WorldWideScience

Sample records for southern california gas

  1. NREL + Southern California Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berdahl, Sonja E [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-09

    NREL and Southern California Gas Company are evaluating a new 'power-to-gas' approach - one that produces methane through a biological pathway and uses the expansive natural gas infrastructure to store it. This approach has the potential to change how the power industry approaches renewable generation and energy storage.

  2. Will southern California remain a premium market for natural gas?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John, F.E.

    1991-01-01

    Average yearly demand for natural gas in southern California totalled just over 3 billion ft 3 /d in 1991 and is projected to increase to just over 3.2 billion ft 3 /d in 2000 and 3.4 billion ft 3 /d in 2010. In the core residential market, demand is being driven by population growth and offset by conservation measures. In the core commercial and industrial market, demand is driven by employment growth and offset by conservation. In the noncore market, natural gas use is expected to fall from 262 million ft 3 /d in 1991 to 223 million ft 3 /d in 2010. Demand for natural gas for cogeneration is expected to either remain stagnant or decrease. The largest potential for market growth in southern California is for utility electric generation. Demand in this sector is expected to increase from 468 million ft 3 /d in 1991 to 1 billion ft 3 in 2010. Air quality concerns furnish a market opportunity for natural gas vehicles, and a substantial increase in natural gas demand might be obtained from even a modest market share of the region's 10 million vehicles. Existing pipeline capacity is sufficient to supply current average year requirements, and the need for new capacity hinges on the issues of satisfying high-year demand, meeting market growth, and accessing more desirable supply regions. Planned capacity additions of 2,150 million ft 3 /d, if completed, will bring substantial excess capacity to southern California in the late 1990s. The competitive advantages of various producing regions will then be greatly influenced by the rate designs used on the pipelines connecting them to the market. 4 tabs

  3. 75 FR 54618 - CAlifornians for Renewable Energy, Inc. (CARE) v. Pacific Gas and Electric Company, Southern...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. EL10-84-000] CAlifornians for Renewable Energy, Inc. (CARE) v. Pacific Gas and Electric Company, Southern California Edison Company, San Diego Gas & Electric Company, California Public Utilities Commission; Notice of Complaint...

  4. 75 FR 66744 - Californians for Renewable Energy, Inc. (CARE) v. Pacific Gas and Electric Company, Southern...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. EL10-84-001] Californians for Renewable Energy, Inc. (CARE) v. Pacific Gas and Electric Company, Southern California Edison Company, San Diego Gas & Electric Company, California Public Utilities Commission; Notice of Amended...

  5. Industrial Physics---Southern California Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Stuart

    2013-03-01

    Only in Southern California did space-age style really come into its own as a unique expression of Cold War scientific culture. The corporate campuses of General Atomic in San Diego and North American Aviation in Los Angeles perfectly expressed the exhilarating spirit of Southern California's aerospace era, scaling up the residential version of California modernism to industrial proportion. Architects William Pereira and A.C. Martin Jr., in collaboration with their scientific counterparts, fashioned military-industrial `dream factories' for industrial physics that embodied the secret side of the space-age zeitgeist, one the public could only glimpse of in photographs, advertisements, and carefully staged open houses. These laboratories served up archetypes of the California dream for a select audience of scientists, engineers, and military officers, live-action commercials for a lifestyle intended to lure the best and brightest to Southern California. Paradoxically, they hid in plain sight, in the midst of aerospace suburbs, an open secret, at once visible and opaque, the public face of an otherwise invisible empire. Now, at the end of the aerospace era, these places have become an endangered species, difficult to repurpose, on valuable if sometimes highly polluted land. Yet they offer an important reminder of a more confident time when many physicists set their sights on the stars.

  6. University of Southern California

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The focus of the University of Southern California (USC) Children''s Environmental Health Center is to develop a better understanding of how host susceptibility and...

  7. Synthetic natural gas in California: When and why. [from coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, W. B.

    1978-01-01

    A coal gasification plant planned for northwestern New Mexico to produce 250 MMCFD of pipeline quality gas (SNG) using the German Lurgi process is discussed. The SNG will be commingled with natural gas in existing pipelines for delivery to southern California and the Midwest. Cost of the plant is figured at more than $1.4 billion in January 1978 dollars with a current inflation rate of $255,000 for each day of delay. Plant start-up is now scheduled for 1984.

  8. Invertebrate diversity in southern California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This shapefile displays mean invertebrate diversity within 5 minute grid cells. The Shannon Index of diversity was calculated from Southern California Coastal Water...

  9. Fire Perimeters - Southern California, Fall 2007 [ds385

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Southern Callifornia fire perimeters for the Fall 2007 wildfires. The perimeters were assembled from various sources by California Department of Fish and Game (DFG)...

  10. Opportunities and Best Practices to Support Sustainable Production for Small Growers and Post-Harvest Processors in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fissore, Cinzia; Duran, Daniel F.; Russell, Robert

    2015-01-01

    This article describes current practices and needs associated with water and gas conservation among Southern California greenhouse growers, Post-Harvest Processors (PHPs), and agricultural associations. Two communication forums were held with the goal of educating the local gas company and small growers and PHPs on the most compelling needs and…

  11. California-Mexico gas exports eyed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that two California utilities have proposed providing natural gas transportation services to Mexico. The arrangement would provide a second U.S. export sales point at the U.S.-Mexico border and perhaps help alleviate an expected surplus of gas pipeline capacity available to California. Mexico currently imports about 200 MMcfd of U.S. gas via pipelines in Texas

  12. THE GREAT SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA SHAKEOUT: Earthquake Science for 22 Million People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, L.; Cox, D.; Perry, S.; Hudnut, K.; Benthien, M.; Bwarie, J.; Vinci, M.; Buchanan, M.; Long, K.; Sinha, S.; Collins, L.

    2008-12-01

    Earthquake science is being communicated to and used by the 22 million residents of southern California to improve resiliency to future earthquakes through the Great Southern California ShakeOut. The ShakeOut began when the USGS partnered with the California Geological Survey, Southern California Earthquake Center and many other organizations to bring 300 scientists and engineers together to formulate a comprehensive description of a plausible major earthquake, released in May 2008, as the ShakeOut Scenario, a description of the impacts and consequences of a M7.8 earthquake on the Southern San Andreas Fault (USGS OFR2008-1150). The Great Southern California ShakeOut was a week of special events featuring the largest earthquake drill in United States history. The ShakeOut drill occurred in houses, businesses, and public spaces throughout southern California at 10AM on November 13, 2008, when southern Californians were asked to pretend that the M7.8 scenario earthquake had occurred and to practice actions that could reduce the impact on their lives. Residents, organizations, schools and businesses registered to participate in the drill through www.shakeout.org where they could get accessible information about the scenario earthquake and share ideas for better reparation. As of September 8, 2008, over 2.7 million confirmed participants had been registered. The primary message of the ShakeOut is that what we do now, before a big earthquake, will determine what our lives will be like after. The goal of the ShakeOut has been to change the culture of earthquake preparedness in southern California, making earthquakes a reality that are regularly discussed. This implements the sociological finding that 'milling,' discussing a problem with loved ones, is a prerequisite to taking action. ShakeOut milling is taking place at all levels from individuals and families, to corporations and governments. Actions taken as a result of the ShakeOut include the adoption of earthquake

  13. Naphthalene distributions and human exposure in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Rong; Wu, Jun; Turco, Richard P.; Winer, Arthur M.; Atkinson, Roger; Arey, Janet; Paulson, Suzanne E.; Lurmann, Fred W.; Miguel, Antonio H.; Eiguren-Fernandez, Arantzazu

    The regional distribution of, and human exposure to, naphthalene are investigated for Southern California. A comprehensive approach is taken in which advanced models are linked for the first time to quantify population exposure to the emissions of naphthalene throughout Southern California. Naphthalene is the simplest and most abundant of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons found in polluted urban environments, and has been detected in both outdoor and indoor air samples. Exposure to high concentrations of naphthalene may have adverse health effects, possibly causing cancer in humans. Among the significant emission sources are volatilization from naphthalene-containing products, petroleum refining, and combustion of fossil fuels and wood. Gasoline and diesel engine exhaust, with related vaporization from fuels, are found to contribute roughly half of the daily total naphthalene burden in Southern California. As part of this study, the emission inventory for naphthalene has been verified against new field measurements of the naphthalene-to-benzene ratio in a busy traffic tunnel in Los Angeles, supporting the modeling work carried out here. The Surface Meteorology and Ozone Generation (SMOG) airshed model is used to compute the spatial and temporal distributions of naphthalene and its photooxidation products in Southern California. The present simulations reveal a high degree of spatial variability in the concentrations of naphthalene-related species, with large diurnal and seasonal variations as well. Peak naphthalene concentrations are estimated to occur in the early morning hours in the winter season. The naphthalene concentration estimates obtained from the SMOG model are employed in the Regional Human Exposure (REHEX) model to calculate population exposure statistics. Results show average hourly naphthalene exposures in Southern California under summer and winter conditions of 270 and 430 ng m -3, respectively. Exposure to significantly higher concentrations

  14. Source characterization and exposure modeling of gas-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masri, Shahir; Li, Lianfa; Dang, Andy; Chung, Judith H.; Chen, Jiu-Chiuan; Fan, Zhi-Hua (Tina); Wu, Jun

    2018-03-01

    Airborne exposures to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are associated with adverse health outcomes. Because personal air measurements of PAHs are labor intensive and costly, spatial PAH exposure models are useful for epidemiological studies. However, few studies provide adequate spatial coverage to reflect intra-urban variability of ambient PAHs. In this study, we collected 39-40 weekly gas-phase PAH samples in southern California twice in summer and twice in winter, 2009, in order to characterize PAH source contributions and develop spatial models that can estimate gas-phase PAH concentrations at a high resolution. A spatial mixed regression model was constructed, including such variables as roadway, traffic, land-use, vegetation index, commercial cooking facilities, meteorology, and population density. Cross validation of the model resulted in an R2 of 0.66 for summer and 0.77 for winter. Results showed higher total PAH concentrations in winter. Pyrogenic sources, such as fossil fuels and diesel exhaust, were the most dominant contributors to total PAHs. PAH sources varied by season, with a higher fossil fuel and wood burning contribution in winter. Spatial autocorrelation accounted for a substantial amount of the variance in total PAH concentrations for both winter (56%) and summer (19%). In summer, other key variables explaining the variance included meteorological factors (9%), population density (15%), and roadway length (21%). In winter, the variance was also explained by traffic density (16%). In this study, source characterization confirmed the dominance of traffic and other fossil fuel sources to total measured gas-phase PAH concentrations while a spatial exposure model identified key predictors of PAH concentrations. Gas-phase PAH source characterization and exposure estimation is of high utility to epidemiologist and policy makers interested in understanding the health impacts of gas-phase PAHs and strategies to reduce emissions.

  15. Pollutant Exposures from Natural Gas Cooking Burners: A Simulation-Based Assessment for Southern California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logue, Jennifer M.; Klepeis, Neil E.; Lobscheid, Agnes B.; Singer, Brett C.

    2014-06-01

    Residential natural gas cooking burners (NGCBs) can emit substantial quantities of pollutants and they are typically used without venting. The objective of this study is to quantify pollutant concentrations and occupant exposures resulting from NGCB use in California homes. A mass balance model was applied to estimate time-dependent pollutant concentrations throughout homes and the "exposure concentrations" experienced by individual occupants. The model was applied to estimate nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), carbon monoxide (CO), and formaldehyde (HCHO) concentrations for one week each in summer and winter for a representative sample of Southern California homes. The model simulated pollutant emissions from NGCBs, NO{sub 2} and CO entry from outdoors, dilution throughout the home, and removal by ventilation and deposition. Residence characteristics and outdoor concentrations of CO and NO{sub 2} were obtained from available databases. Ventilation rates, occupancy patterns, and burner use were inferred from household characteristics. Proximity to the burner(s) and the benefits of using venting range hoods were also explored. Replicate model executions using independently generated sets of stochastic variable values yielded estimated pollutant concentration distributions with geometric means varying less than 10%. The simulation model estimates that in homes using NGCBs without coincident use of venting range hoods, 62%, 9%, and 53% of occupants are routinely exposed to NO{sub 2}, CO, and HCHO levels that exceed acute health-based standards and guidelines. NGCB use increased the sample median of the highest simulated 1-hr indoor concentrations by 100, 3000, and 20 ppb for NO{sub 2}, CO, and HCHO, respectively. Reducing pollutant exposures from NGCBs should be a public health priority. Simulation results suggest that regular use of even moderately effective venting range hoods would dramatically reduce the percentage of homes in which concentrations exceed health

  16. Researching Indigenous Indians in Southern California: Commentary, Bibliography, and Online Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Imre

    2006-01-01

    This article seeks to present a continuing bibliography of research on Southern California Indians from the past 20 years, and sometimes beyond. The coverage reaches outside the variably defined bounds of Southern California so that it includes peripheral groups such as the Timbisha Shoshone of Death Valley and one or more groups in the Owens…

  17. Nearshore marine fish diversity in southern California using trawl information from the Southern California Coastal Water Research Project.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is a point file of mean fish diversity within 5 minute grid cells. The Shannon Index of diversity was calculated from Southern California Coastal Water Research...

  18. The California cogeneration success story

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neiggemann, M.F.

    1992-01-01

    This chapter describes the involvement of Southern California Gas Company(SoCalGas) in the promotion and demonstration of the benefits of cogeneration in California. The topics covered in this chapter are market strategy, cogeneration program objectives, cogeneration program, incentive cofunding, special gas rate, special service priority, special gas pressure and main options, advertising, promotional brochures and handbooks, technical support, program accomplishments, cogeneration outlook, and reasons for success of the program

  19. Salary survey of the Medical Library Group of Southern California and Arizona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J L; Connolly, B F; Davis, M; Graham, E; Wheeler, S

    1984-01-01

    The 1982 salary survey of the Medical Library Group of Southern California and Arizona (MLGSCA) indicates that 211 health sciences librarians in Southern California and Arizona earned a mean annual salary of $20,910 for 1982. Data analysis shows a positive correlation between salary and educational level. Other factors found to affect salary were job history, number of positions held, MLA certification, and professional responsibility. Age, gender, and MLA certification did not have a consistent positive correlation with salary. Results indicate that the salaries of hospital librarians are, on the average, roughly comparable to those of academic librarians in Southern California and Arizona. PMID:6743878

  20. The Economics of Bulk Water Transport in Southern California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Hodges

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Municipalities often face increasing demand for limited water supplies with few available alternative sources. Under some circumstances, bulk water transport may offer a viable alternative. This case study documents a hypothetical transfer between a water utility district in northern California and urban communities located on the coast of central and southern California. We compare bulk water transport costs to those of constructing a new desalination facility, which is the current plan of many communities for increasing supplies. We find that using water bags to transport fresh water between northern and southern California is in some instances a low-cost alternative to desalination. The choice is constrained, however, by concerns about reliability and, thus, risk. Case-study results demonstrate the challenges of water supply augmentation in water-constrained regions.

  1. Groundwater quality in the Southern Sacramento Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, George L.; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California's drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State's groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The Southern Sacramento Valley is one of the study units being evaluated.

  2. Building the Southern California Earthquake Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, T. H.; Henyey, T.; McRaney, J. K.

    2004-12-01

    Kei Aki was the founding director of the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC), a multi-institutional collaboration formed in 1991 as a Science and Technology Center (STC) under the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS). Aki and his colleagues articulated a system-level vision for the Center: investigations by disciplinary working groups would be woven together into a "Master Model" for Southern California. In this presentation, we will outline how the Master-Model concept has evolved and how SCEC's structure has adapted to meet scientific challenges of system-level earthquake science. In its first decade, SCEC conducted two regional imaging experiments (LARSE I & II); published the "Phase-N" reports on (1) the Landers earthquake, (2) a new earthquake rupture forecast for Southern California, and (3) new models for seismic attenuation and site effects; it developed two prototype "Community Models" (the Crustal Motion Map and Community Velocity Model) and, perhaps most important, sustained a long-term, multi-institutional, interdisciplinary collaboration. The latter fostered pioneering numerical simulations of earthquake ruptures, fault interactions, and wave propagation. These accomplishments provided the impetus for a successful proposal in 2000 to reestablish SCEC as a "stand alone" center under NSF/USGS auspices. SCEC remains consistent with the founders' vision: it continues to advance seismic hazard analysis through a system-level synthesis that is based on community models and an ever expanding array of information technology. SCEC now represents a fully articulated "collaboratory" for earthquake science, and many of its features are extensible to other active-fault systems and other system-level collaborations. We will discuss the implications of the SCEC experience for EarthScope, the USGS's program in seismic hazard analysis, NSF's nascent Cyberinfrastructure Initiative, and other large collaboratory programs.

  3. Earthquakes and faults in southern California (1970-2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleeter, Benjamin M.; Calzia, James P.; Walter, Stephen R.

    2012-01-01

    The map depicts both active and inactive faults and earthquakes magnitude 1.5 to 7.3 in southern California (1970–2010). The bathymetry was generated from digital files from the California Department of Fish And Game, Marine Region, Coastal Bathymetry Project. Elevation data are from the U.S. Geological Survey National Elevation Database. Landsat satellite image is from fourteen Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper scenes collected between 2009 and 2010. Fault data are reproduced with permission from 2006 California Geological Survey and U.S. Geological Survey data. The earthquake data are from the U.S. Geological Survey National Earthquake Information Center.

  4. Discussing epigenetics in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    With the goal of discussing how epigenetic control and chromatin remodeling contribute to the various processes that lead to cellular plasticity and disease, this symposium marks the collaboration between the Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM) in France and the University of California, Irvine (UCI). Organized by Paolo Sassone-Corsi (UCI) and held at the Beckman Center of the National Academy of Sciences at the UCI campus December 15–16, 2011, this was the first of a series of international conferences on epigenetics dedicated to the scientific community in Southern California. The meeting also served as the official kick off for the newly formed Center for Epigenetics and Metabolism at the School of Medicine, UCI (http://cem.igb.uci.edu). PMID:22414797

  5. Assessing estuarine biota in southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin D. Lafferty

    2005-01-01

    In southern California, most estuarine wetlands are gone, and what little habitat remains is degraded. For this reason, it is often of interest to assess the condition of estuaries over time, such as when determining the success of a restoration project. To identify impacts or opportunities for restoration, we also may want to know how a particular estuary, or area...

  6. Effectiveness of the California State Ban on the Sale of Caulerpa Species in Aquarium Retail Stores in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Stephanie; Smith, Jayson R.; Zaleski, Susan F.; Murray, Steven N.

    2012-07-01

    The invasion of the aquarium strain of the green alga Caulerpa taxifolia and subsequent alteration of community structure in the Mediterranean Sea raised awareness of the potential for non-native seaweeds to impact coastal communities. An introduction of C. taxifolia in southern California in 2000, presumably from the release of aquarium specimens, cost ~7 million for eradication efforts. Besides C. taxifolia, other Caulerpa species being sold for aquarium use also may have the potential to invade southern Californian and U.S. waters. Surveys of the availability of Caulerpa species in southern California aquarium retail stores in 2000-2001 revealed that 26 of 50 stores sold at least one Caulerpa species (52 %) with seven stores selling C. taxifolia. In late 2001, California imposed a ban on the importation, sale, or possession of nine Caulerpa species; the City of San Diego expanded these regulations to include the entire genus. To determine the effectiveness of the California ban, we resurveyed Caulerpa availability at 43 of the 50 previously sampled retail stores in southern California in ~2006, ~4 years following the ban. Of the 43 stores, 23 sold Caulerpa (53 %) with four stores selling C. taxifolia. A χ2 test of frequency of availability before and after the California ban suggests that the ban has not been effective and that the aquarium trade continues to represent a potential vector for distributing Caulerpa specimens, including C. taxifolia. This study underscores the need for increased enforcement and outreach programs to increase awareness among the aquarium industry and aquarium hobbyists.

  7. Groundwater quality in the Southern Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California's drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State's groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The Tehachapi-Cummings Valley and Kern River Valley basins and surrounding watersheds in the Southern Sierra Nevada constitute one of the study units being evaluated.

  8. 75 FR 42432 - Northern Natural Gas Company, Southern Natural Gas Company, Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-21

    ... Natural Gas Company, Southern Natural Gas Company, Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC, Transcontinental... abandonment of facilities by Northern Natural Gas Company, Southern Natural Gas Company, Florida Gas... resources, fisheries, and wetlands; Cultural resources; Vegetation and wildlife; Endangered and threatened...

  9. Mediterranean fruit fly preventative release programme in southern California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowell, Robert V.; Meyer, Fred; Siddiqu, Isi A.; Leon Spaugy, E.

    2000-01-01

    California employs several area-wide pest management programmes that use the release of sterile insects to protect its commercial and dooryard agriculture. The first was developed in response to the discovery of the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens, in Tijuana, Mexico and adjacent areas in San Diego County, California. Initially pesticide sprays of malathion and bait were applied to host plants around each fly find site. Additionally, soil sprays of diazion (0.05 kg per 93 m 2 ) were applied under every host plant around each fly find site. It soon became apparent that this approach was expensive and environmentally damaging. This led the interested parties, the California Department of Food and Agriculture (CDFA), the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the government of Mexico to develop a programme that utilises the release of sterile Mexican fruit flies over the city of Tijuana in order to prevent the establishment of a breeding population of this fly in the city. The belief is that preventing the Mexican fruit fly from breeding in Tijuana will help protect both that city and California. To date, no Mexican fruit fly larvae have been found in Tijuana or the adjacent areas of California. The second programme was developed in response to the discovery of the pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella, in cotton in the Imperial Valley area of southern California. As the pink bollworm spread throughout the cotton growing region of southern California, it became a significant pest that threatened the 405,000 hectares of cotton grown in the San Joaquin Valley to the north. To keep this pest out of the San Joaquin Valley, the CDFA/USDA and California cotton growers use the large-scale releases of sterile pink bollworms in areas in which wild pink bollworms are captured each year. Thus far, the pink bollworm has been prevented from establishing a permanent presence in the San Joaquin Valley and the cotton growers in southern California, Arizona and

  10. Spatiotemporal dynamics of the Southern California Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri) invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayles, Brett R; Thomas, Shyam M; Simmons, Gregory S; Grafton-Cardwell, Elizabeth E; Daugherty, Mathew P

    2017-01-01

    Biological invasions are governed by spatial processes that tend to be distributed in non-random ways across landscapes. Characterizing the spatial and temporal heterogeneities of the introduction, establishment, and spread of non-native insect species is a key aspect of effectively managing their geographic expansion. The Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri), a vector of the bacterium associated with huanglongbing (HLB), poses a serious threat to commercial and residential citrus trees. In 2008, D. citri first began expanding northward from Mexico into parts of Southern California. Using georeferenced D. citri occurrence data from 2008-2014, we sought to better understand the extent of the geographic expansion of this invasive vector species. Our objectives were to: 1) describe the spatial and temporal distribution of D. citri in Southern California, 2) identify the locations of statistically significant D. citri hotspots, and 3) quantify the dynamics of anisotropic spread. We found clear evidence that the spatial and temporal distribution of D. citri in Southern California is non-random. Further, we identified the existence of statistically significant hotspots of D. citri occurrence and described the anisotropic dispersion across the Southern California landscape. For example, the dominant hotspot surrounding Los Angeles showed rapid and strongly asymmetric spread to the south and east. Our study demonstrates the feasibility of quantitative invasive insect risk assessment with the application of a spatial epidemiology framework.

  11. Spatiotemporal dynamics of the Southern California Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri invasion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett R Bayles

    Full Text Available Biological invasions are governed by spatial processes that tend to be distributed in non-random ways across landscapes. Characterizing the spatial and temporal heterogeneities of the introduction, establishment, and spread of non-native insect species is a key aspect of effectively managing their geographic expansion. The Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri, a vector of the bacterium associated with huanglongbing (HLB, poses a serious threat to commercial and residential citrus trees. In 2008, D. citri first began expanding northward from Mexico into parts of Southern California. Using georeferenced D. citri occurrence data from 2008-2014, we sought to better understand the extent of the geographic expansion of this invasive vector species. Our objectives were to: 1 describe the spatial and temporal distribution of D. citri in Southern California, 2 identify the locations of statistically significant D. citri hotspots, and 3 quantify the dynamics of anisotropic spread. We found clear evidence that the spatial and temporal distribution of D. citri in Southern California is non-random. Further, we identified the existence of statistically significant hotspots of D. citri occurrence and described the anisotropic dispersion across the Southern California landscape. For example, the dominant hotspot surrounding Los Angeles showed rapid and strongly asymmetric spread to the south and east. Our study demonstrates the feasibility of quantitative invasive insect risk assessment with the application of a spatial epidemiology framework.

  12. 75 FR 13524 - Northern Natural Gas Company, Southern Natural Gas Company, Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    ... Natural Gas Company, Southern Natural Gas Company, Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC, Transcontinental... notice that on March 5, 2010, Northern Natural Gas Company (Northern Natural), 1111 South 103rd Street, Omaha, Nebraska 68124- 1000, filed on behalf of itself and other owners, Southern Natural Gas Company...

  13. Bi-directional causality in California's electricity and natural-gas markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, Chi-Keung; Olson, Arne; Horowitz, Ira; Luk, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    The Granger instantaneous-causality test is applied to explore the potential causal relationships between wholesale electricity and natural-gas prices in California. The test shows these relationships to be bi-directional, and reveals California's electricity and natural-gas markets to be as inextricably intertwined as casual observation and theoretical considerations would suggest they ought to be. This meshing of markets exacerbated the effects of California's natural-gas crisis on the contemporaneous electricity crisis, while concurrently the electricity crisis may have contributed to the dysfunction in the national-gas market and helped to precipitate the natural-gas crisis. The finding supports an integrated approach, as opposed to a piecemeal approach, for formulating energy policy recommendations, not just in California but in the world at large

  14. FTA figures in Alberta-California gas price tiff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that Canadian government and industry officials are considering a grievance procedure under the Canada-U.S. Free Trade Agreement in a natural gas price conflict with California regulators. Industry groups and the federal and Alberta governments are considering action under the FTA and other possible responses to recent rulings by the California Public Utilities Commission. Other options being considered are appeals against the CPUC policy to the U.S. energy secretary and the governor of California or court challenges. Meantime, Alberta's government the new export volumes of gas sales to California will be approved only after existing contracts with the 190 Alberta producers have been filled

  15. Adequacy of environmental information for outer continental shelf oil and gas decisions: Florida and California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The environmental impacts of oil and gas production on the U.S. outer continental shelf (OCS) have been studied and debated for many years. The issues derive from the complexity of coastal and offshore marine processes and ecosystems, human socio-economic systems, and interactions with OCS oil and gas development activities. On Feb. 9, 1989, President Bush announced his decision to postpone leasing for OCS areas off southwestern Florida (sale 116, part 2), northern California (sale 91), and southern California (sale 95). At the same time, the President created a cabinet-level task force to review the environmental concerns for these three OCS areas, and he also requested independent advice from the National Research Council (NRC). The NRC was asked to assess the adequacy of the available scientific and technical information on estimated hydrocarbon resources and potential environmental effects for the three specified areas. The report, by the OCS Committee and its three panels dealing with ecology, physical oceanography, and socioeconomics, reviews the adequacy of information bearing upon the potential environmental impacts of OCS oil and gas activities for the three sale areas

  16. BLM/OCS Southern California Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Baseline Studies

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data in this file were produced by Science Applications, Inc., prime contractor on the Bureau of Land Management/Outer Continental Shelf - Southern California...

  17. 76 FR 30739 - Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision for Southern California Edison's Eldorado...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-26

    ... LLCAD09000] Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision for Southern California Edison's Eldorado... INFORMATION: Southern California Edison (SCE) filed an application under Title V of the Federal Land Policy...) for further requirements. Authority: 40 CFR 1506.6. Thomas Pogacnik, Deputy State Director. [FR Doc...

  18. 78 FR 38309 - Northern Natural Gas Company; Southern Natural Gas Company, L.L.C.; Florida Gas Transmission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-26

    ... Natural Gas Company; Southern Natural Gas Company, L.L.C.; Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC; Notice of Application Take notice that on June 4, 2013, Northern Natural Gas Company (Northern), 1111 South 103rd Street, Omaha, Nebraska 68124; on behalf of itself, Southern Natural Gas Company, L.L.C., and...

  19. Southern California Seismic Network: Caltech/USGS Element of TriNet 1997-2001

    OpenAIRE

    Hauksson, Egill; Small, Patrick; Hafner, Katrin; Busby, Robert; Clayton, Robert; Goltz, James; Heaton, Tom; Hutton, Kate; Kanamori, Hiroo; Polet, Jascha

    2001-01-01

    The California Institute of Technology (Caltech), the United States Geological Survey (USGS), and the California Department of Conservation, Division of Mines and Geology (CDMG) are completing the implementation of TriNet, a modern seismic information system for southern California. TriNet consists of two elements, the Caltech-USGS element and the CDMG element (Mori et al., 1998). The Caltech-USGS element (Caltech-USGS TriNet) concentrates on rapid notification and archiving...

  20. Ciguatera fish poisoning. A southern California epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, E D; Tanner, P; Turchen, S G; Tunget, C L; Manoguerra, A; Clark, R F

    1995-01-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning results from the bioconcentration of a variety of toxins produced by marine dinoflagellates. Signs and symptoms vary widely, but it usually presents as gastrointestinal and neurologic complaints beginning shortly after the ingestion of fish containing the toxins. Symptoms may persist for months and sometimes even years. Although cases have been reported throughout the United States, epidemics are most common along tropical and subtropical coasts and usually involve the ingestion of large carnivorous fish. We review the literature and report the first epidemic of 25 cases of ciguatera fish poisoning presenting to area hospitals in Southern California that were successfully tracked by the Department of Health Services and isolated to fish caught off the coast of Baja California, Mexico. Images Figure 1. PMID:7667980

  1. The Plate Boundary Observatory Student Field Assistant Program in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seider, E. L.

    2007-12-01

    Each summer, UNAVCO hires students as part of the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) Student Field Assistant Program. PBO, the geodetic component of the NSF-funded EarthScope project, involves the reconnaissance, permitting, installation, documentation, and maintenance of 880 permanent GPS stations in five years. During the summer 2007, nine students from around the US and Puerto Rico were hired to assist PBO engineers during the busy summer field season. From June to September, students worked closely with PBO field engineers to install and maintain permanent GPS stations in all regions of PBO, including Alaska. The PBO Student Field Assistant Program provides students with professional hands-on field experience as well as continuing education in the geosciences. It also gives students a glimpse into the increasing technologies available to the science community, the scope of geophysical research utilizing these technologies, and the field techniques necessary to complete this research. Students in the PBO Field Assistant Program are involved in all aspects of GPS support, including in-warehouse preparation and in-field installations and maintenance. Students are taught practical skills such as drilling, wiring, welding, hardware configuration, documentation, and proper field safety procedures needed to construct permanent GPS stations. These real world experiences provide the students with technical and professional skills that are not always available to them in a classroom, and will benefit them greatly in their future studies and careers. The 2007 summer field season in Southern California consisted of over 35 GPS permanent station installations. To date, the Southern California region of PBO has installed over 190 GPS stations. This poster presentation will highlight the experiences gained by the Southern California student field assistants, while supporting PBO- Southern California GPS installations in the Mohave Desert and the Inyo National Forest.

  2. The Chemical Composition of Fogs and Clouds in Southern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munger, James William

    Fog and clouds are frequent occurrences in Southern California. Their chemical composition is of interest due to their potential role in the transformation of sulfur and nitrogen oxides to sulfuric and nitric acid and in the subsequent deposition of those acids. In addition, cloud and fog droplets may be involved in the chemistry of low-molecular-weight carboxylic acids and carbonyl compounds. The major inorganic species in cloud and fogwater samples were NH_4^+, H ^+, NO_3^-, and SO_4^{2-}. Concentrations in fogwater samples were 1-10 times 10^ {-3} M; pH values ranged from ~eq2 to 6. Nitrate usually exceeded sulfate. Acidity depended on the availability of of NH_3 from agricultural operations. Stratus cloudwater had somewhat lower concentrations; pH values were in the range 3-4. The major factors accounting for variation in fog- or cloudwater composition were the preexisting aerosol and gas concentrations and variations in liquid water content. Deposition and entrainment or advection of different air masses were also important during extended cloud or fog episodes. The droplet size dependence of cloudwater composition was investigated on one occasion in an intercepted coastal stratus clouds. The observations were consistent with the hypothesis that small droplets form on small secondary aerosol composed of H_2SO _4, HNO_3, and their NH_4^+ salts, while large droplets form on large sea-salt and soil-dust aerosol. Species that can exist in the gas phase, such as HCl and HNO _3, may be found in either droplet-size fraction. Concentrations of S(IV) and CH_2 O in the range 100-1000 μm were observed in fogwater from urban sites in Southern California. Lower concentrations were observed in stratus clouds. The high levels of S(IV) and CH_2 O were attributed to the formation of hydroxymethanesulfonate (HMSA), the S(IV) adduct of CH_2O. Direct measurement of HMSA in fogwater samples from Bakersfield, CA were made by ion-pairing chromatography. Glyoxal and methylglyoxal

  3. Canada's clean energy technology and the southern California market : a needs assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This report presented a study whose purpose was to develop targeted market intelligence regarding the specific needs and plans of southern California-based organizations that are interested in procuring or using clean energy technologies for demonstration or commercial purposes. Industry Canada and the Canadian Consulate General in Los Angeles planned to utilize the study as a tool to explore business development or partnering opportunities between Canada/Canadian industry and California entities. The report described the study objective and provided a definition of clean energy technology. Clean energy was defined as any energy that causes little or no harm to the environment. The study scope was also presented. The study focused on opportunities in the following areas: solar power and photovoltaic technologies; hydrogen and fuel cells technologies; and thermochemical waste-to-energy systems. Context was discussed in terms of California's energy drivers, and California clean energy initiatives and experience. The results of a survey conducted with 350 organizations in southern California were also outlined for facilities and capital projects; fleets and mobile sources; and parks and public spaces. Last, the report presented an analysis of the California marketplace and solar power, hydrogen and fuel cells, and waste-to-energy. 14 refs

  4. Local extirpations and regional declines of endemic upper beach invertebrates in southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, D. M.; Dugan, J. E.; Schooler, N. K.; Viola, S. M.

    2014-10-01

    Along the world's highly valued and populous coastlines, the upper intertidal zones of sandy beach ecosystems and the biodiversity that these zones support are increasingly threatened by impacts of human activities, coastal development, erosion, and climate change. The upper zones of beaches typically support invertebrates with restricted distributions and dispersal, making them particularly vulnerable to habitat loss and fragmentation. We hypothesized that disproportionate loss or degradation of these zones in the last century has resulted in declines of upper shore macroinvertebrates in southern California. We identified a suite of potentially vulnerable endemic upper beach invertebrates with direct development, low dispersal and late reproduction. Based on the availability of printed sources and museum specimens, we investigated historical changes in distribution and abundance of two intertidal isopod species (Tylos punctatus, Alloniscus perconvexus) in southern California. Populations of these isopods have been extirpated at numerous historically occupied sites: T. punctatus from 16 sites (57% decrease), and A. perconvexus from 14 sites (64% decrease). During the same period, we found evidence of only five colonization events. In addition, the northern range limit of the southern species, T. punctatus, moved south by 31 km (8% of range on California mainland) since 1971. Abundances of T. punctatus have declined on the mainland coast; only three recently sampled populations had abundances >7000 individuals m-1. For A. perconvexus populations, abundances >100 individuals m-1 now appear to be limited to the northern part of the study area. Our results show that numerous local extirpations of isopod populations have resulted in regional declines and in greatly reduced population connectivity in several major littoral cells of southern California. Two of the six major littoral cells (Santa Barbara and Zuma) in the area currently support 74% of the remaining isopod

  5. Estimation of methane emission from California natural gas industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Jeff; Hicks, Travis C; Drake, Brian; Chan, Tat Fu

    2015-07-01

    Energy generation and consumption are the main contributors to greenhouse gases emissions in California. Natural gas is one of the primary sources of energy in California. A study was recently conducted to develop current, reliable, and California-specific source emission factors (EFs) that could be used to establish a more accurate methane emission inventory for the California natural gas industry. Twenty-five natural gas facilities were surveyed; the surveyed equipment included wellheads (172), separators (131), dehydrators (17), piping segments (145), compressors (66), pneumatic devices (374), metering and regulating (M&R) stations (19), hatches (34), pumps (2), and customer meters (12). In total, 92,157 components were screened, including flanges (10,101), manual valves (10,765), open-ended lines (384), pressure relief valves (358), regulators (930), seals (146), threaded connections (57,061), and welded connections (12,274). Screening values (SVs) were measured using portable monitoring instruments, and Hi-Flow samplers were then used to quantify fugitive emission rates. For a given SV range, the measured leak rates might span several orders of magnitude. The correlation equations between the leak rates and SVs were derived. All the component leakage rate histograms appeared to have the same trend, with the majority of leakage ratesGas Research Institute (EPA/GRI) study. Twenty-five natural gas facilities in California were surveyed to develop current, reliable, and California-specific source emission factors (EFs) for the natural gas industry. Screening values were measured by using portable monitoring instruments, and Hi-Flow samplers were then used to quantify fugitive emission rates. The component-level average EFs derived in this study are often smaller than the corresponding ones in the 1996 EPA/GRI study. The smaller EF values from this study might be partially attributable to the employment of the leak detection and repair program by most, if not all

  6. Deregulation of the California electric power industry: An analysis of electric and natural gas corporate mergers and their effect on the California electric power market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornbuckle, James Dixon

    Deregulation of the electric utility industry in California is moving in a direction that places greater reliance on the market forces of competition. Investor owned utilities (IOU's) are using mergers and acquisitions to improve their ability to compete in this new environment. Two large mergers were proposed in 1996 that could affect the California market. The first is between Enron Corporation, a large power marketer and Portland General Corporation, owner of Portland General Electric. The second is between Pacific Enterprises Inc., owner of Southern California Gas Company, the largest natural gas utility in the U. S., and Enova Corporation, owner of San Diego Gas and Electric Company. Understanding the impact of these mergers on the California electric power market is the focus of this study. This study examines hypotheses dealing with: (1) Merger Strategy, (2) Efficiency, and (3) Market Power. Using the Miles and Snow (1978) typology, I develop a strategic orientation model for the merger participants and their competitors. The results suggest a two-stage strategic orientation: (1) regulated core business stage, where the firms follow a Defender strategy, and (2) unregulated business stage, where the firms follow a Prospector strategy. Further, the results show the mergers are consistent with the strategy of Enron and Pacific Enterprises. Event study methodology, dollar gains/losses and market value weighted returns are used to determine if the mergers support the efficiency hypothesis. The evidence suggests the mergers lead to increased competitive advantage through improved efficiency for the participants. The results also suggest the mergers do not harm the rivals. The results of structural changes made by the California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) in deregulation of the California market and analysis of the mergers by the CPUC and the Public Utility Commission of Oregon suggest that the exercise of market power is not a significant issue. Finally

  7. Refining Southern California Geotherms Using Seismologic, Geologic, and Petrologic Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatcher, W. R.; Chapman, D. S.; Allam, A. A.; Williams, C. F.

    2017-12-01

    Lithospheric deformation in tectonically active regions depends on the 3D distribution of rheology, which is in turn critically controlled by temperature. Under the auspices of the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) we are developing a 3D Community Thermal Model (CTM) to constrain rheology and so better understand deformation processes within this complex but densely monitored and relatively well-understood region. The San Andreas transform system has sliced southern California into distinct blocks, each with characteristic lithologies, seismic velocities and thermal structures. Guided by the geometry of these blocks we use more than 250 surface heat-flow measurements to define 13 geographically distinct heat flow regions (HFRs). Model geotherms within each HFR are constrained by averages and variances of surface heat flow q0 and the 1D depth distribution of thermal conductivity (k) and radiogenic heat production (A), which are strongly dependent on rock type. Crustal lithologies are not always well known and we turn to seismic imaging for help. We interrogate the SCEC Community Velocity Model (CVM) to determine averages and variances of Vp, Vs and Vp/Vs versus depth within each HFR. We bound (A, k) versus depth by relying on empirical relations between seismic wave speed and rock type and laboratory and modeling methods relating (A, k) to rock type. Many 1D conductive geotherms for each HFR are allowed by the variances in surface heat flow and subsurface (A, k). An additional constraint on the lithosphere temperature field is provided by comparing lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) depths identified seismologically with those defined thermally as the depth of onset of partial melting. Receiver function studies in Southern California indicate LAB depths that range from 40 km to 90 km. Shallow LAB depths are correlated with high surface heat flow and deep LAB with low heat flow. The much-restricted families of geotherms that intersect peridotite

  8. Is wetland mitigation successful in Southern California?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, D. L.; Rademacher, L. K.

    2004-12-01

    Wetlands perform many vital functions within their landscape position; they provide unique habitats for a variety of flora and fauna and they act as treatment systems for upstream natural and anthropogenic waste. California has lost an estimated 91% of its wetlands. Despite the 1989 "No Net Loss" policy and mitigation requirements by the regulatory agencies, the implemented mitigation may not be offsetting wetlands losses. The "No Net Loss" policy is likely failing for numerous reasons related to processes in the wetlands themselves and the policies governing their recovery. Of particular interest is whether these mitigation sites are performing essential wetlands functions. Specific questions include: 1) Are hydric soil conditions forming in mitigation sites; and, 2) are the water quality-related chemical transformations that occur in natural wetlands observed in mitigation sites. This study focuses on success (or lack of success) in wetlands mitigation sites in Southern California. Soil and water quality investigations were conducted in wetland mitigation sites deemed to be successful by vegetation standards. Observations of the Standard National Resource Conservation Service field indicators of reducing conditions were made to determine whether hydric soil conditions have developed in the five or more years since the implementation of mitigation plans. In addition, water quality measurements were performed at the inlet and outlet of these mitigation sites to determine whether these sites perform similar water quality transformations to natural wetlands within the same ecosystem. Water quality measurements included nutrient, trace metal, and carbon species measurements. A wetland location with minimal anthropogenic changes and similar hydrologic and vegetative features was used as a control site. All sites selected for study are within a similar ecosystem, in the interior San Diego and western Riverside Counties, in Southern California.

  9. Fish diversity in southern California using scuba surveys in kelp forests.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Shannon Index of diversity was calculated from diver surveys on kelp beds in Southern California. Kelp diver visual census data was combined for two separate...

  10. Comparison of groundwater flow in Southern California coastal aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Randall T.; Izbicki, John A.; Reichard, Eric G.; Edwards, Brian D.; Land, Michael; Martin, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Development of the coastal aquifer systems of Southern California has resulted in overdraft, changes in streamflow, seawater intrusion, land subsidence, increased vertical flow between aquifers, and a redirection of regional flow toward pumping centers. These water-management challenges can be more effectively addressed by incorporating new understanding of the geologic, hydrologic, and geochemical setting of these aquifers.

  11. How fault evolution changes strain partitioning and fault slip rates in Southern California: Results from geodynamic modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jiyang; Liu, Mian

    2017-08-01

    In Southern California, the Pacific-North America relative plate motion is accommodated by the complex southern San Andreas Fault system that includes many young faults (faults and their impact on strain partitioning and fault slip rates are important for understanding the evolution of this plate boundary zone and assessing earthquake hazard in Southern California. Using a three-dimensional viscoelastoplastic finite element model, we have investigated how this plate boundary fault system has evolved to accommodate the relative plate motion in Southern California. Our results show that when the plate boundary faults are not optimally configured to accommodate the relative plate motion, strain is localized in places where new faults would initiate to improve the mechanical efficiency of the fault system. In particular, the Eastern California Shear Zone, the San Jacinto Fault, the Elsinore Fault, and the offshore dextral faults all developed in places of highly localized strain. These younger faults compensate for the reduced fault slip on the San Andreas Fault proper because of the Big Bend, a major restraining bend. The evolution of the fault system changes the apportionment of fault slip rates over time, which may explain some of the slip rate discrepancy between geological and geodetic measurements in Southern California. For the present fault configuration, our model predicts localized strain in western Transverse Ranges and along the dextral faults across the Mojave Desert, where numerous damaging earthquakes occurred in recent years.

  12. Isotopes and ages in the northern Peninsular Ranges batholith, southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistler, Ronald W.; Wooden, Joseph L.; Morton, Douglas M.

    2003-01-01

    Strontium, oxygen and lead isotopic and rubidium-strontium geochronologic studies have been completed on Cretaceous and Jurassic (?) granitic rock samples from the northern Peninsular Ranges batholith in southern California. Many of these samples were collected systematically and studied chemically by A. K. Baird and colleagues (Baird and others, 1979). The distribution of these granitic rocks is shown in the Santa Ana, Perris, and San Jacinto Blocks, bounded by the Malibu Coast-Cucamonga, Banning, and San Andreas fault zones, and the Pacific Ocean on the map of the Peninsular Ranges batholith and surrounding area, southern California. The granitic rock names are by Baird and Miesch (1984) who used a modal mineral classification that Bateman and others (1963) used for granitic rocks in the Sierra Nevada batholith. In this classification, granitic rocks have at least 10% quartz. Boundaries between rock types are in terms of the ratio of alkali-feldspar to total feldspar: quartz diorite, 0-10%; granodiorite, 10-35%; quartz monzonite 35-65%; granite >65%. Gabbros have 0-10% quartz. Data for samples investigated are giv in three tables: samples, longitude, latitude, specific gravity and rock type (Table 1); rubidium and strontium data for granitic rocks of the northern Peninsular Ranges batholith, southern California (Table 2); U, Th, Pb concentrations, Pb and Sr initial isotopic compositions, and δ18O permil values for granitic rocks of the northern Peninsular Ranges batholith (table 3).

  13. Modeling Gas Dynamics in California Sea Lions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    W. and Fahlman, A. (2009). Could beaked whales get the bends?. Effect of diving behaviour and physiology on modelled gas exchange for three species...1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Modeling Gas Dynamics in California Sea Lions Andreas...to update a current gas dynamics model with recently acquired data for respiratory compliance (P-V), and body compartment size estimates in

  14. Geospatial Analysis of Oil and Gas Wells in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riqueros, N. S.; Kang, M.; Jackson, R. B.

    2015-12-01

    California currently ranks third in oil production by U.S. state and more than 200,000 wells have been drilled in the state. Oil and gas wells provide a potential pathway for subsurface migration, leading to groundwater contamination and emissions of methane and other fluids to the atmosphere. Here we compile available public databases on oil and gas wells from the California Department of Conservation's Division of Oil, Gas, and Geothermal Resources, the U.S. Geological Survey, and other state and federal sources. We perform geospatial analysis at the county and field levels to characterize depths, producing formations, spud/completion/abandonment dates, land cover, population, and land ownership of active, idle, buried, abandoned, and plugged wells in California. The compiled database is designed to serve as a quantitative platform for developing field-based groundwater and air emission monitoring plans.

  15. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in pinnipeds stranded along the southern California coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng Xiangzhou [Southern California Coastal Water Research Project, 3535 Harbor Blvd, Suite 110, Costa Mesa, CA 92626 (United States); Blasius, Mary Ellen; Gossett, Richard W. [Institute for Integrated Research in Materials, Environments and Society (IIRMES), California State University, Long Beach, 1250 Bellflower Blvd, Long Beach, CA 90840 (United States); Maruya, Keith A., E-mail: keithm@sccwrp.or [Southern California Coastal Water Research Project, 3535 Harbor Blvd, Suite 110, Costa Mesa, CA 92626 (United States)

    2009-10-15

    Little to no information exists for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in marine mammals frequenting the highly urbanized southern California (USA) coast. Fourteen PBDE congeners were determined by GC-ECNI-MS in blubber of pinnipeds stranded locally between 1994 and 2006. Total PBDE concentrations (SIGMAPBDE) in California sea lion (n = 63) ranged from 0.04 to 33.7 mug/g wet weight (mean: 5.24 mug/g). To our knowledge, these are the highest reported PBDE levels in marine mammals to date. By comparison, mean SIGMAPBDE in Pacific harbor seals (n = 9) and northern elephant seals (n = 16) were 0.96 and 0.09 mug/g, respectively. PBDEs in adult males were higher than for adult females, however, no age class differences or temporal trends were observed. As the first PBDE data reported for marine mammals in this region, the elevated levels underscore the need for additional studies on the sources, temporal trends, and potential effects of PBDEs in highly urbanized coastal zones. - Levels of PBDEs in pinnipeds found stranded along the southern California coast (USA) between 1994 and 2006 are the highest reported to date for marine mammals.

  16. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in pinnipeds stranded along the southern California coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Xiangzhou; Blasius, Mary Ellen; Gossett, Richard W.; Maruya, Keith A.

    2009-01-01

    Little to no information exists for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in marine mammals frequenting the highly urbanized southern California (USA) coast. Fourteen PBDE congeners were determined by GC-ECNI-MS in blubber of pinnipeds stranded locally between 1994 and 2006. Total PBDE concentrations (ΣPBDE) in California sea lion (n = 63) ranged from 0.04 to 33.7 μg/g wet weight (mean: 5.24 μg/g). To our knowledge, these are the highest reported PBDE levels in marine mammals to date. By comparison, mean ΣPBDE in Pacific harbor seals (n = 9) and northern elephant seals (n = 16) were 0.96 and 0.09 μg/g, respectively. PBDEs in adult males were higher than for adult females, however, no age class differences or temporal trends were observed. As the first PBDE data reported for marine mammals in this region, the elevated levels underscore the need for additional studies on the sources, temporal trends, and potential effects of PBDEs in highly urbanized coastal zones. - Levels of PBDEs in pinnipeds found stranded along the southern California coast (USA) between 1994 and 2006 are the highest reported to date for marine mammals.

  17. Preparing a population for an earthquake like Chi-Chi: The Great Southern California ShakeOut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lucile M.; ,

    2009-01-01

    The Great Southern California ShakeOut was a week of special events featuring the largest earthquake drill in United States history. On November 13, 2008, over 5 million southern Californians pretended that a magnitude-7.8 earthquake had occurred and practiced actions that could reduce its impact on their lives. The primary message of the ShakeOut is that what we do now, before a big earthquake, will determine what our lives will be like after. The drill was based on a scenario of the impacts and consequences of such an earthquake on the Southern San Andreas Fault, developed by over 300 experts led by the U.S. Geological Survey in partnership with the California Geological Survey, the Southern California Earthquake Center, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute, lifeline operators, emergency services and many other organizations. The ShakeOut campaign was designed and implemented by earthquake scientists, emergency managers, sociologists, art designers and community participants. The means of communication were developed using results from sociological research on what encouraged people to take action. This was structured around four objectives: 1) consistent messages – people are more inclined to believe something when they hear the same thing from multiple sources; 2) visual reinforcement – people are more inclined to do something they see other people doing; 3) encourage “milling” or discussing contemplated action – people need to discuss an action with others they care about before committing to undertaking it; and 4) focus on concrete actions – people are more likely to prepare for a set of concrete consequences of a particular hazard than for an abstract concept of risk. The goals of the ShakeOut were established in Spring 2008 and were: 1) to register 5 million people to participate in the drill; 2) to change the culture of earthquake preparedness in southern California; and 3) to reduce earthquake losses in southern California. All of these

  18. Natural disasters and the gas pipeline system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-11-01

    Episodic descriptions are provided of the effects of the Loma Prieta earthquake (1989) on the gas pipeline systems of Pacific Gas & Electric Company and the Cit of Palo Alto and of the Northridge earthquake (1994) on Southern California Gas' pipeline...

  19. Rapid finite-fault inversions in Southern California using Cybershake Green's functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thio, H. K.; Polet, J.

    2017-12-01

    We have developed a system for rapid finite fault inversion for intermediate and large Southern California earthquakes using local, regional and teleseismic seismic waveforms as well as geodetic data. For modeling the local seismic data, we use 3D Green's functions from the Cybershake project, which were made available to us courtesy of the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC). The use of 3D Green's functions allows us to extend the inversion to higher frequency waveform data and smaller magnitude earthquakes, in addition to achieving improved solutions in general. The ultimate aim of this work is to develop the ability to provide high quality finite fault models within a few hours after any damaging earthquake in Southern California, so that they may be used as input to various post-earthquake assessment tools such as ShakeMap, as well as by the scientific community and other interested parties. Additionally, a systematic determination of finite fault models has value as a resource for scientific studies on detailed earthquake processes, such as rupture dynamics and scaling relations. We are using an established least-squares finite fault inversion method that has been applied extensively both on large as well as smaller regional earthquakes, in conjunction with the 3D Green's functions, where available, as well as 1D Green's functions for areas for which the Cybershake library has not yet been developed. We are carrying out validation and calibration of this system using significant earthquakes that have occurred in the region over the last two decades, spanning a range of locations and magnitudes (5.4 and higher).

  20. Stress- and Structure-Induced Anisotropy in Southern California From Two Decades of Shear Wave Splitting Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zefeng; Peng, Zhigang

    2017-10-01

    We measure shear wave splitting (SWS) parameters (i.e., fast direction and delay time) using 330,000 local earthquakes recorded by more than 400 stations of the Southern California Seismic Network (1995-2014). The resulting 232,000 SWS measurements (90,000 high-quality ones) provide a uniform and comprehensive database of local SWS measurements in Southern California. The fast directions at many stations are consistent with regional maximum compressional stress σHmax. However, several regions show clear deviations from the σHmax directions. These include linear sections along the San Andreas Fault and the Santa Ynez Fault, geological blocks NW to the Los Angeles Basin, regions around the San Jacinto Fault, the Peninsular Ranges near San Diego, and the Coso volcanic field. These complex patterns show that regional stresses and active faults cannot adequately explain the upper crustal anisotropy in Southern California. Other types of local structures, such as local rock types or tectonic features, also play significant roles.

  1. Coastal ocean transport patterns in the central Southern California Bight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, M.A.; Rosenberger, K.J.; Hamilton, P.; Xu, J. P.

    2009-01-01

    In the past decade, several large programs that monitor currents and transport patterns for periods from a few months to a few years were conducted by a consortium of university, federal, state, and municipal agencies in the central Southern California Bight, a heavily urbanized section of the coastal ocean off the west coast of the United States encompassing Santa Monica Bay, San Pedro Bay, and the Palos Verdes shelf. These programs were designed in part to determine how alongshelf and cross-shelf currents move sediments, pollutants, and suspended material through the region. Analysis of the data sets showed that the current patterns in this portion of the Bight have distinct changes in frequency and amplitude with location, in part because the topography of the shelf and upper slope varies rapidly over small spatial scales. However, because the mean, subtidal, and tidal-current patterns in any particular location were reasonably stable with time, one could determine a regional pattern for these current fields in the central Southern California Bight even though measurements at the various locations were obtained at different times. In particular, because the mean near-surface flows over the San Pedro and Palos Verdes shelves are divergent, near-surface waters from the upper slope tend to carry suspended material onto the shelf in the northwestern portion of San Pedro Bay. Water and suspended material are also carried off the shelf by the mean and subtidal flow fields in places where the orientation of the shelf break changes abruptly. The barotropic tidal currents in the central Southern California Bight flow primarily alongshore, but they have pronounced amplitude variations over relatively small changes in alongshelf location that are not totally predicted by numerical tidal models. Nonlinear internal tides and internal bores at tidal frequencies are oriented more across the shelf. They do not have a uniform transport direction, since they move fine sediment

  2. Relationship between annual precipitation variability and ENSO in Southern California for the Common Era (last 2,000 years)

    Science.gov (United States)

    DU, X.; Hendy, I. L.; Hinnov, L.; Brown, E. T.; Schimmelmann, A.; Pak, D. K.

    2017-12-01

    The El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) has a major influence on Southern California's hydroclimate as demonstrated by both historical observations and model simulations. Santa Barbara Basin (SBB) off Southern California preserves a unique varved (i.e. annually laminated) marine sedimentary archive of modern and Holocene hydroclimate variability, notably including the transition from the regionally dry Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) to the wetter Little Ice Age (LIA). Here we present sub-annually resolved scanning XRF elemental counts for the last 2,000 years in SBB from core SPR0901-03KC. Titanium (associated with silicate minerals) is delivered more efficiently to SBB sediments during times of enhanced river flow and in the Mediterranean climate of Southern California, river flow only occurs after precipitation. The Ti record suggests that the precipitation frequency was reduced during the MCA except for a pluvial episode at CE 1075-1121, but increased during the LIA. Time series analysis of Ti counts indicates ENSO variability robustly increased during the intervals CE 450-520, 650-720, 980-1150, 1380-1550 and 1720-1750, and experienced relatively quiescent intervals between CE 50-150, 250-400, 550-650, 750-950, 1150-1280 and 1580-1620. Generally the LIA in Southern California is characterized by more active ENSO variability with long periodicities (4-7 yr) and multi-decadal variability (54 yr). MCA drought episodes were associated with less active ENSO. Active ENSO variability in Southern California during the last 2,000 years coincided with reconstructed southward migration of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) suggesting the ITCZ may play a role in the waxing and waning of ENSO teleconnections between the central Pacific and the west coast of North America.

  3. Microcystin Prevalence throughout Lentic Waterbodies in Coastal Southern California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meredith D. A. Howard

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Toxin producing cyanobacterial blooms have increased globally in recent decades in both frequency and intensity. Despite the recognition of this growing risk, the extent and magnitude of cyanobacterial blooms and cyanotoxin prevalence is poorly characterized in the heavily populated region of southern California. Recent assessments of lentic waterbodies (depressional wetlands, lakes, reservoirs and coastal lagoons determined the prevalence of microcystins and, in some cases, additional cyanotoxins. Microcystins were present in all waterbody types surveyed although toxin concentrations were generally low across most habitats, as only a small number of sites exceeded California’s recreational health thresholds for acute toxicity. Results from passive samplers (Solid Phase Adsorption Toxin Tracking (SPATT indicated microcystins were prevalent throughout lentic waterbodies and that traditional discrete samples underestimated the presence of microcystins. Multiple cyanotoxins were detected simultaneously in some systems, indicating multiple stressors, the risk of which is uncertain since health thresholds are based on exposures to single toxins. Anatoxin-a was detected for the first time from lakes in southern California. The persistence of detectable microcystins across years and seasons indicates a low-level, chronic risk through both direct and indirect exposure. The influence of toxic cyanobacterial blooms is a more complex stressor than presently recognized and should be included in water quality monitoring programs.

  4. Globalization and Higher Education in Southern California: Views from the Professoriate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weldon, Peter A.; Rexhepi, Jevdet; Chang, ChenWei; Jones, Lauren; Layton, Lucas Arribas; Liu, Amy; McKibben, Susan; Misiaszek, Greg; Olmos, Liliana; Quon, Amy; Torres, Carlos Alberto

    2011-01-01

    In this study, faculty at institutions of higher education in Southern California were surveyed to determine the ways they interpret the effects of globalization dynamics upon their various teaching and research activities. Faculty in the state's three higher education tiers spoke positively about the intellectual benefits to be gained by exposure…

  5. Chilblains in Southern California: two case reports and a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Rebecca; Arikian, Anne M; Pakula, Anita S

    2014-11-22

    Chilblains or perniosis is an acrally located cutaneous eruption that occurs with exposure to cold. Chilblains can be classified into primary and secondary forms. The primary or idiopathic form is not associated with an underlying disease and is clinically indistinguishable from the secondary form. The secondary form is associated with an underlying condition such as connective tissue disease, monoclonal gammopathy, cryoglobulinemia, or chronic myelomonocytic leukemia. Histopathology cannot accurately help distinguish the primary from secondary forms of chilblains. This article will raise the awareness of chilblains by presenting two unusual case reports of chilblains in men from Southern California with discussion of the appropriate evaluation and treatment of this condition. Case 1: A 56-year-old Caucasian man presented in January to a Southern California primary care clinic with a report of tingling and burning in both feet, followed by bluish discoloration and swelling as well as blistering. He had no unusual cold exposure prior to the onset of his symptoms. He had a history of "white attacks" in his hands consistent with Raynaud's phenomenon. His symptoms gradually resolved over a 3-week period. Case 2: A 53-year-old Caucasian man also presented to a Southern California clinic in January with a 3-week history of painful tingling in his toes, and subsequent purplish-black discoloration of the toes in both feet. His symptoms occurred 1 week after a skiing trip. He had partial improvement with warming measures. His symptoms resolved 2 weeks after his initial presentation. Chilblains is a relatively uncommon entity in warmer climates but can present during the winter months. Primary care providers in warmer climates such as Southern California in the USA may be unfamiliar with its presentation. It can be diagnosed clinically by the appearance of typical lesions during the cold damp season. Through a thorough history, physical examination and selected laboratory

  6. Seismic Structural Setting of Western Farallon Basin, Southern Gulf of California, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinero-Lajas, D.; Gonzalez-Fernandez, A.; Lopez-Martinez, M.; Lonsdale, P.

    2007-05-01

    Data from a number of high resolution 2D multichannel seismic (MCS) lines were used to investigate the structure and stratigraphy of the western Farallon basin in the southern Gulf of California. A Generator-Injector air gun provided a clean seismic source shooting each 12 s at a velocity of 6 kts. Each signal was recorded during 6- 8 s, at a sampling interval of 1 ms, by a 600 m long digital streamer with 48 channels and a spacing of 12.5 m. The MCS system was installed aboard CICESE's (Centro de Investigacion Cientifica y de Educacion Superior de Ensenada) 28 m research vessel Francisco de Ulloa. MCS data were conventionally processed, to obtain post- stack time-migrated seismic sections. The MCS seismic sections show a very detailed image of the sub-bottom structure up to 2-3 s two-way travel time (aprox. 2 km). We present detailed images of faulting based on the high resolution and quality of these data. Our results show distributed faulting with many active and inactive faults. Our study also constrains the depth to basement near the southern Baja California eastern coast. The acoustic basement appears as a continuous feature in the western part of the study area and can be correlated with some granite outcrops located in the southern Gulf of California islands. To the East, near the center of the Farallon basin, the acoustic basement changes, it is more discontinuous, and the seismic sections show a number of diffracted waves.

  7. Market efficiency, cross hedging and price forecasts: California's natural-gas markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, C.K.; Olson, A.; Horowitz, I.

    2006-01-01

    An extensive North American pipeline grid that physically integrates individual natural-gas markets, in conjunction with economic ties binding the California markets to those at Henry Hub, Louisiana and the New York mercantile exchange via an array of financial instruments, suggests that the spot prices at Henry Hub will impact those in California. We verify the suggestion via a partial-adjustment regression model, thus affirming that California traders can exploit the cross-hedging opportunities made available to them via market integration with Henry Hub, and that they can accurately forecast the price they will have to pay to meet future demand based solely on the price of futures at Henry Hub and the price of a California natural-gas basis swaps contract. (author)

  8. H2 fuelling infrastructure in Southern California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyasato, M.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' The South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) is the local air agency covering the majority of southern California, and the entity legislatively responsible for bringing the region into compliance with the federal Clean Air standards by 2010. One of the tools used by the SCAQMD to accelerate achieving cleaner air is the funding of research, development, and demonstration projects for advanced, clean air technologies. One major focus has been on hydrogen and fuel cells for both stationary and mobile applications. The presentation will discuss the SCAQMD strategy and deployment efforts regarding the development and expansion of hydrogen fueling infrastructure in the South Coast Air Basin. (author)

  9. Deregulation and natural gas trade relationships: lessons from the Alberta-California experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, Patrick Impero

    1997-01-01

    In 1978 the US government moved to deregulate the American natural gas industry. The market changes that resulted from this initial step took time to ripple their way out to regional and subnational gas trading relationships. This ripple effect required subnational governments (state and provincial regulators) to rethink their gas regulatory policies. This article examines the restructuring of the Alberta-California gas trade. It explores how changes in US policy forced California and Alberta regulators to recast their policies. It concludes with several lessons that can be drawn from this case about the complex challenge of restructuring international gas trading relationships. (author)

  10. 77 FR 31004 - Southern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-24

    ... Natural Gas Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on May 9, 2012, Southern Natural Gas Company (Southern), 569 Brookwood Village, Suite 501, Birmingham, Alabama 35209, filed... Commission's regulations under the Natural Gas Act (NGA), and Southern's blanket certificate issued in Docket...

  11. Strong SH-to-Love wave scattering off the Southern California Continental Borderland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chunquan; Zhan, Zhongwen; Hauksson, Egill; Cochran, Elizabeth S.

    2017-01-01

    Seismic scattering is commonly observed and results from wave propagation in heterogeneous medium. Yet, deterministic characterization of scatterers associated with lateral heterogeneities remains challenging. In this study, we analyze broadband waveforms recorded by the Southern California Seismic Network and observe strongly scattered Love waves following the arrival of teleseismic SH wave. These scattered Love waves travel approximately in the same (azimuthal) direction as the incident SH wave at a dominant period of ~10 s but at an apparent velocity of ~3.6 km/s as compared to the ~11 km/s for the SH wave. Back-projection suggests that this strong scattering is associated with pronounced bathymetric relief in the Southern California Continental Borderland, in particular the Patton Escarpment. Finite-difference simulations using a simplified 2-D bathymetric and crustal model are able to predict the arrival times and amplitudes of major scatterers. The modeling suggests a relatively low shear wave velocity in the Continental Borderland.

  12. Charter Schools Indicators: A Report from the Center on Educational Governance, University of Southern California. CSI-USC 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center on Educational Governance, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This report, which is the second annual report on charter schools in California by the University of Southern California's (USC's) Center on Educational Governance, offers a unique view of charter school performance. Using both financial and academic data submitted by school districts to the state of California, this report looks well beyond test…

  13. A new bathyal sipunculan from Southern California, with ecological notes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Bruce E.

    1980-11-01

    Golfingia (Nephasoma) nicolasi n. sp. is described. It is a long, slender species with a filiform introvert that is 6 to 7 times the length of the trunk. The species was often the numerically dominant taxon in samples collected from the San Nicolas Basin, California, and was also callected from several other basins off southern California. Analyses of several collections from the San Nicolas Basin show that the population was spatially patchy; temporal variation was also indicated but only one year was sampled adequately. Average population densities were highest at the base of the slopes descending into the basin from the highly productive Santa Rosa-Cortes Ridge and Tanner Bank. G. nicolasi appears to feed on the large amounts of organic detritus that accumulate from this source.

  14. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Southern California: NESTS (Nest Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for nesting and roosting gulls, terns, seabirds, shorebirds, and T/E species in Southern California. Vector...

  15. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Southern California: FISHL (Fish Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for threatened/endandered/rare and/or anadromous fish species in Southern California. Vector lines in this...

  16. FORESHOCKS AND TIME-DEPENDENT EARTHQUAKE HAZARD ASSESSMENT IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lucile M.

    1985-01-01

    The probability that an earthquake in southern California (M greater than equivalent to 3. 0) will be followed by an earthquake of larger magnitude within 5 days and 10 km (i. e. , will be a foreshock) is 6 plus or minus 0. 5 per cent (1 S. D. ), and is not significantly dependent on the magnitude of the possible foreshock between M equals 3 and M equals 5. The probability that an earthquake will be followed by an M greater than equivalent to 5. 0 main shock, however, increases with magnitude of the foreshock from less than 1 per cent at M greater than equivalent to 3 to 6. 5 plus or minus 2. 5 per cent (1 S. D. ) at M greater than equivalent to 5. The main shock will most likely occur in the first hour after the foreshock, and the probability that a main shock will occur in the first hour decreases with elapsed time from the occurrence of the possible foreshock by approximately the inverse of time. Thus, the occurrence of an earthquake of M greater than equivalent to 3. 0 in southern California increases the earthquake hazard within a small space-time window several orders of magnitude above the normal background level.

  17. Survival of fishers in the southern Sierra Nevada region of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard A. Sweitzer; Craig M. Thompson; Rebecca E. Green; Reginald H. Barrett; Kathryn L. Purcell

    2015-01-01

    Fishers in the western United States were recently proposed for listing under the U.S. Endangered Species Act because of concerns for loss of suitable habitat and evidence of a diversity of mortality risks that reduce survival. One of 2 remnant populations of fishers in California is in the southern Sierra Nevada region, where we studied them at 2 research sites in the...

  18. Gas war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiry, J.

    1992-01-01

    The sale of natural gas to California is one of the most complex and contested trade disputes between the USA and Canada. The background and the issues involved are discussed. An oversupply of Canadian gas, combined with USA subsidies for producing coalbed methane and a general oversupply of gas in the USA, have made spot gas prices decline to unexpectedly low levels. California regulators have responded to this situation by trying to secure the lowest possible prices for consumers, thereby causing them to abandon long-standing trade policies with Canada. The main agent of this change is the California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC), whose actions have reduced the value of Canadian exports and Alberta government revenues by at least $250 million annually. CPUC supported buying from a supply pool (Alberta ampersand Southern Gas) since it provided monopoly purchasing power, and CPUC's policy against pipeline expansion produced the limited access to California that the CPUC now cites as evidence of a producer cartel. CPUC has interfered in contracts with Canadian producers in its pipeline access policies, its capacity brokering decision of 1991, and its reasonableness test for past sales. In its haste to force its own view of market results onto existing contractual relationships, the CPUC is not allowing open negotiations to reshape the relationship, and CPUC actions may be generating countermeasures by Alberta that are inappropriate under deregulation. 3 figs

  19. Comprehensive analysis of earthquake source spectra in southern California

    OpenAIRE

    Shearer, Peter M.; Prieto, Germán A.; Hauksson, Egill

    2006-01-01

    We compute and analyze P wave spectra from earthquakes in southern California between 1989 and 2001 using a method that isolates source-, receiver-, and path-dependent terms. We correct observed source spectra for attenuation using both fixed and spatially varying empirical Green's function methods. Estimated Brune-type stress drops for over 60,000 M_L = 1.5 to 3.1 earthquakes range from 0.2 to 20 MPa with no dependence on moment or local b value. Median computed stress drop increases with de...

  20. 76 FR 42725 - Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision for the Southern California Edison Company...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [CACA-17905, LLCAD06000 L51010000 ER0000 LVRWB09B1820] Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision for the Southern California Edison Company Devers-Palo Verde No. 2 Transmission Line Project, California AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior...

  1. Impact of climate change on photochemical air pollution in Southern California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. E. Millstein

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of future climate and emissions-related perturbations on ozone air quality in Southern California are considered, with an assumed increase to 2× pre-industrial levels for global background levels of carbon dioxide. Effects of emission and climate-related forcings on air quality are superimposed on a summer 2005 high-ozone time period. Perturbations considered here include (a effect of increased temperature on atmospheric reaction rates, (b effect of increased temperature on biogenic emissions, (c effect of increased water vapor concentrations, (d effect of increased pollutant levels at the inflow (western boundary, and (e effect of population growth and technology change on emissions within Southern California. Various combinations of the above perturbations are also considered. The climate-related perturbations (a–c led to combined peak 1-h ozone increases of up to 11 ppb. The effect on ozone was greatly reduced when the temperature increase was applied mostly during nighttime hours rather than uniformly throughout the day. Increased pollutant levels at the inflow boundary also led to ozone increases up to 5 ppb. These climate and inflow-related changes offset some of the anticipated benefits of emission controls within the air basin.

  2. Pollutant exposures from unvented gas cooking burners: A Simulation-based Assessment for Southern California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logue, Jennifer M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Indoor Environment Group and Residential Building Systems Group; Klepeis, Neil E. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; San Diego Univ., CA (United States). Center for Behavioral Epidemiology and Community Health; Lobscheid, Agnes B. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Indoor Environment Group; Singer, Brett C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Indoor Environment Group and Residential Building Systems Group

    2014-01-01

    Residential natural gas cooking burners (NGCBs) can emit substantial quantities of pollutants, and they are typically used without venting range hoods. In this study, LBNL researchers quantified pollutant concentrations and occupant exposures resulting from NGCB use in California homes.The simulation model estimated that—in homes using NGCBs without coincident use of venting range hoods -- 62%, 9%, and 53% of occupants are routinely exposed to NO2, CO, and HCHO levels that exceed acute health-based standards and guidelines. NGCB use increased the sample median of the highest simulated 1-hr indoor concentrations by 100, 3,000, and 20 ppb for NO2, CO, and HCHO, respectively. The study recommends that reducing pollutant exposures from NGCBs should be a public health priority. Simulation results suggest that regular use of even moderately effective venting range hoods would dramatically reduce the percentage of homes in which concentrations exceed health-based standards.

  3. Rio Vista gas leak study: Belleaire Gas Field, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkey, P.L.

    1992-08-01

    The Rio Vista gas leak study evaluated methods for remotely sensing gas leaks from buried pipelines and developed methods to elucidate methane transport and microbial oxidation in soils. Remote-sensing methods were evaluated by singing gas leaks along an abandoned Pacific Gas and Electric (PG ampersand E) gas field collection line in northern California and applying surface-based and airborne remote-sensing techniques in the field, including thermal imaging, laser imaging, and multispectral imagery. The remote-sensing techniques exhibited limitations in range and in their ability to correlate with ground truth data. To elucidate methane transport and microbial oxidation in soils, a study of a controlled leak permitted field testing of methods so that such processes could be monitored and evaluated. Monitoring and evaluation techniques included (1) field measurement of soil-gas concentrations, temperatures, and pressures; (2) laboratory measurement of soil physical/chemical properties and activity of methane-oxidizing microorganisms by means of field samples; and (3) development of a preliminary numerical analysis technique for combined soil-gas transport/methane oxidation. Soil-gas concentrations at various depths responded rapidly to the high rate of gas leakage. The number of methane-oxidizing microorganisms in site soils rapidly increased when the gas leak was initiated and decreased after the leak was terminated. The preliminary field, laboratory, and numerical analysis techniques tested for this study of a controlled gas leak could be successfully applied to future studies of gas leaks. Because soil-gas movement is rapid and temporally variable, the use of several complementary techniques that permit generalization of site-specific results is favored

  4. Simulated behavior of drilling fluid discharges off Southern California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandsma, M.G.; Kolpack, R.L.; Dickey, T.D.; Balcom, B.J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper focuses on the computer-simulated short-term behavior of drilling-fluid solids from the time of release to initial deposition on the ocean bottom. The geographic areas of primary interest were the Santa Barbara Channel and Point Conception regions off southern California. Simulations (53) were conducted for water depths ranging from 30 to 750 m. Oceanographic parameters for several representative oceanic conditions were obtained from available field measurements in the area. Characteristics of representative drilling-fluid solids were formulated from information supplied by several offshore operators and by laboratory analyses of samples

  5. 78 FR 77447 - California Wind Energy Association, First Solar, Inc. v. California Independent System Operator...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ... Energy Association, First Solar, Inc. v. California Independent System Operator Corporation, Southern...), California Wind Energy Association and First Solar, Inc. (collectively, Complainants) filed a formal complaint against the California Independent System Operator Corporation (CAISO) and Southern California...

  6. Uncertainties in Earthquake Loss Analysis: A Case Study From Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdyiar, M.; Guin, J.

    2005-12-01

    Probabilistic earthquake hazard and loss analyses play important roles in many areas of risk management, including earthquake related public policy and insurance ratemaking. Rigorous loss estimation for portfolios of properties is difficult since there are various types of uncertainties in all aspects of modeling and analysis. It is the objective of this study to investigate the sensitivity of earthquake loss estimation to uncertainties in regional seismicity, earthquake source parameters, ground motions, and sites' spatial correlation on typical property portfolios in Southern California. Southern California is an attractive region for such a study because it has a large population concentration exposed to significant levels of seismic hazard. During the last decade, there have been several comprehensive studies of most regional faults and seismogenic sources. There have also been detailed studies on regional ground motion attenuations and regional and local site responses to ground motions. This information has been used by engineering seismologists to conduct regional seismic hazard and risk analysis on a routine basis. However, one of the more difficult tasks in such studies is the proper incorporation of uncertainties in the analysis. From the hazard side, there are uncertainties in the magnitudes, rates and mechanisms of the seismic sources and local site conditions and ground motion site amplifications. From the vulnerability side, there are considerable uncertainties in estimating the state of damage of buildings under different earthquake ground motions. From an analytical side, there are challenges in capturing the spatial correlation of ground motions and building damage, and integrating thousands of loss distribution curves with different degrees of correlation. In this paper we propose to address some of these issues by conducting loss analyses of a typical small portfolio in southern California, taking into consideration various source and ground

  7. Impact of California air quality control policies on the use and demand for natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, J.D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the impact of California's air quality control policies on the use of natural gas. In this paper the author would like to briefly review the regulatory structure for air pollution control in California, summarize the requirement of the California Clean Air Act of 1988, and discuss the impacts of our regulatory programs on the use and demand for natural gas

  8. Southern California Edison instrument setpoint program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bockhorst, R.M.; Quinn, E.L.

    1991-01-01

    In November of 1989, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) conducted an electrical safety system functional inspection (ESSFI) at the San Onofre nuclear generating station (SONGS), which was followed by an NRC audit on instrument setpoint methodology in January 1991. Units 2 and 3 at SONGS are 1100-MW(electric) Combustion Engineering (C-E) pressurized water reactors (PWRs) operated by Southern California Edison (SCE). The purpose of this paper is to summarize the results of the NRC audit and SCE's follow-up activities. The NRC team inspection reinforced the need to address several areas relative to the SCE setpoint program. The calculations withstood the intensive examination of four NRC inspectors for 2 weeks and only a few minor editorial-type problems were noted. Not one of the calculated plant protections system setpoints will change as a result of the audit. There were no questions raised relative to setpoint methodology

  9. Are hotspots of evolutionary potential adequately protected in southern California?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandergast, A.G.; Bohonak, A.J.; Hathaway, S.A.; Boys, J.; Fisher, R.N.

    2008-01-01

    Reserves are often designed to protect rare habitats, or "typical" exemplars of ecoregions and geomorphic provinces. This approach focuses on current patterns of organismal and ecosystem-level biodiversity, but typically ignores the evolutionary processes that control the gain and loss of biodiversity at these and other levels (e.g., genetic, ecological). In order to include evolutionary processes in conservation planning efforts, their spatial components must first be identified and mapped. We describe a GIS-based approach for explicitly mapping patterns of genetic divergence and diversity for multiple species (a "multi-species genetic landscape"). Using this approach, we analyzed mitochondrial DNA datasets from 21 vertebrate and invertebrate species in southern California to identify areas with common phylogeographic breaks and high intrapopulation diversity. The result is an evolutionary framework for southern California within which patterns of genetic diversity can be analyzed in the context of historical processes, future evolutionary potential and current reserve design. Our multi-species genetic landscapes pinpoint six hotspots where interpopulation genetic divergence is consistently high, five evolutionary hotspots within which genetic connectivity is high, and three hotspots where intrapopulation genetic diversity is high. These 14 hotspots can be grouped into eight geographic areas, of which five largely are unprotected at this time. The multi-species genetic landscape approach may provide an avenue to readily incorporate measures of evolutionary process into GIS-based systematic conservation assessment and land-use planning.

  10. Eddy properties in the Southern California Current System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenillat, Fanny; Franks, Peter J. S.; Capet, Xavier; Rivière, Pascal; Grima, Nicolas; Blanke, Bruno; Combes, Vincent

    2018-05-01

    The California Current System (CCS) is an eastern boundary upwelling system characterized by strong eddies that are often generated at the coast. These eddies contribute to intense, long-distance cross-shelf transport of upwelled water with enhanced biological activity. However, the mechanisms of formation of such coastal eddies, and more importantly their capacity to trap and transport tracers, are poorly understood. Their unpredictability and strong dynamics leave us with an incomplete picture of the physical and biological processes at work, their effects on coastal export, lateral water exchange among eddies and their surrounding waters, and how long and how far these eddies remain coherent structures. Focusing our analysis on the southern part of the CCS, we find a predominance of cyclonic eddies, with a 25-km radius and a SSH amplitude of 6 cm. They are formed near shore and travel slightly northwest offshore for 190 days at 2 km day-1. We then study one particular, representative cyclonic eddy using a combined Lagrangian and Eulerian numerical approach to characterize its kinematics. Formed near shore, this eddy trapped a core made up of 67% California Current waters and 33% California Undercurrent waters. This core was surrounded by other waters while the eddy detached from the coast, leaving the oldest waters at the eddy's core and the younger waters toward the edge. The eddy traveled several months as a coherent structure, with only limited lateral exchange within the eddy.

  11. March 2006 Lidar Point Data of Southern California Coastline: Long Beach to US/Mexican Border

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains lidar point data (Geodetic Coordinates) from a strip of Southern California coastline (including water, beach, cliffs, and top of cliffs) from...

  12. December 2002 Lidar Point Data of Southern California Coastline: Dana Point to Point La Jolla

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains lidar point data (latitude and longitude) from a strip of Southern California coastline (including water, beach, cliffs, and top of cliffs)...

  13. April 2004 Lidar Point Data of Southern California Coastline: Dana Point to Point La Jolla

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains lidar point data (Geodetic Coordinates) from a strip of Southern California coastline (including water, beach, cliffs, and top of cliffs) from...

  14. March 2003 Lidar Point Data of Southern California Coastline: Dana Point to Point La Jolla

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains lidar point data (Geodetic Coordinates) from a strip of Southern California coastline (including water, beach, cliffs, and top of cliffs) from...

  15. April 2005 Lidar Point Data of Southern California Coastline: Long Beach to US/Mexican Border

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains lidar point data (latitude/longitude) from a strip of Southern California coastline (including water, beach, cliffs, and top of cliffs) from...

  16. October 2003 Lidar Point Data of Southern California Coastline: Newport Beach to US/Mexican Border

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains lidar point data (Geodetic Coordinates) from a strip of Southern California coastline (including water, beach, cliffs, and top of cliffs) from...

  17. September 2004 Lidar Point Data of Southern California Coastline: Long Beach to US/Mexican Border

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains lidar point data (Geodetic Coordinates) from a strip of Southern California coastline (including water, beach, cliffs, and top of cliffs) from...

  18. 76 FR 66054 - Southern Natural Gas Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-25

    ... Gas Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Application Take notice that on October 7, 2011, Southern Natural Gas... in Docket No. CP12-4-000 pursuant to section 7(b) of the Natural Gas Act and Part 157 of the... Glenn A. Sheffield, Director--Rates and Regulatory, Southern Natural Gas Company, P.O. Box 2563...

  19. 77 FR 24483 - Southern Natural Gas Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-24

    ... Natural Gas Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Filing Take notice that on April 5, 2012, Southern Natural Gas Company, L.L.C. (Southern), 569 Brookwood Village, Suite 501, Birmingham, Alabama 35209, filed an... in Calhoun and Cleburne Counties, Alabama. Also, Southern, pursuant to Section 7(c) of the NGA...

  20. An online review of plastic surgeons in southern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Priya; Kobayashi, Emily; Gupta, Subhas

    2015-05-01

    It has become commonplace for patients to access online reviews of physicians when making choices about health care, just as any consumer would in today's computer-dependent world. Previous studies have shown that online reviews of physicians are generally positive. However, 1 negative review has the potential to adversely affect business and reputations. To characterize the online presence of plastic surgeons in Southern California as portrayed by physician rating websites (PRWs). An extensive online database of board-certified plastic surgeons was used to generate a list of surgeons within a 50-mile radius of Pomona, CA. Ratings from the PRWs HealthGrades.com, Vitals.com, and UCompareHealthcare.com were cataloged by number of reviews and ratings. Two hundred sixty-three surgeons were evaluated with the most-represented cities being Beverly Hills (N=47), Los Angeles (N=31), and Newport Beach (N=27). Ninety-seven percent of the surgeons were rated on at least 1 of the 3 PRWs chosen. In general, surgeons were rated highly, with a mean rating of 85%, SD, 14% (Ponline ratings ranged from 0 to 222 per surgeon. The median number of total reviews was 25 and the mean rating for those surgeons above and below the median were equivocal, at 86% and 85%, respectively (P=0.284). In this study, we found that plastic surgeons in Southern California have an online presence that can be influenced by their patients; they should be aware of this and conscious of their online reputations. Overall, the ratings were high, regardless of the number of reviews.

  1. October 2005 Lidar Point Data of Southern California Coastline: Long Beach to US/Mexican Border

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains lidar point data (UTM, Zone 11) from a strip of Southern California coastline (including water, beach, cliffs, and top of cliffs) from Long...

  2. Timber resource statistics for the San Joaquin and southern resource areas of California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karen L. Waddell; Patricia M. Bassett

    1997-01-01

    This report is a summary of timber resource statistics for the San Joaquin and Southern Resource Areas of California, which include Alpine, Amador, Calaveras, Fresno, Imperial, Inyo, Kern, Kings, Los Angeles, Madera, Mariposa, Merced, Mono, Orange, Riverside, San Bernardino, San Diego, San Joaquin, Stanislaus, Tulare, and Tuolumne Counties. Data were collected as part...

  3. May 2002 Lidar Point Data of Southern California Coastline: Dana Point to Point La Jolla

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains lidar point data from a strip of Southern California coastline (including water, beach, cliffs, and top of cliffs) from Dana Point to Point La...

  4. September 2002 Lidar Point Data of Southern California Coastline: Dana Point to Point La Jolla

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains lidar point data from a strip of Southern California coastline (including water, beach, cliffs, and top of cliffs) from Dana Point to Point La...

  5. Nurseries surveyed in Southern California adopt best practices for water quality

    OpenAIRE

    Mangiafico, Salvatore S; Newman, Julie; Mochizuki, Maren; Zurawski, Dale; Merhaut, Donald J.; Faber, Ben

    2010-01-01

    A variety of good management practices have been recommended to minimize the impact of water runoff from production nurseries. However, studies have not been conducted to gauge which management practices nursery producers are most likely to adopt in response to education and increased government oversight. We surveyed 85 production nurseries in Southern California about their existing practices to limit the impacts of runoff from their facilities. Of these, 65 in Ventura County were resurveye...

  6. Habitat fragmentation in coastal southern California disrupts genetic connectivity in the cactus wren (Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Kelly R; Kus, Barbara E; Preston, Kristine L; Howell, Scarlett; Perkins, Emily; Vandergast, Amy G

    2015-05-01

    Achieving long-term persistence of species in urbanized landscapes requires characterizing population genetic structure to understand and manage the effects of anthropogenic disturbance on connectivity. Urbanization over the past century in coastal southern California has caused both precipitous loss of coastal sage scrub habitat and declines in populations of the cactus wren (Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus). Using 22 microsatellite loci, we found that remnant cactus wren aggregations in coastal southern California comprised 20 populations based on strict exact tests for population differentiation, and 12 genetic clusters with hierarchical Bayesian clustering analyses. Genetic structure patterns largely mirrored underlying habitat availability, with cluster and population boundaries coinciding with fragmentation caused primarily by urbanization. Using a habitat model we developed, we detected stronger associations between habitat-based distances and genetic distances than Euclidean geographic distance. Within populations, we detected a positive association between available local habitat and allelic richness and a negative association with relatedness. Isolation-by-distance patterns varied over the study area, which we attribute to temporal differences in anthropogenic landscape development. We also found that genetic bottleneck signals were associated with wildfire frequency. These results indicate that habitat fragmentation and alterations have reduced genetic connectivity and diversity of cactus wren populations in coastal southern California. Management efforts focused on improving connectivity among remaining populations may help to ensure population persistence. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  7. 76 FR 18216 - Southern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ... Natural Gas Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on March 16, 2011, Southern Natural Gas Company (Southern), Post Office Box 2563, Birmingham, Alabama 35202-2563, filed in... Regulations under the Natural Gas Act (NGA) as amended, to abandon in place a supply lateral that extends from...

  8. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Southern California: T_MAMMAL (Terrestrial Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for rare and threatened/endangered terrestrial mammals in Southern California. Vector polygons in this data...

  9. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Southern California: M_MAMMAL (Marine Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for seals, sea lions, whales, dolphins, porpoises, and sea otters in Southern California. Vector polygons...

  10. Forecast skill of synoptic conditions associated with Santa Ana winds in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles Jones; Francis Fujioka; Leila M.V. Carvalho

    2010-01-01

    Santa Ana winds (SAW) are synoptically driven mesoscale winds observed in Southern California usually during late fall and winter. Because of the complex topography of the region, SAW episodes can sometimes be extremely intense and pose significant environmental hazards, especially during wildfire incidents. A simple set of criteria was used to identify synoptic-scale...

  11. Wildfires alter rodent community structure across four vegetation types in southern California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brehme, Cheryl S.; Clark, Denise R.; Rochester, Carlton J.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2011-01-01

    We surveyed burned and unburned plots across four habitat reserves in San Diego County, California, USA, in 2005 and 2006, to assess the effects of the 2003 wildfires on the community structure and relative abundance of rodent species. The reserves each contained multiple vegetation types (coastal sage scrub, chaparral, woodland, and grassland) and spanned from 250 m to 1078 m in elevation. Multivariate analyses revealed a more simplified rodent community structure in all burned habitats in comparison to unburned habitats. Reduction in shrub and tree cover was highly predictive of changes in post-fire rodent community structure in the burned coastal sage scrub and chaparral habitats. Reduction in cover was not predictive for the less substantially burned woodlands and grasslands, for which we hypothesized that interspecific competition played a greater role in post-fire community structure. Across vegetation types, generalists and open habitat specialists typically increased in relative abundance, whereas closed habitat specialists decreased. We documented significant increases in relative abundance of the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus Wagner) and Dulzura kangaroo rat (Dipodomys simulans Merriam). In contrast, we found significant decreases in relative abundance for the California mouse (Peromyscus californicus Gambel), San Diego pocket mouse (Chaetodipus fallax Merriam), desert woodrat (Neotoma lepida Thomas), and brush mouse (Peromyscus boylii Baird). Currently, our research program involves assessment of whether habitat conservation plans (HCPs) in southern California provide long-term protection to HCP covered species, as well as preserve ecosystem function. The scenario of increased wildfires needs to be incorporated into this assessment. We discuss our results in relation to management and conservation planning under a future scenario of larger and more frequent wildfires in southern California.

  12. The 2010 Southern California Ocean Bottom Seismometer Deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, C. M.; Kohler, M. D.; Weeraratne, D. S.

    2010-12-01

    Subduction, mid-ocean ridge spreading, and transpressional deformation are all processes that played important roles in the evolution of the diffuse Pacific-North America plate boundary offshore Southern California. Existing seismic data for the boundary typically end at the coastline due to the fact that onshore data collection is easier and more feasible. As a result, current models for plate boundary deformation and mantle flow lack data from nearly half the plate boundary offshore. In August 2010, twenty-four broadband and ten short period ocean bottom seismometers (OBS) were deployed on a research cruise as part of a year-long passive OBS experiment off the coast of Southern California. The Asthenospheric and Lithospheric Broadband Architecture from the California Offshore Region Experiment (ALBACORE) will study local seismicity, and crustal and upper mantle seismic structure. Studies using onshore data have shown a high velocity anomaly that exists in the region of convergence under the Transverse Ranges. The Transverse Ranges belong to a large crustal block that experienced clockwise rotation of at least ninety degrees. Geologic studies indicate that the entire Channel Islands on the western end belongs to the region of convergence and have been a part of this rotation. In anticipation of OBS data analysis, a hypothetical velocity model is being developed for the crust and uppermost mantle for the region under the Channel Islands. P-wave arrival times are predicted by propagating teleseismic waves through the model. Different possible P-wave arrival patterns are explored by varying the lithospheric thickness. The long-term goal for developing this model will be to compare it with the actual OBS travel-time residual data to assess the best-fitting model. In preparation for the ALBACORE cruise, existing gravity data near the Channel Island region were examined for correlations with geologic features. Gravity data collected during the ALBACORE cruise will help

  13. Operation and management of aging gas distribution systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNorgan, J.D. (Southern California Gas Co., Los Angeles, CA (United States))

    1993-05-01

    Southern California Gas Company, transports billions of cubic feet of natural gas through large-diameter, high-pressure transmission lines, across hundreds of miles of varying terrain, to satisfy the needs of over four and a half million customers. Operating an aging gas system can be truly expensive. Repair costs are very high. Recent figures experienced by our company show that it cost over $800 to repair a main leak, $400 to replace a service, and over $40 a foot to replace even small sized mains. A hidden cost is the effect of the physical limitations imposed by an aging system. It could be under-sized, or limited to a low pressure, thus restricting the volume of gas that can be delivered. Additionally there is the potential loss of valuable gas through leaks or blow downs when making repairs or replacements, and the damage it could do to the environment. For some years Southern California Gas Company has had on-going special and routine pipe replacement programs. The special pipe replacement program is driven primarily to increase the safety of the system, while at the same time improving reliability of service to the customers and reducing their total costs.

  14. Ecological and political issues surrounding decommissioning of offshore oil facilities in the Southern California Bight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Donna M.; Love, Milton S.

    2004-01-01

    To aid legislators, resource managers, and the general public, this paper summarizes and clarifies some of the issues and options that the federal government and the state of California face in decommissioning offshore oil and gas production platforms, particularly as these relate to platform ecology. Both local marine ecology and political climate play a role in decommissioning offshore oil production platforms. Compared to the relatively supportive political climate in the Gulf of Mexico for “rigs-to-reefs” programs, conflicting social values among stakeholders in Southern California increases the need for understanding ecological impacts of various decommissioning alternatives (which range from total removal to allowing some or all of platform structure to remain in the ocean). Additional scientific needs in the decommissioning process include further assessment of platform habitat quality, estimation of regional impacts of decommissioning alternatives to marine populations, and determination of biological effects of any residual contaminants. The principal management need is a ranking of environmental priorities (e.g. species-of-interest and marine habitats). Because considerable numbers of economically important species reside near oil platforms, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries should consider the consequences of decommissioning alternatives in their overall management plans. Management strategies could include designating reefed platforms as marine protected areas. The overarching conclusion from both ecological and political perspectives is that decommissioning decisions should be made on a case-by-case basis.

  15. Characteristics of southern California atmospheric rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Sarah M.; Carvalho, Leila M. V.

    2018-05-01

    Atmospheric rivers (ARs) are channels of high water vapor flux that transport moisture from low to higher latitudes on synoptic timescales. In areas of topographical variability, ARs may lead to high-intensity precipitation due to orographic forcing. ARs landfalling along North America's west coast are linked to extreme events including those leading to flooding and landslides. In southern California (SCA), proper AR forecasting is important for regional water resources as well as hazard mitigation and as the area's annual precipitation totals occur from relatively few storms per season, any changes to storm frequency and/or intensity may have dramatic consequences. Yet, as most regional AR studies focus on the Pacific Northwest, there is little information about SCA ARs. We develop an algorithm to identify ARs landfalling on North America's west coast between 1979 and 2013 within total precipitable water reanalysis fields. ARs are then categorized according to landfall region. To determine and differentiate the characteristics and spatial distributions of ARs affecting these areas, we examine lag composites of various atmospheric variables for each landfall region. SCA ARs differ from ARs landfalling farther north in the days prior to landfall with the position and amplitude of a trough offshore from the Asian continent and ridge over Alaska, as well as the displacement and eastward extension of the jet core that potentially guides AR moisture southwards. The relationships between AR landfalls and the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO), and the Pacific/North American Teleconnection Pattern (PNA) are also investigated.

  16. Toward a More Nuanced Understanding of Intercoupling: Second-Generation Mixed Couples in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Charlie V.

    2012-01-01

    Distinguishing between interethnic and interracial coupling offers new understandings about family diversity, as well as the assimilation of immigrants and their children. An analysis of the Children of Immigrants Longitudinal Study, a survey (N = 1,480) of the children of Asian and Latin American immigrants who live in Southern California, finds…

  17. The energy and emissions footprint of water supply for Southern California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, A J; Newell, Joshua P; Cousins, Joshua J

    2015-01-01

    Due to climate change and ongoing drought, California and much of the American West face critical water supply challenges. California’s water supply infrastructure sprawls for thousands of miles, from the Colorado River to the Sacramento Delta. Bringing water to growing urban centers in Southern California is especially energy intensive, pushing local utilities to balance water security with factors such as the cost and carbon footprint of the various supply sources. To enhance water security, cities are expanding efforts to increase local water supply. But do these local sources have a smaller carbon footprint than imported sources? To answer this question and others related to the urban water–energy nexus, this study uses spatially explicit life cycle assessment to estimate the energy and emissions intensity of water supply for two utilities in Southern California: Los Angeles Department of Water and Power, which serves Los Angeles, and the Inland Empire Utility Agency, which serves the San Bernardino region. This study differs from previous research in two significant ways: (1) emissions factors are based not on regional averages but on the specific electric utility and generation sources supplying energy throughout transport, treatment, and distribution phases of the water supply chain; (2) upstream (non-combustion) emissions associated with the energy sources are included. This approach reveals that in case of water supply to Los Angeles, local recycled water has a higher carbon footprint than water imported from the Colorado River. In addition, by excluding upstream emissions, the carbon footprint of water supply is potentially underestimated by up to 30%. These results have wide-ranging implications for how carbon footprints are traditionally calculated at local and regional levels. Reducing the emissions intensity of local water supply hinges on transitioning the energy used to treat and distribute water away from fossil fuel, sources such as coal

  18. The energy and emissions footprint of water supply for Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, A. J.; Newell, Joshua P.; Cousins, Joshua J.

    2015-11-01

    Due to climate change and ongoing drought, California and much of the American West face critical water supply challenges. California’s water supply infrastructure sprawls for thousands of miles, from the Colorado River to the Sacramento Delta. Bringing water to growing urban centers in Southern California is especially energy intensive, pushing local utilities to balance water security with factors such as the cost and carbon footprint of the various supply sources. To enhance water security, cities are expanding efforts to increase local water supply. But do these local sources have a smaller carbon footprint than imported sources? To answer this question and others related to the urban water-energy nexus, this study uses spatially explicit life cycle assessment to estimate the energy and emissions intensity of water supply for two utilities in Southern California: Los Angeles Department of Water and Power, which serves Los Angeles, and the Inland Empire Utility Agency, which serves the San Bernardino region. This study differs from previous research in two significant ways: (1) emissions factors are based not on regional averages but on the specific electric utility and generation sources supplying energy throughout transport, treatment, and distribution phases of the water supply chain; (2) upstream (non-combustion) emissions associated with the energy sources are included. This approach reveals that in case of water supply to Los Angeles, local recycled water has a higher carbon footprint than water imported from the Colorado River. In addition, by excluding upstream emissions, the carbon footprint of water supply is potentially underestimated by up to 30%. These results have wide-ranging implications for how carbon footprints are traditionally calculated at local and regional levels. Reducing the emissions intensity of local water supply hinges on transitioning the energy used to treat and distribute water away from fossil fuel, sources such as coal.

  19. Environmental Assessment for MQ-1 Launch and Recovery Element Training Operations at Southern California Logistics Airport Victorville, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-01

    Department of Housing and Urban Development I- Interstate IFR instrument flight rules IICEP Interagency and Intergovernmental Coordination for...rules ( IFR ). If necessary or desired, the UAV – once in Class A airspace above 18,000 feet MSL – could travel to R-2501 above MCAGCC Twentynine...178 178 190 14 138 18 40 15 215 15 15 15 5 5 10 215 10 10 EL MIRAGE AIRPORT SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA LOGISTICS AIRPORT EDWARDS AFB NAWS CHINA LAKE SOUTH

  20. Programs that work : California case examples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodgrigues, G.

    2007-01-01

    Examples of programs that work in California with respect to greenhouse gas emissions were discussed. Specifically, Southern California Edison (SCE) was noted as one of the country's largest investor-owned utilities that has provided environmental leadership in this area. Energy, environment, economy, and community were mentioned as being the four value propositions for demand side management (DSM) programs. The environmental benefits of California investor-owned utilities programs were also discussed. Customer participation in SCE's energy efficiency programs was defined as an important measure of success. Other topics that were addressed in the presentation included energy efficiency in the long-term resource plan; ratcheting codes and standards; effective marketing and outreach; residential and non-residential programs; partnership programs; and competitively-selected programs. Measurement, verification and evaluation were noted as being real savings. Initiatives on the horizon such as the California solar initiative and Edison smartconnect were presented. tabs., figs

  1. Predictive equations for dimensions and leaf area of coastal Southern California street trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.J. Peper; E.G. McPherson; S.M. Mori

    2001-01-01

    Tree height, crown height, crown width, diameter at breast height (dbh), and leaf area were measured for 16 species of commonly planted street trees in the coastal southern California city of Santa Monica, USA. The randomly sampled trees were planted from 1 to 44 years ago. Using number of years after planting or dbh as explanatory variables, mean values of dbh, tree...

  2. Modernization of the Caltech/USGS Southern California Seismic Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadha, R.; Devora, A.; Hauksson, E.; Johnson, D.; Thomas, V.; Watkins, M.; Yip, R.; Yu, E.; Given, D.; Cone, G.; Koesterer, C.

    2009-12-01

    The USGS/ANSS/ARRA program is providing Government Furnished Equipment (GFE), and two year funding for upgrading the Caltech/USGS Southern California Seismic Network (SCSN). The SCSN is the modern digital ground motion seismic network in southern California that monitors seismicity and provides real-time earthquake information products such as rapid notifications, moment tensors, and ShakeMap. The SCSN has evolved through the years and now consists of several well-integrated components such as Short-Period analog, TERRAscope, digital stations, and real-time strong motion stations, or about 300 stations. In addition, the SCSN records data from about 100 stations provided by partner networks. To strengthen the ability of SCSN to meet the ANSS performance standards, we will install GFE and carry out the following upgrades and improvements of the various components of the SCSN: 1) Upgrade of dataloggers at seven TERRAscope stations; 2) Upgrade of dataloggers at 131 digital stations and upgrade broadband sensors at 25 stations; 3) Upgrade of SCSN metadata capabilities; 4) Upgrade of telemetry capabilities for both seismic and GPS data; and 5) Upgrade balers at stations with existing Q330 dataloggers. These upgrades will enable the SCSN to meet the ANSS Performance Standards more consistently than before. The new equipment will improve station uptimes and reduce maintenance costs. The new equipment will also provide improved waveform data quality and consequently superior data products. The data gaps due to various outages will be minimized, and ‘late’ data will be readily available through retrieval from on-site storage. Compared to the outdated equipment, the new equipment will speed up data delivery by about 10 sec, which is fast enough for earthquake early warning applications. The new equipment also has about a factor of ten lower consumption of power. We will also upgrade the SCSN data acquisition and data center facilities, which will improve the SCSN

  3. California Natural Gas Pipelines: A Brief Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuscamman, Stephanie [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Price, Don [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Pezzola, Genny [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Glascoe, Lee [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2013-01-22

    The purpose of this document is to familiarize the reader with the general configuration and operation of the natural gas pipelines in California and to discuss potential LLNL contributions that would support the Partnership for the 21st Century collaboration. First, pipeline infrastructure will be reviewed. Then, recent pipeline events will be examined. Selected current pipeline industry research will be summarized. Finally, industry acronyms are listed for reference.

  4. Archive of Geosample Data and Information from the University of Southern California (USC) Department of Earth Sciences

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Metadata describing geological samples curated by Earth Sciences Department of the University of Southern California (USC) collected during the period from 1922 to...

  5. Alternative-fueled truck demonstration natural gas program: Caterpillar G3406LE development and demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    In 1990, the California Energy Commission, the South Coast Air Quality Management District, and the Southern California Gas Company joined together to sponsor the development and demonstration of compressed natural gas engines for Class 8 heavy-duty line-haul trucking applications. This program became part of an overall Alternative-Fueled Truck Demonstration Program, with the goal of advancing the technological development of alternative-fueled engines. The demonstration showed natural gas to be a technically viable fuel for Class 8 truck engines.

  6. The influence of Pacific Equatorial Water on fish diversity in the southern California Current System

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClatchie, Sam; Thompson, Andrew R.; Alin, Simone R.; Siedlecki, Samantha; Watson, William; Bograd, Steven J.

    2016-08-01

    The California Undercurrent transports Pacific Equatorial Water (PEW) into the Southern California Bight from the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean. PEW is characterized by higher temperatures and salinities, with lower pH, representing a source of potentially corrosive (aragonite,Ωaragonite saturation with depth. Although there is substantial variability in PEW presence as measured by spice on the 26.25-26.75 isopycnal layer, as well as in pH and aragonite saturation, we found fish diversity to be stable over the decades 1985-1996 and 1999-2011. We detected significant difference in species structure during the 1998 La Niña period, due to reduced species evenness. Species richness due to rare species was higher during the 1997/1998 El Niño compared to the La Niña but the effect on species structure was undetectable. Lack of difference in the species abundance structure in the decade before and after the 1997/1999 ENSO event showed that the assemblage reverted to its former structure following the ENSO perturbation, indicating resilience. While the interdecadal species structure remained stable, the long tail of the distributions shows that species richness increased between the decades consistent with intrusion of warm water with more diverse assemblages into the southern California region.

  7. Electricity price and Southern California's water supply options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale, Larry [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Camilla Dunham Whitehead, Andre Fargeix, Golden Gate Economics, 1 Cycltron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2004-11-01

    This paper evaluates the impact of fluctuating electricity prices on the cost of five options to increase the water supply to urban areas in Southern California-new surface storage, water purchases, desalination, wastewater recycling, and conservation.We show that the price of electricity required to produce and transport water influences the cost of water supply options and may alter the decision makers economic ranking of these options. When electricity prices are low, water purchase is the cost effective option. When prices exceed US$ 86/MWh, conservation of electricity and water through installation of high efficiency clothes washers is the most effective option.

  8. Alteration of belowground carbon dynamics by nitrogen addition in southern California mixed conifer forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    N.S. Nowinski; S.E. Trumbore; G. Jimenez; M.E. Fenn

    2009-01-01

    Nitrogen deposition rates in southern California are the highest in North America and have had substantial effects on ecosystem functioning. We document changes in the belowground C cycle near ponderosa pine trees experiencing experimental nitrogen (N) addition (50 and 150 kg N ha−1 a−1 as slow release urea since 1997) at two end‐member...

  9. Copper tolerance and distribution of epibiotic bacteria associated with giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera in southern California

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busch, Julia; Nascimento, Juliana Ribeiro; Magalhães, Ana Carolina Rubem; Dutilh, Bas E; Dinsdale, Elizabeth

    Kelp forests in southern California are important ecosystems that provide habitat and nutrition to a multitude of species. Macrocystis pyrifera and other brown algae that dominate kelp forests, produce negatively charged polysaccharides on the cell surface, which have the ability to accumulate

  10. Copper tolerance and distribution of epibiotic bacteria associated with giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera in southern California

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busch, J.; Nascimento, J.R.; Magalhaes, A.C.; Dutilh, B.E.; Dinsdale, E.

    2015-01-01

    Kelp forests in southern California are important ecosystems that provide habitat and nutrition to a multitude of species. Macrocystis pyrifera and other brown algae that dominate kelp forests, produce negatively charged polysaccharides on the cell surface, which have the ability to accumulate

  11. Programs that work : California case examples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgrigues, G. [Southern California Edison, Rosemead, CA (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Examples of programs that work in California with respect to greenhouse gas emissions were discussed. Specifically, Southern California Edison (SCE) was noted as one of the country's largest investor-owned utilities that has provided environmental leadership in this area. Energy, environment, economy, and community were mentioned as being the four value propositions for demand side management (DSM) programs. The environmental benefits of California investor-owned utilities programs were also discussed. Customer participation in SCE's energy efficiency programs was defined as an important measure of success. Other topics that were addressed in the presentation included energy efficiency in the long-term resource plan; ratcheting codes and standards; effective marketing and outreach; residential and non-residential programs; partnership programs; and competitively-selected programs. Measurement, verification and evaluation were noted as being real savings. Initiatives on the horizon such as the California solar initiative and Edison smartconnect were presented. tabs., figs.

  12. Archiving and Distributing Seismic Data at the Southern California Earthquake Data Center (SCEDC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, V. L.

    2002-12-01

    The Southern California Earthquake Data Center (SCEDC) archives and provides public access to earthquake parametric and waveform data gathered by the Southern California Seismic Network and since January 1, 2001, the TriNet seismic network, southern California's earthquake monitoring network. The parametric data in the archive includes earthquake locations, magnitudes, moment-tensor solutions and phase picks. The SCEDC waveform archive prior to TriNet consists primarily of short-period, 100-samples-per-second waveforms from the SCSN. The addition of the TriNet array added continuous recordings of 155 broadband stations (20 samples per second or less), and triggered seismograms from 200 accelerometers and 200 short-period instruments. Since the Data Center and TriNet use the same Oracle database system, new earthquake data are available to the seismological community in near real-time. Primary access to the database and waveforms is through the Seismogram Transfer Program (STP) interface. The interface enables users to search the database for earthquake information, phase picks, and continuous and triggered waveform data. Output is available in SAC, miniSEED, and other formats. Both the raw counts format (V0) and the gain-corrected format (V1) of COSMOS (Consortium of Organizations for Strong-Motion Observation Systems) are now supported by STP. EQQuest is an interface to prepackaged waveform data sets for select earthquakes in Southern California stored at the SCEDC. Waveform data for large-magnitude events have been prepared and new data sets will be available for download in near real-time following major events. The parametric data from 1981 to present has been loaded into the Oracle 9.2.0.1 database system and the waveforms for that time period have been converted to mSEED format and are accessible through the STP interface. The DISC optical-disk system (the "jukebox") that currently serves as the mass-storage for the SCEDC is in the process of being replaced

  13. Wastewater effluent dispersal in Southern California Bays

    KAUST Repository

    Uchiyama, Yusuke; Idica, Eileen Y.; McWilliams, James C.; Stolzenbach, Keith D.

    2014-01-01

    The dispersal and dilution of urban wastewater effluents from offshore, subsurface outfalls is simulated with a comprehensive circulation model with downscaling in nested grid configurations for San Pedro and Santa Monica Bays in Southern California during Fall of 2006. The circulation is comprised of mean persistent currents, mesoscale and submesoscale eddies, and tides. Effluent volume inflow rates at Huntington Beach and Hyperion are specified, and both their present outfall locations and alternative nearshore diversion sites are assessed. The effluent tracer concentration fields are highly intermittent mainly due to eddy currents, and their probability distribution functions have long tails of high concentration. The dilution rate is controlled by submesoscale stirring and straining in tracer filaments. The dominant dispersal pattern is alongshore in both directions, approximately along isobaths, over distances of more than 10. km before dilution takes over. The current outfall locations mostly keep the effluent below the surface and away from the shore, as intended, but the nearshore diversions do not. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Wastewater effluent dispersal in Southern California Bays

    KAUST Repository

    Uchiyama, Yusuke

    2014-03-01

    The dispersal and dilution of urban wastewater effluents from offshore, subsurface outfalls is simulated with a comprehensive circulation model with downscaling in nested grid configurations for San Pedro and Santa Monica Bays in Southern California during Fall of 2006. The circulation is comprised of mean persistent currents, mesoscale and submesoscale eddies, and tides. Effluent volume inflow rates at Huntington Beach and Hyperion are specified, and both their present outfall locations and alternative nearshore diversion sites are assessed. The effluent tracer concentration fields are highly intermittent mainly due to eddy currents, and their probability distribution functions have long tails of high concentration. The dilution rate is controlled by submesoscale stirring and straining in tracer filaments. The dominant dispersal pattern is alongshore in both directions, approximately along isobaths, over distances of more than 10. km before dilution takes over. The current outfall locations mostly keep the effluent below the surface and away from the shore, as intended, but the nearshore diversions do not. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Adding new natural gas pipeline capacity during a transition toward competitive natural gas markets: the case of California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimison, J.W.

    1992-01-01

    Major changes are imminent for the California natural gas market. Enlargements of interstate natural gas pipeline capacity have been proposed, to California from six producing regions in the U.S. and Canada. Planned to alleviate current constraints, the proposed new capacity, if it is all built, will exceed the projected amount required for peak day supplies for years to come, and could overturn current market dynamics and price-setting. Concurrently, the regulatory controls applying to California utilities and customers have been undergoing a profound change under guidance of the California Public Utility Commission, as have the regulations applying to interstate pipelines under the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. Under the new rules, the risks but not necessarily the benefits of excess pipeline construction and market changes appear likely to fall on shippers and industrial customers, rather than small utility ratepayers. Disputes are under way over the entitlement of various groups to the depreciated value of some existing capacity, including the issue of pricing the new capacity on a rolled-in or incremental basis. Disputes are also likely over responsibility for the costs of other existing interstate capacity which may be idled as a result of the surplus

  16. River plume patterns and dynamics within the Southern California Bight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrick, J.A.; DiGiacomo, P.M.; Weisberg, S.B.; Nezlin, N.P.; Mengel, M.; Jones, B.H.; Ohlmann, J.C.; Washburn, L.; Terrill, E.J.; Farnsworth, K.L.

    2007-01-01

    Stormwater river plumes are important vectors of marine contaminants and pathogens in the Southern California Bight. Here we report the results of a multi-institution investigation of the river plumes across eight major river systems of southern California. We use in situ water samples from multi-day cruises in combination with MODIS satellite remote sensing, buoy meteorological observations, drifters, and HF radar current measurements to evaluate the dispersal patterns and dynamics of the freshwater plumes. River discharge was exceptionally episodic, and the majority of storm discharge occurred in a few hours. The combined plume observing techniques revealed that plumes commonly detach from the coast and turn to the left, which is the opposite direction of Coriolis influence. Although initial offshore velocity of the buoyant plumes was ∼50 cm/s and was influenced by river discharge inertia (i.e., the direct momentum of the river flux) and buoyancy, subsequent advection of the plumes was largely observed in an alongshore direction and dominated by local winds. Due to the multiple day upwelling wind conditions that commonly follow discharge events, plumes were observed to flow from their respective river mouths to down-coast waters at rates of 20–40 km/d. Lastly, we note that suspended-sediment concentration and beam-attenuation were poorly correlated with plume salinity across and within the sampled plumes (mean r2=0.12 and 0.25, respectively), while colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) fluorescence was well correlated (mean r2=0.56), suggesting that CDOM may serve as a good tracer of the discharged freshwater in subsequent remote sensing and monitoring efforts of plumes.

  17. Exceptional Leadership in Exceptional Times: Perspectives and Ideologies of Special Education Directors in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diggs, Tangela R.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative phenomenological study was to explore the self-reported personal perspectives of special education directors in K-12 urban school districts in Southern California. Over 20,000 administrators oversee the delivery of special education services in the United States and the demand for such leadership exceeds the supply…

  18. Remaining recoverable petroleum in giant oil fields of the Los Angeles Basin, southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautier, Donald L.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Cook, Troy A.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.

    2012-01-01

    Using a probabilistic geology-based methodology, a team of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists recently assessed the remaining recoverable oil in 10 oil fields of the Los Angeles Basin in southern California. The results of the assessment suggest that between 1.4 and 5.6 billion barrels of additional oil could be recovered from those fields with existing technology.

  19. A shallow-diving seabird predator as an indicator of prey availability in southern California waters: A longitudinal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, M. H.; Whitcombe, C. D.

    2015-06-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the Elegant Tern (Thalasseus elegans), a plunge-diving predator, is an indicator of changes in the prey community in southern California coastal waters. Shannon diversity (H‧) of the tern's diet determined from dropped fish collected variously at the three nesting sites for 18 years over a 21-year interval (1993-2013) showed no significant change in diet diversity. Based on a species-accumulation curve, total diet species represented about 70% of an extrapolated asymptotic richness. Abundance patterns of five prey species making up > 75% of prey numbers for all years were compared with abundance patterns of the same species in independent surveys obtained from zooplankton tows, bottom trawls and power-plant entrapments. Three of the five species - northern anchovy, kelp pipefish and California lizardfish - showed significant, positive correlations between diet and survey abundances. Even though the tern's diet has been dominated by anchovy and pipefish, its diet is still broad, with prey taxa representing > 75% of the 42 species groups making up the California shelf fish fauna. Altogether, our results support the hypothesis that the Elegant Tern, with its flexible diet, is a qualitative indicator, a sentinel, of changes in the prey communities in southern California coastal waters.

  20. Water demand studies. [central and southern California regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, L. W.; Estes, J. E.; Churchman, C. W.; Johnson, C. W.; Huning, J. R.; Rozelle, K.; Hamilton, J.; Washburn, G.; Tinney, L. R.; Thaman, R. R.

    1973-01-01

    The areas of focus of the Santa Barbara and Riverside groups in conducting water demand studies are the central and southern California regional test sites, respectively. Within each test site, sub-areas have been selected for use in the making of detailed investigations. Within each of these sub-areas an in-depth evaluation is being made as to the capability of remote sensing systems to provide pertinent data relative to water demand phenomena. These more limited sub-areas are: (1) Kern County and the San Joaquin Basin; (2) Chino-Riverside Basin; and (3) the Imperial Valley. Rational for the selection of these subareas included the following: Much of the previous remote sensing research had been conducted in these areas and therefore a great deal of remote sensing imagery and pertinent ground truth for the areas was already available.

  1. Extensive geographic and ontogenetic variation characterizes the trophic ecology of a temperate reef fish on southern California (USA) rocky reefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Scott L.; Caselle, Jennifer E.; Lantz, Coulson A.; Egloff, Tiana L.; Kondo, Emi; Newsome, Seth D.; Loke-Smith, Kerri; Pondella, Daniel J.; Young, Kelly A.; Lowe, Christopher G.

    2015-01-01

    Interactions between predator and prey act to shape the structure of ecological communities, and these interactions can differ across space. California sheephead Semicossyphus pulcher are common predators of benthic invertebrates in kelp beds and rocky reefs in southern California, USA. Through gut content and stable isotope (δ13C and †15N) analyses, we investigated geographic and ontogenetic variation in trophic ecology across 9 populations located at island and mainland sites throughout southern California. We found extensive geographic variation in California sheephead diet composition over small spatial scales. Populations differed in the proportion of sessile filter/suspension feeders or mobile invertebrates in the diet. Spatial variation in diet was highly correlated with other life history and demographic traits (e.g. growth, survivorship, reproductive condition, and energy storage), in addition to proxies of prey availability from community surveys. Multivariate descriptions of the diet from gut contents roughly agreed with the spatial groupings of sites based on stable isotope analysis of both California sheephead and their prey. Ontogenetic changes in diet occurred consistently across populations, despite spatial differences in size structure. As California sheephead increase in size, diets shift from small filter feeders, like bivalves, to larger mobile invertebrates, such as sea urchins. Our results indicate that locations with large California sheephead present, such as many marine reserves, may experience increased predation pressure on sea urchins, which could ultimately affect kelp persistence. PMID:26246648

  2. Crustal-scale tilting of the central Salton block, southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsey, Rebecca; Langenheim, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    The southern San Andreas fault system (California, USA) provides an excellent natural laboratory for studying the controls on vertical crustal motions related to strike-slip deformation. Here we present geologic, geomorphic, and gravity data that provide evidence for active northeastward tilting of the Santa Rosa Mountains and southern Coachella Valley about a horizontal axis oriented parallel to the San Jacinto and San Andreas faults. The Santa Rosa fault, a strand of the San Jacinto fault zone, is a large southwest-dipping normal fault on the west flank of the Santa Rosa Mountains that displays well-developed triangular facets, narrow footwall canyons, and steep hanging-wall alluvial fans. Geologic and geomorphic data reveal ongoing footwall uplift in the southern Santa Rosa Mountains, and gravity data suggest total vertical separation of ∼5.0–6.5 km from the range crest to the base of the Clark Valley basin. The northeast side of the Santa Rosa Mountains has a gentler topographic gradient, large alluvial fans, no major active faults, and tilted inactive late Pleistocene fan surfaces that are deeply incised by modern upper fan channels. Sediments beneath the Coachella Valley thicken gradually northeast to a depth of ∼4–5 km at an abrupt boundary at the San Andreas fault. These features all record crustal-scale tilting to the northeast that likely started when the San Jacinto fault zone initiated ca. 1.2 Ma. Tilting appears to be driven by oblique shortening and loading across a northeast-dipping southern San Andreas fault, consistent with the results of a recent boundary-element modeling study.

  3. Identification of two distinct fire regimes in Southern California: implications for economic impact and future change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yufang Jin; Michael L. Goulden; Nicolas Faivre; Sander Veraverbeke; Fengpeng Sun; Alex Hall; Michael S. Hand; Simon Hook; James T. Randerson

    2015-01-01

    The area burned by Southern California wildfires has increased in recent decades, with implications for human health, infrastructure, and ecosystem management. Meteorology and fuel structure are universally recognized controllers of wildfire, but their relative importance, and hence the efficacy of abatement and suppression efforts, remains controversial....

  4. Executive Summary: EPA's Waiver Decision on California's Greenhouse Gas Emission Standards for New Motor Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    This letter from EPA Administrator Stephen Johnson to Governor Schwarzenegger denies California's request for a waiver of Federal preemption for motor vehicle greenhouse gas emission standards submitted by the California Air Resources Board (CARB).

  5. Southern California Edison High Penetration Photovoltaic Project - Year 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mather, B.; Kroposki, B.; Neal, R.; Katiraei, F.; Yazdani, A.; Aguero, J. R.; Hoff, T. E.; Norris, B. L.; Parkins, A.; Seguin, R.; Schauder, C.

    2011-06-01

    This report discusses research efforts from the first year of a project analyzing the impacts of high penetration levels of photovoltaic (PV) resources interconnected onto Southern California Edison's (SCE's) distribution system. SCE will be interconnecting a total of 500 MW of commercial scale PV within their service territory by 2015. This Year 1 report describes the need for investigating high-penetration PV scenarios on the SCE distribution system; discusses the necessary PV system modeling and distribution system simulation advances; describes the available distribution circuit data for the two distribution circuits identified in the study; and discusses the additional inverter functionality that could be implemented in order to specifically mitigate some of the undesirable distribution system impacts caused by high-penetration PV installations.

  6. Using Landsat-based evapotranspiration data to assess the linkages between water right transfers and economic transactions in southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senay, G. B.; Velpuri, N. M.; Schauer, M.; Friedrichs, M.; Singh, R. K.

    2017-12-01

    We used 31 years (1984-2014) of cloud-free Landsat data (3,396 Landsat scenes) to estimate evapotranspiration over the southwestern United States using the Operational Simplified Surface Energy Balance (SSEBop) model. We focused on some of California's most agriculture-intensive watersheds (8 central valley watersheds and Palo Verde Irrigation District (PVID)). Farmers in southern California (including PVID) have water rights on the Colorado River. After meeting competing demands for agriculture (irrigation) and rural domestic use, the Colorado River is diverted to meet urban water demands in southern California. Due to the population growth and increasing domestic use, farmers have entered a special agreement to transfer their water rights under the fallowing program to the Metropolitan Water District (MWD) of southern California. MWD supplies water to 19 million people, more than half of California's population, and is the largest supplier of treated water in the United States. In this study, we presented the total annual volumetric water use in the Palo Verde Irrigation District since 1984 and computed historical annual crop water saved due to a fallowing program. We then converted volumetric water saved to total payouts to farmers in dollars and estimated the number of beneficiary households in the Greater Los Angeles area. It is interesting to see that nearly 120,000 acre-feet of water was transferred from PVID to MWD in 2011 and the cost of water payouts were over $20 million. This water saving met the demands of over 325,000 households in the Greater Los Angeles area. This analysis helps to a) demonstrate an approach to estimate and compare annual water use and water payments/savings using satellite data, b) monitor water rights compliance in an irrigation district, c) demonstrate the impact of water savings, and d) understand the interconnections between land-water management and socio-economic transactions across multiple spatio-temporal scales.

  7. Insights into hydroclimatic variability of Southern California since 125 ka, from multi-proxy analyses of alpine lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, K. C.; MacDonald, G. M.; Kirby, M.

    2016-12-01

    Hydroclimatic variability is especially important in California, a water-stressed and increasingly populous region. We assess the range of past hydroclimatic sensitivity and variability in the San Bernardino Mountains of Southern California based on 125 ka of lacustrine sediment records. Geochemistry, charcoal and pollen highlight periods of sustained moisture, aridity and sudden variability driven by orbital and oceanic variations. Marine Isotope Stage 3 (MIS 3) is one such period of greater moisture availability that lasted c. 30 kyr, with smaller-scale perturbations likely reflect North Atlantic Dansgaard-Oeschgar events. Past glacial periods, MIS 4 and MIS 2, display high-amplitude changes. These include periods of reduced forest cover that span millennia, indicating long-lasting aridity. Rapid forest expansion also occurs, marking sudden shifts towards wet conditions. Fire regimes have also changed in tandem with hydroclimate and vegetation. Higher-resolution analysis of the past 10 ka shows that Southern California hydroclimate was broadly similar to other regions of the Southwest and Great Basin, including an orbital and oceanic-driven wet Early Holocene, dry Mid-Holocene, and highly variable Late Holocene. Shorter-term pluvial conditions occur throughout the Holocene, with episodic moisture likely derived from a Pacific source.

  8. Geomorphology of the Southern Gulf of California Seafloor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eakins, B. W.; Lonsdale, P. F.; Fletcher, J. M.; Ledesma, J. V.

    2004-12-01

    A Spring 2004 multibeam sonar survey defined the seafloor geomorphology of the southern part of Gulf of California and the intersection of the East Pacific Rise with the North American continent. Survey goals included mapping structural patterns formed during the rifting that opened the Gulf and identifying the spatial transition from continental rifting to seafloor spreading. Multibeam sonar imagery, augmented with archival data and a subaerial DEM of Mexico, illuminates the principal features of this boundary zone between obliquely diverging plates: (i) active and inactive oceanic risecrests within young oceanic basins that are rich in evidence for off-axis magmatic eruption and intrusion; (ii) transforms with pull-apart basins and transpressive ridges along shearing continental margins and within oceanic crust; (iii) orphaned blocks of continental crust detached from sheared and rifted continental margins; and (iv) young, still-extending continental margins dissected by submarine canyons that in many cases are deeply drowned river valleys. Many of the canyons are conduits for turbidity currents that feed deep-sea fans on oceanic and subsided continental crust, and channel sediment to spreading axes, thereby modifying the crustal accretion process. We present a series of detailed bathymetric and seafloor reflectivity maps of this MARGINS Rupturing Continental Lithosphere focus site illustrating geomorphologic features of the southern part of the Gulf, from Guaymas Basin to the Maria Magdalena Rise.

  9. Remote Sensing Analysis of Vegetation Recovery following Short-Interval Fires in Southern California Shrublands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Ran; Dennison, Philip E.; D’Antonio, Carla M.; Moritz, Max A.

    2014-01-01

    Increased fire frequency has been shown to promote alien plant invasions in the western United States, resulting in persistent vegetation type change. Short interval fires are widely considered to be detrimental to reestablishment of shrub species in southern California chaparral, facilitating the invasion of exotic annuals and producing “type conversion”. However, supporting evidence for type conversion has largely been at local, site scales and over short post-fire time scales. Type conversion has not been shown to be persistent or widespread in chaparral, and past range improvement studies present evidence that chaparral type conversion may be difficult and a relatively rare phenomenon across the landscape. With the aid of remote sensing data covering coastal southern California and a historical wildfire dataset, the effects of short interval fires (fire history, climate and elevation) were analyzed by linear regression. Reduced vegetation cover was found in some lower elevation areas that were burned twice in short interval fires, where non-sprouting species are more common. However, extensive type conversion of chaparral to grassland was not evident in this study. Most variables, with the exception of elevation, were moderately or poorly correlated with differences in vegetation recovery. PMID:25337785

  10. Webinar Presentation: Air Pollution, Social and Psychosocial Stress, and Respitory Health in the Southern California Children's Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation, Air Pollution, Social and Psychosocial Stress, and Respitory Health in the Southern California Children's Health Study, was given at the NIEHS/EPA Children's Centers 2016 Webinar Series: Exposome held on May 11, 2016.

  11. Balanced Sediment Fluxes in Southern California's Mediterranean-climate Zone Salt Marshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosencranz, J. A.; Dickhudt, P.; Ganju, N. K.; Thorne, K.; Takekawa, J.; Ambrose, R. F.; Guntenspergen, G. R.; Brosnahan, S.; MacDonald, G. M.

    2015-12-01

    Salt marsh elevation and geomorphic stability depends on mineral sedimentation. Many southern California, USA salt marshes import sediment during El Niño storm events, but sediment fluxes and mechanisms during dry weather are also potentially important for marsh stability. We calculated tidal creek sediment fluxes within a sediment starved 1.5 km2 salt marsh (Seal Beach) and a less modified 1 km2 marsh (Mugu) with a watershed sediment supply. We measured salt marsh plain suspended sediment concentration and vertical accretion using single stage samplers and marker horizons. At Seal Beach, a 2014 storm yielded 39 and 28 g/s mean sediment fluxes and imported 12000 and 8800 kg in a western channel. This offset 8700 kg export during two months of dry weather, while landward net fluxes in the eastern channel accounted for 33% of the import. During the storm, suspended sediment concentrations on the marsh plain increased by a factor of four; accretion was 1-2 mm near creek levees. An exceptionally high tide sequence at Mugu yielded 4.4 g/s mean sediment flux, importing 1700 kg, accounting for 20% of dry weather fluxes. Overall, low sediment fluxes were observed, suggesting that these salt marshes are currently geomorphically stable. Our results suggest that storms and exceptionally high lunar tides may play large roles, importing sediment and maintaining dry weather sediment flux balances for southern California salt marshes. However, under future climate change and sea-level rise scenarios, results suggest that balanced sediment fluxes may lead to marsh elevational instability, based on estimated mineral sediment deficits.

  12. The response of southern California ecosystems to Younger Dryas-like rapid climate change: Comparison of glacial terminations 1 and 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heusser, L. E.; Hendy, I. L.

    2015-12-01

    The Younger Dryas is a well-known rapid climatic cooling that interrupted the Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 1-2 deglacial warming of Termination 1. This cool event has been associated with ice sheet readvance, meridional overturning, circulation changes, and southward movement of the Intertropical Convergence Zone. In Southern California, the Younger Dryas has been associated with cooler SST, low marine productivity, a well-ventilated oxygen minimum zone, and a wetter climate. Similar rapid cooling events have been found at other terminations including Termination 5 at the MIS 11-12 deglaciation (~425 Ka) identified by ice rafting events in the North Atlantic. Here we present new pollen census data from a unique suite of cores taken from the sub-oxic sediments of Santa Barbara Basin (MV0508-15JC, MV0805-20JC, MV0508-33JC, 29JC and 21JC). These short cores, collected on a truncated anticline within SBB, provide the opportunity to examine the response of southern California terrestrial and marine ecosystems to rapid climate change during the MIS 11-12 deglaciation (Termination 5), which is identified by a bioturbated interval within a sequence of laminated sediments. During Termination 1, changes in Southern California precipitation are reflected in pollen- based reconstructions Southern California vegetation. The high precipitation of glacial montane-coniferous assemblages of pine (Pinus) and Juniper (Juniperus/Calocedrus) transitions into interglacial drought, as expresssed by arid oak (Quercus)/chaparral vegetation. The Younger Dryas interrupts the transition as a high-amplitude pulse in pine associated with increased Gramineae (grass). Termination 5 differs, as the high precipitation of glacial montane-coniferous assemblages do not transition into arid oak/chaparral vegetation. However, a Younger Dryas-like rapid climate event was associated with increased pine and grass.

  13. Impact of Natural Gas Appliances on Pollutant Levels in California Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullen, Nasim A.; Li, Jina; Singer, Brett C.

    2012-12-01

    This report presents results from the first year of a 2-year study, investigating associations of five air pollutants (CO, NO2, NOX, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde) with the presence of natural gas appliances in California homes. From November 2011 to March 2012, pollutant concentration and occupant activity data were collected in 155 homes for 6-day periods. The sample population included both single-family (68%) and multi-family (32%) dwellings, with 87% having at least one gas appliance and 77% having an unvented gas cooking appliance. The geometric mean (GM) NO2 levels measured in the kitchen, bedroom and outside of homes were similar at values of 15, 12 and 11 ppb, respectively. In contrast, the GM NOx levels measured in the kitchen and bedroom of homes were much higher than levels measured outdoors, at levels of 42 and 41 ppb, compared to 19 ppb, respectively. Roughly 10% of sampled homes had 6-day average NO2 levels that exceeded the outdoor annual average limit set by the California Ambient Air Quality Standards (CAAQS) (30 ppb). The GMs of the highest 1-h and 8-h CO level measured in homes were 2.5 and 1.1 ppm, respectively. Four homes had a 1-h or 8-h concentration that exceeded the outdoor limits set by the CAAQS. The GM formaldehyde and acetaldehyde concentrations measured in homes were 15 and 7 ppb, respectively. Roughly 95% of homes had average formaldehyde levels indoors that exceeded the Chronic Reference Exposure Level set by the California EPA (7 ppb). Concentrations of NO2 and NOx, and to a lesser extent CO were associated with use of gas appliances, particularly unvented gas cooking appliances. Based on first principles, it is expected that effective venting of cooking pollutant emissions at the source will lead to a reduction of pollutant concentrations. However, no statistical association was detected between kitchen exhaust fan use and pollutant concentrations in homes in this study where gas cooking occurred frequently. The lack of

  14. Estimating Policy-Driven Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trajectories in California: The California Greenhouse Gas Inventory Spreadsheet (GHGIS) Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenblatt, Jeffery B.

    2013-10-10

    A California Greenhouse Gas Inventory Spreadsheet (GHGIS) model was developed to explore the impact of combinations of state policies on state greenhouse gas (GHG) and regional criteria pollutant emissions. The model included representations of all GHG- emitting sectors of the California economy (including those outside the energy sector, such as high global warming potential gases, waste treatment, agriculture and forestry) in varying degrees of detail, and was carefully calibrated using available data and projections from multiple state agencies and other sources. Starting from basic drivers such as population, numbers of households, gross state product, numbers of vehicles, etc., the model calculated energy demands by type (various types of liquid and gaseous hydrocarbon fuels, electricity and hydrogen), and finally calculated emissions of GHGs and three criteria pollutants: reactive organic gases (ROG), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and fine (2.5 ?m) particulate matter (PM2.5). Calculations were generally statewide, but in some sectors, criteria pollutants were also calculated for two regional air basins: the South Coast Air Basin (SCAB) and the San Joaquin Valley (SJV). Three scenarios were developed that attempt to model: (1) all committed policies, (2) additional, uncommitted policy targets and (3) potential technology and market futures. Each scenario received extensive input from state energy planning agencies, in particular the California Air Resources Board. Results indicate that all three scenarios are able to meet the 2020 statewide GHG targets, and by 2030, statewide GHG emissions range from between 208 and 396 MtCO2/yr. However, none of the scenarios are able to meet the 2050 GHG target of 85 MtCO2/yr, with emissions ranging from 188 to 444 MtCO2/yr, so additional policies will need to be developed for California to meet this stringent future target. A full sensitivity study of major scenario assumptions was also performed. In terms of criteria pollutants

  15. Impact of a Large San Andreas Fault Earthquake on Tall Buildings in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, S.; Ji, C.; Komatitsch, D.; Tromp, J.

    2004-12-01

    In 1857, an earthquake of magnitude 7.9 occurred on the San Andreas fault, starting at Parkfield and rupturing in a southeasterly direction for more than 300~km. Such a unilateral rupture produces significant directivity toward the San Fernando and Los Angeles basins. The strong shaking in the basins due to this earthquake would have had a significant long-period content (2--8~s). If such motions were to happen today, they could have a serious impact on tall buildings in Southern California. In order to study the effects of large San Andreas fault earthquakes on tall buildings in Southern California, we use the finite source of the magnitude 7.9 2001 Denali fault earthquake in Alaska and map it onto the San Andreas fault with the rupture originating at Parkfield and proceeding southward over a distance of 290~km. Using the SPECFEM3D spectral element seismic wave propagation code, we simulate a Denali-like earthquake on the San Andreas fault and compute ground motions at sites located on a grid with a 2.5--5.0~km spacing in the greater Southern California region. We subsequently analyze 3D structural models of an existing tall steel building designed in 1984 as well as one designed according to the current building code (Uniform Building Code, 1997) subjected to the computed ground motion. We use a sophisticated nonlinear building analysis program, FRAME3D, that has the ability to simulate damage in buildings due to three-component ground motion. We summarize the performance of these structural models on contour maps of carefully selected structural performance indices. This study could benefit the city in laying out emergency response strategies in the event of an earthquake on the San Andreas fault, in undertaking appropriate retrofit measures for tall buildings, and in formulating zoning regulations for new construction. In addition, the study would provide risk data associated with existing and new construction to insurance companies, real estate developers, and

  16. Structure and Deformation in the Transpressive Zone of Southern California Inferred from Seismicity, Velocity, and Qp Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauksson, E.; Shearer, P.

    2004-12-01

    We synthesize relocated regional seismicity and 3D velocity and Qp models to infer structure and deformation in the transpressive zone of southern California. These models provide a comprehensive synthesis of the tectonic fabric of the upper to middle crust, and the brittle ductile transition zone that in some cases extends into the lower crust. The regional seismicity patterns in southern California are brought into focus when the hypocenters are relocated using the double difference method. In detail, often the spatial correlation between background seismicity and late Quaternary faults is improved as the hypocenters become more clustered, and the spatial patterns are more sharply defined. Along some of the strike-slip faults the seismicity clusters decrease in width and form alignments implying that in many cases the clusters are associated with a single fault. In contrast, the Los Angeles Basin seismicity remains mostly scattered, reflecting a 3D distribution of the tectonic compression. We present the results of relocating 327,000 southern California earthquakes that occurred between 1984 and 2002. In particular, the depth distribution is improved and less affected by layer boundaries in velocity models or other similar artifacts, and thus improves the definition of the brittle ductile transition zone. The 3D VP and VP/VS models confirm existing tectonic interpretations and provide new insights into the configuration of the geological structures in southern California. The models extend from the US-Mexico border in the south to the Coast Ranges and Sierra Nevada in the north, and have 15 km horizontal grid spacing and an average vertical grid spacing of 4 km, down to 22 km depth. The heterogeneity of the crustal structure as imaged in both the VP and VP/VS models is larger within the Pacific than the North America plate, reflecting regional asymmetric variations in the crustal composition and past tectonic processes. Similarly, the relocated seismicity is

  17. The chemical composition of fogs and clouds in Southern California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munger, J.W.

    1989-01-01

    The major inorganic species in cloud and fog water samples were NH{sub 4}{sup +}, H{sup +}, NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, and SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}. Concentrations in fog water samples were 1 - 10 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} M; pH values ranged from {approx equal} 2 to 6. Nitrate usually exceeded sulfate. Acidity depended on the availability of NH{sub 3} from agricultural operations. Stratus cloudwater had somewhat lower concentrations; pH values were in the range 3-4. The major factors accounting for variation in fog- or cloudwater composition were the preexisting aerosol and gas concentrations and variations in liquid water content. Deposition and entrainment or advection of different air masses were also important during extended cloud or fog episodes. The droplet size dependence of cloudwater composition was investigated on one occasion in an intercepted coastal stratus clouds. Concentrations of S(IV) and CH{sub 2}O in the range 100-1000 {mu}M were observed in fogwater from urban sites in Southern California. Lower concentrations were observed in stratus clouds. The high levels of S(IV) and CH{sub 2}O were attributed to the formation of hydroxymethanesulfonate (HMSA), the S(IV) adduct of CH{sub 2}O. Direct measurements of HMSA in fogwater samples from Bakersfield, CA were made by ion-pairing chromatography. Glyoxal and methyglyoxal were observed at concentrations comparable to CH{sub 2}O in fogwater samples from Riverside, CA and in stratus cloudwater samples from sites along the Santa Barbara Channel.

  18. Using Oil and Gas Well Log Records to Understand Possible Connections Between Wastewater Injection Zones and Usable Groundwater Aquifers in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimabukuro, D.; Haugen, E. A.; Battistella, C.; Treguboff, E. W.; Kale, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    Although the disposal of produced water in wastewater injection wells has been occurring in California for decades, it is not clear whether injected fluids may be migrating into usable groundwater aquifers. One problem is the poor characterization of federally-protected (oil and gas well records collected by the California Division of Oil, Gas, and Geothermal Resources (DOGGR). These scanned records contain two useful sources of information. First, geophysical well logs, such those measuring resistivity and porosity, can be used to determine aquifer salinity. This allows a three-dimensional understanding of the distribution of protected groundwater. Second, driller's logs contain lithological descriptions at depth. These lithologies can be used to construct a three-dimensional texture model, which can then be used in a groundwater flow model. A large number of undergraduate researchers at CSU Sacramento and CSU Long Beach have been collecting information on well records in the Ventura Basin and the Southern San Joaquin Valley. Each well record is examined with basic metadata entered into an online database in an effort to identify appropriate geophysical well logs and driller's logs. High-quality driller's logs are coded and used to create three-dimensional framework models for each well field. The geophysical logs are digitized and will be used to determine aquifer salinity. In addition, we are using information from the DOGGR well records to investigate wellbore integrity, waste disposal and waterflood injection volumes, and the possibility of induced seismicity. This project is part of the broader effort of the California State Water Resources Control Board to implement Senate Bill 4.

  19. The transformation of southern California's residential photovoltaics market through third-party ownership

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drury, Easan; Miller, Mackay; Macal, Charles M.; Graziano, Diane J.; Heimiller, Donna; Ozik, Jonathan; Perry IV, Thomas D.

    2012-01-01

    Third-party photovoltaics (PV) ownership is a rapidly growing market trend, where commercial companies own and operate customer-sited PV systems and lease PV equipment or sell PV electricity to the building occupant. Third-party PV companies can reduce or eliminate up-front adoption costs, reduce technology risk and complexity by monitoring system performance, and can repackage the PV value proposition by showing cost savings in the first month of ownership rather than payback times on the order of a decade. We find that the entrance of third-party business models in southern California residential PV markets has enticed a new demographic to adopt PV systems that is more highly correlated to younger, less affluent, and less educated populations than the demographics correlated to purchasing PV systems. By enticing new demographics to adopt PV, we find that third-party PV products are likely increasing total PV demand rather than gaining market share entirely at the expense of existing customer owned PV demand. We also find that mean population demographics are good predictors of third-party and customer owned PV adoption, and mean voting trends on California carbon policy (Proposition 23) are poor predictors of PV adoption. - Highlights: ► Third-party PV products increased residential PV demand in southern CA. ► Third-party PV products entice new demographic groups to adopt PV. ► Regional demographics are good predictors of PV demand. ► Regional voting trends on carbon policy are poor predictors of PV demand.

  20. The 2003 and 2007 wildfires in southern California: Chapter 5 in Natural Disasters and Adaptation to Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, Jon E.; Syphard, Alexandra D.; Fotheringham, C.J.; Boulter, Sarah; Palutikof, Jean; Karoly, David John; Guitart, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    Although many residents of southern California have long recognised that wildfires in the region are an ongoing, constant risk to lives and property, the enormity of the regional fire hazard caught the world’s attention during the southern California firestorms of 2003 (Figure 5.1). Beginning on 21 October, a series of fourteen wildfires broke out across the five-county region under severe Santa Ana winds, and within two weeks, more than 300,000 ha had burned (Keeley et al., 2004). The event was one of the costliest in the state’s history, with more than 3,600 homes damaged or destroyed and twenty-four fatalities. Suppression costs for the 12,000 firefighters have been estimated at US$120 million, and the total response and damage cost has been estimated at more than US$3 billion (COES, 2004). [Excerpt

  1. The Eastern California Shear Zone as the northward extension of the southern San Andreas Fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatcher, Wayne R.; Savage, James C.; Simpson, Robert W.

    2016-01-01

    Cluster analysis offers an agnostic way to organize and explore features of the current GPS velocity field without reference to geologic information or physical models using information only contained in the velocity field itself. We have used cluster analysis of the Southern California Global Positioning System (GPS) velocity field to determine the partitioning of Pacific-North America relative motion onto major regional faults. Our results indicate the large-scale kinematics of the region is best described with two boundaries of high velocity gradient, one centered on the Coachella section of the San Andreas Fault and the Eastern California Shear Zone and the other defined by the San Jacinto Fault south of Cajon Pass and the San Andreas Fault farther north. The ~120 km long strand of the San Andreas between Cajon Pass and Coachella Valley (often termed the San Bernardino and San Gorgonio sections) is thus currently of secondary importance and carries lesser amounts of slip over most or all of its length. We show these first order results are present in maps of the smoothed GPS velocity field itself. They are also generally consistent with currently available, loosely bounded geologic and geodetic fault slip rate estimates that alone do not provide useful constraints on the large-scale partitioning we show here. Our analysis does not preclude the existence of smaller blocks and more block boundaries in Southern California. However, attempts to identify smaller blocks along and adjacent to the San Gorgonio section were not successful.

  2. Vertical crustal movements in Southern California, 1974 to 1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burford, R.O.; Gilmore, Thomas D.

    1984-01-01

    An extensive resurvey of most of the first-order leveling network in southern California, known as the Southern California Releveling Program (SCRP), was carried out during the first 5 months of 1978. The primary scientific purpose of these measurements was to rapidly update the vertical control record throughout a recently uplifted region of southern California in order to more thoroughly document the vertical component of tectonic movement and to provide a reliable base for comparison with future levelings. Analyses of historic first-order leveling results have clearly demonstrated that a broad crustal upwarping, largely contained within a region consisting of the Transverse Ranges province and an area along the intervening section of the San Andreas fault system, had developed between about 1959 and 1974. Unfortunately, there is strong evidence that parts of the 1978 SCRP data are contaminated by the effects of intrasurvey tectonic deformation, limited surficial failures, and, less certainly, magnetically induced systematic error associated with the use of automatic levels. However, any distortions in leveling results caused by these or other factors are not so serious as to render the SCRP data useless. In fact, the bulk of these data can be accepted at face value, and most of the remaining data can be incorporated with some caution to augment the more reliable parts of the network. The evaluation of the 1978 leveling is based on a combination of circuit-misclosures, local timing of the field observations, analysis of profiles of apparent height changes derived from comparisons with previous levelings, and an analysis of the position and orientation of the various routes in relation to the regional structural grain and the gradients of differential vertical motion established by previous investigations. Comparisons of the 1978 SCRP results with the latest of the previous surveys along each route retained in the analysis show that all but about one-third of the

  3. Evaluating the effectiveness of burned area emergency response (BAER) efforts after the 2003 wildfires, southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter M. Wohlgemuth; Ken R. Hubbert; Jan L. Beyers; David R. Weise

    2007-01-01

    Wildfires burned approximately 300,000 hectares (750,000 acres) across southern California in the fall of 2003. Over 10 million dollars were spent on Burned Area Emergency Response (BAER) treatments following these fires. To support the BAER efforts, we designed a comprehensive strategy with standardized protocols to evaluate the effectiveness of various erosion...

  4. Biotelemetery data for golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) captured in coastal southern California, February 2016–February 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracey, Jeff A.; Madden, Melanie C.; Sebes, Jeremy B.; Bloom, Peter H.; Katzner, Todd E.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2017-05-12

    Because of a lack of clarity about the status of golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) in coastal southern California, the USGS, in collaboration with local, State, and other Federal agencies, began a multi-year survey and tracking program of golden eagles to address questions regarding habitat use, movement behavior, nest occupancy, genetic population structure, and human impacts on eagles. Golden eagle trapping and tracking efforts began in September 2014. During trapping efforts from September 29, 2014, to February 23, 2016, 27 golden eagles were captured. During trapping efforts from February 24, 2016, to February 23, 2017, an additional 10 golden eagles (7 females and 3 males) were captured in San Diego, Orange, and western Riverside Counties. Biotelemetry data for 26 of the 37 golden eagles that were transmitting data from February 24, 2016, to February 23, 2017 are presented. These eagles ranged as far north as northern Nevada and southern Wyoming, and as far south as La Paz, Baja California, Mexico.

  5. April 2008 Scripps Institute of Oceanography (SIO) Lidar of the Southern California Coastline: Long Beach to US/Mexico Border

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This lidar point data set collected during low tide conditions along an approximately 500-700 meter wide strip of the Southern California coastline within an area...

  6. November 2007 Scripps Institute of Oceanography (SIO) Lidar of the Southern California Coastline: Long Beach to US/Mexico Border

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This lidar point data set was collected during low tide conditions along an approximately 500-700 meter wide strip of the Southern California coastline within an...

  7. September 2008 Scripps Institute of Oceanography (SIO) Lidar of the Southern California Coastline: Long Beach to US/Mexico Border

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This lidar point data set was collected during low tide conditions along an approximately 500-700 meter wide strip of the Southern California coastline within an...

  8. March 2009 Scripps Institute of Oceanography (SIO) Lidar of the Southern California Coastline: Long Beach to US/Mexico Border

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This lidar point data set was collected during low tide conditions along an approximately 500-700 meter wide strip of the Southern California coastline within an...

  9. Hippotherapy: Remuneration issues impair the offering of this therapeutic strategy at Southern California rehabilitation centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Christine; Bitonte, Robert

    2016-04-06

    Hippotherapy is the use of equine movement in physical, occupational, or speech therapy in order to obtain functional improvements in patients. Studies show improvement in motor function and sensory processing for patients with a variety of neuromuscular disabilities, developmental disorders, or skeletal impairments as a result of using hippotherapy. The primary objective of this study is to identify the pervasiveness of hippotherapy in Southern California, and any factors that impair its utilization. One hundred and fifty-two rehabilitation centers in the Southern California counties of Los Angeles, San Diego, Orange, Riverside, San Bernardino, San Diego, San Luis Obispo, Santa Barbara, Ventura, and Kern County were identified, and surveyed to ascertain if hippotherapy is utilized, and if not, why not. Through a review of forty facilities that responded to our inquiry, our study indicates that the majority of rehabilitation centers are familiar with hippotherapy, however, only seven have reported that hippotherapy is indeed available as an option in therapy at their centers. It is concluded that hippotherapy, used in a broad based array of physical and sensory disorders, is limited in its ability to be utilized, primarily due to remuneration issues.

  10. Cool PDO phase leads to recent rebound in coastal southern California fog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witiw, Michael R.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between coastal fog in southern California and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO is investigated during the last decade. Fog occurrence was examined at two locations in southern California: San Diego and Los Angeles international airports. Both locations are located near the Pacific coast with strong marine influences. The period looked at was 2001 through 2012. The cool season (October-March and warm season (April-September were examined separately because of the different types of fog that prevail in each season. Previous studies have shown a relation between fog and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO. However, a switch in polarity in the PDO in the mid-1970s (from a cool to a warm phase coupled with a sharp decrease in particulate concentrations calls into question the strong relationship shown. Further studies suggest that the decrease in dense fog seen from the 1960s through the 1990s was largely due to increasing urban heat island effects coupled with a decrease in atmospheric particulate matter. Since 1998, the PDO again changed polarity and fog frequencies began to rise. However, urban heat island and particulate effects were relatively constant making it easier to isolate any effects of the PDO on fog occurrence. Previous studies examined the occurrence of dense fog (visibility less than 400 meters, but because of the decrease in fog in this category, 800 meters was chosen this time. That also corresponds to the 0.5 mile visibility which triggers special reports at the California airports when visibility moves through this threshold. Although there was no strong relationship between fog and PDO in the most recent period, Pacific Ocean oscillations were found to show significant relationships with fog frequencies historically. Upwelling indices show a significant relationship with fog frequencies when examined by the phase of the PDO. Even stronger relationships are found when selecting La Niña and El Niño events.

  11. Food limitation of sea lion pups and the decline of forage off central and southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClatchie, Sam; Field, John; Thompson, Andrew R.; Gerrodette, Tim; Lowry, Mark; Fiedler, Paul C.; Watson, William; Nieto, Karen M.; Vetter, Russell D.

    2016-01-01

    California sea lions increased from approximately 50 000 to 340 000 animals in the last 40 years, and their pups are starving and stranding on beaches in southern California, raising questions about the adequacy of their food supply. We investigated whether the declining sea lion pup weight at San Miguel rookery was associated with changes in abundance and quality of sardine, anchovy, rockfish and market squid forage. In the last decade off central California, where breeding female sea lions from San Miguel rookery feed, sardine and anchovy greatly decreased in biomass, whereas market squid and rockfish abundance increased. Pup weights fell as forage food quality declined associated with changes in the relative abundances of forage species. A model explained 67% of the variance in pup weights using forage from central and southern California and 81% of the variance in pup weights using forage from the female sea lion foraging range. A shift from high to poor quality forage for breeding females results in food limitation of the pups, ultimately flooding animal rescue centres with starving sea lion pups. Our study is unusual in using a long-term, fishery-independent dataset to directly address an important consequence of forage decline on the productivity of a large marine predator. Whether forage declines are environmentally driven, are due to a combination of environmental drivers and fishing removals, or are due to density-dependent interactions between forage and sea lions is uncertain. However, declining forage abundance and quality was coherent over a large area (32.5–38° N) for a decade, suggesting that trends in forage are environmentally driven. PMID:27069651

  12. 1962 : Bay City gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    In 1962, a major natural gas export system from Alberta to San Francisco was brought online. The $300 million, 2,200 km Alberta and Southern system was expected to transport 584 million cubic feet daily in its first year of operation, more than one-third the total volume of gas sold by Canadian producers the previous year. The new gas export market also served to create more gas for the Canadian market because the incentive to serve a large export market also encouraged producers to explore for and develop more gas. The pipeline system started in the foothills belt 200 km northwest of Edmonton, and spanned through Idaho, Washington, Oregon and California. One month before its official opening, a gas line explosion occurred during pressure testing of a lateral line. The Alberta portion of the Alberta and Southern system was also used 2 decades later as a tie-in to the Alaska Highway Gas Pipeline project. Other key events in 1962 included approval of the Great Canadian Oil Sands Limited; the manufacture of the first rock drill bits in western Canada; production of 90 million cubic feet of natural gas from 12 wells in Quebec; and, an increase in oil production from the Soviet Union. 1 tab., 1 fig

  13. The impact of antecedent fire area on burned area in southern California coastal ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Owen F.; Bradstock, Ross A.; Keeley, Jon E.; Syphard, Alexandra D.

    2012-01-01

    Frequent wildfire disasters in southern California highlight the need for risk reduction strategies for the region, of which fuel reduction via prescribed burning is one option. However, there is no consensus about the effectiveness of prescribed fire in reducing the area of wildfire. Here, we use 29 years of historical fire mapping to quantify the relationship between annual wildfire area and antecedent fire area in predominantly shrub and grassland fuels in seven southern California counties, controlling for annual variation in weather patterns. This method has been used elsewhere to measure leverage: the reduction in wildfire area resulting from one unit of prescribed fire treatment. We found little evidence for a leverage effect (leverage = zero). Specifically our results showed no evidence that wildfire area was negatively influenced by previous fires, and only weak relationships with weather variables rainfall and Santa Ana wind occurrences, which were variables included to control for inter-annual variation. We conclude that this is because only 2% of the vegetation burns each year and so wildfires rarely encounter burned patches and chaparral shrublands can carry a fire within 1 or 2 years after previous fire. Prescribed burning is unlikely to have much influence on fire regimes in this area, though targeted treatment at the urban interface may be effective at providing defensible space for protecting assets. These results fit an emerging global model of fire leverage which position California at the bottom end of a continuum, with tropical savannas at the top (leverage = 1: direct replacement of wildfire by prescribed fire) and Australian eucalypt forests in the middle (leverage ∼ 0.25).

  14. Effects of hydromulch on post-fire erosion and plant recovery in chaparral shrublands of southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ken R. Hubbert; Peter M. Wohlgemuth; Jan L. Beyers

    2012-01-01

    Following the Cedar Fire (one of seven large wildfires that burned in southern California during the autumn of 2003), aerial hydromulch was applied at 50 and 100% cover to reduce hillslope erosion in chaparral shrublands. Our objectives were to determine the effectiveness of hydromulch in preventing erosion, and to see if plant recovery was hindered by treatment. We...

  15. Path spectra derived from inversion of source and site spectra for earthquakes in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimasewski, A.; Sahakian, V. J.; Baltay, A.; Boatwright, J.; Fletcher, J. B.; Baker, L. M.

    2017-12-01

    A large source of epistemic uncertainty in Ground Motion Prediction Equations (GMPEs) is derived from the path term, currently represented as a simple geometric spreading and intrinsic attenuation term. Including additional physical relationships between the path properties and predicted ground motions would produce more accurate and precise, region-specific GMPEs by reclassifying some of the random, aleatory uncertainty as epistemic. This study focuses on regions of Southern California, using data from the Anza network and Southern California Seismic network to create a catalog of events magnitude 2.5 and larger from 1998 to 2016. The catalog encompasses regions of varying geology and therefore varying path and site attenuation. Within this catalog of events, we investigate several collections of event region-to-station pairs, each of which share similar origin locations and stations so that all events have similar paths. Compared with a simple regional GMPE, these paths consistently have high or low residuals. By working with events that have the same path, we can isolate source and site effects, and focus on the remaining residual as path effects. We decompose the recordings into source and site spectra for each unique event and site in our greater Southern California regional database using the inversion method of Andrews (1986). This model represents each natural log record spectra as the sum of its natural log event and site spectra, while constraining each record to a reference site or Brune source spectrum. We estimate a regional, path-specific anelastic attenuation (Q) and site attenuation (t*) from the inversion site spectra and corner frequency from the inversion event spectra. We then compute the residuals between the observed record data, and the inversion model prediction (event*site spectra). This residual is representative of path effects, likely anelastic attenuation along the path that varies from the regional median attenuation. We examine the

  16. Characterizing pinniped use of offshore oil and gas platforms as haulouts and foraging areas in waters off southern California from 2013-01-01 to 2015-01-31 (NCEI Accession 0138984)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) and Pacific harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) use offshore oil and gas platforms as resting and foraging areas. Both...

  17. March 2007 Scripps Institute of Oceanography (SIO) Lidar of the Southern California Coastline: Long Beach to the US/Mexico Border

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This lidar point data set was collected during low tide conditions along an approximately 500-700 meter wide strip of the Southern California coastline within an...

  18. Data collected in the Southern California Bight in order to understand the coastal waters ecological systems, 1977 - 1999 (NODC Accession 0001162)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemistry, fish species, atmospheric pollutants, and temperature profile were collected using CTD casts and other collection methods in the Southern California Bight...

  19. Using small mammals to understand the effects of urbanization in Southern California over the last 100 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loza, E.; Cotton, J. M.; Smiley, T. M.; Terry, R. C.

    2017-12-01

    Environmental and climate change due to urbanization has been occurring for the last 100 years, but we do not yet know the full extent of these impacts on ecosystems at local to regional scales. To investigate these impacts, we leverage extensive historical collections of small mammals, which can serve as indicators of past and modern ecosystem change. Here, we use the stable isotopic composition of hair from Peromyscus maniculatus, a widespread generalist rodent, to better understand the influence of urbanization over the last 100 years. The stable isotopic composition of small-mammal diets are recorded in the hair of these historical specimens, thereby providing a long-term record of climate and environmental change. Carbon isotopes (δ13C) can inform about the vegetation composition of an animal's diet, while nitrogen isotopes (δ15N) offer a view into agriculture signatures and atmospheric deposition of nitrogen-based pollutants through time. We focus on Los Angeles and southern California, which has experienced a population increase of 15 million people and dramatic land-use change over the past century. We have collected hair from historical P. maniculatus specimens found in natural history museums across the county to investigate spatial and temporal changes in δ13C and δ15N in southern California. We also use specimens from nearby and relatively pristine Channel Islands as a comparison to assess the impacts of anthropogenic land-use change on the mainland. We will present `isoscapes', or isotope landscape models for the δ13C and δ15N of P. maniculatus, in southern California through time. Understanding the isotopic signatures of urbanization provides better insight to the ecosystem response to urbanization and climate change and is useful for guiding future conservation and management decisions.

  20. Modeling and Prediction of Wildfire Hazard in Southern California, Integration of Models with Imaging Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Dar A.; Church, Richard; Ustin, Susan L.; Brass, James A. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Large urban wildfires throughout southern California have caused billions of dollars of damage and significant loss of life over the last few decades. Rapid urban growth along the wildland interface, high fuel loads and a potential increase in the frequency of large fires due to climatic change suggest that the problem will worsen in the future. Improved fire spread prediction and reduced uncertainty in assessing fire hazard would be significant, both economically and socially. Current problems in the modeling of fire spread include the role of plant community differences, spatial heterogeneity in fuels and spatio-temporal changes in fuels. In this research, we evaluated the potential of Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) and Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR) data for providing improved maps of wildfire fuel properties. Analysis concentrated in two areas of Southern California, the Santa Monica Mountains and Santa Barbara Front Range. Wildfire fuel information can be divided into four basic categories: fuel type, fuel load (live green and woody biomass), fuel moisture and fuel condition (live vs senesced fuels). To map fuel type, AVIRIS data were used to map vegetation species using Multiple Endmember Spectral Mixture Analysis (MESMA) and Binary Decision Trees. Green live biomass and canopy moisture were mapped using AVIRIS through analysis of the 980 nm liquid water absorption feature and compared to alternate measures of moisture and field measurements. Woody biomass was mapped using L and P band cross polarimetric data acquired in 1998 and 1999. Fuel condition was mapped using spectral mixture analysis to map green vegetation (green leaves), nonphotosynthetic vegetation (NPV; stems, wood and litter), shade and soil. Summaries describing the potential of hyperspectral and SAR data for fuel mapping are provided by Roberts et al. and Dennison et al. To utilize remotely sensed data to assess fire hazard, fuel-type maps were translated

  1. From Caspian to Turkey: The Southern European Gas Corridor's Issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebiere, Noemie

    2014-01-01

    With the growth of global energy demand and the raise of conflicts for the control of energy resources and supply routes, energy security is becoming a major issue for the European Union, but also for suppliers and transit countries. The recent crisis in Ukraine highlights the role of gas as a strategic weapon in the Russian external policy and reinforces the need of the European countries to diversify energy sources and supply routes. The southern European gas corridor, which carries hydrocarbons of the Caspian region to Europe through Turkey, is as a key project of E.U. and U.S. strategy to ensure the energy security of Europe. However, with the current instability in the Middle East and the difficulty to set-up an agreement in the Iranian nuclear negotiations, the issue of the ability of the southern gas corridor to be supplied with enough amount of resources remains hypothetical. In this respect, this approach analyses the deep interactions between energy issues, territorial security, political aims and economic interests

  2. Chaparral in southern and central coastal California in the mid-1990s: area, ownership, condition, and change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeremy S. Fried; Charles L. Bolsinger; Debby Beardsley

    2004-01-01

    This report summarizes an inventory of chaparral-dominated lands in southern California conducted during the mid-1990s and provides a review of contemporary literature on the ecological dynamics of chaparral vegetation with emphases on stand development, species composition, and the role of fire. Detailed tables provide estimates of chaparral area by owner, type, size...

  3. Utilizing HyspIRI Prototype Data for Geological Exploration Applications: A Southern California Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy M. Calvin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the value of the proposed Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI instrument for geological mapping applications. HyspIRI-like data were collected as part of the HyspIRI airborne campaign that covered large regions of California, USA, over multiple seasons. This work focused on a Southern California area, which encompasses Imperial Valley, the Salton Sea, the Orocopia Mountains, the Chocolate Mountains, and a variety of interesting geological phenomena including fumarole fields and sand dunes. We have mapped hydrothermal alteration, lithology and thermal anomalies, demonstrating the value of this type of data for future geologic exploration activities. We believe HyspIRI will be an important instrument for exploration geologists as data may be quickly manipulated and used for remote mapping of hydrothermal alteration minerals, lithology and temperature anomalies.

  4. Utilization of pay-in antenatal leave among working women in Southern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guendelman, Sylvia; Pearl, Michelle; Graham, Steve; Angulo, Veronica; Kharrazi, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Examine antenatal leave arrangements among pregnant workers in California, and the occupational, demographic and well-being characteristics associated with leave taking. Unlike most states, California provides paid pregnancy leave up to 4 weeks antenatally and 6-8 weeks postnatally. Weighted data from postpartum telephone interviews conducted between July 2002 and November 2003 were analyzed for 1214 women participating in a case-control study of birth outcomes in Southern California. Eligible women worked at least 20 h/week during the first two trimesters of pregnancy or through the date of prenatal screening. The overall response rate was 73%. Fifty-two percent of women took no leave, 32% took antenatal leave expecting to return to their job or employer sometime after giving birth, and 9% quit their jobs during pregnancy. For leave-takers with paid leave (69%), the state was the main source of pay (74%). Medical problems (52%) rather than maternity leave benefits (25%) were the most common stated reasons for taking leave. The strongest predictors of leave taking versus working through pregnancy were feeling stressed and tired (adjusted OR = 4.3, 95% CI [2.2-8.2]) and having young children (adjusted OR = 2.1, 95% CI [1.2-3.7]), followed by occupational factors (night shift, unfulfilling and inflexible work, short work tenure). Lack of employer-offered maternity leave benefits was associated with increased quitting relative to both leave taking and working through pregnancy. Maternity benefits influence quitting, but alone do not determine antenatal leave taking. Working pregnant women in California utilize leave cautiously and predominantly to cope with health problems, work dissatisfaction and fatigue.

  5. Spatial and intertemporal arbitrage in the California natural gas transportation and storage network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uria Martinez, Rocio

    Intertemporal and spatial price differentials should provide the necessary signals to allocate a commodity efficiently inside a network. This dissertation investigates the extent to which decisions in the California natural gas transportation and storage system are taken with an eye on arbitrage opportunities. Daily data about flows into and out of storage facilities in California over 2002-2006 and daily spreads on the NYMEX futures market are used to investigate whether the injection profile is consistent with the "supply-of-storage" curve first observed by Working for wheat. Spatial price differentials between California and producing regions fluctuate throughout the year, even though spot prices at trading hubs across North America are highly correlated. In an analysis of "residual supply", gas volumes directed to California are examined for the influence of those fluctuations in locational differentials. Daily storage decisions in California do seem to be influenced by a daily price signal that combines the intertemporal spread and the locational basis between California and the Henry Hub, in addition to strong seasonal and weekly cycles. The timing and magnitude of the response differs across storage facilities depending on the regulatory requirements they face and the type of customers they serve. In contrast, deviations in spatial price differentials from the levels dictated by relative seasonality in California versus competing regions do not trigger significant reallocations of flows into California. Available data for estimation of both the supply-of-storage and residual-supply curves aggregate the behavior of many individuals whose motivations and attentiveness to prices vary. The resulting inventory and flow profiles differ from those that a social planner would choose to minimize operating costs throughout the network. Such optimal allocation is deduced from a quadratic programming model, calibrated to 2004-2005, that acknowledges relative seasonality

  6. Mapping ground cover using hyperspectral remote sensing after the 2003 Simi and Old wildfires in southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah A. Lewis; Leigh B. Lentile; Andrew T. Hudak; Peter R. Robichaud; Penelope Morgan; Michael J. Bobbitt

    2007-01-01

    Wildfire effects on the ground surface are indicative of the potential for post-fire watershed erosion response. Areas with remaining organic ground cover will likely experience less erosion than areas of complete ground cover combustion or exposed mineral soil. The Simi and Old fires burned ~67,000 ha in southern California in 2003. Burn severity indices calculated...

  7. Fractured genetic connectivity threatens a southern california puma (Puma concolor population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly B Ernest

    Full Text Available Pumas (Puma concolor; also known as mountain lions and cougars in southern California live among a burgeoning human population of roughly 20 million people. Yet little is known of the consequences of attendant habitat loss and fragmentation, and human-caused puma mortality to puma population viability and genetic diversity. We examined genetic status of pumas in coastal mountains within the Peninsular Ranges south of Los Angeles, in San Diego, Riverside, and Orange counties. The Santa Ana Mountains are bounded by urbanization to the west, north, and east, and are separated from the eastern Peninsular Ranges to the southeast by a ten lane interstate highway (I-15. We analyzed DNA samples from 97 pumas sampled between 2001 and 2012. Genotypic data for forty-six microsatellite loci revealed that pumas sampled in the Santa Ana Mountains (n = 42 displayed lower genetic diversity than pumas from nearly every other region in California tested (n = 257, including those living in the Peninsular Ranges immediately to the east across I-15 (n = 55. Santa Ana Mountains pumas had high average pairwise relatedness, high individual internal relatedness, a low estimated effective population size, and strong evidence of a bottleneck and isolation from other populations in California. These and ecological findings provide clear evidence that Santa Ana Mountains pumas have been experiencing genetic impacts related to barriers to gene flow, and are a warning signal to wildlife managers and land use planners that mitigation efforts will be needed to stem further genetic and demographic decay in the Santa Ana Mountains puma population.

  8. Climate contributes to zonal forest mortality in Southern California's San Jacinto Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellows, A.; Goulden, M.

    2010-12-01

    An estimated 4.6 million trees died over ~375,000 acres of Southern California forest in 2002-2004. This mortality punctuated a decline in forest health that has been attributed to air pollution, stem densification, or drought. Bark beetles were the proximate cause of most tree death but the underlying cause of this extensive mortality is arguably poor forest health. We investigated the contributions that climate, particularly drought, played in tree mortality and how physiological drought stress may have structured the observed patterns of mortality. Field surveys showed that conifer mortality was zonal in the San Jacinto Mountains of Southern California. The proportion of conifer mortality increased with decreasing elevation (p=0.01). Mid-elevation conifers (White Fir, Incense Cedar, Coulter Pine, Sugar Pine, Ponderosa and Jeffrey Pine) died in the lower portions of their respective ranges, which resulted in an upslope lean in species’ distribution and an upslope shift in species’ mean elevation. Long-term precipitation (P) is consistent with elevation over the conifer elevation range (p=0.43). Potential evapotranspiration (ET) estimated by Penman Monteith declines with elevation by nearly half over the same range. These trends suggest that ET, more than P, is critical in structuring the elevational trend in drought stress and may have contributed to the patterns of mortality that occurred in 2002-04. Physiological measurements in a mild drought year (2009) showed late summer declines in plant water availability with decreasing elevation (p < 0.01) and concomitant reductions in carbon assimilation and stomatal conductance with decreasing elevation. We tie these observations together with a simple water balance model.

  9. Contributions of greenhouse gas forcing and the Southern Annular Mode to historical Southern Ocean surface temperature trends

    OpenAIRE

    Kostov, Yavor; Ferreira, David; Marshall, John; Armour, Kyle

    2018-01-01

    We examine the 1979-2014 Southern Ocean (SO) sea surface temperature (SST) trends simulated in an ensemble of coupled general circulation models and evaluate possible causes of the models’ inability to reproduce the observed 1979-2014 SO cooling. For each model we estimate the response of SO SST to step changes in greenhouse gas (GHG) forcing and in the seasonal indices of the Southern Annular Mode (SAM). Using these step-response functions, we skillfully reconstruct the models’ 1979-2014 SO ...

  10. California Gnatcatcher Observations - 2004-2009 [ds457

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — In southern California, the coastal California gnatcatcher (CAGN) has become both the flagship species and an umbrella species identified with conservation, where...

  11. Equatorial origin for Lower Jurassic radiolarian chert in the Franciscan Complex, San Rafael Mountains, southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagstrum, J.T.; Murchey, B.L.; Bogar, R.S.

    1996-01-01

    Lower Jurassic radiolarian chert sampled at two localities in the San Rafael Mountains of southern California (???20 km north of Santa Barbara) contains four components of remanent magnetization. Components A, B???, and B are inferred to represent uplift, Miocene volcanism, and subduction/accretion overprint magnetizations, respectively. The fourth component (C), isolated between 580?? and 680??C, shows a magnetic polarity stratigraphy and is interpreted as a primary magnetization acquired by the chert during, or soon after, deposition. Both sequences are late Pliensbachian to middle Toarcian in age, and an average paleolatitude calculated from all tilt-corrected C components is 1?? ?? 3?? north or south. This result is consistent with deposition of the cherts beneath the equatorial zone of high biologic productivity and is similar to initial paleolatitudes determined for chert blocks in northern California and Mexico. This result supports our model in which deep-water Franciscan-type cherts were deposited on the Farallon plate as it moved eastward beneath the equatorial productivity high, were accreted to the continental margin at low paleolatitudes, and were subsequently distributed northward by strike-slip faulting associated with movements of the Kula, Farallon, and Pacific plates. Upper Cretaceous turbidites of the Cachuma Formation were sampled at Agua Caliente Canyon to determine a constraining paleolatitude for accretion of the Jurassic chert sequences. These apparently unaltered rocks, however, were found to be completely overprinted by the A component of magnetization. Similar in situ directions and demagnetization behaviors observed in samples of other Upper Cretaceous turbidite sequences in southern and Baja California imply that these rocks might also give unreliable results.

  12. Effects of offshore oil and gas development activities in southern California on larval settlement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raimondi, P.T.; Barnett, A.; Krause, P.R.

    1995-01-01

    A series of in situ field experiments were conducted to determine effects of oil and gas drilling activities on the settlement of marine larvae in the deep ocean (180 m). The study sites were a series of three drilling rigs and three reference sites between Pt. Arguello and Pt. Conception in California. Experiments were carried out in both pre-drilling and drilling phases to test the effects of drilling activities (e.g. drilling, drilling mud release, and produced water discharges) on the ability of red abalone (Haliotis rufescens) larvae to settle using an in situ experiment. Their in situ experiment involved reciprocal transplants of settling plates that were ''filmed'' with bacteria from each site. After filming in the field at each of two heights, plates were mounted into chambers, covered with mesh and placed onto recoverable larval arrays for deployment in the field. Before deployment the authors injected approximately 300 competent red abalone larvae into each chamber. One larval array was deployed at each site for three days and each array contained plates filmed at all sites. In addition sterile plates (no surface filming) were included at each site. Upon recovery the number of settled abalone larvae were counted. Therefore, the experiment tested location-related (drilling sites versus reference), waterborne, and height effects on settlement in both the pre-drilling and drilling phases. Their results show that red abalone served as a sensitive indicator for in situ studies of larval settlement. The authors found significantly higher numbers of abalone settling onto plates that were filmed versus those that were not. The authors also found significantly lower settlement rates between the pre-drilling and drilling periods

  13. Case study of manufactured gas plant site remediations using thermal desorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, R.G.; Hayes, T.; Slimon, K.F.; Unites, D. [Southern California Gas Company, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Southern California Gas Company (SoCal Gas) has recently remediated five of its former manufactured gas plant (MGP) sites using on-site and off-site thermal desorption. This technology has proven effective in the treatment of PAH-contaminated soils with widely variable concentrations. At two of the five sites, MGP-contaminated materials were excavated and thermally treated on site. At the other sites, MGP-contaminated materials were excavated and transported directly to an off-site thermal desorber. Much of the production was of oil-gas, giving lampblack contamination, but some coal tar was also present.

  14. The industrial resurgence of Southern California? Advanced ground transportation equipment manufacturing and local economic develoment

    OpenAIRE

    A J Scott; D Bergman

    1995-01-01

    Southern California is in a deeply rooted process of economic restructuring. Much of the region's manufacturing base is made up of two groups of industries: a declining aerospace - defense sector, and a low-wage, low-skill sweatshop sector. What are the prospects for creating a growing manufacturing base focused on high-wage, high-skill industries? In this paper we examine the opportunities presented by the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority's S183 billion thirty-year ca...

  15. Automated ocean color product validation for the Southern California Bight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Curtiss O.; Tufillaro, Nicholas; Jones, Burt; Arnone, Robert

    2012-06-01

    Automated match ups allow us to maintain and improve the products of current satellite ocean color sensors (MODIS, MERIS), and new sensors (VIIRS). As part of the VIIRS mission preparation, we have created a web based automated match up tool that provides access to searchable fields for date, site, and products, and creates match-ups between satellite (MODIS, MERIS, VIIRS), and in-situ measurements (HyperPRO and SeaPRISM). The back end of the system is a 'mySQL' database, and the front end is a `php' web portal with pull down menus for searchable fields. Based on selections, graphics are generated showing match-ups and statistics, and ascii files are created for downloads for the matchup data. Examples are shown for matching the satellite data with the data from Platform Eureka SeaPRISM off L.A. Harbor in the Southern California Bight.

  16. The least-cost hydrogen for Southern California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Zhenhong; Chen, Chien-Wei; Ogden, Joan; Fan, Yueyue

    2008-01-01

    Optimization is applied to identify the least-cost sequence of hydrogen infrastructure build-up in Southern California during 2010-2060. Given an exogenous demand, the model generates temporal and spatial decisions for building a hydrogen infrastructure, in terms of when, where, at what sizes and by what technologies, that minimize the net present value of technology, environment, and fuel accessibility costs. The least-cost sequence is then analyzed with respect to technology deployment, delivered hydrogen cost, capital requirements, subsidy need, subsidy capacity, and CO 2 mitigation. It is found that industrial hydrogen could play a critical role in initiating hydrogen transition, temporally bridged by onsite SMR to central production dominated at first by biomass gasification and later by coal gasification with carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS). While a non-discounted capital investment of $24.43 billion is needed for the 50-year build-up, a hydrogen price below 3$/kg could pay back the costs in 20 years earning a 10% IRR. If hydrogen is purchased at the current equivalent gasoline price (2.517 $/gallon), the hydrogen industry could potentially provide $4715 as subsidy for each new FCV purchase. With CCS, 50% of 50-year CO 2 emissions could be avoided. (author)

  17. Greenhouse Gas Abatement with Distributed Generation in California's Commercial Buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Chris; Cardoso, Goncalo; Megel, Olivier; Siddiqui, Afzal; Lai, Judy

    2009-01-01

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBL) is working with the California Energy Commission (CEC) to determine the role of distributed generation (DG) in greenhouse gas reductions. The impact of DG on large industrial sites is well known, and mostly, the potentials are already harvested. In contrast, little is known about the impact of DG on commercial buildings with peak electric loads ranging from 100 kW to 5 MW. We examine how DG with combined heat and power (CHP) may be implemented within the context of a cost minimizing microgrid that is able to adopt and operate various smart energy technologies, such as thermal and photovoltaic (PV) on-site generation, heat exchangers, solar thermal collectors, absorption chillers, and storage systems. We use a mixed-integer linear program (MILP) that has the minimization of a site's annual energy costs as objective. Using 138 representative commercial sites in California (CA) with existing tariff rates and technology data, we find the greenhouse gas reduction potential for California's commercial sector. This paper shows results from the ongoing research project and finished work from a two year U.S. Department of Energy research project. To show the impact of the different technologies on CO2 emissions, several sensitivity runs for different climate zones within CA with different technology performance expectations for 2020 were performed. The considered sites can contribute between 1 Mt/a and 1.8 Mt/a to the California Air Resources Board (CARB) goal of 6.7Mt/a CO2 abatement potential in 2020. Also, with lower PV and storage costs as well as consideration of a CO2 pricing scheme, our results indicate that PV and electric storage adoption can compete rather than supplement each other when the tariff structure and costs of electricity supply have been taken into consideration. To satisfy the site's objective of minimizing energy costs, the batteries will be charged also by CHP systems during off-peak and mid-peak hours and

  18. Air pollution increases forest susceptibility to wildfires: a case study for the San Bernardino Mountains in southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    N.E. Grulke; R.A. Minnich; T. Paine; P. Riggan

    2010-01-01

    Many factors increase susceptibility of forests to wildfire. Among them are increases in human population, changes in land use, fire suppression, and frequent droughts. These factors have been exacerbating forest susceptibility to wildfires over the last century in southern California. Here we report on the significant role that air pollution has on increasing forest...

  19. Remote sensing analysis of vegetation recovery following short-interval fires in Southern California shrublands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Ran; Dennison, Philip E; D'Antonio, Carla M; Moritz, Max A

    2014-01-01

    Increased fire frequency has been shown to promote alien plant invasions in the western United States, resulting in persistent vegetation type change. Short interval fires are widely considered to be detrimental to reestablishment of shrub species in southern California chaparral, facilitating the invasion of exotic annuals and producing "type conversion". However, supporting evidence for type conversion has largely been at local, site scales and over short post-fire time scales. Type conversion has not been shown to be persistent or widespread in chaparral, and past range improvement studies present evidence that chaparral type conversion may be difficult and a relatively rare phenomenon across the landscape. With the aid of remote sensing data covering coastal southern California and a historical wildfire dataset, the effects of short interval fires (<8 years) on chaparral recovery were evaluated by comparing areas that burned twice to adjacent areas burned only once. Twelve pairs of once- and twice-burned areas were compared using normalized burn ratio (NBR) distributions. Correlations between measures of recovery and explanatory factors (fire history, climate and elevation) were analyzed by linear regression. Reduced vegetation cover was found in some lower elevation areas that were burned twice in short interval fires, where non-sprouting species are more common. However, extensive type conversion of chaparral to grassland was not evident in this study. Most variables, with the exception of elevation, were moderately or poorly correlated with differences in vegetation recovery.

  20. OSL and IRSL characteristics of quartz and feldspar from southern California, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, Michael J.; Roder, Belinda J.; Stang, Dallon M.; Rhodes, Edward J.

    2012-01-01

    Southern California comprises of a wide range of diverse landscapes and environments, from high mountains with glacial and periglacial sediments to deserts with large sand dunes, extensive alluvial fans and ephemeral playas. Highly active tectonic processes has exposed ancient (c. 2 Ga) plutonic and metamorphic basement from deep within the crust, while similar Palaeozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic rocks are also common. A rich array of volcanic lithologies extending into the late Quaternary complement many thick sedimentary sequences that formed in equally diverse ancient environments typical of an accreting active continental margin. In some locations, notably in the Coachella Valley close to Palm Springs and the Salton Sea, low OSL sensitivity and poor characteristics restrict the application of the quartz SAR protocol to date late Pleistocene and Holocene fluvial sediments. In other locations such as the Malibu coastline, high sensitivity of the quartz OSL signal is observed, despite local source rocks being dominated by volcanic lithologies. Problems of poor quartz characteristics, along with uncertainty in predicting quartz OSL behavior for future dating campaigns poses a significant problem for projects, in particular for neotectonic contexts. While K-feldspar has been used extensively to date eolian and fluvial sediments in southern California, little information regarding signal stability is available. We explore the characteristics of both quartz and feldspar sub-samples from eolian, fluvial, lacustrine environments, in order to help develop mineral selection criteria for optical dating applications and clarify these issues. The importance of radiation quenching in quartz grains recently eroded from bedrock and the role of fires in enhancing OSL sensitivity are considered. The relative bleachability of quartz and feldspar fractions, along with thermal stability considerations is discussed. A simple test for quartz OSL signal contamination based on thermal

  1. 77 FR 43586 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. CP12-479-000] Southern Star... abandonment of facilities by Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star) in Logan and Oklahoma... concern. Southern Star provided landowners with a fact sheet prepared by the FERC entitled ``An Interstate...

  2. Convergence of gas and electricity markets in the Southern Cone of Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Offant, P.; Giorno, D.

    2002-01-01

    Around the world, the growing use of natural gas for electric power generation is leading to an increasing inter-dependency between gas and power markets. This phenomenon, generally known as convergence, has tremendous implications for governments, regulatory agencies, energy companies and consumers. Countries of the Southern Cone of Latin America, which have been precursors in creating competitive electricity markets and opening their power sector to private investments, and which are increasingly relying on natural gas to expand their power generation base, provide a valuable example of how the gas-power convergence process develops in a de-regulated environment, with a beneficial impact for the consumer. This paper provides an overview of the past, present and potential status of the convergence process between the gas and power markets in the Southern Cone of Latin America, and addresses the challenges and opportunities arising from this process. Taking into account a recent slowdown in the regional convergence process, it offers in closing remarks alternative tools to re-dynamize such process. (authors)

  3. Tamarisk control on public lands in the desert of southern California: two case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    As a land manager, the Federal Government faces enormous challenges from exotic pest invasions and associated changes to the structure and stability of native ecosystems (Bureau of Land Management, 1988). On public lands administered by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) alone, it is estimated that almost three million hectares are occupied by invasive exotic plant species (weeds). Assuming an annual rate of invasion of 14 percent, 930 hectares of BLM-administered land are infested everyday by weeds (Jerry Asher, personal communication). When one considers the fact that BLM administers only about one-third of the public land in the United States (The Keystone Center, 1991), the magnitude of the problem assumes staggering proportions. The scenario described in the quote above portrays only some of the problems associated with the spread of the exotic plant tamarisk, a species on the California Exotic Pest Plant Council’s list of exotic pest plants of greatest concern (California Exotic Pest Plant Council, 1993). In this paper we review the threats posed by tamarisk invasion and proliferation and examine the traits that make the plant such a successful competitor. In addition, we highlight two tamarisk control efforts conducted by the Bureau of Land Management in the southern California desert.

  4. Holocene geologic slip rate for the Banning strand of the southern San Andreas Fault, southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Peter O.; Behr, Whitney M.; Rood, Dylan; Sharp, Warren D.; Rockwell, Thomas; Kendrick, Katherine J.; Salin, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    Northwest directed slip from the southern San Andreas Fault is transferred to the Mission Creek, Banning, and Garnet Hill fault strands in the northwestern Coachella Valley. How slip is partitioned between these three faults is critical to southern California seismic hazard estimates but is poorly understood. In this paper, we report the first slip rate measured for the Banning fault strand. We constrain the depositional age of an alluvial fan offset 25 ± 5 m from its source by the Banning strand to between 5.1 ± 0.4 ka (95% confidence interval (CI)) and 6.4 + 3.7/−2.1 ka (95% CI) using U-series dating of pedogenic carbonate clast coatings and 10Be cosmogenic nuclide exposure dating of surface clasts. We calculate a Holocene geologic slip rate for the Banning strand of 3.9 + 2.3/−1.6 mm/yr (median, 95% CI) to 4.9 + 1.0/−0.9 mm/yr (median, 95% CI). This rate represents only 25–35% of the total slip accommodated by this section of the southern San Andreas Fault, suggesting a model in which slip is less concentrated on the Banning strand than previously thought. In rejecting the possibility that the Banning strand is the dominant structure, our results highlight an even greater need for slip rate and paleoseismic measurements along faults in the northwestern Coachella Valley in order to test the validity of current earthquake hazard models. In addition, our comparison of ages measured with U-series and 10Be exposure dating demonstrates the importance of using multiple geochronometers when estimating the depositional age of alluvial landforms.

  5. Southern California Coastal Processes Annotated Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    05/01/71 TITLE : Avalon Transportation Wharf CITATION : Journal of Waterways, Harbors and Coastal Engineering Division, ASCE, N. Y., Vol. 97, No. WW2 ...105, No. WW2 ; ASCE, N. Y., pp. 131-147 DESCRIPTION s Effect of various offshore structures as significant barriers to normal wave progress...California, 33 pp. DESCRIPTION Infrared satellite images are shown for each of two areas near +- the California coast, Cape Mendocino and Point

  6. Large, high-intensity fire events in Southern California shrublands: Debunking the fine-grain age patch model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, J.E.; Zedler, P.H.

    2009-01-01

    We evaluate the fine-grain age patch model of fire regimes in southern California shrublands. Proponents contend that the historical condition was characterized by frequent small to moderate size, slow-moving smoldering fires, and that this regime has been disrupted by fire suppression activities that have caused unnatural fuel accumulation and anomalously large and catastrophic wildfires. A review of more than 100 19th-century newspaper reports reveals that large, high-intensity wildfires predate modern fire suppression policy, and extensive newspaper coverage plus first-hand accounts support the conclusion that the 1889 Santiago Canyon Fire was the largest fire in California history. Proponents of the fine-grain age patch model contend that even the very earliest 20th-century fires were the result of fire suppression disrupting natural fuel structure. We tested that hypothesis and found that, within the fire perimeters of two of the largest early fire events in 1919 and 1932, prior fire suppression activities were insufficient to have altered the natural fuel structure. Over the last 130 years there has been no significant change in the incidence of large fires greater than 10000 ha, consistent with the conclusion that fire suppression activities are not the cause of these fire events. Eight megafires (???50 000 ha) are recorded for the region, and half have occurred in the last five years. These burned through a mosaic of age classes, which raises doubts that accumulation of old age classes explains these events. Extreme drought is a plausible explanation for this recent rash of such events, and it is hypothesized that these are due to droughts that led to increased dead fine fuels that promoted the incidence of firebrands and spot fires. A major shortcoming of the fine-grain age patch model is that it requires age-dependent flammability of shrubland fuels, but seral stage chaparral is dominated by short-lived species that create a dense surface layer of fine

  7. Developing electricity production with natural gas in the southern mediterranean countries: an example of north-south cooperation in the electricity and natural gas sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenon, M.; Nogaret, E.

    1995-01-01

    Southern Mediterranean countries are facing an important increase of electricity demand; in order to increase the production capacity at a minimum cost while preserving the environment, most of these countries are planning gas fired power stations due to important natural gas resources. The development of both the power plants and the infrastructures to produce and transport the natural gas is more and more performed through cooperation between companies of the northern and southern sides of the Mediterranean sea: technical assistance programs, joint financing and management of the infrastructures. 3 figs

  8. Gasification of the southern spread of Bolivia-Brazil gas pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frisoli, Caetano; Senna, Ferando Jose Ennes de; Faria, Jose Aurelio Carvalho de

    2000-01-01

    As to the commissioning of the Northern spread, Inert Direct Purging was also adopted for purging the Southern Spread of Bolivia-Brazil Gas Pipeline. This section is 1191 km long and lies between the city of Paulinia in the State of Sao Paulo up to Canoas in the Sate of Rio Grande do Sul. The Inert Direct Purging is based on the principle of high gas injection flow rates at the initial point and the purging of air at the other end, separated by a nitrogen plug. A purging model, developed by The Gas Research Institute, was used in conjunction with the software Pipeline Studio for planning purposes. The arrival of gas at each valve and the size of gas/nitrogen/air interfaces were also recorded. Graphs and tables compare calculated and recorded data. Final results demonstrated model accuracy and its suitable applicability for purging, as well as the Inert Direct Purging method for gas pipelines of extensive lengths. (author)

  9. 76 FR 41788 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [ Docket No. CP11-481-000] Southern Star... Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star) in Rice County, Kansas. This EA will be used by... Facility On My Land? What Do I Need To Know?'' was attached to the project notice Southern Star provided to...

  10. Status and Causes of Soil Salinization of Irrigated Agricultural Lands in Southern Baja California,Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, T.; Yamamoto, S.; Fujiyama, H.; Honna, T.; Larrinaga, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Selected farmlands in southern Baja California, Mexico, were surveyed to determine the levels and the causes of salinization/sodication in irrigated agricultural soil. The salt dynamics observed in profiles differed from farm to farm. Low EC and high ph levels were observed in the profiles of sandy fields, because the salt composition of these soils can easily change when salts are leached by irrigation water that contains carbonates of sodium. On the other hand, high levels of salinity and sodicity were observed in the soils of clayey fields. Soil salinization/sodication is complexly interrelated with soil characteristics, the amount and composition of salts in the soil, the quantity and quality of irrigation water applied, and the irrigation methods used. Our findings indicate that irrigation water in Baja California should be supplied at a rate that is sufficient to meet crop requirements without exacerbating salt accumulation.

  11. Seismic Evidence for Conjugate Slip and Block Rotation Within the San Andreas Fault System, Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Craig; Seeber, Leonardo; Williams, Patrick; Sykes, Lynn R.

    1986-08-01

    The pattern of seismicity in southern California indicates that much of the activity is presently occurring on secondary structures, several of which are oriented nearly orthogonal to the strikes of the major through-going faults. Slip along these secondary transverse features is predominantly left-lateral and is consistent with the reactivation of conjugate faults by the current regional stress field. Near the intersection of the San Jacinto and San Andreas faults, however, these active left-lateral faults appear to define a set of small crustal blocks, which in conjunction with both normal and reverse faulting earthquakes, suggests contemporary clockwise rotation as a result of regional right-lateral shear. Other left-lateral faults representing additional rotating block systems are identified in adjacent areas from geologic and seismologic data. Many of these structures predate the modern San Andreas system and may control the pattern of strain accumulation in southern California. Geodetic and paleomagnetic evidence confirm that block rotation by strike-slip faulting is nearly ubiquitous, particularly in areas where shear is distributed, and that it accommodates both short-term elastic and long-term nonelastic strain. A rotating block model accounts for a number of structural styles characteristic of strike-slip deformation in California, including: variable slip rates and alternating transtensional and transpressional features observed along strike of major wrench faults; domains of evenly-spaced antithetic faults that terminate against major fault boundaries; continued development of bends in faults with large lateral displacements; anomalous focal mechanisms; and differential uplift in areas otherwise expected to experience extension and subsidence. Since block rotation requires a detachment surface at depth to permit rotational movement, low-angle structures like detachments, of either local or regional extent, may be involved in the contemporary strike

  12. Increasing resiliency to natural hazards - A strategic plan for the Multi-Hazards Demonstration Project in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lucy; Bernknopf, Richard; Cannon, Susan; Cox, Dale A.; Gaydos, Len; Keeley, Jon; Kohler, Monica; Lee, Homa; Ponti, Daniel; Ross, Stephanie L.; Schwarzbach, Steven; Shulters, Michael; Ward, A. Wesley; Wein, Anne

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is initiating a new project designed to improve resiliency to natural hazards in southern California through the application of science to community decision making and emergency response. The Multi-Hazards Demonstration Project will assist the region’s communities to reduce their risk from natural hazards by directing new and existing research towards the community’s needs, improving monitoring technology, producing innovative products, and improving dissemination of the results. The natural hazards to be investigated in this project include coastal erosion, earthquakes, floods, landslides, tsunamis, and wildfires.Americans are more at risk from natural hazards now than at any other time in our Nation’s history. Southern California, in particular, has one of the Nation’s highest potentials for extreme catastrophic losses due to natural hazards, with estimates of expected losses exceeding $3 billion per year. These losses can only be reduced through the decisions of the southern California community itself. To be effective, these decisions must be guided by the best information about hazards, risk, and the cost-effectiveness of mitigation technologies. The USGS will work with collaborators to set the direction of the research and to create multi-hazard risk frameworks where communities can apply the results of scientific research to their decision-making processes. Partners include state, county, city, and public-lands government agencies, public and private utilities, companies with a significant impact and presence in southern California, academic researchers, the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and local emergency response agencies.Prior to the writing of this strategic plan document, three strategic planning workshops were held in February and March 2006 at the USGS office in Pasadena to explore potential relationships. The goal of these planning

  13. Geostatistical analysis of tritium, groundwater age and other noble gas derived parameters in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, A; Moran, J E; Hillegonds, Darren; Singleton, M J; Kulongoski, Justin T; Belitz, Kenneth; Esser, B K

    2016-03-15

    Key characteristics of California groundwater systems related to aquifer vulnerability, sustainability, recharge locations and mechanisms, and anthropogenic impact on recharge are revealed in a spatial geostatistical analysis of a unique data set of tritium, noble gases and other isotopic analyses unprecedented in size at nearly 4000 samples. The correlation length of key groundwater residence time parameters varies between tens of kilometers ((3)H; age) to the order of a hundred kilometers ((4)Heter; (14)C; (3)Hetrit). The correlation length of parameters related to climate, topography and atmospheric processes is on the order of several hundred kilometers (recharge temperature; δ(18)O). Young groundwater ages that highlight regional recharge areas are located in the eastern San Joaquin Valley, in the southern Santa Clara Valley Basin, in the upper LA basin and along unlined canals carrying Colorado River water, showing that much of the recent recharge in central and southern California is dominated by river recharge and managed aquifer recharge. Modern groundwater is found in wells with the top open intervals below 60 m depth in the southeastern San Joaquin Valley, Santa Clara Valley and Los Angeles basin, as the result of intensive pumping and/or managed aquifer recharge operations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. 75 FR 53981 - Notice of Proposed Reinstatement of Terminated Oil and Gas Lease CACA 47609, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [CA-920-1310-FI; CACA 47609] Notice of Proposed Reinstatement of Terminated Oil and Gas Lease CACA 47609, California AGENCY: Bureau of Land... Management (BLM) received a petition for reinstatement of oil and gas lease CACA 47609 from Mirada Petroleum...

  15. 76 FR 22422 - Notice of Proposed Reinstatement of Terminated Oil and Gas Lease CACA 49187, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [CACA 49187, LLCA920000 L1310000 FI0000] Notice of Proposed Reinstatement of Terminated Oil and Gas Lease CACA 49187, California AGENCY: Bureau of... of Land Management (BLM) received a petition for reinstatement of oil and gas lease CACA 49187 from...

  16. 75 FR 32812 - Notice of Proposed Reinstatement of Terminated Oil and Gas Lease CACA 44900, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [CA-920-1310-FI; CACA 44900] Notice of Proposed Reinstatement of Terminated Oil and Gas Lease CACA 44900, California AGENCY: Bureau of Land... Management (BLM) received a petition for reinstatement of oil and gas lease CACA 44900 from NW. Lost Hills...

  17. 76 FR 66080 - Notice of Proposed Reinstatement of Terminated Oil and Gas Lease CACA 52030, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [CACA 52030, LLCA920000 L1310000 FI0000] Notice of Proposed Reinstatement of Terminated Oil and Gas Lease CACA 52030, California AGENCY: Bureau of... oil and gas lease CACA 52030 from Plains Exploration & Production Co. The petition was filed on time...

  18. 77 FR 9959 - Notice of Proposed Reinstatement of Terminated Oil and Gas Lease CACA 50123, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [CACA 50123, LLCA920000 L1310000 FI0000] Notice of Proposed Reinstatement of Terminated Oil and Gas Lease CACA 50123, California AGENCY: Bureau of... of Land Management (BLM) received a petition for reinstatement of oil and gas lease CACA 50123 from...

  19. Channel Responses and Hydromodification in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, R. J.; Dust, D. W.; Bledsoe, B. P.

    2007-12-01

    Hydromodification (changes in watershed hydrologic characteristics, and the resulting hydraulics and channel forms due to urbanization) is ubiquitous in Southern California. In this region, the effects of hydromodification are driven and compounded by the arid/semiarid climate, high relief, erodible soils, high urbanization rates, and relatively low frequency of retention/detention. We conducted a preliminary survey of over 50 stream reaches along a gradient from least disturbed to fully urbanized. All stages of the Channel Evolution Model (CEM) of Schumm et al. (1984) were observed, from stable to degrading, widening, aggrading, and quasi-equilibrium channels. Several sites have CEM stages II through V in close proximity due to headcutting, hardpoints, and infrastructure. We also observed channels in undeveloped watersheds impacted by downstream urbanization via headcutting. A range of intervention measures was observed, with the frequent evolutionary endpoint as a concrete engineered flood control channel. We also observed multiple channel evolution sequences that deviate from the CEM for single-thread, incising channels. An alternative channel response, particularly on smaller urbanized streams is a stabilized, vegetation encroached low-flow channel with regular baseflow supplied by residential irrigation runoff. The limited cases of unimpacted streams that remain tend to be high gradient, high energy systems that are naturally proximate to the transition between braided and meandering form for a given sediment size.

  20. AFSC/NMML/CCEP: Characterizing and quantifying California sea lion and Pacific harbor seal use of offshore oil and gas platforms in California, 2013-2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) and Pacific harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) use offshore oil and gas platforms as resting and foraging areas. Both...

  1. Dissolved methane concentration and flux in the coastal zone of the Southern California Bight-Mexican sector: Possible influence of wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    We measured dissolved methane concentrations ([CH4]) in the coastal zone of the Southern California Bight-Mexican sector (SCBMex) during two cruises: S1 in the USA–Mexico Border Area (BA) during a short rainstorm and S2 in the entire SCBMex during a drier period a few days later....

  2. Dust deposition in southern Nevada and California, 1984-1989: Relations to climate, source area, and source lithology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reheis, Marith C.; Kihl, Rolf

    1995-05-01

    Dust samples collected annually for 5 years from 55 sites in southern Nevada and California provide the first regional source of information on modern rates of dust deposition, grain size, and mineralogical and chemical composition relative to climate and to type and lithology of dust source. The average silt and clay flux (rate of deposition) in southern Nevada and southeastern California ranges from 4.3 to 15.7 g/m2/yr, but in southwestern California the average silt and clay flux is as high as 30 g/m2/yr. The climatic factors that affect dust flux interact with each other and with the factors of source type (playas versus alluvium), source lithology, geographic area, and human disturbance. Average dust flux increases with mean annual temperature but is not correlated to decreases in mean annual precipitation because the regional winds bring dust to relatively wet areas. In contrast, annual dust flux mostly reflects changes in annual precipitation (relative drought) rather than temperature. Although playa and alluvial sources produce about the same amount of dust per unit area, the total volume of dust from the more extensive alluvial sources is much larger. In addition, playa and alluvial sources respond differently to annual changes in precipitation. Most playas produce dust that is richer in soluble salts and carbonate than that from alluvial sources (except carbonate-rich alluvium). Gypsum dust may be produced by the interaction of carbonate dust and anthropogenic or marine sulfates. The dust flux in an arid urbanizing area may be as much as twice that before disturbance but decreases when construction stops. The mineralogic and major-oxide composition of the dust samples indicates that sand and some silt is locally derived and deposited, whereas clay and some silt from different sources can be far-traveled. Dust deposited in the Transverse Ranges of California by the Santa Ana winds appears to be mainly derived from sources to the north and east.

  3. Proceedings of PEIA Forum 2007 : adapting and applying California's greenhouse gas strategies in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The key challenge in addressing climate change lies in identifying and implementing cost-effective measures to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The purpose of this forum was to stimulate action for reducing GHGs in British Columbia, the western provinces and Canada. The successes realized in California which are adaptable in BC and Canada were highlighted. In September 2006, California demonstrated leadership in taking determined action on climate change, with its signing of the California Global Warming Solutions Act. This landmark legislation calls for GHG reductions to 1990 levels by 2020, and 80 per cent below 1990 levels by 2050. The BC Energy plan calls for an aggressive target to reduce GHG emissions to 33 per cent below current levels by 2020, which will place emissions 10 per cent below 1990 levels; net zero GHG emissions from all electric power plants by 2016; acquiring 50 per cent of BC Hydro's new resource needs through conservation by 2020; ensuring electricity self-sufficiency by 2016; and, establishing a standing offer for clean electricity projects up to 10 megawatts. In May 2007, the province of British Columbia demonstrated a commitment to follow California's lead in GHG control, and to collaborate on projects such as the Hydrogen Highway. The actions are intended to make a significant contribution to the control of energy and greenhouse gas emissions in British Columbia and Canada. The conference featured 6 presentations, of which 2 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. tabs., figs

  4. Risk Perception and Occupational Accidents: A Study of Gas Station Workers in Southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Cezar-Vaz, Marta Regina; Rocha, Laurelize Pereira; Bonow, Clarice Alves; da Silva, Mara Regina Santos; Vaz, Joana Cezar; Cardoso, Letícia Silveira

    2012-01-01

    The present study aimed to identify the perceptions of gas station workers about physical, chemical, biological and physiological risk factors to which they are exposed in their work environment; identify types of occupational accidents involving gas station workers and; report the development of a socioenvironmental intervention as a tool for risk communication to gas station workers. A quantitative study was performed with 221 gas station workers in southern Brazil between October and Decem...

  5. Tracking lichen community composition changes due to declining air quality over the last century: the Nash legacy in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer Riddell; Sarah Jovan; Pamela E. Padgett; Ken. Sweat

    2011-01-01

    Southern California's South Coast Air Basin includes the heavily urbanized Los Angeles and Orange counties, the inland urban and suburban areas, and the surrounding mountain ranges. Historically high air pollution makes the region a natural laboratory for investigating human impacts on natural systems. Regional lichen distribution records from the early 1900s...

  6. Biotelemetry data for golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) captured in coastal southern California, November 2014–February 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracey, Jeff A.; Madden, Melanie C.; Sebes, Jeremy B.; Bloom, Peter H.; Katzner, Todd E.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2016-04-21

    The status of golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) in coastal southern California is unclear. To address this knowledge gap, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in collaboration with local, State, and other Federal agencies began a multi-year survey and tracking program of golden eagles to address questions regarding habitat use, movement behavior, nest occupancy, genetic population structure, and human impacts on eagles. Golden eagle trapping and tracking efforts began in October 2014 and continued until early March 2015. During the first trapping season that focused on San Diego County, we captured 13 golden eagles (8 females and 5 males). During the second trapping season that began in November 2015, we focused on trapping sites in San Diego, Orange, and western Riverside Counties. By February 23, 2016, we captured an additional 14 golden eagles (7 females and 7 males). In this report, biotelemetry data were collected between November 22, 2014, and February 23, 2016. The location data for eagles ranged as far north as San Luis Obispo, California, and as far south as La Paz, Baja California, Mexico.

  7. The Cal-Bridge Program: Increasing the Gender and Ethnic Diversity of Astrophysics Students in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smecker-Hane, Tammy A.; Rudolph, Alexander L.

    2016-06-01

    The mission of the Cal-Bridge program is to increase the number of underrepresented minority and women students completing a bachelor’s degree and entering a PhD program in astronomy, physics, or closely-related fields. The program has created a network of faculty at diverse higher education institutions, including 5 University of California (UC) campuses, 9 California State Universities (CSUs), and 10 community colleges in southern California, dedicated to this goal. Students selected for the program are know as “Cal-Bridge Scholars” and they are given a wide variety of support: (1) scholarships in their junior/senior years at CSU and their first year of graduate school at a UC, (2) intensive mentoring by a pair of CSU and UC faculty members, (3) tutoring, when needed, (4) professional development workshops, (5) exposure to research opportunities at various universities, and (6) membership in a growing cohort of like-minded students. We report on the structure of our program, lessons learned with our current 12 Cal-Bridge scholars, and the results of our first two years of operation. Funding for this program is provided by NSF-SSTEM Grant #1356133.

  8. Natural gas network resiliency to a "shakeout scenario" earthquake.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellison, James F.; Corbet, Thomas Frank,; Brooks, Robert E.

    2013-06-01

    A natural gas network model was used to assess the likely impact of a scenario San Andreas Fault earthquake on the natural gas network. Two disruption scenarios were examined. The more extensive damage scenario assumes the disruption of all three major corridors bringing gas into southern California. If withdrawals from the Aliso Canyon storage facility are limited to keep the amount of stored gas within historical levels, the disruption reduces Los Angeles Basin gas supplies by 50%. If Aliso Canyon withdrawals are only constrained by the physical capacity of the storage system to withdraw gas, the shortfall is reduced to 25%. This result suggests that it is important for stakeholders to put agreements in place facilitating the withdrawal of Aliso Canyon gas in the event of an emergency.

  9. Biomarker chemistry and flux quantification methods for natural petroleum seeps and produced oils, offshore southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenson, T.D.; Leifer, Ira; Wong, Florence L.; Rosenbauer, Robert J.; Campbell, Pamela L.; Lam, Angela; Hostettler, Frances D.; Greinert, Jens; Finlayson, David P.; Bradley, Eliza S.; Luyendyk, Bruce P.

    2011-01-01

    Sustained, natural oil seepage from the seafloor is common off southern California, and is of great interest to resource managers, who are tasked with distinguishing natural from anthropogenic oil sources. The major purpose of this study was to build upon the work previously funded by the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) that has refined the oil-fingerprinting process to enable differentiation of the highly similar Monterey Formation oils from Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) production and adjacent natural seeps. In these initial studies, biomarker and stable carbon isotope ratios were used to infer the age, lithology, organic-matter input, and depositional environment of the source rocks for 388 samples of produced crude oil, seep oil, and tarballs mainly from coastal California. The analysis resulted in a predictive model of oil source families that could be applied to samples of unknown origin.

  10. Reptile and amphibian responses to large-scale wildfires in southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochester, C.J.; Brehme, C.S.; Clark, D.R.; Stokes, D.C.; Hathaway, S.A.; Fisher, R.N.

    2010-01-01

    In 2003, southern California experienced several large fires that burned thousands of hectares of wildlife habitats and conserved lands. To investigate the effects of these fires on the reptile and amphibian communities, we compared the results from prefire herpetofauna and vegetation sampling to two years of postfire sampling across 38 burned and 17 unburned plots. The sampling plots were spread over four vegetation types and four open space areas within San Diego County. Our capture results indicated that burned chaparral and coastal sage scrub plots lost herpetofaunal species diversity after the fires and displayed a significant shift in overall community structure. Shrub and tree cover at the burned plots, averaged across the second and third postfire years, had decreased by 53 in chaparral and 75 in coastal sage scrub. Additionally, postfire herpetofauna community structure at burned plots was more similar to that found in unburned grasslands. In grassland and woodland/riparian vegetation plots, where shrub and tree cover was not significantly affected by fires, we found no differences in the herpetofaunal species diversity or community composition. At the individual species level, Sceloporus occidentalis was the most abundant reptile in these areas both before and after the fires. We saw increases in the net capture rates for several lizard species, including Aspidoscelis tigris, Phrynosoma coronatum, and Uta stansburiana in burned chaparral plots and Aspidoscelis hyperythra and U. stansburiana in burned coastal sage scrub plots. The toad, Bufo boreas, was detected at significantly fewer burned plots in chaparral after the fires. Additionally, we documented decreases in the number of plots occupied by lizards (Elgaria multicarinata), salamanders (Batrachoseps major), and snakes (Coluber constrictor, Lampropeltis getula, Pituophis catenifer, and Masticophis lateralis) in coastal sage scrub and chaparral after the fires. We discuss the individual species

  11. District Allocation of Human Resources Utilizing the Evidence Based Model: A Study of One High Achieving School District in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Amber Marie

    2013-01-01

    This study applies the Gap Analysis Framework to understand the gaps that exist in human resource allocation of one Southern California school district. Once identified, gaps are closed with the reallocation of human resources, according to the Evidenced Based Model, requiring the re-purposing of core classroom teachers, specialists, special…

  12. Alternative Fuel Vehicles: The Case of Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) Vehicles in California Households

    OpenAIRE

    Abbanat, Brian A.

    2001-01-01

    Compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles have been used internationally by fleets and households for decades. The use of CNG vehicles results in less petroleum consumption, and fewer air pollutant and greenhouse gas emissions in most applications. In the United States, the adoption of CNG technology has been slowed by the availability of affordable gasoline and diesel fuel. This study addresses the potential market for CNG vehicles at the consumer level in California. Based on semi-structured pe...

  13. Single particle characterization, source apportionment, and aging effects of ambient aerosols in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Laura Grace

    , the impact of large wildfires on the ambient levels of particulate matter in Southern California is discussed. The results of this work provide insight into single particles impacting the Southern California region, the relative source contributions to this region, and finally an examination of how atmospheric aging influences the ability to perform source apportionment.

  14. Habitat use and movement of the endangered Arroyo Toad (Anaxyrus californicus) in coastal southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos, Elizabeth; Lyren, Lisa M.; Lovich, Robert E.; Mitrovich, Milan J.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2011-01-01

    Information on the habitat use and movement patterns of Arroyo Toads (Anaxyrus californicus) is limited. The temporal and spatial characteristics of terrestrial habitat use, especially as it relates to upland use in coastal areas of the species' range, are poorly understood. We present analyses of radiotelemetry data from 40 individual adult toads tracked at a single site in coastal southern California from March through November of 2004. We quantify adult Arroyo Toad habitat use and movements and interpret results in the context of their life history. We show concentrated activity by both male and female toads along stream terraces during and after breeding, and, although our fall sample size is low, the continued presence of adult toads in the floodplain through the late fall. Adult toads used open sandy flats with sparse vegetation. Home-range size and movement frequency varied as a function of body mass. Observed spatial patterns of movement and habitat use both during and outside of the breeding period as well as available climatological data suggest that overwintering of toads in floodplain habitats of near-coastal areas of southern California may be more common than previously considered. If adult toads are not migrating out of the floodplain at the close of the breeding season but instead overwinter on stream terraces in near-coastal areas, then current management practices that assume toad absence from floodplain habitats may be leaving adult toads over-wintering on stream terraces vulnerable to human disturbance during a time of year when Arroyo Toad mortality is potentially highest.

  15. Shallow gas accumulation in sediments of the Patos Lagoon, Southern Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weschenfelder, Jair; Corrrea, Iran C.S.; Pereira, Carla M.; Vasconcellos, Vinicius E.B. de [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias; Aliotta, Salvador [Instituto Argentino de Oceanografia Complejo CRIBABB, Bahia Blanca (Argentina)

    2006-07-15

    A high resolution seismic survey was conducted in the Patos Lagoon, southern Brazil, aboard of the research vessel LARUS of the Fundacao Universidade Federal do Rio Grande (FURG). Around 400 km of 3.5 k Hz seismic profiles were collected, which provided acoustic signals of good penetration depth and resolution. Seismic anomalies, including turbidity and pocket gas, revealed that gas-charged sediments are common in several areas of the lagoon. The gas accumulations in the Patos Lagoon are controlled by the spatial distribution of the sedimentary facies. Either in 'curtains' or in 'acoustic turbid zones', the main gas accumulations occur in areas with paleotopographic lows related to fluvial channels and valleys developed in the Rio Grande do Sul coastal plain during regressive/transgressive events of the Quaternary. (author)

  16. The 2014-2015 warming anomaly in the Southern California Current System observed by underwater gliders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaba, Katherine D.; Rudnick, Daniel L.

    2016-02-01

    Large-scale patterns of positive temperature anomalies persisted throughout the surface waters of the North Pacific Ocean during 2014-2015. In the Southern California Current System, measurements by our sustained network of underwater gliders reveal the coastal effects of the recent warming. Regional upper ocean temperature anomalies were greatest since the initiation of the glider network in 2006. Additional observed physical anomalies included a depressed thermocline, high stratification, and freshening; induced biological consequences included changes in the vertical distribution of chlorophyll fluorescence. Contemporaneous surface heat flux and wind strength perturbations suggest that local anomalous atmospheric forcing caused the unusual oceanic conditions.

  17. Evaluating the promise and pitfalls of a potential climate change-tolerant sea urchin fishery in southern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Kirk N; Powell, Jackson; Rudie, Dave; Levin, Lisa A

    2018-05-01

    Marine fishery stakeholders are beginning to consider and implement adaptation strategies in the face of growing consumer demand and potential deleterious climate change impacts such as ocean warming, ocean acidification, and deoxygenation. This study investigates the potential for development of a novel climate change - tolerant sea urchin fishery in southern California based on Strongylocentrotus fragilis (pink sea urchin), a deep-sea species whose peak density was found to coincide with a current trap-based spot prawn fishery ( Pandalus platyceros ) in the 200-300-m depth range. Here we outline potential criteria for a climate change - tolerant fishery by examining the distribution, life-history attributes, and marketable qualities of S. fragilis in southern California. We provide evidence of seasonality of gonad production and demonstrate that peak gonad production occurs in the winter season. S. fragilis likely spawns in the spring season as evidenced by consistent minimum gonad indices in the spring/summer seasons across 4 years of sampling (2012-2016). The resiliency of S. fragilis to predicted future increases in acidity and decreases in oxygen was supported by high species abundance, albeit reduced relative growth rate estimates at water depths (485-510 m) subject to low oxygen (11.7-16.9 µmol kg -1 ) and pH Total (climate-tolerant fishery development in an attempt to inform future urchin fishery stakeholders.

  18. EU's external energy governance: A multidimensional analysis of the southern gas corridor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasov, Faig Galib

    2014-01-01

    The major objective of this paper is to apply a multidimensional lens to the European Union's (EU's) vision to the yet to be establish Southern Gas Corridor. I will argue that, the EU's natural gas vision towards the Caspian basin is based not only on bringing additional gas volumes to the EU markets in order to ensure physical security of supply. It is rather multidimensional external governance geared, firstly, towards absorbing all the actors along the whole value chain in to the EU's common energy regulatory framework and shifting energy provision from a bilateral political domain onto a multilateral market domain. Secondly, it is a process of diffusion of norms and values into the governance system of the energy partners. - Highlights: • EU's Southern Gas Corridor strategy is structurally embedded in its external governance. • The counterpart of the EU's energy imports is its attempt to export its acquis. • EU's energy security necessitates diffusion of norms and values to producers

  19. Marcellus shale gas potential in the southern tier of New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faraj, B. [Talisman Energy Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Duggan, J. [Hunt Oil Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Marcellus shale is a significant, underexplored, shale gas target in the Appalachian Basin. Gas-in-place estimates in the Marcellus shale range from 200 to 100 billion cubic feet (bcf). The Devonian shales have favorable attributes such as high total organic content (TOC), high gas content, favorable mineralogy and over-pressured. Land owned by Fortuna Energy in the northern Appalachian Basin may contain significant shale gas with unrisked gas-in-place in excess of 10 trillion cubic feet. Unlocking the true shale gas potential requires innovative drilling and completion techniques. This presentation discussed Marcellus shale gas potential in the southern tier and a test program being conducted by Fortuna to test the potential. Several photographs were shown, including Taughannock Falls, Finger Lakes and the Ithaca Shale, Sherburne Sandstone, and Geneseo Shale; two orthogonal fracture sets in the Upper Devonian Geneseo Shale; and two orthogonal fracture sets in the Upper Devonian Rocks, near Corning, New York. Figures that were presented included the supercontinent Pangaea in the early Triassic; undiscovered gas resources in the Appalachian Basin; stratigraphy; and total gas production in New York since 1998. Fortuna's work is ongoing in the northern Appalachian Basin. tabs., figs.

  20. Preliminaries to a feasibility analysis of the Maglev proposal of the Southern California Association of Governments for the region : a seed grant study report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-30

    This is a seed grant study to perform a preliminary investigation of the system components and : generalized costs of the magnetic levitation type of high speed rail system that is proposed for the : Southern California Region, TGVbased high speed...

  1. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Susitna Basin, southern Alaska, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Richard G.; Potter, Christopher J.; Lewis, Kristen A.; Lillis, Paul G.; Shah, Anjana K.; Haeussler, Peter J.; Phillips, Jeffrey D.; Valin, Zenon C.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Drake II, Ronald M.; Finn, Thomas M.; Haines, Seth S.; Higley, Debra K.; Houseknecht, David W.; Le, Phuong A.; Marra, Kristen R.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Paxton, Stanley T.; Pearson, Ofori N.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Woodall, Cheryl A.; Zyrianova, Margarita V.

    2018-05-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed an assessment of undiscovered, technically recoverable oil and gas resources in the Susitna Basin of southern Alaska. Using a geology-based methodology, the USGS estimates that mean undiscovered volumes of about 2 million barrels of oil and nearly 1.7 trillion cubic feet of gas may be found in this area.

  2. Products and Services Available from the Southern California Earthquake Data Center (SCEDC) and the Southern California Seismic Network (SCSN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S. E.; Yu, E.; Bhaskaran, A.; Chowdhury, F. R.; Meisenhelter, S.; Hutton, K.; Given, D.; Hauksson, E.; Clayton, R. W.

    2011-12-01

    Currently, the SCEDC archives continuous and triggered data from nearly 8400 data channels from 425 SCSN recorded stations, processing and archiving an average of 6.4 TB of continuous waveforms and 12,000 earthquakes each year. The SCEDC provides public access to these earthquake parametric and waveform data through its website www.data.scec.org and through client applications such as STP and DHI. This poster will describe the most significant developments at the SCEDC during 2011. New website design: ? The SCEDC has revamped its website. The changes make it easier for users to search the archive, discover updates and new content. These changes also improve our ability to manage and update the site. New data holdings: ? Post processing on El Mayor Cucapah 7.2 sequence continues. To date there have been 11847 events reviewed. Updates are available in the earthquake catalog immediately. ? A double difference catalog (Hauksson et. al 2011) spanning 1981 to 6/30/11 will be available for download at www.data.scec.org and available via STP. ? A focal mechanism catalog determined by Yang et al. 2011 is available for distribution at www.data.scec.org. ? Waveforms from Southern California NetQuake stations are now being stored in the SCEDC archive and available via STP as event associated waveforms. Amplitudes from these stations are also being stored in the archive and used by ShakeMap. ? As part of a NASA/AIST project in collaboration with JPL and SIO, the SCEDC will receive real time 1 sps streams of GPS displacement solutions from the California Real Time Network (http://sopac.ucsd.edu/projects/realtime; Genrich and Bock, 2006, J. Geophys. Res.). These channels will be archived at the SCEDC as miniSEED waveforms, which then can be distributed to the user community via applications such as STP. Improvements in the user tool STP: ? STP sac output now includes picks from the SCSN. New archival methods: ? The SCEDC is exploring the feasibility of archiving and distributing

  3. Watching the Creation of Southern California's Largest Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    The new Diamond Valley Lake Reservoir near the city of Hemet in Riverside County is billed as the largest earthworks construction project in U.S.history. Construction began in 1995 and involved 31 million cubic meters of foundation excavation and 84 million cubic meters of embankment construction. This set of MISR images captures the most recent phase in the reservoir's activation. At the upper left is a natural-color view acquired by the instrument's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera on March 14, 2000 (Terra orbit 1273), shortly after the Metropolitan Water District began filling the reservoir with water from the Colorado River and Northern California. Water appears darker than the surrounding land. The image at the upper right was acquired nearly one year later on March 1, 2001 (Terra orbit 6399), and shows a clear increase in the reservoir's water content. When full, the lake will hold nearly a trillion liters of water.According to the Metropolitan Water District, the 7 kilometer x 3 kilometer reservoir nearly doubles Southern California's above-groundwater storage capacity. In addition to routine water management, Diamond Valley Lake is designed to provide protection against drought and a six-month emergency supply in the event of earthquake damage to a major aqueduct. In the face of electrical power shortages, it is also expected to reduce dependence on the pumping of water from northern mountains during the high-demand summer months. An unexpected result of site excavation was the uncovering of mastodon and mammoth skeletons along with bones from extinct species not previously thought to have been indigenous to the area, such as the giant long-horned bison and North American lion. A museum and interpretive center is being built to protect these finds.The lower MISR image, from May 20, 2001 (Terra orbit 7564), is a false-color view combining data from the instrument's 26-degree forward view (displayed as blue) with data from the 26-degree backward view

  4. Analysis of the effects of combustion emissions and Santa Ana winds on ambient ozone during the October 2007 southern California wildfires

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Bytnerowicz; D. Cayan; P. Riggan; S. Schilling; P. Dawson; M. Tyree; L. Wolden; R. Tissell; H. Preisler

    2010-01-01

    Combustion emissions and strong Santa Ana winds had pronounced effects on patterns and levels of ambient ozone (O3) in southern California during the extensive wildland fires of October 2007. These changes are described in detail for a rural receptor site, the Santa Margarita Ecological Reserve, located among large fires in San Diego and Orange counties. In addition,...

  5. Experimental study on gas slippage of Marine Shale in Southern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Ren

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The shale gas reservoirs are composed of porous media of different length scales such as nanopores, micropores, natural fractures and hydraulic fractures, which lead to high heterogeneity. Gas flow from pores to fractures is under different flow regimes and in the control of various flow mechanisms. The gas slippage would have significant effects on gas flow in shale. To obtain the effect of slippage on gas flow in matrix and fractures, contrast experiments were run by using cores with penetration fractures and no fractures from Marine Shale in Southern China under constant confining pressure. The results showed that slippage effect dominates and increases the gas permeability of cores without fractures. To cores with penetration fractures, slippage effect is associated with the closure degree of fractures. Slippage dominates when fractures close under low pore pressure. Slippage weakens due to the fractures opening under high pore pressure. Fracture opening reduces the seepage resistance and slippage effect. The Forchheimer effect occurs and leads to a permeability reduction.

  6. Magmatism and Epithermal Gold-Silver Deposits of the Southern Ancestral Cascade Arc, Western Nevada and Eastern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, David A.; du Bray, Edward A.; Henry, Christopher D.; Vikre, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Many epithermal gold-silver deposits are temporally and spatially associated with late Oligocene to Pliocene magmatism of the southern ancestral Cascade arc in western Nevada and eastern California. These deposits, which include both quartz-adularia (low- and intermediate-sulfidation; Comstock Lode, Tonopah, Bodie) and quartz-alunite (high-sulfidation; Goldfield, Paradise Peak) types, were major producers of gold and silver. Ancestral Cascade arc magmatism preceded that of the modern High Cascades arc and reflects subduction of the Farallon plate beneath North America. Ancestral arc magmatism began about 45 Ma, continued until about 3 Ma, and extended from near the Canada-United States border in Washington southward to about 250 km southeast of Reno, Nevada. The ancestral arc was split into northern and southern segments across an inferred tear in the subducting slab between Mount Shasta and Lassen Peak in northern California. The southern segment extends between 42°N in northern California and 37°N in western Nevada and was active from about 30 to 3 Ma. It is bounded on the east by the northeast edge of the Walker Lane. Ancestral arc volcanism represents an abrupt change in composition and style of magmatism relative to that in central Nevada. Large volume, caldera-forming, silicic ignimbrites associated with the 37 to 19 Ma ignimbrite flareup are dominant in central Nevada, whereas volcanic centers of the ancestral arc in western Nevada consist of andesitic stratovolcanoes and dacitic to rhyolitic lava domes that mostly formed between 25 and 4 Ma. Both ancestral arc and ignimbrite flareup magmatism resulted from rollback of the shallowly dipping slab that began about 45 Ma in northeast Nevada and migrated south-southwest with time. Most southern segment ancestral arc rocks have oxidized, high potassium, calc-alkaline compositions with silica contents ranging continuously from about 55 to 77 wt%. Most lavas are porphyritic and contain coarse plagioclase

  7. Effects of Urbanization on the Flow Regimes of Semi-Arid Southern California Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, R. J.; Bledsoe, B. P.; Stein, E. D.

    2010-12-01

    Stream channel erosion and associated habitat degradation are pervasive in streams draining urban areas in the southwestern US. The prevalence of these impacts results from the inherent sensitivity of streams in semi-arid climates to changes in flow and sediment regimes, and past inattention to management of geomorphically effective flows. Addressing this issue is difficult due to the lack of data linking ranges of flow (from small to large runoff events) to geomorphic channel response. Forty-three U. S. Geological Survey gages with record lengths greater than ~15 yrs and watershed areas less than ~250 square kilometers were used to empirically model the effects of urbanization on streams in southern California. The watersheds spanned a gradient of urban development and ranged from 0 to 23% total impervious area in 2001. With little flow control at the subdivision scale to date, most impervious area in the region is relatively well-connected to surface-drainage networks. Consequently, total impervious area was an effective surrogate for urbanization, and emerged as a significant (p approach expands on previous scaling procedures to produce histogram-style cumulative flow duration graphs for ungaged sites based on urbanization extent and other watershed descriptors. Urbanization resulted in proportionally-longer durations of all geomorphically-effective flows, with a more pronounced effect on the durations of moderate flows. For example, an average watershed from the study domain with ~20% imperviousness could experience five times as many days of mean daily flows on the order of 100 cfs (3 cubic meters per second) and approximately three times as many days on the order of 1,000 cfs (30 cubic meters per second) relative to the undeveloped setting. Increased duration of sediment-transporting flows is a primary driver of accelerated changes in channel form that are often concurrent with urbanization throughout southern California, particularly in unconfined, fine

  8. Natural Offshore Oil Seepage and Related Tarball Accumulation on the California Coastline - Santa Barbara Channel and the Southern Santa Maria Basin: Source Identification and Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenson, T.D.; Hostettler, Frances D.; Rosenbauer, Robert J.; Peters, Kenneth E.; Dougherty, Jennifer A.; Kvenvolden, Keith A.; Gutmacher, Christina E.; Wong, Florence L.; Normark, William R.

    2009-01-01

    Oil spillage from natural sources is very common in the waters of southern California. Active oil extraction and shipping is occurring concurrently within the region and it is of great interest to resource managers to be able to distinguish between natural seepage and anthropogenic oil spillage. The major goal of this study was to establish the geologic setting, sources, and ultimate dispersal of natural oil seeps in the offshore southern Santa Maria Basin and Santa Barbara Basins. Our surveys focused on likely areas of hydrocarbon seepage that are known to occur between Point Arguello and Ventura, California. Our approach was to 1) document the locations and geochemically fingerprint natural seep oils or tar; 2) geochemically fingerprint coastal tar residues and potential tar sources in this region, both onshore and offshore; 3) establish chemical correlations between offshore active seeps and coastal residues thus linking seep sources to oil residues; 4) measure the rate of natural seepage of individual seeps and attempt to assess regional natural oil and gas seepage rates; and 5) interpret the petroleum system history for the natural seeps. To document the location of sub-sea oil seeps, we first looked into previous studies within and near our survey area. We measured the concentration of methane gas in the water column in areas of reported seepage and found numerous gas plumes and measured high concentrations of methane in the water column. The result of this work showed that the seeps were widely distributed between Point Conception east to the vicinity of Coal Oil Point, and that they by in large occur within the 3-mile limit of California State waters. Subsequent cruises used sidescan and high resolution seismic to map the seafloor, from just south of Point Arguello, east to near Gaviota, California. The results of the methane survey guided the exploration of the area west of Point Conception east to Gaviota using a combination of seismic instruments. The

  9. Economic impacts of a California tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Adam; Wing, Ian Sue; Wei, Dan; Wein, Anne

    2016-01-01

    The economic consequences of a tsunami scenario for Southern California are estimated using computable general equilibrium analysis. The economy is modeled as a set of interconnected supply chains interacting through markets but with explicit constraints stemming from property damage and business downtime. Economic impacts are measured by the reduction of Gross Domestic Product for Southern California, Rest of California, and U.S. economies. For California, total economic impacts represent the general equilibrium (essentially quantity and price multiplier) effects of lost production in industries upstream and downstream in the supply-chain of sectors that are directly impacted by port cargo disruptions at Port of Los Angeles and Port of Long Beach (POLA/POLB), property damage along the coast, and evacuation of potentially inundated areas. These impacts are estimated to be $2.2 billion from port disruptions, $0.9 billion from property damages, and $2.8 billion from evacuations. Various economic-resilience tactics can potentially reduce the direct and total impacts by 80–85%.

  10. California energy flow in 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borg, I.Y.; Briggs, C.K.

    1995-04-01

    Energy consumption in the state of California decreased about 3% in 1993 reflecting continuation of the recession that was manifest in a moribund construction industry and a high state unemployment that ran counter to national recovery trends. Residential/commercial use decreased slightly reflecting a mild winter in the populous southern portion of the state, a decrease that was offset to some extent by an increase in the state population. Industrial consumption of purchased energy declined substantially as did production of self-generated electricity for in-house use. Consumption in the transportation sector decreased slightly. The amount of power transmitted by the utilities was at 1992 levels; however a smaller proportion was produced by the utilities themselves. Generation of electricity by nonutilities, primarily cogenerators and small power producers, was the largest of any state in the US. The growth in the number of private power producers combined with increased amounts of electricity sold to the public utilities set the stage for the sweeping proposals before the California Public Utility Commission to permit direct sales from the nonutilities to retail customers. California production of both oil and natural gas declined; however, to meet demand only the imports of natural gas increased. A break in the decade-long drought during the 1992--1993 season resulted in a substantial increase in the amount of hydroelectricity generated during the year. Geothermal energy`s contribution increased substantially because of the development of new resources by small power producers. Decline in steam production continued at The Geysers, the state`s largest field, principally owned and managed by a public utility. Increases in windpower constituted 1--1/2% of the total electric supply--up slightly from 1992. Several solar photo voltaic demonstration plants were in operation, but their contribution remained small.

  11. A rheologically layered three-dimensional model of the San Andreas fault in central and southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Charles A.; Richardson, Randall M.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of rheological parameters and the fault slip distribution on the horizontal and vertical deformation in the vicinity of the fault are investigated using 3D kinematic finite element models of the San Andreas fault in central and southern California. It is shown that fault models with different rheological stratification schemes and slip distributions predict characteristic deformation patterns. Models that do not include aseismic slip below the fault locking depth predict deformation patterns that are strongly dependent on time since the last earthquake, while models that incorporate the aseismic slip below the locking depth depend on time to a significantly lesser degree.

  12. Impact of transient soil water simulation to estimated nitrogen leaching and emission at high- and low-deposition forest sites in southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan Yuan; Thomas Meixner; Mark E. Fenn; Jirka Simunek

    2011-01-01

    Soil water dynamics and drainage are key abiotic factors controlling losses of atmospherically deposited N in Southern California. In this paper soil N leaching and trace gaseous emissions simulated by the DAYCENT biogeochemical model using its original semi‐dynamic water flow module were compared to that coupled with a finite element transient water flow...

  13. Cryptococcus gattii VGIII isolates causing infections in HIV/AIDS patients in Southern California: identification of the local environmental source as arboreal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah J Springer

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Ongoing Cryptococcus gattii outbreaks in the Western United States and Canada illustrate the impact of environmental reservoirs and both clonal and recombining propagation in driving emergence and expansion of microbial pathogens. C. gattii comprises four distinct molecular types: VGI, VGII, VGIII, and VGIV, with no evidence of nuclear genetic exchange, indicating these represent distinct species. C. gattii VGII isolates are causing the Pacific Northwest outbreak, whereas VGIII isolates frequently infect HIV/AIDS patients in Southern California. VGI, VGII, and VGIII have been isolated from patients and animals in the Western US, suggesting these molecular types occur in the environment. However, only two environmental isolates of C. gattii have ever been reported from California: CBS7750 (VGII and WM161 (VGIII. The incongruence of frequent clinical presence and uncommon environmental isolation suggests an unknown C. gattii reservoir in California. Here we report frequent isolation of C. gattii VGIII MATα and MATa isolates and infrequent isolation of VGI MATα from environmental sources in Southern California. VGIII isolates were obtained from soil debris associated with tree species not previously reported as hosts from sites near residences of infected patients. These isolates are fertile under laboratory conditions, produce abundant spores, and are part of both locally and more distantly recombining populations. MLST and whole genome sequence analysis provide compelling evidence that these environmental isolates are the source of human infections. Isolates displayed wide-ranging virulence in macrophage and animal models. When clinical and environmental isolates with indistinguishable MLST profiles were compared, environmental isolates were less virulent. Taken together, our studies reveal an environmental source and risk of C. gattii to HIV/AIDS patients with implications for the >1,000,000 cryptococcal infections occurring annually for which

  14. Cuticular hydrocarbons and soldier defense secretions of Reticulitermes in southern California: a critical analysis of the taxonomy of the genus in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lori J. Nelson; Laurence G. Cool; Christopher W. Solek; Michael I. Haverty

    2008-01-01

    Cuticular hydrocarbons (CHC) and soldier defense secretions (SDS) were characterized for collections of Reticulitermes from six counties (Los Angeles, Orange, Riverside, San Bernardino, San Diego, and Santa Barbara) in southern California. Collection sites included the type locality for R. hesperus, Lake Arrowhead (formerly known as Little Bear Lake) in the San...

  15. The Conundrum of the Southern Gas Corridor: What are the Risks for Europe and Azerbaijan? The viewpoint of an insider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livanios, Anthony

    2013-04-01

    For more than ten years harsh negotiations among different oil majors and pipeline consortia have been taking place about the Southern Gas Corridor, all of them seeking to transit 10 bcm/year of natural gas that will be produced from the Shah Deniz giant gas field of Azerbaijan to the European Union. As of today, no Final Investment Decision (FID) has been reached neither for the preferred pipeline route to Europe, nor for the production of the second phase of Shah Deniz. Yet a decision has to be made. Europe will remain a major gas importer as clearly shown by the International Energy Agency's scenarios for 2035. Even if shale gas may be a game-changer as far as Chinese needs for gas imports are concerned, many uncertainties remain regarding the risk of the EU competing with China in the global market for natural gas imports. Consequently the EU needs to secure its gas supplies. What is at stake is nothing but its competitiveness in the world economy. In the words of EU Commissioner for Energy, Guenther Oettinger, 'globally, demand growth poses a threat to security of supply and, with its impact on prices, our economic competitiveness'. In this context, the EU has to quickly make a decision regarding the Southern Gas Corridor unless the three major risks for the realization of the Southern Gas Corridor become too heavy. First, the delay of the FID of the Shah Deniz Consortium in Azerbaijan causes an acceleration of the economic and geopolitical costs which threaten the energy security of Europe. Associated with that risk is the potential internal disagreement between SOCAR, the State Oil Company of Azerbaijan, and BP, the two most important shareholders of the Shah Deniz consortium. Second, the development of South Stream poses a risk for the delivery of Azerbaijan gas to Europe via the Southern Gas Corridor. Gazprom is indeed already ahead of the geopolitical rivalry, since the construction of South Stream was officially inaugurated, last December 2012, by

  16. The optimal gas tax for California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, C.-Y. Cynthia; Prince, Lea

    2009-01-01

    This paper calculates the optimal gasoline tax for the state of California. According to our analysis, the optimal gasoline tax in California is $1.37/gal, which is over three times the current California tax when excluding sales taxes. The Pigovian tax is the largest part of this tax, comprising $0.85/gal. Of this, the congestion externality is taxed the most heavily, at $0.27, followed by oil security, accident externalities, local air pollution, and finally global climate change. The other major component, a Ramsey tax, comprises a full $0.52 of this tax, reflecting the efficiency in raising revenues from a tax on gasoline consumption due to the inelastic demand of this consumption good.

  17. Review of current Southern California edison load management programs and proposal for a new market-driven, mass-market, demand-response program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, G.H.

    2002-01-01

    Utility load management programs, including direct load control and interruptible load programs, constitute a large installed base of controllable loads that are employed by utilities as system reliability resources. In response to energy supply shortfalls expected during the summer of 2001, the California Public Utilities Commission in spring 2001 authorized new utility load management programs as well as revisions to existing programs. This report provides an independent review of the designs of these new programs for a large utility (Southern California Edison) and suggests possible improvements to enhance the price responsiveness of the customer actions influenced by these programs. The report also proposes a new program to elicit a mass-market demand response to utility price signals.

  18. Shallow gas in Cenozoic sediments of the Southern North Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trampe, Anna F.; Lutz, Rüdiger; Franke, Dieter; Thöle, Hauke; Arfai, Jashar

    2013-04-01

    Shallow petroleum systems in the southern North Sea are known for several decades but they were not actively explored for a long time. In recent years these unconventional shallow petroleum systems are studied in greater detail and one shallow gas field (A-12) is in production in the Netherlands. Additionally, oil was encountered in Miocene sandstones in the southern Danish North Sea (Lille John well) just north of the Danish-German border. Seismic amplitude anomalies are an indication for hydrocarbons in sediments. Therefore we have mapped the occurrence of seismic amplitude anomalies in the German North Sea based on more than 25.000 km of 2D seismic data and around 4.000 km2 of 3D seismic data. Amplitude anomalies are ubiquitous phenomena in the study area. These anomalies are not only caused by hydrocarbons but also by changing lithologies e.g. peat or fluid migration. Therefore several classes of seismic anomalies, e.g. bright spots, chimneys, blanking areas and velocity pull-down were mapped. Examples for these classes were studied with AVO (amplitude variation with offset) analyses to verify the existence or non-existence of gas in the sediments. Shallow gas can be produced and transported through the dense pipeline grid of the southern and central North Sea or it could be burned offshore close to wind parks in small power plants and the electric energy then transported through the existing power connections of the wind parks. Thus enabling a continuous energy supply during calm wind periods. This study is carried out within the framework of the project "Geoscientific Potential of the German North Sea (GPDN)" in which the Cenozoic sedimentary system was mapped in great detail. A detailed model of delta evolution (Baltic river system) was developed which serves as a structural framework. The studied interval is time equivalent to the Utsira formation which is used offshore Norway for sequestration of CO2. These different possibilities of using or exploiting

  19. Seawater temperature and salinity observed from the CORC3 and CORC4 moorings in the southern California Current (NE Pacific) from 2012 to 2016 (NCEI Accession 0163206)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archive accession contains temperature and salinity observations from instruments on the CORC3 and CORC4 moorings in the southern California Current, part of...

  20. The optimal gas tax for California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, C.-Y. Cynthia; Prince, Lea [Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2009-12-15

    This paper calculates the optimal gasoline tax for the state of California. According to our analysis, the optimal gasoline tax in California is USD1.37/gal, which is over three times the current California tax when excluding sales taxes. The Pigovian tax is the largest part of this tax, comprising USD0.85/gal. Of this, the congestion externality is taxed the most heavily, at USD0.27, followed by oil security, accident externalities, local air pollution, and finally global climate change. The other major component, a Ramsey tax, comprises a full USD0.52 of this tax, reflecting the efficiency in raising revenues from a tax on gasoline consumption due to the inelastic demand of this consumption good. (author)

  1. Outlook for California's electric utility industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, S.E.

    1996-01-01

    This article describes how the Southern California Edison Company deals with revolutionary change as the state's electricity industry reinvents itself. The topics of the article include how competition has make things better for SCEC's employees, customers, and shareholders, and an outline of the principal features of the electric utility industry in California

  2. Observation of CH4 and other Non-CO2 Green House Gas Emissions from California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Marc L.; Zhao, Chuanfeng; Riley, William J.; Andrews, Arlyn C.

    2009-01-09

    In 2006, California passed the landmark assembly bill AB-32 to reduce California's emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) that contribute to global climate change. AB-32 commits California to reduce total GHG emissions to 1990 levels by 2020, a reduction of 25 percent from current levels. To verify that GHG emission reductions are actually taking place, it will be necessary to measure emissions. We describe atmospheric inverse model estimates of GHG emissions obtained from the California Greenhouse Gas Emissions Measurement (CALGEM) project. In collaboration with NOAA, we are measuring the dominant long-lived GHGs at two tall-towers in central California. Here, we present estimates of CH{sub 4} emissions obtained by statistical comparison of measured and predicted atmospheric mixing ratios. The predicted mixing ratios are calculated using spatially resolved a priori CH{sub 4} emissions and surface footprints, that provide a proportional relationship between the surface emissions and the mixing ratio signal at tower locations. The footprints are computed using the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) coupled to the Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport (STILT) model. Integral to the inverse estimates, we perform a quantitative analysis of errors in atmospheric transport and other factors to provide quantitative uncertainties in estimated emissions. Regressions of modeled and measured mixing ratios suggest that total CH{sub 4} emissions are within 25% of the inventory estimates. A Bayesian source sector analysis obtains posterior scaling factors for CH{sub 4} emissions, indicating that emissions from several of the sources (e.g., landfills, natural gas use, petroleum production, crops, and wetlands) are roughly consistent with inventory estimates, but livestock emissions are significantly higher than the inventory. A Bayesian 'region' analysis is used to identify spatial variations in CH{sub 4} emissions from 13 sub-regions within California

  3. The Effects of Urbanization and Flood Control on Sediment Discharge of a Southern California River, Evidence of a Dilution Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrick, J. A.; Orzech, K. M.; Rubin, D. M.

    2004-12-01

    The southern California landscape has undergone dramatic urbanization and population growth during the past 60 years and currently supports almost 20 million inhabitants. During this time, rivers of the region have been altered with damming, channel straightening and hardening, and water transfer engineering. These changes have drastically altered water and sediment discharge from most of the region's drainage basins. Here we focus on changes in sediment discharge from the largest watershed of southern California, the Santa Ana River. Order-of-magnitude drops in the suspended sediment rating curves (the relationship between suspended sediment concentration and instantaneous river discharge) are observed between 1967 and 2001, long after the construction of a major flood control dam in 1941. These sediment concentration decreases do not, however, represent alteration of the total sediment flux from the basin (a common interpretation of sediment rating curves), but rather a dilution of suspended sediment by increases (approx. 4x) in stormwater discharge associated with urbanization. Increases in peak and total stormwater discharge are consistent with runoff patterns from urbanizing landscapes, supporting our hypothesis that the diluting water originated from stormwater runoff generated in urban areas both up- and downstream of dams. Our dilution hypothesis is further supported with water and sediment budgets, dilution calculations, and suspended and bed grain size information.

  4. Low Velocity Zones along the San Jacinto Fault, Southern California, inferred from Local Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z.; Yang, H.; Peng, Z.; Ben-Zion, Y.; Vernon, F.

    2013-12-01

    Natural fault zones have regions of brittle damage leading to a low-velocity zone (LVZ) in the immediate vicinity of the main fault interface. The LVZ may amplify ground motion, modify rupture propagation, and impact derivation of earthquke properties. Here we image low-velocity fault zone structures along the San Jacinto Fault (SJF), southern California, using waveforms of local earthquakes that are recorded at several dense arrays across the SJFZ. We use generalized ray theory to compute synthetic travel times to track the direct and FZ-reflected waves bouncing from the FZ boundaries. This method can effectively reduce the trade-off between FZ width and velocity reduction relative to the host rock. Our preliminary results from travel time modeling show the clear signature of LVZs along the SJF, including the segment of the Anza seismic gap. At the southern part near the trifrication area, the LVZ of the Clark Valley branch (array JF) has a width of ~200 m with ~55% reduction in Vp and Vs. This is consistent with what have been suggested from previous studies. In comparison, we find that the velocity reduction relative to the host rock across the Anza seismic gap (array RA) is ~50% for both Vp and Vs, nearly as prominent as that on the southern branches. The width of the LVZ is ~230 m. In addition, the LVZ across the Anza gap appears to locate in the northeast side of the RA array, implying potential preferred propagation direction of past ruptures.

  5. Onshore and offshore apatite fission-track dating from the southern Gulf of California: Insights into the time-space evolution of the rifting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestrieri, Maria Laura; Ferrari, Luca; Bonini, Marco; Duque-Trujillo, Jose; Cerca, Mariano; Moratti, Giovanna; Corti, Giacomo

    2017-11-01

    We present the results of a apatite fission-track (AFT) study on intrusive rocks in the southern Gulf of California, sampled along the eastern margin of Baja California Sur (western rift margin), as well as from islands and submerged rifted blocks within the Gulf of California, and from the conjugate Mexican margin (Nayarit state). For most of the samples U-Pb zircon and 40Ar-39Ar mineral ages were already available (Duque-Trujillo et al., 2015). Coupled with the new AFT data these ages provide a more complete information on cooling after emplacement. Our samples span a wide range of ages between 5.5 ± 1.1 and 73.7 ± 5.8 Ma, and show a general spatial distribution, with late Miocene AFT ages (about 6 Ma) aligned roughly NW-SE along a narrow offshore belt, parallel to Baja California Peninsula, separating older ages on both sides. This pattern suggests that in Late Miocene, deformation due to plate transtension focused at the eastern rheological boundary of the Baja California block. Some Early Miocene AFT ages onshore Baja California could be related to plutons emplaced at shallow depths and thermal resetting associated with the onset of volcanism at 19 Ma in this part of the Peninsula. On the other hand, an early extensional event similar to that documented in the eastern Gulf cannot be ruled out in the westernmost Baja California.

  6. Anthropogenic nutrient sources rival natural sources on small scales in the coastal waters of the Southern California Bight

    KAUST Repository

    Howard, Meredith D. A.; Sutula, Martha; Caron, David A.; Chao, Yi; Farrara, John D.; Frenzel, Hartmut; Jones, Burton; Robertson, George; McLaughlin, Karen; Sengupta, Ashmita

    2014-01-01

    Anthropogenic nutrients have been shown to provide significant sources of nitrogen (N) that have been linked to increased primary production and harmful algal blooms worldwide. There is a general perception that in upwelling regions, the flux of anthropogenic nutrient inputs is small relative to upwelling flux, and therefore anthropogenic inputs have relatively little effect on the productivity of coastal waters. To test the hypothesis that natural sources (e.g., upwelling) greatly exceed anthropogenic nutrient sources to the Southern California Bight (SCB), this study compared the source contributions of N from four major nutrient sources: (1) upwelling, (2) treated wastewater effluent discharged to ocean outfalls, (3) riverine runoff, and (4) atmospheric deposition. This comparison was made using large regional data sets combined with modeling on both regional and local scales. At the regional bight-wide spatial scale, upwelling was the largest source of N by an order of magnitude to effluent and two orders of magnitude to riverine runoff. However, at smaller spatial scales, more relevant to algal bloom development, natural and anthropogenic contributions were equivalent. In particular, wastewater effluent and upwelling contributed the same quantity of N in several subregions of the SCB. These findings contradict the currently held perception that in upwelling-dominated regions anthropogenic nutrient inputs are negligible, and suggest that anthropogenic nutrients, mainly wastewater effluent, can provide a significant source of nitrogen for nearshore productivity in Southern California coastal waters.

  7. Anthropogenic nutrient sources rival natural sources on small scales in the coastal waters of the Southern California Bight

    KAUST Repository

    Howard, Meredith D. A.

    2014-01-26

    Anthropogenic nutrients have been shown to provide significant sources of nitrogen (N) that have been linked to increased primary production and harmful algal blooms worldwide. There is a general perception that in upwelling regions, the flux of anthropogenic nutrient inputs is small relative to upwelling flux, and therefore anthropogenic inputs have relatively little effect on the productivity of coastal waters. To test the hypothesis that natural sources (e.g., upwelling) greatly exceed anthropogenic nutrient sources to the Southern California Bight (SCB), this study compared the source contributions of N from four major nutrient sources: (1) upwelling, (2) treated wastewater effluent discharged to ocean outfalls, (3) riverine runoff, and (4) atmospheric deposition. This comparison was made using large regional data sets combined with modeling on both regional and local scales. At the regional bight-wide spatial scale, upwelling was the largest source of N by an order of magnitude to effluent and two orders of magnitude to riverine runoff. However, at smaller spatial scales, more relevant to algal bloom development, natural and anthropogenic contributions were equivalent. In particular, wastewater effluent and upwelling contributed the same quantity of N in several subregions of the SCB. These findings contradict the currently held perception that in upwelling-dominated regions anthropogenic nutrient inputs are negligible, and suggest that anthropogenic nutrients, mainly wastewater effluent, can provide a significant source of nitrogen for nearshore productivity in Southern California coastal waters.

  8. Subsurface seeding of surface harmful algal blooms observed through the integration of autonomous gliders, moored environmental sample processors, and satellite remote sensing in southern California

    KAUST Repository

    Seegers, Bridget N.

    2015-04-01

    An observational study was performed in the central Southern California Bight in Spring 2010 to understand the relationship between seasonal spring phytoplankton blooms and coastal processes that included nutrient input from upwelling, wastewater effluent plumes, and other processes. Multi-month Webb Slocum glider deployments combined with MBARI environmental sample processors (ESPs), weekly pier sampling, and ocean color data provided a multidimensional characterization of the development and evolution of harmful algal blooms (HABs). Results from the glider and ESP observations demonstrated that blooms of toxic Pseudo-nitzschia sp. can develop offshore and subsurface prior to their manifestation in the surface layer and/or near the coast. A significant outbreak and surface manifestation of the blooms coincided with periods of upwelling, or other processes that caused shallowing of the pycnocline and subsurface chlorophyll maximum. Our results indicate that subsurface populations can be an important source for “seeding” surface Pseudo-nitzschia HAB events in southern California.

  9. Developing electricity production with natural gas in the southern mediterranean countries. An example of north-south cooperation in the electricity and natural gas sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenon, M.; Nogaret, E.

    1996-01-01

    The countries of the Southern Mediterranean region are facing an important increase of electricity demand due to their socio-economic development. In order to increase the production capacity at a minimum cost while preserving the environment, most countries of the region are planning gas fired power stations due to the important natural gas resources in the area. Overall investments in new power plants could reach the total of 100 billion dollars, up to the horizon 2010. The development of both the power plants and the infrastructure to produce and transport the natural gas needed is more and more performed through cooperation between companies of the two shores of the Mediterranean and represent an example of North- South cooperation in the energy field. This cooperation is taking place through technical assistance programs and also joint financing and management of the infrastructure required. A special importance is given to the development of highly efficient combined cycle power plants in the Southern Mediterranean countries and to the increase of the activities related to the exploration and production of natural gas. (author)

  10. Home range characteristics of fishers in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. J. Zielinski; R. L. Truex; G. A. Schmidt; F. V. Schlexer; K. N. Schmidt; R. H. Barrett

    2004-01-01

    The fisher (Martes pennanti) is a forest mustelid that historically occurred in California from the mixed conifer forests of the north coast, east to the southern Cascades, and south throughout the Sierra Nevada. Today fishers in California occur only in 2 disjunct populations in the northwestern mountains and the...

  11. Human responses to Middle Holocene climate change on California's Channel Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennett, Douglas J.; Kennett, James P.; Erlandson, Jon M.; Cannariato, Kevin G.

    2007-02-01

    High-resolution archaeological and paleoenvironmental records from California's Channel Islands provide a unique opportunity to examine potential relationships between climatically induced environmental changes and prehistoric human behavioral responses. Available climate records in western North America (7-3.8 ka) indicate a severe dry interval between 6.3 and 4.8 ka embedded within a generally warm and dry Middle Holocene. Very dry conditions in western North America between 6.3 and 4.8 ka correlate with cold to moderate sea-surface temperatures (SST) along the southern California Coast evident in Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Core 893A/B (Santa Barbara Basin). An episode of inferred high marine productivity between 6.3 and 5.8 ka corresponds with the coldest estimated SSTs of the Middle Holocene, otherwise marked by warm/low productivity marine conditions (7.5-3.8 ka). The impact of this severe aridity on humans was different between the northern and southern Channel Islands, apparently related to degree of island isolation, size and productivity of islands relative to population, fresh water availability, and on-going social relationships between island and continental populations. Northern Channel Islanders seem to have been largely unaffected by this severe arid phase. In contrast, cultural changes on the southern Channel Islands were likely influenced by the climatically induced environmental changes. We suggest that productive marine conditions coupled with a dry terrestrial climate between 6.3 and 5.8 ka stimulated early village development and intensified fishing on the more remote southern islands. Contact with people on the adjacent southern California Coast increased during this time with increased participation in a down-the-line trade network extending into the western Great Basin and central Oregon. Genetic similarities between Middle Holocene burial populations on the southern Channel Islands and modern California Uto-Aztecan populations suggest

  12. Retrofit energy conservation in residential buildings in southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, R. H.; Birur, G. C.; Daksla, C.

    1982-01-01

    The common energy conservation techniques (ECTs) that can be retrofit-installed into residential buildings are surveyed. The quantity of saved energy for heating and cooling attributable to each ECT is evaluated for three common modes of heating: natural gas heating at 60/therm; heating via heat pump at $1.20/therm; and electric resistance heating at $2.40/therm. In every case, a life cycle cost comparison is made between the long term revenue due to energy conservation and a safe and conventional alternative investment that might be available to the prudent homeowner. The comparison between investment in an ECT and the alternative investment is brought into perspective using the life cycle payback period and an economic Figure of Merit (FOM). The FOM allows for relative ranking between candidate ECTs. Because the entire spectrum of winter heating climates in California is surveyed, the decision maker can determine whether or not a considered ECT is recommended in a given climate, and under what conditions an ECT investment becomes attractive.

  13. Topographic Controls on Southern California Ecosystem Function and Post-fire Recovery: a Satellite and Near-surface Remote Sensing Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzari, George

    Southern Californian wildfires can influence climate in a variety of ways, including changes in surface albedo, emission of greenhouse gases and aerosols, and the production of tropospheric ozone. Ecosystem post-fire recovery plays a key role in determining the strength, duration, and relative importance of these climate forcing agents. Southern California's ecosystems vary markedly with topography, creating sharp transitions with elevation, aspect, and slope. Little is known about the ways topography influences ecosystem properties and function, particularly in the context of post-fire recovery. We combined images from the USGS satellite Landsat 5 with flux tower measurements to analyze pre- and post-fire albedo and carbon exchanged by Southern California's ecosystems in the Santa Ana Mountains. We reduced the sources of external variability in Landsat images using several correction methods for topographic and bidirectional effects. We used time series of corrected images to infer the Net Ecosystem Exchange and surface albedo, and calculated the radiative forcing due to CO2 emissions and albedo changes. We analyzed the patterns of recovery and radiative forcing on north- and south-facing slopes, stratified by vegetation classes including grassland, coastal sage scrub, chaparral, and evergreen oak forest. We found that topography strongly influenced post-fire recovery and radiative forcing. Field observations are often limited by the difficulty of collecting ground validation data. Current instrumentation networks do not provide adequate spatial resolution for landscape-level analysis. The deployment of consumer-market technology could reduce the cost of near-surface measurements, allowing the installation of finer-scale instrument networks. We tested the performance of the Microsoft Kinect sensor for measuring vegetation structure. We used Kinect to acquire 3D vegetation point clouds in the field, and used these data to compute plant height, crown diameter, and

  14. Defining Moments in MMWR History: Swine Influenza A (H1N1) Infection in Two Children, Southern California, March-April 2009

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    In 2009, novel influenza A H1N1 virus infection in two children from southern California was first identified. This marked the beginning of the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic. MMWR was the first scientific publication to break the news of these cases and went on to publish critical findings from the pandemic. In this podcast, Dr. Dan Jernigan discusses this historic public health event.

  15. Pedogenic silica accumulation in chronosequence soils, southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendrick, K.J.; Graham, R.C.

    2004-01-01

    Chronosequential analysis of soil properties has proven to be a valuable approach for estimating ages of geomorphic surfaces where no independent age control exists. In this study we examined pedogenic silica as an indicator of relative ages of soils and geomorphic surfaces, and assessed potential sources of the silica. Pedogenic opaline silica was quantified by tiron (4,5-dihydroxy-1,3-benzene-disulfonic acid [disodium salt], C6H 4Na2O8S2) extraction for pedons in two different chromosequences in southern California, one in the San Timoteo Badlands and one in Cajon Pass. The soils of hoth of these chronosequences are developed in arkosic sediments and span 11.5 to 500 ka. The amount of pedogenic silica increases with increasing duration of pedogenesis, and the depth of the maximum silica accumulation generally coincides with the maximum expression of the argillic horizon. Pedogenic silica has accumulated in all of the soils, ranging from 1.2% tiron-extractable Si (Sitn) in the youngest soil to 4.6% in the oldest. Primary Si decreases with increasing duration of weathering, particularly in the upper horizons, where weathering conditions are most intense. The loss of Si coincides with the loss of Na and K, implicating the weathering of feld-spars as the likely source of Si loss. The quantity of Si lost in the upper horizons is adequate to account for the pedogenic silica accumulation in the subsoil. Pedogenic silica was equally effective as pedogenic Fe oxides as an indicator of relative soil age in these soils.

  16. Airborne dust transport to the eastern Pacific Ocean off southern California: Evidence from San Clemente Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhs, D.R.; Budahn, J.; Reheis, M.; Beann, J.; Skipp, G.; Fisher, E.

    2007-01-01

    Islands are natural dust traps, and San Clemente Island, California, is a good example. Soils on marine terraces cut into Miocene andesite on this island are clay-rich Vertisols or Alfisols with vertic properties. These soils are overlain by silt-rich mantles, 5-20 cm thick, that contrast sharply with the underlying clay-rich subsoils. The silt mantles have a mineralogy that is distinct from the island bedrock. Silt mantles are rich in quartz, which is rare in the island andesite. The clay fraction of the silt mantles is dominated by mica, also absent from local andesite, and contrasts with the subsoils, dominated by smectite. Ternary plots of immobile trace elements (Sc-Th-La and Ta-Nd-Cr) show that the island andesite has a composition intermediate between average upper continental crust and average oceanic crust. In contrast, the silt and, to a lesser extent, clay fractions of the silt mantles have compositions closer to average upper continental crust. The silt mantles have particle size distributions similar to loess and Mojave Desert dust, but are coarser than long-range-transported Asian dust. We infer from these observations that the silt mantles are derived from airborne dust from the North American mainland, probably river valleys in the coastal mountains of southern California and/or the Mojave Desert. Although average winds are from the northwest in coastal California, easterly winds occur numerous times of the year when "Santa Ana" conditions prevail, caused by a high-pressure cell centered over the Great Basin. Examination of satellite imagery shows that easterly Santa Ana winds carry abundant dust to the eastern Pacific Ocean and the California Channel Islands. Airborne dust from mainland North America may be an important component of the offshore sediment budget in the easternmost Pacific Ocean, a finding of potential biogeochemical and climatic significance.

  17. Urban habitat fragmentation and genetic population structure of bobcats in coastal southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruell, E.W.; Riley, S.P.D.; Douglas, M.R.; Antolin, M.F.; Pollinger, J.R.; Tracey, J.A.; Lyren, L.M.; Boydston, E.E.; Fisher, R.N.; Crooks, K.R.

    2012-01-01

    Although habitat fragmentation is recognized as a primary threat to biodiversity, the effects of urban development on genetic population structure vary among species and landscapes and are not yet well understood. Here we use non-invasive genetic sampling to compare the effects of fragmentation by major roads and urban development on levels of dispersal, genetic diversity, and relatedness between paired bobcat populations in replicate landscapes in coastal southern California. We hypothesized that bobcat populations in sites surrounded by urbanization would experience reduced functional connectivity relative to less isolated nearby populations. Our results show that bobcat genetic population structure is affected by roads and development but not always as predicted by the degree that these landscape features surround fragments. Instead, we suggest that urban development may affect functional connectivity between bobcat populations more by limiting the number and genetic diversity of source populations of migrants than by creating impermeable barriers to dispersal.

  18. Reducing Community Vulnerability to Wildland Fires in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, J. E.

    2010-12-01

    In the US fires are not treated like other hazards such as earthquakes but rather as preventable through landscape fuel treatments and aggressive fire suppression. In southern California extreme fire weather has made it impossible to control all fires and thus loss of homes and lives is a constant threat to communities. There is growing evidence that indicate we are not likely to ever eliminate fires on these landscapes. Thus, it is time to reframe the fire problem and think of fires like we do with other natural hazards such as earthquakes. We do not attempt to stop earthquakes, rather the primary emphasis is on altering human infrastructure in ways that minimize community vulnerability. In other words we need to change our approach from risk elimination to risk management. This approach means we accept that we cannot eliminate fires but rather learn to live with fire by communities becoming more fire adapted. We potentially can make great strides in reducing community vulnerability by finding those factors with high impacts and are sensitive to changes in management. Presently, decision makers have relatively little guidance about which of these is likely to have the greatest impact. Future reductions in fire risk to communities requires we address both wildland and urban elements that contribute to destructive losses. Damage risk or D is determined by: D = f (I, S, E, G, H) where I = the probability of a fire starting in the landscape S = the probability of the fire reaching a size sufficient to reach the urban environment E = probability of it encroaching into the urban environment G = probability of fire propagating within the built environment H = probability of a fire, once within the built environment, resulting in the destruction of a building. In southern California, reducing I through more strategic fire prevention has potential for reducing fire risk. There are many ignition sources that could be reduced, such as replacing power line ignitions with

  19. Creating a Culturally Appropriate Web-Based Behavioral Intervention for American Indian/Alaska Native Women in Southern California: The Healthy Women Healthy Native Nation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Jessica R.; Clapp, John D.; Calac, Daniel; Kolander, Chelsea; Nyquist, Corinna; Chambers, Christina D.

    2013-01-01

    Health disparities in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are of high importance to American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) communities. We conducted focus groups and interviews with 21 AI/AN women and key informants in Southern California to modify a brief, Web-based program for screening and prevention of prenatal alcohol use. This process…

  20. Prioritizing environmental justice and equality: diesel emissions in southern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Julian D; Swor, Kathryn R; Nguyen, Nam P

    2014-04-01

    Existing environmental policies aim to reduce emissions but lack standards for addressing environmental justice. Environmental justice research documents disparities in exposure to air pollution; however, little guidance currently exists on how to make improvements or on how specific emission-reduction scenarios would improve or deteriorate environmental justice conditions. Here, we quantify how emission reductions from specific sources would change various measures of environmental equality and justice. We evaluate potential emission reductions for fine diesel particulate matter (DPM) in Southern California for five sources: on-road mobile, off-road mobile, ships, trains, and stationary. Our approach employs state-of-the-science dispersion and exposure models. We compare four environmental goals: impact, efficiency, equality, and justice. Results indicate potential trade-offs among those goals. For example, reductions in train emissions produce the greatest improvements in terms of efficiency, equality, and justice, whereas off-road mobile source reductions can have the greatest total impact. Reductions in on-road emissions produce improvements in impact, equality, and justice, whereas emission reductions from ships would widen existing population inequalities. Results are similar for complex versus simplified exposure analyses. The approach employed here could usefully be applied elsewhere to evaluate opportunities for improving environmental equality and justice in other locations.

  1. 33 CFR 100.1101 - Southern California annual marine events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... call sign “PATCOM”. Table 1 Del Rey to Puerto Vallarta Race Sponsor: Del Rey Yacht Club Date: February... of the race only. California Cup Sponsor: California Yacht Club Date: Late May (4 day event) Location... Yacht Race (Transpac) Sponsor: Transpacific Yacht Club Date: 4 July (biennially) Location: San Pedro...

  2. El Niño-Southern oscillation variability from the late cretaceous marca shale of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Andrew; Kemp, Alan E.S.; Weedon, Graham P.; Barron, John A.

    2012-01-01

    Changes in the possible behavior of El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) with global warming have provoked interest in records of ENSO from past “greenhouse” climate states. The latest Cretaceous laminated Marca Shale of California permits a seasonal-scale reconstruction of water column flux events and hence interannual paleoclimate variability. The annual flux cycle resembles that of the modern Gulf of California with diatoms characteristic of spring upwelling blooms followed by silt and clay, and is consistent with the existence of a paleo–North American Monsoon that brought input of terrigenous sediment during summer storms and precipitation runoff. Variation is also indicated in the extent of water column oxygenation by differences in lamina preservation. Time series analysis of interannual variability in terrigenous sediment and diatom flux and in the degree of bioturbation indicates strong periodicities in the quasi-biennial (2.1–2.8 yr) and low-frequency (4.1–6.3 yr) bands both characteristic of ENSO forcing, as well as decadal frequencies. This evidence for robust Late Cretaceous ENSO variability does not support the theory of a “permanent El Niño,” in the sense of a continual El Niño–like state, in periods of warmer climate.

  3. Historical Fire Perimeters - Southern California [ds384

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — CDF, USDA Forest Service Region 5, BLM, NPS, Contract Counties and other agencies jointly maintain a comprehensive fire perimeter GIS layer for public and private...

  4. A New Estimate for Total Offset on the Southern San Andreas Fault: Implications for Cumulative Plate Boundary Shear in the Northern Gulf of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darin, M. H.; Dorsey, R. J.

    2012-12-01

    Development of a consistent and balanced tectonic reconstruction for the late Cenozoic San Andreas fault (SAF) in southern California has been hindered for decades by incompatible estimates of total dextral offset based on different geologic cross-fault markers. The older estimate of 240-270 km is based on offset fluvial conglomerates of the middle Miocene Mint Canyon and Caliente Formations west of the SAF from their presumed source area in the northern Chocolate Mountains NE of the SAF (Ehlig et al., 1975; Ehlert, 2003). The second widely cited offset marker is a distinctive Triassic megaporphyritic monzogranite that has been offset 160 ± 10 km between Liebre Mountain west of the SAF and the San Bernadino Mountains (Matti and Morton, 1993). In this analysis we use existing paleocurrent data and late Miocene clockwise rotation in the eastern Transverse Ranges (ETR) to re-assess the orientation of the piercing line used in the 240 km-correlation, and present a palinspastic reconstruction that satisfies all existing geologic constraints. Our reconstruction of the Mint Canyon piercing line reduces the original estimate of 240-270 km to 195 ± 15 km of cumulative right-lateral slip on the southern SAF (sensu stricto), which is consistent with other published estimates of 185 ± 20 km based on correlative basement terranes in the Salton Trough region. Our estimate of ~195 km is consistent with the lower estimate of ~160 km on the Mojave segment because transform-parallel extension along the southwestern boundary of the ETR during transrotation produces ~25-40 km of displacement that does not affect offset markers of the Liebre/San Bernadino correlation located northwest of the ETR rotating domain. Reconciliation of these disparate estimates places an important new constraint on the total plate boundary shear that is likely accommodated in the adjacent northern Gulf of California. Global plate circuit models require ~650 km of cumulative Pacific-North America (PAC

  5. Contributions of Greenhouse Gas Forcing and the Southern Annular Mode to Historical Southern Ocean Surface Temperature Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostov, Yavor; Ferreira, David; Armour, Kyle C.; Marshall, John

    2018-01-01

    We examine the 1979-2014 Southern Ocean (SO) sea surface temperature (SST) trends simulated in an ensemble of coupled general circulation models and evaluate possible causes of the models' inability to reproduce the observed 1979-2014 SO cooling. For each model we estimate the response of SO SST to step changes in greenhouse gas (GHG) forcing and in the seasonal indices of the Southern Annular Mode (SAM). Using these step-response functions, we skillfully reconstruct the models' 1979-2014 SO SST trends. Consistent with the seasonal signature of the Antarctic ozone hole and the seasonality of SO stratification, the summer and fall SAM exert a large impact on the simulated SO SST trends. We further identify conditions that favor multidecadal SO cooling: (1) a weak SO warming response to GHG forcing, (2) a strong multidecadal SO cooling response to a positive SAM trend, and (3) a historical SAM trend as strong as in observations.

  6. Asian republics: the gas industry of the southern FSU [former Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fueg, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    The central Asian and Caucasian states of the former Soviet Union differ widely in terms of natural gas production, reserves and future potential but have two features in common. Firstly, they have a form of ''common gas market'' with Turkmenistan largely supplying the gas demand of the whole region. Secondly, these states are land-locked and present gas transport routes all across Russian territory. Alternative routes to the western European market which by-pass Russia are being sought by Turkmenistan whose exports compete with those of the Russian Federation. Turkmenistan is the second largest producer of gas in the former Soviet Union after Russia. There is currently a crisis in the Turkmen gas industry, though, caused by technical problems and difficulties in attracting foreign investment for exploration. Of these southern states, Uzbekistan is the only one to have expanded production since the break-up of the Soviet Union by the timely replacement of depleting fields by new ones. Kazakhstan's production is falling rapidly and further development is dependent on Russian infrastructure and benevolence as 75% of known reserves are on the Russian border, Gas production in Azerbaijan, which is also declining, is largely associated gas from offshore fields. Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan produce only small amounts of associated gas and prospects for expansion of output are slim. (2 tables) (UK)

  7. Reproduction, abundance, and population growth for a fisher (Pekania pennanti) population in the Sierra National Forest, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rick A. Sweitzer; Viorel D. Popescu; Reginald H. Barrett; Kathryn L. Purcell; Craig M. Thompson

    2015-01-01

    In the west coast region of the United States, fishers (Pekania pennanti) exist in 2 remnant populations—1 in northern California and 1 in the southern Sierra Nevada, California—and 3 reintroduced populations (western Washington, southern Oregon, and northeastern California). The West Coast Distinct Population Segment of fishers encompassing all of...

  8. Transpiration Demand in Southern California Oak Woodlands: Making the Leap from Lab and Individual Tree to Watershed Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, J. L.; Quinlan, P. T.; Martin, J.; Tartakovsky, D. M.

    2013-12-01

    Watershed scale estimates of evapotranspiration (ET) have proven difficult to quantify in areas of native vegetation with uncertain or unknown crop coefficients. In this study, we evaluate the water use in Quercus engelmanni and Quercus agrifolia, two species of oak native to Southern California. Thermal dissipation probes (TDPs) were installed at four locations within a 14,500 acre watershed, comprising 770 acres of Q. agrifolia woodland and 2440 acres of Q. engelmanni woodland. Installation duration ranged from 6 weeks to 14 months. The TDPs were calibrated to each species in the laboratory using limbs ranging from 2 to 5 inches in diameter. Dye was run through each limb at the end of the calibration test in order to establish a relationship between active sapwood area and limb diameter. ET measured in the field for each species was 0.15 to 0.3 times that of the reference evapotranspiration (ETo) derived from the Penman-Monteith equation, with the primary variability in the demand related to measured incident solar radiation. The total water demand for each species is estimated using the laboratory determined relationship between the active sapwood area and the diameter of the limb, and a survey of the tree diameter breast height (DBH) of each tree in the watershed. This study provides new insight into the actual water demand of two native tree species in Southern California and has serious implications for conservation plans, which are often developed using watershed models that apply ETo to all vegetation communities, regardless of actual water demand.

  9. Multiple introductions of the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti, into California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pless, Evlyn; Gloria-Soria, Andrea; Evans, Benjamin R; Kramer, Vicki; Bolling, Bethany G; Tabachnick, Walter J; Powell, Jeffrey R

    2017-08-01

    The yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti inhabits much of the tropical and subtropical world and is a primary vector of dengue, Zika, and chikungunya viruses. Breeding populations of A. aegypti were first reported in California (CA) in 2013. Initial genetic analyses using 12 microsatellites on collections from Northern CA in 2013 indicated the South Central US region as the likely source of the introduction. We expanded genetic analyses of CA A. aegypti by: (a) examining additional Northern CA samples and including samples from Southern CA, (b) including more southern US populations for comparison, and (c) genotyping a subset of samples at 15,698 SNPs. Major results are: (1) Northern and Southern CA populations are distinct. (2) Northern populations are more genetically diverse than Southern CA populations. (3) Northern and Southern CA groups were likely founded by two independent introductions which came from the South Central US and Southwest US/northern Mexico regions respectively. (4) Our genetic data suggest that the founding events giving rise to the Northern CA and Southern CA populations likely occurred before the populations were first recognized in 2013 and 2014, respectively. (5) A Northern CA population analyzed at multiple time-points (two years apart) is genetically stable, consistent with permanent in situ breeding. These results expand previous work on the origin of California A. aegypti with the novel finding that this species entered California on multiple occasions, likely some years before its initial detection. This work has implications for mosquito surveillance and vector control activities not only in California but also in other regions where the distribution of this invasive mosquito is expanding.

  10. Multiple introductions of the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti, into California.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evlyn Pless

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti inhabits much of the tropical and subtropical world and is a primary vector of dengue, Zika, and chikungunya viruses. Breeding populations of A. aegypti were first reported in California (CA in 2013. Initial genetic analyses using 12 microsatellites on collections from Northern CA in 2013 indicated the South Central US region as the likely source of the introduction. We expanded genetic analyses of CA A. aegypti by: (a examining additional Northern CA samples and including samples from Southern CA, (b including more southern US populations for comparison, and (c genotyping a subset of samples at 15,698 SNPs. Major results are: (1 Northern and Southern CA populations are distinct. (2 Northern populations are more genetically diverse than Southern CA populations. (3 Northern and Southern CA groups were likely founded by two independent introductions which came from the South Central US and Southwest US/northern Mexico regions respectively. (4 Our genetic data suggest that the founding events giving rise to the Northern CA and Southern CA populations likely occurred before the populations were first recognized in 2013 and 2014, respectively. (5 A Northern CA population analyzed at multiple time-points (two years apart is genetically stable, consistent with permanent in situ breeding. These results expand previous work on the origin of California A. aegypti with the novel finding that this species entered California on multiple occasions, likely some years before its initial detection. This work has implications for mosquito surveillance and vector control activities not only in California but also in other regions where the distribution of this invasive mosquito is expanding.

  11. Cultural/interpersonal values and smoking in an ethnically diverse sample of Southern California adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Jennifer B; Shakib, Sohaila; Gallaher, Peggy; Ritt-Olson, Anamara; Mouttapa, Michele; Palmer, Paula H; Johnson, C Anderson

    2006-01-01

    In ethnically diverse school contexts, values from multiple cultures might influence adolescents' attitudes and behaviors. This study developed scales to assess cultural values among Southern California 6'-grade adolescents (N=2281) and evaluated the associations between values and smoking. The scales assessed values salient in many Hispanic and Asian cultures: Respect for Adults (e.g., filial piety, respeto), Interpersonal Harmony (e.g., saving face, simpatia), and Differentiated Gender Roles (e.g., machismo). In cross-sectional and one-year longitudinal models, Respect for Adults and Interpersonal Harmony were associated with a lower risk of lifetime smoking. The associations were significant even after controlling for demographic characteristics, friends' smoking, and parents' smoking, indicating that values influence adolescents' behavior over and above the effects of modeling and peer influence. Increased understanding of adolescents' values could inform the creation of smoking prevention programs for ethnically diverse adolescents.

  12. Discussing epigenetics in Southern California: a report from the International Symposium on Epigenetic Control and Cellular Plasticity, UCI, December 15-16, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, Barbara P

    2012-04-01

    With the goal of discussing how epigenetic control and chromatin remodeling contribute to the various processes that lead to cellular plasticity and disease, this symposium marks the collaboration between the Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM) in France and the University of California, Irvine (UCI). Organized by Paolo Sassone-Corsi (UCI) and held at the Beckman Center of the National Academy of Sciences at the UCI campus December 15-16, 2011, this was the first of a series of international conferences on epigenetics dedicated to the scientific community in Southern California. The meeting also served as the official kick off for the newly formed Center for Epigenetics and Metabolism at the School of Medicine, UCI (http://cem.igb.uci.edu).

  13. Urbanization Causes Increased Cloud Base Height and Decreased Fog in Coastal Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, A. Park; Schwartz, Rachel E.; Iacobellis, Sam; Seager, Richard; Cook, Benjamin I.; Still, Christopher J.; Husak, Gregory; Michaelsen, Joel

    2015-01-01

    Subtropical marine stratus clouds regulate coastal and global climate, but future trends in these clouds are uncertain. In coastal Southern California (CSCA), interannual variations in summer stratus cloud occurrence are spatially coherent across 24 airfields and dictated by positive relationships with stability above the marine boundary layer (MBL) and MBL height. Trends, however, have been spatially variable since records began in the mid-1900s due to differences in nighttime warming. Among CSCA airfields, differences in nighttime warming, but not daytime warming, are strongly and positively related to fraction of nearby urban cover, consistent with an urban heat island effect. Nighttime warming raises the near-surface dew point depression, which lifts the altitude of condensation and cloud base height, thereby reducing fog frequency. Continued urban warming, rising cloud base heights, and associated effects on energy and water balance would profoundly impact ecological and human systems in highly populated and ecologically diverse CSCA.

  14. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the Ventura Basin Province, California, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Pitman, Janet K.; Lillis, Paul G.; Klett, Timothy R.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Finn, Thomas M.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Marra, Kristen R.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.

    2017-10-02

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) completed a geology-based assessment of undiscovered, technically recoverable conventional and continuous oil and gas resources in the part of the Ventura Basin Province that lies onshore or within State waters (within 3 miles of the shoreline) of California (fig. 1). Conventional oil and gas resources are those that have migrated upward into structural or stratigraphic traps from deep zones where the oil and gas is generated; water is present below the oil or gas. Continuous accumulations, in contrast, are those in which oil or gas is pervasively present in essentially all wells that penetrate them, that may not be structurally or stratigraphically trapped, and that typically lack oil-water or gas-water contacts. They are commonly produced with well-stimulation technology, such as hydraulic fracturing, referred to as “unconventional.” The same stimulation technology, however, is also used in many conventionally trapped accumulations. We estimated both the likely range of oil and gas volumes remaining to be discovered in accumulations similar to existing conventional oil and gas fields in the Ventura Basin Province (previously assessed by Keller [1995] as 1,060 million barrels of oil [MMBO], 1,900 billion cubic feet of gas [BCFG], and 60 million barrels of natural gas liquids [MMBNGL]), and the potential for oil and gas that might be present in a continuous accumulation at extreme depth in the floor of the basin.

  15. Urban sources and emissions of nitrous oxide and methane in southern California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend-Small, A.; Pataki, D.; Tyler, S. C.; Czimczik, C. I.; Xu, X.; Christensen, L. E.

    2012-12-01

    Anthropogenic activities have resulted in increasing levels of greenhouse gases, including carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide. While global and regional emissions sources of carbon dioxide are relatively well understood, methane and nitrous oxide are less constrained, particularly at regional scales. Here we present the results of an investigation of sources and emissions of methane and nitrous oxide in Los Angeles, California, USA, one of Earth's largest urban areas. The original goal of the project was to determine whether isotopes are useful tracers of agricultural versus urban nitrous oxide and methane sources. For methane, we found that stable isotopes (carbon-13 and deuterium) and radiocarbon are good tracers of biogenic versus fossil fuel sources. High altitude observations of methane concentration, measured continuously using tunable laser spectroscopy, and isotope ratios, measured on discrete flask samples using mass spectrometry, indicate that the predominant methane source in Los Angeles is from fossil fuels, likely from "fugitive" emissions from geologic formations, natural gas pipelines, oil refining, or power plants. We also measured nitrous oxide emissions and isotope ratios from urban (landscaping and wastewater treatment) and agricultural sources (corn and vegetable fields). There was no difference in nitrous oxide isotope ratios between the different types of sources, although stable isotopes did differ between nitrous oxide produced in oxic and anoxic wastewater treatment tanks. Our nitrous oxide flux data indicate that landscaped turfgrass emits nitrous oxide at rates equivalent to agricultural systems, indicating that ornamental soils should not be disregarded in regional nitrous oxide budgets. However, we also showed that wastewater treatment is a much greater source of nitrous oxide than soils regionally. This work shows that global nitrous oxide and methane budgets are not easily downscaled to regional, urban settings, which has

  16. Gravity Data for California and Southern Nevada

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity data (88,514 records) were compiled largely from a state-wide regional gravity study program organized by the California Division of Mines and Geology in...

  17. The Expedited Remedial Action Program: A case study. The Alhambra Front Street manufactured gas plant site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padleschat, J.A.; McMahon, T.D.

    1996-12-31

    Early in 1995, the Department of Toxic Substances Control asked Southern California Gas Company (SoCalGas) to enter one of its manufactured gas plant (MGP) sites into the new Expedited Remedial Action Program (ERAP). SoCalGas initially was not enthusiastic about the new program. Nevertheless, SoCalGas submitted an application for its Alhambra MGP site to be selected for the ERAP. The Alhambra Site was accepted into ERAP in November 1995, and was the first ERAP site to have orphan shares. MGP sites are well suited to the ERAP. They often involve few potentially responsible parties and can be expected to have the same primary contaminants: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), which are a byproduct of the gas manufacturing process, and petroleum hydrocarbons from the crude oil feedstock used to manufacture the gas.

  18. Assessing Cat Flea Microbiomes in Northern and Southern California by 16S rRNA Next-Generation Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Elton J R; Billeter, Sarah A; Jett, Lindsey A; Meinersmann, Richard J; Barr, Margaret C; Diniz, Pedro P V P; Oakley, Brian B

    2018-06-12

    Flea-borne diseases (FBDs) impact both human and animal health worldwide. Because adult fleas are obligately hematophagous and can harbor potential pathogens, fleas act as ectoparasites of vertebrates, as well as zoonotic disease vectors. Cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis) are important vectors of two zoonotic bacterial genera listed as priority pathogens by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID-USA): Bartonella spp. and Rickettsia spp., causative agents of bartonelloses and rickettsioses, respectively. In this study, we introduce the first microbiome analysis of C. felis samples from California, determining the presence and abundance of relevant pathogenic genera by characterizing the cat flea microbiome through 16S rRNA next-generation sequencing (16S-NGS). Samples from both northern (NoCal) and southern (SoCal) California were assessed to expand current knowledge regarding FBDs in the state. We identified Rickettsia and Bartonella, as well as the endosymbiont Wolbachia, as the most abundant genera, followed by less abundant taxa. In comparison to our previous study screening Californian cat fleas for rickettsiae using PCR/digestion/sequencing of the ompB gene, the 16S-NGS approach applied herein showed a 95% level of agreement in detecting Rickettsia spp. There was no overall difference in microbiome diversity between NoCal and SoCal samples. Bacterial taxa identified by 16S-NGS in this study may help to improve epidemiological investigations, pathogen surveillance efforts, and clinical diagnostics of FBDs in California and elsewhere.

  19. Low-Carbon Natural Gas for Transportation: Well-to-Wheels Emissions and Potential Market Assessment in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penev, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Melaina, Marc [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bush, Brian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Muratori, Matteo [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Warner, Ethan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chen, Yuche [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-12-01

    This report improves on the understanding of the long-term technology potential of low-carbon natural gas (LCNG) supply pathways by exploring transportation market adoption potential through 2035 in California. Techno-economic assessments of each pathway are developed to compare the capacity, cost, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of select LCNG production pathways. The study analyzes the use of fuel from these pathways in light-, medium-, and heavy-duty vehicle applications. Economic and life-cycle GHG emissions analysis suggest that landfill gas resources are an attractive and relatively abundant resource in terms of cost and GHG reduction potential, followed by waste water treatment plants and biomass with gasification and methanation. Total LCNG production potential is on the order of total natural gas demand anticipated in a success scenario for future natural gas vehicle adoption by 2035 across light-, medium-, and heavy-duty vehicle markets (110 trillion Btu/year).

  20. Comparison of recreational health risks associated with surfing and swimming in dry weather and post-storm conditions at Southern California beaches using quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Linda Y; Jiang, Sunny C

    2012-05-01

    Southern California is an increasingly urbanized hotspot for surfing, thus it is of great interest to assess the human illness risks associated with this popular ocean recreational water sport from exposure to fecal bacteria contaminated coastal waters. Quantitative microbial risk assessments were applied to eight popular Southern California beaches using readily available enterococcus and fecal coliform data and dose-response models to compare health risks associated with surfing during dry weather and storm conditions. The results showed that the level of gastrointestinal illness risks from surfing post-storm events was elevated, with the probability of exceeding the US EPA health risk guideline up to 28% of the time. The surfing risk was also elevated in comparison with swimming at the same beach due to ingestion of greater volume of water. The study suggests that refinement of dose-response model, improving monitoring practice and better surfer behavior surveillance will improve the risk estimation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Triggered surface slips in southern California associated with the 2010 El Mayor-Cucapah, Baja California, Mexico, earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rymer, Michael J.; Treiman, Jerome A.; Kendrick, Katherine J.; Lienkaemper, James J.; Weldon, Ray J.; Bilham, Roger; Wei, Meng; Fielding, Eric J.; Hernandez, Janis L.; Olson, Brian P.E.; Irvine, Pamela J.; Knepprath, Nichole; Sickler, Robert R.; Tong, Xiaopeng; Siem, Martin E.

    2011-01-01

    The April 4, 2010 (Mw7.2), El Mayor-Cucapah, Baja California, Mexico, earthquake is the strongest earthquake to shake the Salton Trough area since the 1992 (Mw7.3) Landers earthquake. Similar to the Landers event, ground-surface fracturing occurred on multiple faults in the trough. However, the 2010 event triggered surface slip on more faults in the central Salton Trough than previous earthquakes, including multiple faults in the Yuha Desert area, the southwestern section of the Salton Trough. In the central Salton Trough, surface fracturing occurred along the southern San Andreas, Coyote Creek, Superstition Hills, Wienert, Kalin, and Imperial Faults and along the Brawley Fault Zone, all of which are known to have slipped in historical time, either in primary (tectonic) slip and/or in triggered slip. Surface slip in association with the El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake is at least the eighth time in the past 42 years that a local or regional earthquake has triggered slip along faults in the central Salton Trough. In the southwestern part of the Salton Trough, surface fractures (triggered slip) occurred in a broad area of the Yuha Desert. This is the first time that triggered slip has been observed in the southwestern Salton Trough.

  2. The Southern California Coastal Ocean Observing System (SCCOOS): Developing A Coastal Observation System To Enable Both Science Based Decision Making And Scientific Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrill, E.; John, O.

    2005-05-01

    The Southern California Coastal Ocean Observing System (SCCOOS) is a consortium that extends from Northern Baja CA in Mexico to Morro Bay at the southern edge of central California, and aims to streamline, coordinate, and further develop individual institutional efforts by creating an integrated, multidisciplinary coastal observatory in the Bight of Southern California for the benefit of society. By leveraging existing infrastructure, partnerships, and private, local, state, and federal resources, SCCOOS is developing a fully operational coastal observation system to address issues related to coastal water quality, marine life resources, and coastal hazards for end user communities spanning local, state, and federal interests. However, to establish a sensible observational approach to address these societal drivers, sound scientific approaches are required in both the system design and the transformation of data to useful products. Since IOOS and coastal components of the NSF Ocean Observatories Initiative (OOI) are not mutually exclusive within this framework, the SCCOOS consortium of observatory implementers have created an organizational structure that encourages dovetailing of OOI into the routine observations provided by the operational components of a regional IOOS. To begin the development, SCCOOS has grant funding from the California Coastal Conservancy as part of a $21M, statewide initiative to establish a Coastal Ocean Currents Monitoring Program, and funding from NOAA's Coastal Observing Technology System (COTS). In addition, SCCOOS is leveraging IT development that has been supported by the NSF Information Technology Research program Real-time observatories, Applications,and Data Manageemnt Network (ROADNET), and anticipates using developments which will result from the NSF Laboratory for Ocean Observatory Knowledge Integration Grid (LOOKING) program. The observational components now funded at SCCOOS include surface current mapping by HF radar; high

  3. Insights into the establishment of the Manila clam on a tidal flat at the southern end of an introduced range in Southern California, USA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drew M Talley

    Full Text Available Coastal ecosystem modifications have contributed to the spread of introduced species through alterations of historic disturbance regimes and resource availability, and increased propagule pressure. Frequency of occurrence of the Manila clam (Venerupis phillipinarum, Veneridae in Southern California estuaries has increased from absent or sparse to common since the mid-1990s. Potential invasion vectors include seafood sales and aquaculture, and spread from established northern populations over decades. The clam's post-settlement habitat preferences are, however, uncertain in this region. Our project aimed to identify factors associated with established patches of the clam within a bay toward the southern end of this introduced range. During summer 2013, we sampled 10 tidal flat sites in Mission Bay, San Diego; each containing an area with and without hard structure (e.g., riprap, boulders. We measured likely environmental influences (e.g., sediment variables, distance to ocean. Manila clam densities across the bay were most strongly associated with site, where highest densities were located in the northern and/or back halves of the bay; and weakly correlated with lower porewater salinities. Within sites, Manila clam density was enhanced in the presence of hard structure in most sites. Prevailing currents and salinity regimes likely contribute to bay wide distributions, while hard structures may provide suitable microhabitats (refuge from predators and physical stress and larval entrapment within sites. Results provide insights into decisions about future shoreline management efforts. Finally, we identify directions for future study to better understand and therefore predict patterns of establishment of the Manila clam in the southern portion of its introduced range.

  4. Understanding the genetic effects of recent habitat fragmentation in the context of evolutionary history: Phylogeography and landscape genetics of a southern California endemic Jerusalem cricket (Orthoptera: Stenopelmatidae: Stenopelmatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandergast, A.G.; Bohonak, A.J.; Weissman, D.B.; Fisher, R.N.

    2007-01-01

    Habitat loss and fragmentation due to urbanization are the most pervasive threats to biodiversity in southern California. Loss of habitat and fragmentation can lower migration rates and genetic connectivity among remaining populations of native species, reducing genetic variability and increasing extinction risk. However, it may be difficult to separate the effects of recent anthropogenic fragmentation from the genetic signature of prehistoric fragmentation due to previous natural geological and climatic changes. To address these challenges, we examined the phylogenetic and population genetic structure of a flightless insect endemic to cismontane southern California, Stenopelmatus 'mahogani' (Orthoptera: Stenopelmatidae). Analyses of mitochondrial DNA sequence data suggest that diversification across southern California began during the Pleistocene, with most haplotypes currently restricted to a single population. Patterns of genetic divergence correlate with contemporary urbanization, even after correcting for (geographical information system) GIS-based reconstructions of fragmentation during the Pleistocene. Theoretical simulations confirm that contemporary patterns of genetic structure could be produced by recent urban fragmentation using biologically reasonable assumptions about model parameters. Diversity within populations was positively correlated with current fragment size, but not prehistoric fragment size, suggesting that the effects of increased drift following anthropogenic fragmentation are already being seen. Loss of genetic connectivity and diversity can hinder a population's ability to adapt to ecological perturbations commonly associated with urbanization, such as habitat degradation, climatic changes and introduced species. Consequently, our results underscore the importance of preserving and restoring landscape connectivity for long-term persistence of low vagility native species. Journal compilation ?? 2006 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Risk perception and occupational accidents: a study of gas station workers in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cezar-Vaz, Marta Regina; Rocha, Laurelize Pereira; Bonow, Clarice Alves; Silva, Mara Regina Santos da; Vaz, Joana Cezar; Cardoso, Letícia Silveira

    2012-07-01

    The present study aimed to identify the perceptions of gas station workers about physical, chemical, biological and physiological risk factors to which they are exposed in their work environment; identify types of occupational accidents involving gas station workers and; report the development of a socioenvironmental intervention as a tool for risk communication to gas station workers. A quantitative study was performed with 221 gas station workers in southern Brazil between October and December 2010. Data collection was performed between October to December 2010 via structured interviews. The data were analyzed using SPSS 19.0. The participants identified the following risk types: chemical (93.7%), physical (88.2%), physiological (64.3%) and biological (62.4%). In this sample, 94.1% of gas station workers reported occupational accidents, and 74.2% reported fuel contact with the eyes (p accidents as an indicator of the dangerous nature of their work environment.

  6. Submicron organic aerosol in Tijuana, Mexico, from local and Southern California sources during the CalMex campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahama, S.; Johnson, A.; Guzman Morales, J.; Russell, L. M.; Duran, R.; Rodriguez, G.; Zheng, J.; Zhang, R.; Toom-Sauntry, D.; Leaitch, W. R.

    2013-05-01

    The CalMex campaign was conducted from May 15 to June 30 of 2010 to study the properties and sources of air pollution in Tijuana, Mexico. In this study, submicron organic aerosol mass (OM) composition measured by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM), and X-ray spectromicroscopy are combined with statistical analysis and measurements of other atmospheric constituents. The average (±one standard deviation) OM concentration was 3.3 ± 1.7 μg m-3. A large source of submicron aerosol mass at this location was determined to be vehicular sources, which contributed approximately 40% to the submicron OM; largely during weekday mornings. The O/C ratio estimated from ACSM measurements was 0.64 ± 0.19; diurnal variations in this value and the more oxygenated fraction of OM as determined from Positive Matrix Factorization and classification analyses suggest the high degree of oxygenation originates from aged OM, rather than locally-produced secondary organic aerosol. A large contribution of this oxygenated aerosol to Tijuana from various source classes was observed; some fraction of this aerosol mass may be associated with non-refractory components, such as dust or BC. Backtrajectory simulations using the HYSPLIT model suggest that the mean wind vector consistently originated from the northwest region, over the Pacific Ocean and near the Southern California coast, which suggests that the origin of much of the oxygenated organic aerosol observed in Tijuana (as much as 60% of OM) may have been the Southern California Air Basin. The marine aerosol contribution to OM during the period was on average 23 ± 24%, though its contribution varied over synoptic rather than diurnal timescales. BB aerosol contributed 20 ± 20% of the OM during the campaign period, with notable BB events occurring during several weekend evenings.

  7. Evaluation of reproductive endocrine status in hornyhead turbot sampled from Southern California's urbanized coastal environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Jesus A; Vidal-Dorsch, Doris E; Schlenk, Daniel; Bay, Steven M; Armstrong, Jeffrey L; Gully, Joseph R; Cash, Curtis; Baker, Michael; Stebbins, Timothy D; Hardiman, Gary; Kelley, Kevin M

    2012-12-01

    As part of a regionwide collaboration to determine the occurrence of contaminants and biological effects in coastal ecosystems offshore of urban southern California, the present study characterized the reproductive endocrinology of an indigenous flatfish, the hornyhead turbot (Pleuronichthys verticalis), and compared groups sampled from different study sites representing varying degrees of pollution to screen for potential endocrine disruptive effects. Turbot were sampled from locations near the coastal discharge sites of four large municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) located between Los Angeles and San Diego, California, USA, and were compared with fish sampled from three far-field reference locations in the region. Despite environmental presence of both legacy contaminants and contaminants of emerging concern and evidence for fish exposure to several classes of contaminants, both males and females generally exhibited coordinated seasonal reproductive cycles at all study sites. Patterns observed included peaks in sex steroids (17β-estradiol, testosterone, 11-ketotestosterone) in the spring and low levels in the fall, changes corresponding to similarly timed gonadal changes and plasma vitellogenin concentrations in females. Comparisons between fish captured at the different study sites demonstrated some regional differences in plasma levels of estrogens and androgens, indicative of location-associated effects on the endocrine system. The observed differences, however, could not be linked to the ocean discharge locations of four of the largest WWTPs in the world. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  8. Atmospheric Wind Relaxations and the Oceanic Response in the California Current Large Marine Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fewings, M. R.; Dorman, C. E.; Washburn, L.; Liu, W.

    2010-12-01

    On the West Coast of North America in summer, episodic relaxation of the upwelling-favorable winds causes warm water to propagate northward from southern to central California, against the prevailing currents [Harms and Winant 1998, Winant et al. 2003, Melton et al. 2009]. Similar wind relaxations are an important characteristic of coastal upwelling ecosystems worldwide. Although these wind relaxations have an important influence on coastal ocean dynamics, no description exists of the regional atmospheric patterns that lead to wind relaxations in southern California, or of the regional ocean response. We use QuikSCAT wind stress, North American Regional Reanalysis atmospheric pressure products, water temperature and velocity from coastal ocean moorings, surface ocean currents from high-frequency radars, and MODIS satellite sea-surface temperature and ocean color images to analyze wind relaxation events and the ocean response. We identify the events based on an empirical index calculated from NDBC buoy winds [Melton et al. 2009]. We describe the regional evolution of the atmosphere from the Gulf of Alaska to Baja California over the few days leading up to wind relaxations, and the coastal ocean temperature, color, and current response off southern and central California. We analyze ~100 wind relaxation events in June-September during the QuikSCAT mission, 1999-2009. Our results indicate south-central California wind relaxations in summer are tied to mid-level atmospheric low-pressure systems that form in the Gulf of Alaska and propagate southeastward over 3-5 days. As the low-pressure systems reach southern California, the atmospheric pressure gradient along the coast weakens, causing the surface wind stress to relax to near zero. The weak wind signal appears first at San Diego and propagates northward. QuikSCAT data indicate the relaxed winds extend over the entire Southern California Bight and up to 200 km offshore of central California. Atmospheric dynamics in

  9. The character and causes of flash flood occurrence changes in mountainous small basins of Southern California under projected climatic change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa M. Modrick

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Study region: Small watersheds (O[25 km2] in the mountain regions of southern California comprise the study region. Study focus: This paper examines changes in flash flood occurrence in southern California resulting from projected climatic change. The methodology synthesizes elements of meteorological modeling, hydrology and geomorphology into an integrated modeling approach to define flash flood occurrence in a systematic and consistent way on a regional basis with high spatial and temporal resolution appropriate for flash flooding. A single climate model with three-dimensional atmospheric detail was used as input to drive simulations for historical and future periods. New hydrological insights for the region: Results indicate an increase in flash flood occurrence for the study region. For two distributed hydrologic models employed, the increase in flash flood occurrence frequency is on average between 30% and 40%. Regional flash flood occurrence is characterized by near saturation of the upper soil layer, and wider ranges in lower soil layer saturation and in precipitation. Overall, a decrease in the total number of precipitation events was found, although with increased precipitation intensity, increased event duration, and higher soil saturation conditions for the 21st century. This combination could signify more hazardous conditions, with fewer precipitation events but higher rainfall intensity and over soils with higher initial soil moisture saturation, leading to more frequent occurrence of flash floods. Keywords: Flash flooding, Climate change, Soil moisture, Precipitation, Distributed hydrologic modeling

  10. Borehole P- and S-wave velocity at thirteen stations in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, James F.; Boore, David M.; Tinsley, John C.; Mueller, Charles S.

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), as part of a program to acquire seismic velocity data at locations of strong-ground motion in earthquakes (e.g., Gibbs et al., 2000), has investigated thirteen additional sites in the Southern California region. Of the thirteen sites, twelve are in the vicinity of Whittier, California, and one is located in San Bernardino, California. Several deployments of temporary seismographs were made after the Whittier Narrows, California earthquake of 1 October 1987 (Mueller et al., 1988). A deployment, between 2 October and 9 November 1987, was the motivation for selection of six of the drill sites. Temporary portable seismographs at Hoover School (HOO), Lincoln School (LIN), Corps of Engineers Station (NAR), Olive Junior High School (OLV), Santa Anita Golf Course (SAG), and Southwestern Academy (SWA) recorded significant aftershock data. These portable sites, with the exception of Santa Anita Golf Course, were co-sited with strong-motion recorders. Stations at HOO, Lincoln School Whittier (WLB), Saint Paul High School (STP), Alisos Adult School (EXC), Cerritos College Gymnasium (CGM), Cerritos College Physical Science Building (CPS), and Cerritos College Police Building (CPB) were part of an array of digital strong-motion stations deployed from "bedrock" in Whittier to near the deepest part of the Los Angeles basin in Norwalk. Although development and siting of this new array (partially installed at the time of this writing) was generally motivated by the Whittier Narrows earthquake, these new sites (with the exception of HOO) were not part of any Whittier Narrows aftershock deployments. A similar new digital strong-motion site was installed at the San Bernardino Fire Station during the same time frame. Velocity data were obtained to depths of about 90 meters at two sites, 30 meters at seven sites, and 18 to 25 meters at four sites. Lithology data from the analysis of cuttings and samples was obtained from the two 90-meter deep holes and

  11. Defining Moments in MMWR History: Swine Influenza A (H1N1) Infection in Two Children, Southern California, March-April 2009

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-07-17

    In 2009, novel influenza A H1N1 virus infection in two children from southern California was first identified. This marked the beginning of the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic. MMWR was the first scientific publication to break the news of these cases and went on to publish critical findings from the pandemic. In this podcast, Dr. Dan Jernigan discusses this historic public health event.  Created: 7/17/2017 by MMWR.   Date Released: 7/17/2017.

  12. Measuring Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks Across California Land Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, M. L.

    2017-12-01

    Significant reductions in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are needed to limit rising planetary temperatures that will otherwise limit Earth's capacity to support life, introducing geopolitical instability. To help mitigate this threat, California has legislated landmark reductions in state-level greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that set an example for broader action. Beginning with relatively assured reduction of current emissions to 1990 levels by 2020, future goals are much more challenging with 40% and 80% reductions below 1990 emissions by 2030 and 2050, respectively. While the majority of the reductions must focus on fossil fuels, inventory estimates of non-CO2 GHG emissions (i.e., CH4, N2O, and industrial compounds) constitute 15% of the total, suggesting reductions are required across multiple land use sectors. However, recent atmospheric inversion studies show methane and nitrous oxide (CH4 & N2O) emissions exceed current inventory estimates by factors of 1.2-1.8 and 1.6-2.6 (at 95% confidence), respectively, perhaps constituting up to 30% of State total emissions. The discrepancy is likely because current bottom-up models used for inventories do not accurately capture important management or biophysical factors. In the near term, process level experiments and sector-specific inversions are being planned to quantify the factors controlling non-CO2 GHG emissions for several of the dominant emission sectors. For biosphere carbon, California forests lands, which also depend on the combination of management, climate, and weather, lost above ground carbon from 2001-2010, and may be expected to lose soil and root carbon as a longer-term result. Here, it is important to identify and apply the best principles in forestry and agriculture to increase carbon stocks in depleted forest and agricultural areas, focusing on approaches that provide resilience to future climate and weather variations. Taken together, improved atmospheric, plant, and soil observations, together

  13. Characteristics of Southern California coastal aquifer systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, B.D.; Hanson, R.T.; Reichard, E.G.; Johnson, T.A.

    2009-01-01

    Most groundwater produced within coastal Southern California occurs within three main types of siliciclastic basins: (1) deep (>600 m), elongate basins of the Transverse Ranges Physiographic Province, where basin axes and related fluvial systems strike parallel to tectonic structure, (2) deep (>6000 m), broad basins of the Los Angeles and Orange County coastal plains in the northern part of the Peninsular Ranges Physiographic Province, where fluvial systems cut across tectonic structure at high angles, and (3) shallow (75-350 m), relatively narrow fluvial valleys of the generally mountainous southern part of the Peninsular Ranges Physiographic Province in San Diego County. Groundwater pumped for agricultural, industrial, municipal, and private use from coastal aquifers within these basins increased with population growth since the mid-1850s. Despite a significant influx of imported water into the region in recent times, groundwater, although reduced as a component of total consumption, still constitutes a significant component of water supply. Historically, overdraft from the aquifers has caused land surface subsidence, flow between water basins with related migration of groundwater contaminants, as well as seawater intrusion into many shallow coastal aquifers. Although these effects have impacted water quality, most basins, particularly those with deeper aquifer systems, meet or exceed state and national primary and secondary drinking water standards. Municipalities, academicians, and local water and governmental agencies have studied the stratigraphy of these basins intensely since the early 1900s with the goals of understanding and better managing the important groundwater resource. Lack of a coordinated effort, due in part to jurisdictional issues, combined with the application of lithostratigraphic correlation techniques (based primarily on well cuttings coupled with limited borehole geophysics) have produced an often confusing, and occasionally conflicting

  14. Seawater temperature and salinity observed from the CORC1 and CORC2 moorings in the southern California Current (NE Pacific) from 2008-09-20 to 2012-11-14 (NCEI Accession 0137858)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature and salinity observations from instruments on the CORC1 and CORC2 moorings in the southern California Current, part of the CORC project (Consortium on...

  15. A multi-group confirmatory factor analyses of the LupusPRO between southern California and Filipino samples of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizoddin, D R; Olmstead, R; Cost, C; Jolly, M; Ayeroff, J; Racaza, G; Sumner, L A; Ormseth, S; Weisman, M; Nicassio, P M

    2017-08-01

    Introduction Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) leads to a range of biopsychosocial health outcomes through an unpredictable and complex disease path. The LupusPRO is a comprehensive, self-report measure developed specifically for populations with SLE, which assesses both health-related quality of life and non-health related quality of life. Given its increasingly widespread use, additional research is needed to evaluate the psychometric integrity of the LupusPRO across diverse populations. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the performance of the LupusPRO in two divergent patient samples and the model fit between both samples. Methods Two diverse samples with SLE included 136 patients from an ethnically-diverse, urban region in southern California and 100 from an ethnically-homogenous, rural region in Manila, Philippines. All patients met the ACR classification criteria for SLE. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFAs) were conducted in each sample separately and combined to provide evidence of the factorial integrity of the 12 subscales in the LupusPRO. Results Demographic analyses indicated significant differences in age, disease activity and duration, education, income, insurance, and medication use between groups. Results of the separate CFAs indicated moderate fit to the data for the hypothesized 12-factor model for both the Manila and southern California groups, respectively [χ 2 (794) = 1283.32, p < 0.001, Comparative Fit Index (CFI) = 0.793; χ 2 (794) =1398.44, p < 0.001, CFI = 0.858]. When the factor structures of the LupusPRO in the southern California and Manila groups were constrained to be equal between the two groups, findings revealed that the factor structures of measured variables fit the two groups reasonably well [χ 2  (1697) = 2950.413, df = 1697, p < 0.000; CFI = 0.811]. After removing seven constraints and eight correlations suggested by the Lagrange multiplier test, the model fit improved

  16. Thyroid Hormones and Moderate Exposure to Perchlorate during Pregnancy in Women in Southern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmaus, Craig; Pearl, Michelle; Kharrazi, Martin; Blount, Benjamin C; Miller, Mark D; Pearce, Elizabeth N; Valentin-Blasini, Liza; DeLorenze, Gerald; Hoofnagle, Andrew N; Liaw, Jane

    2016-06-01

    hormones and moderate exposure to perchlorate during pregnancy in women in Southern California. Environ Health Perspect 124:861-867; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1409614.

  17. Building capacity for HIV/AIDS prevention among Asian Pacific Islander organizations: the experience of a culturally appropriate capacity-building program in Southern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Lois M; Candelario, Jury; Young, Tim; Mediano, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    This article has two goals: (1) to outline a conceptual model for culturally appropriate HIV prevention capacity building; (2) to present the experiences from a 3-year program provided by Asian Pacific AIDS Intervention Team to Asian Pacific Islander (API) organizations in southern California. The participating organizations were of two types: lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning (LGBTQ) social organizations and social service agencies not targeting LGBTQ. These organizations were selected for participation because of their commitment to HIV/AIDS issues in API communities. An organizational survey and staff observations were used to explore changes in capacity. The organizations were mostly small, targeted diverse populations, served a large geographic area (southern California as a region), and were knowledgeable about HIV. Organizations became more viable (more capacity in human resources, financial, external relations, and strategic management), but also more unstable (large growth in paid staff and board members), and showed more capacity in HIV knowledge environments (especially less stigma and more sensitivity to diverse populations). The results suggest that capacity can expand over a short period of time, but as capacity increases, organizational viability/stability and HIV knowledge environments change, meaning that different types of technical assistance would be needed for sustainability.

  18. Impacts of stormwater runoff in the Southern California Bight: Relationships among plume constituents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reifel, K.M.; Johnson, S.C.; DiGiacomo, P.M.; Mengel, M.J.; Nezlin, N.P.; Warrick, J.A.; Jones, B.H.

    2009-01-01

    The effects from two winter rain storms on the coastal ocean of the Southern California Bight were examined as part of the Bight '03 program during February 2004 and February-March 2005. The impacts of stormwater from fecal indicator bacteria, water column toxicity, and nutrients were evaluated for five major river discharges: the Santa Clara River, Ballona Creek, the San Pedro Shelf (including the Los Angeles, San Gabriel, and Santa Ana Rivers), the San Diego River, and the Tijuana River. Exceedances of bacterial standards were observed in most of the systems. However, the areas of impact were generally spatially limited, and contaminant concentrations decreased below California Ocean Plan standards typically within 2-3 days. The largest bacterial concentrations occurred in the Tijuana River system where exceedances of fecal indicator bacteria were noted well away from the river mouth. Maximum nitrate concentrations (~40 ??M) occurred in the San Pedro Shelf region near the mouth of the Los Angeles River. Based on the results of general linear models, individual sources of stormwater differ in both nutrient concentrations and the concentration and composition of fecal indicator bacteria. While nutrients appeared to decrease in plume waters due to simple mixing and dilution, the concentration of fecal indicator bacteria in plumes depends on more than loading and dilution rates. The relationships between contaminants (nutrients and fecal indicator bacteria) and plume indicators (salinity and total suspended solids) were not strong indicating the presence of other potentially important sources and/or sinks of both nutrients and fecal indicator bacteria. California Ocean Plan standards were often exceeded in waters containing greater than 10% stormwater (variables can be used as proxies to provide at least a qualitative, if not quantitative, evaluation of the distribution of the dissolved, as well as the particulate, components of stormwater plumes. In this context

  19. California study compares natural/drilling discharge contaminants offshore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinhauer, W.G.; Imamura, E.; Barminski, J.R.; Neff, J.M.

    1992-01-01

    An analysis of drilling fluid and this paper reports that cuttings discharges in the southern Santa Maria basin offshore California indicates that the amount of metal and hydrocarbon contaminants from drilling operations is small relative to that from natural sources. The metal and hydrocarbon discharges were calculated for only one of the three platforms discharging between 1986 and 1989 in the Point Arguello field. However, assuming concentrations are similar on each platform, the combined input of metals and hydrocarbons over the 3-year period was still low (except for barium and lead) compared to the average annual flux from natural sources. The MMS is monitoring the Santa Maria basin to understand possible long-term environmental effects of oil and gas development (California Monitoring Program, Phase II; and Effects of OCS Production Platforms on Rocky Reef Fishes and Fisheries). A site-specific study area was established to determine effects of drilling-related discharges at Chevron U.S.S. Inc.'s platform Hidalgo in the Point Arguello field. Part of the study included review of discharge records for platforms Hidalgo, Hermosa (Chevron), and Harvest (Texaco Exploration and Production Inc.)

  20. Shrinking windows of opportunity for oak seedling establishment in southern California mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Frank W.; Sweet, Lynn C.; Serra-Diaz, Josep M.; Franklin, Janet; McCullough, Ian M.; Flint, Alan L.; Flint, Lorraine E.; Dingman, John; Regan, Helen M.; Syphard, Alexandra D.; Hannah, Lee; Redmond, Kelly; Moritz, Max A.

    2016-01-01

    Seedling establishment is a critical step that may ultimately govern tree species’ distribution shifts under environmental change. Annual variation in the location of seed rain and microclimates results in transient “windows of opportunity” for tree seedling establishment across the landscape. These establishment windows vary at fine spatiotemporal scales that are not considered in most assessments of climate change impacts on tree species range dynamics and habitat displacement. We integrate field seedling establishment trials conducted in the southern Sierra Nevada and western Tehachapi Mountains of southern California with spatially downscaled grids of modeled water-year climatic water deficit (CWDwy) and mean August maximum daily temperature (Tmax) to map historical and projected future microclimates suitable for establishment windows of opportunity for Quercus douglasii, a dominant tree species of warm, dry foothill woodlands, and Q. kelloggii, a dominant of cooler, more mesic montane woodlands and forests. Based on quasi-binomial regression models, Q. douglasii seedling establishment is significantly associated with modeled CWDwy and to a lesser degree with modeled Tmax. Q. kelloggii seedling establishment is most strongly associated with Tmax and best predicted by a two-factor model including CWDwy and Tmax. Establishment niche models are applied to explore recruitment window dynamics in the western Tehachapi Mountains, where these species are currently widespread canopy dominants. Establishment windows are projected to decrease by 50–95%, shrinking locally to higher elevations and north-facing slopes by the end of this century depending on the species and climate scenario. These decreases in establishment windows suggest the potential for longer-term regional population declines of the species. While many additional processes regulate seedling establishment and growth, this study highlights the need to account for topoclimatic controls and

  1. The Lower Jurassic Posidonia Shale in southern Germany: results of a shale gas analogue study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biermann, Steffen; Schulz, Hans-Martin; Horsfield, Brian

    2013-04-01

    The shale gas potential of Germany was recently assessed by the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (2012 NiKo-Project) and is - in respect of the general natural gas occurrence in Germany - regarded as a good alternative hydrocarbon source. The Posidonia Shale in northern and southern Germany is one of the evaluated rock formation and easily accessible in outcrops in the Swabian Alps (southern Germany). The area of interest in this work is located in such an outcrop that is actively used for open pit mining next to the town of Dotternhausen, 70 km southwest of Stuttgart. 31 samples from the quarry of Dotternhausen were analyzed in order to characterize the immature Posidonia Shale (Lower Toarcian, Lias ɛ) of southern Germany as a gas shale precursor. Methods included are Rock Eval, Open Pyrolysis GC, SEM, Mercury Intrusion Porosimetry, XRD, and other. The samples of Dotternhausen contain exclusively type II kerogen. The majority of the organic matter is structureless and occurs in the argillaceous-calcareous matrix. Structured organic matter appears predominantly as alginite, in particular the algae "tasmanite" is noticeable. The TOC content ranges up to 16 wt% with a high bitumen content. The mineral content characterizes the Posidonia Shale as a marlstone or mudstone with varying clay-calcite ratios. The quartz and pyrite content reaches up to 20 wt% and 9 wt%, respectively. The rock fabric is characterized by a fine grained and laminated matrix. The mean porosity lies between 4 and 12 %. Fractures other than those introduced by sample preparation were not observed. The Posidonia Shale is predicted to have an excellent source rock potential and will generate intermediate, P-N-A low wax oil when exposed to higher P-T-conditions ("oil kitchen"). Contact surfaces between the kerogen and matrix will be vulnerable to pressure induced fracturing caused by hydrocarbon formation. Additional porosity will be formed during maturation due to the

  2. Organchlorine content and shell thickness in brown booby (Sula leucogaster) eggs in the Gulf of California and the southern Pacific coast of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mellink, Eric, E-mail: emellink@cicese.m [Departamento de Biologia de la Conservacion, Centro de Investigacion Cientifica y de Educacion Superior de Ensenada, B.C. Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada Km. 107, 22860 Ensenada, B.C. (Mexico); Riojas-Lopez, Monica E., E-mail: meriojas@cucba.udg.m [Departamento de Ecologia, Centro Universitario de Ciencias Biologicas y Agropecuarias, Universidad de Guadalajara, Km. 15.5 Carretera a Nogales, 45100 Zapopan, Jalisco (Mexico); Luevano-Esparza, Jaime, E-mail: jluevano@cicese.m [Departamento de Biologia de la Conservacion, Centro de Investigacion Cientifica y de Educacion Superior de Ensenada, B.C. Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada Km. 107, 22860 Ensenada, B.C. (Mexico)

    2009-07-15

    We determined egg concentrations of organochlorines and thickness of eggshells from brown boobies at eight colonies ranging from the northern Gulf of California to southern Mexico. The only common residue was that of DDE, which was found in almost all eggs. DDE content apparently reflected pre-1990 DDT use in nearby agricultural areas and, at one site, intensive mosquito control for high-end tourism development. There were no inter-colony differences in eggshell thickness, and variation in this variable likely reflected individual bird characteristics and/or individual feeding source. This variable was not a good proxy to DDE exposure of brown boobies, under current DDE levels in the brown booby trophic chain. In the northern Gulf of California, eggshell thickness has recovered to pre-DDT conditions. Our data indicate that the Gulf of California and southwestern coast of Mexico have a healthy near-shore marine environment, as far as organochlorines are concerned. - Wide-range, current picture of organochlorine presence in the environment along the western coast of Mexico.

  3. Organchlorine content and shell thickness in brown booby (Sula leucogaster) eggs in the Gulf of California and the southern Pacific coast of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mellink, Eric; Riojas-Lopez, Monica E.; Luevano-Esparza, Jaime

    2009-01-01

    We determined egg concentrations of organochlorines and thickness of eggshells from brown boobies at eight colonies ranging from the northern Gulf of California to southern Mexico. The only common residue was that of DDE, which was found in almost all eggs. DDE content apparently reflected pre-1990 DDT use in nearby agricultural areas and, at one site, intensive mosquito control for high-end tourism development. There were no inter-colony differences in eggshell thickness, and variation in this variable likely reflected individual bird characteristics and/or individual feeding source. This variable was not a good proxy to DDE exposure of brown boobies, under current DDE levels in the brown booby trophic chain. In the northern Gulf of California, eggshell thickness has recovered to pre-DDT conditions. Our data indicate that the Gulf of California and southwestern coast of Mexico have a healthy near-shore marine environment, as far as organochlorines are concerned. - Wide-range, current picture of organochlorine presence in the environment along the western coast of Mexico.

  4. Regional variations in breast cancer among california teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Peggy; Hurley, Susan; Goldberg, Debbie E; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Bernstein, Leslie; Deapen, Dennis; Horn-Ross, Pamela L; Peel, David; Pinder, Richard; Ross, Ronald K; West, Dee; Wright, William E; Ziogas, Argyrios

    2004-11-01

    Observed regional differences in breast cancer incidence could provide valuable clues to the etiology of this disease. The pattern of historically higher breast cancer rates among residents of California's San Francisco Bay and Southern Coastal areas is evident in the disease experience among members of the California Teachers Study. This large cohort study has followed female professional school employees for cancer incidence since 1995 and has collected extensive information on breast cancer risk factors. Between 1996 and 1999, invasive breast cancer was diagnosed in 1562 of the 115,611 cohort members who could be geocoded to a California address in 1995 and who had no previous breast cancer diagnosis. Adjusted hazard rate ratios (HRs) were estimated through multivariate Cox proportional hazards modeling. Rates were higher for cohort members in the San Francisco Bay area (HR = 1.22; 95% confidence interval = 1.06-1.40) and Southern Coastal area (1.16; 1.04-1.30) compared with those in the rest of California. The distributions of variables representing socioeconomic status, urbanization, and personal risk factors were consistent with higher risks for cohort members residing in the San Francisco Bay and Southern Coastal areas. Adjustment for these factors, however, did not explain regional differences in incidence, resulting in HRs that remained elevated for these 2 areas. Regional differences in breast cancer incidence in this large, well-defined cohort are not easily explained by known risk factors.

  5. Natural gas qualities in the Southern Permian basin; Die Erdgasqualitaeten im suedlichen Permbecken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerling, P.; Kockel, F. [BGR, Hannover (Germany); Lokhorst, A.; Geluk, M.C. [TNO, Haarlem (Netherlands); Nicholson, R.A. [British Geological Survey, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Laier, T. [Danmarks og Groenlands Geologiske Undersoegelse, Kopenhagen (Denmark); Pokorski, J. [Panstwowy Instytut Geologiczny, Warsaw (Poland)

    1998-12-31

    There is a substantial amount of molecular and isotopic gas data in the literature but mostly in the archives of companies and geological services. As the geological services of most European countries traditionally contain (confidential and non-confidential) data on geology and resources these institutions from Great Britain, the Netherlands, Denmark, Poland and Germany decided to compile molecular and isotopic natural gas data from the area of the Southern European Permian basin. The partially EU-subsidised project was carried out between 1994 and 1997 (LOKHORST ed. 1998) The atlas is based on existing data and also on newly determined molecular and isotopic gas parameters. Ring analyses of national and international standard gases ensure the quality and comparability of the data thus obtained. The aim of the ``stocktaking`` of natural gas was to describe the gas qualities from the Southern North Sea in the West to the Eastern borders of Poland, to characterise them genetically and to relate the to the geological environment. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ein substantieller Anteil von molekularen und isotopischen Gasdaten existiert, teilweise in der Literatur, vor allem aber in den Archiven der Firmen und der geologischen Dienste. Da die geologischen Dienste der meisten europaeischen Laender traditionell (oeffentliche und vertrauliche) Daten ueber die Geologie und Rohstoffe vorhalten, haben sich diese Institutionen aus Grossbritanien, den Niederlanden, Daenemark, Polen und Deutschlands entschlossen, molekulare und isotopische Erdgasdaten aus dem Bereich des suedlichen europaeischen Permbeckens zu kompilieren. Das partiell von der EU gefoerderte Projekt wurde in den Jahren 1994 bis 1997 durchgefuehrt (LOKHORST ed. 1998). Ausser auf bereits vorhandenen Daten beruht der Atlas auf etwa 200 Neu-Bestimmungen molekularer und isotopischer Gasparameter. Ringanalysen nationaler und internationeler Standardgase gewaehrleisteten die Qualitaet und die Vergleichbarkeit der gewonnenen

  6. Carnivore distributions across chaparral habitats exposed to wildfire and rural housing in southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuette, P.A.; Diffendorfer, J.E.; Deutschman, D.H.; Tremor, S.; Spencer, W.

    2014-01-01

    Chaparral and coastal sage scrub habitats in southern California support biologically diverse plant and animal communities. However, native plant and animal species within these shrubland systems are increasingly exposed to human-caused wildfires and an expansion of the human–wildland interface. Few data exist to evaluate the effects of fire and anthropogenic pressures on plant and animal communities found in these environments. This is particularly true for carnivore communities. To address this knowledge gap, we collected detection–non-detection data with motion-sensor cameras and track plots to measure carnivore occupancy patterns following a large, human-caused wildfire (1134 km2) in eastern San Diego County, California, USA, in 2003. Our focal species set included coyote (Canis latrans), gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus), bobcat (Lynx rufus) and striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis). We evaluated the influence on species occupancies of the burned environment (burn edge, burn interior and unburned areas), proximity of rural homes, distance to riparian area and elevation. Gray fox occupancies were the highest overall, followed by striped skunk, coyote and bobcat. The three species considered as habitat and foraging generalists (gray fox, coyote, striped skunk) were common in all conditions. Occupancy patterns were consistent through time for all species except coyote, whose occupancies increased through time. In addition, environmental and anthropogenic variables had weak effects on all four species, and these responses were species-specific. Our results helped to describe a carnivore community exposed to frequent fire and rural human residences, and provide baseline data to inform fire management policy and wildlife management strategies in similar fire-prone ecosystems.

  7. Holocene and latest Pleistocene oblique dextral faulting on the southern Inyo Mountains fault, Owens Lake basin, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, S.N.; Jayko, A.S.; McGeehin, J.P.

    2005-01-01

    The Inyo Mountains fault (IMF) is a more or less continuous range-front fault system, with discontinuous late Quaternary activity, at the western base of the Inyo Mountains in Owens Valley, California. The southern section of the IMF trends ???N20??-40?? W for at least 12 km at the base of and within the range front near Keeler in Owens Lake basin. The southern IMF cuts across a relict early Pliocene alluvial fan complex, which has formed shutter ridges and northeast-facing scarps, and which has dextrally offset, well-developed drainages indicating long-term activity. Numerous fault scarps along the mapped trace are northeast-facing, mountain-side down, and developed in both bedrock and younger alluvium, indicating latest Quaternary activity. Latest Quaternary multiple- and single-event scarps that cut alluvium range in height from 0.5 to 3.0 m. The penultimate event on the southern IMF is bracketed between 13,310 and 10,590 cal years B.P., based on radiocarbon dates from faulted alluvium and fissure-fill stratigraphy exposed in a natural wash cut. Evidence of the most recent event is found at many sites along the mapped fault, and, in particular, is seen in an ???0.5-m northeast-facing scarp and several right-stepping en echelon ???0.5-m-deep depressions that pond fine sediment on a younger than 13,310 cal years B.P. alluvial fan. A channel that crosses transverse to this scarp is dextrally offset 2.3 ?? 0.8 m, providing a poorly constrained oblique slip rate of 0.1-0. 3 m/ k.y. The identified tectonic geomorphology and sense of displacement demonstrate that the southern IMF accommodates predominately dextral slip and should be integrated into kinematic fault models of strain distribution in Owens Valley.

  8. Prevalence and incidence of postharvest diseases of blueberries in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent establishment of low-chill southern highbush blueberry cultivars in California’s warm climate has significantly increased the acreage of blueberry production in the Central Valley of California, which is now a major southern highbush blueberry production region in the United States. The vast ...

  9. Newport-Inglewood-Carlsbad-Coronado Bank Fault System Nearshore Southern California: Testing models for Quaternary deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, J. T.; Sorlien, C. C.; Cormier, M.; Bauer, R. L.

    2011-12-01

    The San Andreas fault system is distributed across hundreds of kilometers in southern California. This transform system includes offshore faults along the shelf, slope and basin- comprising part of the Inner California Continental Borderland. Previously, offshore faults have been interpreted as being discontinuous and striking parallel to the coast between Long Beach and San Diego. Our recent work, based on several thousand kilometers of deep-penetration industry multi-channel seismic reflection data (MCS) as well as high resolution U.S. Geological Survey MCS, indicates that many of the offshore faults are more geometrically continuous than previously reported. Stratigraphic interpretations of MCS profiles included the ca. 1.8 Ma Top Lower Pico, which was correlated from wells located offshore Long Beach (Sorlien et. al. 2010). Based on this age constraint, four younger (Late) Quaternary unconformities are interpreted through the slope and basin. The right-lateral Newport-Inglewood fault continues offshore near Newport Beach. We map a single fault for 25 kilometers that continues to the southeast along the base of the slope. There, the Newport-Inglewood fault splits into the San Mateo-Carlsbad fault, which is mapped for 55 kilometers along the base of the slope to a sharp bend. This bend is the northern end of a right step-over of 10 kilometers to the Descanso fault and about 17 km to the Coronado Bank fault. We map these faults for 50 kilometers as they continue over the Mexican border. Both the San Mateo - Carlsbad with the Newport-Inglewood fault and the Coronado Bank with the Descanso fault are paired faults that form flower structures (positive and negative, respectively) in cross section. Preliminary kinematic models indicate ~1km of right-lateral slip since ~1.8 Ma at the north end of the step-over. We are modeling the slip on the southern segment to test our hypothesis for a kinematically continuous right-lateral fault system. We are correlating four

  10. Seismic calibration shots conducted in 2009 in the Imperial Valley, southern California, for the Salton Seismic Imaging Project (SSIP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Janice; Goldman, Mark; Fuis, Gary; Rymer, Michael; Sickler, Robert; Miller, Summer; Butcher, Lesley; Ricketts, Jason; Criley, Coyn; Stock, Joann; Hole, John; Chavez, Greg

    2011-01-01

    Rupture of the southern section of the San Andreas Fault, from the Coachella Valley to the Mojave Desert, is believed to be the greatest natural hazard facing California in the near future. With an estimated magnitude between 7.2 and 8.1, such an event would result in violent shaking, loss of life, and disruption of lifelines (freeways, aqueducts, power, petroleum, and communication lines) that would bring much of southern California to a standstill. As part of the Nation's efforts to prevent a catastrophe of this magnitude, a number of projects are underway to increase our knowledge of Earth processes in the area and to mitigate the effects of such an event. One such project is the Salton Seismic Imaging Project (SSIP), which is a collaborative venture between the United States Geological Survey (USGS), California Institute of Technology (Caltech), and Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech). This project will generate and record seismic waves that travel through the crust and upper mantle of the Salton Trough. With these data, we will construct seismic images of the subsurface, both reflection and tomographic images. These images will contribute to the earthquake-hazard assessment in southern California by helping to constrain fault locations, sedimentary basin thickness and geometry, and sedimentary seismic velocity distributions. Data acquisition is currently scheduled for winter and spring of 2011. The design and goals of SSIP resemble those of the Los Angeles Region Seismic Experiment (LARSE) of the 1990's. LARSE focused on examining the San Andreas Fault system and associated thrust-fault systems of the Transverse Ranges. LARSE was successful in constraining the geometry of the San Andreas Fault at depth and in relating this geometry to mid-crustal, flower-structure-like decollements in the Transverse Ranges that splay upward into the network of hazardous thrust faults that caused the 1971 M 6.7 San Fernando and 1987 M 5

  11. Isolation of Microsatellite Markers in a Chaparral Species Endemic to Southern California, Ceanothus megacarpus (Rhamnaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlin D. A. Ishibashi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Microsatellite (simple sequence repeat [SSR] markers were developed for Ceanothus megacarpus, a chaparral species endemic to coastal southern California, to investigate potential processes (e.g., fragmentation, genetic drift, and interspecific hybridization responsible for the genetic structure within and among populations distributed throughout mainland and island populations. Methods and Results: Four SSR-enriched libraries were used to develop and optimize 10 primer sets of microsatellite loci containing either di-, tri-, or tetranucleotide repeats. Levels of variation at these loci were assessed for two populations of C. megacarpus. Observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.250 to 0.885, and number of alleles ranged between four and 21 per locus. Eight to nine loci also successfully amplified in three other species of Ceanothus. Conclusions: These markers should prove useful for evaluating the influence of recent and historical processes on genetic variation in C. megacarpus and related species.

  12. The ShakeOut Earthquake Scenario - A Story That Southern Californians Are Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Suzanne; Cox, Dale; Jones, Lucile; Bernknopf, Richard; Goltz, James; Hudnut, Kenneth; Mileti, Dennis; Ponti, Daniel; Porter, Keith; Reichle, Michael; Seligson, Hope; Shoaf, Kimberley; Treiman, Jerry; Wein, Anne

    2008-01-01

    The question is not if but when southern California will be hit by a major earthquake - one so damaging that it will permanently change lives and livelihoods in the region. How severe the changes will be depends on the actions that individuals, schools, businesses, organizations, communities, and governments take to get ready. To help prepare for this event, scientists of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) have changed the way that earthquake scenarios are done, uniting a multidisciplinary team that spans an unprecedented number of specialties. The team includes the California Geological Survey, Southern California Earthquake Center, and nearly 200 other partners in government, academia, emergency response, and industry, working to understand the long-term impacts of an enormous earthquake on the complicated social and economic interactions that sustain southern California society. This project, the ShakeOut Scenario, has applied the best current scientific understanding to identify what can be done now to avoid an earthquake catastrophe. More information on the science behind this project will be available in The ShakeOut Scenario (USGS Open-File Report 2008-1150; http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1150/). The 'what if?' earthquake modeled in the ShakeOut Scenario is a magnitude 7.8 on the southern San Andreas Fault. Geologists selected the details of this hypothetical earthquake by considering the amount of stored strain on that part of the fault with the greatest risk of imminent rupture. From this, seismologists and computer scientists modeled the ground shaking that would occur in this earthquake. Engineers and other professionals used the shaking to produce a realistic picture of this earthquake's damage to buildings, roads, pipelines, and other infrastructure. From these damages, social scientists projected casualties, emergency response, and the impact of the scenario earthquake on southern California's economy and society. The earthquake, its damages, and

  13. Biogenic sedimentation beneath the California Current system for the past 30 kyr and its paleoceanographic significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, J.V.; Dean, W.E.; Dartnell, P.

    1997-01-01

    A north-south transect of 17 cores was constructed along the eastern boundary of the California Current system from 33?? to 42?? N to investigate the changes in biogenic sedimentation over the past 30 kyr. Percentages and mass accumulation rates of CaCO3, Corg, and biogenic opal were assembled at 500 to 1000 years/sample to provide relatively high resolution. Time-space maps reveal a complex pattern of changes that do not follow a simple glacial-interglacial two-mode model. Biogenic sedimentation shows responses that are sometimes time-transgressive and sometimes coeval, and most of the responses show more consistency within a limited geographic area than any temporal consistency. Reconstructed conditions during late oxygen isotope stage 3 were more like early Holocene conditions than any other time during the last 30 kyr. Coastal upwelling and productivity during oxygen isotope stage 3 were relatively strong along the central California margin but were weak along the northern California margin. Precipitation increased during the last glacial interval in the central California region, and the waters of the southern California margin had relatively low productivity. Productivity on the southern Oregon margin was relatively low at the beginning of the last glacial interval, but by about 20 ka, productivity in this area significantly increased. This change suggests that the center of the divergence of the West Wind Drift shifted south at this time. The end of the last glacial interval was characterized by increased productivity in the southern California margin and increased upwelling along the central California margin but upwelling remained weak along the northern California margin. A sudden (biosphere as the northern latitudes were reforested following retreat of the glaciers. The Holocene has been a period of relatively high productivity in the southern California margin, relatively strong coastal upwelling along the central California margin, relatively weak

  14. Risk Perception and Occupational Accidents: A Study of Gas Station Workers in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Silveira Cardoso

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to identify the perceptions of gas station workers about physical, chemical, biological and physiological risk factors to which they are exposed in their work environment; identify types of occupational accidents involving gas station workers and; report the development of a socioenvironmental intervention as a tool for risk communication to gas station workers. A quantitative study was performed with 221 gas station workers in southern Brazil between October and December 2010. Data collection was performed between October to December 2010 via structured interviews. The data were analyzed using SPSS 19.0. The participants identified the following risk types: chemical (93.7%, physical (88.2%, physiological (64.3% and biological (62.4%. In this sample, 94.1% of gas station workers reported occupational accidents, and 74.2% reported fuel contact with the eyes (p < 0.05. It is concluded that workers perceive risks, and that they tend to relate risks with the occurrence of occupational accidents as an indicator of the dangerous nature of their work environment.

  15. Onshore and offshore geologic map of the Coal Oil Point area, southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dartnell, Pete; Conrad, James E.; Stanley, Richard G.; Guy R. Cochrane, Guy R.

    2011-01-01

    Geologic maps that span the shoreline and include both onshore and offshore areas are potentially valuable tools that can lead to a more in depth understanding of coastal environments. Such maps can contribute to the understanding of shoreline change, geologic hazards, both offshore and along-shore sediment and pollutant transport. They are also useful in assessing geologic and biologic resources. Several intermediate-scale (1:100,000) geologic maps that include both onshore and offshore areas (herein called onshore-offshore geologic maps) have been produced of areas along the California coast (see Saucedo and others, 2003; Kennedy and others, 2007; Kennedy and Tan, 2008), but few large-scale (1:24,000) maps have been produced that can address local coastal issues. A cooperative project between Federal and State agencies and universities has produced an onshore-offshore geologic map at 1:24,000 scale of the Coal Oil Point area and part of the Santa Barbara Channel, southern California (fig. 1). As part of the project, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the California Geological Survey (CGS) hosted a workshop (May 2nd and 3rd, 2007) for producers and users of coastal map products (see list of participants) to develop a consensus on the content and format of onshore-offshore geologic maps (and accompanying GIS files) so that they have relevance for coastal-zone management. The USGS and CGS are working to develop coastal maps that combine geospatial information from offshore and onshore and serve as an important tool for addressing a broad range of coastal-zone management issues. The workshop was divided into sessions for presentations and discussion of bathymetry and topography, geology, and habitat products and needs of end users. During the workshop, participants reviewed existing maps and discussed their merits and shortcomings. This report addresses a number of items discussed in the workshop and details the onshore and offshore geologic map of the Coal Oil

  16. Paleozoic oil/gas shale reservoirs in southern Tunisia: An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soua, Mohamed

    2014-12-01

    During these last years, considerable attention has been given to unconventional oil and gas shale in northern Africa where the most productive Paleozoic basins are located (e.g. Berkine, Illizi, Kufra, Murzuk, Tindouf, Ahnet, Oued Mya, Mouydir, etc.). In most petroleum systems, which characterize these basins, the Silurian played the main role in hydrocarbon generation with two main 'hot' shale levels distributed in different locations (basins) and their deposition was restricted to the Rhuddanian (Lllandovery: early Silurian) and the Ludlow-Pridoli (late Silurian). A third major hot shale level had been identified in the Frasnian (Upper Devonian). Southern Tunisia is characterized by three main Paleozoic sedimentary basins, which are from North to South, the southern Chotts, Jeffara and Berkine Basin. They are separated by a major roughly E-W trending lower Paleozoic structural high, which encompass the Mehrez-Oued Hamous uplift to the West (Algeria) and the Nefusa uplift to the East (Libya), passing by the Touggourt-Talemzane-PGA-Bou Namcha (TTPB) structure close to southern Tunisia. The forementioned major source rocks in southern Tunisia are defined by hot shales with elevated Gamma ray values often exceeding 1400 API (in Hayatt-1 well), deposited in deep water environments during short lived (c. 2 Ma) periods of anoxia. In the course of this review, thickness, distribution and maturity maps have been established for each hot shale level using data for more than 70 wells located in both Tunisia and Algeria. Mineralogical modeling was achieved using Spectral Gamma Ray data (U, Th, K), SopectroLith logs (to acquire data for Fe, Si and Ti) and Elemental Capture Spectroscopy (ECS). The latter technique provided data for quartz, pyrite, carbonate, clay and Sulfur. In addition to this, the Gamma Ray (GR), Neutron Porosity (ΦN), deep Resistivity (Rt) and Bulk Density (ρb) logs were used to model bulk mineralogy and lithology. Biostratigraphic and complete

  17. Southern California Regional Technology Acceleration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochoa, Rosibel [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States). Jacobs School of Engineering; Rasochova, Lada [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States). Rady School of Management

    2014-09-30

    UC San Diego and San Diego State University are partnering to address these deficiencies in the renewable energy space in the greater San Diego region, accelerating the movement of clean energy innovation from the university laboratory into the marketplace, building on the proven model of the William J. von Liebig Center’s (vLC’s) Proof of Concept (POC) program and virtualizing the effort to enable a more inclusive environment for energy innovation and expansion of the number of clean energy start-ups and/or technology licenses in greater California.

  18. Economic effects of oil and gas development on marine aquaculture leases. Study 17. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caswell, M.F.

    1991-03-01

    There are three primary mariculture products grown in California waters: oysters, mussels, and abalone. In total, the California mariculture industry earns revenues of about $6.5 million. Water quality degradation was the primary concern of most growers. Coliform bacteria and pesticide residues are currently threatening several shallow-water sites. Lease holders (and potential lease holders) for deep-water sites state that coliform bacteria from municipal sewer outfalls and offshore oil and gas drilling effluents are the greatest dangers to their profitability. The Southern California Educational Initiative is an attempt to determine whether such concerns are warranted. A simple model of economic externalities was described to highlight the scientific data one must gather so as to choose the optimal production levels for both energy and mariculture resources. That information is necessary to assess the economic consequences to the California mariculture industry of chronic exposure to oil and gas development. The co-development model shows that the marginal (incremental) effects of oil production on mariculture costs needs to be assessed. The model also shows that if the effects are moderated by distance from the point of discharge, such changes must be estimated in order to determine optimal lease boundaries. The report concludes that interdisciplinary cooperation is essential for designing a co-development plan that maximizes the social welfare to be gained from developing multiple coastal resources

  19. CyberShake: A Physics-Based Seismic Hazard Model for Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, R.; Jordan, T.H.; Callaghan, S.; Deelman, E.; Field, E.; Juve, G.; Kesselman, C.; Maechling, P.; Mehta, G.; Milner, K.; Okaya, D.; Small, P.; Vahi, K.

    2011-01-01

    CyberShake, as part of the Southern California Earthquake Center's (SCEC) Community Modeling Environment, is developing a methodology that explicitly incorporates deterministic source and wave propagation effects within seismic hazard calculations through the use of physics-based 3D ground motion simulations. To calculate a waveform-based seismic hazard estimate for a site of interest, we begin with Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast, Version 2.0 (UCERF2.0) and identify all ruptures within 200 km of the site of interest. We convert the UCERF2.0 rupture definition into multiple rupture variations with differing hypocenter locations and slip distributions, resulting in about 415,000 rupture variations per site. Strain Green Tensors are calculated for the site of interest using the SCEC Community Velocity Model, Version 4 (CVM4), and then, using reciprocity, we calculate synthetic seismograms for each rupture variation. Peak intensity measures are then extracted from these synthetics and combined with the original rupture probabilities to produce probabilistic seismic hazard curves for the site. Being explicitly site-based, CyberShake directly samples the ground motion variability at that site over many earthquake cycles (i. e., rupture scenarios) and alleviates the need for the ergodic assumption that is implicitly included in traditional empirically based calculations. Thus far, we have simulated ruptures at over 200 sites in the Los Angeles region for ground shaking periods of 2 s and longer, providing the basis for the first generation CyberShake hazard maps. Our results indicate that the combination of rupture directivity and basin response effects can lead to an increase in the hazard level for some sites, relative to that given by a conventional Ground Motion Prediction Equation (GMPE). Additionally, and perhaps more importantly, we find that the physics-based hazard results are much more sensitive to the assumed magnitude-area relations and

  20. Molecular Diversity of Trypanosoma cruzi Detected in the Vector Triatoma protracta from California, USA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa A Shender

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma cruzi, causative agent of Chagas disease in humans and dogs, is a vector-borne zoonotic protozoan parasite that can cause fatal cardiac disease. While recognized as the most economically important parasitic infection in Latin America, the incidence of Chagas disease in the United States of America (US may be underreported and even increasing. The extensive genetic diversity of T. cruzi in Latin America is well-documented and likely influences disease progression, severity and treatment efficacy; however, little is known regarding T. cruzi strains endemic to the US. It is therefore important to expand our knowledge on US T. cruzi strains, to improve upon the recognition of and response to locally acquired infections.We conducted a study of T. cruzi molecular diversity in California, augmenting sparse genetic data from southern California and for the first time investigating genetic sequences from northern California. The vector Triatoma protracta was collected from southern (Escondido and Los Angeles and northern (Vallecito California regions. Samples were initially screened via sensitive nuclear repetitive DNA and kinetoplast minicircle DNA PCR assays, yielding an overall prevalence of approximately 28% and 55% for southern and northern California regions, respectively. Positive samples were further processed to identify discrete typing units (DTUs, revealing both TcI and TcIV lineages in southern California, but only TcI in northern California. Phylogenetic analyses (targeting COII-ND1, TR and RB19 genes were performed on a subset of positive samples to compare Californian T. cruzi samples to strains from other US regions and Latin America. Results indicated that within the TcI DTU, California sequences were similar to those from the southeastern US, as well as to several isolates from Latin America responsible for causing Chagas disease in humans.Triatoma protracta populations in California are frequently infected with T. cruzi

  1. BENTON RANGE ROADLESS AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Edwin H.; Rains, Richard L.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of a mineral survey, two parts of the Benton Range Roadless Area, California are considered to have mineral-resource potential. The central and southern part of the roadless area, near several nonoperating mines, has a probable potential for tungsten and gold-silver mineralization in tactite zones. The central part of the area has a substantiated resource potential for gold and silver in quartz veins. Detailed mapping and geochemical sampling for tungsten, gold, and silver in the central and southern part of the roadless area might indicate targets for shallow drilling exploration.

  2. North American Natural Gas Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    hand sales of natural gas and LPG. 17 Decreto Legal, Diario Oficial , Noviembre 25, 1993. 37 Review Section 38 Figure 2. Mexican Natural Gas...California 500 Mexicali Baja California 29 Naco - Hermosillo Sonora 130 Nacozari de Garcia Sonora 85 Agua Prieta Sonora 173

  3. Racism, Schooling, and the Streets: A Critical Analysis of Vietnamese American Youth Gang Formation in Southern California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin D. Lam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an analysis of the relationship between educational experiences, street life, and gang formation for Vietnamese American youth gang members in Southern California. I use critical narrative methodology to center the life and experiences of a Los Angeles area gang member. His narrative substantiates how racism in schools and on the streets works together to impact and inform gang formation. Schools were sites of inter-ethnic conflict and racialized tension, and streets were spaces for contentious interactions with the police. In addition, I place the Vietnamese American youth gang phenomenon in larger historical and political contexts such as California’s anti-youth legislation, representations of Asian American youth, and U.S. geo-politics and imperialism—factors that have serious material and ideological implications and consequences.

  4. Investigation of nitrogen transformations in a southern California constructed wastewater treatment wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartoris, J.J.; Thullen, J.S.; Barber, L.B.; Salas, D.E.

    2000-01-01

    A 9.9-ha combined habitat and wastewater treatment demonstration wetland was constructed and planted in the summer of 1994, at Eastern Municipal Water District’s (EMWD) Hemet/San Jacinto Regional Water Reclamation Facility (RWRF) in southern California. From January 1996 through September 1997, the marsh–pond–marsh wetland system was operated to polish an average of 3785 m3 d−1 (1×106 gal day−1) of secondary-treated effluent from the RWRF. Nitrogen removal was a major objective of this wetland treatment. Weekly inflow/outflow water quality monitoring of the wetland was supplemented with biannual, 45-station synoptic surveys within the system to determine internal distribution patterns of the nitrogen species (total ammonia, nitrite, nitrate, and organic nitrogen), total organic carbon (TOC), and ultraviolet absorbance at 254 nm (UV254). Synoptic surveys were carried out during May 22 and September 17, 1996, and May 6 and September 25, 1997 and the results were mapped using the ARC/INFO processing package and inverse distance weighted mathematical techniques. Distribution patterns of the various nitrogen species, TOC, and UV254 within the wetland indicate that the nitrogen dynamics of the system are influenced both by variations in treatment plant loading, and, increasingly, by the degree of coverage and maturity of the emergent vegetation.

  5. Late Quaternary offset of alluvial fan surfaces along the Central Sierra Madre Fault, southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgette, Reed J.; Hanson, Austin; Scharer, Katherine M.; Midttun, Nikolas

    2016-01-01

    The Sierra Madre Fault is a reverse fault system along the southern flank of the San Gabriel Mountains near Los Angeles, California. This study focuses on the Central Sierra Madre Fault (CSMF) in an effort to provide numeric dating on surfaces with ages previously estimated from soil development alone. We have refined previous geomorphic mapping conducted in the western portion of the CSMF near Pasadena, CA, with the aid of new lidar data. This progress report focuses on our geochronology strategy employed in collecting samples and interpreting data to determine a robust suite of terrace surface ages. Sample sites for terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide and luminescence dating techniques were selected to be redundant and to be validated through relative geomorphic relationships between inset terrace levels. Additional sample sites were selected to evaluate the post-abandonment histories of terrace surfaces. We will combine lidar-derived displacement data with surface ages to estimate slip rates for the CSMF.

  6. Atmospheric River Development and Effects on Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, S. M.; Carvalho, L. V.

    2014-12-01

    Throughout most of southern California (SCA) annual precipitation totals occur from relatively few storms per season. Any changes to storm frequency or intensity may dramatically impact the region, as its landscapes are prone to various rainfall-induced hazards including landslides and floods. These hazards become more frequent following drought or fire events, conditions also reliant on precipitation and common in SCA. Rainfall forecasts are especially difficult to determine as regional precipitation is affected by numerous phenomena. On synoptic timescales, atmospheric rivers (ARs) are one such phenomenon known to impact SCA rainfall. ARs are channels of high water vapor content found within the lower atmosphere that transport moisture towards midlatitudes. In areas with varying topography, ARs often produce high-intensity precipitation due to orographic forcing. Although much insight has been gained in understanding AR climatology affecting North America's western coast, the spatiotemporal characteristics and atmospheric forcings driving ARs to SCA need to be further addressed. The goal of this work is to understand the characteristics of ARs that impact SCA and to distinguish them from ARs that impact northern latitudes. We investigate AR characteristics as well as atmospheric features prior to plume initiation for ARs impacting different landfall regions along North America's western coast between 1998-2008. Dates of AR events are organized according to landfall region using total precipitable water (TPW) fields from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR). Additional CFSR fields are used to create anomaly composites of moist static energy, geopotential height, as well as upper-level zonal and low-level meridional winds for each landfall region on the day of and prior to AR occurrence. ARs that impact SCA display different TPW plume characteristics as well as wave train patterns throughout the AR

  7. Pollen-based evidence of extreme drought during the last Glacial (32.6-9.0 ka) in coastal southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heusser, Linda E.; Kirby, Matthew E.; Nichols, Jonathan E.

    2015-10-01

    High resolution pollen analyses of sediment core LEDC10-1 from Lake Elsinore yield the first well-dated, terrestrial record of sub-centennial-scale ecologic change in coastal southern California between ˜32 and 9 ka. In the Lake Elsinore watershed, the initial, mesic montane conifer forests dominated by Pinus, and Cupressaceae with trace amounts of Abies and Picea were replaced by a sequence of multiple, extended severe mega-droughts between ˜27.5 and ˜25.5 ka, in which halophytic and xerophytic herbs and shrubs occupied an ephemeral lake. This prolonged and extended dry interval, which corresponds with warm waters offshore, imply strengthening of the North Pacific High and persistent below-average winter precipitation. The subsequent, contrasting monotonic occurrence of montane conifers reflects little variation in cold, mesic climate until ˜15 ka. Postglacial development of Quercus woodland and chaparral mark the return to more xeric, warmer conditions at this time. A brief reversal at ˜13.1-˜12.1 ka, as reflected by an expansion of Pinus, is correlative with the Younger Dryas and interrupts development of warm, postglacial climate. Subsequent gradual expansion of xeric vegetation post - Younger Dryas denotes the establishment of a winter hydroclimate regime in coastal southern California that is more similar to modern conditions. Pollen-based reconstructions of temperature and precipitation at Lake Elsinore are generally correlative with pollen-based paleoclimatic reconstructions and foraminifera-based sea surface temperatures from Santa Barbara Basin in marine core ODP 893. The conspicuous absence of the ˜27.5-˜25.5 ka glacial "mega-drought" in the Santa Barbara Basin pollen record highlights the sensitivity of Lake Elsinore to hydroclimate change, and thus, the importance of this new record that indicates that mega-drought can occur during the full glacial when climatic boundary conditions and forcings differed substantially from the present.

  8. Carbon stocks and greenhouse gas balance of an old-growth forest and an anthropogenic peatland in southern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Quezada, J. F.; Brito, C. E.; Valdés, A.; Urrutia, P.

    2016-12-01

    Few studies have reported the effects of deforestation on carbon stocks and greenhouse gas balance in the temperate forests of the southern hemisphere. In some areas of southern Chile, after clear-cut or forest fires occurs a proliferation of Sphagnum moss, generating an anthropogenic type of peatland. We measured the effects of this change on the carbon stocks and the greenhouse gas balance, starting in 2013. Carbon stocks were measured in >30 plots on each site; ecosystem CO2 fluxes were measured continuously using eddy covariance stations; CH4 and N2O fluxes were measured monthly using closed chambers and cavity ring-down spectroscopy technology. Total ecosystem carbon stock was 1,523 Mg ha-1 in the forest and 130 Mg ha-1 in the peatland, representing a 91% difference. Both land use types were found to act as sinks of CO2 (NEE=-1094.2 and -31.9 g CO2 m-2 year-¹ for the forest and peatland, respectively); CH4 was mainly captured in the forest and peatland soils, generating balances of -0.70 and -0.12 g CH₄ m-2 year-¹. N2O fluxes were extremely low, so were considered as null. These results indicate that the greenhouse gas balance moved from -1134.6 to -38.8 g CO2-eq m-2 year-1 when land use changed from forest to anthropogenic peatland. These results provide evidence of the importance of preserving old-growth forests in southern Chile.

  9. Smog nitrogen and the rapid acidification of forest soil, San Bernardino Mountains, southern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Yvonne A; Fenn, Mark; Meixner, Thomas; Shouse, Peter J; Breiner, Joan; Allen, Edith; Wu, Laosheng

    2007-03-21

    We report the rapid acidification of forest soils in the San Bernardino Mountains of southern California. After 30 years, soil to a depth of 25 cm has decreased from a pH (measured in 0.01 M CaCl2) of 4.8 to 3.1. At the 50-cm depth, it has changed from a pH of 4.8 to 4.2. We attribute this rapid change in soil reactivity to very high rates of anthropogenic atmospheric nitrogen (N) added to the soil surface (72 kg ha(-1) year(-1)) from wet, dry, and fog deposition under a Mediterranean climate. Our research suggests that a soil textural discontinuity, related to a buried ancient landsurface, contributes to this rapid acidification by controlling the spatial and temporal movement of precipitation into the landsurface. As a result, the depth to which dissolved anthropogenic N as nitrate (NO3) is leached early in the winter wet season is limited to within the top approximately 130 cm of soil where it accumulates and increases soil acidity.

  10. Smog Nitrogen and the Rapid Acidification of Forest Soil, San Bernardino Mountains, Southern California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne A. Wood

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the rapid acidification of forest soils in the San Bernardino Mountains of southern California. After 30 years, soil to a depth of 25 cm has decreased from a pH (measured in 0.01 M CaCl2 of 4.8 to 3.1. At the 50-cm depth, it has changed from a pH of 4.8 to 4.2. We attribute this rapid change in soil reactivity to very high rates of anthropogenic atmospheric nitrogen (N added to the soil surface (72 kg ha–1 year–1 from wet, dry, and fog deposition under a Mediterranean climate. Our research suggests that a soil textural discontinuity, related to a buried ancient landsurface, contributes to this rapid acidification by controlling the spatial and temporal movement of precipitation into the landsurface. As a result, the depth to which dissolved anthropogenic N as nitrate (NO3 is leached early in the winter wet season is limited to within the top ~130 cm of soil where it accumulates and increases soil acidity.

  11. California State Waters Map Series--Offshore of Ventura, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Samuel Y.; Dartnell, Peter; Cochrane, Guy R.; Golden, Nadine E.; Phillips, Eleyne L.; Ritchie, Andrew C.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Greene, H. Gary; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Endris, Charles A.; Seitz, Gordon G.; Gutierrez, Carlos I.; Sliter, Ray W.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Wong, Florence L.; Yoklavich, Mary M.; Draut, Amy E.; Hart, Patrick E.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2013-01-01

    In 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of high-resolution bathymetry, marine benthic habitats, and geology within the 3-nautical-mile limit of California’s State Waters. The CSMP approach is to create highly detailed seafloor maps through collection, integration, interpretation, and visualization of swath sonar data, acoustic backscatter, seafloor video, seafloor photography, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, and bottom-sediment sampling data. The map products display seafloor morphology and character, identify potential marine benthic habitats, and illustrate both the surficial seafloor geology and shallow (to about 100 m) subsurface geology. The Offshore of Ventura map area lies within the Santa Barbara Channel region of the Southern California Bight. This geologically complex region forms a major biogeographic transition zone, separating the cold-temperate Oregonian province north of Point Conception from the warm-temperate California province to the south. The map area is in the Ventura Basin, in the southern part of the Western Transverse Ranges geologic province, which is north of the California Continental Borderland. Significant clockwise rotation—at least 90°—since the early Miocene has been proposed for the Western Transverse Ranges, and the region is presently undergoing north-south shortening. The city of Ventura is the major cultural center in the map area. The Ventura River cuts through Ventura, draining the Santa Ynez Mountains and the coastal hills north of Ventura. Northwest of Ventura, the coastal zone is a narrow strip containing highway and railway transportation corridors and a few small residential clusters. Rincon Island, an island constructed for oil and gas production, lies offshore of Punta Gorda. Southeast of Ventura, the coastal zone consists of the mouth and broad, alluvial plains of the Santa Clara River

  12. 3-D Velocity Model of the Coachella Valley, Southern California Based on Explosive Shots from the Salton Seismic Imaging Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persaud, P.; Stock, J. M.; Fuis, G. S.; Hole, J. A.; Goldman, M.; Scheirer, D. S.

    2014-12-01

    We have analyzed explosive shot data from the 2011 Salton Seismic Imaging Project (SSIP) across a 2-D seismic array and 5 profiles in the Coachella Valley to produce a 3-D P-wave velocity model that will be used in calculations of strong ground shaking. Accurate maps of seismicity and active faults rely both on detailed geological field mapping and a suitable velocity model to accurately locate earthquakes. Adjoint tomography of an older version of the SCEC 3-D velocity model shows that crustal heterogeneities strongly influence seismic wave propagation from moderate earthquakes (Tape et al., 2010). These authors improve the crustal model and subsequently simulate the details of ground motion at periods of 2 s and longer for hundreds of ray paths. Even with improvements such as the above, the current SCEC velocity model for the Salton Trough does not provide a match of the timing or waveforms of the horizontal S-wave motions, which Wei et al. (2013) interpret as caused by inaccuracies in the shallow velocity structure. They effectively demonstrate that the inclusion of shallow basin structure improves the fit in both travel times and waveforms. Our velocity model benefits from the inclusion of known location and times of a subset of 126 shots detonated over a 3-week period during the SSIP. This results in an improved velocity model particularly in the shallow crust. In addition, one of the main challenges in developing 3-D velocity models is an uneven stations-source distribution. To better overcome this challenge, we also include the first arrival times of the SSIP shots at the more widely spaced Southern California Seismic Network (SCSN) in our inversion, since the layout of the SSIP is complementary to the SCSN. References: Tape, C., et al., 2010, Seismic tomography of the Southern California crust based on spectral-element and adjoint methods: Geophysical Journal International, v. 180, no. 1, p. 433-462. Wei, S., et al., 2013, Complementary slip distributions

  13. Resolution of fine biological structure including small narcomedusae across a front in the Southern California Bight

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClatchie, Sam; Cowen, Robert; Nieto, Karen; Greer, Adam; Luo, Jessica Y.; Guigand, Cedric; Demer, David; Griffith, David; Rudnick, Daniel

    2012-04-01

    We sampled a front detected by SST gradient, ocean color imagery, and a Spray glider south of San Nicolas Island in the Southern California Bight between 14 and 18 October 2010. We sampled the front with an unusually extensive array of instrumentation, including the Continuous Underway Fish Egg Sampler (CUFES), the undulating In Situ Ichthyoplankton Imaging System (ISIIS) (fitted with temperature, salinity, oxygen, and fluorescence sensors), multifrequency acoustics, a surface pelagic trawl, a bongo net, and a neuston net. We found higher fluorescence and greater cladoceran, decapod, and euphausiid densities in the front, indicating increased primary and secondary production. Mesopelagic fish were most abundant in oceanic waters to the west of the front, market squid were abundant in the front associated with higher krill and decapod densities, and jack mackerel were most common in the front and on the shoreward side of the front. Egg densities peaked to either side of the front, consistent with both offshore (for oceanic squid and mesopelagic fish) and shelf origins (for white croaker and California halibut). We discovered unusually high concentrations of predatory narcomedusae in the surface layer of the frontal zone. Potential ichthyoplankton predators were more abundant either in the front (decapods, euphausiids, and squid) or shoreward of the front (medusae, chaetognaths, and jack mackerel). For pelagic fish like sardine, which can thrive in less productive waters, the safest place to spawn would be offshore because there are fewer potential predators.

  14. Pareto-optimal estimates that constrain mean California precipitation change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenbrunner, B.; Neelin, J. D.

    2017-12-01

    Global climate model (GCM) projections of greenhouse gas-induced precipitation change can exhibit notable uncertainty at the regional scale, particularly in regions where the mean change is small compared to internal variability. This is especially true for California, which is located in a transition zone between robust precipitation increases to the north and decreases to the south, and where GCMs from the Climate Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) archive show no consensus on mean change (in either magnitude or sign) across the central and southern parts of the state. With the goal of constraining this uncertainty, we apply a multiobjective approach to a large set of subensembles (subsets of models from the full CMIP5 ensemble). These constraints are based on subensemble performance in three fields important to California precipitation: tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures, upper-level zonal winds in the midlatitude Pacific, and precipitation over the state. An evolutionary algorithm is used to sort through and identify the set of Pareto-optimal subensembles across these three measures in the historical climatology, and we use this information to constrain end-of-century California wet season precipitation change. This technique narrows the range of projections throughout the state and increases confidence in estimates of positive mean change. Furthermore, these methods complement and generalize emergent constraint approaches that aim to restrict uncertainty in end-of-century projections, and they have applications to even broader aspects of uncertainty quantification, including parameter sensitivity and model calibration.

  15. Electric energy demand and supply prospects for California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, H. G. M.

    1978-01-01

    A recent history of electricity forecasting in California is given. Dealing with forecasts and regulatory uncertainty is discussed. Graphs are presented for: (1) Los Angeles Department of Water and Power and Pacific Gas and Electric present and projected reserve margins; (2) California electricity peak demand forecast; and (3) California electricity production.

  16. Digital Elevation Model (DEM) file of topographic elevations for the Death Valley region of southern Nevada and southeastern California processed from US Geological Survey 1-degree Digital Elevation Model data files

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, A.K.; D'Agnese, F.A.; Faunt, C.C.

    1996-01-01

    Elevation data have been compiled into a digital data base for an ∼100,000-km 2 area of the southern Great Basin, the Death Valley region of southern Nevada, and SE Calif., located between lat 35 degree N, long 115 degree W, and lat 38 degree N, long 118 degree W. This region includes the Nevada Test Site, Yucca Mountain, and adjacent parts of southern Nevada and eastern California and encompasses the Death Valley regional ground-water system. Because digital maps are often useful for applications other than that for which they were originally intended, and because the area corresponds to a region under continuing investigation by several groups, these digital files are being released by USGS

  17. Groundwater quality in the shallow aquifers of the Tulare, Kaweah, and Tule Groundwater Basins and adjacent highlands areas, Southern San Joaquin Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Miranda S.

    2017-01-18

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The shallow aquifers of the Tulare, Kaweah, and Tule groundwater basins and adjacent highlands areas of the southern San Joaquin Valley constitute one of the study units being evaluated.

  18. High-global warming potential F-gas emissions in California: comparison of ambient-based versus inventory-based emission estimates, and implications of refined estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Glenn; Zhan, Tao; Hsu, Ying-Kuang; Gupta, Pamela; Pederson, James; Croes, Bart; Blake, Donald R; Barletta, Barbara; Meinardi, Simone; Ashford, Paul; Vetter, Arnie; Saba, Sabine; Slim, Rayan; Palandre, Lionel; Clodic, Denis; Mathis, Pamela; Wagner, Mark; Forgie, Julia; Dwyer, Harry; Wolf, Katy

    2014-01-21

    To provide information for greenhouse gas reduction policies, the California Air Resources Board (CARB) inventories annual emissions of high-global-warming potential (GWP) fluorinated gases, the fastest growing sector of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions globally. Baseline 2008 F-gas emissions estimates for selected chlorofluorocarbons (CFC-12), hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFC-22), and hydrofluorocarbons (HFC-134a) made with an inventory-based methodology were compared to emissions estimates made by ambient-based measurements. Significant discrepancies were found, with the inventory-based emissions methodology resulting in a systematic 42% under-estimation of CFC-12 emissions from older refrigeration equipment and older vehicles, and a systematic 114% overestimation of emissions for HFC-134a, a refrigerant substitute for phased-out CFCs. Initial, inventory-based estimates for all F-gas emissions had assumed that equipment is no longer in service once it reaches its average lifetime of use. Revised emission estimates using improved models for equipment age at end-of-life, inventories, and leak rates specific to California resulted in F-gas emissions estimates in closer agreement to ambient-based measurements. The discrepancies between inventory-based estimates and ambient-based measurements were reduced from -42% to -6% for CFC-12, and from +114% to +9% for HFC-134a.

  19. Recovery Act: Brea California Combined Cycle Electric Generating Plant Fueled by Waste Landfill Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galowitz, Stephen

    2012-12-31

    The primary objective of the Project was to maximize the productive use of the substantial quantities of waste landfill gas generated and collected at the Olinda Landfill near Brea, California. An extensive analysis was conducted and it was determined that utilization of the waste gas for power generation in a combustion turbine combined cycle facility was the highest and best use. The resulting Project reflected a cost effective balance of the following specific sub-objectives: • Meeting the environmental and regulatory requirements, particularly the compliance obligations imposed on the landfill to collect, process and destroy landfill gas • Utilizing proven and reliable technology and equipment • Maximizing electrical efficiency • Maximizing electric generating capacity, consistent with the anticipated quantities of landfill gas generated and collected at the Olinda Landfill • Maximizing equipment uptime • Minimizing water consumption • Minimizing post-combustion emissions • The Project produced and will produce a myriad of beneficial impacts. o The Project created 360 FTE construction and manufacturing jobs and 15 FTE permanent jobs associated with the operation and maintenance of the plant and equipment. o By combining state-of-the-art gas clean up systems with post combustion emissions control systems, the Project established new national standards for best available control technology (BACT). o The Project will annually produce 280,320 MWh’s of clean energy o By destroying the methane in the landfill gas, the Project will generate CO2 equivalent reductions of 164,938 tons annually. The completed facility produces 27.4 MWnet and operates 24 hours a day, seven days a week.

  20. Soil-gas monitoring: A tool for fault delineation studies along Hsinhua Fault (Tainan), Southern Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walia, Vivek, E-mail: vivekwalia@rediffmail.com [National Center for Research on Earthquake Engineering, National Applied Research Laboratories, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Lin, Shih Jung [National Center for Research on Earthquake Engineering, National Applied Research Laboratories, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Fu, Ching Chou; Yang, Tsanyao Frank; Hong, Wei-Li [Department of Geosciences, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Wen, Kuo-Liang [National Center for Research on Earthquake Engineering, National Applied Research Laboratories, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)] [Department of Earth Sciences and Institute of Geophysics, National Central University, Jhongli 32054, Taiwan (China); Chen, Cheng-Hong [Department of Geosciences, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)

    2010-04-15

    Many studies have shown the soil gas method to be one of the most reliable investigation tools in the research of earthquake precursory signals and fault delineation. The present research is aimed finding the relationship between soil gas distribution and tectonic systems in the vicinity of the Hsinhua Fault zone in the Tainan area of Southern Taiwan. More than 110 samples were collected along 13 traverses to find the spatial distribution of Rn, He, CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}. The spatial congruence of all the gases shows that N{sub 2} is the most probable carrier gas of He, whereas CO{sub 2} seems to be a good carrier gas of Rn in this area. From the spatial distribution of Rn, He, CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2} the trace of Hsinhua Fault and neotectonic features can be identified. The spatial distribution of studied gases shows a clear anomalous trend ENE-SWS along the Hsinhua Fault.

  1. Soil-gas monitoring: A tool for fault delineation studies along Hsinhua Fault (Tainan), Southern Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walia, Vivek; Lin, Shih Jung; Fu, Ching Chou; Yang, Tsanyao Frank; Hong, Wei-Li; Wen, Kuo-Liang; Chen, Cheng-Hong

    2010-01-01

    Many studies have shown the soil gas method to be one of the most reliable investigation tools in the research of earthquake precursory signals and fault delineation. The present research is aimed finding the relationship between soil gas distribution and tectonic systems in the vicinity of the Hsinhua Fault zone in the Tainan area of Southern Taiwan. More than 110 samples were collected along 13 traverses to find the spatial distribution of Rn, He, CO 2 and N 2 . The spatial congruence of all the gases shows that N 2 is the most probable carrier gas of He, whereas CO 2 seems to be a good carrier gas of Rn in this area. From the spatial distribution of Rn, He, CO 2 and N 2 the trace of Hsinhua Fault and neotectonic features can be identified. The spatial distribution of studied gases shows a clear anomalous trend ENE-SWS along the Hsinhua Fault.

  2. Seismic structure from multi-channel seismic reflection and wide-angle data of Transect 0E in the Southern Gulf of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramo, P.; Holbrook, W.; Brown, H.; Lizarralde, D.; Fletcher, J.; Umhoefer, P.; Kent, G.; Harding, A.; Gonzalez, A.; Axen, G.

    2005-12-01

    We present a velocity model from wide-angle data along with coincident prestack depth migration sections from seismic reflection data collected in the southern Gulf of California. Transect 0E runs NE to SW from the hills of Sierra Madre in mainland Mexico near Mazatlan to approximately 115 km into Gulf of California waters. Wide-angle data were recorded by 9 ocean bottom seismometers, deployed by the R/V New Horizon and 10 Reftek seismometers located along onshore extension of the transect. The average spacing for the OBS and Refteks is ~12 km and shots were fired from the R/V Maurice Ewing at 150 m intervals. Transect 0E crosses what it is believed to be extended continental crust and lies in the initial direction of extension characteristic of the proto-gulf. Preliminary results from the velocity model show upper crustal velocities of 6.1-6.3 km/s and lower crustal velocities of 6.7-7.0 km/s along the entire transect. Seismic velocities and crustal thicknesses observed along transect 0E are characteristic of non-volcanic margins.

  3. The tidal influence on oil and gas emissions from an abandoned oil well: Nearshore Summerland, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leifer, Ira; Wilson, Ken

    2007-01-01

    Oil and gas emissions were quantified for natural and human sources in nearshore waters off Summerland, California through deployment of custom designed collection tents. Seepage was measured at a repeatedly abandoned well, on the seabed from a caisson located along the historical location of the Treadwell Wharf, where the world's first off-shore oil wells were drilled at the end of the 19th century. Seepage rates at the capped T-10 Well, located in ∼5 m water, showed high correlation to tides. Site emissions were 2.4 and 38.7 L day -1 oil and gas, respectively. Emissions were measured from two areas of seepage at the T-10 Well Site. Oil and gas ratios were inversely correlated between the two seepage areas, demonstrating connectivity. Data were interpreted in terms of an electronic circuit model of seepage with respect to the time lag between local low tide and peak oil emissions

  4. California: the shutting down of San Onofre results in an increase of greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avrin, Anne-Perrine; Zweibaum, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    As the Californian San Onofre nuclear power station has been announced to be definitively shut down (after having being stopped since January 2012), due to corrosion and wear problems on steam generators, California will loose one of its two nuclear plants. The authors indicate the three different strategies proposed by the NRC to dismantle this plant: decontamination, safe storage, entombment. The operator has chosen the safe storage strategy for San Onofre. Funding issues are evoked. The authors finally comment the consequences of this shutting down: increase of greenhouse gas emissions and of electricity bill

  5. California sea otter (Enhydra lutris nereis) census results, Spring 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinker, M. Tim; Hatfield, Brian B.

    2017-09-29

    The 2017 census of southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) was conducted between late April and early July along the mainland coast of central California and in April at San Nicolas Island in southern California. The 3-year average of combined counts from the mainland range and San Nicolas Island was 3,186, down by 86 sea otters from the previous year. This is the second year that the official index has exceeded 3,090, the Endangered Species Act delisting threshold identified in the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service’s Southern Sea Otter Recovery Plan (the threshold would need to be exceeded for 3 consecutive years before delisting consideration). The 5-year average trend in abundance, including both the mainland range and San Nicolas Island populations, remains positive at 2.3 percent per year. Continuing lack of growth in the range peripheries likely explains the cessation of range expansion.

  6. Monitoring guidelines improve control of walnut husk fly in California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opp, Susan B.; Reynolds, Katherine M.; Pickel, Carolyn; Olson, William

    2000-01-01

    The walnut husk fly (WHF), Rhagoletis completa Cresson, is a key pest of walnuts (Juglans spp.) in California, where over 95% of the US and approximately two-thirds of the world's commercial walnuts are produced. The primary hosts of this monophagous fruit fly are J. regia L. (commercially grown English walnut), J. californica S. Wats. var. hindsii (northern California black walnut), J. californica var. californica (southern California black walnut) and J. nigra Thunb. (eastern black walnut). Some cultivars of the English walnut are more susceptible than others; the most heavily infested varieties of English walnut include Eureka, Franquette, Hartley, Mayette and Payne. Neither English walnuts nor the walnut husk fly are native to California. So-called 'English' walnuts are sometimes more appropriately called 'Persian' walnuts, in reference to Persia, the origin of J. regia. English walnuts were first planted in southern California in the 1860s. In contrast, the native range of WHF is the mid- and south-central United States where it attacks J. nigra (Boyce 1934). The fly was likely to have been introduced into southern California in the mid-1920s by tourists travelling from Kansas, New Mexico, Texas or Oklahoma. WHF was first documented in California in 1926 in the San Bernardino County when maggots were found in the husks of English walnuts (Boyce 1929). The fly gradually spread throughout walnut growing regions of California. In 1928, only three or four orchards in the San Bernardino County were known to be infested. By 1932, the fly was also found in the Los Angeles and Orange Counties (Boyce 1933), and by 1954, it was found in Ventura, Riverside, and the San Diego Counties, in addition to the northern California county of Sonoma (Anonymous 1966). The spread of the fly in northern California was rapid. By 1958, WHF was found in San Joaquin County; in 1963, the fly was in Amador, Lake, Solano, Tulare and Yolo Counties; in 1964, it was found in Fresno, Mendocino

  7. Emergency Assessment of Debris-Flow Hazards from Basins Burned by the 2007 Santiago Fire, Orange County, Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Susan H.; Gartner, Joseph E.; Michael, John A.; Bauer, Mark A.; Stitt, Susan C.; Knifong, Donna L.; McNamara, Bernard J.; Roque, Yvonne M.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The objective of this report is to present a preliminary emergency assessment of the potential for debris-flow generation from basins burned by the Santiago Fire in Orange County, southern California in 2007. Debris flows are among the most hazardous geologic phenomena; debris flows that followed wildfires in southern California in 2003 killed 16 people and caused tens of millions of dollars of property damage. A short period of even moderate rainfall on a burned watershed can lead to debris flows. Rainfall that is normally absorbed into hillslope soils can run off almost instantly after vegetation has been removed by wildfire. This causes much greater and more rapid runoff than is normal from creeks and drainage areas. Highly erodible soils in a burn scar allow flood waters to entrain large amounts of ash, mud, boulders, and unburned vegetation. Within the burned area and downstream, the force of rushing water, soil, and rock can destroy culverts, bridges, roadways, and buildings, potentially causing injury or death. This emergency debris-flow hazard assessment is presented as relative ranking of the predicted median volume of debris flows that can issue from basin outlets in response to 1.75 inches (44.45 mm) of rainfall over a 3-hour period. Such a storm has a 10-year return period. The calculation of debris flow volume is based on a multiple-regression statistical model that describes the median volume of material that can be expected from a recently burned basin as a function of the area burned at high and moderate severity, the basin area with slopes greater than or equal to 30 percent, and triggering storm rainfall. Cannon and others (2007) describe the methods used to generate the hazard maps. Identification of potential debris-flow hazards from burned drainage basins is necessary to issue warnings for specific basins, to make effective mitigation decisions, and to help plan evacuation timing and routes.

  8. Chronic oiling of marine birds in California by natural petroleum seeps, shipwrecks, and other sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkel, Laird A; Nevins, Hannahrose; Martin, Marida; Sugarman, Susan; Harvey, James T; Ziccardi, Michael H

    2014-02-15

    We assessed temporal and spatial patterns of chronic oiling of seabirds in California during 2005-2010, using data on: (1) live oiled birds reported to the Oiled Wildlife Care Network (OWCN) from throughout the state, and (2) dead oiled birds found during systematic monthly beached-bird surveys in central California. A mean of 245 (± 141 SD) live miscellaneous oiled birds (not associated with known oil spills) were reported to the OWCN per year, and 0.1 oiled dead birds km(-1) per month were found on beach surveys in central California. Chemical fingerprinting of oiled feathers from a subset of these birds (n=101) indicated that 89% of samples tested were likely from natural petroleum seeps off southern and central California. There was a pronounced peak during late winter in the number of oiled birds reported in southern California, which we theorize may be related to large storm waves disturbing underwater seeps. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Changes in state of stress on the southern san andreas fault resulting from the california earthquake sequence of april to june 1992.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaumé, S C; Sykes, L R

    1992-11-20

    The April to June 1992 Landers earthquake sequence in southern California modified the state of stress along nearby segments of the San Andreas fault, causing a 50-kilometer segment of the fault to move significantly closer to failure where it passes through a compressional bend near San Gorgonio Pass. The decrease in compressive normal stress may also have reduced fluid pressures along that fault segment. As pressures are reequilibrated by diffusion, that fault segment should move closer to failure with time. That fault segment and another to the southeast probably have not ruptured in a great earthquake in about 300 years.

  10. Threatened plant species of the Nevada Test Site, Ash Meadows, central-southern Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beatley, J.C.

    1977-04-01

    This report is a companion one to Endangered Plant Species of the Nevada Test Site, Ash Meadows, and Central-Southern Nevada (COO-2307-11) and deals with the threatened plant species of the same area. The species are those cited in the Federal Register, July 1, 1975, and include certain ones listed as occurring only in California or Arizona, but which occur also in central-southern Nevada. As with the earlier report, the purpose of this one is to record in detail the location of the past plant collections which constitute the sole or principal basis for defining the species' distributions and frequency of occurrence in southern Nye County, Nevada, and to recommend the area of the critical habitat where this is appropriate. Many of the species occur also in southern California, and for these the central-southern Nevada records are presented for consideration of the overall status of the species throughout its range.

  11. The 2014-2015 Warming Anomaly in the Southern California Current System: Glider Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaba, K. D.; Rudnick, D. L.

    2016-02-01

    During 2014-2015, basin-wide patterns of oceanic and atmospheric anomalies affected surface waters throughout the North Pacific Ocean. We present regional physical and biological effects of the warming, as observed by our autonomous underwater gliders in the southern California Current System (SCCS). Established in 2006, the California Glider Network provides sustained subsurface observations for monitoring the coastal effects of large-scale climate variability. Along repeat sections that extend to 350-500 km in offshore distance and 500 m in depth, Spray gliders have continuously occupied CalCOFI lines 66.7, 80, and 90 for nearly nine years. Following a sawtooth trajectory, the gliders complete each dive in approximately 3 hours and over 3 km. Measured variables include pressure, temperature, salinity, chlorophyll fluorescence, and velocity. For each of the three lines, a comprehensive climatology has been constructed from the multiyear timeseries. The ongoing surface-intensified warming anomaly, which began locally in early 2014 and persists through present, is unprecedented in the glider climatology. Reaching up to 5°C, positive temperature anomalies have been generally confined to the upper 50 m and persistent for over 20 months. The timing of the warming was in phase along each glider line but out of phase with equatorial SST anomalies, suggesting a decoupling of tropical and mid-latitude dynamics. Concurrent physical oceanographic anomalies included a depressed thermocline and high stratification. An induced biological response was apparent in the deepening of the subsurface chlorophyll fluorescence maximum. Ancillary atmospheric data from the NCEP North American Mesoscale (NAM) model indicate that a combination of surface forcing anomalies, namely high downward heat flux and weak wind stress magnitude, caused the unusual warm, downwelling conditions. With a strong El Niño event in the forecast for winter 2015-2016, our sustained glider network will

  12. Stormwater runoff plumes in the Southern California Bight: A comparison study with SAR and MODIS imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Benjamin; Trinh, Rebecca; Gierach, Michelle M

    2017-05-15

    Stormwater runoff is the largest source of pollution in the Southern California Bight (SCB), resulting from untreated runoff and pollutants from urban watersheds entering the coastal waters after rainstorms. We make use of both satellite SAR and MODIS-Aqua ocean color imagery to examine two different components of runoff plumes, the surface slick and the sediment discharge. We expand on earlier satellite SAR studies by examining an extensive collection of multi-platform SAR imagery, spanning from 1992 to 2014, that provides a more comprehensive view of the plume surface slick characteristics, illustrated with distribution maps of the extent and flow direction of the plumes. The SAR-detected surface plumes are compared with coincident rain and runoff measurements, and with available measured shoreline fecal bacteria loads. We illustrate differences in the detection of SAR surface plumes with the sediment-related discharge plumes derived from MODIS imagery. A conceptual satellite stormwater runoff monitoring approach is presented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. California State Waters Map Series—Offshore of Santa Cruz, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Guy R.; Dartnell, Peter; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Golden, Nadine E.; Greene, H. Gary; Dieter, Bryan E.; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Ritchie, Andrew C.; Finlayson, David P.; Endris, Charles A.; Watt, Janet T.; Davenport, Clifton W.; Sliter, Ray W.; Maier, Katherine L.; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Cochrane, Guy R.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2016-03-24

    upper Quaternary shelf, estuarine, and fluvial sediments deposited as sea level fluctuated in the late Pleistocene. The inner shelf is characterized by bedrock outcrops that have local thin sediment cover, the result of regional uplift, high wave energy, and limited sediment supply. The midshelf occupies part of an extensive, shore-parallel mud belt. The thickest sediment deposits, inferred to consist mainly of lowstand nearshore deposits, are found in the southeastern and northwestern parts of the map area.Coastal sediment transport in the map area is characterized by northwest-to-southeast littoral transport of sediment that is derived mainly from ephemeral streams in the Santa Cruz Mountains and also from local coastal-bluff erosion. During the last approximately 300 years, as much as 18 million cubic yards (14 million cubic meters) of sand-sized sediment has been eroded from the area between Año Nuevo Island and Point Año Nuevo and transported south; this mass of eroded sand is now enriching beaches in the map area. Sediment transport is within the Santa Cruz littoral cell, which terminates in the submarine Monterey Canyon.Benthic species observed in the Offshore of Santa Cruz map area are natives of the cold-temperate biogeographic zone that is called either the “Oregonian province” or the “northern California ecoregion.” This biogeographic province is maintained by the long-term stability of the southward-flowing California Current, the eastern limb of the North Pacific subtropical gyre that flows from southern British Columbia to Baja California. At its midpoint off central California, the California Current transports subarctic surface (0–500 m deep) waters southward, about 150 to 1,300 km from shore. Seasonal northwesterly winds that are, in part, responsible for the California Current, generate coastal upwelling. The south end of the Oregonian province is at Point Conception (about 300 km south of the map area), although its associated

  14. Executive Summary -- assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the San Joaquin Basin Province of California, 2003: Chapter 1 in Petroleum systems and geologic assessment of oil and gas in the San Joaquin Basin Province, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautier, Donald L.; Scheirer, Allegra Hosford; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Peters, Kenneth E.; Magoon, Leslie B.; Lillis, Paul G.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; French, Christopher D.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Schenk, Christopher J.

    2007-01-01

    In 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) completed an assessment of the oil and gas resource potential of the San Joaquin Basin Province of California (fig. 1.1). The assessment is based on the geologic elements of each Total Petroleum System defined in the province, including hydrocarbon source rocks (source-rock type and maturation and hydrocarbon generation and migration), reservoir rocks (sequence stratigraphy and petrophysical properties), and hydrocarbon traps (trap formation and timing). Using this geologic framework, the USGS defined five total petroleum systems and ten assessment units within these systems. Undiscovered oil and gas resources were quantitatively estimated for the ten assessment units (table 1.1). In addition, the potential was estimated for further growth of reserves in existing oil fields of the San Joaquin Basin.

  15. A New Species of the Bay Goby Genus Eucyclogobius, Endemic to Southern California: Evolution, Conservation, and Decline.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camm C Swift

    Full Text Available A geographically isolated set of southern localities of the formerly monotypic goby genus Eucyclogobius is known to be reciprocally monophyletic and substantially divergent in mitochondrial sequence and nuclear microsatellite-based phylogenies relative to populations to the north along the California coast. To clarify taxonomic and conservation status, we conducted a suite of analyses on a comprehensive set of morphological counts and measures from across the range of Eucyclogobius and describe the southern populations as a new species, the Southern Tidewater Goby, Eucyclogobius kristinae, now separate from the Northern Tidewater Goby Eucyclogobius newberryi (Girard 1856. In addition to molecular distinction, adults of E. kristinae are diagnosed by: 1 loss of the anterior supratemporal lateral-line canals resulting in higher neuromast counts, 2 lower pectoral and branched caudal ray counts, and 3 sets of measurements identified via discriminant analysis. These differences suggest ecological distinction of the two species. Previous studies estimated lineage separation at 2-4 million years ago, and mitochondrial sequence divergence exceeds that of other recognized fish species. Fish from Santa Monica Artesian Springs (Los Angeles County northward belong to E. newberryi; those from Aliso Creek (Orange County southward constitute E. kristinae. The lagoonal habitat of Eucyclogobius has been diminished or degraded, leading to special conservation status at state and federal levels beginning in 1980. Habitat of the newly described species has been impacted by a range of anthropogenic activities, including the conversion of closing lagoons to open tidal systems in the name of restoration. In the last 30 years, E. kristinae has only been observed in nine intermittently occupied lagoonal systems in northern San Diego County; it currently persists in only three sites. Thus, the new species is in imminent danger of extinction and will require ongoing active

  16. CAS (CHEMICAL ABSTRACTS SOCIETY) PARAMETER CODES and Other Data from FIXED PLATFORM and Other Platforms From Coastal Waters of California from 19750701 to 19780930 (NODC Accession 8700332)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data are part of the Southern California OCS Baseline Study funded by BLM and submitted by Science Applications, Inc. Coastal areas along southern California...

  17. Southern California Seismic Network: New Design and Implementation of Redundant and Reliable Real-time Data Acquisition Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, T.; Rico, H.; Solanki, K.; Hauksson, E.; Friberg, P.

    2005-12-01

    The Southern California Seismic Network (SCSN) handles more than 2500 high-data rate channels from more than 380 seismic stations distributed across southern California. These data are imported real-time from dataloggers, earthworm hubs, and partner networks. The SCSN also exports data to eight different partner networks. Both the imported and exported data are critical for emergency response and scientific research. Previous data acquisition systems were complex and difficult to operate, because they grew in an ad hoc fashion to meet the increasing needs for distributing real-time waveform data. To maximize reliability and redundancy, we apply best practices methods from computer science for implementing the software and hardware configurations for import, export, and acquisition of real-time seismic data. Our approach makes use of failover software designs, methods for dividing labor diligently amongst the network nodes, and state of the art networking redundancy technologies. To facilitate maintenance and daily operations we seek to provide some separation between major functions such as data import, export, acquisition, archiving, real-time processing, and alarming. As an example, we make waveform import and export functions independent by operating them on separate servers. Similarly, two independent servers provide waveform export, allowing data recipients to implement their own redundancy. The data import is handled differently by using one primary server and a live backup server. These data import servers, run fail-over software that allows automatic role switching in case of failure from primary to shadow. Similar to the classic earthworm design, all the acquired waveform data are broadcast onto a private network, which allows multiple machines to acquire and process the data. As we separate data import and export away from acquisition, we are also working on new approaches to separate real-time processing and rapid reliable archiving of real-time data

  18. Tissue heavy metal concentrations of stranded California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) in Southern California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harper, Erin R. [SeaWorld San Diego, 500 SeaWorld Drive, San Diego, CA 92109 (United States)]. E-mail: erin-harper@hotmail.com; St Leger, Judy A. [SeaWorld San Diego, 500 SeaWorld Drive, San Diego, CA 92109 (United States); Westberg, Jody A. [SeaWorld San Diego, 500 SeaWorld Drive, San Diego, CA 92109 (United States); Mazzaro, Lisa [Mystic Aquarium and Institute for Exploration, 55 Coogan Blvd, Mystic, CT 06355 (United States); Schmitt, Todd [SeaWorld San Diego, 500 SeaWorld Drive, San Diego, CA 92109 (United States); Reidarson, Tom H. [SeaWorld San Diego, 500 SeaWorld Drive, San Diego, CA 92109 (United States); Tucker, Melinda [SeaWorld San Diego, 500 SeaWorld Drive, San Diego, CA 92109 (United States); Cross, Dee H. [SeaWorld San Diego, 500 SeaWorld Drive, San Diego, CA 92109 (United States); Puschner, Birgit [California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California at Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2007-06-15

    Concentrations of nine heavy metals (As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Hg, Pb, Mn, Mo and Zn) were determined in the hepatic and renal tissues of 80 stranded California sea lions (Zalophus californianus). Significant age-dependant increases were observed in liver and kidney concentrations of cadmium and mercury, and renal zinc concentrations. Hepatic iron concentrations were significantly higher in females than males. Animals with suspected domoic acid associated pathological findings had significantly higher concentrations of liver and kidney cadmium; and significantly higher liver mercury concentrations when compared to animals classified with infectious disease or traumatic mortality. Significantly higher hepatic burdens of molybdenum and zinc were found in animals that died from infectious diseases. This is the largest study of tissue heavy metal concentrations in California sea lions to date. These data demonstrate how passive monitoring of stranded animals can provide insight into environmental impacts on marine mammals. - Tissue heavy metal concentrations are valuable in population and environmental monitoring.

  19. Employee motivation of senior engineers in aerospace companies in southern California: A qualitative case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banh, My-Le

    The purpose of this qualitative exploratory case study was to explore the lack of motivation of engineers with more than 15 years of experience working in aerospace companies in southern California. The sample size for this study consisted of 18 senior engineers. These participants held either a bachelor's or master's degree in engineering fields. Participants were recruited through networking with colleagues and snowball sampling. The data was collected through face-to-face and phone interviews. Participants also had the opportunity to review their responses after the interview. The data analysis resulted in 12 themes regarding the participants' perception of motivation. The top six predominant themes were (1) challenging and new assignments, (2) commitment, (3) opportunity, (4) supporting from managers, (5) team spirit, and (6) open communication. The study resulted in an in-depth understanding of how important motivation is to senior engineers. Based on the findings, leaders should create opportunities for senior employees to work on challenging assignments, acquire autonomy, and obtain more responsibilities. Providing such opportunities may motivate employees to perform well and committee with the organizations.

  20. Santa Ana Winds of Southern California: Their Climatology and Variability Spanning 6.5 Decades from Regional Dynamical Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman-Morales, J.; Gershunov, A.

    2015-12-01

    Santa Ana Winds (SAWs) are an integral feature of the regional climate of Southern California/Northern Baja California region. In spite of their tremendous episodic impacts on the health, economy and mood of the region, climate-scale behavior of SAW is poorly understood. In the present work, we identify SAWs in mesoscale dynamical downscaling of a global reanalysis product and construct an hourly SAW catalogue spanning 65 years. We describe the long-term SAW climatology at relevant time-space resolutions, i.e, we developed local and regional SAW indices and analyse their variability on hourly, daily, annual, and multi-decadal timescales. Local and regional SAW indices are validated with available anemometer observations. Characteristic behaviors are revealed, e.g. the SAW intensity-duration relationship. At interdecadal time scales, we find that seasonal SAW activity is sensitive to prominent large-scale low-frequency modes of climate variability rooted in the tropical and north Pacific ocean-atmosphere system that are also known to affect the hydroclimate of this region. Lastly, we do not find any long-term trend in SAW frequency and intensity as previously reported. Instead, we identify a significant long-term trend in SAW behavior whereby contribution of extreme SAW events to total seasonal SAW activity has been increasing at the expense of moderate events. These findings motivate further investigation on SAW evolution in future climate and its impact on wildfires.

  1. Projected 21st century coastal flooding in the Southern California Bight. Part 1: Development of the third generation CoSMoS model

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Andrea; Erikson, Li; Barnard, Patrick; Limber, Patrick; Vitousek, Sean; Warrick, Jonathan; Foxgrover, Amy C.; Lovering, Jessica

    2018-01-01

    Due to the effects of climate change over the course of the next century, the combination of rising sea levels, severe storms, and coastal change will threaten the sustainability of coastal communities, development, and ecosystems as we know them today. To clearly identify coastal vulnerabilities and develop appropriate adaptation strategies due to projected increased levels of coastal flooding and erosion, coastal managers need local-scale hazards projections using the best available climate and coastal science. In collaboration with leading scientists world-wide, the USGS designed the Coastal Storm Modeling System (CoSMoS) to assess the coastal impacts of climate change for the California coast, including the combination of sea-level rise, storms, and coastal change. In this project, we directly address the needs of coastal resource managers in Southern California by integrating a vast range of global climate change projections in a thorough and comprehensive numerical modeling framework. In Part 1 of a two-part submission on CoSMoS, methods and the latest improvements are discussed, and an example of hazard projections is presented.

  2. Culicoides variipennis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) complex in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, F R; Tabachnick, W J

    1995-07-01

    Genetic relationships were examined among 24 collections, representing 23 populations of Culicoides variipennis (Coquillett) using isozyme electrophoresis of 11 protein encoding loci. The populations were collected from alkaline or fresh water larval habitats in California. Distance analysis demonstrated that C. v. occidentalis Wirth and Jones and C. v. sonorensis Wirth and Jones are genetically distinct. All C. v. occidentalis were geographically isolated from each other in highly alkaline or saline larval habitats, whereas C. v. sonorensis populations were collected from artificial freshwater habitats that were polluted with organic wastes. Higher levels of gene flow were found between C. v. sonorensis populations than from C. v. sonorensis populations to nearby C. v. occidentalis populations, indicative of genetic isolation between subspecies. Northern California C. v. sonorensis were genetically distinguishable from southern California C. v. sonorensis. The relationship between this variation and bluetongue disease epidemiology in California is discussed.

  3. Pneumocystosis in wild small mammals from California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laakkonen, Juha; Fisher, Robert N.; Case, Ted J.

    2001-01-01

    Cyst forms of the opportunistic fungal parasite Pneumocystis carinii were found in the lungs of 34% of the desert shrew, Notiosorex crawfordi (n = 59), 13% of the ornate shrew, Sorex ornatus (n = 55), 6% of the dusky-footed wood rat, Neotoma fuscipes (n = 16), 2.5% of the California meadow vole,Microtus californicus (n = 40), and 50% of the California pocket mouse, Chaetodipus californicus (n= 2) caught from southern California between February 1998 and February 2000. Cysts were not found in any of the harvest mouse, Reithrodontomys megalotis (n = 21), California mouse,Peromyscus californicus (n = 20), brush mouse, Peromyscus boylii (n = 7) or deer mouse, Peromyscus maniculatus (n = 4) examined. All infections were mild; extrapulmonary infections were not observed. Other lung parasites detected were Hepatozoon sp./spp. from M. californicus andNotiosorex crawfordi, Chrysosporium sp. (Emmonsia) from M. californicus, and a nematode from S. ornatus.

  4. Using Logistic Regression to Predict the Probability of Debris Flows in Areas Burned by Wildfires, Southern California, 2003-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupert, Michael G.; Cannon, Susan H.; Gartner, Joseph E.; Michael, John A.; Helsel, Dennis R.

    2008-01-01

    Logistic regression was used to develop statistical models that can be used to predict the probability of debris flows in areas recently burned by wildfires by using data from 14 wildfires that burned in southern California during 2003-2006. Twenty-eight independent variables describing the basin morphology, burn severity, rainfall, and soil properties of 306 drainage basins located within those burned areas were evaluated. The models were developed as follows: (1) Basins that did and did not produce debris flows soon after the 2003 to 2006 fires were delineated from data in the National Elevation Dataset using a geographic information system; (2) Data describing the basin morphology, burn severity, rainfall, and soil properties were compiled for each basin. These data were then input to a statistics software package for analysis using logistic regression; and (3) Relations between the occurrence or absence of debris flows and the basin morphology, burn severity, rainfall, and soil properties were evaluated, and five multivariate logistic regression models were constructed. All possible combinations of independent variables were evaluated to determine which combinations produced the most effective models, and the multivariate models that best predicted the occurrence of debris flows were identified. Percentage of high burn severity and 3-hour peak rainfall intensity were significant variables in all models. Soil organic matter content and soil clay content were significant variables in all models except Model 5. Soil slope was a significant variable in all models except Model 4. The most suitable model can be selected from these five models on the basis of the availability of independent variables in the particular area of interest and field checking of probability maps. The multivariate logistic regression models can be entered into a geographic information system, and maps showing the probability of debris flows can be constructed in recently burned areas of

  5. Emergency Assessment of Debris-Flow Hazards from Basins Burned by the 2007 Witch Fire, San Diego County, Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Susan H.; Gartner, Joseph E.; Michael, John A.; Bauer, Mark A.; Stitt, Susan C.; Knifong, Donna L.; McNamara, Bernard J.; Roque, Yvonne M.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The objective of this report is to present a preliminary emergency assessment of the potential for debris-flow generation from basins burned by the Witch Fire in San Diego County, southern California in 2007. Debris flows are among the most hazardous geologic phenomena; debris flows that followed wildfires in southern California in 2003 killed 16 people and caused tens of millions of dollars of property damage. A short period of even moderate rainfall on a burned watershed can lead to debris flows. Rainfall that is normally absorbed into hillslope soils can run off almost instantly after vegetation has been removed by wildfire. This causes much greater and more rapid runoff than is normal from creeks and drainage areas. Highly erodible soils in a burn scar allow flood waters to entrain large amounts of ash, mud, boulders, and unburned vegetation. Within the burned area and downstream, the force of rushing water, soil, and rock can destroy culverts, bridges, roadways, and buildings, potentially causing injury or death. This emergency debris-flow hazard assessment is presented as relative ranking of the predicted median volume of debris flows that can issue from basin outlets in response to 2.25 inches (57.15 mm) of rainfall over a 3-hour period. Such a storm has a 10-year return period. The calculation of debris flow volume is based on a multiple-regression statistical model that describes the median volume of material that can be expected from a recently burned basin as a function of the area burned at high and moderate severity, the basin area with slopes greater than or equal to 30 percent, and triggering storm rainfall. Cannon and others (2007) describe the methods used to generate the hazard maps. Identification of potential debris-flow hazards from burned drainage basins is necessary to issue warnings for specific basins, to make effective mitigation decisions, and to help plan evacuation timing and routes.

  6. Emergency Assessment of Debris-Flow Hazards from Basins Burned by the 2007 Buckweed Fire, Los Angeles County, Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Susan H.; Gartner, Joseph E.; Michael, John A.; Bauer, Mark A.; Stitt, Susan C.; Knifong, Donna L.; McNamara, Bernard J.; Roque, Yvonne M.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The objective of this report is to present a preliminary emergency assessment of the potential for debris-flow generation from basins burned by the Buckweed Fire in Los Angeles County, southern California in 2007. Debris flows are among the most hazardous geologic phenomena; debris flows that followed wildfires in southern California in 2003 killed 16 people and caused tens of millions of dollars of property damage. A short period of even moderate rainfall on a burned watershed can lead to debris flows. Rainfall that is normally absorbed into hillslope soils can run off almost instantly after vegetation has been removed by wildfire. This causes much greater and more rapid runoff than is normal from creeks and drainage areas. Highly erodible soils in a burn scar allow flood waters to entrain large amounts of ash, mud, boulders, and unburned vegetation. Within the burned area and downstream, the force of rushing water, soil, and rock can destroy culverts, bridges, roadways, and buildings, potentially causing injury or death. This emergency debris-flow hazard assessment is presented as relative ranking of the predicted median volume of debris flows that can issue from basin outlets in response to 2.25 inches (57.15 mm) of rainfall over a 3-hour period. Such a storm has a 10-year return period. The calculation of debris flow volume is based on a multiple-regression statistical model that describes the median volume of material that can be expected from a recently burned basin as a function of the area burned at high and moderate severity, the basin area with slopes greater than or equal to 30 percent, and triggering storm rainfall. Cannon and others (2007) describe the methods used to generate the hazard maps. Identification of potential debris-flow hazards from burned drainage basins is necessary to issue warnings for specific basins, to make effective mitigation decisions, and to help plan evacuation timing and routes.

  7. Emergency Assessment of Debris-Flow Hazards from Basins Burned by the 2007 Canyon Fire, Los Angeles County, Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Susan H.; Gartner, Joseph E.; Michael, John A.; Bauer, Mark A.; Stitt, Susan C.; Knifong, Donna L.; McNamara, Bernard J.; Roque, Yvonne M.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The objective of this report is to present a preliminary emergency assessment of the potential for debris-flow generation from basins burned by the Canyon Fire in Los Angeles County, southern California in 2007. Debris flows are among the most hazardous geologic phenomena; debris flows that followed wildfires in southern California in 2003 killed 16 people and caused tens of millions of dollars of property damage. A short period of even moderate rainfall on a burned watershed can lead to debris flows. Rainfall that is normally absorbed into hillslope soils can run off almost instantly after vegetation has been removed by wildfire. This causes much greater and more rapid runoff than is normal from creeks and drainage areas. Highly erodible soils in a burn scar allow flood waters to entrain large amounts of ash, mud, boulders, and unburned vegetation. Within the burned area and downstream, the force of rushing water, soil, and rock can destroy culverts, bridges, roadways, and buildings, potentially causing injury or death. This emergency debris-flow hazard assessment is presented as relative ranking of the predicted median volume of debris flows that can issue from basin outlets in response to 2.25 inches (57.15 mm) of rainfall over a 3-hour period. Such a storm has a 10-year return period. The calculation of debris flow volume is based on a multiple-regression statistical model that describes the median volume of material that can be expected from a recently burned basin as a function of the area burned at high and moderate severity, the basin area with slopes greater than or equal to 30 percent, and triggering storm rainfall. Cannon and others (2007) describe the methods used to generate the hazard maps. Identification of potential debris-flow hazards from burned drainage basins is necessary to issue warnings for specific basins, to make effective mitigation decisions, and to help plan evacuation timing and routes.

  8. Emergency Assessment of Debris-Flow Hazards from Basins Burned by the 2007 Poomacha Fire, San Diego County, Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Susan H.; Gartner, Joseph E.; Michael, John A.; Bauer, Mark A.; Stitt, Susan C.; Knifong, Donna L.; McNamara, Bernard J.; Roque, Yvonne M.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The objective of this report is to present a preliminary emergency assessment of the potential for debris-flow generation from basins burned by the Poomacha Fire in San Diego County, southern California in 2007. Debris flows are among the most hazardous geologic phenomena; debris flows that followed wildfires in southern California in 2003 killed 16 people and caused tens of millions of dollars of property damage. A short period of even moderate rainfall on a burned watershed can lead to debris flows. Rainfall that is normally absorbed into hillslope soils can run off almost instantly after vegetation has been removed by wildfire. This causes much greater and more rapid runoff than is normal from creeks and drainage areas. Highly erodible soils in a burn scar allow flood waters to entrain large amounts of ash, mud, boulders, and unburned vegetation. Within the burned area and downstream, the force of rushing water, soil, and rock can destroy culverts, bridges, roadways, and buildings, potentially causing injury or death. This emergency debris-flow hazard assessment is presented as relative ranking of the predicted median volume of debris flows that can issue from basin outlets in response to 2.25 inches (57.15 mm) of rainfall over a 3-hour period. Such a storm has a 10-year return period. The calculation of debris flow volume is based on a multiple-regression statistical model that describes the median volume of material that can be expected from a recently burned basin as a function of the area burned at high and moderate severity, the basin area with slopes greater than or equal to 30 percent, and triggering storm rainfall. Cannon and others (2007) describe the methods used to generate the hazard maps. Identification of potential debris-flow hazards from burned drainage basins is necessary to issue warnings for specific basins, to make effective mitigation decisions, and to help plan evacuation timing and routes.

  9. Emergency Assessment of Debris-Flow Hazards from Basins Burned by the 2007 Rice Fire, San Diego County, Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Susan H.; Gartner, Joseph E.; Michael, John A.; Bauer, Mark A.; Stitt, Susan C.; Knifong, Donna L.; McNamara, Bernard J.; Roque, Yvonne M.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The objective of this report is to present a preliminary emergency assessment of the potential for debris-flow generation from basins burned by the Rice Fire in San Diego County, southern California in 2007. Debris flows are among the most hazardous geologic phenomena; debris flows that followed wildfires in southern California in 2003 killed 16 people and caused tens of millions of dollars of property damage. A short period of even moderate rainfall on a burned watershed can lead to debris flows. Rainfall that is normally absorbed into hillslope soils can run off almost instantly after vegetation has been removed by wildfire. This causes much greater and more rapid runoff than is normal from creeks and drainage areas. Highly erodible soils in a burn scar allow flood waters to entrain large amounts of ash, mud, boulders, and unburned vegetation. Within the burned area and downstream, the force of rushing water, soil, and rock can destroy culverts, bridges, roadways, and buildings, potentially causing injury or death. This emergency debris-flow hazard assessment is presented as relative ranking of the predicted median volume of debris flows that can issue from basin outlets in response to 1.75 inches (44.45 mm) of rainfall over a 3-hour period. Such a storm has a 10-year return period. The calculation of debris flow volume is based on a multiple-regression statistical model that describes the median volume of material that can be expected from a recently burned basin as a function of the area burned at high and moderate severity, the basin area with slopes greater than or equal to 30 percent, and triggering storm rainfall. Cannon and others (2007) describe the methods used to generate the hazard maps. Identification of potential debris-flow hazards from burned drainage basins is necessary to issue warnings for specific basins, to make effective mitigation decisions, and to help plan evacuation timing and routes.

  10. Emergency assessment of debris-flow hazards from basins burned by the 2007 Harris Fire, San Diego County, southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Susan H.; Gartner, Joseph E.; Michael, John A.; Bauer, Mark A.; Stitt, Susan C.; Knifong, Donna L.; McNamara, Bernard J.; Roque, Yvonne M.

    2007-01-01

    IntroductionThe objective of this report is to present a preliminary emergency assessment of the potential for debris-flow generation from basins burned by the Harris Fire in San Diego County, southern California in 2007. Debris flows are among the most hazardous geologic phenomena; debris flows that followed wildfires in southern California in 2003 killed 16 people and caused tens of millions of dollars of property damage. A short period of even moderate rainfall on a burned watershed can lead to debris flows. Rainfall that is normally absorbed into hillslope soils can run off almost instantly after vegetation has been removed by wildfire. This causes much greater and more rapid runoff than is normal from creeks and drainage areas. Highly erodible soils in a burn scar allow flood waters to entrain large amounts of ash, mud, boulders, and unburned vegetation. Within the burned area and downstream, the force of rushing water, soil, and rock can destroy culverts, bridges, roadways, and buildings, potentially causing injury or death. This emergency debris-flow hazard assessment is presented as relative ranking of the predicted median volume of debris flows that can issue from basin outlets in response to 1.75 inches (44.45 mm) of rainfall over a 3-hour period. Such a storm has a 10-year return period. The calculation of debris flow volume is based on a multiple-regression statistical model that describes the median volume of material that can be expected from a recently burned basin as a function of the area burned at high and moderate severity, the basin area with slopes greater than or equal to 30 percent, and triggering storm rainfall. Cannon and others (2007) describe the methods used to generate the hazard maps. Identification of potential debris-flow hazards from burned drainage basins is necessary to issue warnings for specific basins, to make effective mitigation decisions, and to help plan evacuation timing and routes.

  11. Emergency Assessment of Debris-Flow Hazards from Basins Burned by the 2007 Ammo Fire, San Diego County, Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Susan H.; Gartner, Joseph E.; Michael, John A.; Bauer, Mark A.; Stitt, Susan C.; Knifong, Donna L.; McNamara, Bernard J.; Roque, Yvonne M.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The objective of this report is to present a preliminary emergency assessment of the potential for debris-flow generation from basins burned by the Ammo Fire in San Diego County, southern California in 2007. Debris flows are among the most hazardous geologic phenomena; debris flows that followed wildfires in southern California in 2003 killed 16 people and caused tens of millions of dollars of property damage. A short period of even moderate rainfall on a burned watershed can lead to debris flows. Rainfall that is normally absorbed into hillslope soils can run off almost instantly after vegetation has been removed by wildfire. This causes much greater and more rapid runoff than is normal from creeks and drainage areas. Highly erodible soils in a burn scar allow flood waters to entrain large amounts of ash, mud, boulders, and unburned vegetation. Within the burned area and downstream, the force of rushing water, soil, and rock can destroy culverts, bridges, roadways, and buildings, potentially causing injury or death. This emergency debris-flow hazard assessment is presented as relative ranking of the predicted median volume of debris flows that can issue from basin outlets in response to 1.75 inches (44.45 mm) of rainfall over a 3-hour period. Such a storm has a 10-year return period. The calculation of debris flow volume is based on a multiple-regression statistical model that describes the median volume of material that can be expected from a recently burned basin as a function of the area burned at high and moderate severity, the basin area with slopes greater than or equal to 30 percent, and triggering storm rainfall. Cannon and others (2007) describe the methods used to generate the hazard maps. Identification of potential debris-flow hazards from burned drainage basins is necessary to issue warnings for specific basins, to make effective mitigation decisions, and to help plan evacuation timing and routes.

  12. Deposition and Accumulation of Emerging Contaminants in the Sediments of the Palos Verde Shelf, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deposition and Accumulation of Emerging Contaminants in the Sediments of the Palos Verde Shelf, California Mark G. Cantwell, David R. Katz, Julia Sullivan, Robert P. Eganhouse, Monique M. Perron, Robert M. Burgess The Palos Verdes shelf is located off the Southern California coa...

  13. Analyses of Gas, Steam and Water Samples Collected in and Around Lassen Volcanic National Park, California, 1975-2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janik, Cathy J.; Bergfeld, D.

    2010-01-01

    This report contains physical and chemical data from gas, steam, and water samples collected between July 1975 and September 2002 from locations in and around Lassen Volcanic National Park, California. Data are compiled as tables in Excel spreadsheets and are organized by locale. Most data are keyed to 1 of 107 site codes that are shown on local- and regional-scale maps. Brief descriptions of terminology, sampling, and analytical methods are provided.

  14. Anatomy of La Jolla submarine canyon system; offshore southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paull, C.K.; Caress, D.W.; Lundsten, E.; Gwiazda, R.; Anderson, K.; McGann, M.; Conrad, J.; Edwards, B.; Sumner, E.J.

    2013-01-01

    An autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) carrying a multibeam sonar and a chirp profiler was used to map sections of the seafloor within the La Jolla Canyon, offshore southern California, at sub-meter scales. Close-up observations and sampling were conducted during remotely operated vehicle (ROV) dives. Minisparker seismic-reflection profiles from a surface ship help to define the overall geometry of the La Jolla Canyon especially with respect to the pre-canyon host sediments. The floor of the axial channel is covered with unconsolidated sand similar to the sand on the shelf near the canyon head, lacks outcrops of the pre-canyon host strata, has an almost constant slope of 1.0° and is covered with trains of crescent shaped bedforms. The presence of modern plant material entombed within these sands confirms that the axial channel is presently active. The sand on the canyon floor liquefied during vibracore collection and flowed downslope, illustrating that the sediment filling the channel can easily fail even on this gentle slope. Data from the canyon walls help constrain the age of the canyon and extent of incision. Horizontal beds of moderately cohesive fine-grained sediments exposed on the steep canyon walls are consistently less than 1.232 million years old. The lateral continuity of seismic reflectors in minisparker profiles indicate that pre-canyon host strata extend uninterrupted from outside the canyon underneath some terraces within the canyon. Evidence of abandoned channels and point bar-like deposits are noticeably absent on the inside bend of channel meanders and in the subsurface of the terraces. While vibracores from the surface of terraces contain thin (art seafloor mapping and exploration tools provides a uniquely detailed view of the morphology within an active submarine canyon.

  15. Curie Depth Analysis of the Salton Sea Region, Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickus, Kevin; Hussein, Musa

    2016-02-01

    Aeromagnetic data were analyzed to determine the bottom of magnetic bodies that might be related to the Curie point depth (CPD) by 2D spectral and 3D inversion methods within the Salton Trough and the surrounding region in southern California. The bottom of the magnetic bodies for 55 × 55 km windows varied in depth between 11 and 23 km in depth using 2D spectral methods. Since the 55 × 55 km square window may include both shallow and deep source, a 3D inversion method was used to provide better resolution of the bottom of the magnetic bodies. The 3D models indicate the depth to the bottom of the magnetic bodies varied between 5 and 23 km. Even though both methods produced similar results, the 3D inversion method produced higher resolution of the CPD depths. The shallowest depths (5-8 km) occur along and west of the Brawley Seismic Zone and the southwestern portion of the Imperial Valley. The source of these shallow CPD values may be related to geothermal systems including hydrothermal circulation and/or partially molten material. Additionally, shallow CPD depths (7-12 km) were found in a northwest-trending zone in the center of the Salton Trough. These depths coincide with previous seismic analyses that indicated a lower crustal low velocity region which is believed to be caused by partially molten material. Lower velocity zones in several regions may be related to fracturing and/or hydrothermal fluids. If the majority of these shallow depths are related to temperature, they are likely associated with the CPD, and the partially molten material extends over a wider zone than previously known. Greater depths within the Salton Trough coincide with the base of basaltic material and/or regions of intense metamorphism intruded by mafic material in the middle/lower crust.

  16. Identification of two distinct fire regimes in Southern California: implications for economic impact and future change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yufang; Goulden, Michael L.; Faivre, Nicolas; Veraverbeke, Sander; Sun, Fengpeng; Hall, Alex; Hand, Michael S.; Hook, Simon; Randerson, James T.

    2015-09-01

    The area burned by Southern California wildfires has increased in recent decades, with implications for human health, infrastructure, and ecosystem management. Meteorology and fuel structure are universally recognized controllers of wildfire, but their relative importance, and hence the efficacy of abatement and suppression efforts, remains controversial. Southern California’s wildfires can be partitioned by meteorology: fires typically occur either during Santa Ana winds (SA fires) in October through April, or warm and dry periods in June through September (non-SA fires). Previous work has not quantitatively distinguished between these fire regimes when assessing economic impacts or climate change influence. Here we separate five decades of fire perimeters into those coinciding with and without SA winds. The two fire types contributed almost equally to burned area, yet SA fires were responsible for 80% of cumulative 1990-2009 economic losses (3.1 Billion). The damage disparity was driven by fire characteristics: SA fires spread three times faster, occurred closer to urban areas, and burned into areas with greater housing values. Non-SA fires were comparatively more sensitive to age-dependent fuels, often occurred in higher elevation forests, lasted for extended periods, and accounted for 70% of total suppression costs. An improved distinction of fire type has implications for future projections and management. The area burned in non-SA fires is projected to increase 77% (±43%) by the mid-21st century with warmer and drier summers, and the SA area burned is projected to increase 64% (±76%), underscoring the need to evaluate the allocation and effectiveness of suppression investments.

  17. Gas bubble disease in the brain of a living California sea lion (Zalophus californianus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William George Van Bonn

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A yearling California sea lion (Zalophus californianus was admitted into rehabilitation with signs of cerebellar pathology. Diagnostic imaging that included radiography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI demonstrated space-occupying lesions predominantly in the cerebellum that were filled partially by CSF-like fluid and partially by gas, and cerebral lesions that were fluid filled. Over a maximum period of four months, the brain lesions reduced in size and the gas resorbed and was replaced by CSF-like fluid. To test the animal in this study for motor memory deficits, an alternation task in a two-choice maze was utilized. The sea lion performed poorly similar to another case of pneumocerebellum previously reported, and contrary to data acquired from a group of sea lions with specific hippocampal injury. The learning deficits were attributed to the cerebellar injury. These data provide important insight both to the clinical presentation and behavioral observations of cerebellar injury in sea lions, as well as providing an initial model for long-term outcome following cerebellar injury. The specific etiology of the gas could not be determined. The live status of the patient with recovery suggests that the most likely etiologies for the gas are either de novo formation or air emboli secondary to trauma. A small air gun pellet was present within and was removed from soft tissues adjacent to the tympanic bulla. While no evidence to support the pellet striking bone was found, altered dive pattern associated with this human interaction may have provided the opportunity for gas bubble formation to occur. The similarity in distribution of the gas bubble related lesions in this case compared with another previously published case of pneumocerebellum suggests that preferential perfusion of the brain, and more specifically the cerebellum, may occur during diving events.

  18. Alberta producers' gas export prices slip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandrasekharaiah, M.N.; Dubben, G.; Kolster, B.H.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Alberta gas producers have approved a new contract with California buyers that includes slightly lower wellhead prices and more flexible pricing terms. The 1 year agreement, will apply a flexible price formula to gas sales. A basic volume of 212 MMcfd will receive $1.52 (U.S.)/Mcf. A and S also will buy 200 MMcfd at prices paid for other Alberta gas in the California market. It will have the right to buy added volumes at prices indexed to gas sold into California from the U.S. Southwest. Ballots cast by producers were to be verified by regulatory agencies in Alberta and British Columbia. The more flexible price terms in the new contract are seen as a positive development for negotiations in a dispute over long term contracts

  19. California quake assessed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuethrich, Bernice

    On January 17, at 4:31 A.M., a 6.6 magnitude earthquake hit the Los Angeles area, crippling much of the local infrastructure and claiming 51 lives. Members of the Southern California Earthquake Network, a consortium of scientists at universities and the United States Geological Survey (USGS), entered a controlled crisis mode. Network scientists, including David Wald, Susan Hough, Kerry Sieh, and a half dozen others went into the field to gather information on the earthquake, which apparently ruptured an unmapped fault.

  20. Wave disturbance overwhelms top-down and bottom-up control of primary production in California kelp forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Daniel C; Rassweiler, Andrew; Carr, Mark H; Cavanaugh, Kyle C; Malone, Daniel P; Siegel, David A

    2011-11-01

    We took advantage of regional differences in environmental forcing and consumer abundance to examine the relative importance of nutrient availability (bottom-up), grazing pressure (top-down), and storm waves (disturbance) in determining the standing biomass and net primary production (NPP) of the giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera in central and southern California. Using a nine-year data set collected from 17 sites we show that, despite high densities of sea urchin grazers and prolonged periods of low nutrient availability in southern California, NPP by giant kelp was twice that of central California where nutrient concentrations were consistently high and sea urchins were nearly absent due to predation by sea otters. Waves associated with winter storms were consistently higher in central California, and the loss of kelp biomass to winter wave disturbance was on average twice that of southern California. These observations suggest that the more intense wave disturbance in central California limited NPP by giant kelp under otherwise favorable conditions. Regional patterns of interannual variation in NPP were similar to those of wave disturbance in that year-to-year variation in disturbance and NPP were both greater in southern California. Our findings provide strong evidence that regional differences in wave disturbance overwhelmed those of nutrient supply and grazing intensity to determine NPP by giant kelp. The important role of disturbance in controlling NPP revealed by our study is likely not unique to giant kelp forests, as vegetation dynamics in many systems are dominated by post-disturbance succession with climax communities being relatively uncommon. The effects of disturbance frequency may be easier to detect in giant kelp because it is fast growing and relatively short lived, with cycles of disturbance and recovery occurring on time scales of years. Much longer data sets (decades to centuries) will likely be needed to properly evaluate the role of

  1. Status of groundwater quality in the Southern, Middle, and Northern Sacramento Valley study units, 2005-08: California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, George L.; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the Southern, Middle, and Northern Sacramento Valley study units was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The study units are located in California's Central Valley and include parts of Butte, Colusa, Glenn, Placer, Sacramento, Shasta, Solano, Sutter, Tehama, Yolo, and Yuba Counties. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The three study units were designated to provide spatially-unbiased assessments of the quality of untreated groundwater in three parts of the Central Valley hydrogeologic province, as well as to provide a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality regionally and statewide. Samples were collected in 2005 (Southern Sacramento Valley), 2006 (Middle Sacramento Valley), and 2007-08 (Northern Sacramento Valley). The GAMA studies in the Southern, Middle, and Northern Sacramento Valley were designed to provide statistically robust assessments of the quality of untreated groundwater in the primary aquifer systems that are used for drinking-water supply. The assessments are based on water-quality data collected by the USGS from 235 wells in the three study units in 2005-08, and water-quality data from the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database. The primary aquifer systems (hereinafter, referred to as primary aquifers) assessed in this study are defined by the depth intervals of the wells in the CDPH database for each study unit. The quality of groundwater in shallow or deep water-bearing zones may differ from quality of groundwater in the primary aquifers; shallow groundwater may be more vulnerable to contamination from the surface. The status of the current quality of the groundwater resource was assessed by using data from samples analyzed for volatile organic

  2. Natural Gas Variability In California: Environmental Impacts And Device Performance Combustion Modeling of Pollutant Emissions From a Residential Cooking Range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonse, S. R.; Singer, B. C.

    2011-07-01

    As part of a larger study of liquefied natural gas impacts on device performance and pollutant emissions for existing equipment in California, this report describes a cmoputer modeling study of a partially premixed flame issueing from a single cooktop burner port. The model consisted of a reactive computational fluid dynamics three-dimensional spatial grid and a 71-species chemical mechanism with propane combustion capability. Simulations were conducted with a simplified fuel mixture containing methane, ethane, and propane in proportions that yield properties similar to fuels distributed throughout much of California now and in recent years (baseline fuel), as well as with two variations of simulated liquefied natural gas blends. A variety of simulations were conducted with baseline fuel to explore the effect of several key parameters on pollutant formation and other flame characteristics. Simulations started with fuel and air issuing through the burner port, igniting, and continuing until the flame was steady with time. Conditions at this point were analyzed to understand fuel, secondary air and reaction product flows, regions of pollutant formation, and exhaust concentrations of carbon monoxide, nitric oxide and formaldehyde. A sensitivity study was conducted, varying the inflow parameters of this baseline gs about real-world operating conditions. Flame properties responded as expected from reactive flow theory. In the simulation, carbon monoxide levels were influenced more by the mixture's inflow velocity than by the gas-to-air ratio in the mixture issuing from the inflow port. Additional simulations were executed at two inflow conditions - high heat release and medium heat release - to examine the impact of replacing the baseline gas with two mixtures representative of liquefied natural gas. Flame properties and pollutant generation rates were very similar among the three fuel mixtures.

  3. What is the relative health risk to swimmers from California Seagull feces compared to bather shedders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estimated infection risks to swimmers from California seagull and bather sources of fecal contamination at a beach in Southern California were compared using quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA). The risk to swimmers of gastro-intestinal infections was estimated from Ca...

  4. Postbreeding elevational movements of western songbirds in Northern California and Southern Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegardt, Andrew; Wolfe, Jared; Ralph, C John; Stephens, Jaime L; Alexander, John

    2017-10-01

    Migratory species employ a variety of strategies to meet energetic demands of postbreeding molt. As such, at least a few species of western Neotropical migrants are known to undergo short-distance upslope movements to locations where adults molt body and flight feathers (altitudinal molt migration). Given inherent difficulties in measuring subtle movements of birds occurring in western mountains, we believe that altitudinal molt migration may be a common yet poorly documented phenomenon. To examine prevalence of altitudinal molt migration, we used 29 years of bird capture data in a series of linear mixed-effect models for nine commonly captured species that breed in northern California and southern Oregon. Candidate models were formulated a priori to examine whether elevation and distance from the coast can be used to predict abundance of breeding and molting birds. Our results suggest that long-distance migrants such as Orange-crowned Warbler ( Oreothlypis celata ) moved higher in elevation and Audubon's Warbler ( Setophaga coronata ) moved farther inland to molt after breeding. Conversely, for resident and short-distance migrants, we found evidence that birds either remained on the breeding grounds until they finished molting, such as Song Sparrow ( Melospiza melodia ) or made small downslope movements, such as American Robin ( Turdus migratorius ). We conclude that altitudinal molt migration may be a common, variable, and complex behavior among western songbird communities and is related to other aspects of a species' natural history, such as migratory strategy.

  5. A new algorithm for three-dimensional joint inversion of body wave and surface wave data and its application to the Southern California plate boundary region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Hongjian; Zhang, Haijiang; Yao, Huajian; Allam, Amir; Zigone, Dimitri; Ben-Zion, Yehuda; Thurber, Clifford; van der Hilst, Robert D.

    2016-05-01

    We introduce a new algorithm for joint inversion of body wave and surface wave data to get better 3-D P wave (Vp) and S wave (Vs) velocity models by taking advantage of the complementary strengths of each data set. Our joint inversion algorithm uses a one-step inversion of surface wave traveltime measurements at different periods for 3-D Vs and Vp models without constructing the intermediate phase or group velocity maps. This allows a more straightforward modeling of surface wave traveltime data with the body wave arrival times. We take into consideration the sensitivity of surface wave data with respect to Vp in addition to its large sensitivity to Vs, which means both models are constrained by two different data types. The method is applied to determine 3-D crustal Vp and Vs models using body wave and Rayleigh wave data in the Southern California plate boundary region, which has previously been studied with both double-difference tomography method using body wave arrival times and ambient noise tomography method with Rayleigh and Love wave group velocity dispersion measurements. Our approach creates self-consistent and unique models with no prominent gaps, with Rayleigh wave data resolving shallow and large-scale features and body wave data constraining relatively deeper structures where their ray coverage is good. The velocity model from the joint inversion is consistent with local geological structures and produces better fits to observed seismic waveforms than the current Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) model.

  6. Savage Desert, American Garden: citrus labels and the selling of California, 1877-1929

    OpenAIRE

    Knight Lozano, Henry

    2008-01-01

    In 1877, a year after the railroad reached Southern California, the first shipment of California oranges left the Los Angeles groves of William Wolfskill, bound for St. Louis, Missouri. The box-ends were branded ‘Wolfskill California Oranges’, ensuring that the geographical origins of the fruit were emphasised from the very beginning of their exportation to the Midwest and East. During the 1880s, the innovations of irrigation and refrigerated cars combined with new railroads, massive in-migra...

  7. Stationary sources of airborne lead: a comparison of emissions data for southern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Allison R; Fifarek, Brian J; Davidson, Cliff I; Blackmon, Rebecca Lankey

    2006-04-01

    Estimates for the air releases of lead from stationary point sources are considered for the South Coast Air Basin of California. We have examined four databases published by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the California Air Resources Board, and the South Coast Air Quality Management District. Our analysis indicates that none of the databases includes every emitting facility in the South Coast Air Basin of California and that other discrepancies among the databases exist. Additionally, the data have been analyzed for temporal variation, and some of the California Air Resources Board data are not current. The South Coast Air Quality Management District inventory covers 12 times more facilities in 2001 than in 1996. From this analysis, we conclude that all four of the databases would benefit by sharing data, increasing transparency, analyzing uncertainty, and standardizing emission estimation methods.

  8. Inversion Estimate of California Methane Emissions Using a Bayesian Inverse Model with Multi-Tower Greenhouse Gas Monitoring Network and Aircraft Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Y.; Falk, M.; Chen, Y.; Herner, J.; Croes, B. E.; Vijayan, A.

    2017-12-01

    Methane (CH4) is an important short-lived climate pollutant (SLCP), and the second most important greenhouse gas (GHG) in California which accounts for 9% of the statewide GHG emissions inventory. Over the years, California has enacted several ambitious climate change mitigation goals, including the California Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006 which requires ARB to reduce statewide GHG emissions to 1990 emission level by 2020, as well as Assembly Bill 1383 which requires implementation of a climate mitigation program to reduce statewide methane emissions by 40% below the 2013 levels. In order to meet these requirements, ARB has proposed a comprehensive SLCP Strategy with goals to reduce oil and gas related emissions and capture methane emissions from dairy operations and organic waste. Achieving these goals will require accurate understanding of the sources of CH4 emissions. Since direct monitoring of CH4 emission sources in large spatial and temporal scales is challenging and resource intensive, we developed a complex inverse technique combined with atmospheric three-dimensional (3D) transport model and atmospheric observations of CH4 concentrations from a regional tower network and aircraft measurements, to gain insights into emission sources in California. In this study, develop a comprehensive inversion estimate using available aircraft measurements from CalNex airborne campaigns (May-June 2010) and three years of hourly continuous measurements from the ARB Statewide GHG Monitoring Network (2014-2016). The inversion analysis is conducted using two independent 3D Lagrangian models (WRF-STILT and WRF-FLEXPART), with a variety of bottom-up prior inputs from national and regional inventories, as well as two different probability density functions (Gaussian and Lognormal). Altogether, our analysis provides a detailed picture of the spatially resolved CH4 emission sources and their temporal variation over a multi-year period.

  9. Barking News Story: Media Perceptions of the California Sea Lion

    OpenAIRE

    Purdy, Canon

    2015-01-01

    A growing California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) population close to a large human population in southern California has lead to increasing human/sea lion interactions. These interactions range widely from positive impacts on people (e.g. tourism benefits, increased education) and on sea lions (e.g. marine protected areas, rescue efforts) to negative impacts on people (e.g. depredation, attacks, nuisances) and negative impacts on sea lions (e.g. entanglement in fishing gear, intentional...

  10. Fuel Property, Emission Test, and Operability Results from a Fleet of Class 6 Vehicles Operating on Gas-to-Liquid Fuel and Catalyzed Diesel Particle Filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alleman, T. L.; Eudy, L.; Miyasato, M.; Oshinuga, A.; Allison, S.; Corcoran, T.; Chatterjee, S.; Jacobs, T.; Cherrillo, R. A.; Clark, R.; Virrels, I.; Nine, R.; Wayne, S.; Lansing, R.

    2005-11-01

    A fleet of six 2001 International Class 6 trucks operating in southern California was selected for an operability and emissions study using gas-to-liquid (GTL) fuel and catalyzed diesel particle filters (CDPF). Three vehicles were fueled with CARB specification diesel fuel and no emission control devices (current technology), and three vehicles were fueled with GTL fuel and retrofit with Johnson Matthey's CCRT diesel particulate filter. No engine modifications were made.

  11. Mesopelagic fish assemblages across oceanic fronts: A comparison of three frontal systems in the southern California Current Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netburn, Amanda N.; Koslow, J. Anthony

    2018-04-01

    With strong horizontal gradients in physical properties, oceanic frontal regions can lead to disproportionately high biological productivity. We examined cross-frontal changes in mesopelagic fish assemblages at three separate frontal systems in the southern California Current Ecosystem (CCE) as part of the CCE Long Term Ecological Research program: the A-Front sampled in October 2008, the C-Front in June/July 2011, and the E-Front in July/August 2012. We analyzed the differential effects of front-associated regions on density and species composition of adult migratory and non-migratory fishes and larvae, and the larval to adult ratio (as a possible index of a population growth potential) for migratory and non-migratory species. The fronts did not have a strong effect on densities of any subset of the mesopelagic fish assemblage. The species composition of the vertical migratory fishes (and their larvae) was typically altered across fronts, with different assemblages present on either side of each front. The migratory assemblages at the fronts themselves were indistinguishable from those at the more productive side of the frontal system. In contrast, the assemblage composition of the non-migratory fishes was indistinguishable between regions across all three of the fronts. The differences between the Northern and Southern assemblages at the A-Front were primarily based on biogeographic provinces, while the assemblages at the E-Front were largely distinguishable by their oceanic or coastal-upwelling zone associations. These results generally confirm those of previous studies on frontal systems in the California Current Ecosystem and elsewhere. The ratio of larvae to adults, a potential index of population growth potential, was altered across two of the fronts for migratory species, elevated on the colder side of the A-Front and the warmer side of the E-Front. This finding suggests that fronts may be regions of enhanced reproduction. The larvae to adult ratio was

  12. Investigating on the Differences between Triggered and Background Seismicity in Italy and Southern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallone, A.; Marzocchi, W.

    2017-12-01

    Earthquake occurrence may be approximated by a multidimensional Poisson clustering process, where each point of the Poisson process is replaced by a cluster of points, the latter corresponding to the well-known aftershock sequence (triggered events). Earthquake clusters and their parents are assumed to occur according to a Poisson process at a constant temporal rate proportional to the tectonic strain rate, while events within a cluster are modeled as generations of dependent events reproduced by a branching process. Although the occurrence of such space-time clusters is a general feature in different tectonic settings, seismic sequences seem to have marked differences from region to region: one example, among many others, is that seismic sequences of moderate magnitude in Italian Apennines seem to last longer than similar seismic sequences in California. In this work we investigate on the existence of possible differences in the earthquake clustering process in these two areas. At first, we separate the triggered and background components of seismicity in the Italian and Southern California seismic catalog. Then we study the space-time domain of the triggered earthquakes with the aim to identify possible variations in the triggering properties across the two regions. In the second part of the work we focus our attention on the characteristics of the background seismicity in both seismic catalogs. The assumption of time stationarity of the background seismicity (which includes both cluster parents and isolated events) is still under debate. Some authors suggest that the independent component of seismicity could undergo transient perturbations at various time scales due to different physical mechanisms, such as, for example, viscoelastic relaxation, presence of fluids, non-stationary plate motion, etc, whose impact may depend on the tectonic setting. Here we test if the background seismicity in the two regions can be satisfactorily described by the time

  13. Southern Monterey Bay Littoral Cell CRSMP Sensitive Habitat 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — One of the most important functions of the southern Monterey Bay coastal system is its role as a habitat for a unique flora and fauna. The beaches are habitat for...

  14. Southern Monterey Bay Littoral Cell CRSMP Sensitive Habitat 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — One of the most important functions of the southern Monterey Bay coastal system is its role as a habitat for a unique flora and fauna. The beaches are habitat for...

  15. Who walks into vape shops in Southern California?: a naturalistic observation of customers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Steve; Allem, Jon-Patrick; Garcia, Jocelyn; Unger, Jennifer B; Cruz, Tess Boley; Garcia, Robert; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes

    2016-01-01

    The rising popularity of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) has been accompanied by the proliferation of vape shops in the United States. Vape shops are devoted to the sale of e-cigarettes and e-juices. This study aimed to describe the age, gender, and ethnicity of customers who frequent these shops, determine whether conversations transpire between retailers and customers, as well as identify the types of activities taking place while customers are inside the store. A naturalistic observation study of 186 customers in 59 vape shops in Southern California was completed in locations that were relatively high in Korean, Non-Hispanic white, Hispanic, or African American ethnicity. Across all shops, the average estimated age of customers was 30.29 years old (SD = 9.70), 53 % were estimated to be non-Hispanic white, and 79 % were males; few minors entered the shops. Conversations about vaping related topics were prevalent (e.g., sampling e-juices, receiving help on hardware, and talking about vaping). Purchases were commonly observed as well as customers lounging in the shop. Vape shops provide consumers a place to purchase and discuss e-cigarettes and offer an environment that serves as a place of recreation with customers lounging once inside. Findings should inform local tobacco control efforts and regulatory policies in the future.

  16. California State Waters Map Series: offshore of San Gregorio, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Guy R.; Dartnell, Peter; Greene, H. Gary; Watt, Janet T.; Golden, Nadine E.; Endris, Charles A.; Phillips, Eleyne L.; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Bretz, Carrie K.; Manson, Michael W.; Sliter, Ray W.; Ross, Stephanie L.; Dieter, Bryan E.; Chin, John L.; Cochran, Susan A.; Cochrane, Guy R.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2014-01-01

    the northern and southern parts of the map area are the result of right-lateral motion on strands of the San Gregorio Fault system. In the south, headlands near Pescadero Point have been uplifted by motion along the west strand of the San Gregorio Fault (also called the Frijoles Fault), which separates rocks of the Pigeon Point Formation south of the fault from rocks of the Purisima Formation north of the fault. The regional uplift in this map area has caused relatively shallow water depths within California's State Waters and, thus, little accommodation space for sediment accumulation. Sediment is observed offshore in the central part of the map area, in the shelter of the headlands north of the east strand of the San Gregorio Fault (also called the Coastways Fault) around Miramontes Point (about 5 km north of the map area) and also on the outer half of the California's State Waters shelf in the south where depths exceed 40 m. Sediment in the outer shelf of California's State Waters is rippled, indicating some mobility. The Offshore of San Gregorio map area lies within the cold-temperate biogeographic zone that is called either the "Oregonian province" or the "northern California ecoregion." This biogeographic province is maintained by the long-term stability of the southward-flowing California Current, an eastern limb of the North Pacific subtropical gyre that flows from Oregon to Baja California. At its midpoint off central California, the California Current transports subarctic surface (0–500 m deep) waters southward, about 150 to 1,300 km from shore. Seasonal northwesterly winds that are, in part, responsible for the California Current, generate coastal upwelling. The south end of the Oregonian province is at Point Conception (about 350 km south of the map area), although its associated phylogeographic group of marine fauna may extend beyond to the area offshore of Los Angeles in southern California. The ocean off of central California has experienced a warming

  17. Ozone distribution and phytotoxic potential in mixed conifer forests of the San Bernardino Mountains, southern California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bytnerowicz, Andrzej; Arbaugh, Michael; Schilling, Susan; Fraczek, Witold; Alexander, Diane

    2008-01-01

    In the San Bernardino Mountains of southern California, ozone (O 3 ) concentrations have been elevated since the 1950s with peaks reaching 600 ppb and summer seasonal averages >100 ppb in the 1970s. During that period increased mortality of ponderosa and Jeffrey pines occurred. Between the late 1970s and late1990s, O 3 concentrations decreased with peaks ∼180 ppb and ∼60 ppb seasonal averages. However, since the late 1990s concentrations have not changed. Monitoring during summers of 2002-2006 showed that O 3 concentrations (2-week averages) for individual years were much higher in western sites (58-69 ppb) than eastern sites (44-50 ppb). Potential O 3 phytotoxicity measured as various exposure indices was very high, reaching SUM00 - 173.5 ppm h, SUM60 - 112.7 ppm h, W126 - 98.3 ppm h, and AOT40 - 75 ppm h, representing the highest values reported for mountain areas in North America and Europe. - Although peak ozone concentrations have greatly decreased in the San Bernardino Mountains, very high ozone phytotoxic potential remains

  18. Comparing the role of fuel breaks across southern California national forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syphard, Alexandra D.; Keeley, Jon E.; Brennan, Teresa J.

    2011-01-01

    Fuel treatment of wildland vegetation is the primary approach advocated for mitigating fire risk at the wildland-urban interface (WUI), but little systematic research has been conducted to understand what role fuel treatments play in controlling large fires, which factors influence this role, or how the role of fuel treatments may vary over space and time. We assembled a spatial database of fuel breaks and fires from the last 30 years in four southern California national forests to better understand which factors are consistently important for fuel breaks in the control of large fires. We also explored which landscape features influence where fires and fuel breaks are most likely to intersect. The relative importance of significant factors explaining fuel break outcome and number of fire and fuel break intersections varied among the forests, which reflects high levels of regional landscape diversity. Nevertheless, several factors were consistently important across all the forests. In general, fuel breaks played an important role in controlling large fires only when they facilitated fire management, primarily by providing access for firefighting activities. Fire weather and fuel break maintenance were also consistently important. Models and maps predicting where fuel breaks and fires are most likely to intersect performed well in the regions where the models were developed, but these models did not extend well to other regions, reflecting how the environmental controls of fire regimes vary even within a single ecoregion. Nevertheless, similar mapping methods could be adopted in different landscapes to help with strategic location of fuel breaks. Strategic location of fuel breaks should also account for access points near communities, where fire protection is most important.

  19. Evaluating post-wildfire hydrologic recovery using ParFlow in southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, S. R.; Kinoshita, A. M.; Atchley, A. L.

    2016-12-01

    Wildfires are naturally occurring hazards that can have catastrophic impacts. They can alter the natural processes within a watershed, such as surface runoff and subsurface water storage. Generally, post-fire hydrologic models are either one-dimensional, empirically-based models, or two-dimensional, conceptually-based models with lumped parameter distributions. These models are useful in providing runoff measurements at the watershed outlet; however, do not provide distributed hydrologic simulation at each point within the watershed. This research demonstrates how ParFlow, a three-dimensional, distributed hydrologic model can simulate post-fire hydrologic processes by representing soil burn severity (via hydrophobicity) and vegetation recovery as they vary both spatially and temporally. Using this approach, we are able to evaluate the change in post-fire water components (surface flow, lateral flow, baseflow, and evapotranspiration). This model is initially developed for a hillslope in Devil Canyon, burned in 2003 by the Old Fire in southern California (USA). The domain uses a 2m-cell size resolution over a 25 m by 25 m lateral extent. The subsurface reaches 2 m and is assigned a variable cell thickness, allowing an explicit consideration of the soil burn severity throughout the stages of recovery and vegetation regrowth. Vegetation regrowth is incorporated represented by satellite-based Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) products. The pre- and post-fire surface runoff, subsurface storage, and surface storage interactions are evaluated and will be used as a basis for developing a watershed-scale model. Long-term continuous simulations will advance our understanding of post-fire hydrological partitioning between water balance components and the spatial variability of watershed processes, providing improved guidance for post-fire watershed management.

  20. Proceedings of the symposium on the ecology, management, and utilization of California oaks, June 26-28

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timothy R. Plumb

    1980-01-01

    The symposium, held at Scripps College in Southern California, addressed most aspects of California's vast oak resource. Papers represented four major subject categories: ecological relationships, silviculture and management, damage factors, and products. Both scientific and applied information was presented, including original material not published previously....

  1. Urban sprawl and flooding in southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantz, S.E.

    1970-01-01

    The floods of January 1969 in south-coastal California provide a timely example of the effect of urban sprawl on flood damage. Despite recordbreaking, or near recordbreaking, stream discharges, damage was minimal in the older developed areas that are protected against inundation and debris damage by carefully planned flood-control facilities, including debris basins and flood-conveyance channels. By contrast, heavy damage occurred in areas of more recent urban sprawl, where the hazards of inundation and debris or landslide damage have not been taken into consideration, and where the improvement and development of drainage or flood-control facilities have not kept pace with expanding urbanization.

  2. Southern Monterey Bay Littoral Cell CRSMP Proposed Receiver Site 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Given the location of the critical areas of erosion and the need to avoid adverse impacts to local sensitive habitat, the Southern Monterey Bay Coastal RSM Plan...

  3. Southern Monterey Bay Littoral Cell CRSMP Proposed Receiver Site 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Given the location of the critical areas of erosion and the need to avoid adverse impacts to local sensitive habitat, the Southern Monterey Bay Coastal RSM Plan...

  4. Usability and Visual Communication for Southern California Tsunami Evacuation Information: The importance of information design in disaster risk management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaenichen, C.; Schandler, S.; Wells, M.; Danielsen, T.

    2015-12-01

    Evacuation behavior, including participation and response, is rarely an individual and isolated process and the outcomes are usually systemic. Ineffective evacuation information can easily attribute to delayed evacuation response. Delays increase demands on already extended emergency personal, increase the likelihood of traffic congestion, and can cause harm to self and property. From an information design perspective, addressing issues in cognitive recall and emergency psychology, this case study examines evacuation messaging including written, audio, and visual presentation of information, and describes the application of design principles and role of visual communication for Southern California tsunami evacuation outreach. The niche of this project is the inclusion of cognitive processing as the driving influence when making formal design decisions and measurable data from a 4-year cognitive recall study to support the solution. Image included shows a tsunami evacaution map before and after the redesign.

  5. Aging, recall and recognition: a study on the sensitivity of the University of Southern California Repeatable Episodic Memory Test (USC-REMT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Elizabeth S; Landau, Susan M; Whipple, Stephen C; Schwartz, Barbara L

    2004-05-01

    This study examines the sensitivity of the University of Southern California Repeatable Episodic Memory Test (USC-REMT) to the effects of aging in a sample of 112 men and women from 18 to 93 years old. Two new recognition measures, yes-no and forced-choice, were developed to supplement the original USC-REMT which measured only free-recall. Free-recall, yes-no recognition and forced-choice recognition were sensitive to age effects, with free-recall being the most sensitive. The seven recall and recognition lists can be used interchangeably. The data indicate that the USC-REMT is worthy of consideration when there is a need for a brief, screening tool of various memory functions, particularly when there is interest in memory changes over time and repeated assessments.

  6. South American natural gas trade: the road ahead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinsch, A.E.; Tissot, R.; Peacey, D.

    1997-01-01

    The current state and future prospects for the natural gas sector in South America were examined, including the ability of the natural gas resource base to meet potential gas demand in the Southern Cone region (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay, Peru and Uruguay). The physical, legal, fiscal, regulatory and political developments in the hydrocarbon-producing countries in the Southern Cone region were reviewed. For example, in Colombia, the domestic gas market potential and resource base argue in favor of a closed domestic gas sector development policy. In contrast, Venezuela, a country that already has a well developed domestic gas sector, is pursuing offshore market development through both petrochemical and liquefied natural gas initiatives. Following a comprehensive description of individual gas resources, markets and market potential, and legal, institutional and political environments, the study reports on a number of alternative scenarios concerning natural gas integration in the Southern Cone region, developed by using the South America Natural Gas (SANG) model. The following scenarios were reviewed: (1) closure and confinement, (2) integration and expansion, and (3) gains from technology. It was estimated that potential gas demand in the Southern Cone region is projected to grow from 900 billion cubic feet per year in 1994 to over 5.3 trillion cubic feet in 2021. The majority of growth is expected in Brazil. The overall conclusion of the study was that regardless of the scenario, Southern Core gas sector integration has strong economic and commercial merit, and that the natural gas resource base in the Southern Cone, as represented by the gas reserves database, is more than adequate to service potential demand. 100 refs., 50 tabs., 54 figs

  7. Biomonitoring in California Firefighters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, Leslie; McNeel, Sandra; Voss, Robert; Wang, Miaomiao; Gajek, Ryszard; Park, June-Soo; Harwani, Suhash; Barley, Frank; She, Jianwen; Das, Rupali

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess California firefighters' blood concentrations of selected chemicals and compare with a representative US population. Methods: We report laboratory methods and analytic results for cadmium, lead, mercury, and manganese in whole blood and 12 serum perfluorinated chemicals in a sample of 101 Southern California firefighters. Results: Firefighters' blood metal concentrations were all similar to or lower than the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) values, except for six participants whose mercury concentrations (range: 9.79 to 13.42 μg/L) were close to or higher than the NHANES reporting threshold of 10 μg/L. Perfluorodecanoic acid concentrations were elevated compared with NHANES and other firefighter studies. Conclusions: Perfluorodecanoic acid concentrations were three times higher in this firefighter group than in NHANES adult males. Firefighters may have unidentified sources of occupational exposure to perfluorinated chemicals. PMID:25563545

  8. Natural gas markets integration in the Southern Cone: analysis of interests and stakeholders; Perspectivas para a integracao gasifera no Cone Sul: uma analise dos principais interesses e interessados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villas Boas, Marina Vieira [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Natural gas has been recently gaining importance in the world energy mix especially because of its economical and environmental advantages but also because of technological and geopolitical issues. In the Southern Cone, natural gas demand shall maintain its upward trend in the next years mainly due to its use in power generation. This region owns significant natural gas reserves and, at the same time, a growing and with high potential market. In this scenario, natural gas markets integration is seen simultaneously as an opportunity and a necessity as it can contribute to demand and production interconnection, price competitiveness and security of supply. Nevertheless, there are important barriers to the consolidation of natural gas market integration in the Southern Cone region that have to be overcome. For the natural gas markets integration to be a sustainable project it is necessary to identify the major stakeholders and their interests and pursue a balance between them. (author)

  9. Groundwater quality in the Bear Valley and Lake Arrowhead Watershed, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy; Burton, Carmen; Fram, Miranda S.

    2017-06-20

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The Bear Valley and Lake Arrowhead Watershed study areas in southern California compose one of the study units being evaluated.

  10. Ecological studies of neritic phytoplankton of Southern California: seasonal variations, associations, and responses to temperature elevations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briand, F.J.P.

    1974-01-01

    The first part of this study investigates the seasonal variations and associations of the nearshore phytoplankton communities at Seal Beach, Orange County, California. A total of 90 species was recorded in samples taken weekly from June 1972 to May 1973. On a yearly basis, the two dominant algal groups were diatoms (46 species) and dinoflagellates (36 species), accounting respectively for 64.1 percent and 30.4 percent of the total cell number, and for 20.2 percent and 79.2 percent of the total cell volume. The species diversity index (H') remained relatively stable during the year, showing no distinct seasonal pattern. The major group, composed mainly of dinoflagellates, was correlated with warm water conditions at Seal Beach. At this location, two electric power plants use sea-water for cooling purposes at the rate of six million l/min, which subjects the planktonic organisms entrained in the condenser systems to appreciable temperature increases. This problem is general in southern California, where 14 coastal power plants draw presently no less than 20 billion l/day from the ocean. The large quantities of marine phytoplankton passing through the cooling systems of the two power plants studied were found greatly reduced in numbers (41.7 percent) and in volume (33.7 percent). There was no apparent reduction in phytoplankton stocks when the intake water was cooler than 15 0 C. Species diversity (H') in the effluent was consistently lower than in the influent. Temperature elevations up to 10 0 C increased the gross primary productivity by 37 percent when intake water temperatures were 19 0 C or cooler, and reduced productivity by 22 percent when ambient water temperatures were warmer than 21.5 0 C. Since heating was consistently less damaging when applied to relatively cold water, use by coastal power plants of deep sea-water for cooling is strongly advocated. (U.S.)

  11. Unrealized Promises: Unequal Access, Affordability, and Excellence at Community Colleges in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Wenzl, Mary; Marquez, Rigoberto

    2012-01-01

    California community colleges are, by design, the only entry point to four-year institutions for the majority of students in the state. Yet, many of these institutions perpetuate racial and class segregation, thus disrupting the California Master Plan for Higher Education's promise of access, equity, and excellence in higher education. This report…

  12. Walnut shells: replacement for natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goss, J R; Williams, R O

    1977-11-01

    A method of extracting useful energy from cracked walnut shells has been developed by the University of California in co-operation with Diamond/Sunsweet, Inc., and the California Energy Resources Conservation and Development Commission. The technique involves converting the shells to producer gas, a low-Btu gas in which the major combustible components are carbon monoxide (20 to 30%) and hydrogen (10 to 15%).

  13. Introduction. [usefulness of modern remote sensing techniques for studying components of California water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colwell, R. N.

    1973-01-01

    Since May 1970, personnel on several campuses of the University of California have been conducting investigations which seek to determine the usefulness of modern remote sensing techniques for studying various components of California's earth resources complex. Emphasis has been given to California's water resources as exemplified by the Feather River project and other aspects of the California Water Plan. This study is designed to consider in detail the supply, demand, and impact relationships. The specific geographic areas studied are the Feather River drainage in northern California, the Chino-Riverside Basin and Imperial Valley areas in southern California, and selected portions of the west side of San Joaquin Valley in central California. An analysis is also given on how an effective benefit-cost study of remote sensing in relation to California's water resources might best be made.

  14. Gas Bubble Disease in the Brain of a Living California Sea Lion (Zalophus californianus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Bonn, William; Dennison, Sophie; Cook, Peter; Fahlman, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    A yearling California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) was admitted into rehabilitation with signs of cerebellar pathology. Diagnostic imaging that included radiography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated space-occupying lesions predominantly in the cerebellum that were filled partially by CSF-like fluid and partially by gas, and cerebral lesions that were fluid filled. Over a maximum period of 4 months, the brain lesions reduced in size and the gas resorbed and was replaced by CSF-like fluid. In humans, the cerebellum is known to be essential for automating practiced movement patterns (e.g., learning to touch-type), also known as procedural learning or the consolidation of "motor memory." To test the animal in this study for motor memory deficits, an alternation task in a two-choice maze was utilized. The sea lion performed poorly similar to another case of pneumocerebellum previously reported, and contrary to data acquired from a group of sea lions with specific hippocampal injury. The learning deficits were attributed to the cerebellar injury. These data provide important insight both to the clinical presentation and behavioral observations of cerebellar injury in sea lions, as well as providing an initial model for long-term outcome following cerebellar injury. The specific etiology of the gas could not be determined. The live status of the patient with recovery suggests that the most likely etiologies for the gas are either de novo formation or air emboli secondary to trauma. A small air gun pellet was present within and was removed from soft tissues adjacent to the tympanic bulla. While no evidence to support the pellet striking bone was found, altered dive pattern associated with this human interaction may have provided the opportunity for gas bubble formation to occur. The similarity in distribution of the gas bubble related lesions in this case compared with another previously published case of pneumocerebellum suggests that preferential

  15. Multiple Stressors at the Land-Sea Interface: Cyanotoxins at the Land-Sea Interface in the Southern California Bight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatters, Avery O; Howard, Meredith D A; Nagoda, Carey; Busse, Lilian; Gellene, Alyssa G; Caron, David A

    2017-03-09

    Blooms of toxic cyanobacteria in freshwater ecosystems have received considerable attention in recent years, but their occurrence and potential importance at the land-sea interface has not been widely recognized. Here we present the results of a survey of discrete samples conducted in more than fifty brackish water sites along the coastline of southern California. Our objectives were to characterize cyanobacterial community composition and determine if specific groups of cyanotoxins (anatoxins, cylindrospermopsins, microcystins, nodularins, and saxitoxins) were present. We report the identification of numerous potentially harmful taxa and the co-occurrence of multiple toxins, previously undocumented, at several locations. Our findings reveal a potential health concern based on the range of organisms present and the widespread prevalence of recognized toxic compounds. Our results raise concerns for recreation, harvesting of finfish and shellfish, and wildlife and desalination operations, highlighting the need for assessments and implementation of monitoring programs. Such programs appear to be particularly necessary in regions susceptible to urban influence.

  16. California energy flow in 1979

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, C. K.; Borg, I. Y.

    1981-03-01

    Energy use in California during 1979 differed significantly from 1978. Overall use of natural gas in the state increased substantially (14.3%) due principally to greater use for electrical power production; 4% more gas was used for electrical power generation in 1979 than in 1978 and 21% more than in 1977. Use of fuel oil for electrical generation remained at the 1978 level but below the high 1977 level, which reflected substitution of oil for hydroelectric power during the 1976 to 1977 drought. Together, oil and gas accounted for 80% of the fuels used to generate electricity. Crude-oil imports principally from Indonesia fell substantially; however, use of Alaskan North Slope oil increased so that the net increase in crude oil use was up about 4%. The transportation end-use sector consumed about as much as in 1978 despite shortages in early 1979 associated with the Iranian revolution. While sales fell slightly, sales of high-sulfur residual oils (Bunker C) increased markedly. Transportation represents 38% of total energy consumption in California.

  17. Population genetic structure of Phytophthora cinnamomi associated with avocado in California and the discovery of a potentially recent introduction of a new clonal lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliaccia, D; Pond, E; McKee, B; Douhan, G W

    2013-01-01

    Phytophthora root rot (PRR) of avocado (Persea americana), caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi, is the most serious disease of avocado worldwide. Previous studies have determined that this pathogen exhibits a primarily clonal reproductive mode but no population level studies have been conducted in the avocado-growing regions of California. Therefore, we used amplified fragment length polymorphism based on 22 polymorphic loci and mating type to investigate pathogen diversity from 138 isolates collected in 2009 to 2010 from 15 groves from the Northern and Southern avocado-growing regions. Additional isolates collected from avocado from 1966 to 2007 as well as isolates from other countries and hosts were also used for comparative purposes. Two distinct clades of A2 mating-type isolates from avocado were found based on neighbor joining analysis; one clade contained both newer and older collections from Northern and Southern California, whereas the other clade only contained isolates collected in 2009 and 2010 from Southern California. A third clade was also found that only contained A1 isolates from various hosts. Within the California population, a total of 16 genotypes were found with only one to four genotypes identified from any one location. The results indicate significant population structure in the California avocado P. cinnamomi population, low genotypic diversity consistent with asexual reproduction, potential evidence for the movement of clonal genotypes between the two growing regions, and a potential introduction of a new clonal lineage into Southern California.

  18. Inferring seawater temperature over the past 2,500 years in the Southern California Bight on the basis of brachiopods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomašových, Adam; Müller, Tamás; Kidwell, Susan M.

    2017-04-01

    Use of calcite δ18O in brachiopod shells in assessing past variations in seawater temperature remains poorly constrained in the absence of other methods due to vital effects and unknown variations in seawater density, salinity. Here, in order to evaluate past changes in seawater temperature of mainland shelf habitats off the Southern California Bight over the past 2,500 years, we analyze δ18O and Mg/Ca ratio of dead shells of the terebratulid brachiopod Laqueus erythraeus collected at 60-80 m water depths and age-dated by radiocarbon-calibrated amino acid racemization. These dead Holocene shells show excellent preservation (Mn concentrations < 10 ppm and Sr concentrations above 800 ppm). Although historical changes in sea-surface temperature in the southern California Bight were inferred on the basis of alkenones and δ18O in of planktonic foraminifers, temperature history of deeper shelf below storm wave base in this region remains unclear. First, we investigate thermal sensitivity of Mg/Ca ratio (using Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry and wavelength-dispersive spectrometry) in the terebratulid brachiopod Laqueus erythraeus (collected in 1994 at Santa Catalina Island at 116 m water depth). At this depth, annual temperature range is relatively small (between 9-11°C), although at times of El Nino events in 1982-1983, 1986-1987, and 1992-1993, monthly temperature attained 13 °C. We find that δ18O measured along a growth profile of a shell precipitated in oxygen isotopic equilibrium with ambient seawater, and maxima in Mg/Ca ratio coincide with minima in δ18O, suggesting that fluctuations in Mg/Ca ratio trace temperature fluctuations, as observed also in other brachiopod species. Second, preliminary observations of Holocene shells show that Mg/Ca ratios show centennial-scale fluctuations but on average remain remarkably constant, with minima and maxima staying within intra-shell seasonal variations captured by extant specimens

  19. Postcrystalline deformation of the Pelona Schist bordering Leona Valley, southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, James George

    1978-01-01

    Detailed structural investigations in part of the Leona Valley segment of the San Andreas fault zone, 5-16 km west of Palm dale, focused on the postcrystalline deformation of the block of Mesozoic(?) Pelona Schist underlying Portal and Ritter Ridges. The early fabric of the schist is modified and in places obliterated by cataclasis along shear zones near the San Andreas fault and the Hitchbrook fault, a major west-striking branch of the San Andreas fault system. Anastomosing shear foliations, fabric elements of the postcrystalline deformation, intersect at small angles to one another and are generally vertical or steeply dipping to the north-northeast; they are subparallel to the Hitchbrook fault. Many of these shear foliations are nearly parallel to the compositional layering and schistosity, which commonly dip at moderately steep angles to the northwest. Folds in the shear foliation, commonly intrafolial, generally plunge at moderately steep angles to the north-northeast or are nearly vertical. Other folds, various in form, have axes parallel to the intersections of the early schistosity and the shear foliations and plunge in many other directions. Faults, roughly similar in orientation to the shear foliations, have orientations subparallel to large-scale structures and structural features in the Leona Valley area and in southern California: the San Andreas fault zone in Leona Valley, the Hitchbrook fault, the Garlock fault zone, steep northward-striking faults, the San Andreas fault zone north and south of the Transverse Ranges, and the generally northwest-dipping early compositional layering of the schist. Slickensides on some of the minor faults indicate that the latest movements on the steep faults are predominantly strike slip with indications of less common episodes of predominantly dip slip. The low-angle faults have oblique slip with a large dip component.

  20. Atherectomy-Associated Complications in the Southern California Vascular Outcomes Improvement Collaborative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azar, Yara; DeRubertis, Brian; Baril, Donald; Woo, Karen

    2018-05-01

    Atherectomy has become an increasingly utilized modality for the endovascular treatment of peripheral arterial occlusive disease. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence and risk factors for atherectomy-associated complications. A retrospective review was performed for all atherectomy procedures performed between January 2011 and December 2015 in the Southern California Vascular Outcomes Improvement Collaborative. Atherectomy was defined as laser, orbital, or excisional atherectomy. Complications were dissection, perforation, and distal embolization. Seven hundred twenty-nine atherectomy procedures were performed at 7 institutions by 27 practitioners. The mean age was 73 years with 415 (57%) males. Four hundred nineteen (57%) were diabetic, 673 (92%) hypertensive, 457 (63%) smokers, and 244 (34%) had coronary artery disease. Dissection occurred in 51 (7%) procedures, embolization in 23 (3.1%), and perforation in 12 (1.6%). The mean number of lesions treated per artery was the same at 1.6 in patients with any complication and no complication (P = 0.77). The total occluded length was 7.4 cm for complications versus 7.2 cm for no complication (P = 0.73). The total treated length was 12.9 cm for complications versus 11.3 cm for no complication (P = 0.03). The incidence of complications for Trans-Atlantic Inter-Society Consensus (TASC) C/D lesions were 13% compared to 10% for TASC A/B lesions (P = 0.05). The incidence of complications in superficial femoral/popliteal lesions was 12.9% vs. 10.4% in tibial lesions (P = 0.13). In multivariable analysis, treatment length was associated with a small increased risk of complication (odds ratio = 1.02, 95% confidence interval = 1.0-1.04). Increased treatment length is associated with an increased risk of atherectomy-associated complications. Demographic factors and comorbidities were not predictors of complications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Environmental evaluation of high-value agricultural produce with diverse water sources: case study from Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Eric M.; Stokes-Draut, Jennifer R.; Horvath, Arpad

    2018-02-01

    Meeting agricultural demand in the face of a changing climate will be one of the major challenges of the 21st century. California is the single largest agricultural producer in the United States but is prone to extreme hydrologic events, including multi-year droughts. Ventura County is one of California’s most productive growing regions but faces water shortages and deteriorating water quality. The future of California’s agriculture is dependent on our ability to identify and implement alternative irrigation water sources and technologies. Two such alternative water sources are recycled and desalinated water. The proximity of high-value crops in Ventura County to both dense population centers and the Pacific Ocean makes it a prime candidate for alternative water sources. This study uses highly localized spatial and temporal data to assess life-cycle energy use, life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions, operational costs, applied water demand, and on-farm labor requirements for four high-value crops. A complete switch from conventional irrigation with groundwater and surface water to recycled water would increase the life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions associated with strawberry, lemon, celery, and avocado production by approximately 14%, 7%, 59%, and 9%, respectively. Switching from groundwater and surface water to desalinated water would increase life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions by 33%, 210%, 140%, and 270%, respectively. The use of recycled or desalinated water for irrigation is most financially tenable for strawberries due to their relatively high value and close proximity to water treatment facilities. However, changing strawberry packaging has a greater potential impact on life-cycle energy use and greenhouse gas emissions than switching the water source. While this analysis does not consider the impact of water quality on crop yields, previous studies suggest that switching to recycled water could result in significant yield increases due to its lower

  2. An Overview of Geologic Carbon Sequestration Potential in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron Downey; John Clinkenbeard

    2005-10-01

    As part of the West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (WESTCARB), the California Geological Survey (CGS) conducted an assessment of geologic carbon sequestration potential in California. An inventory of sedimentary basins was screened for preliminary suitability for carbon sequestration. Criteria included porous and permeable strata, seals, and depth sufficient for critical state carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) injection. Of 104 basins inventoried, 27 met the criteria for further assessment. Petrophysical and fluid data from oil and gas reservoirs was used to characterize both saline aquifers and hydrocarbon reservoirs. Where available, well log or geophysical information was used to prepare basin-wide maps showing depth-to-basement and gross sand distribution. California's Cenozoic marine basins were determined to possess the most potential for geologic sequestration. These basins contain thick sedimentary sections, multiple saline aquifers and oil and gas reservoirs, widespread shale seals, and significant petrophysical data from oil and gas operations. Potential sequestration areas include the San Joaquin, Sacramento, Ventura, Los Angeles, and Eel River basins, followed by the smaller Salinas, La Honda, Cuyama, Livermore, Orinda, and Sonoma marine basins. California's terrestrial basins are generally too shallow for carbon sequestration. However, the Salton Trough and several smaller basins may offer opportunities for localized carbon sequestration.

  3. Anatomy of La Jolla submarine canyon system; offshore southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paull, C.K.; Caress, D.W.; Lundsten, E.; Gwiazda, R.; Anderson, K.; McGann, M.; Conrad, J.; Edwards, B.; Sumner, E.J.

    2013-01-01

    An autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) carrying a multibeam sonar and a chirp profiler was used to map sections of the seafloor within the La Jolla Canyon, offshore southern California, at sub-meter scales. Close-up observations and sampling were conducted during remotely operated vehicle (ROV) dives. Minisparker seismic-reflection profiles from a surface ship help to define the overall geometry of the La Jolla Canyon especially with respect to the pre-canyon host sediments. The floor of the axial channel is covered with unconsolidated sand similar to the sand on the shelf near the canyon head, lacks outcrops of the pre-canyon host strata, has an almost constant slope of 1.0° and is covered with trains of crescent shaped bedforms. The presence of modern plant material entombed within these sands confirms that the axial channel is presently active. The sand on the canyon floor liquefied during vibracore collection and flowed downslope, illustrating that the sediment filling the channel can easily fail even on this gentle slope. Data from the canyon walls help constrain the age of the canyon and extent of incision. Horizontal beds of moderately cohesive fine-grained sediments exposed on the steep canyon walls are consistently less than 1.232 million years old. The lateral continuity of seismic reflectors in minisparker profiles indicate that pre-canyon host strata extend uninterrupted from outside the canyon underneath some terraces within the canyon. Evidence of abandoned channels and point bar-like deposits are noticeably absent on the inside bend of channel meanders and in the subsurface of the terraces. While vibracores from the surface of terraces contain thin (< 10 cm) turbidites, they are inferred to be part of a veneer of recent sediment covering pre-canyon host sediments that underpin the terraces. The combined use of state of the art seafloor mapping and exploration tools provides a uniquely detailed view of the morphology within an active submarine canyon.

  4. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Southern Sacramento Valley, California, 2005 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milby Dawson, Barbara J.; Bennett, George L.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 2,100 square-mile Southern Sacramento Valley study unit (SSACV) was investigated from March to June 2005 as part of the Statewide Basin Assessment Project of Ground-Water Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. This study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality within SSACV, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 83 wells in Placer, Sacramento, Solano, Sutter, and Yolo Counties. Sixty-seven of the wells were selected using a randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area. Sixteen of the wells were sampled to evaluate changes in water chemistry along ground-water flow paths. Four additional samples were collected at one of the wells to evaluate water-quality changes with depth. The GAMA Statewide Basin Assessment project was developed in response to the Ground-Water Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of man-made organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], pesticides and pesticide degradates, pharmaceutical compounds, and wastewater-indicator constituents), constituents of special interest (perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA], and 1,2,3-trichloropropane [1,2,3-TCP]), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, and carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon), and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled ground water. Quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, matrix spikes

  5. Emergency Assessment of Debris-Flow Hazards from Basins Burned by the 2007 Ranch Fire, Ventura and Los Angeles Counties, Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Susan H.; Gartner, Joseph E.; Michael, John A.; Bauer, Mark A.; Stitt, Susan C.; Knifong, Donna L.; McNamara, Bernard J.; Roque, Yvonne M.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The objective of this report is to present a preliminary emergency assessment of the potential for debris-flow generation from basins burned by the Ranch Fire in Ventura and Los Angeles Counties, southern California in 2007. Debris flows are among the most hazardous geologic phenomena; debris flows that followed wildfires in southern California in 2003 killed 16 people and caused tens of millions of dollars of property damage. A short period of even moderate rainfall on a burned watershed can lead to debris flows. Rainfall that is normally absorbed into hillslope soils can run off almost instantly after vegetation has been removed by wildfire. This causes much greater and more rapid runoff than is normal from creeks and drainage areas. Highly erodible soils in a burn scar allow flood waters to entrain large amounts of ash, mud, boulders, and unburned vegetation. Within the burned area and downstream, the force of rushing water, soil, and rock can destroy culverts, bridges, roadways, and buildings, potentially causing injury or death. This emergency debris-flow hazard assessment is presented as relative ranking of the predicted median volume of debris flows that can issue from basin outlets in response to 2.25 inches (57.15 mm) of rainfall over a 3-hour period. Such a storm has a 10-year return period. The calculation of debris flow volume is based on a multiple-regression statistical model that describes the median volume of material that can be expected from a recently burned basin as a function of the area burned at high and moderate severity, the basin area with slopes greater than or equal to 30 percent, and triggering storm rainfall. Cannon and others (2007) describe the methods used to generate the hazard maps. Identification of potential debris-flow hazards from burned drainage basins is necessary to issue warnings for specific basins, to make effective mitigation decisions, and to help plan evacuation timing and routes.

  6. Socioeconomic correlates of smoking among an ethnically diverse sample of 8th grade adolescents in Southern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Jennifer B; Sun, Ping; Johnson, C Anderson

    2007-04-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) has been associated with smoking among adolescents, but it is not known which attributes of SES are responsible for the added risk, or whether these associations are consistent in ethnically diverse samples. This study investigated the associations between SES variables and smoking behavior among an ethnically diverse sample of 1847 8th grade adolescents in Southern California in 2002. Several aspects of SES were examined: an objective composite measure of family and neighborhood SES, the adolescent's spending money, and the adolescent's perception of SES (family's ability to afford basic necessities, wealth relative to others, and wealth relative to last year). After controlling for demographic characteristics, smoking behavior of parents and friends, and parental monitoring, low scores on the objective SES index and large amounts of pocket money were associated with an increased risk of smoking. The subjective measures of perceived SES were not associated with smoking. Results indicate that increased smoking prevention efforts are needed in low-SES areas, and that limiting adolescents' pocket money may be an effective strategy for preventing smoking.

  7. Measurement of radon exhalation rate and soil gas radon concentration in areas of southern Punjab (Pakistan)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mujahid, S. A.; Hussain, S.; Ramzan, M.

    2010-01-01

    Plastic track detectors were used to measure the radon concentration and exhalation rate from the soil samples. The samples were collected from areas of southern Punjab (Pakistan). In a laboratory experiment, passive alpha dosemeters were installed inside cylindrical bottles containing the soil samples. The radon concentrations and the radon exhalation rate were found in the ranges of 34±7 to 260±42 Bq m -3 and 38±8 to 288±46 mBq m -2 h -1 , respectively. The on-site measurements of radon in the soil gas were also carried out in these areas using a scintillation alpha counter. The concentration of radon in the soil gas was found in the range of 423±82-3565±438 Bq m -3 . (authors)

  8. Population-level history of the wrentit (Chamaea fasciata): implications for comparative phylogeography in the California Floristic Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Kevin J; Barhoum, Dino N

    2006-01-01

    The phylogeography of a variety of species has been studied within the California Floristic Province; however, few studies have examined genetic variation in bird species across the entire region. This study uses mitochondrial DNA data to investigate the phylogeography of the wrentit (Chamaea fasciata), a sedentary bird native to scrub and chaparral habitats of this region. Analysis of molecular variance shows geographic structure, and maximum likelihood, Bayesian, and parsimony analyses consistently identify six main clades that are each restricted geographically. Nested clade phylogeographic analyses infer an overall range expansion for the entire cladogram, and a range expansion is also inferred from the mismatch distribution. Thus, our results suggest that the wrentit was isolated into southern refugia during the Pleistocene and has undergone a recent range expansion. Southern refugia and a range expansion were also identified in a previous study of the California thrasher (Toxostoma redivivum). The wrentit did not show marked divergence between northern and southern California defined by the Transverse Ranges, a pattern seen in a variety of other taxa within this region, including some birds.

  9. The California Baseline Methane Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duren, R. M.; Thorpe, A. K.; Hopkins, F. M.; Rafiq, T.; Bue, B. D.; Prasad, K.; Mccubbin, I.; Miller, C. E.

    2017-12-01

    The California Baseline Methane Survey is the first systematic, statewide assessment of methane point source emissions. The objectives are to reduce uncertainty in the state's methane budget and to identify emission mitigation priorities for state and local agencies, utilities and facility owners. The project combines remote sensing of large areas with airborne imaging spectroscopy and spatially resolved bottom-up data sets to detect, quantify and attribute emissions from diverse sectors including agriculture, waste management, oil and gas production and the natural gas supply chain. Phase 1 of the project surveyed nearly 180,000 individual facilities and infrastructure components across California in 2016 - achieving completeness rates ranging from 20% to 100% per emission sector at < 5 meters spatial resolution. Additionally, intensive studies of key areas and sectors were performed to assess source persistence and variability at times scales ranging from minutes to months. Phase 2 of the project continues with additional data collection in Spring and Fall 2017. We describe the survey design and measurement, modeling and analysis methods. We present initial findings regarding the spatial, temporal and sectoral distribution of methane point source emissions in California and their estimated contribution to the state's total methane budget. We provide case-studies and lessons learned about key sectors including examples where super-emitters were identified and mitigated. We summarize challenges and recommendations for future methane research, inventories and mitigation guidance within and beyond California.

  10. Cetacean mother-calf behavior observed from a small aircraft off Southern California. Animal Behavior and Cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari A. Smultea

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available During early developmental stages, cetacean calves are dependent on their mothers for survival. Protection of young whales engaged in behaviors that are biologically important is critical for population recovery, so that appropriate management actions can be taken to minimize human disturbance. However, the occurrence and frequency of whale nursing and calves back-riding their mothers (both considered important to calf survival have rarely been observed nor adequately quantified or defined. Therefore, it may not always be clear when disruption is occurring. We used extended behavioral observations, still photography, and video camera footage obtained during aircraft surveys in the Southern California Bight in 2008 – 2013 to characterize cetacean mother-calf interactions. Based on observations of four mother/calf pairs (two gray whale, Eschrichtius robustus, one fin whale, Balaenoptera physalus, and one blue whale, B. musculus and one killer whale presumed mother/yearling pair (Orcinus orca, we describe bouts of nursing and calves riding on the backs of their presumed mothers, including activity duration, frequency, and relative body positioning. We conclude with specific definitions useful to wildlife conservation agencies authorizing and establishing restrictions to certain human activities when they might constitute behavioral disruptions.

  11. Spatial scale of deformation constrained by combinations of InSAR and GPS observations in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohman, R. B.; Scott, C. P.

    2014-12-01

    Efforts to understand the buildup and release of strain within the Earth's crust often rely on well-characterized observations of ground deformation, over time scales that include interseismic periods, earthquakes, and transient deformation episodes. Constraints on current rates of surface deformation in 1-, 2- or 3-dimensions can be obtained by examining sets of GPS and Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) observations, both alone and in combination. Contributions to the observed signal often include motion along faults, seasonal cycles of subsidence and recharge associated with aquifers, anthropogenic extraction of hydrocarbons, and variations in atmospheric water vapor and ionospheric properties. Here we examine methods for extracting time-varying ground deformation signals from combinations of InSAR and GPS data, real and synthetic, applied to Southern California. We show that two methods for combining the data through removal of a GPS-constrained function (a plane, and filtering) from the InSAR result in a clear tradeoff between the contribution from the two datatypes at diffferent spatial scales. We also show that the contribution to the secular rates at GPS sites from seasonal signals is large enough to be a significant error in this estimation process, and should be accounted for.

  12. Southern Monterey Bay Littoral Cell CRSMP CEMEX Mine Dredge Pond 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Location of the CEMEX mine dredge pond at Lapis Sand Plant, Marina, CA. Southern Monterey Bay has been the most intensively mined shoreline in the U.S. Sand mining...

  13. Butyltin residues in southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) found dead along California coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, K.; Guruge, K.S.; Thomas, N.J.; Tanabe, S.; Giesy, J.P.

    1998-01-01

    Tributyltin (TBT) and its degradation products, mono- (MBT) and dibutyltin (DBT), were determined in liver, kidney, and brain tissues of adult southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) found dead along the coast of California during 1992a??1996. Hepatic concentrations of butyltin compounds (BTs = MBT + DBT + TBT) ranged from 40 to 9200 ng/g wet wt, which varied depending on the sampling location and gender. Concentrations of BTs in sea otters were comparable to those reported in stranded bottlenose dolphins from the U.S. Atlantic Coast during 1989a??1994. Greater accumulation of butyltins in sea otters was explained by their bottom-feeding habit and the diet that consists exclusively of invertebrates such as mollusks and gastropods. Livers of female sea otters contained approximately 2-fold greater concentrations of BTs than did those of males. The composition of butyltin compounds in sea otter tissues was predominated by TBT in most cases and suggestive of recent exposure. Large harbors such as Monterey Harbor that handle ships legally painted with TBT-containing antifouling paints continued to experience ecotoxicologically significant butyltin contamination. Sea otters, which were affected by infectious diseases, contained greater concentrations of BTs in their tissues than those that died from trauma and other unknown causes.

  14. Clean Cities Award Winning Coalition: Coachella Valley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ICF Kaiser

    1999-05-20

    Southern California's Coachella Valley became a Clean Cities region in 1996. Since then, they've made great strides. SunLine Transit, the regional public transit provider, was the first transit provider to replace its entire fleet with compressed natural gas buses. They've also built the foundation for a nationally recognized model in the clean air movement, by partnering with Southern California Gas Company to install a refueling station and developing a curriculum for AFV maintenance with the College of the Desert. Today the valley is home to more than 275 AFVs and 15 refueling stations.

  15. Pore characteristics of shale gas reservoirs from the Lower Paleozoic in the southern Sichuan Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianqing Li

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Data was acquired from both the drillings and core samples of the Lower Paleozoic Qiongzhusi and Longmaxi Formations' marine shale gas reservoirs in the southern Sichuan Basin by means of numerous specific experimental methods such as organic geochemistry, organic petrology, and pore analyses. Findings helped determine the characteristics of organic matter, total porosity, microscopic pore, and pore structure. The results show that the Lower Paleozoic marine shale in the south of the Sichuan Basin are characterized by high total organic carbon content (most TOC>2.0%, high thermal maturity level (RO = 2.3%–3.8%, and low total porosity (1.16%–6.87%. The total organic carbon content and thermal maturity level of the Qiongzhusi Formation shale are higher than those of the Longmaxi Formation shale, while the total porosity of the Qiongzhusi Formation shale is lower than that of the Longmaxi Formation shale. There exists intergranular pore, dissolved pore, crystal particle pore, particle edge pore, and organic matter pore in the Lower Paleozoic Qiongzhusi Formation and Longmaxi Formation shale. There are more micro-nano pores developed in the Longmaxi Formation shales than those in the Qiongzhusi Formation shales. Intergranular pores, dissolved pores, as well as organic matter pores, are the most abundant, these are primary storage spaces for shale gas. The microscopic pores in the Lower Paleozoic shales are mainly composed of micropores, mesopores, and a small amount of macropores. The micropore and mesopore in the Qiongzhusi Formation shale account for 83.92% of the total pore volume. The micropore and mesopore in the Longmaxi Formation shale accounts for 78.17% of the total pore volume. Thus, the micropores and mesopores are the chief components of microscopic pores in the Lower Paleozoic shale gas reservoirs in the southern Sichuan Basin.

  16. Age and paleoenvironment of the imperial formation near San Gorgonio Pass, Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, K.; Poore, R.Z.; Matti, J.

    1999-01-01

    Microfossiliferous marine sediments of the Imperial Formation exposed in the Whitewater and Cabazon areas, near San Gorgonio Pass, southern California, are late Miocene in age and were deposited at intertidal to outer neritic depths, and possibly upper bathyal depths. A late Miocene age of 7.4 to >6.04 Ma is based on the ranges of age-diagnostic benthic foraminifers (Cassidulina delicata and Uvigerina peregrina), planktic foraminifers (Globigerinoides obliquus, G. extremus, and Globigerina nepenthes; zones N17-N19), and calcareous nannoplankton (Discoaster brouweri, D. aff. D. surculus, Reticulofenestra pseudoumbilicata, Sphenolithus abies, and S. neoabies; zones CN9a-CN11) coupled with published K/Ar dates from the underlying Coachella Formation (10.1 ?? 1.2 Ma; Peterson, 1975) and overlying Painted Hill Formation (6.04 ?? 0.18 and 5.94 ?? 0.18 Ma; J. L. Morton in Matti and others, 1985 and Matti and Morton, 1993). Paleoecologic considerations (sea-level fluctuations and paleotemperature) restrict the age of the Imperial Formation to 6.5 through 6.3 Ma. Benthic foraminiferal assemblages indicate that the Imperial Formation in the Whitewater and Cabazon sections accumulated at inner neritic to outer neritic (0-152 m) and possibly upper bathyal (152-244 m) depths. Shallowing to inner neritic depths occurred as the upper part of the section was deposited. This sea-level fluctuation corresponds to a global highstand at 6.3 Ma (Haq and others, 1987). Planktic foraminifers suggest an increase in surface-water temperatures upsection. A similar increase in paleotemperatures is interpreted for the North Pacific from 6.5 to 6.3 Ma (warm interval W10 of Barron and Keller, 1983). Environmental contrasts between the Whitewater and Cabazon sections of the Imperial Formation provide evidence for right-lateral displacements on the Banning fault, a late Miocene strand of the San Andreas fault system. The Cabazon section lies south of the Banning fault, and has been displaced west

  17. FELLOWS ADDRESS California Dreaming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooten, van Kees

    2017-01-01

    California was the first jurisdiction to mandate a reduction in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 80% below 1990 levels by 2050. This target was subsequently endorsed by the G8 in 2009 and the European Commission in 2014, and is the guiding principle of the 2015 Paris Agreement. To achieve these

  18. Development of a State-Wide 3-D Seismic Tomography Velocity Model for California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, C. H.; Lin, G.; Zhang, H.; Hauksson, E.; Shearer, P.; Waldhauser, F.; Hardebeck, J.; Brocher, T.

    2007-12-01

    We report on progress towards the development of a state-wide tomographic model of the P-wave velocity for the crust and uppermost mantle of California. The dataset combines first arrival times from earthquakes and quarry blasts recorded on regional network stations and travel times of first arrivals from explosions and airguns recorded on profile receivers and network stations. The principal active-source datasets are Geysers-San Pablo Bay, Imperial Valley, Livermore, W. Mojave, Gilroy-Coyote Lake, Shasta region, Great Valley, Morro Bay, Mono Craters-Long Valley, PACE, S. Sierras, LARSE 1 and 2, Loma Prieta, BASIX, San Francisco Peninsula and Parkfield. Our beta-version model is coarse (uniform 30 km horizontal and variable vertical gridding) but is able to image the principal features in previous separate regional models for northern and southern California, such as the high-velocity subducting Gorda Plate, upper to middle crustal velocity highs beneath the Sierra Nevada and much of the Coast Ranges, the deep low-velocity basins of the Great Valley, Ventura, and Los Angeles, and a high- velocity body in the lower crust underlying the Great Valley. The new state-wide model has improved areal coverage compared to the previous models, and extends to greater depth due to the data at large epicentral distances. We plan a series of steps to improve the model. We are enlarging and calibrating the active-source dataset as we obtain additional picks from investigators and perform quality control analyses on the existing and new picks. We will also be adding data from more quarry blasts, mainly in northern California, following an identification and calibration procedure similar to Lin et al. (2006). Composite event construction (Lin et al., in press) will be carried out for northern California for use in conventional tomography. A major contribution of the state-wide model is the identification of earthquakes yielding arrival times at both the Northern California Seismic

  19. Using energy scenarios to explore alternative energy pathways in California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghanadan, Rebecca; Koomey, J.G.

    2005-01-01

    This paper develops and analyzes four energy scenarios for California that are both exploratory and quantitative. The business-as-usual scenario represents a pathway guided by outcomes and expectations emerging from California's energy crisis. Three alternative scenarios represent contexts where clean energy plays a greater role in California's energy system: Split Public is driven by local and individual activities; Golden State gives importance to integrated state planning; Patriotic Energy represents a national drive to increase energy independence. Future energy consumption, composition of electricity generation, energy diversity, and greenhouse gas emissions are analyzed for each scenario through 2035. Energy savings, renewable energy, and transportation activities are identified as promising opportunities for achieving alternative energy pathways in California. A combined approach that brings together individual and community activities with state and national policies leads to the largest energy savings, increases in energy diversity, and reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. Critical challenges in California's energy pathway over the next decades identified by the scenario analysis include dominance of the transportation sector, dependence on fossil fuels, emissions of greenhouse gases, accounting for electricity imports, and diversity of the electricity sector. The paper concludes with a set of policy lessons revealed from the California energy scenarios

  20. Baseline levels of benzo(a)pyrene in southern California mussels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, B P [Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver; Young, D R

    1976-12-01

    Marine mussels accumulate the carcinogen benzo(a)-pyrene from contaminated environments. Baseline studies in California indicate that levels of the carcinogen in mussels are at or near zero, except in areas of human activity. This finding runs counter to previous suggestions that benzo(a)pyrene is widely distributed in marine organisms.

  1. From California dreaming to California data: Challenging historic models for landfill CH4 emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Improved quantification of diverse CH4 sources at the urban scale is needed to guide local greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation strategies in the Anthropocene. Herein, we focus on landfill CH4 emissions in California, challenging the current IPCC methodology which focuses on a climate dependency for land...

  2. Coast of California Storm and Tidal Waves Study. Southern California Coastal Processes Data Summary,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-02-01

    1950-76 (from Brownlie and Taylor, 1981). -42- U r4 P4 V - (1 ,i UU~ll ,,It,,. * *** *i .o o9 o4V4 cc ",,,.I ,- %4 6P atar 4 P40.U0 41 u 1 ඄ 4 .1...Each of these summaries reviews hundreds of scientific papers dealing with California shelf marine geology, chemistry, biology , climatology and...wave action, rain, water, and wind processes, natural or induced landslides, and animal and human activity. Erosion related to animals consists primarily

  3. Does infrastructure provision hinder energy integration? The case of natural gas in the southern cone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navajas, Fernando

    2010-09-15

    This paper uses evidence on policies, markets and private transactions to discuss the experience of natural gas infrastructure integration in the Southern Cone of Latin America. The argument is that contracts on international exchanges supported by infrastructure may become incomplete due to contingencies related to policy-induced price distortions not anticipated at the moment of writing. Beyond regulatory risk mitigation, it calls for back-up contract provisions designed to cope with aggregate imbalances and for some supranational coordination related to information about market conditions and on energy planning dialogues that test consistency and stress situations in markets where exports originate.

  4. Effects of Climate on the Zooplankton of the California Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavaniegos, B. E.

    2007-05-01

    Almost six decades of sampling of the California Current system, carried out by the CalCOFI program (California Cooperative Fisheries Investigation) complemented by a decade of observations from the IMECOCAL program (Investigaciones Mexicanas de la Corriente de California), have revealed changing patterns in zooplankton abundances, species composition, and distributions over interannual through multidecadal time scales. Interannual changes associated with ENSO variability are manifested as strong but transitory perturbations in the mean annual cycle in seasonal abundances (and distributions) of particular species. An investigation of longer- term change, limited to the region off southern California, shows a persistent decline in zooplankton volumes (a proxy for overall biomass of macrozooplankton) between 1977 and 1998 that is considered to be a response to the well documented shift in basin-scale climate forcing that occurred in 1976-77. Further examination of this decline in zooplankton volumes indicates that it was due principally to the disappearance of several salp species after 1977. Other species and functional groups did not decline after the change in climate regime, while some species have followed persistent secular trends that appear to be associated more with the phenomenon of long-term global warming. Differences in the regional responses to climate change throughout the California Current system have also been observed recently in the spatial distribution of zooplankton biomass and changes in latitudinal ranges of certain species. For example, zooplankton biomass in the Baja California region show typical values for the 1997-98 El Niño that were followed by a decrease during the sharp transition to the cool La Niña conditions in 1999. This contrasts with the nearby region off southern California that was characterized by reduced biomass during the El Niño period and the subsequent recovery during the La Niña. Another regional contrast in

  5. Potential Effects of a Scenario Earthquake on the Economy of Southern California: Baseline County-Level Migration Characteristics and Trends 1995-2000 and 2001-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrouse, Benson C.; Hester, David J.

    2008-01-01

    The Multi-Hazards Demonstration Project (MHDP) is a collaboration between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and various partners from the public and private sectors and academia, meant to improve Southern California's resiliency to natural hazards. In support of the MHDP objectives, the ShakeOut Scenario was developed. It describes a magnitude 7.8 earthquake along the southernmost 300 kilometers (200 miles) of the San Andreas Fault, identified by geoscientists as a plausible event that will cause moderate to strong shaking over much of the eight-county (Imperial, Kern, Los Angeles, Orange, Riverside, San Bernardino, San Diego, and Ventura) Southern California region. This report uses historical, estimated, and projected population data from several Federal and State data sources to estimate baseline characteristics and trends of the region's population migration (that is, changes in a person's place of residence over time). The analysis characterizes migration by various demographic, economic, family, and household variables for the period 1995-2000. It also uses existing estimates (beginning in 2001) of the three components of population change - births, deaths, and migration - to extrapolate near-term projections of county-level migration trends through 2010. The 2010 date was chosen to provide baseline projections corresponding to a two-year recovery period following the November 2008 date that was selected for the occurrence of the ShakeOut Scenario earthquake. The baseline characteristics and projections shall assist with evaluating the effects of inflow and outflow migration trends for alternative futures in which the simulated M7.8 earthquake either does or does not occur and the impact of the event on housing and jobs, as well as community composition and regional economy changes based on dispersion of intellectual, physical, economic, and cultural capital.

  6. Distribution, growth, and condition of salmonids in the central California Current Ecosystem.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Fisheries Ecology Division of NOAA’s SWFSC conducts annual surveys of salmon and their ocean habitat in the coastal waters of northern California and southern...

  7. Small proportions of actively-smoking patrons and high PM2.5 levels in southern California tribal casinos: support for smoking bans or designated smoking areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klepeis Neil E

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nearly all California casinos currently allow smoking, which leads to potentially high patron exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke pollutants. Some argue that smoking restrictions or bans would result in a business drop, assuming > 50% of patrons smoke. Evidence in Nevada and responses from the 2008 California tobacco survey refute this assertion. The present study investigates the proportion of active smokers in southern California tribal casinos, as well as occupancy and PM2.5 levels in smoking and nonsmoking sections. Methods We measured active-smoker and total-patron counts during Friday or Saturday night visits (two per casino to smoking and nonsmoking gaming areas inside 11 southern California casinos. We counted slot machines and table games in each section, deriving theoretical maximum capacities and occupancy rates. We also measured PM2.5 concentrations (or used published levels in both nonsmoking and smoking areas. Results Excluding one casino visit with extremely high occupancy, we counted 24,970 patrons during 21 casino visits of whom 1,737 were actively smoking, for an overall active- smoker proportion of 7.0% and a small range of ~5% across casino visits (minimum of 5% and maximum of 10%. The differences in mean inter-casino active-smoker proportions were not statistically significant. Derived occupancy rates were 24% to 215% in the main (low-stakes smoking-allowed slot or table areas. No relationship was found between observed active-smoker proportions and occupancy rate. The derived maximum capacities of nonsmoking areas were 1% to 29% of the overall casino capacity (most under 10% and their observed occupancies were 0.1 to over 3 times that of the main smoking-allowed casino areas. Seven of twelve visits to nonsmoking areas with no separation had occupancy rates greater than main smoking areas. Unenclosed nonsmoking areas don’t substantially protect occupants from PM2.5 exposure. Nonsmoking areas

  8. Small proportions of actively-smoking patrons and high PM2.5 levels in southern California tribal casinos: support for smoking bans or designated smoking areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Nearly all California casinos currently allow smoking, which leads to potentially high patron exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke pollutants. Some argue that smoking restrictions or bans would result in a business drop, assuming > 50% of patrons smoke. Evidence in Nevada and responses from the 2008 California tobacco survey refute this assertion. The present study investigates the proportion of active smokers in southern California tribal casinos, as well as occupancy and PM2.5 levels in smoking and nonsmoking sections. Methods We measured active-smoker and total-patron counts during Friday or Saturday night visits (two per casino) to smoking and nonsmoking gaming areas inside 11 southern California casinos. We counted slot machines and table games in each section, deriving theoretical maximum capacities and occupancy rates. We also measured PM2.5 concentrations (or used published levels) in both nonsmoking and smoking areas. Results Excluding one casino visit with extremely high occupancy, we counted 24,970 patrons during 21 casino visits of whom 1,737 were actively smoking, for an overall active- smoker proportion of 7.0% and a small range of ~5% across casino visits (minimum of 5% and maximum of 10%). The differences in mean inter-casino active-smoker proportions were not statistically significant. Derived occupancy rates were 24% to 215% in the main (low-stakes) smoking-allowed slot or table areas. No relationship was found between observed active-smoker proportions and occupancy rate. The derived maximum capacities of nonsmoking areas were 1% to 29% of the overall casino capacity (most under 10%) and their observed occupancies were 0.1 to over 3 times that of the main smoking-allowed casino areas. Seven of twelve visits to nonsmoking areas with no separation had occupancy rates greater than main smoking areas. Unenclosed nonsmoking areas don’t substantially protect occupants from PM2.5 exposure. Nonsmoking areas encapsulated inside smoking areas

  9. Small proportions of actively-smoking patrons and high PM2.5 levels in southern California tribal casinos: support for smoking bans or designated smoking areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepeis, Neil E; Omoto, Jason; Ong, Seow Ling; Omoto, Harmeena Sahota; Dhaliwal, Narinder

    2012-09-22

    Nearly all California casinos currently allow smoking, which leads to potentially high patron exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke pollutants. Some argue that smoking restrictions or bans would result in a business drop, assuming > 50% of patrons smoke. Evidence in Nevada and responses from the 2008 California tobacco survey refute this assertion. The present study investigates the proportion of active smokers in southern California tribal casinos, as well as occupancy and PM(2.5) levels in smoking and nonsmoking sections. We measured active-smoker and total-patron counts during Friday or Saturday night visits (two per casino) to smoking and nonsmoking gaming areas inside 11 southern California casinos. We counted slot machines and table games in each section, deriving theoretical maximum capacities and occupancy rates. We also measured PM(2.5) concentrations (or used published levels) in both nonsmoking and smoking areas. Excluding one casino visit with extremely high occupancy, we counted 24,970 patrons during 21 casino visits of whom 1,737 were actively smoking, for an overall active- smoker proportion of 7.0% and a small range of ~5% across casino visits (minimum of 5% and maximum of 10%). The differences in mean inter-casino active-smoker proportions were not statistically significant. Derived occupancy rates were 24% to 215% in the main (low-stakes) smoking-allowed slot or table areas. No relationship was found between observed active-smoker proportions and occupancy rate. The derived maximum capacities of nonsmoking areas were 1% to 29% of the overall casino capacity (most under 10%) and their observed occupancies were 0.1 to over 3 times that of the main smoking-allowed casino areas. Seven of twelve visits to nonsmoking areas with no separation had occupancy rates greater than main smoking areas. Unenclosed nonsmoking areas don't substantially protect occupants from PM2.5 exposure. Nonsmoking areas encapsulated inside smoking areas or in a separate, but

  10. 77 FR 64427 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-22

    ... with Steve Fields (California Department of Oil, Gas, and Geothermal Resources), August 1, 2012. \\2... VOC content) vary widely with the geological properties of the oil wells and the fact that a few... conversation with Steve Fields (California Department of Oil, Gas and Geothermal Resources), August 1, 2012. \\8...

  11. California's greenhouse gas law, Assembly Bill 1493: Deficiencies, alternatives, and implications for regulatory climate policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Kenneth C.

    2007-01-01

    California's Air Resources Board has finalized regulations implementing Assembly Bill (AB) 1493, which requires 'maximum feasible and cost-effective reduction of greenhouse gas emissions from motor vehicles'. By 2030, when California's light-duty vehicle stock has been substantially replaced by regulation-compliant vehicles, total emissions from regulated vehicles are projected to be reduced by 27% relative to 'business-as-usual', but are nevertheless expected to be 8.7% higher than 2004 emissions. If an 8.7% increase truly represents the 'maximum feasible and cost-effective' emissions reduction from transportation vehicles, then global climate stabilization clearly will not be attained within limits of 'feasibility' and 'cost-effectiveness', and climate sustainability will only be achievable through severely draconian measures. On the other hand, if significantly greater emissions reduction would be feasible and cost-effective, then the AB 1493 regulations fail to satisfy the legislative policy mandate and the task is to find a regulatory mechanism that will. The thesis of this paper is that the regulations do not satisfy the mandate for several reasons, the most important being the conflicting policy objectives of the 'cost-constrained' legislative mandate and the 'quantity-constrained', standard-based regulatory instrument. An alternative policy instrument that would better fit legislative policy and environmental objectives would be a feebate-type system (although not necessarily a conventional vehicle feebate)

  12. Emergency Assessment of Debris-Flow Hazards from Basins Burned by the 2007 Slide and Grass Valley Fires, San Bernardino County, Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Susan H.; Gartner, Joseph E.; Michael, John A.; Bauer, Mark A.; Stitt, Susan C.; Knifong, Donna L.; McNamara, Bernard J.; Roque, Yvonne M.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The objective of this report is to present a preliminary emergency assessment of the potential for debris-flow generation from basins burned by the Slide and Grass Valley Fires in San Bernardino County, southern California in 2007. Debris flows are among the most hazardous geologic phenomena; debris flows that followed wildfires in southern California in 2003 killed 16 people and caused tens of millions of dollars of property damage. A short period of even moderate rainfall on a burned watershed can lead to debris flows. Rainfall that is normally absorbed into hillslope soils can run off almost instantly after vegetation has been removed by wildfire. This causes much greater and more rapid runoff than is normal from creeks and drainage areas. Highly erodible soils in a burn scar allow flood waters to entrain large amounts of ash, mud, boulders, and unburned vegetation. Within the burned area and downstream, the force of rushing water, soil, and rock can destroy culverts, bridges, roadways, and buildings, potentially causing injury or death. This emergency debris-flow hazard assessment is presented as relative ranking of the predicted median volume of debris flows that can issue from basin outlets in response to 3.50 inches (88.90 mm) of rainfall over a 3-hour period. Such a storm has a 10-year return period. The calculation of debris flow volume is based on a multiple-regression statistical model that describes the median volume of material that can be expected from a recently burned basin as a function of the area burned at high and moderate severity, the basin area with slopes greater than or equal to 30 percent, and triggering storm rainfall. Cannon and others (2007) describe the methods used to generate the hazard maps. Identification of potential debris-flow hazards from burned drainage basins is necessary to issue warnings for specific basins, to make effective mitigation decisions, and to help plan evacuation timing and routes.

  13. Characterizing potentially induced earthquake rate changes in the Brawley Seismic Zone, southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llenos, Andrea L.; Michael, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    The Brawley seismic zone (BSZ), in the Salton trough of southern California, has a history of earthquake swarms and geothermal energy exploitation. Some earthquake rate changes may have been induced by fluid extraction and injection activity at local geothermal fields, particularly at the North Brawley Geothermal Field (NBGF) and at the Salton Sea Geothermal Field (SSGF). We explore this issue by examining earthquake rate changes and interevent distance distributions in these fields. In Oklahoma and Arkansas, where considerable wastewater injection occurs, increases in background seismicity rate and aftershock productivity and decreases in interevent distance were indicative of fluid‐injection‐induced seismicity. Here, we test if similar changes occur that may be associated with fluid injection and extraction in geothermal areas. We use stochastic epidemic‐type aftershock sequence models to detect changes in the underlying seismogenic processes, shown by statistically significant changes in the model parameters. The most robust model changes in the SSGF roughly occur when large changes in net fluid production occur, but a similar correlation is not seen in the NBGF. Also, although both background seismicity rate and aftershock productivity increased for fluid‐injection‐induced earthquake rate changes in Oklahoma and Arkansas, the background rate increases significantly in the BSZ only, roughly corresponding with net fluid production rate increases. Moreover, in both fields the interevent spacing does not change significantly during active energy projects. This suggests that, although geothermal field activities in a tectonically active region may not significantly change the physics of earthquake interactions, earthquake rates may still be driven by fluid injection or extraction rates, particularly in the SSGF.

  14. Noble gas composition of subcontinental lithospheric mantle: An extensively degassed reservoir beneath Southern Patagonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalowitzki, Tiago; Sumino, Hirochika; Conceição, Rommulo V.; Orihashi, Yuji; Nagao, Keisuke; Bertotto, Gustavo W.; Balbinot, Eduardo; Schilling, Manuel E.; Gervasoni, Fernanda

    2016-09-01

    Patagonia, in the Southern Andes, is one of the few locations where interactions between the oceanic and continental lithosphere can be studied due to subduction of an active spreading ridge beneath the continent. In order to characterize the noble gas composition of Patagonian subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM), we present the first noble gas data alongside new lithophile (Sr-Nd-Pb) isotopic data for mantle xenoliths from Pali-Aike Volcanic Field and Gobernador Gregores, Southern Patagonia. Based on noble gas isotopic compositions, Pali-Aike mantle xenoliths represent intrinsic SCLM with higher (U + Th + K)/(3He, 22Ne, 36Ar) ratios than the mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) source. This reservoir shows slightly radiogenic helium (3He/4He = 6.84-6.90 RA), coupled with a strongly nucleogenic neon signature (mantle source 21Ne/22Ne = 0.085-0.094). The 40Ar/36Ar ratios vary from a near-atmospheric ratio of 510 up to 17700, with mantle source 40Ar/36Ar between 31100-6800+9400 and 54000-9600+14200. In addition, the 3He/22Ne ratios for the local SCLM endmember, at 12.03 ± 0.15 to 13.66 ± 0.37, are higher than depleted MORBs, at 3He/22Ne = 8.31-9.75. Although asthenospheric mantle upwelling through the Patagonian slab window would result in a MORB-like metasomatism after collision of the South Chile Ridge with the Chile trench ca. 14 Ma, this mantle reservoir could have remained unhomogenized after rapid passage and northward migration of the Chile Triple Junction. The mantle endmember xenon isotopic ratios of Pali-Aike mantle xenoliths, which is first defined for any SCLM-derived samples, show values indistinguishable from the MORB source (129Xe/132Xe =1.0833-0.0053+0.0216 and 136Xe/132Xe =0.3761-0.0034+0.0246). The noble gas component observed in Gobernador Gregores mantle xenoliths is characterized by isotopic compositions in the MORB range in terms of helium (3He/4He = 7.17-7.37 RA), but with slightly nucleogenic neon (mantle source 21Ne/22Ne = 0.065-0.079). We

  15. Ground water level, Water storage, Soil moisture, Precipitation Variability Using Multi Satellite Data during 2003-2016 Associated with California Drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J. W.; Singh, R. P.

    2017-12-01

    The agricultural market of California is a multi-billion-dollar industry, however in the recent years, the state is facing severe drought. It is important to have a deeper understanding of how the agriculture is affected by the amount of rainfall as well as the ground conditions in California. We have considered 5 regions (each 2 degree by 2 degree) covering whole of California. Multi satellite (MODIS Terra, GRACE, GLDAS) data through NASA Giovanni portal were used to study long period variability 2003 - 2016 of ground water level and storage, soil moisture, root zone moisture level, precipitation and normalized vegetation index (NDVI) in these 5 regions. Our detailed analysis of these parameters show a strong correlation between the NDVI and some of these parameters. NDVI represents greenness showing strong drought conditions during the period 2011-2016 due to poor rainfall and recharge of ground water in the mid and southern parts of California. Effect of ground water level and underground storage will be also discussed on the frequency of earthquakes in five regions of California. The mid and southern parts of California show increasing frequency of small earthquakes during drought periods.

  16. Diel cycles of hydrogen peroxide in marine bathing waters in Southern California, USA: In situ surf zone measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, Catherine D.; De Bruyn, Warren J.; Hirsch, Charlotte M.; Aiona, Paige

    2010-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide is photochemically produced in natural waters. It has been implicated in the oxidative-induced mortality of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), a microbial water quality measure. To assess levels and cycling of peroxide in beach waters monitored for FIB, diel studies were carried out in surf zone waters in July 2009 at Crystal Cove State Beach, Southern California, USA. Maximum concentrations of 160-200 nM were obtained within 1 h of solar noon. Levels dropped at night to 20-40 nM, consistent with photochemical production from sunlight. Day-time production and night-time dark loss rates averaged 16 ± 3 nM h -1 and 12 ± 4 nM h -1 respectively. Apparent quantum yields averaged 0.07 ± 0.02. Production was largely dominated by sunlight, with some dependence on chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) levels in waters with high absorption coefficients. Peroxide levels measured here are sufficient to cause oxidative-stress-induced mortality of bacteria, affect FIB diel cycling and impact microbial water quality in marine bathing waters.

  17. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Southern Sierra Study Unit, 2006 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 1,800 square-mile Southern Sierra study unit (SOSA) was investigated in June 2006 as part of the Statewide Basin Assessment Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Statewide Basin Assessment Project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The Southern Sierra study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality within SOSA, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from fifty wells in Kern and Tulare Counties. Thirty-five of the wells were selected using a randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area, and fifteen were selected to evaluate changes in water chemistry along ground-water flow paths. The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents [volatile organic compounds (VOCs), pesticides and pesticide degradates, pharmaceutical compounds, and wastewater-indicator compounds], constituents of special interest [perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), and 1,2,3-trichloropropane (1,2,3-TCP)], naturally occurring inorganic constituents [nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements], radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes [tritium, and carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water], and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled ground water. Quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, and samples for matrix spikes) were collected for approximately one-eighth of the wells, and the results for these samples were used to evaluate the quality of the data for the ground-water samples. Assessment of the

  18. Densities of Agrilus auroguttatus and Other Borers in California and Arizona Oaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurel J. Haavik

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigated within-tree population density of a new invasive species in southern California, the goldspotted oak borer, Agrilus auroguttatus Schaeffer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae, with respect to host species and the community of other borers present. We measured emergence hole densities of A. auroguttatus and other borers on the lower stem (bole of naïve oaks at 18 sites in southern California and on co-evolved oaks at seven sites in southeastern Arizona. We sampled recently dead oaks in an effort to quantify the community of primary and secondary borers associated with mortality—species that were likely to interact with A. auroguttatus. Red oaks (Section Lobatae produced greater densities of A. auroguttatus than white oaks (Section Quercus. On red oaks, A. auroguttatus significantly outnumbered native borers in California (mean ± SE of 9.6 ± 0.7 versus 4.5 ± 0.6 emergence holes per 0.09 m2 of bark surface, yet this was not the case in Arizona (0.9 ± 0.2 versus 1.1 ± 0.2 emergence holes per 0.09 m2. In California, a species that is taxonomically intermediate between red and white oaks, Quercus chrysolepis (Section Protobalanus, exhibited similar A. auroguttatus emergence densities compared with a co-occurring red oak, Q. kelloggii. As an invasive species in California, A. auroguttatus may affect the community of native borers (mainly Buprestidae and Cerambycidae that feed on the lower boles of oaks, although it remains unclear whether its impact will be positive or negative.

  19. In-person retail marketing claims in tobacco and E-cigarette shops in Southern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Joshua S; Wood, Michele M; Peirce, Katelynn

    2017-01-01

    E-cigarette use has been increasing in the United States, though knowledge of potential risks and harms associated with e-cigarette use is low. Marketing of e-cigarettes may serve as a source of information to shape beliefs and attitudes toward e-cigarettes. The purpose of this study was to identify the most common marketing claims made within "vape" and tobacco shops in sales interactions with customers in demographically diverse cities. Vape and tobacco shops from three diverse cities in Southern California were selected for inclusion in the study. From May 2015 to July 2015, simulated customers asked salespeople in vape and tobacco shops how e-cigarettes compare to conventional cigarettes, and then recorded the resulting claims that were made using a standardized form designed for this purpose. Data were analyzed from January to March 2016. The most frequent claims made by sales staff were that: smoking e-cigarettes helps one quit smoking (57% of the simulated shopping interactions), e-cigarettes come in multiple flavors (54%), and e-cigarettes are healthier than conventional cigarettes (50%). Simulated customer interactions that took place in vape shops included more positive marketing claims than those that occurred in tobacco shops; this relationship approached statistical significance ( p  = .087). There was a significant relationship between city and the average number of positive e-cigarette claims made ( p  marketing claims are made about e-cigarettes in retail settings. These may vary by geographic location, community demographics, and type of retail outlet.

  20. Cryptic elevational zonation in trapdoor spiders (Araneae, Antrodiaetidae, Aliatypus janus complex) from the California southern Sierra Nevada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starrett, James; Hayashi, Cheryl Y; Derkarabetian, Shahan; Hedin, Marshal

    2018-01-01

    The relative roles of ecological niche conservatism versus niche divergence in promoting montane speciation remains an important topic in biogeography. Here, our aim was to test whether lineage diversification in a species complex of trapdoor spiders corresponds with riverine barriers or with an ecological gradient associated with elevational tiering. Aliatypus janus was sampled from throughout its range, with emphasis on populations in the southern Sierra Nevada Mountains of California. We collected multi-locus genetic data to generate a species tree for A. janus and its close relatives. Coalescent based hypothesis tests were conducted to determine if genetic breaks within A. janus conform to riverine barriers. Ecological niche models (ENM) under current and Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) conditions were generated and hypothesis tests of niche conservatism and divergence were performed. Coalescent analyses reveal deeply divergent genetic lineages within A. janus, likely corresponding to cryptic species. Two primary lineages meet along an elevational gradient on the western slopes of the southern Sierra Nevada Mountains. ENMs under both current and LGM conditions indicate that these groups occupy largely non-overlapping niches. ENM hypothesis testing rejected niche identity between the two groups, and supported a sharp ecological gradient occurring where the groups meet. However, the niche similarity test indicated that the two groups may not inhabit different background niches. The Sierra Nevada Mountains provide a natural laboratory for simultaneously testing ecological niche divergence and conservatism and their role in speciation across a diverse range of taxa. Aliatypus janus represents a species complex with cryptic lineages that may have diverged due to parapatric speciation along an ecological gradient, or been maintained by the evolution of ecological niche differences following allopatric speciation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Caltech/USGS Southern California Seismic Network: Recent Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadha, R.; Chen, S.; Crummey, J.; Hauksson, E.; Solanki, K.; Thomas, V. I.; Watkins, M.; Yip, R.; Yu, E.; Given, D.; Peats, R.; Schwarz, S.

    2010-12-01

    The SCSN is the modern digital ground motion seismic network in Southern California and performs the following tasks: 1) Operates remote seismic stations and the central data processing systems in Pasadena; 2) Generates and reports real-time products including location, magnitude, ShakeMap, and others; 3) Responds to FEMA, CalEMA, media, and public inquiries about earthquakes; 4) Manages the production, archival, and distribution of waveforms, phase picks, and other data at the SCEDC; 5) Contributes to development and maintenance of the ANSS Quake Monitoring System (AQMS) software to add new features and improve robustness; 6) Supports the deployment of AQMS to other ANSS member regional seismic networks. The public regularly accesses the CISN, SCSN, and SCEDC web pages for up-to-date quake info and more than 230,000 users subscribe to the Electronic Notification System (ENS) which sends rapid notifications via email and cell phones. We distribute our products via Internet (EIDS), email, and paging, to USGS in Reston and Golden, FEMA, CalEMA, local governments, partner members, and other subscribers. We have developed CISN Display and provide ShakeCast for customers who require real-time earthquake information. The SCSN also exchanges waveform, phase pick, and amplitude data in real-time with several other partner networks, including Menlo Park, UCB, UNR, Anza network, the Tsunami Warning Centers, IRIS, and the NEIC. We operate a number of 24/7 on-call rotations to provide quick response to verify seismic events as well as addressing systems and telemetry issues. As part of our goals to improve quality, robustness, and coverage, some of our recent efforts include: 1) Converting the digital stations in the network to Q330 dataloggers; 2) Developing command and control capabilities such as automated mass re-centering; 3) Migration from serial to Ethernet communications; 4) Clustering of data acquisition servers for fail-over to improve data availability; 5) Use of

  2. 50 CFR 226.210 - Central California Coast Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), Southern Oregon/Northern California...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... longstanding, naturally impassable barriers (i.e., natural waterfalls in existence for at least several hundred... impassable barriers (i.e., natural waterfalls in existence for at least several hundred years). (b) Southern... Table 6 of this part or above longstanding, naturally impassable barriers (i.e., natural waterfalls in...

  3. Comments on Potential Geologic and Seismic Hazards Affecting Proposed Liquefied Natural Gas Site in Santa Monica Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Stephanie L.; Lee, Homa J.; Parsons, Tom E.; Beyer, Larry A.; Boore, David M.; Conrad, James E.; Edwards, Brian D.; Fisher, Michael A.; Frankel, Arthur D.; Geist, Eric L.; Hudnut, Kenneth W.; Hough, Susan E.; Kayen, Robert E.; Lorenson, T.D.; Luco, Nicolas; McCrory, Patricia A.; McGann, Mary; Nathenson, Manuel; Nolan, Michael; Petersen, Mark D.; Ponti, Daniel J.; Powell, Charles L.; Ryan, Holly F.; Tinsley, John C.; Wills, Chris J.; Wong, Florence L.; Xu, Jingping

    2008-01-01

    In a letter to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) dated March 25, 2008, Representative Jane Harman (California 36th district) requested advice on geologic hazards that should be considered in the review of a proposed liquefied natural gas (LNG) facility off the California coast in Santa Monica Bay. In 2004, the USGS responded to a similar request from Representative Lois Capps, regarding two proposed LNG facilities offshore Ventura County, Calif., with a report summarizing potential geologic and seismic hazards (Ross and others, 2004). The proposed LNG Deepwater Port (DWP) facility includes single point moorings (SPMs) and 35 miles of underwater pipelines. The DWP submersible buoys, manifolds, and risers would be situated on the floor of the southern Santa Monica Basin, in 3,000 feet of water, about 23 miles offshore of the Palos Verdes Peninsula. Twin 24-inch diameter pipelines would extend northeastward from the buoys across the basin floor, up the basin slope and across the continental shelf, skirting north around the Santa Monica submarine canyon. Figure 1 provides locations of the project and geologic features. Acronyms are defined in table 1. This facility is being proposed in a region of known geologic hazards that arise from both the potential for strong earthquakes and geologic processes related to sediment transport and accumulation in the offshore environment. The probability of a damaging earthquake (considered here as magnitude 6.5 or greater) in the next 30 years within about 30 miles (50 km) of the proposed pipeline ranges from 16% at the pipeline's offshore end to 48% where it nears land (Petersen, 2008). Earthquakes of this magnitude are capable of producing strong shaking, surface fault offsets, liquefaction phenomena, landslides, underwater turbidity currents and debris flow avalanches, and tsunamis. As part of the DWP license application for the Woodside Natural Gas proposal in Santa Monica Bay (known as the OceanWay Secure Energy Project), Fugro

  4. Host-Feeding Patterns of Culex stigmatosoma (Diptera: Culicidae) in Southern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhatter, Lee P; Su, Tianyun; Williams, Greg; Cheng, Min-Lee; Dhillon, Major; Gerry, Alec C

    2017-11-07

    Knowledge of the blood-feeding patterns exhibited by arthropod vectors is essential for understanding the complex dynamics of vector-borne disease transmission. Some species of mosquitoes belonging to the genus Culex have been implicated as having major roles in the transmission of arboviruses such as West Nile virus, Saint Louis encephalitis virus, and Western equine encephalitis virus. Although the host-feeding patterns for many of these Culex species are well studied, the host-feeding patterns of Culex stigmatosoma Dyar are relatively poorly studied, even though this species is suspected to be an important maintenance vector for West Nile virus and other arboviruses. In the current study, bloodmeals from 976 blood-engorged Cx. stigmatosoma, collected from 30 sites in southern California from 2009-2012, were processed for vertebrate host identification by nucleotide sequencing following polymerase chain reaction to amplify portions of the cytochrome oxidase I and cytochrome b genes of vertebrate animals. Vertebrate DNA was amplified, sequenced, and identified from a total of 647 Cx. stigmatosoma bloodmeals, revealing that 98.6% of bloodmeals were from birds, 1.2% from three mammal species, and a single bloodmeal was from a reptile species. In total, 40 different host species were identified. The greatest number of bloodmeals identified was from domestic chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus L.) (38% of bloodmeals), house sparrow (Passer domesticus L.) (23%), house finch (Haemorhous mexicanus Müller) (17%), American crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos L.) (4%), and mourning dove (Zenaida macroura L.) (3%). However, chicken bloodmeals were identified almost entirely from a single site where mosquito collection devices were placed in the near vicinity of confined domestic chickens. The strongly ornithophilic feeding behavior shown in this study for Cx. stigmatosoma supports the hypothesis that this mosquito species may be an important maintenance (or endemic) vector for

  5. Factors influencing food preparation behaviours: findings from focus groups with Mexican-American mothers in southern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Teresa M; Dunton, Genevieve F; Pinard, Courtney A; Yaroch, Amy L

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to explore food preparation behaviours, attitudes, meal planning and shopping among Mexican-American mothers. Data were collected through four focus groups with mothers of Mexican origin/ancestry who considered themselves to be the primary food preparer. Topics included food preparation behaviours and influencers (culture, family, attitudes, barriers, meal planning and shopping). Data were analysed using a qualitative grounded theory approach. All focus groups were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim and coded for themes. Data were collected in southern California, USA in 2013. Of the sample of twenty-one Mexican-American mothers, thirteen were born outside the USA and the mean household size was five members. Participants reported that food was often prepared using traditional staples and food preparation behaviours were learned from maternal family members. Participants also suggested that health was influenced by foods eaten and how they were prepared. Salient factors influencing food preparation behaviours included culture and tradition, maternal family members' food preparation behaviours, food preparation self-efficacy and attitudes towards healthy eating. Time and busy schedules were cited as barriers. Future interventions should consider utilizing family-based approaches and teaching culturally relevant food preparation skills, especially to youth, while reinforcing more healthful dietary practices.

  6. The Palos Verdes Fault offshore southern California: late Pleistocene to present tectonic geomorphology, seascape evolution and slip rate estimate based on AUV and ROV surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brothers, Daniel S.; Conrad, James E.; Maier, Katherine L.; Paull, Charles K.; McGann, Mary L.; Caress, David W.

    2015-01-01

    The Palos Verdes Fault (PVF) is one of few active faults in Southern California that crosses the shoreline and can be studied using both terrestrial and subaqueous methodologies. To characterize the near-seafloor fault morphology, tectonic influences on continental slope sedimentary processes and late Pleistocene to present slip rate, a grid of high-resolution multibeam bathymetric data, and chirp subbottom profiles were acquired with an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) along the main trace of PVF in water depths between 250 and 600 m. Radiocarbon dates were obtained from vibracores collected using a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) and ship-based gravity cores. The PVF is expressed as a well-defined seafloor lineation marked by subtle along-strike bends. Right-stepping transtensional bends exert first-order control on sediment flow dynamics and the spatial distribution of Holocene depocenters; deformed strata within a small pull-apart basin record punctuated growth faulting associated with at least three Holocene surface ruptures. An upper (shallower) landslide scarp, a buried sedimentary mound, and a deeper scarp have been right-laterally offset across the PVF by 55 ± 5, 52 ± 4 , and 39 ± 8 m, respectively. The ages of the upper scarp and buried mound are approximately 31 ka; the age of the deeper scarp is bracketed to 17–24 ka. These three piercing points bracket the late Pleistocene to present slip rate to 1.3–2.8 mm/yr and provide a best estimate of 1.6–1.9 mm/yr. The deformation observed along the PVF is characteristic of strike-slip faulting and accounts for 20–30% of the total right-lateral slip budget accommodated offshore Southern California.

  7. Solar: California, not dreaming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, J.

    2006-03-15

    The California Solar Initiative (CSI) was approved by the California Public Utilities Commission (PUC) in January 2006. The CSI is the largest solar programme of this kind ever in the USA and provides for $3.2 billion in incentives for solar projects between 2007 and 2017. The PUC will oversee a $2.5 billion programme to provide funding for solar installations on commercial and existing residential buildings, while the California Energy Commission (CEC) will manage a separate $350 million fund targeted at new residential building. Existing solar programmes operated by the PUC and CEC will be consolidated into the CSI. The CEC programme will use already allocated funding, but the PUC programme will be funded through revenues collected from customers of the main gas and electric utilities in California. Funds will be distributed via rebates to householders or companies that install solar. As well as solar photovoltaics (PV), rebates will also go to solar thermal power (concentrating solar power) and solar heating and cooling. CSI funding can be used in combination with existing federal tax credits. The aim is a gradual increase from installation of 40 MW of PV in 2005 to 100 MW by 2009. The CSI is also expected to create favourable market conditions for PV manufacturers in California and to encourage investment in production of solar-grade silicon in or near California. Objections from the International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers (IBEW) appear to have been overcome but a number of other potential snags remain. CSI is expected to be replicated in other US states.

  8. Multiwavelength EDM measurements in southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, L.E.; McGarr, A.; Langbein, J.O.; Linker, M.F.

    1983-01-01

    We installed a precise geodetic network along the San Andreas fault near Pearblossom, California in November, 1980. The network is within the region frequently referred to as the "Palmdale Uplift" and consists of 13 lines radiating from a central benchmark. The lines range in length from 3.2 to 8.1 km are generally measured several times each week. The multiwavelength distance measuring (MWDM) instrument is located at the central benchmark and is housed in a small protective shelter. The MWDM instrument has demonstrated a capability to make measurements to a precision of 1 part in 10 million. Using a coordinate system whose x-axis is parallel to the local trace of the San Andreas fault the following strain rates were observed during the first 10 months of this effort: {greater-than with dot}exx = -0.180 ?? 0.025 ??str/yr{greater-than with dot}eyy = -0.031 ?? 0.029 ??str/yr{greater-than with dot}exy = +0.077 ?? 0.024 ??str/yr?? = -0.213 ?? 0.039 ??str/yr. The observed strain rates do not appear to be constant in time, much of the deformation occurs in fairly well defined episodes. These changes in strain rate are particularly obvious in the \\ ??.geyy component. ?? 1983.

  9. Coastal California Wastewater Effluent as a Resource for Seawater Desalination Brine Commingling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly E. Rodman

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available California frequently experiences water scarcity, especially in high population areas. This has generated increased interest in using the Pacific Ocean as a water resource, with seawater desalination becoming a popular solution. To mitigate the environmental impacts of the high salinity brine from seawater desalination, California recommends commingling brine with wastewater effluent before ocean discharge. Results reveal that throughout the California coast, approximately 4872 MLD (1287 MGD of treated wastewater are discharged into the ocean and might be available as dilution water. Most of this dilution water resource is produced in Southern California (3161 MLD or 835 MGD and the San Francisco Bay Area (1503 MLD or 397 MGD, which are also the areas with the highest need for alternative water sources. With this quantity of dilution water, in principle, over 5300 MLD (1400 MGD of potable water could be produced in California through seawater desalination. Furthermore, this study provides a survey of the treatment levels and typical discharge violations of ocean wastewater treatment facilities in California.

  10. Investigating the Impact of Climate Change on Hydroelectric Generation and Ancillary Services in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, K.; Tarroja, B.; AghaKouchak, A.; Chiang, F.; Samuelsen, S.

    2017-12-01

    Spatial and temporal shifts in hydrological regimes predicted under climate change conditions have implications for the management of reservoirs and hydropower contributions to generation and ancillary services. California relies on large hydropower plants to provide flexible electricity generation, which will be increasingly important for supporting renewable resources. This study examines the impact of climate change on large hydropower generation in California. Four climate models for Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) 4.5 and RCP 8.5 are utilized to evaluate the impact of the climate change conditions on (1) the magnitude and profile of hydropower generation and (2) the ability of hydropower to provide spinning reserve. Under both RCP scenarios, impacts are regionally dependent, with precipitation projected to increase in northern California and decrease in southern California for the ten-year period investigated (2046-2055). The overall result is a net increase in inflow into large hydropower units as a majority of the hydropower plants studied are located in the northern part of the state. Increased inflow is primarily driven by increased runoff during the winter and does not necessarily result in increased generation, as extreme events yield greater overall spillage, up to 45% of total inflow. Increased winter hydropower generation paired with increased reservoir constraints in summer result in an 11 to 18% decrease in spinning reserve potential across the year. Under high inflow conditions there is a decreased flexibility for choosing generation versus spinning reserve as water needs to be released, regardless. During summer, hydropower units providing spinning reserve experienced decreased inflow and lower reservoir levels compared to the historical baseline, resulting in decreased spinning reserve bidding potential. Decreased bidding, especially during summer periods at peak electricity demand, can result in greater demand for other dispatchable

  11. A Real-Time Application of the ADCIRC-2DDI Hydrodynamic Model at Camp Pendleton, California

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blain, Cheryl

    1998-01-01

    ...) off the coast of southern California 16-23 Jul 1997. A modeling strategy is designed for Camp Pendleton coastal waters and appropriate sensitivity analyses are conducted to assess initial model performance...

  12. 2025 California Demand Response Potential Study - Charting California’s Demand Response Future. Final Report on Phase 2 Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alstone, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Potter, Jennifer [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Piette, Mary Ann [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Schwartz, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Berger, Michael A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Dunn, Laurel N. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Smith, Sarah J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sohn, Michael D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Aghajanzadeh, Aruab [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Stensson, Sofia [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Szinai, Julie [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Walter, Travis [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); McKenzie, Lucy [Energy and Environmental Economics, Inc. (E3), San Francisco, CA (United States); Lavin, Luke [Energy and Environmental Economics, Inc. (E3), San Francisco, CA (United States); Schneiderman, Brendan [Energy and Environmental Economics, Inc. (E3), San Francisco, CA (United States); Mileva, Ana [Energy and Environmental Economics, Inc. (E3), San Francisco, CA (United States); Cutter, Eric [Energy and Environmental Economics, Inc. (E3), San Francisco, CA (United States); Olson, Arne [Energy and Environmental Economics, Inc. (E3), San Francisco, CA (United States); Bode, Josh [Nexant, Inc., Nashville, TN (United States); Ciccone, Adriana [Nexant, Inc., Nashville, TN (United States); Jain, Ankit [Nexant, Inc., Nashville, TN (United States)

    2017-03-01

    California’s legislative and regulatory goals for renewable energy are changing the power grid’s dynamics. Increased variable generation resource penetration connected to the bulk power system, as well as, distributed energy resources (DERs) connected to the distribution system affect the grid’s reliable operation over many different time scales (e.g., days to hours to minutes to seconds). As the state continues this transition, it will require careful planning to ensure resources with the right characteristics are available to meet changing grid management needs. Demand response (DR) has the potential to provide important resources for keeping the electricity grid stable and efficient, to defer upgrades to generation, transmission and distribution systems, and to deliver customer economic benefits. This study estimates the potential size and cost of future DR resources for California’s three investor-owned utilities (IOUs): Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E), Southern California Edison Company (SCE), and San Diego Gas & Electric Company (SDG&E). Our goal is to provide data-driven insights as the California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) evaluates how to enhance DR’s role in meeting California’s resource planning needs and operational requirements. We address two fundamental questions: 1. What cost-competitive DR service types will meet California’s future grid needs as it moves towards clean energy and advanced infrastructure? 2. What is the size and cost of the expected resource base for the DR service types?

  13. Evaluation of Real-Time Performance of the Virtual Seismologist Earthquake Early Warning Algorithm in Switzerland and California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behr, Y.; Cua, G. B.; Clinton, J. F.; Heaton, T. H.

    2012-12-01

    The Virtual Seismologist (VS) method is a Bayesian approach to regional network-based earthquake early warning (EEW) originally formulated by Cua and Heaton (2007). Implementation of VS into real-time EEW codes has been an on-going effort of the Swiss Seismological Service at ETH Zürich since 2006, with support from ETH Zürich, various European projects, and the United States Geological Survey (USGS). VS is one of three EEW algorithms - the other two being ElarmS (Allen and Kanamori, 2003) and On-Site (Wu and Kanamori, 2005; Boese et al., 2008) algorithms - that form the basis of the California Integrated Seismic Network (CISN) ShakeAlert system, a USGS-funded prototype end-to-end EEW system that could potentially be implemented in California. In Europe, VS is currently operating as a real-time test system in Switzerland. As part of the on-going EU project REAKT (Strategies and Tools for Real-Time Earthquake Risk Reduction), VS will be installed and tested at other European networks. VS has been running in real-time on stations of the Southern California Seismic Network (SCSN) since July 2008, and on stations of the Berkeley Digital Seismic Network (BDSN) and the USGS Menlo Park strong motion network in northern California since February 2009. In Switzerland, VS has been running in real-time on stations monitored by the Swiss Seismological Service (including stations from Austria, France, Germany, and Italy) since 2010. We present summaries of the real-time performance of VS in Switzerland and California over the past two and three years respectively. The empirical relationships used by VS to estimate magnitudes and ground motion, originally derived from southern California data, are demonstrated to perform well in northern California and Switzerland. Implementation in real-time and off-line testing in Europe will potentially be extended to southern Italy, western Greece, Istanbul, Romania, and Iceland. Integration of the VS algorithm into both the CISN Advanced

  14. Incorporating genetic sampling in long-term monitoring and adaptive management in the San Diego County Management Strategic Plan Area, Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandergast, Amy G.

    2017-06-02

    Habitat and species conservation plans usually rely on monitoring to assess progress towards conservation goals. Southern California, USA, is a hotspot of biodiversity and home to many federally endangered and threatened species. Here, several regional multi-species conservation plans have been implemented to balance development and conservation goals, including in San Diego County. In the San Diego County Management Strategic Plan Area (MSPA), a monitoring framework for the preserve system has been developed with a focus on species monitoring, vegetation monitoring, threats monitoring and abiotic monitoring. Genetic sampling over time (genetic monitoring) has proven useful in gathering species presence and abundance data and detecting population trends, particularly related to species and threats monitoring objectives. This report reviews genetic concepts and techniques of genetics that relate to monitoring goals and outlines components of a genetic monitoring scheme that could be applied in San Diego or in other monitoring frameworks throughout the Nation.

  15. Distribution and isotopic abundance of sulphur in recent marine sediments off southern California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, I R; Emergy, K O; Rittenberg, S C

    1963-01-01

    Analyses of sulphur compounds in basin sediments off southern California indicate that elemental sulphur, free sulphide, hydrotroilite, organic sulphur, sulphate and pyrite are present in quantities that vary with environment and depth in the sediments. Pyrite is generally the most abundant form, occurring in oxidizing as well as in reducing sediments and often constituting 90% of total sulphur. A material balance indicates that the total sulphur content is far in excess of the sulphate-sulphur initially trapped in the interstitial water. This evidence, together with failure to detect significant alternate sources, suggests that sulphate-sulphur is extracted from the overlying sea water at the sediment-water interface. Isotope measurements confirm many of the conclusions suggested by the quantitative chemical analyses. The show that biological sulphate reduction is the single most important process in the sulphur cycle. The sulphide released is converted to hydrotrolite and then to pyrite. Elemental and organic sulphur appear to be continually forming and reacting in the sediment column. The organic sulphur released from decaying organic matter apparently plays only a small role in the sulphur economy. Enrichment in S/sup 32/ ranging from 9 to 62% was measured in pyrite fragments, a spread similar to that previously observed in ancient sediments. Data from field and laboratory experiments were combined to determine rate of sulphate reduction, number of sulphate reducing bacteria and the amount of or