WorldWideScience

Sample records for southern mediterranean countries

  1. How Can Eastern/Southern Mediterranean Countries Resolve Quality and Safety Issues in Transfusion Medicine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Antoine; Bou Assi, Tarek; Garraud, Olivier

    2018-01-01

    Unlike their Western counterparts, some of the Eastern/Southern Mediterranean countries lack centralized coordinated blood transfusion services leading to an unequal blood safety level. This was recently highlighted by a recent World Health Organization (WHO) regional committee report in which WHO urges these countries to establish and implement a national blood system with well-coordinated blood transfusion activities and to make attempts to reach 100% voluntary non-remunerated blood donation. The objective is thus to meet the same levels or standards as Western countries in term of self-sufficiency and blood safety. This raises the question whether these countries can either comply with Western countries’ guidelines and experiences or develop their own safety scheme based on proper sociopolitical and economic features. Another option is to identify efficient and cost-effective strategies setup successfully in neighbor countries sharing cultural and economic features. To address this issue—and make an attempt to achieve this goal—we designed a number of surveys specifically addressed to Mediterranean countries, which were sent out to the national authorities; so far, five surveys aim at covering all aspects in blood collection, processing, testing, inventory and distribution, as well as patient immune-hematological testing and follow-up (including surveillance and vigilances). It is anticipated that such practice can help identifying and then sharing the more successful and cost-effective experiences, and be really focused on Mediterranean areas while not necessarily copying and pasting experiences designed for Western/Northern areas with significantly distinct situations. PMID:29536009

  2. How Can Eastern/Southern Mediterranean Countries Resolve Quality and Safety Issues in Transfusion Medicine?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Haddad

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Unlike their Western counterparts, some of the Eastern/Southern Mediterranean countries lack centralized coordinated blood transfusion services leading to an unequal blood safety level. This was recently highlighted by a recent World Health Organization (WHO regional committee report in which WHO urges these countries to establish and implement a national blood system with well-coordinated blood transfusion activities and to make attempts to reach 100% voluntary non-remunerated blood donation. The objective is thus to meet the same levels or standards as Western countries in term of self-sufficiency and blood safety. This raises the question whether these countries can either comply with Western countries’ guidelines and experiences or develop their own safety scheme based on proper sociopolitical and economic features. Another option is to identify efficient and cost-effective strategies setup successfully in neighbor countries sharing cultural and economic features. To address this issue—and make an attempt to achieve this goal—we designed a number of surveys specifically addressed to Mediterranean countries, which were sent out to the national authorities; so far, five surveys aim at covering all aspects in blood collection, processing, testing, inventory and distribution, as well as patient immune-hematological testing and follow-up (including surveillance and vigilances. It is anticipated that such practice can help identifying and then sharing the more successful and cost-effective experiences, and be really focused on Mediterranean areas while not necessarily copying and pasting experiences designed for Western/Northern areas with significantly distinct situations.

  3. Developing electricity production with natural gas in the southern mediterranean countries: an example of north-south cooperation in the electricity and natural gas sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenon, M.; Nogaret, E.

    1995-01-01

    Southern Mediterranean countries are facing an important increase of electricity demand; in order to increase the production capacity at a minimum cost while preserving the environment, most of these countries are planning gas fired power stations due to important natural gas resources. The development of both the power plants and the infrastructures to produce and transport the natural gas is more and more performed through cooperation between companies of the northern and southern sides of the Mediterranean sea: technical assistance programs, joint financing and management of the infrastructures. 3 figs

  4. Trends in energy efficiency in countries of the Mediterranean Rim

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-04-01

    This report describes trends in energy efficiency in four countries of the southern side of the Mediterranean Sea (Algeria, Lebanon, Morocco and Tunisia) and five Mediterranean European countries (France, Spain, Italy, Greece and Portugal). This study is based on energy efficiency indicators per sector of energy consumption as they are developed within the frame of the MEDENER project for the four southern countries and of the ODYSSEE-MURE project for the European countries. The report presents the context of energy efficiency (challenges and objectives, trends in energy consumption, primary and final intensities), discusses trends of energy efficiency in the transformation sector, in the housing sector, in the transport sector (trends in consumption, road and air transport), in the industry (sector intensities), in the tertiary sector (global trends, sector indicators), and in agriculture and fishing (global trends and sector indicators)

  5. Developing electricity production with natural gas in the southern mediterranean countries. An example of north-south cooperation in the electricity and natural gas sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenon, M.; Nogaret, E.

    1996-01-01

    The countries of the Southern Mediterranean region are facing an important increase of electricity demand due to their socio-economic development. In order to increase the production capacity at a minimum cost while preserving the environment, most countries of the region are planning gas fired power stations due to the important natural gas resources in the area. Overall investments in new power plants could reach the total of 100 billion dollars, up to the horizon 2010. The development of both the power plants and the infrastructure to produce and transport the natural gas needed is more and more performed through cooperation between companies of the two shores of the Mediterranean and represent an example of North- South cooperation in the energy field. This cooperation is taking place through technical assistance programs and also joint financing and management of the infrastructure required. A special importance is given to the development of highly efficient combined cycle power plants in the Southern Mediterranean countries and to the increase of the activities related to the exploration and production of natural gas. (author)

  6. Primary health care in the Southern Mediterranean region.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weide, M.G.; Fakiri, F. el; Kulu Glasgow, I.; Grielen, S.J.; Zee, J. van der

    1998-01-01

    This book gives an overview of primary health care in the Southern Mediterranean region. For twelve countries detailed information is provided on the structure and financing of health care, the organisation of primary care (including mother and child health care and immunisation programmes), health

  7. Promoting low-carbon energies in Mediterranean partner countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escribano, Gonzalo

    2013-01-01

    Renewable energies remain marginal in the European neighbourhood, and their contribution to economic and human development is still largely unexplored. Directive 2009/28 on renewable energies explicitly contemplates green electricity imports from third countries, and the Mediterranean Solar Plan offers an economic and institutional framework for its deployment in the Southern neighbourhood. This Policy Paper addresses the question of whether these initiatives have the potential to become a driver for the development of the Southern neighbourhood or should instead be better considered as an EU-centric project to support European renewable industries and engineering firms. This Policy Paper argues that, in order to become a driver of economic development for the region, those initiatives should consider accompanying measures to foster investment, training, industrial delocalization, and technology transfers

  8. From Gibraltar through Levant and from Maghreb through the Southern Latin European Countries or about culture and management in the Mediterranean Sea Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amedeo ISTOCESCU

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Bordering the southern coast of Europe, the eastern part of the Middle East and northern Africa, representing the most appropriate environment for the development of cultural, social and economic of the maritime regions, influencing decisively the culture and the entire life of the inhabitants in a lot of bordering countries, ensuring the achievement of a natural maritime transportation way between eastern Levantine character and western pragmatism of our ancient continent, or between Maghreb, and the Latin world, especially in southern Europe, the Mediterranean Sea has an another treasure, yet poorly known and only partially recovered, with a history of over six thousands of years, with people proud of their history, culture, customs and traditions with unique cities, impressive by the mixture of cultures and races, its islands

  9. The Mediterranean Solar Plan: Project proposals for renewable energy in the Mediterranean Partner Countries region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jablonski, Sophie; Tarhini, Mohamad; Touati, Manaf; Gonzalez Garcia, David; Alario, Juan

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a first assessment of the renewable energy projects, proposed by the nine Mediterranean Partner Countries (MPCs) under the Mediterranean Solar Plan (MSP) and the associated potential economic impacts. As one of the priority projects of the Union for the Mediterranean (UfM), the MSP's objective which attracted most attention until now is the intention to deploy an additional 20 GW of renewable electrical capacity in the Southern and Eastern Mediterranean region (covering the MPCs plus Turkey) by 2020. The main findings of this research are: (1) as of February 2010, a total of 10.3 GW of renewable project proposals were identified in the MPCs, corresponding to about half of the 20 GW target; (2) investment needs for the identified projects could amount to EUR 21 billion by 2020, which represents about five times the amount invested by the region in conventional electricity generation in the last decade; and (3) the difference between the cost of renewable electricity generation and the economic cost of its fossil fuel alternatives could amount to EUR 1.2 billion. Insights stemming from the results of this research can generate useful regional messages for energy policy leaders in the MPCs to accelerate the development of renewable energy projects. - Highlights: ► We conducted a systematic survey of renewable energy projects in the Mediterranean. ► The identified projects correspond to half the MSP 20 GW target. ► Maturity assessment is used to classify the advancement of the projects. ► We estimated the investment needs and required subsidies in the region by 2020.

  10. Dementia in Eastern Mediterranean countries: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaghmour, Sara Mahmoud; Bartlett, Ruth; Brannelly, Tula

    2018-01-01

    Globally, there is an increase in the older population, whose lives are affected by local cultural norms. In Eastern Mediterranean countries, dementia is conventionally hidden from view with few dedicated services or recognition for diagnosis. The aim of this systematic review is to explore the limited literature on dementia and cognitive impairment among older people in Eastern Mediterranean countries to present an evaluation of current practices and to consolidate knowledge for future planning. Thirty-three studies were identified for inclusion in the review, and four themes were apparent. Firstly, prevalence, comorbidity and gender: In Eastern Mediterranean countries, many studies identify that the prevalence of dementia is high. As is the case elsewhere, many older adults in Eastern Mediterranean countries have at least one coexisting long-term condition, and some experience low life-satisfaction. Secondly, culture: In Eastern Mediterranean countries, the older adult is highly respected, and placement outside of the family home is considered an abandonment of family duty. The term dementia carries stigma, and it is widely believed that dementia is caused by 'fate'. Thirdly, recognition and tools: There is a lack of verified assessment instruments to assess for dementia. Despite concerns about the cultural appropriateness of the Mini-Mental State Exam, particularly for people who have low literacy levels, and low literacy being the norm in Eastern Mediterranean countries, the Mini-Mental State Examination is the main assessment instrument. Translation and transition of non-Arabic assessment instruments and tools with psychometric properties presents a challenge for clinicians. Finally, workforce issues: health care workers lack knowledge about dementia, as dementia care is a relatively recent addition to the nursing and medical syllabi. While there were some inconsistencies in the papers published, many of the articles call for increasing educational programmes

  11. VIRAL HEPATITIS A TO E IN SOUTH MEDITERRANEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaa M. Kamal

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Viral hepatitis represents an important health problem in the South Mediterranean countries, Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco.  Emerging natural history and epidemiological information reveal differences in the overall epidemiology, risk factors and modes of transmission of viral hepatitis A, B, C, D, E infections in the South Mediterranean region. The differences in the in incidence and prevalence of viral hepatitis across North African countries is attributed to variations in health care  and sanitation standards, risk factors and immunization strategies. The active continuous population movement through travel, tourism and migration from and to the South Mediterranean countries contribute to the spread of infections due to hepatitis viruses across borders leading to outbreaks and emergence of new patterns of infection or introduction of uncommon genotypes in other countries, particularly in Europe.

  12. Energy efficiency in the Southern and Eastern Mediterranean countries - Overview of policies and good practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyevre, Nicolas; Salama, Anna Maria; Agrebi, Hassen; Ben Jannet Allal, Houda; Taussat, Thibaut

    2012-04-01

    A development of the Mediterranean region solely based on fossil fuels is unsustainable: 582 million inhabitants in 2030 will consume 40% more energy than today, from 80% of fossil fuels, 10% of nuclear and 10% of renewable energy. These figures are based on OME trend scenario considering that economic growth will follow on the same pattern that has prevailed so far. This increase in demand will come mainly from the South and East Mediterranean Countries (SEMC), whose energy intensity is constantly growing: energy consumption is, in fact, growing faster than the economy measured by the gross domestic product. There is also a great potential for energy savings in different consuming sectors (industry, building, transport, agriculture..). Such a trend scenario has adverse consequences on different plans: energy, economic, social or environmental. It is, therefore, necessary to lower these trends. Exploiting the tremendous potential of energy efficiency of the region seems to be a key element in energy strategy, as targeted by the Mediterranean Solar Plan along with its goal of an installed capacity of renewable electricity of 20 GW for 2020. The scope of work to be done has already led to the development of energy efficiency policies at the national level both in North and South: laws, regulations, institutional arrangements, training and awareness campaigns, decision aids, investment financial incentives, etc. All these mechanisms are integral parts of an energy policy that applies to both the system of production, transmission and distribution of energy- supply- and to all social and economic activities that constitute energy demand which are treated in this work. An overall perspective of policies is presented, especially implemented energy efficiency measures in the SEMCs. This overview reflects the diversity of available policy actions and strategic choices of different countries, focusing on the most innovative and significant measures. The feedback of

  13. Opening address of the workshop on medium and long term energy policies in the mediterranean basin countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rastoin, J

    1988-04-01

    The countries surrounding the Mediterranean basin form a geographical unit with a rich historical and cultural past. For thousands of years, the Mediterranean area has been at the crossroads of both links and strifes for warfare, religion and trade affairs. As a result, the populations have shown their identities, as well as their limits and needs. These needs, fulfilled by numerous sea-born exchanges, have shown the necessity for these seaside countries of a good understanding between themselves. Any long period of strife between the Northern and the Southern seaside countries, and the Eastern and Western ones has led to a standstill of the economy. Any period of understanding has led to a peacefulness and expansion: it was the case of the roman empire which ensured an era of equilibrium and progress. Today, fast transportation links (such as ground, sea and air transportation on one hand, and distribution grids for power, gas, fuel oil, telephone, etc. on the other hand) make the regional economic development easier. This forces each country to think in terms of assessing, as well as mastering and fulfilling its future energy needs. It also necessitates permanent talks. This workshop precisely aims at exchanging views on the Mediterranean energy needs for the fifty years to come.

  14. Mediterranean Diet and Its Correlates among Adolescents in Non-Mediterranean European Countries: A Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Dario; Štefan, Lovro; Prosoli, Rebeka; Emeljanovas, Arunas; Mieziene, Brigita; Milanović, Ivana; Radisavljević-Janić, Snežana

    2017-02-22

    Little is known about the factors which might influence the adherence to a Mediterranean diet in non-Mediterranean European countries. Thus, the main purpose of this study was to determine the associations between socioeconomic, psychological, and physical factors on a Mediterranean diet. In this cross-sectional study, participants were 14-18-year-old adolescents ( N = 3071) from two non-Mediterranean countries: Lithuania ( N = 1863) and Serbia ( N = 1208). The dependent variable was Mediterranean diet, and was assessed with the Mediterranean Diet Quality Index for children and adolescents questionnaire. Independent variables were gender, body-mass index, self-rated health, socioeconomic status, psychological distress, physical activity, and sedentary behavior. The associations between dependent and independent variables were analyzed by using logistic regression. Results showed that higher adherence to a Mediterranean diet was associated with higher self-rated health, socioeconomic status, and physical activity, yet low adherence to a Mediterranean diet was associated with being female, having higher body-mass index, psychological distress, and sedentary behavior. Our findings suggest that future studies need to explore associations between lifestyle habits-especially in target populations, such as primary and secondary school students.

  15. The links between openness and productivity in Mediterranean countries

    OpenAIRE

    Cecchini, Laurence; Lai-tong, Charles

    2008-01-01

    Abstract We examine the relation between the international trade, the foreign direct investment and the total factor productivity of the Mediterranean partner countries of Europe within the framework of a cointegrated panel model. The results, obtained from data on seven Mediterranean partner countries of Europe (Algeria, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Morocco, Tunisia, Turkey), show that FDI and human capital are complementary in the acquisition of productivity gains. We identify the t...

  16. High Out-of-Pocket Health Spending in Countries With a Mediterranean Connection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Grima

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we analyzed healthcare provision and health expenditure across six Mediterranean countries that adopt the National Health System (Beveridge model and that form part of the European Union (EU with the main aim being that of analyzing and comparing out-of-pocket health spending in countries with a European Mediterranean connection. To this end, we considered various economic indicators and statistics to derive commonalities and differences across these countries and also compared trends in these indicators to those observed across the rest of the EU. We then analyzed these findings in light of other data related to the quality of healthcare delivery and the infrastructure of the health system and discussed recent developments in healthcare within each country and the main challenges faced by the respective health systems. The results show that on average, Mediterranean countries spend less on total healthcare expenditure (THE than the EU average, both as a proportion of GDP, as well as in per capita terms. This is primarily driven by lower-than-EU-average public funding of healthcare. The 2008/2009 macro-economic and financial crisis had a significant impact on the countries under review, and explains the persistent reductions in public health spending as part of the austerity measures put in force across sectors. On the flipside, Mediterranean countries have a higher presence of private health providers in total funding, thereby explaining the higher Out-of-Pocket (OOPs health expenditures in these countries relative to the EU-average. With regard to the overall health infrastructure in these countries, we observed that although the supply of physicians is largely in line with the rest of the EU, there is under-supply when it comes to hospital beds. This may be symptomatic of lower government funding. Nonetheless, all countries score highly in the evaluation of the quality of health services, as recorded by international rankings

  17. Transferability of the Mediterranean Diet to Non-Mediterranean Countries. What Is and What Is Not the Mediterranean Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-González, Miguel Ángel; Hershey, Maria Soledad; Zazpe, Itziar; Trichopoulou, Antonia

    2017-11-08

    Substantial evidence has verified the Mediterranean diet's (MedDiet) nutritional adequacy, long-term sustainability, and effectiveness for preventing hard clinical events from cardiovascular disease (CVD), as well as increasing longevity. This article includes a cumulative meta-analysis of prospective studies supporting a strong inverse association between closer adherence to the MedDiet and the incidence of hard clinical events of CVD. The MedDiet has become an increasingly popular topic of interest when focusing on overall food patterns rather than single nutrient intake, not only in Mediterranean countries, but also globally. However, several myths and misconceptions associated with the traditional Mediterranean diet should be clearly addressed and dispelled, particularly those that label as "Mediterranean" an eating pattern that is not in line with the traditional Mediterranean diet. The transferability of the traditional MedDiet to the non-Mediterranean populations is possible, but it requires a multitude of changes in dietary habits. New approaches for promoting healthy dietary behavior consistent with the MedDiet will offer healthful, sustainable, and practical strategies at all levels of public health. The following article presents practical resources and knowledge necessary for accomplishing these changes.

  18. Report on the Mediterranean Solar Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The first part of this report presents the Mediterranean Solar Plan (MSP) as an ambitious political initiative which aims at creating a better context for the Northern (Mediterranean) countries which are looking for a secure energy supply, and for the Southern and Eastern (Mediterranean) countries where demand is strongly increasing. It highlights the fact that the cost of this plan is indeed important but still limited regarding the regional scale. Its success therefore needs projects with sufficient profitability to attract investors and to be realised within an adapted law environment. The report also outlines that the plan needs a regional vision and a cooperative approach between North and South, that it will have a strong impact of electric interconnections all around the Mediterranean Sea, and that its governance needs to be clarified to maintain the political momentum created by its co-presidents

  19. Natural resources - food nexus: food-related environmental footprints in the mediterranean countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacirignola, Cosimo; Capone, Roberto; Debs, Philipp; El Bilali, Hamid; Bottalico, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Immediate action is required in the Mediterranean to address environmental degradation that is mainly driven by consumption patterns. Increasing stress on biological and social systems is put by unsustainable consumption patterns. Food consumption patterns are important drivers of environment degradation. The objective of this review paper is to explore natural resources-food nexus in the Mediterranean region by highlighting the environmental footprints of the current consumption and production patterns. Secondary data from different sources such as FAOSTAT, the World Bank, Water Footprint Network (WFN), and Global Footprint Network were used to analyze the situation in 21 Mediterranean countries. The region faces many environmental challenges, e.g., land degradation, water scarcity, environment pollution, biodiversity loss, and climate change. The current consumption patterns imply high ecological, carbon, and water footprints of consumption and unfavorable national virtual-water balances. Food Balance Sheets data show that the contribution of vegetal and animal-based food product groups to food supply is variable among the Mediterranean countries. This has implications also in terms of the WF of food supply, which was calculated for Bosnia, Egypt, Italy, Morocco, and Turkey. The WF of the current diet resulted lower than that of the proposed Mediterranean one in the case of Italy. There is a strong scientific evidence supporting assumption that it is so also for other Mediterranean countries. The Mediterranean is characterized by a high resource use intensity that is further exacerbated by food losses and waste (FLW). In fact, FLW implies the loss of precious resources (water, land, energy) and inputs (fertilizers). Therefore, it is crucial to increase adherence to the traditional Mediterranean diet and to reduce FLW in order to foster transition to more sustainable food consumption patterns thus reducing pressure on the scarce resources of the Mediterranean

  20. Transferability of the Mediterranean Diet to Non-Mediterranean Countries. What Is and What Is Not the Mediterranean Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-González, Miguel Ángel; Hershey, Maria Soledad; Zazpe, Itziar

    2017-01-01

    Substantial evidence has verified the Mediterranean diet’s (MedDiet) nutritional adequacy, long-term sustainability, and effectiveness for preventing hard clinical events from cardiovascular disease (CVD), as well as increasing longevity. This article includes a cumulative meta-analysis of prospective studies supporting a strong inverse association between closer adherence to the MedDiet and the incidence of hard clinical events of CVD. The MedDiet has become an increasingly popular topic of interest when focusing on overall food patterns rather than single nutrient intake, not only in Mediterranean countries, but also globally. However, several myths and misconceptions associated with the traditional Mediterranean diet should be clearly addressed and dispelled, particularly those that label as “Mediterranean” an eating pattern that is not in line with the traditional Mediterranean diet. The transferability of the traditional MedDiet to the non-Mediterranean populations is possible, but it requires a multitude of changes in dietary habits. New approaches for promoting healthy dietary behavior consistent with the MedDiet will offer healthful, sustainable, and practical strategies at all levels of public health. The following article presents practical resources and knowledge necessary for accomplishing these changes. PMID:29117146

  1. Transferability of the Mediterranean Diet to Non-Mediterranean Countries. What Is and What Is Not the Mediterranean Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Martínez-González

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Substantial evidence has verified the Mediterranean diet’s (MedDiet nutritional adequacy, long-term sustainability, and effectiveness for preventing hard clinical events from cardiovascular disease (CVD, as well as increasing longevity. This article includes a cumulative meta-analysis of prospective studies supporting a strong inverse association between closer adherence to the MedDiet and the incidence of hard clinical events of CVD. The MedDiet has become an increasingly popular topic of interest when focusing on overall food patterns rather than single nutrient intake, not only in Mediterranean countries, but also globally. However, several myths and misconceptions associated with the traditional Mediterranean diet should be clearly addressed and dispelled, particularly those that label as “Mediterranean” an eating pattern that is not in line with the traditional Mediterranean diet. The transferability of the traditional MedDiet to the non-Mediterranean populations is possible, but it requires a multitude of changes in dietary habits. New approaches for promoting healthy dietary behavior consistent with the MedDiet will offer healthful, sustainable, and practical strategies at all levels of public health. The following article presents practical resources and knowledge necessary for accomplishing these changes.

  2. A time series study on the effects of heat on mortality and evaluation of heterogeneity into European and Eastern-Southern Mediterranean cities: results of EU CIRCE project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Michela; D'Ippoliti, Daniela; De Sario, Manuela; Analitis, Antonis; Menne, Bettina; Katsouyanni, Klea; De' Donato, Francesca K; Basagana, Xavier; Salah, Afif Ben; Casimiro, Elsa; Dörtbudak, Zeynep; Iñiguez, Carmen; Peretz, Chava; Wolf, Tanja; Michelozzi, Paola

    2013-07-03

    The Mediterranean region is particularly vulnerable to the effect of summer temperature.Within the CIRCE project this time-series study aims to quantify for the first time the effect of summer temperature in Eastern-Southern Mediterranean cities and compared it with European cities around the Mediterranean basin, evaluating city characteristics that explain between-city heterogeneity. The city-specific effect of maximum apparent temperature (Tappmax) was assessed by Generalized Estimation Equations, assuming a linear threshold model. Then, city-specific estimates were included in a random effect meta-regression analysis to investigate the effect modification by several city characteristics. Heterogeneity in the temperature-mortality relationship was observed among cities. Thresholds recorded higher values in the warmest cities of Tunis (35.5°C) and Tel-Aviv (32.8°C) while the effect of Tappmax above threshold was greater in the European cities. In Eastern-Southern Mediterranean cities a higher effect was observed among younger age groups (0-14 in Tunis and 15-64 in Tel-Aviv and Istanbul) in contrast with the European cities where the elderly population was more vulnerable. Climate conditions explained most of the observed heterogeneity and among socio-demographic and economic characteristics only health expenditure and unemployment rate were identified as effect modifiers. The high vulnerability observed in the young populations in Eastern-Southern Mediterranean cities represent a major public health problem. Considering the large political and economic changes occurring in this region as well future temperature increase due to climate change, it is important to strengthen research and public health efforts in these Mediterranean countries.

  3. An ancient Mediterranean melting pot: investigating the uniparental genetic structure and population history of sicily and southern Italy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Sarno

    Full Text Available Due to their strategic geographic location between three different continents, Sicily and Southern Italy have long represented a major Mediterranean crossroad where different peoples and cultures came together over time. However, its multi-layered history of migration pathways and cultural exchanges, has made the reconstruction of its genetic history and population structure extremely controversial and widely debated. To address this debate, we surveyed the genetic variability of 326 accurately selected individuals from 8 different provinces of Sicily and Southern Italy, through a comprehensive evaluation of both Y-chromosome and mtDNA genomes. The main goal was to investigate the structuring of maternal and paternal genetic pools within Sicily and Southern Italy, and to examine their degrees of interaction with other Mediterranean populations. Our findings show high levels of within-population variability, coupled with the lack of significant genetic sub-structures both within Sicily, as well as between Sicily and Southern Italy. When Sicilian and Southern Italian populations were contextualized within the Euro-Mediterranean genetic space, we observed different historical dynamics for maternal and paternal inheritances. Y-chromosome results highlight a significant genetic differentiation between the North-Western and South-Eastern part of the Mediterranean, the Italian Peninsula occupying an intermediate position therein. In particular, Sicily and Southern Italy reveal a shared paternal genetic background with the Balkan Peninsula and the time estimates of main Y-chromosome lineages signal paternal genetic traces of Neolithic and post-Neolithic migration events. On the contrary, despite showing some correspondence with its paternal counterpart, mtDNA reveals a substantially homogeneous genetic landscape, which may reflect older population events or different demographic dynamics between males and females. Overall, both uniparental genetic

  4. Mediterranean diet in the southern Croatia - does it still exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolčić, Ivana; Relja, Ajka; Gelemanović, Andrea; Miljković, Ana; Boban, Kristina; Hayward, Caroline; Rudan, Igor; Polašek, Ozren

    2016-10-31

    To assess the adherence to the Mediterranean diet in the population of Dalmatia in southern Croatia. A cross-sectional study was performed within the 10001 Dalmatians cohort, encompassing 2768 participants from Korčula and Vis islands and the City of Split, who were recruited during 2011-2014. Using the data obtained from food frequency questionnaire we calculated the Mediterranean Diet Serving Score (MDSS). Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify the characteristics associated with the adherence to the Mediterranean diet, with age, sex, place of residence, education attainment, smoking, and physical activity as covariates. The median MDSS score was 11 out of maximum 24 points (interquartile range 8-13), with the highest score recorded on the island of Vis. Participants reported a dietary pattern that had high compliance with the Mediterranean diet guidelines for consumption of cereals (87% met the criteria), potatoes (73%), olive oil (69%), and fish (61%), moderate for consumption of fruit (54%) and vegetables (31%), and low for consumption of nuts (6%). Overall, only 23% of the participants were classified as being adherent to the Mediterranean diet, with a particularly low percentage among younger participants (12%) compared to the older ones (34%). Men were less likely to show good adherence (odds ratio 0.52, 95% confidence interval 0.42-0.65). This study revealed rather poor compliance with the current recommendations on the Mediterranean diet composition in the population of Dalmatia. Public health intervention is especially needed in younger age groups and in men, who show the greatest departure from traditional Mediterranean diet and lifestyle.

  5. Wind energy in the Mediterranean countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaudiosi, G.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reviews the main findings relative to the European Communities OPET (Organization for the Promotion of Energy Technology) June 1992 conference on the potential for small and medium size wind energy applications in the Mediterranean countries and gives a panoramic look at progress being made by these countries in the development and use of wind energy turbines. One system which appears to be promising is the Danish 100 kW 'Bonus' wind turbine (23 m rotor, 30 m tower height) which has seen successful applications at a seaside resort and at a remote radio station in terms of performance, environmental compatibility and public acceptance

  6. Diet in chronic kidney disease in a Mediterranean African country

    OpenAIRE

    Kammoun, Khawla; Chaker, Hanen; Mahfoudh, Hichem; Makhlouf, Nouha; Jarraya, Faical; Hachicha, Jamil

    2017-01-01

    Background Mediterranean diet is characterized by low to moderate consumption of animal protein and high consumption of fruits, vegetables, bread, beans, nuts, seeds and other cereals. It has been associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. However, it is not suitable for chronic kidney disease because of high potassium intake. Discussion Tunisia is an emerging Mediterranean country with limited resources, a high prevalence of chronic hemodialysis treatment and high dialysis expen...

  7. Human Rights in the Countries of the Southern Rim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Feliu i Martínez

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available After practically all of the southern-rim countries of the Mediterranean gained their independence, the process of national construction has been predicated on authoritarian regimes. These regimes justified both the use of force against political opposition and the limits on rights and liberties on the need for maintaining the unanimity of the people which had manifested itself during the struggles for liberation from the colonial yoke. Towards the end of the 1980s, the regional and international context seemed to presage a very much longed for opening-up of the political scene after some of these countries (Tunisia, Algeria and Jordan initiated a series of movements that pointed to their democratisation. The posterior evolution of events has crushed those hopes in every case, and only Morocco and Jordan (each with their respective limitations appear to have evolved towards a softening of repression. The excuse put forth from the collection of states in the region to justify the step backwards is the existence of two threats they must act with forcefulness before: the threat of Islamic “fundamentalism” and the desire of certain groups to boycott the on-going Israeli-Palestinian Peace Process.

  8. Geographic/conceptual delimitation of the «Southern Mediterranean». A Regional Security Complex?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Priego Moreno

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to analyse how the Mediterranean Area has evolved after the changes occurred with the so-called Arab Springs. The main idea is to focus on the Southern Mediterranean as a dynamic space that expands itself as a result of its internal transformations and subsequent external changes caused by the Arab Spring. We will use the IR theory of the Regional Security Complex as it is considered as the most adaptable to this changing reality.

  9. Mediterranean diet adherence rates in Sicily, southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosso, Giuseppe; Marventano, Stefano; Giorgianni, Gabriele; Raciti, Teodoro; Galvano, Fabio; Mistretta, Antonio

    2014-09-01

    To assess adherence to the Mediterranean diet and nutrient intakes in a population of Sicily, southern Italy and to evaluate possible determinants, particularly socio-cultural and lifestyle factors. Cross-sectional. Urban and rural areas of eastern Sicily. Between May 2009 and December 2010, 3090 adults were randomly recruited through the collaboration of fourteen general practitioners. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was measured by the MedDietScore. Nutrient intakes were assessed through the 24 h recall of the previous day's dietary intake. Rural participants were barely more adherent to the Mediterranean diet than their urban counterparts (mean scores were 27·8 and 27·2, respectively, P = 0·037). The MedDietScore was correlated with intakes of MUFA, fibre and vitamin C, as well as with consumption of non-refined cereals, vegetables, fruit, meat, dairy products, alcohol and nuts. Regression analysis revealed that older and more educated people were more likely to be in the highest tertile of MedDietScore (OR = 1.90; 95 % CI 1·39, 2·59 and OR = 1·29; 95 % CI 1·05, 1·58, respectively). A significant difference in quantity (moderate) and quality (red wine and beer) of alcohol was found according to adherence to the Mediterranean diet. Finally, more active participants were 1·5 times more likely to form part of the high-adherence group. A slow but concrete moving away from traditional patterns has been observed in younger people and low educated people. Public health interventions should focus on these target populations in order to improve the quality of their diet.

  10. Mediterranean diet adherence and body composition among Southern Italian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistretta, Antonio; Marventano, Stefano; Antoci, Mariagrazia; Cagnetti, Antonella; Giogianni, Gabriele; Nolfo, Francesca; Rametta, Stefania; Pecora, Giulia; Marranzano, Marina

    Adherence to the traditional Mediterranean diet has been associated with health benefits in young populations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between adherence to the Mediterranean diet and cardio-metabolic parameters in adolescents living in Sicily, Southern Italy. A cross-sectional study was conducted during two school years (2012-2013 and 2013-2014) on 1643 adolescents of 11-16 years attending 15 secondary schools. Socio-demographic, dietary, lifestyle, and anthropometric data were collected. The KIDMED score was used to evaluate the adherence to the Mediterranean diet. Linear and logistic regression models were used to test the association between the variable of interest and the outcomes. A higher percentage of boys compared with girls was overweight (30.8% vs. 25.4%) and obese (28.7% vs. 18.5%) and only 9.1% had high adherence to the Mediterranean diet. Vegetable intake was negatively associated with being overweight/obese whereas higher intake of sweets, sugar-sweetened beverages, and fast foods was associated with overweight and obesity. A good adherence to the Mediterranean diet resulted in 30% decreased odds of being overweight or obese (odd ratio 0.70, 95% confidence interval: 0.56-0.87) in both boys and girls. An inverse correlation was found between KIDMED score and BMI, waist circumference and fat mass. No relation with blood pressure was found. Mediterranean dietary pattern resulted significantly associated with weight status in adolescents. These results underline the importance of providing lifestyle and dietary habits education to prevent overweight and obesity in adolescent. Copyright © 2016 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The European Union's Mediterranean Policy in the Context of the "Arab Spring"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria A. Latkina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the policy of the European Union aimed at the export of its democratic values, acquis communautaire and governance models to the neighbour countries in the Southern Mediterranean. The process of Europeanization reflects a particular case of global megatrend -democratization which in its turn positioned as democracy promotion through soft power instruments. From the EU point of view the goal of the Barcelona process launched in 1995 was to construct Euro-Mediterranean Partnership and common identity in order to promote democratic transitions in Southern Mediterranean. While the EU Foreign Policy in the Mediterranean region was historically conditioned by the security interests of the European Union, it suffered from securitization/democratization dilemma. The article analyses the process of external Europeanization in the Southern Mediterranean as a regional dimension of global democratization process in the context of Union for the Mediterranean development before and after the Arab Spring and new approach in the framework of the ENP Partnership for Democracy and Shared Prosperity with the Southern Mediterranean. The article proposes that the lack of political strategic vision in the EU toward the Arab democratic transition during 2011-2013 narrows its role as a transformative democratic power, hinders Europeanization/ democratization process in the macro-region of North Africa and Middle East and presents the EU with a new dilemma - to continue its traditional democratization policy or to shift towards a more pragmatic approach to cooperating with new Arab regimes.

  12. Adolescents in southern regions of Italy adhere to the Mediterranean diet more than those in the northern regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noale, Marianna; Nardi, Mariateresa; Limongi, Federica; Siviero, Paola; Caregaro, Lorenza; Crepaldi, Gaetano; Maggi, Stefania

    2014-09-01

    There is a large amount of literature regarding the benefits of the Mediterranean diet in the adult population; however, there is growing curiosity about the individuals who naturally adhere to those principles early in life. The "Evaluation of Dietary Habits in Adolescents," carried out by the National Research Council of Italy in 2009, is a survey that aimed to assess the dietary habits and lifestyles of Italian adolescents and their adherence to the Mediterranean diet. We hypothesized that there would be differences across regions, with a higher adherence in Southern Italy compared with Northern Italy based on geography. The survey was conducted in 3 different geographic locations in Italy and included a convenience sample of adolescents who attended either a middle or high school. The participants were asked to fill out a questionnaire concerning demographic data, lifestyle factors, and eating patterns, and scores were assigned according to adherence to the Mediterranean diet, as calculated using Trichopoulou's Mediterranean diet scale. The final sample included 565 adolescents, between 12 and 19 years old, who attended school in the northeastern, northwestern, or southern regions of Italy in 2009. According to the findings, 38.6% of the respondents had scores indicating a low adherence to the Mediterranean diet, whereas only 14% had scores showing a high adherence. Teenagers from the Southern region showed the highest adherence. Those with a high adherence to the Mediterranean diet consumed higher quantities of fiber, iron, vitamin B6, vitamin C, folic acid, vitamin A, vitamin D, and monounsaturated fats. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Mediterranean diet in the southern Croatia – does it still exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolčić, Ivana; Relja, Ajka; Gelemanović, Andrea; Miljković, Ana; Boban, Kristina; Hayward, Caroline; Rudan, Igor; Polašek, Ozren

    2016-01-01

    Aim To assess the adherence to the Mediterranean diet in the population of Dalmatia in southern Croatia. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed within the 10 001 Dalmatians cohort, encompassing 2768 participants from Korčula and Vis islands and the City of Split, who were recruited during 2011-2014. Using the data obtained from food frequency questionnaire we calculated the Mediterranean Diet Serving Score (MDSS). Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify the characteristics associated with the adherence to the Mediterranean diet, with age, sex, place of residence, education attainment, smoking, and physical activity as covariates. Results The median MDSS score was 11 out of 24 points (interquartile range 8-13), with the highest score recorded on the island of Vis. Participants reported a dietary pattern that had high compliance with the Mediterranean diet guidelines for consumption of cereals (87% met the criteria), potatoes (73%), olive oil (69%), and fish (61%), moderate for consumption of fruit (54%) and vegetables (31%), and low for consumption of nuts (6%). Overall, only 23% of the participants were classified as being adherent to the Mediterranean diet, with a particularly low percentage among younger participants (12%) compared to the older ones (34%). Men were less likely to show good adherence (odds ratio 0.52, 95% confidence interval 0.42-0.65). Conclusion This study revealed rather poor compliance with the current recommendations on the Mediterranean diet composition in the population of Dalmatia. Public health intervention is especially needed in younger age groups and in men, who show the greatest departure from traditional Mediterranean diet and lifestyle. PMID:27815932

  14. Which future for natural gas in the European-Mediterranean area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giesbert, J.Ch.

    1997-01-01

    In the Mediterranean sea surrounding countries, energy consumption and in particular natural gas, is growing up. However, this development requires the mobilization of important capitals and the creation of multilateral partnerships. These investments must be realized when southern and eastern Mediterranean countries will change for a market economy and when the energy market in the European Union is liberalizing. This paper describes the situation of the development of natural gas uses in the Maghreb countries (power production, development of cogeneration systems, supply of LPG fuels for domestic uses, development of distribution and transportation systems) and the position of European gas companies with respect to this developing market: investments, risks assessment, European Union warranty, liberalization of gas markets in the Maghreb countries and in the European union. (J.S.)

  15. Prevalence of penicillin and erythromycin resistance among invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates reported by laboratories in the southern and eastern Mediterranean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, M A; Tiemersma, E; Scicluna, E; van de Sande-Bruinsma, N; de Kraker, M; Monen, J; Grundmann, H

    2009-03-01

    Information about the epidemiology of resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae within southern and eastern countries of the Mediterranean region is incomplete, as reports have been sporadic and difficult to compare. Over a 36-month period, from 2003 to 2005, the ARMed project collected 1298 susceptibility test results of invasive isolates of S. pneumoniae from blood and spinal fluid cultures routinely processed within 59 participating laboratories situated in Algeria, Cyprus, Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Malta, Morocco, Tunisia and Turkey. Overall, 26% (335) of isolates were reported as non-susceptible to penicillin, with the highest proportions being reported from Algeria (44%) and Lebanon (40%). During the same time period, the highest proportions of pneumococci that were not susceptible to erythromycin were reported from Malta (46%) and Tunisia (39%). Proportions of dual non-susceptibility in excess of 5% were found in laboratories in Algeria, Tunisia, Lebanon, Jordan and Turkey. ARMed data on the antimicrobial resistance epidemiology of S. pneumoniae in the southern and eastern Mediterranean region provided evidence of high rates of resistance, especially to penicillin. This evidence calls for a greater focus on the identification of relevant drivers of resistance and on the implemention of effective practices in order to address the problem of resistence.

  16. Fire occurrence prediction in the Mediterranean: Application to Southern France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papakosta, Panagiota; Öster, Jan; Scherb, Anke; Straub, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    The areas that extend in the Mediterranean basin have a long fire history. The climatic conditions of wet winters and long hot drying summers support seasonal fire events, mainly ignited by humans. Extended land fragmentation hinders fire spread, but seasonal winds (e.g. Mistral in South France or Meltemia in Greece) can drive fire events to become uncontrollable fires with severe impacts to humans and the environment [1]. Prediction models in these areas should incorporate both natural and anthropogenic factors. Several indices have been developed worldwide to express fire weather conditions. The Canadian Fire Weather Index (FWI) is currently adapted by many countries in Europe due to the easily observable input weather parameters (temperature, wind speed, relative humidity, precipitation) and the easy-to-implement algorithms of the Canadian formulation describing fuel moisture relations [2],[3]. Human influence can be expressed directly by human presence (e.g. population density) or indirectly by proxy indicators (e.g. street density [4], land cover type). The random nature of fire occurrences and the uncertainties associated with the influencing factors motivate probabilistic prediction models. The aim of this study is to develop a prediction model of fire occurrence probability under natural and anthropogenic influence in Southern France and to compare it with earlier developed predictions in other Mediterranean areas [5]. Fire occurrence is modeled as a Poisson process. Two interpolation methods (Kriging and Inverse Distance Weighting) are used to interpolate daily weather observations from weather stations to a 1 km² spatial grid and their results are compared. Poisson regression estimates the parameters of the model and the resulting daily predictions are provided in terms of maps displaying fire occurrence rates. The model is applied to the regions Provence-Alpes-Côtes D'Azur und Languedoc-Roussillon in the South of France. Weather data are obtained from

  17. Fire regime characterization in Mediterranean ecosystems of Southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanorte, A.; Lasaponara, R.

    2009-04-01

    This paper addresses the wildfire regime in Mediterranean ecosystems of Southern Italy. Fire regimes refer to average fire conditions (including fire size, fire density, fire frequency, fire seasonality, fire intensity, fire severity, fire thresholds, etc.) occurring over a long period of time. Information on spatial pattern of forest fire locations is a key point in the study of the dynamics of fire disturbance, and allows us to improve the knowledge of past and current role of fire. Historical evidence clearly shows what did happen and this can fruitfully help to understand what is happening and what could happen in the next future. Mapping fire regimes is very challenging, because fire ocurrence features are the expression of the interactions between climate, fire, vegetation, topography, social factors. The main objective of this work is to provide a comprehensive characterization of the fire regime in Italy based on a recently updated national wildfire database. Fire data were obtained from the Italian National Forestry Service. This national database is comprised of information contained in individual fire reports completed for every fire that occurs on public lands in the Italian peninsula. Complete data were only available for 1996-2006 at the time we accessed the database, which determined the years we analysed. The primary fire history variables that we reported were number of fires, area burned, burning time and duration, and fire size (average size of individual fires) The wildfire records (wildfire area, location, time, vegetation) were analysed with other environmental (fuel availability and type), topographic features, and meteorological/climatological data. Results of our analysis could help better understand the different factors on the wildfire regime in Mediterranean ecosystems of Southern Italy.

  18. Electricity, development and cooperation in mediterranean basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabra, J.

    1992-01-01

    Energy consumption along the southern rim of the Mediterranean basin is increasing much more quickly than on the northern side, in accordance with the different industrialization and urbanization rates. Over the last two decades, electric power consumption has been increasing throughout the basin at a rate exceeding not only that of total energy consumption but even that of the economy itself. The various electric power development strategies the countries of the Mediterranean have developed differ widely depending on the available energy resources they have. Power distribution systems are a strategic element of co-operation in the Mediterranean basin. Though all of these strategies involve cost trade-offs between diversification of energy sources, domestic supply and environmental protection, difficulties exist that may curtail the development of these programs. 2 figs., 4 tabs

  19. Climate change and Mediterranean coastal karst aquifers: the case of Salento (southern Italy)

    OpenAIRE

    Polemio, M.; Romanazzi, A.

    2014-01-01

    Second half of the 20th century was characterized by an increase of groundwater discharge. Numerous aquifers are overexploited in the world and in particular in the Mediterranean area. Problems tie to overexploitation, as piezometric decline and increase of seawater intrusion, are amplified in karst coastal aquifers where the whole effect could be a groundwater quality and quantity degradation. Focusing on Mediterranean countries, most part of coastal aquifers of Spain, France, Portugal, S...

  20. New records of Muscidae (Diptera from Mediterranean countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Ivković

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available New records are provided for Muscidae from four different Mediterranean countries, with new distribution records for species in ten different genera. Seven species are newly recorded for Croatia, four species for Montenegro and one species for Bosnia & Herzegovina. In this paper we give the first confirmation of an aquatic larval stage for Lispocephala brachialis (Rondani, 1877, Lispocephala spuria (Zetterstedt, 1838 and Lispocephala mikii (Strobl, 1893. A first record of the species Coenosia lyneborgi Pont, 1972 since its original description is also provided.

  1. [Adherence to the Mediterranean diet in rural and urban adolescents of southern Spain, life satisfaction, anthropometry, and physical and sedentary activities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grao-Cruces, Alberto; Nuviala, Alberto; Fernández-Martínez, Antonio; Porcel-Gálvez, Ana-María; Moral-García, José-Enrique; Martínez-López, Emilio-José

    2013-01-01

    The Mediterranean diet is one of the healthier diet models. Mediterranean food patterns are suffering a deterioration that can especially affect children and adolescents. Determine adherence to the Mediterranean diet in adolescents of southern Spain and its relationship with the residence area, sex, age, life satisfaction, anthropometry, and habits of physical activity and sedentary activities. A total of 1973 adolescents (11-18 years) of southern Spain participated in this descriptive cross-sectional study. Cut-off value between rural and urban locations was 10000 inhabitants. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was calculated from the KIDMED questionnaire. Life satisfaction, physical activity, and sedentary activities also were measured through valid and reliable questionnaires. Body mass index and % body fat were measured using the TANITA BC-420-S body analyzer. 30.9% of the adolescents reported an optimal quality diet, percent higher in rural locations (P sedentary in front of a screen (P diet had a healthier lifestyle and they showed greater life satisfaction. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  2. Mediterranean Diet Score and Its Association with Age-Related Macular Degeneration : The European Eye Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogg, Ruth E; Woodside, Jayne V; McGrath, Alanna; Young, Ian S; Vioque, Jesus L; Chakravarthy, Usha; de Jong, Paulus T; Rahu, Mati; Seland, Johan; Soubrane, Gisele; Tomazzoli, Laura; Topouzis, Fotis; Fletcher, Astrid E

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: To examine associations between adherence to a Mediterranean diet and prevalence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in countries ranging from Southern to Northern Europe. DESIGN: Cross-sectional, population-based epidemiologic study. PARTICIPANTS: Of 5060 randomly sampled people aged

  3. Diet in chronic kidney disease in a Mediterranean African country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammoun, Khawla; Chaker, Hanen; Mahfoudh, Hichem; Makhlouf, Nouha; Jarraya, Faical; Hachicha, Jamil

    2017-01-23

    Mediterranean diet is characterized by low to moderate consumption of animal protein and high consumption of fruits, vegetables, bread, beans, nuts, seeds and other cereals. It has been associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. However, it is not suitable for chronic kidney disease because of high potassium intake. Tunisia is an emerging Mediterranean country with limited resources, a high prevalence of chronic hemodialysis treatment and high dialysis expenditures. In order to limit dialysis cost, primary and secondary prevention of chronic renal disease are of paramount importance. In addition to drugs, secondary prevention includes diet measures (e.g. salt diet, protein diet). The aims of diet practice in chronic kidney disease are to slow chronic renal failure progression and to prevent its complications like hyperphosphatemia and hyperkaliemiae. A few decades ago, a Tunisian diet was exclusively Mediterranean, and protein consumption was not excessive. However, today, protein consumption is more comparable to western countries. Salt consumption is also excessive. Some Tunisian diets still include food with high potassium intake, which are not suitable for patients with chronic kidney disease. Therefore, the role of the dietician is extremely important to help calculate and create a dietary regimen tailored to each of our patients. Advice about diets should be adapted to both the patient and population habits to improve adherence rate. As such, the purpose of this article is to provide our own experience regarding medical nutrition therapy in patients with chronic kidney disease in Tunisia, with some changes in food habits. Prevention is far better than treatment. In this perspective, dietary measures must be at the core of our intervention.

  4. A reform strategy of the energy sector of the 12 countries of North Africa and the Eastern Mediterranean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patlitzianas, Konstantinos D.; Doukas, Haris; Kagiannas, Argyris G.; Askounis, Dimitris Th.

    2006-01-01

    The development of an energy reform strategy based on the market economy so as to introduce competition in the market segments is of crucial importance for provision of a stable and favourable environment for energy investments. Reform strategies have begun developing in most of the 12 Mediterranean Countries of North Africa and the Eastern Mediterranean, especially in the context of the Euro-Mediterranean Free Trade Area. Even though energy sector reforms have been initiated, they are still at an early stage in most of these countries. The majority of energy utilities remain state owned, vertically integrated monopolies. Few of these countries have established energy regulators, and where they have, these institutions have many difficulties in effective development. In addition, competition is virtually absent from the sector, and private participation has been confined to independent power plants, which tend to be introduced into unreformed sectors. The aim of this paper is to propose energy reform strategies for the reform of the sector by 2010 in terms of the development of the regional oil, gas and electricity sectors in these countries

  5. Hydrocarbons in surface sediments from the Sfax coastal zone, (Tunisia) Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaghden, Hatem; Kallel, Monem; Louati, Afifa; Elleuch, Boubaker; Oudot, Jean; Saliot, Alain

    2005-11-01

    The Semi-enclosed Mediterranean Sea records various signals of high anthropic pressures from surrounding countries and the industrialized European countries. This is particularly true for oil pollution. Although accounting for 1% of the world's ocean surface, it receives about 25% of the petroleum inputs to the ocean. To achieve a global budget we need to collect information from different parts of the Mediterranean. Particularly, we focus in this paper on the Southern Mediterranean, where data are presently very scarce. In this context, the University of Sfax has undertaken an estimation of hydrocarbon pollution along the coasts of Sfax and Gabès Gulf. Non-aromatic hydrocarbons were analysed in 8 surface sediments by FT/IR and GC/MS. Non-aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations vary in the range 310-1406 microg g(-1) sediments dry weight, which is high, compared to other Mediterranean sites. GC/MS data indicate a large group of unresolved compounds suggesting a petroleum contamination, confirmed by the identification of hopanes with predominant C29 and C30alpha,beta compounds and steranes with predominance of C27 over C28) and C29 compounds.

  6. The Diet of Preschool Children in the Mediterranean Countries of the European Union: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira-da-Silva, Luís; Rêgo, Carla; Pietrobelli, Angelo

    2016-06-08

    This systematic review discusses data on the dietary intake of preschool children living in the Mediterranean countries of the European Union, including the comparison with a Mediterranean-like diet and the association with nutritional status. Specifically, data from the multinational European Identification and Prevention on Dietary and life style induced health effects in children and infants (IDEFICS) study and national studies, such as the Estudo do Padrão Alimentar e de Crescimento Infantil (EPACI) study and Geração XXI cohort in Portugal, ALimentando la SAlud del MAñana (ALSALMA) study in Spain, Étude des Déterminants pré-et postnatals précoces du développement et de la santé de l'ENfant (EDEN) cohort in France, Nutrintake 636 study in Italy, and Growth, Exercise and Nutrition Epidemiological Study in preSchoolers (GENESIS) cohort in Greece, were analyzed. In the majority of countries, young children consumed fruit and vegetables quite frequently, but also consumed sugared beverages and snacks. High energy and high protein intakes mainly from dairy products were found in the majority of countries. The majority of children also consumed excessive sodium intake. Early high prevalence of overweight and obesity was found, and both early consumption of energy-dense foods and overweight seemed to track across toddler and preschool ages. Most children living in the analyzed countries showed low adherence to a Mediterranean-like diet, which in turn was associated with being overweight/obese. Unhealthier diets were associated with lower maternal educational level and parental unemployment. Programs promoting adherence of young children to the traditional Mediterranean diet should be part of a multi-intervention strategy for the prevention and treatment of pediatric overweight and obesity.

  7. The Diet of Preschool Children in the Mediterranean Countries of the European Union: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Pereira-da-Silva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This systematic review discusses data on the dietary intake of preschool children living in the Mediterranean countries of the European Union, including the comparison with a Mediterranean-like diet and the association with nutritional status. Specifically, data from the multinational European Identification and Prevention on Dietary and life style induced health effects in children and infants (IDEFICS study and national studies, such as the Estudo do Padrão Alimentar e de Crescimento Infantil (EPACI study and Geração XXI cohort in Portugal, ALimentando la SAlud del MAñana (ALSALMA study in Spain, Étude des Déterminants pré-et postnatals précoces du développement et de la santé de l’ENfant (EDEN cohort in France, Nutrintake 636 study in Italy, and Growth, Exercise and Nutrition Epidemiological Study in preSchoolers (GENESIS cohort in Greece, were analyzed. In the majority of countries, young children consumed fruit and vegetables quite frequently, but also consumed sugared beverages and snacks. High energy and high protein intakes mainly from dairy products were found in the majority of countries. The majority of children also consumed excessive sodium intake. Early high prevalence of overweight and obesity was found, and both early consumption of energy-dense foods and overweight seemed to track across toddler and preschool ages. Most children living in the analyzed countries showed low adherence to a Mediterranean-like diet, which in turn was associated with being overweight/obese. Unhealthier diets were associated with lower maternal educational level and parental unemployment. Programs promoting adherence of young children to the traditional Mediterranean diet should be part of a multi-intervention strategy for the prevention and treatment of pediatric overweight and obesity.

  8. Commercial refining in the Mediterranean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Packer, P.

    1999-01-01

    About 9% of the world's oil refining capacity is on the Mediterranean: some of the world's biggest and most advanced refineries are on Sicily and Sardinia. The Mediterranean refineries are important suppliers to southern Europe and N. Africa. The article discusses commercial refining in the Mediterranean under the headings of (i) historic development, (ii) product demand, (iii) refinery configurations, (iv) refined product trade, (v) financial performance and (vi) future outlook. Although some difficulties are foreseen, refining in the Mediterranean is likely to continue to be important well into the 21st century. (UK)

  9. Population and development scenarios for EU neighbor countries in the South and East Mediterranean region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenewold, W.G.F.; de Beer, J.A.A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents four population and development scenarios for 11 South and East Mediterranean countries (SEMC) for the period 2010-2050. Focus of analysis of scenario results is on working age population prospects, economic consequences, migration pressure in four migrant-sending SEMCs (Algeria,

  10. Seasonal occurrence of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in southern Syria

    OpenAIRE

    Mansour Mohammed; Mohamad Fater

    2016-01-01

    Population fluctuations of the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata, were investigated between 1999 and 2001 at several locations representing fruit production areas in the southern part of Syria (Damascus Ghota, Zabadani, Sargaiah, Rankus, Orneh and Ain Al-Arab). Medfly adults were monitored weekly all year around using Jackson traps baited with trimedlure dispensers. Larvae were also sampled in Damascus Ghota by collecting fruits from ripe or ripening fruit trees and recordi...

  11. Systematic reviews addressing identified health policy priorities in Eastern Mediterranean countries: a situational analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Jardali, Fadi; Akl, Elie A; Karroum, Lama Bou; Kdouh, Ola; Akik, Chaza; Fadlallah, Racha; Hammoud, Rawan

    2014-08-20

    Systematic reviews can offer policymakers and stakeholders concise, transparent, and relevant evidence pertaining to pressing policy priorities to help inform the decision-making process. The production and the use of systematic reviews are specifically limited in the Eastern Mediterranean region. The extent to which published systematic reviews address policy priorities in the region is still unknown. This situational analysis exercise aims at assessing the extent to which published systematic reviews address policy priorities identified by policymakers and stakeholders in Eastern Mediterranean region countries. It also provides an overview about the state of systematic review production in the region and identifies knowledge gaps. We conducted a systematic search of the Health System Evidence database to identify published systematic reviews on policy-relevant priorities pertaining to the following themes: human resources for health, health financing, the role of the non-state sector, and access to medicine. Priorities were identified from two priority-setting exercises conducted in the region. We described the distribution of these systematic reviews across themes, sub-themes, authors' affiliations, and countries where included primary studies were conducted. Out of the 1,045 systematic reviews identified in Health System Evidence on selected themes, a total of 200 systematic reviews (19.1%) addressed the priorities from the Eastern Mediterranean region. The theme with the largest number of systematic reviews included was human resources for health (115) followed by health financing (33), access to medicine (27), and role of the non-state sector (25). Authors based in the region produced only three systematic reviews addressing regional priorities (1.5%). Furthermore, no systematic review focused on the Eastern Mediterranean region. Primary studies from the region had limited contribution to systematic reviews; 17 systematic reviews (8.5%) included primary

  12. Systematic reviews addressing identified health policy priorities in Eastern Mediterranean countries: a situational analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Systematic reviews can offer policymakers and stakeholders concise, transparent, and relevant evidence pertaining to pressing policy priorities to help inform the decision-making process. The production and the use of systematic reviews are specifically limited in the Eastern Mediterranean region. The extent to which published systematic reviews address policy priorities in the region is still unknown. This situational analysis exercise aims at assessing the extent to which published systematic reviews address policy priorities identified by policymakers and stakeholders in Eastern Mediterranean region countries. It also provides an overview about the state of systematic review production in the region and identifies knowledge gaps. Methods We conducted a systematic search of the Health System Evidence database to identify published systematic reviews on policy-relevant priorities pertaining to the following themes: human resources for health, health financing, the role of the non-state sector, and access to medicine. Priorities were identified from two priority-setting exercises conducted in the region. We described the distribution of these systematic reviews across themes, sub-themes, authors’ affiliations, and countries where included primary studies were conducted. Results Out of the 1,045 systematic reviews identified in Health System Evidence on selected themes, a total of 200 systematic reviews (19.1%) addressed the priorities from the Eastern Mediterranean region. The theme with the largest number of systematic reviews included was human resources for health (115) followed by health financing (33), access to medicine (27), and role of the non-state sector (25). Authors based in the region produced only three systematic reviews addressing regional priorities (1.5%). Furthermore, no systematic review focused on the Eastern Mediterranean region. Primary studies from the region had limited contribution to systematic reviews; 17 systematic reviews

  13. Energy investments needs are estimated to $250 milliards, 1995-2010, in the South and East Mediterranean countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvet, B.

    1996-01-01

    The energy consumption knows a sharper increase in the North and in the East of the Mediterranean sea than in European Union. These trends should continue during the two next decades. From now until 2010, according to the companies predictions, the energy consumption of the free trade future zone countries should continue to strongly increase, to reach near 2 000 millions of petroleum equivalent tons. Then, the financing needs should reach some $250 milliards according to an inquiry of the Energy Mediterranean Observatory. (N.C.)

  14. Coastal Tsunami and Risk Assessment for Eastern Mediterranean Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentel, E.; Yavuz, C.

    2017-12-01

    Tsunamis are rarely experienced events that have enormous potential to cause large economic destruction on the critical infrastructures and facilities, social devastation due to mass casualty, and environmental adverse effects like erosion, accumulation and inundation. Especially for the past two decades, nations have encountered devastating tsunami events. The aim of this study is to investigate risks along the Mediterranean coastline due to probable tsunamis based on simulations using reliable historical data. In order to do this, 50 Critical Regions, CRs, (i.e. city centers, agricultural areas and summer villages) and 43 Critical Infrastructures, CIs, (i.e. airports, ports & marinas and industrial structures) are determined to perform people-centered risk assessment along Eastern Mediterranean region covering 7 countries. These countries include Turkey, Syria, Lebanon, Israel, Egypt, Cyprus, and Libya. Bathymetry of the region is given in Figure 1. In this study, NAMI-DANCE is used to carry out tsunami simulations. Source of a sample tsunami simulation and maximum wave propagation in the study area for this sample tsunami are given in Figures 2 and 3, respectively.Richter magnitude,, focal depth, time of occurrence in a day and season are considered as the independent parameters of the earthquake. Historical earthquakes are used to generate reliable probability distributions for these parameters. Monte Carlo (MC) Simulations are carried out to evaluate overall risks at the coastline. Inundation level, population density, number of passenger or employee, literacy rate, annually income level and existence of human are used in risk estimations. Within each MC simulation and for each grid in the study area, people-centered tsunami risk for each of the following elements at risk is calculated: i. City centers ii. Agricultural areas iii. Summer villages iv. Ports and marinas v. Airports vi. Industrial structures Risk levels at each grid along the shoreline are

  15. Implementing a Mediterranean-Style Diet Outside the Mediterranean Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Karen J; Parletta, Natalie

    2018-05-04

    Populations surrounding the Mediterranean basin have traditionally reaped health benefits from a Mediterranean diet (MedDiet), which may benefit Westernized countries plagued by chronic disease. But is it feasible to implement beyond the Mediterranean? To answer this question, we present evidence from randomized controlled trials that achieved high dietary compliance rates with subsequent physical and mental health benefits. In the 1960s, the Seven Countries Study identified dietary qualities of Mediterranean populations associated with healthy aging and longevity. The PREDIMED study confirmed reductions in CVD-related mortality with a MedDiet; a meta-analysis in over 4.7 million people showed reduced mortality, CVD-related mortality, and reduced risk of Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease. Continually emerging research supports the MedDiet's benefits for chronic diseases including metabolic syndrome, cancers, liver disease, type 2 diabetes, depression, and anxiety. We summarize components of studies outside the Mediterranean that achieved high compliance to a Med-style diet: dietitian led, dietary education, goal setting, mindfulness; recipe books, meal plans, and food checklists; food hampers; regular contact between volunteers and staff through regular cooking classes; clinic visits; and recipes that are simple, palatable, and affordable. The next step is testing the MedDiet's feasibility in the community. Potential obstacles include access to dietetic/health care professionals, high meat intake, pervasive processed foods, and fast food outlets. For Western countries to promote a Med-style diet, collective support from government, key stakeholders and policy makers, food industry, retailers, and health professionals is needed to ensure the healthiest choice is the easiest choice.

  16. Euro-mediterranean partnership in the energy field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrin, F.

    1996-01-01

    The conference for a Euro-Mediterranean partnership in the energy field took place from the seventh to ninth of June 1996 and convened the officials of 15 european countries and 10 mediterranean countries; the discussions were about five themes: the adhesion of mediterranean countries to the european chart of energy or their association to this treaty; the harmonization of legislations and regulations concerning investments; the development of gas and electric networks in this area; the positioning of a system to guarantee energy investments; the creation of an Euro-Mediterranean energy forum proposed by the commission which allowed to associate the different partners to the following of this cooperation. (N.C.)

  17. Evidence-Informed Health Policies in Eastern Mediterranean Countries: Comparing Views of Policy Makers and Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Jardali, Fadi; Lavis, John N.; Jamal, Diana; Ataya, Nour; Dimassi, Hani

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to conduct comparative analysis about the views and practices of policy makers and researchers on the use of health systems evidence in policy making in selected Eastern Mediterranean countries. We analysed data from two self-reported surveys, one targeted at policy makers and the other at researchers. Results show a…

  18. Hydrological response characteristics of Mediterranean catchments: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Merheb , M.; Moussa , R.; Abdallah , C.; Colin , F.; Perrin , C.; Baghdadi , N.

    2016-01-01

    International audience; This work examines 140 hydrological studies conducted in the Mediterranean region. It identifies key characteristics of the hydrological responses of Mediterranean catchments at various time scales and compares different methods and modelling approaches used for individualcatchmentstudies. The study area is divided into the northwestern (NWM), eastern (EM) and southern (SM) Mediterranean. The analysis indicates regional discrepancies in which the NWM shows the most ext...

  19. Israel-New natural gas producer in the Mediterranean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaffer, Brenda

    2011-01-01

    In 2009 and 2010, major offshore natural gas reserves were discovered near the State of Israel. This article examines Israel's newly discovered natural gas reserves and the implications of this discovery for Israel, the Middle East, and the Mediterranean region. The article will discuss Israel's energy security approach; the role of natural gas in Israel's energy consumption patterns; the organization of Israel's natural gas sector; regional political and security implications of the natural gas discoveries; the prospects for export, and the outlook for various natural gas markets. These new discoveries significantly improve Israel's energy security. They may also spur Israel to develop technologies related to utilization of natural gas in a variety of sectors, such as transportation. The discoveries may contribute to the emergence of a number of maritime border delimitation conflicts in the Eastern Mediterranean. At current volumes, the Israeli discoveries will not be a game-changer for gas markets in southern Europe or liquefied natural gas (LNG) markets. However, they will lead to expanded natural gas consumption in the region. In addition, offshore exploration efforts in Israel and in neighboring countries are intensifying. Additional discoveries may turn the Eastern Mediterranean region into a new source of natural gas and oil. - Highlights: → In 2009 and 2010, major natural gas deposits were discovered offshore of Israel's port city of Haifa. → They will satisfy a large portion of Israel's domestic energy consumption needs for a number of decades. → The gas discoveries have created an opportunity to fundamentally change the country's energy policies. → Additional discoveries may turn the Eastern Mediterranean region into a new source of natural gas and oil. → Israel could become a supplier of natural gas to neighbors in the Middle East region, such as Jordan.

  20. NATO's Mediterranean Dialogue: Challenges and Prospects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cayan, Umit

    2003-01-01

    .... The new security concerns in the southern Mediterranean region terrorism, economic disparities, demographic imbalances, the potential for social and political instability, and the proliferation...

  1. Coal in the Mediterranean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sore, J.C.; Coiffard, J.

    1992-01-01

    Mediterranean countries are not traditionally coal producers. In France, the main mines were located in the North and East, and belonged to the great coal fields of northern Europe. Spain is a modest producer (ten million tonnes), as is Turkey with its three million tonnes. The only way most of these mines can stand up to international competition is by an array of protectionistic measures and subsidies. This state of affairs has marked events of quite another nature, as it relates to energy economics. That is, coal has taken on increasing importance in the energy supplies of all the countries of the Mediterranean zone over the past twenty years. In this article, we set out by describing coke supply for the Mediterranean ensemble, and then go on to analyze the development aspects of coal for electrical production, the future of Mediterranean lignite, and the supply of imported coal. 4 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs

  2. Extension systems in Southern African countries: A review | Oladele ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reviews extension systems in selected southern African countries with a view of identifying the features of the systems and how they have been able to reach their target audience. Some of the features are use of committees for research and extension linkages, involvement of NGOs and private sector, the use ...

  3. The mediterranean diet model in inflammatory rheumatic diseases

    OpenAIRE

    P. Spinella; F. Oliviero; C. Sales

    2011-01-01

    The Mediterranean diet is based on a pattern of eating that’s closely tied to the Mediterranean region, which includes Greece and southern Italy. Essentially, the traditional diet emphasizes foods from plant sources, limited meat consumption, small amounts of wine and olive oil as the main fat source. The beneficial effects of the Mediterranean diet has been proven not only to cardiovascular diseases but also for diabetes, obesity, arthritis and cancer. Its anti-inflammatory and protective pr...

  4. Value Chain Dynamics of Agri-Food Exports from Southern Mediterranean to the European Union: End-Market Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Mili

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This contribution explores the buyer side of the value chains of the main agricultural products exported from the Mediterranean Partner Countries (MPCs to the EU, taking Spain as an explorative case study in the broader European context. It draws on the Global Value Chain (GVC approach to provide new survey-based evidence for better profiling the opportunities and constraints for EU trade for orange, strawberry, tomato and olive oil imported from Morocco, Tunisia, Egypt and Turkey. The approach used complements inquiries using quantitative trade models usually based on aggregate sectoral level. Results show differences depending on the product and the country studied. There are in all cases multiple challenges to be solved at the origin of the value chain including better chain organization, further transparency and security, improvement in infrastructure and logistics, keeping transaction costs manageable at the same time. Consumer preferences in buyer markets when sourcing must be taken on the first place. The findings can have relevant policy implications in terms of prospective Euro-Mediterranean Partnership Agreements on agriculture and food.

  5. The tourist industry: a growth opportunity for Southern economy

    OpenAIRE

    Gattei S.

    2011-01-01

    Over the years, the international tourist movement has considerably expanded and this has reinforced the idea that such a sector can have a major role on the growth of Mezzogiorno's economy and on reducing the gap with the Centre-North. This paper aims at analysing trends in the South during the decade 1988-2008, compared with those of the Centre-North and the main competitor countries of the Mediterranean area, and at identifying the major obstacles to development of Southern tourism in line...

  6. IRIS: A SIGNIFICANT ELEMENT OF THE MEDITERRANEAN LANDSCAPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. UBRIZSY SAVOIA

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The Southern European species of Iris growing in dry, rocky places, stony ground, terra rossa, sandy, basalt and/or calcareous hills, maquis and coastal rocky slopes, are a neglected bioplasm resource of the Mediterranean landscape. These species have traditional uses and cultural significance and have inspired artists. Both natural and naturalised ornamental Iris species may help to improve and maintain the Mediterranean landscape by avoiding land erosion, fixing dunes and preserving coastal zones. These Iris species are a significant component of Mediterranean floristic diversity. Their conservation and use in traditional Mediterranean landscape gardening are emphasised.

  7. IRIS: A SIGNIFICANT ELEMENT OF THE MEDITERRANEAN LANDSCAPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. PIGNATTI

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available The Southern European species of Iris growing in dry, rocky places, stony ground, terra rossa, sandy, basalt and/or calcareous hills, maquis and coastal rocky slopes, are a neglected bioplasm resource of the Mediterranean landscape. These species have traditional uses and cultural significance and have inspired artists. Both natural and naturalised ornamental Iris species may help to improve and maintain the Mediterranean landscape by avoiding land erosion, fixing dunes and preserving coastal zones. These Iris species are a significant component of Mediterranean floristic diversity. Their conservation and use in traditional Mediterranean landscape gardening are emphasised.

  8. Aging worlds in contradiction: gerontological observations in the Mediterranean region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Joachim von Kondratowitz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the existing and developing aging regimes in the Northern and Southern rim countries of the whole Mediterranean region which are all undergoing considerable social and political transformation processes. It is argued that several eye-opening theoretical interventions for such a gerontological project may lead to some methodological problems and pitfalls, which have to be dealt with productively. Central collective concepts of such an analysis (as the change-oriented "modernization effects" of societal aging and the continuity-oriented gaze at the "unity of the region" have to be reconsidered and ought to be more differentiated in order to allow smaller social entities (such as kinship and community systems and their connectivity to be central orientations for analyzing poverty and care management in old age in the Mediterranean region. How to reconnect such a rather micro-political agenda with large processes and big structures of aging policies in the region however still remains an open question.

  9. Developing Custom Fire Behavior Fuel Models for Mediterranean Wildland-Urban Interfaces in Southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elia, Mario; Lafortezza, Raffaele; Lovreglio, Raffaella; Sanesi, Giovanni

    2015-09-01

    The dramatic increase of fire hazard in wildland-urban interfaces (WUIs) has required more detailed fuel management programs to preserve ecosystem functions and human settlements. Designing effective fuel treatment strategies allows to achieve goals such as resilient landscapes, fire-adapted communities, and ecosystem response. Therefore, obtaining background information on forest fuel parameters and fuel accumulation patterns has become an important first step in planning fuel management interventions. Site-specific fuel inventory data enhance the accuracy of fuel management planning and help forest managers in fuel management decision-making. We have customized four fuel models for WUIs in southern Italy, starting from forest classes of land-cover use and adopting a hierarchical clustering approach. Furthermore, we provide a prediction of the potential fire behavior of our customized fuel models using FlamMap 5 under different weather conditions. The results suggest that fuel model IIIP (Mediterranean maquis) has the most severe fire potential for the 95th percentile weather conditions and the least severe potential fire behavior for the 85th percentile weather conditions. This study shows that it is possible to create customized fuel models directly from fuel inventory data. This achievement has broad implications for land managers, particularly forest managers of the Mediterranean landscape, an ecosystem that is susceptible not only to wildfires but also to the increasing human population and man-made infrastructures.

  10. Developing Custom Fire Behavior Fuel Models for Mediterranean Wildland-Urban Interfaces in Southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elia, Mario; Lafortezza, Raffaele; Lovreglio, Raffaella; Sanesi, Giovanni

    2015-09-01

    The dramatic increase of fire hazard in wildland-urban interfaces (WUIs) has required more detailed fuel management programs to preserve ecosystem functions and human settlements. Designing effective fuel treatment strategies allows to achieve goals such as resilient landscapes, fire-adapted communities, and ecosystem response. Therefore, obtaining background information on forest fuel parameters and fuel accumulation patterns has become an important first step in planning fuel management interventions. Site-specific fuel inventory data enhance the accuracy of fuel management planning and help forest managers in fuel management decision-making. We have customized four fuel models for WUIs in southern Italy, starting from forest classes of land-cover use and adopting a hierarchical clustering approach. Furthermore, we provide a prediction of the potential fire behavior of our customized fuel models using FlamMap 5 under different weather conditions. The results suggest that fuel model IIIP (Mediterranean maquis) has the most severe fire potential for the 95th percentile weather conditions and the least severe potential fire behavior for the 85th percentile weather conditions. This study shows that it is possible to create customized fuel models directly from fuel inventory data. This achievement has broad implications for land managers, particularly forest managers of the Mediterranean landscape, an ecosystem that is susceptible not only to wildfires but also to the increasing human population and man-made infrastructures.

  11. The Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryawanshi, Vandana

    2017-04-01

    Learning is always a joyful experience for any human being and must always remain so. Children are happiest when they learn through play. The philosophy of my life is to keep encouraging children to think beyond they could achieve easily. I understand children are adaptive to change and take things with an open mind. They are ready to experiment new things and dare to dream big. I am fortunate to be a teacher by profession and thus I always attempt experimenting, observing and participating with other children and adults. Education is not about moulding children the way you think they should be. It is about organizing the natural longing in a human being to know. From birth children are active participants in building their own understanding. I always prepare the environment to help each child build on what they already know. It is such a great pleasure to observe every young kid become excited and curious to know when we teach them. Std 8 Geography the students are very excited to learn about this continent, with the help of Videos and a wall map the Political map of Europe with its countries shown I introduced the topic by asking 'If given a chance which place they would like to visit in Europe' , students are familiar with the countries of their favourite football players and happily pointed out their destination. The Mediterranean Region is a paradise the scenic beauty, the climate, the food along with a variety of fruits which are totally different from Asia increased the curiosity among the students. With the help of case study of the Mediterranean Sea the students were able to research and present the history, the adventure sports the aquatic life and the twenty three beautiful islands located in the Mediterranean Sea. Photos and videos helped me to explain the Mediterranean Sea The Formation of the Mediterranean Sea ( Youtube Video) which is otherwise completely enclosed by land. (The evaporating Mediterranean Sea - BBC (Video) Gibraltar Breach.mov . The

  12. New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records (October 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. CROCETTA

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Collective Article “New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records” of the Mediterranean Marine Science journal offers the means to publish biodiversity records in the Mediterranean Sea. The current article is divided per countries, listed according to a Mediterranean west-east geographic position. New biodiversity data are reported for 7 different countries, although one species hereby reported from Malta is overall new for the entire Mediterranean basin, and is presumably present also in Israel and Lebanon (see below in Malta. Italy: the rare native fish Gobius kolombatovici is first reported from the Ionian Sea, whilst the alien jellyfish Rhopilema nomadica and the alien fish Oplegnathus fasciatus are first reported from the entire country. The presence of O. fasciatus from Trieste is concomitantly the first for the entire Adriatic Sea. Finally, the alien bivalve Arcuatula senhousia is hereby first reported from Campania (Tyrrhenian Sea. Tunisia: a bloom of the alien crab Portunus segnis is first reported from the Gulf of Gabes, from where it was considered as casual. Malta: the alien flatworm Maritigrella fuscopunctata is first recorded from the Mediterranean Sea on the basis of 25 specimens. At the same time, web researches held possible unpublished records from Israel and Lebanon. The alien crab P. segnis, already mentioned above, is first formally reported from Malta based on specimens collected in 1972. Concomitantly, the presence of Callinectes sapidus in Maltese waters is excluded since based on misidentifications. Greece: the Atlantic northern brown shrimp Penaeus atzecus, previously known from the Ionian Sea from sporadic records only, is now well established in Greek and international Ionian waters. The alien sea urchin Diadema setosum is reported from the second time from Greece, and its first record date from the country is backdated to 2010 in Rhodes Island. The alien lionfish Pterois miles is first reported from Greece and

  13. Child-Care and Participation in the Labor Market for Married Women in Mediterranean Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Nicodemo, Catia; Waldmann, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Parents in the labor force have balance their work and home life, including the choice of the type of care to provide for their children while they work. In this paper we study the connection between the married women's labor force participation, child care arrangements and the time that husbands and wives spent to take care of children in Mediterranean countries. As more women now are in the labor force the interest in the use child care and housework of husband have grown. We use the new da...

  14. Comparison of Mediterranean diet compliance between European and non-European populations in the Mediterranean basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benhammou, Samira; Heras-González, Leticia; Ibáñez-Peinado, Diana; Barceló, Carla; Hamdan, May; Rivas, Ana; Mariscal-Arcas, Miguel; Olea-Serrano, Fatima; Monteagudo, Celia

    2016-12-01

    Fruit, vegetables, cereals, and olive oil are common elements of the Mediterranean diet (MD), but each country in the Mediterranean basin has its own gastronomic customs influenced by socio-cultural, religious, and economic factors. This study compared the dietary habits of three Mediterranean populations with different cultures and lifestyles, a total of 600 adults (61.9% females) between 25 and 70 yrs from Spain, Morocco, and Palestine. All participants completed a self administered questionnaire, including sociodemographic and anthropometric items, a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire adapted to the foods consumed in each country, and three 24-h recalls. MD adherence was estimated with the MD Serving Score (MDSS). All populations showed a moderate adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern. In comparison to the Palestine population, MDSS-assessed adherence to the MD was 6.36-fold higher in the Spanish population and 3.88-fold higher in the Moroccan population. Besides the country of origin, age was another predictive factor of MD adherence, which was greater (higher MDSS) in participants aged over 50 yrs than in those aged 30 yrs or younger. This preliminary study contributes initial data on dietary differences between European and non-European countries in the Mediterranean basin. The Spanish diet was shown to be closer to MD recommendations than the diet of Morocco or Palestine. Given the impact of good dietary habits on the prevention of chronic non-transmittable diseases, health policies should focus on adherence to a healthy diet, supporting traditional dietary patterns in an era of intense commercial pressures for change. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Forest fires in Mediterranean countries: CO2 emissions and mitigation possibilities through prescribed burning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilén, Terhi; Fernandes, Paulo M

    2011-09-01

    Forest fires are an integral part of the ecology of the Mediterranean Basin; however, fire incidence has increased dramatically during the past decades and fire is expected to become more prevalent in the future due to climate change. Fuel modification by prescribed burning reduces the spread and intensity potential of subsequent wildfires. We used the most recently published data to calculate the average annual wildfire CO(2) emissions in France, Greece, Italy, Portugal and Spain following the IPCC guidelines. The effect of prescribed burning on emissions was calculated for four scenarios of prescribed burning effectiveness based on data from Portugal. Results show that prescribed burning could have a considerable effect on the carbon balance of the land use, land-use change and forestry (LULUCF) sector in Mediterranean countries. However, uncertainty in emission estimates remains large, and more accurate data is needed, especially regarding fuel load and fuel consumption in different vegetation types and fuel layers and the total area protected from wildfire per unit area treated by prescribed burning, i.e. the leverage of prescribed burning.

  16. Actual situation and energy perspectives in the Mediterranean Sea Basin countries; Situation actuelle et perspectives energetiques dans les pays du bassin mediterraneen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benghanem, A. [Societe Nationale d' Electricite et de Gaz d' Algerie, Alger (Algeria)

    2001-03-01

    An examination of the situation in the Mediterranean countries indicates that the demand for energy will surge to more than 1100 million tonnes of petroleum equivalent in 2010, an increase from the 800 million of tonnes of petroleum equivalent in 1998. The supply of primary energy is mainly provided by Algeria, Egypt, and Lybia. The challenge is to ensure the long-term stability of the energy exchanges between producing countries and their customers. In this regard, the Maghreb countries are in a favorable position, where the distribution systems are fairly well developed. The power distribution systems between these countries are interconnected (in addition to Morocco-Spain), and there are pipelines connecting Algeria-Tunisia-Italy, and Algeria-Morocco-Spain which reinforce the cooperation efforts. Other projects are in the planning stages to interconnect Algeria-Spain, Algeria-Sardinia-Italy, and Lybia-Italy. The policies in place in the countries located south of the Mediterranean Sea vary somewhat. In Morocco, an institutional reform of the electricity sector took place in 1995, where electricity production was effected in partnerships rather than being through leases. Tunisia opted for a more radical approach with the Build-Own-Operate (BOO). Algeria aims at reforming regulations concerning electricity, gas and hydrocarbons distribution in an attempt to introduce competitiveness and favor foreign investments. Lybia is considering a reorganization of its electricity sector towards the implementation of market openness. Egypt implemented a vast program of Independent Energy Producers. Turkey adopted the Build-Operate-Transfer (BOT) approach to electricity. South of the Mediterranean Sea, private electricity production is already a reality. The author briefly described the situation in Algeria in greater detail. 2 figs.

  17. Mediterranean climate and some tropical teleconnections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alpert, P.; Price, C.; Krichak, S.; Saaroni, H.; Osetinsky, I.; Barkan, J.; Kishcha, P.; Ziv, B.

    2006-01-01

    Some strong natural fluctuations of climate in the Eastern Mediterranean (EM) region are shown to be connected to the major tropical systems, e.g., El Ni no Southern Oscillation, South Asian Monsoon and hurricanes. Modelling of the severe floods suggests a relation to tropical hurricanes. For a specific event, high-resolution modelling of the severe flood on December 3-5, 2001 in Israel suggests a relation to hurricane Olga. In order to understand the factors governing the Eastern Mediterranean climate variability in the summer season, the relationship between extreme summer temperatures and the South Asian Monsoon was examined. Other tropical factors, like the Red Sea Trough system and the Saharan dust, also contribute to the Mediterranean climate variability

  18. Analysis of the photovoltaic technology for electricity supply in the Southern Mediterranean country; Prospettive del fotovoltaico per la copertura del fabbisogno di energia elettrica dei paesi della sponda sud del Mediterraneo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menna, P [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Portici, Naples (Italy). Dip. Energia

    1996-07-01

    The potential of penetration of photovoltaics in the energy systems of the countries of the Southern shore of the Mediterranean sea, from Morocco to Turkey, for both the currently mature off-grid applications (rural electrification) as well as for emerging applications (grid-support) it is investigated. In the assumption that crystalline silicon (single and multi-crystalline) will remain the base material for the commercially available PV generators, technological progress and gain in manufacturing experience as well as economies of scale will bring the production cost of the PV modules to 2 $/W{sub p} by the end of the decade (1996-2005), from the current 4-5 $/W{sub p}. At the current module-shipment growth rate, no silicon feed-stock problem should arise. In the following decade (2006-2015) a technological breakthrough will take place (thin-film based modules will become commercially available) so that the production cost of the modules will be 1 $/W{sub p} or less. The photovoltaic potential for rural electrification it is evaluated considering: the households not connected to the electricity grid, in low population-density areas and with daily global solar irradiation (mean annual) higher than (4.2 kWh) (m{sup -2}) (day{sup -1}); an average household consumption for two cases, the first to satisfy the very basic needs (basic needs case, corresponding to an electricity consumption of (550 Wh) (day{sup -1})) and the other to take into account an evolution of the demand (more comfort case, that is a consumption of (1400 Wh) (day{sup -1})).

  19. Estimating future burned areas under changing climate in the EU-Mediterranean countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amatulli, Giuseppe; Camia, Andrea; San-Miguel-Ayanz, Jesús

    2013-04-15

    The impacts of climate change on forest fires have received increased attention in recent years at both continental and local scales. It is widely recognized that weather plays a key role in extreme fire situations. It is therefore of great interest to analyze projected changes in fire danger under climate change scenarios and to assess the consequent impacts of forest fires. In this study we estimated burned areas in the European Mediterranean (EU-Med) countries under past and future climate conditions. Historical (1985-2004) monthly burned areas in EU-Med countries were modeled by using the Canadian Fire Weather Index (CFWI). Monthly averages of the CFWI sub-indices were used as explanatory variables to estimate the monthly burned areas in each of the five most affected countries in Europe using three different modeling approaches (Multiple Linear Regression - MLR, Random Forest - RF, Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines - MARS). MARS outperformed the other methods. Regression equations and significant coefficients of determination were obtained, although there were noticeable differences from country to country. Climatic conditions at the end of the 21st Century were simulated using results from the runs of the regional climate model HIRHAM in the European project PRUDENCE, considering two IPCC SRES scenarios (A2-B2). The MARS models were applied to both scenarios resulting in projected burned areas in each country and in the EU-Med region. Results showed that significant increases, 66% and 140% of the total burned area, can be expected in the EU-Med region under the A2 and B2 scenarios, respectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Euro-Mediterranean Partnership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brach, Juliane

    2007-01-01

    The EU and 12 countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) engaged in 1995 in the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership (EMP) in political, economic and cultural matters with the aim to foster cooperation, stability and prosperity around the Mediterranean Basin. The Economic and Financial...... and the past performance of the EFP. It analyses the association agreements, economic cooperation and financial assistance, discusses the major obstacles, and outlines the potential of the EFP to shape the European Neighborhood Policy....

  1. Sustainability of the energy sector in the Mediterranean region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantore, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    Energy and climate change is a key priority issue mentioned by the Mediterranean Strategy for Sustainable Development (MSSD) which explicitly claims that “Control, reduce or stabilize GhG (Greenhouse Gas) emissions” is a crucial target for Mediterranean countries. This paper uses the integrated assessment model IFs (International Futures) to implement a scenario analysis to investigate the mitigation potential of Mediterranean regions. It analyzes if the Mediterranean regions will be able to reach the MSSD climate change target and recommends amendments of the MSSD to implement with effectiveness climate change policies in the Mediterranean area. -- Highlights: ► In the majority of scenarios emissions in Mediterranean countries are not decreasing over 2020. ► Even in scenarios incorporating multiple policy actions emissions may not be decreasing over 2020. ► The Mediterranean Strategy for Sustainable Development needs to go beyond the 2015 deadline to promote climate policies. ► The Mediterranean Strategy for Sustainable Development is key to promote coordinated multiple actions to reduce emissions. ► Partial interventions could compromise the effectiveness of the overall regional emissions stabilization policies.

  2. Life History Traits Reflect Changes in Mediterranean Butterfly Communities Due to Forest Encroachment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Slancarova

    Full Text Available The biodiversity of the Southern Balkans, part of the Mediterranean global biodiversity hot-spot, is threatened by land use intensification and abandonment, the latter causing forest encroachment of formerly open habitats. We investigated the impact of forest encroachment on butterfly species richness, community species composition and the representation of life history traits by repeated seasonal visits of 150 one-hectare sites in five separate regions in three countries-Greece, Bulgaria, and the Republic of Macedonia (FYROM-the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia- 10 replicates for each habitat type of grasslands, open formations and scrub forest within each region. Grasslands and open formations sites hosted in average more species and more red-listed species than scrub forest, while no pattern was found for numbers of Mediterranean species. As shown by ordination analyses, each of the three habitat types hosted distinct butterfly communities, with Mediterranean species inclining either towards grasslands or open formations. Analysing the representation of life history traits revealed that successional development from grasslands and open formations towards scrub forest shifts the community composition towards species overwintering in earlier stages, having fewer generations per year, and inhabiting large European or Eurosiberian (e.g. northern ranges; it decreases the representation of Mediterranean endemics. The loss of grasslands and semi-open formations due to forest encroachment thus threatens exactly the species that should be the focus of conservation attention in the Mediterranean region, and innovative conservation actions to prevent ongoing forest encroachment are badly needed.

  3. Antioxidant properties of Mediterranean food plant extracts: geographical differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, S; Schmitt-Schillig, S; Müller, W E; Eckert, G P

    2005-03-01

    Locally grown, wild food plants seasonally contribute a considerable portion of the daily diet in certain Mediterranean areas and it has been suggested that the beneficial effects of the Mediterranean diet on human health partly originate from the antioxidant effect of flavonoid-rich food plants. The nutrient content of most wild plants is higher than that of cultivated ones and may vary depending on the prevailing environmental conditions. Accordingly, three local Mediterranean plant foods (i.e. Cichorium intybus, Sonchus oleraceus, Papaver rhoeas) were collected in Greece (Crete), southern Italy, and southern Spain in order to assess possible differences in their in vitro antioxidant potential. The biological assays revealed diverse intra-plant specific antioxidant effects for the tested extracts ranging from no activity to almost complete protection. Furthermore, substantial differences in the polyphenol content were found for the nutritionally used part of the same plant originating from different locations. However, no clear correlations between the polyphenol content and the extracts' antioxidant activities were found. Taken together, the data suggest that certain local Mediterranean plant foods possess promising antioxidant activity and that the observed biological effects are possibly influenced by the geographically-dependent environmental conditions prevailing during plant growth.

  4. New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records (July 2016)

    OpenAIRE

    Dailianis, T.; Akyol, O.; Babali, N.; Bariche, M.; Crocetta, F.; Gerovasileiou, V.; Chanem, R.; Gökoğlu, M.; Hasiotis, T.; Izquierdo Muñoz, Andrés; Julian, D.; Katsanevakis, S.; Lipez, L.; Mancini, E.; Mytilineou, Ch.

    2016-01-01

    This contribution forms part of a series of collective articles published regularly in Mediterranean Marine Science that report on new biodiversity records from the Mediterranean basin. The current article presents 51 geographically distinct records for 21 taxa belonging to 6 Phyla, extending from the western Mediterranean to the Levantine. The new records, per country, are as follows: Spain: the cryptogenic calcareous sponge Paraleucilla magna is reported from a new location in the A...

  5. Winter precipitation and cyclones in the Mediterranean region: future climate scenarios in a regional simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Lionello

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Future climate projections show higher/lower winter (Dec-Jan-Feb precipitation in the northern/southern Mediterranean region than in present climate conditions. This paper analyzes the results of regional model simulations of the A2 and B2 scenarios, which confirm this opposite precipitation change and link it to the change of cyclone activity. The increase of the winter cyclone activity in future climate scenarios over western Europe is responsible for the larger precipitation at the northern coast of the basin, though the bulk of the change is located outside the Mediterranean region. The reduction of cyclone activity inside the Mediterranean region in future scenarios is responsible for the lower precipitation at the southern and eastern Mediterranean coast.

  6. Mediterranean Way of Competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Art Kovacic

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean area have a special concept of competitiveness topic. Normally is that region not so industrial and knowledge based oriented as a North Europe.That countries can't reach the same development level as the north one. Lisbon's and Goethenburg's strategies create the main framework of development programme. Mediterranean programme is such a case. European internal market has forced the EU countries to increase competitiveness. The economic prosperity of countries is associated with their ability to generate or attract economic activities which are able to increase income by performing well on themarket. Financial crisis in the EU has changed the look on the competitiveness research. Economy in the main countries has to find way of recovery. Former giants of the financial world have found themselves suddenly facing bankruptcy.Inevitably, the crisis is also having an effect on households and businesses - economic growth has slowed sharply and in some EU countries unemployment has begun to increase for the first time in several years. Form that perspective we have to find the right solution of European competitiveness.

  7. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE WITHIN THE STRUCTURE OF EMPLOYMENT AND PRODUCTION IN THE MEDITERRANEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Piecuch

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of the European Union during the 1980s with the Mediterranean region countries was a major challenge both for the new Member States and for the Community as a whole. The new Member States, i.e. Greece, Spain and Portugal, were poorly developed in economic terms, with a high proportion of the agricultural sector in overall production and employment structure. Still, the concerns about the future turned out to be unfounded, and the impulse of the accession process and the necessity to compete on the common market brought certain advantages both to existing and to new Member States, thus enforcing certain changes in the structure of production and employment in the economies discussed in this paper. Today, the Mediterranean region states, irrespective of the success achieved in the past years, are again facing the need to resolve certain important economic problems related to the global fi nancial crisis. This paper discusses one of the aspects that strongly contributes to the present diffi cult socioeconomic situation of the contemplated region, i.e. evolution of the sectoral structure of employment and GDP during the European Union membership, with special consideration of the situation in agriculture. 

  8. Spatial Planning Experiences for Vulnerability Reduction in the Wildland-Urban Interface in Mediterranean European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galiana-Martín Luis

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Expansion of the wildland-urban interface in countries in the European Mediterranean basin is increasing vulnerability to forest fires. Despite more effective extinction systems, this is still a growing problem. This article defends the importance of spatial planning (land-use and urban planning and the need for systematic intervention to mitigate this wildfire risk. A critical review of the current situation, noting intervention focused on buildings and plots and insufficient action on intermediate spatial scales, is followed by the presentation of significant and relevant experiences in the European context.

  9. Comparisons of invasive plants in southern Africa originating from southern temperate, northern temperate and tropical regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Henderson

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available A subset of invasive alien plant species in southern Africa was analysed in terms of their history of introduction, rate of spread, countries/region of origin, taxonomy, growth forms, cultivated uses, weed status and current distribution in southern Africa, and comparisons made of those originating from south of the tropic of Capricorn, north of the tropic of Cancer and from the tropics. The subset of 233 species, belonging to 58 families, includes all important declared species and some potentially important species. Almost as many species originate from temperate regions (112 as from the tropics (121. Most southern temperate species came from Australia (28/36, most tropical species from tropical America (92/121 and most northern temperate species from Europe (including the Mediterranean and Asia (58/76. Transformers account for 33% of  all species. More transformers are of tropical origin (36 than of northern temperate (24 and southern temperate origin (18. However. 50% of southern temperate species are transformers, compared to 32% of northern temperate and 29% of tropical species. Southern temperate transformer species are mainly woody trees and shrubs that were established on a grand scale as silvicultural crops, barriers (hedges, windbreaks and screens and cover/binders. Most aquatics, herbs, climbers and succulent shrubs an. trom the tropics. Ornamentals are the single largest category of plants from all three regions, the tropics having contributed twice as many species as temperate regions.

  10. IRIS: A SIGNIFICANT ELEMENT OF THE MEDITERRANEAN LANDSCAPE

    OpenAIRE

    A. UBRIZSY SAVOIA; S. PIGNATTI; S. VAROLI PIAZZA

    2000-01-01

    The Southern European species of Iris growing in dry, rocky places, stony ground, terra rossa, sandy, basalt and/or calcareous hills, maquis and coastal rocky slopes, are a neglected bioplasm resource of the Mediterranean landscape. These species have traditional uses and cultural significance and have inspired artists. Both natural and naturalised ornamental Iris species may help to improve and maintain the Mediterranean landscape by avoiding land erosion, fixing dunes and preserving coastal...

  11. Travelling in the eastern Mediterranean with landscape character assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Jaber, N.; Abunnasr, Y.; Abu Yahya, A.; Boulad, N.; Christou, O.; Dimitropoulos, G.; Dimopoulos, T.; Gkoltsiou, K.; Khreis, N.; Manolaki, P.; Michael, K.; Odeh, T.; Papatheodoulou, A.; Sorotou, A.; Sinno, S.; Suliman, O.; Symons, N.; Terkenli, T.; Trigkas, Vassilis; Trovato, M. G.; Victora, M.; Zomeni, M.; Vogiatzakis, I. N.

    2015-06-01

    Following its application in Northern Europe, Landscape Character Assessment has also been implemented in Euro-Mediterranean countries as a tool for classifying, describing and assessing landscapes. Many landscape classifications employed in the Euro-Mediterranean area are similar in philosophy and application to the ones developed in Northern Europe. However, many aspects of landform, climate, land-use and ecology, as well as socio-economic context are distinctive of Mediterranean landscapes. The paper discusses the conceptual and methodological issues faced during landscape mapping and characterisation in four East-Mediterranean countries (within the MEDSCAPES project): Cyprus, Greece, Jordan and Lebanon. The major hurdles to overcome during the first phase of methodology development include variation in availability, quality, scale and coverage of spatial datasets between countries and also terminology semantics around landscapes. For example, the concept of landscape - a well-defined term in Greek and English - did not exist in Arabic. Another issue is the use of relative terms like 'high mountains,' `uplands' `lowlands' or ' hills'. Such terms, which are regularly used in landscape description, were perceived slightly differently in the four participating countries. In addition differences exist in nomenclature and classification systems used by each country for the dominant landscape-forming factors i.e. geology, soils and land use- but also in the cultural processes shaping the landscapes - compared both to each other and to the Northern-European norms. This paper argues for the development of consistent, regionally adapted, relevant and standardised methodologies if the results and application of LCA in the eastern Mediterranean region are to be transferable and comparable between countries.

  12. Bridging knowledge translation gap in health in developing countries: visibility, impact and publishing standards in journals from the Eastern Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utrobičić, Ana; Chaudhry, Nauman; Ghaffar, Abdul; Marušić, Ana

    2012-05-11

    Local and regional scientific journals are important factors in bridging gaps in health knowledge translation in low-and middle-income countries. We assessed indexing, citations and publishing standards of journals from the Eastern Mediterranean region. For journals from 22 countries in the collection of the Index Medicus for the Eastern Mediterranean Region (IMEMR), we analyzed indexing in bibliographical databases and citations during 2006-2009 to published items in 2006 in Web of Science (WoS) and SCOPUS. Adherence to editorial and publishing standards was assessed using a special checklist. Out of 419 journals in IMEMR, 19 were indexed in MEDLINE, 23 in WoS and 46 in SCOPUS. Their impact factors ranged from 0.016 to 1.417. For a subset of 175 journals with available tables of contents from 2006, articles published in 2006 from 93 journals received 2068 citations in SCOPUS (23.5% self-citations) and articles in 86 journals received 1579 citations in WoS (24.3% self-citations) during 2006-2009. Citations to articles came mostly from outside of the Eastern Mediterranean region (76.8% in WoS and 75.4% in SCOPUS). Articles receiving highest number of citations presented topics specific for the region. Many journals did not follow editorial and publishing standards, such addressing requirements about the patient's privacy rights (68.0% out of 244 analyzed), policy on managing conflicts of interest (66.4%), and ethical conduct in clinical and animal research (66.4%). Journals from the Eastern Mediterranean are visible in and have impact on global scientific community. Coordinated effort of all stakeholders in journal publishing, including researchers, journal editors and owners, policy makers and citation databases, is needed to further promote local journals as windows to the research in the developing world and the doors for valuable regional research to the global scientific community.

  13. Bridging knowledge translation gap in health in developing countries: visibility, impact and publishing standards in journals from the Eastern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Local and regional scientific journals are important factors in bridging gaps in health knowledge translation in low-and middle-income countries. We assessed indexing, citations and publishing standards of journals from the Eastern Mediterranean region. Methods For journals from 22 countries in the collection of the Index Medicus for the Eastern Mediterranean Region (IMEMR), we analyzed indexing in bibliographical databases and citations during 2006–2009 to published items in 2006 in Web of Science (WoS) and SCOPUS. Adherence to editorial and publishing standards was assessed using a special checklist. Results Out of 419 journals in IMEMR, 19 were indexed in MEDLINE, 23 in WoS and 46 in SCOPUS. Their impact factors ranged from 0.016 to 1.417. For a subset of 175 journals with available tables of contents from 2006, articles published in 2006 from 93 journals received 2068 citations in SCOPUS (23.5% self-citations) and articles in 86 journals received 1579 citations in WoS (24.3% self-citations) during 2006–2009. Citations to articles came mostly from outside of the Eastern Mediterranean region (76.8% in WoS and 75.4% in SCOPUS). Articles receiving highest number of citations presented topics specific for the region. Many journals did not follow editorial and publishing standards, such addressing requirements about the patient’s privacy rights (68.0% out of 244 analyzed), policy on managing conflicts of interest (66.4%), and ethical conduct in clinical and animal research (66.4%). Conclusion Journals from the Eastern Mediterranean are visible in and have impact on global scientific community. Coordinated effort of all stakeholders in journal publishing, including researchers, journal editors and owners, policy makers and citation databases, is needed to further promote local journals as windows to the research in the developing world and the doors for valuable regional research to the global scientific community. PMID:22577965

  14. Balanced sediment fluxes in southern California’s Mediterranean-climate zone salt marshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosencranz, Jordan A.; Ganju, Neil K.; Ambrose, Richard F.; Brosnahan, Sandra M.; Dickhudt, Patrick J.; Guntenspergen, Glenn R.; MacDonald, Glen M.; Takekawa, John Y.; Thorne, Karen M.

    2016-01-01

    Salt marsh elevation and geomorphic stability depends on mineral sedimentation. Many Mediterranean-climate salt marshes along southern California, USA coast import sediment during El Niño storm events, but sediment fluxes and mechanisms during dry weather are potentially important for marsh stability. We calculated tidal creek sediment fluxes within a highly modified, sediment-starved, 1.5-km2 salt marsh (Seal Beach) and a less modified 1-km2marsh (Mugu) with fluvial sediment supply. We measured salt marsh plain suspended sediment concentration and vertical accretion using single stage samplers and marker horizons. At Seal Beach, a 2014 storm yielded 39 and 28 g/s mean sediment fluxes and imported 12,000 and 8800 kg in a western and eastern channel. Western channel storm imports offset 8700 kg exported during 2 months of dry weather, while eastern channel storm imports augmented 9200 kg imported during dry weather. During the storm at Mugu, suspended sediment concentrations on the marsh plain increased by a factor of four; accretion was 1–2 mm near creek levees. An exceptionally high tide sequence yielded 4.4 g/s mean sediment flux, importing 1700 kg: 20 % of Mugu’s dry weather fluxes. Overall, low sediment fluxes were observed, suggesting that these salt marshes are geomorphically stable during dry weather conditions. Results suggest storms and high lunar tides may play large roles, importing sediment and maintaining dry weather sediment flux balances for southern California salt marshes. However, under future climate change and sea level rise scenarios, results suggest that balanced sediment fluxes lead to marsh elevational instability based on estimated mineral sediment deficits.

  15. Summer Distribution, Relative Abundance and Encounter Rates of Cetaceans in the Mediterranean Waters off Southern Italy (Western Ionian Sea and Southern Tyrrhenian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. SANTORO

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In summer 2010 and summer 2011, weekly cetacean surveys were undertaken in “passing mode”, using ferries as platform of opportunity, along the “fixed line transect” between Catania and Civitavecchia (Southern Italy. Of the 20 species of cetaceans confirmed for the Mediterranean sea, 8 were sighted within the survey period: 7 species represented by Mediterranean subpopulations (Balaenoptera physalus, Physeter macrocephalus, Stenella coeruleoalba, Delphinus delphis, Grampus griseus, Tursiops truncatus and Ziphius cavirostris and one considered visitor (Steno bredanensis. We had a total of 220 sightings during the 2010 and a total of 240 sightings in the 2011. The most frequent species was S. coeruleoalba. By the comparison of the data from the two sampling seasons, a significant increase of D. delphis sightings and a decrease of sightings of B. physalus and P. macrocephalus was observed from 2010 to 2011. While all the other species were observed in both sampling seasons, Z. cavirostris and Steno bredanensis were observed only during 2011. The presence of mixed groups of odontocetes was documented too: we sighted groups composed by S. coeruleoalba and D. delphis, by S. coeruleoalba and T. truncatus, and by S. coeruleoalba and G. griseus. The results of this research add useful information on cetacean species in a very poorly known area and highlight the need to standardize large scale and long term monitoring programs in order to detect variation in presence, abundance and distribution of cetaceans populations and understand the effect of anthropogenic factors.

  16. People-flood interaction: victims throughout four Mediterranean countries (France, Italy, Spain, and Greece) in 34 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrucci, Olga; Aceto, Luigi; Boissier, Laurent; Kotroni, Vassiliki; Llasat, Maria Carmen; Llasat-Botija, Montserrat; Rosselló, Joan; Papagiannaki, Katerina; Aurora Pasqua, A.; Vinet, Freddy

    2017-04-01

    Floods and flash floods are widespread phenomena in Mediterranean countries, where they cause severe damage and pose a threat to the people. The aim of this work is to highlight similarities and differences, if any, among circumstances and people behavior in four Mediterranean countries frequently affected by fatal floods: France, Italy, Spain, and Greece. In order to do this, we collected and organized detailed information on victims caused by floods throughout the period 1981-2015. The database is made of different sections allowing: a) Event identification, in terms of time of occurrence and place where fatalities occurred, b) People identification, in terms of gender, age, and often even the name and surname of victims, c) People-event interaction, characterizing the circumstances in which fatalities occurred, including dangerous behaviors, d) External features that could have had some influence on the occurrence of fatalities, as the presence/absence of alert systems and prevention measures. We used the collected information to investigate the event dynamics that led to the loss of lives and we identified the most dangerous event circumstances. The aim is to understand how and why people are involved in these events, and the most dangerous conditions, places, activities and dynamics of people-event interaction. The results can improve the understanding of the impacts that floods pose to people and can increase risk awareness among administrators and citizens. The outcomes can also be used to understand and highlight similarities and differences, if existing, in the behaviors of people in the four analyzed countries, in order to strength the strategies aiming to save people and warn about risky behaviors. We think our study can improve the understanding on the impacts that geo-hydrological hazards pose to the population of analyzed places, and on their consequences, and we believe it could be an important step for increasing knowing and awareness among

  17. Origin and distribution of hydrocarbons and organic matter in the surficial sediments of the Sfax-Kerkennah channel (Tunisia, Southern Mediterranean Sea)

    OpenAIRE

    Zaghden, H.; Tedetti, Marc; Sayadi, S.; Serbaji, M. M.; Elleuch, B.; Saliot, A.

    2017-01-01

    International audience; We investigated the origin and distribution of aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (AHs and PAHs)and organic matter (OM) in surficial sediments of the Sfax-Kerkennah channel in the Gulf of Gabès (Tunisia,Southern Mediterranean Sea). TOC, AH and PAH concentrations ranged 2.3–11.7%, 8–174 μg g−1 sed. dw and175–10,769 ng g−1 sed. dw, respectively. The lowest concentrations were recorded in the channel (mediumsand sediment) and the highest ones in the Sfax harbo...

  18. Ecological study of road traffic injuries in the eastern Mediterranean region: country economic level, road user category and gender perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengoelge, Mathilde; Laflamme, Lucie; El-Khatib, Ziad

    2018-02-13

    The Eastern Mediterranean region has the second highest number of road traffic injury mortality rates after the African region based on 2013 data, with road traffic injuries accounting for 27% of the total injury mortality in the region. Globally the number of road traffic deaths has plateaued despite an increase in motorization, but it is uncertain whether this applies to the Region. This study investigated the regional trends in both road traffic injury mortality and morbidity and examined country-based differences considering on income level, categories of road users, and gender distribution. Register-based ecological study linking data from Global Burden of Disease Study with the United Nations Statistics Division for population and World Bank definition for country income level. Road traffic injury mortality rates and disability-adjusted life years were compiled for all ages at country level in 1995, 2005, 2015 and combined for a regional average (n = 22) and a global average (n = 122). The data were stratified by country economic level, road user category and gender. Road traffic injury mortality rates in the Region were higher than the global average for all three reference years but suggest a downward trend. In 2015 mortality rates were more than twice as high in low and high income countries compared to global income averages and motor vehicle occupants had a 3-fold greater mortality than the global average. Severe injuries decreased by more than half for high/middle income countries but remained high for low income countries; three times higher for males than females. Despite a potential downward trend, inequalities in road traffic injury mortality and morbidity burden remain high in the Eastern Mediterranean region. Action needs to be intensified and targeted to implement and enforce safety measures that prevent and mitigate severe motor vehicle crashes in high income countries especially and invest in efforts to promote public, active transport

  19. Energy Efficiency in the Mediterranean Building Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thibault, H.L.; El Habib, El Andaloussi

    2011-01-01

    Despite the alerts that have been sounded since 1992, as international conferences aimed at curbing global warming have come and gone, and despite the plans for reducing the use of fossil fuel resources that call for the moderation of energy consumption, few actions or incentive measures (and even fewer directives) have actually been developed to act on the demand for energy. Yet, as Henri-Luc Thibault and El Habib El Andaloussi show here, some very concrete measures can have major effects in this area. This is the case with everything relating to the improvement of energy efficiency in building, where housing conditions, the housing stock and related energy consumption (heating, air-conditioning etc.) are concerned. Thibault and El Andaloussi show the potential impact of such measures in the Mediterranean region. Basing themselves on the work of the 'Plan Bleu' organization, which has worked out a revolutionary scenario for the energy field in the countries of the southern and eastern Mediterranean (to 2030), they begin by recalling the importance of buildings in regional energy consumption and the various levers that might be used to reduce that consumption (regulation, materials, efficiency of machinery etc.). In such a scenario, the potential for energy savings in this sector would seem considerable. Moreover, this would enable a substantial decrease in greenhouse gas emissions to be achieved, and would also have very positive effects in terms of job creation. In conclusion, the authors point out the need for investment over 20 years, depending on the particular country concerned, to put in place the five flagship measures of energy saving, which would be genuine investments for the future.. (authors)

  20. Mediterranean energy transition: 2040 scenario. Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Jannet Allal, Houda; Guarrera, Lisa; Karbuz, Sohbet; Menichetti, Emanuela; Lescoeur, Bruno; El Agrebi, Hassen; Harrouch, Hamdi; Campana, Dominique; Greaume, Francois; Bedes, Christelle; Bolinches, Christine; Meraud, Thierry; Tappero, Denis; Bosseboeuf, Didier; Lechevin, Bruno; Abaach, Hassan; Damasiotis, Markos; Darras, Marc; Hajjaji, Mourad; Keramane, Abdenour; Khalfallah, Ezzedine; Mourtada, Adel; Osman, Nejib

    2016-06-01

    The stakes of embarking upon a Mediterranean Energy Transition is essential for countries from both shores of the Mediterranean, especially taking into account the increasing demographics (+105 million by 2040) and the fast growing energy demand in an increasingly constrained context both in terms of energy availability and environmental impacts of conventional energy sources uses. There is a huge, but yet untapped, potential for energy efficiency and renewable energy sources, especially in the South Mediterranean region. By improving energy efficiency and deploying renewables on a large scale, the Mediterranean region would reduce tensions on energy security for importing countries, improve opportunities for exporting ones and reduce energy costs and environmental damages for the whole region. Embarking on an energy transition path will also help improve social welfare in the region and contribute to job creation, among other positive externalities. OME regularly conducts prospective works to 2040, assessing the impact of prolonging current energy trends. Under this Business-As-Usual or so-called 'Conservative' Scenario the situation would evolve critically on all counts over the next 25 years: doubling of energy demand and tripling of electricity consumption, soaring infrastructure and import bills (+443 GW to be installed and doubling of the fossil-fuel imports) and a critical rise in carbon emissions (+45%). Such a scenario, based essentially on fossil fuels, would put further strain on the environment and exacerbate geopolitical tensions in the region. A change of energy trajectory is therefore necessary for all Mediterranean countries to help change current trends and to increase efforts promoting energy efficiency and renewable energies. In this context, MEDENER and OME, based on the 2030-2050 visions of ADEME and the prospective tools of OME, have decided to jointly investigate a Mediterranean Energy Transition Scenario, an ambitious scenario that

  1. Guidelines, minimal requirements and standard of cancer care around the Mediterranean Area: report from the Collaborative AROME (Association of Radiotherapy and Oncology of the Mediterranean Area) working parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    Guidelines are produced in oncology to facilitate clinical decision making and improve clinical practice. However, existing guidelines are mainly developed for countries with a certain availability of means and cultural aspects are rarely taken into account. Around the Mediterranean Area, countries share common cultural backgrounds but also great disparities with respect to availability of means; current guidelines by most societies are not applicable to all of those countries. Association of Radiotherapy and Oncology of the Mediterranean Area (AROME) is a scientific organization for the promotion and overcoming of inequalities in oncology clinical practice around the Mediterranean Area. In an effort to accomplish this goal, members of the AROME society have developed clinical recommendations for most common cancer sites in countries around the Mediterranean Area. The structure of these recommendations lies in the concept of minimal requirements vs. standard of care; they are being presented and discussed in the main text. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Med Diet 4.0: the Mediterranean diet with four sustainable benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dernini, S; Berry, E M; Serra-Majem, L; La Vecchia, C; Capone, R; Medina, F X; Aranceta-Bartrina, J; Belahsen, R; Burlingame, B; Calabrese, G; Corella, D; Donini, L M; Lairon, D; Meybeck, A; Pekcan, A G; Piscopo, S; Yngve, A; Trichopoulou, A

    2017-05-01

    To characterize the multiple dimensions and benefits of the Mediterranean diet as a sustainable diet, in order to revitalize this intangible food heritage at the country level; and to develop a multidimensional framework - the Med Diet 4.0 - in which four sustainability benefits of the Mediterranean diet are presented in parallel: major health and nutrition benefits, low environmental impacts and richness in biodiversity, high sociocultural food values, and positive local economic returns. A narrative review was applied at the country level to highlight the multiple sustainable benefits of the Mediterranean diet into a single multidimensional framework: the Med Diet 4.0. Setting/subjects We included studies published in English in peer-reviewed journals that contained data on the characterization of sustainable diets and of the Mediterranean diet. The methodological framework approach was finalized through a series of meetings, workshops and conferences where the framework was presented, discussed and ultimately refined. The Med Diet 4.0 provides a conceptual multidimensional framework to characterize the Mediterranean diet as a sustainable diet model, by applying principles of sustainability to the Mediterranean diet. By providing a broader understanding of the many sustainable benefits of the Mediterranean diet, the Med Diet 4.0 can contribute to the revitalization of the Mediterranean diet by improving its current perception not only as a healthy diet but also a sustainable lifestyle model, with country-specific and culturally appropriate variations. It also takes into account the identity and diversity of food cultures and systems, expressed within the notion of the Mediterranean diet, across the Mediterranean region and in other parts of the world. Further multidisciplinary studies are needed for the assessment of the sustainability of the Mediterranean diet to include these new dimensions.

  3. The mediterranean diet model in inflammatory rheumatic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Spinella

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean diet is based on a pattern of eating that’s closely tied to the Mediterranean region, which includes Greece and southern Italy. Essentially, the traditional diet emphasizes foods from plant sources, limited meat consumption, small amounts of wine and olive oil as the main fat source. The beneficial effects of the Mediterranean diet has been proven not only to cardiovascular diseases but also for diabetes, obesity, arthritis and cancer. Its anti-inflammatory and protective properties are linked to the large presence of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamins, but especially to the constituents of extra virgin olive oil: oleic acid, phenolic compounds olecanthal, a new recently discovered molecule, with natural anti-inflammatory properties. It has been shown that the Mediterranean diet can reduce disease activity, pain and stiffness in patients with inflammatory arthritis and may thus constitute a valuable support for patients suffering from these diseases.

  4. Fisheries in the Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. PAPACONSTANTINOU

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to give a description of the Mediterranean fisheries, and its level of exploitation and to address the main questions dealing with its management. The Mediterranean is a semi-enclosed marine area with generally narrow continental shelves. The primary production of the Mediterranean is among the lowest in the world (26-50g C m-2 y-1. The Mediterranean fisheries can be broken down into three main categories: small scale fisheries, trawling and seining fisheries, which operated on demersal, small pelagic and large pelagic resources. After a general description of the state of the resources in the different areas of the Mediterranean it is concluded that (a the overall pictures from the western to the eastern Mediterranean are not considerably different, (b the total landings in the Mediterranean have been increased the last decades, and (c from the perspective of stock assessment, the very few available time series data show stable yield levels. In general fisheries management in the Mediterranean is at a rela- tively early stage of development, judging by the criteria of North Atlantic fisheries. Quota systems are generally not applied, mesh-size regulations usually are set at low levels relative to scientific advice, and effort limitation is not usually applied or, if it is, is not always based on a formal resource assessment. The conservation/management measures applied by the Mediterranean countries can be broadly separated into two major categories: those aiming to keep the fishing effort under control and those aiming to make the exploitation pattern more rational. The most acute problems in the management of the Mediterranean resources are the multispecificity of the catches and the lack of reliable official statistics.

  5. Development of electrical connections around the Mediterranean Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persoz, H.; Nogaret, E.

    1992-01-01

    Interconnections of electrical networks bring a great many benefits, which explains why European countries did this as early as the fifties. More recently, the nations to the south and east of the Mediterranean basin have started interconnecting, and cross-sea links are also planned, which will put all of the countries in contact with each other. The main projects in this direction concern the establishment of undersea links between Spain and Morocco and between Italy and Tunisia; beefing up the interconnections between the North African countries; and developing ties in the Near East, from Egypt to Turkey. As this system comes into being, a computerized management system will have to be installed too, to avoid operational difficulties; so the overall consistency of the various projects will have to be verified by studies conducted at the regional level. This clearly shows that cooperation is indispensable among all the countries concerned. Medelec, a liaison committee of Mediterranean electrical producer association, was created to undertake common actions in this sense. It is certain that the creation of an interconnected electrical network around the Mediterranean will go a long way toward strengthening exchanges and cooperation among these nations. 1 fig., 5 tabs

  6. Solar plants, environmental degradation and local socioeconomic contexts: A case study in a Mediterranean country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delfanti, Lavinia; Colantoni, Andrea; Recanatesi, Fabio; Bencardino, Massimiliano; Sateriano, Adele; Zambon, Ilaria; Salvati, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Photovoltaic plants developed on rural land are becoming a common infrastructure in the Mediterranean region and may contribute, at least indirectly, to various forms of environmental degradation including landscape deterioration, land take, soil degradation and loss in traditional cropland and biodiversity. Our study illustrates a procedure estimating (i) the extension of ground-mounted photovoltaic fields at the municipal scale in Italy and (ii) inferring the socioeconomic profile of the Italian municipalities experiencing different expansion rates of ground-mounted photovoltaic fields over the last years (2007-2014). The procedure was based on diachronic information derived from official data sources integrated into a geographical decision support system. Our results indicate that the surface area of ground-mounted photovoltaic fields into rural land grew continuously in Italy between 2007 and 2014 with positive and increasing growth rates observed during 2007-2011 and positive but slightly decreasing growth rates over 2012-2014, as a result of market saturation and policies containing the diffusion of solar plants on greenfields. We found important differences in the density of ground-mounted solar plants between northern and southern Italian municipalities. We identified accessible rural municipalities in southern Italy with intermediate population density and large availability of non-urban land as the most exposed to the diffusion of solar plants on greenfields in the last decade. Our approach is a promising tool to estimate changes in the use of land driven by the expansion of photovoltaic fields into rural land.

  7. Solar plants, environmental degradation and local socioeconomic contexts: A case study in a Mediterranean country

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delfanti, Lavinia [University of Viterbo, Department DAFNE, Via S. Camillo De Lellis snc, I-11100, Viterbo (Italy); Colantoni, Andrea, E-mail: colantoni@unitus.it [University of Viterbo, Department DAFNE, Via S. Camillo De Lellis snc, I-11100, Viterbo (Italy); Recanatesi, Fabio [University of Viterbo, Department DAFNE, Via S. Camillo De Lellis snc, I-11100, Viterbo (Italy); Bencardino, Massimiliano [University of Salerno, Department of Political, Social and Communication Sciences, Via Giovanni Paolo II 132, I-84084 Fisciano (Italy); Sateriano, Adele [Via A. Di Tullio 40, I-00136, Rome (Italy); Zambon, Ilaria [University of Viterbo, Department DAFNE, Via S. Camillo De Lellis snc, I-11100, Viterbo (Italy); Salvati, Luca, E-mail: luca.salvati@crea.gov.it [Council for Agricultural Research and Economics (CREA-RPS), Via della Navicella 2-4, I-00184, Rome (Italy)

    2016-11-15

    Photovoltaic plants developed on rural land are becoming a common infrastructure in the Mediterranean region and may contribute, at least indirectly, to various forms of environmental degradation including landscape deterioration, land take, soil degradation and loss in traditional cropland and biodiversity. Our study illustrates a procedure estimating (i) the extension of ground-mounted photovoltaic fields at the municipal scale in Italy and (ii) inferring the socioeconomic profile of the Italian municipalities experiencing different expansion rates of ground-mounted photovoltaic fields over the last years (2007-2014). The procedure was based on diachronic information derived from official data sources integrated into a geographical decision support system. Our results indicate that the surface area of ground-mounted photovoltaic fields into rural land grew continuously in Italy between 2007 and 2014 with positive and increasing growth rates observed during 2007-2011 and positive but slightly decreasing growth rates over 2012-2014, as a result of market saturation and policies containing the diffusion of solar plants on greenfields. We found important differences in the density of ground-mounted solar plants between northern and southern Italian municipalities. We identified accessible rural municipalities in southern Italy with intermediate population density and large availability of non-urban land as the most exposed to the diffusion of solar plants on greenfields in the last decade. Our approach is a promising tool to estimate changes in the use of land driven by the expansion of photovoltaic fields into rural land.

  8. Macro- and megafauna recorded in the submarine Bari Canyon (southern Adriatic, Mediterranean Sea using different tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. D'ONGHIA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Macro- and megafauna were recorded in the submarine Bari Canyon (southern Adriatic Sea, Mediterranean Sea during an oceanographic cruise carried out in May-June 2012 and an experimental fishing survey conducted in November 2013. During the former, a total of 20 benthic samples were taken using a Van Veen grab at depths between 268 and 770 m and 4 deployments of a baited lander, for about 43 hours of video records, were carried out at depths between 443 and 788 m. During the latter, 8 longline fishing operations were conducted from 338 down to 612 m. Eighty-five living benthic and benthopelagic species were recorded: 29 Porifera, 1 Cnidaria, 2 Mollusca, 11 Annelida, 1 Arthropoda, 19 Bryozoa, 3 Echinodermata and 19 Chordata. A total of 51 species are new records for the Bari Canyon, 29 new records for the Adriatic Sea. Among the Porifera Cerbaris curvispiculifer is a new addition for the Italian Sponge Fauna. The first certain record of living specimens for the bryozoan Crisia tenella longinodata is reported. A total of 6 Mediterranean endemic species have been identified: 4 Porifera and 2 Annelida. The bathymetric range of some species has been extended. New information acquired for deep sea species confirms their importance in the structure of cold-water coral communities. This study has updated the knowledge on the biodiversity of the Adriatic Sea, as well as of the Bari Canyon in particular, one of the sites designated as “jewels of the Mediterranean” for which urgent conservation measures are needed.

  9. A new hereditary colorectal cancer network in the Middle East and eastern mediterranean countries to improve care for high-risk families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbanoghli, Zeinab; Jabari, Carol; Sweidan, Walid; Hammoudeh, Wail; Cortas, George; Sharara, Ala I; Abedrabbo, Amal; Hourani, Ijad; Mahjoubi, Bahareh; Majidzadeh, Keivan; Tözün, Nurdan; Ziada-Bouchaar, Hadia; Hamoudi, Waseem; Diab, Osama; Khorshid, Hamid Reza Khorram; Lynch, Henry; Vasen, Hans

    2018-04-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) has a very high incidence in the western world. Data from registries in the Middle East showed that the incidence of CRC is relatively low in these countries. However, these data also showed that CRC incidence has increased substantially over the past three decades and that a high proportion of cases are diagnosed at an early age (Middle East was discussed and the idea was conceived to establish a network on hereditary colorectal cancer (HCCN-ME) with the goal of improving care for high-risk groups in the Middle East and (Eastern) Mediterranean Countries.

  10. Challenges to the Mediterranean diet at a time of economic crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaccio, M; Bes-Rastrollo, M; de Gaetano, G; Iacoviello, L

    2016-12-01

    The traditional Mediterranean diet (MD) is reportedly associated with lower risk of major chronic diseases and long considered to contribute to the reduced rates of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events and to the highest life expectancy in adults who lived near the Mediterranean Sea. But despite its widely documented health benefits, adherence to this dietary pattern has been rapidly declining over the last decades due to a clear socioeconomic influence. The present review provides an overview of the evidence on the current major determinants of adherence to the Mediterranean diet, with a particular emphasis on Mediterranean Countries at a time of economic crisis; second it explores emerging socioeconomic inequalities in other domains of healthy dietary behaviours such as dietary variety, access to organic foods and food purchasing behaviour. According to ecological evidence, the Mediterranean Countries that used to have the highest adherence to the Mediterranean pattern in the Sixties, more recently experienced the greatest decrease, while Countries in Northern Europe and some other Countries around the world are currently embracing a Mediterranean-like dietary pattern. A potential cause of this downward trend could be the increasing prices of some food items of the Mediterranean diet pyramid. Recent evidence has shown a possible involvement of the economic crisis, material resources becoming strong determinants of the adherence to the MD just after the recession started in 2007-2008. Beyond intake, the MD also encourages increasing dietary diversity, while international dietary recommendations suggest replacing regular foods with healthier ones. Socioeconomic factors appear to be major determinants of the adherence to MD and disparities also hold for other indices of diet quality closely related to this dietary pattern. Copyright © 2016 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human

  11. Conservation tillage versus conventional tillage on carbon stock in a Mediterranean dehesa (southern Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parras-Alcántara, Luis; Lozano-García, Beatriz

    2014-05-01

    Understanding soil dynamics is essential for making appropriate land management decisions, as soils can affect the carbon content from the atmosphere, emitting large quantities of CO2 or storing carbon. This property is essential for climate change mitigation strategies as agriculture and forestry soil management can affect the carbon cycle. The dehesa is a Mediterranean silvopastoral system formed by grasslands with scattered oaks (Quercus ilex or Q. suber). The dehesa is a pasture where the herbaceous layer is comprised of either cultivated cereals such as oat, barley and wheat or native vegetation dominated by annual species, which are used as grazing resources. In addition, the dehesa is a practice dedicated to the combined production of Iberian swine, sheep, fuel wood, coal and cork, as well as hunting. The dehesa is characterized by the preservation of forest oaks. In this work, we compared two management practices such as organic farming (OF) and conventional tillage (CT) on soil organic carbon stocks (SOC-S) in Cambisols (CM) and Leptosols (LP), and we analyzed the quality of these soils based on stratification ratio (SR) in a Mediterranean dehesa. MATERIAL AND METHODS An analysis of 85 soil profiles was performed in 2009 in Los Pedroches Valley (Cordoba, southern Spain). Two soil management practices were selected: OF (isolated trees of variable densities —15-25— trees ha-1, mostly holm and cork oaks, and patches of shrubs — cistaceae, fabaceae and lamiaceae— with a herbaceous pasture layer mostly composed of therophytic species and livestock are introduced to provide organic fertilizer to the soil, without ploughing and animal manure from the farms may be incorporated) for 20 years and CT (similar to OF, with ploughing —annual passes with a disc harrow and/or cultivator— is aimed at growing grain for livestock or at clearing the encroaching shrubs) in CM and LP. The dehesas studied were silvopastoral systems without cropping. Soil properties

  12. [The new migratory deal in Southern Europe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, G

    1986-09-01

    The author examines migration patterns in Southern Europe during the 1970s and early 1980s, noting particularly the reduction in migration northward from this region. It is noted that "departure potential remains sizable in certain areas of Portugal, Spain, Southern Italy, and most particularly, of Turkey and Yugoslavia. Transoceanic migrations have by no means ceased, as new flows of skilled labor have, since 1974, gone towards Arab states endowed with petrol (oil) revenues. And yet, the paramount fact is most surely the emergence and the proliferation in Greece, Spain, and (especially) in Italy, of basically clandestine (illegal) immigration. This movement is due to the convergence of several factors: economic and demographic disparities between northern and southern shores of the Mediterranean Sea, the sealing-off of borders in Northwestern Europe and the 'carry-over' effect upon nations of 'transit', the extent of the flow of refugees, and--most particularly--the appeal provided by the development, in these new employer countries, of an underground economy accompanied by the extension into industry of the practice of 'undeclared' work. And notwithstanding the series of rules lastly drawn up in Spain and in Greece, such forms of clandestine (unauthorized) migration appear highly likely--to say the least--to persist." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND SPA) excerpt

  13. Influence of southern oscillation on autumn rainfall in Iran (1951-2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roghani, Rabbaneh; Soltani, Saeid; Bashari, Hossein

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate the relationships between southern oscillation and autumn (October-December) rainfall in Iran. It also sought to identify the possible physical mechanisms involved in the mentioned relationships by analyzing observational atmospheric data. Analyses were based on monthly rainfall data from 50 synoptic stations with at least 35 years of records up to the end of 2011. Autumn rainfall time series were grouped by the average Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) and SOI phase methods. Significant differences between rainfall groups in each method were assessed by Kruskal-Wallis and Kolmogorov-Smirnov non-parametric tests. Their relationships were also validated using the linear error in probability space (LEPS) test. The results showed that average SOI and SOI phases during July-September were related with autumn rainfall in some regions located in the west and northwest of Iran, west coasts of the Caspian Sea and southern Alborz Mountains. The El Niño (negative) and La Niña (positive) phases were associated with increased and decreased autumn rainfall, respectively. Our findings also demonstrated the persistence of Southern Pacific Ocean's pressure signals on autumn rainfall in Iran. Geopotential height patterns were totally different in the selected El Niño and La Niña years over Iran. During the El Niño years, a cyclone was formed over the north of Iran and an anticyclone existed over the Mediterranean Sea. During La Niña years, the cyclone shifted towards the Mediterranean Sea and an anticyclone developed over Iran. While these El Niño conditions increased autumn rainfall in Iran, the opposite conditions during the La Niña phase decreased rainfall in the country. In conclusion, development of rainfall prediction models based on the SOI can facilitate agricultural and water resources management in Iran.

  14. Offshore Gas in East Mediterranean: From Myth to Reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boncourt, Maite de

    2013-01-01

    The wave of deep offshore and unconventional gas and oil exploration projects, rendered economically feasible by relatively high prices and new technologies, has reached the shores of the Mediterranean. Levantine countries, including Cyprus, Israel, Palestinian Territories, Lebanon, Syria, have new offshore gas potentials. A few years ago, the East Mediterranean energy situation looked gloomy. East Mediterranean countries, struggling to feed their growing domestic energy consumption, were forced to depend on neighbours like Egypt whose export gas pipeline kept on blowing or Syria which was unable to fulfil the export contracts it signed and they meanwhile had to buy LNG at world markets high spot prices or fuel their power stations with highly priced fuel oil or diesel. Long term prospects did not look good either as the ability of Egypt -the main regional supplier- to maintain gas export's volumes is being challenged by rising domestic demand. Israel in particular, given its tense relations with energy rich Arab countries was finding itself in a difficult situation to secure its supplies. The discoveries of giant gas fields offshore Israel, now followed by its neighbours who all started to explore their offshore, has changed the picture. Gas fields have provided these countries a great feeling of blessing as expected economic benefits will be massive and energy security improved - a major concern after Arab Revolutions have shaken established energy routes. The road leading to a change of energy paradigm in the East Mediterranean is however long and bumpy. Before these countries will be able to tap benefits from these deep water gas (and oil) resources, these countries will actually have to overcome significant geopolitical, regulatory and commercial hurdles. Energy laws and clear and attractive legal frameworks for exploration and production activities, will need to be set up, and sometimes from scratch. Infrastructures -so far almost inexistent- will have to be

  15. International trends in health science librarianship: part 4--four Southern European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappa, Evagelia; Chaleplioglou, Artemis; Cognetti, Gaetana; Della Seta, Maurella; Napolitani Cheyne, Federica; Juan-Quilis, Veronica; Muñoz-Gonzalez, Laura; Lopes, Sílvia; Murphy, Jeannette

    2012-12-01

    This is the fourth in a series of articles exploring international trends in health science librarianship in four Southern European countries in the first decade of the 21st century. The invited authors are from Greece, Italy, Spain and Portugal. Future issues will track trends in Latin America and Central Europe. © 2012 The authors. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2012 Health Libraries Group.

  16. New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records (March 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. KARACHLE

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this Collective Article on “New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records”, we present additional records of species found in the Mediterranean Sea. These records refer to eight different countries throughout the northern part of the basin, and include 28 species, belonging to five phyla. The findings per country include the following species: Spain: Callinectes sapidus and Chelidonura fulvipunctata; Monaco: Aplysia dactylomela; Italy: Charybdis (Charybdis feriata, Carcharodon carcharias, Seriola fasciata, and Siganus rivulatus; Malta: Pomacanthus asfur; Croatia: Lagocephalus sceleratus and Pomadasys incisus; Montenegro: Lagocephalus sceleratus; Greece: Amathia (Zoobotryon verticillata, Atys cf. macandrewii, Cerithium scabridum, Chama pacifica, Dendostrea cf. folium, Ergalatax junionae, Septifer cumingii, Syphonota geographica, Syrnola fasciata, Oxyurichthys petersi, Scarus ghobban, Scorpaena maderensis, Solea aegyptiaca and Upeneus pori; Turkey: Lobotes surinamensis, Ruvettus pretiosus and Ophiocten abyssicolum. In the current article, the presence of Taractes rubescens (Jordan & Evermann, 1887 is recorded for the first time in the Mediterranean from Italy. The great contribution of citizen scientists in monitoring biodiversity records is reflected herein, as 10% of the authors are citizen scientists, and contributed 37.5% of the new findings.

  17. [Analysis of the effectiveness of the spa and health resort-based treatment of the patients presenting with broncho-pulmonary pathology at the southern coast of the Crimea depending on the period of flowering of Mediterranean Cypress (Cupressus sempervirens)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savchenko, V M; Belyaeva, S N; Govorun, M I; Pirogova, M E

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of pollen of Mediterranean Cypress (Cupressus sempervirens) on the effectiveness of the spa and health resort-based treatment (SHRT) of the patients with broncho-pulmonary pathology at the southern coast of the Crimea (SCC). This article presents the results of the analysis of the data on 122 patients presenting with broncho-pulmonary pathology who received SHRT under the conditions of the Southern Coast of the Crimea. Fifty one (41.8%) of these patients suffered from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and 71 (58.2%) ones had bronchial asthma. The whole group was comprised of 44 men (36.1%) and 78 women (63.9%). The average (median) age of the patients was 55.8 years. All the participants of the study underwent the comprehensive examination including the general medical and physical examination, complete blood count, the study of sputum cytology and immunological properties of blood including the standard characteristics, IgE and lysozyme levels), evaluation of the respiratory and locomotor (physical) functions with the use of the 6-minute walking test. The aeropollenological study of the aerial environment of the southern coast of the Crimea in the region of Yalta showed that the «bloom» of the Mediterranean Cypress occurs during the period from February till April inclusive. The highest concentrations of cypress pollen are observed in March and early April. The overall effectiveness of SHRT for the patients with broncho-pulmonary pathology arriving for the treatment at the southern coast of the Crimea from other Crimean localities does not depend on the period of «flowering» (the presence of pollen in the air) of the Mediterranean Cypress. In these patients, the termination of the spa and health resort-based treatment during the «flowering» of the Mediterranean Cypress resulted in nothing more than a strained adaptive response manifested as the altered blood leukocyte count. Such reaction

  18. Energy security in western Mediterranean: new factors, new policies. A Spanish perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mane-Estrada, Aurelia

    2008-01-01

    After having noticed that there are two typical approaches and models to address energy security, policies acting on the supply side and policies based on a market-and-institutions approach (like stated by the European Union), the author outlines the effects of this second approach for countries of the western Mediterranean Sea, and then analyses the evolutions of energetic relationships between Algeria (where the energy sector is the most open, which is the best equipped in terms of gas infrastructures, and which attracts foreign investors) and European countries of the region (France, Italy, Spain and Portugal). Thus, she analyses present exchanges in the region, the dependency of these European countries on Mediterranean producers, and the relationships between involved companies of the region. She discusses the issue of energy security policy for the region from the perspective of the governments of producing countries and of consuming countries, and of companies. She discusses whether the project of Union for the Mediterranean complies with these objectives of energy security

  19. Skilled Labour market and economic development in the Mediterranean area

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Luciano; Roberto Di Monaco

    2011-01-01

    Steady growing literature has examined the relationship between human capital and economic development. However, there is no empirical evidence that the increase in education is always related to growth. The purpose of this paper is to explore the links between human capital and growth in Mediterranean countries to put the premises for further research on single countries and on the functioning of the Mediterranean high skill labour market and the relationship with the economic development of...

  20. [Endemic zoonosis in Mediterranean area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenga, Concettina; Pugliese, Michela

    2013-01-01

    The Mediterranean is historically considered an area of high concentration of zoonoses. Mediterranean countries socio-economic features have favoured, over time, the onset of different types of zoonosis. Many of these may affect many occupational categories, first of all farmers, people working in abattoirs and processing products of animal origin. New farming activities and technologies have generated new occupational and zoonotic risks. These changes have influenced zoonosis epidemiology and have led to a gradual decrease in the number of diseases and to a reduction of some biological risks. However, brucellosis, Q fever, bovine tuberculosis cystic echinococcosis remain a strong example of zoonosis and a real risk, in the Mediterranean area especially. Therefore, an interdisciplinary collaboration between Veterinary Service, Public Health and Occupational medicine is necessary in order to plan territorial prevention.

  1. Dataset of Phenology of Mediterranean high-mountain meadows flora (Sierra Nevada, Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Jesús Pérez-Luque; Cristina Patricia Sánchez-Rojas; Regino Zamora; Ramón Pérez-Pérez; Francisco Javier Bonet

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Sierra Nevada mountain range (southern Spain) hosts a high number of endemic plant species, being one of the most important biodiversity hotspots in the Mediterranean basin. The high-mountain meadow ecosystems (borreguiles) harbour a large number of endemic and threatened plant species. In this data paper, we describe a dataset of the flora inhabiting this threatened ecosystem in this Mediterranean mountain. The dataset includes occurrence data for flora collected in those ecosystems...

  2. Biological Correlates of Northern-Southern Italy Differences in IQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templer, Donald I.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was intended to provide perspective, albeit less than unequivocal, on the research of Lynn (2010) who reported higher IQs in the northern than southern Italian regions. He attributes this to northern Italians having a greater genetic similarity to middle Europeans and southern Italians to Mediterranean people. Higher regional IQ…

  3. Climate changes over the past millennium: Relationships with Mediterranean climates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, M.E.

    2006-01-01

    Evidence is reviewed for climate change and its causes over the interval spanning roughly the past millennium. Particular emphasis is placed on patterns of climate change influencing Mediterranean climates of the Northern Hemisphere. The evidence is taken from studies using high-resolution climate proxy data sources, and climate modeling simulations. The available evidence suggests that forced changes in dynamical modes of variability including the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) have played a key role in the patterns of climate variability in Mediterranean regions over the past millennium

  4. Matrilineal Heritage in Southern Iberia Reveals Deep Genetic Links between Continents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Candela L; Calderón, Rosario

    2017-03-01

    Within the Mediterranean Basin, the Iberian Peninsula has been a focus of attraction for several cultures and civilizations from its prehistory and history, making it a target territory for studying human migration patterns and peopling processes using a wide and heterogeneous spectrum of genomic markers. While its Cantabrian fringe represents the most regularly analysed area in terms of its mitochondrial diversity, the absence of monographic surveys on the maternal genetic composition of southern Iberians (i.e., Andalusians) is striking. In this work, we present a comprehensive view of various aspects of the human maternal heritage of the autochthonous Andalusian population regarding specific mitochondrial haplogroups considered key candidates to determine the genetic relationship between Europe and Africa. Data reveal that southern Iberian populations do not have genetically homogeneous mitochondrial DNA profiles, and their observed genetic affinity with north-western African populations represents strong signals of old, sustained and bidirectional human movements between the northern and southern shores of the western Mediterranean. Thorough analyses of African mtDNA haplogroups have shown that the most relevant African contribution within Iberian Peninsula could be explained as a consequence of prehistoric events. The subsequent historic episodes helped to strengthen the ties between both shores. In southern Iberia, mitochondrial and other genetic markers show that the Strait of Gibraltar together with its surrounding maritime areas should be considered a bridge between continents. More broadly, the Mediterranean Sea has acted as a transport surface, that is, as a permeable barrier to human migrations from prehistoric and historic times. In conclusion, this research contributes to our knowledge of processes that have shaped the recent human genetic history in the Mediterranean and, more specifically, of the population dynamics that the inhabitants of southern

  5. Marine protected area design patterns in the Mediterranean Sea: Implications for conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, D; Rodríguez, J; Blanco, J M; Abdul Malak, D

    2016-09-15

    Mediterranean marine protected area (MPA) design patterns regarding geographic distribution, size, spacing and shape were analysed as a proxy of the region's MPA's ecological effectiveness and a first step towards an ecologically coherent MPA network. Results for legally designated MPAs and ecologically functional MPAs accounting for overlaps are presented. Geographically, Mediterranean MPA area is very unevenly distributed, with four-fifths concentrated in just three countries of the north-western part of the basin. Average distance between functional MPAs lies within recommended ecological thresholds, which suggests adequate potential connectivity of the Mediterranean MPA system. Mediterranean designated MPAs are larger than MPAs worldwide on average, although they are generally smaller than international guidance suggests at different levels: ecoregion, country and designation category. On average, Mediterranean designated and functional MPAs have relatively high compactness, which makes them prone to spillover and adequate viability, and less vulnerable to edge effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The changing Mediterranean Sea — a sensitive ecosystem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turley, Carol M.

    1999-08-01

    seasonal climate and low land runoff contribute to the low productivity of the sea. Nutrients are a major controlling factor in oceanic productivity and often influence the type and succession of phytoplankton. Changes in river flow and agricultural practice can influence the concentration and ratio of different nutrients flowing into the sea. For example, changing agricultural practices have resulted in higher nitrogen and phosphorus flowing into the Adriatic and lagoons of the Nile which has lead to eutrophication. The predicted population increases, especially along the southern shores, seems likely to result in eutrophication and an increased risk of pollution in other areas unless well managed. A further warning tale from the Black Sea has recently come to light where damming of rivers has resulted in depletion of silica in the seawater. (Humborg, C., Ittekkot, V., Cociasu, A., & Bodungen, B. (1997). Effect of Danube River dam on Black Sea biogeochemistry and ecosystem structure. Nature, London, 386, 385-388.) This means that silica-requiring phytoplankton do not have their essential growth nutrient and may explain the unbalanced growth of other toxic forms which do not require silica. Similarly, the Aswan dam holds back massive amounts of silica carried by the Nile from entering the eastern Mediterranean. The future of the Mediterranean ecosystem does not look rosy. If we are to learn from scientific observations, such as those in the Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea and Adriatic, scientists, economists and policy makers, from the 18 countries bordering the Mediterranean, must interface to ensure an adequate and appropriate response.

  7. Allergic reactions to vespids: comparison of sensitivities to two species in a Mediterranean area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanca, M; Miranda, A; Fernandez, J; Terrados, S; Vela, J M; Vega, J M; Gonzalez, J J; Juarez, C

    1988-01-01

    We have studied a group of twenty-seven patients who suffer allergic reactions to vespids stings. Specific IgE antibodies to venom extracts from Polistes gallicus and Vespula germanica were measured by RAST, and the crossreactivity between the two venoms was compared using the RAST inhibition technique. We concluded that, in southern Spain, sensitization to P. gallicus was more prevalent than that to V. germanica, with 44% of the subjects in this study reacting to P. gallicus compared with 33% to V. germanica. However, there was a considerable degree of crossreactivity between the two species. It is evident that Polistes is an important species in this area; however, both in Spain and other Mediterranean countries, V. germanica venom is used almost exclusively for diagnosis and immunotherapy.

  8. Energy from the forests in Mediterranean countries; L'energie forestiere dans les pays mediterraneens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Montgolfier, J. [Strasbourg Univ., Alsace (France). Ecole nationale du genie de l' eau et de l' environnement

    2009-07-15

    Lands around the Mediterranean Sea have unique forested areas because of the climate that is characterized by dry summers and mild and rainy winters. The article described how communities in the Mediterranean have relied on forested areas as a source of wood energy for generations. It discussed the social and economic importance of Mediterranean forests, particularly for rural people in the south and east Mediterranean where forested areas play a role in the fight against poverty and food security. The damage to these areas resulting from forest neglect or overuse include an irreversible loss of biodiversity, risk of fire and the associated impacts. The role of sustainable forest management in the mitigation and adaptation to the effects of climate change was also discussed. 2 figs.

  9. Alimentation méditerranéenne et cancers [Mediterranean diet and cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariette GERBER

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cancer prevention through food habits is an important matter of public health, given that everybody is exposed to food. The Mediterranean diet model is briefly reported, together with the way to evaluate the adherence to this diet. However, the original score, made for Mediterranean populations, had to be adapted to Western populations. These modifications pinpoint the peculiar aspects of the Mediterranean diet related to health. The studies reporting on the relationship between Mediterranean diet and cancer mortality, colorectal, breast, prostate and other cancers incidence are described. A risk reduction is generally evoked for these outcomes in Mediterranean countries, but it is more difficult to show in US or North-European country. Enough subjects with sane food habits, capable to reveal an inverse association of a Mediterranean-style diet and cancers, might only be found in large cohorts. In addition, the group of “negative” foods in the score needs to include “junk food”, known to be deleterious, and often part of the habits in these occidental countries. In conclusion, it can be said that a high and diverse consumption of fruits, vegetables, legumes, whole grain cereals is a must, be underlined the importance of olive oil, be mentioned the advantage of eating sea-food at least twice-a-week. Consumption of red and processed meat, dairy foods, and alcohol should be kept low and it is important to avoid sugars, saturated fats, all junk-foods, providing empty calories.

  10. Variability in regional background aerosols within the Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querol, X.; Alastuey, A.; Pey, J.; Cusack, M.; Pérez, N.; Mihalopoulos, N.; Theodosi, C.; Gerasopoulos, E.; Kubilay, N.; Koçak, M.

    2009-07-01

    The main objective of this study is the identification of major factors controlling levels and chemical composition of aerosols in the regional background (RB) along the Mediterranean Basin (MB). To this end, data on PM levels and speciation from Montseny (MSY, NE Spain), Finokalia (FKL, Southern Greece) and Erdemli (ERL, Southern Turkey) for the period 2001 to 2008 are evaluated. Important differences on PM levels and composition are evident when comparing the Western and Eastern MBs. The results manifest W-E and N-S PM10 and PM2.5 gradients along the MB, attributed to the higher frequency and intensity of African dust outbreaks in the EMB, while for PM1 very similar levels are encountered. PM in the EMB is characterized by higher levels of crustal material and sulphate as compared to WMB (and central European sites), however, RB nitrate and OC + EC levels are relatively constant across the Mediterranean and lower than other European sites. Marked seasonal trends are evidenced for PM levels, nitrate (WMB), ammonium and sulphate. Also relatively higher levels of V and Ni (WMB) are measured in the Mediterranean basin, probably as a consequence of high emissions from fuel-oil combustion (power generation, industrial and shipping emissions). Enhanced sulphate levels in EMB compared to WMB were measured. The high levels of sulphate in the EMB may deplete the available gas-phase NH3 so that little ammonium nitrate can form due to the low NH3 levels. This study illustrates the existence of three very important features within the Mediterranean that need to be accounted for when modeling climate effects of aerosols in the area, namely: a) the increasing gradient of dust from WMB to EMB; b) the change of hygroscopic behavior of mineral aerosols (dust) via nitration and sulfation; and c) the abundance of highly hygroscopic aerosols during high insolation (low cloud formation) periods.

  11. A massive update of non-indigenous species records in Mediterranean marinas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aylin Ulman

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean Sea is home to over 2/3 of the world’s charter boat traffic and hosts an estimated 1.5 million recreational boats. Studies elsewhere have demonstrated marinas as important hubs for the stepping-stone transfer of non-indigenous species (NIS, but these unique anthropogenic, and typically artificial habitats have largely gone overlooked in the Mediterranean as sources of NIS hot-spots. From April 2015 to November 2016, 34 marinas were sampled across the following Mediterranean countries: Spain, France, Italy, Malta, Greece, Turkey and Cyprus to investigate the NIS presence and richness in the specialized hard substrate material of these marina habitats. All macroinvertebrate taxa were collected and identified. Additionally, fouling samples were collected from approximately 600 boat-hulls from 25 of these marinas to determine if boats host diverse NIS not present in the marina. Here, we present data revealing that Mediterranean marinas indeed act as major hubs for the transfer of marine NIS, and we also provide evidence that recreational boats act as effective vectors of spread. From this wide-ranging geographical study, we report here numerous new NIS records at the basin, subregional, country and locality level. At the basin level, we report three NIS new to the Mediterranean Sea (Achelia sawayai sensu lato, Aorides longimerus, Cymodoce aff. fuscina, and the re-appearance of two NIS previously known but currently considered extinct in the Mediterranean (Bemlos leptocheirus, Saccostrea glomerata. We also compellingly update the distributions of many NIS in the Mediterranean Sea showing some recent spreading; we provide details for 11 new subregional records for NIS (Watersipora arcuata, Hydroides brachyacantha sensu lato and Saccostrea glomerata now present in the Western Mediterranean; Symplegma brakenhielmi, Stenothoe georgiana, Spirobranchus tertaceros sensu lato, Dendostrea folium sensu lato and Parasmittina egyptiaca now

  12. A massive update of non-indigenous species records in Mediterranean marinas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulman, Aylin; Ferrario, Jasmine; Occhpinti-Ambrogi, Anna; Arvanitidis, Christos; Bandi, Ada; Bertolino, Marco; Bogi, Cesare; Chatzigeorgiou, Giorgos; Çiçek, Burak Ali; Deidun, Alan; Ramos-Esplá, Alfonso; Koçak, Cengiz; Lorenti, Maurizio; Martinez-Laiz, Gemma; Merlo, Guenda; Princisgh, Elisa; Scribano, Giovanni; Marchini, Agnese

    2017-01-01

    The Mediterranean Sea is home to over 2/3 of the world's charter boat traffic and hosts an estimated 1.5 million recreational boats. Studies elsewhere have demonstrated marinas as important hubs for the stepping-stone transfer of non-indigenous species (NIS), but these unique anthropogenic, and typically artificial habitats have largely gone overlooked in the Mediterranean as sources of NIS hot-spots. From April 2015 to November 2016, 34 marinas were sampled across the following Mediterranean countries: Spain, France, Italy, Malta, Greece, Turkey and Cyprus to investigate the NIS presence and richness in the specialized hard substrate material of these marina habitats. All macroinvertebrate taxa were collected and identified. Additionally, fouling samples were collected from approximately 600 boat-hulls from 25 of these marinas to determine if boats host diverse NIS not present in the marina. Here, we present data revealing that Mediterranean marinas indeed act as major hubs for the transfer of marine NIS, and we also provide evidence that recreational boats act as effective vectors of spread. From this wide-ranging geographical study, we report here numerous new NIS records at the basin, subregional, country and locality level. At the basin level, we report three NIS new to the Mediterranean Sea ( Achelia sawayai sensu lato , Aorides longimerus , Cymodoce aff. fuscina ), and the re-appearance of two NIS previously known but currently considered extinct in the Mediterranean ( Bemlos leptocheirus, Saccostrea glomerata ). We also compellingly update the distributions of many NIS in the Mediterranean Sea showing some recent spreading; we provide details for 11 new subregional records for NIS ( Watersipora arcuata , Hydroides brachyacantha sensu lato and Saccostrea glomerata now present in the Western Mediterranean; Symplegma brakenhielmi , Stenothoe georgiana , Spirobranchus tertaceros sensu lato , Dendostrea folium sensu lato and Parasmittina egyptiaca now present in

  13. Atheroslerosis Epidemiological studies on the health effects of a Mediterranean diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, F.J.; Kromhout, D.

    2004-01-01

    Mediterranean diets are characterized by olive oil, as the dominant fat source and a high to moderate consumption of fruit and vegetables, cereal products, fish, legumes, in combination with little meat and wine with meals. The 'reference' Mediterranean diet seems to differ according to country, but

  14. Woodlands Grazing Issues in Mediterranean Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, P.

    2009-04-01

    In Mediterranean basin, woodlands grazing still continue to be important commercial owners' benefits. These owners manage woodlands vegetations as if they were not at risk of degradation and declining. Frequently, no temporally grazing set-aside is taken into account to avoid overgrazing of annual and perennial vegetations. Although less common, in the northern shore of Mediterranean basin undergrazing might increase the frequency and the number of catastrophic forest fires. This under/over grazing regime occurs in the Mediterranean basin woodlands with contrasted differences on land property rights, local economies and government livestock policy incentives. Spain and Tunisia are examples of these Mediterranean livestock contrasts. Most of Spanish Mediterranean woodlands and livestock herds are large private ownerships and owners could maintain their lands and livestock herds properties on the basis of moderate cash-income compensation against land revaluation and exclusive amenity self-consumption. The later is less tangible benefit and it could include family land legacy, nature enjoyment, country stile of life development, social status and so on. In public woodlands, social and environmental goals -as they are cultural heritage, biodiversity loss mitigation, soil conservation and employment- could maintain market unprofitable woodlands operations. Last three decades Spanish Mediterranean woodlands owners have increased the livestock herds incentivized by government subsidies. As result, grazing rent is pending on the level of European Union and Spanish government livestock subsidies. In this context, Spanish Mediterranean woodlands maintain a high extensive livestock stoking population, which economy could be called fragile and environmentally unsustainable because forest degradation and over/under grazing practices. Tunisian Mediterranean woodlands are state properties and livestock grazing is practice as a free private regimen. Livestock herds are small herd

  15. Biomass burning contributions to urban aerosols in a coastal Mediterranean City

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reche, C.; Viana, M.; Amato, F.; Alastuey, A.; Moreno, T.; Hillamo, R.; Teinilä, K.; Saarnio, K.; Seco, R.; Peñuelas, J.; Mohr, C.; Prévôt, A.S.H.; Querol, X.

    2012-01-01

    Mean annual biomass burning contributions to the bulk particulate matter (PM X) load were quantified in a southern-European urban environment (Barcelona, Spain) with special attention to typical Mediterranean winter and summer conditions. In spite of the complexity of the local air pollution

  16. Contracting but not without caution: experience with outsourcing of health services in countries of the Eastern Mediterranean Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqi, Sameen; Masud, Tayyeb Imran; Sabri, Belgacem

    2006-01-01

    The public sector in developing countries is increasingly contracting with the non-state sector to improve access, efficiency and quality of health services. We conducted a multicountry study to assess the range of health services contracted out, the process of contracting and its influencing factors in ten countries of the Eastern Mediterranean Region: Afghanistan, Bahrain, Egypt, Islamic Republic of Iran, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Pakistan, the Syrian Arab Republic and Tunisia. Our results showed that Afghanistan, Egypt, Islamic Republic of Iran and Pakistan had experience with outsourcing of primary care services; Jordan, Lebanon and Tunisia extensively contracted out hospital and ambulatory care services; while Bahrain, Morocco and the Syrian Arab Republic outsourced mainly non-clinical services. The interest of the non-state sector in contracting was to secure a regular source of revenue and gain enhanced recognition and credibility. While most countries promoted contracting with the private sector, the legal and bureaucratic support in countries varied with the duration of experience with contracting. The inherent risks evident in the contracting process were reliance on donor funds, limited number of providers in rural areas, parties with vested interests gaining control over the contracting process, as well as poor monitoring and evaluation mechanisms. Contracting provides the opportunity to have greater control over private providers in countries with poor regulatory capacity, and if used judiciously can improve health system performance. PMID:17143460

  17. Contracting but not without caution: experience with outsourcing of health services in countries of the Eastern Mediterranean Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqi, Sameen; Masud, Tayyeb Imran; Sabri, Belgacem

    2006-11-01

    The public sector in developing countries is increasingly contracting with the non-state sector to improve access, efficiency and quality of health services. We conducted a multicountry study to assess the range of health services contracted out, the process of contracting and its influencing factors in ten countries of the Eastern Mediterranean Region: Afghanistan, Bahrain, Egypt, Islamic Republic of Iran, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Pakistan, the Syrian Arab Republic and Tunisia. Our results showed that Afghanistan, Egypt, Islamic Republic of Iran and Pakistan had experience with outsourcing of primary care services; Jordan, Lebanon and Tunisia extensively contracted out hospital and ambulatory care services; while Bahrain, Morocco and the Syrian Arab Republic outsourced mainly non-clinical services. The interest of the non-state sector in contracting was to secure a regular source of revenue and gain enhanced recognition and credibility. While most countries promoted contracting with the private sector, the legal and bureaucratic support in countries varied with the duration of experience with contracting. The inherent risks evident in the contracting process were reliance on donor funds, limited number of providers in rural areas, parties with vested interests gaining control over the contracting process, as well as poor monitoring and evaluation mechanisms. Contracting provides the opportunity to have greater control over private providers in countries with poor regulatory capacity, and if used judiciously can improve health system performance.

  18. Mapping of Aspergillus Section Nigri in Southern Europe and Israel based on geostatistical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battilani, P; Barbano, C; Marin, S; Sanchis, V; Kozakiewicz, Z; Magan, N

    2006-09-01

    Geostatistical analysis was applied to the incidence of Aspergillus Section Nigri and A. carbonarius in Southern Europe and Israel for the 3-year period 2001-2003 to facilitate identification of regions of high risk from contamination with these fungi and production of ochratoxin. The highest incidence of black aspergilli was normally observed at harvesting. At this grape growth stage, spatial variability of black aspergilli was significantly related to latitude and longitude, showing a positive West-East and North-South gradient. Predictive maps of infected berries incidence were drawn and showed the same trend in the 3 years, but incidence was highest in 2003, followed by 2001 and 2002. The highest incidence was always observed in Israel, Greece and Southern France, associated with the highest incidence of A. carbonarius. Southern Spain and Southern Italy also had relevant incidence of black aspergilli. The thermo-wetness maps for the 3 years showed a trend similar to the incidence of black aspergilli. The coldest and wettest year was 2002, while 2003 was the hottest and driest, particularly during August, with Israel being the hottest and driest country, followed by Greece and Southern Italy. This indicates that meteorological conditions can contribute to explain spatial distribution variation of black aspergilli within the Mediterranean basin.

  19. The Mediterranean Diet and the Increasing Demand of the Olive Oil Sector: Shifts and Environmental Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Neves

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Mediterranean countries play a crucial role as olive oil producers and consumers compared to other world regions. This work focusses on the development of the world production, trade and consumption where the Mediterranean region stands out from the rest of the world, in particular, the Northern Mediterranean countries. Aspects such as how communication emphasizes the benefits of the Mediterranean diet - which is a distinctive characteristic of the Mediterranean culture and identity - the Slow Food Movement, the International Olive Council campaigns, and the successive Common Agricultural Policies, that have triggered production, trade and consumption around the world, are here discussed. Such increases and stimuli brought and is still bringing changes to the olive oil sector such as a shifting tendency in production modes as well as modernization of the sector, responding to the increasing demand. These shifts and demand are changing landscapes and are being referred as environmentally harmful to the ecosystems as the production of olive oil is shifting to more intensive production systems and monoculture plantations. These issues are here debated and illustrated with case study examples, referring to the Mediterranean countries, particularly, referring to the Iberian Peninsula.

  20. Mycotoxin risks and toxigenic fungi in date, prune and dried apricot among Mediterranean crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayrettin OZER

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Dried fruit is fruit that is preserved by removing the original water content naturally, through sun drying or artificially, by the use of specialized dryers or dehydrators. Dried fruit has a long tradition of use dating back to the fourth millennium BC in Mesopotamia and is prized because of its sweet taste, nutritive value and long shelf life. Traditional dried fruits such as raisins, figs, dates, apricots and prunes have been a staple of Mediterranean diets for millennia. The Mediterranean region is very favourable for production of dried fruits, not only with its climatic conditions, but also its exceptional fertile lands. Additionally, proximity to trade routes historically has allowed Mediterranean countries more access to dried fruits than landlocked countries. Today, dried fruit consumption is widespread. Nearly half of the dried fruits sold throughout the world are raisins, followed by dates, prunes (dried plums, figs, apricots, peaches, apples and pears. Dates, prunes, apricots, figs and raisins are the major dried fruits produced in the Mediterranean area. Dried fruits are not perishable but can support mold growth, some of which can produce mycotoxins. Occurence of toxigenic molds and mycotoxins on these dried fruits can be a problem in the Mediterranean basin, as in the other parts of the world, being a health hazard to the population as well as a trade issue for the export of local products. Although the most important mycotoxins occuring in Mediterranean crops are aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1 and G2 and ochratoxin A, the type and level of mycotoxins and toxigenic molds vary by crop and also by country and in some cases geographic location within a country. In this review mycotoxin risks and toxigenic fungi in date, prune and dried apricot among Mediterranean crops are reported and discussed.

  1. Natural gas and electrical interconnections in the Mediterranean Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenon, M.

    1992-01-01

    Intermediate and long term socio-economical and energetic scenarios have shown that mediterranean basin countries will know a great growth of energy demand, particularly power demand. The first part of this paper describes the main projects for the establishment of interconnected natural gas systems through Mediterranean sea, by pipelines (Algeria-Tunisia-Libya project, Algeria-Morocco-Spain project, Libya-Italy project). The second part describes the main projects of electrical networks with the establishment of undersea links between Spain and Morocco, and between Italy and Tunisia; beefing up the interconnections between the North African countries; and developing ties in the Near East (from Egypt to Turkey)

  2. Fishery-independent surface abundance and density estimates of swordfish (Xiphias gladius) from aerial surveys in the Central Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauriano, Giancarlo; Pierantonio, Nino; Kell, Laurence; Cañadas, Ana; Donovan, Gregory; Panigada, Simone

    2017-07-01

    Fishery-independent surface density and abundance estimates for the swordfish were obtained through aerial surveys carried out over a large portion of the Central Mediterranean, implementing distance sampling methodologies. Both design- and model-based abundance and density showed an uneven occurrence of the species throughout the study area, with clusters of higher density occurring near converging fronts, strong thermoclines and/or underwater features. The surface abundance was estimated for the Pelagos Sanctuary for Mediterranean Marine Mammals in the summer of 2009 (n=1152; 95%CI=669.0-1981.0; %CV=27.64), the Sea of Sardinia, the Pelagos Sanctuary and the Central Tyrrhenian Sea for the summer of 2010 (n=3401; 95%CI=2067.0-5596.0; %CV=25.51), and for the Southern Tyrrhenian Sea during the winter months of 2010-2011 (n=1228; 95%CI=578-2605; %CV=38.59). The Mediterranean swordfish stock deserves special attention in light of the heavy fishing pressures. Furthermore, the unreliability of fishery-related data has, to date, hampered our ability to effectively inform long-term conservation in the Mediterranean Region. Considering that the European countries have committed to protect the resources and all the marine-related economic and social dynamics upon which they depend, the information presented here constitute useful data towards the international legal requirements under the Marine Strategy Framework Directory, the Common Fisheries Policy, the Habitats and Species Directive and the Directive on Maritime Spatial Planning, among the others.

  3. Mainstreaming biodiversity and wildlife management into climate change policy frameworks in selected east and southern African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga L. Kupika

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Rio+20 outcomes document, the Future We Want, enshrines green economy as one of the platforms to attain sustainable development and calls for measures that seek to address climate change and biodiversity management. This paper audits climate change policies from selected east and southern African countries to determine the extent to which climate change legislation mainstreams biodiversity and wildlife management. A scan of international, continental, regional and national climate change policies was conducted to assess whether they include biodiversity and/or wildlife management issues. The key finding is that many climate change policy–related documents, particularly the National Adaptation Programme of Actions (NAPAs, address threats to biodiversity and wildlife resources. However, international policies like the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and Kyoto Protocol do not address the matter under deliberation. Regional climate change policies such as the East African Community, Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa and African Union address biodiversity and/or wildlife issues whilst the Southern African Development Community region does not have a stand-alone policy for climate change. Progressive countries like Rwanda, Uganda, Tanzania and Zambia have recently put in place detailed NAPAs which are mainstream responsive strategies intended to address climate change adaptation in the wildlife sector. Keywords: mainstreaming, biodiversity, wildlife, climate change policy, east and southern Africa

  4. Burden of celiac disease in the Mediterranean area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Luigi; Timpone, Laura; Abkari, Abdelhak; Abu-Zekry, Mona; Attard, Thomas; Bouguerrà, Faouzi; Cullufi, Paskal; Kansu, Aydan; Micetic-Turk, Dusanka; Mišak, Zrinjka; Roma, Eleftheria; Shamir, Raanan; Terzic, Selma

    2011-12-07

    To estimate the burden of undiagnosed celiac disease (CD) in the Mediterranean area in terms of morbidity, mortality and health cost. For statistics regarding the population of each country in the Mediterranean area, we accessed authoritative international sources (World Bank, World Health Organization and United Nations). The prevalence of CD was obtained for most countries from published reports. An overall prevalence rate of 1% cases/total population was finally estimated to represent the frequency of the disease in the area, since none of the available confidence intervals of the reported rates significantly excluded this rate. The distribution of symptoms and complications was obtained from reliable reports in the same cohort. A standardized mortality rate of 1.8 was obtained from recent reports. Crude health cost was estimated for the years between symptoms and diagnosis for adults and children, and was standardized for purchasing power parity to account for the different economic profiles amongst Mediterranean countries. In the next 10 years, the Mediterranean area will have about half a billion inhabitants, of which 120 million will be children. The projected number of CD diagnoses in 2020 is 5 million cases (1 million celiac children), with a relative increase of 11% compared to 2010. Based on the 2010 rate, there will be about 550,000 symptomatic adults and about 240,000 sick children: 85% of the symptomatic patients will suffer from gastrointestinal complaints, 40% are likely to have anemia, 30% will likely have osteopenia, 20% of children will have short stature, and 10% will have abnormal liver enzymes. The estimated standardized medical costs for symptomatic celiac patients during the delay between symptom onset and diagnosis (mean 6 years for adults, 2 years for children) will be about €4 billion (€387 million for children) over the next 10 years. A delay in diagnosis is expected to increase mortality: about 600,000 celiac patients will die in

  5. Assessing trade in health services in countries of the Eastern Mediterranean from a public health perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqi, Sameen; Shennawy, Azza; Mirza, Zafer; Drager, Nick; Sabri, Belgacem

    2010-01-01

    Assessing trade in health services (TiHS) in developing countries is challenging since the sources of information are diverse, information is not accessible and professionals lack grasp of issues. A multi-country study was conducted in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR)--Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Oman, Pakistan, Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, Tunisia, and Yemen. The objective was to estimate the direction, volume, and value of TiHS; analyze country commitments; and assess the challenges and opportunities for health services.Trade liberalization favored an open trade regime and encouraged foreign direct investment. Consumption abroad and movement of natural persons were the two prevalent modes. Yemen and Sudan are net importers, while Jordan promotes health tourism. In 2002, Yemenis spent US$ 80 million out of pocket for treatment abroad, while Jordan generated US$ 620 million. Egypt, Pakistan, Sudan and Tunisia export health workers, while Oman relies on import and 40% of its workforce is non-Omani. There is a general lack of coherence between Ministries of Trade and Health in formulating policies on TiHS.This is the first organized attempt to look at TiHS in the EMR. The systematic approach has helped create greater awareness, and a move towards better policy coherence in the area of trade in health services. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Is the Family System in Romania Similar to those of Southern European Countries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Castiglioni

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In his influential 1998 study, David S. Reher discusses historical differences between countries with strong and weak family ties. He focuses on the “Western World”, comparing Italy and the Iberian Peninsula with Scandinavia, the British Isles, the Low Countries, Germany and Austria, together with North America. In this paper, we explore whether Romania, in Eastern Europe, can be characterised as having a strong family system, given the increasingly important role family has played for individual well-being following the end of the socialist regime. We observe a number of similarities between Romania and Southern European countries in terms of behaviours associated with “strong family ties”, opinions on family care and mutual intergenerational support. Differences can be explained in light of Romania’s economic and housing crisis. Overall, it is likely that the importance of family ties in Romania increased after the end of the socialist regime.

  7. Transmission characteristics of the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic: comparison of 8 Southern hemisphere countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lulla Opatowski

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available While in Northern hemisphere countries, the pandemic H1N1 virus (H1N1pdm was introduced outside of the typical influenza season, Southern hemisphere countries experienced a single wave of transmission during their 2009 winter season. This provides a unique opportunity to compare the spread of a single virus in different countries and study the factors influencing its transmission. Here, we estimate and compare transmission characteristics of H1N1pdm for eight Southern hemisphere countries/states: Argentina, Australia, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, New Zealand, South Africa and Victoria (Australia. Weekly incidence of cases and age-distribution of cumulative cases were extracted from public reports of countries' surveillance systems. Estimates of the reproduction numbers, R(0, empirically derived from the country-epidemics' early exponential phase, were positively associated with the proportion of children in the populations (p = 0.004. To explore the role of demography in explaining differences in transmission intensity, we then fitted a dynamic age-structured model of influenza transmission to available incidence data for each country independently, and for all the countries simultaneously. Posterior median estimates of R₀ ranged 1.2-1.8 for the country-specific fits, and 1.29-1.47 for the global fits. Corresponding estimates for overall attack-rate were in the range 20-50%. All model fits indicated a significant decrease in susceptibility to infection with age. These results confirm the transmissibility of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic virus was relatively low compared with past pandemics. The pattern of age-dependent susceptibility found confirms that older populations had substantial--though partial--pre-existing immunity, presumably due to exposure to heterologous influenza strains. Our analysis indicates that between-country-differences in transmission were at least partly due to differences in population demography.

  8. New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records (October, 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. KATSANEVAKIS

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Collective Article ‘New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records’ of the Mediterranean Marine Science journal offers the means to publish biodiversity records in the Mediterranean Sea. The current article is divided in two parts, for records of alien and native species respectively. The new records of alien species include: the red alga Asparagopsis taxiformis (Crete and Lakonicos Gulf (Greece; the red alga Grateloupia turuturu (along the Israeli Mediterranean shore; the mantis shrimp Clorida albolitura (Gulf of Antalya, Turkey; the mud crab Dyspanopeus sayi (Mar Piccolo of Taranto, Ionian Sea; the blue crab Callinectes sapidus (Chios Island, Greece; the isopod Paracerceis sculpta (northern Aegean Sea, Greece; the sea urchin Diadema setosum (Gökova Bay, Turkey; the molluscs Smaragdia souverbiana, Murex forskoehlii, Fusinus verrucosus, Circenita callipyga, and Aplysia dactylomela (Syria; the cephalaspidean mollusc Haminoea cyanomarginata (Baia di Puolo, Massa Lubrense, Campania, southern Italy; the topmouth gudgeon Pseudorasbora parva (Civitavecchia, Tyrrhenian Sea; the fangtooth moray Enchelycore anatine (Plemmirio marine reserve, Sicily; the silver-cheeked toadfish Lagocephalus sceleratus (Saros Bay, Turkey; and Ibiza channel, Spain; the Indo-Pacific ascidian Herdmania momusin Kastelorizo Island (Greece; and the foraminiferal Clavulina multicam erata (Saronikos Gulf, Greece. The record of L. sceleratus in Spain consists the deepest (350-400m depth record of the species in the Mediterranean Sea. The new records of native species include: first record of the ctenophore Cestum veneris in Turkish marine waters; the presence of Holothuria tubulosa and Holothuria polii in the Bay of Igoumenitsa (Greece; the first recorded sighting of the bull ray Pteromylaeus bovinus in Maltese waters; and a new record of the fish Lobotes surinamensis from Maliakos Gulf.

  9. Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking Prevalence and Correlates in 25 Eastern Mediterranean and Eastern European Countries: Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawad, Mohammed; Lee, John Tayu; Millett, Christopher

    2016-04-01

    Waterpipe tobacco smoking is highly prevalent among young people in some settings. There is an absence of nationally representative prevalence studies of waterpipe tobacco use and dual use with other tobacco products in young people. We conducted a secondary analysis of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey, a nationally representative cross-sectional study of students aged 13-15 years. Of 180 participating countries, 25 included optional waterpipe tobacco smoking questions: 15 Eastern Mediterranean and 10 Eastern European countries. We calculated the prevalence of current (past 30-day) waterpipe tobacco use, including dual waterpipe and other tobacco use, and used logistic regression models to identify sociodemographic correlates of waterpipe tobacco smoking. Individual country results were combined in a random effects meta-analysis. Waterpipe tobacco smoking prevalence was highest in Lebanon (36.9%), the West Bank (32.7%) and parts of Eastern Europe (Latvia 22.7%, the Czech Republic 22.1%, Estonia 21.9%). These countries also recorded greater than 10% prevalence of dual waterpipe and cigarette use. In a meta-analysis, higher odds of waterpipe tobacco smoking were found among males (Adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.37, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.18% to 1.59%), cigarette users (AOR = 6.95, 95% CI = 5.74% to 8.42%), those whose parents (AOR = 1.54, 95% CI = 1.31% to 1.82%) or peers smoked (AOR = 3.53, 95% CI = 2.97% to 4.20%) and those whose parents had higher educational attainment (Father, AOR = 1.47, 95% CI = 1.14% to 1.89%; Mother, AOR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.07% to 2.46%). We report on regional- and country income-level differences. Waterpipe tobacco smoking, including dual waterpipe and cigarette use, is alarmingly high in several Eastern Mediterranean and Eastern European countries. Ongoing waterpipe tobacco smoking surveillance is warranted. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All

  10. The Mediterranean diet: the reasons for a success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaccio, Marialaura; Iacoviello, Licia; de Gaetano, Giovanni; Moli-Sani Investigators

    2012-03-01

    There is a substantial body of evidence linking Mediterranean Diet to cardiovascular risk reduction and prevention of the major chronic diseases. Nevertheless Mediterranean societies are rapidly withdrawing from this eating pattern orienting their food choices toward products typical of the Western diet pattern, which is rich in refined grains, animal fats, sugars, processed meat but are quite poor in legumes, cereals, fruits and vegetables. The reasons people keep on shifting from healthy to unhealthy dietary habits remain open to several interpretations. Social changes appear to have consistently contributed to radical reversal in dietary habits in European Mediterranean societies even though developing Countries are somewhat turning into westernized diets as well. Among possible causes, increasing prices of some of the major food items of Mediterranean pyramid seem to have led people to give up this eating pattern in favor of less expensive products which allow to save money but are definitively unhealthy. Many studies suggest that diet quality follows a socio-economic gradient highlighting how disadvantaged people present higher rates of obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease and some types of cancer. Recent studies have shown a linear relationship between food cost and adherence to eating patterns and obesity. In addition to financial crisis, during the last decades the Mediterranean Diet has been put on the spot because of its alcohol -in- moderation component. Does it make any sense to blame a whole philosophy, which turned out to have beneficial effects on human health, just because, in some Countries, there is a misuse of alcoholic beverages? Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Toscana virus meningo-encephalitis: an important differential diagnosis for elderly travellers returning from Mediterranean countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veater, James; Mehedi, Farhan; Cheung, Chee Kay; Nabarro, Laura; Osborne, Jane; Wong, Nicholas; Wiselka, Martin; Tang, Julian W

    2017-08-29

    Elderly patients have a long list of differentials for causes of acute confusion and altered consciousness levels, including infectious agents. In addition, elderly, retired patients often have more time to travel for tourism, particularly to exotic, warmer locations. Mediterranean countries such as Spain and Italy are popular holiday destinations for British and other tourists, especially during the winter months. However, these warm climates allow insect vectors to proliferate, increasing the risk of exposure to endemic vectorborne viral infections whilst on vacation. Such infections may not be routinely considered by geriatric medical teams. An 87-year old gentleman presented with a three-day history of worsening confusion, lethargy, ataxia, and fevers following a trip to Spain, where he may have sustained a sandfly bite. By the time of admission, he had a reduced GCS, was hallucinating, and was incontinent of urine and faeces, though blood pressure and heart rate were normal. He also appeared hyperaesthetic, and found even capillary blood sugar testing extremely painful. He had no history of cognitive defect or other neurological conditions. He had been previously independently active, with frequent trips to Spain where he maintained a holiday home. He probably sustained a sandfly bite during this most recent trip, whilst cleaning out a shed. Acute and convalescent sera demonstrated IgG antibodies to Toscana virus at extremely high titres of ≥1:10,000 by immunofluorescence assay, though no Toscana virus RNA was detectable in these sera by the time of presentation. Toscana virus should be included in the differential diagnosis of any patients presenting with meningo-encephalitis who have recently returned from a Mediterranean country. Testing for Toscana virus infection is performed by serological testing on acute/convalescent paired sera, and/or a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay on blood or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) if presenting within 5 days of

  12. Comparative technical aspects of the Nephrops norvegicus (L. fishery in the northern Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesc Sarda

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study of the technical characteristics of the Norway lobster fishery in the Mediterranean Sea is presented. The different trawl vessels, trawl gears, trawling manoeuvres, and status of the statistics compiled by the administrations are described. The main conclusions are that catchability has increased with technological advances, official landings statistics are flawed in most of the Mediterranean, and fishing methods differed from country to country.

  13. Hepatitis E virus seroprevalence rate among Eastern Mediterranean and middle eastern countries; A systematic review and pooled analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbalaie Niya, Mohammad Hadi; Rezaee-Zavareh, Mohammad Saeid; Ranaei, Alireza; Alavian, Seyed Moayed

    2017-09-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) as a hepatotropic virus is one of the major global health concerns. Autochthonous HEV transmitted by oral fecal-route in poor sanitation conditions as well as vertical and rarely blood transfusion. HEV occurrence is more common in developing countries and recently increased in developed countries too. Middle East (ME) and Eastern Mediterranean region (EMR) of WHO have been an endemic region for HEV infection. In this regard, we aimed to design a systematic review and pooled analysis to determine seroprevalence of anti-HEV antibody in ME and EMR countries. By using PRISMA guideline, data were collected from papers identified through PubMed, Web of Science, Science Direct, Scopus and also from some national and regional databases from January 1990 to June 2016. Serum anti-HEV antibody (IgG) used for HEV prevalence estimation. HEV prevalence in the ME, WHO EMR countries, and in total, calculated by each country population size based on 2015 UN report. overall, 62 papers with a total sample size of 31,673 were fulfilled our eligibility criteria and included in our project. Considering anti-HEV antibody (IgG), prevalence of HEV infection in the countries of ME, WHO EMR and in total were 12.17% (95% CI: 11.79-12.57), 11.81% (95% CI: 11.43-12.21), and 11.87% (95% CI: 11.52-12.23) respectively. HEV seroprevalence in WHO EMR and ME countries has high rate and more considerations are needed for the prevention and control of this infection especially in high-risk groups such as pregnant women. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Organic carbon stocks in Mediterranean soil types under different land uses (Southern Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz-Rojas, M. [CSIC Spin-off, Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiologia de Sevilla (CSIC), Seville (Spain). Evenor-Tech; Sevilla Univ. (Spain). MED Soil Research Group; Jordan, A.; Zavala, L.M. [Sevilla Univ. (Spain). MED Soil Research Group; Rosa, D. de la [Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiologia de Sevilla (CSIC), Seville (Spain); Abd-Elmabod, S.K. [Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiologia de Sevilla (CSIC), Seville (Spain); National Research Centre, Cairo (Egypt). Dept. of Soil and Water Use; Anaya-Romero, M. [CSIC Spin-off, Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiologia de Sevilla (CSIC), Seville (Spain). Evenor-Tech

    2012-07-01

    Soil C sequestration through changes in land use and management is one of the sustainable and long-term strategies to mitigate climate change. This research explores and quantifies the role of soil and land use as determinants of the ability of soils to store C along Mediterranean systems. Detailed studies of soil organic C (SOC) dynamics are necessary in order to identify factors determining fluctuations and intensity of changes. In this study, SOC contents from different soil and land use types have been investigated in Andalusia (Southern Spain). We have used soil information from different databases, as well as land use digital maps, climate databases and digital elevation models. The average SOC content for each soil control section (0-25, 25-50 and 50-75 cm) was determined and SOC stocks were calculated for each combination of soil and land use type, using soil and land cover maps. The total organic C stocks in soils of Andalusia is 415 Tg for the upper 75 cm, with average values ranging from 15.9 MgC ha{sup -1} (Solonchaks under ''arable land'') to 107.6 MgC ha{sup -1} (Fluvisols from ''wetlands''). Up to 55% of SOC accumulates in the top 25 cm of soil (229.7 Tg). This research constitutes a preliminary assessment for modelling SOC stock under scenarios of land use and climate change. (orig.)

  15. Long term precipitation trends and variability within the Mediterranean region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Philandras

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the trends and variability of annual precipitation totals and annual rain days over land within the Mediterranean region are analyzed. Long term ground-based observations concerning, on one hand, monthly precipitation totals (1900–2010 and rain days (1965–2010 from 40 meteorological stations within the Mediterranean region were obtained from the Hellenic National Meteorological Service and the World Climate Data and Monitoring Programme (WCDMP of the World Meteorological Organization. On the other hand, high spatial resolution (0.5° × 0.5° gridded monthly data CRU TS 3.1 were acquired from the Climatic Research Unit, University of East Anglia, for the period 1901–2009. The two datasets were compared by means of trends and variability, while the influence of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO in the Mediterranean precipitation was examined. In the process, the climatic changes in the precipitation regime between the period 1961–1990 (reference period and the period 2071–2100 (future climate were presented using climate model simulations (RACMO2.1/KNMI. The future climate projections were based on SRES A1B.

    The findings of the analysis showed that statistically significant (95% confidence level negative trends of the annual precipitation totals exist in the majority of Mediterranean regions during the period 1901–2009, with an exception of northern Africa, southern Italy and western Iberian peninsula, where slight positive trends (not statistically significant at 95% CL appear. Concerning the annual number of rain days, a pronounced decrease of 20 %, statistically significant (95% confidence level, appears in representative meteorological stations of east Mediterranean, while the trends are insignificant for west and central Mediterranean. Additionally, NAO index was found to be anticorrelated with the precipitation totals and the number of rain days mainly in Spain, southern France, Italy and Greece. These

  16. Classical polymorphisms in Berbers from Moyen Atlas (Morocco): genetics, geography, and historical evidence in the Mediterranean peoples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harich, N; Esteban, E; Chafik, A; López-Alomar, A; Vona, G; Moral, P

    2002-01-01

    Mediterranean population relationships have recently been reviewed through the analysis of classical and DNA markers. The differentiation between Berbers and Arabic-speakers to the south, and the genetic impact of the seven centuries of Muslim domination in the Iberian Peninsula have been among the most interesting questions posed in these studies. The present study seeks to assess the degree of genetic affinity between the two main population groups of Morocco: Berbers and Arabic-speakers. Data from the Berber study population were also compared with published information on 20 circum-Mediterranean groups. A Berber sample of 140 individuals from Moyen Atlas (Morocco) has been characterized using 15 classical markers (ABO, Duffy, MNSs, Rh, ACPl, AKl, ESD, GLOI, 6-PGD, PGMl, GC, HP, PI, PLG and TF). Allele frequencies in the Berbers fit well into the general southern Mediterranean ranges, albeit with some peculiarities, such as the high FY*A, ACPl*C, and PI*S values. The general pattern of relationships among Mediterranean peoples tested by genetic variance analysis was compatible with a north-south geographical differentiation. Spatial auto-correlation analysis in the different geographical regions of the Mediterranean reveals that the highest degree of association between allele frequencies and geographical distances corresponds to the western (41% of significant correlograms) and northern Mediterranean populations (33%). When only southern Mediterranean groups were considered, the degree of geographical structure considerably decreases (11% of significant correlograms). The different loci studied revealed close similarity between the Berbers and other north African groups, mainly with Moroccan Arabic-speakers, which is in accord with the hypothesis that the current Moroccan population has a strong Berber background. Differences in the spatial pattern of allele frequencies also are compatible with specific population histories in distinct Mediterranean areas

  17. Crisis and adjustment variables of Mediterranean oil states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beraud, Philippe; Jablanczy, Adrienne

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with the performance of the Mediterranean and the other Arabian oil exporting countries. As far as the resource-based industry is concerned, it could be interesting to notice that the performance of these countries is linked to sectoral mix, nature of industry, type of enterprise, nature of joint-venture contracts and obviously macro-economic policies. The studies on the relationship between oil resources, oil production and valorization and global growth show that oil sector is not reliable, especially if we take into account the gap between low and high absorbing countries in the Arab world. In the first group of countries, oil revenues have a positive and significant effect on economic growth and development. In the second group of countries, oil revenues often copy with the Dutch-disease type resource reallocation process and have a negative effect on growth and development. Three alternative ways seem to be opened for these countries. And we study each of them: growing influence of profit sharing contracts between the state-owned companies and the international oil companies linked to technology transfers agreements, entrepreneurial and managerial trajectories coping with the influence of small and medium enterprises, effects of the regional integration in the framework of the Euro-Mediterranean trade agreements

  18. Early Spring Dust over the Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) observed this large cloud of dust (brownish pixels) blowing from northern Africa across the Mediterranean Sea on March 4, 2002. The dust can be seen clearly blowing across Southern Italy, Albania, Greece, and Turkey-all along the Mediterranean's northeastern shoreline. Notice that there also appears to be human-made aerosol pollution (greyish pixels) pooling in the air just south of the Italian Alps and blowing southeastward over the Adriatic Sea. The Alps can be easily identified as the crescent-shaped, snow-capped mountain range in the top center of this true-color scene. There also appears to be a similar haze over Austria, Hungary, and Yugoslavia to the north and east of Italy. Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  19. From failure to value: economic valuation for a selected set of products and services from Mediterranean forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Pettenella

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: the paper estimates the economic value of a selected range of forest products and services, i.e. roundwood, non-wood forest products (NWFPs, and carbon-related services.Area of study: the research covers 21 Mediterranean countries, distinguished into four sub-regions.Material and methods: data have been gathered from official statistical sources (e.g. FAOSTAT, scientific literature and technical reports. Different estimation approaches based on market-price have been used for different products/services.Main results: the estimated value ranges between €10,512 and €11,158 million (M. Wood products represent more than 85% of the total value. Within them, industrial timber is the most relevant component (65%. Figures for NWFPs are likely to be underestimated because data are available only for some products and countries. When using alternative estimates for pine nuts, pine resin and cork, figures show a €36.8-572 M increase. In geographical terms, the economic value of Mediterranean forests is highly concentrated: North-West Mediterranean countries account for 70%, and nearly 90% is in just four countries (France, Spain, Turkey and Italy.Research highlights: enhancing the offer of Mediterranean forest products and increasing their role in the rural economy could help to reduce the costs of forest protection: a well-structured forest economy ensuring stable flows of incomes can provide a fundamental set of public non-market services and social values to both local people and the whole community. Understanding the true value of natural resources, then, is an essential step for promoting their protection and sustainable use.Abbreviations: Bln: billion; CUM: cubic meter; EM: East Mediterranean; FAO: Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations; FRA: Forest Resource Assessment; ha: hectare; M: million; NEM: North-East Mediterranean; NWFP: non-wood forest product; NWM: North-West Mediterranean; SM: South Mediterranean

  20. Risk of influenza A(nrH7N9) pandemic in the eastern Mediterranean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    nrH7N9) infection in humans (1). Countries from the eastern Mediterranean region have high rates of viral hepatitis infection. The World Health. Organization (WHO) estimates that the HBsAg preva- lence in the eastern Mediterranean region ...

  1. Prototypical versus contemporary Mediterranean Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizza, W; De Gara, L; Antonelli Incalzi, R; Pedone, C

    2016-10-01

    To investigate the evolution of the Mediterranean Diet (MD) in a delimited area of Southern Italy, by comparing the diet adopted 60-70 years ago (Prototypical Mediterranean Diet, PMD) with the contemporary one (Contemporary Mediterranean Diet, CMD), and to verify to what extent they fitted the recommendations of the Italian and the USDA dietary guidelines. We recruited a total of 106 participants, divided in two groups. PMD group included 52 women aged >80 years, with a good cognitive function and full independence in basic and instrumental activities of daily living. CMD group included 20 men and 34 women aged 50-60 years. Food intake was assessed by administering the EPIC food frequency questionnaire to each participant, and an additional survey to the PMD subjects only. Both PMD and CMD showed adequate intakes of macronutrients, although some deficiencies related to micronutrient requirements were evident. CMD showed a slightly greater use of animal products, processed and sugary foods, and higher intakes of simple sugars, animal proteins (49.6 vs 28.3 g/day), animal lipids (37.8 vs 20.1 g/day), saturated fats (25.0 vs 15.8 g/day) and cholesterol (305.0 vs 258.5 g/day). PMD showed many similarities to the original version of the MD in terms of macronutrients distribution and food choices. The documented evolution of the dietary habits over a 70 years timespan suggests that nowadays Mediterranean regions adhere less strictly to the original MD, although nutrients intakes are adequate to LARN and USDA recommendations. Copyright © 2016 European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Small hydropower in Southern Africa: an overview of five countries in the region

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jonker Klunne, W

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available dif- ferent sources, but is incomplete and inconsistent. This lack of information severely hampers the abili- ty to learn from past experiences and creates a bar- rier to the uptake of the technology (Gaul et al., 2010). 14 Journal of Energy... of lack of infor- mation by providing an overview of the status of small hydropower in five southern African countries. Defining small hydropower No internationally agreed definitions exist for the different sizes of hydropower. A generic distinction...

  3. Autecology of shallow-water Octocorallia from Mediterranean rocky substrata, I. The Banyuls area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weinberg, Steven

    1979-01-01

    The autecology of eleven mediterranean octocoral species (3 Stolonifera, 4 Alcyonacea, 4 Gorgonacea) was studied near Banyuls-sur-Mer (southern France). Field observations were carried out by means of SCUBA-diving in forty underwater stations. The ecological amplitude of each species was determined

  4. Oil spill preparedness in the Mediterranean Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorigne, E.M.; Wong, K.V.

    1993-01-01

    Over 15% of the world's consumption of crude oil and refined products is shipped through the Mediterranean Sea each year. The sea is one of the most polluted areas in the world and has areas of high risk for oil spills, notably those places where there is a very narrow passage between coasts or islands. The region also needs to modernize its ports by developing more deballasting facilities, since a large percentage of spill accidents happens during terminal operations. Release of oily wastes from ships is also significant. The World Bank Global Environment Facility trust fund is working on a project to help the southwest Mediterranean countries modernize reception facilities for ballast water, bilge water, and oily waste water. The Regional Marine Pollution Emergency Response Center (REMPEC) in Malta acts as the coordinating center for regional contingency planning for oil spill response. The cost of the port facilities modernization program and oil spill contingency plan implementation for the Mediterranean is estimated at US$444 million. An allocation of costs is suggested which will help those countries needing more financial aid to implement the proposed programs. In the long run, the cost of these programs will be much lower than that of a massive oil spill cleanup. 7 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs

  5. Combined biological effects of gamma radiation and Dimethoate insecticide on the mediterranean fruit fly ceratitis capitata Wiedemann

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El - Akhdar, E.A.H.

    1993-01-01

    The mediterranean fruit fly, (Medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera : Tehritidae), is one of the most important agricultural pests. It is considered (Hagen et al, 1981) to have originated from tropical Africa, from where it spread to north and south africa, invaded spain and subsequently spread into the european mediterranean countries and the middle east. It appeared in hawaii, costa rica, south america, spread north through central america and finally into southern mexico. There are (kourti et al, 1990), 235 fruit trees, nut trees and vegetables recorded as medfly hosts . Of the 253 hosts, 40 are considered h eavily or generally infested . The importance of controlling this injurious pest needs no emphasis. Different methods of control had been applied against this pest, all of them are directed towards the protection of fruits from infestation. Although man used chemical compounds which played and are still playing an important role in this struggle against insects, the extensive and continued use of broad - toxicity spectrum and long lived pesticides created a number of problems, among which environmental pollution represents one of the grave concerns. Moreover, the appearance of resistance in several species of insects to the action of these chemical is another problem

  6. Decreasing Fires in Mediterranean Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turco, Marco; Bedia, Joaquín; Di Liberto, Fabrizio; Fiorucci, Paolo; von Hardenberg, Jost; Koutsias, Nikos; Llasat, Maria-Carmen; Xystrakis, Fotios; Provenzale, Antonello

    2016-01-01

    Forest fires are a serious environmental hazard in southern Europe. Quantitative assessment of recent trends in fire statistics is important for assessing the possible shifts induced by climate and other environmental/socioeconomic changes in this area. Here we analyse recent fire trends in Portugal, Spain, southern France, Italy and Greece, building on a homogenized fire database integrating official fire statistics provided by several national/EU agencies. During the period 1985-2011, the total annual burned area (BA) displayed a general decreasing trend, with the exception of Portugal, where a heterogeneous signal was found. Considering all countries globally, we found that BA decreased by about 3020 km2 over the 27-year-long study period (i.e. about -66% of the mean historical value). These results are consistent with those obtained on longer time scales when data were available, also yielding predominantly negative trends in Spain and France (1974-2011) and a mixed trend in Portugal (1980-2011). Similar overall results were found for the annual number of fires (NF), which globally decreased by about 12600 in the study period (about -59%), except for Spain where, excluding the provinces along the Mediterranean coast, an upward trend was found for the longer period. We argue that the negative trends can be explained, at least in part, by an increased effort in fire management and prevention after the big fires of the 1980's, while positive trends may be related to recent socioeconomic transformations leading to more hazardous landscape configurations, as well as to the observed warming of recent decades. We stress the importance of fire data homogenization prior to analysis, in order to alleviate spurious effects associated with non-stationarities in the data due to temporal variations in fire detection efforts.

  7. Decreasing Fires in Mediterranean Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Turco

    Full Text Available Forest fires are a serious environmental hazard in southern Europe. Quantitative assessment of recent trends in fire statistics is important for assessing the possible shifts induced by climate and other environmental/socioeconomic changes in this area. Here we analyse recent fire trends in Portugal, Spain, southern France, Italy and Greece, building on a homogenized fire database integrating official fire statistics provided by several national/EU agencies. During the period 1985-2011, the total annual burned area (BA displayed a general decreasing trend, with the exception of Portugal, where a heterogeneous signal was found. Considering all countries globally, we found that BA decreased by about 3020 km2 over the 27-year-long study period (i.e. about -66% of the mean historical value. These results are consistent with those obtained on longer time scales when data were available, also yielding predominantly negative trends in Spain and France (1974-2011 and a mixed trend in Portugal (1980-2011. Similar overall results were found for the annual number of fires (NF, which globally decreased by about 12600 in the study period (about -59%, except for Spain where, excluding the provinces along the Mediterranean coast, an upward trend was found for the longer period. We argue that the negative trends can be explained, at least in part, by an increased effort in fire management and prevention after the big fires of the 1980's, while positive trends may be related to recent socioeconomic transformations leading to more hazardous landscape configurations, as well as to the observed warming of recent decades. We stress the importance of fire data homogenization prior to analysis, in order to alleviate spurious effects associated with non-stationarities in the data due to temporal variations in fire detection efforts.

  8. A modified Mediterranean diet score is inversely associated with metabolic syndrome in Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngyo; Je, Youjin

    2018-03-21

    Findings from studies in Western countries showed that Mediterranean diet is inversely associated with metabolic syndrome, but little is known about this association in Asian countries. To evaluate the association between Mediterranean diet and metabolic syndrome in Korean population, this study was conducted. A total of 8387 adults 19-64 years of age from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2012-2015 were assessed. A 112-item dish-based semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire was used to assess dietary intakes. Mediterranean diet was assessed by a modified Mediterranean diet score, which was based on the alternate Mediterranean diet score of Fung et al. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) adjusted for other dietary and lifestyle variables. Participants with 5-6 and 7 or higher modified Mediterranean diet scores had a lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome by 27% (OR = 0.73, 95% CI: 0.56-0.96) and 36% (OR = 0.64, 95% CI: 0.46-0.89; P-trend = 0.0031), compared with those with 2 or lower modified Mediterranean diet scores, respectively. Higher modified Mediterranean diet scores were associated with a lower prevalence of abdominal obesity and hypertriglyceridemia, which are components of metabolic syndrome CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that diet rich in fruit, vegetables, whole grains, legumes, peanuts and fish is associated with a lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Korean adults.

  9. Medgrid: a major industrial initiative for Mediterranean power grids - Opening new electricity paths for a sustainable energy development of the Union for the Mediterranean area countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merlin, Andre; Pouliquen, Herve

    2011-01-01

    The development of new electricity networks in the Mediterranean region has given rise to a lot of new hope. Electricity is truly at the heart of economic and social development, but also represents an appropriate solution for improving the energy efficiency of many end use applications and for increasing the environmental protection where it is produced from renewable forms of energy. Launched under the framework of Union for the Mediterranean, a key project of the Mediterranean Solar Plan, Medgrid was set up at the instigation of the French government; it now gathers twenty industrial shareholders from different economic sectors: power generation, transmission, distribution and supply, financing and the sustainable development service industry, who are joining together to study the feasibility of a large transmission grid between the south and north rims of the Mediterranean Sea. Medgrid forms part of a new dynamic - set in motion over ten years ago - in Euro-Mediterranean relations, in environmental initiatives and in energy infrastructure development policies. It is important to be reminded of the main features of these initiatives and of their results in order to fully understand the huge diversity of the context in which Medgrid is going to operate, be it in the political, institutional, economic, industrial and technological spheres. (authors)

  10. The Impact of International Teacher Migration on Schooling in Developing Countries--The Case of Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleton, Simon; Sives, Amanda; Morgan, W. John

    2006-01-01

    Whilst the migration of teachers has been a phenomenon for hundreds of years, the advent of "globalisation" has seen such migration return to prominence. This article focuses on the experiences of two developing countries in Southern Africa which have been on different ends of the process: South Africa as a net sender of teachers and…

  11. Mediterranean prospective in energy and needs of financing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenon, M.

    1994-01-01

    We will first see some few important points of Mediterranean situation; a strong population growth is the first one, especially in South and East of the basin and this population is concentrated in towns; the second one is the great differences in development level between countries. That is to explain why there will be an increase of energy consumption: about 50% for petroleum, 20% for coal, and certainly natural gas will take the place let by coal because of the environmental constraints, nuclear is interesting only the north of the basin and more precisely France. Contrary to energy consumption, energy supplies will be more important in the south and east than in the north. Petroleum is produced in the east and south, natural gas producer is Algeria, following by other south countries, coal is produced in the north and nuclear energy comes from north countries. Petroleum, natural gas and electricity represent some 300 milliards of dollars in investments; energy expenses for south east mediterranean countries are calculated between 500 and 600 milliards of dollars, with 50% for petroleum, 20% for natural gas, 30% of these expenses are predicted for electricity production

  12. The Mediterranean healthy eating, ageing, and lifestyle (MEAL) study: rationale and study design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosso, Giuseppe; Marventano, Stefano; D'Urso, Maurizio; Mistretta, Antonio; Galvano, Fabio

    2017-08-01

    There is accumulating evidence suggesting that Mediterranean lifestyles, including nutrition and sleeping patterns as well as social integration, may play a role in reducing age-related diseases. However, the literature is mostly deficient of evidence provided by Italian Mediterranean islands that more closely adhered to the originally described lifestyles. In this paper, we described the rationale and the study design of the Mediterranean healthy Eating, Ageing, and Lifestyle (MEAL) study, a prospective population-based cohort established in Sicily, southern Italy. The main exposures investigated are classical determinants of health, including demographic, nutritional habits, smoking and physical activity status, as well as eating-related behaviors, sleeping habits, sun exposure, social resources, and perceived stress. Anthropometric measurements will be collected. The main outcomes included depression, quality of life, and, after the follow-up period, also cardiovascular disease and cancer. The MEAL study may provide important data to increase our knowledge regarding the prevalence, incidence, and risk factors of age-related disorders in the Mediterranean region.

  13. Ozone Damages to Mediterranean Crops: Physiological Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albino Maggio

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In this brief review we analyzed some aspects of tropospheric ozone damages to crop plants. Specifically, we addressed this issue to Mediterranean environments, where plant response to multiple stresses may either exacerbate or counteract deleterious ozone effects. After discussing the adequacy of current models to predict ozone damages to Mediterranean crops, we present a few examples of physiological responses to drought and salinity stress that generally overlap with seasonal ozone peaks in Southern Italy. The co-existence of multiple stresses is then analyzed in terms of stomatal vs. non-stomatal control of ozone damages. Recent results on osmoprotectant feeding experiments, as a non-invasive strategy to uncouple stomatal vs. non stomatal contribution to ozone protection, are also presented. In the final section, we discuss critical needs in ozone research and the great potential of plant model systems to unravel multiple stress responses in agricultural crops.

  14. Ozone Damages to Mediterranean Crops: Physiological Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Fagnano

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In this brief review we analyzed some aspects of tropospheric ozone damages to crop plants. Specifically, we addressed this issue to Mediterranean environments, where plant response to multiple stresses may either exacerbate or counteract deleterious ozone effects. After discussing the adequacy of current models to predict ozone damages to Mediterranean crops, we present a few examples of physiological responses to drought and salinity stress that generally overlap with seasonal ozone peaks in Southern Italy. The co-existence of multiple stresses is then analyzed in terms of stomatal vs. non-stomatal control of ozone damages. Recent results on osmoprotectant feeding experiments, as a non-invasive strategy to uncouple stomatal vs. non stomatal contribution to ozone protection, are also presented. In the final section, we discuss critical needs in ozone research and the great potential of plant model systems to unravel multiple stress responses in agricultural crops.

  15. Mediterranean Energy Perspectives 2011 - Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Mediterranean Energy Perspectives 2011 provides insights into the energy situation today and over the next two decades in the Mediterranean region. Its detailed data and analyses are of interest to stakeholders on both the supply and demand sides of the energy equation. This is the third edition in the MEP series, which highlights the extensive work of OME (Observatoire Mediterraneen de l'Energie). This outlook draws upon the expertise of OME and its members. MEP 2011 provides a unique and comprehensive analysis of the energy sector in the Mediterranean. It presents data ranging from the early days of the region's energy industry to the situation today and an outlook to 2030, based on OME's supply and demand model, the Mediterranean Energy Model. Current efforts related to renewable energy sources and energy efficiency are carefully considered as they are key issues for the Mediterranean energy sector and for the whole economic and environment future of the region. MEP 2011 presents: - A description of the Mediterranean countries in a global context. - Historical and forecast data on the supply and demand balance for each segment of the Mediterranean energy sector. - Energy demand to 2030, including two cases: the Conservative and Proactive Scenarios. - Trends in past, present and future oil and natural gas production and development. - Existing and planned oil and gas infrastructure. - Evolution of electricity generation and installed capacity. - Developments in innovative and renewable energy sources. - In-depth analysis of energy efficiency measures and policies. - Prospects for CO 2 emissions and sustainable development. MEP 2011 has been prepared by a joint-team of OME experts supported by related companies and independent expertise. Bringing this expertise together provides an important reference for industry analysts and investors who wish to get a complete picture of the energy industry and markets in the Mediterranean, the way they operate and their long

  16. "Towards an even healthier Mediterranean diet".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estruch, R; Salas-Salvadó, J

    2013-12-01

    Dietary guidelines to promote good health are usually based on foods, nutrients, and dietary patterns predictive of chronic disease risk in epidemiologic studies. However, sound nutritional recommendations for cardiovascular prevention should be based on the results of large randomized clinical trials with "hard" end-points as the main outcome. Such evidence has been obtained for the Mediterranean diet from the PREDIMED (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea) trial and the Lyon Heart Study. The traditional Mediterranean diet was that found in olive growing areas of Crete, Greece, and Southern Italy in the late 1950s. Their major characteristics include: a) a high consumption of cereals, legumes, nuts, vegetables, and fruits; b) a relatively high-fat consumption, mostly provided by olive oil; c) moderate to high fish consumption; d) poultry and dairy products consumed in moderate to small amounts; e) low consumption of red meats, and meat products; and f) moderate alcohol intake, usually in the form of red wine. However, these protective effects of the traditional Mediterranean diet may be even greater if we upgrade the health effects of this dietary pattern changing the common olive oil used for extra-virgin olive oil, increasing the consumption of nuts, fatty fish and whole grain cereals, reducing sodium intake, and maintaining a moderate consumption of wine with meals. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Mediterranean moisture source for an Early-Holocene humid period in the Northern Red Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arz, H.W.; Lamy, F.; Paetzold, J.; Mueller, P.J.; Prins, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    Paleosalinity and terrigenous sediment input changes reconstructed on two sediment cores from the northernmost Red Sea were used to infer hydrological changes at the southern margin of the Mediterranean climate zone during the Holocene. Between approximately 9.25 and 7.25 thousand years ago, about

  18. Visceral leishmaniasis and HIV coinfection in the Mediterranean region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Begoña Monge-Maillo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis is hypoendemic in Mediterranean countries, where it is caused by the flagellate protozoan Leishmania infantum. VL cases in this area account for 5%-6% of the global burden. Cases of Leishmania/HIV coinfection have been reported in the Mediterranean region, mainly in France, Italy, Portugal, and Spain. Since highly active antiretroviral therapy was introduced in 1997, a marked decrease in the number of coinfected cases in this region has been reported. The development of new diagnostic methods to accurately identify level of parasitemia and the risk of relapse is one of the main challenges in improving the treatment of coinfected patients. Clinical trials in the Mediterranean region are needed to determine the most adequate therapeutic options for Leishmania/HIV patients as well as the indications and regimes for secondary prophylaxis. This article reviews the epidemiological, diagnostic, clinical, and therapeutic aspects of Leishmania/HIV coinfection in the Mediterranean region.

  19. New Mediterranean Marine biodiversity records (June 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. SIOKOU

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns records of species that have extended their distribution in the Mediterranean Sea. The finding of the rare brackish angiosperm Althenia filiformis in the island of Cyprus is interesting since its insertion in the Red Data Book of the Flora of Cyprus is suggested. The following species enriched the flora or fauna lists of the relevant countries: the red alga Sebdenia dichotoma (Greece, the hydrachnid mite Pontarachna adriatica (Slovenia, and the thalassinid Gebiacantha talismani (Turkey. Several alien species were recorded in new Mediterranean localities. The record of the burrowing goby Trypauchen vagina in the North Levantine Sea (Turkish coast, suggests the start of spreading of this Lessepsian immigrant in the Mediterranean Sea. The findings of the following species indicate the extension of their occurrence in the Mediterranean Sea: the foraminifer Amphistegina lobifera (island of Zakynthos, Greece, the medusa Cassiopea andromeda (Syria, the copepod Centropages furcatus (Aegean Sea, the decapod shrimp Melicertus hathor (island of Kastellorizo, Greece, the crab Menoethius monoceros (Gulf of Tunis, the barnacles Balanus trigonus, Megabalanus tintinnabulum, Megabalanus coccopoma and the bivalves Chama asperella, Cucurbitula cymbium (Saronikos Gulf, Greece.

  20. Fire regimes and vegetation responses in two Mediterranean-climate regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenegro, G.; Ginocchio, R.; Segura, A.; Keely, J.E.; Gomez, M.

    2004-01-01

    Wildfires resulting from thunderstorms are common in some Mediterranean-climate regions, such as southern California, and have played an important role in the ecology and evolution of the flora. Mediterranean-climate regions are major centers for human population and thus anthropogenic impacts on fire regimes may have important consequences on these plant formations. However, changes in fire regimes may have different impacts on Mediterranean type-ecosystems depending on the capability of plants to respond to such perturbations. Therefore, we compare here fire regimes and vegetation responses of two Mediterranean-climate regions which differ in wildfire regimes and history of human occupation, the central zone of Chile (matorral) and the southern area of California in United States (chaparral). In Chile almost all fires result from anthropogenic activities, whereas lightning fires resulting from thunderstorms are frequent in California. In both regions fires are more frequent in summer, due to high accumulation of dry plant biomass for ignition. Humans have markedly increased fires frequency both in the matorral and chaparral, but extent of burned areas has remained unaltered, probably due to better fire suppression actions and a decline in the built-up of dry plant fuel associated to increased landscape fragmentation with less flammable agricultural and urban developments. As expected, post-fire plant regeneration responses differs between the matorral and chaparral due to differences in the importance of wildfires as a natural evolutionary force in the system. Plants from the chaparral show a broader range of post-fire regeneration responses than the matorral, from basal resprouting, to lignotuber resprouting, and to fire-stimulated germination and flowering with fire-specific clues such as heat shock, chemicals from smoke or charred wood. Plants from the matorral have some resprouting capabilities after fire, but these probably evolved from other environmental

  1. The biodiversity of the Mediterranean Sea: estimates, patterns, and threats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Coll

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean Sea is a marine biodiversity hot spot. Here we combined an extensive literature analysis with expert opinions to update publicly available estimates of major taxa in this marine ecosystem and to revise and update several species lists. We also assessed overall spatial and temporal patterns of species diversity and identified major changes and threats. Our results listed approximately 17,000 marine species occurring in the Mediterranean Sea. However, our estimates of marine diversity are still incomplete as yet-undescribed species will be added in the future. Diversity for microbes is substantially underestimated, and the deep-sea areas and portions of the southern and eastern region are still poorly known. In addition, the invasion of alien species is a crucial factor that will continue to change the biodiversity of the Mediterranean, mainly in its eastern basin that can spread rapidly northwards and westwards due to the warming of the Mediterranean Sea. Spatial patterns showed a general decrease in biodiversity from northwestern to southeastern regions following a gradient of production, with some exceptions and caution due to gaps in our knowledge of the biota along the southern and eastern rims. Biodiversity was also generally higher in coastal areas and continental shelves, and decreases with depth. Temporal trends indicated that overexploitation and habitat loss have been the main human drivers of historical changes in biodiversity. At present, habitat loss and degradation, followed by fishing impacts, pollution, climate change, eutrophication, and the establishment of alien species are the most important threats and affect the greatest number of taxonomic groups. All these impacts are expected to grow in importance in the future, especially climate change and habitat degradation. The spatial identification of hot spots highlighted the ecological importance of most of the western Mediterranean shelves (and in particular

  2. The biodiversity of the Mediterranean Sea: estimates, patterns, and threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coll, Marta; Piroddi, Chiara; Steenbeek, Jeroen; Kaschner, Kristin; Ben Rais Lasram, Frida; Aguzzi, Jacopo; Ballesteros, Enric; Bianchi, Carlo Nike; Corbera, Jordi; Dailianis, Thanos; Danovaro, Roberto; Estrada, Marta; Froglia, Carlo; Galil, Bella S; Gasol, Josep M; Gertwagen, Ruthy; Gil, João; Guilhaumon, François; Kesner-Reyes, Kathleen; Kitsos, Miltiadis-Spyridon; Koukouras, Athanasios; Lampadariou, Nikolaos; Laxamana, Elijah; López-Fé de la Cuadra, Carlos M; Lotze, Heike K; Martin, Daniel; Mouillot, David; Oro, Daniel; Raicevich, Sasa; Rius-Barile, Josephine; Saiz-Salinas, Jose Ignacio; San Vicente, Carles; Somot, Samuel; Templado, José; Turon, Xavier; Vafidis, Dimitris; Villanueva, Roger; Voultsiadou, Eleni

    2010-08-02

    The Mediterranean Sea is a marine biodiversity hot spot. Here we combined an extensive literature analysis with expert opinions to update publicly available estimates of major taxa in this marine ecosystem and to revise and update several species lists. We also assessed overall spatial and temporal patterns of species diversity and identified major changes and threats. Our results listed approximately 17,000 marine species occurring in the Mediterranean Sea. However, our estimates of marine diversity are still incomplete as yet-undescribed species will be added in the future. Diversity for microbes is substantially underestimated, and the deep-sea areas and portions of the southern and eastern region are still poorly known. In addition, the invasion of alien species is a crucial factor that will continue to change the biodiversity of the Mediterranean, mainly in its eastern basin that can spread rapidly northwards and westwards due to the warming of the Mediterranean Sea. Spatial patterns showed a general decrease in biodiversity from northwestern to southeastern regions following a gradient of production, with some exceptions and caution due to gaps in our knowledge of the biota along the southern and eastern rims. Biodiversity was also generally higher in coastal areas and continental shelves, and decreases with depth. Temporal trends indicated that overexploitation and habitat loss have been the main human drivers of historical changes in biodiversity. At present, habitat loss and degradation, followed by fishing impacts, pollution, climate change, eutrophication, and the establishment of alien species are the most important threats and affect the greatest number of taxonomic groups. All these impacts are expected to grow in importance in the future, especially climate change and habitat degradation. The spatial identification of hot spots highlighted the ecological importance of most of the western Mediterranean shelves (and in particular, the Strait of

  3. Frequency of G6PD Mediterranean in individuals with and without malaria in Southern Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moiz, Bushra; Arshad, Haroon Muhammad; Raheem, Ahmed; Hayat, Hasan; Karim Ghanchi, Najia; Beg, M Asim

    2017-10-24

    Pakistan has an estimated annual burden of 1.5 million malaria cases. The current situation calls for an effective malaria control and eradication programme in this country. Currently, primaquine is an attractive option for eliminating reservoirs of Plasmodium vivax hypnozoites and killing gametocytes of Plasmodium falciparum. However, this drug causes haemolysis in individuals who are glucose-6-phosphate (G6PD) deficient. It is important to map G6PD deficiency and malaria distribution in Pakistan to design an effective malaria eradication regimen. Frequency of G6PD deficiency (G6PDd) in malaria patients has not been reported from Pakistan in any meaningful way. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the frequency of G6PD c.563C>T (G6PD Mediterranean) in male individuals with and without falciparum malaria. Two hundred and ten archived DNA samples from males (110 from falciparum malaria patients and 100 from healthy individuals) were utilized in this study. Healthy blood donors were selected based on stringent pre-defined criteria. Patients were confirmed for malaria parasites on microscopy and or immune chromatographic assay detecting P. falciparum histidine-rich protein 2. Parasitaemia was also computed. DNA samples were tested for G6PD c.563C>T mutation through PCR-RFLP according to the previously defined protocol and its allelic frequency was computed. G6PD c.563C>T was observed in four of 110 patients with falciparum malaria and in two of 100 healthy donors. Mean (± SD) haemoglobin, median (IQR) platelet and median (IQR) parasite count in G6PD-deficient malaria-patients were 8.9 ± 0.9 g/dL, 124 × 109/L (IQR 32, 171) and 57,920/μL of blood (IQR 12,920, 540,000) respectively. Cumulative allelic frequency for G6PD 563c.C>T was 0.0285 detected in 6 of 210 X-chromosomes in Southern Pakistan. Frequency for this G6PD allele was 0.0364 in malaria-patients and 0.0200 in healthy individuals. Large studies including females are needed to elucidate the true

  4. Late Holocene vegetation changes in relation with climate fluctuations and human activities in Languedoc (Southern France)

    OpenAIRE

    J. Azuara; N. Combourieu-Nebout; V. Lebreton; F. Mazier; S. D. Müller; L. Dezileau

    2015-01-01

    Holocene climate fluctuations and human activities since the Neolithic have shaped present-day Mediterranean environments. Separating anthropogenic effects from climatic impacts to reconstruct Mediterranean paleoenvironments over the last millennia remains a challenging issue. High resolution pollen analyses were undertaken on two cores from the Palavasian lagoon system (Hérault, southern France). These records allow reconstruction of vegetation dynamics ove...

  5. Evaluating the Water Footprint of the Mediterranean and American Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Blas

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Global food demand is increasing rapidly as a result of multiple drivers including population growth, dietary shifts and economic development. Meeting the rising global food demand will require expanding agricultural production and promoting healthier and more sustainable diets. The goal of this paper is to assess and compare the water footprint (WF of two recommended diets (Mediterranean and American, and evaluate the water savings of possible dietary shifts in two countries: Spain and the United States (US. Our results show that the American diet has a 29% higher WF in comparison with the Mediterranean, regardless of products’ origin. In the US, a shift to a Mediterranean diet would decrease the WF by 1629 L/person/day. Meanwhile, a shift towards an American diet in Spain will increase the WF by 1504 L/person/day. The largest share of the WF of both diets is always linked to green water (62%–75%. Grey water in the US is 67% higher in comparison with Spain. Only five products account for 36%–46% of the total WF of the two dietary options in both countries, being meat, oil and dairy products the food items with the largest WFs. Our study demonstrates that adopting diets based on a greater consumption of vegetables, fruits and fish, like the Mediterranean one, leads to major water savings.

  6. Statistical and dynamical downscaling assessments of precipitation extremes in the Mediterranean area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertig, Elke; Seubert, Stefanie; Jacobeit, Jucundus [Augsburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Geography; Paxian, Andreas; Vogt, Gernot; Paeth, Heiko [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Geography and Geology

    2012-02-15

    Extreme precipitation events in the Mediterranean area have been defined by different percentile-based indices of extreme precipitation for autumn and winter: the number of events exceeding the 95{sup th} percentile of daily precipitation, percentage, total amount, and mean daily intensity of precipitation from these events. Results from statistical downscaling applying canonical correlation analysis as well as from dynamical downscaling using the regional climate model REMO are mapped for the 1961-1990 baseline period as well as for the magnitude of change for the future time slice 2021-2050 in relation to the former period. Direct output of the coupled global circulation model ECHAM5 is used as an additional source of information. A qualitative comparison of the two different downscaling techniques indicates that under the present climate both the dynamical and the statistical techniques have skill to reproduce extreme precipitation in the Mediterranean area. A good representation of the frequency of extreme precipitation events arises from the statistical downscaling approach, whereas the intensity of such events is adequately modelled by the dynamical downscaling. Concerning the change of extreme precipitation in the Mediterranean area until the mid-21{sup st} century, it is projected that the frequency of extreme precipitation events will decrease in most parts of the Mediterranean area in autumn and winter. The change of the mean intensity of such events shows a rather heterogeneous pattern with intensity increases in winter most likely at topographical elevations exposed to the West, where the uplift of humid air profits by the increase of atmospheric moisture under climate change conditions. For the precipitation total from events exceeding the 95{sup th} percentile of daily precipitation, widespread decreases are indicated in autumn, whereas in winter increases occur over the western part of the Iberian Peninsula and southern France, and reductions over

  7. The Mediterranean Basin and Southern Europe in a warmer world: what can we learn from the past?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel eGuiot

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the late-nineteenth century, surface temperatures have non-uniformly increased worldwide. The repercussion of the global warming in drylands, such as in the Mediterranean, may become a main source of concern in a near future, as it is often accompanied by increased droughts, that will severely degrade water supply and quality. History shows that access to water resources has always presented a challenge for societies around the Mediterranean throughout the Holocene (roughly the last 10,000 years. Repeatedly, adverse climate shifts seem to have interacted with social, economic and political variables, exacerbating vulnerabilities in drier regions. We present a reconstruction of the Holocene climate in the Mediterranean Basin using an innovative method based on pollen data and vegetation modeling. The method consists in calculating the inputs of the vegetation model so that the outputs fit the pollen data, using a Bayesian framework. This model inversion is particularly suited to deal with increasing dissimilarities between past millennia and the last century, especially due to a direct effect of CO2 on vegetation. The comparison of fardistant past and last century shows that the intensity of century-scale precipitation fall, amplified by higher temperatures and then evapotranspiration, appears to be unmatched over the last 10,000 years and the comparison between west and east precipitation anomalies show a clear see-saw effect through all the Holocene, in particular during the dry episodes of Near and Middle East. As a consequence that Tthe recent climatic change seems thento have been unprecedented during the last 10,000 years in the Mediterranean Basin,.over the next few decades, Mediterranean societies will likely be more critically vulnerable to climate change, than at any dry period of the past. We show also that adverse climate shifts are often correlated with the decline or collapse of Mediterranean civiliszations, particularly in

  8. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL OVERVIEW OF HODGKIN LYMPHOMA ACROSS THE MEDITERRANEAN BASIN

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    Massimiliano Salati

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Hodgkin Lymphoma (HL is an uncommon neoplasm of B-cell origin with an incidence that varies significantly by age, sex, ethnicity, geographic location and socioeconomic status. This complex pattern was also found to be replicated among Mediterranean basin populations. HL incidence rates progressively decreased from industrialized European countries such as France (ASR=2.61 and Italy (ASR=2.39 to less developed nations such as Albania (ASR=1.34 and Bosnia Herzegovina (ASR=1.1. Regarding HL mortality we have found that countries with the lowest incidence rates show the highest number of deaths from this cancer and viceversa. Finally, a wide gap in terms of survival was showed across the Mediterranean basin with survival rates ranged from 82.3% and 85.1% among Italian men and women, to 53.3 % and 59.3% among Libyan men and women, respectively. Factors such as the degree of socio-economic development, the exposure to risk factors westernization-related, the availability of diagnostic practices along with different genetic susceptibilities to HL may explain its variation across Mediterranean countries. Furthermore, the lack of health resources decisively contribute to the poor prognosis recorded in less developed region. In the future, the introduction of appropriate and accessible treatment facilities along with an adequate number of clinical specialists in the treatment of HL and other cancers are warranted in order to improve the outcomes of affected patients and treat a largely curable type of cancer in disadvantaged regions.

  9. The fuzzy outline of the Mediterranean automotive space (In French)

    OpenAIRE

    Jean-Bernard LAYAN (E3i-IFReDE-GRES); Yannick LUNG (E3i-IFReDE-GRES)

    2006-01-01

    The paper analyses the evolution of the automotive industry in the Mediterranean area during the last years. First part focuses on the impacts for this region of the geographical changes of the European automotive systems associated to location of multinational automotive firms in CEEC. This leads to difficulties for the automobile countries of the western part of the Mediterranean Europe (Italy, Spain, Portugal) on one side, and to a huge growth of the auto industry at the east, in Turkey, o...

  10. Results of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey and implementation of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in the WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usmanova, Gulnoza; Mokdad, Ali H

    2013-12-01

    We used Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) data collected over time to monitor articles of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) in WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR). The GYTS is a school-based survey, conducted in 23 countries in WHO EMR countries from 1999-2008. The prevalence of current smokeless tobacco use was high compared to cigarette use in all countries. In general, the following changes were observed between baseline and repeated surveys: in five countries fewer youth supported a ban on smoking in public places. In four countries more youth saw actors smoking on TV and were exposed to second-hand smoke (SHS) outside of home. Fewer youth were offered free cigarettes in ten countries; in eight countries youth saw less advertisement on TV; in seven countries youth had fewer items with a tobacco logo, discussed more reasons for smoking and dangers of smoking, and were less exposed to SHS at home; in six countries youth saw less advertisement at sports events. The GYTS data can be used for monitoring, evaluation of national tobacco control plans and defining future directions for tobacco control. Copyright © 2013 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Wind energy in Mediterranean Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaudiosi, G.

    1991-01-01

    In its examination of wind energy potential in the Mediterranean Basin, this paper provides brief notes on the Basin's geography; indicates power production and demand; describes the area's wind characteristics and wind monitoring activities; illustrates wind velocity distributions; estimates local wind power production potential; reviews the Basin's wind energy marketing situation and each bordering country's wind energy programs; surveys installed wind energy farms; and assesses national research and commercialization efforts

  12. Adherence to the "Mediterranean Diet" in Spain and Its Relationship with Cardiovascular Risk (DIMERICA Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abellán Alemán, José; Zafrilla Rentero, María Pilar; Montoro-García, Silvia; Mulero, Juana; Pérez Garrido, Alfonso; Leal, Mariano; Guerrero, Lucía; Ramos, Elena; Ruilope, Luis Miguel

    2016-10-28

    Nutritional studies focus on traditional cultural models and lifestyles in different countries. The aim of this study was to examine the adherence to the Mediterranean diet, life habits, and risk factors associated with cardiovascular diseases among people living in different geographical regions in Spain. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in each region. The sampling scheme consisted of a random three-stage stratified sampling program according to geographic region, age, and gender. A total of 1732 subjects were asked to complete a questionnaire designed to assess their nutrient intake, dietary habits, and exercise. A diet score that assesses the adherence of participants to the Mediterranean diet (range 0-10) was also applied. Southeastern Spain had the lowest score for adherence to the Mediterranean diet because of the low consumption of fish and plant products. A lower adherence score to the Mediterranean diet was strongly associated with the prevalence of hypertension ( p = 0.018). A low level of adherence to the Mediterranean diet is accompanied by a high prevalence of hypertension and, therefore, a raised cardiovascular risk in the country. The adherence score could help identify individuals at greater cardiovascular risk.

  13. New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records (July 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. DAILIANIS

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This contribution forms part of a series of collective articles published regularly in Mediterranean Marine Science that report on new biodiversity records from the Mediterranean basin. The current article presents 51 geographically distinct records for 21 taxa belonging to 6 Phyla, extending from the western Mediterranean to the Levantine. The new records, per country, are as follows: Spain: the cryptogenic calcareous sponge Paraleucilla magna is reported from a new location in the Alicante region. Algeria: the rare Atlanto-Mediterranean bivalve Cardium indicum is reported from Annaba. Tunisia: new distribution records for the Indo-Pacific lionfish Pterois miles from Zembra Island and Cape Bon. Italy: the ark clam Anadara transversa is reported from mussel cultures in the Gulf of Naples, while the amphipod Caprella scaura and the isopods Paracerceis sculpta and Paranthura japonica are reported as associated to the –also allochthonous–bryozoan Amathia verticillata in the Adriatic Sea; in the latter region, the cosmopolitan Atlantic tripletail Lobotes surinamensisis also reported, a rare finding for the Mediterranean. Slovenia: a new record of the non-indigenous nudibranch Polycera hedgpethi in the Adriatic. Greece: several new reports of the introduced scleractinian Oculina patagonica, the fangtooth moray Enchelycore anatina, the blunthead puffer Sphoeroides pachygaster (all Atlantic, and the lionfish Pterois miles (Indo-Pacific suggest their ongoing establishment in the Aegean Sea; the deepest bathymetric record of the invasive alga Caulerpa cylindracea in the Mediterranean Sea is also registered in the Kyklades, at depths exceeding 70 m. Turkey: new distribution records for two non indigenous crustaceans, the blue crab Callinectes sapidus (Atlantic origin and the moon crab Matuta victor (Indo-Pacific origin from the Bay of Izmir and Antalya, respectively; in the latter region, the Red Sea goatfish Parupeneus forsskali, is also reported

  14. Funding renewable electricity as part of the Mediterranean Solar Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Coguic, R.; Gromard, Ch. de

    2009-01-01

    Factors related to energy and the climate are now weighing down on the economies of both developed and emerging lands. All countries are urged to advance quickly toward systems that save energy and reduce the emission of greenhouse gases. Energy and climate issues are a major concern in countries to the south and east of the Mediterranean. Given their growth rates, ranging from 6% to 8%, their demand for energy is rising twice as fast as Europe's while their production - dependent for 99% on fossil fuels - is vulnerable owing to the volatility of (rising) oil prices. To cope with this situation, these Mediterranean lands are forced to intensify their policies for controlling energy: efficiency must be combined with savings, and with renewable sources of energy as well as a reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. (authors)

  15. The HBsAg Prevalence Among Blood Donors From Eastern Mediterranean and Middle Eastern Countries: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babanejad, Mehran; Izadi, Neda; Najafi, Farid; Alavian, Seyed Moayed

    2016-03-01

    The world health organization (WHO) recommends that all blood donations should be screened for evidence of infections, such as hepatitis B. The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in blood donors at the eastern Mediterranean region office (EMRO) of the WHO and middle eastern countries. A meta-analysis was carried out based on the results of an electronic literature search of PubMed, Ovid, Scopus, and Google Scholar for articles published from January 1, 2000, to August 31, 2015. In accordance with a significant homogeneity test and a large value of I2, the random effects model was used to aggregate data from the studies and produce the pooled estimates using the "Metan" command. We included 66 eligible studies. The pooled prevalence of HBsAg in blood donors of both EMRO and middle eastern (E and M) countries was 2.03% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.79 - 2.26). In addition, the prevalence rates in the EMRO countries was 1.99% (95% CI: 1.84 - 2.14) and 1.62% in the Middle Eastern countries (95% CI: 1.36 - 1.88). The prevalence among blood donors with more than one study was 1.58% in Egypt, 0.58% in Iran, 0.67% in Iraq, 2.84% in Pakistan, 3.02% in Saudi Arabia, 1.68% in Turkey, and 5.05% in Yemen. Based on the WHO classification of hepatitis B virus (HBV) prevalence, the prevalence of HBsAg in blood donors from E and M countries reached an intermediate level. However, there were low prevalence levels in some E and M countries.

  16. Cave dwellings in the Mediterranean basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viedma Urdiales Eugenia María

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The construction and use of subterranean caves for different functions has been relatively commonplace throughout history in different regions around the world, especially in the Mediterranean basin. Some of them are still standing at the beginning of the 21st century, and are a good example of adaptation to the geographic environment, and a part of the historical heritage. Following a short overview of the different Mediterranean countries, this work pays special attention to the present use of caves as dwelling spaces in Italy, and particularly in Spain where the caves are currently in an interesting process of renovation to meet the needs of the present population. This process is helping to boost the local economy, and it is funded by both private and public sources in several towns in Andalusia (Spain.

  17. Policy-Relevant Context of Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking among University Students in Six Countries Across the Eastern Mediterranean Region: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salloum, Ramzi G; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen; Hamadeh, Randah; Thomas, Justin; Mostafa, Aya; Yusufali, Afzalhussein; Kheirallah, Khalid A; Macauda, Mark M; Theis, Ryan P; Kadi, Lama El; Johnson, Evan J; Darawad, Muhammad W; Nakkash, Rima

    2017-01-01

    Background: Waterpipe tobacco smoking rates in the Eastern Mediterranean region are some of the highest worldwide, especially among young people. This study aimed to improve our knowledge of the policy-relevant context of waterpipe smoking among six countries in the Eastern Mediterranean region. Methods: In-depth interviews were conducted in Bahrain, Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Palestine, and the United Arab Emirates. Participants were young adult university students (18-29 years) from both genders who had ever smoked the waterpipe, recruited from universities participating in this study. Directed content analysis was used to analyze the transcripts. Results: A total of 53 in-depth interviews were conducted in Arabic in 2016. Findings were organized around 5 themes: waterpipe product characteristics; patterns of waterpipe smoking; the waterpipe café setting; perceived health consequences; and health warning labels. Waterpipe smoking was commonly perceived as a safe alternative to cigarettes. Waterpipe tobacco was reported to be widely accessible and affordable to young participants. There is a lack of knowledge among waterpipe smokers about the associated health effects. Warning labels are effective at communicating health risks associated with waterpipe smoking. Conclusions: Regulatory frameworks for waterpipe tobacco smoking should be developed and enforced, including waterpipe-specific health warning labels that elucidate the harmful effects of waterpipe smoking. PMID:28952296

  18. Resprout and survival of willows (Salix purpurea and S. incana), Poplars (Populus nigra) and Tamaris (Tamarix gallica) cuttings in marly gullies with Southern aspect in a mountainous and Mediterranean climate (Southern Alps, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Freddy; Labonne, Sophie; Dangla, Laure; Lavandier, Géraud

    2014-05-01

    In the Southern French Alps under a mountainous and Mediterranean climate, a current strategy of bioengineering is developed for trapping sediment in marly gullies with surface area less than 1 ha. It is based on the use of structures in the form of brush layers and brush mats of cuttings on deadwood microdams. Purple and white Willows (Salix purpurea and S. incana) are recommended here as they proved their efficiency to resprout and survive in such environment. However, these species installed in Southern gullies did not survive in previous experiments, due to the too harsh conditions of solar radiation and drought. We thus decided to test other species, namely black Poplar (Populus nigra) and Tamaris (Tamarix gallica), which proved their resistance to drought conditions in other experiments. To this view, bioengineering structures have been built in 2010 in eroded marly gullies in the Roubines and Fontaugier catchments (Southern Alps, France). We tested two installation modalities: one in spring and a second in autumn. Seventy-eight bioengineering structures (50 in spring and 28 in autumn), among which 32 made with Poplar cuttings and 28 with Tamaris cuttings, as well as 11 structures with purple Willow and 7 with white Willow as controls, were built in 6 experimental gullies. After 3 observation years for each modality (2010 to 2012, and 2011 to 2013, respectively), results first revealed that Willow species succeeded in surviving in gullies in Southern aspect (76 % for the cuttings installed in spring and 52 % for those installed in autumn), which is in contradiction with previous results. Second, Poplar showed a good ability to survive (62 % for the cuttings installed in spring and 33 % for those installed in autumn). Tamaris obtained the worst score with 26 % and 38 % of survival for the cuttings installed in spring and autumn, respectively. Globally, excepted for Tamaris, survival rates were better for the cuttings installed in spring. The bioengineering

  19. Investigating Miocene Mediterranean-Atlantic Gateway Exchange (IMMAGE) - an amphibious drilling proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flecker, Rachel

    2017-04-01

    Today Mediterranean seawater flows out through the Gibraltar Straits, forming a saline plume at intermediate depths in the Atlantic. The plume's sedimentary record of distinctive, contouritic deposits has recently been recovered during IODP Leg 339 in the Gulf of Cadiz documenting a Mediterranean contribution to Atlantic thermohaline circulation since the Pliocene. However, before the Pliocene, the conduit for Mediterranean-Atlantic exchange is unclear. Gibraltar may have already been open, but two additional marine corridors also existed through northern Morocco and southern Spain. The restriction and closure of these Miocene connections resulted in extreme salinity fluctuations in the Mediterranean, leading to the precipitation of thick evaporites. This event is known as the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC) and recovering a complete record of the MSC is the target of current IODP drilling proposals (e.g. DREAM). Understanding both the causes of high-amplitude salinity change in the Mediterranean and its global consequences for thermohaline circulation in the Atlantic is dependent on recovering a complete record of Mediterranean-Atlantic exchange before, during and after the MSC. This key objective of the IMMAGE drilling proposal requires core recovery on-shore at the mouths of the Betic and Rifian corridors which are now exposed on land, as well as offshore, in the Alborán Sea and on the Atlantic continental margin. Consequently to meet this objective, an amphibious drilling strategy is necessary, involving both IODP and ICDP targets. In addition to allowing us to reconstruct Mediterranean-Atlantic exchange during high amplitude salinity fluctuations and identify the conduit through which exchange occurred, the sediments recovered from IMMAGE drilling will also provide us with a unique and explicit test for ocean physics hypotheses describing the location, size and velocity of overflow plumes under conditions where the density contrast between the two water

  20. 2nd International Conference on Historic Earthquake-Resistant Timber Frames in the Mediterranean Area

    CERN Document Server

    Machado, José; Costa, Alfredo; Candeias, Paulo; Ruggieri, Nicola; Catarino, José

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a selection of the best papers from the HEaRT 2015 conference, held in Lisbon, Portugal, which provided a valuable forum for engineers and architects, researchers and educators to exchange views and findings concerning the technological history, construction features and seismic behavior of historical timber-framed walls in the Mediterranean countries. The topics covered are wide ranging and include historical aspects and examples of the use of timber-framed construction systems in response to earthquakes, such as the gaiola system in Portugal and the Bourbon system in southern Italy; interpretation of the response of timber-framed walls to seismic actions based on calculations and experimental tests; assessment of the effectiveness of repair and strengthening techniques, e.g., using aramid fiber wires or sheets; and modelling analyses. In addition, on the basis of case studies, a methodology is presented that is applicable to diagnosis, strengthening and improvement of seismic performance ...

  1. Independent regulatory agencies and rules harmonization for the electricity sector and renewables in the Mediterranean region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cambini, Carlo; Franzi, Donata

    2013-01-01

    The paper analyses the existing regulatory framework for the electricity and renewables sectors, and the role of regulatory agencies in Northern Africa and Middle East countries, under the promotion by the European Union. Using data collected through an original survey directed at regulators, ministry departments and energy companies of the southern Mediterranean, the study is aimed at assessing the extent of agencies' independence looking at three main dimensions of independence: regulatory instruments available to regulators and decision making autonomy; regulators' organizational autonomy; and regulators accountability. Results show that those countries having established an independent regulator have a more credible regulatory framework than those countries in which such a body does not exist. In particular, the analysis shows that Turkey, Croatia and Jordan have defined a regulatory framework that limits administrative expropriation and, consequently, creates an environment more suitable for attracting investments in the electricity and renewables sector. On the institutional ground, this is probably related with the harmonization of regulatory standards promoted by the European Union through the neighboring policy, for the Jordan case, and the membership perspective, in the Turkish and Croatian cases. - Highlights: • We analyze the existing regulatory framework in Northern Africa and Middle East countries. • We construct an original dataset through a survey directed to national regulators. • The extent of agencies' independence has been assessed in different dimensions. • These dimensions are decision making autonomy; organizational autonomy; and accountability. • Few countries have defined a regulatory framework limiting administrative expropriation

  2. Correlates of male circumcision in Eastern and Southern African countries: establishing a baseline prior to VMMC Scale-up.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khai Hoan Tram

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite the importance of male circumcision (MC prevalence to HIV prevention efforts in Eastern and Southern Africa, there has been no systematic analysis on the correlates of male circumcision. This analysis identifies correlates of MC in 12 countries in the region with available data. METHODS: Data from the male questionnaire of DHS surveys collected between 2006-2011 in Ethiopia, Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Rwanda, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe were analyzed. The dependent variable was self-reported male circumcision status. Independent variables included age, education, wealth quintile, place of residence, ethnicity, religion and region. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted separately for each country. RESULTS: MC prevalence ranged from 8.2 percent in Swaziland to 92.2 percent in Ethiopia. Bivariate analyses showed a consistent positive association between age (being older and male circumcision. Education, wealth quintile, and place of residence were either not significantly related or differed in the direction of the relationship by country. Multivariate logistic regression showed three variables consistently associated with MC status: age (being older, religion (being Muslim and ethnicity. DISCUSSION: These data were collected prior to the scale-up of voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC programs in 11 of the 12 countries. As the VMMC scale-up intensifies in countries across Eastern and Southern Africa, the correlates of VMMC are likely to change, with (younger age and education emerging as key correlates of VMMC performed in medical settings. The centuries-long tradition among Muslims to circumcise should continue to favor MC among this group. Non-circumcising ethnicities may become more open to MC if promoted as a health practice for decreasing HIV risk.

  3. Deception and the Mediterranean Campaigns of 1943-1944

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-03-31

    South East Asia Command; Fleming by the way, • was the brother of Ian I’leming, the British spy novelist. Regardless of these evolutions in the...British. 7. David Mure, MAsJl . "rpn., D IAn &led Webk in - an the Kiddla Ka"e. p. 131. ’ 8. Interviews with Mure. The role of Noel Wild in "A" Force...Supreme Allied Commander, Mediterranean) .’- 175 General Maitland "Jumbo" Wilson to conduct operations against 7 southern France at about the same

  4. Adherence to the “Mediterranean Diet” in Spain and Its Relationship with Cardiovascular Risk (DIMERICA Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Abellán Alemán

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nutritional studies focus on traditional cultural models and lifestyles in different countries. The aim of this study was to examine the adherence to the Mediterranean diet, life habits, and risk factors associated with cardiovascular diseases among people living in different geographical regions in Spain. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in each region. The sampling scheme consisted of a random three-stage stratified sampling program according to geographic region, age, and gender. A total of 1732 subjects were asked to complete a questionnaire designed to assess their nutrient intake, dietary habits, and exercise. A diet score that assesses the adherence of participants to the Mediterranean diet (range 0–10 was also applied. Results: Southeastern Spain had the lowest score for adherence to the Mediterranean diet because of the low consumption of fish and plant products. A lower adherence score to the Mediterranean diet was strongly associated with the prevalence of hypertension (p = 0.018. Conclusions: A low level of adherence to the Mediterranean diet is accompanied by a high prevalence of hypertension and, therefore, a raised cardiovascular risk in the country. The adherence score could help identify individuals at greater cardiovascular risk.

  5. Screening of three Mediterranean phenylketonuria mutations in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    as the most frequent mutation (Dahri et al. 2010). The. E280K mutation was also reported in Mediterranean popu- lations (Guldberg et al. 1993). Since Tunisia is a Mediter- ranean country, patients with PKU are presumed to have these mutations. The aim of this study was to assess prevalence of the three above mutations ...

  6. Late Holocene vegetation changes in relation with climate fluctuations and human activity in Languedoc (southern France)

    OpenAIRE

    Azuara , J; Combourieu-Nebout , N; Lebreton , V; Mazier , F; Müller , S D; Dezileau , L ,

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Holocene climate fluctuations and human activity since the Neolithic have shaped present-day Mediter-ranean environments. Separating anthropogenic effects from climatic impacts to better understand Mediterranean pale-oenvironmental changes over the last millennia remains a challenging issue. High-resolution pollen analyses were un-dertaken on two cores from the Palavasian lagoon system (Hérault, southern France). These records allow reconstruction of vegetation dynamic...

  7. THE EUROPEAN UNION AS A DRIVER OF REGIONAL COOPERATION IN ITS SOUTHERN NEIGHBOURHOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Irina ION

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The European Union's policy towards its southern periphery in North Africa and the Middle East has sought to promote regional cooperation both between itself and the Arab partner states and, most importantly, among the Arab states. The Euro-Mediterranean Partnership, and later on, the Union for the Mediterranean introduced, after decades of superficial institutionalization of Euro-Mediterranean relations, an element of novelty in the form of the regionalism it promoted and the multilateral setting it was creating. However outstanding at its debut, this experiment of „building” a Mediterranean region, where security and peaceful change would be brought about by the states' willingness to cooperate through multilateral mechanisms has failed. The EU's efforts to create a Mediterranean region have been stymied not only by what can amount to an unrealistic perception regarding intra-Arab dynamics, but also by changes in the substance of the Euro-Mediterranean institutional setting. Namely, the region-building multilateralism of the EMP has been side-lined by the pragmatic bilateralism of the UfM.

  8. Mineral content in grains of seven food-grade sorghum hybrids grown in Mediterranean environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorghum is a major crop used for food, feed and industrial purposes worldwide. The objective of this study was to determine the mineral content in grains of seven white food-grade sorghum hybrids bred and adapted for growth in the central USA and grown in a Mediterranean area of Southern Italy. The ...

  9. Short time scale laws in self-potentialsignals from two different seismically active Mediterranean areas(the Southern Apennine chainand Crete Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Macchiato

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Self-potential time series are investigated to characterise self-potential time scales. The data analysed were recorded in stations located in two active seismic areas of the Mediterranean region, the Southern Apennine chain (Giuliano and Crete Island (Heraklion, where in past and recent years many destructive seismic events have taken place. The seismological and geological settings, combined with a low level of cultural noise, allow us to consider these areas ideal outdoor laboratories to study the time dynamics of geophysical parameters of electrical nature. At the same time, the different seismological features of such areas make an inter-comparison between the geoelectrical variability observed at the two sites interesting. Fractal analysis tools, able to detect scale laws and quantify persistence features, are used to better understand the background variability properties of the self-potential signals. As results from our analysis, antipersistence seems to be a ubiquitous feature on short time scales (minutes regardless of environmental conditions. On such scales, the accumulation of random fluctuations is not particularly efficient and significant variations mostly occur as sudden jumps.

  10. On a meeting between the Horn Viper and a Centipede in the Peloponnese, southern Greece  or the Biter, bit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Kit; Kretzschmar, Horst

    2009-01-01

    Vipera ammodytes L., (the European Horn-Nosed Viper) is a small venomous snake occurring in southern L., (the European Horn-Nosed Viper) is a small venomous snake occurring in southern Europe. It was documented attacking Scolopendra cingulata Latreille (the venomous Mediterranean Banded Centipede...

  11. Mediterranean Diet and Cardiometabolic Diseases in Racial/Ethnic Minority Populations in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotos-Prieto, Mercedes; Mattei, Josiemer

    2018-01-01

    The Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) has been recommended to the general population by many scientific organizations as a healthy dietary pattern, based on strong evidence of association with improved cardiometabolic health, including lower risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and obesity. However, most studies have been conducted in Mediterranean or European countries or among white populations in the United States (US), while few exist for non-Mediterranean countries or racial/ethnic minority populations in the US. Because most existing studies evaluating adherence to the MedDiet use population-specific definitions or scores, the reported associations may not necessarily apply to other racial/ethnic populations that may have different distributions of intake. Moreover, racial/ethnic groups may have diets that do not comprise the typical Mediterranean foods captured by these scores. Thus, there is a need to determine if similar positive effects from following a MedDiet are observed in diverse populations, as well as to identify culturally-relevant foods reflected within Mediterranean-like patterns, that can facilitate implementation and promotion of such among broader racial/ethnic groups. In this narrative review, we summarize and discuss the evidence from observational and intervention studies on the MedDiet and cardiometabolic diseases in racial/ethnic minority populations in the US, and offer recommendations to enhance research on MedDiet for such populations. PMID:29538339

  12. Mediterranean Diet and Cardiometabolic Diseases in Racial/Ethnic Minority Populations in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Sotos-Prieto

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean diet (MedDiet has been recommended to the general population by many scientific organizations as a healthy dietary pattern, based on strong evidence of association with improved cardiometabolic health, including lower risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and obesity. However, most studies have been conducted in Mediterranean or European countries or among white populations in the United States (US, while few exist for non-Mediterranean countries or racial/ethnic minority populations in the US. Because most existing studies evaluating adherence to the MedDiet use population-specific definitions or scores, the reported associations may not necessarily apply to other racial/ethnic populations that may have different distributions of intake. Moreover, racial/ethnic groups may have diets that do not comprise the typical Mediterranean foods captured by these scores. Thus, there is a need to determine if similar positive effects from following a MedDiet are observed in diverse populations, as well as to identify culturally-relevant foods reflected within Mediterranean-like patterns, that can facilitate implementation and promotion of such among broader racial/ethnic groups. In this narrative review, we summarize and discuss the evidence from observational and intervention studies on the MedDiet and cardiometabolic diseases in racial/ethnic minority populations in the US, and offer recommendations to enhance research on MedDiet for such populations.

  13. Impacts of Climate Change on Vector Borne Diseases in the Mediterranean Basin - Implications for Preparedness and Adaptation Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negev, Maya; Paz, Shlomit; Clermont, Alexandra; Pri-Or, Noemie Groag; Shalom, Uri; Yeger, Tamar; Green, Manfred S

    2015-06-15

    The Mediterranean region is vulnerable to climatic changes. A warming trend exists in the basin with changes in rainfall patterns. It is expected that vector-borne diseases (VBD) in the region will be influenced by climate change since weather conditions influence their emergence. For some diseases (i.e., West Nile virus) the linkage between emergence andclimate change was recently proved; for others (such as dengue) the risk for local transmission is real. Consequently, adaptation and preparation for changing patterns of VBD distribution is crucial in the Mediterranean basin. We analyzed six representative Mediterranean countries and found that they have started to prepare for this threat, but the preparation levels among them differ, and policy mechanisms are limited and basic. Furthermore, cross-border cooperation is not stable and depends on international frameworks. The Mediterranean countries should improve their adaptation plans, and develop more cross-sectoral, multidisciplinary and participatory approaches. In addition, based on experience from existing local networks in advancing national legislation and trans-border cooperation, we outline recommendations for a regional cooperation framework. We suggest that a stable and neutral framework is required, and that it should address the characteristics and needs of African, Asian and European countries around the Mediterranean in order to ensure participation. Such a regional framework is essential to reduce the risk of VBD transmission, since the vectors of infectious diseases know no political borders.

  14. Comparative performance of PV panels of different technologies over one year of exposure: Application to a coastal Mediterranean region of Algeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenounou, A.; Malek, A.; Aillerie, M.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Performances of four PV panels of various technologies are compared during one year of exposure under natural outdoor conditions. • An original platform and methodology of test allow a real-time scan of several PV panel parameters. • The technologies compared are micromorph silicon, monocrystalline silicon, amorphous silicon, polycrystalline silicon. • The performance ratio point out a difference of behavior between the four technologies over one year. • Results are directly exploitable in costal regions of Mediterranean countries. - Abstract: The aim of this contribution is to compare the performance of four PV panels of different technologies for one year of exposure under natural outdoor conditions of a coastal region in the southern shore of the Mediterranean Sea. An original platform of test, especially dedicated for this study is presented describing operations and techniques used for measurements of the pertinent experimental data and for their exploitation. The four panel technologies studied are micromorph silicon (μ-Si), monocrystalline silicon (M-Si), amorphous silicon (a-Si) and polycrystalline silicon (Poli-Si). Two types of results are analyzed and presented. The first type is straight forwardly linked to the PV panels standard data calculated experimentally from measurements recorded during one year of exposure and compared with the values provided by the manufacturers in their datasheets. The second type is related to the energy yield in which the corresponding monthly and annual performance ratios of the four PV panels is calculated in two ways, using 1 – the datasheet’s value of Power Max, and 2 – the data providing from experimental campaign. In addition to the general conclusions concerning the fundamental role of the experimental study at a natural site for a good sizing of a renewable energy production system, we extend the analysis and discussion for the specific localization case of southern coastal region of

  15. Quinoa's potential in the Mediterranean region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavini, A.; Pulvento, C.; d'Andria, R.

    2014-01-01

    Willd.), which was grown in field trials in several Mediterranean countries, to study the effects of drought and salinity on yield and other characters. Drought stress during the vegetative growth stage leads to deep root development, and without stress conditions for the rest of the growing season...... allowed the plant to be able to optimize its photosynthesis and carbon translocation. Stress during seed filling recorded the lowest yields. The influence of organic matter on yield was more important under deficit irrigation than under full irrigation. The interaction between relative water content......The climate of Mediterranean region will become drier and hotter, with increased problems of soil salinity. A possible alternative to minimize the effects of climate change is to introduce species with better tolerance to salt and drought stresses. One of the options is quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa...

  16. Mediterranean diet, folic acid, and neural tube defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Maximilian; Stronati, Mauro; Lanari, Marcello

    2017-08-17

    The Mediterranean diet has been for a very long time the basis of food habits all over the countries of the Mediterranean basin, originally founded on rural models and low consumption of meat products and high-fat/high-processed foods. However, in the modern era, the traditional Mediterranean diet pattern is now progressively eroding due to the widespread dissemination of the Western-type economy, life-style, technology-driven culture, as well as the globalisation of food production, availability and consumption, with consequent homogenisation of food culture and behaviours. This transition process may affect many situations, including pregnancy and offspring's health. The problem of the diet during pregnancy and the proper intake of nutrients are nowadays a very current topic, arousing much debate. The Mediterranean dietary pattern, in particular, has been associated with the highest risk reduction of major congenital anomalies, like the heterogeneous class of neural tube defects (NTDs). NTDs constitute a major health burden (0.5-2/1000 pregnancies worldwide) and still remain a preventable cause of still birth, neonatal and infant death, or significant lifelong disabilities. Many studies support the finding that appropriate folate levels during pregnancy may confer protection against these diseases. In 1991 one randomised controlled trial (RCT) demonstrated for the first time that periconceptional supplementation of folic acid is able to prevent the recurrence of NTDs, finding confirmed by many other subsequent studies. Anyway, the high rate of unplanned/unintended pregnancies and births and other issues hindering the achievement of adequate folate levels in women in childbearing age, induced the US government and many other countries to institute mandatory food fortification with folic acid. The actual strategy adopted by European Countries (including Italy) suggests that women take 0,4 mg folic acid/die before conception. The main question is which intervention

  17. The potential of lignocellulosic ethanol production in the Mediterranean Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faraco, Vincenza [Department of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Naples ' ' Federico II' ' , Naples (Italy); School of Biotechnological Sciences, University of Naples ' ' Federico II' ' , Naples (Italy); Hadar, Yitzhak [Department of Microbiology and Plant Pathology, The Robert H. Smith Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environment, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot (Israel)

    2011-01-15

    This review provides an overview of the potential of bioethanol fuel production from lignocellulosic residues in the Mediterranean Basin. Residues from cereal crops, olive trees, and tomato and grape processing are abundant lignocellulosic wastes in France, Italy, Spain, Turkey and Egypt, where their use as raw materials for ethanol production could give rise to a potential production capacity of 13 Mtoe of ethanol. Due to the lack of sufficient amounts of agricultural residues in all of the other Mediterranean countries, use of the cellulosic content of municipal solid waste (MSW) as feedstock for ethanol fuel production is also proposed. A maximum potential production capacity of 30 Mtoe of ethanol could be achieved from 50% of the 180 million tons of waste currently produced annually in the Mediterranean Basin, the management of which has become a subject of serious concern. However, to make large-scale ethanol production from agricultural residues and MSW a medium-term feasible goal in the Mediterranean Basin, huge efforts are needed to achieve the required progress in cellulose ethanol technologies and to overcome several foreseeable constraints. (author)

  18. Mediterranean diet and colorectal cancer: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farinetti, Alberto; Zurlo, Valeria; Manenti, Antonio; Coppi, Francesca; Mattioli, Anna Vittoria

    Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer worldwide, especially in developed countries where an estimated 60% of all cases occur. There is evidence of a higher risk for CRC in Western society, where people tend to eat more red and processed meat than those living along the Mediterranean coast, who have a decreased overall cancer mortality, which is correlated to their eating habits, such as Mediterranean diet. The aim of this review was to evaluate the correlation between three components of the Mediterranean diet (olive oil, red wine, and tomatoes) and incidence and progression of colorectal cancer. As such, we conducted a literature search using keywords "colorectal cancer," "dietary pattern," "Mediterranean diet," "olive oil," "protective effects," "resveratrol," and "lycopene." Olive oil polyphenols, red wine resveratrol, and tomato lycopene showed several characteristics in vitro that interfere with molecular cancer pathways. At the same time, many clinical studies have reported an association of these components with a reduction in cancer initiation and progression. More clinical studies are needed to identify the precise dose and administration of single agents or their combination to produce a coadjutant treatment to those already applied in chemoprevention and oncologic treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. CITRUS AS A COMPONENT OF THE MEDITERRANEAN DIET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amilcar Duarte

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Citrus are native to southeastern Asia, but are present in the Mediterranean basin for centuries. This group of species has reached great importance in some of the Mediterranean countries and, in the case of orange, mandarin and lemon trees, they found here soil and climatic conditions which allows them to achieve a high level of fruit quality, even better than in the regions where they came from. Citrus fruits are present in the diet of the peoples living on the Mediterranean basin, at least since the time of the Roman Empire. In the 20th century they became the main crop in various agricultural areas of the Mediterranean, playing an important role in the landscape, in the diet of the overall population, and also in international trade. They are present in the gardens of palaces and monasteries, but also in the courtyards and orchards of the poorest families. Their fruits are not only a refreshing dessert, but also a condiment, or even a major component of many dishes. Citrus fruits have well-documented nutritional and health benefits. They can actually help prevent and cure some diseases and, above all, they are essential in a balanced and tasty diet.

  20. Microbial decomposers not constrained by climate history along a Mediterranean climate gradient in southern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Nameer R; Khalili, Banafshe; Martiny, Jennifer B H; Allison, Steven D

    2018-06-01

    Microbial decomposers mediate the return of CO 2 to the atmosphere by producing extracellular enzymes to degrade complex plant polymers, making plant carbon available for metabolism. Determining if and how these decomposer communities are constrained in their ability to degrade plant litter is necessary for predicting how carbon cycling will be affected by future climate change. We analyzed mass loss, litter chemistry, microbial biomass, extracellular enzyme activities, and enzyme temperature sensitivities in grassland litter transplanted along a Mediterranean climate gradient in southern California. Microbial community composition was manipulated by caging litter within bags made of nylon membrane that prevent microbial immigration. To test whether grassland microbes were constrained by climate history, half of the bags were inoculated with local microbial communities native to each gradient site. We determined that temperature and precipitation likely interact to limit microbial decomposition in the extreme sites along our gradient. Despite their unique climate history, grassland microbial communities were not restricted in their ability to decompose litter under different climate conditions across the gradient, although microbial communities across our gradient may be restricted in their ability to degrade different types of litter. We did find some evidence that local microbial communities were optimized based on climate, but local microbial taxa that proliferated after inoculation into litterbags did not enhance litter decomposition. Our results suggest that microbial community composition does not constrain C-cycling rates under climate change in our system, but optimization to particular resource environments may act as more general constraints on microbial communities. © 2018 by the Ecological Society of America.

  1. Prospective association of the Mediterranean diet with cardiovascular disease incidence and mortality and its population impact in a non-Mediterranean population: the EPIC-Norfolk study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Tammy Y N; Wareham, Nicholas J; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Imamura, Fumiaki; Forouhi, Nita G

    2016-09-29

    Despite convincing evidence in the Mediterranean region, the cardiovascular benefit of the Mediterranean diet is not well established in non-Mediterranean countries and the optimal criteria for defining adherence are unclear. The population attributable fraction (PAF) of adherence to this diet is also unknown. In the UK-based EPIC-Norfolk prospective cohort, we evaluated habitual diets assessed at baseline (1993-1997) and during follow-up (1998-2000) using food-frequency questionnaires (n = 23,902). We estimated a Mediterranean diet score (MDS) using cut-points projected from the Mediterranean dietary pyramid, and also three other pre-existing MDSs. Using multivariable-adjusted Cox regression with repeated measures of MDS and covariates, we examined prospective associations between each MDS with incident cardiovascular diseases (CVD) by 2009 and mortality by 2013, and estimated PAF for each outcome attributable to low MDS. We observed 7606 incident CVD events (2818/100,000 person-years) and 1714 CVD deaths (448/100,000). The MDS based on the Mediterranean dietary pyramid was significantly associated with lower incidence of the cardiovascular outcomes, with hazard ratios (95 % confidence intervals) of 0.95 (0.92-0.97) per one standard deviation for incident CVD and 0.91 (0.87-0.96) for CVD mortality. Associations were similar for composite incident ischaemic heart disease and all-cause mortality. Other pre-existing MDSs showed similar, but more modest associations. PAF due to low dietary pyramid based MDS (Mediterranean diet was associated with lower CVD incidence and mortality in the UK. This diet has an important population health impact for the prevention of CVD.

  2. The resurrection of Charybdis (Gonioinfradens) giardi (Nobili, 1905), newly recorded from the SE Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galil, Bella S; Douek, Jacob; Gevili, Roy; Goren, Menachem; Yudkovsky, Yana; Paz, Guy; Rinekvich, Baruch

    2018-01-15

    A single adult specimen of Gonioinfradens giardi, a portunid crab known from the Red Sea, Gulf of Oman and Arabian Gulf, was recently collected off the southern Israeli coast, in the southeastern Mediterranean Sea. Morphological characters, as well as molecular analyses based on the mitochondrial barcoding gene cytochrome oxidase sub unit I (COI), support its distinction from the widely distributed G. paucidentata. Therefore, G. giardi is reinstated as a valid species, and withdrawn from its synonymy with G. paucidentata. Previous Mediterranean records of the latter species are misidentifications and should be referred to G. giardi. The species is described, illustrated, and differentiated from its cogener.

  3. Exploring forest infrastructures equipment through multivariate analysis: complementarities, gaps and overlaps in the Mediterranean basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Bajocco

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The countries of the Mediterranean basin face several challenges regarding the sustainability of forest ecosystems and the delivery of crucial goods and services that they provide in a context of rapid global changes. Advancing scientific knowledge and foresting innovation is essential to ensure the sustainable management of Mediterranean forests and maximize the potential role of their unique goods and services in building a knowledge-based bioeconomy in the region. In this context, the European project FORESTERRA ("Enhancing FOrest RESearch in the MediTERRAnean through improved coordination and integration” aims at reinforcing the scientific cooperation on Mediterranean forests through an ambitious transnational framework in order to reduce the existing research fragmentation and maximize the effectiveness of forest research activities. Within the FORESTERRA project framework, this work analyzed the infrastructures equipment of the Mediterranean countries belonging to the project Consortium. According to the European Commission, research infrastructures are facilities, resources and services that are used by the scientific communities to conduct research and foster innovation. To the best of our knowledge, the equipment and availability of infrastructures, in terms of experimental sites, research facilities and databases, have only rarely been explored. The aim of this paper was hence to identify complementarities, gaps and overlaps among the different forest research institutes in order to create a scientific network, optimize the resources and trigger collaborations.

  4. Steps toward a shared governance response for achieving Good Environmental Status in the Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Cinnirella

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean region is of fundamental importance to Europe given its strategic position. The responsibility for its overall ecosystem integrity is shared by European Union Member States (EU-MS and other Mediterranean countries. A juxtaposition of overlapping governance instruments occurred recently in the region, with the implementation of both the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD for EU-MS and the Ecosystem Approach Strategy (ECAP for all Mediterranean countries, including EU-MS. Both MSFD and ECAP are structured around vision-driven processes to achieve Good Environmental Status and a Healthy Environment, respectively. These processes have clear ecosystem-based, integrated policy objectives to guarantee the preservation and integrity of Mediterranean marine ecosystem goods and services. However, adoption of these instruments, especially those related to the new EU-MS directives on marine policy, could result in a governance gap in addition to the well-known economic gap between the EU and the non-EU political blocs. We identify two complementary requirements for effective implementation of both MSFD and ECAP that could work together to reduce this gap, to ensure a better alignment between MSFD and ECAP and better planning for stakeholder engagement. These are key issues for the future success of these instruments in a Mediterranean region where discrepancies between societal and ecological objectives may pose a challenge to these processes.

  5. Improvement of greenhouse design and climate control in mediterranean conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuzel, Yuksel; Zwart, de Feije; Sapounas, A.; Hemming, Silke; Stanghellini, Cecilia

    2017-01-01

    The Mediterranean Region is one of the most important areas of the world in terms of protected cultivation. Turkey, with its increasing greenhouse area, is one of the representative countries of the region. Thanks to the mild winter climatic conditions, cultivation of vegetables under simple

  6. Dog rabies data reported to multinational organizations from Southern and Eastern African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyene, Tariku Jibat; Mourits, Monique C M; Hogeveen, Henk

    2017-06-08

    Rabies is one of the viral diseases with the highest case fatality rate in humans. The main transmission route to humans is through bites, especially of infected dogs. Decisions on the allocation of resources to control and reduce the socio-economic impacts of rabies require reliable data. Several national, regional and international organizations have been gathering rabies data for more than a decade. The objective of this paper was to examine the consistencies in the number of dog rabies cases reported to different multinational organizations by Southern and Eastern African countries and to explore the presence of any time trend among the reported rabies data. Data was systematically extracted from the databases of the Southern and Eastern African Rabies Group-SEARG and the World Organization for Animal Health/World animal health information-OIE/WAHID. Despite differences in entities by which data have been reported to the two organisations, reported numbers were significantly correlated (Spearman's rho = 0.52, P rabies outbreaks. Inconsistencies in the reported numbers were observed between the databases, possibly due to the fact that human and animal health authorities report separately to the organisations involved in addition to the use of indefinite definitions of report categories set by report receiving organizations.

  7. TERENO-MED: Observation and Exploration Platform for Water Resources in the Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, E.; Zacharias, S.; Friesen, J.; Vereecken, H.; Bogena, H.; Kallioras, A.

    2012-04-01

    According to the latest IPCC projections, the Circum-Mediterranean region will be particularly affected by Global and Climate Change. These changes include population growth, increases in food, water and energy demands, changes in land use patterns and urbanization/industrialization, while at the same time, the renewable water resources in the region are predicted to decrease by up to 50 % within the next 100 years. However, a profound basis for estimating and predicting the long-term effects of Global and Climate Change on the development of the quantity and quality of water resources and on ecosystems is still lacking. The main reason for this is that environmental monitoring, in particular in the Mediterranean region, is strongly disciplinarily oriented, and financing is usually limited to short-term periods. The TERENO-MED (Terrestrial Environmental Observatories in the Mediterranean) initiative aims to fill the described gap. Together with partners in the region, TERENO-MED will establish a Circum-Mediterranean network of Global Change observatories, and will investigate the effects of anthropogenic impacts and of climate change on Mediterranean water resources and ecosystems. Within a set of representative catchments around the Circum-Mediterranean region (Southern Europe, Northern Africa, Near East), observatory sites will be installed with state-of-the-art and innovative monitoring equipment, in order to measure hydrological states and fluxes on a long-term basis (minimum 15 years). Monitoring equipment will cover all scales, from the point to the regional scale using ground-based and remote sensing technologies. Based on the acquired information, TERENO-MED, together with partners across the Mediterranean region will develop model scenarios that may serve as a basis for sustainable political and economical decisions. In order to gain a deep understanding of the most relevant processes and feedbacks, and to deliver reliable future scenarios for the

  8. Millennial-scale climate variations in western Mediterranean during late Pleistocene-early Holocene: multi-proxy analyses from Padul peatbog (southern Iberian Peninsula)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camuera, Jon; Jiménez-Moreno, Gonzalo; José Ramos-Román, María; García-Alix, Antonio; Jiménez-Espejo, Francisco; Toney, Jaime L.; Anderson, R. Scott; Kaufman, Darrell; Bright, Jordon; Sachse, Dirk

    2017-04-01

    Padul peatbog, located in southern Iberian Peninsula (western Mediterranean region) is a unique area for palaeoenvironmental studies due to its location, between arid and temperate climates. Previous studies showed that the Padul peatbog contains a continuous record of the last ca. 0.8-1 Ma, so it is an extraordinary site to identify glacial-interglacial phases as well as Heinrich and D-O events, linked to orbital- and suborbital-scale variations. In 2015, a new 42 m long core was taken from this area, providing an excellent sediment record probably for the last ca. 300,000 years. This study is focused on the paleoenvironmental and climatic reconstruction of the late Pleistocene and the early Holocene (ca. from 50,000 to 9,500 cal. yrs BP), using AMS 14C and AAR dating, high-resolution pollen analysis, lithology, continuous XRF-scanning, X-ray diffraction, magnetic susceptibility and organic geochemistry. These different proxies provide information not only about the regional environment change but also about local changes in the conditions of the Padul lake/peatbog due to variations in water temperature, pH or nutrients.

  9. Origin and distribution of hydrocarbons and organic matter in the surficial sediments of the Sfax-Kerkennah channel (Tunisia, Southern Mediterranean Sea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaghden, Hatem; Tedetti, Marc; Sayadi, Sami; Serbaji, Mohamed Moncef; Elleuch, Boubaker; Saliot, Alain

    2017-04-15

    We investigated the origin and distribution of aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (AHs and PAHs) and organic matter (OM) in surficial sediments of the Sfax-Kerkennah channel in the Gulf of Gabès (Tunisia, Southern Mediterranean Sea). TOC, AH and PAH concentrations ranged 2.3-11.7%, 8-174μgg -1 sed.dw and 175-10,769ngg -1 sed.dw, respectively. The lowest concentrations were recorded in the channel (medium sand sediment) and the highest ones in the Sfax harbor (very fine sand sediment). AHs, PAHs and TOC were not correlated for most of the stations. TOC/N and δ 13 C values revealed a mixed origin of OM with both marine and terrestrial sources. Hydrocarbon molecular composition highlighted the dominance of petrogenic AHs and the presence of both petrogenic and pyrogenic PAHs, associated with petroleum products and combustion processes. This work underscores the complex distribution patterns and the multiple sources of OM and hydrocarbons in this highly anthropogenized coastal environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Needs in financing of petroleum, gas and electrical industries in the mediterranean basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenon, M.

    1994-01-01

    Forecasting about energy supply and demand for next years is the actual question; here is presented the most specific one about the mediterranean basin: in front of the important demographic growth, leading to an urbanization and an increasing demand in energy, the problem of energy transport can rise, in this case two countries seem to take important in the mediterranean basin: Turkey and Egyptian Arab Republic. Financing can be more important than it is actually thought

  11. Olea europaea L. in the North Mediterranean Basin during the Pleniglacial and the Early-Middle Holocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrión, Yolanda; Ntinou, Maria; Badal, Ernestina

    2010-04-01

    The paper aims to define the natural distribution of Olea europaea L. var. sylvestris (Miller) Lehr. in the North Mediterranean basin during the Pleniglacial and the Early-Middle Holocene by means of the identification of its wood-charcoal and/or wood at prehistoric sites. For this purpose we have reviewed the previously available information and we have combined it with new wood-charcoal analyses data. We have taken under consideration the presence and frequency of O. europaea L. in the available wood-charcoal sequences, the characteristics of the accompanying flora, the associated chrono-cultural contexts, the broader biogeographical context and the AMS dates provided by Olea wood-charcoal or endocarps. According to the available evidence, during the Middle and Late Pleniglacial (ca 59-11.5 ka cal. BP), Olea would have persisted in thermophilous refugia located in the southern areas of the North Mediterranean basin, the southern Levant and the north of Africa. The Last Glacial Maximum (ca 22-18 ka cal. BP) probably reduced the distribution area of Olea. During the Preboreal and the Boreal (ca 11 500-8800 cal. BP) the species started to expand in the thermomediterranean bioclimatic level. In the western Mediterranean, during the Atlantic period (ca 8800-5600 cal. BP), the species became very abundant or dominant in the thermophilous plant formations and expanded to favorable enclaves outside the limits of the thermomediterranean level.

  12. QUATERNARY HISTORY OF CEDRUS IN SOUTHERN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Magri

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A database of 68 pollen records of Pleistocene age was compiled from the western Mediterranean regions, with the aim of reconstructing the history of Cedrus in south Europe during the last 2 Ma. Marine pollen records from the Alboran Sea suggest that Cedrus was present in Morocco throughout the Quaternary, while it was absent from the Iberian peninsula, except a possible local presence in a coastal site of southern Spain. In France, Cedrus pollen was recorded in Pliocene deposits, but its Quaternary finds are always very sparse and suggest a long distance origin of cedar pollen. Cedrus was widespread in all the Italian sites during the Early Pleistocene, but it is sporadically found in the Middle Pleistocene deposits. Although times and modes of the disappearance of Cedrus from Italy are not known, it appears that the marked climate changes occurred between 0.9 and 0.7 Ma determined its local extinction. A similar trend is found in Greece, where Cedrus may have persisted a little longer than in the Italian Peninsula. On the whole, the history of Cedrus in southern Europe indicates that it is a taxon vulnerable to global climate changes and warns of a future risk of extinction also in the rest of the Mediterranean Basin.

  13. Pan-African - Mediterranean Migrations: Implications for Education and Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napier, Diane Brook

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine features of the contemporary migrant and refugee flows across Africa northward to the Mediterranean and then to European countries (sometimes called the "new mass migration" and also migrant flows southward to South Africa. In addition, the purpose was to examine dimensions of response and…

  14. Mediterranean Energy Perspectives, Egypt - Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Egypt is a significant oil producer and a rapidly growing natural gas producer. Its strategic location makes it an important transit corridor for world energy markets. Mediterranean Energy Perspectives - Egypt provides insights into the country's energy situation today and over the next two decades. It presents detailed data and analysis of interest to those who have a stake in both the supply and demand side of the energy equation. It is the first in-depth country review in OME's Mediterranean Energy Perspectives (MEP) series. The publication draws upon the extensive expertise of the Observatoire Mediterraneen de l'Energie (OME) and its members. MEP-Egypt is a unique and comprehensive analysis of the energy sector in Egypt. It contains data from the early days of its energy industry up to today as well as a view on its evolution to 2030 based on the supply and demand model developed by OME (Mediterranean Energy Model). Current efforts related to renewable energy sources are carefully considered as they are key issues for the Egyptian energy sector and for the whole economic and environment future of the country. MEP-Egypt presents: - Historical and forecast data on the supply and demand balance for each segment of the Egyptian energy sector. - Past, present and future of oil and gas exploration and discoveries. - Oil and gas fields: production and development. - Oil and gas production profiles and prospects to 2030. - Detailed information on refineries, pipelines, LNG terminals and storage facilities. - Evolution of electricity generation and installed capacity. - Developments of innovative and renewable energy sources. - Prospects for CO 2 emissions and sustainable development. - Fiscal regime of the energy industry. - Alternative energy scenarios: a Conservative scenario, a Proactive scenario and two High Economic Growth variants. MEP-Egypt has been prepared by a joint-team of Egyptian industry experts and OME staff, supported by related companies, institutions

  15. Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet and the Risk of Frailty in Old People: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y; Hao, Q; Su, L; Liu, Y; Liu, S; Dong, B

    2018-01-01

    Frailty is a common geriatric syndrome in old people. It remains controversial whether Mediterranean diet could prevent old people from developing into frailty. The aim of this study is to summarize the relevant studies and assess the effectiveness of adherence to Mediterranean diet on frailty in old people. A systematic search of MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials was conducted to identify all relevant studies up to Oct 2017. We included studies regarding the associations between adherence to Mediterranean diet and risk of frailty among elders. A meta-analysis was performed to explore the effects of Mediterranean diet on frailty. Six studies matched the inclusion criteria, of which five were prospective and one was cross-sectional. A total of 10,210 participants from the five prospective cohort studies were included to perform the meta-analyses. In comparison with lowest adherence to Mediterranean diet, elders with highest adherence to Mediterranean diet were significantly associated with lower risk of frailty in the future (RR= 0.56, 95% CI=0.36-0.89, p=0.015). Furthermore, the pooled estimates from four studies performed among participants in western countries (European and North American) showed that higher adherence to Mediterranean diet was associated with a 52% reduced risk of frailty (RR= 0.48, 95% CI=0.32-0.72, pMediterranean diet and frailty among Asian elders (RR=1.06, 95% CI=0.83-1.36, p=0.638). A higher adherence to Mediterranean diet is associated with a lower risk of frailty in old people. Meanwhile, the benefits may be more obvious among elders from western countries.

  16. A multi-faceted approach to promote knowledge translation platforms in eastern Mediterranean countries: climate for evidence-informed policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Jardali, Fadi; Ataya, Nour; Jamal, Diana; Jaafar, Maha

    2012-05-06

    Limited work has been done to promote knowledge translation (KT) in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR). The objectives of this study are to: 1.assess the climate for evidence use in policy; 2.explore views and practices about current processes and weaknesses of health policymaking; 3.identify priorities including short-term requirements for policy briefs; and 4.identify country-specific requirements for establishing KT platforms. Senior policymakers, stakeholders and researchers from Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Iran, Jordan, Lebanon, Oman, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, and Yemen participated in this study. Questionnaires were used to assess the climate for use of evidence and identify windows of opportunity and requirements for policy briefs and for establishing KT platforms. Current processes and weaknesses of policymaking were appraised using case study scenarios. Closed-ended questions were analyzed descriptively. Qualitative data was analyzed using thematic analysis. KT activities were not frequently undertaken by policymakers and researchers in EMR countries, research evidence about high priority policy issues was rarely made available, and interaction between policymakers and researchers was limited, and policymakers rarely identified or created places for utilizing research evidence in decision-making processes. Findings emphasized the complexity of policymaking. Donors, political regimes, economic goals and outdated laws were identified as key drivers. Lack of policymakers' abilities to think strategically, constant need to make quick decisions, limited financial resources, and lack of competent and trained human resources were suggested as main weaknesses. Despite the complexity of policymaking processes in countries from this region, the absence of a structured process for decision making, and the limited engagement of policymakers and researchers in KT activities, there are windows of opportunity for moving towards more evidence informed policymaking.

  17. From failure to value: economic valuation for a selected set of products and services from Mediterranean forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masiero, M.; Pettenella, D.; Secco, L.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of study: the paper estimates the economic value of a selected range of forest products and services, i.e. roundwood, non-wood forest products (NWFPs), and carbon-related services. Area of study: the research covers 21 Mediterranean countries, distinguished into four sub-regions. Material and methods: data have been gathered from official statistical sources (e.g. FAOSTAT), scientific literature and technical reports. Different estimation approaches based on market-price have been used for different products/services. Main results: the estimated value ranges between €10,512 and €11,158 million (M). Wood products represent more than 85% of the total value. Within them, industrial timber is the most relevant component (65%). Figures for NWFPs are likely to be underestimated because data are available only for some products and countries. When using alternative estimates for pine nuts, pine resin and cork, figures show a €36.8-572 M increase. In geographical terms, the economic value of Mediterranean forests is highly concentrated: North-West Mediterranean countries account for 70%, and nearly 90% is in just four countries (France, Spain, Turkey and Italy). Research highlights: enhancing the offer of Mediterranean forest products and increasing their role in the rural economy could help to reduce the costs of forest protection: a well-structured forest economy ensuring stable flows of incomes can provide a fundamental set of public non-market services and social values to both local people and the whole community. Understanding the true value of natural resources, then, is an essential step for promoting their protection and sustainable use. (Author)

  18. New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records (April 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Α. ΖΕΝΕΤΟΣ

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Collective Article ‘New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records’ of the Mediterranean Marine Science journal offers the means to publish biodiversity records in the Mediterranean Sea. The current article is divided in two parts, for records of native and alien species respectively. The new records of native fish species include: the slender sunfish Ranzania laevis and the scalloped ribbonfish Zu cristatus in Calabria; the Azores rockling Gaidropsarus granti in Calabria and Sicily; the agujon needlefish Tylosurus acus imperialis in the Northern Aegean; and the amphibious behaviour of Gouania willdenowi in Southern Turkey. As regards molluscs, the interesting findings include Ischnochiton usticensis in Calabria and Thordisa filix in the bay of Piran (Slovenia. The stomatopod Parasquilla ferussaci was collected from Lesvos island (Greece; the isopod Anilocra frontalis was observed parasitizing the alien Pteragogus trispilus in the Rhodes area. The asteroid Tethyaster subinermis and the butterfly ray Gymnura altavela were reported from several localities in the Greek Ionian and Aegean Seas. The new records of alien species include: the antenna codlet Bregmaceros atlanticus in Saronikos Gulf; three  new fish records and two decapods from Egypt; the establishment of the two spot cardinal fish Cheilodipterus novemstriatus and the first record of the Indo-Pacific marble shrimp Saron marmoratus in semi-dark caves along the Lebanese coastline; the finding of Lagocephalus sceleratus, Sargocentron rubrum, Fistularia commersonii and Stephanolepis diaspros around Lipsi island (Aegean Sea, Greece; the decapod Penaeus hathor in Aegean waters; the decapod Penaeus aztecus and the nudibranch Melibe viridis in the Dodecanese islands; the finding of Pinctada imbricata radiata in the Mar Grande of Taranto (Ionian Sea, Italy and the Maliakos Gulf (Greece.

  19. Increasingly heterogeneous ages at first birth by education in Southern-European and Anglo-American family-policy regimes: A seven-country comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendall, Michael; Aracil, Encarnacion; Bagavos, Christos; Couet, Christine; DeRose, Alessandra; DiGiulio, Paola; Lappegard, Trude; Robert-Bobée, Isabelle; Rønsen, Marit; Smallwood, Steve; Verropoulou, Georgia

    2010-01-01

    Family-policy regimes unfavourable to combining employment with motherhood have been claimed to increase socio-economic differentials in fertility as combining employment and motherhood has become more normative. This claim has to date been explored mainly in reference to ‘liberal’ Anglo-American regimes. Comparing education differentials in age at first birth among native-born women of 1950s and 1960s birth cohorts in seven countries representing three regime types, we find persistence in early first births among low-educated women not only in Britain and the United States but also in Greece, Italy, and Spain. Shifts towards later first births, however, were more extreme in Southern Europe and involved to some extent women at all education levels. The educationally-heterogeneous changes in age patterns of first births seen in the Southern European and Anglo-American family-policy regimes contrast with educationally-homogeneous changes across birth cohorts seen in the study’s two ‘universalistic’ countries, Norway and France. PMID:20954097

  20. MEDITERRANEAN FOOD CONSUMPTION PATTERNS: LOW ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS AND SIGNIFICANT HEALTH AND NUTRITION BENEFITS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elbilali, H.; Capone, R.; Lamaddalena, N.; Lamberti, L.; Elferchichi, A.; Aboussaleh, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Nutrition is central in the prevention of food-related non-communicable diseases representing an important health risk factor and an enormous socio-economic burden for Mediterranean societies. Nevertheless, assessment of food systems and diets sustainability should take into account not only their health benefits but also their environmental impacts. This work aims at analysing the main environmental impacts of the Mediterranean food consumption patterns (MFCPs) and at highlighting their nutrition and health benefits. The paper provides a review on nutrition and health benefits of the traditional Mediterranean diet (MD) as well as on water and land resources and biodiversity in the Mediterranean. FAO food consumption statistics and standard footprint data were used to characterise the MFCP and to calculate and discuss environmental impacts, i.e. water, carbon and ecological footprints. The Mediterranean hotspot is a major centre of plant and crop diversity. Mediterranean people gather and consume about 2,300 plant species. The share of plant-based energy in the diet is higher in the Mediterranean than in Northern Europe and America. Peoples adhering to the Mediterranean dietary patterns comply better with recommended nutrient and micronutrients intakes. The MD was associated with reduced mortality and lower risk for obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and some cancers. During the last decades, the ecological footprint (EF) per capita in the Mediterranean increased while the biocapacity decreased thus the ecological deficit increased. The carbon footprint alone is generally higher than the biocapacity. MENA region has a lower EF than North America. Food consumption represents the highest share of water footprint of consumption (WFC) in the Mediterranean. WFC is lower in Mediterranean countries, especially MENA ones, than in North America. The traditional MD offers considerable health benefits and has lower environmental impacts than Northern

  1. Pinus sylvestris L. subsp. nevadensis (Christ Heywood in southern Spain: An endangered endemic Mediterranean forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olmedo-Cobo Antonio José

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pinus sylvestris subsp. nevadensis is the most endangered pine in Spain. This taxon takes refuge in only two massifs of the Betic Cordillera -Sierra Nevada and Sierra de Baza-, where its forests represent the southernmost limit of the species global distribution, surviving under conditions of geographic, demographic and ecological marginality in the upper treeline boundary that makes them very vulnerable to any environmental change or external aggression. This research establishes for the first time, and for the entire Betic Cordillera, the locations and ecological patterns of these pine forests, their plant dynamic and floristic composition, and provides an updated map of the current and potential distribution area of this subspecies. The methodological process for this research has consisted of an integrated phytosociological and biogeographical analysis of vegetation and the resulting landscape, through fieldwork covering in as much detail as possible the distribution area of P. sylvestris in the Betic Cordillera, and a review of the bibliographic background. Taking into account the results, P. sylvestris subsp. nevadensis forests survive at present under hostile Mediterranean conditions due to the special physical characteristics of the microenvironments in which they have taken refuge, mainly the cool, relatively moist climate of their ecological niches and the relatively impermeable soils that forests occupy. However, there are significant ecological obstacles for the future preservation of this pine in southern Spain, and therefore it is necessary for the creation of programmes to protect these threatened endemic and post-glacial relict forests through continued monitoring of their evolution and further research studying the processes that make this ecosystem as a whole so unique and valuable.

  2. Late Pliocene Northern Hemisphere glaciations: The continental and marine responses in the central Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebout, Nathalie Combourieu; Grazzini, Colette Vergnaud

    Detailed pollen analyses and oxygen isotope records of three foraminiferal species, Globigerina bulloides, Uvigerina peregrina and Cibicides pachyderma, from the Semaforo and Vrica composite sections (Crotone, southern Italy) have been compared to the global climatic changes depicted by late Pliocene-early Pleistocene foraminiferal δ 18O records of Site 607 in the North Atlantic, and Hole 653A in the Tyrrhenian basin, West Mediterranean. Major overturns in the mid-altitude vegetation are shown near isotopic stages 82, 60, 58 and 50, at about 2.03 Ma, 1.6 Ma and 1.37 Ma according to the Raymo et al. (1989) and Ruddiman et al. (1989) timescales. At the same dates, glacial 18O maxima either became higher or display step increases in the western Mediterranean or in the open ocean as well. This suggests that size increases of Northern Hemisphere ice sheets were the driving factor for regional or local marine and continental environmental changes within the Mediterranean basin. Near isotopic stages 62-60, close to the conventional Plio-Pleistocene boundary, the climatic conditions severed enough within the Mediterranean basin to modify the continental environment, as depicted by a sudden increase of Artemisia percentages, while the first significant southward migration of the North Polar Front may have been recorded by an influx of left coiling Neogloboquadrina pachyderma in the central Mediterranean. It also appears that 'Boreal Guests' entered the Mediterranean during phases of 18O enrichment of foraminiferal calcite. There does not seem to be any discrepancy between the climatic concept of the Pliocene-Pleistocene boundary and its chronostratigraphic definition.

  3. Ademe et Vous. International Newsletter No. 29, July-August 2014. MEDENER: promoting the energy transition in the Mediterranean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Valerie; Seguin-Jacques, Catherine; Tappero, Denis

    2014-07-01

    A number of Euro-Mediterranean stakeholders from the public and private sectors gathered in Marseille, France, on 24 April for the second international conference on energy transition in the Mediterranean, organised by the Mediterranean Association of National Agencies for Energy Conservation (MEDENER). Overview and outlook. Alongside strategies designed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, local authorities need to anticipate climate change and put in place relevant measures to adapt accordingly. Launched in January 2012, the European ShMILE 2 project aimed to help the tourism industry professionals in six Mediterranean countries open up to sustainable tourism and raise awareness of the European Ecolabel. The project recently ended, with very encouraging results

  4. Nitrate in Polluted Mountainous Catchments with Mediterranean Climates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Meixner

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The mountains of southern California receive some of the highest rates of nitrogen (N deposition in the world (~40 kg ha�1 year�1. These high rates of deposition have translated into consistently high levels of nitrate (NO3� in some streams of the San Bernardino Mountains. However, not all streams are exhibiting these high levels of NO3�. Perennial streams have high NO3� concentrations (~200 [b.mu ]moles l�1 while ephemeral streams do not (~20 [b.mu ]moles l�1. This difference points to groundwater as the source of the NO3� observed in streams. Furthermore, the evidence indicates a differential impact of N deposition on terrestrial and aquatic systems in Mediterranean climates, with aquatic systems being impacted more quickly. The primary reason for this difference involves the asynchrony between the time that atmospheric deposition occurs (summer, the time period of maximum soil NO3� availability and leaching (winter, and the time of maximum plant N demand (spring. Our results indicate that semiarid Mediterranean climate systems behave differently from more humid systems in that, because of this asynchrony, aquatic systems may not be indicative of changes in terrestrial ecosystem response. These differences lead us to the conclusion that the extrapolation of impacts from humid to Mediterranean climates is problematic and the concept of N saturation may need to be revisited for semiarid and seasonally dry systems.

  5. The Mediterranean solar plan: a flagship project of the Union for the Mediterranean area - A co-development and socio-economic transition factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mocilnikar, Antoine Tristan

    2011-01-01

    The Mediterranean Solar Plan (MSP) was launched at the Paris Summit for the Mediterranean, on July 13 2008, which saw the creation of the Union for the Mediterranean. The Summit directed the MSP to all renewable energy, interconnections needed for their deployment and energy efficiency. It mandated the UfM Secretariat for its coordination. The summit was followed by a Franco-German agreement in August 2008 which set a target of 20 GW MSP is already in deployment. In the field of wind energy, 1700 MW are built and in the solar field, several projects are in advanced stages of preparation. It targets co-development. It can also be a project of the 'Partnership of Deauville' set up at the G8 Summit on 26 and 27 May 2011 with the people of the region of North Africa and the Middle East that initiate a transition to a free, democratic and tolerant world, starting with Egypt, Tunisia, Jordan and Morocco, in partnership with countries wishing to support the transition in the region. (author)

  6. Different healthy habits between northern and southern Spanish school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriscado, Daniel; Knox, Emily; Zabala, Mikel; Zurita-Ortega, Félix; Dalmau, Jose Maria; Muros, Jose Joaquin

    2017-01-01

    Healthy habits are influenced by several factors such as geographical location. The aims of this study were to describe and compare healthy habits within two populations of sixth-grade primary school children (aged 11-12 years) from northern and southern Spain. A cross-sectional study using two representative samples of school children was conducted. Participants came from Logroño ( n  = 329) in the north and Granada ( n  = 284) in the south of Spain. Socio-demographic and anthropometric variables, adherence to the Mediterranean diet, aerobic fitness, and healthy lifestyles were recorded. Boys reported a higher level of physical activity and aerobic fitness than girls ( p  = 0.000). Southern school children reported significantly higher adherence to the Mediterranean diet (♀: p  = 0.041; ♂: p  = 0.008), lower aerobic fitness (♀: p  = 0.000; ♂: p  = 0.042) and hours of nightly sleep (♀: p  = 0.008, ♂: p  = 0.007) than northern school children. Southern boys also reported lower levels of physical activity ( p  = 0.013). There were slight or moderate correlations among all habits measured (physical activity, diet, screen and sleep time). Additionally, the physical activity level was inversely related to weight status. Overweight and obese northern boys reported less physical activity than healthy-weight northern boys ( p  = 0.020) and overweight and obese southern girls reported less physical activity than healthy-weight southern girls ( p  = 0.024). Results showed differences in physical activity, eating and sleep habits, and aerobic fitness according to geographical location. The relationships found among lifestyle habits indicate the need for health promotion interventions nationally and considering the differences discussed here.

  7. Mediterranean diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000110.htm Mediterranean diet To use the sharing features on this page, ... and other health problems. How to Follow the Diet The Mediterranean diet is based on: Plant-based ...

  8. Amphibians in Southern Apennine: distribution, ecology and conservation notes in the “Appennino Lucano, Val d’Agri e Lagonegrese” National Park (Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Romano

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Italy is the European country with the highest amphibian richness and endemism. However distributional data from some Southern Italy areas are scanty, in particularly for the Basilicata region. In this study, we present the results of field and bibliographic survey on the amphibians of the “Appennino Lucano, Val d’Agri e Lagonegrese” National Park (almost 70,000 ha. We recorded breeding activity of 12 amphibian species in 307 sites, for a total of 493 records. For some endemic species we provide new ecological data, such as new altitudinal limit (Salamandrina terdigitata or expansion of the annual activity cycle (Bombina pachypus. Indices of diffusion, density and rarity were applied to test the status of each species in the Park. Correspondence analyses showed a clear aquatic habitat partitioning between anurans and urodelans and, concerning the latter, between newts and salamanders, newts being strictly dependent on artificial water bodies. Our results support the growing idea, recently formalized by the IUCN, that maintaining and restoring artificial water bodies may be fundamental for an appropriate conservation management of amphibian communities in Mediterranean rural landscapes.

  9. Olive Cultivation in the Southern Hemisphere: Flowering, Water Requirements and Oil Quality Responses to New Crop Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Mariela; Pierantozzi, Pierluigi; Searles, Peter; Rousseaux, M. Cecilia; García-Inza, Georgina; Miserere, Andrea; Bodoira, Romina; Contreras, Cibeles; Maestri, Damián

    2017-01-01

    Olive (Olea europaea L.) is a crop well adapted to the environmental conditions prevailing in the Mediterranean Basin. Nevertheless, the increasing international demand for olive oil and table olives in the last two decades has led to expansion of olive cultivation in some countries of the southern hemisphere, notably in Argentina, Chile, Perú and Australia. While the percentage of world production represented by these countries is still low, many of the new production regions do not have typical Mediterranean climates, and some are located at subtropical latitudes where there is relatively little information about crop function. Thus, the primary objective of this review was to assess recently published scientific literature on olive cultivation in these new crop environments. The review focuses on three main aspects: (a) chilling requirements for flowering, (b) water requirements and irrigation management, and (c) environmental effects on fruit oil concentration and quality. In many arid and semiarid regions of South America, temperatures are high and rainfall is low in the winter and early spring months compared to conditions in much of the Mediterranean Basin. High temperatures have often been found to have detrimental effects on olive flowering in many olive cultivars that have been introduced to South America, and a better understanding of chilling requirements is needed. Lack of rainfall in the winter and spring also has resulted in an urgent need to evaluate water requirements from the flower differentiation period in the winter to early fruit bearing. Additionally, in some olive growing areas of South America and Australia, high early season temperatures affect the timing of phenological events such that the onset of oil synthesis occurs sooner than in the Mediterranean Basin with most oil accumulation taking place in the summer when temperatures are very high. Increasing mean daily temperatures have been demonstrated to decrease fruit oil concentration

  10. Late-Holocene palaeoenvironments of Southern Crimea: Soils, soil-climate relationship and human impact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisetskii, Fedor N.; Stolba, Vladimir; Pichura, Vitalii I.

    2017-01-01

    Occupying 4% of Crimea’s territory, the sub-Mediterranean landscapes of Southern Crimea stand out for their distinct soil-climatic conditions and record of human activity. This paper presents the results of study of the newly formed and well-dated soils from 21 archaeological sites, making...

  11. The co-ordinated programme for research and monitoring of pollution in the Mediterranean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Civili, F.S.; Jeftic, L.

    1987-01-01

    The turnover rate of water in the Mediterranean is explained, and the problem of pollution is identified. The Mediterranean Action Plan which was approved in 1975, has three main elements: environmental legislation, environmental management and environmental assessments. The environmental assessment component is a coordinated programme involving groups and institutions in 16 countries. The longterm objectives are stated and the activities undertaken are given. Four types of monitoring are being carried out - of sources, of coastal areas, of reference areas and of the transport of pollutants to the Mediterranean Sea through the atmosphere. The research activities are outlined and the resulting reports are considered. The state of pollution is assessed and the measures proposed to solve the problems are given. In particular, mercury pollution is explained. (UK)

  12. Energy density of zooplankton and fish larvae in the southern Catalan Sea (NW Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroeta, Ziortza; Olivar, M. Pilar; Palomera, Isabel

    2017-06-01

    In marine communities, energy of small planktonic organisms is transferred to their predators through feeding. The energy accumulated as organic substances by the different plankton organisms (Energetic Density content, ED) has been analysed in high latitudes and tropical areas, but not in the Mediterranean Sea. In this study, we approach this type of investigation for Mediterranean plankton through measures of total calorimetric content using an oxygen bomb calorimeter. We examined the spatiotemporal variation in the ED of microplankton (50-200 μm) and mesozooplankton (200-2000 μm), and two plankton-consumers, sardine (Sardina pilchardus) and anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) larvae. The study was carried out during the winter and summer of 2013 off the Ebro River Delta (NW Mediterranean Sea). Both plankton fractions showed a more coastal distribution and higher biomasses during winter, the period of sardine larvae occurrences, in front of a wider cross-shelf distribution and lower biomasses in summer, when anchovy appeared. ED values increased with the size of each plankton component, i.e., microzooplankton < mesozooplankton < fish larvae. A tendency for higher plankton ED in the winter period was observed, although being only significant for coastal zone, associated to the more productive waters there. Sardine and anchovy larvae showed an increasing trend in the amount of energy during development, with significantly lower ED between early larvae (6-10 mm standard length) and late postflexion stages (16-20 mm standard length). Small larvae of both species departed from a similarly low ED content, but in the next two size classes sardine larvae showed higher ED values than anchovy, being significantly higher in the 16-20 mm size class. Information on larval feeding patterns and larval growth rates for each species were used to discuss differences in energy allocation strategies.

  13. Health Policy and Systems Research in Twelve Eastern Mediterranean Countries: a stocktaking of production and gaps (2000-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Saja

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objectives of this study are to: (1 profile the production of Health Policy and Systems Research (HPSR published between 2000 and 2008 in 12 countries in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR: Bahrain, Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Oman, Palestine, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, and Yemen; (2 identify gaps; and (3 assess the extent to which existing HPSR produced in the region addresses regional priorities pertaining to Health Financing, Human Resources for Health and the Role of the Non-State Sector. This is the first stocktaking paper of HPSR production and gaps in the EMR. Methods Articles indexed on Medline between years 2000 and 2008 for the 12 study countries were selected. A MeSH term based search was conducted using country names. Articles were assessed using a coding sheet adapted for the region which included themes on: Governance Arrangements, Financial Arrangements, Delivery Arrangements, and Implementation Strategies. Identified articles were matched against regional research priorities to assess the extent to which research production aligns with priorities. Results A total of 1,487 articles (11.94% fit the criteria in the coding sheet. Results showed an increase in HPSR production which peaked after 2005. Most identified articles focused on Delivery Arrangements (68.1%, and Implementation Strategies (24.4%. Most HPSR addressed priorities in Human Resources for Health (39%, and some articles focused on Health Financing (12% and Role of the Non-State Sector (6.1%. Conclusions Despite global calls for producing and translating HPSR into policy, there are still significant gaps in the EMR. More efforts are needed to produce HPSR and align production and translation with the demand for evidence by policymakers. Findings can help inform and direct future plans and activities for the Evidence Informed Policy Network- EMR, World Health Organization- EMR, and the Middle East and North Africa Health Policy Forum

  14. Health Policy and Systems Research in Twelve Eastern Mediterranean Countries: a stocktaking of production and gaps (2000-2008).

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Jardali, Fadi; Jamal, Diana; Ataya, Nour; Jaafar, Maha; Raouf, Saned; Matta, Claudia; Michael, Saja; Smith, Colette

    2011-10-07

    The objectives of this study are to: (1) profile the production of Health Policy and Systems Research (HPSR) published between 2000 and 2008 in 12 countries in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR): Bahrain, Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Oman, Palestine, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, and Yemen; (2) identify gaps; and (3) assess the extent to which existing HPSR produced in the region addresses regional priorities pertaining to Health Financing, Human Resources for Health and the Role of the Non-State Sector. This is the first stocktaking paper of HPSR production and gaps in the EMR. Articles indexed on Medline between years 2000 and 2008 for the 12 study countries were selected. A MeSH term based search was conducted using country names. Articles were assessed using a coding sheet adapted for the region which included themes on: Governance Arrangements, Financial Arrangements, Delivery Arrangements, and Implementation Strategies. Identified articles were matched against regional research priorities to assess the extent to which research production aligns with priorities. A total of 1,487 articles (11.94%) fit the criteria in the coding sheet. Results showed an increase in HPSR production which peaked after 2005. Most identified articles focused on Delivery Arrangements (68.1%), and Implementation Strategies (24.4%). Most HPSR addressed priorities in Human Resources for Health (39%), and some articles focused on Health Financing (12%) and Role of the Non-State Sector (6.1%). Despite global calls for producing and translating HPSR into policy, there are still significant gaps in the EMR. More efforts are needed to produce HPSR and align production and translation with the demand for evidence by policymakers. Findings can help inform and direct future plans and activities for the Evidence Informed Policy Network- EMR, World Health Organization- EMR, and the Middle East and North Africa Health Policy Forum, in addition to being useful for countries that host or are

  15. Cenozoic tectonic and climatic events in southern Iberian Peninsula: Implications for the evolutionary history of freshwater fish of the genus Squalius (Actinopterygii, Cyprinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea, Silvia; Cobo-Simon, Marta; Doadrio, Ignacio

    2016-04-01

    Southern Iberian freshwater ecosystems located at the border between the European and African plates represent a tectonically complex region spanning several geological ages, from the uplifting of the Betic Mountains in the Serravalian-Tortonian periods to the present. This area has also been subjected to the influence of changing climate conditions since the Middle-Upper Pliocene when seasonal weather patterns were established. Consequently, the ichthyofauna of southern Iberia is an interesting model system for analyzing the influence of Cenozoic tectonic and climatic events on its evolutionary history. The cyprinids Squalius malacitanus and Squalius pyrenaicus are allopatrically distributed in southern Iberia and their evolutionary history may have been defined by Cenozoic tectonic and climatic events. We analyzed MT-CYB (510 specimens) and RAG1 (140 specimens) genes of both species to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships and to estimate divergence times and ancestral distribution ranges of the species and their populations. We also assessed their levels of genetic structure and diversity as well as the amount of gene flow between populations. To investigate recent paleogeographical and climatic factors in southern Iberia, we modeled changes-through-time in sea level from the LGM to the present. Phylogenetic, geographic and population structure analyses revealed two well-supported species (S. malacitanus and S. pyrenaicus) in southern Iberia and two subclades (Atlantic and Mediterranean) within S. malacitanus. The origin of S. malacitanus and the separation of its Atlantic and Mediterranean populations occurred during the Serravalian-Tortonian and Miocene-Pliocene periods, respectively. These divergence events occurred in the Middle Pliocene and Pleistocene in S. pyrenaicus. In both species, Atlantic basins possessed populations with higher genetic diversity than Mediterranean, which may be explained by the Janda Lagoon. The isolation of S. malacitanus was

  16. Land use and land management effects on soil organic carbon stock in Mediterranean agricultural areas (Southern Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parras-Alcántara, Luis; Lozano-García, Beatriz

    2014-05-01

    Anderson-Darling test at each horizon or a combination of horizons for each soil type. RESULTS The LUC had a negative impact in the soil, reducing the SOC and TN stocks. The conversion from AC to V and OG involved the loss of the SOC stock (52.7% and 64.9% to V and OG respectively) and the loss of the TN stock (42.6% and 38.1% to V and OG respectively). The reduction of SOC by LUC, can be explained by a degraded process (due to vegetation losses and unsustainable soil management, which result in progressive impoverishment in the soil organic matter (OM) content, causing low productivity, which derived in unsuitable chemical properties) and by the reduced input of OM in cultivated soils, which reduced physical protection of soil and increased water erosion. However, 46 years of LUC had a positive effect in the soil, increasing the SR (in V and OG) of SOC, TN and C:N ratio (Parras-Alcántara et al., 2013). REFERENCES Parras-Alcántara, L., Martín-Carrillo, M., Lozano-García, B. 2013. Impacts of land use change in soil carbon and nitrogen in a Mediterranean agricultural area (Southern Spain). Solid Earth, 4: 167-177.

  17. Seabird mortality from longline fishing in the Mediterranean Sea and Macaronesian waters: a review and a way forward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Cooper

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available A country-by-country review of seabird mortality from longline fishing in the Mediterranean Sea and in Macaronesian waters shows a paucity of data. Of 12 Mediterranean countries known to undertake longlining, seabird mortality is only reported for six: France, Greece, Italy, Malta, Spain and Tunisia. Seabird mortality from longlining has been reported from the Azores (Portugal but not from the other Macaronesian Islands. Only for one country, Spain, is information on the levels of mortality available, suggesting that 4-6% of the local breeding population of Cory´s shearwater Calonectris diomedea may be killed annually, a level considered unsustainable for the long-term persistence of colonies. Cory´s shearwater is the most commonly affected species, although a number of Larus gull species are also being caught. There is insufficient knowledge to conclude whether any seabird species is at conservation risk within the region, but concern is expressed for Cory´s shearwater. It is recommended that Mediterranean and Macaronesian countries conduct assessments of their longline fisheries and seabird mortality in terms of the Food and Agriculture Organization´s International Plan of Action - Seabirds. Regional fishery organisations, such as ICCAT and GFCM, should commence the collection of seabird mortality data. A longline action plan for the affected seabird species should be produced.

  18. [Ethics, culture and psychiatry: the ethics of Mediterranean Europe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Ibor, Juan-José; Crespo, Hervás

    2003-09-01

    The defence of the rights of the person, in Mediterranean ethics, is based on a synthesis of civic humanism and liberalism, derived from the spirit of Greek democracy and Enlightenment, and including the achievements of the XIX and XX centuries. It tempers liberalism with the principles of social welfare. Present bioethics, specialy in European countries, try to integrate both the mediterranean ethics of virtues and the anglosaxon ethics of principles, further adding and integrating a social element, the principle of solidarity and distributive justice (equity). Therefore, European ethics do not proclaim the autonomy of persons and the independence of the individual from society, but the interdependency of persons and nations. They advocate a greater equity and a better management of resources in health care.

  19. Tsunami deposits in the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean) and implications for hazard assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Raphael; Wassmer, Patrick; Roger, Jean; Loevenbruck, Anne

    2010-05-01

    Significant earthquakes occur along the north Algerian and Carboneras faults (e.g. Djijelli 1865, Zemmouri 2003) and they may generate tsunamis in the western Mediterranean Basin and Alboran Sea, where tsunami hazard are poorly documented. The coast of southern Spain and Balearic Islands are densely populated, with touristic areas and important harbors. The 2003 event generated a small tsunami in the Balearic Islands (ships were moved by oscillations during more than 2 hours in some harbors). Reicherter et al. (2009) found evidences of two past tsunamis in lagoon of the Cabo de Gata (near Almeria), which they ascribed to the 1522 earthquake and an earlier event (islands revealed few evidences of past tsunamis. Thin sandy layers with marine bioclasts, possibly deposited by tsunamis, were found in three areas at altitudes always lower than 2m. Boulder clusters were found along the southern coast of Mallorca, but they could have been deposited by storms as well. These investigations are realized in the framework of the MAREMOTI project, funded by the French ANR and leaded by the CEA - DASE. Reicherter, K., Becker-Heidmann, P., 2009. Tsunami deposits in the western Mediterranean: remains of the 1522 Almeria earthquake? Geological Society Special Publications, London, 316, 217-235.

  20. Biocontrol strategies for Mediterranean-style fermented sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Márcia; Ferreira, Vânia; Magalhães, Rui; Teixeira, Paula

    2018-01-01

    Naturally fermented meat sausages have a long tradition in Mediterranean countries and are one of the most important groups of traditional foods consumed throughout Europe. Despite all the advances in food science and technology and increased regulatory requirements and concerns for safety and quality during the last decades, the challenge to control important foodborne pathogens in this type of meat products still persists. Simultaneously, growing consumer interest in safe, high quality and minimal processed products, with less additives/preservatives have driven the food industry and scientists in a crusade for innovative technologies to maintain the safety of these products by natural means. Biological control (biocontrol) fits well within this tendency. This review summarizes the latest achievements on biocontrol strategies applied to Mediterranean-style fermented sausages, namely: (i) bioprotective cultures; (ii) bacteriocins; and, (iii) essential oils (EOs). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A multi-faceted approach to promote knowledge translation platforms in eastern Mediterranean countries: climate for evidence-informed policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Jardali Fadi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives Limited work has been done to promote knowledge translation (KT in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR. The objectives of this study are to: 1.assess the climate for evidence use in policy; 2.explore views and practices about current processes and weaknesses of health policymaking; 3.identify priorities including short-term requirements for policy briefs; and 4.identify country-specific requirements for establishing KT platforms. Methods Senior policymakers, stakeholders and researchers from Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Iran, Jordan, Lebanon, Oman, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, and Yemen participated in this study. Questionnaires were used to assess the climate for use of evidence and identify windows of opportunity and requirements for policy briefs and for establishing KT platforms. Current processes and weaknesses of policymaking were appraised using case study scenarios. Closed-ended questions were analyzed descriptively. Qualitative data was analyzed using thematic analysis. Results KT activities were not frequently undertaken by policymakers and researchers in EMR countries, research evidence about high priority policy issues was rarely made available, and interaction between policymakers and researchers was limited, and policymakers rarely identified or created places for utilizing research evidence in decision-making processes. Findings emphasized the complexity of policymaking. Donors, political regimes, economic goals and outdated laws were identified as key drivers. Lack of policymakers’ abilities to think strategically, constant need to make quick decisions, limited financial resources, and lack of competent and trained human resources were suggested as main weaknesses. Conclusion Despite the complexity of policymaking processes in countries from this region, the absence of a structured process for decision making, and the limited engagement of policymakers and researchers in KT activities, there are windows of

  2. Climate Change Amplifications of Climate-Fire Teleconnections in the Southern Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, Michela; Holz, Andrés.; Veblen, Thomas T.; Williamson, Grant; Fletcher, Michael-Shawn; Bowman, David M. J. S.

    2018-05-01

    Recent changes in trend and variability of the main Southern Hemisphere climate modes are driven by a variety of factors, including increasing atmospheric greenhouse gases, changes in tropical sea surface temperature, and stratospheric ozone depletion and recovery. One of the most important implications for climatic change is its effect via climate teleconnections on natural ecosystems, water security, and fire variability in proximity to populated areas, thus threatening human lives and properties. Only sparse and fragmentary knowledge of relationships between teleconnections, lightning strikes, and fire is available during the observed record within the Southern Hemisphere. This constitutes a major knowledge gap for undertaking suitable management and conservation plans. Our analysis of documentary fire records from Mediterranean and temperate regions across the Southern Hemisphere reveals a critical increased strength of climate-fire teleconnections during the onset of the 21st century including a tight coupling between lightning-ignited fire occurrences, the upward trend in the Southern Annular Mode, and rising temperatures across the Southern Hemisphere.

  3. Challenge in environmentally sustainable development in some southern African developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiburre, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the challenges in attaining environmentally sustainable development in some southern African developing countries, with main focus on environmentally degrading activities carried out by the poor rural communities as the only way of scaling down poverty. The typical examples include, among others, charcoal burning, firewood gathering and hunting. These activities are practiced by poor rural communities for commercial purposes, with the main market being the urban areas; whose population increase and the inability to afford electricity for domestic purposes have made the demand for charcoal and firewood to increase. While recognising the right for the basic needs for everyone, efforts have been made to reduce the pressure exerted by rural communities on to natural resources, and alternative income generating activities have been adopted. However, successes in these fields are still not observable. The paper also discusses the need for integrated approaches that might reduce the demand on natural forest resources-based energy, which consist of subsidized electricity, fast growing tree plantation, and energy efficiency, among others. (author)

  4. Widespread tsunami-like waves of 23-27 June in the Mediterranean and Black Seas generated by high-altitude atmospheric forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šepić, Jadranka; Vilibić, Ivica; Rabinovich, Alexander B.; Monserrat, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    A series of tsunami-like waves of non-seismic origin struck several southern European countries during the period of 23 to 27 June 2014. The event caused considerable damage from Spain to Ukraine. Here, we show that these waves were long-period ocean oscillations known as meteorological tsunamis which are generated by intense small-scale air pressure disturbances. An unique atmospheric synoptic pattern was tracked propagating eastward over the Mediterranean and the Black seas in synchrony with onset times of observed tsunami waves. This pattern favoured generation and propagation of atmospheric gravity waves that induced pronounced tsunami-like waves through the Proudman resonance mechanism. This is the first documented case of a chain of destructive meteorological tsunamis occurring over a distance of thousands of kilometres. Our findings further demonstrate that these events represent potentially dangerous regional phenomena and should be included in tsunami warning systems. PMID:26119833

  5. The ;Sardinian cold-water coral province; in the context of the Mediterranean coral ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taviani, M.; Angeletti, L.; Canese, S.; Cannas, R.; Cardone, F.; Cau, A.; Cau, A. B.; Follesa, M. C.; Marchese, F.; Montagna, P.; Tessarolo, C.

    2017-11-01

    A new cold-water coral (CWC) province has been identified in the Mediterranean Sea in the Capo Spartivento canyon system offshore the southern coast of Sardinia. The 'Sardinia cold-water coral province' is characterized in the Nora canyon by a spectacular coral growth dominated by the branching scleractinian Madrepora oculata at a depth of 380-460 m. The general biohermal frame is strengthened by the common occurrence of the solitary scleractinian Desmophyllum dianthus and the occasional presence of Lophelia pertusa. As documented by Remotely Operated Vehicle survey, this area is a hotspot of megafaunal diversity hosting among other also live specimens of the deep oyster Neopycnodonte zibrowii. The new coral province is located between the central Mediterranean CWC provinces (Bari Canyon, Santa Maria di Leuca, South Malta) and the western and northern ones (Melilla, Catalan-Provençal-Ligurian canyons). As for all the best developed CWC situations in the present Mediterranean Sea, the new Sardinian province is clearly influenced by Levantine Intermediate Water which appears to be a main driver for CWC distribution and viability in this basin.

  6. Mediterranean fruit fly preventative release programme in southern California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowell, Robert V.; Meyer, Fred; Siddiqu, Isi A.; Leon Spaugy, E.

    2000-01-01

    California employs several area-wide pest management programmes that use the release of sterile insects to protect its commercial and dooryard agriculture. The first was developed in response to the discovery of the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens, in Tijuana, Mexico and adjacent areas in San Diego County, California. Initially pesticide sprays of malathion and bait were applied to host plants around each fly find site. Additionally, soil sprays of diazion (0.05 kg per 93 m 2 ) were applied under every host plant around each fly find site. It soon became apparent that this approach was expensive and environmentally damaging. This led the interested parties, the California Department of Food and Agriculture (CDFA), the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the government of Mexico to develop a programme that utilises the release of sterile Mexican fruit flies over the city of Tijuana in order to prevent the establishment of a breeding population of this fly in the city. The belief is that preventing the Mexican fruit fly from breeding in Tijuana will help protect both that city and California. To date, no Mexican fruit fly larvae have been found in Tijuana or the adjacent areas of California. The second programme was developed in response to the discovery of the pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella, in cotton in the Imperial Valley area of southern California. As the pink bollworm spread throughout the cotton growing region of southern California, it became a significant pest that threatened the 405,000 hectares of cotton grown in the San Joaquin Valley to the north. To keep this pest out of the San Joaquin Valley, the CDFA/USDA and California cotton growers use the large-scale releases of sterile pink bollworms in areas in which wild pink bollworms are captured each year. Thus far, the pink bollworm has been prevented from establishing a permanent presence in the San Joaquin Valley and the cotton growers in southern California, Arizona and

  7. Risk of lymphoma subtypes and dietary habits in a Mediterranean area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campagna, Marcello; Cocco, Pierluigi; Zucca, Mariagrazia; Angelucci, Emanuele; Gabbas, Attilio; Latte, Gian Carlo; Uras, Antonella; Rais, Marco; Sanna, Sonia; Ennas, Maria Grazia

    2015-12-01

    Previous studies have suggested that diet might affect risk of lymphoma subtypes. We investigated risk of lymphoma and its major subtypes associated with diet in the Mediterranean island of Sardinia, Italy. In 1998-2004, 322 incident lymphoma cases and 446 randomly selected population controls participated in a case-control study on lymphoma etiology in central-southern Sardinia. Questionnaire interviews included frequency of intake of 112 food items. Risk associated with individual dietary items and groups thereof was explored by unconditional and polytomous logistic regression analysis, adjusting by age, gender and education. We observed an upward trend in risk of lymphoma (all subtypes combined) and B-cell lymphoma with frequency of intake of well done grilled/roasted chicken (p for trend=0.01), and pizza (p for trend=0.047), Neither adherence to Mediterranean diet nor a frequent intake of its individual components conveyed protection. We detected heterogeneity in risk associated with several food items and groups thereof by lymphoma subtypes although we could not rule out chance as responsible for the observed direct or inverse associations. Adherence to a Mediterranean diet does not seem to convey protection against the development of lymphoma. The association with specific food items might vary by lymphoma subtype. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Durum Wheat in Conventional and Organic Farming: Yield Amount and Pasta Quality in Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Fagnano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Five durum wheat cultivars were grown in a Mediterranean area (Southern Italy under conventional and organic farming with the aim to evaluate agronomic, technological, sensory, and sanitary quality of grains and pasta. The cultivar Matt produced the best pasta quality under conventional cropping system, while the quality parameters evaluated were unsatisfactory under organic farming. The cultivar Saragolla showed the best yield amount and pasta quality in all the experimental conditions, thus proving to be the cultivar more adapt to organic farming. In all the tested experimental conditions, nivalenol (NIV and deoxynivalenol (DON occurrence was very low and the other mycotoxins evaluated were completely absent. These data confirm the low risk of mycotoxin contamination in the Mediterranean climate conditions. Finally, it has been possible to produce high-quality pasta in Southern Italy from durum wheat grown both in conventional and organic farming.

  9. EXPLORING INTERNATIONAL TOURISM TRENDS IN THE MEDITERRANEAN: CONVERGENCE OR BIG DIVERGENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravko Sergo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Triggered by the phenomenon of globalisation and unrest on both sides of Mediterranean, during recent decades there has been a process of tourism travelling re-switching in the tourism expenditure domain; hence the debate over convergence or divergence of the international tourism flows, caused by abruptly fall out of vogue of some destinations due to negative shocks produced by unrest in that volatile region, has never ended. Following on the extensive multidisciplinary literature on this issue, the purpose of this paper is two-fold 1 to apply a traditional analysis of convergence (sigma and beta convergence in tourism demand flows and Principal Component and Cluster Analyses to investigate on the existence of different international tourism models, 2 to analyse tourism receipts expressed as a share of total and derive a possible classification of the countries and its profiles by means of a multivariate approach. This paper tries to test the hypothesis of convergence of tourism demand in Mediterranean area. We considered a sample of 20 Mediterranean countries, and used data from the World Indicator Database 1995-2015, keeping all relevant variables that interfere with international tourism demand in that region. The excepted results of this paper can be interpreted as a further contribution to the literature on contemporary positive economics in the international tourism domain.

  10. The Euro-mediterranean conference of Tunis recommends a deepening of energy cooperation in the region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrin, F.

    1995-01-01

    The demographic development in the mediterranean basin supposes an increasing of energy consumption until 2010. It is necessary to increase the economic development in the same way and to find the financing for the necessary investments. The European Union (UE) can afford all the investments and it is obvious that private financing have to be found. But to get that mediterranean countries have to liberalize their economies and to practice the non discrimination between national and foreign investments

  11. Using of thorium isotopes to study marine particles in the Southern Ocean, the Barents and the the Mediterranean sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coppola, Laurent

    2002-01-01

    This work is based on thorium (Th) isotopes to quantify the particles fluxes and exchange between dissolved and particulate phase in three distinct environments. In the shelf region of the Barents Sea, the 234 Th fluxes in the water column suggest that the sediment traps have a good catchment efficiency. To estimate the export of Particulate Organic Carbon (POC), we need to use a POC/ 234 Th ratio. It is 10 times lower in the large trapped particles than in the suspended particles. This is due to a preferential remineralisation of POC vs 234 Th and also to a large quantity of fecal pellets in traps. These results show us the importance of the large particles in the vertical fluxes and suggest that data estimated in previous studies based on the composition of suspended particles in other Arctic regions have been overestimated. In the Indian sector of the Southern Ocean, the export of POC is higher in the Polar Front Zone (PFZ). The 230 Th profiles in the water column indicate a rapid renewal rate of deep water (1-15 y) by the North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) and the Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) in the site of study. From 234 Th- 230 Th coupling, we are able to constrain the dynamic processes of marine particles in the upper layer. The results suggest that the settling speed of the filtered large particles are lower in the north of the Agulhas Front (AF). Moreover, we note that the desorption and the disaggregation are higher. This could be explained by the presence of detrital organic matter and/or an efficient microbial loop limiting the export of organic matter to the deep layers. In the Mediterranean studies, we have used 232 Th and 230 Th to estimate the degradation of large marine particles during in vitro experiments. This results suggests that the aggregation of filtered large particles requires to take into account in the particles dynamic models. 230 Th- 232 Th budget of the western Mediterranean Sea indicates that the refractory elements fluxes are

  12. Study of Anticyclogenesis Affecting the Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzaki, M.; Flocas, H. A.; Simmonds, I.; Kouroutzoglou, J.; Garde, L.; Keay, K.; Bitsa, E.

    2014-12-01

    A comprehensive climatology of migratory anticyclones affecting the Mediterranean was generated by the University of Melbourne finding and tracking algorithm (MS algorithm), applied to 34 years (1979-2012) of ERA-Interim MSLP on a 1.5°x1.5° resolution. The algorithm was employed for the first time for anticyclones in this region, thus, its robustness and reliability in efficiently capturing the individual characteristics of the anticyclonic tracks in such a closed basin with complex topography were checked and verified. Then, the tracks and the statistical properties of the migratory systems were calculated and analyzed. Considering that cold-core anticyclones are shallow and weaken with height contrary to the warm-core that exhibit a vertically well-organized structure, the vertical thermal extend of the systems was studied with an algorithm developed as an extension module of the MS algorithm using ERA-Interim temperatures on several isobaric levels from 1000hPa to 100hPa on an 1.5°x1.5° resolution. The results verified that during both cold and warm period, cold-core anticyclones mainly affect the northern parts of the Mediterranean basin, with their behavior to be strongly regulated by cyclonic activity from the main storm track areas of the North Atlantic and Europe. On the other hand, warm-core anticyclones were found mainly in the southern Mediterranean and North African areas. Here, in order to get a perspective on the dynamic and thermodynamic processes in anticyclonic formation, a dynamical analysis at several vertical levels is performed. The study of mean fields of potential vorticity, temperature advection, vorticity advection at various levels can elucidate the role of upper and low levels during anticyclogenesis and system evolvement and help to further understand the dynamic mechanisms which are responsible for the anticyclogenesis over the Mediterranean region. Acknowledgement: This research project is implemented within the framework of the

  13. Water Balance and Forest Productivity in Mediterranean Mountain Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Scarascia-Mugnozza

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The availability of water resources is one of the major drivers affecting forest and agricultural productivity. The sensitivity of Mediterranean forest species to water shortage is becoming even more relevant in relation to climate changes, that for Southern Europe could lead to an increase in temperature of 2 to 3 °C, paralleled by a decrease of 5 to 15% of summer rainfall. It is then important to study the relationship between water balance and productivity of important forest tree species such as beech and mountain pines that represent the upper limit of forest vegetation in almost all the Apennines range. In the present paper, the measurements of water balance, evapotranspiration, carbon exchange and productivity in beech and pine forests of central-southern Italy (Abruzzo and Calabria regions are reported. The results are obtained in the course of several years of experimentation with innovative techniques and integrated at the canopy level.

  14. A review of HIV testing and counseling policies and practices in the Eastern Mediterranean Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermez, Joumana; Petrak, Jenny; Karkouri, Mehdi; Riedner, Gabriele

    2010-07-01

    To review HIV testing and counseling policies and practices in the World Health Organization's (WHO) Eastern Mediterranean Region. We reviewed gray and published literature on HIV testing policies and practices in the 22 countries of the Eastern Mediterranean Region, including surveillance, monitoring and evaluation reports. Missing or unclear information was clarified by telephone interviews of key informants. Field observations were conducted in four countries. Of reported diagnostic HIV tests conducted in the Eastern Mediterranean Region from 1995 to 2008, 59.3% were carried out on migrant workers. Only 4.0% were carried out on key populations at higher risk for HIV and 8.1% were conducted in sexually transmitted infection, tuberculosis and antenatal care services. The largest proportions of HIV-positive cases identified were among key populations at higher risk (23.4%) and in sexually transmitted infection, tuberculosis and antenatal care services (17.5%). Mandatory testing was the most common approach to identifying HIV-positive cases, yet most policy documents reviewed identified voluntary counseling and testing as a key intervention for prevention, care and treatment. Provider initiated testing and counseling was rarely considered. HIV testing strategies are cumbersome, as they require central laboratory-based Enzyme Linked Immuno-Sorbant Assay (ELISA) and/or Western Blot confirmation in most countries presenting barriers to receiving results. Although policies in the Eastern Mediterranean Region include a mix of mandatory and voluntary HIV testing, mandatory testing predominates, especially for migrant and foreign workers and key populations at higher risk of HIV. There is a paucity of programs providing voluntary testing. Strategies to enhance access to true voluntary HIV testing and counseling services are urgently needed, particularly targeting key populations at higher risk.

  15. Experimental drought reduced acid and alkaline phosphatase activity and increased organic extractable P in soil in a Quercus ilex Mediterranean forest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sardans, J.; Penuelas, J.; Ogaya, R.

    2008-01-01

    A six-year (1999-2005) experiment of drought manipulation was conducted in a Quercus ilex Mediterranean forest (Southern Catalonia) to simulate predicted climatic conditions projected for the decades to come. The aim was to investigate the direct and indirect effects of drought conditions on acid

  16. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet and nasopharyngeal cancer risk in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turati, Federica; Bravi, Francesca; Polesel, Jerry; Bosetti, Cristina; Negri, Eva; Garavello, Werner; Taborelli, Martina; Serraino, Diego; Libra, Massimo; Montella, Maurizio; Decarli, Adriano; Ferraroni, Monica; La Vecchia, Carlo

    2017-02-01

    Few studies investigated the role of diet on nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) risk in non-endemic areas. The aim of this study was to assess the association between adherence to the traditional Mediterranean diet and NPC risk in a southern European low-risk population. We conducted a hospital-based case-control study in Italy, including 198 histologically confirmed NPC cases and 594 matched controls. Dietary habits were collected by means of a validated food-frequency questionnaire, including 83 foods, food groups, or beverages. Adherence to the traditional Mediterranean diet was assessed through a Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS), based on nine dietary components characterizing this dietary profile, i.e., high intake of vegetables, fruits and nuts, cereals, legumes, and fish; low intake of dairy products and meat; high monounsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratio; and moderate alcohol intake. We estimated odds ratios (ORs) of NPC, and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs), for increasing MDS (i.e., increasing adherence) using multiple logistic regression models, adjusted for major confounding factors. As compared to MDS ≤ 4, the ORs of NPC were 0.83 (95% CI: 0.54-1.25) for MDS of 5 and 0.66 (95% CI: 0.44-0.99) for MDS ≥ 6, with a significant trend of decreasing risk (p 0.043). The corresponding population attributable fraction was 22%, indicating that 22% of NPC cases in this population would be avoided by shifting all subjects to a score ≥6. Our study supports a favorable role of the Mediterranean diet on NPC risk.

  17. Agronomic behaviour of some Cynodon dactylon ecotypes for turfgrass use in the Mediterranean climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Viggiani

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In Italy, the expansion of turfgrasses is limited by the lack of suitable species for cultivation in the Mediterranean climate. With this view, Mi.Te.A.Med. (Turfgrass improvement in the Mediterranean climate research project was developed with the main purpose to find out and agronomically characterise native turfgrass species of Southern and Central Italy and to compare them with some commercial cultivars. During the first step of the research, 11 sites from 6 regions of Southern and Central Italy were identified. In these sites 24 ecotypes of Cynodon dactylon L. (Pers. were collected and their habitus, phenology plus some biometric parameters have been determined. During the two years of research both botanic and agronomic characterisation of the collected C. dactylon ecotypes and their comparison with 3 commercial cultivars (Panama, Transcontinental and Yukon was carried out. In the first year the colour loss interval was assessed. In the second year, colour index was measured by an electronic colorimeter, weekly growth rate was measured by a turfmeter, turf quality and ground cover percentage were assessed by visual estimate. Some native accessions showed behaviour similar to commercial cultivars while an ecotype from the Abruzzo region showed better results compared to the commercial cultivars for several quality indices.

  18. The impact of the financial crisis on human resources for health policies in three southern-Europe countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Tiago; Dussault, Gilles; Pontes, Carla

    2015-12-01

    The public health sector has been the target of austerity measures since the global financial crisis started in 2008, while health workforce costs have been a source of rapid savings in most European Union countries. This article aims to explore how health workforce policies have evolved in three southern European countries under external constraints imposed by emergency financial programmes agreed with the International Monetary Fund, Central European Bank and European Commission. The selected countries, Greece, Portugal and Cyprus, show similarities with regard to corporatist systems of social protection and comprehensive welfare mechanisms only recently institutionalized. Based on document analysis of the Memoranda of Understanding agreed with the Troika, our results reveal broadly similar policy responses to the crisis but also important differences. In Cyprus, General Practitioners have a key position in reducing public expenditure through gatekeeping and control of users' access, while Portugal and Greece seeks to achieve cost containment by constraining the decision-making powers of professionals. All three countries lack innovation as well as monitoring and assessment of the effects of the financial crisis in relation to the health workforce. Consequently, there is a need for health policy development to use human resources more efficiently in healthcare. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Estimation of real evapotranspiration and its variation in Mediterranean landscapes of central-southern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivera-Guerra, L.; Mattar, C.; Galleguillos, M.

    2014-05-01

    Evapotranspiration (ETd) is a key controller in the ecohydrological processes of semi-arid landscapes. This is the case of the dry land in Chile's central-southern zone, where forestry, farming and livestock activities must adapt to precipitation with considerable year-on-year variations. In this study, the spatial distribution of ETd was estimated in relation to the land use map and physical parameters of the soil. The ETd was estimated through the Simplified Surface Energy Balance Index (S-SEBI) using data from weather stations and remote data provided by the ASTER and MODIS sensors for November 2004 and 2006, respectively. The spatial variability of ETd was compared among different plant types, soil textural classes and depths using non-parametric statistical tests. In this comparison, the highest rates of ETd were obtained in the forest covers with values of 7.3 ± 0.8 and 8.4 ± 0.8 mm d-1 for 2004 and 2006, respectively. The lowest values were estimated for pastures and shrublands with values of 3.5 ± 1.2 mm d-1 and for crops with rates of 4.4 ± 1.6 mm d-1. Comparison of the ETd of the native forest covers and plantations of exotic species showed statistically significant differences; however, no great variation was noted, at least in the study months. Additionally, the highest rates of ETd were found in the clay loam textures (6.0 ± 1.8 and 6.4 ± 2.0 mm d-1) and the lowest rates in the sandy loam soils (3.7 ± 1.6 and 3.9 ± 1.6 mm d-1) for 2004 and 2006, respectively. The results enable analysis of the spatial patterns of the landscape in terms of the relation between water consumption, ET and the biophysical characteristics of a Mediterranean ecosystem. These results form part of the creation of tools useful in the optimization of decision-making for the management and planning of water resources and soil use in territories with few measuring instruments.

  20. Variability of BVOC emissions from a Mediterranean mixed forest in southern France with a focus on Quercus pubescens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genard-Zielinski, A.-C.; Boissard, C.; Fernandez, C.; Kalogridis, C.; Lathière, J.; Gros, V.; Bonnaire, N.; Ormeño, E.

    2015-01-01

    We aimed at quantifying biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions in June from three Mediterranean species located at the O3HP site (southern France): Quercus pubescens, Acer monspessulanum and C. coggygria (for isoprene only). As Q. pubescens was shown to be the main BVOC emitter with isoprene representing ≈ 99% of the carbon emitted as BVOC, we mainly focused on this species. C. coggygria was found to be a non-isoprene emitter (no other BVOCs were investigated). To fully understand both the canopy effect on Q. pubescens isoprene emissions and the inter-individual variability (tree to tree and within canopy), diurnal variations of isoprene were investigated from nine branches (seven branches located to the top of canopy at ≈ 4 m above ground level (a.g.l.), and two inside the canopy at ≈ 2 m a.g.l.). The Q. pubescens daily mean isoprene emission rate (ERd) fluctuated between 23 and 98 μgC gDM-1 h-1. Q. pubescens daily mean net assimilation (Pn) ranged between 5.4 and 13.8, and 2.8 and 6.4 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1 for sunlit and shaded branches respectively. Both ERd and isoprene emission factors (Is), assessed according to Guenther et al. (1993) algorithm, varied by a factor of 4.3 among the sunlit branches. While sunlit branches ERd was clearly higher than for shaded branches, there was a non-significant variability of Is (59 to 77 μgC gDM-1 h-1). Diurnal variations of isoprene emission rates (ERs) for sunlit branches were also investigated. ERs were detected at dawn 2 h after Pn became positive and were mostly exponentially dependent on Pn. Diurnal variations of ERs were not equally well described throughout the day by temperature (CT) and light (CL) parameters according to G93 algorithm. Temperature had more impact than photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) on the morning emissions increase, and ER was no longer correlated to CL × CT between solar noon (maximum ER) and mid-afternoon, possibly due to thermal stress of the plant. A comparison

  1. Agro-fuels: southern impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duterme, B.

    2011-01-01

    At a time of controversies about global warming, agro-fuels production is often presented as a future solution for automotive fuels and as a new way of development for southern countries. However, in Asia, South America and Africa, it very often takes the form of huge mono-culture areas of sugar cane, palm oil and soy bean in the hands of multinational companies of the agriculture and food industry. The consequences of these land, social and environmental impacts in Southern countries is an increase of disequilibria and a threat for the diet of local populations by changing the appropriation of lands. Deforestation, private monopolization of lands, concentration of profits, soils and water pollution, biodiversity impoverishment, exploitation of vulnerable manpower, populations migration, violation of human rights are today the consequences of mass production of agro-fuels in Southern countries. To what conditions a fair re-appropriation and a sustainable development of agro-fuels production and consumption is foreseeable? The solutions require a re-shaping of economical and agricultural politics. The book gathers testimonies and analyses from specialists who have evaluated locally the consequences of these energy choices. (J.S.)

  2. Risk and resilience in the late glacial: A case study from the western Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, C. Michael; Aura Tortosa, J. Emili; Garcia-Puchol, Oreto; Riel-Salvatore, Julien G.; Gauthier, Nicolas; Vadillo Conesa, Margarita; Pothier Bouchard, Geneviève

    2018-03-01

    The period spanning the Last Glacial Maximum through early Holocene encompasses dramatic and rapid environmental changes that offered both increased risk and new opportunities to human populations of the Mediterranean zone. The regional effects of global climate change varied spatially with latitude, topography, and distance from a shifting coastline; and human adaptations to these changes played out at these regional scales. To better understand the spatial and temporal dynamics of climate change and human social-ecological-technological systems (or SETS) during the transition from full glacial to interglacial, we carried out a meta-analysis of archaeological and paleoenvironmental datasets across the western Mediterranean region. We compiled information on prehistoric technology, land-use, and hunting strategies from 291 archaeological assemblages, recovered from 122 sites extending from southern Spain, through Mediterranean France, to northern and peninsular Italy, as well as 2,386 radiocarbon dates from across this region. We combine these data on human ecological dynamics with paleoenvironmental information derived from global climate models, proxy data, and estimates of coastlines modeled from sea level estimates and digital terrain. The LGM represents an ecologically predictable period for over much of the western Mediterranean, while the remainder of the Pleistocene was increasingly unpredictable, making it a period of increased ecological risk for hunter-gatherers. In response to increasing spatial and temporal uncertainty, hunter-gatherers reorganized different constituents of their SETS, allowing regional populations to adapt to these conditions up to a point. Beyond this threshold, rapid environmental change resulted in significant demographic change in Mediterranean hunter-gatherer populations.

  3. Implementation of the International Code of Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes in the Eastern Mediterranean Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Jawaldeh, Ayoub; Sayed, Ghada

    2018-04-05

    Optimal breastfeeding practices and appropriate complementary feeding improve child health, survival and development. The countries of the Eastern Mediterranean Region have made significant strides in formulation and implementation of legislation to protect and promote breastfeeding based on The International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes (the Code) and subsequent relevant World Health Assembly resolutions. To assess the implementation of the Code in the Region. Assessment was conducted by the World Health Organization (WHO) Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean using a WHO standard questionnaire. Seventeen countries in the Region have enacted legislation to protect breastfeeding. Only 6 countries have comprehensive legislation or other legal measures reflecting all or most provisions of the Code; 4 countries have legal measures incorporating many provisions of the Code; 7 countries have legal measures that contain a few provisions of the Code; 4 countries are currently studying the issue; and only 1 country has no measures in place. Further analysis of the legislation found that the text of articles in the laws fully reflected the Code articles in only 6 countries. Most countries need to revisit and amend existing national legislation to implement fully the Code and relevant World Health Assembly resolutions, supported by systematic monitoring and reporting. Copyright © World Health Organization (WHO) 2018. Some rights reserved. This work is available under the CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/igo).

  4. A prospective study of eating away-from-home meals and weight gain in a Mediterranean population: the SUN (Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra) cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Bes-Rastrollo, M. (Maira); Basterra-Gortari, F.J. (Francisco Javier); Sanchez-Villegas, A. (Almudena); Marti, A. (Amelia); Martinez, J.A. (José Alfredo); Martinez-Gonzalez, M.A. (Miguel Ángel)

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The traditional Mediterranean food pattern is more easily preserved when meals are eaten at home; however, as a result of recent socio-economic changes, away-from-home meal consumption has increased rapidly in Mediterranean countries. Little research has been conducted so far to investigate the long-term health effects of these changes in the Mediterranean area. DESIGN: In a prospective Spanish dynamic cohort of 9182 university graduates (the SUN Study; Seguimiento Univer...

  5. Biodiversity and biogeographic relationships of the polychaete fauna in French Atlantic and Mediterranean waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Claude Dauvin

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A survey of the literature, including the recent systematic reviews, reveals that 934 polychaete species have been recorded in French Atlantic (including the English Channel and Mediterranean marine waters, including 818 species living on the continental shelf and 116 species that are strictly bathyal. These 934 species belong to 71 families, among which the Syllidae is the most diverse (97 species, followed by the Serpulidae (69 species, Spionidae and Phyllodocidae, each with more than 40 species. Forty-four families have fewer than 10 species recorded in each. The total number of species is spread over 11 continental shelf areas as well as the Atlantic and Mediterranean bathyal depths. In terms of species diversity, the richest areas are the Mediterranean coasts of Provence-Côte d’Azur (507 species and Languedoc-Roussillon (483 species, the western part of the English Channel (402 species, and the southern part of the Bay of Biscay (343 species. The lowest numbers of species were recorded in the eastern English Channel, due to an impoverishment of all the fauna in this part of the Channel. Other areas—for example, the Iroise Sea, the coast of Corsica and Mediterranean bathyal depths—also show low numbers, but this may only reflect the fact that insufficient information about these areas is available. A similarity analysis of 13 areas distinguishes four distinct faunal groups, each specific to one of four general locations: (1 the bathyal Atlantic and Mediterranean zones, including the coast of Corsica, (2 the two Mediterranean coastal areas (Provence-Côte d’Azur and Languedoc-Roussillon, (3 the four zones of the Atlantic continental shelf, and (4 the English Channel. The combined species can be separated into 17 different biogeographic groups.

  6. Enabling renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies. Opportunities in Eastern Europe, Caucasus, Central Asia, Southern and Eastern Mediterranean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnsley, Ingrid; Blank, Amanda; Brown, Adam

    2015-06-01

    The increased deployment of renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies (RE&EET) in the South Eastern Mediterranean (SEMED) region and in the Early Transition Countries (ETC) could bring a host of benefits, including enhanced energy security, increased national revenues and environmental gains. A new IEA Insights paper considers policy options for supporting the deployment of RE&EET, as well as the surrounding factors that can enable – or indeed impede – the successful implementation of such support policies in both regions. Drawing on a wealth of IEA analyses and policy experiences globally, the paper: provides a summary of the energy profiles of the ETC and SEMED regions; highlights overarching, ''enabling'' factors that can help to set the necessary foundations for the successful implementation of policy to support RE&EET deployment; analyses policy options for both RE and EE, drawing on practical examples and highlighting indicative policies that correspond with varying levels of market maturity; and provides a checklist for assessing the level of supportiveness of national policy frameworks for RE&EET. The paper concludes by pointing to the significant potential for energy efficiency and renewable energy gains in both regions.

  7. Environmental distribution of Cryptococcus neoformans and C. gattii around the Mediterranean basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cogliati, Massimo; D'Amicis, Roberta; Zani, Alberto; Montagna, Maria Teresa; Caggiano, Giuseppina; De Giglio, Osvalda; Balbino, Stella; De Donno, Antonella; Serio, Francesca; Susever, Serdar; Ergin, Cagri; Velegraki, Aristea; Ellabib, Mohamed S; Nardoni, Simona; Macci, Cristina; Oliveri, Salvatore; Trovato, Laura; Dipineto, Ludovico; Rickerts, Volker; McCormick-Smith, Ilka; Akcaglar, Sevim; Tore, Okan; Mlinaric-Missoni, Emilija; Bertout, Sebastien; Mallié, Michele; Martins, Maria da Luz; Vencà, Ana C F; Vieira, Maria L; Sampaio, Ana C; Pereira, Cheila; Griseo, Giuseppe; Romeo, Orazio; Ranque, Stéphane; Al-Yasiri, Mohammed H Y; Kaya, Meltem; Cerikcioglu, Nilgun; Marchese, Anna; Vezzulli, Luigi; Ilkit, Macit; Desnos-Ollivier, Marie; Pasquale, Vincenzo; Korem, Maya; Polacheck, Itzhack; Scopa, Antonio; Meyer, Wieland; Ferreira-Paim, Kennio; Hagen, Ferry; Theelen, Bart; Boekhout, Teun; Lockhart, Shawn R; Tintelnot, Kathrin; Tortorano, Anna Maria; Dromer, Françoise; Varma, Ashok; Kwon-Chung, Kyung J; Inácio, Joäo; Alonso, Beatriz; Colom, Maria F

    In order to elucidate the distribution of Cryptococcus neoformans and C. gattii in the Mediterranean basin, an extensive environmental survey was carried out during 2012-2015. A total of 302 sites located in 12 countries were sampled, 6436 samples from 3765 trees were collected and 5% of trees were

  8. Cancer prevention in Europe: the Mediterranean diet as a protective choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacosa, Attilio; Barale, Roberto; Bavaresco, Luigi; Gatenby, Piers; Gerbi, Vincenzo; Janssens, Jaak; Johnston, Belinda; Kas, Koen; La Vecchia, Carlo; Mainguet, Paul; Morazzoni, Paolo; Negri, Eva; Pelucchi, Claudio; Pezzotti, Mario; Rondanelli, Mariangela

    2013-01-01

    In the coming years, European death rates because of cancer will further decline, but the overall number of cases will increase, mostly as a consequence of the ageing of the population. The target for cancer prevention in Europe will remain a healthy diet and control of obesity in addition to a decrease in smoking. A healthy diet model in European countries is the traditional Mediterranean diet, which is based on abundant and variable plant foods, high consumption of cereals, olive oil as the main (added) fat, low intake of (red) meat and moderate consumption of wine. The Mediterranean diet is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer. The biological mechanisms for cancer prevention associated with the Mediterranean diet have been related to the favourable effect of a balanced ratio of omega 6 and omega 3 essential fatty acids and high amounts of fibre, antioxidants and polyphenols found in fruit, vegetables, olive oil and wine. The Mediterranean diet also involves a 'Mediterranean way of drinking', that is, regular, moderate consumption of wine mainly with food. This pattern of drinking increases longevity, reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease and does not appreciably influence the overall risk of cancer. However, heavy alcohol drinking is associated with digestive, upper respiratory tract, liver and breast cancers; therefore, avoidance or restriction of alcohol consumption to two drinks/day in men and one drink/day in women is a global public health priority.

  9. Current status of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever in the World Health Organization Eastern Mediterranean Region: issues, challenges, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Abri, Seif S; Abaidani, Idris Al; Fazlalipour, Mehdi; Mostafavi, Ehsan; Leblebicioglu, Hakan; Pshenichnaya, Natalia; Memish, Ziad A; Hewson, Roger; Petersen, Eskild; Mala, Peter; Nhu Nguyen, Tran Minh; Rahman Malik, Mamunur; Formenty, Pierre; Jeffries, Rosanna

    2017-05-01

    Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is the most widespread, tick-borne viral disease affecting humans. The disease is endemic in many regions, such as Africa, Asia, Eastern and Southern Europe, and Central Asia. Recently, the incidence of CCHF has increased rapidly in the countries of the World Health Organization Eastern Mediterranean Region (WHO EMR), with sporadic human cases and outbreaks of CCHF being reported from a number of countries in the region. Despite the rapidly growing incidence of the disease, there are currently no accurate data on the burden of the disease in the region due to the different surveillance systems used for CCHF in these countries. In an effort to increase our understanding of the epidemiology and risk factors for the transmission of the CCHF virus (CCHFV; a Nairovirus of the family Bunyaviridae) in the WHO EMR, and to identify the current knowledge gaps that are hindering effective control interventions, a sub-regional meeting was organized in Muscat, Oman, from December 7 to 9, 2015. This article summarizes the current knowledge of the disease in the region, identifies the knowledge gaps that present challenges for the prevention and control of CCHFV, and details a strategic framework for research and development activities that would be necessary to curb the ongoing and new threats posed by CCHFV. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Current status of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever in the World Health Organization Eastern Mediterranean Region: issues, challenges, and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seif S. Al-Abri

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF is the most widespread, tick-borne viral disease affecting humans. The disease is endemic in many regions, such as Africa, Asia, Eastern and Southern Europe, and Central Asia. Recently, the incidence of CCHF has increased rapidly in the countries of the World Health Organization Eastern Mediterranean Region (WHO EMR, with sporadic human cases and outbreaks of CCHF being reported from a number of countries in the region. Despite the rapidly growing incidence of the disease, there are currently no accurate data on the burden of the disease in the region due to the different surveillance systems used for CCHF in these countries. In an effort to increase our understanding of the epidemiology and risk factors for the transmission of the CCHF virus (CCHFV; a Nairovirus of the family Bunyaviridae in the WHO EMR, and to identify the current knowledge gaps that are hindering effective control interventions, a sub-regional meeting was organized in Muscat, Oman, from December 7 to 9, 2015. This article summarizes the current knowledge of the disease in the region, identifies the knowledge gaps that present challenges for the prevention and control of CCHFV, and details a strategic framework for research and development activities that would be necessary to curb the ongoing and new threats posed by CCHFV.

  11. Extending the temporal context of ethnobotanical databases: the case study of the Campania region (southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pollio Antonino

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ethnobotanical studies generally describe the traditional knowledge of a territory according to a "hic et nunc" principle. The need of approaching this field also embedding historical data has been frequently acknowledged. With their long history of civilization some regions of the Mediterranean basin seem to be particularly suited for an historical approach to be adopted. Campania, a region of southern Italy, has been selected for a database implementation containing present and past information on plant uses. Methods A relational database has been built on the basis of information gathered from different historical sources, including diaries, travel accounts, and treatises on medicinal plants, written by explorers, botanists, physicians, who travelled in Campania during the last three centuries. Moreover, ethnobotanical uses described in historical herbal collections and in Ancient and Medieval texts from the Mediterranean Region have been included in the database. Results 1672 different uses, ranging from medicinal, to alimentary, ceremonial, veterinary, have been recorded for 474 species listed in the data base. Information is not uniformly spread over the Campanian territory; Sannio being the most studied geographical area and Cilento the least one. About 50 plants have been continuously used in the last three centuries in the cure of the same affections. A comparison with the uses reported for the same species in Ancient treatises shows that the origin of present ethnomedicine from old learned medical doctrines needs a case-by-case confirmation. Conclusion The database is flexible enough to represent a useful tool for researchers who need to store and compare present and previous ethnobotanical uses from Mediterranean Countries.

  12. New climate-proof cropping systems in dry areas of the Mediterranean region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Sven-Erik

    2014-01-01

    severe consequences of climate changes, under influence of multiple abiotic stresses. These stresses are becoming even more pronounced under changing climate, resulting in drier conditions, increasing temperatures and greater variability, causing desertification. This topic has been addressed in the EU...... FP7 project entitled 'Sustainable water use securing food production in dry areas of the Mediterranean region (SWUP-MED)' working on climate-proof cropping systems in Morocco, Syria, Turkey and southern Europe, collaborating with UK, Denmark and Australia. The results are valid for other parts...

  13. Dynamics of the temperature-humidity index in the Mediterranean basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segnalini, Maria; Nardone, Alessandro; Bernabucci, Umberto; Vitali, Andrea; Ronchi, Bruno; Lacetera, Nicola

    2011-03-01

    The study was aimed at describing the temperature humidity index (THI) dynamics over the Mediterranean basin for the period 1951-2007. The THI combines temperature and humidity into a single value, and may help to predict the effects of environmental warmth in farm animals. In particular, on the basis of THI values, numerous studies have been performed to establish thresholds for heat stress in dairy cows. The THI was calculated by using monthly mean values of temperature and humidity obtained from the National Center for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research reanalysis project. The analysis demonstrated a high degree of heterogeneity of THI patterns over the Mediterranean basin, a strong north-south gradient, and an overall warming during the study period, which was particularly marked during summer seasons. Results indicated that several areas of the basin present summer THI values which were unfavorable to cow welfare and productivity, and that risk of heat stress for cows is generally greater in the countries of the south coast of the basin. Furthermore, THI data from the summer 2003 revealed that severe positive anomalies may impact areas normally characterized by a favorable climate for animal production. In conclusion, THI dynamics should be taken into careful consideration by farmers and policy makers operating in Mediterranean countries when planning investments in the sector of animal production. The investments should at least partially be directed towards implementation of adaptation measures, which may help to alleviate the impact of hot on farm animals welfare, performance and health.

  14. Dataset of Phenology of Mediterranean high-mountain meadows flora (Sierra Nevada, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Luque, Antonio Jesús; Sánchez-Rojas, Cristina Patricia; Zamora, Regino; Pérez-Pérez, Ramón; Bonet, Francisco Javier

    2015-01-01

    Sierra Nevada mountain range (southern Spain) hosts a high number of endemic plant species, being one of the most important biodiversity hotspots in the Mediterranean basin. The high-mountain meadow ecosystems (borreguiles) harbour a large number of endemic and threatened plant species. In this data paper, we describe a dataset of the flora inhabiting this threatened ecosystem in this Mediterranean mountain. The dataset includes occurrence data for flora collected in those ecosystems in two periods: 1988-1990 and 2009-2013. A total of 11002 records of occurrences belonging to 19 orders, 28 families 52 genera were collected. 73 taxa were recorded with 29 threatened taxa. We also included data of cover-abundance and phenology attributes for the records. The dataset is included in the Sierra Nevada Global-Change Observatory (OBSNEV), a long-term research project designed to compile socio-ecological information on the major ecosystem types in order to identify the impacts of global change in this area.

  15. Dataset of Phenology of Mediterranean high-mountain meadows flora (Sierra Nevada, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Luque, Antonio Jesús; Sánchez-Rojas, Cristina Patricia; Zamora, Regino; Pérez-Pérez, Ramón; Bonet, Francisco Javier

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Sierra Nevada mountain range (southern Spain) hosts a high number of endemic plant species, being one of the most important biodiversity hotspots in the Mediterranean basin. The high-mountain meadow ecosystems (borreguiles) harbour a large number of endemic and threatened plant species. In this data paper, we describe a dataset of the flora inhabiting this threatened ecosystem in this Mediterranean mountain. The dataset includes occurrence data for flora collected in those ecosystems in two periods: 1988–1990 and 2009–2013. A total of 11002 records of occurrences belonging to 19 orders, 28 families 52 genera were collected. 73 taxa were recorded with 29 threatened taxa. We also included data of cover-abundance and phenology attributes for the records. The dataset is included in the Sierra Nevada Global-Change Observatory (OBSNEV), a long-term research project designed to compile socio-ecological information on the major ecosystem types in order to identify the impacts of global change in this area. PMID:25878552

  16. Climate and Landuse Change Impacts on hydrological processes and soil erosion in a dry Mediterranean agro-forested catchment, southern Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Juliana; Nunes, João Pedro; Sampaio, Elsa; Moreira, Madalena; Lima, Júlio; Jacinto, Rita; Corte-Real, João

    2014-05-01

    Climate change is expected to increase aridity in the Mediterranean rim of Europe, due to decreasing rainfall and increasing temperatures. This could lead to impacts on soil erosion, since the lower rainfall could nevertheless become concentrated in higher intensity events during the wet season, while the more arid conditions could reduce vegetation cover, also due to climate-induced land-use changes. In consequence, there is an interest in understanding how climate change will affect the interaction between the timing of extreme rainfall events, hydrological processes, vegetation growth, soil cover and soil erosion. To study this issue, the SWAT eco-hydrological model was applied to Guadalupe, an agro-forested catchment (446 ha) located close to the city of Évora, with a Mediterranean inland climate. The landcover is a mix of dispersed cork oak forests ("montado"), annual crops, and agroforesty regions where the cork oaks are associated with crops or pasture; this land cover is representative of the dry regions of southern Portugal and Spain. The catchment has been instrumented since 2011 with a hydrometric station (water discharge and suspended sediment concentration data) and a soil moisture measurement station. There is also observed data of actual evapotranspiration, LAI and biomass production (in pasture; from 1999 and 2008) and runoff data and sediment yield measured in six 16m2 plots. Water balance, vegetation growth, soil erosion and sediment yield in SWAT was calibrated with this dataset. This work will present the dataset, modeling process, results for impacts of climate and land-use change scenarios for vegetation growth, soil erosion and sediment export, considering the climate and socio-economic scenarios A1b and B1 (based on SRES storylines). Climate scenarios were created by statistical downscaling from Global Circulation Models (GCMs) for the period 2071-2100 (30 years). The reference period was 1971-2000 (30 years). The SWAT model was used to

  17. Proposal of a Mediterranean Diet Serving Score.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia Monteagudo

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have demonstrated a relationship between Mediterranean Diet (MD adherence and the prevention of cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and diabetes, etc. The study aim was to validate a novel instrument to measure MD adherence based on the consumption of food servings and food groups, and apply it in a female population from southern Spain and determining influential factors.The study included 1,155 women aged 12-83 yrs, classified as adolescents, adults, and over-60-yr-olds. All completed a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ. The Mediterranean Dietary Serving Score (MDSS is based on the latest update of the Mediterranean Diet Pyramid, using the recommended consumption frequency of foods and food groups; the MDSS ranges from 0 to 24. The discriminative power or correct subject classification capacity of the MDSS was analyzed with the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curve, using the MDS as reference method. Predictive factors for higher MDSS adherence were determined with a logistic regression model, adjusting for age. According to ROC curve analysis, MDSS evidenced a significant discriminative capacity between adherents and non-adherents to the MD pattern (optimal cutoff point=13.50; sensitivity=74%; specificity=48%. The mean MDSS was 12.45 (2.69 and was significantly higher with older age (p<0.001. Logistic regression analysis showed highest MD adherence by over 60-year-olds with low BMI and no habit of eating between meals.The MDSS is an updated, easy, valid, and accurate instrument to assess MD adherence based on the consumption of foods and food groups per meal, day, and week. It may be useful in future nutritional education programs to prevent the early onset of chronic non-transmittable diseases in younger populations.

  18. Medieval iconography of watermelons in Mediterranean Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Harry S.; Daunay, Marie-Christine; Janick, Jules

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims The watermelon, Citrullus lanatus (Cucurbitaceae), is an important fruit vegetable in the warmer regions of the world. Watermelons were illustrated in Mediterranean Antiquity, but not as frequently as some other cucurbits. Little is known concerning the watermelons of Mediterranean Europe during medieval times. With the objective of obtaining an improved understanding of watermelon history and diversity in this region, medieval drawings purportedly of watermelons were collected, examined and compared for originality, detail and accuracy. Findings The oldest manuscript found that contains an accurate, informative image of watermelon is the Tractatus de herbis, British Library ms. Egerton 747, which was produced in southern Italy, around the year 1300. A dozen more original illustrations were found, most of them from Italy, produced during the ensuing two centuries that can be positively identified as watermelon. In most herbal-type manuscripts, the foliage is depicted realistically, the plants shown as having long internodes, alternate leaves with pinnatifid leaf laminae, and the fruits are small, round and striped. The manuscript that contains the most detailed and accurate image of watermelon is the Carrara Herbal, British Library ms. Egerton 2020. In the agriculture-based manuscripts, the foliage, if depicted, is not accurate, but variation in the size, shape and coloration of the fruits is evident. Both red-flesh and white-flesh watermelons are illustrated, corresponding to the typical sweet dessert watermelons so common today and the insipid citron watermelons, respectively. The variation in watermelon fruit size, shape and coloration depicted in the illustrations indicates that at least six cultivars of watermelon are represented, three of which probably had red, sweet flesh and three of which appear to have been citrons. Evidently, citron watermelons were more common in Mediterranean Europe in the past than they are today. PMID:23904443

  19. Heat Wave Changes in the Eastern Mediterranean since 1960

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuglitsch, Franz G.; Toreti, Andrea; Xoplaki, Elena; Della-Marta, Paul M.; Zerefos, Christos S.; Türkes, Murat; Luterbacher, Jürg

    2010-05-01

    Heat waves have discernible impacts on mortality and morbidity, infrastructure, agricultural resources, the retail industry, ecosystem and tourism and consequently affect human societies. A new definition of socially relevant heat waves is presented and applied to new data sets of high-quality homogenized daily maximum and minimum summer air temperature series from 246 stations in the eastern Mediterranean region (including Albania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Greece, Israel, Romania, Serbia, Slovenia, Turkey). Changes in heat wave number, length and intensity between 1960 and 2006 are quantified. Daily temperature homogeneity analysis suggest that many instrumental measurements in the 1960s are warm-biased, correcting for these biases regionally averaged heat wave trends are up to 8% higher. We find significant changes across the western Balkans, southwestern and western Turkey, and along the southern Black Sea coastline. Since the 1960s, the mean heat wave intensity, heat wave length and heat wave number across the eastern Mediterranean region have increased by a factor 7.6 ±1.3, 7.5 ±1.3 and 6.2 ±1.1, respectively. These findings suggest that the heat wave increase in this region is higher than previously reported.

  20. Variability and trends of migratory anticyclones affecting the Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzaki, Maria; Flocas, Helena A.; Simmonds, Ian; Kouroutzoglou, John; keay, Kevin; Rudeva, Irina

    2014-05-01

    A comprehensive climatology of migratory anticyclones affecting the Mediterranean was generated with the aid of the University of Melbourne finding and tracking algorithm, applied to 34 years (1979-2012) of ERA-Interim mean sea level pressures. The algorithm is employed for the first time to study anticyclones in this region, thus, its robustness and reliability in efficiently capturing the individual characteristics of the anticyclonic tracks in the Mediterranean were checked and verified. The tracks and the statistical properties of the migratory systems revealed two major anticyclonic routes: over the northern (i.e. from the Iberian towards the Balkan Peninsula) and over the southern (i.e. the North Africa coast) Mediterranean barriers. A transition of the system density and anticyclogenesis maxima is evident throughout the year from solely continental environments in winter and autumn to also maritime in spring and summer. These variations can be attributed to the seasonal variability of the major anticyclonic systems that are involved in this region. The interannual variability of synoptic systems can be attributed to natural low frequency variability. The interannual variations of the system density and strength were linked to the Northern Hemisphere modes of atmospheric variability; e.g. more (less) antiyclonic tracks are observed around the Mediterranean basin during periods of positive (negative) NAO, with a consequent enhancement (decline) of the pressure field. Moreover, possible trends in the frequency and intensity of the anticyclonic systems were explored in an attempt to examine any impacts of recent global warming conditions. Positive trends of system density, genesis and intensity prevail during the cold period over the greater area around the Mediterranean basin. During summer, the general increase in system density is not followed by a corresponding tendency in the number of the generating systems and the intensity. Regarding the depth of the

  1. Mediterranean Diet Score and Its Association with Age-Related Macular Degeneration: The European Eye Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogg, Ruth E; Woodside, Jayne V; McGrath, Alanna; Young, Ian S; Vioque, Jesus L; Chakravarthy, Usha; de Jong, Paulus T; Rahu, Mati; Seland, Johan; Soubrane, Gisele; Tomazzoli, Laura; Topouzis, Fotis; Fletcher, Astrid E

    2017-01-01

    To examine associations between adherence to a Mediterranean diet and prevalence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in countries ranging from Southern to Northern Europe. Cross-sectional, population-based epidemiologic study. Of 5060 randomly sampled people aged 65 years or older from 7 study centers across Europe (Norway, Estonia, United Kingdom, France, Italy, Greece, and Spain), full dietary data were available in 4753. The mean age of participants was 73.2 years (standard deviation, 5.6), and 55% were women. Participants underwent an eye examination and digital retinal color photography. The images were graded at a single center. Dietary intake during the previous 12 months was assessed by using a semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ). A previously published Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS) was used to classify participants according to their responses on the FFQ. Multivariable logistic regression was used to investigate the association of the MDS score and AMD, taking account of potential confounders and the multicenter study design. Images were graded according to the International Classification System for age-related maculopathy and stratified using the Rotterdam staging system into 5 exclusive stages (AMD 0-4) and a separate category of large drusen (≥125 μm). Age-related macular degeneration 4 included neovascular AMD (nvAMD) and geographic atrophy (GA). Increasing MDS was associated with reduced odds of nvAMD in unadjusted and confounder-adjusted analysis. Compared with the lowest MDS adherence (≤4 score), those in the highest category MDS adherence (>6 score) showed lower odds of nvAMD (odds ratio, 0.53; 0.27-1.04; P trend = 0.01). The association with MDS did not differ by Y204H risk allele (P = 0.89). For all early AMD (grade 1-3), there was no relationship with MDS (P trend = 0.9). There was a weak trend (P = 0.1) between MDS and large drusen; those in the highest category of MDS had 20% reduced odds compared with those in

  2. The sterile-male technique for control of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata Wied., in the Mediterranean basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serghiou, C.

    1975-01-01

    Certain problems caused by the use of insecticides in the management of agricultural pests, such as environmental pollution, insecticide resistance and disturbance of biological balance, has led to the development of selective pest control methods. A prominent place among these for the control of the Mediterranean fruit fly has been attained by the species specific sterile-insect technique (SIT). This study reviews the status of field programmes in countries of the Mediterranean basin, and of related mass rearing, irradiation and field release methodology. The SIT has been successfully tested in Spain, Italy, Israel and Cyprus. In all these cases, however, tests were conducted in small semi-isolated areas where at best a high degree of suppression but not eradication of the fly could be obtained since immigration of gravid females was always possible. The SIT programme in Cyprus and data on medfly ecology in the island is here reviewed in more detail. A proposal is make for the eradication of medfly from Cyprus by the use of an integration of methods, namely bait spraying, cultural practices and sterile-insect releases. (author)

  3. Analysis of Seasonal Risk for Importation of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae), via Air Passenger Traffic Arriving in Florida and California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szyniszewska, A M; Leppla, N C; Huang, Z; Tatem, A J

    2016-12-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), is one of the most economically damaging pests in the world and has repeatedly invaded two major agricultural states in the United States, Florida and California, each time requiring costly eradication. The Mediterranean fruit fly gains entry primarily in infested fruit carried by airline passengers and, since Florida and California each receive about 13 million international passengers annually, the risk of Mediterranean fruit fly entering the United States is potentially very high. The risk of passengers bringing the pest into Florida or California from Mediterranean fruit fly-infested countries was determined with two novel models, one estimated seasonal variation in airline passenger number and the other defined the seasonal and spatial variability in Mediterranean fruit fly abundance. These models elucidated relationships among the risk factors for Mediterranean fruit fly introduction, such as amount of passenger traffic, routes traveled, season of travel, abundance of Mediterranean fruit fly in countries where flights departed, and risk of the pest arriving at destination airports. The risk of Mediterranean fruit fly being introduced into Florida was greatest from Colombia, Brazil, Panama, Venezuela, Argentina, and Ecuador during January-August, whereas primarily the risk to California was from Brazil, Panama, Colombia, and Italy in May-August. About three times more Mediterranean fruit flies were intercepted in passenger baggage at airports in Florida than California, although the data were compromised by a lack of systematic sampling and other limitations. Nevertheless, this study achieved the goal of analyzing available data on seasonal passenger flow and Mediterranean fruit fly population levels to determine when surveillance should be intensified at key airports in Florida and California. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America

  4. Unprecedented emergency in Southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-03-01

    Despite knowledge of better prevention strategies, AIDS continues to be an unprecedented emergency in southern Africa. Statistics show that in 1998, 1.4 million people between the ages of 15 and 49 in the 9 countries of southern Africa were infected, with nearly three-quarters of a million of these new infections occurring in South Africa. In addition, some 2 million people died of AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa in 1998 and millions of new infections are occurring every year. Factors such as the loneliness suffered by migrant laborers, the wars and armed conflicts in Rwanda, and the stigma of shame, silence, and denial associated with AIDS all generate fertile conditions for the spread of HIV in southern Africa. Overcoming silence and denial, and bringing AIDS out into the open, has been considered by some countries in southern Africa. In Botswana and South Africa, appeals for greater awareness and openness by the top leadership have been coupled with a decision to set up government funding and AIDS. The challenge now will be to translate these into effective prevention and care programs.

  5. Seasonal occurrence of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824 (Diptera: Tephritidae in southern Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Mohammed

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Population fluctuations of the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly, Ceratitis capitata, were investigated between 1999 and 2001 at several locations representing fruit production areas in the southern part of Syria (Damascus Ghota, Zabadani, Sargaiah, Rankus, Orneh and Ain Al-Arab. Medfly adults were monitored weekly all year around using Jackson traps baited with trimedlure dispensers. Larvae were also sampled in Damascus Ghota by collecting fruits from ripe or ripening fruit trees and recording the number of larvae emerged from these fruits. In addition, suspected overwintering refuges were sampled at weekly intervals during the three coldest months of the year (December – February and the number of collected larvae was recorded. The results of trap catches and fruit sampling studies showed a similar pattern of occurrence of medfly populations in the study areas, particularly in Damascus Ghota, during the three years of the study. In Damascus Ghota, flies were caught continuously from early June to late December with some variability between years. Two distinct periods of high fly activity were observed: the first one occurred in August and the second in November with a much higher amplitude. In general, seasonal fluctuations in the pattern of occurrence were influenced by differences in temperature and abundance of preferred host fruits. Traps on fig Ficus carica and oriental persimmon Diospyros kaki trees caught the highest numbers of flies, and fruits collected from these trees showed the highest level of infestation, reaching 100% for fig fruit late in the season. Sampling fruits (in Damascus Ghota from trees during the three coldest months of the year showed that a small population of medfly larvae was able to survive winter conditions in prickly pear Opuntia vulgaris fruit left on the trees. In the other areas of the study (Zabadani, Sargaiah, Rankus, Orneh and Ain Al-Arab, only a few flies were caught.

  6. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet by the Greek and Cypriot population: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriacou, Alexis; Evans, Josie M M; Economides, Nicholas; Kyriacou, Angelos

    2015-12-01

    The traditional Mediterranean diet is defined as the dietary pattern in the countries of the Mediterranean basin between the 1950s and 1960s, and it is now widely accepted that has a beneficial effect on health. A debate exists from empirical and research data if the traditional Mediterranean diet remains the main dietary pattern of the region or if it has changed overtime. This systematic review addresses whether the people of Cyprus and Greece still follow the traditional Mediterranean diet or whether the diet has become more 'Westernised'. The MEDLINE database was searched using relevant free terms and independently reviewed by two authors. In addition, all reference lists of identified studies were hand-searched to identify additional, relevant studies. The review resulted in 18 research papers that met the inclusion and exclusion criteria and represented 15 independent studies. The main outcome was consistent between studies and indicated moderate adherence of the Greek, and (probably) of the Cypriot, population to the Mediterranean diet. The majority of studies found no statistically significant differences by gender. There was an observed inter-study lower adherence to the Mediterranean diet by the younger population. Few studies addressed intra-study variations by age. This review shows that adherence to the Mediterranean diet is moderate in Greece (and probably also in Cyprus).This suggests a continuing transition from dietary patterns in the 50 s-60 s towards a more Westernized diet. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  7. Mediterranean-type ecosystems: the influence of biodiversity on their functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, George W.; Richardson, David M.; Keeley, Jon E.; Hobbs, Richard J.; Mooney, H.A.; Cushman, J.H.; Medina, E.; Sala, O.E.; Schulze, E.-D.

    1996-01-01

    Ecosystems in the Mediterranean-climate regions of the world have served as a unit for comparative ecological studies for over two decades. The cohesiveness of research in this set of widely distributed regions rests on the similarity of the climates where they occur, and the identifiable convergence in elements of their vegetation structure (Di Castri and Mooney 1973). In this chapter we review functional aspects of what have come to be known as Mediterranean-type ecosystems (METs) in the context of a concerned global interest in the sustainability of the human environment and its dependence on biological diversity. The approach we adopt here is to look for evidence that this biodiversity, for which some MTEs are renowned (Cowling, 1992; Hobbs, 1992), has an influence on processes which are important both for the maintenance of natural systems, and for providing "ecosystem services" with human utility. Almost a century ago, Schimper (1903) recognized the biological similarities between five widely separated regions characterized by Mediterranean-type climates, and much comparative work has been done on that basis since. These regions comprise the Mediterranean basin itself, a major portion of California, central Chile, the southwestern and southern extremities of South Africa, and parts of southwestern and southern Australia (Figure 7.1). The first attention paid to MTEs in terms of quantitative ecological research arose out of the International Biological Programme (IBP) of the 1960s and 1970s. Those efforts focused on comparisons between the Chilean and Californian systems (Mooney 1977), and dealt with parallel models of ecosystem processes, especially water flux (Fuentes et al 1995). Because of the already perceived similarities between vegetation in these and the other three regions, the project was soon extended to include all five regions. The first broad comparative overview was published as an anthology which considered the origins and the convergent

  8. Gas, the Key Political Factor in the Eastern Mediterranean?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drevet, Jean-Francois

    2016-01-01

    Since the increased tension in relations between Russia and the European Union following the Ukrainian conflict and the annexation of Crimea, the EU's energy dependence on Russia has become a matter of major concern, particularly as, according to the European Commission, that dependence could increase greatly in the coming decades as energy needs rise. In this context, the recent discoveries of gas deposits in the Eastern Mediterranean represent, if not an alternative, then at least an opportunity to diversify supplies in the long term. However, if these reserves are to be exploited and potentially exportable, it will be necessary, as Jean-Francois Drevet shows here, to remove a number of political obstacles so that the various countries concerned can be made to cooperate. This column offers an assessment of gas potential in the Eastern Mediterranean, which is largely divided between Israel, Egypt, Syria, Lebanon, Palestine and Cyprus and has at times been a source of conflict in respect of the demarcation of exclusive economic zones for its exploitation. It also points up the issues with regard to energy self-sufficiency for the countries concerned and to the exporting of the gas (given the costs involved in building the necessary infrastructure), together with the difficulties of regional cooperation on this question. (author)

  9. Spain and Mediterranean Security Governance: Neighbours, Spaces and Actors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Wolff

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The 1999 Tampere Summit marked the start of the development of the external dimension of the European Union’s policy of Justice and Home Affairs (JHA. This external dimension has been reflected in the inclusion of JHA in agreements with third countries, and particularly with Mediterranean countries. Furthermore, the European NeighbourhoodPolicy (ENP, in addition to bilateral and multilateral programmes, confirmed the transformation of the JHA policy into one of the EU’s foreign policy objectives. In the light of this evolution, this article examines Spain’s role in the development of the Mediterraneandimension of the JHA policy: firstly, it covers the stance of José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero’s government toward the JHA policy and its external dimension; secondly, it explores the new parameters of governance in the area of security and the Spanish case through three main factors: the neighbours, spaces and actors that define this governance. Lastly, and within a context of a multiplicity of governance actors on security, it focuses on the Canary Islands,which have acquired a central importance with respect to the management of borders and the policy of development for Africa. The analysis of this period helps to explain the new security perceptions that define Spain’s policy in the Mediterranean.

  10. A Mediterranean diet pattern with low consumption of liquid sweets and refined cereals is negatively associated with adiposity in adults from rural Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issa, C; Darmon, N; Salameh, P; Maillot, M; Batal, M; Lairon, D

    2011-02-01

    The beneficial impact of the traditional Mediterranean diet pattern on adiposity is still under debate, and this has never been assessed in a developing Mediterranean country. To assess the relationships between adherence to a traditional Mediterranean diet and adiposity indexes, that is, body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC), in a sample from rural Lebanon. A sample of 798 adults, aged 40-60 years, was selected in continental rural areas of Lebanon for a cross-sectional study. The questionnaire included socio-demographic, anthropometric and dietary sections. The daily consumption frequencies of selected food groups, categorized as positive or negative components, were calculated based on a food frequency questionnaire. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was assessed using six a priori scores; including the widely used Mediterranean diet score (MDS). Associations between diet scores and BMI and WC were assessed. Overall, the diet of the study sample only partially matched the traditional Mediterranean diet. A total of 17.0% of men and 33.7% women were obese. The MDS was negatively associated (Pwomen. The constructed composite Mediterranean score combining positive components of the diet (whole cereals, vegetables, legumes and fruit, olive oil and fish) and negative components adapted to this sample (refined cereals and pastries, and liquid sweets) was consistently and negatively associated with both BMI and WC for men and women in multivariate models. A 2-point increase in that score was associated with a decrease in BMI of 0.51 and 0.78 kg m(-2) and a decrease in WC of 2.77 and 4.76 cm in men and women, respectively. The results demonstrate that a Mediterranean diet is negatively associated with obesity and visceral adiposity in a rural population of a developing Mediterranean country.

  11. Long-range atmospheric transport of pollutants to the Eastern Mediterranean basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuncel, G.; Tuncel, S.

    1994-01-01

    A permanent stations has been established in the Eastern Mediterranean coast of Turkey for continuous monitoring of aerosols and precipitation. The station is part of the MED-POL programme which includes all countries that have coasts in the Mediterranean Sea and attempts to determine the role of the atmospheric fluxes of pollutants on the pollution of the Mediterranea Sea. Aerosol and deposition samples have been collected since early 1992. Concentrations of SO 4 , NO 3 , Cl, Li, Pb, K, Ca, Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Se, Zn and Na were determined by ion chromatography and atomic absorption spectrometry. Daily samples will be screened to select the ones which correspond to transport from Europe and will be analyzed for a larger number of parameters using INAA. Method development took most of the time in 1992, and analysis are still in progress. Available data have shown that concentrations of anthropogenic elements are smaller in the Eastern Mediterranean atmosphere compared to other rural sites in the Europe. (author). 21 refs, 8 figs, 6 tabs

  12. Impacts of climate change on tourism in the Mediterranean. Adaptive responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry, A. [University of Wales Swansea, Swansea, Wales (United Kingdom)

    2000-05-01

    Key sensitivities to Mediterranean tourism include drought and heat waves, both of which are likely to increase with projected greenhouse warming. Adaptive responses must include lengthening of the present season and particularly taking care to cater for the increasing number of older people in the population of Northern European countries who will demand high environmental and accommodation standards and look for more bespoke holidays than the mass market tourist. Climate change in Northern Europe may affect the push-pull factors which currently favour a summer peak of tourists in many Mediterranean destinations. Infra structure and beaches may well be at risk from sea level rise and there are likely to be increased problems from forest fires, water supplies and hygiene.

  13. Impacts of climate change on tourism in the Mediterranean. Adaptive responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, A.

    2000-05-01

    Key sensitivities to Mediterranean tourism include drought and heat waves, both of which are likely to increase with projected greenhouse warming. Adaptive responses must include lengthening of the present season and particularly taking care to cater for the increasing number of older people in the population of Northern European countries who will demand high environmental and accommodation standards and look for more bespoke holidays than the mass market tourist. Climate change in Northern Europe may affect the push-pull factors which currently favour a summer peak of tourists in many Mediterranean destinations. Infra structure and beaches may well be at risk from sea level rise and there are likely to be increased problems from forest fires, water supplies and hygiene

  14. Modeling the biogeochemical impact of atmospheric phosphate deposition from desert dust and combustion sources to the Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richon, Camille; Dutay, Jean-Claude; Dulac, François; Wang, Rong; Balkanski, Yves

    2018-04-01

    Daily modeled fields of phosphate deposition to the Mediterranean from natural dust, anthropogenic combustion and wildfires were used to assess the effect of this external nutrient on marine biogeochemistry. The ocean model used is a high-resolution (1/12°) regional coupled dynamical-biogeochemical model of the Mediterranean Sea (NEMO-MED12/PISCES). The input fields of phosphorus are for 2005, which are the only available daily resolved deposition fields from the global atmospheric chemical transport model LMDz-INCA. Traditionally, dust has been suggested to be the main atmospheric source of phosphorus, but the LMDz-INCA model suggests that combustion is dominant over natural dust as an atmospheric source of phosphate (PO4, the bioavailable form of phosphorus in seawater) for the Mediterranean Sea. According to the atmospheric transport model, phosphate deposition from combustion (Pcomb) brings on average 40.5×10-6 mol PO4 m-2 yr-1 over the entire Mediterranean Sea for the year 2005 and is the primary source over the northern part (e.g., 101×10-6 mol PO4 m-2 yr-1 from combustion deposited in 2005 over the north Adriatic against 12.4×10-6 from dust). Lithogenic dust brings 17.2×10-6 mol PO4 m-2 yr-1 on average over the Mediterranean Sea in 2005 and is the primary source of atmospheric phosphate to the southern Mediterranean Basin in our simulations (e.g., 31.8×10-6 mol PO4 m-2 yr-1 from dust deposited in 2005 on average over the south Ionian basin against 12.4×10-6 from combustion). The evaluation of monthly averaged deposition flux variability of Pdust and Pcomb for the 1997-2012 period indicates that these conclusions may hold true for different years. We examine separately the two atmospheric phosphate sources and their respective flux variability and evaluate their impacts on marine surface biogeochemistry (phosphate concentration, chlorophyll a, primary production). The impacts of the different phosphate deposition sources on the biogeochemistry of the

  15. Can the Mediterranean diet prevent prostate cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itsiopoulos, Catherine; Hodge, Allison; Kaimakamis, Mary

    2009-02-01

    Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer in men worldwide. Despite the global importance of this cancer, until recently little was known about risk factors apart from the well-established factors: age, family history and country of birth. The large worldwide variation in prostate cancer risk and increased risk in migrants moving from low to high risk countries provides strong support for modifiable environmental factors. We have based our review on the findings of a systematic review undertaken by an expert panel on behalf of the World Cancer Research Fund and the American Institute for Cancer Research, and new data since then, linking identified foods and nutrients with prostate cancer. Evidence indicates that foods containing lycopene, as well as selenium and foods containing it, probably protect against prostate cancer, and excess consumption of foods or supplements containing calcium are a probable cause of this cancer. The expert panel also concluded that it is unlikely that beta-carotene (whether from foods or supplements) has a substantial effect on the risk of this cancer. A recent review on environmental factors in human prostate cancer also found that there were protective effects of vitamin E, pulses, soy foods and high plasma 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels. The Mediterranean diet is abundant in foods that may protect against prostate cancer and is associated with longevity and reduced cardiovascular and cancer mortality. Compared with many Western countries Greece has lower prostate cancer mortality and Greek migrant men in Australia have retained their low risk for prostate cancer. Consumption of a traditional Mediterranean diet, rich in bioactive nutrients, may confer protection to Greek migrant men, and this dietary pattern offers a palatable alternative for prevention of this disease.

  16. River terrace development in the NE Mediterranean region (Syria and Turkey): Patterns in relation to crustal type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgland, David R.; Demir, Tuncer; Seyrek, Ali; Daoud, Mohamad; Abou Romieh, Mohammad; Westaway, Rob

    2017-06-01

    It is widely recognized that the optimal development of river terraces globally has been in the temperate latitudes, with NW and Central Europe being areas of particular importance for the preservation of such archives of Quaternary environmental change. There is also a growing consensus that the principal drivers of terrace formation have been climatic fluctuation against a background of progressive (but variable) uplift. Nonetheless river terraces are widely preserved in the Mediterranean region, where they have often been attributed to the effects of neotectonic activity, with a continuing debate about the relative significance of fluctuating temperature (glacials-interglacials) and precipitation (pluvials-interpluvials). Research in Syria and southern-central Turkey (specifically in the valleys of the Tigris and Ceyhan in Turkey, the Kebir in Syria and the trans-border rivers Orontes and Euphrates) has underlined the importance of uplift rates in dictating the preservation pattern of fluvial archives and has revealed different patterns that can be related to crustal type. The NE Mediterranean coastal region has experienced unusually rapid uplift in the Late Quaternary. The relation between the Kebir terraces and the staircase of interglacial raised beaches preserved along the Mediterranean coastline of NW Syria reinforces previous conclusions that the emplacement of the fluvial terrace deposits in the Mediterranean has occurred during colder climatic episodes.

  17. Mediterranean, our sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markaki, Foteini

    2017-04-01

    My school (1o EPAL Ymittos -Athens, Greece) is a technical school of secondary education and throughout this school year being drafted a program of environmental education. The main theme is the Mediterranean Sea, the biggest closed sea extending between three continents. Topics studied: 1. Biodiversity and the risks threat. 2. The geophysics that characterize (earthquakes, volcanoes explosions, etc). 3. The Mediterranean Sea as environment anthropogenesis, a mosaic of other cultures and even place current notions of social phenomena (refugees). Pedagogical Objectives: Cognitive/Enviromental: 1. To investigate and understand the biodiversity of the Mediterranean Sea and the risks to threaten and phenomena that characterize. 2. To understand the position of the Mediterranean Sea in the land and the role of the historical, cultural and social human environment. 3. To come in contact with texts literary, social, articles on the Mediterranean. Psychomotor: 1. To work together and collect information for the Mediterranean Sea. 2. Experiential approach to the natural environment. 3. Develop critical thinking. 4. Undertake responsibilities for the presentation of the program. Emotional: 1. To feel joy from participation in the program. 2. Being sensitized and configure attitudes and actions of respect towards the environment. Methodology implementation: Teamwork. Interdisciplinary - holistic to dissemination of program recordings to courses curriculum. Study in the field. Gathering information from newspapers, magazines, internet, maps, and photographs. Experiential method- Project. Assessment methods and self-assessment. Fields of courses: Greek language- History- Biology- Chemistry- Technology Dissemination of results: Make a page of social media (facebook), a blog, enhancing environmental awareness via video, make an electronic poster.

  18. Mediterranean Diet and Prevention of Chronic Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romagnolo, Donato F.; Selmin, Ornella I.

    2017-01-01

    A large body of research data suggests that traditional dietary habits and lifestyle unique to the Mediterranean region (Mediterranean diet, MD) lower the incidence of chronic diseases and improve longevity. These data contrast with troubling statistics in the United States and other high income countries pointing to an increase in the incidence of chronic diseases and the projected explosion in cost of medical care associated with an aging population. In 2013, the MD was inscribed by UNESCO in the “Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity.” The 2015–2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans included the MD as a healthy dietary pattern. Therefore, specific objectives of this article are to provide an overview of the nutritional basis of this healthful diet, its metabolic benefits, and its role in multiple aspects of disease prevention and healthy aging. Whereas recommendations about the MD often focus on specific foods or bioactive compounds, we suggest that the eating pattern as a whole likely contributes to the health promoting effects of the MD. PMID:29051674

  19. Constraints to applying systems thinking concepts in health systems: A regional perspective from surveying stakeholders in Eastern Mediterranean countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Jardali, Fadi; Adam, Taghreed; Ataya, Nour; Jamal, Diana; Jaafar, Maha

    2014-12-01

    Systems Thinking (ST) has recently been promoted as an important approach to health systems strengthening. However, ST is not common practice, particularly in Low- and Middle-Income Countries (LMICs). This paper seeks to explore the barriers that may hinder its application in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) and possible strategies to mitigate them. A survey consisting of open-ended questions was conducted with a purposive sample of health policy-makers such as senior officials from the Ministry of Health (MoH), researchers, and other stakeholders such as civil society groups and professional associations from ten countries in the region. A total of 62 respondents participated in the study. Thematic analysis was conducted. There was strong recognition of the relevance and usefulness of ST to health systems policy-making and research, although misconceptions about what ST means were also identified. Experience with applying ST was very limited. Approaches to designing health policies in the EMR were perceived as reactive and fragmented (66%). Commonly perceived constraints to application of ST were: a perceived notion of its costliness combined with lack of the necessary funding to operationalize it (53%), competing political interests and lack of government accountability (50%), lack of awareness about relevance and value (47%), limited capacity to apply it (45%), and difficulty in coordinating and managing stakeholders (39%). While several strategies have been proposed to mitigate most of these constraints, they emphasized the importance of political endorsement and adoption of ST at the leadership level, together with building the necessary capacity to apply it and apply the learning in research and practice.

  20. Malaria resurgence risk in southern Europe: climate assessment in an historically endemic area of rice fields at the Mediterranean shore of Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainz-Elipe, Sandra; Latorre, Jose Manuel; Escosa, Raul; Masià, Montserrat; Fuentes, Marius Vicent; Mas-Coma, Santiago; Bargues, Maria Dolores

    2010-07-31

    International travel and immigration have been related with an increase of imported malaria cases. This fact and climate change, prolonging the period favouring vector development, require an analysis of the malaria transmission resurgence risk in areas of southern Europe. Such a study is made for the first time in Spain. The Ebro Delta historically endemic area was selected due to its rice field landscape, the presence of only one vector, Anopheles atroparvus, with densities similar to those it presented when malaria was present, in a situation which pronouncedly differs from already assessed potential resurgence areas in other Mediterranean countries, such as France and Italy, where many different Anopheles species coexist and a different vector species dominates. The transmission risk was assessed analysing: 1) climate diagrams including the minimum temperature for Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax development; 2) monthly evolution of the Gradient Model Risk (GMR) index, specifying transmission risk period and number of potential Plasmodium generations; 3) ecological characteristics using remote sensing images with the Eurasia Land Cover characteristics database and the monthly evolution of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI); 4) evaluation of A. atroparvus population dynamics. Climatological analyses and GMR index show that a transmission risk presently exists, lasting from May until September for P. falciparum, and from May until October for P. vivax. The GMR index shows that the temperature increase does not actually mean a transmission risk increase if accompanied by a precipitation decrease reducing the number of parasite generations and transmission period. Nevertheless, this limitation is offset by the artificial flooding of the rice fields. Maximum NDVI values and A. atroparvus maximum abundance correspond to months with maximum growth of the rice fields. The Ebro Delta presents the ecological characteristics that favour

  1. Postfire chaparral regeneration under mediterranean and non-mediterranean climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, Jon E.; Fotheringham, Connie J.; Rundel, Philip W.

    2012-01-01

    This study compares postfire regeneration and diversity patterns in fire-prone chaparral shrublands from mediterranean (California) and non-mediterranean-type climates (Arizona). Vegetation sampling was conducted in tenth hectare plots with nested subplots for the first two years after fire. Floras in the two regions were compared with Jaccard's Index and importance of families and genera compared with dominance-diversity curves. Although there were 44 families in common between the two regions, the dominant families differed; Poaceae and Fabaceae in Arizona and Hydrophyllaceae and Rosaceae in California. Dominance diversity curves indicated in the first year a more equable distribution of families in Arizona than in California. Woody plants were much more dominant in the mediterranean climate and herbaceous plants more dominant in the bimodal rainfall climate. Species diversity was comparable in both regions at the lowest spatial scales but not at the tenth hectare scale. Due to the double growing season in the non-mediterranean region, the diversity for the first year comprised two different herbaceous floras in the fall and spring growing seasons. The Mediterranean climate in California, in contrast, had only a spring growing season and thus the total diversity for the first year was significantly greater in Arizona than in California for both annuals and herbaceous perennials. Chaparral in these two climate regimes share many dominant shrub species but the postfire communities are very different. Arizona chaparral has both a spring and fall growing season and these produce two very different postfire floras. When combined, the total annual diversity was substantially greater in Arizona chaparral.

  2. Forest fires in Mediterranean countries: CO2 emissions and mitigation possibilities through prescribed burning

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Paulo; Terhi, Vilén

    2011-01-01

    Forest fires are integral to the Mediterranean Basin but fire incidence has increased dramatically during the past decades and fire is expected to become more prevalent in the future due to climate change. Fuel modification by prescribed burning reduces the spread and intensity potential of subsequent wildfires. We used the most recent published data to calculate the average annual wildfire CO2 emissions in France, Greece, Italy, Portugal and Spain following the IPCC guidelines. The effect of...

  3. Two new species of Thyronectria from Mediterranean Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checa, Julia; Jaklitsch, Walter M; Blanco, María N; Moreno, Gabriel; Olariaga, Ibai; Tello, Salvador; Voglmayr, Hermann

    2015-01-01

    Two new species of Thyronectria growing in Mediterranean vegetation are described from southern Spain; they are T. giennensis from Quercus ilex ssp. rotundifolia and T. pistaciae from Pistacia lentiscus. Both species are characterized by morphology of sexual and asexual morphs and by DNA data. They have olivaceous to green-brown muriform ascospores and are closely related to T. asturiensis and T. roseovirens, as determined by multigene phylogenetic analyses of a matrix containing six loci (ITS and 28S regions of nuc rDNA, ACT1, RPB1, RPB2, TEF1 and TUB2 genes). We also report that Cucurbitaria bicolor is a synonym of Thyronectria rhodochlora, the type species of Thyronectria. © 2015 by The Mycological Society of America.

  4. African dust outbreaks over the Mediterranean Basin during 2001-2011: concentrations, phenomenology and trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pey, Jorge; Querol, Xavier; Alastuey, Andres; Forastiere, Franceso; Stafoggia, Massimo

    2013-04-01

    Concentrations, phenomenology and trends of African dust outbreaks over the whole Mediterranean Basin werestudied on an 11-year period (2001-2011). This work has been performed in the context of the MED-PARTICLES (LIFE programme, EU) project, devoted to quantify short-term health effects of particulate matter over the Mediterranean region by distinguishing different particle sizes, chemical components and sources, with emphasis in the effects of African dust. In order to evaluate conduct this investigation, PM10 data from 19 regional and suburban background sites West to East in the Mediterranean area were compiled. After identifying the daily occurrence of African dust outbreaks, a methodology for estimating natural dust contributions on daily PM10 concentrations was applied. Our findings point out that African dust outbreaks are sensibly more frequent in southern sitesacross the Mediterranean, from 30 to 37 % of the annual days, whereas they occur less than 20% of the annual days in northern sites. The central Mediterranean emerges as a transitional area, with slightly higher frequency of dust episodes in its lower extreme when compared to similar latitudinal positions in western and eastern sides of the Basin. A decreasing south to north gradient of African dust contribution to PM10, driven by the latitudinal position of the monitoring sites at least 25°E westwards across the Basin,is patent across the Mediterranean. From 25°E eastwards, higher annual dust contributions are encountered due to the elevated annual occurrence of severe episodesof dust but also because of inputs from Middle Eastern deserts. Concerning seasonality patterns and intensity characteristics, a clear summer prevalence is observed in the western part, with low occurrence of severe episodes (daily dust averages over 100 µg m-3 in PM10); no seasonal trend is detected in the central region, with moderate-intensity episodes; and significantly higher contributions are common in autumn

  5. The Euro-Mediterranean Tsunami Catalogue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Maramai

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A unified catalogue containing 290 tsunamis generated in the European and Mediterranean seas since 6150 B.C. to current days is presented. It is the result of a systematic and detailed review of all the regional catalogues available in literature covering the study area, each of them having their own format and level of accuracy. The realization of a single catalogue covering a so wide area and involving several countries was a complex task that posed a series of challenges, being the standardization and the quality of the data the most demanding. A “reliability” value was used to rate equally the quality of the data for each event and this parameter was assigned based on the trustworthiness of the information related to the generating cause, the tsunami description accuracy and also on the availability of coeval bibliographical sources. Following these criteria we included in the catalogue events whose reliability ranges from 0 (“very improbable tsunami” to 4 (“definite tsunami”. About 900 documentary sources, including historical documents, books, scientific reports, newspapers and previous catalogues, support the tsunami data and descriptions gathered in this catalogue. As a result, in the present paper a list of the 290 tsunamis with their main parameters is reported. The online version of the catalogue, available at http://roma2.rm.ingv.it/en/facilities/data_bases/52/catalogue_of_the_euro-mediterranean_tsunamis, provides additional information such as detailed descriptions, pictures, etc. and the complete list of bibliographical sources. Most of the included events have a high reliability value (3= “probable” and 4= “definite” which makes the Euro-Mediterranean Tsunami Catalogue an essential tool for the implementation of tsunami hazard and risk assessment.

  6. Factors associated with low adherence to a Mediterranean diet in healthy children in northern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriscado, Daniel; Muros, José J; Zabala, Mikel; Dalmau, José M

    2014-09-01

    There is a tendency in Mediterranean countries to abandon the characteristic Mediterranean diet. This is especially apparent within younger populations. This could have negative consequences for health such as, cardiovascular diseases, obesity or metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study was to describe adherence to the Mediterranean diet within a population of school children and to examine the influence of different socio-demographic factors and lifestyle habits. The study was conducted on a representative sample of 321 school children aged 11-12 years from 31 schools in the city of Logroño (La Rioja). Socio-demographic variables, anthropometric variables, blood pressure, level of development, aerobic fitness, lifestyle, physical activity habits and adherence to the Mediterranean diet were recorded. High adherence to the Mediterranean diet was reported by 46.7% of school children, with low adherence being reported by 4.7% of them. Children attending state schools, immigrants and families from low-to-medium socio-economic strata reported significantly lower adherence to the Mediterranean diet (p = .039), but the results did not reveal any significant differences in terms of body composition. Correlations were found between adherence to the Mediterranean diet and other lifestyle habits, especially level of physical activity (r = .38) and screen time (r = -.18). Adherence to a Mediterranean diet differs according to the type of school attended by children, and the child's nationality and socio-economic status. Children who attended state schools, immigrants and those from families with a medium-to-low socio-economic status were less likely to follow healthy diets. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A top-down approach of surface carbonyl sulfide exchange by a Mediterranean oak forest ecosystem in southern France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belviso, Sauveur; Reiter, Ilja Marco; Loubet, Benjamin; Gros, Valérie; Lathière, Juliette; Montagne, David; Delmotte, Marc; Ramonet, Michel; Kalogridis, Cerise; Lebegue, Benjamin; Bonnaire, Nicolas; Kazan, Victor; Gauquelin, Thierry; Fernandez, Catherine; Genty, Bernard

    2016-12-01

    The role that soil, foliage, and atmospheric dynamics have on surface carbonyl sulfide (OCS) exchange in a Mediterranean forest ecosystem in southern France (the Oak Observatory at the Observatoire de Haute Provence, O3HP) was investigated in June of 2012 and 2013 with essentially a top-down approach. Atmospheric data suggest that the site is appropriate for estimating gross primary production (GPP) directly from eddy covariance measurements of OCS fluxes, but it is less adequate for scaling net ecosystem exchange (NEE) to GPP from observations of vertical gradients of OCS relative to CO2 during the daytime. Firstly, OCS and carbon dioxide (CO2) diurnal variations and vertical gradients show no net exchange of OCS at night when the carbon fluxes are dominated by ecosystem respiration. This contrasts with other oak woodland ecosystems of a Mediterranean climate, where nocturnal uptake of OCS by soil and/or vegetation has been observed. Since temperature, water, and organic carbon content of soil at the O3HP should favor the uptake of OCS, the lack of nocturnal net uptake would indicate that its gross consumption in soil is compensated for by emission processes that remain to be characterized. Secondly, the uptake of OCS during the photosynthetic period was characterized in two different ways. We measured ozone (O3) deposition velocities and estimated the partitioning of O3 deposition between stomatal and non-stomatal pathways before the start of a joint survey of OCS and O3 surface concentrations. We observed an increasing trend in the relative importance of the stomatal pathway during the morning hours and synchronous steep drops of mixing ratios of OCS (amplitude in the range of 60-100 ppt) and O3 (amplitude in the range of 15-30 ppb) after sunrise and before the break up of the nocturnal boundary layer. The uptake of OCS by plants was also characterized from vertical profiles. However, the time window for calculation of the ecosystem relative uptake (ERU) of OCS

  8. Estimating the Mediterranean Sea Water Budget: impact of RCM design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somot, S.; Elguindi, N.; Sanchez-Gomez, E.; Herrmann, M.; Déqué, M.

    2009-09-01

    The Mediterranean Sea can be considered as a thermodynamic machine that exchanges water and heat with the Atlantic Ocean through the Strait of Gibraltar and with the atmosphere through its surface. Considering the Mediterranean Sea Water Budget (MSWB) multi-year mean, the Mediterranean basin looses water at the surface due to an excess of evaporation over freshwater input (precipitation, river runoff, Black Sea input). Moreover the MSWB largely drives the Mediterranean Sea water mass formation and therefore a large part of its thermohaline circulation. This could even have an impact on the characteristics of the Atlantic thermohaline circulation through the Mediterranean Outflow Waters that flow into the Atlantic at a depth of about 1000 m. From a climate point of view, the MSWB acts as a water source for the Mediterranean countries and therefore plays an important role on the water resources of the region. The regional physical characteristics of the Mediterranean basin (complex orography, strong land-sea contrast, land-atmosphere coupling, air-sea coupling, river inflow, Gibraltar Strait constraint and complex ocean bathymetry) strongly influence the various components of the MSWB. Moreover extreme precipitation events over land and strong evaporation events over the sea due to local winds can play a non-negligible role on the mean MSWB despite their small spatial and temporal scales. Therefore, modelling the mean behaviour, the interannual variability and the trends of the MSWB is a challenging task of the Regional Climate Model community in the context of climate change. It is actually one of the highlighted issues of the HyMex project planned for the 2010-2020 period. We propose here to start investigating some key scientific issues of the regional modelling of the Mediterranean Sea Water Budget using a wide range of regional climate simulations performed at Météo-France or in the framework of FP6 European projects (ENSEMBLES, CIRCE). The addressed

  9. Cultural feminization of educational practices: ethnographies of the popularization of science and technology in two southern countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Pérez-Bustos

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This research paper explores experiences with the popularization of science and technology from an ethnographic perspective. It argues that they become culturally feminized –rather than only demographically– in their educational mise-en-scene and that it occurs in a similar manner in two southern countries, India and Colombia. The first experience is an example of hands on science models and the second, refers to fun science models. The article closes by proposing some connections between these experiences, aiming at providing an understanding as to how the educational staging of the popularization of science and technology reinforces a central dichotomy between what is considered androcentric and feminized

  10. Wind power in the Euro-Mediterranean region: development and prospects; Energia eolica en la region euromediterranea: desarrollo y perspectivas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez Latorre, F. M.; Ventura Fernandez, J.

    2011-07-01

    This work is a first approach to wind development in the Euro-Mediterranean region and identifies the major initiatives underway as well as development conditions. It includes a study case of wind power management in the Strait of Gibraltar area. Wind development is analyzed in the Euro-Mediterranean territories by comparing Spanish regions with different States using various indicators. Key countries are noted for their potential and policies to promote wind based alternatives. (Author)

  11. Short-term Exposure to a Mediterranean Environment Influences Attitudes and Dietary Profile in U.S. College Students: The MEDiterranean Diet in AMEricans (A-MED-AME) Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petroka, Katherine; Dinu, Monica; Hoover, Chelsea; Casini, Alessandro; Sofi, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether short-term exposure to a Mediterranean diet during a structured abroad experience could influence dietary habits and attitudes. This study used a cross-sectional design. The study was conducted on the Florence University of the Arts (FUA) campus, Italy. Fifty-four (47 females, 7 males; mean age 21.1 ± 1.9 years) college students from 12 different states, mainly located in the central United States, were enrolled in this study. Outcome measures included adherence score to Mediterranean diet and self-reported perceptions of diet and food availability. A demographic survey was used to collect data regarding personal characteristics, anthropometrics, duration of stay, and residency status. Chi-square test, independent T-test, and Mann-Whitney test were used to perform analyses. At 3 weeks' follow-up, 94% of the population reported that availability of foods affected their food choices. Interestingly, students reported that they consumed less meat with respect to their usual dietary habits in the United States (p Mediterranean diet significantly increased by about 1 point, going from 9.9 ± 2.4 to 10.9 ± 2.0 (p Mediterranean diet was observed. Future research should explore the relationship between length of time spent in a foreign country and dietary adherence in a cultural context.

  12. Cradle to Grave: Managing Disused Sealed Radioactive Sources in the Mediterranean Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henriques, Sasha

    2014-01-01

    Some countries in the Mediterranean region lack appropriate facilities for the safe management or disposal of radioactive waste such as disused radioactive sources. Disused radioactive sources could be lost, stolen or abandoned and thus fall outside the regulatory control. Such loss of control over disused sources presents a significant risk to the public and the environment

  13. Southern Voice State of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Southern Voice on post-MDG International Development Goals (Southern ... conceived by the Southern Voice network that will generate and disseminate ... this project will help expand ownership of the SDGs in case study countries and ... think tanks as effective interlocutors between national capitals, regional hubs, ...

  14. MURASOC, a parametric model to test climate change effects on soil organic carbon. Application to Southern Spain (Mediterranean áreas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parras-Alcántara, Luis; Lozano-García, Beatriz; Brevik, Eric C.; Olaya-Abril, Alfonso; Obregón-Romero, Rafael; Gil Torres, Juan; Recio-Espejo, Jose Manuel

    2016-04-01

    Mediterranean areas. Catena 137; 449-458. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.catena.2015.10.019. Lozano-García, B., Parras-Alcántara, L., Brevik, E.C., 2016. Impact of topographic aspect and vegetation (native and reforested areas) on soil organic carbon and nitrogen budgets in Mediterranean natural areas. Science of the Total Environment 544; 963-970. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.12.022. Parras-Alcántara, L., Lozano-García, B., 2014. Conventional tillage versus organic farming in relation to soil organic carbon stock in olive groves in Mediterranean rangelands (southern Spain). Solid Earth, 5; 299-311. http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/se-5-299-2014. Parras-Alcántara, L., Lozano-García, B., Brevik, E.C., Cerdá, A., 2015. Soil organic carbon stocks assessment in Mediterranean natural areas: A comparison of entire soil profiles and soil control sections. Journal of Environmental Management 155; 219-228. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2015.03.039

  15. Climate Change and Poor Water Resource Management Will Have Serious Security Implications in the Balkan Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-12

    climate change on water resources. Many of these areas (e.g., Mediterranean Basin, western United States, southern Africa, northeast Brazil , southern...urbanizing, more affluent populations, and substantial economic growth in India, China, Brazil , and other nations, will devastate homes, land, and...portion (90%) came from Europe and 70% from EU countries. In 2003, the accommodation capacity was approximately 650,000 beds in more than 8,500 hotels

  16. Adherence to a predominantly Mediterranean diet decreases the risk of gastroesophageal reflux disease: a cross-sectional study in a South Eastern European population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mone, I; Kraja, B; Bregu, A; Duraj, V; Sadiku, E; Hyska, J; Burazeri, G

    2016-10-01

    Our aim was to assess the association of a Mediterranean diet and gastroesophageal reflux disease among adult men and women in Albania, a former communist country in South Eastern Europe with a predominantly Muslim population. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2012, which included a population-based sample of 817 individuals (≥18 years) residing in Tirana, the Albanian capital (333 men; overall mean age: 50.2 ± 18.7 years; overall response rate: 82%). Assessment of gastroesophageal reflux disease was based on Montreal definition. Participants were interviewed about their dietary patterns, which in the analysis was dichotomized into: predominantly Mediterranean (frequent consumption of composite/traditional dishes, fresh fruit and vegetables, olive oil, and fish) versus largely non-Mediterranean (frequent consumption of red meat, fried food, sweets, and junk/fast food). Logistic regression was used to assess the association of gastroesophageal reflux disease with the dietary patterns. Irrespective of demographic and socioeconomic characteristics and lifestyle factors including eating habits (meal regularity, eating rate, and meal-to-sleep interval), employment of a non-Mediterranean diet was positively related to gastroesophageal reflux disease risk (fully adjusted odds ratio = 2.3, 95% confidence interval = 1.2-4.5). Our findings point to a beneficial effect of a Mediterranean diet in the occurrence of gastroesophageal reflux disease in transitional Albania. Findings from this study should be confirmed and expanded further in prospective studies in Albania and in other Mediterranean countries. © 2015 International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus.

  17. Genetic diversity and biogeographical patterns of Caulerpa prolifera across the Mediterranean and Mediterranean/Atlantic transition zone

    KAUST Repository

    Varela-Á lvarez, Elena; Balau, Ana C.; Marbà , Nú rià N.; Afonso-Carrillo, Julio; Duarte, Carlos M.; Serrã o, Ester Á lvares

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of spatial patterns of genetic differentiation between populations is key to understanding processes in evolutionary history of biological species. Caulerpa is a genus of marine green algae, which has attracted much public attention, mainly because of the impacts of invasive species in the Mediterranean. However, very little is known about the ecological and evolutionary history of the Mediterranean native Caulerpa prolifera, a species which is currently found at sites distributed worldwide. C. prolifera provides a good model to explore the patterns of genetic diversity at different scales across the Mediterranean and Atlantic area. This study aims to investigate the biogeographical patterns of diversity and differentiation of C. prolifera in the Mediterranean, with special focus on the Mediterranean/Atlantic transition zone. We used two nuclear (ITS rDNA and the hypervariable microsatellite locus CaPr_J2) and one chloroplast (tufA) DNA markers on samples of C. prolifera from its entire range. Analyses of 51 sequences of the cpDNA tufA of C. prolifera, 87 ITS2 sequences and genotypes of 788 ramets of C. prolifera for the locus CaPr_J2 revealed three different biogeographical areas: West Atlantic, East Atlantic and a larger area representing the Mediterranean, the Mediterranean/Atlantic transition zone and a Pacific site (Bali). It was found out that the Mediterranean/Atlantic transition zone is a biogeographical boundary for C. prolifera. A lack of connectivity was revealed between Atlantic and Mediterranean types, and identical sequences found in the Mediterranean and Indo-Pacific suggest either recent gene flow along the Red Sea connection or a possible ancient Indo-Pacific origin.

  18. Genetic diversity and biogeographical patterns of Caulerpa prolifera across the Mediterranean and Mediterranean/Atlantic transition zone

    KAUST Repository

    Varela-Álvarez, Elena

    2015-01-11

    Knowledge of spatial patterns of genetic differentiation between populations is key to understanding processes in evolutionary history of biological species. Caulerpa is a genus of marine green algae, which has attracted much public attention, mainly because of the impacts of invasive species in the Mediterranean. However, very little is known about the ecological and evolutionary history of the Mediterranean native Caulerpa prolifera, a species which is currently found at sites distributed worldwide. C. prolifera provides a good model to explore the patterns of genetic diversity at different scales across the Mediterranean and Atlantic area. This study aims to investigate the biogeographical patterns of diversity and differentiation of C. prolifera in the Mediterranean, with special focus on the Mediterranean/Atlantic transition zone. We used two nuclear (ITS rDNA and the hypervariable microsatellite locus CaPr_J2) and one chloroplast (tufA) DNA markers on samples of C. prolifera from its entire range. Analyses of 51 sequences of the cpDNA tufA of C. prolifera, 87 ITS2 sequences and genotypes of 788 ramets of C. prolifera for the locus CaPr_J2 revealed three different biogeographical areas: West Atlantic, East Atlantic and a larger area representing the Mediterranean, the Mediterranean/Atlantic transition zone and a Pacific site (Bali). It was found out that the Mediterranean/Atlantic transition zone is a biogeographical boundary for C. prolifera. A lack of connectivity was revealed between Atlantic and Mediterranean types, and identical sequences found in the Mediterranean and Indo-Pacific suggest either recent gene flow along the Red Sea connection or a possible ancient Indo-Pacific origin.

  19. North–south palaeohydrological contrasts in the central Mediterranean during the Holocene: tentative synthesis and working hypotheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Magny

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of a multi-proxy approach and a strategy combining lacustrine and marine records along a north–south transect, data collected in the central Mediterranean within the framework of a collaborative project have led to reconstruction of high-resolution and well-dated palaeohydrological records and to assessment of their spatial and temporal coherency. Contrasting patterns of palaeohydrological changes have been evidenced in the central Mediterranean: south (north of around 40° N of latitude, the middle part of the Holocene was characterised by lake-level maxima (minima, during an interval dated to ca. 10 300–4500 cal BP to the south and 9000–4500 cal BP to the north. Available data suggest that these contrasting palaeohydrological patterns operated throughout the Holocene, both on millennial and centennial scales. Regarding precipitation seasonality, maximum humidity in the central Mediterranean during the middle part of the Holocene was characterised by humid winters and dry summers north of ca. 40° N, and humid winters and summers south of ca. 40° N. This may explain an apparent conflict between palaeoclimatic records depending on the proxies used for reconstruction as well as the synchronous expansion of tree species taxa with contrasting climatic requirements. In addition, south of ca. 40° N, the first millennium of the Holocene was characterised by very dry climatic conditions not only in the eastern, but also in the central- and the western Mediterranean zones as reflected by low lake levels and delayed reforestation. These results suggest that, in addition to the influence of the Nile discharge reinforced by the African monsoon, the deposition of Sapropel 1 has been favoured (1 by an increase in winter precipitation in the northern Mediterranean borderlands, and (2 by an increase in winter and summer precipitation in the southern Mediterranean area. The climate reversal following the Holocene climate optimum appears to

  20. A new plate tectonic concept for the eastern-most Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebscher, C.; McGrandle, A.; Scaife, G.; Spoors, R.; Stieglitz, T.

    2012-04-01

    Owing to the seismogenic faults bordering the Levant-Sinai realm and the discovery of giant gas reservoirs in the marine Levant Basin the scientific interest in this tectonically complex setting increased in recent years. Here we provide a new model for the Levant Basin architecture and adjacent plate boundaries emphasizing the importance of industrial seismic data for frontier research in earth science. PSDM seismics, residual gravity and depth to basement maps give a clear line of evidence that the Levant Basin, formerly considered as a single tectonic entity, is divided into two different domains. Highly stretched continental crust in the southern domain is separated from deeper and presumably Tethyan oceanic crust in the north. A transform continuing from southwest Cyprus to the Carmel Fault in northern Israel is considered as the boundary. If this interpretation holds, the Carmel-Cyprus Transform represents a yet unknown continent-ocean boundary in the eastern Mediterranean, thus adding new constrains for the Mediterranean plate tectonic puzzle. The Eratosthenes Seamount, considered as the spearhead of incipient continental collision in the eastern Mediterranean, is interpreted as a carbonate platform that developed above a volcanic basement. NW-SE trending strike-slip faults are abundant in the entire Levant region. Since this trend also shapes the topography of the Levant hinterland including Quaternary deposits their recent tectonic activity is quite likely. Thus, our study supports previous studies which attributed the evolution of submarine canyons and Holocene triggering of mass failures not only to salt tectonics or depositional processes, but also to active plate-tectonics.

  1. Habitat modeling for cetacean management: Spatial distribution in the southern Pelagos Sanctuary (Mediterranean Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennino, Maria Grazia; Mérigot, Bastien; Fonseca, Vinícius Prado; Monni, Virginia; Rotta, Andrea

    2017-07-01

    Effective management and conservation of wild populations requires knowledge of their habitats, especially by mean of quantitative analyses of their spatial distributions. The Pelagos Sanctuary is a dedicated marine protected area for Mediterranean marine mammals covering an area of 90,000 km2 in the north-western Mediterranean Sea between Italy, France and the Principate of Monaco. In the south of the Sanctuary, i.e. along the Sardinian coast, a range of diverse human activities (cities, industry, fishery, tourism) exerts several current ad potential threats to cetacean populations. In addition, marine mammals are recognized by the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive as essential components of sustainable ecosystems. Yet, knowledge on the spatial distribution and ecology of cetaceans in this area is quite scarce. Here we modeled occurrence of the three most abundant species known in the Sanctuary, i.e. the striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba), the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) and the fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus), using sighting data from scientific surveys collected from 2012 to 2014 during summer time. Bayesian site-occupancy models were used to model their spatial distribution in relation to habitat taking into account oceanographic (sea surface temperature, primary production, photosynthetically active radiation, chlorophyll-a concentration) and topographic (depth, slope, distance of the land) variables. Cetaceans responded differently to the habitat features, with higher occurrence predicted in the more productive areas on submarine canyons. These results provide ecological information useful to enhance management plans and establish baseline for future population trend studies.

  2. Radiocarbon ages of soil charcoals from the southern Alps, Ticino, Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajdas, Irka; Schlumpf, Nadia; Minikus-Stary, Nicole; Hagedorn, Frank; Eckmeier, Eileen; Schoch, Werner; Burga, Conradin; Bonani, Georges; Schmidt, Michael W.I.; Cherubini, Paolo

    2007-01-01

    Radiocarbon dating of macroscopic charcoal is a useful tool for paleoclimatic and paleoecologic reconstructions. Here we present results of 14 C dating of charcoals found in charcoal-rich soils of Ticino and the Misox Valley (southern Switzerland) which indicate that the Late Glacial and early Holocene fires coincided with warm phases in the North Atlantic region and low lake levels in the Central Europe. Late Holocene charcoals found in these soils document an earlier than believed presence of sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) in southern Switzerland. Sweet chestnut trees play a key role in Mediterranean woodlands, and for longer than two millennia have been used as a food source. Based on palynological evidence it is commonly believed that in southern Switzerland C. sativa was first introduced 2000 years ago by the Romans, who cultivated it for wood and fruit production. Our results indicate that this tree species was present on the southern slopes of the Alps ∼1500 years earlier than previously assumed, and therefore was likely introduced independently from cultivation by the Romans

  3. Socioeconomic inequalities in smoking in low and mid income countries: positive gradients among women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosdriesz, Jizzo R; Mehmedovic, Selma; Witvliet, Margot I; Kunst, Anton E

    2014-02-06

    In Southern Europe, smoking among older women was more prevalent among the high educated than the lower educated, we call this a positive gradient. This is dominant in the early stages of the smoking epidemic model, later replaced by a negative gradient. The aim of this study is to assess if a positive gradient in smoking can also be observed in low and middle income countries in other regions of the world. We used data of the World Health Survey from 49 countries and a total of 233,917 respondents. Multilevel logistic regression was used to model associations between individual level smoking and both individual level and country level determinants. We stratified results by education, occupation, sex and generation (younger vs. older than 45). Countries were grouped based on GDP and region. In Eastern Europe and the Eastern Mediterranean, we observed a positive gradient in smoking among older women and a negative gradient among younger women. In Sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America no clear gradient was observed: inequalities were relatively small. In South-East Asia and East Asia a strong negative gradient was observed. Among men, no positive gradients were observed, and like women the strongest negative gradients were seen in South-East Asia and East Asia. A positive socio-economic gradient in smoking was found among older women in two regions, but not among younger women. But contrary to predictions derived from the smoking epidemic model, from a worldwide perspective the positive gradients are the exception rather than the rule.

  4. Uncertainties and validation of alien species catalogues: The Mediterranean as an example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenetos, Argyro; Çinar, Melih Ertan; Crocetta, Fabio; Golani, Dani; Rosso, Antonietta; Servello, Gianna; Shenkar, Noa; Turon, Xavier; Verlaque, Marc

    2017-05-01

    The meticulous revision by taxonomic experts of established alien species in the Mediterranean resulted in a major revision of the list proposed by Galil et al. (2016), with 73 species to be excluded (35 species categorised as non-established and 37 as not true aliens), and 72 species added to the list. Consequently, by year 2016 the total number of established alien species in the Mediterranean reached 613, which is a 28% increase over the preceding four years. If we also consider casual species (208 species), the total number of alien species in the Mediterranean is 821. This is attributed to: new findings, change in establishment status of species previously known on the basis of few and scattered records, and results of phylogenetic studies in some cosmopolitan species. However, the true number of alien species reported here is considered to be an underestimation, as it does not include phytoplanktonic organisms, Foraminifera, cryptogenic and species known on the basis of questionable records that might turn out to be true aliens. EASIN and INVASIVESNET can play a major role in the future revision/update of the present list, which currently serves for assessing indicators that are necessary for policy, and for management of alien species in the Mediterranean Sea. An increasing trend in new arrivals since 1950, which culminated in the 2001-2010 period, appeared to decline after 2010. Whether this negative trend is an indication of improvement, or is an artefact, remains to be seen. The current list provides a reliable updated database from which to continue monitoring the arrival and spread of invasive species in the Mediterranean, as well as to provide counsel to governmental agencies with respect to management and control. Current geographical, taxonomical and impact data gaps can be reduced only by instituting harmonised standards and methodologies for monitoring alien populations in all countries bordering the Mediterranean Sea.

  5. Benefits of the Mediterranean diet beyond the Mediterranean Sea and beyond food patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-González, Miguel A

    2016-10-14

    Abundant and growing evidence has accrued to demonstrate that the traditional Mediterranean diet is likely to be the ideal dietary pattern for the prevention of cardiovascular disease. A landmark randomized trial (PREDIMED) together with many well-conducted long-term observational prospective cohort studies support this causal effect.A new, large British cohort study by Tong et al. assessing the association between adherence to the Mediterranean diet and cardiovascular disease was recently published in BMC Medicine. Using a superb methodology, they followed-up 23,902 participants for 12.2 years on average and observed several thousand incident cases.The results of this cohort study showed a significant beneficial effect of the Mediterranean diet on cardiovascular events. These findings support the transferability of this dietary pattern beyond the shores of the Mediterranean Sea. The authors provided measures of population impact in cardiovascular prevention and estimated that 19,375 cases of cardiovascular death would be prevented each year in the UK by promoting the Mediterranean Diet.Please see related article: http://bmcmedicine.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12916-016-0677-4 .

  6. New insights on Lepidoptera of Southern Italy with description of the male of Coenotephria antonii Hausmann 2011 (Lepidoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Infusino

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Southern Italy is of particular biogeographic interest due to the location at the center of the Mediterranean Basin and its great environmental heterogeneity. Despite the faunistic interest of this territory, many insect taxa are still little investigated. Among insects, Lepidoptera have a relatively well known fauna, significantly increased in recent years, but there are still some gaps of knowledge in several habitats. The aim of this work was to contribute to the knowledge of the Macrolepidoptera of Southern Italy, focusing our study in Calabria, and to offer some thoughts on the role played by the Mediterranean mountain forests for the biodiversity conservation. Samplings were carried out in three mountainous areas of Calabria (Pollino Massif, Sila Massif and Serre Mountains in May-November 2015 and in April-November 2016, using UV-LED light traps. We found ten species of high faunistic interest. Three species, Nebula senectaria, Perizoma lugdunaria and Acasis appensata, were for the first time recorded from Southern Italy, while seven were for the first time recorded from Calabria: Coenotephria antonii, Thera obeliscata, Triphosa dubitata, Trichopteryx carpinata, Asteroscopus sphinx, Lithophane semibrunnea and Sideridis reticulata. Of great interest was the discovery of the first male certainly attributable to Coenotephria antonii, endemic of Southern Italy, here described for the first time. The results exposed confirm that the fauna of Southern Italy is of great conservation value, hosting endemisms and several relict populations of European and Asiatic species with differentiated genetic lineages highly vulnerable to the climate change expected for the coming decades.

  7. Familial Mediterranean Fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adem Kucuk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Familial Mediterranean Fever is an autosomal recessive inherited disease with a course of autoinflammation, which is characterized by the episodes of fever and serositis. It affects the populations from Mediterranean basin. Genetic mutation of the disease is on MEFV gene located on short arm of Chromosome 16. The disease is diagnosed based on clinical evaluation. Amyloidosis is the most important complication. The only agent that decreases the development of amyloidosis and the frequency and severity of the episodes is colchicine, which has been used for about 40 years. In this review, we aimed to discuss especially the most recent advances about Familial Mediterranean Fever which is commonly seen in our population.

  8. Fuel Supply Logistics and Costs for Typical Fuel Chains in Southern European Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esteban, Luis S.; Garcia, Roberto; Perez, Paloma; Fernandez, Miguel; Carrasco, Juan (CIEMAT (Spain))

    2010-02-15

    In Southern European Countries is possible to find locations with good availabilities of biomass resources (around 1 Million odt/yr) in areas of 100 km radius. However, most available resources are agricultural residues such as straw, corn stover, olive branches, husks etc. Such biomass materials have worse behaviours in the gasification reactors than wood, causing severe problems such as sintering and corrosion. For that reason it has been proposed as possible partial solution the installation of a big centralized pre-treatment plant with the aim of blending and pelletizing the agricultural residues with small proportions of wood residues. The key issue of the big pelletizing plant is to get a uniform feedstock for the gasifier in terms of size, density, moisture content and, as much as possible, also in terms of chemical composition, so that the gasifier operation and the gas composition will be as smooth as possible.The energy expenditure from the field to the gasifier can be estimated in 22% and 15% of the energy content of the pellets for Lerma and Ecija sites respectively

  9. Does by-catch pose a threat for the conservation of seabird populations in the southern Ionian Sea (eastern Mediterranean? A questionnaire based survey of local fisheries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. KARRIS

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A significant number of studies worldwide have shown that incidental catches (by-catch of seabirds in fishing gear might pose a considerable risk for the conservation of their populations. Nevertheless reliable data on by-catch rates of seabirds in European marine ecosystems are patchy and need to be improved. This study constitutes a first attempt at the evaluation of by-catch rates in the southern Ionian Sea. Data were obtained by distributing a specific questionnaire to the fishers of Zakynthos Island. 150 professional fishers (representing 90% of the local fishing fleet participated in the research, and were interviewed during July-December 2010. The information collected showed that commercial longline and (to a lesser extent gillnet fishery gears caused incidental catches mostly of Scopoli’s Shearwater and Mediterranean Shag. The temporal analysis of the incidental bird mortality showed that seabirds were more susceptible to be trapped in fishery gears set around sunrise during spring and summer whereas spatial analysis of by-catch data indicated variations in the number of seabirds caught in different fishery areas.

  10. Clinical nursing and midwifery research: grey literature in African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, C; Dohrn, J; Omoni, G; Malata, A; Klopper, H; Larson, E

    2016-03-01

    This study reviewed grey literature to assess clinical nursing and midwifery research conducted in southern and eastern African countries over the past decade. The shortage of published nursing research from African countries severely limits the ability of practicing nurses and midwives to base clinical decisions on solid evidence. However, little is known regarding unpublished or unindexed clinical research ('grey literature'), a potentially rich source of information. Identifying these sources may reveal resources to assist nurses in providing evidence-based care. This scoping review of grey literature on clinical nursing and midwifery research in southern and eastern African countries helped to identify gaps in research and assess whether these gaps differ from published research. Systematic searches of grey literature were performed. Research was included if it was conducted by nurses in 1 of 25 southern or eastern African countries, between 2004 and 2014 and included patient outcomes. Data were extracted on location, institution, research topic, institutional connections and author information. Chi-square tests were performed to compare differences between indexed and non-indexed literature. We found 262 studies by 287 authors from 17 southern and eastern African countries covering 13 topics. Although all topics were also found in indexed literature and there were statistically significant differences between the number of times, fewer topics were covered in grey literature vs. indexed. Patient satisfaction and experience and traditional health practices were more likely to be published, whereas chronic disease, assault and paediatric-related research were less often published. Generally, there is a paucity of clinical nursing research in this region. This could reflect the shortage of nurses prepared to conduct research in this region. Nurses may find additional resources for evidence in the grey literature. A complete understanding of the state of nursing

  11. A prospective study of eating away-from-home meals and weight gain in a Mediterranean population: the SUN (Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra) cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bes-Rastrollo, Maira; Basterra-Gortari, Francisco Javier; Sánchez-Villegas, Almudena; Marti, Amelia; Martínez, José Alfredo; Martínez-González, Miguel Angel

    2010-09-01

    The traditional Mediterranean food pattern is more easily preserved when meals are eaten at home; however, as a result of recent socio-economic changes, away-from-home meal consumption has increased rapidly in Mediterranean countries. Little research has been conducted so far to investigate the long-term health effects of these changes in the Mediterranean area. In a prospective Spanish dynamic cohort of 9182 university graduates (the SUN Study; Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra, University of Navarra Follow-up) with a mean age of 37 years, followed up for an average of 4.4 years, we assessed the association between the frequency of eating out of home and weight gain or incident overweight/obesity. Dietary habits were assessed with an FFQ previously validated in Spain. During follow-up, eating-out consumers (two times or more per week) had higher average adjusted weight gain (+129 g/year, P obesity. Eating away-from-home meals was significantly associated with a higher risk of becoming overweight/obese (hazard ratio = 1.33; 95 % CI 1.13, 1.57). A higher frequency of meals eaten out of home may play a role in the current obesity epidemic observed in some Mediterranean countries.

  12. KIDMED TEST; PREVALENCE OF LOW ADHERENCE TO THE MEDITERRANEAN DIET IN CHILDREN AND YOUNG; A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Cabrera, S; Herrera Fernández, N; Rodríguez Hernández, C; Nissensohn, M; Román-Viñas, B; Serra-Majem, L

    2015-12-01

    during the last decades, a quick and important modification of the dietary habits has been observed in the Mediterranean countries, especially among young people. Several authors have evaluated the pattern of adherence to the Mediterranean Diet in this group of population, by using the KIDMED test. the purpose of this study was to evaluate the adherence to the Mediterranean Diet among children and adolescents by using the KIDMED test through a systematic review and meta-analysis. PubMed database was accessed until January 2014. Only cross-sectional studies evaluating children and young people were included. A random effects model was considered. eighteen cross-sectional studies were included. The population age ranged from 2 to 25 years. The total sample included 24 067 people. The overall percentage of high adherence to the Mediterranean Diet was 10% (95% CI 0.07-0.13), while the low adhesion was 21% (IC 95% 0.14 to 0.27). In the low adherence group, further analyses were performed by defined subgroups, finding differences for the age of the population and the geographical area. the results obtained showed important differences between high and low adherence to the Mediterranean Diet levels, although successive subgroup analyzes were performed. There is a clear trend towards the abandonment of the Mediterranean lifestyle. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  13. Variability of mesoscale features in the Mediterranean Sea from XBT data analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Fusco

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available During the period 1998–2000, the Mediterranean Forecasting System Pilot Project, aiming to build a forecasting system for the physical state of the sea, has been carried out. A ship-of-opportunity programme sampled the Mediterranean upper ocean thermal structure by means of eXpendable Bathy-Thermographs (XBTs, along seven tracks, from September 1999 to May 2000. The tracks were designed to detect some of the main circulation features, such as the stream of surface Atlantic water flowing from the Alboran Sea to the Eastern Levantine Basin. The cyclonic gyres in the Liguro-Provenal Basin, the southern Adriatic and Ionian Seas and the anticyclonic gyres in the Levantine Basin were also features to be detected. The monitoring system confirmed a long-term persistence of structures (at least during the entire observing period, which were previously thought to be transient features. In particular, in the Levantine Basin anticyclonic Shikmona and Ierapetra Gyres have been observed during the monitoring period. In order to identify the major changes in the thermal structures and the dynamical implications, the XBT data are compared with historical measurements collected in the 1980s and 1990s. The results indicate that some thermal features are being restored to the situation that existed in the 1980s, after the changes induced by the so-called "Eastern Mediterranean Transient". Key words. Oceanography: physical (eddies and mesoscale processes; general circulation; instruments and techniques

  14. First record of Caulerpa cylindracea (Caulerpaceae, Chlorophyta in Andalusia (Southern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altamirano, María

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Three different species of Caulerpa (Caulerpaceae, Chlorophyta co-occur in the Mediterranean Sea: two of them are found at the central-eastern basin and are typically considered non aggressive components of the Lessepsian flora [(C. chemnitzia(Esper J.V. Lamouroux and C. racemosa var. lamourouxii (Turner Weber-van Bosse f. requienii(Montagne Weber van Bosse]; a third taxon, C. cylindracea Sonder has aggressively expanded its range since its first observation in 1990, and it is nowadays reported from nearly all the Mediterranean countries. We report a population of C. cylindracea from Almería (Andalusia, Southern Iberian Peninsula at −30 m depth as to be the westernmost record of the invasive variety on the Mediterranean European coast. Therefore, we made use of morphological description and molecular phylogenetics to provide a complete identification of this invasive seaweed in Southern Spain. Our findings are discussed in light of the composition of the receptor communities, such as maërl bed, edges of Posidonia oceanica (Linnaeus Delile, and their ecology. Our results confirmed the suggested directionality of the invasive pathway to be westward to the Strait of Gibraltar, mainly supported by sea currents and vectors of anthropogenic origin.En el Mar Mediterráneo se encuentran tres especies diferentes de Caulerpa (Caulerpaceae, Chlorophyta: dos de ellas se localizan en la cuenca centro oriental y se consideran componentes no agresivos de la flora Lessepsiana (C. chemnitzia(Esper J.V. Lamouroux and C. racemosa var. lamourouxii (Turner Weber-van Bosse f. requienii(Montagne Weber van Bosse; un tercer taxon, C. cylindracea Sonder ha expandido de manera agresiva su rango de distribución desde su primera observación en 1990, y actualmente se registra en casi todos los países de la cuenca mediterránea. En este trabajo se informa sobre una población de C. cylindracea en Almería (Andalucía, Sur de España, a −30 m de profundidad, que

  15. Mediterranean Agricultural Soil Conservation under global Change: The MASCC project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raclot, Damien; Ciampalini, Rossano

    2017-04-01

    The MASCC project (2016-2019, http://mascc-project.org) aims to address mitigation and adaptation strategies to global change by assessing current and future development of Mediterranean agricultural soil vulnerability to erosion in relation to projected land use, agricultural practices and climate change. It targets to i) assess the similarities/dissimilarities in dominant factors affecting the current Mediterranean agricultural soil vulnerability by exploring a wide range of Mediterranean contexts; ii) improve the ability to evaluate the impact of extreme events on both the current and projected agricultural soil vulnerability and the sediment delivery at catchment outlet; iii) evaluate the vulnerability and resilience of agricultural production to a combination of potential changes in a wide range of Mediterranean contexts, iv) and provide guidelines on sustainable agricultural conservation strategies adapted to each specific agro-ecosystem and taking into consideration both on- and off-site erosion effects and socio-economics issues. To achieve these objectives, the MASCC project consortium gather researchers from six Mediterranean countries (France, Morocco, Tunisia, Italy, Spain and Portugal) which monitor mid- to long-term environmental catchments and benefit from mutual knowledge created from previous projects and network. The major assets for MASCC are: i) the availability of an unrivalled database on catchment soil erosion and innovative agricultural practices comprising a wide range of Mediterranean contexts, ii) the capacity to better evaluate the impact of extreme events on soil erosion, iii) the expert knowledge of the LANDSOIL model, a catchment-scale integrated approach of the soil-landscape system that enables to simulate both the sediment fluxes at the catchment outlet and the intra-catchment soil evolving properties and iv) the multi-disciplinarity of the involved researchers with an international reputation in the fields of soil science

  16. Overview of the Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment/Aerosol Direct Radiative Forcing on the Mediterranean Climate (ChArMEx/ADRIMED summer 2013 campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mallet

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment (ChArMEx; http://charmex.lsce.ipsl.fr is a collaborative research program federating international activities to investigate Mediterranean regional chemistry-climate interactions. A special observing period (SOP-1a including intensive airborne measurements was performed in the framework of the Aerosol Direct Radiative Impact on the regional climate in the MEDiterranean region (ADRIMED project during the Mediterranean dry season over the western and central Mediterranean basins, with a focus on aerosol-radiation measurements and their modeling. The SOP-1a took place from 11 June to 5 July 2013. Airborne measurements were made by both the ATR-42 and F-20 French research aircraft operated from Sardinia (Italy and instrumented for in situ and remote-sensing measurements, respectively, and by sounding and drifting balloons, launched in Minorca. The experimental setup also involved several ground-based measurement sites on islands including two ground-based reference stations in Corsica and Lampedusa and secondary monitoring sites in Minorca and Sicily. Additional measurements including lidar profiling were also performed on alert during aircraft operations at EARLINET/ACTRIS stations at Granada and Barcelona in Spain, and in southern Italy. Remote-sensing aerosol products from satellites (MSG/SEVIRI, MODIS and from the AERONET/PHOTONS network were also used. Dedicated meso-scale and regional modeling experiments were performed in relation to this observational effort. We provide here an overview of the different surface and aircraft observations deployed during the ChArMEx/ADRIMED period and of associated modeling studies together with an analysis of the synoptic conditions that determined the aerosol emission and transport. Meteorological conditions observed during this campaign (moderate temperatures and southern flows were not favorable to producing high levels of atmospheric pollutants or intense

  17. Multiple recharge processes to heterogeneous Mediterranean coastal aquifers and implications on recharge rates evolution in time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoni, S.; Huneau, F.; Garel, E.; Celle-Jeanton, H.

    2018-04-01

    Climate change is nowadays widely considered to have major effects on groundwater resources. Climatic projections suggest a global increase in evaporation and higher frequency of strong rainfall events especially in Mediterranean context. Since evaporation is synonym of low recharge conditions whereas strong rainfall events are more favourable to recharge in heterogeneous subsurface contexts, a lack of knowledge remains then on the real ongoing and future drinking groundwater supply availability at aquifers scale. Due to low recharge potential and high inter-annual climate variability, this issue is strategic for the Mediterranean hydrosystems. This is especially the case for coastal aquifers because they are exposed to seawater intrusion, sea-level rise and overpumping risks. In this context, recharge processes and rates were investigated in a Mediterranean coastal aquifer with subsurface heterogeneity located in Southern Corsica (France). Aquifer recharge rates from combining ten physical and chemical methods were computed. In addition, hydrochemical and isotopic investigations were carried out through a monthly two years monitoring combining major ions and stable isotopes of water in rain, runoff and groundwater. Diffuse, focused, lateral mountain system and irrigation recharge processes were identified and characterized. A predominant focused recharge conditioned by subsurface heterogeneity is evidenced in agreement with variable but highly favourable recharge rates. The fast water transfer from the surface to the aquifer implied by this recharge process suggests less evaporation, which means higher groundwater renewal and availability in such Mediterranean coastal aquifers.

  18. Fire-induced deforestation in drought-prone Mediterranean forests : drivers and unknowns from leaves to communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karavani, Asaf; Boer, Matthias M.; Baudena, Mara|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/340303867; Colinas, Carlos; Díaz-Sierra, Rubén; Pemán, Jesús; de Luis, Martín; Enríquez-de-Salamanca, Álvaro; Resco de Dios, Víctor

    Over the past 15 years, 3 million hectares of forests have been converted into shrublands or grasslands in the Mediterranean countries of the European Union. Fire and drought are the main drivers underlying this deforestation. Here we present a conceptual framework for the process of fire-induced

  19. Hydrological Modeling in temporary streams: A case study in Pardiela basin, Southern Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    PEDRO, A.; MORAIS, M.; ROSADO, J.; SILVA, H.; SERAFIM, A.; NEVES, R.; BRITO, D.; POTES, M.; SALGADO, R.; LILLEBØ, I.; CHAMBEL, A.

    2011-01-01

    The project “Conservation and rehabilitation strategies for temporary Mediterranean river corridors: a case study on Pardiela basin, southern Portugal (Guadiana basin)", is being carried out,with the collaboration of researchers from diverse scientific areas, in order to increase the knowledge on temporary streams. The project includes different approaches at reach and basin scales, regarding the study of temporal interactions among different ecological components such as climate, morph...

  20. Associations of Mediterranean Diet and a Posteriori Derived Dietary Patterns with Breast and Lung Cancer Risk: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krusinska, Beata; Hawrysz, Iwona; Wadolowska, Lidia; Slowinska, Malgorzata Anna; Biernacki, Maciej; Czerwinska, Anna; Golota, Janusz Jacek

    2018-04-11

    Lung cancer in men and breast cancer in women are the most commonly diagnosed cancers in Poland and worldwide. Results of studies involving dietary patterns (DPs) and breast or lung cancer risk in European countries outside the Mediterranean Sea region are limited and inconclusive. This study aimed to develop a 'Polish-adapted Mediterranean Diet' ('Polish-aMED') score, and then study the associations between the 'Polish-aMED' score and a posteriori -derived dietary patterns with breast or lung cancer risk in adult Poles. This pooled analysis of two case-control studies involved 560 subjects (280 men, 280 women) aged 40-75 years from Northeastern Poland. Diagnoses of breast cancer in 140 women and lung cancer in 140 men were found. The food frequency consumption of 21 selected food groups was collected using a 62-item Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)-6. The 'Polish-adapted Mediterranean Diet' score which included eight items-vegetables, fruit, whole grain, fish, legumes, nuts and seeds-as well as the ratio of vegetable oils to animal fat and red and processed meat was developed (range: 0-8 points). Three DPs were identified in a Principal Component Analysis: 'Prudent', 'Non-healthy', 'Dressings and sweetened-low-fat dairy'. In a multiple logistic regression analysis, two models were created: crude, and adjusted for age, sex, type of cancer, Body Mass Index (BMI), socioeconomic status (SES) index, overall physical activity, smoking status and alcohol abuse. The risk of breast or lung cancer was lower in the average (3-5 points) and high (6-8 points) levels of the 'Polish-aMED' score compared to the low (0-2 points) level by 51% (odds ratio (OR): 0.49; 95% confidence interval (Cl): 0.30-0.80; p Mediterranean diet could be considered for adults living in non-Mediterranean countries for the prevention of the breast or lung cancers. Future studies should explore the role of a traditional Mediterranean diet fitted to local dietary patterns of non-Mediterranean Europeans

  1. Mediterranean Diet and Diabetes: Prevention and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgoulis, Michael; Kontogianni, Meropi D.; Yiannakouris, Nikos

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present review is to examine current scientific knowledge on the association between the Mediterranean diet and diabetes mellitus (mostly type 2 diabetes). A definition of the Mediterranean diet and the tools widely used to evaluate adherence to this traditional diet (Mediterranean diet indices) are briefly presented. The review focuses on epidemiological data linking adherence to the Mediterranean diet with the risk of diabetes development, as well as evidence from interventional studies assessing the effect of the Mediterranean diet on diabetes control and the management of diabetes-related complications. The above mentioned data are explored on the basis of evaluating the Mediterranean diet as a whole dietary pattern, rather than focusing on the effect of its individual components. Possible protective mechanisms of the Mediterranean diet against diabetes are also briefly discussed. PMID:24714352

  2. Trends in socioeconomic inequalities in HIV prevalence among young people in seven countries in eastern and southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargreaves, James R; Davey, Calum; Fearon, Elizabeth; Hensen, Bernadette; Krishnaratne, Shari

    2015-01-01

    In Eastern and Southern Africa, HIV prevalence was highest among higher socioeconomic groups during the 1990s. It has been suggested that this is changing, with HIV prevalence falling among higher-educated groups while stable among lower-educated groups. A multi-country analysis has not been undertaken. We analysed data on socio-demographic factors and HIV infection from 14 nationally representative surveys of adults aged 15-24 (seven countries, two surveys each, 4-8 years apart). Sample sizes ranged from 2,408-12,082 (72,135 total). We used logistic regression to assess gender-stratified associations between highest educational level attended and HIV status in each survey, adjusting for age and urban/rural setting. We tested for interactions with urban/rural setting and age. Our primary hypothesis was that higher education became less of a risk factor for HIV over time. We tested for interaction between survey-year and the education-HIV association in each country and all countries pooled. In Ethiopia and Malawi, HIV prevalence was higher in more educated women in both surveys. In Lesotho, Kenya and Zimbabwe, HIV prevalence was lower in higher educated women in both surveys. In Ethiopia, HIV prevalence fell among no and secondary educated women only (interaction pHIV changed over time (p=0·07). Pooled analysis found little evidence for an interaction between survey year and the education-HIV association among men (p=0·60) or women (p=0·37). The pattern of prevalent HIV infection among young adults by level of education in different sub-Saharan African countries was heterogeneous. There was little statistical evidence that this pattern changed between 2003-5 and 2008-12. Explanations for the social epidemiology of HIV in Africa will need to account for time-trends and inter-country differences.

  3. AIDS Prevention in the Southern African Development Community ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    AIDS Prevention in the Southern African Development Community : Policy Research and Decision Support. The Southern African Development Community (SADC) is at the epicentre of the AIDS pandemic. The regional adult HIV prevalence is approximately 11%, twice the average in other African countries. Scores of ...

  4. Energy Trade in Southern Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, W F.

    1996-01-01

    This document deals with possible energy growth in Southern African countries. This region possesses substantial energy resources (including fossil fuels), but because of political instability, government intervention, financial paralysis and lack of adequate transportation infrastructure, this region faces problems in satisfying energy needs. Two key international actions, namely the South African Development Community (SADC) Energy Protocol and the Southern African Power Pool (SAPP) are expected to enhance energy trade and promote economic development. (TEC)

  5. Are 6-8 year old Italian children moving away from the Mediterranean diet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zani, C; Ceretti, E; Grioni, S; Viola, G C V; Donato, F; Feretti, D; Festa, A; Bonizzoni, S; Bonetti, A; Monarca, S; Villarini, M; Levorato, S; Carducci, A; Verani, M; Casini, B; De Donno, A; Grassi, T; Bagordo, F; Carraro, E; Bonetta, Si; Bonetta, Sa; Gelatti, U

    2016-01-01

    The Mediterranean diet (MD) is considered one of the healthiest dietary models, as it decreases the risk of chronic diseases and may modulate the organism's early response to environmental pollution. In recent decades, Mediterranean countries have been replacing their traditional diet with other less healthy eating habits, especially among children and teenagers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the MD and the level of adherence to it in 6-8 year old Italian children, in relation to residence, lifestyle, and social and family contexts. A questionnaire was administered to the children's parents in two seasons in 5 Italian towns. The diet section contained 116 questions investigating the frequency of consumption of different types of food. The Italian Mediterranean Index (IMI) was calculated according to the intake of 6 typical Mediterranean and 4 non-Mediterranean foods. On the basis of IMI score, MD adherence was classified as low (≤ 3 IMI score), medium (4-5) and high (≥ 6). Total energy load and diet composition in micro- and macronutrients were calculated from consumption frequency. Diet analysis was computed on 1164 subjects with two complete questionnaires. Body mass index, calculated for each subject, showed that 28.9% of the children were overweight, the figure varying slightly with area of residence. Our findings showed that 59.0% of the children had a low score for MD adherence. The results of this study showed that most Italian children did not follow the MD and socio-economic characteristics appeared not to be associated with type of diet.

  6. Erosion and Land Degradation in Mediterranean areas as a adaptive response to Mediterranean agriiculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imeson, Anton

    2014-05-01

    The motivation for this session is the statement or claim that Mediterranean areas are sensitive to erosion and desertification. One result of the LEDDRA Approach, which is applying the Complex Adaptive (CAS)paradigm at study sites in Mediterranean Spain, Greece and Italy is that there is just a single socio-environmental system in which land degradation is being caused by the actions of people and the Mediterranean soils have co-eveolved with people under the influence of fire and grazing. They are therefore resilient, and this was demonstrated by Naveh and Thornes. Also the Medalus field sites showed very low rates of erosion. With examples from different Mediterranean landscapes, it is considered that Mediterranean landscapes went through an initial phase of being sensitive to erosion which ended up with the original soils before ploughing or deforestation, being eroded from most of the areas, In some places these are found. LEDDRA The Leddra approach is to consider different states which are separated by transitions. The first state is that of the deforestaion and destruction of the forest that took place 6000 10000 years ago, in the Eastern and Northern Mediterranean, and 2000 to 4,000 years ago in large areas of the Western Mediterranean, and 100 to 400 years ago in California. Australia, New Zealand and Chile. The second state involves appropriating and settling the land from indigenous people and introducing cattle and sheep and Mediterranean crops. The current state of desertification is one in which erosion occurs because of the use of specific cultivation methods and subsidies for irrigating and producing crops outside of their range. In the Mediterranean landscape State, such as found near Santiago in Chile and in Crete, society gains many cultural benefits from grazing. However, the consequences of this are that the whole ecosystem is maintained in an arid state, so that areas in Crete receiving 800-1100 mm rainfall have a semi arid vegetation, instead

  7. An assessment of landscape changes in Mediterranean region. A case study of Algarve, southern Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Helena; Martins, Fernando; Valín, Maria Isabel; Moreno, Ângela; Pedras, Celestina

    2014-05-01

    Currently, the application of remote sensing techniques is a key factor for the planning and land management to ensure a sustainable development of the regions. Algarve, the most southern region of Portugal is characterized by its Mediterranean climate. This climate is described by irregular precipitation throughout the year with drought during summer months. The regional climate has a profound influence on its particular vegetation and wildlife turning it in a unique habitat for many species. Since the 1970s, increases in tourism have greatly affected the coastal region. This has led to great landscape pressure and urban growth, resulting in population increases due to local economic prosperity. Across Algarve, in recent decades, lawns areas have grown dramatically. Landscape water use has increased mainly because homeowners seldom pay the 'true' cost of water. Continued expansion of water supply is not, therefore, a viable management option in the future, particularly given the anticipated increase in the frequency and severity of droughts in Portugal. There's a need to change the perception of landscape relative to water consumption. Algarve needs a sustainable, 'demand-led' approach to water resource management, focusing on conserving water and using it more efficiently. The water resources available in the Algarve are limited, and decisions regarding sustainability must consider the environment. The aim of this study is to apply the remote sensing techniques to analyse the landscape changes in three municipalities of Algarve (Portugal): Albufeira, Loulé and Faro. The three Landsat images, from April 9th 1973 (Landsat1), March 23th 1989 (Landsat5) and April 26th 2013 (Landsat8) were used. The images were classified based on the radiometric information and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). These range of dates of the Landsat images used allowed for the differentiation between classes of the landscape. Land use and water resources are closely

  8. Mednet: the very broad-band seismic network for the Mediterranean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boschi, E.; Giardini, D.; Morelli, A.

    1991-01-01

    Mednet is the very broad-band seismic network installed by the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica (ING) in countries of the mediterranean area, with a final goal of 12-15 stations and a spacing of about 1000 km between stations. The project started in 1987 and will be completed within 1992. Mednet is motivated both by research interest and by seismic hazard monitoring; it will allow to define the structure of the mediterranean region to a high detail, to study properties of the seismic source for intermediate and large events, and to apply this knowledge to procedures of civil protection. To reach its goals, the network has been designed following the highest technical standards: STS-1/VBB sensors, Quanterra 24 bits A/D converters with 140 dB dynamic range, real-time telemetry. Five sites are now operational in Italy (L'Aquila, Bardonecchia and Villasalto) and in northern african countries (Midelt, Morocco; Gafsa, Tunisia); other sites are under construction in Pakistan (Islamabad), Irak (Rutba) and Egypt (Kottamya), while locations are examined for stations in Greece, Jugoslavia and Algeria. The centre of the mednet network is the data center (MDC) in Rome; its tasks include data collection, verification, quality control, archivial and dissemination, monitoring of station performance, event detection, routine determination of source parameters. Data distribution will follow the guidelines set by FDSN, and will be coordinated with other international network projects

  9. Monitoring the habitat use of common Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus using passive acoustics in a Mediterranean marine protected area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. LA MANNA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean Tursiops truncatus subpopulation has been classified as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List because of its decline. This species in coastal areas is exposed to a wide variety of threats: directed kills, bycatch, reduced prey availability caused by environmental degradation and overfishing, habitat degradation including disturbances from boat traffic and noise. Despite the increase in boat traffic in the Mediterranean Sea, the effect on T. truncatus’ habitat use has been studied in little detail and few data have been published. This study represents the first attempt to characterise spatial and temporal habitat use by T. truncatus and its relation to boat traffic in the Isole Pelagie Marine Protected Area (Italy on the basis of an originally developed passive acoustic monitoring system (PAM. The devices were deployed in 2 areas in the southern waters of Lampedusa, during 2 separate years (2006 and 2009, each time for 3 months (from July to September and in 6 time slots (3 diurnal and 3 nocturnal. Acoustic analysis showed that T. truncatus used the Southern coastal area of Lampedusa independently of the year, primarily during the early summer, a period coinciding with the peak of calving season. Dolphin occurrences appeared independent of boat traffic, with the exception of the smallest temporal scale (time slots: dolphin occurrences were more prevalent during the night when the level of boat traffic was lower. This study provides evidence on T. truncatus habitat use in the Mediterranean Sea and reveals that boat traffic could be one of the factors influencing it, thus stressing the need for further detailed investigation regarding this topic.

  10. Architecture and sustainability in the Mediterranean. The case of the Barcelo

    OpenAIRE

    Sabaté, Joan

    2011-01-01

    LIMA, Low Impact Mediterranean Architecture, is an initiative that aims to demonstrate that reducing environmental impact of buildings in countries with warm climates is viable, both technically and economically. The project, which also improves the comfort and habitability of the building, can be applied to both new works, as well as to rehabilitation. A holistic view of the environmental impact thet we are presenting not only includes energy consumption during the building's period of use, ...

  11. A high-resolution record of the Matuyama-Brunhes transition from the Mediterranean region: The Valle di Manche section (Calabria, Southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macrì, Patrizia; Capraro, Luca; Ferretti, Patrizia; Scarponi, Daniele

    2018-05-01

    High-resolution palaeomagnetic and rock magnetic investigations on the Valle di Manche section (Crotone Basin, Calabria, Southern Italy) provide a detailed record of the Matuyama-Brunhes (M-B) reversal that, to our best knowledge, is the only available record of the last geomagnetic reversal for the Mediterranean on-land marine stratigraphy. The M-B transition can be pinpointed precisely, as it develops within a 3-cm-thick interval located just above a prominent tephra layer (the "Pitagora ash") where the sedimentation rates are about 27 cm/kyr. Demagnetization analyses indicate a stable palaeomagnetic behaviour throughout the section for both normal and reversed polarity directions, with demagnetization vectors aligned toward the origin of Zijderveld diagrams after the removal of a small viscous low-coercivity remanence component. In the lower part of the studied interval, some samples acquired a spurious gyromagnetic remanent magnetization (GRM) during AF demagnetization in high fields. Rock magnetic analyses confirm that magnetite is the main magnetic carrier for all measured specimens, which also have an abundant paramagnetic fraction. Only the lower part of the record, well below the M-B boundary, is characterized by a downward-increasing presence of iron sulphides (greigite). According to our chronology, which is based on a robust, cross-validated age model, the final reverse-to-normal directional change of the M-B transition occurred at ca. 786.9 ± 5 ka (error includes uncertainty in orbital tuning) and was very rapid, of the order of 100 years or less.

  12. Glaciation effects on the phylogeographic structure of Oligoryzomys longicaudatus (Rodentia: Sigmodontinae in the southern Andes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Eduardo Palma

    Full Text Available The long-tailed pygmy rice rat Oligoryzomys longicaudatus (Sigmodontinae, the major reservoir of Hantavirus in Chile and Patagonian Argentina, is widely distributed in the Mediterranean, Temperate and Patagonian Forests of Chile, as well as in adjacent areas in southern Argentina. We used molecular data to evaluate the effects of the last glacial event on the phylogeographic structure of this species. We examined if historical Pleistocene events had affected genetic variation and spatial distribution of this species along its distributional range. We sampled 223 individuals representing 47 localities along the species range, and sequenced the hypervariable domain I of the mtDNA control region. Aligned sequences were analyzed using haplotype network, bayesian population structure and demographic analyses. Analysis of population structure and the haplotype network inferred three genetic clusters along the distribution of O. longicaudatus that mostly agreed with the three major ecogeographic regions in Chile: Mediterranean, Temperate Forests and Patagonian Forests. Bayesian Skyline Plots showed constant population sizes through time in all three clusters followed by an increase after and during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM; between 26,000-13,000 years ago. Neutrality tests and the "g" parameter also suggest that populations of O. longicaudatus experienced demographic expansion across the species entire range. Past climate shifts have influenced population structure and lineage variation of O. longicaudatus. This species remained in refugia areas during Pleistocene times in southern Temperate Forests (and adjacent areas in Patagonia. From these refugia, O. longicaudatus experienced demographic expansions into Patagonian Forests and central Mediterranean Chile using glacial retreats.

  13. Observed and simulated impacts of the summer NAO in Europe: implications for projected drying in the Mediterranean region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blade, Ileana; Fortuny, Didac [Universitat de Barcelona, Facultat de Fisica, Departament d' Astronomia i Meteorologia, Barcelona (Spain); Liebmann, Brant [CIRES Climate Diagnostics Center, NOAA/Earth System Research Laboratory, Boulder, CO (United States); Oldenborgh, Geert Jan van [Royal Dutch Meteorological Institute, De Bilt (Netherlands)

    2012-08-15

    Climate models predict substantial summer precipitation reductions in Europe and the Mediterranean region in the twenty-first century, but the extent to which these models correctly represent the mechanisms of summertime precipitation in this region is uncertain. Here an analysis is conducted to compare the observed and simulated impacts of the dominant large-scale driver of summer rainfall variability in Europe and the Mediterranean, the summer North Atlantic Oscillation (SNAO). The SNAO is defined as the leading mode of July-August sea level pressure variability in the North Atlantic sector. Although the SNAO is weaker and confined to northern latitudes compared to its winter counterpart, with a southern lobe located over the UK, it significantly affects precipitation in the Mediterranean, particularly Italy and the Balkans (correlations of up to 0.6). During high SNAO summers, when strong anticyclonic conditions and suppressed precipitation prevail over the UK, the Mediterranean region instead is anomalously wet. This enhanced precipitation is related to the presence of a strong upper-level trough over the Balkans - part of a hemispheric pattern of anomalies that develops in association with the SNAO - that leads to mid-level cooling and increased potential instability. Neither this downstream extension nor the surface influence of the SNAO is captured in the two CMIP3 models examined (HadCM3 and GFDL-CM2.1), with weak or non-existent correlations between the SNAO and Mediterranean precipitation. Because these models also predict a strong upward SNAO trend in the future, the error in their representation of the SNAO surface signature impacts the projected precipitation trends. In particular, the attendant increase in precipitation that, based on observations, should occur in the Mediterranean and offset some of the non-SNAO related drying does not occur. Furthermore, the fact that neither the observed SNAO nor summer precipitation in Europe/Mediterranean region

  14. Understanding the North Atlantic Oscillation and Its Effects in the Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigo, Ricardo M.; Serrano, Sergio M. Vicente

    2010-11-01

    ESF-MedCLIVAR Workshop on Hydrological, Socioeconomic and Ecological Impacts of the North Atlantic Oscillation in the Mediterranean; Zaragoza, Spain, 24-27 May 2010; According to the latest Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change report, the Mediterranean basin represents one of the most important hot spots of climate change in the world, with recent trends toward a hotter and drier climate being related to changes in atmospheric circulation patterns. Among these patterns the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) is the most important one and the only one that exerts a clear influence throughout the year, although with stronger intensity and extension during winter. In the framework of the European Science Foundation's Mediterranean Climate Variability and Predictability (MedCLIVAR) program (http://www.medclivar.eu/), a thematic workshop devoted to the hydrological, socioeconomic, and ecological impacts of the NAO in the Mediterranean area was held in Spain. The main objective of this 3-day workshop was to foster interaction in this increasingly interdisciplinary topic, in particular, among climatologists, hydrologists, geographers, agronomists, biologists, and other scientists. The workshop was attended by 62 participants from 15 different countries and included a mix of senior scientists and graduate students. The workshop was divided into five sessions focusing on (1) natural hazards, including droughts, severe precipitations, floods, heat waves, and cold spells; (2) vegetation activity and agriculture production; (3) natural ecosystems and environment, including forest dynamics, fisheries, dynamics of animal populations, and air quality; (4) geomorphology, including landslides and debris flows, erosivity mechanisms, and surface erosion processes; and (5) renewable energies production, including hydraulic, eolic, and solar.

  15. Relating ring width of Mediterranean evergreen species to seasonal and annual variations of precipitation and temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijland, W.; Jansma, E.; Addink, E. A.; Domínguez Delmás, M.; de Jong, S. M.

    2011-05-01

    Plant growth in Mediterranean landscapes is limited by the typical summer-dry climate. Forests in these areas are only marginally productive and may be quite susceptible to modern climate change. To improve our understanding of forest sensitivity to annual and seasonal climatic variability, we use tree-ring measurements of two Mediterranean evergreen tree species: Quercus ilex L. and Arbutus unedo L. We sampled 34 stems of these species on three different types of substrates in the Peyne study area in southern France. The resulting chronologies were analysed in combination with 38 yr of monthly precipitation and temperature data to reconstruct the response of stem growth to climatic variability. Results indicate a strong positive response to May and June precipitation, as well as a significant positive influence of early-spring temperatures and a negative growth response to summer heat. Comparison of the data with more detailed productivity measurements in two contrasting years confirms these observations and shows a strong productivity limiting effect of low early-summer precipitation. The results show that tree-ring data from Q.ilex and A.unedo can provide valuable information about the response of these tree species to climate variability, improving our ability to predict the effects of climate change in Mediterranean ecosystems.

  16. Differences in dietary intakes, food sources and determinants of total flavonoids between Mediterranean and non-Mediterranean countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zamora-Ros, Raul; Knaze, Viktoria; Luján-Barroso, Leila

    2013-01-01

    A greater adherence to the traditional Mediterranean (MED) diet is associated with a reduced risk of developing chronic diseases. This dietary pattern is based on higher consumption of plant products that are rich in flavonoids. We compared the total flavonoid dietary intakes, their food sources...

  17. Pattern of seismic deformation in the Western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pondrelli

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The seismic deformation of the Western Mediterranean was studied with the aim of defining the strain pattern that characterizes the Africa-Eurasia plate boundary in this area. Within different sections along the boundary the cumulative moment tensor was computed over 90 years of seismological data. The results were compared with NUVELlA plate motion model and geodetic data. A stable agreement was found along Northern Africa to Sicily, where only Africa and Eurasia plates are involved. In this zone it is evident that changes in the strike of the boundary correspond to variations in the prevailing geometry of deformation, tectonic features and in the percentage of seismic with respect to total expected deformation. The geometry of deformation of periadriatic sections (Central to Southern Apennines, Eastern Alps and the Eastern Adriatic area agrees well with VLBI measurements and with regional geological features. Seismicity seems to account for low rates, from 3% to 31%, of total expected deformation. Only in the Sicily Strait, characterized by extensional to strike slip deformation, does the ratio reach a higher value (79%. If the amount of deformation deduced from seismicity seems low, because 90 years are probably not representative of the recurrence seismic cycle of the Western Mediterranean, the strain pattern we obtain from cumulative moment tensors is more representative of the kinematics of this area than global plate motion models and better identifies lower scale geodynamic features.

  18. Adherence to a Mediterranean diet in a rural Appalachian food desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardin-Fanning, F

    2013-01-01

    with higher incomes. Participants with lower educational levels were more likely to report family members would be hesitant to try a Mediterranean diet. Women were more likely than men to report an understanding of the health impact of certain foods as motivation to adopt and adhere to a Mediterranean diet. Multiple factors were reported as influencing dietary habits in this sample of rural Appalachian residents. Several of the factors reported are amenable to behavioral interventions. Although Appalachia has more residents per square kilometer than the rest of the country, the population density is not uniform across the region. Because many Appalachians live in sparsely populated counties, rurality plays a significant role in factors that affect dietary choice. Interventions that address barriers related to limited knowledge of nutrition, ease of preparation and changing personal habits as well as promote locally available foods, while considering issues specific to a rural population, may lead to sustained dietary changes.

  19. [A lower adherence to Mediterranean diet is associated with a poorer self-rated health in university population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios-Vicedo, Ricardo; Navarrete-Muñoz, Eva Maria; García de la Hera, Manuela; González-Palacios, Sandra; Valera-Gran, Desirée; Checa-Sevilla, José Francisco; Gimenez-Monzo, Daniel; Vioque, Jesús

    2014-09-15

    A higher adherence to Mediterranean diet is considered as a protective factor against the large number of deaths attributable to the main chronic degenerative diseases in developed countries. Self-rated health is established as a good indicator of population health status and as a predictor of mortality. Studies exploring the relationship between the adherence to Mediterranean diet and self-rated health are scarce, especially, in young adults. Our aim was to explore the factors related, specially the adherence to a priori-defined Mediterranean diet with self-rated health in a cohort of Spanish university students. We analyzed data from 1110 participants of Spanish DiSA-UMH (Dieta, Salud y Antropometría en universitarios de la Universidad Miguel Hernández) study. Diet was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire and the adherence to Mediterranean diet was calculated using the relative Mediterranean Diet Score (rMED; score range: 0-18) according to the consumption of 9 dietary components. Self-rated health was gathered from the question: "In general, how do you consider your health to be? (Excellent, good, fair, poor, very poor). Information on sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics was also collected. Multinomial logistic regression (using relative risk ratio, RRR) was used to analyze the association between the adherence to Mediterranean diet (low rMED: 0-6 points; medium: 7-10 points; high: 11-18 points) and self-rated health (Excellent (reference), good and fair/ poor/very poor). A low, medium or high adherence to Mediterranean diet conformed to 26.8%, 58.7% and 14.4% of participants, which of them reported an excellent (23.1%), good (65.1%) and fair/poor or very poor health, respectively. In multivariate analysis, a lower adherence to Mediterranean diet was significantly (p. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of land use change and management on SOC and soil quality in Mediterranean rangelands areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parras-Alcántara, Luis; Lozano-García, Beatriz; Requejo, Ana; Zornoza, Raúl

    2017-04-01

    INTRODUCTION Rangelands in the Iberian Peninsula occupy more than 90,000 km2. These rangelands were created from the former Mediterranean oak forests, mainly composed of holm oak and cork oak (Quercus ilex rotundifolia and Quercus suber), by clear-cutting shrubs, removing selected trees and cultivating. These man-made landscapes are called 'dehesas' in Spain and 'montados' in Portugal. Between 1955 and 1981, more than 5,000 km2 of dehesas was converted from pastureland to cultivated land. This process has been accelerated since 1986 owing to subsidies from the European Common Agricultural Policy (Parras-Alcántara et al., 2015a). The role that natural rangelands play in the global carbon cycle is extremely important, accounting for 10-30% of the world's total soil organic carbon (SOC), in addition, SOC concentration is closely related to soil quality and vegetation productivity (Brevik, 2012). Therefore, to study the land use and management changes is important, particularly in Mediterranean soils, as they are characterized by low organic carbon content, furthermore, the continuous use of ploughing for grain production is the principal cause of soil degradation. Therefore, land use decisions and management systems can increase or decrease SOC content and stock (Corral-Fernández et al., 2013; Parras-Alcántara et al., 2014, 2015a and 2015b; Parras-Alcántara and Lozano-García, 2014) MATERIAL AND METHODS A field study was conducted to determine the land use change (Mediterranean evergreen oak woodland to olive grove and cereal, all of them managed under conventional tillage and under conservationist practices) effects on SOC stocks and the soil quality (Stratification Ratio) in Los Pedroches valley, southern Spain. RESULTS Results for the present study indicate that management practices had little effect on SOC storage in dehesas. The stratification ratio was >2 both under conventional tillage and under organic farming, so, soils under dehesa had high quality

  1. Audouin's gull chicks as bioindicators of mercury pollution at different breeding locations in the western Mediterranean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanpera, Carolina; Moreno, Roci'o; Ruiz, Xavier; Jover, Lluis

    2007-01-01

    Mercury levels of Audouin's gull are amongst the highest for Mediterranean seabirds, and have been mainly attributed to its piscivorous habits in these naturally Hg rich waters. Moreover, two additional factors could enhance its mercury intake: the consumption of discarded fish (which attain higher concentrations) and/or feeding in areas receiving Hg anthropogenic inputs. In order to differentiate the relevance of both sources we analysed Hg and stable isotopes of chick feathers from different breeding locations in western Mediterranean: one in its northern part (Ebro Delta) and two southern (Chafarinas Isl. and Alboran Isl.). The results from stable isotopes indicate that consumption of discards is higher at Alboran Isl., followed by the Ebro Delta and Chafarinas Isl. Thus, the higher mercury levels found in the Ebro Delta cannot be explained uniquely by the contribution of discarded fish to diet, but local pollution caused by the river Ebro waters accounts for Hg differences observed

  2. Abundances of Demersal Sharks and Chimaera from 1994-2009 Scientific Surveys in the Central Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragonese, Sergio; Vitale, Sergio; Dimech, Mark; Mazzola, Salvatore

    2013-01-01

    Bibliographic and data gathered in scientific bottom trawl surveys carried out off the Southern Coasts of Sicily (Mediterranean Sea), from 1994 to 2009 and between a depth of 10 and 800 m, were analysed in order to prepare a checklist of demersal sharks and chimaera, which are species sensitive to fisheries exploitation. Out of the 27 previously reported demersal shark and chimaera taxa in the Mediterranean, only 23 were found in literature and 20 sampled during the surveys in the investigated area. Among the species sampled in the surveys, only 2 ubiquitous ( Squalus blainville and Scyliorhinus canicula ) and 3 deep-water ( Chimaera monstrosa , Centrophorus granulosus and Galeus melastomus ) species showed a wide geographical distribution with a consistent abundance. Excluding the rare (such as Oxynotus centrina ) or uncommon shark (e.g. Squalus acanthias ), the estimated frequencies of occurrence and abundance indexes show a possible risk of local extinction for the almost exclusively (e.g. angelshark, Squatina spp.) or preferential (e.g. Scyliorhinus stellaris ) neritic species. PMID:24086386

  3. Guidelines, "minimal requirements" and standard of care in glioblastoma around the Mediterranean Area: A report from the AROME (Association of Radiotherapy and Oncology of the Mediterranean arEa) Neuro-Oncology working party.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Glioblastoma is the most common and the most lethal primary brain tumor in adults. Although studies are ongoing, the epidemiology of glioblastoma in North Africa (i.e. Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia) remains imperfectly settled and needs to be specified for a better optimization of the neuro-oncology healthcare across the Mediterranean area and in North Africa countries. Over the last years significant therapeutic advances have been accomplished improving survival and quality of life of glioblastoma patients. Indeed, concurrent temozolomide-radiotherapy (temoradiation) and adjuvant temozolomide has been established as the standard of care associated with a survival benefit and a better outcome. Therefore, considering this validated strategy and regarding the means and some other North Africa countries specificities, we decided, under the auspices of AROME (association of radiotherapy and oncology of the Mediterranean area; www.aromecancer.org), a non-profit organization, to organize a dedicated meeting to discuss the standards and elaborate a consensus on the "minimal requirements" adapted to the local resources. Thus, panels of physicians involved in daily multidisciplinary brain tumors management in the two borders of the Mediterranean area have been invited to the AROME neuro-oncology working party. We report here the consensus, established for minimal human and material resources for glioblastoma diagnosis and treatment faced to the standard of care, which should be reached. If the minimal requirements are not reached, the patients should be referred to the closest specialized medical center where at least minimal requirements, or, ideally, the standard of care should be guaranteed to the patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Mediterranean Diet and Diabetes: Prevention and Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Georgoulis, Michael; Kontogianni, Meropi D.; Yiannakouris, Nikos

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present review is to examine current scientific knowledge on the association between the Mediterranean diet and diabetes mellitus (mostly type 2 diabetes). A definition of the Mediterranean diet and the tools widely used to evaluate adherence to this traditional diet (Mediterranean diet indices) are briefly presented. The review focuses on epidemiological data linking adherence to the Mediterranean diet with the risk of diabetes development, as well as evidence from interventi...

  5. East is east and West is west? Management of marine bioinvasions in the Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galil, Bella S.; Marchini, Agnese; Occhipinti-Ambrogi, Anna

    2018-02-01

    At 726 the number of recorded multicellular non indigenous species (NIS) in the Mediterranean Sea is far higher than in other European Seas. Of these, 614 have established populations in the sea. 384 are considered Erythraean NIS, the balance are mostly ship and culture-introductions. In order to effectively implement EU Regulation on the prevention and management of the introduction and spread of invasive NIS and the Marine Strategy Framework Directive in the Mediterranean Sea it is crucial that this priority pathway is appropriately managed. Three potential impediments - incomplete and inaccurate data; unknown impacts; policy mismatch - hinder implementation. Current geographical, taxonomical and impact data gaps will be reduced only by instituting harmonized standards and methodologies for monitoring NIS populations in all countries bordering the Mediterranean Sea, prioritizing bridgehead sites and dispersal hubs. The option of implementing European environmental policies concerning marine NIS in member states alone may seem expedient, but piecemeal protection is futile. Since only 9 of the 23 states bordering the Mediterranean are EU member states, the crucial element for an effective strategy for slowing the influx of NIS is policy coordination with the Regional Sea Convention (Barcelona Convention) to ensure consistency in legal rules, standards and institutional structures to address all major vectors/pathways.

  6. Assessing pollution in a Mediterranean lagoon using acid volatile sulfides and estimations of simultaneously extracted metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaaboub, Noureddine; Helali, Mohamed Amine; Martins, Maria Virgínia Alves; Ennouri, Rym; Béjaoui, Béchir; da Silva, Eduardo Ferreira; El Bour, Monia; Aleya, Lotfi

    2016-11-01

    Bizerte Lagoon is a southern Mediterranean semi-enclosed lagoon with a maximum depth of 12 m. After assessing sediment quality, the authors report on the physicochemical characteristics of the lagoon's surface sediment using SEM (simultaneously extracted metals) and AVS (acid volatile sulfides) as proxies. Biogeochemical tools are used to investigate the environmental disturbance at the water-sediment interface by means of SEM and AVS to seek conclusions concerning the study area's pollution status. Results confirm accumulation of trace elements in sediment. The use of the SEM-AVS model with organic matter in sediment (ƒOC) confirms possible bioavailability of accumulated trace elements, especially Zn, in the southern part of the lagoon, with organic matter playing an important role in SEM excess correction to affirm a nontoxic total metal sediment state. Individual trace element toxicity is dependent on the bioavailable fraction of SEM Metal on sediment, as is the influence of lagoon inflow from southern water sources on element bioavailability. Appropriate management strategies are highly recommended to mitigate any potential harmful effects on health from this heavy-metal-based pollution.

  7. Mediterranean diet and low-grade subclinical inflammation: the Moli-sani study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaccio, Marialaura; Cerletti, Chiara; Iacoviello, Licia; de Gaetano, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Low-grade chronic inflammation is an underlying pathophysiological mechanism linking risk factors and/or metabolic disorders to increased risk of chronic degenerative disease. A meat-based pattern, as the Western type diet, is positively linked to higher levels of some important biomarkers of inflammation, such as C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 and fibrinogen. Conversely, a Mediterranean-like eating behavior is associated with lower degree of these biomarkers thus suggesting an anti-inflammatory action of its main food components. This chapter goes through the most important investigations addressing the relationship between dietary habits and subclinical inflammation. Attention was focussed on the findings from the Moli-sani study: this is a large prospective cohort study that recruited 24,325 men and women from the general population of the Molise Region, a Southern Italian area, with the aim of investigating genetic and environmental risk/protection factors for cardiovascular and tumor disease. For the first time, the Moli-sani study carefully investigated the Mediterranean diet as an environmental determinant of both platelet and white blood cell counts, starting from the hypothesis that a diet rich in healthy compounds could favorably influence the production and/or the clearance of these two cellular biomarkers of lowgrade inflammation. Additionally, evidence from this large Italian cohort showed that a Mediterranean-like diet was closely associated with relatively lower values of glucose, lipids, CRP, blood pressure and 10-year cardiovascular risk, while the consumption of healthy foods with high rather than low content in antioxidant vitamins and phytochemicals was associated with lower blood pressure and CRP plasma levels at least in men.

  8. Scenarios in the development of Mediterranean cyclones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Romem

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean is one of the most cyclogenetic regions in the world. The cyclones are concentrated along its northern coasts and their tracks are oriented more or less west-east, with several secondary tracks connecting them to Europe and to North Africa. The aim of this study is to examine scenarios in the development of Mediterranean cyclones, based on five selected winter seasons (October–March. We detected the cyclones subjectively using 6-hourly Sea-Level Pressure maps, based on the NCAR/NCEP reanalysis archive.

    HMSO (1962 has shown that most Mediterranean cyclones (58% enter the Mediterranean from the Atlantic Ocean (through Biscay and Gibraltar, and from the south-west, the Sahara Desert, while the rest are formed in the Mediterranean Basin itself. Our study revealed that only 13% of the cyclones entered the Mediterranean, while 87% were generated in the Mediterranean Basin. The entering cyclones originate in three different regions: the Sahara Desert (6%, the Atlantic Ocean (4%, and Western Europe (3%.

    The cyclones formed within the Mediterranean Basin were found to generate under the influence of external cyclonic systems, i.e. as "daughter cyclones" to "parent cyclones" or troughs. These parent systems are located in three regions: Europe (61%, North Africa and the Red Sea (34.5% and the Mediterranean Basin itself (4.5%. The study presents scenarios in the development of Mediterranean cyclones during the winter season, emphasizing the cyclogenesis under the influence of various external forcing.

    The large difference with respect to the findings of HMSO (1962 is partly explained by the dominance of spring cyclones generating in the Sahara Desert, especially in April and May that were not included in our study period.

  9. Results from a multicentre international registry of familial Mediterranean fever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ozen, Seza; Demirkaya, Erkan; Amaryan, Gayane

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is an autoinflammatory disease caused by mutations of the MEFV gene. We analyse the impact of ethnic, environmental and genetic factors on the severity of disease presentation in a large international registry. METHODS: Demographic, genetic....../year and more frequent arthritis, pericarditis, chest pain, abdominal pain and vomiting compared to the other two groups. Multivariate analysis showed that the variables independently associated with severity of disease presentation were country of residence, presence of M694V mutation and positive family...

  10. Anthropogenic impact on environmental filamentous fungi communities along the Mediterranean littoral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Yasiri, Mohammed Hashim; Normand, Anne-Cécile; Mauffrey, Jean-François; Ranque, Stéphane

    2017-07-01

    We hypothesised that anthropogenic influences impact the filamentous fungi community structure and that particular species or species patterns might serve as markers to characterise ecosystems. This study aimed to describe the filamentous fungi community structure in various biotopes along the Mediterranean shore that were exposed to various levels of anthropogenic influence. We sampled filamentous fungi from yellow-legged gull faecal samples at five study sites along the Mediterranean littoral in southern France. The sites were characterised by variable anthropogenic influence, ranging from building rooftops in two cities to a natural reserve. The sites also included two suburban ecoclines, one of which was exposed to sewer pollution. Filamentous fungal colonies were quantified and identified via MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Interestingly, we found that both fungal diversity and abundance were low in urban areas compared with suburban ecocline or environments little affected by anthropogenic influence. Furthermore, some fungal species were clearly associated with particular environments. In particular, Mucor circinelloides was associated with a natural environment with little anthropogenic impact and distant from human settlements. Whereas, Scedosporium apiospermum was associated with an ecocline polluted by sewage. Our findings indicate that particular fungal species or species combination might be used as surrogate markers of ecosystems exposed to anthropogenic pollution. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Distribution patterns of fish assemblages in an Eastern Mediterranean intermittent river

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vardakas L.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution patterns of fish assemblages within streams can provide insights for river type classifications and may warrant specific conservation actions. However, there is limited knowledge of how fish assemblages assort along a longitudinal axis in Mediterranean intermittent streams. Patterns in spatial and temporal distribution of fish communities were analysed in a Mediterranean intermittent river (Evrotas River located in Southern Greece, hosting three endemic range restricted species of high conservation concern, during the period 2007−2009, with 80% of the river’s total length desiccating in the 2007 and 2008 droughts. The general trend was an increase in fish density and species richness along an upstream-downstream gradient. Fish assemblages from upstream to downstream were characterized by a decrease of the most rheophilic species (Squalius keadicus and an increase of the most stagnophilic species (Tropidophoxinellus spartiaticus. Three river segments, characterized by a high degree of homogeneity were delineated. Habitat and environmental preferences for the studied fish species were identified, with elevation and low flowing habitats being the most important environmental factors affecting fish distribution patterns. The current study provides evidence that even in an intermittent river an assemblage pattern following a longitudinal gradient can be identified, mainly due to the lack of instream barriers that allows recolonization after flow resumption.

  12. Effects of drought season length on live moisture content dynamic in Mediterranean shrubs: 8 years of data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellizzaro, Grazia; Ventura, Andrea; Bortolu, Sara; Duce, Pierpaolo

    2017-04-01

    Mediterranean shrubs are an important component of Mediterranean vegetation communities. In this kind of vegetation, live fuel is a relevant component of the available fuel which catches fire and, consequently, its water content plays an important role in determining fire occurrence and spread. In live plant, water content patterns are related to both environmental conditions (e.g. meteorological variables, soil water availability) and ecophysiological characteristics of the plant species. According to projections on future climate, an increase in risk of summer droughts is likely to take place in Southern Europe. More prolonged drought seasons induced by climatic changes are likely to influence general flammability characteristics of fuel. In addition, variations in precipitation and mean temperature could directly affect fuel water status and length of critical periods of high ignition danger for Mediterranean ecosystems. The aims of this work were to analyse the influence of both weather seasonality and inter-annual weather variability on live fuel moisture content within and among some common Mediterranean species, and to investigate the effects of prolonged drought season on live moisture content dynamic. The study was carried out in North Sardinia (Italy). Measurements of LFMC seasonal pattern of two really common and flammable Mediterranean shrub species (Cistus monspeliensis and Rosmarinus officinalis) were performed periodically for 8 years. Meteorological variables were also recorded. Relationships between live fuel moisture content and environmental conditions (i.e. rainfall, air temperature and soil moisture) were investigated and effects of different lengths of drought season on LFMC pattern were analysed. Results showed that distribution and amount of rainfall affected seasonal variation of live fuel moisture content. In particular more prolonged drought seasons caused a longer period in which LFMC was below 95 -100% that is commonly considered as

  13. Last Glacial vegetation and climate change in the southern Levant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miebach, Andrea; Chen, Chunzhu; Litt, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Reconstructing past climatic and environmental conditions is a key task for understanding the history of modern mankind. The interaction between environmental change and migration processes of the modern Homo sapiens from its source area in Africa into Europe is still poorly understood. The principal corridor of the first human dispersal into Europe and also later migration dynamics crossed the Middle East. Therefore, the southern Levant is a key area to investigate the paleoenvironment during times of human migration. In this sense, the Last Glacial (MIS 4-2) is particularly interesting to investigate for two reasons. Firstly, secondary expansions of the modern Homo sapiens are expected to occur during this period. Secondly, there are ongoing discussions on the environmental conditions causing the prominent lake level high stand of Lake Lisan, the precursor of the Dead Sea. This high stand even culminated in the merging of Lake Lisan and Lake Kinneret (Sea of Galilee). To provide an independent proxy for paleoenvironmental reconstructions in the southern Levant during the Last Glacial, we investigated pollen assemblages of the Dead Sea/Lake Lisan and Lake Kinneret. Located at the Dead Sea Transform, the freshwater Lake Kinneret is nowadays connected via the Jordan with the hypersaline Dead Sea, which occupies Earth's lowest elevation on land. The southern Levant is a transition area of three different vegetation types. Therefore, also small changes in the climate conditions effect the vegetation and can be registered in the pollen assemblage. In contrast to the Holocene, our preliminary results suggest another vegetation pattern during the Last Glacial. The vegetation belt of the fragile Mediterranean biome did no longer exist in the vicinity of Lake Kinneret. Moreover, the vegetation was rather similar in the whole study area. A steppe vegetation with dwarf shrubs, herbs, and grasses predominated. Thermophilous elements like oaks occurred in limited amounts. The

  14. Trends in socioeconomic inequalities in HIV prevalence among young people in seven countries in eastern and southern Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R Hargreaves

    Full Text Available In Eastern and Southern Africa, HIV prevalence was highest among higher socioeconomic groups during the 1990s. It has been suggested that this is changing, with HIV prevalence falling among higher-educated groups while stable among lower-educated groups. A multi-country analysis has not been undertaken.We analysed data on socio-demographic factors and HIV infection from 14 nationally representative surveys of adults aged 15-24 (seven countries, two surveys each, 4-8 years apart. Sample sizes ranged from 2,408-12,082 (72,135 total. We used logistic regression to assess gender-stratified associations between highest educational level attended and HIV status in each survey, adjusting for age and urban/rural setting. We tested for interactions with urban/rural setting and age. Our primary hypothesis was that higher education became less of a risk factor for HIV over time. We tested for interaction between survey-year and the education-HIV association in each country and all countries pooled.In Ethiopia and Malawi, HIV prevalence was higher in more educated women in both surveys. In Lesotho, Kenya and Zimbabwe, HIV prevalence was lower in higher educated women in both surveys. In Ethiopia, HIV prevalence fell among no and secondary educated women only (interaction p<0·01. Only among young men in Tanzania there was some evidence that the association between education and HIV changed over time (p=0·07. Pooled analysis found little evidence for an interaction between survey year and the education-HIV association among men (p=0·60 or women (p=0·37.The pattern of prevalent HIV infection among young adults by level of education in different sub-Saharan African countries was heterogeneous. There was little statistical evidence that this pattern changed between 2003-5 and 2008-12. Explanations for the social epidemiology of HIV in Africa will need to account for time-trends and inter-country differences.

  15. Climate Local Information over the Mediterranean to Respond User Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruti, P.

    2012-12-01

    CLIM-RUN aims at developing a protocol for applying new methodologies and improved modeling and downscaling tools for the provision of adequate climate information at regional to local scale that is relevant to and usable by different sectors of society (policymakers, industry, cities, etc.). Differently from current approaches, CLIM-RUN will develop a bottom-up protocol directly involving stakeholders early in the process with the aim of identifying well defined needs at the regional to local scale. The improved modeling and downscaling tools will then be used to optimally respond to these specific needs. The protocol is assessed by application to relevant case studies involving interdependent sectors, primarily tourism and energy, and natural hazards (wild fires) for representative target areas (mountainous regions, coastal areas, islands). The region of interest for the project is the Greater Mediterranean area, which is particularly important for two reasons. First, the Mediterranean is a recognized climate change hot-spot, i.e. a region particularly sensitive and vulnerable to global warming. Second, while a number of countries in Central and Northern Europe have already in place well developed climate service networks (e.g. the United Kingdom and Germany), no such network is available in the Mediterranean. CLIM-RUN is thus also intended to provide the seed for the formation of a Mediterranean basin-side climate service network which would eventually converge into a pan-European network. The general time horizon of interest for the project is the future period 2010-2050, a time horizon that encompasses the contributions of both inter-decadal variability and greenhouse-forced climate change. In particular, this time horizon places CLIM-RUN within the context of a new emerging area of research, that of decadal prediction, which will provide a strong potential for novel research.

  16. A practical, efficient and low cost diet for rearing the Mediterranean fruit fly larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manoukas, A.G.; Zografou, E.N.

    2000-01-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata Wied. (Diptera: Tephritidae), has been artificially reared and used for the application of the sterile insect technique and other purposes, throughout the world. The larval diet used is rather expensive and it is mixed in the rearing facility. The most expensive ingredient used in this diet is yeast which is variable in composition and has a relatively short shelf life due mainly to its high nutritional value. This is particularly true for all countries like Greece which do not manufacture brewer's yeast. Also, it is widely known that the Mediterranean fruit fly larvae grow in a wide variety of fruits and artificial diets. These fruits and artificial diets, although very different in chemical/nutritional as well as physical/ecological parameters, are successfully tolerated and utilised by the larvae. These observations prompted the initiation of research into diets containing a variety of low cost ingredients widely used in the vertebrate feed industry and easily found in any country. To our knowledge, no one has tested complete diets produced by well-established feed manufacturers for larval rearing of this insect

  17. Long term impact of organic amendments on forest soil properties under semiarid Mediterranean climatic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueso González, Paloma; Francisco Martinez Murillo, Juan; Damian Ruiz Sinoga, Jose

    2017-04-01

    Soil degradation affects more than 52 million ha of land in countries of the European Union (Hueso-González et al., 2016). This problema is particularly serious in Mediterranean areas, where the effects of anthropogenic activities (tillage on slopes, deforestation, and pasture production) add to problems caused by prolonged periods of drought and intense and irregular rainfall (Martínez-Murillo et al., 2016). Depending on the scale of study, soil organic carbón (SOC) dynamics in Mediterranean forests have been found to be particularly sensitive to factors related to seasonal changes in temperature and soil moisture (Casals et al., 2000; Eaton et al., 2008; Hueso-González et al., 2014). During dry periods in theMediterranean area, the lack of water entering the soil matrix reduces organic contributions to the soil (Parras-Alcántara et al., 2016). These processes lead to reduced soil fertility and soil loss (García-Orenes et al., 2010). Restoring the native vegetation is one of the most effective ways to control soil degradation in Mediterranean areas, especially in very degraded areas. In the initial months after afforestation, vegetation cover establishment and soil quality could be better sustained if the soil was amended with an external extra source of organic matter (Hueso-González et al., 2016). The goal of this study was to test the effect of various organic amendments on select soil properties over a 54-month period. Five amendments were applied in an experimental set of plots: straw mulching (SM), mulch with chipped branches of Aleppo Pine (Pinus halepensis L.; PM), sheep manure compost (SH), hydroabsorbent polymers (HP) and sewage sludge (RU). Plots were afforested following the same spatial pattern, and amendments were mixed with the soil at the rate 10Mg ha-1. Soil from the afforested plots was sampled in the following: (i) spring 2012 (6 months postafforestation); (ii) spring 2013(18 months postafforestation); (iii) spring 2014 (30 months

  18. [Dog tourism and import: an inquiry in Germany on the extent as well as on the spectrum and preference of countries of residence and origin respectively].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, B; Gothe, R

    1998-05-01

    A survey was conducted among practicing veterinarians and at pet clinics in Germany in order to estimate the extent of tourism with dogs and import of dogs and to determine the range and preference of the foreign countries involved. The survey covered the years from 1985 to 1995 and included 5240 dogs, of which 4567 (87.2%) were born in Germany and 673 (12.8%) were born abroad. Among the latter, 263 (39.1%) originated from Mediterranean countries and Portugal, 344 (51.1%) were born in other European countries and 66 (9.8%) were from non-European countries. Of all 5240 dogs surveyed, 2894 (55.2%) had been taken abroad at least once between 1985 and 1995. Of these, 2424 (53.1%) were born in Germany, 470 (69.8%) were born abroad. Of the 2894 dogs taken abroad, 1929 (66.7%) travelled to Mediterranean countries or Portugal and 1152 of these had additional travels to other countries as well. The spectrum of all countries travelled to was very broad, but numerous dogs were taken regularly, repeatedly and exclusively to Austria, Switzerland, Italy, Spain or France. Other countries were visited only once for the majority of dogs. The analysis of the annual survey data revealed a steady increase of dogs along on trips from Germany to other countries, rising from 31.1% in 1990 to 40.8% in 1994. In any of these years, always more than 56% of these dogs were taken to Mediterranean countries.

  19. Immunohistochemical localization of CYP1A, vitellogenin and Zona radiata proteins in the liver of swordfish (Xiphias gladius L.) taken from the Mediterranean Sea, South Atlantic, South Western Indian and Central North Pacific Oceans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desantis, S.; Corriero, A.; Cirillo, F.; Deflorio, M.; Brill, R.; Griffiths, M.; Lopata, A.L.; Serna, J.M. de la; Bridges, C.R.; Kime, D.E.; De Metrio, G.

    2005-01-01

    Cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) monoxygenase, vitellogenin (Vtg) and Zona radiata proteins (Zrp) are frequently used as biomarkers of fish exposure to organic contaminants. In this work, swordfish liver sections obtained from the Mediterranean Sea, the South African coasts (South Atlantic and South Western Indian Oceans) and the Central North Pacific Ocean were immunostained with antisera against CYP1A, Zrp, and Vtg. CYP1A induction was found in hepatocytes, epithelium of the biliary ductus and the endothelium of large blood vessels of fish from the Mediterranean Sea and South African waters, but not from the Pacific Ocean. Zrp and Vtg were immunolocalized in hepatocytes of male swordfish from the Mediterranean Sea and from South African waters. Plasma Dot-Blot analysis, performed in Mediterranean and Pacific specimens, revealed the presence of Zrp and Vtg in males from Mediterranean but not from Pacific. These results confirm previous findings about the potential exposure of Mediterranean swordfish to endocrine, disrupting chemicals and raise questions concerning the possible presence of xenobiotic contaminants off the Southern coasts of South Africa in both the South Atlantic and South Western Indian Oceans

  20. Human resources for health planning and management in the Eastern Mediterranean region: facts, gaps and forward thinking for research and policy

    OpenAIRE

    El-Jardali, Fadi; Jamal, Diana; Abdallah, Ahmad; Kassak, Kassem

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background The early decades of the 21st century are considered to be the era of human resources for health (HRH). The World Health Report (WHR) 2006 launched the Health Workforce Decade (2006–2015), with high priority given for countries to develop effective workforce policies and strategies. In many countries in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR), particularly those classified as Low and Low-Middle Income Countries (LMICs), the limited knowledge about the nature, scope, composi...

  1. Summertime mid-to-upper tropospheric nitrous oxide over the Mediterranean as a footprint of Indian emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangah, Yannick; Ricaud, Philippe; Attié, Jean-Luc; Saitoh, Naoko; Hauglustaine, Didier; El Amraoui, Laaziz; Zbinden, Regina; Delon, Claire

    2016-04-01

    We used global scale thermal infrared measurements of mid-to-upper tropospheric nitrous oxide (N2O) from the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) and outputs from the 3D Chemical Transport Model LMDz-OR-INCA to assess the impact of the Indian subcontinent N2O emissions on the N2O field over the eastern Mediterranean Basin (MB) during summer. The use of nitrogen fertilizer coupled with high soil humidity during summer monsoon period produce high emissions of N2O in many south Asian countries and especially the Indian subcontinent. N2O is transported to the upper troposphere by updrafts associated to the monsoon and redistributed westward to the eastern Mediterranean via the Asian Monsoon Anticyclone. This summertime (June-July-August) enrichment in N2O in the eastern Mediterranean produces a maximum in the east-west difference of MB mid-to-upper tropospheric N2O anomaly representative for the period 2010-2013 with a maximum in July and a peak-to-peak amplitude of ~1.0 ± 0.3 ppbv observed by GOSAT consistently with LMDz-OR-INCA but less intense (~0.5 ppbv). This summertime enrichment of N2O over the eastern Mediterranean is consistent with the increase of the surface emissions and the convective precipitations over the Indian subcontinent during the summer monsoon period. N2O over the eastern Mediterranean can therefore be considered as a footprint of Indian summertime emissions.

  2. Distribution of aliphatic hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and organochlorinated pollutants in deep-sea sediments of the Southern Cretan margin, Eastern Mediterranean Sea: a baseline assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandalakis, Manolis; Polymenakou, Paraskevi N; Tselepides, Anastasios; Lampadariou, Nikolaos

    2014-07-01

    Deep sediments from the southern Cretan margin were analyzed to establish baseline levels for various types of organic pollutants before the anticipated intensification of anthropogenic activities. The total concentration of aliphatic hydrocarbons (ΣAH:326-3758ngg(-1), dry weight) was similar to those reported for deep sediments of the western Mediterranean Sea, while considerably lower levels were measured for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (ΣPAH:9-60ngg(-1)). Source-diagnostic ratios suggested that the aliphatic hydrocarbons in sediments were mainly of terrestrial biogenic origin, while polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons stemmed from the deposition of long-range transported combustion aerosols. Among the organochlorinated compounds analyzed, β-hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH:222-7052pgg(-1)), 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (p,p'-DDT:37-2236pgg(-1)) and polychlorinated biphenyls (ΣPCB:38-1182pgg(-1)) showed the highest abundance in sediments. The presence of HCHs and PCBs was attributed to historical inputs that have undergone extensive weathering, whereas an ongoing fresh input was suggested for p,p'-DDT. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that the levels of the various pollutants in sediments were controlled by different factors, but with organic carbon content playing a prominent role in most cases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The building of a biodiversity hotspot across a land-bridge in the Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Venegas, Rafael; Aparicio, Abelardo; Lavergne, Sébastien; Arroyo, Juan

    2015-08-22

    Many of the macroevolutionary processes that have shaped present-day phylogenetic patterns were caused by geological events such as plate tectonics and temporary land-bridges. The study of spatial patterns of phylogenetic diversity can provide insights into these past events. Here we focus on a western Mediterranean biodiversity hotspot located in the southern Iberian Peninsula and northwest Africa, two regions that are separated by the Strait of Gibraltar. We explore the spatial structure of the phylogenetic relationships within and across large-scale plant assemblages. Significant turnover in terminal lineages tends to occur between landmasses, whereas turnover in deep lineages tends to occur within landmasses. Plant assemblages in the western ecoregions of this hotspot tend to be phylogenetically overdispersed but are phylogenetically clustered on its eastern margins. We discuss our results in the light of potential scenarios of niche evolution (or conservatism) and lineage diversification. The significant turnover between landmasses suggests a common scenario of allopatric speciation that could have been facilitated by the intermittent joining of the two continents. This may have constituted an important stimulus for diversification and the emergence of this western Mediterranean biodiversity hotspot. © 2015 The Author(s).

  4. Climate Data Homogenization and its Impact on Heatwave Changes in the Eastern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuglitsch, F. G.; Toreti, A.; Xoplaki, E.; Della-Marta, P. M.; Zerefos, C. S.; Turkes, M.; Luterbacher, J.

    2010-12-01

    Heatwaves have discernible impacts on mortality and morbidity, infrastructure, agricultural resources, the retail industry, ecosystem and tourism and consequently affect human societies. A new definition of socially relevant heatwaves is presented and applied to new data sets of high-quality homogenized daily maximum and minimum summer air temperature series from 246 stations in the eastern Mediterranean region (including Albania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Greece, Israel, Romania, Serbia, Slovenia, Turkey). Changes in heatwave number, length and intensity between 1960 and 2006 are quantified before and after data homogenization. Daily temperature homogeneity analyses suggest that many instrumental measurements in the 1960s are warm-biased, correcting for these biases regionally averaged heatwave trends are up to 8% higher. We find significant changes across the western Balkans, southwestern and western Turkey, and along the southern Black Sea coastline. Since the 1960s, the mean heatwave intensity, heatwave length and heatwave number across the eastern Mediterranean region have increased by a factor of 7.6 ± 1.3, 7.5 ± 1.3 and 6.2 ± 1.1, respectively. These findings suggest that the heatwave increase in this region is higher than previously reported.

  5. Cardiac manifestations of Familial Mediterranean fever

    OpenAIRE

    Alsarah, Ahmad; Alsara, Osama; Laird-Fick, Heather S.

    2017-01-01

    Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is autoinflammatory disorder characterized by sporadic attacks of fever, peritonitis, pleuritis, and arthritis. It is mainly seen in patients from Mediterranean origins, but it is now reported more frequently in Europe and North America due to immigration. To analyze the data on the cardiovascular manifestations in FMF patients, we searched PubMed using the terms “Familial Mediterranean Fever” or “FMF” in combination with other key words including “cardiovas...

  6. Mediterranean Diet and cancer risk: an open issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessandro, Annunziata; De Pergola, Giovanni; Silvestris, Franco

    2016-09-01

    The traditional Mediterranean Diet of the early 1960s meets the characteristics of an anticancer diet defined by the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AIRC). A diet rich of whole grains, pulses, vegetables and fruits, limited in high-calorie foods (foods high in sugar or fat), red meat and foods high in salt, without sugary drinks and processed meat is recommended by the WCRF/AIRC experts to reduce the risk of cancer. The aim of this review was to examine whether Mediterranean Diet is protective or not against cancer risk. Three meta-analyses of cohort studies reported that a high adherence to the Mediterranean Diet significantly reduces the risk of cancer incidence and/or mortality. Nevertheless, the Mediterranean dietary pattern defined in the studies' part of the meta-analyses has qualitative and/or quantitative differences compared to the Mediterranean Diet of the early 1960s. Therefore, the protective role of the Mediterranean Diet against cancer has not definitely been established. In epidemiological studies, a universal definition of the Mediterranean Diet, possibly the traditional Mediterranean Diet of the early 1960s, could be useful to understand the role of this dietary pattern in cancer prevention.

  7. Using Mediterranean shrubs for the phytoremediation of a soil impacted by pyritic wastes in Southern Spain: a field experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Jiménez, Eduardo; Vázquez, Saúl; Carpena-Ruiz, Ramón O; Esteban, Elvira; Peñalosa, Jesús M

    2011-06-01

    Re-vegetation is the main aim of ecological restoration projects, and in Mediterranean environments native plants are desirable to achieve successful restoration. In 1998, the burst of a tailings dam flooded the Guadiamar river valley downstream from Aznalcóllar (Southern Spain) with sludges that contained elevated concentrations of metals and metalloids, polluting soils and waters. A phytoremediation experiment to assess the potential use of native shrub species for the restoration of soils affected by the spillage was performed from 2005 to 2007, with soils divided into two groups: pH  5. Four native shrubs (Myrtus communis, Retama sphaerocarpa, Rosmarinus officinalis and Tamarix gallica) were planted and left to grow without intervention. Trace element concentrations in soils and plants, their extractability in soils, transfer factors and plant survival were used to identify the most-interesting species for phytoremediation. Total As was higher in soils with pH soils, but arsenic was extracted more efficiently when soil pH was >5. Unlike As, which was either fixed by Fe oxides or retained as sulphide, the extractable metals showed significant relationships with the corresponding total soil metal concentration and inverse relationships with soil pH. T. gallica, R. officinalis and R. sphaerocarpa survived better in soils with pH > 5, while M. communis had better survival at pH soils. Trace element transfer from soil to harvestable parts was low for all species and elements, and some species may have been able to decrease trace element availability in the soil. Our results suggest that R. sphaerocarpa is an adequate plant species for phytostabilising these soils, although more research is needed to address the self-sustainability of this remediation technique and the associated environmental changes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Origin and distribution of hydrocarbons and organic matter in the surficial sediments of the Sfax-Kerkennah channel (Tunisia, Southern Mediterranean Sea)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaghden, Hatem; Tedetti, Marc; Sayadi, Sami; Serbaji, Mohamed Moncef; Elleuch, Boubaker; Saliot, Alain

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the origin and distribution of aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (AHs and PAHs) and organic matter (OM) in surficial sediments of the Sfax-Kerkennah channel in the Gulf of Gabès (Tunisia, Southern Mediterranean Sea). TOC, AH and PAH concentrations ranged 2.3–11.7%, 8–174 μg g −1 sed. dw and 175–10,769 ng g −1 sed. dw, respectively. The lowest concentrations were recorded in the channel (medium sand sediment) and the highest ones in the Sfax harbor (very fine sand sediment). AHs, PAHs and TOC were not correlated for most of the stations. TOC/N and δ 13 C values revealed a mixed origin of OM with both marine and terrestrial sources. Hydrocarbon molecular composition highlighted the dominance of petrogenic AHs and the presence of both petrogenic and pyrogenic PAHs, associated with petroleum products and combustion processes. This work underscores the complex distribution patterns and the multiple sources of OM and hydrocarbons in this highly anthropogenized coastal environment. - Highlights: • TOC, AHs and PAHs ranged 2–12%, 8–174 μg g −1 sed. dw and 175–10,769 ng g −1 sed. dw. • Lowest concentrations in the Sfax-Kerkennah channel, highest ones in the Sfax harbor • Decoupling between TOC, AH and PAH contents • TOC/N and δ 13 C values revealed a mixed origin of OM with marine and terrestrial sources. • Dominance of petrogenic AHs and presence of both petrogenic and pyrogenic PAHs

  9. Origin and pathways of Winter Intermediate Water in the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea using observations and numerical simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juza, Mélanie; Renault, Lionel; Ruiz, Simon; Tintoré, Joaquin

    2013-12-01

    The study of water masses worldwide (their formation, spreading, mixing, and impact on general circulation) is essential for a better understanding of the ocean circulation and variability. In this paper, the formation and main pathways of Winter Intermediate Water (WIW) in the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea (NWMED) are investigated during the winter-spring 2011 using observations and numerical simulation. The main results show that the WIW, formed along the continental shelves of the Gulf of Lion and Balearic Sea, circulates southward following five preferential pathways depending on the WIW formation site location and the oceanic conditions. WIW joins the northeastern part of the Balearic Sea, or flows along the continental shelves until joining the Balearic Current (maximum of 0.33 Sv in early-April) or further south until the Ibiza Channel entrance. Two additional trajectories, contributing to water mass exchanges with the southern part of the Western Mediterranean Sea, bring the WIW through the Ibiza and Mallorca Channels (maxima of 0.26 Sv in late-March and 0.1 Sv in early-April, respectively). The circulation of WIW over the NWMED at 50-200 m depth, its mixing and spreading over the Western Mediterranean Sea (reaching the south of the Balearic Islands, the Algero-Provencal basin, the Ligurian and the Alboran Seas) suggest that the WIW may have an impact on the ocean circulation by eddy blocking effect, exchange of water masses between north and south subbasins of Western Mediterranean Sea through the Ibiza Channel or modification of the ocean stratification.

  10. Balanced Sediment Fluxes in Southern California's Mediterranean-climate Zone Salt Marshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosencranz, J. A.; Dickhudt, P.; Ganju, N. K.; Thorne, K.; Takekawa, J.; Ambrose, R. F.; Guntenspergen, G. R.; Brosnahan, S.; MacDonald, G. M.

    2015-12-01

    Salt marsh elevation and geomorphic stability depends on mineral sedimentation. Many southern California, USA salt marshes import sediment during El Niño storm events, but sediment fluxes and mechanisms during dry weather are also potentially important for marsh stability. We calculated tidal creek sediment fluxes within a sediment starved 1.5 km2 salt marsh (Seal Beach) and a less modified 1 km2 marsh (Mugu) with a watershed sediment supply. We measured salt marsh plain suspended sediment concentration and vertical accretion using single stage samplers and marker horizons. At Seal Beach, a 2014 storm yielded 39 and 28 g/s mean sediment fluxes and imported 12000 and 8800 kg in a western channel. This offset 8700 kg export during two months of dry weather, while landward net fluxes in the eastern channel accounted for 33% of the import. During the storm, suspended sediment concentrations on the marsh plain increased by a factor of four; accretion was 1-2 mm near creek levees. An exceptionally high tide sequence at Mugu yielded 4.4 g/s mean sediment flux, importing 1700 kg, accounting for 20% of dry weather fluxes. Overall, low sediment fluxes were observed, suggesting that these salt marshes are currently geomorphically stable. Our results suggest that storms and exceptionally high lunar tides may play large roles, importing sediment and maintaining dry weather sediment flux balances for southern California salt marshes. However, under future climate change and sea-level rise scenarios, results suggest that balanced sediment fluxes may lead to marsh elevational instability, based on estimated mineral sediment deficits.

  11. Large-Scale Spatio-Temporal Patterns of Mediterranean Cephalopod Diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Keller

    Full Text Available Species diversity is widely recognized as an important trait of ecosystems' functioning and resilience. Understanding the causes of diversity patterns and their interaction with the environmental conditions is essential in order to effectively assess and preserve existing diversity. While diversity patterns of most recurrent groups such as fish are commonly studied, other important taxa such as cephalopods have received less attention. In this work we present spatio-temporal trends of cephalopod diversity across the entire Mediterranean Sea during the last 19 years, analysing data from the annual bottom trawl survey MEDITS conducted by 5 different Mediterranean countries using standardized gears and sampling protocols. The influence of local and regional environmental variability in different Mediterranean regions is analysed applying generalized additive models, using species richness and the Shannon Wiener index as diversity descriptors. While the western basin showed a high diversity, our analyses do not support a steady eastward decrease of diversity as proposed in some previous studies. Instead, high Shannon diversity was also found in the Adriatic and Aegean Seas, and high species richness in the eastern Ionian Sea. Overall diversity did not show any consistent trend over the last two decades. Except in the Adriatic Sea, diversity showed a hump-shaped trend with depth in all regions, being highest between 200-400 m depth. Our results indicate that high Chlorophyll a concentrations and warmer temperatures seem to enhance species diversity, and the influence of these parameters is stronger for richness than for Shannon diversity.

  12. Agro-fuels: southern impacts; Agrocarburants: impacts au Sud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duterme, B.

    2011-07-01

    At a time of controversies about global warming, agro-fuels production is often presented as a future solution for automotive fuels and as a new way of development for southern countries. However, in Asia, South America and Africa, it very often takes the form of huge mono-culture areas of sugar cane, palm oil and soy bean in the hands of multinational companies of the agriculture and food industry. The consequences of these land, social and environmental impacts in Southern countries is an increase of disequilibria and a threat for the diet of local populations by changing the appropriation of lands. Deforestation, private monopolization of lands, concentration of profits, soils and water pollution, biodiversity impoverishment, exploitation of vulnerable manpower, populations migration, violation of human rights are today the consequences of mass production of agro-fuels in Southern countries. To what conditions a fair re-appropriation and a sustainable development of agro-fuels production and consumption is foreseeable? The solutions require a re-shaping of economical and agricultural politics. The book gathers testimonies and analyses from specialists who have evaluated locally the consequences of these energy choices. (J.S.)

  13. Security and Political Stability in the Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Marquina

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available The author revises with a critical eye the treatment given the issue of security during the Euro-Mediterranean process from the Declaration of Barcelona to the Conference at Malta. According to Marquina, no idea of security exists which gives backbone to theEuro-Mediterranen process and the documents themselves contain incoherencies and significant imprecisions, especially regarding the concepts of cooperative security, preventative diplomacy and ‘good neighbor’ relations. These principles appear to be rather underexplained in both their conceptual and operative aspects. On one hand, the information about matters that affect security is exchanged on both a voluntary and official basis and can be, as such, thus opaque and not always reliable; on the other hand, the issues thataffect security are so wide-ranging that the operative approach - the communications network, mechanisms for early-warning, the conciliation and peaceful resolution of controversies - seems hardly realistic. With respect to confidence-building measures, the author considers that these should be linked to arms control agreements, which are more in accord with the stated objectives of defense sufficiency and the non-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. Marquina also maintains that the role of civil society and the importance of cultural dialogue - both fundamental to conflict prevention - have not been reinforced even though the principal problems of security in the region are due to structural imbalances –military, economical, political– and, precisely the disparities amongcultures. In this sense, the EU states might consider putting forward unilateral policies that restrict such disparities, provided that a certain reciprocity of policy is put forth from the southern states in the Mediterranean.

  14. Ongoing lithospheric removal in the western Mediterranean: Evidence from Ps receiver functions and thermobarometry of Neogene basalts (PICASSO project)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurner, Sally; Palomeras, Imma; Levander, Alan; Carbonell, Ramon; Lee, Cin-Ty

    2014-04-01

    The western Mediterranean tectonic system consists of the Betic Mountains in southern Spain and the Rif Mountains in northern Morocco curved around the back-arc extensional Alboran basin. Multiple tectonic models have been developed to explain the coeval compressional and extensional tectonic processes that have affected the western Mediterranean since the Oligocene. In order to provide constraints on these evolutionary models, we use Ps teleseismic receiver functions (RF), thermobarometric analyses of post-Oligocene basalts, and previous teleseismic tomography images to investigate the lithospheric structure of the region. Ps RFs were calculated using seismic data from 239 broadband seismic stations in southern Iberia and northern Morocco and thermobarometric analysis was performed on 19 volcanic samples distributed throughout the region. The RF images reveal a highly variable Moho depth (˜25 to ˜55 km), as well as a strong positive, sub-Moho horizon between ˜45 and ˜80 km depth beneath the central Betic and Rif Mountains, which we interpret to be the top of the previously imaged Alboran Sea slab. Thermobarometric constraints from magmas in the eastern Betics and Rif indicate mantle melting depths between 40 and 60 km, typical of melting depths beneath mid-oceanic ridges where little to no lithosphere exists. Together, the RF and thermobarometric data suggest ongoing and recent slab detachment resulting from delamination of the continental lithosphere.

  15. Relating ring width of Mediterranean evergreen species to seasonal and annual variations of precipitation and temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Nijland

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Plant growth in Mediterranean landscapes is limited by the typical summer-dry climate. Forests in these areas are only marginally productive and may be quite susceptible to modern climate change. To improve our understanding of forest sensitivity to annual and seasonal climatic variability, we use tree-ring measurements of two Mediterranean evergreen tree species: Quercus ilex L. and Arbutus unedo L. We sampled 34 stems of these species on three different types of substrates in the Peyne study area in southern France. The resulting chronologies were analysed in combination with 38 yr of monthly precipitation and temperature data to reconstruct the response of stem growth to climatic variability. Results indicate a strong positive response to May and June precipitation, as well as a significant positive influence of early-spring temperatures and a negative growth response to summer heat. Comparison of the data with more detailed productivity measurements in two contrasting years confirms these observations and shows a strong productivity limiting effect of low early-summer precipitation. The results show that tree-ring data from Q.ilex and A.unedo can provide valuable information about the response of these tree species to climate variability, improving our ability to predict the effects of climate change in Mediterranean ecosystems.

  16. Distribution of transuranic nuclides in Mediterranean ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballestra, S.; Thein, M.; Fukai, R.

    1982-01-01

    For the comprehensive understanding of the behaviour of transuranic elements in the marine environment, the knowledge on the distribution of these elements in various components of marine ecosystems is essential. Since the Mediterranean Sea is considered a sufficiently self-contained system, our approach for studying the processes controlling the transuranic cycling in the sea has been to follow, step by step, the redistribution of plutonium and americium in different components of the marine environment, taking Mediterranean ecosystems as examples. While the studies in the past years have supplied quantitative information on the inputs of plutonium and americium into the Mediterranean from atmospheric fallout and rivers as well as on their behaviour in the Mediterranean water column, only scattered data have been made available so far on the occurrence of the transuranic nuclides in the Mediterranean marine biota or sediments. In order to fill up this information gap, biological and sediment samples were collected from the northwestern Mediterranean region during 1975-1978 for the transuranic measurements. The results of these determinations are given in the present report

  17. Mediterranean Diet: Choose This Heart-Healthy Diet Option

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lifestyle Nutrition and healthy eating The heart-healthy Mediterranean diet is a healthy eating plan based on typical ... Mediterranean-style cooking. Here's how to adopt the Mediterranean diet. By Mayo Clinic Staff If you're looking ...

  18. The features of a "Mediterranean" Bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Salvino

    2012-11-01

    Even if somebody considers inappropriate any geographic adjective for Bioethics, nevertheless we think that there are some specific features of "Mediterranean" Bioethics that could distinguish it from a "Northern-European and Northern-American" one. First of all we must consider that medical ethics was born and grew in Mediterranean area. First by the thought of great Greek philosophers as Aristotle (that analyse what ethics is), then by Hippocrates, the "father" of medical ethics. The ethical pattern of Aristotle was based on "virtues" and their practice. In this perspective we can already note a strong difference with actual North-European or American principialist ethics. But a second consideration concerns the role that great Mediterranean religions (Judaism, Christianity and Islam) had in the construction of the ethical thought especially on the matter of life and its respect. So, in our pluralistic and multicultural society is absolutely necessary to rescue an approach that considers both "lungs" of ethical thought (Mediterranean and Northern one) and highlights the role that Mediterranean Ethics still has in this way.

  19. Skin disorders among travellers returning from tropical and non-tropical countries consulting a travel medicine clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbinger, K-H; Siess, C; Nothdurft, H D; von Sonnenburg, F; Löscher, T

    2011-11-01

    To evaluate the causes and risks for imported skin disorders among travellers. Data of 34,162 travellers returning from tropical and non-tropical countries and presenting at the outpatient travel medicine clinic of the University of Munich, Germany, between 1999 and 2009 were analyzed for this study. Of these, 12.2% were diagnosed with skin disorders. Main destinations visited were Asia (40%), Africa (27%) and Latin America (21%). Tourism in the form of adventure travel/backpacking (47%) and package holidays (23%) was the most common purpose of travel. The leading causes of skin disorders were arthropodal (23%), bacterial (22%), helminthic (11%), protozoan (6%), viral (6%), allergic (5%) and fungal (4%). The 10 most frequently diagnosed specific skin diseases associated with specific destinations were insect bites (17%, Southern Europe), cutaneous larva migrans (8%, Asia and Latin America), cutaneous leishmaniasis (2.4%, Mediterranean Region/Middle East), dengue fever (1.5%, Asia), rickettsioses (1.3%, Southern Africa), myiasis (0.8%, Central America), filarioses (0.7%, Africa), tick bites (0.6%, Central/Eastern Europe), schistosomiasis (0.6%, Africa) and tungiasis (0.6%, Africa). Travellers in sub-Saharan Africa had the highest relative risk of acquiring skin disorders. As more than 20% of all skin disorders among returned travellers were caused by arthropods and about 50% by infectious pathogens, pre-travel consultations should include specific prophylaxis and consider the most important risk factor for the travel destination. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. On some Indo-Pacific boring endolithic Bivalvia species introduced into the Mediterranean Sea with their host – spread of Sphenia rueppelli A. Adams, 1850

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. ZENETOS

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of the endolithic molluscs found on/in living alien Spondylusshells collected in the Gulf of Iskenderun (Turkey brought to light three more alien bivalvia species namely Petricola hemprichi, Gastrochaena cymbium and Sphenia rueppelli. The presence of Sphenia rueppellideserves attention as it constitutes the first record of this species as living in the Mediterranean Sea. The definitive establishment and spreading of these bivalves in the basin seems to be also attested by careful analysis of specimens sampled in other southern Turkish localities and previously retained in local private collections. The present records raise some questions on the vector of arrival of the species in the Mediterranean Sea that could be strictly connected with their hosts.

  1. THE NORTHERN MOST RECORD OF HERMANN’S TORTOISE (TESTUDO HERMANNI BOETTGERI IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana POP

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Hermann's tortoise is a strictly protected reptile species. It comprises three subspecies occurring Mediterranean countries. In Romania, only T. h. boettgeri is living, located in the southern part of the country. In this paper we documented recent observations of the species outside of its known distribution area. This is the northernmost observation of this species, raising the question of its provenience. Two hypotheses were launched: human translocation or natural expansion.

  2. Re-evaluating the Glacial Vegetation of the Southern Levant and Early Signs of Human Impact on the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miebach, A.; Chen, C.; Litt, T.

    2017-12-01

    Assessing paleoenvironmental conditions is crucial to understand the history of modern humans. The southern Levant functioned as a corridor for human migration processes such as the colonization of Europe and the spread of agriculture. Despite its important role in human history, the Levantine paleoenvironment is still insufficiently investigated. In particular, current reconstructions of the paleovegetation are grounded on poor data bases. Here, we revise former hypotheses about the paleovegetation of the southern Levant during the last glacial based on new palynological results from the Sea of Galilee and the Dead Sea. We further evaluate early signs of anthropogenic influences in the Dead Sea catchment by combining evidence of pollen, micro-charcoal, and spores. The palynological results suggest that drought-adapted herbs, dwarf shrubs, and grasses prevailed in the southern Levant during the last glacial. In contrast to the Holocene, there was no belt of continuous and dense Mediterranean vegetation surrounding the Sea of Galilee during MIS 2. Mediterranean elements such as deciduous oaks only occurred in limited amounts and were probably patchily distributed in the whole study area. The vegetation and moisture gradient was not as strong as today. Since the Lateglacial, the Dead Sea region witnessed several rapid environmental changes. Phases with considerably reduced woodland density, increased fire activity, and enhanced catchment erosion occurred. Although climatic triggers were possible, there is a strong indication of anthropogenic influences due to overall increasing human activities in the region. The study gains new insights into environmental responses of the southern Levant to climate variations in the past. It also contributes towards our understanding of human-environmental interactions during the early Holocene.

  3. Diversity Prevalence of Familial Mediterranean fever Disease in the World and Iran: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya Hadi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ​ Background and objectives : Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF is an autosomal recessive disease. Generally, the Mediterranean basin is the region where the first cases of FMF have been identified. Yearly, some people undergo unnecessary surgery, due to misdiagnosis of doctors. In this study, our aim was to determine the prevalence rate and status of familial Mediterranean fever in the world and Iran which was done using meta-analysis method. Material and Methods : In this study, Google Scholar, Pubmed, Medline, Ovid, IranMedex, Irandoc, SID, Magiran databases and published written sources were searched without limit of time. Then, all the studies were collected without limitation, to determine the relevant studies were assessed. After verifying the quality of the studies, required data were extracted and analyzed using the method of meta-analysis (random effects model in the CMA software. In the end, world map of the prevalence of familial Mediterranean fever disease was traced by the GIS software. Results : The primary search identified 400 studies which only 23 studies had the required quality for inclusion in the meta-analysis. Two of the studies were related to Iran.The results of the meta-analysis showed that the overall prevalence rate of familial Mediterranean fever in the world and in Iran along with their 95% confidence intervals (in parentheses are 0.116% (0.088 - 0.144 and 0.018% (0.001 - 0.037, respectively. Since the studies were limited, the overall prevalence rate obtained from Iran does not have the capability of generalization to other regions of Iran. Conclusion : FMF in the world is prevalent in the Mediterranean and the Middle East region, among ethnic Turks, Armenians, Jews and Arabs, respectively. But FMF epidemiology is rapidly changing, due to population migrations from Mediterranean countries and the Middle East to the rest of the world and the increasing diagnostic sensitivity. The FMF has to be considered as a

  4. Unequal pay or unequal employment?: a cross-country analysis of gender gaps

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia Olivetti; Barbara Petrongolo

    2005-01-01

    There is substantial international variation in gender pay gaps, from 25-30% in the US and the UK, to 10-20% in a number of central and northern EU countries, down to an average of 10% in southern EU. We argue that non-random selection of women into work across countries may explain part of such variation. This ides is supported by the observed variation in employment gaps, from 10% in the US, UK and Scandinavian countries, to 15-25% in northern and central EU, up to 30-40% in southern EU and...

  5. Improving epidemic malaria planning, preparedness and response in Southern Africa. Report on the 1st Southern African Regional Epidemic Outlook Forum, Harare, Zimbabwe, 26-29 September, 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DaSilva, Joaquim; Garanganga, Brad; Teveredzi, Vonai; Marx, Sabine M; Mason, Simon J; Connor, Stephen J

    2004-10-22

    Malaria is a major public health problem for countries in the Southern Africa Development Community (SADC). While the endemicity of malaria varies enormously across this region, many of the countries have districts that are prone to periodic epidemics, which can be regional in their extent, and to resurgent outbreaks that are much more localized. These epidemics are frequently triggered by climate anomalies and often follow periods of drought. Many parts of Southern Africa have suffered rainfall deficit over the past three years and countries expect to see increased levels of malaria when the rains return to more 'normal' levels. Problems with drug and insecticide resistance are documented widely and the region contains countries with the highest rates of HIV prevalence to be found anywhere in the world. Consequently, many communities are vulnerable to severe disease outcomes should epidemics occur. The SADC countries have adopted the Abuja targets for Roll Back Malaria in Africa, which include improved epidemic detection and response, i.e., that 60% of epidemics will be detected within two weeks of onset, and 60% of epidemics will be responded to within two weeks of detection. The SADC countries recognize that to achieve these targets they need improved information on where and when to look for epidemics. The WHO integrated framework for improved early warning and early detection of malaria epidemics has been recognized as a potentially useful tool for epidemic preparedness and response planning. Following evidence of successful adoption and implementation of this approach in Botswana, the SADC countries, the WHO Southern Africa Inter-Country Programme on Malaria Control, and the SADC Drought Monitoring Centre decided to organize a regional meeting where countries could gather to assess their current control status and community vulnerability, consider changes in epidemic risk, and develop a detailed plan of action for the forthcoming 2004-2005 season. The

  6. Mediterranean intermediate circulation estimated from Argo data in 2003–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Menna

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Data from 38 Argo profiling floats are used to describe the intermediate Mediterranean currents for the period October 2003–January 2010. These floats were programmed to execute 5-day cycles, to drift at a neutral parking depth of 350 m and measure temperature and salinity profiles from either 700 or 2000 m up to the surface. At the end of each cycle the floats remained at the sea surface for about 6 h, enough time to be localised and transmit the data to the Argos satellite system. The Argos positions were used to determine the float surface and intermediate displacements. At the surface, the float motion was approximated by a linear displacement and inertial motion. Intermediate velocities estimates were used to investigate the Mediterranean circulation at 350 m, to compute the pseudo-Eulerian statistics and to study the influence of bathymetry on the intermediate currents. Maximum speeds, as large as 33 cm/s, were found northeast of the Balearic Islands (western basin and in the Ierapetra eddy (eastern basin. Typical speeds in the main along-slope currents (Liguro-Provençal-Catalan, Algerian and Libyo-Egyptian Currents were ~20 cm/s. In the central and western part of Mediterranean basin, the pseudo-Eulerian statistics show typical intermediate circulation pathways which can be related to the motion of Levantine Intermediate Water. In general our results agree with the qualitative intermediate circulation schemes proposed in the literature, except in the southern Ionian where we found westward-flowing intermediate currents. Fluctuating currents appeared to be usually larger than the mean flow. Intermediate currents were found to be essentially parallel to the isobaths over most of the areas characterized by strong bathymetry gradients, in particular, in the vicinity of the continental slopes.

  7. Audouin's gull chicks as bioindicators of mercury pollution at different breeding locations in the western Mediterranean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanpera, Carolina [Departament Biologia Animal, Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)]. E-mail: csanpera@ub.edu; Moreno, Roci' o [Departament Biologia Animal, Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Ruiz, Xavier [Departament Biologia Animal, Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Jover, Lluis [Departament Salut Publica, Facultat de Medicina, Universitat de Barcelona, Casanova 143, 08036 Barcelona (Spain)

    2007-06-15

    Mercury levels of Audouin's gull are amongst the highest for Mediterranean seabirds, and have been mainly attributed to its piscivorous habits in these naturally Hg rich waters. Moreover, two additional factors could enhance its mercury intake: the consumption of discarded fish (which attain higher concentrations) and/or feeding in areas receiving Hg anthropogenic inputs. In order to differentiate the relevance of both sources we analysed Hg and stable isotopes of chick feathers from different breeding locations in western Mediterranean: one in its northern part (Ebro Delta) and two southern (Chafarinas Isl. and Alboran Isl.). The results from stable isotopes indicate that consumption of discards is higher at Alboran Isl., followed by the Ebro Delta and Chafarinas Isl. Thus, the higher mercury levels found in the Ebro Delta cannot be explained uniquely by the contribution of discarded fish to diet, but local pollution caused by the river Ebro waters accounts for Hg differences observed.

  8. The East Asian shore crab Hemigrapsus sanguineus (Brachyura: Varunidae in the Mediterranean Sea: an independent human-mediated introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph D. Schubart

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A single adult male specimen of the East Asian crab Hemigrapsus sanguineus (de Haan, 1835 was collected in August 2001 in the northern Adriatic Sea along the northwest coast of the peninsula of Istra. This is the first record of this genus and species from the Mediterranean Sea. Previously, Hemigrapsus sanguineus had been reported to invade the Atlantic coasts of North America and of western France, while the congeneric East Asian species, Hemigrapsus penicillatus (de Haan, 1835, has established breeding populations along the Atlantic coast of Europe. The current absence of Hemigrapsus sanguineus in southern Europe and the western Mediterranean suggests an independent human-mediated introduction of the Croatian specimen. Preliminary genetic analyses reveal that specimens from Istra, North America, and Japan have identical DNA haplotypes corresponding to the mitochondrial large subunit rRNA gene (16S mtDNA, while the homologous sequence from a specimen of Taiwan differs in two out of 525 nucleotides.

  9. Acacia saligna: an invasive species on the coast of Molise (southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calabrese V

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Italy is one of the European countries most affected by biological invasions. In this study, we focused on the impact of Acacia saligna, an Australian invasive plant species, on the coastal ecosystem’s ecology and biodiversity along the sandy coasts of Molise (southern Italy. We analyzed data from 61 vegetation plots recorded in coastal pine forest and Mediterranean scrub habitats of Molise throughout the preparatory actions of the “LIFE Maestrale” project (NAT/IT/000262. In order to study the ecological impact of Acacia saligna comparing invaded and non-invaded areas, we first assigned the Ellenberg’s indicator values to each plant species, which were then used to relate the presence of Acacia saligna with ecological characteristics of sites through a generalized linear model (GLM. Our results showed a significant positive relationship between the presence of Acacia saligna and high levels of soil nutrients and, on the contrary, a negative relationship with the presence of mesophilic species, which are typical of the community interest habitats of pine forest (2270*. The use of ecological indicators is effective to pinpoint the ecological effects of biological invasions, as well as to evaluate habitat conservation state and to identify vulnerable native species.

  10. Speleothem records of western Mediterranean. Hydrological variability along the Last Interglacial Period and marine linkages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torner, Judit; Cacho, Isabel; Moreno, Ana; Stoll, Heather; Belmonte, Anchel; Sierro, Francisco J.; Frigola, Jaime; Martrat, Belen; Fornós, Joan; Arnau Fernández, Pedro; Hellstrom, John; Cheng, Hai; Edwards, R. Lawrence

    2016-04-01

    This study aims to identify and characterize regional hydrological variability in the western Mediterranean region in base to different geochemical parameters (δ18O, δ13C, and Mg/Ca ratios). Speleothems have been recovered from several caves located in southern central Pyrenees one and the others form the Balearic Islands. Their chronologies have been constructed in base on U/Th absolute dating and indicate that the speleothem sequences cover the end of the last interglacial and the glacial inception. One of the most remarkable features of the records is the intense and abrupt shift toward more arid conditions that marks the end of the last interglacial (MIS 5e). Furthermore, our speleothem records also show relatively humid but highly variable hydrological conditions during the interstadial periods from MIS 5c to 5a. These speleothem records have been compared with new generated western Mediterranean marine records from the Balearic Sea (MD99-2343) and Alboran Sea (OPD-977). Marine records include (1) proxies of sea surface temperature and changes in evaporation-precipitation rates based on pair analysis of δ18O and the Mg/Ca ratios in planktonic foraminifera Globigerina bulloides; (2) proxies of deep-water currents associated with the Western Mediterranean Deep Water (WMDW) based on grain size analyses. The results reveal that arid conditions on land were coeval with cold sea surface sub-stages (MIS 5b and 5d), and also with increases in the intensity of the WMDW-related currents. By contrast, humid and hydrological unstable atmosphere conditions were synchronous with sea surface warm sub-stages, and lower WMDW-related currents intensities (MIS 5a, c and e). Consequently, our results highly evidence a strong atmospheric-oceanic coupling, involving parallel changes in both surface but also deep western Mediterranean Sea conditions during the last interglacial period and the glacial inception.

  11. Impact of vegetation types on soil organic carbon stocks SOC-S in Mediterranean natural areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parras-Alcántara, Luis; Lozano-García, Beatriz; Cantudo-Pérez, Marta

    2015-04-01

    with different vegetation types (Quercus suber, Quercus ilex, Quercus faginea, Pinus pinaster and Pinus pinea) in The Cardeña-Montoro Natural Park, a nature reserve that consists of a 38,449 ha forested area in southern Spain. Sixty-eight sampling points were selected in the study zone. Each sampling point was analyzed as soil control section with different depth increments (0-25, 25-50, 50-75 and 75-100 cm). The studied soils were classified as Cambisols and the major goal of this research was to study the SOCS variability at regional scale. The total SOCS in The Cardeña-Montoro Natural Park was higher in MEOW with olive grove (111,69 Mg ha-1) and lower in MEOW with Quercus faginea (93,57 Mg ha-1). However, when the top soil (superficial section control) was analyzed, the SOCS was the highest in MEOW with olive grove (70,12 Mg-1) and the lowest in MEOW with Pinus (47,82 Mg ha-1). This research is a preliminary assessment for modeling SOCS at the regional level in Mediterranean natural areas. References Hontoria, C., Rodríguez-Murillo, J., and Saa, A.: Contenido de carbono orgánico en el suelo y factores de control en la España Peninsular, Edafología, 11, 149-155, 2004. Parras-Alcántara, L., Díaz-Jaimes, L., and Lozano-García, B: Organic farming affects C and N in soils under olive groves in Mediterranean areas, Land Degrad. Develop., in press, available online: in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com), http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ldr.2231, 2013. Parras-Alcántara, L., Díaz-Jaimes, L., Lozano-García, B., Fernández Rebollo, P., Moreno Elcure, F., Carbonero Muñoz, M.D.: Organic farming has little effect on carbon stock in a Mediterranean dehesa (southern Spain). Catena 113 (2014) 9-17. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.catena.2013.09.002 Parras-Alcántara, L., Díaz-Jaimes, L., and Lozano-García, B.: Management effects on soil organic carbon stock in Mediterranean open rangelands -- treeless grasslands, Land Degrad. Develop., in press, available online: in

  12. Earthquake Scenario-Based Tsunami Wave Heights in the Eastern Mediterranean and Connected Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Necmioglu, Ocal; Özel, Nurcan Meral

    2015-12-01

    We identified a set of tsunami scenario input parameters in a 0.5° × 0.5° uniformly gridded area in the Eastern Mediterranean, Aegean (both for shallow- and intermediate-depth earthquakes) and Black Seas (only shallow earthquakes) and calculated tsunami scenarios using the SWAN-Joint Research Centre (SWAN-JRC) code ( Mader 2004; Annunziato 2007) with 2-arcmin resolution bathymetry data for the range of 6.5—Mwmax with an Mw increment of 0.1 at each grid in order to realize a comprehensive analysis of tsunami wave heights from earthquakes originating in the region. We defined characteristic earthquake source parameters from a compiled set of sources such as existing moment tensor catalogues and various reference studies, together with the Mwmax assigned in the literature, where possible. Results from 2,415 scenarios show that in the Eastern Mediterranean and its connected seas (Aegean and Black Sea), shallow earthquakes with Mw ≥ 6.5 may result in coastal wave heights of 0.5 m, whereas the same wave height would be expected only from intermediate-depth earthquakes with Mw ≥ 7.0 . The distribution of maximum wave heights calculated indicate that tsunami wave heights up to 1 m could be expected in the northern Aegean, whereas in the Black Sea, Cyprus, Levantine coasts, northern Libya, eastern Sicily, southern Italy, and western Greece, up to 3-m wave height could be possible. Crete, the southern Aegean, and the area between northeast Libya and Alexandria (Egypt) is prone to maximum tsunami wave heights of >3 m. Considering that calculations are performed at a minimum bathymetry depth of 20 m, these wave heights may, according to Green's Law, be amplified by a factor of 2 at the coastline. The study can provide a basis for detailed tsunami hazard studies in the region.

  13. Prior history of Mistral and Tramontane winds modulates heavy precipitation events in southern France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ségolène Berthou

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Heavy precipitation events (HPEs are frequent in southern France in autumn. An HPE results from landward transport of low-level moisture from the Western Mediterranean: large potential instability is then released by local convergence and/or orography. In the upstream zone, the sea surface temperature (SST undergoes significant variations at the submonthly time scale primarily driven by episodic highly energetic events of relatively cold outflows from the neighbouring mountain ranges (the Mistral and Tramontane winds. Here, we study the HPE of 22–23 September 1994 which is preceded by a strong SST cooling due to the Mistral and Tramontane winds. This case confirms that the location of the precipitation is modulated by the SST in the upstream zone. In fact, changes in latent and sensible heat fluxes due to SST changes induce pressure and stratification changes which affect the low-level dynamics. Using three companion regional climate simulations running from 1989 to 2009, this article statistically shows that anomalies in the HPEs significantly correlate with the SST anomalies in the Western Mediterranean, and hence with the prior history of Mistral and Tramontane winds. In such cases, the role of the ocean as an integrator of the effect of past wind events over one or several weeks does indeed have an impact on HPEs in southern France.

  14. Taking the pulse of the Mediterranean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osterberg, C.

    1977-01-01

    The staff at the International Laboratory of Marine Radioactivity in Monaco realized that they were favourably located to ?take the pulse of the Mediterranean? and begin an enquiry into its health. Practically all of the radioactivity in the water and sediments could be attributed to world-wide fallout from the nuclear tests of the 1960's. Unable to find enough radioactivity in the Mediterranean to work with in a meaningful way, the laboratory imported sediments from the Bikini-Eniwetok sites of the American thermonuclear tests, and sediments from the Irish Sea near the Windscale effluent pipe to do their experiments. Other experiments were carried out with relatively innocuous, short half-lived 237 Pu, made especially for the laboratory in Japan and in the USA. A proposal was made to the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) to monitor the levels of chlorinated hydrocarbons and heavy elements in the Mediterranean. This report briefly discusses that work. Three sets of studies were carried out by the Monaco group to assess the current levels of pollutants in the Mediterranean: 1) Radioactivity; 2) Chlorinated hydrocarbons (DDT's and polychlorinated biphenyls); 3) Heavy elements. As stated earlier, measurements showed that radioactivity in the ocean off Monaco is quite low, indicating that there are no major sources of radionuclides reaching the open ocean other than fallout. Polychlorinated biphenyls were measured by gas-chromatography. The results of this study were being published (Marine Pollution Bulletin, 1977) but it can be said that the data are not much different than that for the Atlantic Ocean and Saragasso Sea. The western Mediterranean is clearly higher in PCB's than the eastern Mediterranean, but not unduly so. Less can be said about the trace or heavy elements because the patterns are so variable. Atomic absorption spectrometry is used to detect and measure most trace elements. For the lower levels that appear in seawater, chemical

  15. Effects of different soil types in natural Mediterranean areas on soil organic carbon (SOC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requejo Silva, Ana; Lozano García, Beatriz; Parras Alcántara, Luis

    2017-04-01

    Effects of different soil types in natural Mediterranean areas on soil organic carbon (SOC) Ana Requejo1, Beatriz Lozano-García1, Luis Parras Alcántara1 1 Department of Agricultural Chemistry and Soil Science, Faculty of Science, Agrifood Campus of International Excellence - ceiA3, University of Córdoba, Spain. The carbon content of the atmosphere can be influenced by soils, since they can store carbon or emit large quantities of CO2. C sequestration into soils is one of the most important ecosystems services because of its role in climate regulation (IPPC, 2007). Thereof, agriculture and forestry are the only activities that can contribute to C sequestration through photosynthesis and its carbon incorporation into carbohydrates (Parras Alcántara et al., 2013). Dehesa is a multifunctional agro-sylvo-pastoral system and typical landscape of southern and central Spain and southern Portugal. It is an anthropogenic system dedicated to the combined production of black iberian pigs, a variety of foods, fuel, coal, and cork. Besides, it acts as well in the production of endangered species as wildlife habitat and as sustainable hunting areas. These dehesa areas are defined by a relationship between productivity and conservation of forest oaks, providing environmental benefits such as carbon capture and storage. The area focused in this study is the Cardeña-Montoro Nature Reserve, located within the Sierra Morena (Córdoba, South Spain). The most representative soils in Cardeña-Montoro Nature Reserve are Cambisols, Regosols, Leptosols and Fluvisols according to IUSS Working Group WRB (2006). They are characterized by a low fertility, poor physical conditions and marginal capacity for agricultural use, along with low organic matter content due to climate conditions (semiarid Mediterranean climate) and soil texture (sandy). Several studies have shown that land use affects the SOC concentration (Lozano-García et al., 2016; Khaledian et al., 2016). Based on this

  16. Differences in outpatient antibiotic use between a Spanish region and a Nordic country

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malo-Fumanal, Sara; Rabanaque-Hernández, María José; Feja-Solana, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotic use and misuse are linked to pathogen resistance and, as such, both constitute a public health issue with local, national, and global dimensions. Early studies have shown striking variations in the use of these drugs between Nordic and Mediterranean countries. The aim of the present st...

  17. Response of maize and olive to climate change under the semi-arid conditions of southern Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Gabaldón Leal, Clara

    2016-01-01

    Global climate projections indicate an increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration causing for Mediterranean regions an increase in both mean and maximum temperatures, an average decrease in precipitation and an increase in the temporal and spatial variability of extreme events related with rainfall, such as droughts. All these changes in many areas within Andalusia region (southern Spain) would have a direct impact on the agriculture, a critical sector with great social and economic importance...

  18. The dispersal of ash during explosive eruptions from central volcanoes and calderas: an underestimated hazard for the central Mediterranean area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sulpizio, Roberto [CIRISIVU, c/o Dipartimento Geomineralogico, via Orabona 4, 70125, Bari (Italy); Caron, Benoit; Zanchetta, Giovanni; Santacroce, Roberto [Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, via S. Maria 53, 56126, Pisa (Italy); Giaccio, Biagio [Istituto di Geologia Ambientale e Geoingegneria, CNR, Via Bolognola 7, 00138 Rome (Italy); Paterne, Martine [LSCE, Laboratoire Mixte CEA-CNRS-UVSQ, Avenue de la Terrasse 91198 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Siani, Giuseppe [IDES-UMR 8148, Universite Paris-XI, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France)], E-mail: r.sulpizio@geomin.uniba.it

    2008-10-01

    The central Mediterranean area comprises some of the most active volcanoes of the northern hemisphere. Some of their names recall myths or events in human history: Somma-Vesuvius, Etna, Stromboli, Vulcano, Ischia and Campi Flegrei. These volcanoes are still active today, and produce both effusive and explosive eruptions. In particular, explosive eruptions can produce and disperse large amount of volcanic ash, which pose a threat to environment, economy and human health over a large part of the Mediterranean area. We present and discuss data of ash dispersal from some explosive eruptions of southern Italy volcanoes, which dispersed centimetre -thick ash blankets hundred of kilometres from the source, irrespective of the more limited dispersal of the respective coarse grained fallout and PDC deposits. The collected data also highlight the major role played by lower atmosphere winds in dispersal of ash from weak plumes and ash clouds that accompany PDC emplacement.

  19. [Heart failure mortality in Spain: is there an andalusian paradox?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Navarro, M; Gómez-Doblas, J; Molero, E; Galván, E de Teresa

    2006-06-01

    Congestive heart failure has a high mortality, as reflected in different clinical trials and observational studies. Spain, as other countries around the Mediterranean basin, have a relatively low rate of coronary deaths, attributed to the so-called Mediterranean lifestyle. Andalusia, in the southern most part of Spain, constitutes the paradigm of Mediterranean lifestyle. However, different reports show that the prevalence of ischemic heart disease is higher in Andalusia than in other zones of Spain. Thus the mortality rate due to heart failure in Spain in the year 2000 per 100,000 inhabitants was 27.3 in men and 28.88 in women and each one of the eight Andalusia provinces had greater rates than the national mean in both men and woman. Even in countries with a relatively low prevalence of coronary heart disease as is the case in Spain, heart failure mortality seems to be parallel to local differences in IHD prevalence.

  20. A taxonomic revision of the southern African native and naturalized species of Silene L. (Caryophyllaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Manning

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The native and naturalized species of Silene L. in southern Africa are reviewed, with full synonomy and the description of two new species from the West Coast of Western Cape. Eight native species and three naturalized species are recognized, including the first identification in southern Africa of the Mediterranean S. nocturna L. The identity of S. aethiopica Burm., which has remained unknown since its description, is established and is found to be the oldest name for S. clandestina Jacq. Patterns of morphological variation within each species are discussed and subspecies are recognized for geographically segregated groups of populations that are ± morphologically diagnosable. The following new names or combinations are made among the southern African taxa: S. aethiopica subsp. longiflora; S. burchellii subsp. modesta, subsp. multiflora, and subsp. pilosellifolia; S. crassifolia subsp. primuliflora; S. saldanhensis; S. rigens; and S. undulata subsp. polyantha. Each taxon is described, with information on ecology and distribution, and most species are illustrated, including SEM micrographs of the seeds.

  1. 'Mediterranean' dietary pattern for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Karen; Hartley, Louise; Flowers, Nadine; Clarke, Aileen; Hooper, Lee; Thorogood, Margaret; Stranges, Saverio

    2013-08-12

    The Seven Countries study in the 1960s showed that populations in the Mediterranean region experienced lower cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality probably as a result of different dietary patterns. Later observational studies have confirmed the benefits of adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern on CVD risk factors. Clinical trial evidence is limited, and is mostly in secondary prevention. To determine the effectiveness of a Mediterranean dietary pattern for the primary prevention of CVD. We searched the following electronic databases: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, Issue 9 of 12, September 2012); MEDLINE (Ovid, 1946 to October week 1 2012); EMBASE (Ovid, 1980 to 2012 week 41); ISI Web of Science (1970 to 16 October 2012); Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE), Health Technology Assessment Database and Health Economics Evaluations Database (Issue 3 of 12, September 2012). We searched trial registers and reference lists of reviews and applied no language restrictions. We selected randomised controlled trials in healthy adults and adults at high risk of CVD. A Mediterranean dietary pattern was defined as comprising at least two of the following components: (1) high monounsaturated/saturated fat ratio, (2) low to moderate red wine consumption, (3) high consumption of legumes, (4) high consumption of grains and cereals, (5) high consumption of fruits and vegetables, (6) low consumption of meat and meat products and increased consumption of fish, and (7) moderate consumption of milk and dairy products. The comparison group received either no intervention or minimal intervention. Outcomes included clinical events and CVD risk factors. Two review authors independently extracted data and contacted chief investigators to request additional relevant information. We included 11 trials (15 papers) (52,044 participants randomised). Trials were heterogeneous in the participants recruited, in the number of dietary components and

  2. Gaseous and particulate air pollutants in the Northeastern Mediterranean Coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soner Erduran, M.; Tuncel, Semra G.

    2001-01-01

    The concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), ammonia (NH 3 ) and particulate matter were measured for a 6-month period and the concentration of gas phase nitric acid (HNO 3 ) was measured for a 1-month period in the North-eastern Mediterranean atmosphere (Kuecuek Calticak, Antalya) using a 'filter pack' system that was developed and optimised in our laboratory. Among all the gas phase pollutants, HNO 3 had the lowest concentration (0.42 μg m -3 ) followed by ammonia. Most of the measured parameters showed variation in time depending on strengths of source regions and meteorological conditions. Nitric acid is found mostly in particulate form, but gas to particulate partitioning of SO 2 shows seasonal variation. Wind trajectory analyses indicate that the major contribution to the observed concentrations come mostly from Eastern Europe and Blacksea regions as well as the southern sector

  3. Effectiveness of the Mediterranean diet in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Roman

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Blanca Roman1, Laura Carta2, Miguel Ángel Martínez-González3, Lluís Serra-Majem41Mediterranean Diet Foundation, University of Barcelona Science Park, Spain; 2Department of Biosystems and Applied Sciences, Unit of Physiology and Human Nutrition, University of Cagliari, Italy; 3Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Navarra, Spain; 4Department of Clinical Sciences, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, SpainAbstract: The Mediterranean diet is known to be one of the healthiest dietary patterns in the world due to its relation with a low morbidity and mortality for some chronic diseases. The purpose of this study was to review literature regarding the relationship between Mediterranean diet and healthy aging. A MEDLINE search was conducted looking for literature regarding the relationship between Mediterranean diet and cardiovascular disease (or risk factors for cardiovascular disease, cancer, mental health and longevity and quality of life in the elderly population (65 years or older. A selection of 36 articles met the criteria of selection. Twenty of the studies were about Mediterranean diets and cardiovascular disease, 2 about Mediterranean diets and cancer, 3 about Mediterranean diets and mental health and 11 about longevity (overall survival or mental health. The results showed that Mediterranean diets had benefits on risks factors for cardiovascular disease such as lipoprotein levels, endothelium vasodilatation, insulin resistance, the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome, antioxidant capacity, the incidence of acute myocardial infarction, and cardiovascular mortality. Some positive associations with quality of life and inverse associations with the risk of certain cancers and with overall mortality were also reported.Keywords: Mediterranean diet, elderly, health, review

  4. A comparison of two seabird communities on opposite coasts of the Alborán Sea (western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Paracuellos

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available We compared the seabird communities at two sites of the southern and northern shores of the Alborán Sea in the Western Mediterranean (Melilla and Adra respectively during a whole year. Similarities and differences in environmental characteristics of the two study sites were caused by a set of geographical, physical and socio-economic human factors. Sampling was performed weekly during two-hour periods by counting seabirds crossing a given point of the coast. We found similarities in the composition and seasonality of the species between Melilla and Adra. However, there were differences between the two sites in the number of species and individuals, which were usually higher on the southern shore. In this area, seabirds depending on marine trophic resources were more abundant, whereas on the northern shore the most abundant seabird species were those whose feeding habits were not so dependent on sea resources.

  5. Pre-collisional geodynamics of the Mediterranean Sea: the Mediterranean Ridge and the Tyrrhenian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Chaumillon

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Today the Mediterranean Sea consists of a series of small-sized and almost geographically disconnected oceanic or continental crust rooted marine basins. It is also an area almost totally surrounded by mountain ranges, which chiefly belong to the alpine realm. This overall geodynamic setting results from a long term convergence between the two major, African and European, plates. Previous collisions have led to the edification of surrounding chains, while subduction and new-collisional processes tend to create new extensional back-arc basins and wide tectonized accretionary prisms. In this paper we briefly outline the most recent and almost land-locked back-arc basin that has developed in the Mediterranean,i.e., the Tyrrhenian Sea, and the Mediterranean Ridge, which may be regarded as a collisional sedimentary wedge predating a future mountain chain.

  6. Assessments and decision-making processes for sustainable touristic ports in Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cerreta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean is a particularly significant context to be analyzed in order to understand the changes taking place both in terms of territorial transformations that for the processes of analysis, evaluation and management of the interaction relationships among cities, territories, port areas and natural systems. At the same time, sustainable development should be a priority objective of the Mediterranean, as the different anthropogenic pressures represent a relevant weight to the existing, limited and vulnerable resources.Therefore, it is essential to identify appropriate decision-support systems that enable the identification of strategies and actions sensible to local circumstances, select appropriate indicators, useful for analyzing the impacts in ex ante, on-going and ex-post phase, and identify useful predictive models in order to evaluate the different types of impact (direct, indirect, cumulative, synergic, etc., taking into account the cognitive framework updated and available for each context.Starting from the documents and international experience focused on sustainability of the processes activated in the Mediterranean countries, the paper analyzes the characteristics of the system of port facilities developed to meet the needs of new forms of tourism from the point of view of the evaluation. Through an analysis of the assessment approaches and structured systems of indicators at the international level, a selection has been made with a proposal for some indicators considered most relevant and able to allow for a multidimensional assessment of impacts in the areas of touristic ports development.

  7. Global change impact on oxidative potential and toxicity of atmospheric particles from the East Mediterranean basin: the ARCHIMEDES initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alleman, Laurent; Anthérieu, Sébastien; Baeza-Squiban, Armelle; Garçon, Guillaume; Lo Guidice, Jean-Marc; Hamonou, Eric; Öztürk, Fatma; Perdrix, Esperanza; Rudich, Yinon; Sciare, Jean; Sauvage, Stéphane

    2017-04-01

    , several projects under the ARCHIMEDES (Envi-MED funded) initiative including various research groups from Eastern Mediterranean countries have been submitted to French research calls. Their objectives are to develop an integrated testing strategy (ITS) through a combination of high throughput screening (HTS) methods based on acellular and lung cellular systems evaluating the respective OP (DTT, ascorbic acid and GSH depletion, DCFH oxidation) of various PM samples according to their origins in terms of sources and CC forecast. In order to ensure significant variability in ageing of the size segregated PM (fine, coarse) tested, samples from both northern (France) and southern countries (Cyprus, Israel, Turkey) should be collected at different seasons and site typologies, searching for various compositions and mixing states in SOA (biogenic, anthropogenic), metals and PAHs. These projects will combine relevant chemical, microbiological (DNA extract) and toxicological experiments (transcriptome, epigenome and secretome). A joint toxicological analysis related to their harmful effects on relevant oxidative (ATP, TAS, GSH/GSSG, gammaH2AX), inflammatory, genetic, and epigenetic endpoints within novel tissue-engineering tools will help in recapturing the native lung environment ex vivo. In the CC context, such projects will help to (1) better understand the cellular and molecular mechanisms of PM toxicity, (2) detect and predict their respiratory effects, (3) better comprehend the relationship between the physicochemical characteristics and the toxicological effects of PM, (4) provide innovative biomarkers that could be subsequently validated in humans and thereby contribute to the predictive toxicology.

  8. FORE-Med - the development of a foresight methodology for the prioritisation of animal health research in the Mediterranean area up to 2030.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messori, Stefano; Zilli, Romano; Mariano, Valeria; Bagni, Marina

    2017-03-31

    Diseases evolve constantly and research is needed to face emerging new threats. Evidences suggest that the impact of such threats will have its peak in the Mediterranean area. The FORE‑Med, Foresight project for the Mediterranean, aims at identifying the future challenges on livestock health and aquaculture in this area, to ensure an effective coordination of research activities and the delivery of timely solution to emerging issues. One hundred experts with multidisciplinary background and coming from countries all around the Mediterranean basin were gathered to participate in a think‑tank to develop a Strategic Research Agenda on animal health for Mediterranean up to 2030. A tailored foresight methodology was implemented, merging the best fit for purpose techniques (e.g. '7 questions', Social, Technological, Economical, Environmental, and Political (STEEP), analysis, scenario building, and backcasting). Both remote and face‑to‑face debates were held, to ensure a fruitful exchanges and participation among experts. Research needs were identified and prioritised, both on relevance and on temporal scale. The implemented participative approach allowed for the definition of a research priority list for animal health and aquaculture in the Mediterranean, which served as a basis to build a strategic research agenda. The latter is expected to satisfy the sectors' needs and guarantee a much‑needed coordination for research activities in the Mediterranean area.

  9. The Southern Lombardy and commercial relations in the Mediterranean area: the case of Salerno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Gianluca Cicco

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to recover the written testimonies – both narrative and documentary sources – and also archaeological evidences about the role of Lombard Salerno in the Mediterranean commerces between VIIIth and XIth centuries, beginning from the regency of the Beneventan prince Arechi II who, after the Frank conquest of the Lombard kingdom, developed the economy and the urban structure of the maritime city. In this text we tried also to examine the real existence of a port in Salerno for the early medieval centuries and the location of the markets in the city and in the neighboring territory. Further investigations regards the commercial activism – rather modest – of Lombard Salerno in the exchanges with the near Byzantine provinces, the Saracen colonies in the peninsular South Italy and Sicily.

  10. Epilepsy care in the southern Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Gregory; Sandy, Sherry; Corbin, David O C; Bird-Compton, Jacqueline; Jack, Frances; Nelson, Beverly; Jalonen, Tuula O; Ali, Amza; Fortuné, Taryn; Clarke, Dave; Okolie, Jacqueline; Cervenka, Mackenzie C

    2015-10-01

    Very little has been reported about the health resources available for patients with epilepsy in the five English-speaking southern Caribbean countries of Trinidad and Tobago, Barbados, Grenada, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, and Saint Lucia. There is no comprehensive resource describing their health systems, access to specialty care, antiepileptic drug (AED) use, and availability of brain imaging and EEG. The purpose of this study was to profile epilepsy care in these countries as an initial step toward improving the standard of care and identifying gaps in care to guide future policy changes. In each southern Caribbean country, we conducted study visits and interviewed health-care providers, government health ministers, pharmacy directors, hospital medical directors, pharmacists, clinic staff, radiologists, and radiology and EEG technicians. Health-care providers completed extensive epilepsy care surveys. The five countries all have integrated government health systems with clinics and hospitals that provide free or heavily subsidized care and AEDs for patients with epilepsy. Only Trinidad and Tobago and Barbados, however, have neurology specialists. The three smaller countries lack government imaging and EEG facilities. Trinidad had up to one-year waits for public MRI/EEG. Government formularies in Grenada, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, and Saint Lucia are limited to first-generation AEDs. One or more second-line agents are formulary in Trinidad and Barbados. Nonformulary drugs may be obtained for individual patients in Barbados. Grenada, Saint Lucia, and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines participate in an Organization of Eastern Caribbean States formulary purchasing system, which added levetiracetam following the survey. Newer generic AED formulations with the lowest risks for pregnancy malformation were not in use. In conclusion, patients with epilepsy in the southern Caribbean have excellent access to government clinics and hospitals, but AED choices

  11. Complex emergencies in the Eastern Mediterranean Region: Impact on tuberculosis control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seita, Akihiro

    2016-12-01

    The Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) has witnessed the largest refugee crisis in history. Overall, 70% of the global refugee populations are from Palestine, Syria, Afghanistan, or Somalia. We reviewed the possible impact of such crisis on the tuberculosis situation in EMR. We used the available data and information from the World Health Organization and other international and national institutions. Overall, 15 out of 22 countries in the EMR are either engulfed in complex emergencies (10 countries) or suffering from their neighbors' complex emergencies (7 countries), whereas two countries suffer from both. Eighty-five percent of the total population (636 million) in the region lives in these 15 countries. For tuberculosis, these 15 countries account for a significant burden in EMR: 94% of the estimated total incidence of 740,000 cases a year and 95% of the estimated total mortality of 91,000 a year. These countries have yet to show the significant negative impact on tuberculosis epidemiology as such changes take considerable time to manifest. Still, there are reports on health systems impact: access to health facilities, destruction of health facilities, health staff casualties, and shortage of medicines. Complex emergencies pose a significant negative impact on tuberculosis in the EMR. This issue should be raised in the global health and political arena. This is a time bomb for tuberculosis. Copyright © 2016.

  12. The effect of climate change on electricity needs – A case study from Mediterranean Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zachariadis, Theodoros; Hadjinicolaou, Panos

    2014-01-01

    This paper assesses additional electricity requirements and the associated costs in the Mediterranean island of Cyprus by the mid-21st century because of projected anthropogenic climate change, following an interdisciplinary approach that combines climate science with economics. An econometric model of electricity demand is used, in conjunction with climate projections from a state-of-the-art Global Circulation Model with a regional focus on the Eastern Mediterranean. Annual electricity demand is projected to rise by about 6% compared to a ‘no climate change’ case. Although these additional power requirements are not very remarkable on an annual basis, total costs up to 2050, which may exceed 730 million Euros at today's prices, imply that the country may need to forgo one or two years of economic growth in order to cope with extra electricity needs due to climate change. This outlook indicates that a reasonable future energy path in regions with Mediterranean climate would involve substantial deployment of solar-powered electricity generation, which can meet peak load requirements while reducing the country's energy dependence. Moreover, this forecast highlights the need for adaptation to climate change through investments in the improvement of the energy performance of the building stock. - Highlights: • Assessment of additional electricity needs in Cyprus because of climate change. • Use of econometric model of electricity demand and regional climate projections. • Annual electricity demand to rise by 6% by 2050 due to climate change. • Welfare losses of up to more than 150 million Euros (at 2010 prices) per year. • Impacts can be tackled by use of solar power and energy efficiency improvements

  13. Long-Term Changes in Game Species Over a Long Period of Transformation in the Iberian Mediterranean Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delibes-Mateos, Miguel; Farfán, Miguel Ángel; Olivero, Jesús; Márquez, Ana Luz; Vargas, Juan Mario

    2009-06-01

    Agricultural change has transformed large areas of traditional farming landscapes, leading to important changes in the species community assemblages in most European countries. We suspect that the drastic changes in land-use that have occurred in Andalusia (southern Spain) over recent decades, may have affected the distribution and abundance of game species in this region. This article compares the distribution of the main game species in Andalusia during the 1960s and 1990s, using data from maps available from the Mainland Spanish Fish, Game and National Parks Service and from recent datasets on hunting yield distributions, respectively. Big-game and small-game species were significantly segregated in southern Spain during the 1990s, as two clearly independent chorotypes (groups of species whose abundances are similarly distributed) were obtained from the classification analysis. In contrast, big-game and small-game species were not significantly segregated several decades ago, when there was only one chorotype consisting of small-game species and wild boar. The other three ungulates did not constitute a significant chorotype, as they showed positive correlations with some species in the group mentioned above. These changes seem to be a consequence of the transformations that have occurred in the Iberian Mediterranean landscape over the last few decades. The abandoning of traditional activities, and the consequent formation of dense scrubland and woodland, has led to an expansion of big-game species, and a decrease of small-game species in mountain areas. Moreover, agricultural intensification has apparently depleted small-game species populations in some agricultural areas. On the other hand, the increasingly intensive hunting management could be artificially boosting this segregation between small-game and big-game species. Our results suggest that the conservation and regeneration of traditional agricultural landscapes (like those predominating in the 1960s

  14. The seasonal characteristics of the breeze circulation at a coastal