WorldWideScience

Sample records for southern french drainages

  1. Acid drainage (AD) in nature and environmental impact of acid mine drainage (AMD) in Southern Tuscany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Lella, Luigi Antonello; Protano, Giuseppe; Riccobono, Francesco

    2005-01-01

    Acid drainage (AD) is a natural process occurring locally at the Earth's surface. It consists in a substantial increase of acidity of surface waters as a result of chemical reactions occurring in the atmosphere (i.e. acid rain) or involving reactive phases (i.e. pyrite) present in the percolated medium. Acidic surface waters (usually pH < 4) can be produced by oxidation of sulphides (mainly pyrite and other iron sulphides) exposed to atmospheric oxygen, while human activities, such as mining, can greatly enhance this process. Acid drainage promoted by mining activities is called acid mine drainage (AMD) and is a primary source of environmental pollution and a world-wide problem in both active and abandoned mining areas. In fact, exposure of iron sulphides to oxidising conditions produces strongly acidic drainage waters rich in sulphate and a variety of heavy elements (i.e. As, Cd, Pb, Sb). Several occurrences of active acid mine drainage have been found in the Metalliferous Hills (southern Tuscany). The most important AMD phenomena were observed in the Fenice Capanne and Niccioleta mining areas

  2. A survey of percutaneous chest drainage practice in French university surgical ICU's.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remérand, F; Bazin, Y; Gage, J; Laffon, M; Fusciardi, J

    2014-04-01

    Percutaneous chest drainage guidelines were published in 2010 by the British Thoracic Society. On several points (insertion technique, drain size), they seem to differ from French practices. Our objectives were to evaluate practice of pleural drainage in French University surgical intensive care units (ICU's), and to compare it with the British guidelines. National phone survey. Physicians working in 58 ICU's were surveyed first in 2007, and subsequently in 2012. They were read a questionnaire to evaluate the demographic characteristics of their units, their indication for pleural drainage, how they quantified pleural effusion, and their technique for drain insertion. Data from the two surveys were compared to detect an evolution in practice following the publication of the British guidelines. Results are expressed as the mean response. In 2007, pleural drainage indications relied on various respiratory criteria in 91% of cases (versus 95% in 2012) and/or on pleural effusion volume in 71% of cases (versus 59% in 2012). Trocars (Monod or Joly) were used in 68% of the procedures in 2007. In the rest, either blunt dissection, a Pleurocath® or the Seldinger technique was utilized. From 2007 to 2012, the Seldinger technique increased in frequency (10% versus 22%, P=0.005) while Monod trocar usage decreased (41% vs 29%, P=0.012). Ultrasound before pleural effusion drainage became nearly systematic in 2012 (60% vs 86%, Pdrains) for pleural drainage in French ICU's differs significantly from the British guidelines. Copyright © 2014 Société française d’anesthésie et de réanimation (Sfar). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Rainfall control of debris-flow triggering in the Réal Torrent, Southern French Prealps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bel, Coraline; Liébault, Frédéric; Navratil, Oldrich; Eckert, Nicolas; Bellot, Hervé; Fontaine, Firmin; Laigle, Dominique

    2017-08-01

    This paper investigates the occurrence of debris flow due to rainfall forcing in the Réal Torrent, a very active debris flow-prone catchment in the Southern French Prealps. The study is supported by a 4-year record of flow responses and rainfall events, from three high-frequency monitoring stations equipped with geophones, flow stage sensors, digital cameras, and rain gauges measuring rainfall at 5-min intervals. The classic method of rainfall intensity-duration (ID) threshold was used, and a specific emphasis was placed on the objective identification of rainfall events, as well as on the discrimination of flow responses observed above the ID threshold. The results show that parameters used to identify rainfall events significantly affect the ID threshold and are likely to explain part of the threshold variability reported in the literature. This is especially the case regarding the minimum duration of rain interruption (MDRI) between two distinct rainfall events. In the Réal Torrent, a 3-h MDRI appears to be representative of the local rainfall regime. A systematic increase in the ID threshold with drainage area was also observed from the comparison of the three stations, as well as from the compilation of data from experimental debris-flow catchments. A logistic regression used to separate flow responses above the ID threshold, revealed that the best predictors are the 5-min maximum rainfall intensity, the 48-h antecedent rainfall, the rainfall amount and the number of days elapsed since the end of winter (used as a proxy of sediment supply). This emphasizes the critical role played by short intense rainfall sequences that are only detectable using high time-resolution rainfall records. It also highlights the significant influence of antecedent conditions and the seasonal fluctuations of sediment supply.

  4. Allegheny woodrat (Neotoma magister) use of rock drainage channels on reclaimed mines in southern West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamblin, H.D.; Wood, P.B.; Edwards, J.W.

    2004-01-01

    Allegheny woodrats (Neotoma magister) currently receive protected status throughout their range due to population declines. Threats associated with habitat fragmentation (e.g., introduced predators, disease, loss of connectivity among subpopulations and habitat loss) may explain why Allegheny woodrats are no longer found in many areas where they existed just 25 y ago. In southern West Virginia, surface coal mining is a major cause of forest fragmentation. Furthermore, mountaintop mining, the prevalent method in the region, results in a loss of rock outcrops and cliffs within forested areas, typical habitat of the Allegheny woodrat To determine the extent that Allegheny woodrats make use of reclaimed mine land, particularly rock drainages built during reclamation, we sampled 24 drainage channels on reclaimed surface mines in southern West Virginia, collected habitat data at each site and used logistic regression to identify habitat variables related to Allegheny woodrat presence. During 187 trap nights, 13 adult, 2 subadult and 8 juvenile Allegheny woodrats were captured at 13 of the 24 sites. Percent of rock as a groundcover and density of stems >15 cm diameter-at-breast-height (DBH) were related to Allegheny woodrat presence and were significantly greater at sites where Allegheny woodrats were present than absent. Sites where Allegheny woodrats were present differed substantially from other described habitats in West Virginia, though they may simulate boulder piles that occur naturally. Our findings suggest the need for additional research to examine the dynamics between Allegheny woodrat populations inhabiting rock outcrops in forests adjacent to mines and populations inhabiting constructed drainage channels on reclaimed mines. However, if Allegheny woodrats can use human-created habitat, our results will be useful to surface mine reclamation and to other mitigation efforts where rocky habitats are lost or disturbed.

  5. Implications of drainage rearrangement for passive margin escarpment evolution in southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sordi, Michael Vinicius; Salgado, André Augusto Rodrigues; Siame, Lionel; Bourlès, Didier; Paisani, Julio Cesar; Léanni, Laëtitia; Braucher, Régis; Do Couto, Edivando Vítor; Aster Team

    2018-04-01

    Although several authors have pointed out the importance of earth surface process to passive margin escarpments relief evolution and even drainage rearrangements, the dynamics of a consolidated capture area (after a drainage network erodes the escarpment, as the one from the Itajaí-Açu River) remain poorly understood. Here, results are presented from radar elevation and aerial imagery data coupled with in-situ-produced 10Be concentrations measured in sand-sized river-born sediments from the Serra Geral escarpment, southern Brazil. The Studied area's relief evolution is captained by the drainage network: while the Itajaí-Açu watershed relief is the most dissected and lowest in elevation, it is significantly less dissected in the intermediate elevation Iguaçu catchment, an important Paraná River tributary. These less dissected and topographically higher areas belong to the Uruguai River catchment. These differences are conditioned by (i) different lithology compositions, structures and genesis; (ii) different morphological configurations, notably slope, range, relief; and (iii) different regional base levels. Along the Serra Geral escarpment, drainage features such as elbows, underfitted valleys, river profile anomalies, and contrasts in mapped χ-values are evidence of the rearrangement process, mainly beheading, where ocean-facing tributaries of the Itajaí-Açu River capture the inland catchments (Iguaçu and Uruguai). The 10Be derived denudation rates reinforced such processes: while samples from the Caçador and Araucárias Plateaus yield weighted means of 3.1 ± 0.2 and 6.5 ± 0.4 m/Ma respectively, samples from along the escarpment yield a weighted mean of 46.8 ± 3.6 m/Ma, almost 8 times higher. Such significant denudation rate differences are explained by base-level control, relief characteristics, and the geology framework. The main regional morphological evolutionary mechanism is headward denudation and piracy by the Itajaí-Açu River tributaries

  6. Geochemistry of acid mine drainage from a coal mining area and processes controlling metal attenuation in stream waters, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VERIDIANA P. CAMPANER

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Acid drainage influence on the water and sediment quality was investigated in a coal mining area (southern Brazil. Mine drainage showed pH between 3.2 and 4.6 and elevated concentrations of sulfate, As and metals, of which, Fe, Mn and Zn exceeded the limits for the emission of effluents stated in the Brazilian legislation. Arsenic also exceeded the limit, but only slightly. Groundwater monitoring wells from active mines and tailings piles showed pH interval and chemical concentrations similar to those of mine drainage. However, the river and ground water samples of municipal public water supplies revealed a pH range from 7.2 to 7.5 and low chemical concentrations, although Cd concentration slightly exceeded the limit adopted by Brazilian legislation for groundwater. In general, surface waters showed large pH range (6 to 10.8, and changes caused by acid drainage in the chemical composition of these waters were not very significant. Locally, acid drainage seemed to have dissolved carbonate rocks present in the local stratigraphic sequence, attenuating the dispersion of metals and As. Stream sediments presented anomalies of these elements, which were strongly dependent on the proximity of tailings piles and abandoned mines. We found that precipitation processes in sediments and the dilution of dissolved phases were responsible for the attenuation of the concentrations of the metals and As in the acid drainage and river water mixing zone. In general, a larger influence of mining activities on the chemical composition of the surface waters and sediments was observed when enrichment factors in relation to regional background levels were used.

  7. Geochemistry of acid mine drainage from a coal mining area and processes controlling metal attenuation in stream waters, southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campaner, Veridiana P; Luiz-Silva, Wanilson; Machado, Wilson

    2014-05-14

    Acid drainage influence on the water and sediment quality was investigated in a coal mining area (southern Brazil). Mine drainage showed pH between 3.2 and 4.6 and elevated concentrations of sulfate, As and metals, of which, Fe, Mn and Zn exceeded the limits for the emission of effluents stated in the Brazilian legislation. Arsenic also exceeded the limit, but only slightly. Groundwater monitoring wells from active mines and tailings piles showed pH interval and chemical concentrations similar to those of mine drainage. However, the river and ground water samples of municipal public water supplies revealed a pH range from 7.2 to 7.5 and low chemical concentrations, although Cd concentration slightly exceeded the limit adopted by Brazilian legislation for groundwater. In general, surface waters showed large pH range (6 to 10.8), and changes caused by acid drainage in the chemical composition of these waters were not very significant. Locally, acid drainage seemed to have dissolved carbonate rocks present in the local stratigraphic sequence, attenuating the dispersion of metals and As. Stream sediments presented anomalies of these elements, which were strongly dependent on the proximity of tailings piles and abandoned mines. We found that precipitation processes in sediments and the dilution of dissolved phases were responsible for the attenuation of the concentrations of the metals and As in the acid drainage and river water mixing zone. In general, a larger influence of mining activities on the chemical composition of the surface waters and sediments was observed when enrichment factors in relation to regional background levels were used.

  8. Pestiviruses infections at the wild and domestic ruminants interface in the French Southern Alps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Claire; Duquesne, Véronique; Adam, Gilbert; Belleau, Eric; Gauthier, Dominique; Champion, Jean-Luc; Saegerman, Claude; Thiéry, Richard; Dubois, Eric

    2015-02-25

    In alpine pasture, interspecies transmission has recently been incriminated in the epidemiology of pestivirus infection. The aim of this study was to investigate pestivirus infections in wild and domestic ruminants sharing pastures in the French Southern Alps. Animal sera were screened for pestivirus antibodies against the pestivirus NS3 protein by a commercial blocking enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). All 38 domestic herds tested were positive for pestivirus-specific antibodies. Individual sero-prevalence reached 76.5% (95% confidence interval [95% CI]: [74.2-78.8%]) of the 1383 sheep tested. For wild ruminants, 38.7% (95% CI: [33.8-43.9%]) of the 369 chamois tested, 28.7% (95% CI: [17.4-38.1%]) of the 72 roe deer, and 22.2% (95% CI: [6.5-37.9%]) of the 27 mouflons were seropositive. Virus screening was carried out on spleen samples from hunted wild animals (n=160) and from 15 domestic ruminants (clinically suspected to be persistently infected animals), by a conventional reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Three pestivirus strains were isolated from the sheep samples positive by RT-PCR. The viruses were classified in the BDV-3, BDV-Tunisian and BDV-6 genotypes. For the first time, one strain (RUPI-05 strain) was isolated from an alpine chamois and clustered in the BDV-6 genotype, showing in the 5'-UTR region 92% of identity with the ovine isolate from the same area. Thus, an active circulation of pestiviruses was demonstrated in both wild and domestic ungulates from the French Southern Alps. The results suggest that interspecies transmission between sheep and chamois probably occur. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Hydrologic assessment of three drainage basins in the Pinelands of southern New Jersey, 2004-06

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Richard L.; Nicholson, Robert S.; Storck, Donald A.

    2011-01-01

    The New Jersey Pinelands is an ecologically diverse area in the southern New Jersey Coastal Plain, most of which overlies the Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system. The demand for groundwater from this aquifer system is increasing as local development increases. Because any increase in groundwater withdrawals has the potential to affect streamflows and wetland water levels, and ultimately threaten the ecological health and diversity of the Pinelands ecosystem, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the New Jersey Pinelands Commission, began a multi-phase hydrologic investigation in 2004 to characterize the hydrologic system supporting the aquatic and wetland communities of the New Jersey Pinelands area (Pinelands). The current investigation of the hydrology of three representative drainage basins in the Pinelands (Albertson Brook, McDonalds Branch, and Morses Mill Stream basins) included a compilation of existing data; collection of water-level and streamflow data; mapping of the water-table altitude and depth to the water table; and analyses of water-level and streamflow variability, subsurface gradients and flow patterns, and water budgets. During 2004-06, a hydrologic database of existing and new data from wells and stream sites was compiled. Methods of data collection and analysis were defined, and data networks consisting of 471 wells and 106 surface-water sites were established. Hydrographs from 26 water-level-monitoring wells and four streamflow-gaging stations were analyzed to show the response of water levels and streamflow to precipitation and recharge with respect to the locations of these wells and streams within each basin. Water-level hydrographs show varying hydraulic gradients and flow potentials, and indicate that responses to recharge events vary with well depth and proximity to recharge and discharge areas. Results of the investigation provide a detailed characterization of hydrologic conditions, processes, and relations among the components

  10. Drainage divides, Massachusetts; Blackstone and Thames River basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krejmas, Bruce E.; Wandle, S. William

    1982-01-01

    Drainage boundaries for selected subbasins of the Blackstone and Thames River basins in eastern Hampden, eastern Hampshire, western Norfolk, southern Middlesex, and southern Worcester Counties, Massachusetts, are delineated on 12 topographic quadrangle maps at a scale of 1:24,000. Drainage basins are shown for all U.S. Geological Survey data-collection sites and for mouths of major rivers. Drainage basins are shown for the outlets of lakes or ponds and for streams where the drainage area is greater than 3 square miles. Successive sites along watercourses are indicated where the intervening area is at least 6 miles on tributary streams or 15 square miles along the Blackstone River, French River, or Quinebaug River. (USGS)

  11. Recent, climate-driven river incision rate fluctuations in the Mercantour crystalline massif, southern French Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, C.; Goren, L.; Rolland, Y.; Bourlès, D.; Braucher, R.; Saillard, M.; Cassol, D.

    2017-06-01

    We present a new geomorphological analysis of the Tinée River tributaries in the southern French Alps based on numerical inverse and forward modelling of their longitudinal profiles. We model their relative uplift history with respect to the main channel, hence the incision rate history of this channel. Inverse models show that all tributaries have consistent incision rate histories with alternating high and low values. A comparison with global temperature curves shows that these variations correlate with quaternary climate changes. We suggest that during warm periods, a wave of regressive erosion propagates in the Tinée River, while its tributaries deeply incise their substratum to catch up with the falling base-level. We also show that the post 140 ka history of this landscape evolution is dominated by fluvial incision. We then perform forward models of river incision and simulate the incision of the Tinée River system over a time span of 600 ka. This model allows us to extract time and space incision rate variations of the Tinée River. With a background of a few mm.yr-1, incision rate can increase up to more than 1 cm yr-1 during short periods of time due to climatic oscillations. This result is compatible with published cosmogenic nuclide based dating, which evidenced incision rates from 0.2 to 24 mm yr-1. The part of the channel located between 12 and 20 km downstream from the source has undergone several periods of rapid incision rates, which could explain the steep hillslopes and the triggering of a landslide ∼10 ka ago.

  12. Juvenile Southern Pine Response to Fertilization Is Influenced by Soil Drainage and Texture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J. Albaugh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We examined three hypotheses in a nutrient dose and application frequency study installed in juvenile (aged 2–6 years old Pinus stands at 22 sites in the southeastern United States. At each site, eight or nine treatments were installed where nitrogen was applied at different rates (0, 67, 134, 268 kg ha−1 and frequencies (0, 1, 2, 4 and 6 years in two or four replications. Phosphorus was applied at 0.1 times the nitrogen rate and other elements were added as needed based on foliar nutrient analysis to insure that nutrient imbalances were not induced with treatment. Eight years after treatment initiation, the site responses were grouped based on texture and drainage characteristics: soil group 1 consisted of poorly drained soils with a clayey subsoil, group 2 consisted of poorly to excessively drained spodic soils or soils without a clay subsoil, and group 3 consisted of well-drained soils with a clayey subsoil. We accepted the first hypothesis that site would be a significant factor explaining growth responses. Soil group was also a significant factor explaining growth response. We accepted our second hypothesis that the volume growth-cumulative dose response function was not linear. Volume growth reached an asymptote in soil groups 1 and 3 between cumulative nitrogen doses of 300–400 kg ha−1. Volume growth responses continued to increase up to 800 kg ha−1 of cumulatively applied nitrogen for soil group 2. We accepted our third hypothesis that application rate and frequency did not influence the growth response when the cumulative nitrogen dose was equivalent. There was no difference in the growth response for comparisons where a cumulative nitrogen dose of 568 kg ha−1 was applied as 134 kg ha−1 every two years or as 269 kg ha−1 every four years, or where 269 kg ha−1 of nitrogen was applied as four applications of 67 kg ha−1 every two years or as two applications of 134 kg ha−1 every four years. Clearly, the sites examined

  13. Seasonality of macroalgal communities in a subtropical drainage basin in Paraná state, southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, C C Z; Krupek, R A; Peres, C K

    2008-11-01

    Seasonal dynamics of macroalgal communities was analyzed monthly by samplings in three stream segments of the Pedras River Basin, mid-south region of Paraná State, southern Brazil, from April 2004 to March 2005. The seasonal fluctuations in macroalgal species richness and abundance were correlated with selected environmental variables. In general, the seasonal distribution patterns of these communities were distinct from those reported from other tropical and temperate regions, with higher macroalgal richness and abundance observed from late spring to late fall. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that the stream variable most closely related with the temporal distribution pattern observed was temperature, which had a very similar seasonal pattern to the biological parameters. On the other hand, the floristic composition was quite diverse in the streams sampled. Among the 25 taxa identified, only two were common to the three streams whereas 15 were restricted to a single sampling site. These data indicate that, although temperature seems to be an effective relationship with global temporal pattern, particular characteristics of each stream can strongly influence the seasonal tendencies in local scale. The results of Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA) and Cluster Analysis corroborated this observation.

  14. Seasonality of macroalgal communities in a subtropical drainage basin in Paraná state, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CCZ. Branco

    Full Text Available Seasonal dynamics of macroalgal communities was analyzed monthly by samplings in three stream segments of the Pedras River Basin, mid-south region of Paraná State, southern Brazil, from April 2004 to March 2005. The seasonal fluctuations in macroalgal species richness and abundance were correlated with selected environmental variables. In general, the seasonal distribution patterns of these communities were distinct from those reported from other tropical and temperate regions, with higher macroalgal richness and abundance observed from late spring to late fall. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that the stream variable most closely related with the temporal distribution pattern observed was temperature, which had a very similar seasonal pattern to the biological parameters. On the other hand, the floristic composition was quite diverse in the streams sampled. Among the 25 taxa identified, only two were common to the three streams whereas 15 were restricted to a single sampling site. These data indicate that, although temperature seems to be an effective relationship with global temporal pattern, particular characteristics of each stream can strongly influence the seasonal tendencies in local scale. The results of Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA and Cluster Analysis corroborated this observation.

  15. Abandoned mine drainage in the Swatara Creek Basin, southern anthracite coalfield, Pennsylvania, USA: 2. performance of treatment systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravotta, Charles A.

    2010-01-01

    A variety of passive and semi-passive treatment systems were constructed by state and local agencies to neutralize acidic mine drainage (AMD) and reduce the transport of dissolved metals in the upper Swatara Creek Basin in the Southern Anthracite Coalfield in eastern Pennsylvania. To evaluate the effectiveness of selected treatment systems installed during 1995–2001, the US Geological Survey collected water-quality data at upstream and downstream locations relative to each system eight or more times annually for a minimum of 3 years at each site during 1996–2007. Performance was normalized among treatment types by dividing the acid load removed by the size of the treatment system. For the limestone sand, open limestone channel, oxic limestone drain, anoxic limestone drain (ALD), and limestone diversion well treatment systems, the size was indicated by the total mass of limestone; for the aerobic wetland systems, the size was indicated by the total surface area of ponds and wetlands. Additionally, the approximate cost per tonne of acid treated over an assumed service life of 20 years was computed. On the basis of these performance metrics, the limestone sand, ALD, oxic limestone drain, and limestone diversion wells had similar ranges of acid-removal efficiency and cost efficiency. However, the open limestone channel had lower removal efficiency and higher cost per ton of acid treated. The wetlands effectively attenuated metals transport but were relatively expensive considering metrics that evaluated acid removal and cost efficiency. Although the water-quality data indicated that all treatments reduced the acidity load from AMD, the ALD was most effective at producing near-neutral pH and attenuating acidity and dissolved metals. The diversion wells were effective at removing acidity and increasing pH of downstream water and exhibited unique potential to treat moderate to high flows associated with storm flow conditions.

  16. Early Holocene estuary development of the Hesselø Bay area, southern Kattegat, Denmark and its implication for Ancylus Lake drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendixen, Carina; Boldreel, Lars Ole; Jensen, Jørn Bo; Bennike, Ole; Hübscher, Christian; Clausen, Ole Rønø

    2017-12-01

    High-resolution shallow seismic data, sediment core information, radiocarbon dating and sequence stratigraphy have been used to interpret the late glacial to early Holocene geological evolution of Hesselø Bay in the southern Kattegat, Denmark. A reconstruction of the early Holocene coastal environment and a description of coastal processes associated with a river outlet into the bay are presented. Weichselian glacial deposits form the lowermost interpreted unit, covered by late glacial (LG) and postglacial (PG, Holocene) sediments. A funnel-shaped estuary existed at the mouth of channels in the period 10.3-9.2 cal. ka BP; the channels drained water from south to north. The early PG is characterised by estuarine and coastal deposits. The early Holocene bars that developed in the estuary are preserved as morphological features on the present-day seabed, possibly as a result of rapid relative sea-level rise. The estuary existed simultaneously with the occurrence and drainage of the Ancylus Lake. The drainage of this lake occurred through the Dana River (palaeo-Great Belt channel) into the southern Kattegat and then into the study area. The level of the Ancylus Lake in the Baltic Sea region dropped significantly at about 10.2 cal. ka BP at the same time as the estuary developed in the Kattegat region. One outcome of the present study is an enhanced understanding of the Ancylus Lake drainage path. No evidence of major erosion is seen, which indicates non-catastrophic continuous water flow from the south without major drainage events of the Ancylus Lake to the southern Kattegat. During the Littorina transgression, coastal estuarine conditions characterized the Hesselø Bay area where elongated ridges formed a bar system. As the Littorina transgression continued, back-stepping of the bar system and coastline occurred. When the transgression breached the Great Belt threshold, flooding caused major erosion throughout the study area.

  17. Investigating the ancient landscape and Cenozoic drainage development of southern Yukon (Canada), through restoration modeling of the Cordilleran-scale Tintina Fault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, N.; Jackson, L. E.; Ryan, J. J.

    2017-12-01

    This study of southern Yukon (Canada) challenges the notion that the landscape in the long-lived, tectonically active, northern Canadian Cordillera is implicitly young. The impact of Cenozoic displacement along the continental- scale Tintina Fault on the development of the Yukon River and drainage basins of central Yukon is investigated through geophysical and hydrological modeling of digital terrain model data. Regional geological evidence suggests that the age of the planation of the Yukon plateaus is at least Late Cretaceous, rather than Neogene as previously concluded, and that there has been little penetrative deformation or net incision in the region since the late Mesozoic. The Tintina Fault has been interpreted as having experienced 430 km of dextral displacement, primarily during the Eocene. However, the alignment of river channels across the fault at specific displacements, coupled with recent seismic events and related fault activity, indicate that the fault may have moved in stages over a longer time span. Topographic restoration and hydrological models show that the drainage of the Yukon River northwestward into Alaska via the ancestral Kwikhpak River was only possible at restored displacements of up to 50-55 km on the Tintina Fault. We interpret the published drainage reversals convincingly attributed to the effects of Pliocene glaciation as an overprint on earlier Yukon River reversals or diversions attributed to tectonic displacements along the Tintina Fault. At restored fault displacements of between 230 and 430 km, our models illustrate that paleo Yukon River drainage conceivably may have flowed eastward into the Atlantic Ocean via an ancestral Liard River, which was a tributary of the paleo Bell River system. The revised drainage evolution if correct requires wide-reaching reconsideration of surficial geology deposits, the flow direction and channel geometries of the region's ancient rivers, and importantly, exploration strategies of placer gold

  18. 10Be exposure dating of the timing of Neoglacial glacier advances in the Ecrins-Pelvoux massif, southern French Alps

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    Le Roy, Melaine; Deline, Philip; Carcaillet, Julien; Schimmelpfennig, Irene; Ermini, Magali; Aster Team

    2017-12-01

    Alpine glacier variations are known to be reliable proxies of Holocene climate. Here, we present a terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide (TCN)-based glacier chronology relying on 24 new 10Be exposure ages, which constrain maximum Neoglacial positions of four small to mid-sized glaciers (Rateau, Lautaret, Bonnepierre and Etages) in the Ecrins-Pelvoux massif, southern French Alps. Glacier advances, marked by (mainly lateral) moraine ridges that are located slightly outboard of the Little Ice Age (LIA, c. 1250-1860 AD) maximum positions, were dated to 4.25 ± 0.44 ka, 3.66 ± 0.09 ka, 2.09 ± 0.10 ka, c. 1.31 ± 0.17 ka and to 0.92 ± 0.02 ka. The '4.2 ka advance', albeit constrained by rather scattered dates, is to our knowledge exposure-dated here for the first time in the Alps. It is considered as one of the first major Neoglacial advance in the western Alps, in agreement with other regional paleoclimatological proxies. We further review Alpine and Northern Hemisphere mid-to-high latitude evidence for climate change and glacier activity concomitant with the '4.2 ka event'. The '2.1 ka advance' was not extensively dated in the Alps and is thought to represent a prominent advance in early Roman times. Other Neoglacial advances dated here match the timing of previously described Alpine Neoglacial events. Our results also suggest that a Neoglacial maximum occurred at Etages Glacier 0.9 ka ago, i.e. during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA, c. 850-1250 AD). At Rateau Glacier, discordant results are thought to reflect exhumation and snow cover of the shortest moraine boulders. Overall, this study highlights the need to combine several sites to develop robust Neoglacial glacier chronologies in order to take into account the variability in moraine deposition pattern and landform obliteration and conservation.

  19. Thermal usage of drainage water at the southern entrance to the Gotthard base railway tunnel - Feasibility study, phase II; Waermenutzung Tunnelwasser Basistunnel Gotthard, Suedportal. Machbarkeitsstudie Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dups, Ch. [Gruneko AG, Basel (Switzerland)

    2004-07-01

    This final report presents a review of the results of work done on behalf of the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) on research into the possible uses of the rock water collected behind the tunnel linings of the new Gotthard base tunnel under the Swiss Alps. This report regards only the southern entrance. Estimates of the quantity of drainage water and its temperature are presented, as are possible uses for the warm water as a basis for a tropical greenhouse, fish breeding, a wellness-spa, district heating, and individual heat-pumps as well as for heating the Alp Transit visitor centre. Figures are quoted on effective heating-energy costs and reductions to be obtained in fossil fuel use. The high sensitivity of the energy price with respect to electricity prices and the degree to which buildings are connected to a district heating system is discussed. Possible use of the tunnel water in other municipalities in the area are also listed. Figures on heating-power and heating-energy supply are quoted for several of the various possible projects.

  20. Landslide Hazard Assessment and Mapping in the Guil Catchment (Queyras, Southern French Alps): From Landslide Inventory to Susceptibility Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roulleau, Louise; Bétard, François; Carlier, Benoît; Lissak, Candide; Fort, Monique

    2016-04-01

    Landslides are common natural hazards in the Southern French Alps, where they may affect human lives and cause severe damages to infrastructures. As a part of the SAMCO research project dedicated to risk evaluation in mountain areas, this study focuses on the Guil river catchment (317 km2), Queyras, to assess landslide hazard poorly studied until now. In that area, landslides are mainly occasional, low amplitude phenomena, with limited direct impacts when compared to other hazards such as floods or snow avalanches. However, when interacting with floods during extreme rainfall events, landslides may have indirect consequences of greater importance because of strong hillslope-channel connectivity along the Guil River and its tributaries (i.e. positive feedbacks). This specific morphodynamic functioning reinforces the need to have a better understanding of landslide hazards and their spatial distribution at the catchment scale to prevent local population from disasters with multi-hazard origin. The aim of this study is to produce a landslide susceptibility mapping at 1:50 000 scale as a first step towards global estimation of landslide hazard and risk. The three main methodologies used for assessing landslide susceptibility are qualitative (i.e. expert opinion), deterministic (i.e. physics-based models) and statistical methods (i.e. probabilistic models). Due to the rapid development of geographical information systems (GIS) during the last two decades, statistical methods are today widely used because they offer a greater objectivity and reproducibility at large scales. Among them, multivariate analyses are considered as the most robust techniques, especially the logistic regression method commonly used in landslide susceptibility mapping. However, this method like others is strongly dependent on the accuracy of the input data to avoid significant errors in the final results. In particular, a complete and accurate landslide inventory is required before the modelling

  1. Use of heat from the drainage water at the southern end of the Gotthard low-level rail tunnel - Feasibility study, phase II; Waermenutzung Tunnelwasser Basistunnel Gotthard, Suedportal. Machbarkeitsstudie Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dups, Ch.

    2004-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses the possibilities of using the drainage water at the southern end of the Gotthard low-level railway tunnel in Switzerland as a source of heat for several possible projects. The drainage water, estimated at 80 - 460 litres per second at a temperature of 30 - 35 {sup o}C, could possibly be used for heating greenhouses, providing a combined tropical greenhouse and fish farm, heating a wellness-spa, or for district heating or the heating of particular buildings. The thermal use of the water and its further use as drinking water is also considered. Figures on energy yields and costs are presented and estimates of the savings in fossil fuels and carbon dioxide emissions are quoted.

  2. Spatial and temporal dynamics of sediment in contrasted mountainous watersheds (Mexican transvolcanic belt and French Southern Alps) combining river gauging, elemental geochemistry and fallout radionuclides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evrard, O.; Navratil, O.; Gratiot, N.; Némery, J.; Duvert, C.; Ayrault, S.; Lefèvre, I.; Legout, C.; Bonté, P.; Esteves, M.

    2009-12-01

    In mountainous environments, an excessive fine sediment supply to the rivers typically leads to an increase in water turbidity, contaminant transport and a rapid filling of reservoirs. This situation is particularly problematic in regions where water reservoirs are used to provide drinking water to large cities (e.g. in central Mexico) or where stream water is used to run hydroelectric power plants (e.g. in the French Southern Alps). In such areas, sediment source areas first need to be delineated and sediment fluxes between hillslopes and the river system must be better understood before implementing efficient erosion control measures. In this context, the STREAMS (« Sediment Transport and Erosion Across MountainS ») project funded by the French National Research Agency (ANR) aims at understanding the spatial and temporal dynamics of sediment at the scale of mountainous watersheds (between 500 - 1000 km2) located in contrasted environments. This 3-years study is carried out simultaneously in a volcanic watershed located in the Mexican transvolcanic belt undergoing a subhumid tropical climate, as well as in a sedimentary watershed of the French Southern Alps undergoing a transitional climate with Mediterranean and continental influences. One of the main specificities of this project consists in combining traditional monitoring techniques (i.e. installation of river gauges, turbidimeters and sediment samplers in several sub-catchments) and sediment fingerprinting using elemental geochemistry (measured by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis - INAA - and Inductively Coupled Plasma - Mass Spectrometry - ICP-MS) and fallout radionuclides (measured by gamma spectrometry). In the French watershed, geochemical analysis allows outlining different sediment sources (e.g. the contribution of calcareous vs. marl-covered sub-watersheds). Radionuclide ratios (e.g.Be-7/Cs-137) allow identifying the dominant erosion processes occurring within the watershed. Areas mostly

  3. Parameterization of a numerical 2-D debris flow model with entrainment: a case study of the Faucon catchment, Southern French Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Y. Hussin

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of debris flows has been recorded for more than a century in the European Alps, accounting for the risk to settlements and other human infrastructure that have led to death, building damage and traffic disruptions. One of the difficulties in the quantitative hazard assessment of debris flows is estimating the run-out behavior, which includes the run-out distance and the related hazard intensities like the height and velocity of a debris flow. In addition, as observed in the French Alps, the process of entrainment of material during the run-out can be 10–50 times in volume with respect to the initially mobilized mass triggered at the source area. The entrainment process is evidently an important factor that can further determine the magnitude and intensity of debris flows. Research on numerical modeling of debris flow entrainment is still ongoing and involves some difficulties. This is partly due to our lack of knowledge of the actual process of the uptake and incorporation of material and due the effect of entrainment on the final behavior of a debris flow. Therefore, it is important to model the effects of this key erosional process on the formation of run-outs and related intensities. In this study we analyzed a debris flow with high entrainment rates that occurred in 2003 at the Faucon catchment in the Barcelonnette Basin (Southern French Alps. The historic event was back-analyzed using the Voellmy rheology and an entrainment model imbedded in the RAMMS 2-D numerical modeling software. A sensitivity analysis of the rheological and entrainment parameters was carried out and the effects of modeling with entrainment on the debris flow run-out, height and velocity were assessed.

  4. The Southern French registry of genetic hemochromatosis: a tool for determining clinical prevalence of the disorder and genotype penetrance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Martinez, Patricia; Bismuth, Michael; Blanc, François; Blanc, Pierre; Cunat, Severine; Dereure, Olivier; Dujols, Pierre; Giansily-Blaizot, Muriel; Jorgensen, Christian; Konate, Amadou; Larrey, Dominique; Le Quellec, Alain; Mura, Thibault; Raingeard, Isabelle; Ramos, Jeanne; Renard, Eric; Rousseau, Florence; Schved, Jean-François; Picot, Marie-Christine

    2010-04-01

    Despite great progress in understanding the mechanisms underlying genetic hemochromatosis, data on the prevalence and the penetrance of the disorder are conflicting. A registry of patients with genetic hemochromatosis was established in the South of France and a regional health network was developed to allow the inclusion of all the diagnosed patients. C282Y homozygous patients classified in stages 2 (biological iron overload), 3 and 4 (clinical manifestations of iron overload, stage 4 being the more severe) according to the classification of the French National Authority for Health were included in the registry over a 6-year period. A total of 352 symptomatic C282Y homozygotes were identified, resulting in a total prevalence of 1.83 per 10,000 (95% CI: 1.63 to 2.02) in subjects over 20 years and 2.40 per 10,000 (95% CI, 2.15 to 2.65) among subjects of European descent. Among Europeans, the total calculated penetrance was 15.8% in stage 2 or higher, 12.1% in stage 3 or 4 and 2.9% in stage 4. The penetrance was slightly higher in males (18.7%) than in females (13.2%). It was 19.9% for individuals over 40 years of age (24.1% and 16.3% in males and females, respectively) with a maximum of 31% in subjects between 50 and 54 years old. Among 249 patients with complete records, 24% were in stage 2, the majority (58%) were in stage 3, and 18% in stage 4. There was a higher proportion of males, and excessive alcohol intake was more prevalent in stage 4 than in stages 2 and 3 combined. A French Mediterranean regional hemochromatosis registry with strict inclusion criteria is a useful tool for characterizing the history of this disease, particularly for the most severely affected patients, as defined by the disease severity classification. The total prevalence of symptomatic C282Y homozygotes in the region was found to be low. However, clinical penetrance (stages 3 and 4) was not negligible.

  5. [Infant food diversification. Assessment of practices in relation to French recommendations in pediatricians and pediatric residents in southern France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banti, T; Carsin, A; Chabrol, B; Reynaud, R; Fabre, A

    2016-10-01

    Infant food diversification has undergone a rapid succession of good practice recommendations in France, but there has been no assessment of pediatrician practices on food diversification. To assess the practices of pediatricians in relation to current recommendations of the French Society of Pediatrics on infant food diversification. This was an observational study conducted from 1 November 2014 to 31 March 2015. The study population consisted of 97 pediatricians in the Var department and 84 pediatric residents assigned to the University of Aix-Marseille in France. A questionnaire was sent by email or post to determine physician characteristics, food diversification methods in healthy children and those at atopic risk, and how the pediatric consultation was conducted. The expected answers were based on the most recent recommendations of the French Society of Pediatrics published in 2008, updated from 2003. In summary, breastfeeding is recommended up to 6 months. Food diversification can be started between 4 and 6 months in children with no allergy risk. Gluten, honey, legumes and cow's milk are introduced between 4 and 7 months, after 12 months and after 36 months, respectively. In atopic children, food diversification is delayed until after 6 months and the most allergenic foods (nuts, exotic fruits, peanuts, and shellfish) are introduced after the age of 12 months. Eighty-four responses were obtained (51%): 50 pediatricians and 34 pediatric residents. Sixteen items were classified depending on whether or not an update after 2003 existed. Over 80% of the physicians responded as recommended for the recently updated items for the age of introduction of "solid food in healthy children", "gluten", "cow's milk protein hydrolysates", and "the time until introduction of cow's milk in the atopic child". At best, 65% of physicians responded in accordance with recommendations for items without a recent update, age of introduction of "cow's milk", "milk desserts

  6. Old inherited zircons in two synkinematic variscan granitoids: the 'granite du Pinet' and the 'Orthogneiss de Marvejols' (Southern French Massif Central)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pin, C.

    1981-01-01

    Two granitic bodies outcropping in the metamorphic basement of the Southern French Massif Central have been studied with the zircon U-Pb method: the Pinet granite (Rouergue area) and the Marvejols orthogneisses (Serie du Lot). It is shown that neither of them are pre-Variscan intrusions but that they were emplaced synkinematically, during the early stages of the Hercynian tectonometamorphic event. As numerous other S-type granitoids, both formations are characterized by an important inherited zircon component, whose apparent age is 1800 +- 200 m.y. Lower intersections with the Concordia curve allow to settle an emplacement age around 350-360 m.y., although the Pinet zircons display a complex pattern, owing both to heterogeneity of the inherited component and to late isotopic disturbances. Regional consequences of the synkinematic character of these S-type granitoids are outlined. It is shown that inherited zircons occurences often hinder accurate dating and the possible petrogenetic significance of the old proterozoic component is discussed. (orig.)

  7. Interpreting the Rock Paintings of Abri Faravel: laser and white-light scanning at 2,133m in the southern French Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Walsh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Abri Faravel, discovered in 2010 at 2,133m asl in the Parc National des Ecrins, Freissinières, Southern French Alps, is probably the most enigmatic high altitude site in the Alps. This rock shelter saw phases of human activity from the Mesolithic through to the medieval period; the artefactual assemblages comprise Mesolithic and Neolithic flint tools, Iron Age hand-thrown pottery, a Roman fibula and some medieval metalwork. However, the most interesting and unique feature on the site are the prehistoric rock paintings; the highest representations of animals (quadrupeds in Europe. These paintings are presented in this article. The paintings themselves were the object of a white-light scan, whilst the rock-shelter and surrounding landscape was scanned using a Faro laser scanner. Both of these models are presented here, and their interpretation elucidated by an assessment of the different phases of activity at the shelter, combined with a synthesis of other evidence from the area and pertinent environmental evidence.

  8. Subsurface drainage

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Der

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available and long term behavior were evaluated. Laboratory tests for geotextile selection are recommended and tentative criteria given. The use of fin drains was evaluated in the laboratory and a field study to monitor the efficacy of drainage systems was started...

  9. Water use, root activity and deep drainage within a perennial legume-grass pasture: A case study in southern inland Queensland, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nahuel A. Pachas

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Water use and depth of water extraction of leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala and Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana pasture, irrigated with desalinated coal seam water (a by-product of the coal seam gas industry, were monitored to provide background information on root activity, spatial and temporal water use and deep drainage over a 757-day period from August 2011 to August 2013. Methodology comprised measurement of soil water from surface to 4 m depth using 8 EnviroSCAN probes connected to dataloggers positioned within leucaena twin rows and within the Rhodes grass inter-row. Just over 581,000 individual moisture measurements were collated and are reported here. Water extraction (and by inference root activity of leucaena and Rhodes grass showed marked seasonal fluctuation with deepest and highest water extraction occurring during the first growing season; water extraction was greatly diminished during the following drier and cooler seasons due to the negative influences of lower soil moisture contents, lower temperatures and increased defoliation on pasture growth. The highest values of deep drainage below 4 m depth occurred when high rainfall events corresponded with high soil water storage in the entire profile (0–4 m depth. Given that water usage by both leucaena and Rhodes grass was greatest in the upper layers of soil (<1.5 m, future research should focus on how the level of competitive interaction might be managed by choice of row spacing and frequency of irrigation. Further studies are needed, including: (a physical sampling to determine the depth of active roots; (b how defoliation affects rooting behaviours and water use of leucaena; and (c modelling of the water and salt balances of leucaena and grass inter-row systems using data from this study, with various levels of irrigation, to investigate the risks of deep drainage over an extended climate sequence.Keywords: Active rooting depth, agroforestry, Chloris gayana, Leucaena leucocephala

  10. Nutrient intake in an elderly population in southern France (POLANUT): deficiency in some vitamins, minerals and omega-3 PUFA. : Nutrient deficiency in a French aged population.

    OpenAIRE

    Carrière, Isabelle; Delcourt, Cécile; Lacroux, Annie; Gerber, Mariette

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Evaluation of the nutritional status of an elderly cohort from a French Mediterranean area. DESIGN: Cross-sectional nutritional assessment in the framework of the population-based POLA cohort. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: 832 subjects aged 70 years or older answered a 165-item, semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Mean Nutritional Need (MNN) was defined as 77% of the French Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA). The risk for clinical deficiency (CD) was defined as intakes lower tha...

  11. Early Holocene estuary development of the Hesselø Bay area, southern Kattegat, Denmark and its implication for Ancylus Lake drainage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Carina; Boldreel, Lars Ole; Jensen, Jørn Bo

    2017-01-01

    environment and a description of coastal processes associated with a river outlet into the bay are presented. Weichselian glacial deposits form the lowermost interpreted unit, covered by late glacial (LG) and postglacial (PG, Holocene) sediments. A funnel-shaped estuary existed at the mouth of channels......High-resolution shallow seismic data, sediment core information, radiocarbon dating and sequence stratigraphy have been used to interpret the late glacial to early Holocene geological evolution of Hesselø Bay in the southern Kattegat, Denmark. A reconstruction of the early Holocene coastal...... in the period 10.3–9.2 cal. ka BP; the channels drained water from south to north. The early PG is characterised by estuarine and coastal deposits. The early Holocene bars that developed in the estuary are preserved as morphological features on the present-day seabed, possibly as a result of rapid relative sea...

  12. Abandoned mine drainage in the Swatara Creek Basin, southern anthracite coalfield, Pennsylvania, USA: 1. stream quality trends coinciding with the return of fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravotta, Charles A.; Brightbill, Robin A.; Langland, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Acidic mine drainage (AMD) from legacy anthracite mines has contaminated Swatara Creek in eastern Pennsylvania. Intermittently collected base-flow data for 1959–1986 indicate that fish were absent immediately downstream from the mined area where pH ranged from 3.5 to 7.2 and concentrations of sulfate, dissolved iron, and dissolved aluminum were as high as 250, 2.0, and 4.7 mg/L, respectively. However, in the 1990s, fish returned to upper Swatara Creek, coinciding with the implementation of AMD treatment (limestone drains, limestone diversion wells, limestone sand, constructed wetlands) in the watershed. During 1996–2006, as many as 25 species of fish were identified in the reach downstream from the mined area, with base-flow pH from 5.8 to 7.6 and concentrations of sulfate, dissolved iron, and dissolved aluminum as high as 120, 1.2, and 0.43 mg/L, respectively. Several of the fish taxa are intolerant of pollution and low pH, such as river chub (Nocomis icropogon) and longnose dace (Rhinichthys cataractae). Cold-water species such as brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) and warm-water species such as rock bass (Ambloplites rupestris) varied in predominance depending on stream flow and stream temperature. Storm flow data for 1996–2007 indicated pH, alkalinity, and sulfate concentrations decreased as the stream flow and associated storm-runoff component increased, whereas iron and other metal concentrations were poorly correlated with stream flow because of hysteresis effects (greater metal concentrations during rising stage than falling stage). Prior to 1999, pH\\5.0 was recorded during several storm events; however, since the implementation of AMD treatments, pH has been maintained near neutral. Flow-adjusted trends for1997–2006 indicated significant increases in calcium; decreases in hydrogen ion, dissolved aluminum, dissolved and total manganese, and total iron; and no change in sulfate or dissolved iron in Swatara Creek immediately downstream from the

  13. French Foodscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Liselotte

    By exploring how local and regional products and uses of food interact with the changes in the French cuisine over time, this paper seeks to retrace the history of the French meal through meanings of place and time, terroir and savoir-faire. The study will be based on sources from early modern/modern history...... the destructuralisation of eating habits have been raised since the 1980s, but numerous studies emphasise that the traditional French meal is still playing an important role in everyday life in France. Despite regional variations, the general view of the structure of a traditional French meal as based on the succession...... of flavours and the accordance with wines is widespread. Such a comprehension means giving precedence to gastronomic reasons for determining the order of dishes. However, the French meal has not always been composed in the way it is today and the reasons for the composition have not always been gastronomic...

  14. French Courses

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    General and Professional French Courses These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. The next session will take place from 28 January to 5 April 2013. Oral Expression This course is aimed for students with a good knowledge of French who want to enhance their speaking skills. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. The next session will take place from 28 January to 5 April 2013. Writing professional documents in French These courses are designed for non-French speakers with a very good standard of spoken French. The next session will take place from 28 January to 5 April 2013. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages or contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister.

  15. French Training

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2003-01-01

    General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place: from 13 October to 19 December 2003. These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages or contact Mrs. Fontbonne: Tel. 72844. Writing Professional Documents in French This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken French. Duration: 30 hours Price: 660 CHF (for 8 students) For further information and registration, please consult our Web pages or contact Mrs. Fontbonne: Tel. 72844. Language Training Françoise Benz Tel.73127 language.training@cern.ch

  16. Drainage of radioactive areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-04-01

    This Code of Practice covers all the drainage systems which may occur in the radioactive classified area of an establishment, namely surface water, foul, process and radioactive drainage. It also deals with final discharge lines. The Code of Practice concentrates on those aspects of drainage which require particular attention because the systems are in or from radioactive areas and typical illustrations are given in appendices. The Code makes references to sources of information on conventional aspects of drainage design. (author)

  17. Transient drainage summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-09-01

    This report summarizes the history of transient drainage issues on the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. It defines and describes the UMTRA Project disposal cell transient drainage process and chronicles UMTRA Project treatment of the transient drainage phenomenon. Section 4.0 includes a conceptual cross section of each UMTRA Project disposal site and summarizes design and construction information, the ground water protection strategy, and the potential for transient drainage

  18. Mine drainage treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Golomeova, Mirjana; Zendelska, Afrodita; Krstev, Boris; Golomeov, Blagoj; Krstev, Aleksandar

    2012-01-01

    Water flowing from underground and surface mines and contains high concentrations of dissolved metals is called mine drainage. Mine drainage can be categorized into several basic types by their alkalinity or acidity. Sulfide rich and carbonate poor materials are expected to produce acidic drainage, and alkaline rich materials, even with significant sulfide concentrations, often produce net alkaline water. Mine drainages are dangerous because pollutants may decompose in the environment. In...

  19. French courses

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2012-01-01

    General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 2nd May to 6th July 2012. These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages or contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister.   Oral Expression This course is aimed for students with a good knowledge of French who want to enhance their speaking skills. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. Suitable candidates should contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister (70896) in order to arrange an appointment for a test. The next session will take place from 2nd May to 6th July 2012.   Writing professional documents in French These courses are designed for non-French speakers with a very good standard of spoken French. Suitable candidates should contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister (70896) in order to arrange an appointment for a test. The next session will take place from 2nd May to ...

  20. French courses

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 29 April to 5 July 2013. These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages or contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister (kerstin.fuhrmeister@cern.ch). Oral Expression This course is aimed for students with a good knowledge of French who want to enhance their speaking skills. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. Suitable candidates should contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister (70896) in order to arrange an appointment for a test. The next session will take place from 29 April to 5 July 2013. Writing professional documents in French These courses are designed for non-French speakers with a very good standard of spoken French. Suitable candidates should contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister (70896) in order to arrange an appointment for a test. The next session will take place from 29 April to 5 July...

  1. Access French

    CERN Document Server

    Grosz, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    Access is the major new language series designed with the needs of today's generation of students firmly in mind. Whether learning for leisure or business purposes or working towards a curriculum qualification, Access French is specially designed for adults of all ages and gives students a thorough grounding in all the skills required to understand, speak, read and write contemporary French from scratch. The coursebook consists of 10 units covering different topic areas, each of which includes Language Focus panels explaining the structures covered and a comprehensive glossary. Learning tips

  2. French regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballereau, P.

    1998-01-01

    In this issue are given the new French regulations relative to radiation protection of temporary personnel, the licensing to release gaseous and liquid wastes and the licensing granted to thirty two laboratories using beta and gamma decay radioisotopes. (N.C.)

  3. WATER DRAINAGE MODEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Case, J.B.

    2000-01-01

    The drainage of water from the emplacement drift is essential for the performance of the EBS. The unsaturated flow properties of the surrounding rock matrix and fractures determine how well the water will be naturally drained. To enhance natural drainage, it may be necessary to introduce engineered drainage features (e.g. drilled holes in the drifts), that will ensure communication of the flow into the fracture system. The purpose of the Water Drainage Model is to quantify and evaluate the capability of the drift to remove water naturally, using the selected conceptual repository design as a basis (CRWMS M andO, 1999d). The analysis will provide input to the Water Distribution and Removal Model of the EBS. The model is intended to be used to provide postclosure analysis of temperatures and drainage from the EBS. It has been determined that drainage from the EBS is a factor important to the postclosure safety case

  4. Pleural fluid drainage: Percutaneous catheter drainage versus surgical chest tube drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Illescas, F.F.; Reinhold, C.; Atri, M.; Bret, P.M.

    1987-01-01

    Over the past 4 years, 55 cases (one transudate, 28 exudates, and 26 empymas) were drained. Surgical chest tubes alone were used in 35 drainages, percutaneous catheters alone in five drainages, and both types in 15 drainages. Percutaneous catheter drainage was successful in 12 of 20 drainages (60%). Surgical tube drainage was successful in 18 of 50 drainages (36%). The success rate for the nonempyema group was 45% with both types of drainage. For the empyema group, the success rate for percutaneous catheter drainage was 66% vs 23% for surgical tube drainage. Seven major complications occurred with surgical tube drainage, but only one major complication occurred with percutaneous catheter drainage. Radiologically guided percutaneous catheter drainage should be the procedure of choice for pleural fluid drainage. It has a higher success rate for empyemas and is associated with less complications

  5. Integration of social dimension in an index oriented methodology for consequence analysis of natural hazards: application to the Upper Guil Catchment (Southern French Alps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlier, Benoit; Puissant, Anne; Dujarric, Constance

    2017-04-01

    Vulnerability assessment together with hazard exposure is generally accepted as the two main steps of risk analysis. If quantitative methods to estimate hazard exposure are now well-defined, it is not the case regarding vulnerability assessment. Vulnerability is a complex concept involving a variety of disciplines from physical and socio-economic sciences (i.e. engineering, economics, social and health sciences etc.). Currently, two opposite trends exist: the 'physical' approach in which vulnerability is analysed as potential impacts (i.e. structural and functional) on the elements at risk (building, network, land cover); and the 'social' approach in which vulnerability is a combination of socio-economic variables determining people's ability to anticipate before a catastrophic event, to react during it, and to recover after it. For a complete analysis of vulnerability it is essential to combine these two approaches but in reality few works exists. The objective of this research is to improve the Potential Damage Index (PDI), detailed in Puissant el al. (2013), originally developed to assess physical injury, structural and functional consequences of landslide hazard, by including socio-economic characteristics of population information. Data from the French Census data (INSEE, 2012) and a survey on risk perception (100 questionnaires obtained between 2014 and 2015/16) were used to propose an overall index taking into account the three main phases of risk management: preparedness, crisis management and recovery. This new index called Global Potential Damage Index (GPDI) is applied on the Upper Guil Catchment to assess potential torrential floods hazard in the context of the French funded project SAMCO (Society Adaptation for coping with Mountain risks in a global change Context). Results of the PDI are compared with the GPDI and show significant differences. GPDI scores mapping are lower than PDI scores indicating that resilient population may qualify results

  6. French Customs

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    Please note that the French Customs (initially located in Building 904, Prévessin) are now located in Ferney-Voltaire (FR): Mrs Catherine NEUVILLE Douane de Ferney-Voltaire Rue de Genève F – 01210 Ferney-Voltaire Phone : 33 4 50 40 51 42 Email : catherine.neuville@douane.finances.gouv.fr Tom Wegelius Tel: 79947 Logistics and Site Services

  7. French visas

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The French Ministry of Foreign Affairs (hereinafter "MAE") has informed CERN of the following new regulations governing the visas required when submitting requests for French legitimation documents (cf. in particular paragraph b) below concerning the facilities recently granted to certain categories of persons who are not nationals of Switzerland or of a member state of the European Economic Area). This notification replaces that which appeared in Bulletin No.19/2006 (ref. CERN/DSU-DO/RH/13173/Rev.). 1. Special residence permit ("Titre de séjour special") To qualify for a special residence permit from the MAE, persons who are not nationals of Switzerland or of a member state of the European Economic Area (hereinafter "EEA") must present the following upon arrival at CERN: a)\teither a “D”-type (long-stay) French visa marked “carte PROMAE à solliciter à l’arrivée”, even if they are not subject to the requirement to obtain an entrance and short-stay visa in France...

  8. [Ascites drainage at home

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lutjeboer, J.; Erkel, A.R. van; Hoeven, J.J.M. van der; Meer, R.W. van der

    2015-01-01

    Ascites can lead to many symptoms, and often occurs in patients with an end-stage malignancy such as ovarian, pancreatic, colonic, or gastric cancer. Intermittent ascites drainage is applied in these patients as a palliative measure. As frequent drainage is necessary, a subcutaneously tunnelled

  9. French slanguage

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, Michael

    2012-01-01

    With this fun visual guide, simply follow the illustrated prompts and read the English words out loud: soon you'll be speaking French! Ask how someone is doing: "Comet Haley View" or say thank you very much: "Mare See Bow Cool." The simple icons are easy to follow and this pocket-sized guide is easy to carry with you. It will give you the basic phrases you need to get around while traveling, whether asking directions, ordering food at a restaurant, or shopping. But most of all, it's just plain fun!

  10. Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jae Hyung; Hong, Seong Mo; Han, Man Chung

    1982-01-01

    Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage was successfully made 20 times on 17 patients of obstructive jaundice for recent 1 year since June 1981 at Department of Radiology in Seoul National University Hospital. The causes of obstructive jaundice was CBD Ca in 13 cases, metastasis in 2 cases, pancreatic cancer in 1 case and CBD stone in 1 case. Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage is a relatively ease, safe and effective method which can be done after PTC by radiologist. It is expected that percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage should be done as an essential procedure for transient permanent palliation of obstructive jaundice

  11. French training

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The next session will take place from 29 January to 30 March 2007. These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz: tel. 73127. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 29 January to 30 March 2007. This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken French. Duration: 30 hours Price: 660 CHF (for 8 students) For further information and registration, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz: tel. 73127. Writing Professional Documents in English The next session will take place from January to June 2007 (break at Easter). This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken English. Duration: 30 hours Price: 660 CHF (for 8 students) Timetable will be fixed after discussion with the students. For further information and registration, please consu...

  12. Acid Mine Drainage Treatment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fripp, Jon

    2000-01-01

    .... Acid mine drainage (AMD) can have severe impacts to aquatic resources, can stunt terrestrial plant growth and harm wetlands, contaminate groundwater, raise water treatment costs, and damage concrete and metal structures...

  13. Agricultural Drainage Well Intakes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Locations of surface intakes for registered agriculture drainage wells according to the database maintained by IDALS. Surface intakes were located from their...

  14. Surface Water & Surface Drainage

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set contains boundaries for all surface water and surface drainage for the state of New Mexico. It is in a vector digital data structure digitized from a...

  15. [Ascites drainage at home].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutjeboer, Jacob; van Erkel, Arian R; van der Hoeven, J J M Koos; van der Meer, Rutger W

    2015-01-01

    Ascites can lead to many symptoms, and often occurs in patients with an end-stage malignancy such as ovarian, pancreatic, colonic, or gastric cancer. Intermittent ascites drainage is applied in these patients as a palliative measure. As frequent drainage is necessary, a subcutaneously tunnelled permanent ascites catheter is a good alternative for intermittent drainage. The patient can open - and then re-close - the catheter when abdominal pressure increases. We inserted 35 subcutaneously permanent ascites catheters in the course of the past 3.5 years in the Leiden University Medical Centre. The success rate was 100% and the complication risk was 2.9%. A subcutaneously tunnelled ascites catheter is an effective and safe palliative treatment for patients with end-stage malignant disease and suffering from ascites.

  16. Agricultural drainage water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madani, A.; Gordon, R.

    2002-01-01

    'Full text:' Agricultural drainage systems have been identified as potential contributors of non-point source pollution. Two of the major concerns have been with nitrate-nitrogen (NO3 - -N) concentrations and bacteria levels exceeding the Maximum Acceptable Concentration in drainage water. Heightened public awareness of environmental issues has led to greater pressure to maintain the environmental quality of water systems. In an ongoing field study, three experiment sites, each with own soil properties and characteristics, are divided into drainage plots and being monitored for NO3 - -N and fecal coliforms contamination. The first site is being used to determine the impact of the rate of manure application on subsurface drainage water quality. The second site is being used to determine the difference between hog manure and inorganic fertilizer in relation to fecal coliforms and NO3-N leaching losses under a carrot rotation system. The third site examines the effect of timing of manure application on water quality, and is the only site equipped with a surface drainage system, as well as a subsurface drainage system. Each of the drains from these fields lead to heated outflow buildings to allow for year-round measurements of flow rates and water samples. Tipping buckets wired to data-loggers record the outflow from each outlet pipe on an hourly basis. Water samples, collected from the flowing drains, are analyzed for NO3 - -N concentrations using the colorimetric method, and fecal coliforms using the Most Probable Number (MPN) method. Based on this information, we will be able better positioned to assess agricultural impacts on water resources which will help towards the development on industry accepted farming practices. (author)

  17. French Teaching Aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J. Dale

    Supplementary teaching materials for French language programs are presented in this text. Primarily intended for secondary school students, the study contains seven units of material. They include: (1) French gestures, (2) teaching the interrogative pronouns, (3) French cuisine, (4) recreational learning games, (5) French-English cognates, (6)…

  18. Drainage Water Filtration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tile drainage discharge from managed turf is known to carry elevated concentrations of agronomic fertilizers and chemicals. One approach being considered to reduce the transport is end-of-tile-filters. Laboratory and field studies have been initiated to address the efficacy of this approach. Result...

  19. Wound Drainage Culture (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Wound Drainage Culture KidsHealth / For Parents / Wound Drainage Culture What's in ...

  20. French grammar for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Mazet, Veronique

    2013-01-01

    The easy way to master French grammar French Grammar For Dummies is a logical extension and complement to the successful language learning book, French For Dummies. In plain English, it teaches you the grammatical rules of the French language, including parts of speech, sentence construction, pronouns, adjectives, punctuation, stress and verb tenses, and moods. Throughout the book, you get plenty of practice opportunities to help you on your goal of mastering basic French grammar and usage. Grasp the grammatical rules of French including parts of speech, sentenc

  1. Percutaneous drainage of lung abscesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Sonnenberg, E.; D'Agostino, H.; Casola, G.; Vatney, R.R.; Wittich, G.R.; Harker, C.

    1989-01-01

    The authors performed percutaneous drainage of lung abscesses in 12 patients. Indications for drainage were septicemia and persistence or worsening of radiographic findings. These lung abscesses were refractory to intravenous antibiotics and to bronchial toilet. Etiology of the abscesses included pneumonia (most frequently), trauma, postoperative development, infected necrotic neoplasm, and infected sequestration. Guidelines for drainage included passage of the catheter through contiguously abnormal lung and pleura, inability of the patient to cough, and/or bronchial obstruction precluding bronchial drainage. Cure was achieved in 11 of 12 patients. Catheters were removed on an average of 16 days after insertion. Antibiotics were administered an average of 18 days before drainage. No major complications occurred

  2. Acid mine drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigham, Jerry M.; Cravotta, Charles A.

    2016-01-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) consists of metal-laden solutions produced by the oxidative dissolution of iron sulfide minerals exposed to air, moisture, and acidophilic microbes during the mining of coal and metal deposits. The pH of AMD is usually in the range of 2–6, but mine-impacted waters at circumneutral pH (5–8) are also common. Mine drainage usually contains elevated concentrations of sulfate, iron, aluminum, and other potentially toxic metals leached from rock that hydrolyze and coprecipitate to form rust-colored encrustations or sediments. When AMD is discharged into surface waters or groundwaters, degradation of water quality, injury to aquatic life, and corrosion or encrustation of engineered structures can occur for substantial distances. Prevention and remediation strategies should consider the biogeochemical complexity of the system, the longevity of AMD pollution, the predictive power of geochemical modeling, and the full range of available field technologies for problem mitigation.

  3. Reconnaissance investigation of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in the Pine River Project area, Southern Ute Indian Reservation, southwestern Colorado and northwestern New Mexico, 1988-89

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, D.L.; Krueger, R.P.; Osmundson, B.C.; Thompson, A.L.; Formea, J.J.; Wickman, D.W.

    1993-01-01

    During 1988-89, water, bottom sediment, biota, soil, and plants were sampled for a reconnaissance investigation of the Pine River Project area in southwestern Colorado. Irrigation drainage does not seem to be a major source of dissolved solids in streams. Concentrations of manganese, mercury, and selenium exceeded drinking-water regulations in some streams. The maximum selenium concentration in a stream sample was 94 microg/L in Rock Creek. Irrigation drainage and natural groundwater are sources of some trace elements to streams. Water from a well in a nonirrigated area had 4,800 microg/L of selenium. Selenium concentrations in soil on the Oxford Tract were greater in areas previously or presently irrigated than in areas never irrigated. Some forage plants on the Oxford Tract had large selenium concentrations, including 180 mg/km in alfalfa. Most fish samples had selenium concentrations greater than the National Contaminant Biomonitoring Program 85th percentile. Selenium concentrations in aquatic plants, aquatic inverte- brates, and small mammals may be of concern to fish and wildlife because of possible food-chain bioconcentration. Selenium concentrations in bird samples indicate selenium contamination of biota on the Oxford Tract. Mallard breasts had selenium concentrations exceeding a guideline for human consumption. The maximum selenium concentration in biota was 50 microg/g dry weight in a bird liver from the Oxford Tract. In some fish samples, arsenic, cadmium, copper, and zinc exceeded background concentrations, but concentrations were not toxic. Mercury concentrations in 16 fish samples exceeded the background concentration. Ten mercury concentrations in fish exceeded a guideline for mercury in food for consumption by pregnant women.

  4. Tile Drainage Expansion Detection using Satellite Soil Moisture Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, J. M.; Cho, E.; Jia, X.

    2017-12-01

    In the past two decades, tile drainage installation has accelerated throughout the Red River of the North Basin (RRB) in parts of western Minnesota, eastern North Dakota, and a small area of northeastern South Dakota, because the flat topography and low-permeability soils in this region necessitated the removal of excess water to improve crop production. Interestingly, streamflow in the Red River has markedly increased and six of 13 major floods during the past century have occurred since the late 1990s. It has been suggested that the increase in RRB flooding could be due to change in agricultural practices, including extensive tile drainage installation. Reliable information on existing and future tile drainage installation is greatly needed to capture the rapid extension of tile drainage systems and to locate tile drainage systems in the north central U.S. including the RRB region. However, there are few reliable data of tile drainage installation records, except tile drainage permit records in the Bois de Sioux watershed (a sub-basin in southern part of the RRB where permits are required for tile drainage installation). This study presents a tile drainage expansion detection method based on a physical principle that the soil-drying rate may increase with increasing tile drainage for a given area. In order to capture the rate of change in soil drying rate with time over entire RRB (101,500 km2), two satellite-based microwave soil moisture records from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) and AMSR2 were used during 2002 to 2016. In this study, a sub-watershed level (HUC10) potential tile drainage growth map was developed and the results show good agreement with tile drainage permit records of six sub-watersheds in the Bois de Sioux watershed. Future analyses will include improvement of the potential tile drainage map through additional information using optical- and thermal-based sensor products and evaluation of its

  5. The French experience

    CERN Document Server

    Bougard, Marie-Thérèse

    2003-01-01

    Developed for beginners, The French Experience 1 course book is designed to accompany the French Experience 1 CDs (9780563472582) but can also be used on its own to develop your reading and writing skills. You’ll gain valuable insights into French culture too.

  6. Cover crops mitigate direct greenhouse gases balance but reduce drainage under climate change scenarios in temperate climate with dry summers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribouillois, Hélène; Constantin, Julie; Justes, Eric

    2018-02-14

    Cover crops provide ecosystem services such as storing atmospheric carbon in soils after incorporation of their residues. Cover crops also influence soil water balance, which can be an issue in temperate climates with dry summers as for example in southern France and Europe. As a consequence, it is necessary to understand cover crops' long-term influence on greenhouse gases (GHG) and water balances to assess their potential to mitigate climate change in arable cropping systems. We used the previously calibrated and validated soil-crop model STICS to simulate scenarios of cover crop introduction to assess their influence on rainfed and irrigated cropping systems and crop rotations distributed among five contrasted sites in southern France from 2007 to 2052. Our results showed that cover crops can improve mean direct GHG balance by 315 kg CO 2 e ha -1  year -1 in the long term compared to that of bare soil. This was due mainly to an increase in carbon storage in the soil despite a slight increase in N 2 O emissions which can be compensated by adapting fertilization. Cover crops also influence the water balance by reducing mean annual drainage by 20 mm/year but increasing mean annual evapotranspiration by 20 mm/year compared to those of bare soil. Using cover crops to improve the GHG balance may help to mitigate climate change by decreasing CO 2 e emitted in cropping systems which can represent a decrease from 4.5% to 9% of annual GHG emissions of the French agriculture and forestry sector. However, if not well managed, they also could create water management issues in watersheds with shallow groundwater. Relationships between cover crop biomass and its influence on several variables such as drainage, carbon sequestration, and GHG emissions could be used to extend our results to other conditions to assess the cover crops' influence in a wider range of areas. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. French grammar and usage

    CERN Document Server

    Hawkins, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Long trusted as the most comprehensive, up-to-date and user-friendly grammar available, French Grammar and Usage is a complete guide to French as it is written and spoken today. It includes clear descriptions of all the main grammatical phenomena of French, and their use, illustrated by numerous examples taken from contemporary French, and distinguishes the most common forms of usage, both formal and informal.Key features include:Comprehensive content, covering all the major structures of contemporary French User-friendly organisation offering easy-to-find sections with cross-referencing and i

  8. French For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Erotopoulos; Williams, Michelle M; Wenzel, Dominique

    2011-01-01

    The fast, informal way to learn to speak French French is known as perhaps the most beautiful of all languages. Listen to someone speak French-sure, you don't have a clue what they're saying, but aren't you enraptured by the sound of it? French is a beautiful language but quite difficult to learn. Whether you need to learn the language for a French class, or you travel overseas for business or leisure, this revised edition of French for Dummies can help. Written in an easy-to-follow format, it gives you just what you need for basic communication in FrenchExpanded coverage of necessary grammar,

  9. Sustainable Drainage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miklas Scholz

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Urban water management has somewhat changed since the publication of The Sustainable Drainage System (SuDS Manual in 2007 [1], transforming from building traditional sewers to implementing SuDS, which are part of the best management practice techniques used in the USA and seen as contributing to water-sensitive urban design in Australia. Most SuDS, such as infiltration trenches, swales, green roofs, ponds, and wetlands, address water quality and quantity challenges, and enhance the local biodiversity while also being acceptable aesthetically to the public. Barriers to the implementation of SuDS include adoption problems, flood and diffuse pollution control challenges, negative public perception, and a lack of decision support tools addressing, particularly, the retrofitting of these systems while enhancing ecosystem services. [...

  10. Numerical modelling of Quaternary terrace staircase formation in the Ebro foreland basin, southern Pyrenees, NE Iberia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Balen, R.T.; Stange, K.M.; Cloetingh, S.A.P.L.; Garcia-Castellanos, D.

    2016-01-01

    The southern foreland basin of the Pyrenees (Ebro basin) is an exorheic drainage basin since Late Miocene times. Remnants of an early exorheic Ebro drainage system are not preserved, but morphology provides evidence for the Pliocene–Quaternary drainage development. The incision history of the Ebro

  11. A comprehensive French grammar

    CERN Document Server

    Price, Glanville

    2013-01-01

    Characterized by clear and accessible explanations, numerous examples and sample sentences, a new section on register and tone, and useful appendices covering topics including age and time, A Comprehensive French Grammar, Sixth Edition is an indispensable tool for advanced students of French language and literature.A revised edition of this established, bestselling French grammarIncludes a new section on register and medium and offers expanded treatment of French punctuationFeatures numerous examples and sample sentences, and useful appendices covering topics including age, time, and dimension

  12. French essentials for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Lawless, Laura K

    2011-01-01

    Just the core concepts you need to write and speak French correctly If you have some knowledge of French and want to polish your skills, French Essentials For Dummies focuses on just the core concepts you need to communicate effectively. From conjugating verbs to understanding tenses, this easy-to-follow guide lets you skip the suffering and score high at exam time. French 101 - get the lowdown on the basics, from expressing dates and times to identifying parts of speech Gender matters - see how a noun's gender determines the articles, adjectives, and pronouns y

  13. The new French Development aid towards French-speaking Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Konate, Sindou Michel

    2013-01-01

    This project is focused on French president François Hollande new policy initiation around French Development assistance issue, particularly to French speakingAfrica South of the Sahara. President Hollande wishes to distance himself from the practices of his predecessors on French Public Development Assistance toward its former African colonies This project is focused on French president François Hollande new policy initiation around French Development assistance issue, particularly to Fre...

  14. French PWR Safety Philosophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conte, M. M.

    1986-01-01

    The first 900 MWe units, built under the American Westinghouse licence and with reference to the U. S. regulation, were followed by 28 standardized units, C P1 and C P2 series. Increasing knowledge and lessons learned from starting and operating experience of French nuclear power plants, completed by the experience learned from the operation of foreign reactors, has contributed to the improvement of French PWR design and safety philosophy. As early as 1976, this experience was taken into account by French Safety organisms to discuss, with Electricite de France, the safety options for the planned 1300 MWe units, P4 and P4 series. In 1983, the new reactor scheduled, Ni4 series 1400 MWe, is a totally French design which satisfies the French regulations and other French standards and codes. Based on a deterministic approach, the French safety analysis was progressively completed by a probabilistic approach each of them having possibilities and limits. Increasing knowledge and lessons learned from operating experience have contributed to the French safety philosophy improvement. The methodology now applied to safety evaluation develops a new facet of the in depth defense concept by taking highly unlikely events into consideration, by developing the search of safety consistency of the design, and by completing the deterministic approach by the probabilistic one

  15. Routledge French technical dictionary

    CERN Document Server

    1994-01-01

    The French-English volume of this highly acclaimed set consists of some 100,000 keywords in both French and English, drawn from the whole range of modern applied science and technical terminology. Covers over 70 subject areas, from engineering and chemistry to packaging, transportation, data processing and much more.

  16. French nuclear organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naudet, G.

    1993-01-01

    The French nuclear organization is characterized by two main features: the small number of firms involved and the role of the Government. In this text we give the French organization for nuclear industry and the role of Government and public authorities. 7 figs

  17. Essential French grammar

    CERN Document Server

    Thacker, Mike

    2014-01-01

    Essential French Grammar is an innovative reference grammar and workbook for intermediate and advanced undergraduate students of French (CEFR levels B2 to C1). Its clear explanations of grammar are supported by contemporary examples and lively cartoon drawings.  Each chapter contains: * real-life language examples in French, with English translations * a 'key points' box and tables that summarise grammar concepts * a variety of exercises to reinforce learning * a contemporary primary source or literary extract to illustrate grammar in context. To aid your understanding, this book also contains a glossary of grammatical terms in French and English, useful verb tables and a key to the exercises. Together, these features all help you to grasp complex points of grammar and develop your French language skills.

  18. adequacy of drainage channels f drainage channels in a small

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    The area upon which waterfalls and the netw through ... ls were determined using the rational model and manning's equation. A .... runoff, including roads, culverts and drainage systems. ... hence, detailed design information of the drain is.

  19. Percutaneous drainage of lung abscess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ri, Jong Min; Kim, Yong Joo; Kang, Duk Sik [Kyung-Pook National University Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-05-15

    Medical treatment using antibiotics and postural drainage has been widely adopted as a treatment method of pulmonary abscess, accompanied by surgical methods in cases intractable to drug therapy. However long-term therapy may be required, and the tolerance of organisms to antibiotics or other complications are apt to be encountered, during medical treatment. To shorten the convalescent period or to decrease the risk of invasive procedures, rather simple and relatively easy interventional techniques such as transbronchial or percutaneous catheter drainage have been successfully tried. We have performed 12 cases of percutaneous drainages of lung abscesses under fluoroscope guidance. This report is on the results of this procedure.

  20. Percutaneous drainage of lung abscess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ri, Jong Min; Kim, Yong Joo; Kang, Duk Sik

    1992-01-01

    Medical treatment using antibiotics and postural drainage has been widely adopted as a treatment method of pulmonary abscess, accompanied by surgical methods in cases intractable to drug therapy. However long-term therapy may be required, and the tolerance of organisms to antibiotics or other complications are apt to be encountered, during medical treatment. To shorten the convalescent period or to decrease the risk of invasive procedures, rather simple and relatively easy interventional techniques such as transbronchial or percutaneous catheter drainage have been successfully tried. We have performed 12 cases of percutaneous drainages of lung abscesses under fluoroscope guidance. This report is on the results of this procedure

  1. Peritoneal Drainage Versus Pleural Drainage After Pediatric Cardiac Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowda, Keshava Murty Narayana; Zidan, Marwan; Walters, Henry L; Delius, Ralph E; Mastropietro, Christopher W

    2014-07-01

    We aimed to determine whether infants undergoing cardiac surgery would more efficiently attain negative fluid balance postoperatively with passive peritoneal drainage as compared to traditional pleural drainage. A prospective, randomized study including children undergoing repair of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) or atrioventricular septal defect (AVSD) was completed between September 2011 and June 2013. Patients were randomized to intraoperative placement of peritoneal catheter or right pleural tube in addition to the requisite mediastinal tube. The primary outcome measure was fluid balance at 48 hours postoperatively. Variables were compared using t tests or Fisher exact tests as appropriate. A total of 24 patients were enrolled (14 TOF and 10 AVSD), with 12 patients in each study group. Mean fluid balance at 48 hours was not significantly different between study groups, -41 ± 53 mL/kg in patients with periteonal drainage and -9 ± 40 mL/kg in patients with pleural drainage (P = .10). At 72 hours however, postoperative fluid balance was significantly more negative with peritoneal drainage, -52.4 ± 71.6 versus +2.0 ± 50.6 (P = .04). On subset analysis, fluid balance at 48 hours in patients with AVSD was more negative with peritoneal drainage as compared to pleural, -82 ± 51 versus -1 ± 38 mL/kg, respectively (P = .02). Fluid balance at 48 hours in patients with TOF was not significantly different between study groups. Passive peritoneal drainage may more effectively facilitate negative fluid balance when compared to pleural drainage after pediatric cardiac surgery, although this benefit is not likely universal but rather dependent on the patient's underlying physiology. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. What French for Gabonese French Lexicography

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    administration, international relations, teaching, the media, trade, transport, tourism, .... The present study refutes such as reductive definition of what Gabonese .... language than French limits itself to public speeches and support to linguistics ...... sité Omar Bongo du Gabon: Série Lettres, Droit, Sciences et Médecine: 55-63.

  3. French in Culinary World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rila Hilma

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available More than million foods have been made by people from all over the world in the latest years. People now try to create new cooks and make some creativity on it. Then, cooking which the field is culinary has become an art because it needs an artistic value to decorate the food, a good taste and proper technique in processing delicious food in order to make it a masterpiece. French culinary is as famous as the Eiffel tower in the heart of the country, Paris. Most of fine dining international restaurants apply the French menu and cooking. This article presents an overview about the French element in culinary world; starts from its history, kitchen organization, French menu spelling, and French cooking vocabulary. The discussion proceeds library research to compile the data. Later, the art of culinary is interesting to be learned because it contains the classical history of world civilization, in this case French civilization. The issue of cooking trend “nouvelle cuisine” was a masterpiece of one of the greatest chef in his time, Escoffier. French culinary is widely well-known in all over the world because of innovation, creativity, and proud. Those are spirits that we must learn.   

  4. Nonsurgical drainage of splenic abscess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkman, W.A.; Harris, S.A. Jr.; Bernardino, M.E.

    1983-01-01

    The mortality associated with intraabdominal abscess remains high despite modern surgical methods and antibiotics. Draingae of abscesses of the abdomen, retroperitoneum, pelvis, pancreatic pseudocyst, mediastinum, and lung may be treated effectively by percutaneous catheter placement. In several reports of percutaneous abdominal abscess drainage, only three cases of splenic abscess drainage have been reported. The authors have recently drained two splenic abscesses with the aid of computed tomography (CT) and emphasize several advantages of the percutaneous guided approach

  5. What French for Gabonese French lexicography? | Assam | Lexikos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is a response to Mavoungou (2013a) who has pleaded for the production of a dictionary of Gabonese French as variant B of the French language. The paper intends to com-prehend the concept of "Gabonese French". It gives an outline of the situation of French within the language diversity of Gabon as a ...

  6. Use of French, Attitudes and Motivations of French Immersion Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Keilen, Marguerite

    1995-01-01

    Compares the degree to which pupils in the French immersion and regular English school programs speak French and initiate contact with French people. Attitudes and motivations were significantly more positive, and social tolerance and self-rated competency in French were much higher in the immersion than in English program subjects. (29…

  7. French PWR safety philosophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conte, M.

    1986-05-01

    Increasing knowledge and lessons learned from starting and operating experience of French nuclear power plants, completed by the experience learned from the operation of foreign reactors, has contributed to the improvement of French PWR design and safety philosophy. Based on a deterministic approach, the French safety analysis was progressively completed by a probabilistic approach, each of them having possibilities and limits. As a consequence of the global risk objective set in 1977 for nuclear reactors, safety analysis was extended to the evaluation of events more complex than the conventional ones, and later to the evaluation of the feasibility of the offsite emergency plans in case of severe accidents

  8. Flirting with French

    CERN Document Server

    Alexander, William

    2015-01-01

    William Alexander is not just a Francophile, he wants to be French. It's not enough to explore the country, to enjoy the food and revel in the ambience, he wants to feel French from the inside. Among the things that stand in his way is the fact that he can't actually speak the language. Setting out to conquer the language he loves (but which, amusingly, does not seem to love him back), Alexander devotes himself to learning French, going beyond grammar lessons and memory techniques to delve into the history of the language, the science of linguistics, and the art of translation. Along

  9. The French and energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouquette, Celine; Moreau, Sylvain; Bottin, Anne; Reperant, Patricia

    2012-08-01

    In 2012, as in 2011, the French are favourable to renewable energy. If they could, around 60% of them would opt for solar, fuelwood or heat pumps for heating. Wind power is also viewed favourably. Aware of environmental issues, the French are prepared to change their habits in the face of climate change, and two-thirds are even prepared to make sacrifices. One-third declares having already taken action or intending to do so to reduce their energy consumption. The cost of energy remains a central issue: faced with higher prices, half of French people would reduce their consumption. However, information on the subject of energy needs to be improved. (authors)

  10. French plutonium management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greneche, D.

    2002-01-01

    The French plutonium management program is summarized in this paper. The program considers nuclear generation as a major component of national electric power supply and includes the reprocessing of the spent fuel. (author)

  11. French Dictionaries. Series: Specialised Bibliographies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaar, R. M.

    This is a list of French monolingual, French-English and English-French dictionaries available in December 1975. Dictionaries of etymology, phonetics, place names, proper names, and slang are included, as well as dictionaries for children and dictionaries of Belgian, Canadian, and Swiss French. Most other specialized dictionaries, encyclopedias,…

  12. Geomorphologic Analysis of Drainage Basins in Damavand Volcano Cone, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zareinejad, M.

    2011-12-01

    Damavand volcanic cone is located in the center of the Alborz chain, in the southern Caspian Sea in Iran. Damavand is a dormant volcano in Iran. It is not only the country's highest peak but also the highest mountain on the Middle East; its elevation is 5619 m. The main purpose of this paper is recognition and appraisement of drainage basins in Damavand cone from geomorphic point of view. Water causes erosion in nature in different forms and creates diverse forms on the earth surface depending on the manner of its appearance in nature. Although water is itself a former factor, it flows under morphological effect of earth surface. The difference of earth surface topography and as a result water movement on it, cause the formation of sub-basins. Identification of region drainage basins is considered as one of the requirements for Damavand cone morphometric. Thereupon, five drainage basins were identified in this research by relying on main criteria including topographic contours with 10 m intervals, drainage system, DEM map, slope map, aspect map and satellite images. (Fig 1) Area, perimeter, height classification for classifying morphological landforms in different levels, hypsometric calculations, drainage density, etc. were then calculated by using ArcGIS software. (Table 1) Damavand cone, with a height more than 5,000 meters from the sea surface, has very hard pass slopes and our purpose in this paper is to identify the effect of drainage basins conditions in the region on erosion and the formation of morphological landforms by using SPOT, ASTER, satellite images as well as papering of data in GIS environment.

  13. Robert Jabea Kum Dibongue: A French Cameroonian in the Pan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The reunification of the two Cameroons was the main issue that the nationalists debated in the British Southern Cameroons after the Second World War. This article attempts an analysis of the central role played in this debate by Dibongue, a “settler” who migrated from French administered Cameroon. Based on data from ...

  14. The French coal board and French society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladoucette, Ph. de

    2004-01-01

    On 19 April 1946 the French national assembly passed a law for nationalizing the mineral fuel industry by a vote of 516 against only 31. 'Charbonnages de France' (CDF), the French coal board, was created and prospects were promising. During the reconstruction period (1945 - 1960), coal industry was a pillar of the French economy, the production of coal had been steadily growing to reach its top in 1958 with 59 Mt. The sixties showed the beginning of the decline of coal to the benefit of oil, natural gas and later nuclear energy. As early as 1967 CDF had a policy of promoting new industries in regions of mines in order to break down the mono-industry scheme and to favor staff conversion massively. In 1947 the number of people on the payroll of CDF was 360.000, this number was decreasing steadily to reach 23.000 in 1990. In 2004 the last deep mine to work in France was closed down. This article tells the story of coal mining in France by describing its ups and downs and by assessing its social impact

  15. 500 French verbs for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Erotopoulos

    2013-01-01

    Vexed by French verbs? Fear no more! In 500 French Verbs For Dummies, beginning French language learners can find a quick reference for verbs in the basic present tenses. More advanced French speakers can utilize this book to learn more complex verb tenses and conjugations as well as advanced verbs with irregular endings. One page for each of the 500 most commonly used verbs in the French language -alphabetically arranged and numbered for easy referenceSpecial designation of the 50 most essential French verbsA summary of basic French grammar that incl

  16. English and French courses

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    If one of your New Year’s resolutions is to learn a language, there is no excuse anymore!   You can attend one of our English or French courses and you can practise the language with a tandem partner! General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 27 January to 4 April 2014. These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. Oral Expression This course is aimed at students with a good knowledge of French who want to enhance their speaking skills. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. The next session will take place from 27 January to 4 April 2014. Writing professional documents in French These courses are designed for non-French speakers with a very good standard of spoken French. The next session will take place from 27 January to 4 April 2014. Cours d’anglais général et professionnel La prochaine session se déroulera du 3 mars a...

  17. Prolonged pericardial drainage using a soft drain reduces pericardial effusion and need for additional pericardial drainage following orthotopic heart transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yun Seok; Jung, Sung-Ho; Cho, Won Chul; Yun, Sung-Cheol; Park, Jeong-Jun; Yun, Tae-Jin; Kim, Jae-Joong; Lee, Jae Won

    2016-03-01

    Pericardial effusion can cause haemodynamic compromise after heart transplantation. We identified the effects of soft drains on the development of pericardial effusion. We enrolled 250 patients ≥17 years of age who underwent heart transplantation between July 1999 and April 2012 and received two conventional tubes (n = 96; 32 French), or two tubes with a soft drain (n = 154; 4.8 mm wide). The development of significant pericardial effusion or the need for drainage procedure during 1 month after heart transplantation was compared with the use of the propensity score matching method to adjust for selection bias. At 1 month after transplantation, 69 patients (27.6%) developed significant pericardial effusion. Among these, 13 patients (5.2%) underwent pericardial drainage. According to multivariate analysis, history of previous cardiac surgery [odds ratio (OR) = 0.162; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.046-0.565; P = 0.004] and placement of a soft drain (OR = 0.186; 95% CI = 0.100-0.346; P effusion or the need for drainage during the early postoperative period. For the 82 propensity score matched pairs, patients receiving an additional soft drain were at a lower risk of the development of significant pericardial effusion or the need for a pericardial drainage procedure during 1 month (OR = 0.148; 95% CI = 0.068-0.318; P effusion and decreases the need for pericardial drainage after heart transplantation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  18. Study of the magmatism related to the rifting of the central and southern Atlantic: 40Ar/39Ar geochronology and geochemistry of Jurassic intrusives of Guinea and French Guyana/Surinam, and Cretaceous intrusives of Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deckart, K.

    1996-01-01

    The initial stage of continental rifting in the Central and South Atlantic has been accompanied by tholeiitic magmatism, which is mainly represented by sills, dykes, layered intrusions and lava flows. During the rifting progression, the syn-rift stage in the South Atlantic has been accompanied by abundant alkaline magmatism. A geochronological and geochemical study has been performed on these formations with the aim to contribute to the understanding of the early continental rifting processes and their evolution. 40 Ar/ 39 Ar analyses have been done on tholeiitic intrusives of Guinea and French Guyana/Surinam, tholeiitic dykes, associated with the Parana volcanism (Brazil), and alkaline dykes in the region of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). The geochemical and isotopic study has been focused on the tholeiitic intrusions from Guinea and French Guyana/Surinam. These three arms may represent the three branches of a triple junction which was active between 134 to 129 Ma, and which was at the origin of at least the northern Parana traps. Even if the principal magmatic activity can be related to the thermal anomaly due to the Tristan da Cunha hotspot, which favours an active rifting, the tectonic system of the triple junction is not compatible in time and space with this hotspot and therefore with this geodynamic model. It is possible that the Parana traps (133-130 Ma) are only partly contemporaneous and therefore, they might be not related to the same mode of geodynamic initiation. Biotites from the alkaline magmatics of the dyke swarm (NE-SW) near Rio de Janeiro display plateau ages between 82 and 70 Ma; this intense alkaline magmatism was related to vertical movements characterising the syn-rift stage not only in SE-Brazil but also in equatorial Africa. (author)

  19. CT Fluoroscopy-Guided Transsacral Intervertebral Drainage for Pyogenic Spondylodiscitis at the Lumbosacral Junction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, Tomohiro, E-mail: t-matsu@tokai-u.jp; Mine, Takahiko, E-mail: mine@tsc.u-tokai.ac.jp; Hayashi, Toshihiko, E-mail: t.hayashi@tokai.ac.jp [Tokai University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Tokai University Hachioji Hospital (Japan); Kamono, Masahiro, E-mail: kamono@tsc.u-tokai.ac.jp; Taoda, Akiko, E-mail: acco@is.icc.u-tokai.ac.jp; Higaki, Megumu, E-mail: higaki@hachioji-hosp.tokai.ac.jp [Tokai University School of Medicine, Department of General Internal Medicine, Tokai University Hachioji Hospital (Japan); Hasebe, Terumitsu, E-mail: hasebe@tokai-u.jp [Tokai University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Tokai University Hachioji Hospital (Japan)

    2017-01-15

    PurposeTo retrospectively describe the feasibility and efficacy of CT fluoroscopy-guided transsacral intervertebral drainage for pyogenic spondylodiscitis at the lumbosacral junction with a combination of two interventional radiological techniques—CT-guided bone biopsy and abscess drainage.Materials and methodsThree patients with pyogenic spondylodiscitis at the lumbosacral junction were enrolled in this study between July 2013 and December 2015. The procedure of CT fluoroscopy-guided transsacral intervertebral drainage for pyogenic spondylodiscitis at the lumbosacral junction was as follows: the sacrum at S1 pedicle was penetrated with an 11-gauge (G) bone biopsy needle to create a path for an 8-French (F) pigtail drainage catheter. The bone biopsy needle was withdrawn, and an 18-G needle was inserted into the intervertebral space of the lumbosacral junction. Then, a 0.038-inch guidewire was inserted into the intervertebral space. Finally, the 8-F pigtail drainage catheter was inserted over the guidewire until its tip reached the intervertebral space. All patients received six-week antibiotics treatment.ResultsSuccessful placement of the drainage catheter was achieved for each patient without procedural complications. The duration of drainage was 17–33 days. For two patients, specific organisms were isolated; thus, definitive medical therapy was possible. All patients responded well to the treatment.ConclusionsCT fluoroscopy-guided transsacral intervertebral drainage for pyogenic spondylodiscitis at the lumbosacral junction is feasible and can be effective with a combination of two interventional techniques—CT fluoroscopy-guided bone biopsy and abscess drainage.

  20. The French energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maillard, D.; Baulinet, Ch.; Lajoinie, A.

    2001-01-01

    France has to face strong energy challenges: a heavy energy bill, increasing supplies risk, no decreasing CO 2 emissions, deregulation of energy markets, nuclear controversy etc.. In consequence, the French government has defined a voluntaristic energy policy with a better balance between the development of renewable energies and the mastery of energy and without renouncing the advantages of nuclear energy. In parallel, the electric power and natural gas industries have to cope with the deregulation of energy markets and the resulting competition. This issue of 'Energies et Matieres Premieres' newsletter comprises 3 articles. The first one gives a general presentation of the French energy policy ('mobilizing our margins of manoeuvre without renouncing our stakes'): challenges of the energy policy (greenhouse effect, security of supplies, long-term worldwide energy context, European integration, nuclear contestation), stakes for France (evolution of production structure, advantages of the French energy status), renewable energies and energy saving, long-term view of the nuclear industry, managing together the dynamism of competition and the advantages of public utilities. The second article entitled 'energy for everybody: a challenge for the 21. century' is a reprint of the introduction of the information report registered on January 31, 2001 by the commission of production and exchanges of the French national assembly. The third article is a reprint of the summary of conclusions and recommendations of the IEA about the French energy policy. (J.S.)

  1. Possible origin and significance of extension-parallel drainages in Arizona's metamophic core complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, J.E.

    2000-01-01

    -temperature, surface conditions. An alternative hypothesis, that drainages were localized by small fault grooves as footwalls were uncovered, is not supported by analysis of a down-plunge fault projection for the southern Rincon Mountains that shows a linear drainage aligned with the crest of a small antiformal groove on the detachment fault, but this process could have been effective elsewhere. Lineation-parallel drainages now plunge gently southwestward on the southwest ends of antiformal corrugations in the South and Buckskin Mountains, but these drainages must have originally plunged northeastward if they formed by either of the two alternative processes proposed here. Footwall exhumation and incision by northeast-flowing streams was apparently followed by core-complex arching and drainage reversal.

  2. Language Training - French Training

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 26 January to 3rd April 2009. These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Nathalie Dumeaux : Tel. 78144. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 26 January to 3rd April 2009. This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken French. Duration: 30 hours Price: 660 CHF For further information and registration, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Nathalie Dumeaux : Tel. 78144. Nathalie Dumeaux Tel. 78144 mailto:nathalie.dumeaux@cern.ch

  3. Language Training - French Training

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 26 January to 3rd April 2009. These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Nathalie Dumeaux : Tel. 78144. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 26 January to 3rd April 2009. This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken French. Duration: 30 hours Price: 660 CHF For further information and registration, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Nathalie Dumeaux : Tel. 78144. Nathalie Dumeaux Tel. 78144 mailto:nathalie.dumeaux@cern.ch

  4. French nuclear experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, M.; Barre, B.

    1984-01-01

    The French nuclear attache at the French Embassy in Washington discusses his country's energy program and his role at the embassy as a representative of the French nuclear industry. He reviews the nuclear program's growth since it began in 1945, and the impetus of the OPEC oil embargo to accelerate the program since 1973. The success of France's nuclear program is due to a convergence of reasons that include incentive, the existence of a single utility that could design and manage a project of this magnitude, and the decision to focus on the pressurized water reactor (PWR) built by a single supplier and offering the benefits of standardization. Controlling the fuel cycle is the basic philosophy of both the PWR and the breeder program. Barre recommends policies of pre-approved sites, standardization, and licensing reform for the US

  5. French Antilles and Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-11-01

    This discussion of French Antilles and Guiana cover the following: the people, geography, history, government, political conditions, economy, and relations with the US. In 1983 the population totaled 303,000 with an annual growth rate of 0.09%. The infant mortality rate (1981) was 12.6/1000 and life expectancy 68 years. About 98% of the people of Martinique are of Afro European or Afro European Indian descent. The remainder are the old planter families and a sizable number of metropolitan French. Most of the work force are employed in agriculture or food processing and associated industries. Most permanent residents of Guadeloupe are of mixed Afro European descent. A few thousand Metropolitan French reside there. Most French Guianese live along the coast, about 1/2 of them in the capital. Martinique is the northernmost of the Windward Islands, which are part of the Lesser Antilles chain in the Caribbean Sea southeast of Puerto Rico. Guadeloupe comprises 2 of the Leeward Islands, which are also part of the Lesser Antilles chain. French Guiana is located on the northern coast of South America, a few degrees north of the Equator. Indians were the 1st known indigenous inhabitants of French Guiana and the French Antilles. Columbus sighted Guadeloupe in 1493, Martinique in 1493 or 1502, and the Guiana coast probably during his 3rd voyage in 1498. French Guiana, Guadeloupe, and Martinique, as overseas departments of France since 1946, are integral parts of the French Republic. Their relationship to Metropolitan France is somewhat similar to that of Alaska and Hawaii to the counterminous US. Each department has a general council composed of 1 representative elected by each canton. Guadeloupe and Martinique each elect 2 senators to the French Senate and 3 deputies to the National Assembly. French Guiana elects 1 senator and 1 deputy. In each of the 3 departments exist individuals and small political parties that advocate immediate independence, but their adherents form only

  6. The French energy programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohnen, U.

    1980-01-01

    The challenge of the oil crisis made French energy policy react chiefly by means of a programme for the rapid expansion of nuclear energy which has become unparalleled because of its systematic realization. The following article gives a survey of this programme and its political preconditions. The French energy programme deserves special attention as the utilization of nuclear energy in France including all related activities has reached a more advanced stage than in most other countries. The effects and requirements connected with such an extensive programme which can therefore be investigated with the help of the French example migth be of importance also for other countries in a similar way. (orig./UA) [de

  7. in remediating acid mine drainage

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The management and treatment of contaminated mine water is one of the most urgent problems facing the South African mining industry. The cost advantage of permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) has seen their increased application as means of passively treating mine drainage. A PRB is built by placing a reactive material ...

  8. Ultrasound-guided endocavitary drainage of pelvic abscesses: Technique, results and complications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, R.S.; McGrath, F P.; Haslam, P.J.; Varghese, J.C.; Lee, M.J.

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the experience in our institution with ultrasound-guided transrectal and transvaginal (endocavitary) drainage of pelvic abscesses. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighteen patients (four male, 14 female; mean age 55 years, range 30-78 years) presenting with pelvic abscesses were referred to our institution for therapeutic drainage over a 4 year period. Patients received broad-spectrum antibiotics prior to drainage, which was performed by either the transvaginal or transrectal route under ultrasound guidance. Patients were given sedo-analgesia in the form of midazolam and fentanyl and local anaesthesia was also employed. Eight French catheters were inserted into the abscess cavities, and patients were subsequently monitored on a daily basis by a member of the interventional radiology team until such time as it was deemed appropriate to remove the catheter. RESULTS: Eighteen catheters were placed in 17 patients, and transvaginal aspiration alone was performed in one patient. Drainage was successful in 16 of 17 patients, but a transgluteal approach was ultimately required in the remaining patient to enable passage of a larger catheter into an infected haematoma. The mean duration of drainage was 5 days, mean time to defervesce 2 days. Spontaneous catheter dislodgement occurred in four patients associated with straining, but this did not have any adverse effect in three of the four patients. CONCLUSION: Endocavitary drainage is an effective method of treatment for pelvic abscesses. Spontaneous catheter dislodgement does not affect patient outcome

  9. Ultrasound-guided endocavitary drainage of pelvic abscesses: Technique, results and complications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, R.S.; McGrath, F P.; Haslam, P.J.; Varghese, J.C.; Lee, M.J

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the experience in our institution with ultrasound-guided transrectal and transvaginal (endocavitary) drainage of pelvic abscesses. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighteen patients (four male, 14 female; mean age 55 years, range 30-78 years) presenting with pelvic abscesses were referred to our institution for therapeutic drainage over a 4 year period. Patients received broad-spectrum antibiotics prior to drainage, which was performed by either the transvaginal or transrectal route under ultrasound guidance. Patients were given sedo-analgesia in the form of midazolam and fentanyl and local anaesthesia was also employed. Eight French catheters were inserted into the abscess cavities, and patients were subsequently monitored on a daily basis by a member of the interventional radiology team until such time as it was deemed appropriate to remove the catheter. RESULTS: Eighteen catheters were placed in 17 patients, and transvaginal aspiration alone was performed in one patient. Drainage was successful in 16 of 17 patients, but a transgluteal approach was ultimately required in the remaining patient to enable passage of a larger catheter into an infected haematoma. The mean duration of drainage was 5 days, mean time to defervesce 2 days. Spontaneous catheter dislodgement occurred in four patients associated with straining, but this did not have any adverse effect in three of the four patients. CONCLUSION: Endocavitary drainage is an effective method of treatment for pelvic abscesses. Spontaneous catheter dislodgement does not affect patient outcome.

  10. Percutaneous drainage of abdominal fluid collections that require laparotomy or relaparotomy with ultrasound guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miletic, D.; Topljak-Polic, D.; Uravic, M.; Fuckar, Z.; Glavas, R.

    2001-01-01

    Background. The aim of the study was to determine efficacy and reliability of percutaneous abdominal drainage in surgical patients and to evaluate intercostal approach to drain subphrenic collections. Material and methods. Eighty-seven patients aged from 29 to 84 years (mean, 55.5 years) were percutaneously drained under the sonographic guidance due to the postoperative or nonoperated abdominal collection that would otherwise require laparotomy. Intercostal, subcostal, lateral and anterior approach with eight to 14 French catheters were used to evacuate abdominal collection. Results. The intercostal approach was used to drain 31 (60.8%) of 51 subphrenic collections. The mean duration of drainage was independent of the intercostal or subcostal drainage route, but was significantly prolonged (p<0.05, Mann-Whitney U test) for purulent collections (median, 18 days; range 7-73 days) in comparison to hematomas, bilomas and other nonpurulent collections (median, 11 and 6 days, respectively). Sonographically guided percutaneous drainage was a definitive method in 92% patients, with 9.2% minor complications. Successful rate for subphrenic collections was even greater (96%). Conclusions. Sonographically guided percutaneous drainage is the method of choice in the treatment of abdominal collections that require laparotomy. If the puncture site is at least two intercostal spaces lower than the dome of diaphragm and catheter is not introduced through the pleural effusion, intercostal drainage is equally efficient and not less secure than subcostal approach. (author)

  11. French grammar in context

    CERN Document Server

    Jubb, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    Instructors' edition without answer keysDiscount of 20% offered when 10 ebooks are sold- e.g. they will be sold for 263.60/ £151.90 instead of 329.50/£189.90French Grammar in Context presents a unique and exciting approach to learning grammar. Authentic texts from a rich variety of sources, literary and journalistic, are used as the starting point for the illustration and explanation of key areas of French grammar. Each point is consolidated with a wide range of written and spoken exercises. Grammar is presented not as an end in itself, but as a

  12. School of Economic French

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Franceva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Economic French at MGIMO-University is based on the teaching methods developed by talented Methodist practitioner assistant professor L.L. Potushanskoy. She and her colleagues G.M. Kotova, N. Kolesnikova, I.A. Yudina created well-known in our country methodical complex of three textbooks. This complex is built on clear guidelines to facilitate the natural development of language skills "from simple to complex" and represents the effective approach to language learning: Currently, the department is constantly expanding its boundaries of school teaching economic and business of the French language in accordance with the emerging new special courses on the economics faculties.

  13. Late Cainozoic drainage evolution in the Zambezi basin: Geomorphological evidence from the Kalahari rim

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, David S. G.; Shaw, Paul A.

    The development of the Zambezi drainage system is discussed within the framework of the post-Gondwana tectonic evolution of southern Africa. An internal drainage system, including teh proto-Upper Zambezi, has been progressively captured during the late Cainozoic by a more agressive coastwise system. Supporting geomorphic evidence is presented from the eastern Kalahari rim. Drainage alignments and gradients, and terrace sequences are discussed. Lacustrine features found on the present watershed between the Middle Zambezi and internal systems are described and explained as remnants of the former proto-Upper Zambezi tributary system. Their interaction with linear dune activity is also examined. Despite the problems of dating the drainage changes described, it is concluded that their elucidation is important in understanding sedimentation and landform development in the eastern part of the Kalahari basin.

  14. Irrigation ponds: Possibility and potentials for the treatment of drainage water from paddy fields in Zhanghe Irrigation System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Bin; MAO Zhi; BROWN Larry; CHEN XiuHong; PENG LiYuan; WANG JianZhang

    2009-01-01

    Excessive application of fertilizers and pesticides as well as discharge of undecontaminated and un-recycled waste of livestock and poultry into farmland has caused serious non-point source pollution (NSP) of farmland in China.With the traditional mode of irrigation and drainage in rice-based irrigation systems, the pollution of farmland drainage water has become more and more serious.Traditional ir-rigation and drainage systems only focus on issues concerning water quantity, i.e.the capacity of irri-gation in drought and drainage in waterlogging period, yet have no requirement on water quality im-provement, how to clean the water quality of farmland drainage through remodeling the existing irriga-tion and drainage systems has a very important realistic meaning.Pond is an important irrigation facil-ity in rice-based irrigation systems in southern China, which has the functions of not only a storage of water from canals but also collections of surface runoffs and farmland drainage for recycling use.Such water storage features of pond provide the possibility and potential capacity for drainage water treat-ment by managing such features as treatment basins as the growth of aquatic plants as well as living of fishes, batrachia and microorganisms in pond forms a soil-plant-microorganism ecological system.To explore the potential capacity of pond for drainage water nutrient reduction, the Zhanghe Irrigation System of Hubei, a typical "melon-on-the-vine" system in southern China is selected as the research site.The results of pond survey and field experiments demonstrate that plenty of ponds are suitable for collecting and cleaning paddy field drainage, and the ponds are favorable in reducing N, P nutrients in the drainage water.Other issues, e.g.how to maximize such capacity and what strategies should be sought to make existing treatment basins hydraulically more efficient, are also discussed.

  15. Irrigation ponds:Possibility and potentials for the treatment of drainage water from paddy fields in Zhanghe Irrigation System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BROWN; Larry

    2009-01-01

    Excessive application of fertilizers and pesticides as well as discharge of undecontaminated and unrecycled waste of livestock and poultry into farmland has caused serious non-point source pollution (NSP) of farmland in China. With the traditional mode of irrigation and drainage in rice-based irrigation systems, the pollution of farmland drainage water has become more and more serious. Traditional irrigation and drainage systems only focus on issues concerning water quantity, i.e. the capacity of irrigation in drought and drainage in waterlogging period, yet have no requirement on water quality improvement. how to clean the water quality of farmland drainage through remodeling the existing irrigation and drainage systems has a very important realistic meaning. Pond is an important irrigation facility in rice-based irrigation systems in southern China, which has the functions of not only a storage of water from canals but also collections of surface runoffs and farmland drainage for recycling use. Such water storage features of pond provide the possibility and potential capacity for drainage water treatment by managing such features as treatment basins as the growth of aquatic plants as well as living of fishes, batrachia and microorganisms in pond forms a soil-plant-microorganism ecological system. To explore the potential capacity of pond for drainage water nutrient reduction, the Zhanghe Irrigation System of Hubei, a typical "melon-on-the-vine" system in southern China is selected as the research site. The results of pond survey and field experiments demonstrate that plenty of ponds are suitable for collecting and cleaning paddy field drainage, and the ponds are favorable in reducing N, P nutrients in the drainage water. Other issues, e.g. how to maximize such capacity and what strategies should be sought to make existing treatment basins hydraulically more efficient, are also discussed.

  16. Definition of the drainage filter problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaslavsky, D.

    1977-01-01

    It is common to consider the following: I. Retention of soil particles that may enter the drainage pipe and cause its clogging. For some sensitive structures it is important to prevent settlements due to soil transportation by drainage water.

  17. Comparing Written Competency in Core French and French Immersion Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappin-Fortin, Kerry

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have compared the written competency of French immersion students and their core French peers, and research on these learners at a postsecondary level is even scarcer. My corpus consists of writing samples from 255 students from both backgrounds beginning a university course in French language. The writing proficiency of core French…

  18. Five years of beach drainage survey on a macrotidal beach (Quend-Plage, northern France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Olivier; Toulec, Renaud; Combaud, Anne; Villemagne, Guillaume; Barrier, Pascal

    2016-07-01

    A drainage system was installed in 2008 on the macrotidal beach of Quend-Plage, close to Abbeville (Somme, northern France), following a period of significant erosion of recreational areas. The "Direction départementale des territoires et de la mer" (French Coastal Department Authority) has requested a biannual survey in order to validate the beach drainage setup and its efficiency. This paper presents the methodology used for this survey, and the response of the coastal system to this soft engineering method for preventing erosion. These five years of drainage operation have strongly modified the morphology of the beach. Three main modifications occurred: (i) accretion of the upper beach and foredune, (ii) erosion of the lower and middle beach and (iii) a slight shift in directions of the beach bars and troughs. These morphological changes finally led to the stabilization of the beach.

  19. Sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis in chronic ambulatory peritoneal dialysis;preoperative catheter drainage : a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tae Hoon [Dankook Univ. Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-10-01

    Sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis is a well recognized, but uncommon, complication of chronic ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. I report a case of sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis in which percutaneous catheter drainage was performed preoperatively. Ultrasonography(US) and computed tomography(CT) showed a large multi-septated cystic mass which occupied nearly all the peritoneal cavity. Percutaneous drainage with two 8.5 French catheters was preoperatively performed under fluoroscopy and about 2100 ml of bloody fluid was drained for 20 days. On follow-up CT, the size of the cyst had significantly decreased and anoperation was performed. It is considered that percutaneous catheter drainage is useful in the preoperative decompression of sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis.

  20. Sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis in chronic ambulatory peritoneal dialysis;preoperative catheter drainage : a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae Hoon

    1996-01-01

    Sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis is a well recognized, but uncommon, complication of chronic ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. I report a case of sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis in which percutaneous catheter drainage was performed preoperatively. Ultrasonography(US) and computed tomography(CT) showed a large multi-septated cystic mass which occupied nearly all the peritoneal cavity. Percutaneous drainage with two 8.5 French catheters was preoperatively performed under fluoroscopy and about 2100 ml of bloody fluid was drained for 20 days. On follow-up CT, the size of the cyst had significantly decreased and anoperation was performed. It is considered that percutaneous catheter drainage is useful in the preoperative decompression of sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis

  1. Drainage under increasing and changing requirements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schultz, E.; Zimmer, D.; Vlotman, W.F.

    2007-01-01

    This year the Working Group on Drainage of the International Commission on Irrigation and Drainage (ICID) celebrates its 25th anniversary. This paper reviews the development of drainage for three different agro-climatic zones, i.e. the temperate (humid), the arid/semi-arid and the humid/semi-humid

  2. Percutaneous catheter drainage of intrapulmonary fluid collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, E. D.; Kim, H. J.; Choi, P. Y.; Jung, S. H.

    1994-01-01

    With the success of percutaneous abdominal abscess drainage, attention is now being focused on the use of similar techniques in the thorax. We studied to evaluate the effect of percutaneous drainage in parenchymal fluid collections in the lungs. We performed percutaneous drainage of abscesses and other parenchymal fluid collections of the lungs in 15 patients. All of the procedures were performed under the fluoroscopic guidance with an 18-gauge Seldinger needle and coaxial technique with a 8-10F drainage catheter. Among 10 patients with lung abscess, 8 patients improved by percutaneous catheter drainage. In one patient, drainage was failed by the accidental withdrawal of the catheter before complete drainage. One patient died of sepsis 5 hours after the procedure. Among three patients with complicated bulla, successful drainage was done in two patients, but in the remaining patient, the procedure was failed. In one patient with intrapulmonary bronchogenic cyst, the drainage was not successful due to the thick internal contents. In one patient with traumatic hematoma, after the drainage of old blood clots, the signs of infection disappeared. Overally, of 14 patients excluding one who died, 11 patients improved with percutaneous catheter drainage and three patients did not. There were no major complications during and after the procedure. We conclude that percutaneous catheter drainage is effective and safe procedure for the treatment of parenchymal fluid collections of the lung in patients unresponsive to the medical treatment

  3. Percutaneous catheter drainage of intrapulmonary fluid collection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, E. D.; Kim, H. J.; Choi, P. Y.; Jung, S. H. [Gyeongsang National University Hospital, Chinju (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-01-15

    With the success of percutaneous abdominal abscess drainage, attention is now being focused on the use of similar techniques in the thorax. We studied to evaluate the effect of percutaneous drainage in parenchymal fluid collections in the lungs. We performed percutaneous drainage of abscesses and other parenchymal fluid collections of the lungs in 15 patients. All of the procedures were performed under the fluoroscopic guidance with an 18-gauge Seldinger needle and coaxial technique with a 8-10F drainage catheter. Among 10 patients with lung abscess, 8 patients improved by percutaneous catheter drainage. In one patient, drainage was failed by the accidental withdrawal of the catheter before complete drainage. One patient died of sepsis 5 hours after the procedure. Among three patients with complicated bulla, successful drainage was done in two patients, but in the remaining patient, the procedure was failed. In one patient with intrapulmonary bronchogenic cyst, the drainage was not successful due to the thick internal contents. In one patient with traumatic hematoma, after the drainage of old blood clots, the signs of infection disappeared. Overally, of 14 patients excluding one who died, 11 patients improved with percutaneous catheter drainage and three patients did not. There were no major complications during and after the procedure. We conclude that percutaneous catheter drainage is effective and safe procedure for the treatment of parenchymal fluid collections of the lung in patients unresponsive to the medical treatment.

  4. The French nuclear law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    The nuclear law had been out of the environmental law. The act on the transparency and the security of the nuclear matter was enacted in 2006 and set in the code of the environment in 2012. It means that the nuclear law is part of the environmental law and that it is advanced. I will report the French nuclear law. (author)

  5. The French Collection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vergeest, Aukje

    2000-01-01

    'What's happening right now in Paris?' This must have been the question that preoccupied many a 19th-century art dealer and artist. For the modern artist who wanted to make it in that period, Paris was no doubt the place to be. And it's from here that considerable amounts of French art managed to

  6. Complete French Teach Yourself

    CERN Document Server

    Graham, Gaelle

    2010-01-01

    The best-selling complete course for a fun and effective way to learn French. This ISBN is for the paperback book. The corresponding audio support (ISBN: 9781444100068) is also available. The book and audio support can also be purchased as a pack (ISBN: 9781444100051).

  7. French Theory's American Adventures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusset, Francois

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses how it is simply too late to be still speaking about French theory and its role in the intellectual life of the United States today. It seems to many observers that the gap between real-life politics and theory's guerrillas is much too wide already, after 30 years of academic fever, for the two worlds to even…

  8. I Can Speak French.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Curriculum and Instruction.

    The guide presents content and techniques for teaching conversational French in the elementary grades. It contains an introductory section and 20 units for classroom instruction. The introduction includes notes on the overall objectives of the course, general guidelines on classroom procedure, and specific techniques for use of the materials…

  9. French Wines on the Decline?:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Bodo

    2004-01-01

    French wines, differentiated by geographic origin, served for many decades as a basis for the French success in the British wine market. However in the early 1990s, market share began to decline. This article explores the values that market participants placed on labelling information on French...

  10. Technical note on drainage systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Thomas Ruby

    This technical note will present simple but widely used methods for the design of drainage systems. The note will primarily deal with surface water (rainwater) which on a satisfactorily way should be transport into the drainage system. Traditional two types of sewer systems exist: A combined system......, where rainwater and sewage is transported in the same pipe, and a separate system where the two types of water are transported in individual pipe. This note will only focus on the separate rain/stormwater system, however, if domestic sewage should be included in the dimensioning procedure, it......’s not major different than described below - just remember to include this contribution for combined systems where the surface water (rain) and sewage are carried in the same pipes in the system and change some of the parameters for failure allowance (this will be elaborated further later on). The technical...

  11. Spatial variation of butyltins in an intermittent French River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahinian, N.; Bancon-Montigny, C.; Brunel, V.; Tournoud, M. G.

    2009-04-01

    Organotins (OTs) have been increasingly used in industrial applications because of their thermoresistant and biocidal properties: in the 1970s and 1980s Tributyltin (TBT) based anti-fouling paints were used on ships and vessels of all kinds. However, studies pointed out the highly toxic nature of these compounds and their active role as an endoctrine perturbator. This lead the EU to ban the use of TBT paints in 2003. The toxicity of OTs combined to their widespread use has lead then to be included in the priority list of the EU water framework directive. Organotins are prone to adsorption, can bond easily to particulate matter and "migrate" from the water column unto the sediments where their half-life can extend to a few decades. Consequently sediments can become important organotin stores and release OT compounds during dredging operations, storms, tides or floods. The main objective of this work was to investigate the presence of organotin compounds in the sediments and water column of an intermittent river reach i.e. to establish the presence of organotins in regular flow conditions and assess their spatial variability. The study zone is a reach of the Vène River located in southern France. The Vène is a major tributary of the Thau lagoon which is an important shellfish farming site and thus very vulnerable to OT contamination. Butyltin, trace metal and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations were measured on water and sediment samples collected over a 3 month period stretching from March to May 2008. The results revealed the presence of butyltins at concentrations exceeding the EU and French pollution limits. In terms of spatial variability, by combining the butyltin and the trace metal results at 16 locations along the reach, two point pollutions spots were identified, namely a sewage treatment plant and a drainage ditch. However, the later are not the only OT input sources, the results of the sediment analysis pointed out to a diffuse pollution

  12. Exploring Agricultural Drainage's Influence on Wetland and ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artificial agricultural drainage (i.e. surface ditches or subsurface tile) is an important agricultural management tool. Artificial drainage allows for timely fieldwork and adequate root aeration, resulting in greater crop yields for farmers. This practice is widespread throughout many regions of the United States and the network of artificial drainage is especially extensive in flat, poorly-drained regions like the glaciated Midwest. While beneficial for crop yields, agricultural drains often empty into streams within the natural drainage system. The increased network connectivity may lead to greater contributing area for watersheds, altered hydrology and increased conveyance of pollutants into natural water bodies. While studies and models at broader scales have implicated artificial drainage as an important driver of hydrological shifts and eutrophication, the actual spatial extent of artificial drainage is poorly known. Consequently, metrics of wetland and watershed connectivity within agricultural regions often fail to explicitly include artificial drainage. We use recent agricultural census data, soil drainage data, and land cover data to create estimates of potential agricultural drainage across the United States. We estimate that agricultural drainage in the US is greater than 31 million hectares and is concentrated in the upper Midwest Corn Belt, covering greater than 50% of available land for 114 counties. Estimated drainage values for numerous countie

  13. Controls on deep drainage beneath the root soil zone in snowmelt-dominated environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, J. C.; Harpold, A. A.; Kampf, S. K.

    2017-12-01

    Snowmelt is the dominant source of streamflow generation and groundwater recharge in many high elevation and high latitude locations, yet we still lack a detailed understanding of how snowmelt is partitioned between the soil, deep drainage, and streamflow under a variety of soil, climate, and snow conditions. Here we use Hydrus 1-D simulations with historical inputs from five SNOTEL snow monitoring sites in each of three regions, Cascades, Sierra, and Southern Rockies, to investigate how inter-annual variability on water input rate and duration affects soil saturation and deep drainage. Each input scenario was run with three different soil profiles of varying hydraulic conductivity, soil texture, and bulk density. We also created artificial snowmelt scenarios to test how snowmelt intermittence affects deep drainage. Results indicate that precipitation is the strongest predictor (R2 = 0.83) of deep drainage below the root zone, with weaker relationships observed between deep drainage and snow persistence, peak snow water equivalent, and melt rate. The ratio of deep drainage to precipitation shows a stronger positive relationship to melt rate suggesting that a greater fraction of input becomes deep drainage at higher melt rates. For a given amount of precipitation, rapid, concentrated snowmelt may create greater deep drainage below the root zone than slower, intermittent melt. Deep drainage requires saturation below the root zone, so saturated hydraulic conductivity serves as a primary control on deep drainage magnitude. Deep drainage response to climate is mostly independent of soil texture because of its reliance on saturated conditions. Mean water year saturations of deep soil layers can predict deep drainage and may be a useful way to compare sites in soils with soil hydraulic porosities. The unit depth of surface runoff often is often greater than deep drainage at daily and annual timescales, as snowmelt exceeds infiltration capacity in near-surface soil layers

  14. The french energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This book describes french energy policy from 1973 oil crisis till 1992. In a first part, energy consumption, domestic primary energy production, trend of independence energy ratio and costs of petroleum imports in France are presented. In a second part, long-term energy prospects and new axis of energy policy are given: trends of french energy needs, progressive substitution of fossil fuels by nuclear energy and hydroelectric power, energy policy in Common Market and cooperation with eastern Europe. In a third part, energy demand and supply are studied: energy conservation policy in housing, transport and industrial sector is developed. Power generation policy is focused on two main stakes: the choice of investments and nuclear power plants programming, the quality of electric power and the development of efficient uses and exports. A diversification between coal petroleum and natural gas is led. After the fall of petroleum prices in 1986, renewable energies have lost their competitiveness, fire wood occupies a significant place

  15. French nuclear energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrari, A.; Bertel, E.

    1980-11-01

    The French energy policy is supported by a lucid view of the situation of our country and the constraints linked to the international context. This statement implies, the definition of a French policy or energy production essentially based on national resources, uranium, and especially for long term, technical know how which allows using plutonium in breeder reactors. This policy implies an effort in R and D, and industrial development of nuclear field, both in reactor construction and at all levels of fuel cycle. This coherent scientific and financial effort has been pursued since the beginning of years 60, and has placed France among the first nuclear countries in the world. Now this effort enables the mastership of a strong nuclear industry capable to assure the energy future of the country [fr

  16. French courses for Beginners

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    French courses for beginners (level 0) will take place from 13 July to 27 August 2009. •\tTimetable: Mondays, Tuesdays, Wednesdays, Thursdays (11:00 to 13:00 or 13:30 to 15:30) •\tDuration: 56 hours (8 hours a week) •\tPrice: 728 CHF For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Dumeaux, tel. 78144.

  17. French courses for Beginners

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    French courses for beginners (level 0) will take place from 13 July to 27 August 2009. •\tTimetable: Mondays, Tuesdays, Wednesdays, Thursdays (11:00 to 13:00 or 13:30 to 15:30) •\tDuration: 56 hours (8 hours a week) •\tPrice: 728 CHF For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Dumeaux: Tel. 78144.

  18. French courses for Beginners

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    French courses for beginners (level 0) will take place from 13 July to 27 August 2009. •\tTimetable: Mondays, Tuesdays, Wednesdays, Thursdays (11.00 to 13.00 or 13.30 to 15.30) •\tDuration: 56 hours (8 hours a week) •\tPrice: 728 CHF For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Dumeaux : Tel. 78144.

  19. French experience with electropolishing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saurin, P.; Weber, C.; Brissaud, A.; Gouillardou, G.

    1989-01-01

    Among the various techniques to minimize corrosion products deposition on out of core areas, surface polishing has been researched. The attention of French partners was drawn to this technique and a test was conducted at Chinon B1 NPP in 1984 using six manway covers with various surface finishing (mechanical polishing, electropolishing, mechanical plus electropolishing/on reference). On the basis of the good results obtained and with beneficial cost considerations the electropolishing of SGCH has been decided for new EDF reactors. Once the decision was made feasibility and qualifications programs were developed. Taking into account the promising results obtained, EDF asked FRAMATOME to perform the first electropolishing operation on one steam generator channel head at Nogent 1 in 1987. Since 1988 the French experience consists of the electropolishing of 4SG at Nogent 2, 4SG at Cattenom 3, 4SG at Penly 1 and 4SG at Golfech 1 (NPP), and is perfectly satisfactory. The industrial operation provides excellent polishing and does not create undesired effects. The French partners are now thinking of a new device which could be realised at FRAMATOME especially for steam generator replacement. (author)

  20. Language Training: French

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2004-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an 'application for training' form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt.General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 26 April to 02 July 2004. These courses are open to all persons working on the Cern site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz: Tel. 73127. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 26 April to 02 July 2004. This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken French. Duration: 30 hours Price: 660 CHF (for 8 students) For further information and registra...

  1. Science Diplomacy: French Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexei V. Shestopal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the formulation in France in the early twenty-first century of a new kind of diplomacy - science diplomacy. It studies the reasons for this process and its problems. On the one hand, the French foreign policy doctrine presupposes an ability to exercise certain influence on its international partners. However, its goals in this area are reduced to mere survival under conditions dictated by other countries. Modern trends in the world of science, which lead to integration, force to reconsider the attitude towards staff training, to research itself, and to its place and role in politics and diplomacy. However, an achievement of the French political class is an understanding of the main aspects of what is happening. This understanding leads to the search for ways to adapt to the new situation. At the same time, diplomats can operate only with those resources that are available to them. Competition with the US, China and other countries for scientific personnel and achievements cannot be won by diplomatic means alone, without backing by appropriate legal, economic and other efforts which provide favorable conditions for winning the competition. The main causes of France's unfavorable position in the struggle for an independent science are economic and political. It is they that lead to conditions, which prohibit French scientists to live up to their potential at home.

  2. REPLACEMENT OF FRENCH CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    The French Ministry of Foreign Affairs has informed the Organization that it is shortly to replace all diplomatic cards, special cards and employment permits ('attestations de fonctions') now held by members of the personnel and their families. Between 2 July and 31 December 2001, these cards are to be replaced by secure, computerized equivalents. A 'personnel office' stamped photocopy of the old cards may continue to be used until 31 December 2001. For the purposes of the handover, members of the personnel must go personally to the cards office (33/1-015), between 8:30 and 12:30, in order to fill a 'fiche individuelle' form (in black ink only), which has to be personally signed by themselves and another separately signed by members of their family, taking the following documents for themselves and members of their families already in possession of a French card : A recent identity photograph in 4.5 cm x 3.5 cm format (signed on the back) The French card in their possession an A4 photocopy of the same Fre...

  3. Language Training - French Training

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 29 January to 30 March 2007. These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz : Tel. 73127. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 29 January to 30 March 2007. This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken French. Duration: 30 hours Price: 660 CHF (for 8 students) For further information and registration, please consult our Web pages:   http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz : Tel. 73127. Writing Professional Documents in English The next session will take place from January to June 2007 (break at Easter). This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken English. Duration: 30 hours Price: 660 CHF (for 8 students) Timetable will be fixed after discussion with the students. For registratio...

  4. Mine Drainage Generation and Control Options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xinchao; Rodak, Carolyn M; Zhang, Shicheng; Han, Yuexin; Wolfe, F Andrew

    2016-10-01

    This review provides a snapshot of papers published in 2015 relevant to the topic of mine drainage generation and control options. The review is broken into 3 sections: Generation, Prediction and Prevention, and Treatment Options. The first section, mine drainage generation, focuses on the characterization of mine drainage and the environmental impacts. As such, it is broken into three subsections focused on microbiological characterization, physiochemical characterization, and environmental impacts. The second section of the review is divided into two subsections focused on either the prediction or prevention of acid mine drainage. The final section focuses on treatment options for mine drainage and waste sludge. The third section contains subsections on passive treatment, biological treatment, physiochemical treatment, and a new subsection on beneficial uses for mine drainage and treatment wastes.

  5. French public finances at risk?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Creel Jérôme

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Using descriptive evidence, this paper contributes to the debate on French public finances’ consolidation by examining the long-term sustainability of France’s fiscal position. We trace the historical trends of government’s tax receipts and expenditures. We illustrate that while the level of public expenditure in France is larger than in the Euro Area, its trend is comparable to its neighbours. French net debt is comparable to Eurozone’s while French net wealth remains positive. However, the French tax system is not progressive with only 6% of compulsory levies raised that way, and too complex. The paper then acknowledges the efficient debt management of French authorities. As a conclusion, we see no risk of future unsustainability linked to the nature or the level of current French public finances.

  6. [Endoscopic ultrasound guided rendezvous for biliary drainage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Marie Høxbro; Vilmann, Peter; Hassan, Hazem; Karstensen, John Gésdal

    2015-04-27

    Endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERCP) is currently standard treatment for biliary drainage. Endoscopic ultrasound guided rendezvous (EUS-RV) is a novel method to overcome an unsuccessful biliary drainage procedure. Under endoscopic ultrasound guidance a guidewire is passed via a needle from the stomach or duodenum to the common bile duct and from there on to the duodenum enabling ERCP. With a relatively high rate of success EUS-RV should be considered as an alternative to biliary drainage and surgical intervention.

  7. Percutaneous drainage treatment of primary liver abscesses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, H.; Pratschke, E.; Berr, F.; Fink, U.

    1989-02-01

    28 primary liver abscesses, including 9 amoebic abscesses, in 24 patients were drained percutaneously. Indication for drainage in amoebic abscesses was imminent rupture and clinical symptoms as pleural effusion, lung atelectasis and pain. 95% of the primary abscesses were cured by percutaneous drainage and systemic antibiotic treatment. There was one recurrence of abscess, which was managed surgically. Reasons for drainage failure were: tumour necrosis and tumour perforation with secondary liver abscess.

  8. Percutaneous drainage treatment of primary liver abscesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, H.; Pratschke, E.; Berr, F.; Fink, U.; Klinikum Grosshadern, Muenchen; Klinikum Grosshadern, Muenchen

    1989-01-01

    28 primary liver abscesses, including 9 amoebic abscesses, in 24 patients were drained percutaneously. Indication for drainage in amoebic abscesses was imminent rupture and clinical symptoms as pleural effusion, lung atelectasis and pain. 95% of the primary abscesses were cured by percutaneous drainage and systemic antibiotic treatment. There was one recurrence of abscess, which was managed surgically. Reasons for drainage failure were: tumour necrosis and tumour perforation with secondary liver abscess. (orig.) [de

  9. Future of French refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvet, B.

    1993-01-01

    Over recent years, the refining industry has had to grapple with a growing burden of environmental and safety regulations concerning not only its plants and other facilities, but also its end products. At the same time, it has had to bear the effects of the reduction of the special status that used to apply to petroleum, and the consequences of economic freedom, to which we should add, as specifically concerns the French market, the impact of energy policy and the pro-nuclear option. The result is a drop in heavy fuel oil from 36 million tonnes per year in 1973 to 6.3 million in 1992, and in home-heating fuel from 37 to 18 million per year. This fast-moving market is highly competitive. The French market in particular is wide open to imports, but the refining companies are still heavy exporters for those products with high added-value, like lubricants, jet fuel, and lead-free gasolines. The competition has led the refining companies to commit themselves to quality, and to publicize their efforts in this direction. This is why the long-term perspectives for petroleum fuels are still wide open. This is supported by the probable expectation that the goal of economic efficiency is likely to soften the effects of the energy policy, which penalizes petroleum products, in that they have now become competitive again. In the European context, with the challenge of environmental protection and the decline in heavy fuel outlets, French refining has to keep on improving the quality of its products and plants, which means major investments. The industry absolutely must return to a more normal level of profitability, in order to sustain this financial effort, and generate the prosperity of its high-performance plants and equipment. 1 fig., 5 tabs

  10. [French immigration policy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weil, P

    1994-01-01

    From the late nineteenth century through 1974, France permitted immigration to furnish workers and to compensate for the low level of fertility. Intense immigration from North Africa, the economic crisis of the 1970s, and other factors led to policy changes in 1974. French immigration policy since 1974 has fluctuated between guaranteeing foreigners equal rights regardless of their religion, race, culture, or national origin, and attempting to differentiate among immigrants depending on their degree of assimilability to French culture. From 1974 to 1988, France had five different policies regarding whether to permit new immigration and what to do about illegal immigrants. In July 1984, the four major political parties unanimously supported a measure in Parliament that definitively guaranteed the stay in France of legal immigrants, whose assimilation thus assumed priority. Aid for return to the homeland was no longer to be widely offered, and immigration of unskilled workers was to be terminated except for those originating in European Community countries. Major changes of government in 1988 and 1993 affected only the modalities of applying these principles. The number of immigrants has fluctuated since 1974. Unskilled workers, the only category whose entrance was specifically controlled by the 1984 measures, have declined from 174,000 in 1970 to 25,000 in the early 1990s. The number of requests for political asylum declined from 60,000 in 1989 to 27,000 in 1993, and in 1991, 15,467 persons were granted refugee status. The number of immigrants of all types permitted to remain in France declined from 250,000 or 3000 per year in the early 1970s to around 110,000 at present. Although the decline is significant, it appears insufficient to the government in power since 1993. Although migratory flows are often explained as the product of imbalance in the labor market or in demographic growth, the French experience suggests that government policies, both in the sending and

  11. The French dosimetry protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutreix, A.

    1985-01-01

    After a general introduction the protocol is divided in five sections dealing with: determination of the quality of X-ray, γ-ray and electron beams; the measuring instrument; calibration of the reference instrument; determination of the reference absorbed dose in the user's beams; determination of the absorbed dose in water at other points, in other conditions. The French protocol is not essentially different from the Nordic protocol and it is based on the experience gained in using both the American and the Nordic protocols. Therefore, only the main difference with the published protocols are discussed. (Auth.)

  12. 1001 easy French phrases

    CERN Document Server

    McCoy, Heather

    2010-01-01

    The perfect companion for tourists and business travelers in France and other places where the French language is spoken, this book offers fast, effective communication. More than 1,000 basic words, phrases, and sentences cover everything from asking directions and renting a car to ordering dinner and finding a bank.Designed as a quick reference tool and an easy study guide, this inexpensive and easy-to-use book offers completely up-to-date terms for modern telecommunications, idioms, and slang. The contents are arranged for quick access to phrases related to greetings, transportation, shoppin

  13. The french criticality handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maubert, L.; Puit, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    The french criticality handbook, published in 1978 by the ''Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique'', is presented with the main targets aimed by the writer and the main choices taken relating to fissile mediums, reflection conditions, dilution curves. The validation of the critical values is presented as one of the most important aspects of this handbook which is mainly intended, in the mind of the author, to specialists well advertised in the field of criticality. The complements which have been introduced since 1978 and those which are foreseen in a near future are also detailed. (author)

  14. French in Culinary World

    OpenAIRE

    Rila Hilma

    2011-01-01

    More than million foods have been made by people from all over the world in the latest years. People now try to create new cooks and make some creativity on it. Then, cooking which the field is culinary has become an art because it needs an artistic value to decorate the food, a good taste and proper technique in processing delicious food in order to make it a masterpiece. French culinary is as famous as the Eiffel tower in the heart of the country, Paris. Most of fine dining international re...

  15. FRENCH PROTOCOL CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Division du Personnel

    1999-01-01

    Senior officials, holders of FRENCH PROTOCOL cards (blue cards) due to expire on 31.12.1999, are requested to return these cards and those of family members, for extension to:Bureau des cartes, bâtiment 33.1-025Should the 3 spaces for authentication on the back of the card be full, please enclose 2 passport photographs for a new card.In the case of children aged 14 and over, an attestation of dependency and a school certificate should be returned with the card.Personnel DivisionTel. 79494/74683

  16. FRENCH PROTOCOL CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2000-01-01

    Senior officials, holders of FRENCH PROTOCOL cards (blue cards) due to expire on 31.12.2000, are requested to return these cards and those of family members, for extension to: Bureau des cartes, Bât 33.1-009/1-015 Should the three spaces for authentication on the back of the card be full, please enclose two passport photographs for a new card. In the case of children aged 14 and over, an attestation of dependency and a school certificate should be returned with the card.

  17. CLEANING OF FRENCH SITES

    CERN Multimedia

    Mauro Nonis

    2002-01-01

    In the last two weeks some cleaning problems have been remarked in several CERN buildings on the French part of CERN sites. This is mainly due to the start up of the new cleaning contract from the 1st July. These problems are not related to a budgetary reduction of the activity. We excuse for the malfunctions that have been created to CERN community and we assure you that we have taken all the needed measures to solve the problem in the shortest delay. Mauro Nonis (ST/FM)

  18. French electricity results 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    RTE, the manager of the French power system, announces a high increase in electricity exports to the other countries of the European Union in 2002. In France, the year 2002 was marked by stable power consumption, but a noteworthy increase in generation due to the rise of exports. In 2002, the RTE network conveyed 512.3 billion kWh (TWh) versus 503.1 billion kWh (TWh) in 2001, an increase of 1.8%. Overall French exports made considerable strides forward from 72.9 TWh in 2001 to 80.6 TWh in 2002, i.e. 10.6% more than in 2001. On the other hand, overall French imports fell substantially, from 4.4 TWh in 2001 to 3.8 TWh in 2002, or a drop of about 14%. In all, the export balance came to 76.8 TWh in 2002, versus 68.5 TWh in 2001, i.e. a rise of 12%. On Sunday, 22 December 2002, the historical record of the capacity export balance with a value of 13,277 MW, up 2.2%, was bettered. The particularly mild weather conditions in 2002 led to a drop in heating-related consumption, evaluated at 7 billion kWh compared with the prior year. A slight upturn in industrial consumption was to be noted, from 92.7 TWh in 2001 to 93.2 TWh in 2002, i.e. a growth of 0.5%. Total French consumption thus rose in 2002 to 448.7 TWh. Total consumption, adjusted for climate contingencies, showed a rise of 1.6% in 2002. French power producers showed an increase of nearly 2% and the first wind farm was connected to the power transmission network. French electricity output came to 532.9 TWh in 2002, a growth of 1.9%. This increase is divided up between nuclear generation, up 4%, and conventional thermal generation, on the rise by 15.3%. The substantial share of thermal generation can be explained by a correlative drop in hydro generation (less 16.6% compared with 2001) mainly due to extremely low water availability observed during the first months of the year. With 415.5 TWh in output, nuclear power plants provided 78% of French generation, fossil-fired power plants 9.9% with an output of 52.9 TWh

  19. The French nuclear context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havard, J.; Israel, M.

    1977-01-01

    The mean- and longer-range energy needs, that can be now forecasted in France, are analyzed, together with the special character of the French energy market. A resort to nuclear power is first shown to be necessary to limit the increase in the demand for imported fossil fuels, then this resort is shown to offer some real possibilities. The energy balance proves that the industrial stage of power plant construction is reached. The conditions of realization of the program have been settled with a set of provisions that render the risk and environmental impact as negligible as possible [fr

  20. Percutaneous catheter drainage of lung abscess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Shin; Chun, Kyung Ah; Choi, Hyo Sun; Ha, Hyun Kown; Shinn, Kyung Sub [Catholic University Medical college, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-09-15

    From March 1987 to July 1989, six patients (five adults and one child) with lung abscess (size, 5-13 cm in diameter) were treated with percutaneous aspiration and drainage. In each case, the puncture was made where the wall of the abscess was in contact with the pleural surface. An 8 to 10 Fr cartheter was inserted for drainage. Five of 6 had a dynamatic clinical response within 24 hours of the drainage. Percutaneous drainage was successful with complete abscess resolution in four and partial resolution in one patient. No response was seen in the rest one. The duration of drainage ranged from 7 to 18 days(average, 15.5 days) in successful cases. One case of the failure in drainage was due tio persistent aspiration of the neurologically impaired patient. In one patient, the abscess resolved after drainage but recurred after inadvertent removal of the catheter 7 days after insertion. In two patients, concurrent pleural empyema was resolved completely by the drainage. Computed tomography provide anatomic details necessary for choosing the puncture site and avoiding a puncture of the lung parenchyma. Percutaneous catheter drainage is safe and effective method for treating patient with lung abscess.

  1. Percutaneous catheter drainage of lung abscess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Shin; Chun, Kyung Ah; Choi, Hyo Sun; Ha, Hyun Kown; Shinn, Kyung Sub

    1993-01-01

    From March 1987 to July 1989, six patients (five adults and one child) with lung abscess (size, 5-13 cm in diameter) were treated with percutaneous aspiration and drainage. In each case, the puncture was made where the wall of the abscess was in contact with the pleural surface. An 8 to 10 Fr cartheter was inserted for drainage. Five of 6 had a dynamatic clinical response within 24 hours of the drainage. Percutaneous drainage was successful with complete abscess resolution in four and partial resolution in one patient. No response was seen in the rest one. The duration of drainage ranged from 7 to 18 days(average, 15.5 days) in successful cases. One case of the failure in drainage was due tio persistent aspiration of the neurologically impaired patient. In one patient, the abscess resolved after drainage but recurred after inadvertent removal of the catheter 7 days after insertion. In two patients, concurrent pleural empyema was resolved completely by the drainage. Computed tomography provide anatomic details necessary for choosing the puncture site and avoiding a puncture of the lung parenchyma. Percutaneous catheter drainage is safe and effective method for treating patient with lung abscess

  2. Composite fibrous glaucoma drainage implant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapstova, A.; Horakova, J.; Shynkarenko, A.; Lukas, D.

    2017-10-01

    Glaucoma is a frequent reason of loss vision. It is usually caused by increased intraocular pressure leading to damage of optic nerve head. This work deals with the development of fibrous structure suitable for glaucoma drainage implants (GDI). Commercially produced metallic glaucoma implants are very effective in lowering intraocular pressure. However, these implants may cause adverse events such as damage to adjacent tissue, fibrosis, hypotony or many others [1]. The aim of this study is to reduce undesirable properties of currently produced drains and improve their properties by creating of the composite fibrous drain for achieve a normal intraocular pressure. Two types of electrospinning technologies were used for the production of very small tubular implants. First type was focused for production of outer part of tubular drain and the second type of electrospinning method made the inner part of shape follows the connections of both parts. Complete implant had a special properties suitable for drainage of fluid. Morphological parameters, liquid transport tests and in-vitro cell adhesion tests were detected.

  3. Invitation Refusals in Cameroon French and Hexagonal French

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farenkia, Bernard Mulo

    2015-01-01

    Descriptions of regional pragmatic variation in French are lacking to date the focus has been on a limited range of speech acts, including apologies, requests, compliments and responses to compliments. The present paper, a systematic analysis of invitation refusals across regional varieties of French, is designed to add to the research on…

  4. Language Training: French Training

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an "application for training" form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. LANGUAGE TRAINING Françoise Benz tel. 73127 language.training@cern.ch General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 26 April to 02 July 2004. These courses are open to all persons working on the Cern site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz: Tel. 73127. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 26 April to 02 July 2004. This course is designed for people with a good level of s...

  5. Language Training: French Training

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an "application for training" form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. LANGUAGE TRAINING Françoise Benz tel. 73127 language.training@cern.ch General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 26 April to 02 July 2004. These courses are open to all persons working on the Cern site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz: Tel. 73127. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 26 April to 02 July 2004. This course is designed for people with a good level...

  6. Spotlight: French Polynesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, J F

    1988-01-01

    French Polynesia is a group of 4 archipelagos in the South Pacific with an estimated 1987 population of 176,600. Its people are mainly Tahitians, Polynesians, Chinese, Europeans, and persons of mixed heritage. More than half of the population live in the Society Islands. About half of the population is less than 20 years old and slightly more than 5% is older than 60. Due to a recent decline in fertility, the rate of natural increase is moderate--about 2.5% annually. In the early 1980s, about two thirds of women in Tahiti aged 15-49 used a modern method of contraception. It remains to be seen whether this pattern will spread to the entire area. Projections by the World Bank, assuming little decline in mortality, yield a total population of 400,000 by the year 2030. The major challenge for French Polynesia is to develop the many small islands spread across an ocean territory half the size of the contiguous 48 states of the U.S. Tourist-related activities have replaced traditional income-generating such as production of coconuts, mother-of-pearl, and vanilla. The value of exports from the area make up only 5% of the value of imports. To extract the potentially huge food and mineral resources from the ocean, enormous infusions of capital will be necessary.

  7. The French capacity mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The French capacity mechanism has been design to ensure security of supply in the context of the energy transition. This energy transition challenges the electricity market design with several features: peak load growth, the development of renewables, demand response,... To ensure security of supply in this context, a capacity mechanism is being implemented in France. It is a market wide capacity obligation on electricity suppliers, based on market principles. Suppliers are responsible for forecasting their obligation, which corresponds to their contribution to winter peak load, and must procure enough capacity certificates to meet their obligations. Capacity certificates are granted to capacities through a certification process, which assesses their contribution to security of supply on the basis of availability commitments. This certification process is technology neutral and performance based, associated with controls and penalties in case of non compliance. Demand Side is fully integrated in the market, either through the reduction of suppliers' capacity obligation or direct participation after certification. In addition to the expected benefits in terms of security of supply, the French capacity market will foster the development of demand response. The participation of foreign capacities will require adaptations which are scheduled in a road-map, and could pave the way for further European integration of energy policies. (authors)

  8. French intensive truck garden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, T D

    1983-01-01

    The French Intensive approach to truck gardening has the potential to provide substantially higher yields and lower per acre costs than do conventional farming techniques. It was the intent of this grant to show that there is the potential to accomplish the gains that the French Intensive method has to offer. It is obvious that locally grown food can greatly reduce transportation energy costs but when there is the consideration of higher efficiencies there will also be energy cost reductions due to lower fertilizer and pesticide useage. As with any farming technique, there is a substantial time interval for complete soil recovery after there have been made substantial soil modifications. There were major crop improvements even though there was such a short time since the soil had been greatly disturbed. It was also the intent of this grant to accomplish two other major objectives: first, the garden was managed under organic techniques which meant that there were no chemical fertilizers or synthetic pesticides to be used. Second, the garden was constructed so that a handicapped person in a wheelchair could manage and have a higher degree of self sufficiency with the garden. As an overall result, I would say that the garden has taken the first step of success and each year should become better.

  9. Wind: French revolutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, C.

    2006-01-01

    Despite having the second best wind resources in Europe after the UK, the wind industry in France lags behind its European counterparts with just 6 W of installed wind capacity per person. The electricity market in France is dominated by the state-owned Electricite de France (EdF) and its nuclear power stations. However, smaller renewable generators are now in theory allowed access to the market and France has transposed the EU renewables directive into national law. The French governement has set a target of generating 10,000 MW of renewable capacity by 2010. The announcement of an increased feed-in tariff and the introduction of 'development zones' (ZDEs) which could allow fast-tracking of planning for wind projects are also expected to boost wind projects. But grid access and adminstrative burdens remain major barriers. In addition, French politicians and local authorities remain committed to nuclear, though encouraged by the European Commission, wind is beginning to gain acceptance; some 325 wind farms (representing 1557 MW of capacity) were approved between February 2004 and January 2005. France is now regarded by the international wind energy sector as a target market. One of France's leading independent wind developers and its only listed wind company, Theolia, is expected to be one of the major beneficiaries of the acceleration of activity in France, though other companies are keen to maximise the opportunities for wind. France currently has only one indigenous manufacturer of wind turbines, but foreign suppliers are winning orders

  10. Subsurface drainage volume reduction with drainage water management: Case studies in Ohio, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of the main contributors to poor water quality in the Mississippi River and aeral increase in the hypoxic zone in the Gulf of Mexico is intensive drainage of the cropland within the watershed. Controlled drainage has been demonstrated as an approach to curb totla drainage outflow and nutrient di...

  11. Smart grids - French Expertise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-11-01

    The adaptation of electrical systems is the focus of major work worldwide. Bringing electricity to new territories, modernizing existing electricity grids, implementing energy efficiency policies and deploying renewable energies, developing new uses for electricity, introducing electric vehicles - these are the challenges facing a multitude of regions and countries. Smart Grids are the result of the convergence of electrical systems technologies with information and communications technologies. They play a key role in addressing the above challenges. Smart Grid development is a major priority for both public and private-sector actors in France. The experience of French companies has grown with the current French electricity system, a system that already shows extensive levels of 'intelligence', efficiency and competitiveness. French expertise also leverages substantial competence in terms of 'systems engineering', and can provide a tailored response to meet all sorts of needs. French products and services span all the technical and commercial building blocks that make up the Smart Grid value chain. They address the following issues: Improving the use and valuation of renewable energies and decentralized means of production, by optimizing the balance between generation and consumption. Strengthening the intelligence of the transmission and distribution grids: developing 'Supergrid', digitizing substations in transmission networks, and automating the distribution grids are the focus of a great many projects designed to reinforce the 'self-healing' capacity of the grid. Improving the valuation of decentralized flexibilities: this involves, among others, deploying smart meters, reinforcing active energy efficiency measures, and boosting consumers' contribution to grid balancing, via practices such as demand response which implies the aggregation of flexibility among residential, business, and/or industrial sites. Addressing current technological challenges, in

  12. Development of the French Photovoltaic Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunet, M.

    1980-07-01

    The French photovoltaic research program is reviewed, listing companies involved. Projections of module and system costs are discussed. French industrial experience in photovoltaics is reviewed and several French systems operating in developing countries are mentioned. (MHR)

  13. Dynamic drainage of froth with wood fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.Y. Zhu; Freya Tan

    2005-01-01

    Understanding froth drainage with fibers (or simply called fiber drainage in froth) is important for improving fiber yield in the flotation deinking operation. In this study, the data of water and fiber mass in foams collected at different froth heights were used to reconstruct the time dependent and spatially resolved froth density and fiber volumetric concentration...

  14. Modeling of drainage and hay production over the Crau aquifer for analyzing the impact of global change on aquifer recharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olioso, Albert; Lecerf, Rémi; Baillieux, Antoine; Chanzy, André; Ruget, Françoise; Banton, Olivier; Lecharpentier, Patrice; Alkassem Alosman, Mohamed; Ruy, Stéphane; Gallego Elvira, Belen

    2013-04-01

    The recharge of the aquifer in the Crau plain (550 km2, Southern Rhone Valley, France) depends on the irrigation of 15000 ha of meadow using water withdrawn from the River Durance through a dense network of channels. Traditional irrigation practice, since the XVIth century, has consisted in flooding the grassland fields with a large amount of water, the excess being infiltrated toward the water table. Today, the Crau aquifer holds the main resource in water in the area (300 000 inhabitants) but changes in the agricultural practices and progressive replacement of the irrigated meadows by urbanized area threaten the sustainability of groundwater. The distributed modeling of irrigated meadows together with the modeling of groundwater has been undertaken for quantifying the contribution of the irrigation to the recharge of the aquifer and to investigate possible evolution of hay production, water drainage, evapotranspiration and water table under scenarios of climate and land-use changes. The model combines a crop model (STICS) that simulates hay production, evapotranspiration and water drainage, a multisimulation tool (MultiSimLib) that allows to run STICS over each agricultural field in the aquifer perimeter, a groundwater model MODFLOW to simulate the water table from recharge data (simulated drainage). Specific models were developed for simulating the spatial distribution of climate, including scenario of changes for the 2025 - 2035 time period, soil properties (influenced by irrigation), and agricultural practices (calendar and amount), in particular irrigation and hay cutting. This step was crucial for correctly simulating hay production level and amount of water used for irrigation. Model results were evaluated thanks to plot experiments and information from farmers (biomass production, downward water flow, quantity of irrigated water, cutting calendar...), a network of piezometers and remote sensing maps of evapotranspiration. Main results included: - the

  15. General and Professional French Courses

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2010-01-01

    The next session will take place from 11 October to 17 December 2010. These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Nathalie Dumeaux, tel. 78144. NEW COURSES Specific French courses -Exam preparation/ We are now offering specific courses in English and French leading to a recognised external examination (e.g. DELF 1 and 2). If you are interested in following one of these courses and have at least an intermediate level of French, please enrol through the following link: French courses or contact: Lucette Fournier, tel.  73483 (French courses).

  16. Percutaneous catheter drainage of tuberculous psoas abscesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pombo, F.; Martin-Egana, R.; Cela, A.; Diaz, J.L.; Linares-Mondejar, P.; Freire, M.

    1993-01-01

    Six patients with 7 tuberculous psoas or ilio-psoas abscesses were treated by CT-guided catheter drainage and chemotherapy. The abscesses (5 unilateral and 1 bilateral) were completely drained using a posterior or lateral approach. The abscess volume was 70 to 700 ml (mean 300 ml) and the duration of drainage 5 to 11 days (mean 7 days). Immediate local symptomatic improvement was achieved in all patients, and there were no procedural complications. CT follow-up at 3 to 9 months showed normalization in 5 patients, 2 of whom are still in medical therapy. One patient, who did not take the medication regularly, had a recurrent abscess requiring new catheter drainage after which the fluid collection disappeared. Percutaneous drainage represents an efficient and attractive alternative to surgical drainage as a supplement to medical therapy in the management of patients with large tuberculous psoas abscesses. (orig.)

  17. Abdominal drainage versus no drainage post gastrectomy for gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen; Chen, Junqiang; Su, Ka; Dong, Zhiyong

    2011-08-10

    Gastrectomy remains the primary therapeutic method for resectable gastric cancer. Thought of as an important measure to reduce post-operative complications and mortality, abdominal drainage was used widely after gastrectomy for gastric cancer in previous decades. The benefits of abdominal drainage have been questioned by researchers in recent years. The objectives of this review were to access the benefits and harms of routine abdominal drainage post gastrectomy for gastric cancer. We searched the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register (Central/CCTR) in The Cochrane Library (2010, Issue 10), including the Specialised Registers of the Cochrane Upper Gastrointestinal and Pancreatic Diseases (UGPD) Group; MEDLINE (via Pubmed, 1950 to October, 2010); EMBASE (1980 to October, 2010); and the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) Database (1979 to October, 2010). We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing abdominal drain versus no drain in patients who had undergone gastrectomy (not considering the scale of gastrectomy and the extent of lymphadenectomy; irrespective of language, publication status, and the type of drain). We excluded RCTs comparing one drain with another. From each trial, we extracted the data on the methodological quality and characteristics of the included studies, mortality (30-day mortality), re-operations, post-operative complications (pneumonia, wound infection, intra-abdominal abscess, anastomotic leak, drain-related complications), operation time, length of post-operative hospital stay and initiation of soft diet. For dichotomous data, we calculated the risk ratio (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). For continuous data, we calculated mean differences (MD) and 95% CI. We tested heterogeneity using the Chi(2) test. We used a fixed-effect model for data analysis with RevMan software but we used a random-effects model if the P value of the Chi(2) test was less than 0.1. We included four RCTs involving 438 patients (220

  18. Status of French reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballagny, A. [Commissariat a l`Energie Atomique, Saclay (France)

    1997-08-01

    The status of French reactors is reviewed. The ORPHEE and RHF reactors can not be operated with a LEU fuel which would be limited to 4.8 g U/cm{sup 3}. The OSIRIS reactor has already been converted to LEU. It will use U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} as soon as its present stock of UO{sub 2} fuel is used up, at the end of 1994. The decision to close down the SILOE reactor in the near future is not propitious for the start of a conversion process. The REX 2000 reactor, which is expected to be commissioned in 2005, will use LEU (except if the fast neutrons core option is selected). Concerning the end of the HEU fuel cycle, the best option is reprocessing followed by conversion of the reprocessed uranium to LEU.

  19. The French nuclear programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacher, Pierre

    1987-01-01

    France has a civil nuclear power generation programme second only to the USA with 49 nuclear units in operation and 13 under construction. The units in service are described. These include 33 PWR 900 MW and 9 PWR 1300 MW units. The electricity consumption and generation in France is illustrated. The absence of a powerful anti-nuclear lobby and two main technical options have contributed to the success of the French nuclear programme. These are the PWR design and the plant standardization policy which allows the setting up of an effective industrial complex (eg for analysis of operating conditions and of safety and reliability information). The programme and the reasons for its success are reviewed. Research programmes and future plans are also discussed. (UK)

  20. French courses for beginners

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2006-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please tell to your supervisor and apply electronically from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an 'application for training'form available from your Departmental Secretariat or from your DTO (Departmental Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order in which they are received. French courses for beginners (level 0) From 17 July to 31 August 2006. Mondays, Tuesdays, Wednesdays and Thursdays(8 hours a week / between 11.00 and 15.30) Duration: 56 hours Price: 728 CHF For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz: Tel. 73127.

  1. Status of French reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballagny, A.

    1997-01-01

    The status of French reactors is reviewed. The ORPHEE and RHF reactors can not be operated with a LEU fuel which would be limited to 4.8 g U/cm 3 . The OSIRIS reactor has already been converted to LEU. It will use U 3 Si 2 as soon as its present stock of UO 2 fuel is used up, at the end of 1994. The decision to close down the SILOE reactor in the near future is not propitious for the start of a conversion process. The REX 2000 reactor, which is expected to be commissioned in 2005, will use LEU (except if the fast neutrons core option is selected). Concerning the end of the HEU fuel cycle, the best option is reprocessing followed by conversion of the reprocessed uranium to LEU

  2. Geohydrologic reconnaissance of drainage wells in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimrey, J.O.; Fayard, L.D.

    1984-01-01

    Drainage wells are used to inject surface waters directly into an aquifer, or shallow ground waters directly into a deeper aquifer, primarily by gravity. Such wells in Florida may be grouped into two broad types: (1) surface-water injection wells, and (2) interaquifer connector wells. Drainage wells of the first type are further categorized as either Floridan aquifer drainage wells or Biscayne aquifer drainage wells. Floridan aquifer drainage wells are commonly used to supplement drainage for urban areas in karst terranes of central and north Florida. Data are available for 25 wells in the Ocala, Live Oak, and Orlando areas that allow comparison of the quality of water samples from these Floridan aquifer drainage wells with allowable contaminant levels. Comparison indicates that maximum contaminant levels for turbidity, color, and iron, manganese, and lead concentrations are equaled or exceeded in some drainage-well samples, and relatively high counts for coliform bacteria are present in most wells. Biscayne aquifer drainage wells are used locally to dispose of stormwater runoff and other surplus water in southeast Florida, where large numbers of these wells have been permitted in Dade and Broward Counties. The majority of these wells are used to dispose of water from swimming pools or to dispose of heated water from air-conditioning units. The use of Biscayne aquifer drainage wells may have minimal effect on aquifer potability so long as injection of runoff and industrial wates is restricted to zones where chloride concentrations exceed 1,500 milligrams per liter. Interaquifer connector wells are used in the phosphate mining areas of Polk and Hillsborough Counties, to drain mines and recharge the Floridan aquifer. Water-quality data available from 13 connector wells indicate that samples from most of these wells exceed standards values for iron concentration and turbidity. One well yielded a highly mineralized water, and samples from 6 of the other 12 wells exceed

  3. Radiologically-guided catheter drainage of intrathoracic abscesses and empyemas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, H.; Steiner, W.; Bergman, C.; Anthuber, M.; Dienemann, H.

    1993-01-01

    Radiologically guided percutaneous catheter drainage was used in 38 patients to treat pleural empyemas (35 patients) and pulmonary abscesses (3 patients). Drainage was successful in 85.7% of empyemas including 11 cases with fistulous communications. Three percutaneously drained pulmonary abscesses required subsequent lobectomy. One patient died during the drainage procedure due to sepsis. No major complications related to the drainage procedure were observed. Guided percutaneous drainage proved to be a safe and successful alternative to closed drainage of pleural fluid collections. (orig.)

  4. Percutaneous biliary drainage and stenting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Totev, M.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC) is an X-ray or US guided procedure that involves the injection of a contrast material directly into the bile ducts inside the liver to produce pictures of them. If a blockage or narrowing is found, additional procedures may be performed: 1. insertion of a catheter to drain excess bile out of the body or both - internal and external; 2. plastic endoprothesis placement; 3. self-expandable metal stents placement to help open bile ducts or to bypass an obstruction and allow fluids to drain. Current percutaneous biliary interventions include percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC) and biliary drainage to manage benign and malignant obstructions. Internal biliary stents are either plastic or metallic, and various types of each kind are available. Internal biliary stents have several advantages. An external tube can be uncomfortable and have a psychological disadvantage. An internal stent prevents the problems related to external catheters, for example, pericatheter leakage of bile and the need for daily flushing. The disadvantages include having to perform endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) or new PTC procedures to obtain access in case of stent obstruction. Better patency rates are reported with metallic than with plastic stents in cases of malignant obstruction, though no effect on survival is noted. Plastic internal stents are the cheapest but reportedly prone to migration. Metallic stents are generally not used in the treatment of benign disease because studies have shown poor long-term patency rates. Limited applications may include the treatment of patients who are poor surgical candidates or of those in whom surgical treatment fails. Most postoperative strictures are treated surgically, though endoscopic and (less commonly) percutaneous placement of nonmetallic stents has increasingly been used in the past few years. Now there are some reports about use of biodegradable biliary

  5. Endoscopic Drainage of >50% of Liver in Malignant Hilar Biliary Obstruction Using Metallic or Fenestrated Plastic Stents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerdsirichairat, Tossapol; Arain, Mustafa A; Attam, Rajeev; Glessing, Brooke; Bakman, Yan; Amateau, Stuart K; Freeman, Martin L

    2017-08-31

    Endoscopic drainage of complex hilar tumors has generally resulted in poor outcomes. Drainage of >50% of liver volume has been proposed as optimal, but not evaluated using long multifenestrated plastic stents (MFPS) or self-expanding metal stents (SEMS). We evaluated outcomes of endoscopic drainage of malignant hilar strictures using optimal strategy and stents, and determined factors associated with stent patency, survival, and complications. Cross-sectional study was conducted at an academic center over 5 years. MFPS (10 French or 8.5 French) or open-cell SEMS were used for palliation of unresectable malignant hilar strictures, with imaging-targeted drainage of as many sectors as needed to drain >50% of viable liver volume. Risk factors were evaluated using regression analysis. The cumulative risk was assessed using Kaplan-Meier analysis. 77 patients with malignant hilar biliary strictures (median Bismuth IV) underwent targeted stenting (41 MFPS and 36 SEMS). Comparing MFPS vs. SEMS, technical success (95.1 vs. 97.2%, P=0.64), clinical success (75.6 vs. 83.3%, P=0.40), frequency of multiple stents (23/41 vs. 25/36, P=0.19), survival and adverse events were similar, but stent patency was significantly shorter (P50% of viable liver resulted in effective palliation in patients with complex malignant hilar biliary strictures. Patency was shorter in the MFPS group, but similar survival and complications were found when comparing MFPS and SEMS group.

  6. Prairie Pothole Region wetlands and subsurface drainage systems: Key factors for determining drainage setback distances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangen, Brian; Wiltermuth, Mark T.

    2018-01-01

    Use of agricultural subsurface drainage systems in the Prairie Pothole Region of North America continues to increase, prompting concerns over potential negative effects to the Region's vital wetlands. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service protects a large number of wetlands through conservation easements that often utilize standard lateral setback distances to provide buffers between wetlands and drainage systems. Because of a lack of information pertaining to the efficacy of these setback distances for protecting wetlands, information is required to support the decision making for placement of subsurface drainage systems adjacent to wetlands. We used qualitative graphical analyses and data comparisons to identify characteristics of subsurface drainage systems and wetland catchments that could be considered when assessing setback distances. We also compared setback distances with catchment slope lengths to determine if they typically exclude drainage systems from the catchment. We demonstrated that depth of a subsurface drainage system is a key factor for determining drainage setback distances. Drainage systems located closer to the surface (shallow) typically could be associated with shorter lateral setback distances compared with deeper systems. Subsurface drainage systems would be allowed within a wetland's catchment for 44–59% of catchments associated with wetland conservation easements in North Dakota. More specifically, results suggest that drainage setback distances generally would exclude drainage systems from catchments of the smaller wetlands that typically have shorter slopes in the adjacent upland contributing area. For larger wetlands, however, considerable areas of the catchment would be vulnerable to drainage that may affect wetland hydrology. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service easements are associated with > 2,000 km2 of wetlands in North Dakota, demonstrating great potential to protect these systems from drainage depending on policies for installing

  7. Climate and Leishmaniasis in French Guiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger, Amaury; Nacher, Mathieu; Hanf, Matthieu; Drogoul, Anne Sophie; Adenis, Antoine; Basurko, Celia; Dufour, Julie; Sainte Marie, Dominique; Blanchet, Denis; Simon, Stephane; Carme, Bernard; Couppié, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    To study the link between climatic variables and the incidence of leishmaniasis a study was conducted in Cayenne, French Guiana. Patients infected between January 1994 and December 2010. Meteorological data were studied in relation to the incidence of leishmaniasis using an ARIMA model. In the final model, the infections were negatively correlated with rainfall (with a 2-month lag) and with the number of days with rainfall > 50 mm (lags of 4 and 7 months). The variables that were positively correlated were temperature and the Multivariate El Niño Southern Oscillation Index with lags of 8 and 4 months, respectively. Significantly greater correlations were observed in March for rainfall and in November for the Multivariate El Niño/Southern Oscillation Index. Climate thus seems to be a non-negligible explanatory variable for the fluctuations of leishmaniasis. A decrease in rainfall is linked to increased cases 2 months later. This easily perceptible point could lead to an interesting prevention message. PMID:23939706

  8. Postoperative drainage in head and neck surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Ida; Morar, Pradeep; Belloso, Antonio

    2010-11-01

    A major factor affecting patients' length of hospitalisation following head and neck surgery remains the use of surgical drains. The optimal time to remove these drains has not been well defined. A routine practice is to measure the drainage every 24 h and remove the drain when daily drainage falls below 25 ml. This study aims to determine whether drainage measurement at shorter intervals decreases the time to drain removal and hence the length of in-patient stays. A 6-month prospective observational study was performed. The inclusion criteria were patients who underwent head and neck surgery without neck dissection and had a closed suction drain inserted. Drainage rates were measured at 8-hourly intervals. Drains were removed when drainage-rate was ≤ 1 ml/h over an 8-h period. A total of 43 patients were evaluated. The highest drainage rate occurred in the first 8 postoperative hours and decreased significantly in the subsequent hours. The median drainage rates at 8, 16, 24, 32 and 40 postoperative hours were 3.375, 1, 0, 0 and 0 ml/h, respectively. Applying our new removal criteria of ≤ 1 ml/h drainage rate, the drains were removed in 22 (51%) patients at the 16th postoperative hour; 37 (86%) were removed by 24 h after operation. In comparison, only nine (20.9%) patients could potentially be discharged the day after surgery if previous criteria of ≤ 25 ml/24-h were used to decide on drain removal. Our 8-hourly drainage-rate monitoring has facilitated safe earlier discharge of an additional 28 (65%) patients on the day after surgery. This has led to improvement in patient care, better optimisation of hospital resources and resulted in positive economic implications to the department.

  9. Practising French grammar a workbook

    CERN Document Server

    Dr Roger Hawkins; Towell, Richard

    2015-01-01

    This new edition of Practising French Grammar offers a set of varied and accessible exercises for developing a practical awareness of French as it is spoken and written today. The lively examples and authentic texts and cartoons have been updated to reflect current usage. A new companion website provides a wealth of additional interactive exercises to help consolidate challenging grammar points. Practising French Grammar provides concise summaries of key grammatical points at the beginning of each exercise, as well as model answers to the exercises and translations of difficult words, making i

  10. Diversity, distribution, and conservation status of the native freshwater fishes of the Southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin L. Warren; Brooks M. Burr; Stephen J. Walsh; Henry L. Bart; Robert C. Cashner; David A. Etnier; Byron J. Freeman; Bernard R. Kuhajda; Richard L. Mayden; Henry W. Robison; Stephen T. Ross; Wayne C. Starnes

    2000-01-01

    The Southeastern Fishes Council Technical Advisory Committee reviewed the diversity, distribution, and status of all native freshwater and diadromous fishes across 51 major drainage units of the Southern United States. The Southern United States supports more native fishes than any area of comparable size on the North American continent north of Mexico, but also has a...

  11. Gravity Drainage Kinetics of Papermaking Fibrous Suspensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przybysz Piotr

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study analyses application possibilities of filtration and thickening models in evaluation of papermaking suspension drainage rate. The authors proposed their own method to estimate the drainage rate on the basis of an existing Ergun capillary model of liquid flow through a granular material. The proposed model was less sensitive to porosity changes than the Ergun model. An empirical verification proved robustness of the proposed approach. Taking into account discrepancies in the published data concerning how the drainage velocity of papermaking suspension is defined, this study examines which of the commonly applied models matches experimental results the best.

  12. French Literature Abroad: Towards an Alternative History of French Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Gaunt

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available What would a history of medieval literature in French that is not focused on France and Paris look like? Taking as its starting point the key role played in the development of textual culture in French by geographical regions that are either at the periphery of French-speaking areas, or alternatively completely outside them, this article offers three case studies: first of a text composed in mid-twelfth century England; then of one from early thirteenth-century Flanders; and finally from late thirteenth-century Italy. What difference does it make if we do not read these texts, and the language in which they are written, in relation to French norms, but rather look at their cultural significance both at their point of production, and then in transmission? A picture emerges of a literary culture in French that is mobile and cosmopolitan, one that cannot be tied to the teleology of an emerging national identity, and one that is a bricolage of a range of influences that are moving towards France as well as being exported from it. French itself functions as a supralocal written language (even when it has specific local features and therefore may function more like Latin than a local vernacular.

  13. Cholangitis following percutaneous biliary drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audisio, R.A.; Bozzetti, F.; Cozzi, G.; Severini, A.; Belloni, M.; Friggerio, L.F.

    1989-01-01

    The binomial PTBD-cholangitis often stands under different and sometimes even opposite relations. Among its indications the procedure lists, the treatment of cholangitis which, on the other hand, may be itself a complication of biliary drainage. The present work proposes a critical review of cholangitis-PTBD correlations, from an ordinary clinical-radiological point of view. Different pathogenetic hypothesis of cholangitis (inflammation, cholestasis, surgical manipulation) are discussed together with risk factors (impaired macrophagic-phagocytic system, immunosuppresion, wide neoplastic liver involvement, multiple intrahepatic ductal obstructions, chronic liver diseases, aged patients, etc.). The authors also report about prevention and treatment of septic complications which must be carried out following technical and therapeutic strategies, such as chemoprophylaxis and focused antibiotic therapy according to coltural samples, slow injection of small amounts of contrast medium, peripheral branches approach, gentle handling of catheters and guidewires, flushing with saline solutions and brushing of the catheter itself, and finally use of large gauge catheters in the presence of bile sludge

  14. Solar system for soil drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocic, Z.R.; Stojanovic, J.B.; Antic, M.A.; Pavlovic, T.M.

    1999-01-01

    The paper reviews solar system for drainage of the cultivable agricultural surfaces which can be situated near the rivers in plains. These are usually very fertile surfaces which cannot be cultivated die to constant presence of the water. Using such solar systems should increase the percentage of cultivable surfaces. These systems can also be installed on the cultivable agricultural surfaces, where the water surfaces or so called still waters appear, which make impossible the application of agritechnical measures on these surfaces, significantly decreasing crops and creating conditions for the growth of pond plants and animals. Increasing the percentage of cultivable agricultural surfaces would increase national agricultural income. At the same time, increasing the percentage of cultivable agricultural surfaces decreases the surfaces of unhealthy bog, swamp and marshland soils, where many insect breed. They are the cause for soil spraying from the air, which causes the pollution of environment. Solar systems do not pollute the environment because they use solar energy as the purest source of energy. Their usage has special significance in the places where there is no electricity distribution network

  15. English and French courses

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    If one of your New Year’s resolutions is to learn a language, there is no excuse anymore!   You can attend one of our English or French courses and you can practise the language with a tandem partner! Cours d’anglais général et professionnel La prochaine session se déroulera du 3 mars au 27 juin 2014. Ces cours s’adressent à toute personne travaillant au CERN ainsi qu’à leur conjoint. Pour vous inscrire et voir tout le détail des cours proposés, consultez nos pages web : http://cern.ch/Training. Oral Expression The next session will take place from 3 March to 27 June 2014. This course is intended for people with a good knowledge of English who want to enhance their speaking skills. There will be an average of 8 participants in a class. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. depending on the needs of the students. Writing Profe...

  16. General and professionnal French courses

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    The next session will take place from 27 January to 4 April 2014. These courses are open to everyone working on the CERN site and to their spouses.   Oral Expression This course is aimed at students with a good knowledge of French who want to enhance their oral communication skills. Activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays, etc. The next session will take place from 27 January to 4 April 2014. Writing professional documents in French These courses are designed for non-French speakers with a very good standard of spoken French. The next session will take place from 27 January to 4 April 2014. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our web site or contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister (70896 - language.training@cern.ch).

  17. General and professionnal French courses

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    The next session will take place from 27 January to 4 April 2014. These courses are open to everyone working on the CERN site and to their spouses.   Oral Expression This course is aimed at students with a good knowledge of French who want to enhance their speaking skills. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. The next session will take place from 27 January to 4 April 2014. Writing professional documents in French These courses are designed for non-French speakers with a very good standard of spoken French. The next session will take place from 27 January to 4 April 2014. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our web site or contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister (70896 - language.training@cern.ch).

  18. French switch off in protest

    CERN Document Server

    McCabe, H

    1999-01-01

    French scientists have refused to restart two synchrotron machines after the summer vacation. They are protesting at the government decision to give money to the British synchrotron project Diamond, so ending hopes of the construction of the proposed

  19. Reshuffle lifts French synchrotron hopes

    CERN Multimedia

    McCabe, H

    2000-01-01

    The sacking of Claude Allegre as research minister has raised doubts over the level of France's promised participation in the construction of Diamond but reawakened French hopes that the synchrotron Soleil may now be built (1 page).

  20. 21 CFR 169.115 - French dressing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false French dressing. 169.115 Section 169.115 Food and... § 169.115 French dressing. (a) Description. French dressing is the separable liquid food or the..., lecithin, or polyglycerol esters of fatty acids. (d) Nomenclature. The name of the food is “French dressing...

  1. Teaching for Content: Greek Mythology in French.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giauque, Gerald S.

    An intermediate-level university French course in Greek mythology was developed to (1) improve student skills in reading, writing, speaking, and comprehending French, (2) familiarize students with Greek mythology, and (3) prepare students to deal better with allusions to Greek mythology in French literature. The texts used are a French translation…

  2. 7 CFR 993.7 - French prunes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false French prunes. 993.7 Section 993.7 Agriculture... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 993.7 French prunes. French prunes means: (a) Prunes produced from plums of the following varieties of plums: French (Prune d'Agen, Petite Prune d'Agen), Coates (Cox...

  3. English Grammar for Students of French.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Jacqueline

    This grammar is a self-study manual intended to aid native speakers of English who are beginning the study of French. It is designed to supplement the French textbook, not to replace it. The common grammatical terms that are necessary for learning to speak and write French are explained in English and illustrated by examples in both French and…

  4. French days on stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    These first French days on stable isotopes took place in parallel with the 1. French days of environmental chemistry. Both conferences had common plenary sessions. The conference covers all aspects of the use of stable isotopes in the following domains: medicine, biology, environment, tracer techniques, agronomy, food industry, geology, petroleum geochemistry, cosmo-geochemistry, archaeology, bio-geochemistry, hydrology, climatology, nuclear and particle physics, astrophysics, isotope separations etc.. Abstracts available on CD-Rom only. (J.S.)

  5. Basics of Postural Drainage and Percussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Active Cycle of Breathing Technique Airway Clearance Techniques Autogenic Drainage Basics of Lung Care Chest Physical Therapy ... care. Clinician Awards Clinician Career Development Awards Clinician Training Awards Mutation Analysis Program Network News Network News: ...

  6. French lessons in nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valenti, M.

    1991-01-01

    In stark contrast to the American atomic power experience is that of the French. Even the disaster at Chernobyl in 1986, which chilled nuclear programs throughout Western Europe, did not slow the pace of the nuclear program of the state-owned Electricite de France (EDF), based in Paris. Another five units are under construction and are scheduled to be connected to the French national power grid before the end of 1993. In 1989, the EDF's 58 nuclear reactors supplied 73 percent of French electrical needs, a higher percentage than any other country. In the United States, for example, only about 18 percent of electrical power is derived from the atom. Underpinning the success of nuclear energy in France is its use of standardized plant design and technology. This has been an imperative for the French nuclear power industry since 1974, when an intensive program of nuclear power plant construction began. It was then, in the aftermath of the first oil embargo, that the French government decided to reduce its dependence on imported oil by substituting atomic power sources for hydrocarbons. Other pillars supporting French nuclear success include retrofitting older plants with technological or design advances, intensive training of personnel, using robotic and computer aids to reduce downtime, controlling the entire nuclear fuel cycle, and maintaining a comprehensive public information effort about the nuclear program

  7. Anglicism in the French language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firoozeh Asghari

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available There is no question nowadays as to the international and powerful status of English at a global scale and, consequently, as to its presence in non-English speaking countries at different levels.  It is the languages which have mostly influenced French after the Two World War. So that now Anglicism exists in all levels of French. In this paper, besides the phenomenon of Anglicism, we will mainly focus on the reasons of increasing French interest in using of this phenomenon and also on the reactions taken against it in France. The method used in this research is descriptive – analytical.   The Result of this study shows that there is no purely linguistic reason for “Anglicism” in a country like France. In fact this paper remarks that the strong impact of English on French rather than being influenced by linguistic reasons is influenced by the cultural & social reasons. Additionally, the finding shows that the French especially the youth like using English for several reasons which include “prestige”, “snobbery” and “superiority”. Amongst the mentioned reasons in this paper, what caused the French to worry about the spread of Anglicism is due to fear of the American cultural influence, what is changing in the American cultural hegemony.

  8. Social impact assessment of subsurface drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azhar, A.H.; Rafiq, M.; Alam, M.M.

    2005-01-01

    Social impact assessment of four drainage projects namely; Mardan SCARP Project (MSP), Fourth Drainage Project, Faisalabad (FDP), Chashma Command Area Development Project (CCADP) and Mirpurkhas Tile Drainage Project (MKOP) has been done. For this purpose, a socio-technical survey was carried out in which randomly selected farmers were interviewed. The investigations revealed that although significant population (-77%) at four study sites was educated, yet, the farmers were not satisfactorily educated to understand the operation and maintenance of drainage systems. The perusal of data revealed that 14%, 17% and 25% respondents from MSP, FOP and MKDP respectively had to migrate from their villages mainly due to pre-project water logging problem. However, installation of drainage systems in those areas improved the situation resulting in the increase of farm income, which was an attraction for them to return to their villages. The analysis of farm mechanization revealed that at MSP, FDP, CCADP and MKOP sites 71%, 42%, 40% and 75% respondents respectively were tractor owners and owners of some kind of other farm implements, whereas, remaining respondents were performing their farm operations on hire basis. Although, hire operation basis is much better than traditional ways, however, improving the farm mechanization could further enhance the benefits of drainage systems. The investigations revealed that a significant majority of respondents at four project sites had never met the Agricultural Extension Officer. The farmers' access to financing institutions such as ZTB was also negligible. There was lack of coordination among various departments such as WAPDA, Agriculture Extension and Irrigation and Power Department at four study sites. Nevertheless, the overall social impact investigations did reveal that the objectives of drainage systems installation have been achieved in terms of uplifting the socio-economic conditions of drainage areas. To make the efficient use of

  9. Scintigraphy of the lacrimal drainage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denffer, H. von; Dressler, J.; Technische Univ. Muenchen

    1978-01-01

    A new scintigraphic method, the radionuclide dacryography, to evaluate lacrimal drainage and its disorders is described. A drop of sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate is dropped onto the eyes and the transport of the nuclide is registered by a scintillation camera. By this method it is easy to verify, under physiological conditions, suspected obstructions of the lacrimal drainage system and to determine its localization. The absorbed radiation dose using radionuclide dacryography is very low as compared to radiological methods. (orig.) [de

  10. Pressure Jumps during Drainage in Macroporous Soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soto, Diego; Paradelo Pérez, Marcos; Corral, A

    2018-01-01

    Tensiometer readings obtained at high resolution during drainage of structured soil columns revealed pressure jumps with long range correlations and burst sequences with a hierarchical structure. The statistical properties of jumps are similar to Haines jumps described in invasion percolation...... processes at pore scale, but they are much larger in amplitude and duration. Pressure jumps can result from transient redistribution of water potential in internal regions of soil and can be triggered during drainage by capillary displacements at the scale of structural pores....

  11. Are there still roles for exocrine bladder drainage and portal venous drainage for pancreatic allografts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Carlton J

    2009-02-01

    Controversy remains regarding the best methodology of handling exocrine pancreatic fluid and pancreatic venous effluent. Bladder drainage has given way to enteric drainage. However, is there an instance in which bladder drainage is preferable? Also, hyperinsulinemia, as a result of systemic venous drainage (SVD), is claimed to be proatherosclerotic, whereas portal venous drainage (PVD) is more physiologic and less atherosclerotic. Bladder drainage remains a viable method of exocrine pancreas drainage, but evidence is sparse that measuring urinary amylase has a substantial benefit in the early detection of acute rejection in all types of pancreas transplants. Currently, there is no incontrovertible evidence that systemic hyperinsulinemia is proatherosclerotic, whereas recent metabolic studies on SVD and PVD showed that there was no benefit to PVD. Given the advent of newer immunosuppressive agents and overall lower acute rejection rates, the perceived benefit of bladder drainage as a means to measure urinary amylase as an early marker of rejection has not been substantiated. However, there may be a selective role for bladder drainage in 'high risk' pancreases. Also, without a clear-cut metabolic benefit to PVD over SVD, it remains the surgeon's choice as to which method to use.

  12. Failures and complications of thoracic drainage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Ivana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Thoracic drainage is a surgical procedure for introducing a drain into the pleural space to drain its contents. Using this method, the pleura is discharged and set to the physiological state which enables the reexpansion of the lungs. The aim of the study was to prove that the use of modern principles and protocols of thoracic drainage significantly reduces the occurrence of failures and complications, rendering the treatment more efficient. Methods. The study included 967 patients treated by thoracic drainage within the period from January 1, 1989 to June 1, 2000. The studied patients were divided into 2 groups: group A of 463 patients treated in the period from January 1, 1989 to December 31, 1994 in whom 386 pleural drainage (83.36% were performed, and group B of 602 patients treated form January 1, 1995 to June 1, 2000 in whom 581 pleural drainage (96.51% were performed. The patients of the group A were drained using the classical standards of thoracic drainage by the general surgeons. The patients of the group B, however, were drained using the modern standards of thoracic drainage by the thoracic surgeons, and the general surgeons trained for this kind of the surgery. Results. The study showed that better results were achieved in the treatment of the patients from the group B. The total incidence of the failures and complications of thoracic drainage decreased from 36.52% (group A to 12.73% (group B. The mean length of hospitalization of the patients without complications in the group A was 19.5 days versus 10 days in the group B. The mean length of the treatment of the patients with failures and complications of the drainage in the group A was 33.5 days versus 17.5 days in the group B. Conclusion. The shorter length of hospitalization and the lower morbidity of the studied patients were considered to be the result of the correct treatment using modern principles of thoracic drainage, a suitable surgical technique, and a

  13. Percutaneous drainage of abscesses associated with biliary fistulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, H.; Winter, T.; Pratschke, E.; Sauerbruch, T.; Klinikum Grosshadern, Muenchen; Klinikum Grosshadern, Muenchen

    1989-01-01

    33 abdominal abscesses associated with fistulae in 31 patients were treated by percutaneous drainage. 19 of these patients had had surgery immediately preceding the drainage. In 64% the percutaneous drainage led to a diagnosis of an internal fistula. Additional therapeutic measures, because of the fistula, were necessary in 45% (operation, biliary drainage, repositioning of catheter). The average duration of drainage was 29 days. 77% of those abscesses which could be drained were treated successfully. Mortality in the entire series was 19%. (orig.) [de

  14. French Military Intervention in Mali: Inevitable, Consensual yet Insufficient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaline Bergamaschi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This practice note offers an account of France’s military intervention in Mali launched on 11 January 2013. Firstly, it provides an analysis of the events that led up to the dual crisis in the country’s northern and southern regions and to a new wave of armed conflict between government and rebel forces. Then, it is argued that although the French military intervention was framed as inevitable and based on a broad consensus, it will nevertheless be insufficient to address the root sociopolitical causes of Mali´s multidimensional crisis.

  15. Improved drainage with active chest tube clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiose, Akira; Takaseya, Tohru; Fumoto, Hideyuki; Arakawa, Yoko; Horai, Tetsuya; Boyle, Edward M; Gillinov, A Marc; Fukamachi, Kiyotaka

    2010-05-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the efficacy of a novel chest drainage system. This system employs guide wire-based active chest tube clearance to improve drainage and maintain patency. A 32 Fr chest tube was inserted into pleural cavities of five pigs. On the left, a tube was connected to the chest canister, and on the right, the new system was inserted between the chest tube and chest canister. Acute bleeding was mimicked by periodic infusion of blood. The amount of blood drained from each chest cavity was recorded every 15 min for 2 h. After completion of the procedure, all residual blood and clots in each chest cavity were assessed. The new system remained widely patent, and the amount of drainage achieved with this system (670+/-105 ml) was significantly (P=0.01) higher than that with the standard tube (239+/-131 ml). The amount of retained pleural blood and clots with this system (150+/-107 ml) was significantly (P=0.04) lower than that with the standard tube (571+/-248 ml). In conclusion, a novel chest drainage system with active tube clearance significantly improved drainage without tube manipulations. 2010 Published by European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  16. The French electricity report 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    RTE is the company responsible for running the French electricity transmission system. It is a public service operator, tasked with operating, maintaining and developing the high and extra high voltage network. It guarantees the reliability and proper operation of the power network. These missions were entrusted to it by the Law of 10 February 2000. With 100,000 km of lines between 63,000 and 400,000 volts and 45 cross-border lines, the network operated by RTE is the biggest in Europe. In 2008, RTE posted turnover of euros 4,221 m and currently employs around 8,500 staff. RTE, by virtue of the missions entrusted to it by the Law of 10 February 2000, is the central player in the French power system. For the purpose of maintaining the real time balance between supply and demand, and managing contractual relations with customers connected to its network, RTE monitors all the electrical energy that enters and leaves the public transmission system. Through its management of the 45 interconnection lines linking France with its neighbours, RTE also tracks all import and export data, on behalf of players in the French and European electricity market. RTE constantly records and examines data provided by all market players. Using the data, monthly and annually, it publishes exhaustive figures for the French power system (demand, generation, imports and exports), which offer the only truly accurate reflection of the real state of the sector's economy. This report presents these figures for the year 2009. Contents: 1 - French electricity demand down by 1.6% on 2008; 2 - A drop in French electricity generation; 3 - The balance of cross-border exchanges falls, but remains positive; 4 - RTE continues to invest in a robust network capable of keeping up with developments in the electricity industry; 5 - Appendix 1: New infrastructures on the RTE network in 2009; 6 - Appendix 2: Electricity quality; 7 - Appendix 3: Mature market mechanisms

  17. General and Professional French Courses

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Nathalie Dumeaux, tel. 78144. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 8 October to 14 December 2007. This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken French. Duration: 30 hours (3 hours a week) Price: 660 CHF (for a minimum of 8 students). For registration and further information, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Nathalie Dumeaux, tel. 78144.

  18. French regulation and waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-08-01

    The organization and the role played by French safety authorities for waste management are described. The French policy for storage and conditioning: basic objectives and waste management optimization are specified. Safety requirements are based on the barrier principle, they are mentioned for packaging and storage. The ''Institut de Protection et Surete Nucleaire'' deals not only with safety analysis but also help the ''autorites ministerielles'' for the development of fundamental safety rules. Examples for spent fuel storage and radioactive materials transport are treated in appendixes [fr

  19. Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Biliary Drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artifon, Everson L.A.; Ferreira, Fla'vio C.; Sakai, Paulo

    2012-01-01

    To demonstrate a comprehensive review of published articles regarding endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided biliary drainage. Review of studies regarding EUS-guided biliary drainage including case reports, case series and previous reviews. EUS-guided hepaticogastrostomy, coledochoduodenostomy and choledoantrostomy are advanced biliary and pancreatic endoscopy procedures, and together make up the echo-guided biliary drainage. Hepaticogastrostomy is indicated in cases of hilar obstruction, while the procedure of choice is the coledochoduodenostomy or choledochoantrostomy in distal lesions. Both procedures must be performed only after unsuccessful ERCPs. The indication of these procedures must be made under a multidisciplinary view while sharing information with the patient or legal guardian. Hepaticogastrostomy and coledochoduodenostomy or choledochoantrostomy are feasible when performed by endoscopists with expertise in biliopancreatic endoscopy. Advanced echo-endoscopy should currently be performed under a rigorous protocol in educational institutions.

  20. Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Biliary Drainage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artifon, Everson L.A.; Ferreira, Fla& #x27; vio C.; Sakai, Paulo [University of Saeo Paulo, Saeo Paulo (Brazil)

    2012-02-15

    To demonstrate a comprehensive review of published articles regarding endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided biliary drainage. Review of studies regarding EUS-guided biliary drainage including case reports, case series and previous reviews. EUS-guided hepaticogastrostomy, coledochoduodenostomy and choledoantrostomy are advanced biliary and pancreatic endoscopy procedures, and together make up the echo-guided biliary drainage. Hepaticogastrostomy is indicated in cases of hilar obstruction, while the procedure of choice is the coledochoduodenostomy or choledochoantrostomy in distal lesions. Both procedures must be performed only after unsuccessful ERCPs. The indication of these procedures must be made under a multidisciplinary view while sharing information with the patient or legal guardian. Hepaticogastrostomy and coledochoduodenostomy or choledochoantrostomy are feasible when performed by endoscopists with expertise in biliopancreatic endoscopy. Advanced echo-endoscopy should currently be performed under a rigorous protocol in educational institutions.

  1. Bronchoscopic drainage of a malignant lung abscess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsenos, Stamatis; Psathakis, Konstantinos; Chatzivasiloglou, Fotini; Antonogiannaki, Elvira-Markela; Psara, Anthoula; Tsintiris, Konstantinos

    2015-04-01

    Bronchoscopic drainage of a pyogenic lung abscess is an established therapeutic approach in selected patients in whom conventional antibiotic therapy fails. This intervention has also been undertaken in patients with abscess owing to underlying lung cancer and prior combined radiochemotherapy. However, this procedure has rarely been performed in cavitary lesions of advanced tumor origin before initiating any chemotherapy/radiotherapy scheme. Herein, we describe a case of a 68-year-old woman with lung adenocarcinoma stage IIIB, who underwent bronchoscopic drainage of necrotizing tumor lesion, thus improving her initial poor clinical condition and rendering other treatment modalities, such as radiotherapy, more effective and beneficial. Bronchoscopic drainage of a symptomatic cancerous lung abscess should be considered as an alternative and palliative treatment approach in patients with advanced inoperable non-small cell lung cancer.

  2. Glaucoma Drainage Device Erosion Following Ptosis Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Steven S; Campbell, Robert J

    2017-09-01

    To highlight the potential risk of glaucoma drainage device erosion following ptosis surgery. Case report. A 71-year-old man underwent uncomplicated superotemporal Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation in the left eye in 2008. Approximately 8 years later, the patient underwent bilateral ptosis repair, which successfully raised the upper eyelid position. Three months postoperatively, the patient's glaucoma drainage implant tube eroded through the corneal graft tissue and overlying conjunctiva to become exposed. A graft revision surgery was successfully performed with no further complications. Caution and conservative lid elevation may be warranted when performing ptosis repair in patients with a glaucoma drainage implant, and patients with a glaucoma implant undergoing ptosis surgery should be followed closely for signs of tube erosion.

  3. Managing a chest tube and drainage system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durai, Rajaraman; Hoque, Happy; Davies, Tony W

    2010-02-01

    Intercostal drainage tubes (ie, chest tubes) are inserted to drain the pleural cavity of air, blood, pus, or lymph. The water-seal container connected to the chest tube allows one-way movement of air and liquid from the pleural cavity. The container should not be changed unless it is full, and the chest tube should not be clamped unnecessarily. After a chest tube is inserted, a nurse trained in chest-tube management is responsible for managing the chest tube and drainage system. This entails monitoring the chest-tube position, controlling fluid evacuation, identifying when to change or empty the containers, and caring for the tube and drainage system during patient transport. This article provides an overview of indications, insertion techniques, and management of chest tubes. Copyright 2010 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. CT-guided biopsies and drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheppers, I.; Wollschlaeger, D.

    2011-01-01

    Following the implementation of computed tomography (CT) or ultrasound-guided biopsy of solid tumors and the puncture and drainage of liquid processes, the number of surgical open biopsies and curative operations for abscess drainage has declined. Such CT-guided interventions are performed in nearly every organ. Instead of aspiration biopsies, more and more core biopsies are being performed to allow histopathological evaluation and thus allowing targeted therapy. This article is intended to give a general overview of techniques, materials, indications and contraindications. Ultrasound-guided biopsies as well as large bore vacuum biopsies of the breast are not included in this review. (orig.) [de

  5. Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage for hilar cholangiocarcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Xiaojun; Jin Wenhui; Dai Dingke; Yu Ping; Gao Kun; Zhai Renyou

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of PTBD in treating malignant biliary obstruction caused by hilar cholangiocarcinoma. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the data of 103 patients(M:62,F:41)with malignant obstructive jaundice caused by hilar cholangiocarcinoma. After taking percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography, metallic stent or plastic external catheter or external-internal catheter for drainage was deployed and then followed up was undertaken with clinical and radiographic evaluation and laboratory. examination. Results: All patients went though PTBD successfully (100%). According to Bismuth classification, all 103 cases consisted of I type(N=30), II type (N=30), III type (N=26) and IV type (N=17). Thirty-nine cases were placed with 47 stents and 64 eases with drainage tubes. 4 cases installed two stems for bilateral drainage, 2 cases installed two stents because of long segmental strictures with stent in stent, 1 case was placed with three stents, and 3 cases installed stent and plastic catheter together. Sixty-four cases received plastic catheters in this series, 35 cases installed two or more catheters for bilateral drainage, 28 cases installed external and internal drainage catheters, 12 eases installed external drainage catheters, and 24 eases installed both of them. There were 17 patients involving incorporative infection before procedure, 13 cases cured after procedure, and 15 new patients got inflammation after procedure. 13 cases showed increase of amylase (from May, 2004), 8 eases had bloody bile drainage and 1 case with pyloric obstruction. Total serum bilirubin reduced from (386 ± 162) μmol/L to (161 ± 117) μmol/L, (P<0.01) short term curative effect was related with the type of hilar cholangiocarcinoma. The survival time was 186 days(median), and 1, 3, 6, 12 month survival rate were 89.9%, 75.3%, 59.6%, 16.9%, respectively. Conclusion: Percutaneous transhepatic bile drainage is a safe and effective palliative therapy of malignant

  6. Urban drainage models - making uncertainty analysis simple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vezzaro, Luca; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen; Deletic, Ana

    2012-01-01

    in each measured/observed datapoint; an issue which is commonly overlook in the uncertainty analysis of urban drainage models. This comparison allows the user to intuitively estimate the optimum number of simulations required to conduct uncertainty analyses. The output of the method includes parameter......There is increasing awareness about uncertainties in modelling of urban drainage systems and, as such, many new methods for uncertainty analyses have been developed. Despite this, all available methods have limitations which restrict their widespread application among practitioners. Here...

  7. Percutaneous catheter drainage of pancreatic pseudocysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karnel, F.; Gebauer, A.; Jantsch, H.; Prayer, L.; Schurawitzki, H.; Feil, W.

    1991-01-01

    The results of CT/US-guided percutaneous drainage in 35 patients with pancreatic pseudocysts are reported. 27 patients recovered without surgery and no further treatment was required. 8 patients required a subsequent surgery due to recurrence. The role of CT/US-guided percutaneous drainage in pancreatic pseudocysts as well as an analysis of the technical aspects associated with a successful procedure are discussed. Although US may be used, we believe CT is safer and allows more precise localisation and guidance in the treatment of pseudocysts. (orig.) [de

  8. Transanal Drainage of Coloanal Anastomotic Leaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley Sherman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The conventional operative intervention for leaks following coloanal anastomoses has been proximal fecal diversion with or without take-down of anastomosis. A few of these cases are also amenable to percutaneous drainage. Ostomies created in this situation are often permanent, specifically in cases where coloanal anastomoses are taken down at the time of reoperation. We present two patients who developed perianastomotic pelvic abscesses that were treated with transanal large bore catheter drainage resulting in successful salvage of coloanal anastomoses without the need for a laparotomy or ostomy creation. We propose this to be an effective therapeutic approach to leaks involving low coloanal anastomoses in the absence of generalized peritonitis.

  9. Comparison of natural drainage group and negative drainage groups after total thyroidectomy: prospective randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Seung Hoon; Kim, Jin Pyeong; Park, Jung Je; Shim, Hyun Seok; Lee, Sang Ha; Lee, Ho Joong; Won, Seong Jun; Son, Hee Young; Kim, Rock Bum; Son, Young-Ik

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare a negative pressure drain with a natural drain in order to determine whether a negative pressure drainage tube causes an increase in the drainage volume. Sixty-two patients who underwent total thyroidectomy for papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) were enrolled in the study between March 2010 and August 2010 at Gyeongsang National University Hospital. The patients were prospectively and randomly assigned to two groups, a negative pressure drainage group (n=32) and natural drainage group (n=30). Every 3 hours, the volume of drainage was checked in the two groups until the tube was removed. The amount of drainage during the first 24 hours postoperatively was 41.68 ± 3.93 mL in the negative drain group and 25.3 ± 2.68 mL in the natural drain group (pdrain group was 35.19 ± 4.26 mL and natural drain groups 21.53 ± 2.90 mL (pdrain may increase the amount of drainage during the first 24-48 hours postoperatively. Therefore, it is not necessary to place a closed suction drain when only a total thyroidectomy is done.

  10. The french electric power evaluation 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This document takes stock on the french electric power situation for the year 2005. It provides information on the consumption the trade, the production, the french market and the RTE (Electric power transport network) infrastructure. (A.L.B.)

  11. French how to speak and write it

    CERN Document Server

    Lemaître, Joseph

    1978-01-01

    Probably the most delightful, useful, and comprehensive elementary book available for learning spoken and written French, either with or without a teacher. Includes colloquial French conversations as well as grammar, vocabulary, and idiom studies.

  12. Directory of the French nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-10-01

    This directory includes data sheets on the French companies operating in the nuclear industry. It begins with an introduction containing information on the French nuclear industry: 1 - nuclear power development in France (national energy plan, history, organization, economic advantages, reactors); 2 - French operator: Electricite de France (EdF); 3 - the industry (Areva, Cogema, mining activities, uranium chemistry and enrichment, processing, recycling, engineering, services, Framatome ANP); 4 - R and D and knowledge dissemination: French atomic energy commission (CEA); 5 - nuclear safety, security, control and regulation: nuclear safety authority (ASN), general direction of nuclear safety and radioprotection (DGSNR), institute of radioprotection and nuclear safety (IRSN), radioactive wastes, ANDRA's role; 6 - associations: French atomic forum (FAF), French nuclear industry trade association (GIIN), French nuclear energy society (SFEN), French radiation protection society (SFRP). Then, the data sheets of the directory follows. (J.S.)

  13. The French emirs of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, N.

    1978-01-01

    The French energy plan is described under the following heads: structure of supply/use; nuclear energy; oil consumption; coal consumption; gas consumption; energy conservation; renewable resources. The section on nuclear energy covers: nuclear programmes, uranium supplies (mining and enrichment), fuel fabrication and reprocessing, finance and economics, political and administrative aspects, nuclear trade, development of fast breeder reactor. (U.K.)

  14. Progress of French nuclear programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierrard, J.-H.

    1981-02-01

    The aims of the French nuclear programme launched in 1974 are briefly recalled to mind, as are the projects completed at the end of 1980. The operating results mentioned, particularly concern the new PWR units brought into commercial service in 1980 [fr

  15. Hopes doomed for French photovoltaic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piro, P.

    2013-01-01

    The photovoltaic industry has lost 15000 jobs in 2 years in France and the emergency measures taken by French authorities seem to be not sufficient to curb the trend. Some measures have led to delay or even cancel some projects while what is the most important today is to generate enough activity in small and intermediate enterprises to safeguard jobs

  16. Two new French quality labels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bresler, Ines

    2012-07-01

    'Origine France Garantie' and 'AQPV' are the new product labels that were presented in France in 2011. While the first is aimed at the entire industry, the latter is an effort to strengthen the PV industry. By raising the enthusiasm for local products, the French government hopes to keep the flood of foreign imports at bay. (orig.)

  17. English-French Cognate Dictionary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Petra; Monod, Madeleine

    This dictionary contains a word list of 10,993 English-French cognates (words with the same or similar spelling and meaning in both languages), including some loan words from other languages. A systematic review of the Larousse "Dictionnaire Moderne Francais--Anglais" (1960) provided this list of cognates. Deceptive cognates, or words…

  18. Fair period in French solar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradel, P.

    1997-01-01

    The French solar industry decreased from 1992, but five years later, the situation changes and this industry is increasing again. The energy policy takes in account the renewable energies in a greater part, secondly, the technical reliability and a prices decreasing allow to this market to gain some ground. (N.C.)

  19. Revis(iting French palatalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Tifrit

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the diachrony of French and reconsiders the classical analysis of French palatalizations. It is widely admitted that the transition from Latin dorsal stops to French palatal fricatives is triggered by an external palatalizing object which affects the constitution of the targeted consonant. While this analysis can satisfyingly explain the palatalization of dorsals before /i/, it makes the palatalization before /a/, which occurred a few centuries later, completely opaque. Revising the internal structure and the melody used to describe segments (Government Phonology 2.0 – Pöchtrager 2006 allows us to give a unified analysis of both palatalizations: whether /i/ or /a/, the vocalic environment is indeed the trigger, as it interferes with the structure of dorsals and lead to internal changes. However, while /i/ adds palatality to the consonant, /a/, by its lack of melody (Pöchtrager & Živanović 2010, leads to an internal reconfiguration of the dorsal, which already contains . In other words, we face two kinds of palatalization: an external one and an internal one. Furthermore, our analysis takes the intermediate stages from Latin dorsals to French palatals into consideration and attested dialectal variations observed in Northern France.

  20. Accident management on french PWRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queniart, D.

    1990-06-01

    After a brief recall of French safety rationale, the reactor operation and severe accident management is given. The research and development aimed at developing accident management procedures and emergency organization in France for the case of a NPP accident are also given

  1. The Kyoto conference: French perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orliange Philippe

    1998-02-01

    The present article approaches the problem of the climate change from a French perspective, describing the process that let the topic acquire importance in the national government level. Also, they stand out the difficulties generated in the negotiations of the Kyoto Protocol, because the opposing positions have United States and the European block

  2. General and Professional French Courses

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2011-01-01

    The next session will take place from 10th of October to 16th of December 2011. These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://hr-training.web.cern.ch/hr-training/ or contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister (kerstin.fuhrmeister@cern.ch) Oral Expression This course is aimed for students with a good knowledge of French who want to enhance their speaking skills. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. Suitable candidates should contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister (70896) or Martine Zuffi (73483) in order to arrange an appointment for a test. The next session will take place from 10th of October to 16th of December 2011. Writing professional documents in French These courses are designed for non-French speakers with a very good standard of spoken French. Suitable candidates should contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister (70896) or Martine Zuffi (73483) in order to arr...

  3. General and Professional French Courses

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2011-01-01

    The next session will take place from 30th of January to 5th of April 2012. These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://hr-training.web.cern.ch/hr-training/ or contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister (kerstin.fuhrmeister@cern.ch) Oral Expression This course is aimed for students with a good knowledge of French who want to enhance their speaking skills. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. Suitable candidates should contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister (70896) or Martine Zuffi (73483) in order to arrange an appointment for a test. The next session will take place from 30th of January to 5th of April 2012. Writing professional documents in French These courses are designed for non-French speakers with a very good standard of spoken French. Suitable candidates should contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister (70896) or Martine Zuffi (73483) in order to arrange an ...

  4. Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Perirectal Abscess Drainage without Drainage Catheter: A Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Kwang Choi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A perirectal abscess is a relatively common disease entity that occurs as a postsurgical complication or as a result of various medical conditions. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS-guided drainage was recently described as a promising alternative treatment. Previous reports have recommended placement of a drainage catheter through the anus for irrigation, which is inconvenient to the patient and carries a risk of accidental dislodgement. We report four cases of perirectal abscess that were successfully treated with only one or two 7 F double pigtail plastic stent placements and without a drainage catheter for irrigation.

  5. Drainage filter technologies to mitigate site-specific phosphorus losses in agricultural drainage discharge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Charlotte; Heckrath, Goswin Johann; Canga, Eriona

    in drainage. The Danish “SUPREME-TECH” project (2010-2016) (www.supreme-tech.dk) aims at providing the scientific basis for developing cost-effective filter technologies for P in agricultural drainage waters. The project studies different approaches of implementing filter technologies including drainage well....... Targeting high risk areas of P loss and applying site-specific measures promises to be a cost-efficient approach. The Danish Commission for Nature and Agriculture has, therefore, now called for a paradigm shift towards targeted, cost-efficient technologies to mitigate site-specific nutrient losses...... environmental threshold values (

  6. Radioactivity in French bottled waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loyen, J.; Brassac, A.; Augeray, C.; Fayolle, C.; Gleizes, M. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire - IRSN (France)

    2014-07-01

    As IRSN is considered as a reference laboratory for radioactivity measurements, French health ministry and French nuclear safety authority asked IRSN to carry out a study in order to get a fresh and complete status of radiological water quality of French bottled waters. The study was carried out during 12 months in 2012. A total of 142 bottled waters samples were analyzed (75 spring waters and 67 natural mineral waters). The laboratories of IRSN were in charge of: - systematic measurement of radioactivity following requirements of the French health ministry (Circulaire du 13/06/2007) regarding the monitoring and management of sanitary risk linked to the presence of radionuclides in drinking waters (natural mineral waters excepted). - systematic uranium mass concentration determination; - a few radon-222 gas measurements for waters in glass bottles. This study is a flash assessment of radiological characteristics of French bottled waters, at the analysis date for the sample received. It was done in informative way and was not done for regulatory control purposes.. This study has shown that: - all bottled waters analyzed have a tritium activity concentration lower than the quality reference value of 100 Bq/l of the French regulation; - More than 105 bottled waters analyzed (80% of the springs waters and 70% of natural mineral waters received) have a gross alpha activity concentration lower than the guideline value of 0,1 Bq/l of the French regulation; - All bottled waters analyzed have a residual gross beta activity concentration lower than the guideline value of 1 Bq/l of the French regulation; - All bottled waters analyzed have a uranium mass concentration lower than the provisory guideline value of 30 μg/l of the WHO for drinking waters; - radon-222 was only significantly measured once upon 6 glass bottled waters with a value far below the reference value of 100 Bq/l of the future European Directive on drinking waters. For 32 bottled waters with gross alpha

  7. The acquisition of French in multilingual contexts

    CERN Document Server

    Guijarro-Fuentes, Pedro; Müller, Natascha

    2015-01-01

    This volume brings together new research from different theoretical paradigms addressing the acquisition of French as a second language. It focuses on the acquisition of French in combination with different languages and enriches our understanding of the particularities of French and the role of language combinations in the acquisition process.

  8. Slang Usage of French by Young Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensz, Kathleen Y.

    1985-01-01

    Describes reactions of native French speakers to usage of French slang by young American students. French-speaking participants rated 30 tape-recorded slang expressions. Their reactions were evaluated in relation to the sex, profession, age, and residence of the respondents. Results show attitudes critical of the use of slang in general. (SED)

  9. TEACHING AND LEARNING OF FRENCH: IMPERATIVE FOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof

    It is important to note that, the teaching of French was introduced into the ... subjects like English to the detriment of French language is a proof of that .... To encourage teachers to lead the learners to use French language as a tool for .... professionals, thereby placing Nigeria at a disadvantage in terms of job creation.

  10. Commercial French in a Liberal Arts Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrate, Jayne

    Drury College (Missouri) has developed a commercial French course that is practical, situation-oriented, and provides instruction in correspondence and translation. The course is considered part of the cultural segment of the French program. It enrolls majors in business, French, and a variety of other disciplines, and emphasizes contextual…

  11. Report: Immersion French at Meriden Junior School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Marie-Josee

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author describes the French immersion program at Meriden Junior School, an Anglican school for girls from pre-Kindergarten to Year 12 in Sydney. Four teachers (one of whom is the coordinator) and three assistants are involved in the program. They include six French native speakers and one non-French-born teacher who speaks…

  12. Preoperative biliary drainage for pancreatic cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Heek, N. T.; Busch, O. R.; van Gulik, T. M.; Gouma, D. J.

    2014-01-01

    This review is to summarize the current knowledge about preoperative biliary drainage (PBD) in patients with biliary obstruction caused by pancreatic cancer. Most patients with pancreatic carcinoma (85%) will present with obstructive jaundice. The presence of toxic substances as bilirubin and bile

  13. Preoperative biliary drainage for pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Heek, N T; Busch, O R; Van Gulik, T M; Gouma, D J

    2014-04-01

    This review is to summarize the current knowledge about preoperative biliary drainage (PBD) in patients with biliary obstruction caused by pancreatic cancer. Most patients with pancreatic carcinoma (85%) will present with obstructive jaundice. The presence of toxic substances as bilirubin and bile salts, impaired liver function and altered nutritional status due to obstructive jaundice have been characterized as factors for development of complications after surgery. Whereas PBD was to yield beneficial effects in the experimental setting, conflicting results have been observed in clinical studies. The meta-analysis from relative older studies as well as more importantly a recent clinical trial showed that PBD should not be performed routinely. PBD for patients with a distal biliary obstruction is leading to more serious complications compared with early surgery. Arguments for PBD have shifted from a potential therapeutic benefit towards a logistic problem such as patients suffering from cholangitis and severe jaundice at admission or patients who need extra diagnostic tests, or delay in surgery due to a referral pattern or waiting list for surgery as well as candidates for neoadjuvant chemo(radio)therapy. If drainage is indicated in these patients it should be performed with a metal stent to reduce complications after the drainage procedure such as stent occlusion and cholangitis. Considering a change towards more neoadjuvant therapy regimes improvement of the quality of the biliary drainage concept is still important.

  14. Peritoneal drainage for newborn intestinal perforation: primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: intestinal perforation in newborn, necrotizing enterocolitis, primary peritoneal drainage. Department of Surgery, Paul L. Foster School of Medicine, Texas Tech University. HSC, El Paso, Texas, USA. Correspondence to Donald E. Meier, MD, Department of Surgery, Paul L. Foster. School of Medicine, Texas Tech ...

  15. Treatment of dyeing drainage by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimokawa, Toshinari; Sawai, Takeshi

    1985-01-01

    Decolorization of artificial dyeing drainage and sewage by radiation treatment. Artifical dyeing drainage was prepared from water, polyvinyl alcohol, starch, urea and several kinds of inorganic salts, and artificial sewage, from water, peptone, broth, urea and several kinds of inorganic salts. The above mentioned sample liquors of artificial dyeing drainage and sewage were exposed to γ-radiation of 5 kCi of 60 Co source by aerating through a ball filter. Absorption spectra, total organic carbon (TOC) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) were determined after irradiation to evaluate radiation treatment effect. With the experimental data obtained, it was clarified that absorbance, COD and TOC was decreased with the increase of absorbed dose. Decoloring was made effectively and about 95 % of bleaching ratio was obtained at 5 kGy of radiation. COD was decreased also by irradiation rather slower decreasing rate than that of decolorization, and TOC decrease was very slow at the initial stage of radiation but 40 % of TOC was decomposed by 10 kGy radiation. Dye of chemically stable structure was found more resistant to radiation decolorization. Decomposition efficiency was found less for dyes in the artificial sewage but secondary treated sewage showed no adverse effect. With the obtained understandings, a tentative scheme was planned for the radiation decolorization of dyeing drainage after aeration treatment. (Takagi, S.)

  16. GROUNDWATER IMPACTED BY ACID MINE DRAINAGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The generation and release of acidic, metal-rich water from mine wastes continues to be an intractable environmental problem. Although the effects of acid mine drainage (AMD) are most evident in surface waters, there is an obvious need for developing cost-effective approaches fo...

  17. The Heimlich Valve for Pleural Cavity Drainage

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ANNALS of AFRICAN SURGERY | www.annalsofafricansurgery.com. The ANNALS of AFRICAN SURGERY. July 2016 Volume 13 Issue 2 45. The Heimlich Valve for Pleural Cavity Drainage. Winston Ominde Makanga1, Andrew Nyaoncha Nyangau2 , Benjamin Njoga Njihia3. 1. St Mary's Mission Hospital, Elementaita.

  18. 1 The Effect of Camber Bed Drainage

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    The Effect of Camber Bed Drainage Landforms on Soil. Nutrient Distribution and Grain Yield of Maize on the Vertisols ... The Vertisols of the Accra Plains of Ghana are water logged after significant rainfall ... Excess application of 15-15-15 NPK and sulphate of ammonia fertilizers (150% .... beds, before planting and nutrient.

  19. 13 Morphometric Analysis of Ogunpa and Ogbere Drainage Basins ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    `123456789jkl''''#

    form and process of drainage basins that may be widely ... ferruginous tropical soil on basement complex rock (Areola ... landuse pattern control the infiltration loss, the distribution of ... the water intercepted by Ogbere drainage basin to longer ...

  20. Estimating the benefits of improved drainage on pavement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2 Centre for Transportation Systems, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, INDIA ... parking lots that only allow cars, not trucks). ..... drainage section) and 2015 & 2019 (for poor drainage section) after the construction of an overlay, it was ...

  1. Internal drainage of infected pancreatic pseudocysts: safe or sorry?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerma, D.; van Gulik, T. M.; Obertop, H.; Gouma, D. J.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: External drainage is the traditional surgical therapy for infected pancreatic pseudocyst, although associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. In this study it was determined whether internal drainage is feasible with acceptable postoperative morbidity and recurrence rates.

  2. [Percutaneous ultrasound-guided drainage in the surgical treatment of acute severe pancreatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delattre, J-F; Levy Chazal, N; Lubrano, D; Flament, J-B

    2004-11-01

    To report results of percutaneous ultrasound-guided drainage, performed by a surgeon, in the treatment of complications of acute pancreatitis (AP), and to determine the role of this technique in the therapeutic armamentarium of severe AP. From 1986 to 2001, 59 patients were included in this retrospective study. All patients initially had severe necrotizing AP (mean Ranson score = 4.1 ; range : 2-7). Anatomical lesions included pancreatic abscess in 6 patients and necrosis in 53 (17 stage D and 36 stage E according to Balthazar's classification). Necrosis was infected in 42 and sterile in 11 respectively. Drainage was performed under ultrasound guidance and local anaesthesia using small-diameter drains (7-14 French). Drainage was performed on average 23 days after onset of AP. Infection was proven by fine-needle aspiration in 47 (80 %) patients (41 infected necrosis and 6 localized abscess). In one patient, culture of aspirated fluid was negative but necrosis was infected (one false negative). Culture of aspirated fluid was negative and necrosis was sterile in 11 patients. Nineteen (32%) patients healed without subsequent surgery: 7 (16%) in the infected necrosis group, 6(55%) in the sterile necrosis group, and 6 (100%) in the abscess group. Forty (68%) patients had subsequent necrosectomy including 8 (14%) who died. Twenty (34 %) digestive fistulas healed spontaneously, except one treated by diversion stomia. Of the 16 (27 %) pancreatic fistulas, 6 needed subsequent interventional treatment. In selected patients, percutaneous drainage can represent an alternative to surgery with a 14% mortality rate. The high rate of subsequent necrosectomy suggests that drains with larger diameter, possibly associated with continuous irrigation, should be used.

  3. Southern blotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, T

    2001-05-01

    Southern blotting is the transfer of DNA fragments from an electrophoresis gel to a membrane support (the properties and advantages of the different types of membrane, transfer buffer, and transfer method are discussed in detail), resulting in immobilization of the DNA fragments, so the membrane carries a semipermanent reproduction of the banding pattern of the gel. After immobilization, the DNA can be subjected to hybridization analysis, enabling bands with sequence similarity to a labeled probe to be identified. This appendix describes Southern blotting via upward capillary transfer of DNA from an agarose gel onto a nylon or nitrocellulose membrane, using a high-salt transfer buffer to promote binding of DNA to the membrane. With the high-salt buffer, the DNA becomes bound to the membrane during transfer but not permanently immobilized. Immobilization is achieved by UV irradiation (for nylon) or baking (for nitrocellulose). A Support Protocol describes how to calibrate a UV transilluminator for optimal UV irradiation of a nylon membrane. An alternate protocol details transfer using nylon membranes and an alkaline buffer, and is primarily used with positively charged nylon membranes. The advantage of this combination is that no post-transfer immobilization step is required, as the positively charged membrane binds DNA irreversibly under alkaline transfer conditions. The method can also be used with neutral nylon membranes but less DNA will be retained. A second alternate protocol describes a transfer method based on a different transfer-stack setup. The traditional method of upward capillary transfer of DNA from gel to membrane described in the first basic and alternate protocols has certain disadvantages, notably the fact that the gel can become crushed by the weighted filter papers and paper towels that are laid on top of it. This slows down the blotting process and may reduce the amount of DNA that can be transferred. The downward capillary method described in

  4. Routine Sub-hepatic Drainage versus No Drainage after Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: Open, Randomized, Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamim, Muhammad

    2013-02-01

    Surgeons are still following the old habit of routine subhepatic drainage following laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). This study aims to compare the outcome of subhepatic drainage with no drainage after LC. This prospective study was conducted in two phases. Phase I was open, randomized controlled trial (RCT), conducted in Civil Hospital Karachi, from August 2004 to June 2005. Phase II was descriptive case series, conducted in author's practice hospitals of Karachi, from July 2005 to December 2009. In phase I, 170 patients with chronic calculous cholecystitis underwent LC. Patients were divided into two groups, subhepatic drainage (group A: 79 patients) or no drainage (group B: 76 patients). The rest 15 patients were excluded either due to conversion or elective subhepatic drainage. In phase II, 218 consecutive patients were enrolled, who underwent LC with no subhepatic drainage. Duration of operation, character, and amount of drain fluid (if placed), postoperative ultrasound for subhepatic collection, postoperative chest X-ray for the measurement of subdiaphragmatic air, postoperative pain, postoperative nausea/vomiting, duration of hospital stay, and preoperative or postoperative complications were noted and analyzed. Duration of operation and hospital stay was slightly longer in group A patients (P values 0.002 and 0.029, respectively); postoperative pain perception, nausea/vomiting, and postoperative complications were nearly same in both groups (P value 0.064, 0.078, and 0.003, respectively). Subhepatic fluid collection was more in group A (P = 0.002), whereas subdiaphragmatic air collection was more in group B (P = 0.003). Phase II results were nearly similar to group B patients in phase I. Routine subhepatic drainage after LC is not necessary in uncomplicated cases.

  5. Foamed emulsion drainage: flow and trapping of drops

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Maxime; Zou, Ziqiang; Langevin, Dominique; Salonen, Anniina

    2017-01-01

    Foamed emulsions are ubiquitous in our daily life but the ageing of such systems is still poorly understood. In this study we investigate foam drainage and measure the evolution of the gas, liquid and oil volume fractions inside the foam. We evidence three regimes of ageing. During an initial period of fast drainage, both bubbles and drops are very mobile. As the foam stabilises drainage proceeds leading to a gradual decrease of the liquid fraction and slowing down of drainage. Clusters of oi...

  6. Modes of supraglacial lake drainage and dynamic ice sheet response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, S. B.; Behn, M. D.; Joughin, I. R.

    2011-12-01

    We investigate modes of supraglacial lake drainage using geophysical, ground, and remote sensing observations over the western margin of the Greenland ice sheet. Lakes exhibit a characteristic life cycle defined by a pre-drainage, drainage, and post-drainage phase. In the pre-drainage phase winter snow fills pre-existing cracks and stream channels, efficiently blocking past drainage conduits. As temperatures increase in the spring, surface melting commences, initially saturating the snow pack and subsequently forming a surface network of streams that fills the lake basins. Basins continue to fill until lake drainage commences, which for individual lakes occurs at different times depending on the previous winter snow accumulation and summer temperatures. Three styles of drainage behavior have been observed: (1) no drainage, (2) slow drainage over the side into an adjacent pre-existing crack, and (3) rapid drainage through a new crack formed beneath the lake basin. Moreover, from year-to-year individual lakes exhibit different drainage behaviors. Lakes that drain slowly often utilize the same outflow channel for multiple years, creating dramatic canyons in the ice. Ultimately, these surface channels are advected out of the lake basin and a new channel forms. In the post-drainage phase, melt water continues to access the bed typically through a small conduit (e.g. moulin) formed near a local topographic minimum along the main drainage crack, draining the lake catchment throughout the remainder of the melt season. This melt water input to the bed leads to continued basal lubrication and enhanced ice flow compared to background velocities. Lakes that do not completely drain freeze over to form a surface ice layer that persists into the following year. Our results show that supraglacial lakes show a spectrum of drainage behaviors and that these styles of drainage lead to varying rates and timing of surface meltwater delivery to the bed resulting in different dynamic ice

  7. An update on the drainage of pyogenic lung abscesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siraj O Wali

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Most lung abscesses (80-90% are now successfully treated with antibiotics; however, this conservative approach may occasionally fail. When medical treatment fails, pulmonary resection is usually advised. Alternatively, percutaneous transthoracic tube drainage or endoscopic drainage can be considered, though both remain controversial. In this communication, the medical literature focusing on percutaneous tube drainage efficacy, indications, techniques, complications, and mortality, as well as available data regarding endoscopic drainage are reviewed.

  8. Land drainage and restoration of land after NCB opencast mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bragg, N.

    The author outlines the MAFF Field Drainage Research Unit's research into drainage of reinstated land. Current investigations have aimed at identifying the problems of reinstated soil and how they affect drainage design. Experiments on efficiency of permeable field drains and non-permeable field drains are mentioned. Further work is needed to examine long-term effects of storage on soil structure and whether existing drainage can be revitalised by secondary treatment.

  9. The foam drainage equation for drainage dynamics in unsaturated porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, P.; Hoogland, F.; Assouline, S.; Or, D.

    2017-07-01

    Similarity in liquid-phase configuration and drainage dynamics of wet foam and gravity drainage from unsaturated porous media expands modeling capabilities for capillary flows and supplements the standard Richards equation representation. The governing equation for draining foam (or a soil variant termed the soil foam drainage equation—SFDE) obviates the need for macroscopic unsaturated hydraulic conductivity function by an explicit account of diminishing flow pathway sizes as the medium gradually drains. The study provides new and simple analytical expressions for drainage rates and volumes from unsaturated porous media subjected to different boundary conditions. Two novel analytical solutions for saturation profile evolution were derived and tested in good agreement with a numerical solution of the SFDE. The study and the proposed solutions rectify the original formulation of foam drainage dynamics of Or and Assouline (2013). The new framework broadens the scope of methods available for quantifying unsaturated flow in porous media, where the intrinsic conductivity and geometrical representation of capillary drainage could improve understanding of colloid and pathogen transport. The explicit geometrical interpretation of flow pathways underlying the hydraulic functions used by the Richards equation offers new insights that benefit both approaches.

  10. The relationship of French people with energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, Jean-Daniel; Potereau, Julien; Gautier, Antoine

    2017-12-01

    This Power Point document presents graphs and tables containing results of a survey performed on the relationship French people have with energy. After a presentation of the survey methodology, it addresses how France commitment in the struggle against climate change is perceived (French people think that their country could do better), which perceptions French people have of stakes and of the French energy policy (the management of the energy issue is perceived as perfectible, and French people have a positive view on energy transition and on the development of renewable energies), and which investments French people stand for (French people are in favour of a more important role of Europe and of citizen cooperatives in the field of energy)

  11. Role of Lithology and Rock Structure in Drainage Development in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lithology and Rock structure play a vital role in the development of Drainage Network in any drainage basin. The drainage patterns upon land surface develop as directed by the underlying lithology and rock structure. In fact, lithology and rock structure together shape the basin and are decisive parameters of nature and ...

  12. Drainage of Splenic Abscess: A Case Report | Kombo | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and was managed by tube drainage. His post operative recovery was uneventful. Conclusion: Tube drainage of the splenic abscess is encouraged if there is easy access to the abscess and there is evidence of residual splenic tissue in the critically ill patient. Key Word: Tube drainage, splenic abscess, splenectomy.

  13. PASSIVE TREATMENT OF ACID ROCK DRAINAGE FROM A SUBSURFACE MINE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acidic, metal-contaminated drainages are a critical problem facing many areas of the world. Acid rock drainage results when metal sulfide minerals, particularly pyrite, are oxidized by exposure to oxygen and water. The deleterious effects of these drainages on receiving streams a...

  14. French Prime Minister tours CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    On 30 July, Jean-Marc Ayrault, the Prime Minister of the French Republic, and Geneviève Fioraso, the Minister of Higher Education and Research, visited the Laboratory.   After being met by the Director-General at LHC Point 5, they visited the CMS control centre and experiment cavern, and got a glimpse of the LHC tunnel at Point 5. The visit ended with a round-table discussion with French and other international members of CERN’s scientific community. During the discussion, the Prime Minister reaffirmed that “support for fundamental research has to be maintained, and France must continue to invest in education, research and innovation.” He also paid tribute to CERN's role in international cooperation, which he qualified as “a fine example of science without borders.”

  15. French people and energy issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chesnais, L.

    2006-01-01

    An opinion poll made in France in 2006 shows that: - French people backs nuclear energy with a slight margin (45% versus 42%), - French people agrees with the electricity production policy led by the government, - about 4 people out of 10 expect a sharp increase in prices concerning car fuels, natural gas and heating fuels in a near future, on the other hand fewer people than in previous years are expecting a price rise for electricity. In this article some figures concerning the consumption of energy in France are given: - 230.000 jobs are directly or indirectly involved in the energy sector, this sector represents 5% of all investment, - a total bill of 24 milliard euros for the energy imports, and - energy spending represents 7.6% of the household budget. (A.C.)

  16. Venus transits - A French view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Débarbat, Suzanne

    2005-04-01

    After a careful study of Mars observations obtained by Tycho Brahé (1546-1601), Kepler (1571-1630) discovered the now-called Kepler's third law. In 1627 he published his famous Tabulae Rudolphinae, a homage to his protector Rudolph II (1552-1612), tables (Kepler 1609, 1627) from which he predicted Mercury and Venus transits over the Sun. In 1629 Kepler published his Admonitio ad Astronomos Advertisement to Astronomers (Kepler 1630), Avertissement aux Astronomes in French Au sujet de phénomènes rares et étonnants de l'an 1631: l'incursion de Vénus et de Mercure sur le Soleil. This was the beginning of the interest of French astronomers, among many others, in such transits, mostly for Venus, the subject of this paper in which dates are given in the Gregorian calendar.

  17. French people and nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Iribarne, Ph.

    2005-01-01

    On March 21, 2005, the French minister of industry gave to the author of this document, the mission to shade a sociological light on the radioactive wastes perception by French people. The objective of this study was to supply an additional information before the laying down in 2006 of the decisions about the management of high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes. This inquiry, carried out between April 2004 and March 2005, stresses on the knowledge and doubts of the questioned people, on the vision they have of radioactive wastes and of their hazards, and on their opinion about the actors in concern (experts, nuclear companies, government, anti-nuclear groups, public). The last two parts of the report consider the different ways of waste management under study today, and the differences between the opinion of people living close to the Bure site and the opinion of people living in other regions. (J.S.)

  18. New french uranium mineral species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branche, G.; Chervet, J.; Guillemin, C.

    1952-01-01

    In this work, the authors study the french new uranium minerals: parsonsite and renardite, hydrated phosphates of lead and uranium; kasolite: silicate hydrated of uranium and lead uranopilite: sulphate of uranium hydrated; bayleyite: carbonate of uranium and of hydrated magnesium; β uranolite: silicate of uranium and of calcium hydrated. For all these minerals, the authors give the crystallographic, optic characters, and the quantitative chemical analyses. On the other hand, the following species, very rare in the french lodgings, didn't permit to do quantitative analyses. These are: the lanthinite: hydrated uranate oxide; the α uranotile: silicate of uranium and of calcium hydrated; the bassetite: uranium phosphate and of hydrated iron; the hosphuranylite: hydrated uranium phosphate; the becquerelite: hydrated uranium oxide; the curite: oxide of uranium and lead hydrated. Finally, the authors present at the end of this survey a primary mineral: the brannerite, complex of uranium titanate. (author) [fr

  19. French concepts of ''passive safety''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennielou, Y.; Serret, M.

    1990-01-01

    N 4 model, the French 1400 MW PWR of the 90's, exhibits many advanced features. As far as safety is concerned, the fully computerized control room design takes advantage of the operating experience feedback and largely improves the man machine interface. New post-accident procedures have been developed (the so-called ''physical states oriented procedures''). A complete consistent set of ''Fundamental Safety Rules'' have been issued. This however doesn't imply any significant modification of standard PWR with regard to the passive aspects of safety systems or functions. Nevertheless, traditional PWR safety systems largely use passive aspects: natural circulation, reactivity coefficients, gravity driven control rods, injection accumulators, so on. Moreover, probability calculations allow for comparison between the respective contributions of passive and of active failures. In the near future, eventual options of future French PWRs to be commissioned after 2000 will be evaluated; simplification, passive and forgiving aspects of safety systems will be thoroughly considered. (author)

  20. Reminder: Swiss and French cards

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Communication from the HR Department to members of personnel holding an employment or association contract, above 50% and for more than 3 months, with the Organization. The HR Department would like to remind all members of personnel concerned that they are obliged to: • hold a valid Swiss  Légitimation card AND a valid French card (“Titre de séjour spécial” or “attestation de fonctions”) at all times during the exercise of their functions in the Organization; • return these documents as soon as their functions in the Organization cease. Not following these rules could be prejudicial to the Organization and appropriate measures may be taken towards the member of personnel concerned. Information and procedures concerning Swiss and French cards (first application, renewal, theft/loss, etc.) are available in the Admin e-guide. Users and Unpaid Associates must contact the Users Office HR Department Tel.: 729...

  1. Swiss and French cards - Reminder

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2011-01-01

    Communication from the HR Department to members of personnel holding an employment or association contract, above 50% and for more than 3 months, with the Organization. The HR Department would like to remind all members of the personnel concerned that they are obliged to: hold a valid Swiss Légitimation card AND a valid French card (“Titre de séjour spécial” or “attestation de fonctions”) at all times during the exercise of their functions in the Organization; return these documents as soon as their functions in the Organization cease. Not following these rules could be prejudicial to the Organization and appropriate measures may be taken with respect to the member of the personnel concerned. Information and procedures concerning Swiss and French cards (first application, renewal, theft/loss, etc.) are available in the Admin e-guide: https://cern.ch/admin-eguide/cartes/proc_cartes_home.asp Users and Unpaid Associates must ...

  2. PWR standardization: The French experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacher, P.E.

    1987-01-01

    After a short historical review of the French PWR programme with 45000 MWe in operation and 15000 MWe under construction, the paper first develops the objectives and limits of the standardizatoin policy. Implementation of standardization is described through successive reactor series and feedback of experience, together with its impact on safety and on codes and standards. Present benefits of standardization range from low engineering costs to low backfitting costs, via higher quality, reduction in construction times and start-up schedules and improved training of operators. The future of the French programme into the 1990's is again with an advanced standardized series, the N4-1400 MW plant. There is no doubt that the very positive experience with standardization is relevant to any country trying to achieve self-reliance in the nuclear power field. (author)

  3. New Abbreviations in Colloquial French

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Pogačnik

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The author of the article treats the process of abbreviations, which he explored forty years ago in his master thesis. The article is based on the corpus created on the basis of Télématin broadcast on French television network TV5. According to the author, clipping is a widespread process that occurs primarily in various forms of oral communication.

  4. The French natural gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This little folder summarizes in few pages the main economical data of the French natural gas industry: supplies according to the country of origin, length of transport and distribution networks, LNG tanker ship fleet, underground storage capacity, population of LNG-fueled vehicles, cogeneration installations, consumption by sectors and by industrial activities, LPG consumption, supplies, distribution and sales, LPG-fuel for vehicles, CO 2 and NO x releases, equipment of households. (J.S.)

  5. Food studies in French History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Liselotte

    The overarching question of this paper is whether it is possible to identify concepts that define a specifically French tradition regarding food. Two themes seem central. The first theme is the relationship between food and place as it emerges in concepts such as authenticity and terroir....... The second theme is the "how" food is eaten and can be studied through concepts such as commensality, synchronisation and structure...

  6. The French deterrence from 1945

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchard, J.

    1997-01-01

    Here is presented a particular lighting of deterrence history, by sciences and technologies which have allowed their creation and development. Accompanying the historical evolution of the French deterrence forces during the first phase of these sciences constitution, these sciences and technologies are at the base of the nuclear weapons conception, but they also contributed to the realization of the industrial building and to a doctrine constitution. (N.C.)

  7. EFFECTIVENESS OF AUTOGENIC DRAINAGE VERSUS POSTURAL DRAINAGE ON OXYGEN SATURATION IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC BRONCHITIS WITH 15 MINUTES POST THERAPY

    OpenAIRE

    V. Kiran; Dr. Bhimasen .S; E. Mastanaiah; A. Thiruppathi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Patients with COPD will have more amount of secretions. To clear the secretions by using of different bronchial hygiene techniques like postural drainage and autogenic drainage technique, manual hyperventilation technique ,active cycle breathing technique .Hence in this study to compare the short-term effects of postural drainage with clapping (PD) and autogenic drainage (AD) on level of oxygen saturation in blood, and amount of sputum recovery. Methodology: The study was done ...

  8. French opinion on Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bucaille, A.

    2003-01-01

    Contrary to what many think or say, most French people do not have a clear-cut opinion about nuclear power. And until public opinion can be accurately assessed, we should be worried of speaking on its behalf. More than half the population of France believes that nuclear power is the cheapest option, but 40% of them have no idea what the situation really is. The French are keenly aware of the what is at stake at the international level, and the fact that energy is becoming a worldwide issue. What they are most concerned about is nuclear waste and the possibility of a catastrophe of the Chernobyl type occurring. Disquiet about the first is now dissipating, after having increased. But attitudes about the second are ambivalent. A quarter of the French are very ignorant about radioactivity. 20% of the population complain that not enough information is forthcoming, particularly as concerns advances in technology. As can be anticipated, awareness of the question of climate change is growing year by year, with increased reporting of storms, floods and heat waves

  9. All Above-Board: A Comparativist Looks at the Advanced Level French Syllabuses of the Nine GCE Boards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weil, Robert

    1978-01-01

    Advanced level French syllabuses of the nine GCE Boards in the United Kingdom are examined. The Southern Universities Joint Board has recently introduced the most radical innovations. As an alternative to its traditional examination it offers Syllabus "B" which dispenses with prescribed tests, but where each student must produce for the…

  10. Reuse of drainage water in the Nile Delta; monitoring, modelling and analysis; final report Reuse of Drainage Water Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staring Centrum, Instituut voor Onderzoek van het LandelijkGebied

    1995-01-01

    The effects of reusing drainage water have been evaluated and other options to increase the water utilization rate in Egypt explored. The results are an operational network for monitoring drainage water discharges and salinity along the major drains, a database for monitored drainage water

  11. A drainage data-based calculation method for coalbed permeability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, Feng-peng; Li, Zhi-ping; Fu, Ying-kun; Yang, Zhi-hao

    2013-01-01

    This paper establishes a drainage data-based calculation method for coalbed permeability. The method combines material balance and production equations. We use a material balance equation to derive the average pressure of the coalbed in the production process. The dimensionless water production index is introduced into the production equation for the water production stage. In the subsequent stage, which uses both gas and water, the gas and water production ratio is introduced to eliminate the effect of flush-flow radius, skin factor, and other uncertain factors in the calculation of coalbed methane permeability. The relationship between permeability and surface cumulative liquid production can be described as a single-variable cubic equation by derivation. The trend shows that the permeability initially declines and then increases after ten wells in the southern Qinshui coalbed methane field. The results show an exponential relationship between permeability and cumulative water production. The relationship between permeability and cumulative gas production is represented by a linear curve and that between permeability and surface cumulative liquid production is represented by a cubic polynomial curve. The regression result of the permeability and surface cumulative liquid production agrees with the theoretical mathematical relationship. (paper)

  12. In-office drainage of sinus Mucoceles: An alternative to operating-room drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, Emily M; DelGaudio, John M

    2015-05-01

    Endoscopic drainage has become the standard of care for the treatment of mucoceles. In many patients this can be performed in the office. This study reviews our experience with in-office endoscopic mucocele drainage. Retrospective chart review. A retrospective review of one surgeon's experience with in-office endoscopic drainage of sinus mucoceles between 2006 and 2014 was performed. Charts were reviewed for patient demographics, previous surgery, mucocele location, bone erosion, and outcomes. Thirty-two patients underwent 36 in-office drainage procedures. All procedures were performed under topical/local anesthesia. The mean age was 55 years (range, 17-92 years). The mean follow-up time was 444 days. Fifty-five percent had previous sinus surgery. The primary sinus involved was the frontal (12), anterior (11), posterior ethmoid (six), maxillary (four), and sphenoid (two). Bone erosion was noted to be present on computed tomography in 18 mucoceles (51%) (16 orbital, seven skull-base). All mucoceles were successfully accessed in the office with the exception of one, which was aborted due to neo-osteogenesis. Five patients (14% of mucoceles) required additional surgery, two for mucocele recurrence and three for septated mucoceles not completely drained in the office. No treatment complications occurred. All but one patient preferred in-office to operating-room drainage. In-office drainage of sinus mucoceles is well tolerated by patients, with high success and low complication rates, even in large mucoceles with bone erosion. The presence of septations and neo-osteogenesis reduce the likelihood of complete drainage and are relative contraindications. Orbital and skull base erosion are not contraindications. 4. © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  13. Percutaneous drainage of chest abscesses in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, W.S. Jr.; Towbin, R.B.; Bisset, G.S. III.

    1987-01-01

    Similar techniques for draining abdominal abscesses are now being applied to abscesses within the chest. This report describes the authors' experience in percutaneous drainage of seven chest abscesses in six children aged 3-13 years (mean, 7.3 years). Four pleural/extrapleural loculations were drained in three patients. Abscess location included right apex (one), right minor fissure (one), and left supradiaphragmatic (two). Collections resulted from esophageal perforation (two) or esophageal anastomotic leak (two). Three lung abscesses were drained in three patients. Abscess location included right lower, left lower, and right middle lobes. All lay adjacent to a pleural surface and were localized by CT or US before drainage. There were no complications. Complete resolution occurred in all six patients without the need for surgical intervention

  14. Range of drainage effect of surface mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sozanski, J.

    1978-03-01

    This paper discusses methods of calculating the range of effects of water drainage from surface coal mines and other surface mines. It is suggested that methods based on test pumping (water drainage) are time consuming, and the results can be distorted by atmospheric factors such as rain fall or dry period. So-called empirical formulae produce results which are often incorrect. The size of a cone shaped depression calculated on the basis of empirical formulae can be ten times smaller than the size of the real depression. It is suggested that using a formula based on the Dupuit formula is superior to other methods of depression calculation. According to the derived formulae the radius of the depresion cone is a function of parameters of the water bearing horizons, size of surface mine working and of water depression. The proposed formula also takes into account the influence of atmospheric factors (water influx caused by precipitation, etc.). (1 ref.) (In Polish)

  15. Percutaneous drainage of 100 subphrenic abscesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casola, G.; Sonnenberg, E. van; D'Agostino, H.; Kothari, R.; May, S.; Taggart, S.

    1990-01-01

    PURPOSE: Percutaneous drainage of subphrenic abscesses is technically more difficult because lung and pleura may be transgressed during catheter insertion. The purpose of this paper is to determine the incidence of thoracic complications secondary to subphrenic abscess drainage and to determine factors that may alter this. The authors' series consists of 100 subphrenic abscesses that were drained percutaneously. Patients range in age from 14 to 75 years. Abscesses were secondary to surgery (splenectomy, pancreatectomy, partial hepatectomy, gastrectomy), pancreatitis, and trauma. Catheters ranged in size from 8 to 14 F and were inserted via trocar or Seldinger technique. Thoracic complications of pneumothorax or empyema were determined from follow-up chest radiographs or CT scans

  16. Urban Floods Adaptation and Sustainable Drainage Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena M. Ramos

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability is crucial to the urban zones, especially related to the water management, which is vulnerable to flood occurrence. This research applies the procedure contemplated by the Soil Conservation Service (SCS to determine the generated volumes when the impervious areas can exceed the drainage capacity of existing pluvial water networks. Several computational simulations were developed for the current scenario of an existing basin in Lisbon. Using CivilStorm software from Bentley Systems (Bentley EMEA, Bentley Systems International Limited, Dublin, Ireland, it enabled the evaluation of the volumes of flood peaks and the hydraulic behavior of a small hydrographic basin in the continuation of an urbanization process, considering the modification of its superficial impervious parts and the growth of the urbanized area. Several measures are suggested to solve the limited capacity of the existing drainage system. This study analyzes the efficiency of the application of constructive measures, pondering the viability of their effectiveness, individually and combined. The option that best minimizes the effects of the urbanization is the combination of different structural measures, in particular retention ponds, storage blocks, ditches and specific drainage interventions in some parts of the network.

  17. Drainage and Stratification Kinetics of Foam Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yiran; Sharma, Vivek

    2014-03-01

    Baking bread, brewing cappuccino, pouring beer, washing dishes, shaving, shampooing, whipping eggs and blowing bubbles all involve creation of aqueous foam films. Foam lifetime, drainage kinetics and stability are strongly influenced by surfactant type (ionic vs non-ionic), and added proteins, particles or polymers modify typical responses. The rate at which fluid drains out from a foam film, i.e. drainage kinetics, is determined in the last stages primarily by molecular interactions and capillarity. Interestingly, for certain low molecular weight surfactants, colloids and polyelectrolyte-surfactant mixtures, a layered ordering of molecules, micelles or particles inside the foam films leads to a stepwise thinning phenomena called stratification. Though stratification is observed in many confined systems including foam films containing particles or polyelectrolytes, films containing globular proteins seem not to show this behavior. Using a Scheludko-type cell, we experimentally study the drainage and stratification kinetics of horizontal foam films formed by protein-surfactant mixtures, and carefully determine how the presence of proteins influences the hydrodynamics and thermodynamics of foam films.

  18. French electric power balance sheet 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lartigau, Thierry; Riere, Alexia

    2010-01-01

    The mission of RTE, the French electricity Transportation grid, a public service assignment, is to balance the electricity supply and demand in real time. This report presents RTE's technical results for the year 2009: key figures of the French electricity consumption, lowering of the French power generation, decrease of trade balance at borders but still positive, continuation of RTE's investments for the improvement of the grid performance. New RTE's infrastructures, electricity quality data, and the evolution of market mechanisms are presented in appendixes

  19. Foreign direct investments into French real estate

    OpenAIRE

    BRIZARD, Arthur

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to draw the global trend of Foreign Direct Investments (FDI) in the French real estate market since 2008 and to understand foreign investors’ behavior and the incentives which urge them to invest in French property market. This study relies on the numerous yearly reports released by consulting and real estate companies and gives an overview of FDI since 2008. From a legal point of view, the French property market is extremely organized. Acquiring, holding and sel...

  20. Comparison between autologous blood transfusion drainage and closed-suction drainage/no drainage in total knee arthroplasty: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Kun-Hao; Pan, Jian-Ke; Yang, Wei-Yi; Luo, Ming-Hui; Xu, Shu-Chai; Liu, Jun

    2016-08-01

    Autologous blood transfusion (ABT) drainage system is a new unwashed salvaged blood retransfusion system for total knee replacement (TKA). However, whether to use ABT drainage, closed-suction (CS) drainage or no drainage in TKA surgery remains controversial. This is the first meta-analysis to assess the clinical efficiency, safety and potential advantages regarding the use of ABT drains compared with closed-suction/no drainage. PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were comprehensively searched in March 2015. Fifteen randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were identified and pooled for statistical analysis. The primary outcome evaluated was homologous blood transfusion rate. The secondary outcomes were post-operative haemoglobin on days 3-5, length of hospital stay and wound infections after TKA surgery. The pooled data included 1,721 patients and showed that patients in the ABT drainage group might benefit from lower blood transfusion rates (16.59 % and 37.47 %, OR: 0.28 [0.14, 0.55]; 13.05 % and 16.91 %, OR: 0.73 [0.47,1.13], respectively). Autologous blood transfusion drainage and closed-suction drainage/no drainage have similar clinical efficacy and safety with regard to post-operative haemoglobin on days 3-5, length of hospital stay and wound infections. Autologous blood transfusion drainage offers a safe and efficient alternative to CS/no drainage with a lower blood transfusion rate. Future large-volume high-quality RCTs with extensive follow-up will affirm and update this system review.

  1. Advances in drainage: Selected works from the Tenth International Drainage Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strock, Jeffrey S.; Hay, Christopher; Helmers, Matthew; Nelson, Kelly A.; Sands, Gary R.; Skaggs, R. Wayne; Douglas-Mankin, Kyle R.

    2018-01-01

    This article introduces a special collection of fourteen articles accepted from among the 140 technical presentations, posters, and meeting papers presented at the 10th International ASABE Drainage Symposium. The symposium continued in the tradition of previous symposia that began in 1965 as a forum for presenting and assessing the progress of drainage research and implementation throughout the world. The articles in this collection address a wide range of topics grouped into five broad categories: (1) crop response, (2) design and management, (3) hydrology and scale, (4) modeling, and (5) water quality. The collection provides valuable information for scientists, engineers, planners, and others working on crop production, water quality, and water quantity issues affected by agricultural drainage. The collection also provides perspectives on the challenges of increasing agricultural production in a changing climate, with ever-greater attention to water quality and quantity concerns that will require integrated technical, economic, and social solutions.

  2. Fluoroscopy guided percutaneous catheter drainage of pneumothorax in good mid-term patency with tube drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Ga Young; Oh, Joo Hyung; Yoon, Yup; Sung, Dong Wook

    1995-01-01

    To evaluate efficacy and the safety of percutaneous catheter drainage in patients with pneumothorax that is difficult to treat with closed thoracotomy. We retrospectively reviewed effectiveness of percutaneous catheter drainage (PCD) in 10 patients with pneumothorax. The catheter was inserted under fluoroscopic guidance. Seven patients had spontaneous pneumothorax caused by tuberculosis (n =4), reptured bullae (n = 2), and histiocytosis-X (n = 1). Three patients had iatrogenic pneumothorax caused by trauma (n = 1) and surgery (n = 2). All procedures were performed by modified Seldinger's method by using 8F-20F catheter. All catheter were inserted successfully. In 9 of 10 patients, the procedure was curative without further therapy. Duration of catheter insertion ranged from 1 day to 26 days. In the remaining 1 patient in whom multiple pneumothorax occurred after operation, catheter insertion was performed twice. Percutaneous catheter drainage under fluoroscopic guidance is effective and safe procedure for treatment of pneumothorax in patients with failed closed thoracotomy

  3. Fluoroscopy guided percutaneous catheter drainage of pneumothorax in good mid-term patency with tube drainage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ga Young; Oh, Joo Hyung; Yoon, Yup; Sung, Dong Wook [Kyung Hee University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-10-15

    To evaluate efficacy and the safety of percutaneous catheter drainage in patients with pneumothorax that is difficult to treat with closed thoracotomy. We retrospectively reviewed effectiveness of percutaneous catheter drainage (PCD) in 10 patients with pneumothorax. The catheter was inserted under fluoroscopic guidance. Seven patients had spontaneous pneumothorax caused by tuberculosis (n =4), reptured bullae (n = 2), and histiocytosis-X (n = 1). Three patients had iatrogenic pneumothorax caused by trauma (n = 1) and surgery (n = 2). All procedures were performed by modified Seldinger's method by using 8F-20F catheter. All catheter were inserted successfully. In 9 of 10 patients, the procedure was curative without further therapy. Duration of catheter insertion ranged from 1 day to 26 days. In the remaining 1 patient in whom multiple pneumothorax occurred after operation, catheter insertion was performed twice. Percutaneous catheter drainage under fluoroscopic guidance is effective and safe procedure for treatment of pneumothorax in patients with failed closed thoracotomy.

  4. Radio cobalt in French rivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambrechts, A.; Baudin-Jaulent, Y.

    1996-01-01

    The isotopes 58 and 60 of cobalt present in liquid wastes from nuclear plants or from fuel reprocessing plant of Marcoule are fixed in the different compartments of French rivers. The activity levels of radio-cobalt vary according to the sampled compartments nature (bryophyta > immersed plants > sediment > fish). Elsewhere, laboratory experimentations show that the contamination of fish occurs essentially from the water way rather than from food. Cobalt is mainly fixed by kidneys; muscles is no more than 30 % of the total fish activity. (author)

  5. French programme for HTR fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillet, R.M.

    1991-01-01

    It is reported that in the frameworks of the French HTR research program, stopped in 1979 the HTR coated particle fuel, fuel rod and prismatic fuel element design have been successfully developed and irradiation tested in France and specific examination methods for irradiated fuel particles, rods and graphite blocks have been developed. Currently CEA is involved in fission product transport experiments sponsored by the US Department of Energy and performed in the COMEDIE loop. Finally the CEA follows progress and developments in HTR fuel research and development throughout the world. 1 tab

  6. Future perspectives of French dissuasion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duval M.

    1996-01-01

    If the French deterrence must disappear in aid of an European deterrence, it will be necessary to take in account the development of nuclear weapon in Asia and then our deterrence system should maintain its credibility by getting the appropriate length. If policy problems are as important for civil nuclear than for military nuclear, it will be necessary to show concern about them because the Asian economy is in full development and Asia is not so frightened by nuclear power than Europe. (N.C.)

  7. French regulations and waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousselier, Y.

    1985-01-01

    The authors describe the organization and the role of safety authorities in France in matter of waste management. They precise the French policy in waste storage and treatment: basic objectives, optimization of waste management. The safety requirements are based upon the barrier principle. Safety requirements about waste conditioning and waste disposal are mentioned. In addition to the safety analysis and studies described above, the Protection and Nuclear Safety Institute assists the ministerial authorities in the drafting of ''basic safety rules (RFS)'', laying down safety objectives. Appendix 1 and Appendix 2 deal with safety aspects in spent fuel storage and in transportation of radioactive materials [fr

  8. French uranium mining sites remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, M.

    2002-01-01

    Following a presentation of the COGEMA's general policy for the remediation of uranium mining sites and the regulatory requirements, the current phases of site remediation operations are described. Specific operations for underground mines, open pits, milling facilities and confining the milled residues to meet long term public health concerns are detailed and discussed in relation to the communication strategies to show and explain the actions of COGEMA. A brief review of the current remediation situation at the various French facilities is finally presented. (author)

  9. The Hidden Lincoln in French Opinion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Portes

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abraham Lincoln has never served as a model for French politicians. He was indeed compared to Carnot, the organizer of the French Revolutionary wars. But when Clemenceau led France in WWI, when De Gaulle stood for France’s independence in WWII, nobody thought of comparing them to Lincoln. This essay analyzes French public opinion during the American Civil War with a focus on Lincoln, based on a study of the few French books published between 1860 and 1865 on the US, diaries, a sample of conservative and republican daily papers, weekly reviews and illustrated newspapers.

  10. Colloquial French the complete course for beginners

    CERN Document Server

    Demouy, Valérie

    2015-01-01

    Colloquial French: The Complete Course for Beginners has been carefully developed by an experienced teacher to provide a step-by-step course to French as it is written and spoken today. Combining a clear, practical and accessible style with a methodical and thorough treatment of the language, it equips learners with the essential skills needed to communicate confidently and effectively in French in a broad range of situations. No prior knowledge of the language is required. Colloquial French is exceptional; each unit presents a wealth of grammatical points that are reinforced with a wide range

  11. Crisis in the French nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nectoux, F.

    1991-02-01

    This report discusses the economics of the French nuclear power industry. It considers the dominant position of nuclear power in the French energy system, stresses the scale and causes of the current (1990) economic crisis and dispels the popular misconceptions on the cost efficiency of the French programme. The evidence is based on widely available French documents and articles. The report begins by looking at the background of nuclear power in France then discusses the problem of overcapacity, the technical problems and fall in load factors, generating costs and electricity prices and finally, strategic issues are considered. (UK)

  12. Experimental and numerical analysis of the drainage of aluminium foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunke, O; Hamann, A; Cox, S J; Odenbach, S

    2005-01-01

    Drainage is one of the driving forces for the temporal instability of molten metal foams. For usual aqueous foams this phenomenon is well examined and understood on both the experimental and the theoretical side. The situation is different for metallic foams. Due to their opaque nature, the observation of drainage is only possible by either measuring the density distribution of solidified samples ex situ or by x-ray or neutron radioscopy. Up to now there exists just one theoretical study describing the drainage behaviour of metallic foams incorporating the drainage equation, the temperature dependence of the viscosity and thermal transport. This paper will present results on the drainage behaviour of aluminium foams grown by a powder-metallurgical production route. For this purpose an experiment which allows the observation of drainage in cylindrical metal foam columns has been developed. Experimental density profiles after different drainage times are measured ex situ and compared to numerical results of the standard drainage equation for aqueous foams. This first comparison between the density redistribution of metallic aluminium foams and numerical solutions shows that the standard drainage equation can be used to explain the drainage behaviour of metallic foams

  13. Traditional Foley drainage systems--do they drain the bladder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Maurice M; Gulati, Shelly; Liepmann, Dorian; Stackhouse, G Bennett; Greene, Kirsten; Stoller, Marshall L

    2007-01-01

    Foley catheters are assumed to drain the bladder to completion. Drainage characteristics of Foley catheter systems are poorly understood. To investigate unrecognized retained urine with Foley catheter drainage systems, bladder volumes of hospitalized patients were measured with bladder scan ultrasound volumetrics. Additionally, an in vitro bench top mock bladder and urinary catheter system was developed to understand the etiology of such residual volumes. A novel drainage tube design that optimizes indwelling catheter drainage was also designed. Bedside bladder ultrasound volumetric studies were performed on patients hospitalized in ward and intensive care unit. If residual urine was identified the drainage tubing was manipulated to facilitate drainage. An ex vivo bladder-urinary catheter model was designed to measure flow rates and pressures within the drainage tubing of a traditional and a novel drainage tube system. A total of 75 patients in the intensive care unit underwent bladder ultrasound volumetrics. Mean residual volume was 96 ml (range 4 to 290). In 75 patients on the hospital ward mean residual volume was 136 ml (range 22 to 647). In the experimental model we found that for every 1 cm in curl height, obstruction pressure increased by 1 cm H2O within the artificial bladder. In contrast, the novel spiral-shaped drainage tube demonstrated rapid (0.5 cc per second), continuous and complete (100%) reservoir drainage in all trials. Traditional Foley catheter drainage systems evacuate the bladder suboptimally. Outflow obstruction is caused by air-locks that develop within curled redundant drainage tubing segments. The novel drainage tubing design eliminates gravity dependent curls and associated air-locks, optimizes flow, and minimizes residual bladder urine.

  14. Appropriating Written French: Literacy Practices in a Parisian Elementary Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwell, Elsie

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I examine French language instruction in an elementary classroom serving primarily children of Afro-French immigrants in Paris. I show that a prevalent French language ideology privileges written over oral expression and associates full mastery of written French with rational thought and full inclusion in the French polity. This…

  15. French high level wastes management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauvenet, A.J.; Sombret, C.G.

    1980-06-01

    The first French spent fuel reprocessing plant went on stream in 1956 at Marcoule. Since then, all French irradiated fuels and some foreign spent fuels have been reprocessed either in this plant or in a subsequent plant built at La Hague. Marcoule is primarily devoted to metallic fuels, and La Hague to oxide fuels. The fission products solutions generated by reprocessing are acid liquids. They are stored on site in double walled stainless steel tanks fitted with a cooling device to deal with thermal release due to radioactive decay. Although these liquids are retrievable and can be transfered from one tank to another, and in spite of the fact that no disturbance such as overheating or leakage has ever occurred, a decision was made to solidify these solutions in order to make interim storage and, later on, ultimate disposal, safer and easier to control. Glass was chosen, because it is a flexible medium to deal with and it answers the quality requirements of ultimate disposal as well as the manufacturing constraints, such as equipment corrosion, volatilization during fabrication, and suitability to casting into canisters

  16. Murder in French criminal law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovašević Dragan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The most dangerous forms and aspects of violent crime are criminal offences against life and bodily integrity of others, which are generally designated as acts of homicide. The most prominent among these criminal offences is the crime of murder. Due to the significance, legal nature, characteristics and consequences of this criminal act, all contemporary legislations prescribe the most severe measures and types of punishment for the commission of this crime. There are three types of murder: 1 ordinary (common murder, 2 murder committed under mitigating circumstances, and 3 murder committed under aggravating circumstances, which is as a rule punishable by the most severe punishment. All contemporary criminal legislations, including French legislation, recognize various types and forms of murder, depending on the classification criteria. The most prominent forms of murder are those involving various motives that induce the perpetrators to cause death to another person. In this paper, the author examines the concept, contents, characteristics, forms and elements of the crime of murder in French criminal law, discussing the theoretical and practical aspects of this issue.

  17. Button self-retaining drainage catheter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caridi, James G.; Hawkins, Irvin F.; Akins, E. William; Young, Ronald S.

    1997-01-01

    To help improve patient acceptance of long-term internal/external catheter access to the biliary tract in those with benign biliary obstruction, a simple design allows the catheter end to remain flush with the skin. It consists of a clothes button affixed to the drainage catheter with a wood screw after the catheter has been cut off at the skin exit. This button/screw device has been used successfully in 22 patients over the last 10 years; catheter exchanges were easily accomplished

  18. Percutaneous biliary drainage in patients with cholangiocarcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehta, A.C.; Gobel, R.J.; Rose, S.C.; Hayes, J.K.; Miller, F.J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper determines whether radiation therapy (RT) is a risk factor for infectious complications (particularly hepatic abscess formation) related to percutaneous biliary drainage (PBD). The authors retrospectively reviewed the charts of 98 consecutive patients who had undergone PBD for obstruction. In 34 patients with benign obstruction, three infectious complications occurred, none of which were hepatic abscess or fatal sepsis. In 39 patients who had malignant obstruction but did not have cholangiocarcinoma, 13 infectious complications occurred, including two hepatic abscesses and three cases of fatal sepsis. Of the 25 patients with cholangiocarcinoma, 15 underwent RT; in these 15 patients, 14 infectious complications occurred, including six hepatic abscesses and two cases of fatal sepsis

  19. Early paleozoic granitoids in the southern Vanoise basement: U-Pb geochronology of the Arpont meta-granite (Savoy, French Alps); Granitoides d`age paleozoique inferieur dans le socle de Vanoise meridionale: geochronologie U-Pb du metagranite de l`Arpont (Alpes de Savoir, France)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertrand, J.M. [Laboratoire de geodynamique des chaines alpines, LGCA-CISM, 73 - Le Bourget-du-Lac (France); Leterrier, J. [Centre de recherches petrographiques et geochimique, 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)

    1997-12-01

    The U-Pb age of a meta-granite from southern Vanoise (Brianconnais` domain) at 479{+-} 4 Ma confirms hat the micaschists which dominate this pre-alpine basement are, at least, of Early Paleozoic age. The rare magmatic rocks occurring in Vanoise and showing alkaline affinities, may be compared to the orthogneisses belonging to the Cambrian-Ordovician extensional event well known in other parts of the Varican belt. (authors) 27 refs.

  20. Radiologic drainage of infected and noninfected thoracic fluid collections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Sonnenberg, E.; Casola, G.; Stavas, J.; Neff, C.C.; Varney, R.A.; Wittich, G.R.; Dillard, J.; Christensen, R.A.; Friedman, P.J.

    1987-01-01

    Radiologically guided drainage of 100 thoracic fluid collections is described in this paper. Collections that underwent drainage include empyemas, lung abscesses, bronchopleural fistulas (BPFs), mediastinal abscesses, paracardial collections, bronchogenic cysts, sequestrations, lymphoceles, lymphangiomas, malignant effusions, and necrotic tumors. Catheters were placed for sclerotherapy in nine patients. Guidance modalities (in descending order of frequency) were CT, US, fluoroscopy, and MR. Inadequate thoracostomy tube drainage occurred in a third of the patients prior to radiologic drainage. Drainages were effective in 85% of cases, sparing surgery or another thoracostomy tube. Complications occurred in 7% of patients, most being minor and none requiring operation. Criteria for drainage of lung abscess and BPF will be emphasized, as will techniques and methods of follow-up

  1. Percutaneous drainage of diverticular abscess: Adjunct to resection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, P.R.; Saini, S.; Butch, R.J.; Simeone, J.F.; Rodkey, G.V.; Bousquet, J.C.; Ottinger, L.W.; Wittenberg, J.; Ferrucci, J.T. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Traditional surgical management of acute diverticulitis with abscess may require a one-, two-, or three-stage procedure. Because of recent interest in CT diagnosis of diverticulitis, and novel access routes for interventional drainage of deep pelvic abscesses, the authors investigated the potential for converting complex two- and three-stage surgical procedures to simpler, safer one-stage colon resections by percutaneous drainage of the associated abscess. Of 23 patients with acute perforated diverticulitis who were referred for catheter drainage under radiologic guidance, successful catheter drainage and subsequent single-stage colon resection were carried out in 15. In three patients catheter drainage was unsuccessful and a multistage procedure was required. In three patients only percutaneous drainage was performed and operative intervention was omitted entirely

  2. Effects of timber management on the hydrology of wetland forests in the Southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge Sun; Steven G. McNulty; James P. Shepard; Devendra M. Amatya; Hans Riekerk; Nicholas B. Comerford; Wayne Skaggs; Lloyd Swift

    2001-01-01

    The objectives of this paper are to review the hydrologic impacts of various common forest management practices that include harvesting, site preparation, and drainage. Field hydrological data collected during the past 5±10 years from ten forested wetland sites across the southern US are synthesized using various methods including hydrologic simulation models and...

  3. Preoperative biliary drainage for periampullary tumors causing obstructive jaundice; DRainage vs. (direct) OPeration (DROP-trial)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.A. van der Gaag (Niels); S.M.M. de Castro (Steve); E.A.J. Rauws (Erik); M.J. Bruno (Marco); C.H.J. van Eijck (Casper); E.J. Kuipers (Ernst); J.J.G.M. Gerritsen (Josephus); J.P. Rutten (Joost Paul); J.W. Greve; E.J. Hesselink (Eric); J.H. Klinkenbijl (Jean); I.H.M.B. Rinkes; D. Boerma (Djamila); B.A. Bonsing (Bert); C.J. van Laarhoven (Cees); F.J. Kubben; E. van der Harst (Erwin); M.N. Sosef (Meindert); K. Bosscha (Koop); I.H.J.T. de Hingh (Ignace); L. Th de Wit (Laurens); O.M. van Delden (Otto); O.R.C. Busch (Olivier); T.M. van Gulik (Thomas); P.M.M. Bossuyt (Patrick); D.J. Gouma (Dirk)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractBackground. Surgery in patients with obstructive jaundice caused by a periampullary (pancreas, papilla, distal bile duct) tumor is associated with a higher risk of postoperative complications than in non-jaundiced patients. Preoperative biliary drainage was introduced in an attempt to

  4. Preoperative biliary drainage for periampullary tumors causing obstructive jaundice; DRainage vs. (direct) OPeration (DROP-trial)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Gaag, Niels A.; de Castro, Steve M. M.; Rauws, Erik A. J.; Bruno, Marco J.; van Eijck, Casper H. J.; Kuipers, Ernst J.; Gerritsen, Josephus J. G. M.; Rutten, Jan-Paul; Greve, Jan Willem; Hesselink, Erik J.; Klinkenbijl, Jean H. G.; Borel Rinkes, Inne H. M.; Boerma, Djamila; Bonsing, Bert A.; van Laarhoven, Cees J.; Kubben, Frank J. G. M.; van der Harst, Erwin; Sosef, Meindert N.; Bosscha, Koop; de Hingh, Ignace H. J. T.; Th de Wit, Laurens; van Delden, Otto M.; Busch, Olivier R. C.; van Gulik, Thomas M.; Bossuyt, Patrick M. M.; Gouma, Dirk J.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Surgery in patients with obstructive jaundice caused by a periampullary (pancreas, papilla, distal bile duct) tumor is associated with a higher risk of postoperative complications than in non-jaundiced patients. Preoperative biliary drainage was introduced in an attempt to improve the

  5. Arterial Pulsations cannot Drive Intramural Periarterial Drainage: Significance for Aβ Drainage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra K. Diem

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's Disease (AD is the most common form of dementia and to date there is no cure or efficient prophylaxis. The cognitive decline correlates with the accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ in the walls of capillaries and arteries. Our group has demonstrated that interstitial fluid and Aβ are eliminated from the brain along the basement membranes of capillaries and arteries, the intramural periarterial drainage (IPAD pathway. With advancing age and arteriosclerosis, the stiffness of arterial walls, this pathway fails in its function and Aβ accumulates in the walls of arteries. In this study we tested the hypothesis that arterial pulsations drive IPAD and that a valve mechanism ensures the net drainage in a direction opposite to that of the blood flow. This hypothesis was tested using a mathematical model of the drainage mechanism. We demonstrate firstly that arterial pulsations are not strong enough to produce drainage velocities comparable to experimental observations. Secondly, we demonstrate that a valve mechanism such as directional permeability of the IPAD pathway is necessary to achieve a net reverse flow. The mathematical simulation results are confirmed by assessing the pattern of IPAD in mice using pulse modulators, showing no significant alteration of IPAD. Our results indicate that forces other than the cardiac pulsations are responsible for efficient IPAD.

  6. Reuse of drainage water model : calculation method of drainage water and watertable depth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roest, C.W.J.; Rijtema, P.E.; Abdel Khalik, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    The main objective of the project is to assist the Ministry of Irrigation in Egypt in the planning of future watermanagement strategies incorporating reuse of drainage water practices. In order to achieve this main objective a comprehensive measurement programme has been initiated and a mathematical

  7. The absent father of Sino-French cinema: Contemporary Taiwanese cinema and 1950s French auteurs

    OpenAIRE

    Bloom, ME

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 Taylor & Francis. In contemporary Sino-French cinema, father characters who are dead, long lost or geographically distant leave gaping holes in the lives of the offspring left behind. The absent fathers in Sino-French films by Taiwanese auteurs Cheng Yu-chieh, Hou Hsiao-hsien and Tsai Ming-liang serve as metaphors for French auteurs. French New Wave films constitute the majority of the intertexts; however, early 1950s French cinema and even late nineteenth-century painting reflect th...

  8. Time effects of water drainage from deposited back-fill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranski, L.A.

    1976-01-01

    Time effects of water drainage from deposited back-fill in mine excavations are considered. The time dependence of drainage from the deposited material was determined from ''in situ'' measurements with the aid of radioisotope gauges. The measurements were performed for given drainage conditions and practically constant grain size composition. It was found that in a few hours after the end of the back-filling operation the mechanical properties of the deposited material are practically constant. (author)

  9. Pancreatic tissue fluid pressure during drainage operations for chronic pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebbehøj, N; Borly, L; Madsen, P

    1990-01-01

    Pancreatic tissue fluid pressure was measured in 10 patients undergoing drainage operations for painful chronic pancreatitis. The pressure was measured by the needle technique in the three anatomic regions of the pancreas before and at different stages of the drainage procedure, and the results...... a decrease in pancreatic tissue fluid pressure during drainage operations for pain in chronic pancreatitis. Regional pressure decrease were apparently unrelated to ERCP findings....

  10. Effect of viscosity on tear drainage and ocular residence time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Heng; Chauhan, Anuj

    2008-08-01

    An increase in residence time of dry eye medications including artificial tears will likely enhance therapeutic benefits. The drainage rates and the residence time of eye drops depend on the viscosity of the instilled fluids. However, a quantitative understanding of the dependence of drainage rates and the residence time on viscosity is lacking. The current study aims to develop a mathematical model for the drainage of Newtonian fluids and also for power-law non-Newtonian fluids of different viscosities. This study is an extension of our previous study on the mathematical model of tear drainage. The tear drainage model is modified to describe the drainage of Newtonian fluids with viscosities higher than the tear viscosity and power-law non-Newtonian fluids with rheological parameters obtained from fitting experimental data in literature. The drainage rate through canaliculi was derived from the modified drainage model and was incorporated into a tear mass balance to calculate the transients of total solute quantity in ocular fluids and the bioavailability of instilled drugs. For Newtonian fluids, increasing the viscosity does not affect the drainage rate unless the viscosity exceeds a critical value of about 4.4 cp. The viscosity has a maximum impact on drainage rate around a value of about 100 cp. The trends are similar for shear thinning power law fluids. The transients of total solute quantity, and the residence time agrees at least qualitatively with experimental studies. A mathematical model has been developed for the drainage of Newtonian fluids and power-law fluids through canaliculi. The model can quantitatively explain different experimental observations on the effect of viscosity on the residence of instilled fluids on the ocular surface. The current study is helpful for understanding the mechanism of fluid drainage from the ocular surface and for improving the design of dry eye treatments.

  11. Modeling of subglacial hydrological development following rapid supraglacial lake drainage

    OpenAIRE

    Dow, C F; Kulessa, B; Rutt, I C; Tsai, V C; Pimentel, S; Doyle, S H; van As, D; Lindb?ck, K; Pettersson, R; Jones, G A; Hubbard, A

    2015-01-01

    The rapid drainage of supraglacial lakes injects substantial volumes of water to the bed of the Greenland ice sheet over short timescales. The effect of these water pulses on the development of basal hydrological systems is largely unknown. To address this, we develop a lake drainage model incorporating both (1) a subglacial radial flux element driven by elastic hydraulic jacking and (2) downstream drainage through a linked channelized and distributed system. Here we present the model and exa...

  12. Reading Speed of Contracted French Braille

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laroche, Louise; Boule, Jacinthe; Wittich, Walter

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to address three hypotheses: (1) The reading speed of both readers of French braille and readers of French print will be faster in the silent condition; however, this gain in speed will be larger for print readers; (2) Individuals who acquired braille before age 10 will display faster reading speeds at lower error rates…

  13. Gabonese French Dictionaries: Survey and Perspectives*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gabonese French Dictionaries: Survey and Perspectives. 257 ... be regarded, according to Gouws (2007: 314), as externally motivated products. .... Fair attention is given to different style or normative levels, i.e. .... differs enough from standard French to be regarded as a new emerging lan- ..... Tous les leaders des par-.

  14. French Romanticism and Napoleon's "Geometric Men."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Robert A.

    1982-01-01

    French intellectual thought changed during the Napoleonic Era. The effects of the Enlightenment philosophers, the French Revolution, the Industrial Revolution, and Romanticism on the development of Napoleon's philosophical outlook are used to illustrate the changes occurring in France as a whole in the early nineteenth century. (AM)

  15. French Phonology for Teachers: A Programmed Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jerald R.; Poulin, Norman A.

    This programed, self-instructional course has the following terminal objectives: (1) to present some notions of the science of linguistics and the major branches of linguistics, (2) to teach the segmental and suprasegmental phonemes of French, (3) to identify the major articulatory problems of French for the native speaker of English, (4) to…

  16. The French Regions and Their Social Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jany-Catrice, Florence

    2009-01-01

    In this article, a new indicator designed to capture the multidimensionality of the social health of the French regions is put to the test. Drawing on regional data for 2004, this indicator of social health (ISH) sheds new light on the social performance of the French regions. The worst performers are the highly urbanised regions, whereas others,…

  17. French for Specific Purposes: The Hawaiian Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benouis, Mustapha

    1986-01-01

    Describes the development of and the reaction to a course in Business French at the University of Hawaii. Its success, coupled with its recognition by state and academic officials, brought about the initiation of similar courses in other languages and the development of French for travel industry management majors. (SED)

  18. French Higher Education: A Cartoon Essay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Matthew Henry

    2012-01-01

    In this cartoon essay, the author shares his experience from a travel to Paris to see the French higher education system. From his travel, he learned that in France, "degree" inflation may be an issue, but not grade inflation. On the flight home, the author reflects how French and American academics answer one question about the state of…

  19. The French Language in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdman, Albert, Ed.

    The annual bulletin of the French 8 section of the Annual Meeting of the Modern Language Association of America is presented with the texts of papers read at both the 1969 and 1970 sessions. The 1970 papers, in French, include Jean Louis Darbelnet's "Etude Sociolinguistique des contacts entre 1'Anglais et le Francais au Canada et en…

  20. French Military Adaptation in the Afghan War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmitt, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    as any to borrow from other countries’ experiences. In order to do so, this article introduces the concept of ‘selective emulation’, and compares the French and German military adaptation processes in Afghanistan. The article argues that there is indeed something distinctive about French military...

  1. French petroleum demand stable since thirteen years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauvot, M.

    2005-01-01

    The French union of petroleum industries (Ufip) has presented a globally satisfactory status of the French petroleum situation. However, the refining capacities are not always well adapted to the evolution of the demand and the production of diesel fuels remains insufficient while France exports gasoline. Short paper. (J.S.)

  2. Health Information in French (français)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Biopsy - français (French) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Breast Biopsy - français (French) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Colposcopy - français (French) Bilingual PDF ...

  3. Crispy in the french breakfast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Drouard

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Bien qu’il y ait eu du croquant et du croustillant dans l’alimentation des Français avant l’époque contemporaine (pain, gâteaux, fruits frais ou secs sa place a augmenté récemment à la suite des changements intervenus dans le petit déjeuner. Le but de cet article est d’analyser historiquement la pénétration et la diffusion du croquant et du croustillant dans le petit déjeuner français. Celle ci s’est faite d’abord dans les villes sous l’influence de modèles étrangers et principalement Anglo-Saxons qui font une place importante au croustillant. Les partisans des nouveaux petits déjeuners à base de lait, de céréales et de fruits ne cherchaient pas seulement à promouvoir le végétarisme mais aussi à lutter contre la « dégénérescence » qui menaçait à leurs yeux la société moderne. Après avoir rappelé la naissance du petit déjeuner français, on étudiera le rôle des modèles étrangers dans l’évolution de la consommation d’aliments croustillants.Though crispy items were present in French food before the contemporary period (what with bread, cakes, fresh or dried fruits, they have recently played a more important part as breakfast underwent a series of changes. The aim of this article is to make an historical analysis of the emergence and spread of crispy food in the French breakfast. The influence of foreign and more especially Anglo-Saxon models contributed to increasing its importance. Those who advocated these new breakfasts at the beginning of the XXth century were convinced to fight also against “degeneracy” which they thought was a threat to modern society. I shall first briefly explain how the French breakfast was born, then I shall focus on the influence and impact of foreign models.

  4. Erosion in southern Tibet shut down at ∼10 Ma due to enhanced rock uplift within the Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Marissa M; Fox, Matthew; Schmidt, Jennifer L; Tripathy-Lang, Alka; Wielicki, Matthew M; Harrison, T Mark; Zeitler, Peter K; Shuster, David L

    2015-09-29

    Exhumation of the southern Tibetan plateau margin reflects interplay between surface and lithospheric dynamics within the Himalaya-Tibet orogen. We report thermochronometric data from a 1.2-km elevation transect within granitoids of the eastern Lhasa terrane, southern Tibet, which indicate rapid exhumation exceeding 1 km/Ma from 17-16 to 12-11 Ma followed by very slow exhumation to the present. We hypothesize that these changes in exhumation occurred in response to changes in the loci and rate of rock uplift and the resulting southward shift of the main topographic and drainage divides from within the Lhasa terrane to their current positions within the Himalaya. At ∼17 Ma, steep erosive drainage networks would have flowed across the Himalaya and greater amounts of moisture would have advected into the Lhasa terrane to drive large-scale erosional exhumation. As convergence thickened and widened the Himalaya, the orographic barrier to precipitation in southern Tibet terrane would have strengthened. Previously documented midcrustal duplexing around 10 Ma generated a zone of high rock uplift within the Himalaya. We use numerical simulations as a conceptual tool to highlight how a zone of high rock uplift could have defeated transverse drainage networks, resulting in substantial drainage reorganization. When combined with a strengthening orographic barrier to precipitation, this drainage reorganization would have driven the sharp reduction in exhumation rate we observe in southern Tibet.

  5. Pancreatic tissue fluid pressure during drainage operations for chronic pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebbehøj, N; Borly, L; Madsen, P

    1990-01-01

    Pancreatic tissue fluid pressure was measured in 10 patients undergoing drainage operations for painful chronic pancreatitis. The pressure was measured by the needle technique in the three anatomic regions of the pancreas before and at different stages of the drainage procedure, and the results...... were compared with preoperative endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) morphology. The preoperatively elevated pressure decreased in all patients but one, to normal or slightly elevated values. The median pressure decrease was 50% (range, 0-90%; p = 0.01). The drainage anastomosis (a...... a decrease in pancreatic tissue fluid pressure during drainage operations for pain in chronic pancreatitis. Regional pressure decrease were apparently unrelated to ERCP findings....

  6. Development of laundry drainage treatment system with ceramic ultra filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanda, Masanori; Kurahasi, Takafumi

    1995-01-01

    A compact laundry drainage treatment system (UF system hereafter) with a ceramic ultra filter membrane (UF membrane hereafter) has been developed to reduce radioactivity in laundry drainage from nuclear power plants. The UF membrane is made of sintered fine ceramic. The UF membrane has 0.01 μm fine pores, resulting in a durable, heat-resistant, and corrosion-resistant porous ceramic filter medium. A cross-flow system, laundry drainage is filtrated while it flows across the UF membrane, is used as the filtration method. This method creates less caking when compared to other methods. The UF membrane is back washed at regular intervals with permeated water to minimize caking of the filter. The UF membrane and cross-flow system provides long stable filtration. The ceramic UF membrane is strong enough to concentrate suspended solids in laundry drainage up to a weight concentration of 10%. The final concentrated laundry drainage can be treated in an incinerator. The performance of the UF system was checked using radioactive laundry drainage. The decontamination factor of the UF system was 25 or more. The laundry drainage treatment capacity and concentration ratio of the UF system, as well as the service life of the UF membrane were also checked by examination using simulated non-radioactive laundry drainage. Even though laundry drainage was concentrated 1000 times, the UF system showed good permeated water quality and permeated water flux. (author)

  7. The construction technology of Chinese ancient city drainage facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hequn, Li; Yufengyun

    2018-03-01

    In ancient china, according to the local natural environment, a variety of drainage facilities were built in order to excrete rainwater, domestic sewage, production wastewater and so on. These drainage facilities were mainly made of pottery, bricks, wood, stone, etc. For example, ceramic water pipelines, buried in the ground, connect together one by one, and there was a slight drop from one end to the other in favor of drainage. These measures can also be used for reference in today’s urban drainage and flood control.

  8. Drainage filters and constructed wetlands to mitigate sitespecific nutrient losses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Charlotte; Canga, Eriona; Heckrath, Goswin Johann

    2012-01-01

    Research Council, aims at providing the scientific basis for developing cost-effective filter technologies targeting P-retention and N-removal in agricultural subsurface drainage. The project studies different approaches of implementing the filter technologies including drainage well filters as well...... typically applied to point sources. This calls for a shift of paradigm towards the development of new, cost-efficient technologies to mitigate site-specific nutrient losses in drainage. A newly launched Danish research project “SUPREME-TECH” (2010-2015) (www.supreme-tech.dk) funded by the Danish Strategic...... in drainage water to below environmental threshold values (

  9. Peat drainage conditions assessment in Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poggio, Laura; Artz, Rebekka; Donaldson-Selby, Gillian; Aitkenhead, Matt; Donnelly, David; Gimona, Alessandro

    2017-04-01

    Large areas of Scotland are covered in peat, providing an important sink of carbon but also a notable source of emission where peatlands are not in good condition. However, despite data from designated sites that peat degradation is common, a detailed spatial assessment of the condition of most peatlands across the whole of Scotland is missing. An assessment of peatland drainage was carried out at >600 random sampling locations with an expert-based estimation of presence or absence of drainage ditches within a 500 metre block using 25 cm resolution aerial imagery. The resulting dataset was modelled using a scorpan-kriging approach, in particular using Generalised Additive Models for the description of the trend. Remote sensing images from different sensors (i.e. MODIS, Landsat and Sentinel 1 and 2) were used. In particular we used indices describing vegetation greenness (Enhanced Vegetation Index), water availability (Normalised Water Difference index), Land Surface Temperature and vegetation productivity. When considering MODIS indices we used time series and phenological summaries. The model provides also uncertainty of the estimations. The derived dataset can then be used in the decision making process for the selection of sites for restoration, emissions estimation and accounting.

  10. Development of Gender Typicality and Felt Pressure in European French and North African French Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Adam J; Dumas, Florence; Loose, Florence; Smeding, Annique; Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Régner, Isabelle

    2017-11-14

    Trajectories of gender identity were examined from Grade 6 (M age  = 11.9 years) to Grade 9 in European French (n = 570) and North African French (n = 534) adolescents, and gender and ethnic group differences were assessed in these trajectories. In Grade 6, boys of both ethnic groups reported higher levels of gender typicality and felt pressure for gender conformity than girls. European French girls and boys and North African French girls reported decreasing gender typicality from Grade 6 to Grade 9, whereas North African French boys did not change. Felt pressure decreased among girls, did not change in European French boys, and increased in North African French boys. Ethnic and gender differences in gender identity development are discussed. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  11. Stars War in French Gastronomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gergaud, Olivier; Smeets, Valérie; Warzynski, Frederic

    In this paper, we analyze the careers from a sample of more than 1,000 top French chefs over more than twenty years and link it to the success or reputation of the restaurants where they have worked. This allows us to test what are the determinants of success but also to investigate the dynamics...... of performance and reputation, stressing the importance of the quality of apprenticeships, mentoring and entrepreneurship spirit. We find that the prestige of the restaurant where individuals work is on average declining along the career, and that the quality of apprenticeship is strongly related to the future...... success as chef. We also find that prices of restaurants with higher reputation are more sensitive to bad signals....

  12. Disputing Rossellini: Three French perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Harvey-Davitt

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In his burgeoning body of film theoretical work the French philosopher Jacques Rancière repeatedly turns to some canonical films by Neorealist pioneer Roberto Rossellini. Not simply retreading tired motifs of Neorealism, Rancière’s comments offer some profound new insights, revolutionising prior perspectives on Rossellini. In this article I shall put Rancière’s perspective into dialogue with two of the most significant of these perspectives: André Bazin’s and Gilles Deleuze’s. In doing so I shall claim that Rancière’s approach departs radically from the canonised, standardised Neorealist conception of Rossellini. Instead, I wish to claim that he describes a modernist artist primarily concerned with aesthetic clashes. In doing so I shall contemplate how the meaning of these films has evolved since the era of their contemporary reception, demonstrating the congruence and disparity between these three disparate approaches.

  13. Impact of French advertising campaign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaussade, Jean-Pierre; Ansel, Philippe

    1993-01-01

    'Today, some 75 % of France's electricity is generated by nuclear plants'. This was the theme of the advertising campaign launched for the second time in May 1992 by Electricite de France in national daily newspapers and magazines, in regional publications, on cinema and on TV. Compared to 1991 the second campaign was a new step in communication: first, was the wish to inform better the public. A Minitel program '3614 EDF' was created and connected by general public including a lot of information about nuclear energy and the way to visit a nuclear plant; secondly, was the use of TV media to target a larger population. The TV spot, 'the nuclear drill', uses humor to get more impact on the public. The campaign received an encouraging reception from the press, which admired its boldness and originality. As far as the general public is concerned, the campaign achieved its goals, as illustrated by the results of post-campaign surveys carried out to measure its effect. The segment of population targeted by campaign was mainly the so called 'pragmatics'. 'Pragmatics', who account for 25 % of the French population, are young, have a good education and are well informed. This category was selected as it shows a subtle attitude towards nuclear power, with more doubts than certainties. Moreover, this segment of the population has proven to be open to information issued by EDF and also plays a key role in influencing social trends. 63% of the segment targeted by the campaign (pragmatics) and 56% of the whole french population saw the ads

  14. Seismic evidence of glacial-age river incision into the Tahaa barrier reef, French Polynesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toomey, Michael; Woodruff, Jonathan D.; Ashton, Andrew D.; Perron, J. Taylor

    2016-01-01

    Rivers have long been recognized for their ability to shape reef-bound volcanic islands. On the time-scale of glacial–interglacial sea-level cycles, fluvial incision of exposed barrier reef lagoons may compete with constructional coral growth to shape the coastal geomorphology of ocean islands. However, overprinting of Pleistocene landscapes by Holocene erosion or sedimentation has largely obscured the role lowstand river incision may have played in developing the deep lagoons typical of modern barrier reefs. Here we use high-resolution seismic imagery and core stratigraphy to examine how erosion and/or deposition by upland drainage networks has shaped coastal morphology on Tahaa, a barrier reef-bound island located along the Society Islands hotspot chain in French Polynesia. At Tahaa, we find that many channels, incised into the lagoon floor during Pleistocene sea-level lowstands, are located near the mouths of upstream terrestrial drainages. Steeper antecedent topography appears to have enhanced lowstand fluvial erosion along Tahaa's southwestern coast and maintained a deep pass. During highstands, upland drainages appear to contribute little sediment to refilling accommodation space in the lagoon. Rather, the flushing of fine carbonate sediment out of incised fluvial channels by storms and currents appears to have limited lagoonal infilling and further reinforced development of deep barrier reef lagoons during periods of highstand submersion.

  15. Inventory of drainage wells and potential sources of contaminants to drainage-well inflow in Southwest Orlando, Orange County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, George Fred

    1993-01-01

    Potential sources of contaminants that could pose a threat to drainage-well inflow and to water in the Floridan aquifer system in southwest Orlando, Florida, were studied between October and December 1990. Drainage wells and public-supply wells were inventoried in a 14-square-mile area, and available data on land use and activities within each drainage well basin were tabulated. Three public-supply wells (tapping the Lower Floridan aquifer) and 38 drainage wells (open to the Upper Floridan aquifer) were located in 17 drainage basins within the study area. The primary sources of drainage-well inflow are lake overflow, street runoff, seepage from the surficial aquifer system, and process-wastewater disposal. Drainage-well inflow from a variety of ares, including resi- dential, commercial, undeveloped, paved, and industrial areas, are potential sources of con- taminants. The four general types of possible contaminants to drainage-well inflow are inorganic chemicals, organic compounds, turbidity, and microbiological contaminants. Potential contami- nant sources include plant nurseries, citrus groves, parking lots, plating companies, auto- motive repair shops, and most commonly, lake- overflow water. Drainage wells provide a pathway for contaminants to enter the Upper Floridan aquifer and there is a potential for contaminants to move downward from the Upper Floridan to the Lower Floridan aquifer.

  16. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided transmural drainage of postoperative pancreatic collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilara, Amy; Gerdes, Hans; Allen, Peter; Jarnagin, William; Kingham, Peter; Fong, Yuman; DeMatteo, Ronald; D'Angelica, Michael; Schattner, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic leak is a major cause of morbidity after pancreatectomy. Traditionally, peripancreatic fluid collections have been managed by percutaneous or operative drainage. Data for endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided drainage of postoperative fluid collections are limited. Here we report on the safety, efficacy, and timing of EUS-guided drainage of postoperative peripancreatic collections. This is a retrospective review of 31 patients who underwent EUS-guided drainage of fluid collections after pancreatic resection. Technical success was defined as successful transgastric deployment of at least one double pigtail plastic stent. Clinical success was defined as resolution of the fluid collection on follow-up CT scan and resolution of symptoms. Early drainage was defined as initial transmural stent placement within 30 days after surgery. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided drainage was performed effectively with a technical success rate of 100%. Clinical success was achieved in 29 of 31 patients (93%). Nineteen of the 29 patients (65%) had complete resolution of their symptoms and collection with the first endoscopic procedure. Repeat drainage procedures, including some with necrosectomy, were required in the remaining 10 patients, with eventual resolution of collection and symptoms. Two patients who did not achieve durable clinical success required percutaneous drainage by interventional radiology. Seventeen (55%) of 31 patients had successful early drainage completed within 30 days of their operation. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided drainage of fluid collections after pancreatic resection is safe and effective. Early drainage (collections was not associated with increased complications in this series. Copyright © 2014 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. French Society Abroad: The Popularization of French Dance throughout Europe, 1600-1750

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Paul Rinehart

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the dissemination of French dance, dance notation, and dance music throughout Europe, and it explains the reasons why French culture had such an influence on other European societies from 1600-1750. First, the paper seeks to prove that King Louis XIV played a significant role in the outpour of French dance and the arts. Next, the paper discusses prominent French writers of dance notation who influenced the spread of French dance literature and training throughout Europe. Finally, the paper delineates European composers and their involvement in the development and production of French dance music. Using academic, peer-reviewed journal articles, books, and other scholarly sources, this paper seeks to accurately present the information in an orderly fashion. The paper contains visual evidence of dance and music notation to assist the reader in understanding the subject matter. Additionally, theories of contemporary authors as well as authors from the time period are discussed to present concrete evidence. The two main types of dance discussed in the paper are ballroom and court dances, which were prominent within the French royal court. One major finding of the research is the fact that French court and ballroom dances were specifically designed to communicate the power and prestige of King Louis XIV; consequently, other European countries were influenced to strive for similar prestige. Another finding is that many forms of French dance notation were translated and published in other countries, which increased the use of French dance throughout Europe. Musically, European composers such as Handel and Mozart included elements of French dance music in their compositions, and thus played a significant role in prevalence of French dance music throughout Europe. Overall, this paper proves that French dance received wide recognition due to political influence, availability of dance notation, and the involvement of prominent composers.

  18. Arterial Complications of Percutaneous Transhepatic Biliary Drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L'Hermine, Claude; Ernst, Olivier; Delemazure, Olivier; Sergent, Geraldine

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To report on the frequency and treatment of arterial complications due to percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD).Materials: Lesions of the intrahepatic artery were encountered in 10 of 525 patients treated by PTBD (2%). Hemobilia followed in 9 patients and subcapsular hematoma in 1. Seven patients had a benign biliary stenosis and 3 had a malignant stenosis.Results: The bleeding resolved spontaneously in 3 patients. In 7 it required arterial embolization, which was successfully achieved either through the percutaneous catheter (n= 3) or by arteriography (n= 4).Conclusion: Arterial bleeding is a relatively rare complication of PTBD that can easily be treated by selective arterial embolization when it does not resolve spontaneously. In this series its frequency was much higher (16%) when the stenosis was benign than when it was malignant (0.6%)

  19. Nasolacrimal drainage system cyst in an adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasoba, T; Sugimura, H

    1996-01-01

    A cyst of the nasolacrimal drainage system (NLDS) is rare in an adult. We report a case in a 29-year-old man of a mucous retention cyst of the NLDS, which appeared 2 years after the patient developed dacryocystitis coincident with an aggravation of chronic sinusitis. The lesion was successfully managed by removing the bony wall of the NLDS at the interface with the ethmoid and nasal cavity, as well as the membranous closure of the ostium of the common canaliculus. We speculate that the cyst development might have been initiated by inflammatory change such as mucosal adhesion in the NLDS resulting from the spread of secondary infection from the sinonasal tract.

  20. Drainage treatment technology for water pollution prevention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebise, Sen' ichi

    1988-03-01

    Drainage is purified either at terminal treatment plants or by septic tanks for sewage. At terminal treatment plants, sewage is purified by activated sludge prosessing or by biological treatment equipment. By the normal activated sludge processing, only 20 - 30 % of nitrogen and phosphur can be removed. To solve this problem, many advanced processing systems have been employed, representative systems being coagulating sedimentation, rapid filtration, recirculating nitro-denitrification, etc. The coagulating sedimentation is a treatment process in which such metallic salt coagulations as aluminum, iron, etc. are injected and mixed with sewage, and then phosphur and the like are sedimented in the form of grains. The rapid filtration requires no large space, and can reliably remove suspended matter. For large scale septic tank processing system, advance treatment processing is supplemented to improve the quality of treated water. Among other systems of sewage purification are oxidized channel, oxidized pond, soil treatment, etc. (2 figs, 2 refs)

  1. Integrated urban drainage, status and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harremoës, Poul

    2002-01-01

    This paper summarises the status of urban storm drainage as an integrated professional discipline, including the management-policy interface, by which the goals of society are implemented. The paper assesses the development of the discipline since the INTERURBA conference in 1992 and includes...... aspects of the papers presented at the INTERURBA-II conference in 2001 and the discussions during the conference. Tools for integrated analysis have been developed, but there is less implementation than could be expected. That is due to lack of adequate knowledge about important mechanisms, coupled...... with a significant conservatism in the business. However, significant integrated analyses have been reported. Most of them deal with the sewer system and the treatment plant, while few incorporate the receiving water as anything but the object of the loads to be minimised by engineering measures up-stream. Important...

  2. 13 Morphometric Analysis of Ogunpa and Ogbere Drainage Basins ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    `123456789jkl''''#

    significance of these landscape parameters was ... reported that the geomorphic characteristics of a drainage basins play ... form and process of drainage basins that may ... tropical rain forest of Nigeria occupying an area of .... morphometric parameters such as relief, shape ... on floodplains can be pulled down while areas.

  3. Natural attenuation of antimony in mine drainage water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manaka, Mitsuo; Yanase, Nobuyuki; Sato, Tsutomu; Fukushi, Keisuke

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the natural attenuation of antimony (Sb) in the drainage water of an abandoned mine. Drainage water, waste rocks, and ocherous precipitates collected from the mine were investigated in terms of their mineralogy and chemistry. The chemistry of the drainage water was analyzed by measuring pH, oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), and electric conductivity on site as well as by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and ion chromatography. As the drainage flowed downstream, the pH decreased rapidly from 7.05 to 3.26 and then increased slowly to 3.50. In a section where the pH increased, ocherous precipitates occur on a drainage water channel. We determined Sb levels in the drainage water, and the distribution of Sb in the mineral phases of waste rocks and precipitates was estimated by means of a sequential extraction procedure. The results of these investigations indicated that Sb, which is generated by the dissolution of stibnite (Sb 2 S 3 ) and secondary formed Sb minerals in waste rocks, was attenuated by iron-bearing ocherous precipitates, especially schwertmannite, that form over time in the drainage water. The Sb concentrations in the ocherous precipitates were up to 370 mg/kg, whereas the Sb concentrations in the drainage water downstream were below background levels (0.6 μg/L). Bulk distribution coefficients (K d ) for this Sb adsorption to the precipitates ranges up to at least 10 5 L/kg. (author)

  4. Predictors of chest drainage complications in trauma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CECÍLIA ARAÚJO MENDES

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to identify predictors of chest drainage complications in trauma patients attended at a University Hospital. Methods: we conducted a retrospective study of 68 patients submitted to thoracic drainage after trauma, in a one-year period. We analyzed gender, age, trauma mechanism, trauma indices, thoracic and associated lesions, environment in which the procedure was performed, drainage time, experience of the performer, complications and evolution. Results: the mean age of the patients was 35 years and the male gender was the most prevalent (89%. Blunt trauma was the most frequent, with 67% of cases, and of these, 50% were due to traffic accidents. The mean TRISS (Trauma and Injury Severity Score was 98, with a mortality rate of 1.4%. The most frequent thoracic and associated lesions were, respectively, rib fractures (51% and abdominal trauma (32%. The mean drainage time was 6.93 days, being higher in patients under mechanical ventilation (p=0.0163. The complication rate was 26.5%, mainly poor drain positioning (11.77%. Hospital drainage was performed in 89% of cases by doctors in the first year of specialization. Thoracic drainage performed in prehospital care presented nine times more chances of complications (p=0.0015. Conclusion: the predictors of post-trauma complications for chest drainage were a procedure performed in an adverse site and mechanical ventilation. The high rate of complications demonstrates the importance of protocols of care with the thoracic drainage.

  5. Coupling between drainage and coarsening in wet foam

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Drainage and coarsening are two coupled phenomena during the evolution of wet foam. We show the variation in the growth rate of bubble size, along the height in a column of Gillette shaving foam, by microscope imaging. Simultaneously, the drainage of liquid at the same heights has been investigated by ...

  6. 46 CFR 173.062 - Drainage of weather deck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Drainage of weather deck. 173.062 Section 173.062 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES PERTAINING TO VESSEL USE School Ships § 173.062 Drainage of weather deck. The weather deck of each sailing...

  7. Remediation of Acid Mine Drainage with Sulfate Reducing Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauri, James F.; Schaider, Laurel A.

    2009-01-01

    Sulfate reducing bacteria have been shown to be effective at treating acid mine drainage through sulfide production and subsequent precipitation of metal sulfides. In this laboratory experiment for undergraduate environmental chemistry courses, students design and implement a set of bioreactors to remediate acid mine drainage and explain observed…

  8. Using bamboo (Bambusa vulgaris) as a field drainage material in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bamboo (Bambusa vulgaris), one of the most widespread member of its genus, was used as field drainage material in Akure, Nigeria. Pre-determined sizes of bamboo with uniform lengths and diameters were installed as sub-drains in agricultural field for drainage purposes, especially in developing countries like Nigeria.

  9. Thematic survey of subsurface drainage systems in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tlapáková, L.; Žaloudík, J.; Kolejka, Jaromír

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 2 (2016), s. 55-65 ISSN 1744-5647 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : subsurface drainage system * remote sensing * image interpretation * drainage recognition and mapping Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 2.174, year: 2016 http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/17445647.2016.1259129?scroll=top&needAccess=true

  10. Risk factors influencing the pleural drainage volume after transthoracic oesophagectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosugi, Shin-ichi; Kanda, Tatsuo; Yajima, Kazuhito; Ishikawa, Takashi; Sakamoto, Kaoru

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this study was to clarify the factors influencing pleural drainage volume after transthoracic oesophagectomy and to determine criteria for the selection of patients who would benefit from the early removal of chest drains. Clinicopathological characteristics of 155 patients who underwent transthoracic oesophagectomy were prospectively collected, and the daily drainage volume of each patient was retrospectively reviewed. Potential risk factors were compared between the high-output group (n = 39) and low-output group (n = 116), which were dichotomized using the 75th percentile of total pleural drainage volume of the total study population. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to identify independent risk factors. The median duration of drainage was 10 days, with a median total drainage volume of 2258 ml. Of 27 potential risk factors influencing the drainage volume, creatinine clearance (P = 0.04), operative approach (P = 0.03) and thoracic duct removal (P = 0.01) were significantly associated with the total pleural drainage volume. The removal of the thoracic duct (P = 0.02; odds ratio, 4.02; 95% confidence interval 1.20-13.41) and lower creatinine clearance (P = 0.04; odds ratio, 1.02; 95% confidence interval 1.00-1.04) was independent risk factors for increased pleural drainage volume after transthoracic oesophagectomy. The early removal of chest drains may be possible in patients without these risk factors.

  11. Intermediate report on the problems of warm water drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The investigation into the solution of the problems of warm water drainage and its related matters was conducted, and the result was summarized by the warm water drainage sectional committee of the central public nuisance-prevention council entrusted by the Environment Agency. The first section of this report deals with the background of the warm water drainage problems. In December 1970, the environmental pollution prevention act was revised so as to include warm water drainage in the law. The second section deals with the progress of deliberation by the sectional committee. The third section deals with the actual conditions of warm water drainage. The temperature difference at the inlet and outlet of water was 5 to 11 0 C in power plants, 5 to 16 0 C in iron and steel works, 4 to 11 0 C in petroleum refineries, and 7 to 25 0 C in petrochemical plants. The amount of heat energy discharged from power plants was greater than that from the others. Other sections deal with its effects on the living things in water, the forecast of diffusion of warm drainage, the concept of the regulation of warm drainage, and the present countermeasure. Twelve points which require future investigation are listed. They are the change in the phases of living things affected by the change in temperature and flow of warm drainage, the effects on fishery resources, the estimation system for the environmental calorific capacity in the sea, the mechanism of diffusion and the forecasting method for the diffusion range. (Iwakiri, K.)

  12. Assessment of drainage techniques for evacuation of chronic subdural hematoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjåvik, Kristin; Bartek, Jiri; Sagberg, Lisa Millgård

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Surgery for chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) is one of the most common neurosurgical procedures. The benefit of postoperative passive subdural drainage compared with no drains has been established, but other drainage techniques are common, and their effectiveness compared with passive...

  13. Successful percutaneous transperineal drainage of a large prostatic abscess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Barry M; Hakimi, A Ari; Clerkin, Kevin J; Silva, Jose V

    2010-12-01

    We present a case of an 83-year-old man with septic shock secondary to an extremely large prostatic abscess. Antibiotics and transperineal percutaneous drainage with a suprapubic-type Malecot catheter successfully treated the abscess. Follow-up images reveal resolution of the abscess. Broad-spectrum antibiotics and drainage permitted a full recovery. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Predicting success of catheter drainage in infected necrotizing pancreatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollemans, Robbert A.; Bollen, Thomas L.; Van Brunschot, Sandra; Bakker, Olaf J.; Ali, Usama Ahmed; Van Goor, Harry; Boermeester, Marja A.; Gooszen, Hein G.; Besselink, Marc G.; Van Santvoort, Hjalmar C.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: At least 30% of patients with infected necrotizing pancreatitis are successfully treated with catheter drainage alone. It is currently not possible to predict which patients also need necrosectomy. We evaluated predictive factors for successful catheter drainage. Methods: This was a

  15. Predicting Success of Catheter Drainage in Infected Necrotizing Pancreatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollemans, Robbert A.; Bollen, Thomas L.; van Brunschot, Sandra; Bakker, Olaf J.; Ahmed Ali, Usama; van Goor, Harry; Boermeester, Marja A.; Gooszen, Hein G.; Besselink, Marc G.; van Santvoort, Hjalmar C.

    2016-01-01

    At least 30% of patients with infected necrotizing pancreatitis are successfully treated with catheter drainage alone. It is currently not possible to predict which patients also need necrosectomy. We evaluated predictive factors for successful catheter drainage. This was a post hoc analysis of 130

  16. Predicting Success of Catheter Drainage in Infected Necrotizing Pancreatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollemans, R.A.; Bollen, T.L.; Brunschot, S. van; Bakker, O.J.; Ali, U. Ahmed; Goor, H. van; Boermeester, M.A.; Gooszen, H.G.; Besselink, M.G.; Santvoort, H.C. van

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: At least 30% of patients with infected necrotizing pancreatitis are successfully treated with catheter drainage alone. It is currently not possible to predict which patients also need necrosectomy. We evaluated predictive factors for successful catheter drainage. METHODS: This was a

  17. Microbial decontamination of uranium mine drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hard, B.C.; Babel, W.

    2001-01-01

    One of the problems one is faced with when uranium mines are closed is the decontamination of acid mine drainage (AMD) from tailings and flooding of the underground mines. The high concentrations of sulfates and metals in mining water make it impossible to dispose of the water into rivers without having to decontaminate it first. A bioremediation process is proposed in which sulfate-reducing bacteria are used to remove metals, neutralize the water and reduce the sulfate concentrations. Methylotrophic sulfate-reducing strains have been isolated which can be used in such a process. Lab scale experiments with different reactor types were carried out in order to find the optimum design for this bioremediation process. Comparisons were made between methanol and other electron donors with regards to their suitability as substrate for this process. Methanol was found to be most suited. Laboratory data suggest that immobilizing the bacteria on pumice particles increases the sulfate-reduction rate (SRR) up to three fold to 18 mg/l.h, compared to the rates of free flowing cells of between 3.7 and 6.8 mg/l.h. Preliminary experiments on a larger scale (15 l) using acid mine drainage pH 2.5 show SRR of 0.71 mg/l.h. In biosorption experiments up to 140 mg of aluminium per g biomass was removed from the water. One strain was found to reduce uranium VI, thus changing it from the soluble to the insoluble form. The application of the proposed process with regards to bioremediation of AMD are discussed. (orig.)

  18. The yawning chasm of French nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    This is an account of a paper appeared in Energy Economist, February 1988 and contains a severe critique of the French nuclear power policy, in particular the Electricite de France, Cogema and Framatome. It is argued that the blueprint of the original nuclear power program has not been achieved in many topics. Points of critique to the EdF are: the electricity price, overcapacities and financial indeptedness. The French industries are not flourishing due to ample supply of cheap energy, nor do French nuclear manufacturers sell the fast breeder technology throughout the world. (qui)

  19. French electric power balance sheet 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lartigau, Thierry; Riere, Alexia

    2011-01-01

    The mission of RTE, the French electricity Transportation grid, a public service assignment, is to balance the electricity supply and demand in real time. This report presents RTE's technical results for the year 2010: increase of RTE's investments and safety expenses for adapting the grid to the new electricity industry stakes and to meteorological hazards, decrease of power cuts frequency, rise of the French power consumption, strong increase of winter consumption peaks, increase of the French power generation, increase of the positive trade balance. New RTE's infrastructures, electricity quality data, and the evolution of market mechanisms are presented in appendixes

  20. Colloquial French the complete course for beginners

    CERN Document Server

    Demouy, Valérie

    2014-01-01

     COLLOQUIAL FRENCH is easy to use and completely up to date!Specially written by experienced teachers for self-study or class use, the course offers a step-by-step approach to written and spoken French. No prior knowledge of the language is required.What makes COLLOQUIAL FRENCH your best choice in personal language learning?Interactive - lots of exercises for regular practiceClear - concise grammar notesPractical - useful vocabulary and pronunciation guideComplete - including answer key and reference sectionWhether you''re a business traveller, or about to take up a daring challenge in adventu

  1. The cost of French military nuclear programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrillot, B.

    1999-02-01

    The author tries to find out the real cost of French nuclear weaponry. According to this study the total cost of the French military nuclear programs for 1960-1998 period is about 1499 milliard francs (MdF). This cost can be distributed as follows: i) fabrication of the bomb: 690 MdF; ii) display of the bomb: 727 MdF; iii) control of the bomb: 50 Mdf; iv) protection against nuclear attacks: 9 MdF; and v) dismantling of the bomb: 23 MdF. It goes without saying that these figures exceed by far those given by French authorities. (A.C.)

  2. Foamed emulsion drainage: flow and trapping of drops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Maxime; Zou, Ziqiang; Langevin, Dominique; Salonen, Anniina

    2017-06-07

    Foamed emulsions are ubiquitous in our daily life but the ageing of such systems is still poorly understood. In this study we investigate foam drainage and measure the evolution of the gas, liquid and oil volume fractions inside the foam. We evidence three regimes of ageing. During an initial period of fast drainage, both bubbles and drops are very mobile. As the foam stabilises drainage proceeds leading to a gradual decrease of the liquid fraction and slowing down of drainage. Clusters of oil drops are less sheared, their dynamic viscosity increases and drainage slows down even further, until the drops become blocked. At this point the oil fraction starts to increase in the continuous phase. The foam ageing leads to an increase of the capillary pressure until the oil acts as an antifoaming agent and the foam collapses.

  3. Priority Scale of Drainage Rehabilitation of Cilacap City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudiono, Jatmiko

    2018-03-01

    Characteristics of physical condition of Cilacap City is relatively flat and low to sea level (approximately 6 m above sea level). In the event of a relatively heavy rainfall resulting in inundation at several locations. The problem of inundation is a serious problem if there is in a dense residential area or occurs in publicly-used infrastructure, such as roads and settlements. These problems require improved management of which include how to plan a sustainable urban drainage system and environmentally friendly. The development of Cilacap City is increasing rapidly, this causes drainage system based on the Drainage Masterplan Cilacap made in 2006 has not been able to accommodate rain water, so, it is necessary to evaluate the drainage masterplan for subsequent rehabilitation. Priority scale rehabilitation of the drainage sections as a guideline is an urgent need of rehabilitation in the next time period.

  4. Numerical Three-Dimensional Model of Airport Terminal Drainage System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strzelecki Michał

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available During the construction of an airport terminal it was found that as a result of the hydrostatic pressure of underground water the foundation plate of the building had dangerously shifted in the direction opposite to that of the gravitational forces. The only effective measure was to introduce a drainage system on the site. The complex geology of the area indicated that two independent drainage systems, i.e., a horizontal system in the Quaternary beds and a vertical system in the Tertiary water-bearing levels, were necessary. This paper presents numerical FEM calculations of the two drainage systems being part of the airport terminal drainaged esign. The computer simulation which was carried out took into consideration the actual effect of the drainage systems and their impact on the depression cone being formed in the two aquifers.

  5. Subdural drainage versus subperiosteal drainage in burr-hole trepanation for symptomatic chronic subdural hematomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellut, David; Woernle, Christoph Michael; Burkhardt, Jan-Karl; Kockro, Ralf Alfons; Bertalanffy, Helmut; Krayenbühl, Niklaus

    2012-01-01

    Symptomatic chronic subdural hematoma (scSDH) is one of the most frequent diseases in neurosurgical practice, and its incidence is increasing. However, treatment modalities are still controversial. The aim of this retrospective single-center study is to compare for the first time two surgical methods in the treatment of subdural hematoma that have been proven to be efficient in previous studies in a direct comparison. We analyzed the data of 143 scSDHs in 113 patients undergoing surgery for subdural hematoma with placement of subperiosteal or subdural drainage after double burr-hole trepanation for hematoma evacuation. Overall, there were no statistically significant differences regarding general patient characteristics, preoperative and postoperative symptoms, postoperative hematoma remnant, rates of recurrences, mortality, complications, and outcome at discharge and at 3-month follow up between the groups. There was a close to significant tendency of lower mortality after placement of subperiosteal drainage system and a tendency towards lower rate of recurrent hematoma after placement of subdural drainage system. Our study shows for the first time a direct comparison of two mainly used surgical techniques in the treatment of scSDH. Both methods proved to be highly effective, and general patient data, complications, outcome and mortality of both groups are equal or superior compared with previously published series. Because there is a clear tendency to less mortality and fewer serious complications, treatment with double burr-hole trepanation, irrigation, and placement of subperiosteal drainage is our treatment of choice in patients with predictable high risk of complications. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The LACDA (Los Angeles County Drainage Area) System Recreation Study, Los Angeles County Drainage Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-03-01

    Channel Islands and is not conveniently situ - tions, potential benefits are greatly increased by con- ated for the daily use of large numbers of people...are at least three races of birds and some plant species on the peninsula that are found nowhere else except the Channel Islands. 32. Agua Amarga Canyon...Class 3 (4,5,7) Agua Amarga Canyon is the last remaining relatively undisturbed drainage on the coastal side of the Palos Verdes Peninsula. There

  7. Proceedings of the international land reclamation and mine drainage conference and third international conference on the abatement of acidic drainage. Volume 1: Mine drainage -- SP 06A-94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    Volume 1 of these proceedings is divided into the following sections: Modeling mine water quality; Water treatment with wetlands; Predicting mine water quality; Water treatment--Chemical; Control of acid mine drainage--Wet covers; Site characterization monitoring; Control of acid mine drainage--Alkaline addition; and Mine water geochemistry. Papers dealing with or applicable to coal or uranium mining have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

  8. Unilobar versus bilobar biliary drainage: effect on quality of life and bilirubin level reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivanand Gamanagatti

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Percutaneous biliary drainage provides good palliation of malignant obstructive jaundice. Partial-liver drainage achieved results as good as those after complete liver drainage with significant improvements in QOL and reduction of the bilirubin level.

  9. CARRYING OF FRENCH VISAS FOR HOLDERS OF CATEGORY 'EF' FRENCH ATTESTATIONS DE FONCTIONS

    CERN Multimedia

    Service des Relations avec les Pays Hôtes

    1999-01-01

    The French Ministry of Foreign Affairs has informed the Organisation that members of the personnel resident in Switzerland and holding Category 'EF' French Attestations de functions are not obliged to be in possession of French visas. When temporarily travelling through France on OFFICIAL CERN BUSINESS, provided they are carrying the valid Attestation and a valid national passport with them.Relations with the Host States Servicehttp://www.cern.ch/relations/Tel. 72848

  10. [The French medecine pricing committee].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgi, D

    2017-09-01

    The French medicine pricing committee (CEPS) has to reconcile several major constraints, including optimal patient access to medicines and a good control of expenditures on reimbursable medicines. From 2013 to 2015, drug price decreases and discounts obtained by CEPS contributed more than € 5 billion to the balance of the health insurance accounts. As for price setting, there is a significant drop in the prices of medicines in France once they are registered for reimbursement. France is affected by a limited, but costly, flow of innovative medicines, whose prices are higher than those of previous generations, a reflection of an international gradient to which France is obviously subject, despite prices that remain at the low end of the range in Western Europe. The provision of innovative medicines for all patients who need them has been ensured in France over the last fifteen years at a controlled cost. But with the arrival of new expensive products, a resolute policy of control of expenditures must take over from the fall in prices, and original financing channels will have to be explored. Copyright © 2017 Académie Nationale de Pharmacie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Nuclear transparency: the French example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phuc Tran Dai

    2016-01-01

    In France nuclear industry is from far the industrial sector that has set the most numerous commissions that allow a dialogue with the public in order to favor transparency. There are 4 local structures of information: -)there are 38 Local Committees of Information (CLI) associated with nuclear facilities, -) the Information Committees (CI) associated with secret nuclear facilities, -) the Follow-up Committees (CSS) for facilities dedicated to the processing of wastes, and the Committees for the prevention of industrial pollution (SPPPI). These committees involve numerous actors: public service, industrialists, supervisory authorities, elected representatives, employee representatives, members of associations and residents living nearby. Since 2000, 10 national public hearings around the 'atom' have been organized by the CNDP (National Commission for Public Consultation). Most actors of the nuclear industry allow residents living nearby to visit their installations, EDF ranks 3 as the company most visited with 400.000 people a year. Following the nuclear example the French chemical industry progressively moves toward more transparency. (A.C.)

  12. New generation of French ISIM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besse, J.; Cattiaux, G.; Clicques, J.; Landez, J.P.; Birac, A.M.; Benoist, P.; Viard, J.

    1986-11-01

    Up to now, 110 pre- or inservice inspections of PWR vessels have been performed both in France and aboard by the mean of the first generation of french ISIM named MIS. Due to the increase of the number inspections which have to be realized in the next years, a new generation of ISIM have been developed. The first one is named MIS 5. The general structure of the mechanical part of MIS has not been changed, some improvements have been introduced to take in account the experience and facilitate maintenance, mounting, dismounting and transportation. The main changes lie in the control system and data acquisition and analysis equipment. The versatility of computers is widely used. A parametrizing unit allows to set all the parameters both for the tools and for the ultrasonic equipment and the data acquisition system. The ultrasonic equipment is able of managing 32 channels. Data are recorded simultaneously on Winchester disk, bulk memory and cassette of a HP 1000 computer (serial 900) and cassette. SOFTWARES have been developed by INTERCONTROLE for acquisition and analysis which allow to exhibit results automatically on screen printer or/and plotter. All the electronics and computer equipment are set in a shelter outside of the containement, linked to the MIS by 2 cables. 7 refs

  13. French natural gas industry statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The opening of the French natural gas market is effective since August 2000. In this context, some information, which were published in the past, have become confidential and strategic and can no longer be revealed. The data published in this 2004 edition concern only the years 2001 and 2002 for which data are available. The year 2000 inquiry could not be exploited. A first part presents the natural gas industry in France (consumption, supplies, production, storage, distribution, definition of gases, information sources, energy equivalence, map of transportation networks, storage, compression and production facilities). The statistical data are summarized in the second part in the form of tables: resources and uses in 1999, 2001 and 2002; sectoral use of the network distributed gas since 1972; regional distribution of gas production; domestic production and imports since 1972; sectoral distribution of network gas supplies; pipelines and distribution systems; personnel in the gas industry; gas supplies in 2002; supplies to the residential-tertiary sector in 2002; supplies to the industry in 2002; regional supplies in 2002; share of gas supplies per use in each region; regional distribution of gas supplies for each use. A comparison between the 2002 inquiry results and the provisional status is given in appendix. The 2002 energy status and the 2002 questionnaire are also given in appendixes. (J.S.)

  14. A French fuel cell prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2001-01-01

    A French prototype of a fuel cell based on the PEM (proton exchange membrane) technology has been designed by Helion, a branch of Technicatome, this fuel cell delivers 300 kW and will be used in naval applications and terrestrial transport. The main advantages of fuel cell are: 1) no contamination, even if the fuel used is natural gas the quantities of CO 2 and CO emitted are respectively 17 and 75 times as little as the maximal quantities allowed by European regulations, 2) efficiency, the electric yield is up to 60 % and can reach 80 % if we include the recovery of heat, 3) silent, the fuel cell itself does not make noise. The present price of fuel cell is the main reason that hampers its industrial development, this price is in fact strongly dependant on the cost of its different components: catalyzers, membranes, bipolar plates and the hydrogen supply. This article gives the technical characteristics of the Helion's fuel cell. (A.C.)

  15. Opening of the French gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tordjman, F.; Vivies, P. de; Pariente-David, S.; Zagury, Ph.; April, F.; Guenaire, M.; Greiveldinger, H.; Rottenberg, J.; Lemaire, Ch.; Gentou, H.; Lesaffre, Th.; Besnault, J.; Martin, S.; Mouton, F.R.; Boulanger, Ph.

    2003-05-01

    The following topics are discussed: the national and european regulation framework; the french market opening forms; the impacts (purchase policy) on the actors (big industrial groups) and the contracts. (A.L.B.)

  16. The French civilian nuclear: connections and stakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This document (18 power point slides) gives an overview of the French civilian nuclear industry and research and development: importance of the nuclear power generation in France, excellence of the education in nuclear sciences, organization of the nuclear connection (CEA, Areva, EDF, IRSN), the role of the French International Nuclear Agency (AFNI), the requirements for a renewal of human resources (French and foreign engineers) in the field of nuclear energy, the degree course for a diploma, examples of engineer and university diplomas, the educational networks in various regions of France, presentation of the Institut National des Sciences et Techniques Nucleaires (Nuclear Sciences and Techniques National Institute) and its master degrees, organization of the French education system in nuclear sciences with strong relations with the research and development programs

  17. language teacher recruitment in the French

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We first present the broad lines of the French system of language teacher recruitment in ... Hebrew, Italian, Japanese, Portuguese, Russian, Swedish, Spanish, Turkish and .... knowledge and learning ability), the higher the Department's.

  18. Introduction Robin Melrose The French philosopher Jacques ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and presumably based on the present participle diff erant. (from differer), which in French means ... grammatical items that can fill the determiner slot). But ... or opposition which gives them form [ ... ] Here the ..... Here is a simple example from ...

  19. French bank mergers and acquisitions performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houda Ben Said

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we empirically investigate the impact of mergers and acquisitions on French bank performance. Performance is measured by potential gains in efficiency and value creation. We first analyzed efficiency using the data envelopment analysis (DEA under input oriented with variable returns to scale to obtain the efficiency scores. Second, we analyzed the impact on French bank value creation following mergers-acquisitions operations of a set of control variables (model 1 and explicative variables measuring strategic similarities between bidders and targets (model 2. The sample studied is composed of French bank mergers-acquisitions happening between 1996 and 2006 and implying one of the 14 greatest French banking groups. Empirical result showed that mergers and acquisitions have been traduced by an improvement in the overall efficiency by 17.82% and a shareholder value reduction by 5.14%

  20. Le Francais quand meme (French Nonetheless).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delautier, Jean-Marie

    1983-01-01

    Political, attitudinal, and administrative problems of teaching compulsory foreign languages in Colombia are described and discussed from the point of view of a French teacher in a system characterized by confusion and lack of student interest. (MSE)

  1. Opening of the French gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syrota, J.

    2002-01-01

    A report on the opening of the French gas market has been established, on the request of both the French minister of economy, finances and industry and the state secretary of industry, as expressed in their respective letters addressed to the president of the commission of electric power regulation (CRE). This report follows the step report on the opening of the French gas market published on January 15, 2002. It presents a status of the French gas market since August 2000, date of the enforcement of the European Union directive 98/30/CE, and expresses some recommendations about the main questions that should fall into the field of the future gas regulation. This report was elaborated before the project of law relative to the energy markets and published on October 24, 2002. These recommendations will have to be adapted to the dispositions of the law. This article presents some excerpts of the synthesis report. (J.S.)

  2. Planthopper pests of grapevine (in French)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the French vineyards occur two main insect pests belonging to Fulgoromorpha, Hyalesthes obsoletus Signoret (Cixiidae) and Metcalfa pruinosa (Say) (Flatidae). Hyalesthes obsoletus is inducing economic losses by transmitting a phytoplasma, called Stolbur, from wild plants (bindweed, nettle, etc.) t...

  3. developing french for specific purposes in the nigerian university ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ada

    Following the changing role of the French Language from a vehicle of French culture to a vehicle of Science, Technology, Commerce and Diplomacy, the teaching of French as a foreign language (FFL) around the world has shifted emphasis from literary studies to what has come to be known as French for Specific Purposes ...

  4. Status of French breeder development and German-French cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vendryes, G.

    1978-01-01

    The development of fast breeder reactors in France is at present characterized by the successful operation of the 250 MW reactor, Phenix, and the speedy progress made in construction of the 1200 MW Superphenix plant. The technical concept of Superphenix is a logical extension of the Phenix concept, i.e., the pool type sodium cooled breeder reactor. While the only change in the primary system has been an increase in capacity, the main modification over Phenix is the change from small modular steam generators to four large units. The development of the work to date does not cast any doubt upon the envisaged date of first criticality in the second half of 1982. The basis of German-French cooperation is a joint declaration by the then Ministers for Research of the two countries on February 13, 1976 in which the Ministers had expressed themselves in favor of close cooperation between both countries in the development of safe, reliable and economic fast breeder reactors. On this basis, the two governments, the research centers and the industrial partners in the two countries, including the previous partners in Belgium, the Netherlands and Italy, agreed on the general principles of this cooperation. Meanwhile, the cooperation formalized in 1977 has been activated. Both in research and development and among planning and building industries the exchange of know-how and cooperation is in full swing. The joint company, SERENA, is the pool for the know-how introduced by the partners and the sole representative of the partners in the scheme. (orig.) 891 UA [de

  5. Early German Plans for a Southern Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfschmidt, Gudrun

    As early as the 18th and 19th centuries, French and English observers were active in South Africa. Around the beginning of the 20th century the Heidelberg astronomer Max Wolf (1863-1932) proposed a southern observatory. In 1907 Hermann Carl Vogel (1841-1907), director of the Astrophysical Observatory Potsdam, suggested a southern station in Spain. His ideas for building an observatory in Windhuk for photographing the sky and measuring the solar constant were taken over by the Göttingen astronomers. In 1910 Karl Schwarzschild (1873-1916), after having visited the observatories in America, pointed out the usefulness of an observatory in South West Africa, where it would have better weather than in Germany and also give access to the southern sky. Seeing tests were begun in 1910 by Potsdam astronomers, but WW I stopped the plans. In 1928 Erwin Finlay-Freundlich (1885-1964), inspired by the Hamburg astronomer Walter Baade (1893-1960), worked out a detailed plan for a southern observatory with a reflecting telescope, spectrographs and an astrograph with an objective prism. Paul Guthnick (1879-1947), director of the Berlin observatory, in cooperation with APO Potsdam and Hamburg, made a site survey to Africa in 1929 and found the conditions in Windhuk to be ideal. Observations were started in the 1930s by Berlin and Breslau astronomers, but were stopped by WW II. In the 1950s, astronomers from Hamburg and The Netherlands renewed the discussion in the framework of European cooperation, and this led to the founding of ESO in 1963, as is well described by Blaauw (1991). Blaauw, Adriaan: ESO's Early History. The European Southern Observatory from Concept to Reality. Garching bei München: ESO 1991.

  6. Unforgettable French Memory Tricks to Help You Learn and Remember French Grammar

    CERN Document Server

    Rice-Jones, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Unforgettable French uses memory tricks to teach and reinforce major points of rench grammar from the basics up to high school level, to learners of all ages. It may be used: by anyone who wishes to gain confidence in speaking French, as a evision aid, to consolidate the learner's grasp of grammatical points, to complement whatever French scheme you are using, and by French teachers at all levels, from elementary school through to adult. These tried-and-tested memory tricks help to explain "tri

  7. Approaching French Language Literature in Canadian Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Mansfield, Charlie

    2005-01-01

    This book forms a self-study pack and teaching guide to help English speakers start using computers and the web to support their studies of French Canadian Literature, song, film and multimedia. Readers will need access to the Internet so that they can experience ‘Electronic Encounters’ with Canadian media in French and English. The approach is underpinned with ideas drawn from the analysis of travel writing.

  8. Activating teaching methods in french language teaching

    OpenAIRE

    Kulhánková, Anna

    2009-01-01

    The subject of this diploma thesis is activating teaching methods in french language teaching. This thesis outlines the issues acitvating teaching methods in the concept of other teaching methods. There is a definition of teaching method, classification of teaching methods and characteristics of each activating method. In the practical part of this work are given concrete forms of activating teaching methods appropriate for teaching of french language.

  9. French strategy for green finance. Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemmet, Sylvie; Ducret, Pierre; Berthaud, Cecilia; Evain, Julie; Scolan, Maria

    2017-12-01

    The authors present their report on the French Strategy for Green Finance. Green finance has expanded rapidly since 2015 but much remains to be done to make capital flows consistent with the goals of the Paris Agreement. France can continue to play a pioneering role to promote the energy and ecological transition, and to support Paris's role as a financial centre. The task force is putting forward recommendations along four axes for a French strategy to foster green finance

  10. French effort in field NDT nuclear plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saglio, R.

    1983-12-01

    For the in-service inspection of nuclear generating stations, the French Atomic Commission has built up a program first to increase the defect detection probability, secondly to increase the reliability and recently to improve the characterization of defects. Focused Ultrasound and multiple frequency eddy current techniques, developped by French Atomic Energy Commission are well known. In this paper we will present the latest developments made in relation with defect characterization

  11. 21Pb dating of sediments in a heavily contaminated drainage channel to the La Plata estuary in Buenos Aires, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Gregorio, D.E.; Fernandez Niello, J.O.; Huck, H.; Somacal, H.; Curutchet, G.

    2007-01-01

    Concentrations of 21 Pb and 137 Cs in sediment samples collected from two cores at a drainage channel to the La Plata river estuary in Buenos Aires, Argentina, were measured using ultralow-background detection systems. The 21 Pb data were used to determine the rate of sediment accumulation of the sites. These results were correlated with some heavy metal (chromium and lead) concentrations of the samples in an attempt to characterize the historical input of contaminants due to the industrial development, which has taken place in this area over the last century. The 137 Cs measurements demonstrate that cesium dating is not adequate in regions of the southern hemisphere

  12. Rearrangement of land and water use system in polder and drainage improvement. Kantakuchi no tochiter dot mizu riyo taikei no saihensei to haisui kairyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitsuno, T; Nagahori, K [Okayama Univ., Okayama (Japan). Faculty of Agriculture; Yamamoto, T [Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Tokyo (Japan)

    1991-09-01

    Polders have no basin of their own, and the supply of irrigation water in polders is always short and unstable. The irrigation water system is so structured that the conflicting objects of both the insurance of irrigation water and drainage of rainwater can be achieved. Quoting an example at the surrounding area of the Kojima Bay in the southern area of Okayaja Prefecture where inning (land reclamation by drainage) has been practiced for a long time, problems in drainage improvement required for better use of low-lying flat lands are discussed. There are complicate relations among the safety against flood, rainwater drainage capability, stock capacity, and critical leveling time, therefore, the basic operation which must be performed at first in making a drainage plan is to determine the basic framework of the plan taking those relations into consideration. In low-lying flat lands, safety of the total area against flood has been established basing on the stock capacity of the paddy fields, and it is important to secure paddy field areas to a certain extent. 8 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  13. French in the XX Century: Development Tendencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taisiya I. Skorobogatova

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the disclosure of changes that occurred in the French language in the XX century. The task of the authors is to present the main features characteristic of the French language of the 20th century, taking into account external history and to give their perspective assessment. World wars, the development of communication tools and the creation of new technologies, the strengthening of cultural and economic ties between France and other countries of the world had a significant impact on the evolution of the French language. Important results of the development of the French language in the period under review include: fixing a new phoneme [ŋ] in the consonantial system of the French language; enrichment of the lexical system at the expense of internal resources and at the expense of other languages; strengthening the dynamics of the development of the non-literary part of the language; increase in the number of syntactic Anglicisms. In general, the authors of the article attempted to give a detailed answer to the question: if there was the impoverishment of the French language in the twentieth century.

  14. [The medical French-speaking world].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouazé, André

    2002-01-01

    Medicine has always been and remains the most solid base of the French-speaking world which was born in Africa and Indochina with the admirable action of "colonial" military physicians, the implantation of the Pasteur Institutes and the emergence of resulting overseas medical schools. Obviously, we are referring to the French-speaking medical world. Since the first International Conference of the Deans of French-Speaking Medical Schools in Abidjan in 1981, today medical schools from 40 French-speaking countries participate. The conference undertakes co-operative medical school initiatives in a multi-lateral spirit, comprised by concrete, practical actions to assist universities in developing countries strive for excellence. These actions, which are conducted with the help of both institutional (AUF, MAE, WHO, UNESCO) and private partners mainly concentrate on promoting medical education of medicine, the evaluation of medical schools, the development of scientific and technical information and training teachers in the methodology of scientific clinical research and in public health. For the future, the Conference has three important objectives, to assist in training researchers and consequently in the development of research centres in emerging countries, to promote continuing medical education in rural areas far from medical schools by taking advantage of modern computer technology, and finally to open horizons toward other communities which speak other languages, and first of all, towards non French-speaking countries who live in a French-speaking environment.

  15. Preoperative biliary drainage in hilar cholangiocarcinoma: When and how?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paik, Woo Hyun; Loganathan, Nerenthran; Hwang, Jin-Hyeok

    2014-01-01

    Hilar cholangiocarcinoma is a tumor of the extrahepatic bile duct involving the left main hepatic duct, the right main hepatic duct, or their confluence. Biliary drainage in hilar cholangiocarcinoma is sometimes clinically challenging because of complexities associated with the level of biliary obstruction. This may result in some adverse events, especially acute cholangitis. Hence the decision on the indication and methods of biliary drainage in patients with hilar cholangiocarcinoma should be carefully evaluated. This review focuses on the optimal method and duration of preoperative biliary drainage (PBD) in resectable hilar cholangiocarcinoma. Under certain special indications such as right lobectomy for Bismuth type IIIA or IV hilar cholangiocarcinoma, or preoperative portal vein embolization with chemoradiation therapy, PBD should be strongly recommended. Generally, selective biliary drainage is enough before surgery, however, in the cases of development of cholangitis after unilateral drainage or slow resolving hyperbilirubinemia, total biliary drainage may be considered. Although the optimal preoperative bilirubin level is still a matter of debate, the shortest possible duration of PBD is recommended. Endoscopic nasobiliary drainage seems to be the most appropriate method of PBD in terms of minimizing the risks of tract seeding and inflammatory reactions. PMID:24634710

  16. Thoracoscopic Surgery for Pneumothorax Following Outpatient Drainage Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Atsushi; Yotsumoto, Takuma

    2017-10-20

    We investigated the outcomes of surgery for pneumothorax following outpatient drainage therapy. We reviewed the records of 34 patients who underwent operations following outpatient drainage therapy with the Thoracic Vent at our hospital between December 2012 and September 2016. Indications for outpatient drainage therapy were pneumothorax without circulatory or respiratory failure and pleural effusion. Indications for surgical treatment were persistent air leakage and patient preference for surgery to prevent or reduce the incidence of recurrent pneumothorax. Intraoperatively, 9 of 34 cases showed loose adhesions around the Thoracic Vent, all of which were dissected bluntly. The preoperative drainage duration ranged from 5 to 13 days in patients with adhesions and from 3 to 19 days in those without adhesions, indicating no significant difference. The duration of preoperative drainage did not affect the incidence of adhesions. The operative duration ranged from 30 to 96 minutes in patients with adhesions and from 31 to 139 minutes in those without adhesions, also indicating no significant difference. Outpatient drainage therapy with the Thoracic Vent was useful for spontaneous pneumothorax patients who underwent surgery, and drainage for less than 3 weeks did not affect intraoperative or postoperative outcomes.

  17. Contribution of computed tomography on chest drainage guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douvlou, E.; Tzortzis, D.; Vlachou, I.; Petrocheilou, G.; Safarika, V.; Fragopoulou, L.; Stathopoulou, S.; Kokkinis, C.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: Thoracic collections (encysted pleural, endopulmonary, mediastinal) are common findings in major trauma hospitals mainly in need of further treatment as drainage. Objectives and tasks: To evaluate the CT-guidance, as a method of choice for thoracic drainages. Material and methods: 35 CT-guided chest drainages were performed for diagnostic and therapeutic purpose in 33 patients, with a mean age of 62 years. Of the 35 drainages, 31 were encysted at the pleura, 3 of them were endopulmonary and 1 was in the mediastinum. During the procedure we used needles of 15cm long and 18-22 G diameter for small collections while for 'large' collections drainage catheters of 10-16 F were placed. Results: All the CT-guided drainages of the chest were successful. Of them, 7 were pleural effusion collections while 24 were exudate collections (18 inflammatory and 6 neoplastic) and all were developed in the lungs or the mediastinum. In all the cases that a catheter was placed, full removal of the collections was achieved leading to a remarkable improvement of the patient's condition. Non-significant pneumothorax and tiny endopulmonary bleeding were the complications that occurred. Conclusion: CT-guided drainage of thoracic collections is an accurate and secure procedure and achieves high diagnostic and therapeutic results

  18. Copper isotope fractionation in acid mine drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, B.E.; Mathur, R.; Dohnalkova, A.C.; Wall, A.J.; Runkel, R.L.; Brantley, S.L.

    2009-01-01

    We measured the Cu isotopic composition of primary minerals and stream water affected by acid mine drainage in a mineralized watershed (Colorado, USA). The ??65Cu values (based on 65Cu/63Cu) of enargite (??65Cu = -0.01 ?? 0.10???; 2??) and chalcopyrite (??65Cu = 0.16 ?? 0.10???) are within the range of reported values for terrestrial primary Cu sulfides (-1??? waters (1.38??? ??? ??65Cu ??? 1.69???). The average isotopic fractionation (??aq-min = ??65Cuaq - ??65Cumin, where the latter is measured on mineral samples from the field system), equals 1.43 ?? 0.14??? and 1.60 ?? 0.14??? for chalcopyrite and enargite, respectively. To interpret this field survey, we leached chalcopyrite and enargite in batch experiments and found that, as in the field, the leachate is enriched in 65Cu relative to chalcopyrite (1.37 ?? 0.14???) and enargite (0.98 ?? 0.14???) when microorganisms are absent. Leaching of minerals in the presence of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans results in smaller average fractionation in the opposite direction for chalcopyrite (??aq-mino = - 0.57 ?? 0.14 ???, where mino refers to the starting mineral) and no apparent fractionation for enargite (??aq-mino = 0.14 ?? 0.14 ???). Abiotic fractionation is attributed to preferential oxidation of 65Cu+ at the interface of the isotopically homogeneous mineral and the surface oxidized layer, followed by solubilization. When microorganisms are present, the abiotic fractionation is most likely not seen due to preferential association of 65Cuaq with A. ferrooxidans cells and related precipitates. In the biotic experiments, Cu was observed under TEM to occur in precipitates around bacteria and in intracellular polyphosphate granules. Thus, the values of ??65Cu in the field and laboratory systems are presumably determined by the balance of Cu released abiotically and Cu that interacts with cells and related precipitates. Such isotopic signatures resulting from Cu sulfide dissolution should be useful for acid mine drainage

  19. The Positive Environmental Contribution of Jarosite by Retaining Lead in Acid Mine Drainage Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Pereira da Silva

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Jarosite, KFe3(SO42(OH6, is a secondary iron sulphate often found in acid mine drainage (AMD environments, particularly in mining wastes from polymetallic sulphide ore deposits. Despite the negative environmental connotation usually ascribed to secondary sulphate minerals due to the release of hazardous elements to aquifers and soils, jarosite acts as an efficient remover and immobilizer of such metals, particularly lead. The mineral chemistry of jarosite is reviewed and the results of a Fe K-edge XANES (X-Ray Absorption Near-Edge Structure study of K-, Na- and Pb-jarosite are described and discussed within the context of the abandoned old mines of São Domingos and Aljustrel located in southern Portugal, in the Iberian Pyrite Belt (IPB.

  20. Early German plans for southern observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfschmidt, G.

    2002-07-01

    As early as the 18th and 19th centuries, French and English observers were active in South Africa. Around the beginning of the 20th century, Heidelberg and Potsdam astronomers proposed a southern observatory. Then Göttingen astronomers suggested building an observatory in Windhoek for photographing the sky and measuring the solar constant. In 1910 Karl Schwarzschild (1873-1916), after a visit to observatories in the United States, pointed out the usefulness of an observatory in South West Africa, in a climate superior to that in Germany, giving German astronomers access to the southern sky. Seeing tests were begun in 1910 by Potsdam astronomers, but WW I stopped the plans. In 1928 Erwin Finlay-Freundlich (1885-1964), inspired by the Hamburg astronomer Walter Baade (1893-1960), worked out a detailed plan for a southern observatory with a reflecting telescope, spectrographs and an astrograph with an objective prism. Paul Guthnick (1879-1947), director of the Berlin observatory, in cooperation with APO Potsdam and Hamburg, made a site survey to Africa in 1929 and found the conditions in Windhoek to be ideal. Observations were started in the 1930s by Berlin and Breslau astronomers, but were stopped by WW II. In the 1950s, astronomers from Hamburg and The Netherlands renewed the discussion in the framework of European cooperation, and this led to the founding of ESO in 1963.

  1. Sensitivity of the French Alps snow cover to the variation of climatic variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Martin

    Full Text Available In order to study the sensitivity of snow cover to changes in meteorological variables at a regional scale, a numerical snow model and an analysis system of the meteorological conditions adapted to relief were used. This approach has been successfully tested by comparing simulated and measured snow depth at 37 sites in the French Alps during a ten year data period. Then, the sensitivity of the snow cover to a variation in climatic conditions was tested by two different methods, which led to very similar results. To assess the impact of a particular "doubled CO2" scenario, coherent perturbations were introduced in the input data of the snow model. It was found that although the impact would be very pronounced, it would also be extremely differentiated, dependent on the internal state of the snow cover. The most sensitive areas are the elevations below 2400 m, especially in the southern part of the French Alps.

  2. Landslide-driven drainage divide migration and quantifying progress toward topographic steady state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlquist, M. P.; West, A. J.; Li, G.

    2017-12-01

    Drainage divide migration is a critical process in landscape evolution. It reorganizes river basins, redistributing fluvial erosive energy to facilitate mass balance, and contributes to feedbacks between tectonics, erosion, and climate. However, it leaves little straightforward evidence in the geologic or geomorphic record, and has been subject to minimal field study, hampering understanding its role in landscape evolution. Landslides link river channels, hillslopes, and ridges in steep landscapes, and thus play a central role in divide migration. In this study, we examine landslides triggered by three events: the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake in central China, the 2015 Gorkha Earthquake in Nepal, and the 2009 Typhoon Morakot in southern Taiwan, seeking new insight into the controls on divide migration. Of the 100,000 landslides triggered, we mapped 367 which caused a divide to migrate, resulting in a total exchange of about 2 km2 between basins. We use this database of divide migrations to explore relationships between the geometry of rivers and the exchange of drainage area, comparing metrics which have been proposed as indicators of divide stability across mobile divides. We find that upstream-averaged local relief and upstream-averaged channel gradient predict the We propose a new metric to describe divide mobility and the overall influence of a reorganizing event on a landscape, using it to estimate the impact of events similar to the 2009 Typhoon Morakot on the progress of Taiwan's Central Range toward topographic steady state.

  3. Spatial and temporal uplift history of South America from calibrated drainage analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Tribaldos, V.; White, N. J.; Roberts, G. G.; Hoggard, M. J.

    2017-06-01

    A multidisciplinary approach is used to analyze the Cenozoic uplift history of South America. Residual depth anomalies of oceanic crust abutting this continent help to determine the pattern of present-day dynamic topography. Admittance analysis and crustal thickness measurements indicate that the elastic thickness of the Borborema and Altiplano regions is ≤10 km with evidence for sub-plate support at longer wavelengths. A drainage inventory of 1827 river profiles is assembled and used to investigate landscape development. Linear inverse modeling enables river profiles to be fitted as a function of the spatial and temporal history of regional uplift. Erosional parameters are calibrated using observations from the Borborema Plateau and tested against continent-wide stratigraphic and thermochronologic constraints. Our results predict that two phases of regional uplift of the Altiplano plateau occurred in Neogene times. Regional uplift of the southern Patagonian Andes also appears to have occurred in Early Miocene times. The consistency between observed and predicted histories for the Borborema, Altiplano, and Patagonian plateaux implies that drainage networks record coherent signals that are amenable to simple modeling strategies. Finally, the predicted pattern of incision across the Amazon catchment constrains solid sedimentary flux at the Foz do Amazonas. Observed and calculated flux estimates match, suggesting that erosion and deposition were triggered by regional Andean uplift during Miocene times.

  4. French steam generator design developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginier, R.; Campan, J.L.; Pontier, M.; Leridon, A.; Remond, A.; Castello, G.; Holcblat, A.; Paurobally, H.

    1986-01-01

    From the outset of the French nuclear power program, a significant R and D effort has been invested in improvement of the design and operation of Pressurized Water Reactors including a special committment to improving steam generators. The steam generator enhancement program has spawned a wide variety of specific R and D resources, e.g., low temperature hydraulic models for investigation of areas with single-phase flow, and freon-filled models for simulation of areas of steam generators experiencing two-phase flow (tube bundles and moisture separators). For the moisture separators, a large scale research program using freon-filled models and highly sophisticated instrumentation was used. Tests at reactor sites during startup of both 900 MWe and 1300 MWe have been used to validate the assumptions made on the basis of loop tests. These tests also demonstrated the validity of using freon to simulate two-phase flow conditions. The wealth of knowledge accumulated by the steam generator R and D program has been used to develop a new design of steam generators for the N4 plants. The current R and D effort is aimed at qualifying the N4 steam generator model and developing more comprehensive models. One prong of the R and D effort is the Megeve program. Megeve is a 25 MW steam generator which simulates operating conditions of the N4 model. The other prong is Clotaire, a freon-filled steam generator model which will be used to qualify thermal/hydraulic design codes used for multidimensional calculations for design of tube bundles

  5. Research and application for wastewater treatment technology in a southern uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Jianhua; Zhao Jinfang; Huang Yunbai; Deng Jianguo

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the source and property of a southern uranium mine's drainage and the treatment technology is tested, and proposed by employing the process of '408 (Ⅱ) resin adsorption-NaCl + NaHCO 3 elution '. The results show that the treated drainage can meet the emission requirement of Regulations for radiation and environment protection in uranium mining and milling (GB23727-2009), with the uranium content being less than 0.3 mg/L -l . The econo-technical norms such as material consumption are improved as the new technology has been applied in practical production. (authors)

  6. French participation in the world energy council

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carouge, Ch.; Roussely, F.; Francony, M.; Ailleret, F.; Bosseboeuf, D.; Moisan, F.; Villaron, Th.

    1999-01-01

    The Revue de l'Energie is presenting the most influential French interventions at the 17. Congress of the World Energy Council held in September 1998 in Houston, (USA). These represent only part of French participation in the congress since a total of 16 individuals from France took part in the various sessions. Their presentations cover very varied topics and are one of the things that testify to the interest that our energy industries have in the works and operations of the WEC. Some other figures also bear witness to this interest: 184 French congress members, which is one of the largest delegations after that of the United States, the host country of the congress; 11 technical presentation, covering a wide range of subjects: from the nuclear reactor of the future to the use of bagasse (cane trash) for the production of electricity, from the underground storage of natural gas to the production of extra-heavy crude petroleum. The technical exhibition associated to the Congress was a great success and there again the French presence was able to make its mark: five exhibitors were gathered in the France of 600 m 2 , the most sizeable non-American national area.But French participation in the work of the WEC is not limited to congresses. The French Energy Council [Conseil francais de l'Energie] is careful to ensure its presence both in the formal proceedings of the WEC and within the studies undertaken under its three-year programme. This active French presence is also essential in order to defend the official English-French bilingualism of the World Energy Council. In spite of the good will of the organizers and the support of the general secretary's office in London, the Houston Congress showed how difficult it was to maintain the use of the French language on English-speaking territory. This is a difficult task, one that has to be undertaken anew each time, but one that France and other French-speaking nations have decided to pursue to the end. (authors)

  7. Superficial drainage studies in open-pit mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixeira Junior, P.B.; Leite, C.B.B.

    1984-01-01

    Drainage studies concerning large open-pit mining projects can be of vital importance throughout the mining activity itself as they may assist in avoiding activity interruptions due to drainage problems, therefore representing substantial savings. These studies should, in fact, be carried out from the initial activity stages and shall be considered in operational, project and planning decisions in order to optimize results and reduce costs. This specific study presents a drainage study systematization proposal, enphasazing economic decision criteria. The authors comment on studies of this nature developed at the Caldas uranium mine - NUCLEBRAS. (D.J.M.) [pt

  8. Vacuum-assisted drainage in cardiopulmonary bypass: advantages and disadvantages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho Filho, Elio Barreto de; Marson, Fernando Augusto de Lima; Costa, Loredana Nilkenes Gomes da; Antunes, Nilson

    2014-01-01

    Systematic review of vacuum assisted drainage in cardiopulmonary bypass, demonstrating its advantages and disadvantages, by case reports and evidence about its effects on microcirculation. We conducted a systematic search on the period 1997-2012, in the databases PubMed, Medline, Lilacs and SciELO. Of the 70 selected articles, 26 were included in the review. Although the vacuum assisted drainage has significant potential for complications and requires appropriate technology and professionalism, prevailed in literature reviewed the concept that vacuum assisted drainage contributed in reducing the rate of transfusions, hemodilutions, better operative field, no significant increase in hemolysis, reduced complications surgical, use of lower prime and of smaller diameter cannulas.

  9. Peritoneal seeding of cholangiocarcinoma in patients with percutaneous biliary drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, G.A. Jr.; Heaston, D.K.; Moore, A.V. Jr.; Mills, S.R.; Dunnick, N.R.

    1983-01-01

    Percutaneous transhepatic catheter decompression is performed increasingly as an adjunct or alternative to surgery in patients with benign or malignant biliary obstruction. The authors recently saw three patients with cholangiocarcinoma in whom metastatic seeding of the peritoneal serosa was identified some months after initial percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage. Although no tumor was found along the hepatic tract of the biliary drainage catheters to implicate the drainage tubes as the direct source of peritoneal spread, the occurrence of this rare type of metastasis of cholangiocarcinoma in patients with potential access of tumor cells to the peritoneal cavity via the catheter tracts does suggest such a relation. The clinical history of one patient is presented

  10. Functional Topology of Evolving Urban Drainage Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Soohyun; Paik, Kyungrock; McGrath, Gavan S.; Urich, Christian; Krueger, Elisabeth; Kumar, Praveen; Rao, P. Suresh C.

    2017-11-01

    We investigated the scaling and topology of engineered urban drainage networks (UDNs) in two cities, and further examined UDN evolution over decades. UDN scaling was analyzed using two power law scaling characteristics widely employed for river networks: (1) Hack's law of length (L)-area (A) [L∝Ah] and (2) exceedance probability distribution of upstream contributing area (δ) [P>(A≥δ>)˜aδ-ɛ]. For the smallest UDNs ((A≥δ>) plots for river networks are abruptly truncated, those for UDNs display exponential tempering [P>(A≥δ>)=aδ-ɛexp⁡>(-cδ>)]. The tempering parameter c decreases as the UDNs grow, implying that the distribution evolves in time to resemble those for river networks. However, the power law exponent ɛ for large UDNs tends to be greater than the range reported for river networks. Differences in generative processes and engineering design constraints contribute to observed differences in the evolution of UDNs and river networks, including subnet heterogeneity and nonrandom branching.

  11. Prognostic factors after percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castoldi, M.C.; Cozzi, G.; Severini, A.; Pisani, P.; Ideo, G.; Bellomi, M.

    1991-01-01

    The authors reviewed the clinical charts and the radiographic files of 93 patients with obsructive jaundice -in 86 cases due to neoplasms -treated with PTBD. The test of differences from survival curves was used to identify the clinical parameters predictive of short survival after PTBD. The difference in survival curves was significant relative to serum indirect bilirubin (cut point: 7.6 mg%), to serum cholinesterase (cut point: 1290 mU/ml), to white blood cells counts (cut point: 8600/mm 3 ), to blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels (cut point: 60 mg%). Because of the market negative prognostic value of high BUN levels, our data seemto indicate that PTBD should not be performed when severe renal insufficiency is present. Other parameters correlated with a short survival after PTBD were the histotype of metastasis (in comparison with the other ones) and in large neoplastic volume (in comparison with a small and medium ones). Through pre-PTBD radiological and laboratory data analysis, a group of patients can be selected in whom the procedure will increase neither well-being nor survival, as plotted against those patients who are likely to benefit from biliary drainage

  12. DROUGHT ANALYSIS IN OZANA DRAINAGE BASIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina IOSUB

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ozana drainage basin is located at the contact between large landscape units (the Carpathian mountains, the Subcarpathian area, and the plateau region. This placement determines the existence of a complex climate in the region. Despite being small in size, and its extension on an W-E direction, differences can be observed, especially of the way extreme phenomena take place. In the case of droughts, it had different intensities in the mountains, compared to the plateau region. In order to emphasize the different distribution on the territory, several climatic indexes have been calculated, regarding dryness (De Martonne Index, Hellman criterion. The analysis of these indexes at the same monitoring stations (Pluton, Leghin and Dumbrava emphasizes the growth of the drought periods in the plateau region and the fact that they shorten in the mountain area. In the mountainous area, where the land is very well forested, the values of the De Martonne index can reach 45.4, and in the plateau regions, where the forest associations are sparse, the values dropped to 30.6. According to the Hellman criterion, several differences can be emphasized, at basin level. In the mountainous region, there is only one month that, at a multi-annual level, has stood up among the rest, as being excessively droughty, while in the median /central region of the basin, three months have been identified, that have such potential, as well as five months, at Dumbrava.

  13. Origin of acid mine drainage in Enugu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uma, K.O.

    1992-01-01

    Mine flooding is a serious problem in the Enugu Coal Mines and has led to the abandonment of two of the four mines. About 1800 m 3 of water is pumped out daily from the mines into the nearby streams. The source of this enormous volume of water has been established based on the hydrodynamics and hydrology of the area. Two prolific aquifers - an unconfined and a confined system - overlie the mines, but the mine water is derived principally from the unconfined aquifer. The pathway of flow is, provided by the numerous fractures connecting the two aquifers and the mine tunnel. The major hydrochemical activity resulting in pollution of the mine water occurs within the sumps in the floor of the longwalls. These sumps act as oxidation chambers where groundwater from the fractures mixes and subsequently reacts with sulfur-rich solutes released by coal mining. Contrary to general belief, the mine drainage has not seriously degraded the chemistry of receiving streams. The pH and electric conductivity, representing, the dissolved ions, were increased less than 10% of the values in the unaffected region

  14. Integrated urban drainage, status and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harremoës, P

    2002-01-01

    This paper summarises the status of urban storm drainage as an integrated professional discipline, including the management-policy interface, by which the goals of society are implemented. The paper assesses the development of the discipline since the INTERURBA conference in 1992 and includes aspects of the papers presented at the INTERURBA-II conference in 2001 and the discussions during the conference. Tools for integrated analysis have been developed, but there is less implementation than could be expected. That is due to lack of adequate knowledge about important mechanisms, coupled with a significant conservatism in the business. However, significant integrated analyses have been reported. Most of them deal with the sewer system and the treatment plant, while few incorporate the receiving water as anything but the object of the loads to be minimised by engineering measures up-stream. Important measures are local infiltration, source control, storage basins, local treatment and real time control. New paradigms have been introduced: risk of pollution due to system failure, technology for water reuse, sustainability, new architecture and greener up-stream solutions as opposed to down-stream concrete solutions. The challenge is to combine the inherited approaches with the new approaches by flexibility and adaptability.

  15. Lignor process for acidic rock drainage treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, J M; Walsh, T

    2004-09-01

    The process using lignosulfonates for acidic rock drainage (ARD) treatment is referred to as the Lignor process. Lignosulfonates are waste by-products produced in the sulfite pulping process. The present study has shown lignosulfonates are able to protect lime from developing an external surface coating, and hence to favor its dissociation. Further, the addition of lignosulfonates to ARD solutions increased the dotting and settling rate of the formed sludge. The capability of lignosulfonates to form stable metal-lignin complexes makes them very useful in retaining metal ions and thus improving the long-term stability of the sludge against leaching. The Lignor process involves metal sorption with lignosulfonates, ARD neutralization by lime to about pH 7, pH adjustment with caustic soda to 9.4 - 9.6, air oxidation to lower the pH to a desired level, and addition of a minimum amount of FeCl3 for further removal of dissolved metals. The Lignor process removes all concerned metals (especially Al and Mn) from the ARD of the Britannia Mine (located at Britannia Beach, British Columbia, Canada) to a level lower than the limits of the B.C. Regulations. Compared with the high-density sludge (HDS) process, the Lignor process has many advantages, such as considerable savings in lime consumption, greatly reduced sludge volume, and improved sludge stability.

  16. 216-Z-8 French drain characterization study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marratt, M.C.; Kasper, R.B.; Van Luik, A.E.

    1984-09-01

    The 216-Z-8 French drain study is one of a series of studies examining historical transuranic waste facilities no longer in use at the Hanford Site. The 216-Z-8 French drain underground disposal system consisted of a large settling tank that overflowed into a French drain. The French drain consisted of two large-diameter, gravel filled, vitrified clay pipes placed on end, end-to-end, over a gravel-filled excavation. The top of the drain was sealed with concrete to prevent the upward flow of waste solution. The waste solution discharged to the 216-Z-8 waste disposal system was a neutralized, transuranic recovery process, filter cake, backflush slurry. The primary objective of this study was to determine the distribution of plutonium and americium beneath the French drain. Transuranic activity under the French drain did not exceed 5 nCi/g in the soil samples obtained from a well within 1 m of the drain structure. Conservative estimates indicated that 4 to 5 m 3 of radioactive contaminated sediments, 10 nCi/g may lie directly under the 216-Z-8 French drain. The secondary objective of the study was to evaluate the possibility of a leak in the settling tank. Results from the analysis of soil samples from wells drilled around the settling tank indicated the presence of low-level transuranic contamination (on the order of 0.001 nci/g) in the soil surrounding the tank. However, the distribution of the contamination does not support a leak as a plausible mechanism to account for the observed activity surrounding the tank. The bulk of the plutonium was confirmed to be in the sludge that remained in the tank; thus, no significant environmental impact would be expected even if there has been a leak

  17. Hierarchies of Authenticity in Study Abroad: French from Canada versus French from France?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernicke, Meike

    2016-01-01

    For many decades, Francophone regions in Canada have provided language study exchanges for French as a second language (FSL) learners within their own country. At the same time, FSL students and teachers in Canada continue to orient to a native speaker standard associated with European French. This Eurocentric orientation manifested itself in a…

  18. Optimum use of CDOT French and Hamburg data (French and Hamburg tests).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    The Colorado Department of Transportation (CDOT) has been collecting data from the Hamburg Rutter and the : French Rutter for over 20 years. No specifications have been written in that time for either the Hamburg Rutter : or the French Rutter. This r...

  19. Bibliography for acid-rock drainage and selected acid-mine drainage issues related to acid-rock drainage from transportation activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Michael W.; Worland, Scott C.

    2015-01-01

    Acid-rock drainage occurs through the interaction of rainfall on pyrite-bearing formations. When pyrite (FeS2) is exposed to oxygen and water in mine workings or roadcuts, the mineral decomposes and sulfur may react to form sulfuric acid, which often results in environmental problems and potential damage to the transportation infrastructure. The accelerated oxidation of pyrite and other sulfidic minerals generates low pH water with potentially high concentrations of trace metals. Much attention has been given to contamination arising from acid mine drainage, but studies related to acid-rock drainage from road construction are relatively limited. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Tennessee Department of Transportation, is conducting an investigation to evaluate the occurrence and processes controlling acid-rock drainage and contaminant transport from roadcuts in Tennessee. The basic components of acid-rock drainage resulting from transportation activities are described and a bibliography, organized by relevant categories (remediation, geochemical, microbial, biological impact, and secondary mineralization) is presented.

  20. Morphological expression of active tectonics in the Southern Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robl, Jörg; Heberer, Bianca; Neubauer, Franz; Hergarten, Stefan

    2015-04-01

    Evolving drainage pattern and corresponding metrics of the channels (e.g. normalized steepness index) are sensitive indicators for tectonic or climatic events punctuating the evolution of mountain belts and their associated foreland basins. The analysis of drainage systems and their characteristic properties represents a well-established approach to constrain the impact of tectonic and climatic drivers on mountainous landscapes in the recent past. The Southern Alps (SA) are one of the seismically most active zones in the periphery of northern Adria. Recent deformation is caused by the ongoing convergence of the Adriatic and European plate and is recorded by numerous earthquakes in the domain of the SA. Deformation in the SA is characterized by back-thrusting causing crustal thickening and should therefore result in uplift and topography formation. The vertical velocity field determined by GPS-data clearly indicates a belt of significant uplift in the south South alpine indenter between Lake Garda in the west and the Triglav in the east and strong subsidence of the foreland basin surrounding the Mediterranean Sea near Venice, although subsidence is often related to ongoing subduction of the Adriatic microplate underneath Appennines. Despite of these short term time series, timing, rates and drivers of alpine landscape evolution are not well constrained and the linkage between crustal deformation and topographic evolution of this highly active alpine segment remains unclear for the following reasons: (1) The eastern Southern Alps were heavily overprinted by the Pleistocene glaciations and tectonic signals in the alpine landscape are blurred. Only the transition zone to the southern foreland basin remained unaffected and allows an analysis of a glacially undisturbed topography. (2) The major part of this domain is covered by lithology (carbonatic rocks) which is unsuitable for low temperature geochronology and cosmogenic isotope dating so that exhumation and erosion

  1. Pre-operative biliary drainage for obstructive jaundice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yuan; Gurusamy, Kurinchi Selvan; Wang, Qin; Davidson, Brian R; Lin, He; Xie, Xiaodong; Wang, Chaohua

    2014-01-01

    Background Patients with obstructive jaundice have various pathophysiological changes that affect the liver, kidney, heart, and the immune system. There is considerable controversy as to whether temporary relief of biliary obstruction prior to major definitive surgery (pre-operative biliary drainage) is of any benefit to the patient. Objectives To assess the benefits and harms of pre-operative biliary drainage versus no pre-operative biliary drainage (direct surgery) in patients with obstructive jaundice (irrespective of a benign or malignant cause). Search methods We searched the Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Clinical Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Science Citation Index Expanded until February 2012. Selection criteria We included all randomised clinical trials comparing biliary drainage followed by surgery versus direct surgery, performed for obstructive jaundice, irrespective of the sample size, language, and publication status. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and extracted data. We calculated the risk ratio (RR), rate ratio (RaR), or mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) based on the available patient analyses. We assessed the risk of bias (systematic overestimation of benefit or systematic underestimation of harm) with components of the Cochrane risk of bias tool. We assessed the risk of play of chance (random errors) with trial sequential analysis. Main results We included six trials with 520 patients comparing pre-operative biliary drainage (265 patients) versus no pre-operative biliary drainage (255 patients). Four trials used percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage and two trials used endoscopic sphincterotomy and stenting as the method of pre-operative biliary drainage. The risk of bias was high in all trials. The proportion of patients with malignant obstruction varied between 60

  2. 7 CFR 1924.108 - Grading and drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR Planning and Performing Site Development Work § 1924.108 Grading and... from buildings and foundations, minimize earth settlement and erosion, and assure that drainage from...

  3. Results of tritium measurement in environmental samples and drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koike, Ryoji; Hirai, Yasuo

    1983-01-01

    In Ibaraki prefecture, the tritium concentration in the drainage from the nuclear facilities has been measured since 1974. Then, with the start of operation of the fuel reprocessing plant in 1977, the tritium concentration in environmental samples was to be measured also in order to examine the effect of the drainage on the environment. The results of the tritium measurement in Ibaraki prefecture up to about 1980 are described: sampling points, sampling and measuring methods, the tritium concentration in the drainage, air, inland water and seawater, respectively. The drainages have been taken from Japan Atomic Power Company, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, and Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (with the fuel reprocessing plant). The samples of air, inland water and seawater have been taken in the areas concerned. The tritium concentration was measured by a low-background liquid scintillation counter. The measured values in the environment have been generally at low level, not different from other areas. (Mori, K.)

  4. Ultrasound guided transrectal catheter drainage of pelvic collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakral, Anuj; Sundareyan, Ramaniwas; Kumar, Sheo; Arora, Divya

    2015-01-01

    The transrectal approach to draining deep-seated pelvic collections may be used to drain The transrectal approach to draining deep-seated pelvic collections may be used to drain intra-abdominal collections not reached by the transabdominal approach. We discuss 6 patients with such pelvic collections treated with transrectal drainage using catheter placement via Seldinger technique. Transrectal drainage helped achieve clinical and radiological resolution of pelvic collections in 6 and 5 of 6 cases, respectively. It simultaneously helped avoid injury to intervening bowel loops and neurovascular structures using real-time visualization of armamentarium used for drainage. Radiation exposure from fluoroscopic/CT guidance was avoided. Morbidity and costs incurred in surgical exploration were reduced using this much less invasive ultrasound guided transrectal catheter drainage of deep-seated pelvic collections.

  5. Drainage facility management system : final report, June 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    This research project identified requirements for a drainage facility management system for the Oregon Department of Transportation. It also estimated the personnel resources needed to collect the inventory to populate such a system with data. A tota...

  6. Drainage areas of the Potomac River basin, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Jeffrey B.; Hunt, Michelle L.; Stewart, Donald K.

    1996-01-01

    This report contains data for 776 drainage-area divisions of the Potomac River Basin, from the headwaters to the confluence of the Potomac River and the Shenandoah River. Data, compiled in downstream order, are listed for streams with a drainage area of approximately 2 square miles or larger within West Virginia and for U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations. The data presented are the stream name, the geographical limits in river miles, the latitude and longitude of the point, the name of the county, and the 7 1/2-minute quadrangle in which the point lies, and the drainage area of that site. The total drainage area of the Potomac River Basin downstream of the confluence of the Shenandoah River at the State boundary is 9,367.29 square miles.

  7. Accelerating transient drainage from UMTRA Project tailings piles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-09-01

    The period between the completion of construction of the tailings disposal cell and the establishment of equilibrium moisture content and seepage conditions is considered to be the period of transient drainage. Transient drainage may be due to factors such as construction water, precipitation, or residual water from the milling process. Transient seepage rates usually exceed steady state seepage rates. If the transient seepage rate causes contaminant levels to exceed groundwater compliance standards, then an alternative groundwater compliance strategy or technical approach to reduce or mitigate the effects of the drainage must be adopted. This study examines methods to accelerate the transient drainage of soils and hence to remove excess pore water from tailings in UMTRA Project disposal cells. The technical and economic feasibility of possible methods is examined. In order to perform comparative economical analyses of the various methods, an example tailings pile is postulated. This pile is considered to be 300 meters by 300 meters by 10 meters in thickness

  8. Heavy metal enrichment in mine drainage:III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wittmann, G.T.W.; Forstner, U.

    1977-01-01

    Mine drainage from gold and uranium recovery is characterized by low pH and high metal values. Attention is drawn to the potential environmental hazards caused by vast losses of uranium-bearing minerals [af

  9. The effect of climate change on urban drainage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grum, M.; Jørgensen, A.T.; Johansen, R.M.

    2006-01-01

    and consequences of climate change on urban drainage and urban runoff pollution issues. This study uses predictions from a regional climate model to look at the effects of climate change on extreme precipitation events. Results are presented in terms of point rainfall extremes. The analysis involves three steps......That we are in a period of extraordinary rates of climate change is today evident. These climate changes are likely to impact local weather conditions with direct impacts on precipitation patterns and urban drainage. In recent years several studies have focused on revealing the nature, extent...... to urban drainage. However, in spite of these uncertainties, and others raised in the discussion, the tendency is clear: extreme precipitation events effecting urban drainage and causing flooding will become more frequent as a result of climate change....

  10. Vegetation damage and recovery after Chiginagak Volcano Crater drainage event

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — From August 20 — 23, 2006, I revisited Chiginigak volcano to document vegetation recovery after the crater drainage event that severely damaged vegetation in May of...

  11. Ross Ice Drainage System (RIDS) Glaciochemical Analysis, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Ross Ice Drainage System (RIDS) project provides a high-resolution record of atmospheric chemical deposition taken from several ice cores and snow pits located...

  12. Drainage identification analysis and mapping, phase 2 : technical brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    This research studied, tested and rectified the compatibility issue related to the recent upgrades of : NJDOT vendor inspection software, and uploaded all collected data to make Drainage Identification : Analysis and Mapping System (DIAMS) current an...

  13. A skin abscess model for teaching incision and drainage procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, Michael T; Manthey, David E; McGinnis, Henderson D; Nicks, Bret A; Pariyadath, Manoj

    2008-07-03

    Skin and soft tissue infections are increasingly prevalent clinical problems, and it is important for health care practitioners to be well trained in how to treat skin abscesses. A realistic model of abscess incision and drainage will allow trainees to learn and practice this basic physician procedure. We developed a realistic model of skin abscess formation to demonstrate the technique of incision and drainage for educational purposes. The creation of this model is described in detail in this report. This model has been successfully used to develop and disseminate a multimedia video production for teaching this medical procedure. Clinical faculty and resident physicians find this model to be a realistic method for demonstrating abscess incision and drainage. This manuscript provides a detailed description of our model of abscess incision and drainage for medical education. Clinical educators can incorporate this model into skills labs or demonstrations for teaching this basic procedure.

  14. Monitoring and remediation technologies of organochlorine pesticides in drainage water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Ahmed

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to monitor the presence of organochlorine in drainage water in Kafr-El-Sheikh Governorate, Egypt. Furthermore, to evaluate the efficiencies of different remediation techniques (advanced oxidation processes [AOPs] and bioremediation for removing the most frequently detected compound (lindane in drainage water. The results showed the presence of several organochlorine pesticides in all sampling sites. Lindane was detected with high frequency relative to other detected organochlorine in drainage water. Nano photo-Fenton like reagent was the most effective treatment for lindane removal in drainage water. Bioremediation of lindane by effective microorganisms (EMs removed 100% of the lindane initial concentration. There is no remaining toxicity in lindane contaminated-water after remediation on treated rats relative to control with respect to histopathological changes in liver and kidney. Advanced oxidation processes especially with nanomaterials and bioremediation using effective microorganisms can be regarded as safe and effective remediation technologies of lindane in water.

  15. selecting suitable drainage pattern to minimize flooding in sangere

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mr Takana

    heights obtained from the ground survey using Total Station. ILWIS 3.3 ... drainage pattern to minimize the effect of flood hazard using the ... as linkages between upland and downstream areas;. Bhaskar .... A case study of urban city. Pp151.

  16. A Theoretical Study of Subsurface Drainage Model Simulation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Simulation of Drainage Flow and Leaching in Salt Affected ... mg/l with an impermeable layer at 10 m depth and impermeable field boundaries. .... The hydraulic where D is the free molecular diffusion ...... Dynamics of fluid in porous media.

  17. Properties of the subglacial till inferred from supraglacial lake drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufeld, J. A.; Hewitt, D.

    2017-12-01

    The buildup and drainage of supraglacial lakes along the margins of the Greenland ice sheet has been previously observed using detailed GPS campaigns which show that rapid drainage events are often preceded by localised, transient uplift followed by rapid, and much broader scale, uplift and flexure associated with the main drainage event [1,2]. Previous models of these events have focused on fracturing during rapid lake drainage from an impermeable bedrock [3] or a thin subglacial film [4]. We present a new model of supraglacial drainage that couples the water flux from rapid lake drainage events to a simplified model of the pore-pressure in a porous, subglacial till along with a simplified model of the flexure of glacial ice. Using a hybrid mathematical model we explore the internal transitions between turbulent and laminar flow throughout the evolving subglacial cavity and porous till. The model predicts that an initially small water flux may locally increase pore-pressure in the till leading to uplift and a local divergence in the ice velocity that may ultimately be responsible for large hydro-fracturing and full-scale drainage events. Furthermore, we find that during rapid drainage while the presence of a porous, subglacial till is crucial for propagation, the manner of spreading is remarkably insensitive to the properties of the subglacial till. This is in stark contrast to the post-drainage relaxation of the pore pressure, and hence sliding velocity, which is highly sensitive to the permeability, compressibility and thickness of subglacial till. We use our model, and the inferred sensitivity to the properties of the subglacial till after the main drainage event, to infer the properties of the subglacial till. The results suggest that a detailed interpretation of supraglacial lake drainage may provide important insights into the hydrology of the subglacial till along the margins of the Greenland ice sheet, and the coupling of pore pressure in subglacial till

  18. Infected Baerveldt Glaucoma Drainage Device by Aspergillus niger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul-Laila Salim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal endophthalmitis is rare but may complicate glaucoma drainage device surgery. Management is challenging as the symptoms and signs may be subtle at initial presentation and the visual prognosis is usually poor due to its resistant nature to treatment. At present there is lesser experience with intravitreal injection of voriconazole as compared to Amphotericin B. We present a case of successfully treated Aspergillus endophthalmitis following Baerveldt glaucoma drainage device implantation with intravitreal and topical voriconazole.

  19. Techniques to correct and prevent acid mine drainage: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Pozo-Antonio, Santiago; Puente-Luna, Iván; Lagüela-López, Susana; Veiga-Ríos, María

    2014-01-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) from mining wastes is one of the current environmental problems in the field of mining pollution that requires most action measures. This term describes the drainage generated by natural oxidation of sulfide minerals when they are exposed to the combined action of water and atmospheric oxygen. AMD is characterized by acidic effluents with a high content of sulfate and heavy metal ions in solution, which can contaminate both groundwater and surface water. Minerals resp...

  20. Numerical Three-Dimensional Model of Airport Terminal Drainage System

    OpenAIRE

    Strzelecki Michał

    2014-01-01

    During the construction of an airport terminal it was found that as a result of the hydrostatic pressure of underground water the foundation plate of the building had dangerously shifted in the direction opposite to that of the gravitational forces. The only effective measure was to introduce a drainage system on the site. The complex geology of the area indicated that two independent drainage systems, i.e., a horizontal system in the Quaternary beds and a vertical system in the Tertiary wate...

  1. Effects of peatland drainage management on peak flows

    OpenAIRE

    C. E. Ballard; N. McIntyre; H. S. Wheater

    2011-01-01

    Open ditch drainage has historically been a common land management practice in upland blanket peats, particularly in the UK. However, peatland drainage is now generally considered to have adverse effects on the upland environment, including increased peak flows. As a result, drain blocking has become a common management strategy in the UK over recent years, although there is only anecdotal evidence to suggest that this might decrease peak flows. The change in the hydrologica...

  2. Total anomalous systemic venous drainage in left heterotaxy syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandenahally, Ravindranath S; Deora, Surender; Math, Ravi S

    2013-04-01

    Total anomalous systemic venous drainage is an extremely rare congenital heart defect. In this study we describe an 11-year-old girl who presented with a history of fatigue and central cyanosis that she had had since early childhood with unremarkable precordial examination results. Investigations revealed left heterotaxy with all systemic venous drainage to the left-sided atrium with non-compaction of the left ventricle.

  3. Monitoring and remediation technologies of organochlorine pesticides in drainage water

    OpenAIRE

    Ismail Ahmed; Derbalah Aly; Shaheen Sabry

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to monitor the presence of organochlorine in drainage water in Kafr-El-Sheikh Governorate, Egypt. Furthermore, to evaluate the efficiencies of different remediation techniques (advanced oxidation processes [AOPs] and bioremediation) for removing the most frequently detected compound (lindane) in drainage water. The results showed the presence of several organochlorine pesticides in all sampling sites. Lindane was detected with high frequency relative to other detect...

  4. Thematic survey of subsurface drainage systems in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tlapáková, L.; Žaloudík, Jiří; Kolejka, Jaromír

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 2 (2017), s. 55-65 ISSN 1744-5647 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 ; RVO:68145535 Keywords : subsurface drainage system * remote sensing * image interpretation * drainage recognition and mapping Subject RIV: DJ - Water Pollution ; Quality; DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography (UGN-S) OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7); Physical geography (UGN-S) Impact factor: 2.174, year: 2016

  5. Abdominal drainage following cholecystectomy: high, low, or no suction?

    OpenAIRE

    McCormack, T. T.; Abel, P. D.; Collins, C. D.

    1983-01-01

    A prospective trial to assess the effect of suction in an abdominal drain following cholecystectomy was carried out. Three types of closed drainage system were compared: a simple tube drain, a low negative pressure drain, and a high negative pressure drain: 120 consecutive patients undergoing cholecystectomy were randomly allocated to one of the three drainage groups. There was no significant difference in postoperative pyrexia, wound infection, chest infection, or hospital stay. This study f...

  6. Southern Peru desert shattered by the great 2001 earthquake: Implications for paleoseismic and paleo-El Niño–Southern Oscillation records

    OpenAIRE

    Keefer, David K.; Moseley, Michael E.

    2004-01-01

    In the desert region around the coastal city of Ilo, the great southern Peru earthquake of June 23, 2001 (8.2–8.4 moment magnitude), produced intense and widespread ground-failure effects. These effects included abundant landslides, pervasive ground cracking, microfracturing of surficial hillslope materials, collapse of drainage banks over long stretches, widening of hillside rills, and lengthening of first-order tributary channels. We have coined the term “shattered landscape” to describe th...

  7. Fertilizing Southern Hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. M. Broadfoot; A. F. Ike

    1967-01-01

    If present trends continue, fertilizing may soon be economically feasible in southern hardwood stands. Demands for the wood are rising, and the acreage alloted for growing it is steadily shrinking. To supply anticipated requests for information, the U. S. Forest Service has established tree nutrition studies at the Southern Hardwoods Laboratory in Stoneville,...

  8. Southern Gothic Literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Thomas Ærvold

    2017-01-01

    Provides an outline of Southern Gothic Literature, offers an argument about its history and shape, and discusses the scholarly literature surrounding Southern Gothic. Oxford Research Encyclopedia is an online peer-reviewed encyclopedia for researchers, teachers, and students interested in all...... facets of the study of literature...

  9. Hollow mandrin facilitates external ventricular drainage placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heese, O; Regelsberger, J; Kehler, U; Westphal, M

    2005-07-01

    Placement of ventricular catheters is a routine procedure in neurosurgery. Ventricle puncture is done using a flexible ventricular catheter stabilised by a solid steel mandrin in order to improve stability during brain penetration. A correct catheter placement is confirmed after removing the solid steel mandrin by observation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow out of the flexible catheter. Incorrect placement makes further punctures necessary. The newly developed device allows CSF flow observation during the puncture procedure and in addition precise intracranial pressure (ICP) measurement. The developed mandrin is hollow with a blunt tip. On one side 4-5 small holes with a diameter of 0.8 mm are drilled corresponding exactly with the holes in the ventricular catheter, allowing CSF to pass into the hollow mandrin as soon as the ventricle is reached. By connecting a small translucent tube at the distal portion of the hollow mandrin ICP can be measured without loss of CSF. The system has been used in 15 patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) or intraventricular haemeorrhage (IVH) and subsequent hydrocephalus. The new system improved the external ventricular drainage implantation procedure. In all 15 patients catheter placement was correct. ICP measurement was easy to perform immediately at ventricle puncture. In 4 patients at puncture no spontaneous CSF flow was observed, therefore by connecting a syringe and gentle aspiration of CSF correct placement was confirmed in this unexpected low pressure hydrocephalus. Otherwise by using the conventional technique further punctures would have been necessary. Advantages of the new technique are less puncture procedures with a lower risk of damage to neural structures and reduced risk of intracranial haemorrhages. Implantation of the ventricular catheter to far into the brain can be monitored and this complication can be overcome. Using the connected pressure monitoring tube an exact measurement of the opening

  10. Do general dental practitioners leave teeth on 'open drainage'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliyas, S; Barber, M W; Harris, I

    2013-12-01

    There is a need to ascertain the use of evidence-based dentistry in both primary and secondary care in order to tailor education. This study aims to evaluate the use of 'open drainage' as part of endodontic treatment in primary care in South Yorkshire. A questionnaire was circulated to 141 randomly selected general dental practitioners in the South Yorkshire area between January 2012 and January 2013. The response rate was 79% (112/141). Five of the returned questionnaires were incomplete and therefore not usable. Seventy-nine percent of respondents were general dental practitioners (GDPs) working in mainly NHS or mixed practices. The year of graduation varied between 1970 and 2011. Forty-one percent (44/107) stated that they had never left a tooth on open drainage. Twenty-nine percent (31/107) stated that they sometimes leave teeth on open drainage. Of those respondents who currently leave teeth on open drainage, most (68%) would leave teeth on open drainage for one to two days or less. This survey revealed that the practice of leaving teeth on open drainage is still present in general dental practice. Current guidelines do not comment on the use of this treatment modality. There is a need to ascertain further information about practices throughout the United Kingdom in order to provide clear evidence-based guidelines.

  11. Remote Hemorrhage after Burr Hole Drainage of Chronic Subdural Hematoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chang Hyeun; Song, Geun Sung; Kim, Young Ha; Kim, Young Soo; Sung, Soon Ki; Son, Dong Wuk; Lee, Sang Weon

    2017-10-01

    Chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) and symptomatic subdural hygroma are common diseases that require neurosurgical management. Burr hole trephination is the most popular surgical treatment for CSDH and subdural hygroma because of a low recurrence rate and low morbidity compared with craniotomy with membranectomy, and twist-drill craniotomy. Many reports suggest that placing a catheter in the subdural space for drainage can further reduce the rate of recurrence; however, complications associated with this type of drainage include acute subdural hematoma, cortical injury, and infection. Remote hemorrhage due to overdrainage of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is another possible complication of burr hole trephination with catheter drainage that has rarely been reported. Here, we present 2 cases of remote hemorrhages following burr hole trephination with catheter drainage for the treatment of CSDH and symptomatic subdural hygroma. One patient developed intracerebral hemorrhage and subarachnoid hemorrhage in the contralateral hemisphere, while another patient developed remote hemorrhage 3 days after the procedure due to the sudden drainage of a large amount of subdural fluid over a 24-hour period. These findings suggest that catheter drainage should be carefully monitored to avoid overdrainage of CSF after burr hole trephination.

  12. Determinants of Nitrous Oxide Emission from Agricultural Drainage Waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reay, D. S.; Edwards, A. C.; Smith, K. A.

    2004-01-01

    Emissions of the powerful greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N 2 O) from agricultural drainage waters are poorly quantified and its determinants are not fully understood. Nitrous oxide formation in agricultural soils is known to increase in response to N fertiliser application, but the response of N 2 O in field drainage waters is unknown. This investigation combined an intensive study of the direct flux of N 2 O from the surface of a fertilised barley field with measurement of dissolved N 2 O and nitrate (NO 3 ) concentrations in the same field's drainage waters. Dissolved N 2 O in drainage waters showed a clear response to field N fertilisation, following an identical pattern to direct N 2 O flux from the field surface. The range in N 2 O concentrations between individual field drains sampled on the same day was large, indicating considerable spatial variability exists at the farm scale. A consistent pattern of very rapid outgassing of the dissolved N 2 O in open drainage ditches was accentuated at a weir, where increased turbulence led to a clear drop in dissolved N 2 O concentration. This study underlines the need for carefully planned sampling campaigns wherever whole farm or catchment N 2 O emission budgets are attempted. It adds weight to the argument for the downward revision of the IPCC emission factor (EF 5 -g) for NO 3 in drainage waters

  13. Determinants of nitrous oxide emission from agricultural drainage waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reay, D. S.; Edwards, A. C.; Smith, K. A.

    2005-01-01

    Emissions of the powerful greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N 2 O) from agricultural drainage waters are poorly quantified and its determinants are not fully understood. Nitrous oxide formation in agricultural soils is known to increase in response to N fertiliser application, but the response of N 2 O in field drainage waters is unknown. This investigation combined an intensive study of the direct flux of N 2 O from the surface of a fertilised barley field with measurement of dissolved N 2 O and nitrate (NO 3 ) concentrations in the same field's drainage waters. Dissolved N 2 O in drainage waters showed a clear response to field N fertilisation, following an identical pattern to direct N 2 O flux from the field surface. The range in N 2 O concentrations between individual field drains sampled on the same day was large, indicating considerable spatial variability exists at the farm scale. A consistent pattern of very rapid outgassing of the dissolved N 2 O in open drainage ditches was accentuated at a weir, where increased turbulence led to a clear drop in dissolved N 2 O concentration. This study underlines the need for carefully planned sampling campaigns wherever whole farm or catchment N 2 O emission budgets are attempted. It adds weight to the argument for the downward revision of the IPCC emission factor (EF 5 -g) for NO 3 in drainage waters

  14. Lymphatic drainage and sentinel node location in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uren, R.F.; Howman-Giles, R.B.; Roberts, J.; Renwick, S.; Gillett, D.; Neische, F.; Ramsay-Stewart, G.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Mammary lymphoscintigraphy using small volume (0.1-0.2 ml) peritumoral injections of 99 Tc m -antimony sulphide colloid provided a map of the lymph drainage of a breast cancer to its draining sentinel lymph nodes in 92 of 102 patients (over 90%). Non-migration of tracer is reduced by post-injection massage for 5 min but may occur especially if the lymphatics are blocked by metastases. Drainage included the axilla in 92%, internal mammary nodes in 43%, supraclavicular nodes in 12% and intramammary interval nodes in 10% of patients. One patient drained to an interpectoral node. Drainage across the centre-line of the breast occurred in 46% of patients but direct drainage to the contralateral side of the patient was not seen. Lymphatic drainage occurred to 1 node field in 52 patients, 2 node fields in 34 patients and 3 node fields in 6 patients, so that 43% of patients had multiple draining node fields. Drainage to non-axillary sites occurred in 51% of patients. In conclusion, mammary lymphoscintigraphy accurately maps sentinel node location in breast cancer. Approximately half of the patients will have sentinel nodes outside the axilla. To achieve complete lymph node staging in patients with breast cancer, it is logical to biopsy these non-axillary sentinel nodes as well as the sentinel nodes in the axilla. Failure to do so will potentially understage the node status in 50% of patients

  15. Regulated Electric Drainage and its Interference with Track Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaclav Kolar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Electric drainage is a power electronic device used to protect underground metal devices (such as piping from the corrosive effects of stray currents. Stray currents are usually caused by DC electric traction, such as trams or railways. In places where stray currents leave the underground device and return into rails, they cause significant electrochemical corrosion of buried devices. The principle of electric drainage is based on electrical connection between the underground device and electric traction rails, which ensures that current flows through this connection, instead of flowing into the ground. Nowadays, the most widely used type is regulated electric drainage, where current is regulated by means of Pulse Width Modulation (PWM. Because of this modulation, current flowing through the drainage contains harmonic components with different frequencies. In modern railways, track circuits are often used as an important part of the track security system. For safe operation, it is necessary to ensure that frequencies generated by the drainage do not interfere with track circuits. This paper describes the design of a regulated drainage control system, with regard to its compatibility with track circuits and this paper contains related computer simulations and discussion of the results

  16. Drainage Behavior in Soap Films Above and Below the CMC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, S.; Adelizzi, E. A.; Troian, S. M.

    2003-11-01

    We investigate through laser interferometry the drainage behavior of Newtonian soap films initially entrained on a fiber frame at small and constant capillary number. The initial film thickness is sufficiently small that gravitational drainage is presumed minimal. The drainage of rigid soap films by capillary forces alone should proceed according to h(t) ˜ t^- 1/2. Our experimental results show much more rapid drainage with exponents as large as -2, especially for those solutions whose surfactant concentrations are below the CMC. Video recordings of the entire film surface reveal a variety of structures during the drainage process, some attributable to marginal regeneration. Though still a controversial issue, this regeneration process is believed to be caused by surfactant accumulation in the meniscus region (1). We show that modification of the relevant capillary drainage equation to account for Marangoni effects through a course-grained slip condition at the air-liquid interface produces exponents in better agreement with experimental findings. (1) V. A. Nierstrasz and G. Frens, JCIS 215, 28 (1999).

  17. A cost comparison of traditional drainage and SUDS in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, A; Jefferies, C; Waddell, G; Shanks, G; Blackwood, D; Watkins, A

    2008-01-01

    The Dunfermline Eastern Expansion (DEX) is a 350 ha mixed development which commenced in 1996. Downstream water quality and flooding issues necessitated a holistic approach to drainage planning and the site has become a European showcase for the application of Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems (SUDS). However, there is minimal data available regarding the real costs of operating and maintaining SUDS to ensure they continue to perform as per their design function. This remains one of the primary barriers to the uptake and adoption of SUDS. This paper reports on what is understood to be the only study in the UK where actual costs of constructing and maintaining SUDS have been compared to an equivalent traditional drainage solution. To compare SUDS costs with traditional drainage, capital and maintenance costs of underground storage chambers of analogous storage volumes were estimated. A whole life costing methodology was then applied to data gathered. The main objective was to produce a reliable and robust cost comparison between SUDS and traditional drainage. The cost analysis is supportive of SUDS and indicates that well designed and maintained SUDS are more cost effective to construct, and cost less to maintain than traditional drainage solutions which are unable to meet the environmental requirements of current legislation. (c) IWA Publishing 2008.

  18. Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage: analysis of 175 cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Kyung Jin; Lee, Sang Kwon; Kim, Tae Hun; Kim, Yong Joo; Kang, Duk Sik [College of Medicine, Kyungpook National Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1990-10-15

    Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage is a safe, effective and palliative means of treatment in biliary obstruction, especially in cases with malignant obstruction which are inoperable. 175 cases of transhepatic biliary drainage were performed on 119 patients with biliary obstruction from January 1985 to June 1989 at Kyung-pook National University Hospital. The causes of obstructive jaundice were 110 malignant diseases and 9 benign diseases. The most common indication for drainage was palliative intervention of obstruction secondary to malignant tumor in 89 cases. 86 cases of external drainage were performed including 3 cases of left duct approach, 29 cases of external-internal drainage and 60 cases of endoprosthesis. In external and external-internal drainages, immediate major complications (11.9%) occurred, including not restricted to, but sepsis, bile peritonitis and hemobilia. Delayed major complications (42.9%) were mainly catheter related. The delayed major complication of endoprosthesis resulted from obstruction of the internal stent. The mean time period to reobstruction of the internal stent was about 12 weeks. To improve management status, regular follow-up is required, as is education of both patients and their families as to when immediate clinical attention is mandated. Close communication amongst the varying medical specialities involved will be necessary to provide optional treatment for each patient.

  19. Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage: analysis of 175 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, Kyung Jin; Lee, Sang Kwon; Kim, Tae Hun; Kim, Yong Joo; Kang, Duk Sik

    1990-01-01

    Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage is a safe, effective and palliative means of treatment in biliary obstruction, especially in cases with malignant obstruction which are inoperable. 175 cases of transhepatic biliary drainage were performed on 119 patients with biliary obstruction from January 1985 to June 1989 at Kyung-pook National University Hospital. The causes of obstructive jaundice were 110 malignant diseases and 9 benign diseases. The most common indication for drainage was palliative intervention of obstruction secondary to malignant tumor in 89 cases. 86 cases of external drainage were performed including 3 cases of left duct approach, 29 cases of external-internal drainage and 60 cases of endoprosthesis. In external and external-internal drainages, immediate major complications (11.9%) occurred, including not restricted to, but sepsis, bile peritonitis and hemobilia. Delayed major complications (42.9%) were mainly catheter related. The delayed major complication of endoprosthesis resulted from obstruction of the internal stent. The mean time period to reobstruction of the internal stent was about 12 weeks. To improve management status, regular follow-up is required, as is education of both patients and their families as to when immediate clinical attention is mandated. Close communication amongst the varying medical specialities involved will be necessary to provide optional treatment for each patient

  20. Radioactivity and the French uranium bearing minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guiollard, P.Ch.; Boisson, J.M.; Leydet, J.C.; Meisser, N.

    1998-01-01

    This special issue of Regne Mineral journal is entirely devoted to the French uranium mining industry. It comprises 4 parts dealing with: the uranium mining industry in France (history, uranium rush, deposits, geologic setting, prosperity and recession, situation in 1998, ore processing); radioactivity and the uranium and its descendants (discovery, first French uranium bearing ores, discovery of radioactivity, radium and other uranium descendants, radium mines, uranium mines, atoms, elements and isotopes, uranium genesis, uranium decay, isotopes in an uranium ore, spontaneous fission, selective migration of radionuclides, radon in mines and houses, radioactivity units, radioprotection standards, new standards and controversies, natural and artificial radioactivity, hazards linked with the handling and collecting of uranium ores, conformability with radioprotection standards, radioactivity of natural uranium minerals); the French uranium bearing minerals (composition, crystal structure, reference, etymology, fluorescence). (J.S.)

  1. French dissatisfactions on the European electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glachant, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    The author first notices that the French electricity professional consumers are dissatisfied with the results of the creation of the European domestic electricity market in 1997: price increase either on bills or on the wholesale markets, and even more price increases are to come. The author proposes to examine several issues: what has been done during the 6 or 7 past years, that is since the California crisis in 2000-2001, to put the European electrical reforms on a virtuous track? Have the basic market economy principles been respected to protect competitiveness of all energy consumer professionals? How and why the French government or EDF will make us pay gas, coal or CO 2 emission permits like in England or Germany whereas the French electricity production has mainly (90 or 95 per cent) a nuclear or hydraulic origin?

  2. Correspondence Theory and Phonological Blending in French

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Scott

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Though less productive than rival word-formation processes like compounding and affixation, blending is still a rich source of neologisms in French. Despite this productivity, however, blends are often seen by scholars as unpredictable, uninteresting, or both. This analysis picks up where recent studies of blending have left off, using Correspondence Theory and a bundle of segmental constraints to deal with this phenomenon as it pertains to French. More specifically, it shows that blending is the result of a single output standing in correspondence with two or more other outputs, and that we do not need to refer to prosodic information, which is crucial in accounts of blending in languages with lexical stress like English, to account for the process in French. The analysis also differs from previous studies in that it locates blending exclusively within the phonology, leaving its morphological and semantic characteristics to be handled by other processes in the grammar.

  3. Southern Identity in "Southern Living" Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauder, Tracy

    2012-01-01

    A fantasy-theme analysis of the editors' letters in "Southern Living" magazine shows an editorial vision of valuing the past and showcasing unique regional qualities. In addition, a content analysis of the visual representation of race in the magazine's formative years and recent past validates that inhabitants of the region were portrayed…

  4. Edexcel international GCSE and certificate French

    CERN Document Server

    Grime, Yvette

    2013-01-01

    This brand-new Student Book provides a grammar-led approach with extensive exam preparation that will help you develop independent, culturally aware students of French ready for the exam. The book is written to the latest Edexcel specification by experienced teachers. Extensive use of French reflects the style of the exams and, with specific exam advice and practice, it helps to build all the skills needed for success. Topics on Francophone cultures are integrated throughout to ensure students gain the cultural awareness that is at the heart of this qualification. The book provides up-to-date

  5. Characterisation of Chlorine Behavior in French Graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blondel, A.; Moncoffre, N.; Toulhoat, N.; Bererd, N.; Petit, L.; Laurent, G.; Lamouroux, C.

    2016-01-01

    Chlorine 36 is one of the main radionuclides of concern for French graphite waste disposal. In order to help the understanding of its leaching behaviour under disposal conditions, the respective impact of temperature, irradiation and gas radiolysis on chlorine release in reactor has been studied. Chlorine 36 has been simulated through chlorine 37 ion implantation in virgin nuclear graphite samples. Results show that part of chlorine is highly mobile in graphite in the range of French reactors operating temperatures in relation with graphite structural recovering. Ballistic damage generated by irradiation also promotes chlorine release whereas no clear impact of the coolant gas radiolysis was observed in the absence of graphite radiolytic corrosion. (author)

  6. French enterprises build on wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rap, C.

    2013-01-01

    Being confronted by the economic crisis French enterprises look for diversification towards sectors which appear to bear promise of growth. The wind industry is one of them despite the slowing demand for land-based installations. A wind turbine is made of 11 components which represents a total of 3000 parts. A series of French enterprises benefit from this market by specialising in narrow market niches like bearings, toothed wheels,... This document gathers short information notes on the following enterprises: SKF, Mersen, les Forges de Trie-Chateau, Guerton, Rollix, and NTN-SNR. (A.C.)

  7. Population distribution around French nuclear sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastien, M.C.

    1985-10-01

    With the help of two files respectively from the Institut geographique national (IGN) containing the geographic reference of all cities in France, and from the Institut national de la statistique et des etudes economiques (INSEE) containing the population figures of the 1982 census, the distribution of the population around a geographic point can be determined according to a given grid. Tables of population distribution around the 30 french nuclear sites were obtained by this method; however, at a short distance from a site, a detailed local examination/survey/investigation is necessary. Data shall have to be collected to estimate the non-french population around frontier sites [fr

  8. A model to measure lymphatic drainage from the eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minhui; Johnston, Miles G; Gupta, Neeru; Moore, Sara; Yücel, Yeni H

    2011-11-01

    Intraocular pressure (IOP) is the most important risk factor for glaucoma development and progression. Most anti-glaucoma treatments aim to lower IOP by enhancing aqueous humor drainage from the eye. Aqueous humor drainage occurs via well-characterized trabecular meshwork (TM) and uveoscleral (UVS) pathways, and recently described ciliary body lymphatics. The relative contribution of the lymphatic pathway to aqueous drainage is not known. We developed a sheep model to quantitatively assess lymphatic drainage along with TM and UVS outflows. This study describes that model and presents our initial findings. Following intracameral injection of (125)I-bovine serum albumin (BSA), lymph was continuously collected via cannulated cervical lymphatic vessels and the thoracic lymphatic duct over either a 3-h or 5-h time period. In the same animals, blood samples were collected from the right jugular vein every 15 min. Lymphatic and TM drainage were quantitatively assessed by measuring (125)I-BSA in lymph and plasma, respectively. Radioactive tracer levels were also measured in UVS and "other" ocular tissue, as well as periocular tissue harvested 3 and 5 h post-injection. Tracer recovered from UVS tissue was used to estimate UVS drainage. The amount of (125)I-BSA recovered from different fluid and tissue compartments was expressed as a percentage of total recovered tracer. Three hours after tracer injection, percentage of tracer recovered in lymph and plasma was 1.64% ± 0.89% and 68.86% ± 9.27%, respectively (n = 8). The percentage of tracer in UVS, other ocular and periocular tissues was 19.87% ± 5.59%, 4.30% ± 3.31% and 5.32% ± 2.46%, respectively. At 5 h (n = 2), lymphatic drainage was increased (6.40% and 4.96% vs. 1.64%). On the other hand, the percentage of tracer recovered from UVS and other ocular tissue had decreased, and the percentage from periocular tissue showed no change. Lymphatic drainage increased steadily over the 3 h post-injection period, while TM

  9. Water environments: anthropogenic pressures and ecosystem changes in the Atlantic drainage basins of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Marcia; da Costa, Monica F; Mayorga, Maria Irles de O; Pinheiro, Patrícia R

    2004-02-01

    Densely occupied drainage basins and coastal zones in developing countries that are facing economic growth are likely to suffer from moderate to severe environmental impacts regarding different issues. The catchment basins draining towards the Atlantic coast from northeastern to southern Brazil include a wide range of climatic zones and diverse ecosystems. Within its borders lies the Atlantic rain forest, significant extensions of semiarid thorn forests (caatinga), vast tree and scrub woodlands (cerrado) and most of the 6670 km of the Brazilian coast and its marine ecosystems. In recent decades, human activities have increasingly advanced over these natural resources. Littoralization has imposed a burden on coastal habitats and communities. Most of the native vegetation of the cerrado and caatinga was removed and only 7% of the original Atlantic rainforest still exists. Estuaries, bays and coastal lagoons have been irreversibly damaged. Land uses, damming and water diversion have become the major driving forces for habitat loss and aquatic ecosystem modification. Regardless of the contrast between the drought-affected northeastern Brazil and the much more prosperous and industrialized southeastern/southern Brazil, the impacts on habitat and communities were found equally severe in both cases. Attempts to halt environmental degradation have not been effective. Instead of focusing on natural resources separately, it is suggested that more integrated environmental policies that focus on aquatic ecosystems integrity are introduced.

  10. Profile of thoracic trauma victims submitted to chest drainage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CESAR AUGUSTO BROSKA JÚNIOR

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to describe and compare the variables involved in trauma victims undergoing thoracic drainage. Methods: we conducted a retrospective, analytical, descriptive, cross-sectional study, with medical records of patients attended at the Trauma Service of the Curitiba Evangelical University Hospital between February 2011 and January 2014. Results: there were 488 patients undergoing chest drainage, 84.7% men and 15.3% women, with an average age of 38.2 years. Attendances usually occurred at night, without predominance between open or closed mechanism, gender or age group. The majority of patients with thoracic trauma requiring drainage were diagnosed by anamnesis and physical examination (41.1% and drained in the emergency room (80.8%. Most of the patients (66.2% had another associated lesion, mostly some abdominal viscera. Complications were present in 16.6% (81 patients, most of them due to drainage positioning error (9.2%. The mean hospital stay was 15 days and drainage lasted for an average of 8.1 days, with no statistical difference between open and closed trauma. The clinical outcome was discharge in most cases. Conclusion: the profile of patients with thoracic trauma is that of young men, attended at night, with some other associated lesion. Although diagnosis and treatment were rapid and most often without the need for complex examinations, the time of drainage, hospitalization and complications were higher than in the literature, which can be explained by the drainage being made at the Emergency Room and the presence of associated injuries.

  11. Geochemical characterisation of seepage and drainage water quality from two sulphide mine tailings impoundments: Acid mine drainage versus neutral mine drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkinen, P.M.; Raisanen, M.L.; Johnson, R.H.

    2009-01-01

    Seepage water and drainage water geochemistry (pH, EC, O2, redox, alkalinity, dissolved cations and trace metals, major anions, total element concentrations) were studied at two active sulphide mine tailings impoundments in Finland (the Hitura Ni mine and Luikonlahti Cu mine/talc processing plant). The data were used to assess the factors influencing tailings seepage quality and to identify constraints for water treatment. Changes in seepage water quality after equilibration with atmospheric conditions were evaluated based on geochemical modelling. At Luikonlahti, annual and seasonal changes were also studied. Seepage quality was largely influenced by the tailings mineralogy, and the serpentine-rich, low sulphide Hitura tailings produced neutral mine drainage with high Ni. In contrast, drainage from the high sulphide, multi-metal tailings of Luikonlahti represented typical acid mine drainage with elevated contents of Zn, Ni, Cu, and Co. Other factors affecting the seepage quality included weathering of the tailings along the seepage flow path, process water input, local hydrological settings, and structural changes in the tailings impoundment. Geochemical modelling showed that pH increased and some heavy metals were adsorbed to Fe precipitates after net alkaline waters equilibrated with the atmosphere. In the net acidic waters, pH decreased and no adsorption occurred. A combination of aerobic and anaerobic treatments is proposed for Hitura seepages to decrease the sulphate and metal loading. For Luikonlahti, prolonged monitoring of the seepage quality is suggested instead of treatment, since the water quality is still adjusting to recent modifications to the tailings impoundment.

  12. Preoperative endoscopic versus percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage in potentially resectable perihilar cholangiocarcinoma (DRAINAGE trial): design and rationale of a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Wiggers, Jimme K; Coelen, Robert JS; Rauws, Erik AJ; van Delden, Otto M; van Eijck, Casper HJ; de Jonge, Jeroen; Porte, Robert J; Buis, Carlijn I; Dejong, Cornelis HC; Molenaar, I Quintus; Besselink, Marc GH; Busch, Olivier RC; Dijkgraaf, Marcel GW; van Gulik, Thomas M

    2015-01-01

    Background Liver surgery in perihilar cholangiocarcinoma (PHC) is associated with high postoperative morbidity because the tumor typically causes biliary obstruction. Preoperative biliary drainage is used to create a safer environment prior to liver surgery, but biliary drainage may be harmful when severe drainage-related complications deteriorate the patients? condition or increase the risk of postoperative morbidity. Biliary drainage can cause cholangitis/cholecystitis, pancreatitis, hemorr...

  13. French scientists offered time to set up companies

    CERN Document Server

    Butler, D

    1999-01-01

    The French minister of national education, research and technology announced that French researchers working for public research institutes and universities are to be offered up to six years sabbatical leave to set up their own companies (11 para)

  14. FRENCH LANGUAGE: A BASIC G.S COURSE FOR NNAMDI ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JONATHAN

    2016-07-01

    Jul 1, 2016 ... Presently in Nnamdi Azikiwe University (NAU), apart from students majoring in French .... Oyo states that the inclusion of French language into the general studies ... securing a job in the labour market that is already saturated.

  15. Effect of benzylaminopurine on in vivo multiplication of French plantain

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2014-02-28

    Feb 28, 2014 ... of French plantain (Musa spp. AAB) cv. ... Figure 1: Plant and fruit appearance of French plantain cv. "Itoke Sege" .... Control of lethal browning of tissue culture plantlets of ... Research Workshop on Food Security,. Morogoro ...

  16. Films for French: A Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savignon, Sandra J., Ed.

    More than 100 films, selected for use in college-level French programs, are evaluated in this teaching guide. Films are listed alphabetically under the following categories: (1) "Beaux-Arts," (2) "La France Contemporaine," (3) "La France et le Nouveau Monde," (4) "Histoire," and (5) "Langue." The index gives an alphabetical list of all the films…

  17. Come back on the french gas winter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The document analyzes the french gas market behavior during the winter 2005/2006: the gas consumption, the imports decrease was offset by the the liquefied natural gas supply increase at Fos, the stocks levels and the transparency of the information. (A.L.B.)

  18. French nuclear power plants. Results and outlooks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serres, S.; Carbonnier, D.

    1999-01-01

    Operating results were good in 1997 for French nuclear power plants: safety levels were perfectly satisfactory; operating expenses continued to decrease (by 2% per annum from 1992 to 1997); there were spectacular results in radiation protection; and they had one of the world's highest availability rates (nearly 83%). (orig.) [de

  19. French and european opinions about energy questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-03-01

    This paper presents a statistical study of french and european opinions in 1989 about energy questions. The main subjects studied are: qualities of different energy sources (coal, petroleum, natural gas, nuclear energy, renewable energies); perception in public opinion of nuclear industry; energy and environmental effects. 6 figs., 1 tab., 4 appendices

  20. Teaching Old French Literature to Undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Harry E.

    As a prelude to graduate-level work for French majors, medieval studies are proposed for undergraduate students. Problems inherent in the establishment of the undergraduate program are identified with some suggested solutions. Concepts related to historical grammar, teaching materials, literature, and linguistics are developed. A logical course…