{sub 3}). Our results indicate a water production rate of (1.72 ± 0.18) × 10{sup 29} molecules s{sup −1}, in reasonable agreement with production rates from SOHO (on the same day), Odin (one day earlier), and Nançay (about two weeks earlier). We also report abundances (relative to water) for seven trace species: CH{sub 3}OH (∼1.8%), CH{sub 4} (∼0.9%), and C{sub 2}H{sub 6} (∼0.4%) that were consistent with mean values among Oort cloud (OC) comets, while NH{sub 3} (<0.55%), HCN (∼0.07%), H{sub 2}CO (<0.07%), and C{sub 2}H{sub 2} (<0.04%) were “lower” than the mean values in other OC comets. We extracted inner-coma rotational temperatures for four species (H{sub 2}O, C{sub 2}H{sub 6}, CH{sub 3}OH, and CH{sub 4}), all of which are consistent with 70 K (within 1σ). The extracted ortho-para ratio for water was 3.0 ± 0.15, corresponding to spin temperatures larger than 39 K (at the 1σ level) and agreeing with those obtained with the Spitzer Space Telescope at the 2σ level.

  3. The Virtual Solar Observatory and the Heliophysics Meta-Virtual Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurman, Joseph B.

    2007-01-01

    The Virtual Solar Observatory (VSO) is now able to search for solar data ranging from the radio to gamma rays, obtained from space and groundbased observatories, from 26 sources at 12 data providers, and from 1915 to the present. The solar physics community can use a Web interface or an Application Programming Interface (API) that allows integrating VSO searches into other software, including other Web services. Over the next few years, this integration will be especially obvious as the NASA Heliophysics division sponsors the development of a heliophysics-wide virtual observatory (VO), based on existing VO's in heliospheric, magnetospheric, and ionospheric physics as well as the VSO. We examine some of the challenges and potential of such a "meta-VO."

  4. Use of the space by the opossum Didelphis aurita Wied-Newied (Mammalia, Marsupialia in a mixed forest fragment of southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cáceres Nilton Carlos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of the space by the opossum Didelphis aurita Wied-Newied, 1826 (Mammalia, Marsupialia in a mixed forest fragment of southern Brazil. The space use of the marsupial Didelphis aurita was studied in a forest fragment of southern Brazil from February 1995 to January 1996. The method used was the 'distribution utilization' in which each trap was set in 38 x 38 m quadrats. Captures of each marked individual in each point give information on its habitat use. Food availability was searched and compared to the habitat utilization and to the food consumption of opossums. Distribution patterns of captures (aggregated to random and spatial overlap between individuals were searched. Results showed aggregated distributions of individuals, particularly females, in the fragment. Females used exclusively the fragment during the drier season. Opossums tend to not choose the sites with highest food availability to establish home ranges. Spatial overlap was usually low between forest resident and neighbouring resident females, but much lower during the breeding season (only forest resident females in an apparently pattern of territoriality. Hence, core areas of females decreased in size during the breeding season. Males probably searched primarily for mates during the breeding season being less opportunistic than females in feeding habits, yet their space use did not correlate to food consumption.

  5. Sudbury neutrino observatory proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewan, G.T.; Evans, H.C.; Lee, H.W.

    1987-10-01

    This report is a proposal by the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) collaboration to develop a world class laboratory for neutrino astrophysics. This observatory would contain a large volume heavy water detector which would have the potential to measure both the electron-neutrino flux from the sun and the total solar neutrino flux independent of neutrino type. It will therefore be possible to test models of solar energy generation and, independently, to search for neutrino oscillations with a sensitivity many orders of magnitude greater than that of terrestrial experiments. It will also be possible to search for spectral distortion produced by neutrino oscillations in the dense matter of the sun. Finally the proposed detector would be sensitive to neutrinos from a stellar collapse and would detect neutrinos of all types thus providing detailed information on the masses of muon- and tau-neutrinos. The neutrino detector would contain 1000 tons of D20 and would be located more than 2000 m below ground in the Creighton mine near Sudbury. The operation and performance of the proposed detector are described and the laboratory design is presented. Construction schedules and responsibilities and the planned program of technical studies by the SNO collaboration are outlined. Finally, the total capital cost is estimated to be $35M Canadian and the annual operating cost, after construction, would be $1.8 M Canadian, including the insurance costs of the heavy water

  6. Sierra Stars Observatory Network: An Accessible Global Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Richard; Beshore, Edward

    2011-03-01

    The Sierra Stars Observatory Network (SSON) is a unique partnership among professional observatories that provides its users with affordable high-quality calibrated image data. SSON comprises observatories in the Northern and Southern Hemisphere and is in the process of expanding to a truly global network capable of covering the entire sky 24 hours a day in the near future. The goal of SSON is to serve the needs of science-based projects and programs. Colleges, universities, institutions, and individuals use SSON for their education and research projects. The mission of SSON is to promote and expand the use of its facilities among the thousands of colleges and schools worldwide that do not have access to professional-quality automated observatory systems to use for astronomy education and research. With appropriate leadership and guidance educators can use SSON to help teach astronomy and do meaningful scientific projects. The relatively small cost of using SSON for this type of work makes it affordable and accessible for educators to start using immediately. Remote observatory services like SSON need to evolve to better support education and research initiatives of colleges, institutions and individual investigators. To meet these needs, SSON is developing a sophisticated interactive scheduling system to integrate among the nodes of the observatory network. This will enable more dynamic observations, including immediate priority interrupts, acquiring moving objects using ephemeris data, and more.

  7. Identifying clouds over the Pierre Auger Observatory using infrared satellite data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abreu, Pedro; et al.,

    2013-12-01

    We describe a new method of identifying night-time clouds over the Pierre Auger Observatory using infrared data from the Imager instruments on the GOES-12 and GOES-13 satellites. We compare cloud identifications resulting from our method to those obtained by the Central Laser Facility of the Auger Observatory. Using our new method we can now develop cloud probability maps for the 3000 km^2 of the Pierre Auger Observatory twice per hour with a spatial resolution of ~2.4 km by ~5.5 km. Our method could also be applied to monitor cloud cover for other ground-based observatories and for space-based observatories.

  8. THE THIRD US NAVAL OBSERVATORY CCD ASTROGRAPH CATALOG (UCAC3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zacharias, N.; Finch, C.; Wycoff, G.; Zacharias, M. I.; Corbin, T.; Dutta, S.; Gaume, R.; Gauss, S.; Hall, D.; Hartkopf, W.; Hsu, D.; Holdenried, E.; Makarov, V.; Mason, B.; Girard, T.; Hambly, N.; Castillo, D.; DiVittorio, M.; Germain, M.; Martines, M.

    2010-01-01

    The third US Naval Observatory (USNO) CCD Astrograph Catalog, UCAC3, was released at the IAU General Assembly on 2009 August 10. It is the first all-sky release in this series and contains just over 100 million objects, about 95 million of them with proper motions, covering about R = 8-16 mag. Current epoch positions are obtained from the observations with the 20 cm aperture USNO Astrograph's 'red lens', equipped with a 4k x 4k CCD. Proper motions are derived by combining these observations with over 140 ground- and space-based catalogs, including Hipparcos/Tycho and the AC2000.2, as well as unpublished measures of over 5000 plates from other astrographs. For most of the faint stars in the southern hemisphere, the Yale/San Juan first epoch plates from the Southern Proper Motion (SPM) program (YSJ1) form the basis for proper motions. These data are supplemented by all-sky Schmidt plate survey astrometry and photometry obtained from the SuperCOSMOS project, as well as 2MASS near-IR photometry. Major differences of UCAC3 data as compared with UCAC2 include a completely new raw data reduction with improved control over systematic errors in positions, significantly improved photometry, slightly deeper limiting magnitude, coverage of the north pole region, greater completeness by inclusion of double stars, and weak detections. This of course leads to a catalog which is not as 'clean' as UCAC2 and problem areas are outlined for the user in this paper. The positional accuracy of stars in UCAC3 is about 15-100 mas per coordinate, depending on magnitude, while the errors in proper motions range from 1 to 10 mas yr -1 depending on magnitude and observing history, with a significant improvement over UCAC2 achieved due to the re-reduced SPM data and inclusion of more astrograph plate data unavailable at the time of UCAC2.

  9. LAGO: The Latin American giant observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidelnik, Iván; Asorey, Hernán; LAGO Collaboration

    2017-12-01

    The Latin American Giant Observatory (LAGO) is an extended cosmic ray observatory composed of a network of water-Cherenkov detectors (WCD) spanning over different sites located at significantly different altitudes (from sea level up to more than 5000 m a.s.l.) and latitudes across Latin America, covering a wide range of geomagnetic rigidity cut-offs and atmospheric absorption/reaction levels. The LAGO WCD is simple and robust, and incorporates several integrated devices to allow time synchronization, autonomous operation, on board data analysis, as well as remote control and automated data transfer. This detection network is designed to make detailed measurements of the temporal evolution of the radiation flux coming from outer space at ground level. LAGO is mainly oriented to perform basic research in three areas: high energy phenomena, space weather and atmospheric radiation at ground level. It is an observatory designed, built and operated by the LAGO Collaboration, a non-centralized collaborative union of more than 30 institutions from ten countries. In this paper we describe the scientific and academic goals of the LAGO project - illustrating its present status with some recent results - and outline its future perspectives.

  10. Perennial Environment Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plas, Frederic

    2014-07-01

    The Perennial Environment Observatory [Observatoire Perenne de l'Environnement - OPE] is a unique approach and infrastructure developed and implemented by ANDRA, the French National Radioactive Waste Management Agency, as part of its overall project of deep geological disposal for radioactive waste. Its current mission is to assess the initial state of the rural (forest, pasture, open-field and aquatic) environment, prior to repository construction. This will be followed in 2017 (pending construction authorizations) and for a period exceeding a century, by monitoring of any impact the repository may have on the environment. In addition to serving its own industrial purpose of environmental monitoring, ANDRA also opens the OPE approach, infrastructure and acquired knowledge (database...) to the scientific community to support further research on long term evolution of the environment subjected to natural and anthropogenic stresses, and to contribute to a better understanding of the interaction between the various compartments of the environment

  11. High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO)-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    This artist's concept depicts the High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO)-2 in orbit. The HEAO-2, the first imaging and largest x-ray telescope built to date, was capable of producing actual photographs of x-ray objects. Shortly after launch, the HEAO-2 was nicknamed the Einstein Observatory by its scientific experimenters in honor of the centernial of the birth of Albert Einstein, whose concepts of relativity and gravitation have influenced much of modern astrophysics, particularly x-ray astronomy. The HEAO-2, designed and developed by TRW, Inc. under the project management of the Marshall Space Flight Center, was launched aboard an Atlas/Centaur launch vehicle on November 13, 1978. The HEAO-2 was originally identified as HEAO-B but the designation was changed once the spacecraft achieved orbit.

  12. Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beier, E.W.

    1992-03-01

    This document is a technical progress report on work performed at the University of Pennsylvania during the current year on the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory project. The motivation for the experiment is the measurement of neutrinos emitted by the sun. The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) is a second generation dedicated solar neutrino experiment which will extend the results of our work with the Kamiokande II detector by measuring three reactions of neutrinos rather than the single reaction measured by the Kamiokande experiment. The collaborative project includes physicists from Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Full funding for the construction of this facility was obtained in January 1990, and its construction is estimated to take five years. The motivation for the SNO experiment is to study the fundamental properties of neutrinos, in particular the mass and mixing parameters, which remain undetermined after decades of experiments in neutrino physics utilizing accelerators and reactors as sources of neutrinos. To continue the study of neutrino properties it is necessary to use the sun as a neutrino source. The long distance to the sun makes the search for neutrino mass sensitive to much smaller mass than can be studied with terrestrial sources. Furthermore, the matter density in the sun is sufficiently large to enhance the effects of small mixing between electron neutrinos and mu or tau neutrinos. This experiment, when combined with the results of the radiochemical 37 Cl and 71 Ga experiments and the Kamiokande II experiment, should extend our knowledge of these fundamental particles, and as a byproduct, improve our understanding of energy generation in the sun

  13. The Paris Observatory has 350 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lequeux, James

    2017-01-01

    1926, the astrophysical observatory at Meudon was merged with the Paris one. A strong revival of the Observatory and of all French astronomy took place just after WW2 under the impulse of André Danjon. Radioastronomy was developed with the creation of the Nançay station in 1953, and the Observatory became very active in space research after 1963 thanks mainly to Jean-Louis Steinberg. It is presently one of the biggest astronomical institutes worldwide, with a total scientific, technical and administrative staff of 650, and many students and post-doctoral researchers. Essentially all the aspects of astronomy and astrophysics are covered, including laboratory work, especially on very accurate clocks. However, essentially all the observations are done elsewhere, particularly in international facilities such as IRAM, ESO and with many satellites and space probes.

  14. Interoperability of Heliophysics Virtual Observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieman, J.; Roberts, A.; King, T.; King, J.; Harvey, C.

    2008-01-01

    If you'd like to find interrelated heliophysics (also known as space and solar physics) data for a research project that spans, for example, magnetic field data and charged particle data from multiple satellites located near a given place and at approximately the same time, how easy is this to do? There are probably hundreds of data sets scattered in archives around the world that might be relevant. Is there an optimal way to search these archives and find what you want? There are a number of virtual observatories (VOs) now in existence that maintain knowledge of the data available in subdisciplines of heliophysics. The data may be widely scattered among various data centers, but the VOs have knowledge of what is available and how to get to it. The problem is that research projects might require data from a number of subdisciplines. Is there a way to search multiple VOs at once and obtain what is needed quickly? To do this requires a common way of describing the data such that a search using a common term will find all data that relate to the common term. This common language is contained within a data model developed for all of heliophysics and known as the SPASE (Space Physics Archive Search and Extract) Data Model. NASA has funded the main part of the development of SPASE but other groups have put resources into it as well. How well is this working? We will review the use of SPASE and how well the goal of locating and retrieving data within the heliophysics community is being achieved. Can the VOs truly be made interoperable despite being developed by so many diverse groups?

  15. Composition sensitivity of the Auger observatory through inclined showers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ave, M.; Watson, A.A.; Hinton, J.A.; Vazquez, R.A.; Zas, E.

    2003-01-01

    We report a calculation of the expected rate of inclined air showers induced by ultra high-energy cosmic rays to be obtained by the Auger Southern Observatory assuming different mass compositions. We describe some features that can be used to distinguish photons at energies as high as 10 20 eV. The discrimination of photons at such energies will help to test some models of the origin of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays

  16. Health observatories in iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidian, A; Damari, B; Larijani, B; Vosoogh Moghadda, A; Alikhani, S; Shadpour, K; Khosravi, A

    2013-01-01

    The Islamic Republic of Iran, in her 20 year vision by the year 2025, is a developed country with the first economic, scientific and technological status in the region, with revolutionary and Islamic identity, inspiring Islamic world, as well as effective and constructive interaction in international relations. Enjoying health, welfare, food security, social security, equal opportunities, fair income distribution, strong family structure; to be away from poverty, corruption, and discrimination; and benefiting desirable living environment are also considered out of characteristics of Iranian society in that year. Strategic leadership towards perceived vision in each setting requires restrictive, complete and timely information. According to constitution of National Institute for Health Researches, law of the Fifth Development Plan of the country and characteristics of health policy making, necessity of designing a Health Observatory System (HOS) was felt. Some Principles for designing such system were formulated by taking following steps: reviewing experience in other countries, having local history of the HOS in mind, superior documents, analysis of current production and management of health information, taking the possibilities to run a HOS into account. Based on these principles, the protocol of HOS was outlined in 3 different stages of opinion poll of informed experts responsible for production on management of information, by using questionnaires and Focus Group Discussions. The protocol includes executive regulations, the list of health indicators, vocabulary and a calendar for periodic studies of the community health situation.

  17. The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norman, E.B.; Chan, Y.D.; Garcia, A.; Lesko, K.T.; Smith, A.R.; Stokstad, R.G.; Zlimen, I.; Evans, H.C.; Ewan, G.T.; Hallin, A.; Lee, H.W.; Leslie, J.R.; MacArthur, J.D.; Mak, H.B.; McDonald, A.B.; McLatchie, W.; Robertson, B.C.; Skensved, P.; Sur, B.; Jagam, P.; Law, J.; Ollerhead, R.W.; Simpson, J.J.; Wang, J.X.; Tanner, N.W.; Jelley, N.A.; Barton, J.C.; Doucas, G.; Hooper, E.W.; Knox, A.B.; Moorhead, M.E.; Omori, M.; Trent, P.T.; Wark, D.L.

    1992-11-01

    Two experiments now in progress have reported measurements of the flux of high energy neutrinos from the Sun. Since about 1970, Davis and his co-workers have been using a 37 Cl-based detector to measure the 7 Be and 8 B solar neutrino flux and have found it to be at least a factor of three lower than that predicted by the Standard Solar Model (SSM). The Kamiokande collaborations has been taking data since 1986 using a large light-water Cerenkov detector and have confirmed that the flux is about two times lower than predicted. Recent results from the SAGE and GALLEX gallium-based detectors show that there is also a deficit of the low energy pp solar neutrinos. These discrepancies between experiment and theory could arise because of inadequacies in the theoretical models of solar energy generation or because of previously unobserved properties of neutrinos. The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) will provide the information necessary to decide which of these solutions to the ''solar neutrino problem'' is correct

  18. Triggers for the Pierre Auger Observatory, the current status and plans for the future

    CERN Document Server

    Szadkowski, Z

    2009-01-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory is a multi-national organization for research on ultra-high energy cosmic rays. The Southern Auger Observatory (Auger-South) in the province of Mendoza, Argentina, has been completed in 2008. First results on the energy spectrum, mass composition and distribution of arrival directions on the southern sky are really impressive. The planned Northern Auger Observatory in Colorado, USA, (Auger-North) will open a new window into the universe and establish charged particle astronomy to determine the origin and nature of ultra-high energy cosmic rays. These cosmic particles carry information complementary to neutrinos and photons and to gravitational waves. They also provide an extremely energetic beam for the study of particle interactions at energies that thirty times higher than those reached in terrestrial accelerators. The Auger Observatory is a hybrid detector consisting of a Surface Detector (SD) and an atmospheric Fluorescence Detector (FD). The hybrid data set obtained when both...

  19. The Sudbury neutrino observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLatchie, W.; Earle, E.D.

    1987-08-01

    This report initially discusses the Homestake Mine Experiment, South Dakota, U.S.A. which has been detecting neutrinos in 38 x 10 litre vats of cleaning fluid containing chlorine since the 1960's. The interation between neutrinos and chlorine produces argon so the number of neutrinos over time can be calculated. However, the number of neutrinos which have been detected represent only one third to one quarter of the expected number i.e. 11 per month rather than 48. It is postulated that the electron-neutrinos originating in the solar core could change into muon- or tau-neutrinos during passage through the high electron densities of the sun. The 'low' results at Homestake could thus be explained by the fact that the experiment is only sensitive to electron-neutrinos. The construction of a heavy water detector is therefore proposed as it would be able to determine the energy of the neutrinos, their time of arrival at the detector and their direction. It is proposed to build the detector at Creighton mine near Sudbury at a depth of 6800 feet below ground level thus shielding the detector from cosmic rays which would completely obscure the neutrino signals from the detector. The report then discusses the facility itself, the budget estimate and the social and economic impact on the surrounding area. At the time of publication the proposal for the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory was due to be submitted for peer review by Oct. 1, 1987 and then to various granting bodies charged with the funding of scientific research in Canada, the U.S.A. and Britain

  20. An astronomical observatory for Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Mar, Juan Quintanilla; Sicardy, Bruno; Giraldo, Víctor Ayma; Callo, Víctor Raúl Aguilar

    2011-06-01

    Peru and France are to conclude an agreement to provide Peru with an astronomical observatory equipped with a 60-cm diameter telescope. The principal aims of this project are to establish and develop research and teaching in astronomy. Since 2004, a team of researchers from Paris Observatory has been working with the University of Cusco (UNSAAC) on the educational, technical and financial aspects of implementing this venture. During an international astronomy conference in Cusco in July 2009, the foundation stone of the future Peruvian Observatory was laid at the top of Pachatusan Mountain. UNSAAC, represented by its Rector, together with the town of Oropesa and the Cusco regional authority, undertook to make the sum of 300,000€ available to the project. An agreement between Paris Observatory and UNSAAC now enables Peruvian students to study astronomy through online teaching.

  1. Astronomical databases of Nikolaev Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protsyuk, Y.; Mazhaev, A.

    2008-07-01

    Several astronomical databases were created at Nikolaev Observatory during the last years. The databases are built by using MySQL search engine and PHP scripts. They are available on NAO web-site http://www.mao.nikolaev.ua.

  2. Geomagnetic Observatory Database February 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information (formerly National Geophysical Data Center) maintains an active database of worldwide geomagnetic observatory...

  3. Search for ultra high energy primary photons at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colalillo Roberta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Pierre Auger Observatory, located in Argentina, provides an unprecedented integrated aperture in the search for primary photons with energy above 1017 eV over a large portion of the southern sky. Such photons can be detected in principle via the air showers they initiate at such energies, using the complement of Auger Observatory detectors. We discuss the results obtained in diffuse and directional searches for primary photons in the EeV energy range.

  4. The South African Astronomical Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The geographical position, climate and equipment at the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO), together with the enthusiasm and efforts of SAAO scientific and technical staff and of visiting scientists, have enabled the Observatory to make a major contribution to the fields of astrophysics and cosmology. During 1987 the SAAO has been involved in studies of the following: supernovae; galaxies, including Seyfert galaxies; celestial x-ray sources; magellanic clouds; pulsating variables; galatic structure; binary star phenomena; nebulae; interstellar matter and stellar astrophysics

  5. Establishment of an atmospheric observatory for trace gases and atmospheric oxygen in Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, E.; Lavrič, J.; Seely, M.; Heimann, M.

    2012-04-01

    Continuous, high-precision measurements of greenhouse and other biogeochemically significant atmospheric gases help to establish a global baseline and create important data for the study of atmospheric transport, biogeochemical fluxes, and human emissions. Also, they can validate models and ground- and space-based remote sensing and complement airborne atmospheric measurements. There are currently few such facilities on the African continent. To reduce this gap in the global observational system, we are establishing an atmospheric observatory at Gobabeb, Namibia. Continuous measurements of the atmospheric O2/N2 ratio and biogeochemical trace gases (CO2, CH4, N2O, CO) will be accompanied by a regular flask sampling program. Our observatory also represents an opportunity to forge partnerships with local and global scientific organizations. The site is well located to study the natural and anthropogenic gas fluxes on the southern subtropical African continent, and the air-sea gas fluxes of the nearby Benguela Current system off the Namibian coast. This current system drives one of the four major eastern-boundary upwelling ecosystems, creating zones of intensive primary production that influence the budgets of atmospheric gases via air-sea exchange. Another feature of interest is the large biomass burning region in central and southern Africa. An analysis of HYSPLIT air mass back trajectories from Gobabeb indicate that the dominant origin of air at the site is from one of these two areas. On-site installation of the standalone measurement system, which is installed in a 20' container, is scheduled for the first half of 2012. We present here the detailed setup of the system and first performance data.

  6. A federated information management system for the Deep Space Network. M.S. Thesis - Univ. of Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobinson, E.

    1982-01-01

    General requirements for an information management system for the deep space network (DSN) are examined. A concise review of available database management system technology is presented. It is recommended that a federation of logically decentralized databases be implemented for the Network Information Management System of the DSN. Overall characteristics of the federation are specified, as well as reasons for adopting this approach.

  7. The Carl Sagan solar and stellar observatories as remote observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saucedo-Morales, J.; Loera-Gonzalez, P.

    In this work we summarize recent efforts made by the University of Sonora, with the goal of expanding the capability for remote operation of the Carl Sagan Solar and Stellar Observatories, as well as the first steps that have been taken in order to achieve autonomous robotic operation in the near future. The solar observatory was established in 2007 on the university campus by our late colleague A. Sánchez-Ibarra. It consists of four solar telescopes mounted on a single equatorial mount. On the other hand, the stellar observatory, which saw the first light on 16 February 2010, is located 21 km away from Hermosillo, Sonora at the site of the School of Agriculture of the University of Sonora. Both observatories can now be remotely controlled, and to some extent are able to operate autonomously. In this paper we discuss how this has been accomplished in terms of the use of software as well as the instruments under control. We also briefly discuss the main scientific and educational objectives, the future plans to improve the control software and to construct an autonomous observatory on a mountain site, as well as the opportunities for collaborations.

  8. The Observatory as Laboratory: Spectral Analysis at Mount Wilson Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brashear, Ronald

    2018-01-01

    This paper will discuss the seminal changes in astronomical research practices made at the Mount Wilson Observatory in the early twentieth century by George Ellery Hale and his staff. Hale’s desire to set the agenda for solar and stellar astronomical research is often described in terms of his new telescopes, primarily the solar tower observatories and the 60- and 100-inch telescopes on Mount Wilson. This paper will focus more on the ancillary but no less critical parts of Hale’s research mission: the establishment of associated “physical” laboratories as part of the observatory complex where observational spectral data could be quickly compared with spectra obtained using specialized laboratory equipment. Hale built a spectroscopic laboratory on the mountain and a more elaborate physical laboratory in Pasadena and staffed it with highly trained physicists, not classically trained astronomers. The success of Hale’s vision for an astronomical observatory quickly made the Carnegie Institution’s Mount Wilson Observatory one of the most important astrophysical research centers in the world.

  9. Recent results from the Pierre Auger Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouffon, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    Full text. The Pierre Auger Observatory has been designed to observe cosmic rays with energies above 1018 eV . The southern site, located in Malargue, Argentina, is now fully operational (since mid 2008) and has been collecting data continuously while being deployed. The northern site, which will give a full sky coverage, is under development in Lamar, Colorado, USA. The PAO uses two complementary techniques to measure the direction of arrival and the energy of the comic rays. In the southern site, its 1600 water Cerenkov tanks, spread over 3000 km 2 , sample the extended air shower front when it hits the ground, measuring time and energy deposited, while the 4 fluorescence detectors stations, each with 6 telescopes, collect the UV light emitted by the shower core, registering the time, intensity and angle of reception. Though the Pierre Auger collaboration will be taking data for the next two decades, several results have already been published based on data collected until 2009 and will be discussed briefly: the energy spectrum and its implications on the GZK cut off controversy, limits on photon and neutrino fluxes, anisotropy, point sources and mass composition. (author)

  10. Recent results from the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gouffon, Philippe [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IF/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    2010-07-01

    Full text. The Pierre Auger Observatory has been designed to observe cosmic rays with energies above 1018 eV . The southern site, located in Malargue, Argentina, is now fully operational (since mid 2008) and has been collecting data continuously while being deployed. The northern site, which will give a full sky coverage, is under development in Lamar, Colorado, USA. The PAO uses two complementary techniques to measure the direction of arrival and the energy of the comic rays. In the southern site, its 1600 water Cerenkov tanks, spread over 3000 km{sup 2}, sample the extended air shower front when it hits the ground, measuring time and energy deposited, while the 4 fluorescence detectors stations, each with 6 telescopes, collect the UV light emitted by the shower core, registering the time, intensity and angle of reception. Though the Pierre Auger collaboration will be taking data for the next two decades, several results have already been published based on data collected until 2009 and will be discussed briefly: the energy spectrum and its implications on the GZK cut off controversy, limits on photon and neutrino fluxes, anisotropy, point sources and mass composition. (author)

  11. SPASE, Metadata, and the Heliophysics Virtual Observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieman, James; King, Todd; Roberts, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    To provide data search and access capability in the field of Heliophysics (the study of the Sun and its effects on the Solar System, especially the Earth) a number of Virtual Observatories (VO) have been established both via direct funding from the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and through other funding agencies in the U.S. and worldwide. At least 15 systems can be labeled as Virtual Observatories in the Heliophysics community, 9 of them funded by NASA. The problem is that different metadata and data search approaches are used by these VO's and a search for data relevant to a particular research question can involve consulting with multiple VO's - needing to learn a different approach for finding and acquiring data for each. The Space Physics Archive Search and Extract (SPASE) project is intended to provide a common data model for Heliophysics data and therefore a common set of metadata for searches of the VO's. The SPASE Data Model has been developed through the common efforts of the Heliophysics Data and Model Consortium (HDMC) representatives over a number of years. We currently have released Version 2.1 of the Data Model. The advantages and disadvantages of the Data Model will be discussed along with the plans for the future. Recent changes requested by new members of the SPASE community indicate some of the directions for further development.

  12. Taurus Hill Observatory Scientific Observations for Pulkova Observatory during the 2016-2017 Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentunen, V.-P.; Haukka, H.; Heikkinen, E.; Salmi, T.; Juutilainen, J.

    2017-09-01

    Taurus Hill Observatory (THO), observatory code A95, is an amateur observatory located in Varkaus, Finland. The observatory is maintained by the local astronomical association Warkauden Kassiopeia. THO research team has observed and measured various stellar objects and phenomena. Observatory has mainly focused on exoplanet light curve measurements, observing the gamma rays burst, supernova discoveries and monitoring. We also do long term monitoring projects.

  13. GEOSCOPE Observatory Recent Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, N.; Pardo, C.; Bonaime, S.; Stutzmann, E.; Maggi, A.

    2010-12-01

    The GEOSCOPE observatory consists of a global seismic network and a data center. The 31 GEOSCOPE stations are installed in 19 countries, across all continents and on islands throughout the oceans. They are equipped with three component very broadband seismometers (STS1 or STS2) and 24 or 26 bit digitizers, as required by the Federation of Seismic Digital Network (FDSN). In most stations, a pressure gauge and a thermometer are also installed. Currently, 23 stations send data in real or near real time to GEOSCOPE Data Center and tsunami warning centers. In 2009, two stations (SSB and PPTF) have been equipped with warpless base plates. Analysis of one year of data shows that the new installation decreases long period noise (20s to 1000s) by 10 db on horizontal components. SSB is now rated in the top ten long period stations for horizontal components according to the LDEO criteria. In 2010, Stations COYC, PEL and RER have been upgraded with Q330HR, Metrozet electronics and warpless base plates. They have been calibrated with the calibration table CT-EW1 and the software jSeisCal and Calex-EW. Aluminum jars are now installed instead of glass bells. A vacuum of 100 mbars is applied in the jars which improves thermal insulation of the seismometers and reduces moisture and long-term corrosion in the sensor. A new station RODM has just been installed in Rodrigues Island in Mauritius with standard Geoscope STS2 setup: STS2 seismometer on a granite base plate and covered by cooking pot and thermal insulation, it is connected to Q330HR digitizer, active lightning protection, Seiscomp PC and real-time internet connection. Continuous data of all stations are collected in real time or with a delay by the GEOSCOPE Data Center in Paris where they are validated, archived and made available to the international scientific community. Data are freely available to users by different interfaces according data types (see : http://geoscope.ipgp.fr) - Continuous data in real time coming

  14. International Summer School on Astronomy and Space Science in Chile, first experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanova, M.; Arellano-Baeza, A. A.

    I International Summer School on Astronomy and Space Science took place in the Elqui Valley Chile January 15-29 2005 Eighty 12-17 year old students from Chile Russia Venezuela and Bulgaria obtained a valuable experience to work together with outstanding scientists from Chile and Russia and with Russian cosmonaut Alexander Balandine They also had opportunity to visit the main astronomical observatories and to participate in workshops dedicated to the telescope and satellite design and remote sensing This activity was supported by numerous institutions in Chile including the Ministry of Education the European Southern Observatory Chilean Space Agency Chilean Air Force Latin American Association of Space Geophysics the principal Chilean universities and the First Lady Mrs Luisa Duran

  15. Visits to La Plata Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, A.

    1985-03-01

    La Plata Observatory will welcome visitors to ESO-La Silla that are willing to make a stop at Buenos Aires on their trip to Chile or on their way back. There is a nice guesthouse at the Observatory that can be used, for a couple of days or so, by astronomers interested in visiting the Observatory and delivering talks on their research work to the Argentine colleagues. No payments can, however, be made at present. La Plata is at 60 km from Buenos Aires. In the same area lie the Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica dei Espacio (IAFE), in Buenos Aires proper, and the Instituto Argentino de Radioastronomia (IAR). about 40 km from Buenos Aires on the way to La Plata. Those interested should contacl: Sr Decano Prof. Cesar A. Mondinalli, or Dr Alejandro Feinstein, Observatorio Astron6mico, Paseo dei Bosque, 1900 La Plata, Argentina. Telex: 31216 CESLA AR.

  16. Astronomical Research Using Virtual Observatories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Tanaka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Virtual Observatory (VO for Astronomy is a framework that empowers astronomical research by providing standard methods to find, access, and utilize astronomical data archives distributed around the world. VO projects in the world have been strenuously developing VO software tools and/or portal systems. Interoperability among VO projects has been achieved with the VO standard protocols defined by the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA. As a result, VO technologies are now used in obtaining astronomical research results from a huge amount of data. We describe typical examples of astronomical research enabled by the astronomical VO, and describe how the VO technologies are used in the research.

  17. The South African Astronomical Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The research work discussed in this report covers a wide range, from work on the nearest stars to studies of the distant quasars, and the astronomers who have carried out this work come from universities and observatories spread around the world as well as from South African universities and from the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) staff itself. A characteristic of much of this work has been its collaborative character. SAAO studies in 1989 included: supernovae 1987A; galaxies; ground-based observations of celestial x-ray sources; the Magellanic Clouds; pulsating variables; galactic structure; binary star phenomena; the provision of photometric standards; nebulous matter; stellar astrophysics, and astrometry

  18. The European Southern Observatory-MIDAS table file system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peron, M.; Grosbol, P.

    1992-01-01

    The new and substantially upgraded version of the Table File System in MIDAS is presented as a scientific database system. MIDAS applications for performing database operations on tables are discussed, for instance, the exchange of the data to and from the TFS, the selection of objects, the uncertainty joins across tables, and the graphical representation of data. This upgraded version of the TFS is a full implementation of the binary table extension of the FITS format; in addition, it also supports arrays of strings. Different storage strategies for optimal access of very large data sets are implemented and are addressed in detail. As a simple relational database, the TFS may be used for the management of personal data files. This opens the way to intelligent pipeline processing of large amounts of data. One of the key features of the Table File System is to provide also an extensive set of tools for the analysis of the final results of a reduction process. Column operations using standard and special mathematical functions as well as statistical distributions can be carried out; commands for linear regression and model fitting using nonlinear least square methods and user-defined functions are available. Finally, statistical tests of hypothesis and multivariate methods can also operate on tables.

  19. Computing Infrastructure and Remote, Parallel Data Mining Engine for Virtual Observatories, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SciberQuest, Inc. proposes to develop a state-of-the-art data mining engine that extends the functionality of Virtual Observatories (VO) from data portal to science...

  20. MMT OBSERVATORY 6.5M CLIO RAW DATA OBSERVATIONS OF LCROSS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This archive contains raw observations of the 2009-10-09 impact of the LCROSS spacecraft on the moon by the CLIO instrument on the MMT Observatory 6.5m telescope....

  1. MMT OBSERVATORY 6.5M CLIO CALIBRATED OBSERVATIONS OF LCROSS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This archive contains calibrated observations of the 2009-10-09 impact of the LCROSS spacecraft on the moon by the CLIO instrument on the MMT Observatory 6.5m...

  2. Ad-hoc Content-based Queries and Data Analysis for Virtual Observatories, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aquilent, Inc. proposes to support ad-hoc, content-based query and data retrieval from virtual observatories (VxO) by developing 1) Higher Order Query Services that...

  3. Computing Infrastructure and Remote, Parallel Data Mining Engine for Virtual Observatories, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop a state-of-the-art data mining engine that extends the functionality of Virtual Observatories (VO) from data portal to science analysis...

  4. Improvements in geomagnetic observatory data quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reda, Jan; Fouassier, Danielle; Isac, Anca

    2011-01-01

    between observatories and the establishment of observatory networks has harmonized standards and practices across the world; improving the quality of the data product available to the user. Nonetheless, operating a highquality geomagnetic observatory is non-trivial. This article gives a record...... of the current state of observatory instrumentation and methods, citing some of the general problems in the complex operation of geomagnetic observatories. It further gives an overview of recent improvements of observatory data quality based on presentation during 11th IAGA Assembly at Sopron and INTERMAGNET...

  5. Invited Review Article: The Chandra X-ray Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Daniel A.

    2014-06-01

    The Chandra X-ray Observatory is an orbiting x-ray telescope facility. It is one of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's four "Great Observatories" that collectively have carried out astronomical observations covering the infrared through gamma-ray portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. Chandra is used by astronomers world-wide to acquire imaging and spectroscopic data over a nominal 0.1-10 keV (124-1.24 Å) range. We describe the three major parts of the observatory: the telescope, the spacecraft systems, and the science instruments. This article will emphasize features of the design and development driven by some of the experimental considerations unique to x-ray astronomy. We will update the on-orbit performance and present examples of the scientific highlights.

  6. Artificial intelligence for the CTA Observatory scheduler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colomé, Josep; Colomer, Pau; Campreciós, Jordi; Coiffard, Thierry; de Oña, Emma; Pedaletti, Giovanna; Torres, Diego F.; Garcia-Piquer, Alvaro

    2014-08-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) project will be the next generation ground-based very high energy gamma-ray instrument. The success of the precursor projects (i.e., HESS, MAGIC, VERITAS) motivated the construction of this large infrastructure that is included in the roadmap of the ESFRI projects since 2008. CTA is planned to start the construction phase in 2015 and will consist of two arrays of Cherenkov telescopes operated as a proposal-driven open observatory. Two sites are foreseen at the southern and northern hemispheres. The CTA observatory will handle several observation modes and will have to operate tens of telescopes with a highly efficient and reliable control. Thus, the CTA planning tool is a key element in the control layer for the optimization of the observatory time. The main purpose of the scheduler for CTA is the allocation of multiple tasks to one single array or to multiple sub-arrays of telescopes, while maximizing the scientific return of the facility and minimizing the operational costs. The scheduler considers long- and short-term varying conditions to optimize the prioritization of tasks. A short-term scheduler provides the system with the capability to adapt, in almost real-time, the selected task to the varying execution constraints (i.e., Targets of Opportunity, health or status of the system components, environment conditions). The scheduling procedure ensures that long-term planning decisions are correctly transferred to the short-term prioritization process for a suitable selection of the next task to execute on the array. In this contribution we present the constraints to CTA task scheduling that helped classifying it as a Flexible Job-Shop Problem case and finding its optimal solution based on Artificial Intelligence techniques. We describe the scheduler prototype that uses a Guarded Discrete Stochastic Neural Network (GDSN), for an easy representation of the possible long- and short-term planning solutions, and Constraint

  7. Astronomy Against Terrorism: an Educational Astronomical Observatory Project in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishitsuka, M.; Montes, H.; Kuroda, T.; Morimoto, M.; Ishitsuka, J.

    2003-05-01

    The Cosmos Coronagraphic Observatory was completely destroyed by terrorists in 1988. In 1995, in coordination with the Minister of Education of Peru, a project to construct a new Educational Astronomical Observatory has been executed. The main purpose of the observatory is to promote an interest in basic space sciences in young students from school to university levels, through basic astronomical studies and observations. The planned observatory will be able to lodge 25 visitors; furthermore an auditorium, a library and a computer room will be constructed to improve the interest of people in astronomy. Two 15-cm refractor telescopes, equipped with a CCD camera and a photometer, will be available for observations. Also a 6-m dome will house a 60-cm class reflector telescope, which will be donated soon, thanks to a fund collected and organized by the Nishi-Harima Astronomical Observatory in Japan. In addition a new modern planetarium donated by the Government of Japan will be installed in Lima, the capital of Peru. These installations will be widely open to serve the requirements of people interested in science.

  8. Seafloor Observatory Science: a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Beranzoli

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The ocean exerts a pervasive influence on Earth’s environment. It is therefore important that we learn how this system operates (NRC, 1998b; 1999. For example, the ocean is an important regulator of climate change (e.g., IPCC, 1995. Understanding the link between natural and anthropogenic climate change and ocean circulation is essential for predicting the magnitude and impact of future changes in Earth’s climate. Understanding the ocean, and the complex physical, biological, chemical, and geological systems operating within it, should be an important goal for the opening decades of the 21st century. Another fundamental reason for increasing our understanding of ocean systems is that the global economy is highly dependent on the ocean (e.g., for tourism, fisheries, hydrocarbons, and mineral resources (Summerhayes, 1996. The establishment of a global network of seafloor observatories will help to provide the means to accomplish this goal. These observatories will have power and communication capabilities and will provide support for spatially distributed sensing systems and mobile platforms. Sensors and instruments will potentially collect data from above the air-sea interface to below the seafloor. Seafloor observatories will also be a powerful complement to satellite measurement systems by providing the ability to collect vertically distributed measurements within the water column for use with the spatial measurements acquired by satellites while also providing the capability to calibrate remotely sensed satellite measurements (NRC, 2000. Ocean observatory science has already had major successes. For example the TAO array has enabled the detection, understanding and prediction of El Niño events (e.g., Fujimoto et al., 2003. This paper is a world-wide review of the new emerging “Seafloor Observatory Science”, and describes both the scientific motivations for seafloor observatories and the technical solutions applied to their architecture. A

  9. Royal Observatory extension will teach the wonder of the night sky

    CERN Multimedia

    Jury, L

    2004-01-01

    "The Royal Observatory in Greenwich is gearing up for a massive pounds 15m extension next year, to capitalise on growing interest in outer space. A Victorian building which has been used for administration for decades is to be renovated, with new galleries and a 120-seat planetarium to treble the space for visitors to gaze at the stars. The Observatory hopes to complete the extension by 2007" (1 page).

  10. Norwegian Ocean Observatory Network (NOON)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferré, Bénédicte; Mienert, Jürgen; Winther, Svein; Hageberg, Anne; Rune Godoe, Olav; Partners, Noon

    2010-05-01

    The Norwegian Ocean Observatory Network (NOON) is led by the University of Tromsø and collaborates with the Universities of Oslo and Bergen, UniResearch, Institute of Marine Research, Christian Michelsen Research and SINTEF. It is supported by the Research Council of Norway and oil and gas (O&G) industries like Statoil to develop science, technology and new educational programs. Main topics relate to ocean climate and environment as well as marine resources offshore Norway from the northern North Atlantic to the Arctic Ocean. NOON's vision is to bring Norway to the international forefront in using cable based ocean observatory technology for marine science and management, by establishing an infrastructure that enables real-time and long term monitoring of processes and interactions between hydrosphere, geosphere and biosphere. This activity is in concert with the EU funded European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures (ESFRI) roadmap and European Multidisciplinary Seafloor Observation (EMSO) project to attract international leading research developments. NOON envisions developing towards a European Research Infrastructure Consortium (ERIC). Beside, the research community in Norway already possesses a considerable marine infrastructure that can expand towards an international focus for real-time multidisciplinary observations in times of rapid climate change. PIC The presently established cable-based fjord observatory, followed by the establishment of a cable-based ocean observatory network towards the Arctic from an O&G installation, will provide invaluable knowledge and experience necessary to make a successful larger cable-based observatory network at the Norwegian and Arctic margin (figure 1). Access to large quantities of real-time observation from the deep sea, including high definition video, could be used to provide the public and future recruits to science a fascinating insight into an almost unexplored part of the Earth beyond the Arctic Circle

  11. NASA Names Premier X-Ray Observatory and Schedules Launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-12-01

    NASA's Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility has been renamed the Chandra X-ray Observatory in honor of the late Indian-American Nobel laureate, Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar. The telescope is scheduled to be launched no earlier than April 8, 1999 aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia mission STS-93, commanded by astronaut Eileen Collins. Chandrasekhar, known to the world as Chandra, which means "moon" or "luminous" in Sanskrit, was a popular entry in a recent NASA contest to name the spacecraft. The contest drew more than six thousand entries from fifty states and sixty-one countries. The co-winners were a tenth grade student in Laclede, Idaho, and a high school teacher in Camarillo, CA. The Chandra X-ray Observatory Center (CXC), operated by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, will control science and flight operations of the Chandra X-ray Observatory for NASA from Cambridge, Mass. "Chandra is a highly appropriate name," said Harvey Tananbaum, Director of the CXC. "Throughout his life Chandra worked tirelessly and with great precision to further our understanding of the universe. These same qualities characterize the many individuals who have devoted much of their careers to building this premier X-ray observatory." "Chandra probably thought longer and deeper about our universe than anyone since Einstein," said Martin Rees, Great Britain's Astronomer Royal. "Chandrasekhar made fundamental contributions to the theory of black holes and other phenomena that the Chandra X-ray Observatory will study. His life and work exemplify the excellence that we can hope to achieve with this great observatory," said NASA Administrator Dan Goldin. Widely regarded as one of the foremost astrophysicists of the 20th century, Chandrasekhar won the Nobel Prize in 1983 for his theoretical studies of physical processes important to the structure and evolution of stars. He and his wife immigrated from India to the U.S. in 1935. Chandrasekhar served on the faculty of the University of

  12. The Magnetic Observatory Buildings at the Royal Observatory, Cape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, I. S.

    2015-10-01

    During the 1830s there arose a strong international movement, promoted by Carl Friedrich Gauss and Alexander von Humboldt, to characterise the earth's magnetic field. By 1839 the Royal Society in London, driven by Edward Sabine, had organised a "Magnetic Crusade" - the establishment of a series of magnetic and meteorological observatories around the British Empire, including New Zealand, Australia, St Helena and the Cape. This article outlines the history of the latter installation, its buildings and what became of them.

  13. A small Internet controllable observatory for research and education at the University of North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardersen, P. S.; de Silva, S.; Reddy, V.; Cui, P.; Kumar, S.; Gaffey, M. J.

    2006-06-01

    One of the challenges in astronomy education today is to introduce college students to the real-world practice and science of observational astronomy. Along with a good theoretical background, college students can gain an earlier, deeper understanding of the astronomy profession through direct observational and data reduction experience. However, building and managing a modest observatory is still too costly for many colleges and universities. Fortunately, advances in commercial astronomical hardware and software now allow universities to build and operate small Internet controllable observatories for a modest investment. The advantages of an Internet observatory include: 1) remote operation from a comfortable location, 2) immediate data access, 3) telescope control via a web browser, and 4) allowing both on-campus and distance education students the ability to conduct a variety of observing projects. Internet capabilities vastly expand the number of students who will be able to use the observatory, thus exposing them to astronomy as a science and as a potential career. In September 2005, the University of North Dakota (UND) Department of Space Studies began operating a small, recently renovated Internet controllable observatory. Housed within a roll-off roof 10 miles west of UND, the observatory includes a Meade 16-inch, f/10 Schmidt-Cassegrain telescope, an SBIG STL-6303e CCD with broadband filters, ACP observatory control software, focuser, and associated equipment. The observatory cost \\25,000 to build in 1996; 2005 renovation costs total \\28,000. An observatory operator prepares the telescope for use each night. Through remote operation, the roof is opened and the telescope/CCD power is turned on. The telescope is then aligned and focused before allowing students to access the observatory. Students communicate with the observatory operator via an online chat room and via telephone, if necessary, to answer questions and resolve any problems. Additional

  14. SOFIA: The Next Generation Airborne Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, Edward; Witteborn, Fred C. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    SOFIA, the Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy, will carry a 2.5 meter telescope into the stratosphere on 160 7.5 hour flights per year. At stratospheric altitudes SOFIA will operate above 99% of the water vapor in the Earth's atmosphere, allowing observation of wide regions of the infrared spectrum that are totally obscured from even the best ground-based sites. Its mobility and long range will allow worldwide observation of ephemeral events such as occultations and eclipses. SOFIA will be developed jointly by NASA and DARA, the German space agency. It has been included in the President's budget request to Congress for a development start in FY96 (this October!) and enjoys strong support in Germany. This talk will cover SOFIA's scientific goals, technical characteristics, science operating plan, and political status.

  15. The MicroObservatory Net

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brecher, K.; Sadler, P.

    1994-12-01

    A group of scientists, engineers and educators based at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA) has developed a prototype of a small, inexpensive and fully integrated automated astronomical telescope and image processing system. The project team is now building five second generation instruments. The MicroObservatory has been designed to be used for classroom instruction by teachers as well as for original scientific research projects by students. Probably in no other area of frontier science is it possible for a broad spectrum of students (not just the gifted) to have access to state-of-the-art technologies that would allow for original research. The MicroObservatory combines the imaging power of a cooled CCD, with a self contained and weatherized reflecting optical telescope and mount. A microcomputer points the telescope and processes the captured images. The MicroObservatory has also been designed to be used as a valuable new capture and display device for real time astronomical imaging in planetariums and science museums. When the new instruments are completed in the next few months, they will be tried with high school students and teachers, as well as with museum groups. We are now planning to make the MicroObservatories available to students, teachers and other individual users over the Internet. We plan to allow the telescope to be controlled in real time or in batch mode, from a Macintosh or PC compatible computer. In the real-time mode, we hope to give individual access to all of the telescope control functions without the need for an "on-site" operator. Users would sign up for a specific period of time. In the batch mode, users would submit jobs for the telescope. After the MicroObservatory completed a specific job, the images would be e-mailed back to the user. At present, we are interested in gaining answers to the following questions: (1) What are the best approaches to scheduling real-time observations? (2) What criteria should be used

  16. Geomagnetic Observatory Data for Real-Time Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, J. J.; Finn, C. A.; Rigler, E. J.; Kelbert, A.; Bedrosian, P.

    2015-12-01

    The global network of magnetic observatories represents a unique collective asset for the scientific community. Historically, magnetic observatories have supported global magnetic-field mapping projects and fundamental research of the Earth's interior and surrounding space environment. More recently, real-time data streams from magnetic observatories have become an important contributor to multi-sensor, operational monitoring of evolving space weather conditions, especially during magnetic storms. In this context, the U.S. Geological Survey (1) provides real-time observatory data to allied space weather monitoring projects, including those of NOAA, the U.S. Air Force, NASA, several international agencies, and private industry, (2) collaborates with Schlumberger to provide real-time geomagnetic data needed for directional drilling for oil and gas in Alaska, (3) develops products for real-time evaluation of hazards for the electric-power grid industry that are associated with the storm-time induction of geoelectric fields in the Earth's conducting lithosphere. In order to implement strategic priorities established by the USGS Natural Hazards Mission Area and the National Science and Technology Council, and with a focus on developing new real-time products, the USGS is (1) leveraging data management protocols already developed by the USGS Earthquake Program, (2) developing algorithms for mapping geomagnetic activity, a collaboration with NASA and NOAA, (3) supporting magnetotelluric surveys and developing Earth conductivity models, a collaboration with Oregon State University and the NSF's EarthScope Program, (4) studying the use of geomagnetic activity maps and Earth conductivity models for real-time estimation of geoelectric fields, (5) initiating geoelectric monitoring at several observatories, (6) validating real-time estimation algorithms against historical geomagnetic and geoelectric data. The success of these long-term projects is subject to funding constraints

  17. The Solar Connections Observatory for Planetary Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliversen, Ronald J.; Harris, Walter M.; Oegerle, William R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The NASA Sun-Earth Connection theme roadmap calls for comparative study of how the planets, comets, and local interstellar medium (LISM) interact with the Sun and respond to solar variability. Through such a study we advance our understanding of basic physical plasma and gas dynamic processes, thus increasing our predictive capabilities for the terrestrial, planetary, and interplanetary environments where future remote and human exploration will occur. Because the other planets have lacked study initiatives comparable to the terrestrial ITM, LWS, and EOS programs, our understanding of the upper atmospheres and near space environments on these worlds is far less detailed than our knowledge of the Earth. To close this gap we propose a mission to study {\\it all) of the solar interacting bodies in our planetary system out to the heliopause with a single remote sensing space observatory, the Solar Connections Observatory for Planetary Environments (SCOPE). SCOPE consists of a binocular EUV/FUV telescope operating from a remote, driftaway orbit that provides sub-arcsecond imaging and broadband medium resolution spectro-imaging over the 55-290 nm bandpass, and high (R>10$^{5}$ resolution H Ly-$\\alpha$ emission line profile measurements of small scale planetary and wide field diffuse solar system structures. A key to the SCOPE approach is to include Earth as a primary science target. From its remote vantage point SCOPE will be able to observe auroral emission to and beyond the rotational pole. The other planets and comets will be monitored in long duration campaigns centered when possible on solar opposition when interleaved terrestrial-planet observations can be used to directly compare the response of both worlds to the same solar wind stream and UV radiation field. Using a combination of observations and MHD models, SCOPE will isolate the different controlling parameters in each planet system and gain insight into the underlying physical processes that define the

  18. Boscovich and the Brera Observatory .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonello, E.

    In the mid 18th century both theoretical and practical astronomy were cultivated in Milan by Barnabites and Jesuits. In 1763 Boscovich was appointed to the chair of mathematics of the University of Pavia in the Duchy of Milan, and the following year he designed an observatory for the Jesuit Collegium of Brera in Milan. The Specola was built in 1765 and it became quickly one of the main european observatories. We discuss the relation between Boscovich and Brera in the framework of a short biography. An account is given of the initial research activity in the Specola, of the departure of Boscovich from Milan in 1773 and his coming back just before his death.

  19. ESA innovation rescues Ultraviolet Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-10-01

    experience to have the opportunity to do an in-depth review of operational procedures established in 1978 and be given the chance to streamline these through the application of the tools available to engineers and scientists in 1995." The innovative arrangements were designed and developed at the ESA IUE Observatory, which is located in Spain at ESA's Villafranca Satellite Tracking Station in Villanueva de la Canada near Madrid. As a result, ESA is now performing all of WE's science observations (16 hours per day) from the Villafranca station. All the processing of the observations transmitted by the satellite and the subsequent rapid data distribution to the research scientists world-wide is now done from Villafranca. NASA does maintain its role in the programme in the area of operational spacecraft maintenance support, satellite communications and data re-processing for IUE's Final Archive. Thus the IUE Project could be extended and the final IUE observing program can now be implemented. In particular, this will involve critical studies on comets (e,g. on Comet Hale-Bopp), on stellar wind structures, on the enigmatic mini-quasars (which are thought to power the nuclei of Active Galaxies), as well as performing pre- studies which will optimize the utilization of the Hubble Space Telescope. Prof. R.M. Bonnet, Director of the ESA Science Programme comments "I am quite pleased that we have been able to secure the extension of our support for the scientists in Europe and the world to this highly effective mission. Also the scientists can be proud of the utilization of IUE, with more than 3000 learned publications and 200 Doctoral dissertations based on data from IUE. Through this they demonstrate in turn to be very appreciative of our efforts in the Science Programme".

  20. VESPA: A community-driven Virtual Observatory in Planetary Science

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Erard, S.; Cecconi, B.; Le Sidaner, P.; Rossi, A. P.; Capria, M.T.; Schmitt, B.; Génot, V.; André, N.; Vandaele, A. C.; Scherf, M.; Hueso, R.; Määttänen, A.; Thuillot, W.; Carry, B.; Achilleos, N.; Marmo, C.; Santolík, Ondřej; Benson, K.; Fernique, P.; Beigbeder, L.; Millour, E.; Rousseau, B.; Andrieu, F.; Chauvin, C.; Minin, M.; Ivanoski, S.; Longobardo, A.; Bollard, P.; Albert, D.; Gangloff, M.; Jourdane, N.; Bouchemit, M.; Glorian, J. M.; Trompet, L.; Al-Ubaidi, T.; Juaristi, J.; Desmars, J.; Guio, P.; Delaa, O.; Lagain, A.; Souček, Jan; Píša, David

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 150, SI (2018), s. 65-85 ISSN 0032-0633 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 654208 - EPN2020-RI Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : Virtual Observatory * Solar System * GIS Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics OBOR OECD: Astronomy (including astrophysics,space science) Impact factor: 1.892, year: 2016 https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0032063316304937#gs1

  1. Observatory Sponsoring Astronomical Image Contest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-05-01

    Forget the headphones you saw in the Warner Brothers thriller Contact, as well as the guttural throbs emanating from loudspeakers at the Very Large Array in that 1997 movie. In real life, radio telescopes aren't used for "listening" to anything - just like visible-light telescopes, they are used primarily to make images of astronomical objects. Now, the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) wants to encourage astronomers to use radio-telescope data to make truly compelling images, and is offering cash prizes to winners of a new image contest. Radio Galaxy Fornax A Radio Galaxy Fornax A Radio-optical composite image of giant elliptical galaxy NGC 1316, showing the galaxy (center), a smaller companion galaxy being cannibalized by NGC 1316, and the resulting "lobes" (orange) of radio emission caused by jets of particles spewed from the core of the giant galaxy Click on image for more detail and images CREDIT: Fomalont et al., NRAO/AUI/NSF "Astronomy is a very visual science, and our radio telescopes are capable of producing excellent images. We're sponsoring this contest to encourage astronomers to make the extra effort to turn good images into truly spectacular ones," said NRAO Director Fred K.Y. Lo. The contest, offering a grand prize of $1,000, was announced at the American Astronomical Society's meeting in Minneapolis, Minnesota. The image contest is part of a broader NRAO effort to make radio astronomical data and images easily accessible and widely available to scientists, students, teachers, the general public, news media and science-education professionals. That effort includes an expanded image gallery on the observatory's Web site. "We're not only adding new radio-astronomy images to our online gallery, but we're also improving the organization and accessibility of the images," said Mark Adams, head of education and public outreach (EPO) at NRAO. "Our long-term goal is to make the NRAO Image Gallery an international resource for radio astronomy imagery

  2. The high energy astronomy observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neighbors, A. K.; Doolittle, R. F.; Halpers, R. E.

    1977-01-01

    The forthcoming NASA project of orbiting High Energy Astronomy Observatories (HEAO's) designed to probe the universe by tracing celestial radiations and particles is outlined. Solutions to engineering problems concerning HEAO's which are integrated, yet built to function independently are discussed, including the onboard digital processor, mirror assembly and the thermal shield. The principle of maximal efficiency with minimal cost and the potential capability of the project to provide explanations to black holes, pulsars and gamma-ray bursts are also stressed. The first satellite is scheduled for launch in April 1977.

  3. The Hartebeeshoek Radio Astronomy Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolson, G.D.

    1986-01-01

    This article briefly discusses the questions, problems and study fields of the modern astronomer. Radioastronomy has made important contributions to the study of the evolution of stars and has given much information on the birth of stars while at the other extreme, studies of neutron stars and the radio emission from the remnants of supernova explosions have given further insight into the death of individual stars. Radio astronomical studies have learned astronomers much about the structure of the Milky way and some twenty years ago, in a search for new radio galaxies, quasars were discovered. Radioastronomy research in South Africa is carried out at the Hartebeesthoek Radio Astronomy Observatory

  4. The ultimate air shower observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, L.W.

    1981-01-01

    The possibility of constructing an international air shower observatory in the Himalayas is explored. A site at about 6500 m elevation (450 g/cm 2 ) would provide more definitive measurements of composition and early interaction properties of primaries above 10 16 eV than can be achieved with existing arrays. By supplementing a surface array with a Fly's Eye and muon detectors, information on the highest energy cosmic rays may be gained which is not possible in any other way. Potential sites, technical aspects, and logistical problems are explored

  5. BART: The Czech Autonomous Observatory

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nekola, Martin; Hudec, René; Jelínek, M.; Kubánek, P.; Štrobl, Jan; Polášek, Cyril

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 2010, Spec. Is. (2010), 103986/1-103986/5 ISSN 1687-7969. [Workshop on Robotic Autonomous Observatories. Málaga, 18.05.2009-21.05.2009] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/08/1207 Grant - others:ESA(XE) ESA-PECS project No. 98023; Spanish Ministry of Education and Science(ES) AP2003-1407 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : robotic telescope * BART * gamma ray bursts Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aa/2010/103986.html

  6. The Rapid Ice Sheet Change Observatory (RISCO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, P.; Howat, I. M.; Ahn, Y.; Porter, C.; McFadden, E. M.

    2010-12-01

    The recent expansion of observational capacity from space has revealed dramatic, rapid changes in the Earth’s ice cover. These discoveries have fundamentally altered how scientists view ice-sheet change. Instead of just slow changes in snow accumulation and melting over centuries or millennia, important changes can occur in sudden events lasting only months, weeks, or even a single day. Our understanding of these short time- and space-scale processes, which hold important implications for future global sea level rise, has been impeded by the low temporal and spatial resolution, delayed sensor tasking, incomplete coverage, inaccessibility and/or high cost of data available to investigators. New cross-agency partnerships and data access policies provide the opportunity to dramatically improve the resolution of ice sheet observations by an order of magnitude, from timescales of months and distances of 10’s of meters, to days and meters or less. Advances in image processing technology also enable application of currently under-utilized datasets. The infrastructure for systematically gathering, processing, analyzing and distributing these data does not currently exist. Here we present the development of a multi-institutional, multi-platform observatory for rapid ice change with the ultimate objective of helping to elucidate the relevant timescales and processes of ice sheet dynamics and response to climate change. The Rapid Ice Sheet Observatory (RISCO) gathers observations of short time- and space-scale Cryosphere events and makes them easily accessible to investigators, media and general public. As opposed to existing data centers, which are structured to archive and distribute diverse types of raw data to end users with the specialized software and skills to analyze them, RISCO focuses on three types of geo-referenced raster (image) data products in a format immediately viewable with commonly available software. These three products are (1) sequences of images

  7. The BOOTES-5 telescope at San Pedro Martir National Astronomical Observatory, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiriart, D.; Valdez, J.; Martínez, B.; García, B.; Cordova, A.; Colorado, E.; Guisa, G.; Ochoa, J. L.; Nuñez, J. M.; Ceseña, U.; Cunniffe, R.; Murphy, D.; Lee, W.; Park, Il H.; Castro-Tirado, A. J.

    2016-12-01

    BOOTES-5 is the fifth robotic observatory of the international network of robotic telescopes BOOTES (Burst Observer and Optical Transient Exploring Optical System). It is located at the National Astronomical Observatory at Sierra San Pedro Martir, Baja California, Mexico. It was dedicated on November 26, 2015 and it is in the process of testing. Its main scientific objective is the observation and monitoring of the optic counterparts of gamma-ray bursts as quickly as possible once they have been detected from space or other ground-based observatories. BOOTES-5 fue nombrado Telescopio Javier Gorosabel en memoria del astrónomo español Javier Gorosabel Urkia.

  8. The Aula Espazio Gela Observatory: A tool for Solar System Education and Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, J. F.; Perez-Hoyos, S.; Hueso, R.; Mendikoa, I.; Sanchez-Lavega, A.

    2011-10-01

    We present a summary of the activities undertaken over the first year of operations of the "Aula Espazio Gela Observatory", with teaching and astronomy outreach purposes. The observatory belongs to the Universidad del País Vasco and is a fundamental part of the "Master en Ciencia y Tecnología Espacial" (Space Science and Technology master). It is an urban observatory with the dome located on the roof of the School of Engineering at the Universidad del Pais Vasco in Bilbao (Spain).

  9. EMSO: European multidisciplinary seafloor observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favali, Paolo; Beranzoli, Laura

    2009-04-01

    EMSO has been identified by the ESFRI Report 2006 as one of the Research Infrastructures that European members and associated states are asked to develop in the next decades. It will be based on a European-scale network of multidisciplinary seafloor observatories from the Arctic to the Black Sea with the aim of long-term real-time monitoring of processes related to geosphere/biosphere/hydrosphere interactions. EMSO will enhance our understanding of processes, providing long time series data for the different phenomenon scales which constitute the new frontier for study of Earth interior, deep-sea biology and chemistry, and ocean processes. The development of an underwater network is based on past EU projects and is supported by several EU initiatives, such as the on-going ESONET-NoE, aimed at strengthening the ocean observatories' scientific and technological community. The EMSO development relies on the synergy between the scientific community and industry to improve European competitiveness with respect to countries such as USA, Canada and Japan. Within the FP7 Programme launched in 2006, a call for Preparatory Phase (PP) was issued in order to support the foundation of the legal and organisational entity in charge of building up and managing the infrastructure, and coordinating the financial effort among the countries. The EMSO-PP project, coordinated by the Italian INGV with participation by 11 institutions from as many European countries, started in April 2008 and will last four years.

  10. Worldwide R&D of Virtual Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, C. Z.; Zhao, Y. H.

    2008-07-01

    Virtual Observatory (VO) is a data intensive online astronomical research and education environment, taking advantages of advanced information technologies to achieve seamless and uniform access to astronomical information. The concept of VO was introduced in the late 1990s to meet the challenges brought up with data avalanche in astronomy. In the paper, current status of International Virtual Observatory Alliance, technical highlights from world wide VO projects are reviewed, a brief introduction of Chinese Virtual Observatory is given.

  11. The Atsa Suborbital Observatory: An Observatory for a Commercial Suborbital Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilas, F.; Sollitt, L. S.

    2012-12-01

    The advantages of astronomical observations made above Earth's atmosphere have long been understood: free access to spectral regions inaccessible from Earth (e.g., UV) or affected by the atmosphere's content (e.g., IR). Most robotic, space-based telescopes maintain large angular separation between the Sun and an observational target in order to avoid accidental damage to instruments from the Sun. For most astronomical targets, this possibility is easily avoided by waiting until objects are visible away from the Sun. For the Solar System objects inside Earth's orbit, this is never the case. Suborbital astronomical observations have over 50 years' history using NASA's sounding rockets and experimental space planes. Commercial suborbital spacecraft are largely expected to go to ~100 km altitude above Earth, providing a limited amount of time for astronomical observations. The unique scientific advantage to these observations is the ability to point close to the Sun: if a suborbital spacecraft accidentally turns too close to the Sun and fries an instrument, it is easy to land the spacecraft and repair the hardware for the next flight. Objects uniquely observed during the short observing window include inner-Earth asteroids, Mercury, Venus, and Sun-grazing comets. Both open-FOV and target-specific observations are possible. Despite many space probes to the inner Solar System, scientific questions remain. These include inner-Earth asteroid size and bulk density informing Solar System evolution studies and efforts to develop methods of mitigation against imminent impactors to Earth; chemistry and dynamics of Venus' atmosphere addressing physical phenomena such as greenhouse effect, atmospheric super-rotation and global resurfacing on Venus. With the Atsa Suborbital Observatory, we combine the strengths of both ground-based observatories and space-based observing to create a facility where a telescope is maintained and used interchangeably with both in-house facility

  12. Volcanic hotspots of the central and southern Andes as seen from space by ASTER and MODVOLC between the years 2000-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jay, J.; Pritchard, M. E.; Mares, P. J.; Mnich, M. E.; Welch, M. D.; Melkonian, A. K.; Aguilera, F.; Naranjo, J.; Sunagua, M.; Clavero, J. E.

    2011-12-01

    We examine 153 volcanoes and geothermal areas in the central, southern, and austral Andes for temperature anomalies between 2000-2011 from two different spacebourne sensors: 1) those automatically detected by the MODVOLC algorithm (Wright et al., 2004) from MODIS and 2) manually identified hotspots in nighttime images from ASTER. Based on previous work, we expected to find 8 thermal anomalies (volcanoes: Ubinas, Villarrica, Copahue, Láscar, Llaima, Chaitén, Puyehue-Cordón Caulle, Chiliques). We document 31 volcanic areas with pixel integrated temperatures of 4 to more than 100 K above background in at least two images, and another 29 areas that have questionable hotspots with either smaller anomalies or a hotspot in only one image. Most of the thermal anomalies are related to known activity (lava and pyroclastic flows, growing lava domes, fumaroles, and lakes) while others are of unknown origin or reflect activity at volcanoes that were not thought to be active. A handful of volcanoes exhibit temporal variations in the magnitude and location of their temperature anomaly that can be related to both documented and undocumented pulses of activity. Our survey reveals that low amplitude volcanic hotspots detectable from space are more common than expected (based on lower resolution data) and that these features could be more widely used to monitor changes in the activity of remote volcanoes. We find that the shape, size, magnitude, and location on the volcano of the thermal anomaly vary significantly from volcano to volcano, and these variations should be considered when developing algorithms for hotspot identification and detection. We compare our thermal results to satellite InSAR measurements of volcanic deformation and find that there is no simple relationship between deformation and thermal anomalies - while 31 volcanoes have continuous hotspots, at least 17 volcanoes in the same area have exhibited deformation, and these lists do not completely overlap. In

  13. Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory as Cultural Centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickaelian, A. M.; Farmanyan, S. V.

    2017-07-01

    NAS RA V. Ambartsumian Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory is presented as a cultural centre for Armenia and the Armenian nation in general. Besides being scientific and educational centre, the Observatory is famous for its unique architectural ensemble, rich botanical garden and world of birds, as well as it is one of the most frequently visited sightseeing of Armenia. In recent years, the Observatory has also taken the initiative of the coordination of the Cultural Astronomy in Armenia and in this field, unites the astronomers, historians, archaeologists, ethnographers, culturologists, literary critics, linguists, art historians and other experts. Keywords: Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory, architecture, botanic garden, tourism, Cultural Astronomy.

  14. TUM Critical Zone Observatory, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Völkel, Jörg; Eden, Marie

    2014-05-01

    Founded 2011 the TUM Critical Zone Observatory run by the Technische Universität München and partners abroad is the first CZO within Germany. TUM CZO is both, a scientific as well as an education project. It is a watershed based observatory, but moving behind this focus. In fact, two mountainous areas are integrated: (1) The Ammer Catchment area as an alpine and pre alpine research area in the northern limestone Alps and forelands south of Munich; (2) the Otter Creek Catchment in the Bavarian Forest with a crystalline setting (Granite, Gneiss) as a mid mountainous area near Regensburg; and partly the mountainous Bavarian Forest National Park. The Ammer Catchment is a high energy system as well as a sensitive climate system with past glacial elements. The lithology shows mostly carbonates from Tertiary and Mesozoic times (e.g. Flysch). Source-to-sink processes are characteristic for the Ammer Catchment down to the last glacial Ammer Lake as the regional erosion and deposition base. The consideration of distal depositional environments, the integration of upstream and downstream landscape effects are characteristic for the Ammer Catchment as well. Long term datasets exist in many regards. The Otter Creek catchment area is developed in a granitic environment, rich in saprolites. As a mid mountainous catchment the energy system is facing lower stage. Hence, it is ideal comparing both of them. Both TUM CZO Catchments: The selected catchments capture the depositional environment. Both catchment areas include historical impacts and rapid land use change. Crosscutting themes across both sites are inbuilt. Questions of ability to capture such gradients along climosequence, chronosequence, anthroposequence are essential.

  15. Lockheed Solar Observatory and the Discovery of Moreton-Ramsey Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarbell, Theodore D.

    2014-06-01

    Moreton Waves are high-speed disturbances seen traveling away from large solar flares in H-alpha movies of the solar chromosphere. They were discovered by the observer Harry Ramsey in the late 1950s, and then published and publicized by the director Gail Moreton, both of the Lockheed Solar Observatory in the Hollywood Hills of Southern California. These efforts established the scientific reputation and secured continuing funding of the observatory, whose present-day successor is the Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Lab in Palo Alto. Moreton waves are rare, and there was limited interest in them until the EIT instrument on SOHO began seeing large numbers of similar waves in the corona in the late 1990s. The exact relation between the two observations is still a research topic today. This talk will describe some of the history of the observatory and the discovery and early interpretation of the waves.

  16. The influence of the observatory latitude on the study of ultra high energy cosmic rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anjos, Rita C. dos [Departamento de Engenharias e Exatas, Universidade Federal do Paraná (UFPR), Pioneiro, 2153, Palotina, PR, 85950-000 Brazil (Brazil); De Souza, Vitor [Instituto de Física de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo, CP 369, São Carlos, SP, 13560-970 Brazil (Brazil); De Almeida, Rogerio M. [EEIMVR, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil); Santos, Edivaldo M., E-mail: ritacassia@ufpr.br, E-mail: vitor@ifsc.usp.br, E-mail: rmenezes@id.uff.br, E-mail: emoura@if.usp.br [Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, Rua do Matão trav. R 187, São Paulo, 05508-090 Brazil (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Recent precision measurements of the Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECR) arrival directions, spectrum and parameters related to the mass of the primary particle have been done by the HiRes, Pierre Auger and Telescope Array (TA) Observatories. In this paper, distributions of arrival directions of events in the nearby Universe are assumed to correlate with sources in the 2MASS Redshift Survey (2MRS), IRAS 1.2 Jy Survey, Palermo Swift-BAT and Swift-BAT catalogs, and the effect of the latitude of the observatory on the measurement of the energy spectrum and on the capability of measuring anisotropy is studied. The differences between given latitudes on the northern and southern hemispheres are quantified. It is shown that the latitude of the observatory: a) has an influence on the total flux measured and b) imposes an important limitation on the capability of measuring an anisotropic sky.

  17. Observatory data and the Swarm mission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macmillan, S.; Olsen, Nils

    2013-01-01

    products. We describe here the preparation of the data set of ground observatory hourly mean values, including procedures to check and select observatory data spanning the modern magnetic survey satellite era. We discuss other possible combined uses of satellite and observatory data, in particular those......The ESA Swarm mission to identify and measure very accurately the different magnetic signals that arise in the Earth’s core, mantle, crust, oceans, ionosphere and magnetosphere, which together form the magnetic field around the Earth, has increased interest in magnetic data collected on the surface...... of the Earth at observatories. The scientific use of Swarm data and Swarm-derived products is greatly enhanced by combination with observatory data and indices. As part of the Swarm Level-2 data activities plans are in place to distribute such ground-based data along with the Swarm data as auxiliary data...

  18. The CARIBIC flying observatory and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenninkmeijer, C.

    2012-01-01

    The troposphere can be considered as a complex chemical reactor reaching from the boundary layer up to the tropopause region, in which a multitude of reactions takes place driven by sunlight and supplied with precursors emitted by vegetation, wildfires, and obviously human activities on earth, like burning oil products. Research aircraft (say modified business jets) are far too expensive for a global view of this extensive atmospheric system that changes from day to night, season to season, year to year, and will keep changing. CARIBIC (www.caribic.de) is a logical answer; it is a flying observatory, a 1.5 ton freight container packed with over 15 instruments, for exploring the atmosphere on a regular basis using cargo space in a Lufthansa Airbus A340-600 on intercontinental flights. By means of various results obtained by CARIBIC, about among others volcanic eruptions, the monsoon and accompanying emissions of methane, and long range transport of pollution, we will show how some of the questions atmospheric research grapples with are being addressed, without having a fleet of business jets. (author)

  19. International lunar observatory / power station: from Hawaii to the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durst, S.

    Astronomy's great advantages from the Moon are well known - stable surface, diffuse atmosphere, long cool nights (14 days), low gravity, far side radio frequency silence. A large variety of astronomical instruments and observations are possible - radio, optical and infrared telescopes and interferometers; interferometry for ultra- violet to sub -millimeter wavelengths and for very long baselines, including Earth- Moon VLBI; X-ray, gamma-ray, cosmic ray and neutrino detection; very low frequency radio observation; and more. Unparalleled advantages of lunar observatories for SETI, as well as for local surveillance, Earth observation, and detection of Earth approaching objects add significant utility to lunar astronomy's superlatives. At least nine major conferences in the USA since 1984 and many elsewhere, as well as ILEWG, IAF, IAA, LEDA and other organizations' astronomy-from-the-Moon research indicate a lunar observatory / power station, robotic at first, will be one of the first mission elements for a permanent lunar base. An international lunar observatory will be a transcending enterprise, highly principled, indispensable, soundly and broadly based, and far- seeing. Via Astra - From Hawaii to the Moon: The astronomy and scie nce communities, national space agencies and aerospace consortia, commercial travel and tourist enterprises and those aspiring to advance humanity's best qualities, such as Aloha, will recognize Hawaii in the 21st century as a new major support area and pan- Pacific port of embarkation to space, the Moon and beyond. Astronomical conditions and facilities on Hawaii's Mauna Kea provide experience for construction and operation of observatories on the Moon. Remote and centrally isolated, with diffuse atmosphere, sub-zero temperature and limited working mobility, the Mauna Kea complex atop the 4,206 meter summit of the largest mountain on the planet hosts the greatest collection of large astronomical telescopes on Earth. Lunar, extraterrestrial

  20. A Comparative Analysis on the Temporal and Spatial Distribution of Fire Characteristics in the Amazon and Equatorial Southern Africa Using Observations from Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wenfu; Arellano, Avelino. F.; Raman, Aishwarya

    2015-04-01

    Tropical forest fires significantly impact atmospheric composition and regional and global climate. In particular, fires in Equatorial Southern Africa (ESA) and Amazon comprise the two largest contributors to fire emissions of chemically and radiatively-active atmospheric constituents (such as CO, BC, CO2) across the globe. Here, we investigate the spatiotemporal trends in fire characteristics between these regions using combustion signatures observed from space. Our main goals are: 1) To identify key relationships between the trends in co-emitted constituents across these regions, and, 2) To explore linkages of the observed trends in fire characteristics with the main drivers of change such as meteorology, fire practice, development patterns, and ecosystem feedbacks. We take advantage of the similarity in latitude and land area between these regions in understanding some of these drivers. Our approach begins with a multi-species analysis of trends in the observed abundance of CO, NO2, and aerosols over these regions and across the time period 2004 to 2014. We use multi-spectral retrievals of CO from Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT), tropospheric column retrievals of NO2 from Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), and aerosol optical depth retrievals from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument. The long records from these retrievals provide a unique opportunity to study atmospheric composition across the most recent decade. While several studies in the past have reported trends over these regions, most of these studies have focused on a particular constituent. A unique aspect of this work involves understanding covariations in co-emitted constituents to provide a more comprehensive look at fire characteristics and behavior, which are yet to be fully understood. Our initial results show that the annual average of CO for ESA (~115 ppbv) is greater than that of Amazon (110 ppbv). This pattern is also seen in NO2 (ESA : ~215

  1. First observations of tropospheric δD data observed by ground- and space-based remote sensing and surface in-situ measurement techniques at MUSICA's principle reference station (Izaña Observatory, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Yenny; Schneider, Matthias; Christner, Emanuel; Rodríguez, Omaira E.; Sepúlveda, Eliezer; Dyroff, Christoph; Wiegele, Andreas

    2013-04-01

    The main goal of the project MUSICA (Multiplatform remote Sensing of Isotopologues for investigating the Cycle of Atmospheric water) is the generation of a quasi global tropospheric water vapor isototopologue dataset of a good and well-documented quality. Therefore, new ground- and space-based remote sensing observations (NDACC-FTIR and IASI/METOP) are combined with in-situ measurements. This work presents the first comparison between in-situ and remote sensing observations made at the Izaña Atmospheric Research Centre (Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain). The in-situ measurements are made by a Picarro L2120-i water vapor isotopologue analyzer. At Izaña the in-situ data are affected by local small-scale mixing processes: during daylight, the thermally buoyant upslope flow prompts the mixing between the Marine Boundary Layer (MBL) and the low Free Troposphere (FT). However, the remote sensors detect δD values averaged over altitudes that are more representative for the free troposphere. This difference has to be considered for the comparison. In general, a good agreement between the MUSICA remote sensing and the in situ H2O-versus-δD plots is found, which demonstrates that the MUSICA δD remote sensing products add scientifically valuable information to the H2O data.

  2. Solar Imagery - Photosphere - Sunspot Drawings - McMath-Hulbert Observatory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The McMath-Hulbert Observatory is a decommissioned solar observatory in Lake Angelus, Michigan, USA. It was established in 1929 as a private observatory by father...

  3. EMSO: European Multidisciplinary Seafloor Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favali, P.; Partnership, Emso

    2009-04-01

    EMSO, a Research Infrastructure listed within ESFRI (European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures) Roadmap), is the European-scale network of multidisciplinary seafloor observatories from the Arctic to the Black Sea with the scientific objective of long-term real-time monitoring of processes related to geosphere/biosphere/hydrosphere interactions. EMSO will enhance our understanding of processes through long time series appropriate to the scale of the phenomena, constituting the new frontier of studying Earth interior, deep-sea biology and chemistry and ocean processes. EMSO will reply also to the need expressed in the frame of GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security) to develop a marine segment integrated in the in situ and satellite global monitoring system. The EMSO development relays upon the synergy between the scientific community and the industry to improve the European competitiveness with respect to countries like USA/Canada, NEPTUNE, VENUS and MARS projects, Taiwan, MACHO project, and Japan, DONET project. In Europe the development of an underwater network is based on previous EU-funded projects since early '90, and presently supported by EU initiatives. The EMSO infrastructure will constitute the extension to the sea of the land-based networks. Examples of data recorded by seafloor observatories will be presented. EMSO is presently at the stage of Preparatory Phase (PP), funded in the EC FP7 Capacities Programme. The project has started in April 2008 and will last 4 years with the participation of 12 Institutions representing 12 countries. EMSO potential will be significantly increased also with the interaction with other Research Infrastructures addressed to Earth Science. 2. IFREMER-Institut Français de Recherche pour l'exploitation de la mer (France, ref. Roland Person); KDM-Konsortium Deutsche Meeresforschung e.V. (Germany, ref. Christoph Waldmann); IMI-Irish Marine Institute (Ireland, ref. Michael Gillooly); UTM-CSIC-Unidad de

  4. EMSO: European Multidisciplinary Seafloor Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favali, Paolo

    2010-05-01

    EMSO, a Research Infrastructure listed within ESFRI (European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures) Roadmap (Report 2006, http://cordis.europa.eu/esfri/roadmap.htm), is the European-scale network of multidisciplinary seafloor observatories from the Arctic to the Black Sea with the scientific objective of long-term real-time monitoring of processes related to geosphere/biosphere/hydrosphere interactions. EMSO will enhance our understanding of processes through long time series appropriate to the scale of the phenomena, constituting the new frontier of studying Earth interior, deep-sea biology and chemistry and ocean processes. The development of an underwater network is based on previous EU-funded projects since early '90 and is being supported by several EU initiatives, as the on-going ESONET-NoE, coordinated by IFREMER (2007-2011, http://www.esonet-emso.org/esonet-noe/), and aims at gathering together the Research Community of the Ocean Observatories. In 2006 the FP7 Capacities Programme launched a call for Preparatory Phase (PP) projects, that will provide the support to create the legal and organisational entities in charge of managing the infrastructures, and coordinating the financial effort among the countries. Under this call the EMSO-PP project was approved in 2007 with the coordination of INGV and the participation of other 11 Institutions of 11 countries. The project has started in April 2008 and will last 4 years. The EMSO is a key-infrastructure both for Ocean Sciences and for Solid Earth Sciences. In this respect it will enhance and complement profitably the capabilities of other European research infrastructures such as EPOS, ERICON-Aurora Borealis, and SIOS. The perspective of the synergy among EMSO and other ESFRI Research Infrastructures will be outlined. EMSO Partners: IFREMER-Institut Français de Recherche pour l'exploitation de la mer (France, ref. Roland Person); KDM-Konsortium Deutsche Meeresforschung e.V. (Germany, ref. Christoph

  5. Teaching Astronomy Through Art: Under Southern Skies -- Aboriginal and Western Scientific Perspectives of the Australian Night Sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewski, S. R.; Boles, M. S.; Patterson, R. J.

    1999-12-01

    We have created an exhibit, Under Southern Skies -- Aboriginal and Western Scientific Perspectives of the Australian Night Sky, which has shown since June, 1999 in newly refurbished exhibit space at the Leander McCormick Observatory. The University of Virginia has a long and continuing tradition of astrometry starting with early parallax work at the McCormick Observatory, extending to our own NSF CAREER Award-funded projects, and including a long-term, ongoing southern parallax program at Mt. Stromlo and Siding Springs Observatories in Australia. Recently, through a gift of Mr. John Kluge, the University of Virginia has obtained one of the most extensive collections of Australian Aboriginal art outside of Australia. The goal of our exhibit is to unite the University's scientific, artistic and cultural connections to Australia through an exhibit focusing on different perspectives of the Australian night sky. We have brought together Australian Aboriginal bark and canvas paintings that feature astronomical themes, e.g., Milky Way, Moon, Magellanic Cloud and Seven Sisters Dreamings, from the Kluge-Ruhe and private collections. These paintings, from the Central Desert and Arnhem Land regions of Australia, are intermingled with modern, large format, color astronomical images of the same scenes. Descriptive panels and a small gallery guide explain the cultural, artistic and scientific aspects of the various thematic groupings based on particular southern hemisphere night sky objects and associated Aboriginal traditions and stories. This unusual combination of art and science not only provides a unique avenue for educating the public about both astronomy and Australian Aboriginal culture, but highlights mankind's ancient and continuing connection to the night sky. We appreciate funding from NSF CAREER Award #AST-9702521, a Cottrell Scholar Award from The Research Corporation, and the Dept. of Astronomy and Ruhe-Kluge Collection at the University of Virginia.

  6. The Observing Time Distribution in Major Groundbased Observatories - a Complex Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breysacher, J.

    The aim of the present paper is to give, first, a brief description of the different steps related to the general procedure of telescope time allocation at the European Southern Observatory, and then, a detailed review of the various constraints one has to take into account when preparing the final observing schedule on the various telescopes installed at La Silla. A succinct discussion will be given of how, in the future, remote control observing may facilitate the coordination of multiwavelength investigations.

  7. Photographs of the southern heavens

    CERN Document Server

    West, R M

    1975-01-01

    The 1 m Schmidt telescope of the European Southern Observatory (ESO) has been used for a number of sky surveys. In particular a main task has been an examination of the southern night sky between declinations of -20 degrees and -90 degrees . This exercise is known as the ESO(B) Survey (or Quick Blue Survey); some of the more interesting results are shown and are briefly discussed. The photographic plates used were Kodak II a-o. There are photographs of the two Magellanic Clouds and of the galaxy NGC 1313 and the globular cluster NGC 6752. A spectrogram of our Galaxy for wavelengths in the band 3900 A to 4900 A, taken with the telescope's large objective prism is also shown. (0 refs).

  8. The Malaysian Robotic Solar Observatory (P29)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, M.; Asillam, M. F.; Ismail, M. K. H.

    2006-11-01

    Robotic observatory with small telescopes can make significant contributions to astronomy observation. They provide an encouraging environment for astronomers to focus on data analysis and research while at the same time reducing time and cost for observation. The observatory will house the primary 50cm robotic telescope in the main dome which will be used for photometry, spectroscopy and astrometry observation activities. The secondary telescope is a robotic multi-apochromatic refractor (maximum diameter: 15 cm) which will be housed in the smaller dome. This telescope set will be used for solar observation mainly in three different wavelengths simultaneously: the Continuum, H-Alpha and Calcium K-line. The observatory is also equipped with an automated weather station, cloud & rain sensor and all-sky camera to monitor the climatic condition, sense the clouds (before raining) as well as to view real time sky view above the observatory. In conjunction with the Langkawi All-Sky Camera, the observatory website will also display images from the Malaysia - Antarctica All-Sky Camera used to monitor the sky at Scott Base Antarctica. Both all-sky images can be displayed simultaneously to show the difference between the equatorial and Antarctica skies. This paper will describe the Malaysian Robotic Observatory including the systems available and method of access by other astronomers. We will also suggest possible collaboration with other observatories in this region.

  9. Site Protection Efforts at the AURA Observatory in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R. Chris; Smith, Malcolm G.; Sanhueza, Pedro

    2015-08-01

    The AURA Observatory (AURA-O) was the first of the major international observatories to be established in northern Chile to exploit the optimal astronomical conditions available there. The site was originally established in 1962 to host the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO). It now hosts more than 20 operational telescopes, including some of the leading U.S. and international astronomical facilities in the southern hemisphere, such as the Blanco 4m telescope on Cerro Tololo and the Gemini-South and SOAR telescopes on Cerro Pachón. Construction of the next generation facility, the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), has recently begun on Cerro Pachón, while additional smaller telescopes continue to be added to the complement on Cerro Tololo.While the site has become a major platform for international astronomical facilities over the last 50 years, development in the region has led to an ever-increasing threat of light pollution around the site. AURA-O has worked closely with local, regional, and national authorities and institutions (in particular with the Chilean Ministries of Environment and Foreign Relations) in an effort to protect the site so that future generations of telescopes, as well as future generations of Chileans, can benefit from the dark skies in the region. We will summarize our efforts over the past 15 years to highlight the importance of dark sky protection through education and public outreach as well as through more recent promotion of IDA certifications in the region and support for the World Heritage initiatives described by others in this conference.

  10. Radon at the Mauna Loa Observatory: transport from distant continents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittlestone, S.; Robinson, E.; Ryan, S.

    1992-01-01

    Continuous measurements of radon have been made at an altitude of 3400m at the Mauna Loa Observatory, Hawaii. Concentrations ranged from about 20 to more than 700mBq m -3 . These were similar to values at remote Macquarie I., some 2000 km south of Australia in the Southern Ocean. At Mauna Loa, the radon concentrations could usually be separated into free tropospheric and island influenced categories on the basis of local meteorological observations. On one occasion a long range transport event from Asia brought relatively high radon concentrations to Mauna Loa and persisted for several days. The Asian origin of this event was supported by wind trajectories. This measurement program demonstrates the value of radon data in evaluating air transport models and the influence of transport from distant continents on baseline atmospheric measurements. (author)

  11. The Virtual Solar Observatory: What Are We Up To Now?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurman, J. B.; Hill, F.; Suarez-Sola, F.; Bogart, R.; Amezcua, A.; Martens, P.; Hourcle, J.; Hughitt, K.; Davey, A.

    2012-01-01

    In the nearly ten years of a functional Virtual Solar Observatory (VSO), http://virtualsolar.org/ we have made it possible to query and access sixty-seven distinct solar data products and several event lists from nine spacecraft and fifteen observatories or observing networks. We have used existing VSO technology, and developed new software, for a distributed network of sites caching and serving SDO HMI and/ or AlA data. We have also developed an application programming interface (API) that has enabled VSO search and data access capabilities in IDL, Python, and Java. We also have quite a bit of work yet to do, including completion of the implementation of access to SDO EVE data, and access to some nineteen other data sets from space- and ground-based observatories. In addition, we have been developing a new graphic user interface that will enable the saving of user interface and search preferences. We solicit advice from the community input prioritizing our task list, and adding to it

  12. AMIGA at the Auger observatory: the telecommunications system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platino, M; Hampel, M R; Almela, A; Sedoski, A; Lucero, A; Suarez, F; Wainberg, O; Etchegoyen, A; Fiszelew, P; Vega, G De La; Videla, M; Yelos, D; Cancio, A; Garcia, B

    2013-01-01

    AMIGA is an extension of the Pierre Auger Observatory that will consist of 85 detector pairs, each one composed of a surface water-Cherenkov detector and a buried muon counter. Each muon counter has an area of 30 square meters and is made of scintillator strips, with doped optical fibers glued to them, which guide the light to 64 pixel photomultiplier tubes. The detector pairs are arranged at 433 m and 750 m array spacings. In this paper we present the telecommunications system designed to connect the muon counters with the central data processing system at the observatory campus in Malarg and quot;ue. The telecommunications system consists of a point-to-multipoint radio link designed to connect the 85 muon counters or subscribers to two coordinators located at the Coihueco fluorescence detector building. The link provides TCP/IP remote access to the scintillator modules through router boards installed on each of the surface detectors of AMIGA. This setup provides a flexible LAN configuration for each muon counter connected to a WAN that links all the data generated by the muon counters and the surface detectors to the Central Data Acquisition System, or CDAS, at the observatory campus. We present the design parameters, the proposed telecommunications solution and the laboratory and field tests proposed to guarantee its functioning for the whole data traffic generated between each surface detector and muon counter in the AMIGA array and the CDAS

  13. Robotic Software for the Thacher Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, George; Luebbers, Julien; Eastman, Jason D.; Johnson, John A.; Swift, Jonathan

    2018-06-01

    The Thacher Observatory—a research and educational facility located in Ojai, CA—uses a 0.7 meter telescope to conduct photometric research on a variety of targets including eclipsing binaries, exoplanet transits, and supernovae. Currently, observations are automated using commercial software. In order to expand the flexibility for specialized scientific observations and to increase the educational value of the facility on campus, we are adapting and implementing the custom observatory control software and queue scheduling developed for the Miniature Exoplanet Radial Velocity Array (MINERVA) to the Thacher Observatory. We present the design and implementation of this new software as well as its demonstrated functionality on the Thacher Observatory.

  14. A conspicuous globule in the Southern Coalsack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bok, B.J.; Sim, M.E.; Hawarden, T.G.

    1977-01-01

    It is stated that the Southern Coalsack is the finest dark nebula in the Southern Milky Way. Two photographs are here shown taken in October 1976 with the SRC 1.2 m Schmidt telescope at the Siding Spring Observatory, Australia. These show the whole of the Coalsack in all its beauty, and its features are discussed. It is shown how much can be learned by simple star counting techniques. A large number of potential globules are indicated, some of which are described. (U.K.)

  15. Atomic and molecular databases in the context of virtual observatories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubernet, Marie-Lise; Roueff, Evelyne

    2006-01-01

    Numerical and bibliographic Databases in Atomic and Molecular Physics are essential for both the modelling of various astrophysical media and the interpretation of astrophysical spectra provided by ground or space-based telescopes. We report here on our current project concerning the access to Atomic and Molecular Databases within the Virtual Observatories. This presentation aims at informing people about interoperability matters, in order to put together the efforts which have already started in this domain, to evaluate the needs and requirements of the targeted interrelation between atomic and molecular data bases and VO projects. Collaborations in this domain are welcome. (author)

  16. Gamma ray observatory dynamics simulator in Ada (GRODY)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-09-01

    This experiment involved the parallel development of dynamics simulators for the Gamma Ray Observatory in both FORTRAN and Ada for the purpose of evaluating the applicability of Ada to the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center's flight dynamics environment. The experiment successfully demonstrated that Ada is a viable, valuable technology for use in this environment. In addition to building a simulator, the Ada team evaluated training approaches, developed an Ada methodology appropriate to the flight dynamics environment, and established a baseline for evaluating future Ada projects

  17. Pro-Amateur Observatories as a Significant Resource for Professional Astronomers - Taurus Hill Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haukka, H.; Hentunen, V.-P.; Nissinen, M.; Salmi, T.; Aartolahti, H.; Juutilainen, J.; Vilokki, H.

    2013-09-01

    Taurus Hill Observatory (THO), observatory code A95, is an amateur observatory located in Varkaus, Finland. The observatory is maintained by the local astronomical association of Warkauden Kassiopeia [8]. THO research team has observed and measured various stellar objects and phenomena. Observatory has mainly focuse d on asteroid [1] and exoplanet light curve measurements, observing the gamma rays burst, supernova discoveries and monitoring [2]. We also do long term monitoring projects [3]. THO research team has presented its research work on previous EPSC meetings ([4], [5],[6], [7]) and got very supportive reactions from the European planetary science community. The results and publications that pro-amateur based observatories, like THO, have contributed, clearly demonstrates that pro-amateurs area significant resource for the professional astronomers now and even more in the future.

  18. Magdalena Ridge Observatory Interferometer: Status Update

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Creech-Eakman, M. J; Bakker, E. J; Buscher, D. F; Coleman, T. A; Haniff, C. A; Jurgenson, C. A; Klinglesmith, III, D. A; Parameswariah, C. B; Romero, V. D; Shtromberg, A. V; Young, J. S

    2006-01-01

    The Magdalena Ridge Observatory Interferometer (MROI) is a ten element optical and near-infrared imaging interferometer being built in the Magdalena mountains west of Socorro, NM at an altitude of 3230 m...

  19. Ten years of the Spanish Virtual Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano, E.

    2015-05-01

    The main objective of the Virtual Observatory (VO) is to guarantee an easy and efficient access and analysis of the information hosted in astronomical archives. The Spanish Virtual Observatory (SVO) is a project that was born in 2004 with the goal of promoting and coordinating the VO-related activities at national level. SVO is also the national contact point for the international VO initiatives, in particular the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA) and the Euro-VO project. The project, led by Centro de Astrobiología (INTA-CSIC), is structured around four major topics: a) VO compliance of astronomical archives, b) VO-science, c) VO- and data mining-tools, and d) Education and outreach. In this paper I will describe the most important results obtained by the Spanish Virtual Observatory in its first ten years of life as well as the future lines of work.

  20. The Astrophysical Multimessenger Observatory Network (AMON)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith. M. W. E.; Fox, D. B.; Cowen, D. F.; Meszaros, P.; Tesic, G.; Fixelle, J.; Bartos, I.; Sommers, P.; Ashtekar, Abhay; Babu, G. Jogesh; hide

    2013-01-01

    We summarize the science opportunity, design elements, current and projected partner observatories, and anticipated science returns of the Astrophysical Multimessenger Observatory Network (AMON). AMON will link multiple current and future high-energy, multimessenger, and follow-up observatories together into a single network, enabling near real-time coincidence searches for multimessenger astrophysical transients and their electromagnetic counterparts. Candidate and high-confidence multimessenger transient events will be identified, characterized, and distributed as AMON alerts within the network and to interested external observers, leading to follow-up observations across the electromagnetic spectrum. In this way, AMON aims to evoke the discovery of multimessenger transients from within observatory subthreshold data streams and facilitate the exploitation of these transients for purposes of astronomy and fundamental physics. As a central hub of global multimessenger science, AMON will also enable cross-collaboration analyses of archival datasets in search of rare or exotic astrophysical phenomena.

  1. Astronomy projects in ruins as observatory obliterated

    CERN Multimedia

    Bradley, M

    2003-01-01

    Canberra bushfires have gutted the Mount Stromlo Observatory causing the flames destroyed five telescopes, the workshop, eight staff homes and the main dome, causing more than $20 million in damage (1 page).

  2. In Brief: Deep-sea observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2008-11-01

    The first deep-sea ocean observatory offshore of the continental United States has begun operating in the waters off central California. The remotely operated Monterey Accelerated Research System (MARS) will allow scientists to monitor the deep sea continuously. Among the first devices to be hooked up to the observatory are instruments to monitor earthquakes, videotape deep-sea animals, and study the effects of acidification on seafloor animals. ``Some day we may look back at the first packets of data streaming in from the MARS observatory as the equivalent of those first words spoken by Alexander Graham Bell: `Watson, come here, I need you!','' commented Marcia McNutt, president and CEO of the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, which coordinated construction of the observatory. For more information, see http://www.mbari.org/news/news_releases/2008/mars-live/mars-live.html.

  3. The Farid and Moussa Raphael Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajjar, R

    2017-01-01

    The Farid and Moussa Raphael Observatory (FMRO) at Notre Dame University Louaize (NDU) is a teaching, research, and outreach facility located at the main campus of the university. It located very close to the Lebanese coast, in an urbanized area. It features a 60-cm Planewave CDK telescope, and instruments that allow for photometric and spetroscopic studies. The observatory currently has one thinned, back-illuminated CCD camera, used as the main imager along with Johnson-Cousin and Sloan photometric filters. It also features two spectrographs, one of which is a fiber fed echelle spectrograph. These are used with a dedicated CCD. The observatory has served for student projects, and summer schools for advanced undergraduate and graduate students. It is also made available for use by the regional and international community. The control system is currently being configured for remote observations. A number of long-term research projects are also being launched at the observatory. (paper)

  4. The Pierre Auger Cosmic Ray Observatory

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Boháčová, Martina; Chudoba, Jiří; Ebr, Jan; Grygar, Jiří; Mandát, Dušan; Nečesal, Petr; Palatka, Miroslav; Pech, Miroslav; Prouza, Michael; Řídký, Jan; Schovánek, Petr; Trávníček, Petr; Vícha, Jakub

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 798, Oct (2015), s. 172-213 ISSN 0168-9002 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG13007; GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB14AR005; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-17501S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : Pierre Auger Observatory * high energy cosmic rays * hybrid observatory * water Cherenkov detectors * air fluorescence detectors Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 1.200, year: 2015

  5. A Green Robotic Observatory for Astronomy Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Vishnu; Archer, K.

    2008-09-01

    With the development of robotic telescopes and stable remote observing software, it is currently possible for a small institution to have an affordable astronomical facility for astronomy education. However, a faculty member has to deal with the light pollution (observatory location on campus), its nightly operations and regular maintenance apart from his day time teaching and research responsibilities. While building an observatory at a remote location is a solution, the cost of constructing and operating such a facility, not to mention the environmental impact, are beyond the reach of most institutions. In an effort to resolve these issues we have developed a robotic remote observatory that can be operated via the internet from anywhere in the world, has a zero operating carbon footprint and minimum impact on the local environment. The prototype observatory is a clam-shell design that houses an 8-inch telescope with a SBIG ST-10 CCD detector. The brain of the observatory is a low draw 12-volt harsh duty computer that runs the dome, telescope, CCD camera, focuser, and weather monitoring. All equipment runs of a 12-volt AGM-style battery that has low lead content and hence more environmental-friendly to dispose. The total power of 12-14 amp/hrs is generated from a set of solar panels that are large enough to maintain a full battery charge for several cloudy days. This completely eliminates the need for a local power grid for operations. Internet access is accomplished via a high-speed cell phone broadband connection or satellite link eliminating the need for a phone network. An independent observatory monitoring system interfaces with the observatory computer during operation. The observatory converts to a trailer for transportation to the site and is converted to a semi-permanent building without wheels and towing equipment. This ensures minimal disturbance to local environment.

  6. Observatories of Sawai Jai Singh II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Roehr, Susan N.

    Sawai Jai Singh II, Maharaja of Amber and Jaipur, constructed five observatories in the second quarter of the eighteenth century in the north Indian cities of Shahjahanabad (Delhi), Jaipur, Ujjain, Mathura, and Varanasi. Believing the accuracy of his naked-eye observations would improve with larger, more stable instruments, Jai Singh reengineered common brass instruments using stone construction methods. His applied ingenuity led to the invention of several outsize masonry instruments, the majority of which were used to determine the coordinates of celestial objects with reference to the local horizon. During Jai Singh's lifetime, the observatories were used to make observations in order to update existing ephemerides such as the Zīj-i Ulugh Begī. Jai Singh established communications with European astronomers through a number of Jesuits living and working in India. In addition to dispatching ambassadorial parties to Portugal, he invited French and Bavarian Jesuits to visit and make use of the observatories in Shahjahanabad and Jaipur. The observatories were abandoned after Jai Singh's death in 1743 CE. The Mathura observatory was disassembled completely before 1857. The instruments at the remaining observatories were restored extensively during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.

  7. NASA Observatory Confirms Black Hole Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-02-01

    cosmic time. Such "cosmic downsizing" was previously observed for galaxies undergoing star formation. These results connect well with the observations of nearby galaxies, which find that the mass of a supermassive black hole is proportional to the mass of the central region of its host galaxy. The other co-authors on the paper in the February 2005 issue of The Astronomical Journal were Len Cowie, Wei-Hao Wang, and Peter Capak (Institute for Astronomy, Univ. of Hawaii), Yuxuan Yang (GSFC and the Univ. of Maryland, College Park), and Aaron Steffen (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison). NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Ala., manages the Chandra program for NASA's Space Mission Directorate, Washington. Northrop Grumman of Redondo Beach, Calif., formerly TRW, Inc., was the prime development contractor for the observatory. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory controls science and flight operations from the Chandra X-ray Center in Cambridge, Mass. Additional information and images are available at: http://chandra.harvard.edu and http://chandra.nasa.gov

  8. Scientific Workflows and the Sensor Web for Virtual Environmental Observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonis, I.; Vahed, A.

    2008-12-01

    Virtual observatories mature from their original domain and become common practice for earth observation research and policy building. The term Virtual Observatory originally came from the astronomical research community. Here, virtual observatories provide universal access to the available astronomical data archives of space and ground-based observatories. Further on, as those virtual observatories aim at integrating heterogeneous ressources provided by a number of participating organizations, the virtual observatory acts as a coordinating entity that strives for common data analysis techniques and tools based on common standards. The Sensor Web is on its way to become one of the major virtual observatories outside of the astronomical research community. Like the original observatory that consists of a number of telescopes, each observing a specific part of the wave spectrum and with a collection of astronomical instruments, the Sensor Web provides a multi-eyes perspective on the current, past, as well as future situation of our planet and its surrounding spheres. The current view of the Sensor Web is that of a single worldwide collaborative, coherent, consistent and consolidated sensor data collection, fusion and distribution system. The Sensor Web can perform as an extensive monitoring and sensing system that provides timely, comprehensive, continuous and multi-mode observations. This technology is key to monitoring and understanding our natural environment, including key areas such as climate change, biodiversity, or natural disasters on local, regional, and global scales. The Sensor Web concept has been well established with ongoing global research and deployment of Sensor Web middleware and standards and represents the foundation layer of systems like the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). The Sensor Web consists of a huge variety of physical and virtual sensors as well as observational data, made available on the Internet at standardized

  9. The Virtual Solar Observatory at Eight and a Bit!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Alisdair R.; VSO Team

    2011-05-01

    The Virtual Solar Observatory (VSO) was the first virtual observatory in the solar and heliophysics data space. It first saw the light of day in 2003 with a mission to serve the solar physics community by enabling homogenous access to heterogeneous data, and hiding the gory details of doing so from the user. The VSO pioneered what was to become the "Small Box" methodology, setting out to provide only the services required to navigate the user to the data and then letting them directly transferred the data from the data providers. After eight and a bit years the VSO now serves data from 72 different instruments covering a multitude of space and ground based observatories, including data from SDO. Dealing with the volume of data from SDO has proved to be our most difficult challenge, forcing us from the small box approach to one where the various VSO sites not only serve SDO data, but are central to the distribution of the data within the US and to Europe and other parts of the world. With SDO data serving mostly in place we are now working on integration with the Heliophysics Event Knowledgebase (HEK) and including a number of new solar data sets in the VSO family. We have a complete VSO search interface in IDL now, enabling searching, downloading and processing solar data, all be done without leaving the IDL command line, and will be releasing a brand new web interface providing users and data providers, with the ability to create far more detailed and instrument specific searches. Eight years on and the VSO has plenty of work in front of it.

  10. Social structure and space use of Amur tigers (Panthera tigris altaica) in Southern Russian Far East based on GPS telemetry data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Blanco, Jose A; Naidenko, Sergei V; Chistopolova, Maria D; Lukarevskiy, Victor S; Kostyrya, Alexey; Rybin, Alexandr; Sorokin, Pavel A; Litvinov, Mikhail N; Kotlyar, Andrey K; Miquelle, Dale G; Rozhnov, Viatcheslav V

    2015-07-01

    To better understand the spatial structure of Amur tigers (Panthera tigris altaica) at the southern edge of their range we fitted 14 tigers (6♀♀ and 8♂♂) with 15 GPS-Argos collars between 2008 and 2011 in 2 study sites: the Ussuriskii Reserve of southern Sikhote-Alin and the Land of the Leopard National Park in southwest Primorye, Russian Far East. Fixed kernel estimates of male home ranges were larger than those of female home ranges (P tiger populations and other areas of the Russian Far East, the sex ratio in our 2 study areas was highly skewed towards males. We believe this skewed sex ratio resulted in the dissolution of territoriality of males due to an inability to defend individual females, with males resorting to scramble competition for mates. Continued monitoring of these sites to determine whether shifts in the sex ratio might result in a return to male territoriality would provide confirmation of our tentative hypothesis. © 2015 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  11. The Fram Strait integrated ocean observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahrbach, E.; Beszczynska-Möller, A.; Rettig, S.; Rohardt, G.; Sagen, H.; Sandven, S.; Hansen, E.

    2012-04-01

    A long-term oceanographic moored array has been operated since 1997 to measure the ocean water column properties and oceanic advective fluxes through Fram Strait. While the mooring line along 78°50'N is devoted to monitoring variability of the physical environment, the AWI Hausgarten observatory, located north of it, focuses on ecosystem properties and benthic biology. Under the EU DAMOCLES and ACOBAR projects, the oceanographic observatory has been extended towards the innovative integrated observing system, combining the deep ocean moorings, multipurpose acoustic system and a network of gliders. The main aim of this system is long-term environmental monitoring in Fram Strait, combining satellite data, acoustic tomography, oceanographic measurements at moorings and glider sections with high-resolution ice-ocean circulation models through data assimilation. In future perspective, a cable connection between the Hausgarten observatory and a land base on Svalbard is planned as the implementation of the ESONET Arctic node. To take advantage of the planned cabled node, different technologies for the underwater data transmission were reviewed and partially tested under the ESONET DM AOEM. The main focus was to design and evaluate available technical solutions for collecting data from different components of the Fram Strait ocean observing system, and an integration of available data streams for the optimal delivery to the future cabled node. The main components of the Fram Strait integrated observing system will be presented and the current status of available technologies for underwater data transfer will be reviewed. On the long term, an initiative of Helmholtz observatories foresees the interdisciplinary Earth-Observing-System FRAM which combines observatories such as the long term deep-sea ecological observatory HAUSGARTEN, the oceanographic Fram Strait integrated observing system and the Svalbard coastal stations maintained by the Norwegian ARCTOS network. A vision

  12. Citizen Observatories and the New Earth Observation Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Grainger

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Earth observation is diversifying, and now includes new types of systems, such as citizen observatories, unmanned aerial vehicles and wireless sensor networks. However, the Copernicus Programme vision of a seamless chain from satellite data to usable information in the hands of decision makers is still largely unrealized, and remote sensing science lacks a conceptual framework to explain why. This paper reviews the literatures on citizen science, citizen observatories and conceptualization of remote sensing systems. It then proposes a Conceptual Framework for Earth Observation which can be used in a new Earth observation science to explain blockages in the chain from collecting data to disseminating information in any Earth observation system, including remote sensing systems. The framework differs from its predecessors by including social variables as well as technological and natural ones. It is used here, with evidence from successful citizen science projects, to compare the factors that are likely to influence the effectiveness of satellite remote sensing systems and citizen observatories. The paper finds that constraints on achieving the seamless “Copernicus Chain” are not solely technical, as assumed in the new Space Strategy for Europe, but include social constraints too. Achieving the Copernicus Chain will depend on the balance between: (a the ‘forward’ momentum generated by the repetitive functioning of each component in the system, as a result of automatic operation or human institutions, and by the efficiency of interfaces between components; and (b the ‘backward’ flow of information on the information needs of end users. Citizen observatories will face challenges in components which for satellite remote sensing systems are: (a automatic or straightforward, e.g., sensor design and launch, data collection, and data products; and (b also challenging, e.g., data processing. Since citizen observatories will rely even more on

  13. Early laser operations at the Large Binocular Telescope Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmer, Gustavo; Lefebvre, Michael; Christou, Julian; Raab, Walfried; Rabien, Sebastian; Ziegleder, Julian; Borelli, José L.; Gässler, Wolfgang

    2014-08-01

    ARGOS is the GLAO (Ground-Layer Adaptive Optics) Rayleigh-based LGS (Laser Guide Star) facility for the Large Binocular Telescope Observatory (LBTO). It is dedicated for observations with LUCI1 and LUCI2, LBTO's pair of NIR imagers and multi-object spectrographs. The system projects three laser beams from the back of each of the two secondary mirror units, which create two constellations circumscribed on circles of 2 arcmin radius with 120 degree spacing. Each of the six Nd:YAG lasers provides a beam of green (532nm) pulses at a rate of 10kHz with a power of 14W to 18W. We achieved first on-sky propagation on the night of November 5, 2013, and commissioning of the full system will take place during 2014. We present the initial results of laser operations at the observatory, including safety procedures and the required coordination with external agencies (FAA, Space Command, and Military Airspace Manager). We also describe our operational procedures and report on our experiences with aircraft spotters. Future plans for safer and more efficient aircraft monitoring and detection are discussed.

  14. Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory for the observation of early photons from gamma-ray bursts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, I H; Brandt, Søren; Budtz-Jørgensen, Carl

    2013-01-01

    One of the least documented and understood aspects of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) is the rise phase of the optical light curve. The Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory (UFFO) is an effort to address this question through extraordinary opportunities presented by a series of space missions including a small s...

  15. Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory (uffo) for Observation of Early Photons from Gamma Ray Bursts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, I. H.; Ahmad, S.; Barrillon, P.

    2013-01-01

    One of the least documented and understood aspects of gamma-ray bursts (GRB) is the rise phase of the optical light curve. The Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory (UFFO) is an effort to address this question through extraordinary opportunities presented by a series of space missions including a small sp...

  16. Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory for observation of early photons from gamma ray bursts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, I. H.; Ahmad, S.; Barrillon, P.

    2012-01-01

    We describe the space project of Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory (UFFO) which will observe early optical photons from gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) with a sub-second optical response, for the first time. The UFFO will probe the early optical rise of GRBs, opening a completely new frontier in GRB and trans...

  17. Space space space

    CERN Document Server

    Trembach, Vera

    2014-01-01

    Space is an introduction to the mysteries of the Universe. Included are Task Cards for independent learning, Journal Word Cards for creative writing, and Hands-On Activities for reinforcing skills in Math and Language Arts. Space is a perfect introduction to further research of the Solar System.

  18. Estimating absorption coefficients of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) using a semi-analytical algorithm for Southern Beaufort Sea (Canadian Arctic) waters: application to deriving concentrations of dissolved organic carbon from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, A.; Hooker, S. B.; Bricaud, A.; Gentili, B.; Babin, M.

    2012-10-01

    A series of papers have suggested that freshwater discharge, including a large amount of dissolved organic matter (DOM), has increased since the middle of the 20th century. In this study, a semi-analytical algorithm for estimating light absorption coefficients of the colored fraction of DOM (CDOM) was developed for Southern Beaufort Sea waters using remote sensing reflectance at six wavelengths in the visible spectral domain corresponding to MODIS ocean color sensor. This algorithm allows to separate colored detrital matter (CDM) into CDOM and non-algal particles (NAP) by determining NAP absorption using an empirical relationship between NAP absorption and particle backscattering coefficients. Evaluation using independent datasets, that were not used for developing the algorithm, showed that CDOM absorption can be estimated accurately to within an uncertainty of 35% and 50% for oceanic and turbid waters, respectively. In situ measurements showed that dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations were tightly correlated with CDOM absorption (r2 = 0.97). By combining the CDOM absorption algorithm together with the DOC versus CDOM relationship, it is now possible to estimate DOC concentrations in the near-surface layer of the Southern Beaufort Sea using satellite ocean color data. DOC concentrations in the surface waters were estimated using MODIS ocean color data, and the estimates showed reasonable values compared to in situ measurements. We propose a routine and near real-time method for deriving DOC concentrations from space, which may open the way to an estimate of DOC budgets for Arctic coastal waters.

  19. The University of Montana's Blue Mountain Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, D. B.

    2004-12-01

    The University of Montana's Department of Physics and Astronomy runs the state of Montana's only professional astronomical observatory. The Observatory, located on nearby Blue Mountain, houses a 16 inch Boller and Chivens Cassegrain reflector (purchased in 1970), in an Ash dome. The Observatory sits just below the summit ridge, at an elevation of approximately 6300 feet. Our instrumentation includes an Op-Tec SSP-5A photoelectric photometer and an SBIG ST-9E CCD camera. We have the only undergraduate astronomy major in the state (technically a physics major with an astronomy option), so our Observatory is an important component of our students' education. Students have recently carried out observing projects on the photometry of variable stars and color photometry of open clusters and OB associations. In my poster I will show some of the data collected by students in their observing projects. The Observatory is also used for public open houses during the summer months, and these have become very popular: at times we have had 300 visitors in a single night.

  20. INTEGRAL as a Virtual Observatory

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubánek, K.; Hudec, René

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 166, - (2007), s. 294-296 ISSN 0920-5632. [International Conference on Particle and Fundamental Physics in Space /3./. Beijing, 19.04.2007-21.04.2007] Grant - others:EU(XE) ESA-PECS project No. 98023 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Source of funding: V - iné verejné zdroje Keywords : gamma-rays * gamma-ray astronomy Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 0.875, year: 2005

  1. Low-frequency Radio Observatory on the Lunar Surface (LROLS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDowall, Robert; Network for Exploration and Space Science (NESS)

    2018-06-01

    A radio observatory on the lunar surface will provide the capability to image solar radio bursts and other sources. Radio burst imaging will improve understanding of radio burst mechanisms, particle acceleration, and space weather. Low-frequency observations (less than ~20 MHz) must be made from space, because lower frequencies are blocked by Earth’s ionosphere. Solar radio observations do not mandate an observatory on the farside of the Moon, although such a location would permit study of less intense solar bursts because the Moon occults the terrestrial radio frequency interference. The components of the lunar radio observatory array are: the antenna system consisting of 10 – 100 antennas distributed over a square kilometer or more; the system to transfer the radio signals from the antennas to the central processing unit; electronics to digitize the signals and possibly to calculate correlations; storage for the data until it is down-linked to Earth. Such transmission requires amplification and a high-gain antenna system or possibly laser comm. For observatories on the lunar farside a satellite or other intermediate transfer system is required to direct the signal to Earth. On the ground, the aperture synthesis analysis is completed to display the radio image as a function of time. Other requirements for lunar surface systems include the power supply, utilizing solar arrays with batteries to maintain the system at adequate thermal levels during the lunar night. An alternative would be a radioisotope thermoelectric generator requiring less mass. The individual antennas might be designed with their own solar arrays and electronics to transmit data to the central processing unit, but surviving lunar night would be a challenge. Harnesses for power and data transfer from the central processing unit to the antennas are an alternative, but a harness-based system complicates deployment. The concept of placing the antennas and harnesses on rolls of polyimide and

  2. Computer Vision for the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, P. C. H.; Attrill, G. D. R.; Davey, A. R.; Engell, A.; Farid, S.; Grigis, P. C.; Kasper, J.; Korreck, K.; Saar, S. H.; Savcheva, A.; Su, Y.; Testa, P.; Wills-Davey, M.; Bernasconi, P. N.; Raouafi, N.-E.; Delouille, V. A.; Hochedez, J. F.; Cirtain, J. W.; Deforest, C. E.; Angryk, R. A.; de Moortel, I.; Wiegelmann, T.; Georgoulis, M. K.; McAteer, R. T. J.; Timmons, R. P.

    2012-01-01

    processing. This will allow the system to produce timely space-weather alerts and to guide the selection and production of quicklook images and movies, in addition to its prime mission of enabling solar science. We briefly describe the complex and unique data-processing pipeline, consisting of the hardware and control software required to handle the SDO data stream and accommodate the computer-vision modules, which has been set up at the Lockheed-Martin Space Astrophysics Laboratory (LMSAL), with an identical copy at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO).

  3. TRIO (Triplet Ionospheric Observatory) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, D.; Seon, J.; Jin, H.; Kim, K.; Lee, J.; Jang, M.; Pak, S.; Kim, K.; Lin, R. P.; Parks, G. K.; Halekas, J. S.; Larson, D. E.; Eastwood, J. P.; Roelof, E. C.; Horbury, T. S.

    2009-12-01

    Triplets of identical cubesats will be built to carry out the following scientific objectives: i) multi-observations of ionospheric ENA (Energetic Neutral Atom) imaging, ii) ionospheric signature of suprathermal electrons and ions associated with auroral acceleration as well as electron microbursts, and iii) complementary measurements of magnetic fields for particle data. Each satellite, a cubesat for ion, neutral, electron, and magnetic fields (CINEMA), is equipped with a suprathermal electron, ion, neutral (STEIN) instrument and a 3-axis magnetometer of magnetoresistive sensors. TRIO is developed by three institutes: i) two CINEMA by Kyung Hee University (KHU) under the WCU program, ii) one CINEMA by UC Berkeley under the NSF support, and iii) three magnetometers by Imperial College, respectively. Multi-spacecraft observations in the STEIN instruments will provide i) stereo ENA imaging with a wide angle in local times, which are sensitive to the evolution of ring current phase space distributions, ii) suprathermal electron measurements with narrow spacings, which reveal the differential signature of accelerated electrons driven by Alfven waves and/or double layer formation in the ionosphere between the acceleration region and the aurora, and iii) suprathermal ion precipitation when the storm-time ring current appears. In addition, multi-spacecraft magnetic field measurements in low earth orbits will allow the tracking of the phase fronts of ULF waves, FTEs, and quasi-periodic reconnection events between ground-based magnetometer data and upstream satellite data.

  4. Multinational History of Strasbourg Astronomical Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Heck, André

    2005-01-01

    Strasbourg Astronomical Observatory is quite an interesting place for historians: several changes of nationality between France and Germany, high-profile scientists having been based there, big projects born or installed in its walls, and so on. Most of the documents circulating on the history of the Observatory and on related matters have however been so far poorly referenced, if at all. This made necessary the compilation of a volume such as this one, offering fully-documented historical facts and references on the first decades of the Observatory history, authored by both French and German specialists. The experts contributing to this book have done their best to write in a way understandable to readers not necessarily hyperspecialized in astronomy nor in the details of European history. After an introductory chapter by the Editor, contributions by Wolfschmidt and by Duerbeck respectively deal extensively with the German periods and review people and instrumentation, while another paper by Duerbeck is more...

  5. Assessment of building facade performance in terms of daylighting and the associated energy consumption in architectural spaces: Vertical and horizontal shading devices for southern exposure facades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alzoubi, Hussain H.; Al-Zoubi, Amneh H. [Department of Architecture, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid 22110 (Jordan)

    2010-08-15

    This paper examines the effect of vertical and horizontal shading devices on the quality of daylight in buildings and the associated energy saving. Excessive daylight in architectural spaces contributes negatively to the energy consumption in buildings. Blinds and shading devices are good solutions to attenuate the surplus amount of daylight in spaces. Accordingly, this study evaluates the effect of shading devices on the amount of light flux and the associated solar energy in buildings. It estimates the energy consumption attributed to lighting spaces for three common positions of shading devices. Computer simulation strategy was undertaken to correlate the illuminance level in spaces with room geometry and architectural shading elements. The Holophane model for lighting calculations was used to estimate the average illuminance level on workplane and correlate it with the expected saving energy in buildings. The study concluded that there is an optimal orientation for shading devices that keeps the internal illuminance level within the acceptable range with minimum amount of solar heat gain. (author)

  6. NEMO-SN-1 the first 'real-time' seafloor observatory of ESONET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favali, Paolo; Beranzoli, Laura; D'Anna, Giuseppe; Gasparoni, Francesco; Gerber, Hans W.

    2006-01-01

    The fruitful collaboration between Italian Research Institutions, particularly Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) and Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) together with Marine Engineering Companies, led to the development of NEMO-SN-1, the first European cabled seafloor multiparameter observatory. This observatory, deployed at 2060 m w.d. about 12 miles off-shore the Eastern coasts of Sicily (Southern Italy), is in real-time acquisition since January 2005 and addressed to different set of measurements: geophysical and oceanographic. In particular the SN-1 seismological data are integrated in the INGV land-based national seismic network, and they arrive in real-time to the Operative Centre in Rome. In the European Commission (EC) European Seafloor Observatory NETwork (ESONET) project, in connection to the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) action plan, the NEMO-SN-1 site has been proposed as an European key area, both for its intrinsic importance for geo-hazards and for the availability of infrastructure as a stepwise development in GMES program. Presently, NEMO-SN-1 is the only ESONET site operative. The paper gives a description of SN-1 observatory with examples of data

  7. Chicago's Dearborn Observatory: a study in survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartky, Ian R.

    2000-12-01

    The Dearborn Observatory, located on the Old University of Chicago campus from 1863 until 1888, was America's most promising astronomical facility when it was founded. Established by the Chicago Astronomical Society and directed by one of the country's most gifted astronomers, it boasted the largest telescope in the world and virtually unlimited operating funds. The Great Chicago Fire of 1871 destroyed its funding and demolished its research programme. Only via the sale of time signals and the heroic efforts of two amateur astronomers did the Dearborn Observatory survive.

  8. Geoelectric monitoring at the Boulder magnetic observatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. C. Blum

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite its importance to a range of applied and fundamental studies, and obvious parallels to a robust network of magnetic-field observatories, long-term geoelectric field monitoring is rarely performed. The installation of a new geoelectric monitoring system at the Boulder magnetic observatory of the US Geological Survey is summarized. Data from the system are expected, among other things, to be used for testing and validating algorithms for mapping North American geoelectric fields. An example time series of recorded electric and magnetic fields during a modest magnetic storm is presented. Based on our experience, we additionally present operational aspects of a successful geoelectric field monitoring system.

  9. Operation of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Martino, Julio

    2011-01-01

    While the work to make data acquisition fully automatic continues, both the Fluorescence Detectors and the Surface Detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory need some kind of attention from the local staff. In the first case, the telescopes are operated and monitored during the moonless periods. The ground array only needs monitoring, but the larger number of stations implies more variables to consider. AugerAccess (a high speed internet connection) will give the possibility of operating and monitoring the observatory from any place in the world. This arises questions about secure access, better control software and alarms. Solutions are already being tested and improved.

  10. The origin of the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dvorak, John

    2011-01-01

    I first stepped through the doorway of the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory in 1976, and I was impressed by what I saw: A dozen people working out of a stone-and-metal building perched at the edge of a high cliff with a spectacular view of a vast volcanic plain. Their primary purpose was to monitor the island's two active volcanoes, Kilauea and Mauna Loa. I joined them, working for six weeks as a volunteer and then, years later, as a staff scientist. That gave me several chances to ask how the observatory had started.

  11. The origin of the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dvorak, John [University of Hawaii' s Institute for Astronomy (United States)

    2011-05-15

    I first stepped through the doorway of the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory in 1976, and I was impressed by what I saw: A dozen people working out of a stone-and-metal building perched at the edge of a high cliff with a spectacular view of a vast volcanic plain. Their primary purpose was to monitor the island's two active volcanoes, Kilauea and Mauna Loa. I joined them, working for six weeks as a volunteer and then, years later, as a staff scientist. That gave me several chances to ask how the observatory had started.

  12. Public relations for a national observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, David G.

    The National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) is a government-funded organization providing state-of-the art observational facilities to the astronomical community on a peer-reviewed basis. In this role, the NRAO must address three principal constituencies with its public-relations efforts. These are: the astronomical community; the funding and legislative bodies of the Federal Government; and the general public. To serve each of these constituencies, the Observatory has developed a set of public-relations initiatives supported by public-relations and outreach professionals as well as by management and scientific staff members. The techniques applied and the results achieved in each of these areas are described.

  13. Russian Virtual Observatory: Data Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malkov O.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this review is to analyze main directions of creation and functioning of major data sources developed by Russian astronomers or with their participation and to compare them with the worldwide trends in these fields. We discuss astronomical space missions of the past, present, and future (Astron, INTEGRAL, WSO-UV, Spectrum Roentgen Gamma, Lyra-B, high-quality photometric atlases and catalogues, and spectroscopic data sources, primarily VALD and the global VAMDC framework for the maintenance and distribution of atomic and molecular data. We describe collection, analysis, and dissemination of astronomical data on minor bodies of the Solar System and on variable stars. Also described is the project joining data for all observational types of binary and multiple stars, Binary star DataBase (BDB.

  14. Developing the Planetary Science Virtual Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erard, Stéphane; Cecconi, Baptiste; Le Sidaner, Pierre; Henry, Florence; Chauvin, Cyril; Berthier, Jérôme; André, Nicolas; Génot, Vincent; Schmitt, Bernard; Capria, Teresa; Chanteur, Gérard

    2015-08-01

    In the frame of the Europlanet-RI program, a prototype Virtual Observatory dedicated to Planetary Science has been set up. Most of the activity was dedicated to the definition of standards to handle data in this field. The aim was to facilitate searches in big archives as well as sparse databases, to make on-line data access and visualization possible, and to allow small data providers to make their data available in an interoperable environment with minimum effort. This system makes intensive use of studies and developments led in Astronomy (IVOA), Solar Science (HELIO), and space archive services (IPDA).The current architecture connects existing data services with IVOA or IPDA protocols whenever relevant. However, a more general standard has been devised to handle the specific complexity of Planetary Science, e.g. in terms of measurement types and coordinate frames. This protocol, named EPN-TAP, is based on TAP and includes precise requirements to describe the contents of a data service (Erard et al Astron & Comp 2014). A light framework (DaCHS/GAVO) and a procedure have been identified to install small data services, and several hands-on sessions have been organized already. The data services are declared in standard IVOA registries. Support to new data services in Europe will be provided during the proposed Europlanet H2020 program, with a focus on planetary mission support (Rosetta, Cassini…).A specific client (VESPA) has been developed at VO-Paris (http://vespa.obspm.fr). It is able to use all the mandatory parameters in EPN-TAP, plus extra parameters from individual services. A resolver for target names is also available. Selected data can be sent to VO visualization tools such as TOPCAT or Aladin though the SAMP protocol.Future steps will include the development of a connection between the VO world and GIS tools, and integration of heliophysics, planetary plasma and reference spectroscopic data.The EuroPlaNet-RI project was funded by the European

  15. The National Virtual Observatory Science Definintion Team: Report and Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djorgovski, S. G.; NVO SDT Team

    2002-05-01

    Astronomy has become an enormously data-rich science, with numerous multi-Terabyte sky surveys and archives over the full range of wavelengths, and Petabyte-scale data sets already on the horizon. The amount of the available information is growing exponentially, largely driven by the progress in detector and information technology, and the quality and complexity of the data are unprecedented. This great quantitative advance will result in qualitative changes in the way astronomy is done. The Virtual Observatory concept is the astronomy community's organized response to the challenges posed by efficient handling and scientific exploration of new, massive data sets. The NAS Decadal Survey, Astronomy and Astrophysics in the New Millennium, recommends as the first priority in the ``small'' projects category creation of the National Virtual Observatory (NVO). In response to this, the NSF and NASA formed in June 2001 the NVO Science Definition Team (SDT), with a mandate to: (1) Define and formulate a joint NASA/NSF initiative to pursue the NVO goals; (2) Solicit input from the U.S. astronomy community, and incorporate it in the NVO definition documents and recommendations for further actions; and (3) Serve as liaison to broader space science, computer science, and statistics communities for the NVO initiative, and as liaison with the similar efforts in Europe, looking forward towards a truly Global Virtual Observatory. The Team has delivered its report to the agencies and made it publicly available on its website (http://nvosdt.org), where many other relevant links can be found. We will summarize the report, its conclusions, and recommendations.

  16. CSU's MWV Observatory: A Facility for Research, Education and Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, John; Carpenter, N. D.; McCarty, C. B.; Samford, J. H.; Johnson, M.; Puckett, A. W.; Williams, R. N.; Cruzen, S. T.

    2014-01-01

    The Mead Westvaco Observatory (MWVO), located in Columbus State University's Coca-Cola Space Science Center, is dedicated to education and research in astronomy through hands-on engagement and public participation. The MWVO has recently received funding to upgrade from a 16-inch Meade LX-200 telescope to a PlaneWave CDK 24-inch Corrected Dall-Kirkham Astrograph telescope. This and other technological upgrades will allow this observatory to stream live webcasts for astronomical events, allowing a worldwide public audience to become a part of the growing astronomical community. This poster will explain the upgrades that are currently in progress as well as the results from the current calibrations. The goal of these upgrades is to provide facilities capable of both research-class projects and widespread use in education and public outreach. We will present our initial calibration and tests of the observatory equipment, as well as its use in webcasts of astronomical events, in solar observing through the use of specialized piggy-backed telescopes, and in research into such topics as asteroids, planetary and nebula imaging. We will describe a pilot research project on asteroid orbit refinement and light curves, to be carried out by Columbus State University students. We will also outline many of the K-12 educational and public outreach activities we have designed for these facilities. Support and funding for the acquisition and installation of the new PlaneWave CDK 24 has been provided by the International Museum and Library Services via the Museums for America Award.

  17. GPM Ground Validation Southern Appalachian Rain Gauge IPHEx V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation Southern Appalachian Rain Gauge IPHEx dataset was collected during the Integrated Precipitation and Hydrology Experiment (IPHEx) field...

  18. Onshore and offshore apatite fission-track dating from the southern Gulf of California: Insights into the time-space evolution of the rifting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestrieri, Maria Laura; Ferrari, Luca; Bonini, Marco; Duque-Trujillo, Jose; Cerca, Mariano; Moratti, Giovanna; Corti, Giacomo

    2017-11-01

    We present the results of a apatite fission-track (AFT) study on intrusive rocks in the southern Gulf of California, sampled along the eastern margin of Baja California Sur (western rift margin), as well as from islands and submerged rifted blocks within the Gulf of California, and from the conjugate Mexican margin (Nayarit state). For most of the samples U-Pb zircon and 40Ar-39Ar mineral ages were already available (Duque-Trujillo et al., 2015). Coupled with the new AFT data these ages provide a more complete information on cooling after emplacement. Our samples span a wide range of ages between 5.5 ± 1.1 and 73.7 ± 5.8 Ma, and show a general spatial distribution, with late Miocene AFT ages (about 6 Ma) aligned roughly NW-SE along a narrow offshore belt, parallel to Baja California Peninsula, separating older ages on both sides. This pattern suggests that in Late Miocene, deformation due to plate transtension focused at the eastern rheological boundary of the Baja California block. Some Early Miocene AFT ages onshore Baja California could be related to plutons emplaced at shallow depths and thermal resetting associated with the onset of volcanism at 19 Ma in this part of the Peninsula. On the other hand, an early extensional event similar to that documented in the eastern Gulf cannot be ruled out in the westernmost Baja California.

  19. Large size space construction for space exploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondyurin, Alexey

    2016-07-01

    Space exploitation is impossible without large space structures. We need to make sufficient large volume of pressurized protecting frames for crew, passengers, space processing equipment, & etc. We have to be unlimited in space. Now the size and mass of space constructions are limited by possibility of a launch vehicle. It limits our future in exploitation of space by humans and in development of space industry. Large-size space construction can be made with using of the curing technology of the fibers-filled composites and a reactionable matrix applied directly in free space. For curing the fabric impregnated with a liquid matrix (prepreg) is prepared in terrestrial conditions and shipped in a container to orbit. In due time the prepreg is unfolded by inflating. After polymerization reaction, the durable construction can be fitted out with air, apparatus and life support systems. Our experimental studies of the curing processes in the simulated free space environment showed that the curing of composite in free space is possible. The large-size space construction can be developed. A project of space station, Moon base, Mars base, mining station, interplanet space ship, telecommunication station, space observatory, space factory, antenna dish, radiation shield, solar sail is proposed and overviewed. The study was supported by Humboldt Foundation, ESA (contract 17083/03/NL/SFe), NASA program of the stratospheric balloons and RFBR grants (05-08-18277, 12-08-00970 and 14-08-96011).

  20. The Heliophysics Data Environment, Virtual Observatories, NSSDC, and SPASE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieman, James; Grayzeck, Edwin; Roberts, Aaron; King, Todd

    2010-01-01

    Heliophysics (the study of the Sun and its effects on the Solar System, especially the Earth) has an interesting data environment in that the data are often to be found in relatively small data sets widely scattered in archives around the world. Within the last decade there have been more concentrated efforts to organize the data access methods and create a Heliophysics Data and Model Consortium (HDMC). To provide data search and access capability a number of Virtual Observatories (VO's) have been established both via funding from the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and through other funding agencies in the U.S. and worldwide. At least 15 systems can be labeled as Heliophysics Virtual Observatories, 9 of them funded by NASA. Other parts of this data environment include Resident Archives, and the final, or "deep" archive at the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC). The problem is that different data search and access approaches are used by all of these elements of the HDMC and a search for data relevant to a particular research question can involve consulting with multiple VO's - needing to learn a different approach for finding and acquiring data for each. The Space Physics Archive Search and Extract (SPASE) project is intended to provide a common data model for Heliophysics data and therefore a common set of metadata for searches of the VO's and other data environment elements. The SPASE Data Model has been developed through the common efforts of the HDMC representatives over a number of years. We currently have released Version 2.1. of the Data Model. The advantages and disadvantages of the Data Model will be discussed along with the plans for the future. Recent changes requested by new members of the SPASE community indicate some of the directions for further development.

  1. NASA's Great Observatories Celebrate International Year of Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    A never-before-seen view of the turbulent heart of our Milky Way galaxy is being unveiled by NASA on Nov. 10. This event will commemorate the 400 years since Galileo first turned his telescope to the heavens in 1609. In celebration of this International Year of Astronomy, NASA is releasing images of the galactic center region as seen by its Great Observatories to more than 150 planetariums, museums, nature centers, libraries, and schools across the country. The sites will unveil a giant, 6-foot-by-3-foot print of the bustling hub of our galaxy that combines a near-infrared view from the Hubble Space Telescope, an infrared view from the Spitzer Space Telescope, and an X-ray view from the Chandra X-ray Observatory into one multiwavelength picture. Experts from all three observatories carefully assembled the final image from large mosaic photo surveys taken by each telescope. This composite image provides one of the most detailed views ever of our galaxy's mysterious core. Participating institutions also will display a matched trio of Hubble, Spitzer, and Chandra images of the Milky Way's center on a second large panel measuring 3 feet by 4 feet. Each image shows the telescope's different wavelength view of the galactic center region, illustrating not only the unique science each observatory conducts, but also how far astronomy has come since Galileo. The composite image features the spectacle of stellar evolution: from vibrant regions of star birth, to young hot stars, to old cool stars, to seething remnants of stellar death called black holes. This activity occurs against a fiery backdrop in the crowded, hostile environment of the galaxy's core, the center of which is dominated by a supermassive black hole nearly four million times more massive than our Sun. Permeating the region is a diffuse blue haze of X-ray light from gas that has been heated to millions of degrees by outflows from the supermassive black hole as well as by winds from massive stars and by stellar

  2. India-Based Neutrino Observatory (INO)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    India-Based Neutrino Observatory (INO) · Atmospheric neutrinos – India connection · INO Collaboration · INO Project components · ICAL: The physics goals · Slide 6 · Slide 7 · INO site : Bodi West Hills · Underground Laboratory Layout · Status of activities at INO Site · Slide 11 · Slide 12 · INO-ICAL Detector · ICAL factsheet.

  3. Asteroids Observed from GMARS and Santana Observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Robert D.

    2009-01-01

    Lightcurve period and amplitude results from Santana and GMARS Observatories are reported for 2008 June to September: 1472 Muonio, 8.706 ± 0.002 h and 0.50 mag; 2845 Franklinken, 114 ± 1 h and 0.8 mag; and 4533 Orth (> 24 hours).

  4. Education and public engagement in observatory operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabor, Pavel; Mayo, Louis; Zaritsky, Dennis

    2016-07-01

    Education and public engagement (EPE) is an essential part of astronomy's mission. New technologies, remote observing and robotic facilities are opening new possibilities for EPE. A number of projects (e.g., Telescopes In Education, MicroObservatory, Goldstone Apple Valley Radio Telescope and UNC's Skynet) have developed new infrastructure, a number of observatories (e.g., University of Arizona's "full-engagement initiative" towards its astronomy majors, Vatican Observatory's collaboration with high-schools) have dedicated their resources to practical instruction and EPE. Some of the facilities are purpose built, others are legacy telescopes upgraded for remote or automated observing. Networking among institutions is most beneficial for EPE, and its implementation ranges from informal agreements between colleagues to advanced software packages with web interfaces. The deliverables range from reduced data to time and hands-on instruction while operating a telescope. EPE represents a set of tasks and challenges which is distinct from research applications of the new astronomical facilities and operation modes. In this paper we examine the experience with several EPE projects, and some lessons and challenges for observatory operation.

  5. MMS Observatory TV Results Contamination Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosecrans, Glenn; Brieda, Lubos; Errigo, Therese

    2014-01-01

    The Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission is a constellation of 4 observatories designed to investigate the fundamental plasma physics of reconnection in the Earth's magnetosphere. The various instrument suites measure electric and magnetic fields, energetic particles, and plasma composition. Each spacecraft has undergone extensive environmental testing to prepare it for its minimum 2 year mission. In this paper, we report on the extensive thermal vacuum testing campaign. The testing was performed at the Naval Research Laboratory utilizing the "Big Blue" vacuum chamber. A total of ten thermal vacuum tests were performed, including two chamber certifications, three dry runs, and five tests of the individual MMS observatories. During the test, the observatories were enclosed in a thermal enclosure known as the "hamster cage". The enclosure allowed for a detailed thermal control of various observatory zone, but at the same time, imposed additional contamination and system performance requirements. The environment inside the enclosure and the vacuum chamber was actively monitored by several QCMs, RGA, and up to 18 ion gauges. Each spacecraft underwent a bakeout phase, which was followed by 4 thermal cycles. Unique aspects of the TV campaign included slow pump downs with a partial represses, thruster firings, Helium identification, and monitoring pressure spikes with ion gauges. Selected data from these TV tests is presented along with lessons learned.

  6. Reverberation Mapping Results from MDM Observatory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denney, Kelly D.; Peterson, B. M.; Pogge, R. W.

    2009-01-01

    We present results from a multi-month reverberation mapping campaign undertaken primarily at MDM Observatory with supporting observations from around the world. We measure broad line region (BLR) radii and black hole masses for six objects. A velocity-resolved analysis of the H_beta response show...

  7. Robotic Autonomous Observatories: A Historical Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Javier Castro-Tirado

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a historical introduction to the field of Robotic Astronomy, from the point of view of a scientist working in this field for more than a decade. The author discusses the basic definitions, the differing telescope control operating systems, observatory managers, as well as a few current scientific applications.

  8. Astronomical Virtual Observatories Through International Collaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masatoshi Ohishi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Astronomical Virtual Observatories (VOs are emerging research environment for astronomy, and 16 countries and a region have funded to develop their VOs based on international standard protocols for interoperability. The 16 funded VO projects have established the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (http://www.ivoa.net/ to develop the standard interoperable interfaces such as registry (meta data, data access, query languages, output format (VOTable, data model, application interface, and so on. The IVOA members have constructed each VO environment through the IVOA interfaces. National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ started its VO project (Japanese Virtual Observatory - JVO in 2002, and developed its VO system. We have succeeded to interoperate the latest JVO system with other VOs in the USA and Europe since December 2004. Observed data by the Subaru telescope, satellite data taken by the JAXA/ISAS, etc. are connected to the JVO system. Successful interoperation of the JVO system with other VOs means that astronomers in the world will be able to utilize top-level data obtained by these telescopes from anywhere in the world at anytime. System design of the JVO system, experiences during our development including problems of current standard protocols defined in the IVOA, and proposals to resolve these problems in the near future are described.

  9. Lights go out at city observatory

    CERN Multimedia

    Armstrong, R

    2003-01-01

    Edinburgh's Royal Observatory is to close its doors to the public due to dwindling visitor numbers. The visitor centre will remain open to the general public for planned lectures and night-time observing sessions, but will cease to be open on a daily basis from next month (1/2 page).

  10. Laser guide stars for optical free-space communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata-Calvo, Ramon; Bonaccini Calia, Domenico; Barrios, Ricardo; Centrone, Mauro; Giggenbach, Dirk; Lombardi, Gianluca; Becker, Peter; Zayer, Igor

    2017-02-01

    The German Aerospace Center (DLR) and the European Southern Observatory (ESO) performed a measurement campaign together in April and July 2016 at Teide-Observatory (Tenerife), with the support of the European Space Agency (ESA), to investigate the use of laser guide stars (LGS) in ground to space optical communications. Atmospheric turbulence causes strong signal fluctuations in the uplink, due to scintillation and beam wander. In space communications, the use of the downlink channel as reference for pointing and for pre-distortion adaptive optics is limited by the size of the isokinetic and isoplanatic angle in relation to the required point-ahead angle. Pointing and phase errors due to the decorrelation between downward and upward beam due to the point-ahead angle may have a severe impact on the required transmit power and the stability of the communications link. LGSs provide a self-tailored reference to any optical ground-to-space link, independently of turbulence conditions and required point-ahead angle. In photon-starved links, typically in deep-space scenarios, LGSs allow dedicating all downlink received signal to communications purposes, increasing the available link margin. The scope of the joint DLR-ESO measurement campaign was, first, to measure the absolute value of the beam wander (uplink-tilt) using a LGS, taking a natural star as a reference, and, second, to characterize the decrease of correlation between uplink-tilt and downlink-tilt with respect to the angular separation between both sources. This paper describes the experiments performed during the measurement campaigns, providing an overview of the measured data and the first outcomes of the data post-processing.

  11. The Material Culture of Nineteenth-Century Astrometry, its Circulation and Heritage at the Astronomical Observatory of Lisbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raposo, Pedro

    The Astronomical Observatory of Lisbon was founded in 1857 in the sequence of a controversy on stellar parallax measurements involving astronomers from the Observatory of Paris and the Observatory of Pulkovo. The development of this discussion led the contenders to recognize Lisbon as a suitable place to carry out this kind of measurements and to foster the field of stellar astronomy. Some local actors strived to keep up with this wave of international interest and establish a first-rank astronomical institution in the Portuguese capital. In order to fulfil this goal, correspondence was intensively exchanged with leading foreign astronomers and instrument makers. Besides, a Portuguese Navy officer bound to become the first director of the new institution was commissioned to visit several observatories and instrument workshops abroad, and to spend a few years in Pulkovo as a trainee astronomer. Although founded with generous financial support from the Portuguese crown and lavishly equipped and constructed, the Observatory of Lisbon was later affected by limiting budgets and a shortage of qualified personnel. Nevertheless, local efforts to improve instruments as well as observation and calculation techniques enabled its astronomers to yield important contributions to positional astronomy, especially towards the end of the nineteenth century and the beginnings of the twentieth century. The original instruments and spaces of the Observatory of Lisbon, strongly modelled on those of Pulkovo, are very well preserved, constituting an outstanding extant example of a mid-nineteenth century advanced observatory. The history they embody testifies the connectedness of the astronomical heritage worldwide.

  12. Radioecological Observatories - Breeding Grounds for Innovative Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steiner, Martin; Urso, Laura; Wichterey, Karin; Willrodt, Christine [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz - BfS, Willy-Brandt-Strasse 5, 38226 Salzgitter (Germany); Beresford, Nicholas A.; Howard, Brenda [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology - CEH, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Av., Bailrigg, Lancaster, LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Bradshaw, Clare; Stark, Karolina [Stockholms Universitet - SU, Universitetsvaegen 10, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Dowdall, Mark; Liland, Astrid [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority - NRPA, P.O. Box 55, NO-1332 Oesteraas (Norway); Eyrolle- Boyer, Frederique; Guillevic, Jerome; Hinton, Thomas [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire - IRSN, 31, Avenue de la Division Leclerc, 92260 Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Gashchak, Sergey [Chornobyl Center for Nuclear Safety, Radioactive Waste and Radioecology - Chornobyl Center, 77th Gvardiiska Dyviiya str.7/1, 07100 Slavutych (Ukraine); Hutri, Kaisa-Leena; Ikaeheimonen, Tarja; Muikku, Maarit; Outola, Iisa [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority - STUK, P.O. Box 14, 00881 Helsinki (Finland); Michalik, Boguslaw [Glowny Instytut Gornictwa - GIG, Plac Gwarkow 1, 40-166 Katowice (Poland); Mora, Juan Carlos; Real, Almudena; Robles, Beatriz [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas - CIEMAT, Avenida complutense, 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Oughton, Deborah; Salbu, Brit [Norwegian University of Life Sciences - NMBU, P.O. Box 5003, NO-1432 Aas (Norway); Sweeck, Lieve [Studiecentrum voor Kernenergie/Centre d' Etude de l' Energie Nucleaire (SCK.CEN), Avenue Herrmann- Debroux 40, BE-1160 Brussels (Belgium); Yoschenko, Vasyl [National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine (NUBiP of Ukraine), Herojiv Obrony st., 15, Kyiv-03041 (Ukraine)

    2014-07-01

    Within the EC-funded (FP7) Network of Excellence STAR (Strategy for Allied Radioecology, www.star-radioecology.org) the concept of Radioecological Observatories is currently being implemented on a European level for the first time. Radioecological Observatories are radioactively (and chemically) contaminated field sites that will provide a focus for joint long-term radioecological research. The benefit of this innovative approach is to create synergistic research collaborations by sharing expertise, ideas, data and resources. Research at the Radioecological Observatories will primarily focus on radioecological challenges outlined in the Strategic Research Agenda (SRA). Mechanisms to use these sites will be established under the EC-funded project COMET (Coordination and Implementation of a Pan-European Instrument for Radioecology, www.comet-radioecology.org). The European Radioecological Observatory sites were selected using a structured, progressive approach that was transparent, consistent and objective. A first screening of potential candidate sites was conducted based on the following exclusion criteria: long-term perspective for shared field work and suitability for addressing the radioecological challenges of the SRA. The proposed sites included former uranium mining and milling sites in France and Germany, the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (CEZ) in Ukraine/Belarus and the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (USCB) in Poland. All candidate sites were prioritized based on evaluation criteria which comprised scientific issues, available infrastructure, administrative/legal constraints and financial considerations. Multi-criteria decision analysis, group discussions and recommendations provided by external experts were combined to obtain a preference order among the suggested sites. Using this approach, the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (USCB) in Poland and the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (CEZ) were selected as Radioecological Observatories. The two sites have similar multi

  13. A discussion of non-linear temperature profiles at six closely spaced heat flow sites, southern Sohm Abyssal Plain, northwest Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, M. M.

    1986-09-01

    Six heat flow measurement sites were occupied in June 1980 in a 10 x 10 km 2 flat area of the southern Sohm Abyssal Plain, western North Atlantic Ocean. Non-linear sediment temperature profiles, measured to depths of 5 m, indicate perturbations in the temperature field in sediments overlying 90 Ma ocean floor. Temperature gradients average 59.0 mK m -1 in the lower half of the profile and decrease by 25% to an average of 44.24 mK m -1 in the upper half. Thermal conductivities of sediment cores down to 12 m ranged from 0.74 to 2.12 W m -1 K -1 and averaged 1.06 W m -1K -1. The non-linearity of sediment temperature profiles cannot be accounted for by the variations in thermal conductivity. Vertical fluid convection in the sediments, with a predominantly downward migration on the order of 5 x 10 -8 ms -1 in the upper 3 m, could explain the perturbations. However, in this study area of high abyssal kinetic energy and abyssal storms, bottom-water temperature fluctuations are the likely source of observed sediment temperature perturbations. A bottom-water temperature change of 50 mK occurring 3 months prior to the cruise could produce sediment temperature perturbations similar to those observed. Heat flow determined from the lower gradient (3-5 m sediment depth interval), assuming the non-linearity in the upper sensors to be principally due to bottom-water temperature fluctuations, averages 59.2 mW m -2, a slightly higher value than that predicted for 90 Ma crust.

  14. NASA's Great Observatories Celebrate the International Year of Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for larger version In 1609, Galileo improved the newly invented telescope, turned it toward the heavens, and revolutionized our view of the universe. In celebration of the 400th anniversary of this milestone, 2009 has been designated as the International Year of Astronomy. Today, NASA's Great Observatories are continuing Galileo's legacy with stunning images and breakthrough science from the Hubble Space Telescope, the Spitzer Space Telescope, and the Chandra X-ray Observatory. While Galileo observed the sky using visible light seen by the human eye, technology now allows us to observe in many wavelengths, including Spitzer's infrared view and Chandra's view in X-rays. Each wavelength region shows different aspects of celestial objects and often reveals new objects that could not otherwise be studied. This image of the spiral galaxy Messier 101 is a composite of views from Spitzer, Hubble, and Chandra. The red color shows Spitzer's view in infrared light. It highlights the heat emitted by dust lanes in the galaxy where stars can form. The yellow color is Hubble's view in visible light. Most of this light comes from stars, and they trace the same spiral structure as the dust lanes. The blue color shows Chandra's view in X-ray light. Sources of X-rays include million-degree gas, exploded stars, and material colliding around black holes. Such composite images allow astronomers to see how features seen in one wavelength match up with those seen in another wavelength. It's like seeing with a camera, night vision goggles, and X-ray vision all at once. In the four centuries since Galileo, astronomy has changed dramatically. Yet our curiosity and quest for knowledge remain the same. So, too, does our wonder at the splendor of the universe. The International Year of Astronomy Great Observatories Image Unveiling is supported by the NASA Science Mission Directorate Astrophysics Division. The project is a

  15. VESPA: developing the planetary science Virtual Observatory in H2020

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erard, Stéphane; Cecconi, Baptiste; Le Sidaner, Pierre; Capria, Teresa; Rossi, Angelo Pio

    2016-04-01

    The Europlanet H2020 programme will develop a research infrastructure in Horizon 2020. The programme includes a follow-on to the FP7 activity aimed at developing the Planetary Science Virtual Observatory (VO). This activity is called VESPA, which stands for Virtual European Solar and Planetary Access. Building on the IDIS activity of Europlanet FP7, VESPA will distribute more data, will improve the connected tools and infrastructure, and will help developing a community of both users and data providers. One goal of the Europlanet FP7 programme was to set the basis for a European Virtual Observatory in Planetary Science. A prototype has been set up during FP7, most of the activity being dedicated to the definition of standards to handle data in this field. The aim was to facilitate searches in big archives as well as sparse databases, to make on-line data access and visualization possible, and to allow small data providers to make their data available in an interoperable environment with minimum effort. This system makes intensive use of studies and developments led in Astronomy (IVOA), Solar Science (HELIO), plasma physics (SPASE), and space archive services (IPDA). It remains consistent with extensions of IVOA standards.

  16. The NASA Spitzer Space Telescope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrz, R D; Roellig, T L; Werner, M W; Fazio, G G; Houck, J R; Low, F J; Rieke, G H; Soifer, B T; Levine, D A; Romana, E A

    2007-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Spitzer Space Telescope (formerly the Space Infrared Telescope Facility) is the fourth and final facility in the Great Observatories Program, joining Hubble Space Telescope (1990), the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (1991-2000), and the Chandra X-Ray Observatory (1999). Spitzer, with a sensitivity that is almost three orders of magnitude greater than that of any previous ground-based and space-based infrared observatory, is expected to revolutionize our understanding of the creation of the universe, the formation and evolution of primitive galaxies, the origin of stars and planets, and the chemical evolution of the universe. This review presents a brief overview of the scientific objectives and history of infrared astronomy. We discuss Spitzer's expected role in infrared astronomy for the new millennium. We describe pertinent details of the design, construction, launch, in-orbit checkout, and operations of the observatory and summarize some science highlights from the first two and a half years of Spitzer operations. More information about Spitzer can be found at http://spitzer.caltech.edu/.

  17. Development of Armenian-Georgian Virtual Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickaelian, Areg; Kochiashvili, Nino; Astsatryan, Hrach; Harutyunian, Haik; Magakyan, Tigran; Chargeishvili, Ketevan; Natsvlishvili, Rezo; Kukhianidze, Vasil; Ramishvili, Giorgi; Sargsyan, Lusine; Sinamyan, Parandzem; Kochiashvili, Ia; Mikayelyan, Gor

    2009-10-01

    The Armenian-Georgian Virtual Observatory (ArGVO) project is the first initiative in the world to create a regional VO infrastructure based on national VO projects and regional Grid. The Byurakan and Abastumani Astrophysical Observatories are scientific partners since 1946, after establishment of the Byurakan observatory . The Armenian VO project (ArVO) is being developed since 2005 and is a part of the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA). It is based on the Digitized First Byurakan Survey (DFBS, the digitized version of famous Markarian survey) and other Armenian archival data. Similarly, the Georgian VO will be created to serve as a research environment to utilize the digitized Georgian plate archives. Therefore, one of the main goals for creation of the regional VO is the digitization of large amounts of plates preserved at the plate stacks of these two observatories. The total amount of plates is more than 100,000 units. Observational programs of high importance have been selected and some 3000 plates will be digitized during the next two years; the priority is being defined by the usefulness of the material for future science projects, like search for new objects, optical identifications of radio, IR, and X-ray sources, study of variability and proper motions, etc. Having the digitized material in VO standards, a VO database through the regional Grid infrastructure will be active. This partnership is being carried out in the framework of the ISTC project A-1606 "Development of Armenian-Georgian Grid Infrastructure and Applications in the Fields of High Energy Physics, Astrophysics and Quantum Physics".

  18. Estimating absorption coefficients of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) using a semi-analytical algorithm for southern Beaufort Sea waters: application to deriving concentrations of dissolved organic carbon from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, A.; Hooker, S. B.; Bricaud, A.; Gentili, B.; Babin, M.

    2013-02-01

    A series of papers have suggested that freshwater discharge, including a large amount of dissolved organic matter (DOM), has increased since the middle of the 20th century. In this study, a semi-analytical algorithm for estimating light absorption coefficients of the colored fraction of DOM (CDOM) was developed for southern Beaufort Sea waters using remote sensing reflectance at six wavelengths in the visible spectral domain corresponding to MODIS ocean color sensor. This algorithm allows the separation of colored detrital matter (CDM) into CDOM and non-algal particles (NAP) through the determination of NAP absorption using an empirical relationship between NAP absorption and particle backscattering coefficients. Evaluation using independent datasets, which were not used for developing the algorithm, showed that CDOM absorption can be estimated accurately to within an uncertainty of 35% and 50% for oceanic and coastal waters, respectively. A previous paper (Matsuoka et al., 2012) showed that dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations were tightly correlated with CDOM absorption in our study area (r2 = 0.97). By combining the CDOM absorption algorithm together with the DOC versus CDOM relationship, it is now possible to estimate DOC concentrations in the near-surface layer of the southern Beaufort Sea using satellite ocean color data. DOC concentrations in the surface waters were estimated using MODIS ocean color data, and the estimates showed reasonable values compared to in situ measurements. We propose a routine and near real-time method for deriving DOC concentrations from space, which may open the way to an estimate of DOC budgets for Arctic coastal waters.

  19. Estimating absorption coefficients of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM using a semi-analytical algorithm for southern Beaufort Sea waters: application to deriving concentrations of dissolved organic carbon from space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Matsuoka

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A series of papers have suggested that freshwater discharge, including a large amount of dissolved organic matter (DOM, has increased since the middle of the 20th century. In this study, a semi-analytical algorithm for estimating light absorption coefficients of the colored fraction of DOM (CDOM was developed for southern Beaufort Sea waters using remote sensing reflectance at six wavelengths in the visible spectral domain corresponding to MODIS ocean color sensor. This algorithm allows the separation of colored detrital matter (CDM into CDOM and non-algal particles (NAP through the determination of NAP absorption using an empirical relationship between NAP absorption and particle backscattering coefficients. Evaluation using independent datasets, which were not used for developing the algorithm, showed that CDOM absorption can be estimated accurately to within an uncertainty of 35% and 50% for oceanic and coastal waters, respectively. A previous paper (Matsuoka et al., 2012 showed that dissolved organic carbon (DOC concentrations were tightly correlated with CDOM absorption in our study area (r2 = 0.97. By combining the CDOM absorption algorithm together with the DOC versus CDOM relationship, it is now possible to estimate DOC concentrations in the near-surface layer of the southern Beaufort Sea using satellite ocean color data. DOC concentrations in the surface waters were estimated using MODIS ocean color data, and the estimates showed reasonable values compared to in situ measurements. We propose a routine and near real-time method for deriving DOC concentrations from space, which may open the way to an estimate of DOC budgets for Arctic coastal waters.

  20. Evaluation of satellite and reanalysis wind products with in situ wave glider wind observations in the Southern Ocean

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schmidt, KM

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available observations in the Southern Ocean 2 3 Kevin M. Schmidta, Sebastiaan Swartb,c,d, Chris Reasonc, Sarah Nicholsonb,c 4 a Marine Research Institute, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch, South Africa 5 b Southern Ocean Carbon & Climate Observatory, Council...

  1. Optical Spectroscopy with the Technology of Virtual Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Škoda, P.

    The contemporary astronomy is flooded with an exponentially growing petabyte-scaled data volumes produced by powerful ground and space-based instrumentation as well as a product of extensive computer simulations and computations of complex numerical models. The efficient organization and seamless handling of this information avalanche stored in a world-wide spread heterogeneous databases and the facilitation of extraction of new physical knowledge about the Universe is a primary goal of the rapidly evolving astronomical Virtual Observatory (VO). We give an overview of current spectroscopic capabilities of VO and identify the future requirements indispensable for detailed multi-wavelength analysis of huge amounts of spectra in a semi-automatic manner.

  2. Optical Spectroscopy with the Technology of Virtual Observatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Škoda P.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The contemporary astronomy is flooded with an exponentially growing petabyte-scaled data volumes produced by powerful ground and space-based instrumentation as well as a product of extensive computer simulations and computations of complex numerical models. The efficient organization and seamless handling of this information avalanche stored in a world-wide spread heterogeneous databases and the facilitation of extraction of new physical knowledge about the Universe is a primary goal of the rapidly evolving astronomical Virtual Observatory (VO. We give an overview of current spectroscopic capabilities of VO and identify the future requirements indispensable for detailed multi-wavelength analysis of huge amounts of spectra in a semi-automatic manner.

  3. The McDonald Observatory lunar laser ranging project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverberg, E. C.

    1978-01-01

    A summary of the activities of the McDonald lunar laser ranging station at Fort Davis for the FY 77-78 fiscal year is presented. The lunar laser experiment uses the observatory 2.7m reflecting telescope on a thrice-per-day, 21-day-per-lunation schedule. Data are recorded on magnetic tapes and sent to the University of Texas at Austin where the data is processed. After processing, the data is distributed to interested analysis centers and later to the National Space Science Data Center where it is available for routine distribution. Detailed reports are published on the McDonald operations after every fourth lunation or approximately once every 115 days. These reports contain a day-by-day documentation of the ranging activity, detailed discussions of the equipment development efforts, and an abundance of other information as is needed to document and archive this important data type.

  4. Progressive Research and Outreach at the WestRock Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Johnny Eugene; Lantz Caughey, Austin; O'Keeffe, Brendon; Johnson, Michael; Murphy Williams, Rosa Nina

    2016-01-01

    The WestRock Observatory (WRO), located in Columbus State University's Coca-Cola Space Science Center (CCSSC), is dedicated to education and research in astronomy through hands-on engagement and public participation. The WRO has recently received funding to upgrade the PlaneWave CDK 24-inch Corrected Dall-Kirkham Astrograph telescope. Recent additions to the telescope include an all-new Apogee Alta F16 CCD camera complete with a filter wheel (with narrowband and broadband filters) and a Minor Planet Center Observatory Code (W22). These new upgrades have allowed Astrophysics students to conduct unique research ranging from high precision minor planet astrometry, to broad- and narrow-band imaging of nebulae, to light curve analysis for variable star photometry. These new endeavours, in conjunction with an existing suite of Solar telescopes, gives the WRO the ability to live-stream solar and night-time observing. These streams are available both online and through interactive displays at the CCSSC making the WRO an educational outreach program for a worldwide public audience and a growing astronomical community.Current funding is allowing students to get even more research experience than previously attainable further enabling the expansion of our publicly available gallery of nebula and galaxy images. Support and funding for the acquirement,installation, and upgrading of the new PlaneWave CDK24 has been provided by the International Museum and Library Services via the Museums for America Award Additionally, individual NASA Space Grant Scholarships have helped to secure a number of student interns partially responsible for recent improvements.

  5. Southern blotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, T

    2001-05-01

    Southern blotting is the transfer of DNA fragments from an electrophoresis gel to a membrane support (the properties and advantages of the different types of membrane, transfer buffer, and transfer method are discussed in detail), resulting in immobilization of the DNA fragments, so the membrane carries a semipermanent reproduction of the banding pattern of the gel. After immobilization, the DNA can be subjected to hybridization analysis, enabling bands with sequence similarity to a labeled probe to be identified. This appendix describes Southern blotting via upward capillary transfer of DNA from an agarose gel onto a nylon or nitrocellulose membrane, using a high-salt transfer buffer to promote binding of DNA to the membrane. With the high-salt buffer, the DNA becomes bound to the membrane during transfer but not permanently immobilized. Immobilization is achieved by UV irradiation (for nylon) or baking (for nitrocellulose). A Support Protocol describes how to calibrate a UV transilluminator for optimal UV irradiation of a nylon membrane. An alternate protocol details transfer using nylon membranes and an alkaline buffer, and is primarily used with positively charged nylon membranes. The advantage of this combination is that no post-transfer immobilization step is required, as the positively charged membrane binds DNA irreversibly under alkaline transfer conditions. The method can also be used with neutral nylon membranes but less DNA will be retained. A second alternate protocol describes a transfer method based on a different transfer-stack setup. The traditional method of upward capillary transfer of DNA from gel to membrane described in the first basic and alternate protocols has certain disadvantages, notably the fact that the gel can become crushed by the weighted filter papers and paper towels that are laid on top of it. This slows down the blotting process and may reduce the amount of DNA that can be transferred. The downward capillary method described in

  6. Data standards for the international virtual observatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R J Hanisch

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available A primary goal of the International Virtual Observatory Alliance, which brings together Virtual Observatory Projects from 16 national and international development projects, is to develop, evaluate, test, and agree upon standards for astronomical data formatting, data discovery, and data delivery. In the three years that the IVOA has been in existence, substantial progress has been made on standards for tabular data, imaging data, spectroscopic data, and large-scale databases and on managing the metadata that describe data collections and data access services. In this paper, I describe how the IVOA operates and give my views as to why such a broadly based international collaboration has been able to make such rapid progress.

  7. Beyond the Observatory: Reflections on the Centennial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devorkin, D. H.

    1999-05-01

    One of the many unexpected side-benefits of acting as editor of the AAS centennial volume was the chance to take a fresh look at some of the personalities who helped to shape the American Astronomical Society. A common characteristic of these people was their energy, compassion and drive to go "Beyond the Observatory," to borrow a phrase from Harlow Shapley. But what did going `beyond the observatory' mean to Shapley, or to the others who shaped and maintained the Society in its first one hundred years of life? Just as the discipline of astronomy has changed in profound ways in the past century, so has the American Astronomical Society changed, along with the people who have been its leaders and its sustainers and the culture that has fostered it. The Centennial meeting of the Society offers a chance to reflect on the people who have given American astronomy its sense of community identity.

  8. The STELLA Robotic Observatory on Tenerife

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus G. Strassmeier

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Astrophysical Institute Potsdam (AIP and the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC inaugurated the robotic telescopes STELLA-I and STELLA-II (STELLar Activity on Tenerife on May 18, 2006. The observatory is located on the Izaña ridge at an elevation of 2400 m near the German Vacuum Tower Telescope. STELLA consists of two 1.2 m alt-az telescopes. One telescope fiber feeds a bench-mounted high-resolution echelle spectrograph while the other telescope feeds a wide-field imaging photometer. Both scopes work autonomously by means of artificial intelligence. Not only that the telescopes are automated, but the entire observatory operates like a robot, and does not require any human presence on site.

  9. Observatory Magnetometer In-Situ Calibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Marusenkov

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available An experimental validation of the in-situ calibration procedure, which allows estimating parameters of observatory magnetometers (scale factors, sensor misalignment without its operation interruption, is presented. In order to control the validity of the procedure, the records provided by two magnetometers calibrated independently in a coil system have been processed. The in-situ estimations of the parameters are in very good agreement with the values provided by the coil system calibration.

  10. From AISR to the Virtual Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szalay, Alexander S.

    2014-01-01

    The talk will provide a retrospective on important results enabled by the NASA AISR program. The program had a unique approach to funding research at the intersection of astrophysics, applied computer science and statistics. It had an interdisciplinary angle, encouraged high risk, high return projects. Without this program the Virtual Observatory would have never been started. During its existence the program has funded some of the most innovative applied computer science projects in astrophysics.

  11. Utilizing Internet Technologies in Observatory Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cording, Dean

    2002-12-01

    The 'Internet boom' of the past few years has spurred the development of a number of technologies to provide services such as secure communications, reliable messaging, information publishing and application distribution for commercial applications. Over the same period, a new generation of computer languages have also developed to provide object oriented design and development, improved reliability, and cross platform compatibility. Whilst the business models of the 'dot.com' era proved to be largely unviable, the technologies that they were based upon have survived and have matured to the point were they can now be utilized to build secure, robust and complete observatory control control systems. This paper will describe how Electro Optic Systems has utilized these technologies in the development of its third generation Robotic Observatory Control System (ROCS). ROCS provides an extremely flexible configuration capability within a control system structure to provide truly autonomous robotic observatory operation including observation scheduling. ROCS was built using Internet technologies such as Java, Java Messaging Service (JMS), Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP), Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), eXtendible Markup Language (XML), Hypertext Transport Protocol (HTTP) and Java WebStart. ROCS was designed to be capable of controlling all aspects of an observatory and be able to be reconfigured to handle changing equipment configurations or user requirements without the need for an expert computer programmer. ROCS consists of many small components, each designed to perform a specific task, with the configuration of the system specified using a simple meta language. The use of small components facilitates testing and makes it possible to prove that the system is correct.

  12. The architecture of LAMOST observatory control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jian; Jin Ge; Yu Xiaoqi; Wan Changsheng; Hao Likai; Li Xihua

    2005-01-01

    The design of architecture is the one of the most important part in development of Observatory Control System (OCS) for LAMOST. Based on the complexity of LAMOST, long time of development for LAMOST and long life-cycle of OCS system, referring many kinds of architecture pattern, the architecture of OCS is established which is a component-based layered system using many patterns such as the MVC and proxy. (authors)

  13. Technology Development for a Neutrino Astrophysical Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaloupka, V.; Cole, T.; Crawford, H.J.; He, Y.D.; Jackson, S.; Kleinfelder, S.; Lai, K.W.; Learned, J.; Ling, J.; Liu, D.; Lowder, D.; Moorhead, M.; Morookian, J.M.; Nygren, D.R.; Price, P.B.; Richards, A.; Shapiro, G.; Shen, B.; Smoot, George F.; Stokstad, R.G.; VanDalen, G.; Wilkes, J.; Wright, F.; Young, K.

    1996-01-01

    We propose a set of technology developments relevant to the design of an optimized Cerenkov detector for the study of neutrino interactions of astrophysical interest. Emphasis is placed on signal processing innovations that enhance significantly the quality of primary data. These technical advances, combined with field experience from a follow-on test deployment, are intended to provide a basis for the engineering design for a kilometer-scale Neutrino Astrophysical Observatory

  14. A robotic observatory in the city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruch, Gerald T.; Johnston, Martin E.

    2012-05-01

    The University of St. Thomas (UST) Observatory is an educational facility integrated into UST's undergraduate curriculum as well as the curriculum of several local schools. Three characteristics combine to make the observatory unique. First, the telescope is tied directly to the support structure of a four-story parking ramp instead of an isolated pier. Second, the facility can be operated remotely over an Internet connection and is capable of performing observations without a human operator. Third, the facility is located on campus in the heart of a metropolitan area where light pollution is severe. Our tests indicate that, despite the lack of an isolated pier, vibrations from the ramp do not degrade the image quality at the telescope. The remote capability facilitates long and frequent observing sessions and allows others to use the facility without traveling to UST. Even with the high background due to city lights, the sensitivity and photometric accuracy of the system are sufficient to fulfill our pedagogical goals and to perform a variety of scientific investigations. In this paper, we outline our educational mission, provide a detailed description of the observatory, and discuss its performance characteristics.

  15. The Lowell Observatory Predoctoral Fellowship Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prato, Lisa A.; Shkolnik, E.

    2014-01-01

    Lowell Observatory is pleased to solicit applications for our Predoctoral Fellowship Program. Now beginning its seventh year, this program is designed to provide unique research opportunities to graduate students in good standing, currently enrolled at Ph.D. granting institutions. Lowell staff research spans a wide range of topics, from astronomical instrumentation, to icy bodies in our solar system, exoplanet science, stellar populations, star formation, and dwarf galaxies. The Observatory's new 4.3 meter Discovery Channel Telescope has successfully begun science operations and we anticipate the commissioning of several new instruments in 2014, making this a particularly exciting time to do research at Lowell. Student research is expected to lead to a thesis dissertation appropriate for graduation at the doctoral level at the student's home institution. The Observatory provides competitive compensation and full benefits to student scholars. For more information, see http://www2.lowell.edu/rsch/predoc.php and links therein. Applications for Fall 2014 are due by May 1, 2014.

  16. Recent results from the Compton Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michelson, P.F.; Hansen, W.W. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1994-12-01

    The Compton Observatory is an orbiting astronomical observatory for gamma-ray astronomy that covers the energy range from about 30 keV to 30 GeV. The Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET), one of four instruments on-board, is capable of detecting and imaging gamma radiation from cosmic sources in the energy range from approximately 20 MeV to 30 GeV. After about one month of tests and calibration following the April 1991 launch, a 15-month all sky survey was begun. This survey is now complete and the Compton Observatory is well into Phase II of its observing program which includes guest investigator observations. Among the highlights from the all-sky survey discussed in this presentation are the following: detection of five pulsars with emission above 100 MeV; detection of more than 24 active galaxies, the most distant at redshift greater than two; detection of many high latitude, unidentified gamma-ray sources, some showing significant time variability; detection of at least two high energy gamma-ray bursts, with emission in one case extending to at least 1 GeV. EGRET has also detected gamma-ray emission from solar flares up to energies of at least 2 GeV and has observed gamma-rays from the Large Magellanic Cloud.

  17. The brazilian indigenous planetary-observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, G. B.

    2003-08-01

    We have performed observations of the sky alongside with the Indians of all Brazilian regions that made it possible localize many indigenous constellations. Some of these constellations are the same as the other South American Indians and Australian aborigines constellations. The scientific community does not have much of this information, which may be lost in one or two generations. In this work, we present a planetary-observatory that we have made in the Park of Science Newton Freire-Maia of Paraná State, in order to popularize the astronomical knowledge of the Brazilian Indians. The planetary consists, essentially, of a sphere of six meters in diameter and a projection cylinder of indigenous constellations. In this planetary we can identify a lot of constellations that we have gotten from the Brazilian Indians; for instance, the four seasonal constellations: the Tapir (spring), the Old Man (summer), the Deer (autumn) and the Rhea (winter). A two-meter height wooden staff that is posted vertically on the horizontal ground similar to a Gnomon and stones aligned with the cardinal points and the soltices directions constitutes the observatory. A stone circle of ten meters in diameter surrounds the staff and the aligned stones. During the day we observe the Sun apparent motions and at night the indigenous constellations. Due to the great community interest in our work, we are designing an itinerant indigenous planetary-observatory to be used in other cities mainly by indigenous and primary schools teachers.

  18. First results from Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) and prospects for OCO-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldering, Annmarie; Basilio, Ralph; Schimel, David; O'Dell, Chris

    2017-04-01

    Since September 6, 2014, NASA's Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) instrument has been routinely returning almost one million soundings of the column averaged CO2 dry air mole fraction, XCO2, over the sunlit hemisphere each day. On monthly time scales, 7 to 21% of these soundings are sufficiently cloud free to yield full-column estimates of XCO2 of the with single sounding random errors near 0.5 parts per million (ppm) at solar zenith angles as large as 70 degrees. These XCO2 estimates are being validated against results obtained from the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) and other standards to assess their accuracy and correct regional scale biases. After correction, the median bias between OCO-2 and TCCON XCO2 estimates is less than 0.5 ppm, and root-mean-square (RMS) differences are typically less than 1.5 ppm. The OCO-2 data are now being used to investigate the impacts of the 2015/2016 El Nino on the carbon cycle, as well as examples of local emission enhancements and the seasonal patterns of solar induced fluorescence. Highlights of the latest science findings will be presented. The Orbiting Carbon Observatory-3 (OCO-3) instrument will explore, for the first time, daily variations in the release and uptake of carbon dioxide by plants and trees in the major tropical rainforests of South America, Africa, and Southeast Asia, the largest stores of aboveground carbon on our planet. NASA will develop and assemble the instrument using spare materials from OCO-2 and host the instrument on the International Space Station (ISS) (earliest launch readiness in early 2018.) The low-inclination ISS orbit lets OCO-3 sample the tropics and sub-tropics across the full range of daylight hours with dense observations at northern and southern mid-latitudes (+/- 52°). At the same time, OCO-3 will also collect measurements of solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) over these areas. The instrument utilizes an agile, 2-axis pointing mechanism (PMA), providing

  19. TMT approach to observatory software development process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buur, Hanne; Subramaniam, Annapurni; Gillies, Kim; Dumas, Christophe; Bhatia, Ravinder

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of the Observatory Software System (OSW) is to integrate all software and hardware components of the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) to enable observations and data capture; thus it is a complex software system that is defined by four principal software subsystems: Common Software (CSW), Executive Software (ESW), Data Management System (DMS) and Science Operations Support System (SOSS), all of which have interdependencies with the observatory control systems and data acquisition systems. Therefore, the software development process and plan must consider dependencies to other subsystems, manage architecture, interfaces and design, manage software scope and complexity, and standardize and optimize use of resources and tools. Additionally, the TMT Observatory Software will largely be developed in India through TMT's workshare relationship with the India TMT Coordination Centre (ITCC) and use of Indian software industry vendors, which adds complexity and challenges to the software development process, communication and coordination of activities and priorities as well as measuring performance and managing quality and risk. The software project management challenge for the TMT OSW is thus a multi-faceted technical, managerial, communications and interpersonal relations challenge. The approach TMT is using to manage this multifaceted challenge is a combination of establishing an effective geographically distributed software team (Integrated Product Team) with strong project management and technical leadership provided by the TMT Project Office (PO) and the ITCC partner to manage plans, process, performance, risk and quality, and to facilitate effective communications; establishing an effective cross-functional software management team composed of stakeholders, OSW leadership and ITCC leadership to manage dependencies and software release plans, technical complexities and change to approved interfaces, architecture, design and tool set, and to facilitate

  20. A new regard about Surlari National Geomagnetic Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asimopolos, Laurentiu; Asimopolos, Natalia-Silvia; Pestina, Agata-Monica

    2010-05-01

    Geomagnetic field study in Romanian stations has started with irregular measurements in late XIXth century. In 1943, the foundation of Surlari National Geomagnetic Observatory (SNGO) marks the beginning of a new era in the systematic study of geomagnetic field by a continuous registration of its variations and by carrying out standard absolute measurements in a fundamental station. The location of the observatory meets the highest exigencies, being situated in physical-geological conditions of a uniform local field, at a reasonably long distance from human activities. Its laboratories observe strict conditions of non-magnetism, ensuring the possibility of absolute standard measurements (national magnetic standards) for all the units in the country, civil or military, which are endowed with equipment based on geomagnetic metrology. These basic conditions have allowed the observatory to become by developing its initial preoccupations a centre of complex geomagnetic research, constantly involved in national and international issues, promoting new themes in our country and bringing significant contributions. During the last two decades, infrastructure and equipment used in monitoring geomagnetic field at European and planetary level have experienced a remarkable development. New registering techniques have allowed a complete to automate of data acquisition, and sampling step and their precision increased by two classes of size. Systems of transmitting these data in real time to world collecting centres have resulted in the possibility of approaching globalize studies, suitable for following some phenomena at planetary scale. At the same time, a significant development in the procedures of processing primary data has been registered, based on standardized programmes. The new stage of this fundamental research, largely applicable in various fields, is also marked by the simultaneous observation of space-time distribution of terrestrial electromagnetic field by means of

  1. Detection of ultra-high-energy cosmic radiation at the Pierre Auger Observatory, theoretical study of its propagation through extragalactic space; Detection des rayons cosmiques ultra-energetiques avec l'observatoire Pierre Auger et etude theorique de leur propagation dans le milieu extragalactique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allard, D

    2004-10-01

    The Pierre Auger observatory's main aim is to observe the ultra-energetic cosmic ray spectrum with high statistics. Indeed, the spectrum around 10{sup 20} eV is so far only poorly known, due to low statistics and the expected GZK (Gneisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin) cut-off is for the time being not clearly observed. The first part will deal with propagation of charged (protons and nuclei) ultra-energetic cosmic rays in the extragalactic medium. We will investigate the influence of physical parameters, such as the composition of cosmic ray fluxes, on the highest energy spectrum shape. The influence of the turbulent extragalactic magnetic fields on the spectrum of the clusters will also be studied. We will also investigate the possibility to observe gamma ray bursts with the Pierre Auger Observatory by using the single particle technique. We will show how galactic gamma ray bursts could become a persistent and quasi-isotropic source due to the 'Compton trail' induced by Compton scattering of the primary photon beam in the interstellar medium. In the section devoted to simulations, we will develop methods to reconstruct air showers and identify primary cosmic rays. We will also study the aperture of the Surface Detector of the Pierre Auger observatory. Finally, we will use the methods developed in the previous chapters to analyze the data of the year 2004 and will give preliminary results. (author)

  2. NASA Unveils First Images From Chandra X-Ray Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-08-01

    Extraordinary first images from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory trace the aftermath of a gigantic stellar explosion in such stunning detail that scientists can see evidence of what may be a neutron star or black hole near the center. Another image shows a powerful X-ray jet blasting 200,000 light years into intergalactic space from a distant quasar. Released today, both images confirm that NASA's newest Great Observatory is in excellent health and its instruments and optics are performing up to expectations. Chandra, the world's largest and most sensitive X-ray telescope, is still in its orbital check-out and calibration phase. "When I saw the first image, I knew that the dream had been realized," said Dr. Martin Weisskopf, Chandra Project Scientist, NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL. "This observatory is ready to take its place in the history of spectacular scientific achievements." "We were astounded by these images," said Harvey Tananbaum, Director of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory's Chandra X- ray Center, Cambridge, MA. "We see the collision of the debris from the exploded star with the matter around it, we see shock waves rushing into interstellar space at millions of miles per hour, and, as a real bonus, we see for the first time a tantalizing bright point near the center of the remnant that could possibly be a collapsed star associated with the outburst." Chandra's PKS 0637-752 PKS 0637-752 After the telescope's sunshade door was opened last week, one of the first images taken was of the 320-year-old supernova remnant Cassiopeia A, which astronomers believe was produced by the explosion of a massive star. Material blasted into space from the explosion crashed into surrounding material at 10 million miles per hour. This collision caused violent shock waves, like massive sonic booms, creating a vast 50-million degree bubble of X-ray emitting gas. Heavy elements in the hot gas produce X-rays of specific energies. Chandra's ability

  3. In situ and laboratory investigations of fluid flow through an argillaceous formation at different scales of space and time, Tournemire tunnel, southern France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisson, Jean-Yves; Bertrand, Lucien; Heitz, Jean-François; Golvan, Yann Moreau-Le

    2001-01-01

    In the context of a research and development program on waste disposal, an experimental site (Tournemire tunnel, Aveyron, France) was selected by the French Institute for Nuclear Protection and Safety (IPSN) in order to undertake studies on potential fluid flow at different scales of space and time within a 250-m-thick argillaceous formation. The argillite has a low natural water content ( 3-5%) and very low radii access porosity. Diffusion (tritiated water) coefficients (1×10-12 to 2×10-11 m2/s) and hydraulic conductivities derived from different types of laboratory tests (10-14 to 10-13 m/s) are characteristics of a very low-permeable rock. In situ hydraulic tests (including long-term hydraulic-head measurements) were used to obtain values for hydraulic head and hydraulic conductivity at a scale of 1-10 m (10-13 to 10-11 m/s). Despite uncertainties on these data (due to a scale factor, presence of fissures, and possible artefacts due to hydro-chemo-mechanical coupling), it is expected that fluid flow is essentially governed by diffusion processes. Identification of possible natural flows at larger scales of time and space was investigated using natural isotopic tracers from interstitial fluids. Modelling, based on the deuterium profile along the clay formation and assuming pure diffusion processes, provides estimations of possible flow times. However, lack of knowledge concerning the past geological evolution of the site and the possible role of a fracture network do not permit reduction of uncertainties on these estimations at this stage. Résumé. Dans le cadre de son programme de recherche et développement sur les stockages de déchets, un site expérimental (tunnel de Tournemire, Aveyron, France) a été sélectionné par l'Institut de Protection et Sûreté Nucléaire (IPSN) pour conduire des études sur les possibilités de transferts de fluides à différentes échelles de temps et d'espace au sein d'une formation argileuse de 250 m d'épaisseur. L

  4. Modeling observations of solar coronal mass ejections with heliospheric imagers verified with the eliophysics System Observatory

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Möstl, C.; Isavnin, A.; Boakes, P. D.; Kilpua, E. K. J.; Davies, J. A.; Harrison, R. A.; Barnes, D.; Krupař, Vratislav; Eastwood, J.; Good, S. W.; Forsyth, R. J.; Bothmer, V.; Reiss, M. A.; Amerstorfer, T.; Winslow, R. M.; Anderson, B.J.; Philpott, L. C.; Rodriguez, L.; Rouillard, A. P.; Gallagher, P.; Nieves-Chinchilla, T.; Zhang, T. L.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 7 (2017), s. 955-970 ISSN 1539-4956 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GJ17-06818Y Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : space weather * coronal mass ejections * STEREO * heliospheric imagers * Heliophysics System Observatory * heliophysics Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2017SW001614/full

  5. The Southern Proper Motion Program. IV. The SPM4 Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Terrence M.; van Altena, William F.; Zacharias, Norbert; Vieira, Katherine; Casetti-Dinescu, Dana I.; Castillo, Danilo; Herrera, David; Lee, Young Sun; Beers, Timothy C.; Monet, David G.; López, Carlos E.

    2011-07-01

    We present the fourth installment of the Yale/San Juan Southern Proper Motion Catalog, SPM4. The SPM4 contains absolute proper motions, celestial coordinates, and B, V photometry for over 103 million stars and galaxies between the south celestial pole and -20° declination. The catalog is roughly complete to V = 17.5 and is based on photographic and CCD observations taken with the Yale Southern Observatory's double astrograph at Cesco Observatory in El Leoncito, Argentina. The proper-motion precision, for well-measured stars, is estimated to be 2-3 mas yr-1, depending on the type of second-epoch material. At the bright end, proper motions are on the International Celestial Reference System by way of Hipparcos Catalog stars, while the faint end is anchored to the inertial system using external galaxies. Systematic uncertainties in the absolute proper motions are on the order of 1 mas yr-1.

  6. GAIA virtual observatory - development and practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrjäsuo, Mikko; Marple, Steve

    2010-05-01

    The Global Auroral Imaging Access, or GAIA, is a virtual observatory providing quick access to summary data from satellite and ground-based instruments that remote sense auroral precipitation (http://gaia-vxo.org). This web-based service facilitates locating data relevant to particular events by simultaneously displaying summary images from various data sets around the world. At the moment, there are GAIA server nodes in Canada, Finland, Norway and the UK. The development is an international effort and the software and metadata are freely available. The GAIA system is based on a relational database which is queried by a dedicated software suite that also creates the graphical end-user interface if such is needed. Most commonly, the virtual observatory is used interactively by using a web browser: the user provides the date and the type of data of interest. As the summary data from multiple instruments are displayed simultaneously, the user can conveniently explore the recorded data. The virtual observatory provides essentially instant access to the images originating from all major auroral instrument networks including THEMIS, NORSTAR, GLORIA and MIRACLE. The scientific, educational and outreach use is limited by creativity rather than access. The first version of the GAIA was developed at the University of Calgary (Alberta, Canada) in 2004-2005. This proof-of-concept included mainly THEMIS and MIRACLE data, which comprised of millions of summary plots and thumbnail images. However, it was soon realised that a complete re-design was necessary to increase flexibility. In the presentation, we will discuss the early history and motivation of GAIA as well as how the development continued towards the current version. The emphasis will be on practical problems and their solutions. Relevant design choices will also be highlighted.

  7. Decision Analysis Tools for Volcano Observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hincks, T. H.; Aspinall, W.; Woo, G.

    2005-12-01

    Staff at volcano observatories are predominantly engaged in scientific activities related to volcano monitoring and instrumentation, data acquisition and analysis. Accordingly, the academic education and professional training of observatory staff tend to focus on these scientific functions. From time to time, however, staff may be called upon to provide decision support to government officials responsible for civil protection. Recognizing that Earth scientists may have limited technical familiarity with formal decision analysis methods, specialist software tools that assist decision support in a crisis should be welcome. A review is given of two software tools that have been under development recently. The first is for probabilistic risk assessment of human and economic loss from volcanic eruptions, and is of practical use in short and medium-term risk-informed planning of exclusion zones, post-disaster response, etc. A multiple branch event-tree architecture for the software, together with a formalism for ascribing probabilities to branches, have been developed within the context of the European Community EXPLORIS project. The second software tool utilizes the principles of the Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) for evidence-based assessment of volcanic state and probabilistic threat evaluation. This is of practical application in short-term volcano hazard forecasting and real-time crisis management, including the difficult challenge of deciding when an eruption is over. An open-source BBN library is the software foundation for this tool, which is capable of combining synoptically different strands of observational data from diverse monitoring sources. A conceptual vision is presented of the practical deployment of these decision analysis tools in a future volcano observatory environment. Summary retrospective analyses are given of previous volcanic crises to illustrate the hazard and risk insights gained from use of these tools.

  8. Protection of Hawaii's Observatories from Light Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainscoat, Richard J.

    2018-01-01

    Maunakea Observatory, located on the island of Hawaii, is among the world darkest sites for astronomy. Strong efforts to preserve the dark night sky over the last forty years have proven successful. Artificial light presently adds only approximately 2% to the natural night sky brightness. The techniques being used to protect Maunakea from light pollution will be described, along with the challenges that are now being faced.Haleakala Observatory, located on the island of Maui, is also an excellent observing site, and is among the best sites in the United States. Lighting restrictions in Maui County are much weaker, and consequently, the night sky above Haleakala is less well protected. Haleakala is closer to Honolulu and the island of Oahu (population approximately 1 million), and the glow from Oahu makes the northwestern sky brighter.Much of the lighting across most of the United States, including Hawaii, is presently being converted to LED lighting. This provides an opportunity to replace existing poorly shielded lights with properly shielded LED fixtures, but careful spectral management is essential. It is critically important to only use LED lighting that is deficient in blue and green light. LED lighting also is easy to dim. Dimming of lights later at night, when there is no need for brighter lighting, is an important tool for reducing light pollution.Techniques used to protect astronomical observatories from light pollution are similar to the techniques that must be used to protect animals that are affected by light at night, such as endangered birds and turtles. These same techniques are compatible with recent human health related lighting recommendations from the American Medical Association.

  9. Southern Fireworks above ESO Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-05-01

    New Insights from Observations of Mysterious Gamma-Ray Burst International teams of astronomers are now busy working on new and exciting data obtained during the last week with telescopes at the European Southern Observatory (ESO). Their object of study is the remnant of a mysterious cosmic explosion far out in space, first detected as a gigantic outburst of gamma rays on May 10. Gamma-Ray Bursters (GRBs) are brief flashes of very energetic radiation - they represent by far the most powerful type of explosion known in the Universe and their afterglow in optical light can be 10 million times brighter than the brightest supernovae [1]. The May 10 event ranks among the brightest one hundred of the over 2500 GRB's detected in the last decade. The new observations include detailed images and spectra from the VLT 8.2-m ANTU (UT1) telescope at Paranal, obtained at short notice during a special Target of Opportunity programme. This happened just over one month after that powerful telescope entered into regular service and demonstrates its great potential for exciting science. In particular, in an observational first, the VLT measured linear polarization of the light from the optical counterpart, indicating for the first time that synchrotron radiation is involved . It also determined a staggering distance of more than 7,000 million light-years to this GRB . The astronomers are optimistic that the extensive observations will help them to better understand the true nature of such a dramatic event and thus to bring them nearer to the solution of one of the greatest riddles of modern astrophysics. A prime example of international collaboration The present story is about important new results at the front-line of current research. At the same time, it is also a fine illustration of a successful collaboration among several international teams of astronomers and the very effective way modern science functions. It began on May 10, at 08:49 hrs Universal Time (UT), when the Burst

  10. Status And Performance Of The Virgin Islands Robotic Telescope at Etelman Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, David C.; Gendre, Bruce; Neff, James E.; Giblin, Timothy W.

    2016-01-01

    The Virgin Islands Robotic Telescope is an 0.5m robotic telescope located at the easternmost and southernmost optical observatory in the United States at a latitude of 18.5N and longitude of 65W. The observatory is located on the island of St Thomas in the USVI. Astronomers from the College of Charleston, the US Air Force Academy, and the University of the Virgin Islands collaborate to maintain and operate the facility. The primary scientific focus of the facility is the optical follow-up of high-energy transients though a variety of other science interests are also being pursued including follow-up of candidate extra-solar planets, rotation studies of cool stars, and near-Earth asteroid and space situational awareness studies. The facility also supports a wide-reaching education and outreach program dedicated to raising the level of STEAM engagement and enrichment in the USVI. We detail the characteristics, capabilities, and early results from the observatory. The observatory is growing its staff and science activities and potential topics for collaboration will be discussed.

  11. Citizen Observatories: A Standards Based Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonis, Ingo

    2015-04-01

    A number of large-scale research projects are currently under way exploring the various components of citizen observatories, e.g. CITI-SENSE (http://www.citi-sense.eu), Citclops (http://citclops.eu), COBWEB (http://cobwebproject.eu), OMNISCIENTIS (http://www.omniscientis.eu), and WeSenseIt (http://www.wesenseit.eu). Common to all projects is the motivation to develop a platform enabling effective participation by citizens in environmental projects, while considering important aspects such as security, privacy, long-term storage and availability, accessibility of raw and processed data and its proper integration into catalogues and international exchange and collaboration systems such as GEOSS or INSPIRE. This paper describes the software architecture implemented for setting up crowdsourcing campaigns using standardized components, interfaces, security features, and distribution capabilities. It illustrates the Citizen Observatory Toolkit, a software suite that allows defining crowdsourcing campaigns, to invite registered and unregistered participants to participate in crowdsourcing campaigns, and to analyze, process, and visualize raw and quality enhanced crowd sourcing data and derived products. The Citizen Observatory Toolkit is not a single software product. Instead, it is a framework of components that are built using internationally adopted standards wherever possible (e.g. OGC standards from Sensor Web Enablement, GeoPackage, and Web Mapping and Processing Services, as well as security and metadata/cataloguing standards), defines profiles of those standards where necessary (e.g. SWE O&M profile, SensorML profile), and implements design decisions based on the motivation to maximize interoperability and reusability of all components. The toolkit contains tools to set up, manage and maintain crowdsourcing campaigns, allows building on-demand apps optimized for the specific sampling focus, supports offline and online sampling modes using modern cell phones with

  12. Pulsating stars and the Virtual Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez, Juan Carlos

    2017-09-01

    Virtual Observatory is one of the most used internet-based protocols in astronomy. It has become somewhat natural to find, manage, compare, visualize and download observations from very different archives of astronomical observations with no effort. The VO technology beyond that is now being a reality for asteroseismology, not only for observations but also for theoretical models. Here I give a brief description of the most important VO tools related with asteroseismology, as well as a rough outline of the current development in this field.

  13. Pulsating stars and the Virtual Observatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suárez Juan Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Virtual Observatory is one of the most used internet-based protocols in astronomy. It has become somewhat natural to find, manage, compare, visualize and download observations from very different archives of astronomical observations with no effort. The VO technology beyond that is now being a reality for asteroseismology, not only for observations but also for theoretical models. Here I give a brief description of the most important VO tools related with asteroseismology, as well as a rough outline of the current development in this field.

  14. The Virtual Solar Observatory: Progress and Diversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurman, Joseph B.; Bogart, R. S.; Amezcua, A.; Hill, Frank; Oien, Niles; Davey, Alisdair R.; Hourcle, Joseph; Mansky, E.; Spencer, Jennifer L.

    2017-08-01

    The Virtual Solar Observatory (VSO) is a known and useful method for identifying and accessing solar physics data online. We review current "behind the scenes" work on the VSO, including the addition of new data providers and the return of access to data sets to which service was temporarily interrupted. We also report on the effect on software development efforts when government IT “security” initiatives impinge on finite resoruces. As always, we invite SPD members to identify data sets, services, and interfaces they would like to see implemented in the VSO.

  15. Polarization observations of four southern pulsars at 1560 MHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xin-Ji; Manchester, R. N.; Lyne, A. G.

    1991-12-01

    Some interesting results from the mean pulse polarization observations of four southern pulsars made at the Australian National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Parkes, using the 64-m telescope in June and July, 1988, are presented. The 2 x 16 x 5 MHz filter system from Jodrell Bank has proved excellent in dedispersing the pulse signals and measuring their polarization properties. Data for the four pulsars are given in some detail, and their spectral behavior is discussed.

  16. The Earth System Science Pathfinder Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisp, David

    2003-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation describing the Earth System Science Pathfinder Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) Mission is shown. The contents include: 1) Why CO2?; 2) What Processes Control CO2 Sinks?; 3) OCO Science Team; 4) Space-Based Measurements of CO2; 5) Driving Requirement: Precise, Bias-Free Global Measurements; 6) Making Precise CO2 Measurements from Space; 7) OCO Spatial Sampling Strategy; 8) OCO Observing Modes; 9) Implementation Approach; 10) The OCO Instrument; 11) The OCO Spacecraft; 12) OCO Will Fly in the A-Train; 13) Validation Program Ensures Accuracy and Minimizes Spatially Coherent Biases; 14) Can OCO Provide the Required Precision?; 15) O2 Column Retrievals with Ground-based FTS; 16) X(sub CO2) Retrieval Simulations; 17) Impact of Albedo and Aerosol Uncertainty on X(sub CO2) Retrievals; 18) Carbon Cycle Modeling Studies: Seasonal Cycle; 19) Carbon Cycle Modeling Studies: The North-South Gradient in CO2; 20) Carbon Cycle Modeling Studies: Effect of Diurnal Biases; 21) Project Status and Schedule; and 22) Summary.

  17. Project Solaris, a Global Network of Autonomous Observatories: Design, Commissioning, and First Science Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozłowski, S. K.; Sybilski, P. W.; Konacki, M.; Pawłaszek, R. K.; Ratajczak, M.; Hełminiak, K. G.; Litwicki, M.

    2017-10-01

    We present the design and commissioning of Project Solaris, a global network of autonomous observatories. Solaris is a Polish scientific undertaking aimed at the detection and characterization of circumbinary exoplanets and eclipsing binary stars. To accomplish this, a network of four fully autonomous observatories has been deployed in the Southern Hemisphere: Solaris-1 and Solaris-2 in the South African Astronomical Observatory in South Africa; Solaris-3 in Siding Spring Observatory in Australia; and Solaris-4 in Complejo Astronomico El Leoncito in Argentina. The four stations are nearly identical and are equipped with 0.5-m Ritchey-Crétien (f/15) or Cassegrain (f/9, Solaris-3) optics and high-grade 2 K × 2 K CCD cameras with Johnson and Sloan filter sets. We present the design and implementation of low-level security; data logging and notification systems; weather monitoring components; all-sky vision system, surveillance system; and distributed temperature and humidity sensors. We describe dedicated grounding and lighting protection system design and robust fiber data transfer interfaces in electrically demanding conditions. We discuss the outcomes of our design, as well as the resulting software engineering requirements. We describe our system’s engineering approach to achieve the required level of autonomy, the architecture of the custom high-level industry-grade software that has been designed and implemented specifically for the use of the network. We present the actual status of the project and first photometric results; these include data and models of already studied systems for benchmarking purposes (Wasp-4b, Wasp-64b, and Wasp-98b transits, PG 1663-018, an eclipsing binary with a pulsator) as well J024946-3825.6, an interesting low-mass binary system for which a complete model is provided for the first time.

  18. The Lowell Observatory Predoctoral Scholar Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prato, Lisa; Nofi, Larissa

    2018-01-01

    Lowell Observatory is pleased to solicit applications for our Predoctoral Scholar Fellowship Program. Now beginning its tenth year, this program is designed to provide unique research opportunities to graduate students in good standing, currently enrolled at Ph.D. granting institutions. Lowell staff research spans a wide range of topics, from astronomical instrumentation, to icy bodies in our solar system, exoplanet science, stellar populations, star formation, and dwarf galaxies. Strong collaborations, the new Ph.D. program at Northern Arizona University, and cooperative links across the greater Flagstaff astronomical community create a powerful multi-institutional locus in northern Arizona. Lowell Observatory's new 4.3 meter Discovery Channel Telescope is operating at full science capacity and boasts some of the most cutting-edge and exciting capabilities available in optical/infrared astronomy. Student research is expected to lead to a thesis dissertation appropriate for graduation at the doctoral level at the student's home institution. For more information, see http://www2.lowell.edu/rsch/predoc.php and links therein. Applications for Fall 2018 are due by May 1, 2018; alternate application dates will be considered on an individual basis.

  19. Fine Guidance Sensing for Coronagraphic Observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugarolas, Paul; Alexander, James W.; Trauger, John T.; Moody, Dwight C.

    2011-01-01

    Three options have been developed for Fine Guidance Sensing (FGS) for coronagraphic observatories using a Fine Guidance Camera within a coronagraphic instrument. Coronagraphic observatories require very fine precision pointing in order to image faint objects at very small distances from a target star. The Fine Guidance Camera measures the direction to the target star. The first option, referred to as Spot, was to collect all of the light reflected from a coronagraph occulter onto a focal plane, producing an Airy-type point spread function (PSF). This would allow almost all of the starlight from the central star to be used for centroiding. The second approach, referred to as Punctured Disk, collects the light that bypasses a central obscuration, producing a PSF with a punctured central disk. The final approach, referred to as Lyot, collects light after passing through the occulter at the Lyot stop. The study includes generation of representative images for each option by the science team, followed by an engineering evaluation of a centroiding or a photometric algorithm for each option. After the alignment of the coronagraph to the fine guidance system, a "nulling" point on the FGS focal point is determined by calibration. This alignment is implemented by a fine alignment mechanism that is part of the fine guidance camera selection mirror. If the star images meet the modeling assumptions, and the star "centroid" can be driven to that nulling point, the contrast for the coronagraph will be maximized.

  20. Developing a Virtual Network of Research Observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, R. P.; Kirschtl, D.

    2008-12-01

    The hydrologic community has been discussing the concept of a network of observatories for the advancement of hydrologic science in areas of scaling processes, in testing generality of hypotheses, and in examining non-linear couplings between hydrologic, biotic, and human systems. The Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Science, Inc. (CUAHSI) is exploring the formation of a virtual network of observatories, formed from existing field studies without regard to funding source. Such a network would encourage sharing of data, metadata, field methods, and data analysis techniques to enable multidisciplinary synthesis, meta-analysis, and scientific collaboration in hydrologic and environmental science and engineering. The virtual network would strive to provide both the data and the environmental context of the data through advanced cyberinfrastructure support. The foundation for this virtual network is Water Data Services that enable the publication of time-series data collected at fixed points using a services-oriented architecture. These publication services, developed in the CUAHSI Hydrologic Information Systems project, permit the discovery of data from both academic and government sources through a single portal. Additional services under consideration are publication of geospatial data sets, immersive environments based upon site digital elevation models, and a common web portal to member sites populated with structured data about the site (such as land use history and geologic setting) to permit understanding the environmental context of the data being shared.

  1. Integrating Near Fault Observatories (NFO) for EPOS Implementation Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaraluce, Lauro

    2015-04-01

    Following the European Plate Observing System (EPOS) project vision aimed at creating a pan-European infrastructure for Earth sciences to support science for a more sustainable society, we are working on the integration of Near-Fault Observatories (NFOs). NFOs are state of the art research infrastructures consisting of advanced networks of multi-parametric sensors continuously monitoring the chemical and physical processes related to the common underlying earth instabilities governing active faults evolution and the genesis of earthquakes. Such a methodological approach, currently applicable only at the local scale (areas of tens to few hundreds of kilometres), is based on extremely dense networks and less common instruments deserving an extraordinary work on data quality control and multi-parameter data description. These networks in fact usually complement regional seismic and geodetic networks (typically with station spacing of 50-100km) with high-density distributions of seismic, geodetic, geochemical and geophysical sensors located typically within 10-20 km of active faults where large earthquakes are expected in the future. In the initial phase of EPOS-IP, seven NFO nodes will be linked: the Alto Tiberina and Irpinia Observatories in Italy, the Corinth Observatory in Greece, the South-Iceland Seismic Zone, the Valais Observatory in Switzerland, Marmara Sea GEO Supersite in Turkey (EU MARSite) and the Vrancea Observatory in Romania. Our work is aimed at establishing standards and integration within this first core group of NFOs while other NFOs are expected to be installed in the next years adopting the standards established and developed within the EPOS Thematic Core Services (TCS). The goal of our group is to build upon the initial development supported by these few key national observatories coordinated under previous EU projects (NERA and REAKT), inclusive and harmonised TCS supporting the installation over the next decade of tens of near

  2. An integrated payload design for the Exoplanet Characterisation Observatory (EChO)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swinyard, Bruce; Tinetti, Giovanna; Tennyson, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    by ESA in the context of a medium class mission within the Cosmic Vision programme for launch post 2020. The payload suite is required to provide simultaneous coverage from the visible to the mid-infrared and must be highly stable and effectively operate as a single instrument. In this paper we describe......The Exoplanet Characterisation Observatory (EChO) is a space mission dedicated to undertaking spectroscopy of transiting exoplanets over the widest wavelength range possible. It is based around a highly stable space platform with a 1.2 m class telescope. The mission is currently being studied...

  3. Power Control and Monitoring Requirements for Thermal Vacuum/Thermal Balance Testing of the MAP Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Chris; Hinkle, R. Kenneth (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The specific heater control requirements for the thermal vacuum and thermal balance testing of the Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) Observatory at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in Greenbelt, Maryland are described. The testing was conducted in the 10m wide x 18.3m high Space Environment Simulator (SES) Thermal Vacuum Facility. The MAP thermal testing required accurate quantification of spacecraft and fixture power levels while minimizing heater electrical emissions. The special requirements of the MAP test necessitated construction of five (5) new heater racks.

  4. Science Potential of a Deep Ocean Antineutrino Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dye, S.T.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents science potential of a deep ocean antineutrino observatory being developed at Hawaii. The observatory design allows for relocation from one site to another. Positioning the observatory some 60 km distant from a nuclear reactor complex enables precision measurement of neutrino mixing parameters, leading to a determination of neutrino mass hierarchy and θ 13 . At a mid-Pacific location the observatory measures the flux and ratio of uranium and thorium decay neutrinos from earth's mantle and performs a sensitive search for a hypothetical natural fission reactor in earth's core. A subsequent deployment at another mid-ocean location would test lateral heterogeneity of uranium and thorium in earth's mantle

  5. Availability and Access to Data from Kakioka Magnetic Observatory, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhiro Minamoto

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA is operating four geomagnetic observatories in Japan. Kakioka Magnetic Observatory (KMO, commissioned in 1913, is the oldest. The hourly records at KMO cover over almost 100 years. KMO is JMA's headquarters for geomagnetic and geoelectric observations. Almost all data are available at the KMO website free of charge for researchers. KMO and two other observatories have been certified as INTERMAGNET observatories, and quasi-real-time geomagnetic data from them are available at the INTERMAGNET website.

  6. Vodcasting space weather: The Space Weather FX vodcast series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins Petersen, C.; Erickson, P. J.

    2008-06-01

    The topic of space weather is the subject of a series of nine vodcasts (video podcasts) being created by MIT Haystack Observatory (Westford, Massachusetts, USA) and Loch Ness Productions (Groton, Massachusetts, USA). This paper describes the project, its science and outreach goals, and introduces the principal participants.

  7. Solar activity monitoring and forecasting capabilities at Big Bear Solar Observatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. T. Gallagher

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The availability of full-disk, high-resolution Ha images from Big Bear Solar Observatory (USA, Kanzelhöhe Solar Observatory (Austria, and Yunnan Astronomical Observatory (China allows for the continual monitoring of solar activity with unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution. Typically, this Global Ha Network (GHN provides almost uninterrupted Ha images with a cadence of 1 min and an image scale of 1'' per pixel.  Every hour, GHN images are transferred to the web-based BBSO Active Region Monitor (ARM; www.bbso.njit.edu/arm, which includes the most recent EUV, continuum, and magnetogram data from the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory, together with magnetograms from the Global Oscillation Network Group. ARM also includes a variety of active region properties from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s Space Environment Center, such as up-to-date active region positions, GOES 5-min X-ray data, and flare identification. Stokes I, V, Q, and U images are available from the recently operational BBSO Digital Vector Magnetograph and the Vector Magnetograph at the Huairou Solar Observing Station of Beijing Observatory. Vector magnetograms provide complete information on the photospheric magnetic field, and allow for magnetic flux gradients, electric currents, and shear forces to be calculated: these measurements are extremely sensitive to conditions resulting in flaring activity. Furthermore, we have developed a Flare Prediction System which estimates the probability for each region to produce C-, M-, or X-class flares based on nearly eight years of NOAA data from cycle 22. This, in addition to BBSO’s daily solar activity reports, has proven a useful resource for activity forecasting.Key words. Solar physics, astronomy and astrophysics (flares and mass ejections; instruments and techniques; photosphere and chromosphere

  8. The Steward Observatory asteroid relational database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, Mark V.; Alvarezdelcastillo, Elizabeth M.

    1991-01-01

    The Steward Observatory Asteroid Relational Database (SOARD) was created as a flexible tool for undertaking studies of asteroid populations and sub-populations, to probe the biases intrinsic to asteroid databases, to ascertain the completeness of data pertaining to specific problems, to aid in the development of observational programs, and to develop pedagogical materials. To date, SOARD has compiled an extensive list of data available on asteroids and made it accessible through a single menu-driven database program. Users may obtain tailored lists of asteroid properties for any subset of asteroids or output files which are suitable for plotting spectral data on individual asteroids. The program has online help as well as user and programmer documentation manuals. The SOARD already has provided data to fulfill requests by members of the astronomical community. The SOARD continues to grow as data is added to the database and new features are added to the program.

  9. Punctuated Evolution of Volcanology: An Observatory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, W. C.; Eichelberger, J. C.

    2010-12-01

    Volcanology from the perspective of crisis prediction and response-the primary function of volcano observatories-is influenced both by steady technological advances and singular events that lead to rapid changes in methodology and procedure. The former can be extrapolated somewhat, while the latter are surprises or shocks. Predictable advances include the conversion from analog to digital systems and the exponential growth of computing capacity and data storage. Surprises include eruptions such as 1980 Mount St Helens, 1985 Nevado del Ruiz, 1989-1990 Redoubt, 1991 Pinatubo, and 2010 Eyjafjallajokull; the opening of GPS to civilian applications, and the advent of an open Russia. Mount St Helens switched the rationale for volcanology in the USGS from geothermal energy to volcano hazards, Ruiz and Pinatubo emphasized the need for international cooperation for effective early warning, Redoubt launched the effort to monitor even remote volcanoes for purposes of aviation safety, and Eyjafjallajokull hammered home the need for improved ash-dispersion and engine-tolerance models; better GPS led to a revolution in volcano geodesy, and the new Russian Federation sparked an Alaska-Kamchatka scientific exchange. The pattern has been that major funding increases for volcano hazards occur after these unpredictable events, which suddenly expose a gap in capabilities, rather than out of a calculated need to exploit technological advances or meet a future goal of risk mitigation. It is up to the observatory and national volcano hazard program to leverage these sudden funding increases into a long-term, sustainable business model that incorporates both the steadily increasing costs of staff and new technology and prepares for the next volcano crisis. Elements of the future will also include the immediate availability on the internet of all publically-funded volcano data, and subscribable, sophisticated hazard alert systems that run computational, fluid dynamic eruption models. These

  10. In situ vector calibration of magnetic observatories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gonsette

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The goal of magnetic observatories is to measure and provide a vector magnetic field in a geodetic coordinate system. For that purpose, instrument set-up and calibration are crucial. In particular, the scale factor and orientation of a vector magnetometer may affect the magnetic field measurement. Here, we highlight the baseline concept and demonstrate that it is essential for data quality control. We show how the baselines can highlight a possible calibration error. We also provide a calibration method based on high-frequency absolute measurements. This method determines a transformation matrix for correcting variometer data suffering from scale factor and orientation errors. We finally present a practical case where recovered data have been successfully compared to those coming from a reference magnetometer.

  11. The sunspot databases of the Debrecen Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranyi, Tünde; Gyori, Lajos; Ludmány, András

    2015-08-01

    We present the sunspot data bases and online tools available in the Debrecen Heliophysical Observatory: the DPD (Debrecen Photoheliographic Data, 1974 -), the SDD (SOHO/MDI-Debrecen Data, 1996-2010), the HMIDD (SDO/HMI-Debrecen Data, HMIDD, 2010-), the revised version of Greenwich Photoheliographic Data (GPR, 1874-1976) presented together with the Hungarian Historical Solar Drawings (HHSD, 1872-1919). These are the most detailed and reliable documentations of the sunspot activity in the relevant time intervals. They are very useful for studying sunspot group evolution on various time scales from hours to weeks. Time-dependent differences between the available long-term sunspot databases are investigated and cross-calibration factors are determined between them. This work has received funding from the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2012-2015) under grant agreement No. 284461 (eHEROES).

  12. MMS Observatory Thermal Vacuum Results Contamination Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosecrans, Glenn P.; Errigo, Therese; Brieda, Lubos

    2014-01-01

    The MMS mission is a constellation of 4 observatories designed to investigate the fundamental plasma physics of reconnection in the Earths magnetosphere. Each spacecraft has undergone extensive environmental testing to prepare it for its minimum 2 year mission. The various instrument suites measure electric and magnetic fields, energetic particles, and plasma composition. Thermal vacuum testing was conducted at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) in their Big Blue vacuum chamber. The individual spacecraft were tested and enclosed in a cryopanel enclosure called a Hamster cage. Specific contamination control validations were actively monitored by several QCMs, a facility RGA, and at times, with 16 Ion Gauges. Each spacecraft underwent a bakeout phase, followed by 4 thermal cycles. Unique aspects of the TV environment included slow pump downs with represses, thruster firings, Helium identification, and monitoring pressure spikes with Ion gauges. Various data from these TV tests will be shown along with lessons learned.

  13. Meteorological observatory for Antarctic data collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigioni, P.; De Silvestri, L.

    1996-01-01

    In the last years, a great number of automatic weather stations was installed in Antarctica, with the aim to examine closely the weather and climate of this region and to improve the coverage of measuring points on the Antarctic surface. In 1987 the Italian Antarctic Project started to set up a meteorological network, in an area not completely covered by other countries. Some of the activities performed by the meteorological observatory, concerning technical functions such as maintenance of the AWS's and the execution of radio soundings, or relating to scientific purposes such as validation and elaboration of collected data, are exposed. Finally, some climatological considerations on the thermal behaviour of the Antarctic troposphere such as 'coreless winter', and on the wind field, including katabatic flows in North Victoria Land are described

  14. Virtual Observatory: From Concept to Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djorgovski, S. G.; Williams, R.

    2005-12-01

    We review the origins of the Virtual Observatory (VO) concept, and the current status of the efforts in this field. VO is the response of the astronomical community to the challenges posed by the modern massive and complex data sets. It is a framework in which information technology is harnessed to organize, maintain, and explore the rich information content of the exponentially growing data sets, and to enable a qualitatively new science to be done with them. VO will become a complete, open, distributed, web-based framework for astronomy of the early 21st century. A number of significant efforts worldwide are now striving to convert this vision into reality. The technological and methodological challenges posed by the information-rich astronomy are also common to many other fields. We see a fundamental change in the way all science is done, driven by the information technology revolution.

  15. Supernova observations at McDonald Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheeler, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    The programs to obtain high quality spectra and photometry of supernovae at McDonald Observatory are reviewed. Spectra of recent Type I supernovae in NGC 3227, NGC 3625, and NGC 4419 are compared with those of SN 1981b in NGC 4536 to quantitatively illustrate both the homogeneity of Type I spectra at similar epochs and the differences in detail which will serve as a probe of the physical processes in the explosions. Spectra of the recent supernova in NGC 0991 give for the first time quantitative confirmation of a spectrally homogeneous, but distinct subclass of Type I supernovae which appears to be less luminous and to have lower excitation at maximum light than classical Type I supernovae

  16. ARMAGH OBSERVATORY – HISTORIC BUILDING INFORMATION MODELLING FOR VIRTUAL LEARNING IN BUILDING CONSERVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Murphy

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the recording and design for a Virtual Reality Immersive Model of Armagh Observatory is presented, which will replicate the historic buildings and landscape with distant meridian markers and position of its principal historic instruments within a model of the night sky showing the position of bright stars. The virtual reality model can be used for educational purposes allowing the instruments within the historic building model to be manipulated within 3D space to demonstrate how the position measurements of stars were made in the 18th century. A description is given of current student and researchers activities concerning on-site recording and surveying and the virtual modelling of the buildings and landscape. This is followed by a design for a Virtual Reality Immersive Model of Armagh Observatory use game engine and virtual learning platforms and concepts.

  17. The Virtual Wave Observatory (VWO): A Portal to Heliophysics Wave Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Shing F.

    2010-01-01

    The Virtual Wave Observatory (VWO) is one of the discipline-oriented virtual observatories that help form the nascent NASA Heliophysics Data environment to support heliophysics research. It focuses on supporting the searching and accessing of distributed heliophysics wave data and information that are available online. Since the occurrence of a natural wave phenomenon often depends on the underlying geophysical -- i.e., context -- conditions under which the waves are generated and propagate, and the observed wave characteristics can also depend on the location of observation, VWO will implement wave-data search-by-context conditions and location, in addition to searching by time and observing platforms (both space-based and ground-based). This paper describes the VWO goals, the basic design objectives, and the key VWO functionality to be expected. Members of the heliophysics community are invited to participate in VWO development in order to ensure its usefulness and success.

  18. Armagh Observatory - Historic Building Information Modelling for Virtual Learning in Building Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, M.; Chenaux, A.; Keenaghan, G.; GIbson, V..; Butler, J.; Pybusr, C.

    2017-08-01

    In this paper the recording and design for a Virtual Reality Immersive Model of Armagh Observatory is presented, which will replicate the historic buildings and landscape with distant meridian markers and position of its principal historic instruments within a model of the night sky showing the position of bright stars. The virtual reality model can be used for educational purposes allowing the instruments within the historic building model to be manipulated within 3D space to demonstrate how the position measurements of stars were made in the 18th century. A description is given of current student and researchers activities concerning on-site recording and surveying and the virtual modelling of the buildings and landscape. This is followed by a design for a Virtual Reality Immersive Model of Armagh Observatory use game engine and virtual learning platforms and concepts.

  19. Earth-Affecting Solar Causes Observatory (EASCO): a mission at the Sun-Earth L5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gopalswamy, Nat; Davila, Joseph M.; Auchère, Frédéric

    2011-01-01

    Observatory (STEREO) missions, but these missions lacked some key measurements: STEREO did not have a magnetograph; SOHO did not have in-situ magnetometer. SOHO and other imagers such as the Solar Mass Ejection Imager (SMEI) located on the Sun-Earth line are also not well-suited to measure Earth-directed CMEs....... The Earth-Affecting Solar Causes Observatory (EASCO) is a proposed mission to be located at the Sun-Earth L5 that overcomes these deficiencies. The mission concept was recently studied at the Mission Design Laboratory (MDL), NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, to see how the mission can be implemented....... The study found that the scientific payload (seven remote-sensing and three in-situ instruments) can be readily accommodated and can be launched using an intermediate size vehicle; a hybrid propulsion system consisting of a Xenon ion thruster and hydrazine has been found to be adequate to place the payload...

  20. Towards a new Mercator Observatory Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessemier, W.; Raskin, G.; Prins, S.; Saey, P.; Merges, F.; Padilla, J. P.; Van Winckel, H.; Waelkens, C.

    2010-07-01

    A new control system is currently being developed for the 1.2-meter Mercator Telescope at the Roque de Los Muchachos Observatory (La Palma, Spain). Formerly based on transputers, the new Mercator Observatory Control System (MOCS) consists of a small network of Linux computers complemented by a central industrial controller and an industrial real-time data communication network. Python is chosen as the high-level language to develop flexible yet powerful supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) software for the Linux computers. Specialized applications such as detector control, auto-guiding and middleware management are also integrated in the same Python software package. The industrial controller, on the other hand, is connected to the majority of the field devices and is targeted to run various control loops, some of which are real-time critical. Independently of the Linux distributed control system (DCS), this controller makes sure that high priority tasks such as the telescope motion, mirror support and hydrostatic bearing control are carried out in a reliable and safe way. A comparison is made between different controller technologies including a LabVIEW embedded system, a PROFINET Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) and motion controller, and an EtherCAT embedded PC (soft-PLC). As the latter is chosen as the primary platform for the lower level control, a substantial part of the software is being ported to the IEC 61131-3 standard programming languages. Additionally, obsolete hardware is gradually being replaced by standard industrial alternatives with fast EtherCAT communication. The use of Python as a scripting language allows a smooth migration to the final MOCS: finished parts of the new control system can readily be commissioned to replace the corresponding transputer units of the old control system with minimal downtime. In this contribution, we give an overview of the systems design, implementation details and the current status of the project.

  1. India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1. The site at Singara near the town of Masinagudi (Lat. 11.5◦N, Long. 76.6◦E) under the Nilgiri Mountains in the southern peninsular shield in South India, is adjacent to a hydel project PUSHEP (Pykara ultimate stage hydroelectric project). The vertical overburden is around 1.3 km. All-around cover of more than 1 km exists, ...

  2. The Geospace Dynamics Observatory; a mission of discovery for Geospace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spann, J. F.; Paxton, L.; Burch, J. L.; Reardon, P.; Habash Krause, L.; Gallagher, D. L.; Hopkins, R.

    2013-12-01

    Geospace Dynamics Observatory (GDO) takes advantage a repurposed optical system to provide new, unique, and cost-effective insights into the dynamics of geospace. New missions investigating the ITM system and the magnetospheric-ionospheric coupling processes have generally been very focused on specific phenomena, generally limited by the resource constraints and mission size. Exploring options for observing these regions with instrumentation that is 'non-traditional' is not often considered. The possibility of using very large optics to image Geospace has recently come to the fore. This talk will address the science that would be enabled by flying an ultraviolet telescope imaging the ITM region with an aperture greater than 2 meters. A brief overview of the use of this asset in a science-driven mission concept called the Geospace Dynamics Observatory (GDO) will be presented. This talk will explore the optical and technical aspects of the GDO mission and the implementation strategy. Additionally, the case will be made that GDO will address a significant portion of the priority mission science articulated in the recent Solar and Space Physics Decadal Survey, and provide unprecedented discovery opportunities. One of the problems common to all of geospace research is that of resolving temporal and spatial ambiguities: are the observed changes due the fact that the location of the observation has changed or have the state variables changed? This is a particularly vexing problem for low-cost missions that may have to rely on in situ measurements or other low spatial resolution techniques such as GPS radio occultation. The exceptional capabilities of the GDO mission include (1) unprecedented improvement in signal to noise for global-scale imaging of Earth's space environment that enables changes in the Earth's space environment to be resolved with orders of magnitude higher temporal and spatial resolution compared to existing data and other approaches, and (2) unrivaled

  3. Image of the Great Nebula in Andromeda, M31 Taken by the High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO)-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Both of the High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO) 2/Einstein Observatory imaging devices were used to observe the Great Nebula in Andromeda, M31. This image is a wide field x-ray view of the center region of M31 by the HEAO-2's Imaging Proportional Counter. The HEAO-2, the first imaging and largest x-ray telescope built to date, was capable of producing actual photographs of x-ray objects. Shortly after launch, the HEAO-2 was nicknamed the Einstein Observatory by its scientific experimenters in honor of the centernial of the birth of Albert Einstein, whose concepts of relativity and gravitation have influenced much of modern astrophysics, particularly x-ray astronomy. The HEAO-2, designed and developed by TRW, Inc. under the project management of the Marshall Space Flight Center, was launched aboard an Atlas/Centaur launch vehicle on November 13, 1978.

  4. SIRTA, a ground-based atmospheric observatory for cloud and aerosol research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Haeffelin

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Ground-based remote sensing observatories have a crucial role to play in providing data to improve our understanding of atmospheric processes, to test the performance of atmospheric models, and to develop new methods for future space-borne observations. Institut Pierre Simon Laplace, a French research institute in environmental sciences, created the Site Instrumental de Recherche par Télédétection Atmosphérique (SIRTA, an atmospheric observatory with these goals in mind. Today SIRTA, located 20km south of Paris, operates a suite a state-of-the-art active and passive remote sensing instruments dedicated to routine monitoring of cloud and aerosol properties, and key atmospheric parameters. Detailed description of the state of the atmospheric column is progressively archived and made accessible to the scientific community. This paper describes the SIRTA infrastructure and database, and provides an overview of the scientific research associated with the observatory. Researchers using SIRTA data conduct research on atmospheric processes involving complex interactions between clouds, aerosols and radiative and dynamic processes in the atmospheric column. Atmospheric modellers working with SIRTA observations develop new methods to test their models and innovative analyses to improve parametric representations of sub-grid processes that must be accounted for in the model. SIRTA provides the means to develop data interpretation tools for future active remote sensing missions in space (e.g. CloudSat and CALIPSO. SIRTA observation and research activities take place in networks of atmospheric observatories that allow scientists to access consistent data sets from diverse regions on the globe.

  5. Electricity and gas market Observatory - 2. Quarter of 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of the Observatory is to provide the general public with indicators for monitoring market deregulation. It both covers the wholesale and retail electricity and gas markets in Metropolitan France. This Observatory is updated every three months and data are available on CRE web site (www.cre.fr)

  6. Electricity and gas market Observatory - 4. Quarter of 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of the Observatory is to provide the general public with indicators for monitoring market deregulation. It both covers the wholesale and retail electricity and gas markets in Metropolitan France. This Observatory is updated every three months and data are available on CRE web site (www.cre.fr)

  7. Electricity and gas market Observatory - 3. Quarter of 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of the Observatory is to provide the general public with indicators for monitoring market deregulation. It both covers the wholesale and retail electricity and gas markets in Metropolitan France. This Observatory is updated every three months and data are available on CRE web site (www.cre.fr)

  8. University Observatory, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The University Observatory of Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität was founded in 1816. Astronomers who worked or graduated at the Munich Observatory include: Fraunhofer, Soldner, Lamont, Seeliger and Karl Schwarzschild. At present four professors and ten staff astronomers work here. Funding comes from the Bavarian Government, the German Science Foundation, and other German and European research progra...

  9. Electricity and gas market Observatory - 1. Quarter of 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of the Observatory is to provide the general public with indicators for monitoring market deregulation. It both covers the wholesale and retail electricity and gas markets in Metropolitan France. This Observatory is updated every three months and data are available on CRE web site (www.cre.fr)

  10. Electricity and gas market Observatory - 4. Quarter of 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of the Observatory is to provide the general public with indicators for monitoring market deregulation. It both covers the wholesale and retail electricity and gas markets in Metropolitan France. This Observatory is updated every three months and data are available on CRE web site (www.cre.fr)

  11. Electricity and gas market Observatory - 3. Quarter of 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of the Observatory is to provide the general public with indicators for monitoring market deregulation. It both covers the wholesale and retail electricity and gas markets in Metropolitan France. This Observatory is updated every three months and data are available on CRE web site (www.cre.fr)

  12. Electricity and gas market Observatory - 4. Quarter of 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of the Observatory is to provide the general public with indicators for monitoring market deregulation. It both covers the wholesale and retail electricity and gas markets in Metropolitan France. This Observatory is updated every three months and data are available on CRE web site (www.cre.fr)

  13. Electricity and gas market Observatory - 2. Quarter of 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of the Observatory is to provide the general public with indicators for monitoring market deregulation. It both covers the wholesale and retail electricity and gas markets in Metropolitan France. This Observatory is updated every three months and data are available on CRE web site (www.cre.fr)

  14. Electricity and gas market Observatory - 1. Quarter of 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of the Observatory is to provide the general public with indicators for monitoring market deregulation. It both covers the wholesale and retail electricity and gas markets in Metropolitan France. This Observatory is updated every three months and data are available on CRE web site (www.cre.fr)

  15. Science requirements and the design of cabled ocean observatories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Mikada

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The ocean sciences are beginning a new phase in which scientists will enter the ocean environment and adaptively observe the Earth-Ocean system through remote control of sensors and sensor platforms. This new ocean science paradigm will be implemented using innovative facilities called ocean observatories which provide unprecedented levels of power and communication to access and manipulate real-time sensor networks deployed within many different environments in the ocean basins. Most of the principal design drivers for ocean observatories differ from those for commercial submarine telecommunications systems. First, ocean observatories require data to be input and output at one or more seafloor nodes rather than at a few land terminuses. Second, ocean observatories must distribute a lot of power to the seafloor at variable and fluctuating rates. Third, the seafloor infrastructure for an ocean observatory inherently requires that the wet plant be expandable and reconfigurable. Finally, because the wet communications and power infrastructure is comparatively complex, ocean observatory infrastructure must be designed for low life cycle cost rather than zero maintenance. The origin of these differences may be understood by taking a systems engineering approach to ocean observatory design through examining the requirements derived from science and then going through the process of iterative refinement to yield conceptual and physical designs. This is illustrated using the NEPTUNE regional cabled observatory power and data communications sub-systems.

  16. Electricity and gas market Observatory - 1. Quarter of 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of the Observatory is to provide the general public with indicators for monitoring market deregulation. It both covers the wholesale and retail electricity and gas markets in Metropolitan France. Since 2013, it also covers the wholesale CO 2 market. This Observatory is updated every three months and data are available on CRE web site (www.cre.fr)

  17. Silicon pore optics for the international x-ray observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wille, E.; Wallace, K.; Bavdaz, M.; Collon, M. J.; Günther, R.; Ackermann, M.; Beijersbergen, M. W.; Riekerink, M. O.; Blom, M.; Lansdorp, B.; de Vreede, L.

    2017-11-01

    Lightweight X-ray Wolter optics with a high angular resolution will enable the next generation of X-ray telescopes in space. The International X-ray Observatory (IXO) requires a mirror assembly of 3 m2 effective area (at 1.5 keV) and an angular resolution of 5 arcsec. These specifications can only be achieved with a novel technology like Silicon Pore Optics, which is developed by ESA together with a consortium of European industry. Silicon Pore Optics are made of commercial Si wafers using process technology adapted from the semiconductor industry. We present the manufacturing process ranging from single mirror plates towards complete focusing mirror modules mounted in flight configuration. The performance of the mirror modules is tested using X-ray pencil beams or full X-ray illumination. In 2009, an angular resolution of 9 arcsec was achieved, demonstrating the improvement of the technology compared to 17 arcsec in 2007. Further development activities of Silicon Pore Optics concentrate on ruggedizing the mounting system and performing environmental tests, integrating baffles into the mirror modules and assessing the mass production.

  18. Conceptual Design of the International Axion Observatory (IAXO)

    CERN Document Server

    Armengaud, E; Betz, M; Brax, P; Brun, P; Cantatore, G; Carmona, J M; Carosi, G P; Caspers, F; Caspi, S; Cetin, S A; Chelouche, D; Christensen, F E; Dael, A; Dafni, T; Davenport, M; Derbin, A V; Desch, K; Diago, A; Döbrich, B; Dratchnev, I; Dudarev, A; Eleftheriadis, C; Fanourakis, G; Ferrer-Ribas, E; Galán, J; García, J A; Garza, J G; Geralis, T; Gimeno, B; Giomataris, I; Gninenko, S; Gómez, H; González-Díaz, D; Guendelman, E; Hailey, C J; Hiramatsu, T; Hoffmann, D H H; Horns, D; Iguaz, F J; Irastorza, I G; Isern, J; Imai, K; Jakobsen, A C; Jaeckel, J; Jakovčić, K; Kaminski, J; Kawasaki, M; Karuza, M; Krčmar, M; Kousouris, K; Krieger, C; Lakić, B; Limousin, O; Lindner, A; Liolios, A; Luzón, G; Matsuki, S; Muratova, V N; Nones, C; Ortega, I; Papaevangelou, T; Pivovaroff, M J; Raffelt, G; Redondo, J; Ringwald, A; Russenschuck, S; Ruz, J; Saikawa, K; Savvidis, I; Sekiguchi, T; Semertzidis, Y K; Shilon, I; Sikivie, P; Silva, H; Kate, H ten; Tomas, A; Troitsky, S; Vafeiadis, T; Bibber, K van; Vedrine, P; Villar, J A; Vogel, J K; Walckiers, L; Weltman, A; Wester, W; Yildiz, S C; Zioutas, K

    2014-01-01

    The International Axion Observatory (IAXO) will be a forth generation axion helioscope. As its primary physics goal, IAXO will look for axions or axion-like particles (ALPs) originating in the Sun via the Primakoff conversion of the solar plasma photons. In terms of signal-to-noise ratio, IAXO will be about 4-5 orders of magnitude more sensitive than CAST, currently the most powerful axion helioscope, reaching sensitivity to axion-photon couplings down to a few $\\times 10^{-12}$ GeV$^{-1}$ and thus probing a large fraction of the currently unexplored axion and ALP parameter space. IAXO will also be sensitive to solar axions produced by mechanisms mediated by the axion-electron coupling $g_{ae}$ with sensitivity $-$for the first time$-$ to values of $g_{ae}$ not previously excluded by astrophysics. With several other possible physics cases, IAXO has the potential to serve as a multi-purpose facility for generic axion and ALP research in the next decade. In this paper we present the conceptual design of IAXO, w...

  19. Stochastic Inversion of Geomagnetic Observatory Data Including Rigorous Treatment of the Ocean Induction Effect With Implications for Transition Zone Water Content and Thermal Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munch, F. D.; Grayver, A. V.; Kuvshinov, A.; Khan, A.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper we estimate and invert local electromagnetic (EM) sounding data for 1-D conductivity profiles in the presence of nonuniform oceans and continents to most rigorously account for the ocean induction effect that is known to strongly influence coastal observatories. We consider a new set of high-quality time series of geomagnetic observatory data, including hitherto unused data from island observatories installed over the last decade. The EM sounding data are inverted in the period range 3-85 days using stochastic optimization and model exploration techniques to provide estimates of model range and uncertainty. The inverted conductivity profiles are best constrained in the depth range 400-1,400 km and reveal significant lateral variations between 400 km and 1,000 km depth. To interpret the inverted conductivity anomalies in terms of water content and temperature, we combine laboratory-measured electrical conductivity of mantle minerals with phase equilibrium computations. Based on this procedure, relatively low temperatures (1200-1350°C) are observed in the transition zone (TZ) underneath stations located in Southern Australia, Southern Europe, Northern Africa, and North America. In contrast, higher temperatures (1400-1500°C) are inferred beneath observatories on islands, Northeast Asia, and central Australia. TZ water content beneath European and African stations is ˜0.05-0.1 wt %, whereas higher water contents (˜0.5-1 wt %) are inferred underneath North America, Asia, and Southern Australia. Comparison of the inverted water contents with laboratory-constrained water storage capacities suggests the presence of melt in or around the TZ underneath four geomagnetic observatories in North America and Northeast Asia.

  20. Towards a gravitational wave observatory designer: sensitivity limits of spaceborne detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barke, S; Wang, Y; Delgado, J J Esteban; Tröbs, M; Heinzel, G; Danzmann, K

    2015-01-01

    The most promising concept for low frequency (millihertz to hertz) gravitational wave observatories are laser interferometric detectors in space. It is usually assumed that the noise floor for such a detector is dominated by optical shot noise in the signal readout. For this to be true, a careful balance of mission parameters is crucial to keep all other parasitic disturbances below shot noise. We developed a web application that uses over 30 input parameters and considers many important technical noise sources and noise suppression techniques to derive a realistic position noise budget. It optimizes free parameters automatically and generates a detailed report on all individual noise contributions. Thus one can easily explore the entire parameter space and design a realistic gravitational wave observatory. In this document we describe the different parameters, present all underlying calculations, and compare the final observatory’s sensitivity with astrophysical sources of gravitational waves. We use as an example parameters currently assumed to be likely applied to a space mission proposed to be launched in 2034 by the European Space Agency. The web application itself is publicly available on the Internet at http://spacegravity.org/designer. Future versions of the web application will incorporate the frequency dependence of different noise sources and include a more detailed model of the observatory’s residual acceleration noise. (paper)

  1. Towards a gravitational wave observatory designer: sensitivity limits of spaceborne detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barke, S.; Wang, Y.; Esteban Delgado, J. J.; Tröbs, M.; Heinzel, G.; Danzmann, K.

    2015-05-01

    The most promising concept for low frequency (millihertz to hertz) gravitational wave observatories are laser interferometric detectors in space. It is usually assumed that the noise floor for such a detector is dominated by optical shot noise in the signal readout. For this to be true, a careful balance of mission parameters is crucial to keep all other parasitic disturbances below shot noise. We developed a web application that uses over 30 input parameters and considers many important technical noise sources and noise suppression techniques to derive a realistic position noise budget. It optimizes free parameters automatically and generates a detailed report on all individual noise contributions. Thus one can easily explore the entire parameter space and design a realistic gravitational wave observatory. In this document we describe the different parameters, present all underlying calculations, and compare the final observatory’s sensitivity with astrophysical sources of gravitational waves. We use as an example parameters currently assumed to be likely applied to a space mission proposed to be launched in 2034 by the European Space Agency. The web application itself is publicly available on the Internet at http://spacegravity.org/designer. Future versions of the web application will incorporate the frequency dependence of different noise sources and include a more detailed model of the observatory’s residual acceleration noise.

  2. Designing Observatories for the Hydrologic Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, R. P.

    2004-05-01

    The need for longer-term, multi-scale, coherent, and multi-disciplinary data to test hypotheses in hydrologic science has been recognized by numerous prestigious review panels over the past decade (e.g. NRC's Basic Research Opportunities in Earth Science). Designing such observatories has proven to be a challenge not only on scientific, but also technological, economic and even sociologic levels. The Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Science, Inc. (CUAHSI) has undertaken a "paper" prototype design of a hydrologic observatory (HO) for the Neuse River Basin, NC and plans to solicit proposals and award grants to develop implementation plans for approximately 10 basins (which may be defined by topographic or groundwater divides) during the summer of 2004. These observatories are envisioned to be community resources with data available to all scientists, with support facilities to permit their use by both local and remote investigators. This paper presents the broad design concepts which were developed from a national team of scientists for the Neuse River Basin Prototype. There are three fundamental characteristics of a watershed or river basin that are critical for answering the major scientific questions proposed by the NRC to advance hydrologic, biogeochemical and ecological sciences: (1) the store and flux of water, sediment, nutrients and contaminants across interfaces at multiple scales must be identified; (2) the residence time of these constituents, and (3) their flowpaths and response spectra to forcing must be estimated. "Stores" consist of subsurface, land surface and atmospheric volumes partitioned over the watershed. The HO will require "core measurements" which will serve the communities of hydrologic science for long range research questions. The core measurements will also provide context for shorter-term or hypothesis-driven research investigations. The HO will support "mobile measurement facilities" designed to support teams

  3. The COronal Solar Magnetism Observatory (COSMO) Large Aperture Coronagraph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomczyk, Steve; Gallagher, Dennis; Wu, Zhen; Zhang, Haiying; Nelson, Pete; Burkepile, Joan; Kolinksi, Don; Sutherland, Lee

    2013-04-01

    The COSMO is a facility dedicated to observing coronal and chromospheric magnetic fields. It will be located on a mountaintop in the Hawaiian Islands and will replace the current Mauna Loa Solar Observatory (MLSO). COSMO will provide unique observations of the global coronal magnetic fields and its environment to enhance the value of data collected by other observatories on the ground (e.g. SOLIS, BBO NST, Gregor, ATST, EST, Chinese Giant Solar Telescope, NLST, FASR) and in space (e.g. SDO, Hinode, SOHO, GOES, STEREO, Solar-C, Solar Probe+, Solar Orbiter). COSMO will employ a fleet of instruments to cover many aspects of measuring magnetic fields in the solar atmosphere. The dynamics and energy flow in the corona are dominated by magnetic fields. To understand the formation of CMEs, their relation to other forms of solar activity, and their progression out into the solar wind requires measurements of coronal magnetic fields. The large aperture coronagraph, the Chromospheric and Prominence Magnetometer and the K-Coronagraph form the COSMO instrument suite to measure magnetic fields and the polarization brightness of the low corona used to infer electron density. The large aperture coronagraph will employ a 1.5 meter fuse silica singlet lens, birefringent filters, and a spectropolarimeter to cover fields of view of up to 1 degree. It will observe the corona over a wide range of emission lines from 530.3 nm through 1083.0 nm allowing for magnetic field measurements over a wide range of coronal temperatures (e.g. FeXIV at 530.3 nm, Fe X at 637.4 nm, Fe XIII at 1074.7 and 1079.8 nm. These lines are faint and require the very large aperture. NCAR and NSF have provided funding to bring the large aperture coronagraph to a preliminary design review state by the end of 2013. As with all data from Mauna Loa, the data products from COSMO will be available to the community via the Mauna Loa website: http://mlso.hao.ucar.edu

  4. GROSS- GAMMA RAY OBSERVATORY ATTITUDE DYNAMICS SIMULATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrick, J.

    1994-01-01

    The Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) spacecraft will constitute a major advance in gamma ray astronomy by offering the first opportunity for comprehensive observations in the range of 0.1 to 30,000 megaelectronvolts (MeV). The Gamma Ray Observatory Attitude Dynamics Simulator, GROSS, is designed to simulate this mission. The GRO Dynamics Simulator consists of three separate programs: the Standalone Profile Program; the Simulator Program, which contains the Simulation Control Input/Output (SCIO) Subsystem, the Truth Model (TM) Subsystem, and the Onboard Computer (OBC) Subsystem; and the Postprocessor Program. The Standalone Profile Program models the environment of the spacecraft and generates a profile data set for use by the simulator. This data set contains items such as individual external torques; GRO spacecraft, Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS), and solar and lunar ephemerides; and star data. The Standalone Profile Program is run before a simulation. The SCIO subsystem is the executive driver for the simulator. It accepts user input, initializes parameters, controls simulation, and generates output data files and simulation status display. The TM subsystem models the spacecraft dynamics, sensors, and actuators. It accepts ephemerides, star data, and environmental torques from the Standalone Profile Program. With these and actuator commands from the OBC subsystem, the TM subsystem propagates the current state of the spacecraft and generates sensor data for use by the OBC and SCIO subsystems. The OBC subsystem uses sensor data from the TM subsystem, a Kalman filter (for attitude determination), and control laws to compute actuator commands to the TM subsystem. The OBC subsystem also provides output data to the SCIO subsystem for output to the analysts. The Postprocessor Program is run after simulation is completed. It generates printer and CRT plots and tabular reports of the simulated data at the direction of the user. GROSS is written in FORTRAN 77 and

  5. Use of Statistical Estimators as Virtual Observatory Search ParametersEnabling Access to Solar and Planetary Resources through the Virtual Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merka, J.; Dolan, C. F.

    2015-12-01

    Finding and retrieving space physics data is often a complicated taskeven for publicly available data sets: Thousands of relativelysmall and many large data sets are stored in various formats and, inthe better case, accompanied by at least some documentation. VirtualHeliospheric and Magnetospheric Observatories (VHO and VMO) help researches by creating a single point of uniformdiscovery, access, and use of heliospheric (VHO) and magnetospheric(VMO) data.The VMO and VHO functionality relies on metadata expressed using theSPASE data model. This data model is developed by the SPASE WorkingGroup which is currently the only international group supporting globaldata management for Solar and Space Physics. The two Virtual Observatories(VxOs) have initiated and lead a development of a SPASE-related standardnamed SPASE Query Language for provided a standard way of submittingqueries and receiving results.The VMO and VHO use SPASE and SPASEQL for searches based on various criteria such as, for example, spatial location, time of observation, measurement type, parameter values, etc. The parameter values are represented by their statisticalestimators calculated typically over 10-minute intervals: mean, median, standard deviation, minimum, and maximum. The use of statistical estimatorsenables science driven data queries that simplify and shorten the effort tofind where and/or how often the sought phenomenon is observed, as we will present.

  6. The possible astronomical function of the El Molle stone circle at the ESO Observatory La Silla. II: The updated measurement campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Gabriella; Vecchiato, Alberto; Bucciarelli, Beatrice

    2014-07-01

    This paper reviews and updates the accounts of a previous article discussing the possible astronomical significance of a peculiar, man-made circular stone structure, located close to the European Southern Observatory in La Silla, Chile, and attributed to the El Molle culture. Thanks to further, higher-accuracy measurements in situ, we can confirm some of the original hypotheses and dismiss others, upholding the main tenets of the original work.

  7. Solar origins of space weather and space climate

    CERN Document Server

    Komm, Rudolf; Pevtsov, Alexei; Leibacher, John

    2014-01-01

    This topical issue is based on the presentations given at the 26th National Solar Observatory (NSO) Summer Workshop held at the National Solar Observatory/Sacramento Peak, New Mexico, USA from 30 April to 4 May 2012. This unique forum brought together experts in different areas of solar and space physics to help in developing a full picture of the origin of solar phenomena that affect Earth’s technological systems.  The articles include theory, model, and observation research on the origin of the solar activity and its cycle, as well as a discussion on how to incorporate the research into space-weather forecasting tools.  This volume is aimed at graduate students and researchers active in solar physics and space science.  Previously published in Solar Physics, Vol. 289/2, 2014.

  8. Electricity and gas market observatory. 2. Quarter 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the observatory is to provide the general public with indicators for monitoring market deregulation. It both covers the wholesale and retail electricity and gas markets in Metropolitan France. This observatory is updated every three months and data are available on CRE web site (www.cre.fr). The present observatory is dedicated only to eligible customers before 1 July 2007, i.e. non-residential customers. Statistics related to residential customers will be published in the next observatory (1 December 2007). Content: A - The electricity market: The retail electricity market (Introduction, Non-residential customer segments and their respective weights, Status at July 1, 2007, Dynamic analysis: 2. Quarter 2007); The wholesale electricity market (Introduction, Wholesale market activity in France, Wholesale market activity in France, Prices on the French wholesale market and European comparison, Import and export volumes, Concentration of the French electricity market, Striking fact of the second quarter 2007); B - The gas market: The retail gas market (Introduction, The non-residential customer segments and their respective weights, Status at July 1, 2007); The wholesale gas market (Gas pricing and gas markets in Europe, The wholesale market in France); C - Appendices: Electricity and gas market observatories combined glossary, Specific electricity market observatory glossary, Specific gas market observatory glossary

  9. Saint Petersburg magnetic observatory: from Voeikovo subdivision to INTERMAGNET certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidorov, Roman; Soloviev, Anatoly; Krasnoperov, Roman; Kudin, Dmitry; Grudnev, Andrei; Kopytenko, Yury; Kotikov, Andrei; Sergushin, Pavel

    2017-11-01

    Since June 2012 the Saint Petersburg magnetic observatory is being developed and maintained by two institutions of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) - the Geophysical Center of RAS (GC RAS) and the Saint Petersburg branch of the Pushkov Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radio Wave Propagation of RAS (IZMIRAN SPb). On 29 April 2016 the application of the Saint Petersburg observatory (IAGA code SPG) for introduction into the INTERMAGNET network was accepted after approval by the experts of the first definitive dataset over 2015, produced by the GC RAS, and on 9 June 2016 the SPG observatory was officially certified. One of the oldest series of magnetic observations, originating in 1834, was resumed in the 21st century, meeting the highest quality standards and all modern technical requirements. In this paper a brief historical and scientific background of the SPG observatory foundation and development is given, the stages of its renovation and upgrade in the 21st century are described, and information on its current state is provided. The first results of the observatory functioning are discussed and geomagnetic variations registered at the SPG observatory are assessed and compared with geomagnetic data from the INTERMAGNET observatories located in the same region.

  10. Saint Petersburg magnetic observatory: from Voeikovo subdivision to INTERMAGNET certification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sidorov

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Since June 2012 the Saint Petersburg magnetic observatory is being developed and maintained by two institutions of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS – the Geophysical Center of RAS (GC RAS and the Saint Petersburg branch of the Pushkov Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radio Wave Propagation of RAS (IZMIRAN SPb. On 29 April 2016 the application of the Saint Petersburg observatory (IAGA code SPG for introduction into the INTERMAGNET network was accepted after approval by the experts of the first definitive dataset over 2015, produced by the GC RAS, and on 9 June 2016 the SPG observatory was officially certified. One of the oldest series of magnetic observations, originating in 1834, was resumed in the 21st century, meeting the highest quality standards and all modern technical requirements. In this paper a brief historical and scientific background of the SPG observatory foundation and development is given, the stages of its renovation and upgrade in the 21st century are described, and information on its current state is provided. The first results of the observatory functioning are discussed and geomagnetic variations registered at the SPG observatory are assessed and compared with geomagnetic data from the INTERMAGNET observatories located in the same region.

  11. Asteroid Lightcurve Analysis at the Oakley Southern Sky Observatory: 2015 February - March

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Kylie; Bruner, Madison; Ditteon, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Photometric data were taken over four nights in 2015 February and one night in 2015 March for six asteroids: 507 Laodica, 583 Klotilde, 1911 Schubart, 2136 Jugta, 4958 Wellnitz, and (70171) 1999 OL2. In 2015 March, data were taken over five nights for 1027 Aesculapia, thirteen nights for 2522 Triglav, seven nights for 2581 Radegast and 4856 Seaborg, twelve nights for 10143 Kamogawa, and six nights for (16029) 1999 DQ6, 3733 Yoshitomo, 4963 Kanroku, and (7588) 1992 FJ1.

  12. SAFARI 2000 Estimated BVOC Emissions for Southern African Land Cover Types

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: Improved vegetation distribution and emission data for Africa south of the equator were developed for the Southern African Regional Science Initiative...

  13. TWO EXOPLANETS DISCOVERED AT KECK OBSERVATORY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valenti, Jeff A.; Fischer, Debra; Giguere, Matt; Isaacson, Howard; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Howard, Andrew W.; Johnson, John A.; Henry, Gregory W.; Wright, Jason T.

    2009-01-01

    We present two exoplanets detected at Keck Observatory. HD 179079 is a G5 subgiant that hosts a hot Neptune planet with M sin i = 27.5 M + in a 14.48 days, low-eccentricity orbit. The stellar reflex velocity induced by this planet has a semiamplitude of K = 6.6 m s -1 . HD 73534 is a G5 subgiant with a Jupiter-like planet of M sin i = 1.1 M Jup and K = 16 m s -1 in a nearly circular 4.85 yr orbit. Both stars are chromospherically inactive and metal-rich. We discuss a known, classical bias in measuring eccentricities for orbits with velocity semiamplitudes, K, comparable to the radial velocity uncertainties. For exoplanets with periods longer than 10 days, the observed exoplanet eccentricity distribution is nearly flat for large amplitude systems (K > 80 m s -1 ), but rises linearly toward low eccentricity for lower amplitude systems (K > 20 m s -1 ).

  14. Distributed Computing for the Pierre Auger Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chudoba, J.

    2015-01-01

    Pierre Auger Observatory operates the largest system of detectors for ultra-high energy cosmic ray measurements. Comparison of theoretical models of interactions with recorded data requires thousands of computing cores for Monte Carlo simulations. Since 2007 distributed resources connected via EGI grid are successfully used. The first and the second versions of production system based on bash scripts and MySQL database were able to submit jobs to all reliable sites supporting Virtual Organization auger. For many years VO auger belongs to top ten of EGI users based on the total used computing time. Migration of the production system to DIRAC interware started in 2014. Pilot jobs improve efficiency of computing jobs and eliminate problems with small and less reliable sites used for the bulk production. The new system has also possibility to use available resources in clouds. Dirac File Catalog replaced LFC for new files, which are organized in datasets defined via metadata. CVMFS is used for software distribution since 2014. In the presentation we give a comparison of the old and the new production system and report the experience on migrating to the new system. (paper)

  15. Table mountain observatory support to other programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, A.W.

    1988-01-01

    The Table Mountain Observatory (TMO) facilities include well equipped 24 inch and 16 inch telescopes with a 40 inch telescope (owned by Pomona College) due for completion during FY 89. This proposal is to provide operational support (equipment maintenance, setup, and observing assistnce) at TMO to other programs. The program currently most heavily supported by this grant is the asteroid photometry program directed by A. W. Harris. During 1987, about 20 asteroids were observed, including a near-earth asteroid, 1951 Midas. The photometric observations are used to derive rotation periods, estimate shapes and pole orientations, and to define the phase relations of asteroids. The E class asteroid 64 Angelina was observed, and showed the same opposition spike observed of 44 Jysa, last year. Comet observations are made with the narrow band camera system of David Rees, University College London. Observational support and training was provided to students and faculty from Claremont Colleges for variable star observing programs. Researchers propose to continue the asteroid program, with emphasis on measuring phase relations of low and high albedo asteroids at very low phase angles, and supporting collaborative studies of asteroid shapes

  16. Neutrino observations from the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Q.R.; Allen, R.C.; Andersen, T.C.; Anglin, J.D.; Barton,J.C.; Beier, E.W.; Bercovitch, M.; Bigu, J.; Biller, S.D.; Black, R.A.; Blevis, I.; Boardman, R.J.; Boger, J.; Bonvin, E.; Boulay, M.G.; Bowler,M.G.; Bowles, T.J.; Brice, S.J.; Browne, M.C.; Bullard, T.V.; Buhler, G.; Cameron, J.; Chan, Y.D.; Chen, H.H.; Chen, M.; Chen, X.; Cleveland, B.T.; Clifford, E.T.H.; Cowan, J.H.M.; Cowen, D.F.; Cox, G.A.; Dai, X.; Dalnoki-Veress, F.; Davidson, W.F.; Doe, P.J.; Doucas, G.; Dragowsky,M.R.; Duba, C.A.; Duncan, F.A.; Dunford, M.; Dunmore, J.A.; Earle, E.D.; Elliott, S.R.; Evans, H.C.; Ewan, G.T.; Farine, J.; Fergani, H.; Ferraris, A.P.; Ford, R.J.; Formaggio, J.A.; Fowler, M.M.; Frame, K.; Frank, E.D.; Frati, W.; Gagnon, N.; Germani, J.V.; Gil, S.; Graham, K.; Grant, D.R.; Hahn, R.L.; Hallin, A.L.; Hallman, E.D.; Hamer, A.S.; Hamian, A.A.; Handler, W.B.; Haq, R.U.; Hargrove, C.K.; Harvey, P.J.; Hazama, R.; Heeger, K.M.; Heintzelman, W.J.; Heise, J.; Helmer, R.L.; Hepburn, J.D.; Heron, H.; Hewett, J.; Hime, A.; Hykawy, J.G.; Isaac,M.C.P.; Jagam, P.; Jelley, N.A.; Jillings, C.; Jonkmans, G.; Kazkaz, K.; Keener, P.T.; Klein, J.R.; Knox, A.B.; Komar, R.J.; Kouzes, R.; Kutter,T.; Kyba, C.C.M.; Law, J.; Lawson, I.T.; Lay, M.; Lee, H.W.; Lesko, K.T.; Leslie, J.R.; Levine, I.; Locke, W.; Luoma, S.; Lyon, J.; Majerus, S.; Mak, H.B.; Maneira, J.; Manor, J.; Marino, A.D.; McCauley, N.; McDonald,D.S.; McDonald, A.B.; McFarlane, K.; McGregor, G.; Meijer, R.; Mifflin,C.; Miller, G.G.; Milton, G.; Moffat, B.A.; Moorhead, M.; Nally, C.W.; Neubauer, M.S.; Newcomer, F.M.; Ng, H.S.; Noble, A.J.; Norman, E.B.; Novikov, V.M.; O' Neill, M.; Okada, C.E.; Ollerhead, R.W.; Omori, M.; Orrell, J.L.; Oser, S.M.; Poon, A.W.P.; Radcliffe, T.J.; Roberge, A.; Robertson, B.C.; Robertson, R.G.H.; Rosendahl, S.S.E.; Rowley, J.K.; Rusu, V.L.; Saettler, E.; Schaffer, K.K.; Schwendener,M.H.; Schulke, A.; Seifert, H.; Shatkay, M.; Simpson, J.J.; Sims, C.J.; et al.

    2001-09-24

    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) is a water imaging Cherenkov detector. Its usage of 1000 metric tons of D{sub 2}O as target allows the SNO detector to make a solar-model independent test of the neutrino oscillation hypothesis by simultaneously measuring the solar {nu}{sub e} flux and the total flux of all active neutrino species. Solar neutrinos from the decay of {sup 8}B have been detected at SNO by the charged-current (CC) interaction on the deuteron and by the elastic scattering (ES) of electrons. While the CC reaction is sensitive exclusively to {nu}{sub e}, the ES reaction also has a small sensitivity to {nu}{sub {mu}} and {nu}{sub {tau}}. In this paper, recent solar neutrino results from the SNO experiment are presented. It is demonstrated that the solar flux from {sup 8}B decay as measured from the ES reaction rate under the no-oscillation assumption is consistent with the high precision ES measurement by the Super-Kamiokande experiment. The {nu}{sub e} flux deduced from the CC reaction rate in SNO differs from the Super-Kamiokande ES results by 3.3{sigma}. This is evidence for an active neutrino component, in additional to {nu}{sub e}, in the solar neutrino flux. These results also allow the first experimental determination of the total active {sup 8}B neutrino flux from the Sun, and is found to be in good agreement with solar model predictions.

  17. The upgrade of the HAWC observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoorlemmer, Harm [Max-Plank-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Collaboration: HAWC-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) high-energy gamma-ray observatory has recently been completed near the Sierra Negra volcano in central Mexico. HAWC consists of 300 Water Cherenkov Detectors, each containing 200 tons of purified water, that cover a total surface area of 20,000 m{sup 2}. HAWC observes gamma rays in the 0.1-100 TeV range and has a sensitivity to TeV-scale gamma-ray sources an order of magnitude better than previous air-shower arrays. The HAWC trigger for the highest energy gamma rays reaches an effective area of 10{sup 5} m{sup 2} but many of them are poorly reconstructed because the shower core falls outside the array. An upgrade that increases the present fraction of well reconstructed showers above 10 TeV by a factor of 3-4 can be done with a sparse outrigger array of small water Cherenkov detectors that pinpoint the core position and by that improve the angular resolution of the reconstructed showers. Such an outrigger array would be of the order of 300 small water Cherenkov detectors of 2.5 m{sup 3} placed over an area four times larger than HAWC. The Max Planck Institute fuer Kernphysik in Heidelberg just joined the collaboration and will provide the FADC electronics for the readout of the outrigger tanks. Detailed simulations are being performed to optimize the performance of the upgrade.

  18. Distributed Computing for the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudoba, J.

    2015-12-01

    Pierre Auger Observatory operates the largest system of detectors for ultra-high energy cosmic ray measurements. Comparison of theoretical models of interactions with recorded data requires thousands of computing cores for Monte Carlo simulations. Since 2007 distributed resources connected via EGI grid are successfully used. The first and the second versions of production system based on bash scripts and MySQL database were able to submit jobs to all reliable sites supporting Virtual Organization auger. For many years VO auger belongs to top ten of EGI users based on the total used computing time. Migration of the production system to DIRAC interware started in 2014. Pilot jobs improve efficiency of computing jobs and eliminate problems with small and less reliable sites used for the bulk production. The new system has also possibility to use available resources in clouds. Dirac File Catalog replaced LFC for new files, which are organized in datasets defined via metadata. CVMFS is used for software distribution since 2014. In the presentation we give a comparison of the old and the new production system and report the experience on migrating to the new system.

  19. Neutrino Observations from the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Q. R. Ahmad, R. C. Allen, T. C. Andersen, J. D. Anglin, G. B?hler, J. C. Barton, E. W. Beier, M. Bercovitch, J. Bigu, S. Biller, R. A. Black, I. Blevis, R. J. Boardman, J. Boger, E. Bonvin, M. G. Boulay, M. G. Bowler, T. J. Bowles, S. J. Brice, M. C. Browne, T. V. Bullard, T. H. Burritt, K. Cameron, J. Cameron, Y. D. Chan, M. Chen, H. H. Chen, X. Chen, M. C. Chon, B. T. Cleveland, E. T. H. Clifford, J. H. M. Cowan, D. F. Cowen, G. A. Cox, Y. Dai, X. Dai, F. Dalnoki-Veress, W. F. Davidson, P. J. Doe, G. Doucas, M. R. Dragowsky, C. A. Duba, F. A. Duncan, J. Dunmore, E. D. Earle, S. R. Elliott, H. C. Evans, G. T. Ewan, J. Farine, H. Fergani, A. P. Ferraris, R. J. Ford, M. M. Fowler, K. Frame, E. D. Frank, W. Frati, J. V. Germani, S. Gil, A. Goldschmidt, D. R. Grant, R. L. Hahn, A. L. Hallin, E. D. Hallman, A. Hamer, A. A. Hamian, R. U. Haq, C. K. Hargrove, P. J. Harvey, R. Hazama, R. Heaton, K. M. Heeger, W. J. Heintzelman, J. Heise, R. L. Helmer, J. D. Hepburn, H. Heron, J. Hewett, A. Hime, M. Howe, J. G. Hykawy, M. C. P. Isaac, P. Jagam, N. A. Jelley, C. Jillings, G. Jonkmans, J. Karn, P. T. Keener, K. Kirch, J. R. Klein, A. B. Knox, R. J. Komar, R. Kouzes, T. Kutter, C. C. M. Kyba, J. Law, I. T. Lawson, M. Lay, H. W. Lee, K. T. Lesko, J. R. Leslie, I. Levine, W. Locke, M. M. Lowry, S. Luoma, J. Lyon, S. Majerus, H. B. Mak, A. D. Marino, N. McCauley, A. B. McDonald, D. S. McDonald, K. McFarlane, G. McGregor, W. McLatchie, R. Meijer Drees, H. Mes, C. Mifflin, G. G. Miller, G. Milton, B. A. Moffat, M. Moorhead, C. W. Nally, M. S. Neubauer, F. M. Newcomer, H. S. Ng, A. J. Noble, E. B. Norman, V. M. Novikov, M. O'Neill, C. E. Okada, R. W. Ollerhead, M. Omori, J. L. Orrell, S. M. Oser, A. W. P. Poon, T. J. Radcliffe, A. Roberge, B. C. Robertson, R. G. H. Robertson, J. K. Rowley, V. L. Rusu, E. Saettler, K. K. Schaffer, A. Schuelke, M. H. Schwendener, H. Seifert, M. Shatkay, J. J. Simpson, D. Sinclair, P. Skensved, A. R. Smith, M. W. E. Smith, N. Starinsky, T. D. Steiger, R. G. Stokstad, R. S. Storey, B. Sur, R. Tafirout, N. Tagg, N. W. Tanner, R. K. Taplin, M. Thorman, P. Thornewell, P. T. Trent, Y. I. Tserkovnyak, R. Van Berg, R. G. Van de Water, C. J. Virtue, C. E. Waltham, J.-X. Wang, D. L. Wark, N. West, J. B. Wilhelmy, J. F. Wilkerson, J. Wilson, P. Wittich, J. M. Wouters, and M. Yeh

    2001-09-24

    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) is a water imaging Cherenkov detector. Its usage of 1000 metric tons of D{sub 2}O as target allows the SNO detector to make a solar-model independent test of the neutrino oscillation hypothesis by simultaneously measuring the solar {nu}{sub e} flux and the total flux of all active neutrino species. Solar neutrinos from the decay of {sup 8}B have been detected at SNO by the charged-current (CC) interaction on the deuteron and by the elastic scattering (ES) of electrons. While the CC reaction is sensitive exclusively to {nu}{sub e}, the ES reaction also has a small sensitivity to {nu}{sub {mu}} and {nu}{sub {tau}}. In this paper, recent solar neutrino results from the SNO experiment are presented. It is demonstrated that the solar flux from {sup 8}B decay as measured from the ES reaction rate under the no-oscillation assumption is consistent with the high precision ES measurement by the Super-Kamiokande experiment. The {nu}{sub e} flux deduced from the CC reaction rate in SNO differs from the Super-Kamiokande ES results by 3.3{sigma}. This is evidence for an active neutrino component, in additional to {nu}{sub e}, in the solar neutrino flux. These results also allow the first experimental determination of the total active {sup 8}B neutrino flux from the Sun, and is found to be in good agreement with solar model predictions.

  20. A next generation Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory (UFFO-100) for IR/optical observations of the rise phase of gamma-ray bursts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grossan, B.; Park, I.H.; Ahmad, S.

    2012-01-01

    generation of rapid-response space observatory instruments. We list science topics motivating ourinstruments, those that require rapid optical-IR GRB response, including: A survey of GRB rise shapes/times,measurements of optical bulk Lorentz factors, investigation of magnetic dominated (vs. non-magnetic) jet...... for a next generation space observatory as a secondinstrument on a low-earth orbit spacecraft, with a 120 kg instrument mass budget. Restricted to relatively modest mass,power, and launch resources, we find that a coded mask X-ray camera with 1024 cm2 of detector area could rapidlylocate about 64...

  1. The Importance of Marine Observatories and of RAIA in Particular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luísa Bastos

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Coastal and Oceanic Observatories are important tools to provide information on ocean state, phenomena and processes. They meet the need for a better understanding of coastal and ocean dynamics, revealing regional characteristics and vulnerabilities. These observatories are extremely useful to guide human actions in response to natural events and potential climate change impacts, anticipating the occurrence of extreme weather and oceanic events and helping to minimize consequent personal and material damages and costs.International organizations and local governments have shown an increasing interest in operational oceanography and coastal, marine and oceanic observations, which resulted in substantial investments in these areas. A variety of physical, chemical and biological data have been collected to better understand the specific characteristics of each ocean area and its importance in the global context. Also the general public’s interest in marine issues and observatories has been raised, mainly in relation to vulnerability, sustainability and climate change issues. Data and products obtained by an observatory are hence useful to a broad range of stakeholders, from national and local authorities to the population in general.An introduction to Ocean Observatories, including their national and regional importance, and a brief analysis of the societal interest in these observatories and related issues are presented. The potential of a Coastal and Ocean Observatory is then demonstrated using the RAIA observatory as example. This modern and comprehensive observatory is dedicated to improve operational oceanography, technology and marine science for the North Western Iberian coast, and to provide services to a large range of stakeholders.

  2. Towards a spatial development perspective for Southern Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chakwizira, J

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available To ensure equitable development in the Southern African Development Community (SADC) region, unravelling and understanding the role that physical space and spatial structures play in economic growth is of cardinal importance. In this regard...

  3. New infrastructure at Alboran island (Western Mediterranean): a submarine and on-land Geophysical Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazos, Antonio; Martín Davila, José; Buforn, Elisa; Jesús García Fernández, Maria; Bullón, Mercedes; Gárate, Jorge

    2010-05-01

    The Eurasian-African plate boundary crosses the called "Ibero-Maghrebian" region from San Vicente Cape (SW Portugal) to Tunisia including the South of Iberia, Alboran Sea, and northern of Morocco and Algeria. The low convergence rate at this plate boundary produces a continuous moderate seismic activity of low magnitude and shallow depth, where the occurrence of large earthquakes is separated by long time intervals. In this region, there are also intermediate and very deep earthquakes. Since more than hundred years ago San Fernando Naval Observatory (ROA), in collaboration with other Institutes, has deployed different geophysical and geodetic equipment in the Southern Spain - North-western Africa area in order to study this broad deformation. Currently a Broad Band seismic net (Western Mediterranean, WM net), a permanent geodetic GPS net and a Geomagnetic Observatory have been installed by ROA in this area. To complement the available data, since past October a permanent marine-on land geophysical observatory is being installed by ROA in Alboran Island and surrounding marine zones. Till now the following facilities has been installed: • Submarine: 2 km submarine fibre optics cable (power and data transmission); Broad Band Seismometer (CMG-3T, buried); Accelerometer (Guralp 3 channels), buried); Differential Pressure Gauge (DPG); Thermometer. • On land: Permanent geodetic GPS station; Automatic meteorological station; Data acquisition system for submarine equipment; Satellite Data Transmission system. Data are already being transmitted in real time to ROA headquarters via satellite Intranet. The marine part, currently installed in a 50 m depth platform, has been designed to be enlarged by extending the cable to greater depths and/or installing additional submarine equipment, such a way in short an ADCP profiler will be installed. In this work we aim to show the present status, scientific possibilities and the next future plans of this submarine-on land

  4. Possible astronomical meanings of some El Molle relics near the ESO Observatory at La Silla

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Gabriella; Vecchiato, Alberto; Bucciarelli, Beatrice

    2012-07-01

    This paper describes a peculiar, man-made circular stone structure, associated with the ancient rock engravings that are around the site of La Silla in Chile close to the European Southern Observatory, and are attributed to the El Molle Culture. Three stones of the circle, different from all the others, were likely to pinpoint the alignment of three bright stars close to the horizon, as seen from a specific vantage point inside the structure. The El Molle was the only period in which this alignment occurred significantly close to the horizon, moreover it was only in this epoch that it could also be associated with the transition from the warm to the cold season, a period of the year which was quite important for a society that supported itself by herding and farming.

  5. Aryabhatta Research Institute of Observational Sciences: reincarnation of a 50 year old State Observatory of Nainital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagar, Ram

    2006-03-01

    The fifty year old State Observatory, well known as U.P. State Observatory till the formation of Uttaranchal in November 2000, was reincarnated on March 22, 2004 as Aryabhatta Research Institute of Observational Sciences with acronym ARIES, an autonomous institute, under the Department of Science & Technology, Government of India. The growth of academic and technical activities and new mandate of the Institute are briefly described. In early 60's, the Institute was one of the 12 centres established by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, USA, all over the globe but the only centre in India for imaging artificial earth satellites. Commensurating with its observing capabilities, the Institute started a number of front-line research programmes during the last decade, e.g., optical follow up observations of GRB afterglows, radio and space borne astronomical resources, intra-night optical variability in active galactic nuclei as well as gravitational microlensing and milli-magnitude variations in the rapidly oscillating peculiar A type stars. As a part of atmospheric studies, characterisation of aerosol at an altitude of about 2 km is going on since 2002. ARIES has plans for establishing modern observing facilities equipped with latest backend instruments in the area of both astrophysics and atmospheric science. Formation of ARIES, therefore augurs well for the overall development of astrophysics and atmospheric science in India.

  6. Image of the Supernova Remnant Cassiopeia A Taken by the High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO)-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    This x-ray photograph of the Supernova remnant Cassiopeia A, taken with the High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO) 2/Einstein Observatory, shows that the regions with fast moving knots of material in the expanding shell are bright and clear. A faint x-ray halo, just outside the bright shell, is interpreted as a shock wave moving ahead of the expanding debris. The HEAO-2, the first imaging and largest x-ray telescope built to date, was capable of producing actual photographs of x-ray objects. Shortly after launch, the HEAO-2 was nicknamed the Einstein Observatory by its scientific experimenters in honor of the centernial of the birth of Albert Einstein, whose concepts of relativity and gravitation have influenced much of modern astrophysics, particularly x-ray astronomy. The HEAO-2, designed and developed by TRW, Inc. under the project management of the Marshall Space Flight Center, was launched aboard an Atlas/Centaur launch vehicle on November 13, 1978.

  7. Image of the Supernova Cassiopeia Taken by the High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO)-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    This supernova in the constellation Cassiopeia was observed by Tycho Brahe in 1572. In this x-ray image from the High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO-2/Einstein Observatory produced by nearly a day of exposure time, the center region appears filled with emissions that can be resolved into patches or knots of material. However, no central pulsar or other collapsed object can be seen. The HEAO-2, the first imaging and largest x-ray telescope built to date, was capable of producing actual photographs of x-ray objects. Shortly after launch, the HEAO-2 was nicknamed the Einstein Observatory by its scientific experimenters in honor of the centernial of the birth of Albert Einstein, whose concepts of relativity and gravitation have influenced much of modern astrophysics, particularly x-ray astronomy. The HEAO-2, designed and developed by TRW, Inc. under the project management of the Marshall Space Flight Center, was launched aboard an Atlas/Centaur launch vehicle on November 13, 1978.

  8. Image of the Quasar 3C 273 Taken by the High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO)-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    This image is an observation of Quasar 3C 273 by the High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO)-2/Einstein Observatory. It reveals the presence of a new source (upper left) with a red shift that indicates that it is about 10 billion light years away. Quasars are mysterious, bright, star-like objects apparently located at the very edge of the visible universe. Although no bigger than our solar system, they radiate as much visible light as a thousand galaxies. Quasars also emit radio signals and were previously recognized as x-ray sources. The HEAO-2, the first imaging and largest x-ray telescope built to date, was capable of producing actual photographs of x-ray objects. Shortly after launch, the HEAO-2 was nicknamed the Einstein Observatory by its scientific experimenters in honor of the centernial of the birth of Albert Einstein, whose concepts of relativity and gravitation have influenced much of modern astrophysics, particularly x-ray astronomy. The HEAO-2 was designed and developed by TRW, Inc. under the project management of the Marshall Space Flight Center.

  9. Image of the Crab Nebula Taken by the High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO)-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    This is an x-ray image of the Crab Nebula taken with the High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO)-2/Einstein Observatory. The image is demonstrated by a pulsar, which appears as a bright point due to its pulsed x-ray emissions. The strongest region of diffused emissions comes from just northwest of the pulsar, and corresponds closely to the region of brightest visible-light emission. The HEAO-2, the first imaging and largest x-ray telescope built to date, was capable of producing actual photographs of x-ray objects. Shortly after launch, the HEAO-2 was nicknamed the Einstein Observatory by its scientific experimenters in honor of the centernial of the birth of Albert Einstein, whose concepts of relativity and gravitation have influenced much of modern astrophysics, particularly x-ray astronomy. The HEAO-2, designed and developed by TRW, Inc. under the project management of the Marshall Space Flight Center, was launched aboard an Atlas/Centaur launch vehicle on November 13, 1978.

  10. Image of the Vela Supernova Remnant Taken by the High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO)-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Like the Crab Nebula, the Vela Supernova Remnant has a radio pulsar at its center. In this image taken by the High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO)-2/Einstein Observatory, the pulsar appears as a point source surrounded by weak and diffused emissions of x-rays. HEAO-2's computer processing system was able to record and display the total number of x-ray photons (a tiny bundle of radiant energy used as the fundamental unit of electromagnetic radiation) on a scale along the margin of the picture. The HEAO-2, the first imaging and largest x-ray telescope built to date, was capable of producing actual photographs of x-ray objects. Shortly after launch, the HEAO-2 was nicknamed the Einstein Observatory by its scientific experimenters in honor of the centernial of the birth of Albert Einstein, whose concepts of relativity and gravitation have influenced much of modern astrophysics, particularly x-ray astronomy. The HEAO-2, designed and developed by TRW, Inc. under the project management of the Marshall Space Flight Center, was launched aboard an Atlas/Centaur launch vehicle on November 13, 1978.

  11. The Terzan 2 Cluster Taken by the High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO)-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The dramatic change in x-ray emission from the Terzan 2 cluster is shown in this series of 2.5-minute exposures taken with the High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO)-2/Einstein Observatory immediately before, during, and after the burst. Total exposure (20 minutes) of the object, including the outburst, is shown in the fourth photograph. These images represent the first observation of an x-ray burst in progress. The actual burst lasted 50 seconds. Among the rarest, and most bizarre, phenomena observed by x-ray astronomers are the so-called cosmic bursters (x-ray sources that suddenly and dramatically increase in intensity then subside). These sudden bursts of intense x-ray radiation apparently come from compact objects with a diameter smaller than 30 miles (48 kilometers). Yet, despite their minuscule size, a typical x-ray burster can release more x-ray energy in a single brief burst than our Sun does in an entire week. The HEAO-2, the first imaging and largest x-ray telescope built to date, was capable of producing actual photographs of x-ray objects. Shortly after launch, the HEAO-2 was nicknamed the Einstein Observatory by its scientific experimenters in honor of the centernial of the birth of Albert Einstein, whose concepts of relativity and gravitation have influenced much of modern astrophysics, particularly x-ray astronomy. The HEAO was designed and developed by TRW, Inc. under the project management of the Marshall Space Flight Center.

  12. Image of the Eta Carinae Nebula Taken by the High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO)-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    This image is an x-ray view of Eta Carinae Nebula showing bright stars taken with the High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO)-2/Einstein Observatory. The Eta Carinae Nebula is a large and complex cloud of gas, crisscrossed with dark lanes of dust, some 6,500 light years from Earth. Buried deep in this cloud are many bright young stars and a very peculiar variable star. The HEAO-2, the first imaging and largest x-ray telescope built to date, was capable of producing actual photographs of x-ray objects. Shortly after launch, the HEAO-2 was nicknamed the Einstein Observatory by its scientific experimenters in honor of the centernial of the birth of Albert Einstein, whose concepts of relativity and gravitation have influenced much of modern astrophysics, particularly x-ray astronomy. The HEAO-2, designed and developed by TRW, Inc. under the project management of the Marshall Space Flight Center, was launched aboard an Atlas/Centaur launch vehicle on November 13, 1978.

  13. Astronomical Observatory of Belgrade from 1924 to 1955

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radovanac, M.

    2014-12-01

    History of the Astronomical Observatory in Belgrade, as the presentation is done here, become the field of interest to the author of the present monograph in early 2002. Then, together with Luka C. Popovic, during the Conference "Development of Astronomy among Serbs II" held in early April of that year, he prepared a paper entitled "Astronomska opservatorija tokom Drugog Svetskog rata" (Astronomical Observatory in the Second World War). This paper was based on the archives material concerning the Astronomical Observatory which has been professionally bearing in mind the author's position the subject of his work.

  14. The First Astronomical Observatory in Cluj-Napoca

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szenkovits, Ferenc

    2008-09-01

    One of the most important cities of Romania is Cluj-Napoca (Kolozsvár, Klausenburg). This is a traditional center of education, with many universities and high schools. From the second half of the 18th century the University of Cluj has its own Astronomical Observatory, serving for didactical activities and scientific researches. The famous astronomer Maximillian Hell was one of those Jesuits who put the base of this Astronomical Observatory. Our purpose is to offer a short history of the beginnings of this Astronomical Observatory.

  15. Astronomy and astrophysics communication in the UCM Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo-Chacón, I.; de Castro, E.; Díaz, C.; Gallego, J.; Gálvez, M. C.; Hernán-Obispo, M.; López-Santiago, J.; Montes, D.; Pascual, S.; Verdet, A.; Villar, V.; Zamorano, J.

    We present a summary of the last activities of science communication that have taken place in the Observatorio de la Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM Observatory) on the occasion of the Third Science Week of the Comunidad Autónoma de Madrid (3-16 November 2003), including guided tours through the observatory facilities, solar observations, and several talks. Moreover the current telescopes, instruments and tools of the UCM Observatory have allowed us to organize other communicating activities such as the live observation, together with its internet broadcast, of total lunar eclipses and other exceptional astronomical events as the Venus transit that took place in 8 June 2004.

  16. IceCube Gen2. The next-generation neutrino observatory for the South Pole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santen, Jakob van [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany); Collaboration: IceCube-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The IceCube Neutrino Observatory is a cubic-kilometer Cherenkov telescope buried in the ice sheet at the South Pole that detects neutrinos of all flavors with energies from tens of GeV to several PeV. The instrument provided the first measurement of the flux of high-energy astrophysical neutrinos, opening a new window to the TeV universe. At the other end of its sensitivity range, IceCube has provided precision measurements of neutrino oscillation parameters that are competitive with dedicated accelerator-based experiments. Here we present design studies for IceCube Gen2, the next-generation neutrino observatory for the South Pole. Instrumenting a volume of more that 5 km{sup 3} with over 100 new strings, IceCube Gen2 will have substantially greater sensitivity to high-energy neutrinos than current-generation instruments. PINGU, a dense infill array, will lower the energy threshold of the inner detector region to 4 GeV, allowing a determination of the neutrino mass hierarchy. On the surface, a large air shower detector will veto high-energy atmospheric muons and neutrinos from the southern hemisphere, enhancing the reach of astrophysical neutrino searches. With its versatile instrumentation, the IceCube Gen2 facility will allow us to explore the neutrino sky with unprecedented sensitivity, providing new constraints on the sources of the highest-energy cosmic rays, and yield precision data on the mixing and mass ordering of neutrinos.

  17. Radio detection of cosmic ray induced air showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fliescher, Stefan, E-mail: fliescher@physik.rwth-aachen.de [3. Physikalisches Institut A, RWTH Aachen, University (Germany)

    2012-01-11

    AERA - the Auger Engineering Radio Array - is currently being set up at the southern site of the Pierre Auger Observatory. AERA will explore the potential of the radio-detection technique to cosmic ray induced air showers with respect to the next generation of large-scale surface detectors. As AERA is co-located with the low-energy enhancements of the Pierre Auger Observatory, the observation of air showers in coincidence with the Auger surface and fluorescence detector will allow to study the radio emission processes in detail and to calibrate the radio signal. Finally, the combined reconstruction of shower parameters with three independent techniques promises new insights into the nature of cosmic rays in the transition region from 10{sup 17} to 10{sup 19} eV. Besides the detection of coherent radiation in the MHz frequency range, the setups AMBER - Air-shower Microwave Bremsstrahlung Experimental Radiometer - and MIDAS - MIcrowave Detection of Air Showers - prepare to check the possibility to detect air showers due the emission of molecular bremsstrahlung in the GHz range at the Auger site. This article presents the status of the radio-detection setups and discusses their physics potential as well as experimental challenges. Special focus is laid on the first stage of AERA which is the startup to the construction of a 20 km{sup 2} radio array.

  18. Atmospheric anthropic impacts tracked by the French atmospheric mobile observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuesta, J.; Chazette, P.; Flamant, P. H.

    2009-04-01

    A new ATmospheric Mobile ObServatory, so called "ATMOS", has been developed by the LiMAG "Lidar, Meteorology and Geophysics" team of the Institut Pierre Simon Laplace (IPSL) in France, in order to contribute to international field campaigns for studying atmospheric physico-chemistry, air quality and climate (i.e. aerosols, clouds, trace gazes, atmospheric dynamics and energy budget) and the ground-based validation of satellite observations. ATMOS has been deployed in the framework of i) LISAIR, for monitoring air quality in Paris in 2005, ii) AMMA "African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis", in Tamanrasset and in Niamey for observing the aerosols and the atmospheric boundary layer in the Sahara and in the Sahel in 2006, iii) COPS "Convectively and Orographycally driven Precipitation Study" in the Rhin Valley in 2007 and iv) the validation of the spatial mission CALIPSO, launched in April 2006. In the coming years, ATMOS will be deployed i) in the Paris Megacity, in the framework of MEGAPOLI (2009-2010), ii) in southern France (near Marseille) for the Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment CHARMEX (2011-2012) and iii) the validation of ADM-Aeolus in 2010-2011 and Earth-Care in 2012. ATMOS payload is modular, accounting for the different platforms, instruments and measuring techniques. The deployment of ATMOS is an essential contribution to field campaigns, complementing the fixed sites, and a potential alternative of airborne platforms, heavier and more expensive. ATMOS mobile payload comprises both the remote sensing platform MOBILIS ("Moyens mOBIles de téLédetection de l'IPSL") and the in-situ physico-chemical station SAMMO ("Station Aérosols et chiMie MObile"). MOBILIS is an autonomous and high-performance system constituted by a full set of active and passive remote sensing instrumentation (i.e. Lidars and radiometers), whose payload may be adapted for either i) long term fixed monitoring in a maritime container or a shelter, ii) ground-based transect

  19. OCO-2 (Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2) mission operations planning and initial operations experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basilio, Ralph R.; Pollock, H. Randy; Hunyadi-Lay, Sarah L.

    2014-10-01

    OCO-2 (Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2) is the first NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) mission dedicated to studying atmospheric carbon dioxide, specifically to identify sources (emitters) and sinks (absorbers) on a regional (1000 km x 1000 km) scale. The mission is designed to meet a science imperative by providing critical and urgent measurements needed to improve understanding of the carbon cycle and global climate change processes. The single instrument consisting of three grating spectrometers was built at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, but is based on the design co-developed with Hamilton Sundstrand Corporation for the original OCO mission. The instrument underwent an extensive ground test program. This was generally made possible through the use of a thermal vacuum chamber with a window/port that allowed optical ground support equipment to stimulate the instrument. The instrument was later delivered to Orbital Sciences Corporation for integration and test with the LEOStar-2 spacecraft. During the overall ground test campaign, proper function and performance in simulated launch, ascent, and space environments were verified. The observatory was launched into space on 02 July 2014. Initial indications are that the instrument is meeting functional and performance specifications, and there is every expectation that the spatially-order, geo-located, calibrated spectra of reflected sunlight and the science retrievals will meet the Level 1 science requirements.

  20. S-COSMOS: The Spitzer Legacy Survey of the Hubble Space Telescope ACS 2 deg2 COSMOS Field I: Survey Strategy and First Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, D. B.; Salvato, M.; Aussel, H.; Ilbert, O.; Scoville, N.; Surace, J. A.; Frayer, D. T.; Sheth, K.; Helou, G.; Brooke, T.; Bhattacharya, B.; Yan, L.; Kartaltepe, J. S.; Barnes, J. E.; Blain, A. W.; Calzetti, D.; Capak, P.; Carilli, C.; Carollo, C. M.; Comastri, A.; Daddi, E.; Ellis, R. S.; Elvis, M.; Fall, S. M.; Franceschini, A.; Giavalisco, M.; Hasinger, G.; Impey, C.; Koekemoer, A.; Le Fèvre, O.; Lilly, S.; Liu, M. C.; McCracken, H. J.; Mobasher, B.; Renzini, A.; Rich, M.; Schinnerer, E.; Shopbell, P. L.; Taniguchi, Y.; Thompson, D. J.; Urry, C. M.; Williams, J. P.

    2007-09-01

    The COSMOS Spitzer survey (S-COSMOS) is a Legacy program (Cycles 2+3) designed to carry out a uniform deep survey of the full 2 deg2 COSMOS field in all seven Spitzer bands (3.6, 4.5, 5.6, 8.0, 24.0, 70.0, and 160.0 μm). This paper describes the survey parameters, mapping strategy, data reduction procedures, achieved sensitivities to date, and the complete data set for future reference. We show that the observed infrared backgrounds in the S-COSMOS field are within 10% of the predicted background levels. The fluctuations in the background at 24 μm have been measured and do not show any significant contribution from cirrus, as expected. In addition, we report on the number of asteroid detections in the low Galactic latitude COSMOS field. We use the Cycle 2 S-COSMOS data to determine preliminary number counts, and compare our results with those from previous Spitzer Legacy surveys (e.g., SWIRE, GOODS). The results from this ``first analysis'' confirm that the S-COSMOS survey will have sufficient sensitivity with IRAC to detect ~L* disks and spheroids out to z>~3, and with MIPS to detect ultraluminous starbursts and AGNs out to z~3 at 24 μm and out to z~1.5-2 at 70 and 160 μm. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA), Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555 also based on data collected at the Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan; the XMM-Newton, an ESA science mission with instruments and contributions directly funded by ESA Member States and NASA; the European Southern Observatory under Large Program 175.A-0839, Chile; Kitt Peak National Observatory, Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, and the National Optical Astronomy Observatory, which are operated by AURA under cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation; the National Radio Astronomy

  1. Dark matter search experiment with CaF2(Eu) scintillator at Kamioka Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Y.; Minowa, M.; Suganuma, W.; Inoue, Y.

    2006-01-01

    We report recent results of a WIMP dark matter search experiment using 310 g of CaF 2 (Eu) scintillator at Kamioka Observatory. We chose a highly radio-pure crystal, PMTs and radiation shields, so that the background rate decreased considerably. We derived limits on the spin dependent WIMP-proton and WIMP-neutron coupling coefficients, a p and a n . The limits excluded a part of the parameter space allowed by the annual modulation observation of the DAMA NaI experiment

  2. The slewing mirror telescope of the Ultra Fast Flash Observatory Pathfinder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, S.; Ahmad, S.; Barrillon, P.

    2012-01-01

    The Slewing Mirror Telescope (SMT) is a key telescope of Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory (UFFO) space project to explore the first sub-minute or sub-seconds early photons from the Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) afterglows. As the realization of UFFO, 20kg of UFFO-Pathfinder (UFFO-P) is going to be on board...... the Russian Lomonosov satellite in November 2012 by Soyuz-2 rocket. Once the UFFO Burst Alert & Trigger Telescope (UBAT) detects the GRBs, Slewing mirror (SM) will slew to bring new GRB into the SMT’s field of view rather than slewing the entire spacecraft. SMT can give a UV/Optical counterpart position...

  3. Southern Appalachian Regional Seismic Network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, S.C.C.; Johnston, A.C.; Chiu, J.M. [Memphis State Univ., TN (United States). Center for Earthquake Research and Information

    1994-08-01

    The seismic activity in the southern Appalachian area was monitored by the Southern Appalachian Regional Seismic Network (SARSN) since late 1979 by the Center for Earthquake Research and Information (CERI) at Memphis State University. This network provides good spatial coverage for earthquake locations especially in east Tennessee. The level of activity concentrates more heavily in the Valley and Ridge province of eastern Tennessee, as opposed to the Blue Ridge or Inner Piedmont. The large majority of these events lie between New York - Alabama lineament and the Clingman/Ocoee lineament, magnetic anomalies produced by deep-seated basement structures. Therefore SARSN, even with its wide station spacing, has been able to define the essential first-order seismological characteristics of the Southern Appalachian seismic zone. The focal depths of the southeastern U.S. earthquakes concentrate between 8 and 16 km, occurring principally beneath the Appalachian overthrust. In cross-sectional views, the average seismicity is shallower to the east beneath the Blue Ridge and Piedmont provinces and deeper to the west beneath the Valley and Ridge and the North American craton. Results of recent focal mechanism studies by using the CERI digital earthquake catalog between October, 1986 and December, 1991, indicate that the basement of the Valley and Ridge province is under a horizontal, NE-SW compressive stress. Right-lateral strike-slip faulting on nearly north-south fault planes is preferred because it agrees with the trend of the regional magnetic anomaly pattern.

  4. Southern Appalachian Regional Seismic Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, S.C.C.; Johnston, A.C.; Chiu, J.M.

    1994-08-01

    The seismic activity in the southern Appalachian area was monitored by the Southern Appalachian Regional Seismic Network (SARSN) since late 1979 by the Center for Earthquake Research and Information (CERI) at Memphis State University. This network provides good spatial coverage for earthquake locations especially in east Tennessee. The level of activity concentrates more heavily in the Valley and Ridge province of eastern Tennessee, as opposed to the Blue Ridge or Inner Piedmont. The large majority of these events lie between New York - Alabama lineament and the Clingman/Ocoee lineament, magnetic anomalies produced by deep-seated basement structures. Therefore SARSN, even with its wide station spacing, has been able to define the essential first-order seismological characteristics of the Southern Appalachian seismic zone. The focal depths of the southeastern U.S. earthquakes concentrate between 8 and 16 km, occurring principally beneath the Appalachian overthrust. In cross-sectional views, the average seismicity is shallower to the east beneath the Blue Ridge and Piedmont provinces and deeper to the west beneath the Valley and Ridge and the North American craton. Results of recent focal mechanism studies by using the CERI digital earthquake catalog between October, 1986 and December, 1991, indicate that the basement of the Valley and Ridge province is under a horizontal, NE-SW compressive stress. Right-lateral strike-slip faulting on nearly north-south fault planes is preferred because it agrees with the trend of the regional magnetic anomaly pattern

  5. NASA's Great Observatories Celebrate the International Year of Astronomy With a National Unveiling of Spectacular Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    In 1609, Galileo first turned his telescope to the heavens and gave birth to modern astronomy. To commemorate four hundred years of exploring the universe, 2009 is designated the International Year of Astronomy. NASA's Great Observatories - the Hubble Space Telescope, Spitzer Space Telescope, and Chandra X-ray Observatory - are marking the occasion with the release of a suite of images at over 100 planetariums, museums, nature centers, and schools across the country in conjunction with Galileo's birthday on February 15. The selected sites will unveil a large 9-square-foot print of the spiral galaxy Messier 101 that combines the optical view of Hubble, the infrared view of Spitzer, and the X-ray view of Chandra into one multi-wavelength picture. "It's like using your eyes, night vision goggles, and X-ray vision all at the same time," says Dr. Hashima Hasan, lead scientist for the International Year of Astronomy at NASA Headquarters in Washington. Cas A animation Chandra X-ray Image of M101 Participating institutions also will display a matched trio of Hubble, Spitzer, and Chandra images of Messier 101. Each image shows a different wavelength view of the galaxy that illustrates not only the different science uncovered by each observatory, but also just how far astronomy has come since Galileo. Messier 101 is a face-on spiral galaxy about 22 million light-years away in the constellation Ursa Major. It is in many ways similar to, but larger than, our own Milky Way galaxy. Hubble's visible light view shows off the swirls of bright stars and glowing gas that give the galaxy its nickname the Pinwheel Galaxy. In contrast, Spitzer's infrared-light image sees into the spiral arms and reveals the glow of dust lanes where dense clouds can collapse to form new stars. Chandra's X-ray picture uncovers the high-energy features in the galaxy, such as remnants of exploded stars or matter zooming around black holes. The juxtaposition of observations from these three telescopes

  6. Virtual Observatories, Data Mining, and Astroinformatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borne, Kirk

    The historical, current, and future trends in knowledge discovery from data in astronomy are presented here. The story begins with a brief history of data gathering and data organization. A description of the development ofnew information science technologies for astronomical discovery is then presented. Among these are e-Science and the virtual observatory, with its data discovery, access, display, and integration protocols; astroinformatics and data mining for exploratory data analysis, information extraction, and knowledge discovery from distributed data collections; new sky surveys' databases, including rich multivariate observational parameter sets for large numbers of objects; and the emerging discipline of data-oriented astronomical research, called astroinformatics. Astroinformatics is described as the fourth paradigm of astronomical research, following the three traditional research methodologies: observation, theory, and computation/modeling. Astroinformatics research areas include machine learning, data mining, visualization, statistics, semantic science, and scientific data management.Each of these areas is now an active research discipline, with significantscience-enabling applications in astronomy. Research challenges and sample research scenarios are presented in these areas, in addition to sample algorithms for data-oriented research. These information science technologies enable scientific knowledge discovery from the increasingly large and complex data collections in astronomy. The education and training of the modern astronomy student must consequently include skill development in these areas, whose practitioners have traditionally been limited to applied mathematicians, computer scientists, and statisticians. Modern astronomical researchers must cross these traditional discipline boundaries, thereby borrowing the best of breed methodologies from multiple disciplines. In the era of large sky surveys and numerous large telescopes, the potential

  7. Cyberinfrastructure for the NSF Ocean Observatories Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orcutt, J. A.; Vernon, F. L.; Arrott, M.; Chave, A.; Krueger, I.; Schofield, O.; Glenn, S.; Peach, C.; Nayak, A.

    2007-12-01

    The Internet today is vastly different than the Internet that we knew even five years ago and the changes that will be evident five years from now, when the NSF Ocean Observatories Initiative (OOI) prototype has been installed, are nearly unpredictable. Much of this progress is based on the exponential growth in capabilities of consumer electronics and information technology; the reality of this exponential behavior is rarely appreciated. For example, the number of transistors on a square cm of silicon will continue to double every 18 months, the density of disk storage will double every year, and network bandwidth will double every eight months. Today's desktop 2TB RAID will be 64TB and the 10Gbps Regional Scale Network fiber optical connection will be running at 1.8Tbps. The same exponential behavior characterizes the future of genome sequencing. The first two sequences of composites of individuals' genes cost tens of millions of dollars in 2001. Dr. Craig Venter just published a more accurate complete human genome (his own) at a cost on the order of 100,000. The J. Craig Venter Institute has provided support for the X Prize for Genomics offering 10M to the first successful sequencing of a human genome for $1,000. It's anticipated that the prize will be won within five years. Major advances in technology that are broadly viewed as disruptive or revolutionary rather than evolutionary will often depend upon the exploitation of exponential expansions in capability. Applications of these ideas to the OOI will be discussed. Specifically, the agile ability to scale cyberinfrastructure commensurate with the exponential growth of sensors, networks and computational capability and demand will be described.

  8. EVALSO: A New High-speed Data Link to Chilean Observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    Stretching 100 kilometres through Chile's harsh Atacama Desert, a newly inaugurated data cable is creating new opportunities at ESO's Paranal Observatory and the Observatorio Cerro Armazones. Connecting these facilities to the main Latin American scientific data backbone completes the last gap in the high-speed link between the observatories and Europe. This new cable is part of the EVALSO (Enabling Virtual Access to Latin American Southern Observatories) project [1], a European Commission FP7 [2] co-funded programme co-ordinated by the University of Trieste that includes ESO, Observatorio Cerro Armazones (OCA, part of Ruhr-Universität Bochum), the Chilean academic network REUNA and other organisations. As well as the cable itself, the EVALSO project involves buying capacity on existing infrastructure to complete a high-bandwidth connection from the Paranal area to ESO's headquarters near Munich, Germany. Project co-ordinator Fernando Liello said: "This project has been an excellent collaboration between the consortium members. As well as giving a fast connection to the two observatories, it brings wider benefits to the academic communities both in Europe and Latin America." The sites of Paranal and Armazones are ideal for astronomical observation due to their high altitude, clear skies and remoteness from light pollution. But their location means they are far from any pre-existing communications infrastructure, which until now has left them dependent on a microwave link to send scientific data back to a base station near Antofagasta. Telescopes at ESO's Paranal observatory produce well over 100 gigabytes of data per night, equivalent to more than 20 DVDs, even after compressing the files. While the existing link is sufficient to carry the data from the current generation of instruments at the Very Large Telescope (VLT), it does not have the bandwidth to handle data from the VISTA telescope (Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy, see eso0949), or for

  9. The Science and Design of the AGIS Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroedter, Martin

    2010-02-01

    The AGIS observatory is a next-generation array of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs) for gamma-ray astronomy between 100 GeV and 100 TeV. The AGIS observatory is the next logical step in high energy gamma-ray astronomy, offering improved angular resolution and sensitivity compared to FERMI, and overlapping the high energy end of FERMI's sensitivity band. The baseline AGIS observatory will employ an array of 36 Schwarzschild-Couder IACTs in combination with a highly pixelated (0.05^o diameter) camera. The instrument is designed to provide millicrab sensitivity over a wide (8^o diameter) field of view, allowing both deep studies of faint point sources as well as efficient mapping of the Galactic plane and extended sources. I will describe science drivers behind the AGIS observatory and the design and status of the project. )

  10. Science Potential of a Deep Ocean Antineutrino Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dye, S.T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2505 Correa Road, Honolulu, Hawaii, 96822 (United States); College of Natural Sciences, Hawaii Pacific University, 45-045 Kamehameha Highway, Kaneohe, Hawaii 96744 (United States)

    2007-06-15

    This paper presents science potential of a deep ocean antineutrino observatory being developed at Hawaii. The observatory design allows for relocation from one site to another. Positioning the observatory some 60 km distant from a nuclear reactor complex enables precision measurement of neutrino mixing parameters, leading to a determination of neutrino mass hierarchy and {theta}{sub 13}. At a mid-Pacific location the observatory measures the flux and ratio of uranium and thorium decay neutrinos from earth's mantle and performs a sensitive search for a hypothetical natural fission reactor in earth's core. A subsequent deployment at another mid-ocean location would test lateral heterogeneity of uranium and thorium in earth's mantle.

  11. ALOHA Cabled Observatory (ACO): Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP): Velocity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The University of Hawaii's ALOHA ("A Long-term Oligotrophic Habitat Assessment") Cabled Observatory (ACO) is located 100 km north of the island of Oahu, Hawaii (22...

  12. 150th Anniversary of the Astronomical Observatory Library of Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solntseva, T.

    The scientific library of the Astronomical observatory of Kyiv Taras Shevchenko University is one of the oldest ones of such a type in Ukraine. Our Astronomical Observatory and its scientific library will celebrate 150th anniversary of their foundation. 900 volumes of duplicates of Olbers' private library underlay our library. These ones were acquired by Russian Academy of Sciences for Poulkovo observatory in 1841 but according to Struve's order were transmitted to Kyiv Saint Volodymyr University. These books are of great value. There are works edited during Copernicus', Kepler's, Galilei's, Newton's, Descartes' lifetime. Our library contains more than 100000 units of storage - monographs, periodical astronomical editions from the first (Astronomische Nachrichten, Astronomical journal, Monthly Notices etc.), editions of the majority of the astronomical observatories and institutions of the world, unique astronomical atlases and maps

  13. How Mount Stromlo Observatory shed its imperial beginnings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhathal, Ragbir

    2014-12-01

    In the 90 years since its foundation in 1924, Mount Stromlo Observatory in Australia has changed from an outpost of empire to an international research institution. Ragbir Bhathal examines how the British influence waxed and waned.

  14. Experience in CCD Photometry at the Tartu Observatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuvikene T.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available We give overview of the CCD instrumentation and data reduction techniques used at the Tartu Observatory. The first results from photometric observations of the peculiar variable V838 Mon are presented.

  15. A Regional Observatory for Producers' Climate Change Adaptation ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-22

    Apr 22, 2016 ... A Regional Observatory for Producers' Climate Change Adaptation in Thies, Senegal ... The Adaptation Insights series is a joint publication of the International Development Research Centre and the Centre for ... Innovation.

  16. Grain investigation by the help of satellite observatories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedemann, C.

    1988-01-01

    Interstellar grains are investigated by the help of satellite observatories taking into account extraterrestrical ultraviolet observations, infrared astronomy by the help of orbiting cooled telescopes, observed ultraviolet properties of interstellar grains, and consequences of infrared astronomy for dust investigation

  17. Visualization of Large Amount of Spectra in Virtual Observatory Environment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šaloun, P.; Andrešič, D.; Škoda, Petr; Zelinka, I.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 6 (2014), s. 613-620 ISSN 1476-8186 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : SPLAT-VO * virtual observatory * spectra Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  18. Astronomy from the Moon and International Lunar Observatory Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durst, S.; Takahashi, Y. D.

    2018-04-01

    Astronomy from the Moon provides a promising new frontier for 21st century astrophysics and related science activity. International Lunar Observatory Association is an enterprise advancing missions to the Moon for observation and communication.

  19. A New Observatory for Eastern College: A Dream Realized

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradstreet, D. H.

    1996-12-01

    The Eastern College Observatory began as a rooftop observing deck with one Celestron 8 telescope in 1976 as the workhorse instrument of the observational astronomy lab within the core curriculum. For 20 years the observing deck served as the crude observatory, being augmented through the years by other computerized Celestron 8's and a 17.5" diameter Dobsonian with computerized setting circles. The lab consisted primarily of visual observations and astrophotography. In 1987 plans were set into motion to raise money to build a permanent Observatory on the roof of the main classroom building. Fundraising efforts included three Jog-A-Thons (raising more than $40,000) and many donations from individuals and foundations. The fundraising was completed in 1996 and a two telescope observatory was constructed in the summer of 1996 complete with warm room, CCD cameras, computers, spectrograph, video network, and computerized single channel photometer. The telescopes are computerized 16" diameter Meade LX200 Schmidt-Cassegrains, each coupled to Gateway Pentium Pro 200 MHz computers. SBIG ST-8 CCD cameras were also secured for each telescope and an Optec SSP-7 photometer and Optomechanics Research 10C Spectrograph were also purchased. A Daystar H-alpha solar filter and Thousand Oaks visual light solar filter have expanded the Observatory's functionality to daytime observing as well. This is especially useful for the thousands of school children who frequent the Planetarium each year. The Observatory primarily serves the core astronomy lab where students must observe and photograph a prescribed number of celestial objects in a semester. Advanced students can take directed studies where they conduct photometry on eclipsing binaries or other variable stars or search for new asteroids. In addition, the Observatory and Planetarium are open to the public. Interested members of the community can reserve time on the telescopes and receive training and supervision from lab assistants

  20. Social Media Programs at the National Optical Astronomy Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Robert T.; Walker, Constance Elaine; Pompea, Stephen M.

    2015-08-01

    Observatories and other science research organizations want to share their research and activities with the public. The last several years, social media has become and increasingly important venue for communicating information about observatory activities, research and education and public outreach.The National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO) uses a wide variety of social media to communicate with different audiences. NOAO is active on social media platforms including Facebook, Twitter, Google+ and Pinterest. Our social media accounts include those for the National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, Kitt Peak National Observatory and our dark skies conservation program Globe at Night.Our social media programs have a variety of audiences. NOAO uses social media to announce and promote NOAO sponsored meetings, observatory news and proposal deadlines to the professional astronomical community. Social media accounts are used to disseminate NOAO press releases, images from the observatory and other science using data from NOAO telescopes.Social media is important in our Education and Public Outreach programs (EPO). Globe at Night has very active facebook and twitter accounts encouraging people to become involved in preserving dark skies. Social media plays a role in recruiting teachers for professional development workshops such as Project Astro.NOAO produces monthly podcasts for the 365 Days of Astronomy podcast featuring interviews with NOAO astronomers. Each podcast highlights the science of an NOAO astronomer, an NOAO operated telescope or instrument, or an NOAO program. A separate series of podcasts is produced for NOAO’s Dark Skies Education programs. All the podcasts are archived at 365daysofastronomy.org.

  1. The LAGO (Large Aperture GRB Observatory) in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tueros-Cuadros, E.; Otiniano, L.; Chirinos, J.; Soncco, C.; Guevara-Day, W.

    2012-07-01

    The Large Aperture GRBs Observatory is a continental-wide observatory devised to detect high energy (around 100 GeV) component of Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs), by using the single particle technique in arrays of Water Cherenkov Detectors (WCDs) at high mountain sites of Argentina, Bolivia, Colombia, Guatemala, Mexico, Venezuela and Peru. Details of the instalation and operation of the detectors in Marcapomacocha in Peru at 4550 m.a.s.l. are given. The detector calibration method will also be shown.

  2. Setting-up a small observatory from concept to construction

    CERN Document Server

    Arditti, David

    2008-01-01

    Every amateur astronomer who is considering a purpose-built observatory will find this book absolutely invaluable during both the planning and the construction stages. Drawing on David Arditti’s practical experience and that of many other amateur astronomers, it gives invaluable help in making all the important decisions. To begin with, Setting up a Small Observatory addresses what you really need from an observatory, whether to build or buy, what designs you should consider, and where you should site it. Uniquely, it also considers the aesthetics of an amateur observatory: how to make it fit in with your home, garden, and yard, even disguising it as a more common garden building if necessary. There’s also a wealth of practical details for constructing and equipping your small observatory – everything from satisfying local planning laws and building codes through to making sure that your completed observatory is well-equipped, convenient, and comfortable to use. Whether you are considering a simple low-...

  3. Electricity and gas market observatory. 3. Quarter 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the observatory is to provide the general public with indicators for monitoring market deregulation. It both covers the wholesale and retail electricity and gas markets in Metropolitan France. This observatory is updated every three months and data are available on CRE web site (www.cre.fr). Since the 1 of July 2007, all customers can choose their gas and electricity suppliers. The present observatory is including residential customer's statistics. Content: A - The electricity market: The retail electricity market (Introduction, Customer segments and their respective weight, Status at September 30, 2007, Dynamic analysis: 3. Quarter 2007); The wholesale electricity market (Introduction, Wholesale market activity in France, Wholesale market activity in France, Prices on the French wholesale market and European comparison, Import and export volumes, Concentration of the French electricity market); B - The gas market: The retail gas market (Introduction, Customer segments and their respective weight, Status on September 30, 2007, Dynamic analysis: 3. Quarter 2007); The wholesale gas market (Gas pricing and gas markets in Europe, The wholesale market in France); C - Appendices: Electricity and gas market observatories combined glossary, Specific electricity market observatory glossary, Specific gas market observatory glossary

  4. Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Core Observatory Falling Snow Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skofronick Jackson, G.; Kulie, M.; Milani, L.; Munchak, S. J.; Wood, N.; Levizzani, V.

    2017-12-01

    Retrievals of falling snow from space represent an important data set for understanding and linking the Earth's atmospheric, hydrological, and energy cycles. Estimates of falling snow must be captured to obtain the true global precipitation water cycle, snowfall accumulations are required for hydrological studies, and without knowledge of the frozen particles in clouds one cannot adequately understand the energy and radiation budgets. This work focuses on comparing the first stable falling snow retrieval products (released May 2017) for the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Core Observatory (GPM-CO), which was launched February 2014, and carries both an active dual frequency (Ku- and Ka-band) precipitation radar (DPR) and a passive microwave radiometer (GPM Microwave Imager-GMI). Five separate GPM-CO falling snow retrieval algorithm products are analyzed including those from DPR Matched (Ka+Ku) Scan, DPR Normal Scan (Ku), DPR High Sensitivity Scan (Ka), combined DPR+GMI, and GMI. While satellite-based remote sensing provides global coverage of falling snow events, the science is relatively new, the different on-orbit instruments don't capture all snow rates equally, and retrieval algorithms differ. Thus a detailed comparison among the GPM-CO products elucidates advantages and disadvantages of the retrievals. GPM and CloudSat global snowfall evaluation exercises are natural investigative pathways to explore, but caution must be undertaken when analyzing these datasets for comparative purposes. This work includes outlining the challenges associated with comparing GPM-CO to CloudSat satellite snow estimates due to the different sampling, algorithms, and instrument capabilities. We will highlight some factors and assumptions that can be altered or statistically normalized and applied in an effort to make comparisons between GPM and CloudSat global satellite falling snow products as equitable as possible.

  5. U.S. and European ALMA Partners Sign Agreement Green Light for World's Most Powerful Radio Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-02-01

    Dr. Rita Colwell, director of the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF), and Dr. Catherine Cesarsky, director general of the European Southern Observatory (ESO), today signed a historic agreement jointly to construct and operate ALMA, the Atacama Large Millimeter Array, the world's largest and most powerful radio telescope operating at millimeter and sub-millimeter wavelengths. "With this agreement, we usher in a new age of research in astronomy," said Dr. Colwell. "By working together in this truly global partnership, the international astronomy community will be able to ensure the research capabilities needed to meet the long-term demands of our scientific enterprise, and we will be able to study and understand our Universe in ways that have previously been beyond our vision." ALMA Array Artist's Conception of ALMA Array in Compact Configuration (Click on Image for Larger Version) Other Images Available: Artist's conception of the antennas for the Atacama Large Millimeter Array Moonrise over ALMA test equipment near Cerro Chajnantor, Chile VertexRSI antenna at the VLA test site Dr. Cesarsky also commented, "This agreement signifies the start of a great project of contemporary astronomy and astrophysics. Representing Europe, and in collaboration with many laboratories and institutes on this continent, we together look forward toward wonderful research projects. With ALMA, we may learn how the earliest galaxies in the Universe really looked like, to mention but one of the many eagerly awaited opportunities with this marvelous facility." When complete in 2011, ALMA will be an array of 64, 12-meter radio antennas that will work together as one telescope to study millimeter and sub-millimeter wavelength light from space. These wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum, which cross the critical boundary between infrared and microwave radiation, hold the key to understanding such processes as planet and star formation, the formation of early galaxies and galaxy

  6. OZCAR: the French network of Critical Zone Observatories: principles and scientific objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braud, Isabelle; Gaillardet, Jérôme; Hankard, Fatim; Le Borgne, Tanguy; Nord, Guillaume; Six, Delphine; Galy, Catherine; Laggoun-Défarge, Fatima; Tallec, Tiphaine; Pauwels, Hélène

    2017-04-01

    This contribution aims at presenting the principles that underlined the creation of the OZCAR research infrastructure, gathering various Critical Zone Observatories in France, and the scientific questions that drives the observation settings. The Critical Zone includes the fine zone between the lower atmosphere at the top of the canopy down to the bedrock-soil interface. This lithosphere-atmosphere boundary is critical for the availability of life-sustaining resources and critical for humanity because this is the zone where we live, where we build our cities, from which we extract our food and our water and where we release most of our wastes. This is the fragile zone on which the natural ecosystem relies because this is where nutrients are being released from the rocks. OZCAR is a distributed research infrastructure gathering instrumented sites and catchments on continental surfaces all dedicated to the observation and monitoring of the different compartments of the Critical Zone at the national scale. All these observatories (more that 40) were all built up on specific questions (acid deposition, flood prediction, urban hydrology…), some of them more than 50 years ago, but they have all in common to be highly instrumented, permanently funded as infrastructures. They all share the same overarching goal of understanding and predicting the Critical Zone in a changing world. OZCAR gathers instrumented catchments, hydrogeological sites, peatlands, glacier and permafrost regions and a spatial observatory under the common umbrella of understanding water and biogeochemical cycles and the associated fluxes of energy by using natural gradients and experimentation. Based on the collaboration with Southern Countries, OZCAR's sites have a global coverage including tropical areas and high mountainous regions in the Andes and the Himalaya. OZCAR benefits from a French investments project called CRITEX (Innovative equipment for the critical zone, https://www.critex.fr/critex-3

  7. A Global Drought Observatory for Emergency Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Jürgen; de Jager, Alfred; Carrão, Hugo; Magni, Diego; Mazzeschi, Marco; Barbosa, Paulo

    2016-04-01

    Droughts are occurring on all continents and across all climates. While in developed countries they cause significant economic and environmental damages, in less developed countries they may cause major humanitarian catastrophes. The magnitude of the problem and the expected increase in drought frequency, extent and severity in many, often highly vulnerable regions of the world demand a change from the current reactive, crisis-management approach towards a more pro-active, risk management approach. Such approach needs adequate and timely information from global to local scales as well as adequate drought management plans. Drought information systems are important for continuous monitoring and forecasting of the situation in order to provide timely information on developing drought events and their potential impacts. Against this background, the Joint Research Centre (JRC) is developing a Global Drought Observatory (GDO) for the European Commission's humanitarian services, providing up-to-date information on droughts world-wide and their potential impacts. Drought monitoring is achieved by a combination of meteorological and biophysical indicators, while the societal vulnerability to droughts is assessed through the targeted analysis of a series of social, economic and infrastructural indicators. The combination of the information on the occurrence and severity of a drought, on the assets at risk and on the societal vulnerability in the drought affected areas results in a likelihood of impact, which is expressed by a Likelihood of Drought Impact (LDI) indicator. The location, extent and magnitude of the LDI is then further analyzed against the number of people and land use/land cover types affected in order to provide the decision bodies with information on the potential humanitarian and economic bearings in the affected countries or regions. All information is presented through web-mapping interfaces based on OGC standards and customized reports can be drawn by the

  8. Astronomical Data Integration Beyond the Virtual Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemson, G.; Laurino, O.

    2015-09-01

    "Data integration" generally refers to the process of combining data from different source data bases into a unified view. Much work has been devoted in this area by the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA), allowing users to discover and access databases through standard protocols. However, different archives present their data through their own schemas and users must still select, filter, and combine data for each archive individually. An important reason for this is that the creation of common data models that satisfy all sub-disciplines is fraught with difficulties. Furthermore it requires a substantial amount of work for data providers to present their data according to some standard representation. We will argue that existing standards allow us to build a data integration framework that works around these problems. The particular framework requires the implementation of the IVOA Table Access Protocol (TAP) only. It uses the newly developed VO data modelling language (VO-DML) specification, which allows one to define extensible object-oriented data models using a subset of UML concepts through a simple XML serialization language. A rich mapping language allows one to describe how instances of VO-DML data models are represented by the TAP service, bridging the possible mismatch between a local archive's schema and some agreed-upon representation of the astronomical domain. In this so called local-as-view approach to data integration, “mediators" use the mapping prescriptions to translate queries phrased in terms of the common schema to the underlying TAP service. This mapping language has a graphical representation, which we expose through a web based graphical “drag-and-drop-and-connect" interface. This service allows any user to map the holdings of any TAP service to the data model(s) of choice. The mappings are defined and stored outside of the data sources themselves, which allows the interface to be used in a kind of crowd-sourcing effort

  9. Quantifying Urban Groundwater in Environmental Field Observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welty, C.; Miller, A. J.; Belt, K.; Smith, J. A.; Band, L. E.; Groffman, P.; Scanlon, T.; Warner, J.; Ryan, R. J.; Yeskis, D.; McGuire, M. P.

    2006-12-01

    Despite the growing footprint of urban landscapes and their impacts on hydrologic and biogeochemical cycles, comprehensive field studies of urban water budgets are few. The cumulative effects of urban infrastructure (buildings, roads, culverts, storm drains, detention ponds, leaking water supply and wastewater pipe networks) on temporal and spatial patterns of groundwater stores, fluxes, and flowpaths are poorly understood. The goal of this project is to develop expertise and analytical tools for urban groundwater systems that will inform future environmental observatory planning and that can be shared with research teams working in urban environments elsewhere. The work plan for this project draws on a robust set of information resources in Maryland provided by ongoing monitoring efforts of the Baltimore Ecosystem Study (BES), USGS, and the U.S. Forest Service working together with university scientists and engineers from multiple institutions. A key concern is to bridge the gap between small-scale intensive field studies and larger-scale and longer-term hydrologic patterns using synoptic field surveys, remote sensing, numerical modeling, data mining and visualization tools. Using the urban water budget as a unifying theme, we are working toward estimating the various elements of the budget in order to quantify the influence of urban infrastructure on groundwater. Efforts include: (1) comparison of base flow behavior from stream gauges in a nested set of watersheds at four different spatial scales from 0.8 to 171 km2, with diverse patterns of impervious cover and urban infrastructure; (2) synoptic survey of well water levels to characterize the regional water table; (3) use of airborne thermal infrared imagery to identify locations of groundwater seepage into streams across a range of urban development patterns; (4) use of seepage transects and tracer tests to quantify the spatial pattern of groundwater fluxes to the drainage network in selected subwatersheds; (5

  10. Fertilizing Southern Hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. M. Broadfoot; A. F. Ike

    1967-01-01

    If present trends continue, fertilizing may soon be economically feasible in southern hardwood stands. Demands for the wood are rising, and the acreage alloted for growing it is steadily shrinking. To supply anticipated requests for information, the U. S. Forest Service has established tree nutrition studies at the Southern Hardwoods Laboratory in Stoneville,...

  11. Southern Gothic Literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Thomas Ærvold

    2017-01-01

    Provides an outline of Southern Gothic Literature, offers an argument about its history and shape, and discusses the scholarly literature surrounding Southern Gothic. Oxford Research Encyclopedia is an online peer-reviewed encyclopedia for researchers, teachers, and students interested in all...... facets of the study of literature...

  12. Canada's Dominion Astrophysical Observatory and the rise of 20th Century Astrophysics and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesser, James E.; Bohlender, David; Crabtree, Dennis

    2015-08-01

    Construction of Canada’s Dominion Astrophysical Observatory (DAO) commenced in 1914 with first light on 6 May 1918. Its varied, rich contributions to the astronomical heritage of the 20th century continue into the 21st century. The first major research observatory built with public funding on the West Coast of North America, it was Canada’s first ‘big science’ project. DAO welcomed scientists from around the world to use its 1.8m telescope designed by John Stanley Plaskett working in close collaboration with the Warner and Swasey Company of Cleveland, OH. Their original design was copied seven times around the globe, the last occasion being in the 1960s. From Day 1 the DAO welcomed the public for viewing and interaction with the small scientific staff whose early efforts would today be characterized as ‘Key Projects’. Those efforts included measuring the radial velocities of O and B stars that, interpreted through Oort’s ideas of differential rotation, determined the most reliable estimate of the size and mass of the Milky Way available until radio astronomical techniques emerged in the 1950s. The first organic molecule in interstellar space, CH, was discovered by a DAO astronomer. The first, very puzzling estimate of ~3K for the temperature of interstellar space was deduced from interstellar CN observations a year after interstellar CH and CN were discovered. DAO’s heritage of innovative instrumentation continues to the present day where expertise in optically efficient, mechanically stable spectrographs and adaptive optics are much in evidence at Mauna Kea’s CFHT, Gemini and Subaru observatories. In 2009 the DAO was designated a National Historic Site. This presentation will draw links between DAO, developments of Canadian astronomy and the emergence of Mauna Kea as an exceptional global astronomical reserve.

  13. Near real-time geomagnetic data for space weather applications in the European sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsen, M. G.; Hansen, T. L.

    2012-12-01

    Tromsø Geophysical Observatory (TGO) is responsible for making and maintaining long time-series of geomagnetic measurements in Norway. TGO is currently operating 3 geomagnetic observatories and 11 variometer stations from southern Norway to Svalbard . Data from these 14 locations are acquired, processed and made available for the user community in near real-time. TGO is participating in several European Union (EU) and European Space Agency (ESA) space weather related projects where both near real-time data and derived products are provided. In addition the petroleum industry is benefiting from our real-time data services for directional drilling. Near real-time data from TGO is freely available for non-commercial purposes. TGO is exchanging data in near real-time with several institutions, enabling the presentation of near real-time geomagnetic data from more than 40 different locations in Fennoscandia and Greenland. The open exchange of non real-time geomagnetic data has been successfully going on for many years through services such as the world data center in Kyoto, SuperMAG, IMAGE and SPIDR. TGO's vision is to take this one step further and make the exchange of near real-time geomagnetic data equally available for the whole community. This presentation contains an overview of TGO, our activities and future aims. We will show how our near real-time data are presented. Our contribution to the space weather forecasting and nowcasting effort in the EU and ESA will be presented with emphasis on our real-time auroral activity index and brand new auroral activity monitor and electrojet tracker.

  14. 18 March 2004. Nine of CERN's 20 Member States today signed a new Protocol on privileges and immunities. This brings the Organization into line with other European intergovernmental organizations, such as the European Space Agency and the European Southern Observatory, which already enjoy international status in all of their Member States.

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2004-01-01

    As well as having an immediate practical benefit for the Organization, the Protocol also has an important symbolic value for the future. The Protocol is not only open to CERN Member States for signature, but also to other States collaborating with CERN. "Although this seems symbolic today", explained CERN Director General Robert Aymar in an address to CERN's governing Council today, "I believe that in the future, with the increasing globalisation of particle physics, this will become a valuable tool in helping CERN remain a powerful force in science."

  15. The Einstein Observatory: A New Public/Private Observatory Complex for Community Education and Scientific Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowell, J.

    1999-12-01

    The Development Authority of Cherokee County (Georgia) is leading a public/private partnership of business/industry professionals, educators, and university scientists that seeks to develop a national prototype educational and scientific research facility for grades K-12, as well as college-level research, that will inspire our youth to become literate in science and technology. In particular, the goal is to make this complex a science, math, and engineering magnet learning facility and to raise the average SAT scores of local area students by 100 points. A dark-site mountain, nestled on the foothills of the Blue Ridge Mountains at the northern-most edge of Atlanta, will become the home for the "Einstein" Observatory. The complex will have four telescopes: one 50-inch, one 24-inch, and two 16-inch telescopes. Each telescope will have digital cameras and an optic-fiber feed to a single, medium-resolution spectroscope. All four telescopes will be electronically accessible from local schools. Professional astronomers will establish suitable observational research projects and will lead K-12 and college students in the acquisition and analysis of data. Astronomers will also assist the local area schoolteachers in methods for nurturing children's scientific inquiry. The observatory mountain will have 100 platform locations for individual viewing by visiting families, school groups, and amateur astronomers. The Atlanta Astronomer Club will provide numerous evening programs and viewing opportunities for the general public. An accompanying Planetarium & Science Center will be located on the nearby campus of Reinhardt College. The Planetarium & Science Center will be integrated with Reinhardt College's theme of learning focused upon studying the past and present as a basis for projecting the future.

  16. Studies of the influence of the geomagnetic field on the sensitivity of gamma-ray observatories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, Maria

    2011-02-01

    Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) will be a ground-based high energy gamma radiation detector. This radiation is detected by the measurement of particle showers in the atmosphere. The questions of the origin of the cosmic radiation, the functional principle of cosmic particle accelerators in the area of black holes or the nature of the dark matter are in the scientific goals of CTA. At the moment the instrument is in the planning phase and first results will probably be in 2014. The site of the instrument has an immediate influence on the sensitivity e.g. due to the weather, the height above sea level. Several possible sites for CTA are being considered at the moment including Namibia, Argentina, Canary Islands and Mexico. The geomagnetic field affects the development of showers and distorts the images of the air shower in the telescope. The aim of this work is to quantify the influence of the strength and the direction of the geomagnetic field at the different possible locations on the sensitivity of CTA using Monte Carlo simulations of particle showers. Firstly, we simulated the lateral distribution at the twelve sites. The geomagnetic field of the sites was obtained from the National Geographic Data Center (NGDC). To study the influence of the Earth's magnetic field, we held the altitude of the sites constant at 2000 m. Hence, we could choose two sites per hemisphere which could be potential candidates for the Cherenkov Telescope Array: BeaufortWest (South Africa), El Leoncito (Argentina), La Palma (Canary Islands) and San Pedro Martir (Mexico). To compare the results with a site which is already known, we chose the observatory H.E.S.S. in Namibia. After the study of the energy thresholds and the effective areas we decided in favour of two sites, one in the southern and one in the northern hemisphere. Considering the influence of the geomagnetic field on the predictions, the southern observatory should be in Beaufort West in South Africa. The northern array of CTA

  17. Studies of the influence of the geomagnetic field on the sensitivity of gamma-ray observatories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, Maria

    2011-02-15

    Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) will be a ground-based high energy gamma radiation detector. This radiation is detected by the measurement of particle showers in the atmosphere. The questions of the origin of the cosmic radiation, the functional principle of cosmic particle accelerators in the area of black holes or the nature of the dark matter are in the scientific goals of CTA. At the moment the instrument is in the planning phase and first results will probably be in 2014. The site of the instrument has an immediate influence on the sensitivity e.g. due to the weather, the height above sea level. Several possible sites for CTA are being considered at the moment including Namibia, Argentina, Canary Islands and Mexico. The geomagnetic field affects the development of showers and distorts the images of the air shower in the telescope. The aim of this work is to quantify the influence of the strength and the direction of the geomagnetic field at the different possible locations on the sensitivity of CTA using Monte Carlo simulations of particle showers. Firstly, we simulated the lateral distribution at the twelve sites. The geomagnetic field of the sites was obtained from the National Geographic Data Center (NGDC). To study the influence of the Earth's magnetic field, we held the altitude of the sites constant at 2000 m. Hence, we could choose two sites per hemisphere which could be potential candidates for the Cherenkov Telescope Array: BeaufortWest (South Africa), El Leoncito (Argentina), La Palma (Canary Islands) and San Pedro Martir (Mexico). To compare the results with a site which is already known, we chose the observatory H.E.S.S. in Namibia. After the study of the energy thresholds and the effective areas we decided in favour of two sites, one in the southern and one in the northern hemisphere. Considering the influence of the geomagnetic field on the predictions, the southern observatory should be in Beaufort West in South Africa. The northern array

  18. Crew of Hubble Space Telescope servicing mission visits Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    The Hubble Space telescope servicing mission in December (STS-61) was a great success and the fully refurbished orbiting telescope produced absolutely remarkable first results just two weeks ago. The 7-member crew who carried out the mission will soon be in Europe to share their experience with the Press, ESA space specialists and the European space community. Public conferences will also be held in Switzerland, the home country of ESA astronaut Claude Nicollier. The visit of the STS-61 crew is scheduled as follows: Friday 11 February, 1994 - ESA Paris, France Presentation and Press Conference Location: ESA, 8/10 Rue Mario Nikis, 75015 Paris time: 16:00 hrs - 17:30 hrs contact: ESA, Public Relations Office Tel. (+33) 1 42 73 71 55 Fax. (+33) 1 42 73 76 90 Monday 14 February, 1994 - British Aerospace, Bristol, United Kingdom Presentation and Press Conference Location: British Aerospace, FPC 333, Filton, Bristol BS12 7QW time: 10:00 hrs - 12:00 hrs contact: BAe, Public Relations Tel. (+44) 272 36 33 69 Tel. (+44) 272 36 33 68 Tuesday 15 February, 1994 - ESA/ESTEC, Noordwijk, the Netherlands Presentation and Press Conference Location: Noordwijk Space Expo, Keplerlaan 3, 2201 AZ Noordwijk, the Netherlands time: 09:30 hrs - 12:00 hrs contact: ESTEC Public Relations Office Tel. (+31) 1719 8 3006 Fax. (+31) 1719 17 400 Wednesday 16 February, 1944 - ESO, Garching - Munich, Germany Presentation and Press Conference Location: European Southern Observatory, Karl- Schwarzschild-Str. 2, 85748 Garching -Munich, Germany time: to be decided contact: ESO Information Service Tel. (+49) 89 32 006 276 Fax. (+49) 89 320 23 62 Thursday 17 February, 1994 - Bern, Switzerland a. Presentation and Press Conference Location: Hotel Bern, Zeughausgasse 9, 3001 Bern, Switzerland time: 09:30 hrs contact: Press & Information Service of the Federal Dept. for Education & Sciences Tel. (+41) 31 322 80 34 Fax. (+41) 31 312 30 15 b. Public conference Location: University of Bern, Institute of Physics

  19. Southern Identity in "Southern Living" Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauder, Tracy

    2012-01-01

    A fantasy-theme analysis of the editors' letters in "Southern Living" magazine shows an editorial vision of valuing the past and showcasing unique regional qualities. In addition, a content analysis of the visual representation of race in the magazine's formative years and recent past validates that inhabitants of the region were portrayed…

  20. Mission Concept for the Single Aperture Far-Infrared (SAFIR) Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benford, Dominic J.; Amato, Michael J.; Mather, John C.; Moseley, S. Harvey, Jr.

    2004-01-01

    We have developed a preliminary but comprehensive mission concept for SAFIR, as a 10 m-class far-infrared and submillimeter observatory that would begin development later in this decade to meet the needs outlined above. Its operating temperature ( or approx. 40 microns. This would provide a point source sensitivity improvement of several orders of magnitude over that of the Spitzer Space Telescope (previously SIRTF) or the Herschel Space Observatory. Additionally, it would have an angular resolution 12 times finer than that of Spitzer and three times finer than Herschel. This sensitivity and angular resolution are necessary to perform imaging and spectroscopic studies of individual galaxies in the early universe. We have considered many aspects of the SAFIR mission, including the telescope technology (optical design, materials, and packaging), detector needs and technologies, cooling method and required technology developments, attitude and pointing, power systems, launch vehicle, and mission operations. The most challenging requirements for this mission are operating temperature and aperture size of the telescope, and the development of detector arrays. SAFIR can take advantage of much of the technology under development for JWST, but with much less stringent requirements on optical accuracy.

  1. Ground Based Support for Exoplanet Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haukka, H.; Hentunen, V.-P.; Salmi, T.; Aartolahti, H.; Juutilainen, J.; Vilokki, H.; Nissinen, M.

    2011-10-01

    Taurus Hill Observatory (THO), observatory code A95, is an amateur observatory located in Varkaus, Finland. The observatory is maintained by the local astronomical association Warkauden Kassiopeia. THO research team has observed and measured various stellar objects and phenomena. Observatory has mainly focused to asteroid [1] and exoplanet light curve measurements, observing the gamma rays burst, supernova discoveries and monitoring [2] and long term monitoring projects [3]. In the early 2011 Europlanet NA1 and NA2 organized "Coordinated Observations of Exoplanets from Ground and Space"-workshop in Graz, Austria. The workshop gathered together proam astronomers who have the equipment to measure the light curves of the exoplanets. Also there were professional scientists working in the exoplanet field who attended to the workshop. The result of the workshop was to organize coordinated observation campaign for follow-up observations of exoplanets (e.g. CoRoT planets). Also coordinated observation campaign to observe stellar CME outbreaks was planned. THO has a lot of experience in field of exoplanet light curve measurements and therefore this campaign is very supported by the research team of the observatory. In next coming observing seasons THO will concentrate its efforts for this kind of campaigns.

  2. Mobile Networked Sensors for Environmental Observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, W. J.

    2005-12-01

    carried by NIMS include sensors for visible wavelength imaging, thermal infrared temperature mapping, microclimate, solar radiation, and for water quality and physical characterization of aquatic systems. NIMS devices include compact embedded computing, wireless network connectivity to surrounding static sensors, and remote Internet access. Exploiting this onboard computing allows NIMS devices to follow precise scanning protocols and self-calibration procedures. This presentation will describe permanent facility NIMS systems deployed at the James San Jacinto Mountains Reserve. Rapidly deployable NIMS permitting short term, highly mobile experiments will also be discussed. This includes the Thermal Mapper system that simultaneously samples plant physical structure (using laser position sensing and imaging) along with plant surface temperature (using high spatial resolution thermal infrared sensing). This compact system has been applied to the investigation of thermal characteristics of alpine plants in varying soil surfaces at the White Mountains Research Station. Other NIMS applications and results to be described include novel spatial mapping of nitrate concentration and other variables in flowing streams. Finally, this presentation will also address the many future applications of observatories linking investigators with remote mobile and static sensor networks. This research is supported by the NSF0331481 ITR program. Research has been performed in collaboration with R. Ambrose, K. Bible, D. Estrin, E. Graham, M. Hamilton, M. Hanson, T. Harmon, G. Pottie, P. Rundel, M. Srivastava, and G. Sukhatme

  3. The International Solid Earth Research Virtual Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, G.; Pierce, M.; Rundle, J.; Donnellan, A.; Parker, J.; Granat, R.; Lyzenga, G.; McLeod, D.; Grant, L.

    2004-12-01

    We describe the architecture and initial implementation of the International Solid Earth Research Virtual Observatory (iSERVO). This has been prototyped within the USA as SERVOGrid and expansion is planned to Australia, China, Japan and other countries. We base our design on a globally scalable distributed "cyber-infrastructure" or Grid built around a Web Services-based approach consistent with the extended Web Service Interoperability approach. The Solid Earth Science Working Group of NASA has identified several challenges for Earth Science research. In order to investigate these, we need to couple numerical simulation codes and data mining tools to observational data sets. This observational data are now available on-line in internet-accessible forms, and the quantity of this data is expected to grow explosively over the next decade. We architect iSERVO as a loosely federated Grid of Grids with each country involved supporting a national Solid Earth Research Grid. The national Grid Operations, possibly with dedicated control centers, are linked together to support iSERVO where an International Grid control center may eventually be necessary. We address the difficult multi-administrative domain security and ownership issues by exposing capabilities as services for which the risk of abuse is minimized. We support large scale simulations within a single domain using service-hosted tools (mesh generation, data repository and sensor access, GIS, visualization). Simulations typically involve sequential or parallel machines in a single domain supported by cross-continent services. We use Web Services implement Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) using WSDL for service description and SOAP for message formats. These are augmented by UDDI, WS-Security, WS-Notification/Eventing and WS-ReliableMessaging in the WS-I+ approach. Support for the latter two capabilities will be available over the next 6 months from the NaradaBrokering messaging system. We augment these

  4. Optical instrumentation for science and formation flying with a starshade observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Stefan; Scharf, Daniel; Cady, Eric; Liebe, Carl; Tang, Hong

    2015-09-01

    In conjunction with a space telescope of modest size, a starshade enables observation of small exoplanets close to the parent star by blocking the direct starlight while the planet light remains unobscured. The starshade is flown some tens of thousands of kilometers ahead of the telescope. Science instruments may include a wide field camera for imaging the target exoplanetary system as well as an integral field spectrometer for characterization of exoplanet atmospheres. We show the preliminary designs of the optical instruments for observatories such as Exo-S, discuss formation flying and control, retargeting maneuvers and other aspects of a starshade mission. The implementation of a starshade-ready WFIRST-AFTA is discussed and we show how a compact, standalone instrument package could be developed as an add-on to future space telescopes, requiring only minor additions to the telescope spacecraft.

  5. The Architectural and Instrumental Heritage of the Strasbourg University Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoigneau, Jean

    When, in 1872, Alsace was handed over to Germany, Empperor Wilhelm I decided to make Strasbourg the showcase of his empire, and in particular to build a prestigious university and an observatory. The construction of the observatory was entrusted to the astronomer August Winnecke (1835-1897), former director of the Pulkovo observatory, and to the Baumeister Hermann Eggert. Begun in 1876, the work was completed in 1880. The astronomical instruments, ordered from German makers, were installed during the winter of 1880-1881, and the observatory was inaugurated on September 22, 1881 at the general assembly of the Astronomische Gesellschaft, the international association of astronomers, whose secretary was Winnecke. Marking the south-eastern extremity of the ‘imperial axis’, the architecture of the university observatory harmonizes perfectly with the new German city built on the former French parade grounds. The astronomical heritage operation conducted at the beginning of the present decade provides a richly docurnented and illustrated inventory of both the architecture and instruments of this institution. This work has also highlighted the unique quality of the collection of instruments, befitting the long and complex history of this institution.

  6. Electricity and gas market observatory. 2. quarter 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Since July 1, 2004, all electricity and gas consumers can be eligible according to their consumption site, as long as all or part of the electricity or gas consumed is designed for non-residential use. The purpose of the observatory is to provide the general public with indicators for monitoring market deregulation. It both covers the wholesale and retail electricity and gas markets in Metropolitan France. This observatory is updated every three months and data are available on CRE web-site (www.cre.fr). It presents: The electricity market; The retail electricity market: Non-residential customer segments and their respective weights, Status at July 1, 2007, Dynamic analysis: 2. Quarter 2007; The wholesale electricity market: Wholesale market activity in France, Prices on the French wholesale market and European comparison, Import and export volumes, Concentration of the French electricity market, Striking facts of the second quarter 2007; The gas market; The retail gas market: The non-residential customer segments and their respective weights, Status at July 1. 2007; The wholesale gas market: Gas pricing and gas markets in Europe,The wholesale market in France. Some glossaries are attached to the document: Electricity and gas market observatories combined glossary; Specific electricity market observatory glossary; Specific gas market observatory glossary

  7. Improving geomagnetic observatory data in the South Atlantic Anomaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzka, Jürgen; Morschhauser, Achim; Brando Soares, Gabriel; Pinheiro, Katia

    2016-04-01

    The Swarm mission clearly proofs the benefit of coordinated geomagnetic measurements from a well-tailored constellation in order to recover as good as possible the contributions of the various geomagnetic field sources. A similar truth applies to geomagnetic observatories. Their scientific value can be maximised by properly arranging the position of individual observatories with respect to the geometry of the external current systems in the ionosphere and magnetosphere, with respect to regions of particular interest for secular variation, and with respect to regions of anomalous electric conductivity in the ground. Here, we report on our plans and recent efforts to upgrade geomagnetic observatories and to recover unpublished data from geomagnetic observatories at low latitudes in the South Atlantic Anomaly. In particular, we target the magnetic equator with the equatorial electrojet and low latitudes to characterise the Sq- and ring current. The observatory network that we present allows also to study the longitudinal structure of these external current systems. The South Atlantic Anomaly region is very interesting due to its secular variation. We will show newly recovered data and comparisons with existing data sets. On the technical side, we introduce low-power data loggers. In addition, we use mobile phone data transfer, which is rapidly evolving in the region and allows timely data access and quality control at remote sites that previously were not connected to the internet.

  8. Electricity and gas market observatory. 2. Quarter 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the observatory is to provide the general public with indicators for monitoring market deregulation. It both covers the wholesale and retail electricity and gas markets in Metropolitan France. This observatory is updated every three months and data are available on CRE web site (www.cre.fr). Since the 1 of July 2007, all customers can choose their gas and electricity suppliers. Content: A - The electricity market: The retail electricity market (Introduction, Customer segments and their respective weight, Status at June 30, 2008, Dynamic analysis: 2. Quarter 2008); The wholesale electricity market (Introduction, Wholesale market activity in France, Prices on the French wholesale market and European comparison, Import and export volumes, Concentration of the French electricity market); B - The gas market: The retail gas market (Introduction, Customer segments and their respective weight, Status on June 30, 2008, Dynamic analysis: 2. Quarter 2008); The wholesale gas market (Gas pricing and gas markets in Europe, The wholesale market in France); C - Appendices: Electricity and gas market observatories combined glossary, Specific electricity market observatory glossary, Specific gas market observatory glossary

  9. Electricity and gas market observatory 1. Quarter 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the observatory is to provide the general public with indicators for monitoring market deregulation. It both covers the wholesale and retail electricity and gas markets in Metropolitan France. This observatory is updated every three months and data are available on CRE web site (www.cre.fr). Since the 1. of July 2007, all customers can choose their gas and electricity suppliers. Content: A - The electricity market: The retail electricity market (Introduction, Customer segments and their respective weight, Status on March 31, 2009, Dynamic analysis: 1. Quarter 2009), The wholesale electricity market (Introduction, Wholesale market activity in France, Prices on the French wholesale market and European comparison, Import and export volumes, Concentration of the French electricity market). B - The gas market: The retail gas market (Introduction, Customer segments and their respective weight, Status on March 31. 2009, Dynamic analysis: 1. Quarter 2009), The wholesale gas market (Main steps in the French Wholesale gas market, Gas pricing and gas markets in Europe, The wholesale market in France, Prices on the French wholesale market and European comparison, Concentration of the French gas market) C - Appendices: Electricity and gas market observatories combined glossary, Specific electricity market observatory glossary, Specific gas market observatory glossary

  10. Electricity and gas market observatory. 4. Quarter 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the observatory is to provide the general public with indicators for monitoring market deregulation. It both covers the wholesale and retail electricity and gas markets in Metropolitan France. This observatory is updated every three months and data are available on CRE web site (www.cre.fr). Since the 1 of July 2007, all customers can choose their gas and electricity suppliers. Content: A - The electricity market: The retail electricity market (Introduction, Customer segments and their respective weight, Status on December 31, 2008, Dynamic analysis: 4. Quarter 2008); The wholesale electricity market (Introduction, Wholesale market activity in France, Prices on the French wholesale market and European comparison, Import and export volumes, Concentration of the French electricity market); B - The gas market: The retail gas market (Introduction, Customer segments and their respective weight, Status on December 31, 2008, Dynamic analysis: 4. Quarter 2008); The wholesale gas market (Gas pricing and gas markets in Europe, The wholesale market in France, Prices on the French wholesale market and European comparison, Concentration of the French gas market); C - Appendices: Electricity and gas market observatories combined glossary, Specific electricity market observatory glossary, Specific gas market observatory glossary

  11. Electricity and gas market observatory. 1. Quarter 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Since July 1, 2004, all electricity and gas consumers can be eligible according to their consumption site, as long as all or part of the electricity or gas consumed is designed for non-residential use. The purpose of the observatory is to provide the general public with indicators for monitoring market deregulation. It both covers the wholesale and retail electricity and gas markets in Metropolitan France. This observatory is updated every three months and data are available on CRE web site (www.cre.fr). It completes the information already published by CRE: - practical information for eligible customers: consumer guide, list of suppliers, - communications regarding markets running; CRE's annual activity report. Content: A - The electricity market: The retail electricity market (Introduction, Eligible customer segments and their respective weights, Status at April 1, 2007, Dynamic analysis: 1. Quarter 2007); The wholesale electricity market (Introduction, Traded volumes on the French wholesale electricity market and comparison with European markets, Prices on the French wholesale electricity market and European comparison, Import and export volumes, Concentration of the French electricity market, Striking facts of the 1. 2007 quarter); B - The gas market: The retail gas market (Introduction, The eligible customer segments and their respective weights, Status at April 1, 2007); The wholesale gas market (Gas pricing and gas markets in Europe, The wholesale market in France); C - Appendices: Electricity and gas market observatories combined glossary, Specific electricity market observatory glossary, Specific gas market observatory glossary

  12. Electricity and gas market observatory. 1. Quarter 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the observatory is to provide the general public with indicators for monitoring market deregulation. It both covers the wholesale and retail electricity and gas markets in Metropolitan France. This observatory is updated every three months and data are available on CRE web site (www.cre.fr). Since the 1. of July 2007, all customers can choose their gas and electricity suppliers. Content: A - The electricity market: The retail electricity market (Introduction, Customer segments and their respective weight, Status at March 31, 2007, Dynamic analysis: 1. Quarter 2008); The wholesale electricity market (Introduction, Wholesale market activity in France, Prices on the French wholesale market and European comparison, Import and export volumes, Concentration of the French electricity market); B - The gas market: The retail gas market (Introduction, Customer segments and their respective weight, Status on March 31, 2008, Dynamic analysis: 1. Quarter 2008); The wholesale gas market (Gas pricing and gas markets in Europe, The wholesale market in France, Striking fact of the first quarter 2008); C - Appendices: Electricity and gas market observatories combined glossary, Specific electricity market observatory glossary, Specific gas market observatory glossary

  13. Virtual hydrology observatory: an immersive visualization of hydrology modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Simon; Cruz-Neira, Carolina; Habib, Emad; Gerndt, Andreas

    2009-02-01

    The Virtual Hydrology Observatory will provide students with the ability to observe the integrated hydrology simulation with an instructional interface by using a desktop based or immersive virtual reality setup. It is the goal of the virtual hydrology observatory application to facilitate the introduction of field experience and observational skills into hydrology courses through innovative virtual techniques that mimic activities during actual field visits. The simulation part of the application is developed from the integrated atmospheric forecast model: Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF), and the hydrology model: Gridded Surface/Subsurface Hydrologic Analysis (GSSHA). Both the output from WRF and GSSHA models are then used to generate the final visualization components of the Virtual Hydrology Observatory. The various visualization data processing techniques provided by VTK are 2D Delaunay triangulation and data optimization. Once all the visualization components are generated, they are integrated into the simulation data using VRFlowVis and VR Juggler software toolkit. VR Juggler is used primarily to provide the Virtual Hydrology Observatory application with fully immersive and real time 3D interaction experience; while VRFlowVis provides the integration framework for the hydrologic simulation data, graphical objects and user interaction. A six-sided CAVETM like system is used to run the Virtual Hydrology Observatory to provide the students with a fully immersive experience.

  14. Electricity and gas market observatory. 4. Quarter 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the observatory is to provide the general public with indicators for monitoring market deregulation. It both covers the wholesale and retail electricity and gas markets in Metropolitan France. This observatory is updated every three months and data are available on CRE web site (www.cre.fr). Since the 1. of July 2007, all customers can choose their gas and electricity suppliers. Content: A - The electricity market: The retail electricity market (Introduction, Customer segments and their respective weight, Status at December 31, 2007, Dynamic analysis: 4. Quarter 2007); The wholesale electricity market (Introduction, Wholesale market activity in France, Prices on the French wholesale market and European comparison, Import and export volumes, Concentration of the French electricity market, Striking fact of the fourth quarter 2007); B - The gas market: The retail gas market (Introduction, Customer segments and their respective weight, Status on December 31. 2007, Dynamic analysis: 4. Quarter 2007); The wholesale gas market (Gas pricing and gas markets in Europe, The wholesale market in France, Striking fact of the fourth quarter 2007); C - Appendices: Electricity and gas market observatories combined glossary, Specific electricity market observatory glossary, Specific gas market observatory glossary

  15. Electricity and gas market observatory. 4. Quarter 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Since July 1, 2004, all electricity and gas consumers can be eligible according to their consumption site, as long as all or part of the electricity or gas consumed is designed for non-residential use. The purpose of the observatory is to provide the general public with indicators for monitoring market deregulation. It both covers the wholesale and retail electricity and gas markets in Metropolitan France. This observatory is updated every three months and data are available on CRE web site (www.cre.fr). It completes the information already published by CRE: - practical information for eligible customers: consumer guide, list of suppliers, - communications regarding markets running; CRE's annual activity report. Content: A - The electricity market: The retail electricity market (Introduction, Eligible customer segments and their respective weights, Status at January 1, 2007, Dynamic analysis: 4. Quarter 2006); The wholesale electricity market (Introduction, Traded volumes on the French wholesale electricity market and comparison with European markets, Prices on the French wholesale electricity market and European comparison, Import and export volumes, Concentration of the French electricity market, Striking facts of the 4. 2006 quarter); B - The gas market: The retail gas market (Introduction, The eligible customer segments and their respective weights, Status at January 1, 2007); The wholesale gas market (Gas pricing and gas markets in Europe, The wholesale market in France); C - Appendices: Electricity and gas market observatories combined glossary, Specific electricity market observatory glossary, Specific gas market observatory glossary

  16. Electricity and gas market observatory. 1. quarter 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Since July 1, 2004, all electricity and gas consumers can be eligible according to their consumption site, as long as all or part of the electricity or gas consumed is designed for non-residential use. The purpose of the observatory is to provide the general public with indicators for monitoring market deregulation. It both covers the wholesale and retail electricity and gas markets in Metropolitan France. This observatory is updated every three months and data are available on CRE web-site (www.cre.fr). It presents: The electricity market; The retail electricity market: Eligible customer segments and their respective weights, Status at April 1, 2007, Dynamic analysis: 1. Quarter 2007; The wholesale electricity market: Traded volumes on the French wholesale electricity market and comparison with European markets, Prices on the French wholesale electricity market and European comparison, Import and export volumes, Concentration of the French electricity market, Striking facts of the 1. 2007 quarter; The gas market; The retail gas market: The eligible customer segments and their respective weights, Status at April 1. 2007; The wholesale gas market: Gas pricing and gas markets in Europe,The wholesale market in France. Some glossaries are attached to the document: Electricity and gas market observatories combined glossary; Specific electricity market observatory glossary; Specific gas market observatory glossary

  17. Electricity and gas market observatory. 4. quarter 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Since July 1, 2004, all electricity and gas consumers can be eligible according to their consumption site, as long as all or part of the electricity or gas consumed is designed for non-residential use. The purpose of the observatory is to provide the general public with indicators for monitoring market deregulation. It both covers the wholesale and retail electricity and gas markets in Metropolitan France. This observatory is updated every three months and data are available on CRE web-site (www.cre.fr). It presents: The electricity market; The retail electricity market: Eligible customer segments and their respective weights, Status at January 1, 2007, Dynamic analysis: 4. Quarter 2007; The wholesale electricity market: Traded volumes on the French wholesale electricity market and comparison with European markets, Prices on the French wholesale electricity market and European comparison, Import and export volumes, Concentration of the French electricity market, Striking facts of the 4. 2006 quarter; The gas market; The retail gas market: The eligible customer segments and their respective weights, Status at January 1. 2007; The wholesale gas market: Gas pricing and gas markets in Europe,The wholesale market in France. Some glossaries are attached to the document: Electricity and gas market observatories combined glossary; Specific electricity market observatory glossary; Specific gas market observatory glossary

  18. Governance of a regional observatory - Technical Guidebook nr. 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardinal, Marc; Blais, Thomas; Phillips, Celine; Girault, Maurice; Guedon, Matthieu; Kampetenga, Ghislaine; Mora, Lucie; Riey, Benedicte; Mairet, Nicolas; Falque-Masset, Marie-Laure

    2011-06-01

    Whereas survey is one of the key for action for local actors in the field of energy management and of struggle against climate change, setting up a regional observatory is a way to get an insight on energy consumptions and productions within a territory, and to follow-up its greenhouse gas emissions. Moreover, the Grenelle de l'Environnement imposed on communities, and firstly regions, new obligations for the follow-up and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions with the elaboration of Regional Climate Air Energy Schemes (SRCAE). This guide therefore aims at proposing a framework of objectives and missions for such a regional observatory of energy and emissions, and at illustrating the variety of possible models through a synthesis of regional arrangements. Thus, it presents and discusses general principles regarding the definition of objectives and missions of an observatory (objectives, functions, scope), the setting up and organisation of an observatory with its funding documents, and mobilised financial means and tools. It also presents what can be produced and published by these observatories

  19. An Observatory to Enhance the Preparation of Future California Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, L.; Lederer, S.

    2004-12-01

    With a major grant from the W. M. Keck Foundation, California State University, San Bernardino is establishing a state-of-the-art teaching astronomical observatory. The Observatory will be fundamental to an innovative undergraduate physics and astronomy curriculum for Physics and Liberal Studies majors and will be integrated into our General Education program. The critical need for a research and educational observatory is linked to changes in California's Science Competencies for teacher certification. Development of the Observatory will also complement a new infusion of NASA funding and equipment support for our growing astronomy education programs and the University's established Strategic Plan for excellence in education and teacher preparation. The Observatory will consist of two domed towers. One tower will house a 20" Ritchey-Chretien telescope equipped with a CCD camera in conjunction with either UBVRI broadband filters or a spectrometer for evening laboratories and student research projects. The second tower will house the university's existing 12" Schmidt-Cassegrain optical telescope coupled with a CCD camera and an array of filters. A small aperture solar telescope will be attached to the 12" for observing solar prominences while a milar filter can be attached to the 12" for sunspot viewing. We have been very fortunate to receive a challenge grant of \\600,000 from the W. M. Keck Foundation to equip the two domed towers; we continue to seek a further \\800,000 to meet our construction needs. Funding also provided by the California State University, San Bernardino.

  20. Optimizing fixed observational assets in a coastal observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frolov, Sergey; Baptista, António; Wilkin, Michael

    2008-11-01

    Proliferation of coastal observatories necessitates an objective approach to managing of observational assets. In this article, we used our experience in the coastal observatory for the Columbia River estuary and plume to identify and address common problems in managing of fixed observational assets, such as salinity, temperature, and water level sensors attached to pilings and moorings. Specifically, we addressed the following problems: assessing the quality of an existing array, adding stations to an existing array, removing stations from an existing array, validating an array design, and targeting of an array toward data assimilation or monitoring. Our analysis was based on a combination of methods from oceanographic and statistical literature, mainly on the statistical machinery of the best linear unbiased estimator. The key information required for our analysis was the covariance structure for a field of interest, which was computed from the output of assimilated and non-assimilated models of the Columbia River estuary and plume. The network optimization experiments in the Columbia River estuary and plume proved to be successful, largely withstanding the scrutiny of sensitivity and validation studies, and hence providing valuable insight into optimization and operation of the existing observational network. Our success in the Columbia River estuary and plume suggest that algorithms for optimal placement of sensors are reaching maturity and are likely to play a significant role in the design of emerging ocean observatories, such as the United State's ocean observation initiative (OOI) and integrated ocean observing system (IOOS) observatories, and smaller regional observatories.