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Sample records for southern arabian peninsula

  1. Application of Space Technology to Discovery of Ancient Desert Trade Routes in the Southern Arabian Peninsula

    Blom, Ronald; Crippen, Robert; Hedges, George; Zarins, Juris

    1997-01-01

    Over the last decade, an unusual combination of historical research, traditional archaeology, and application of space technolgy has demonstrated the existence of trans-desert trade routes in the sourthern Arabian peninsula.

  2. Mitochondrial DNA structure in the Arabian Peninsula

    Cabrera Vicente M

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two potential migratory routes followed by modern humans to colonize Eurasia from Africa have been proposed. These are the two natural passageways that connect both continents: the northern route through the Sinai Peninsula and the southern route across the Bab al Mandab strait. Recent archaeological and genetic evidence have favored a unique southern coastal route. Under this scenario, the study of the population genetic structure of the Arabian Peninsula, the first step out of Africa, to search for primary genetic links between Africa and Eurasia, is crucial. The haploid and maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA molecule has been the most used genetic marker to identify and to relate lineages with clear geographic origins, as the African Ls and the Eurasian M and N that have a common root with the Africans L3. Results To assess the role of the Arabian Peninsula in the southern route, we genetically analyzed 553 Saudi Arabs using partial (546 and complete mtDNA (7 sequencing, and compared the lineages obtained with those present in Africa, the Near East, central, east and southeast Asia and Australasia. The results showed that the Arabian Peninsula has received substantial gene flow from Africa (20%, detected by the presence of L, M1 and U6 lineages; that an 18% of the Arabian Peninsula lineages have a clear eastern provenance, mainly represented by U lineages; but also by Indian M lineages and rare M links with Central Asia, Indonesia and even Australia. However, the bulk (62% of the Arabian lineages has a Northern source. Conclusion Although there is evidence of Neolithic and more recent expansions in the Arabian Peninsula, mainly detected by (preHV1 and J1b lineages, the lack of primitive autochthonous M and N sequences, suggests that this area has been more a receptor of human migrations, including historic ones, from Africa, India, Indonesia and even Australia, than a demographic expansion center along the

  3. First dinosaur tracks from the Arabian Peninsula

    Schulp, Anne S.; Al-Wosabi, Mohammed; Stevens, Nancy J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The evolutionary history of Mesozoic terrestrial vertebrates from the Arabian Peninsula is virtually unknown. Despite vast exposures of rocky outcrops, only a handful of fossils have yet been described from the region. Here we report a multi-taxon dinosaur track assemblage near Madar

  4. Wind resource characterization in the Arabian Peninsula

    Yip, Chak Man Andrew

    2015-12-28

    Wind energy is expected to contribute to alleviating the rise in energy demand in the Middle East that is driven by population growth and industrial development. However, variability and intermittency in the wind resource present significant challenges to grid integration of wind energy systems. These issues are rarely addressed in the literature of wind resource assessment in the Middle East due to sparse meteorological observations with varying record lengths. In this study, the wind field with consistent space–time resolution for over three decades at three hub heights (50m, 80m, 140m) over the whole Arabian Peninsula is constructed using the Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) dataset. The wind resource is assessed at a higher spatial resolution with metrics of temporal variations in the wind than in prior studies. Previously unrecognized locations of interest with high wind abundance and low variability and intermittency have been identified in this study and confirmed by recent on-site observations. In particular, the western mountains of Saudi Arabia experience more abundant wind resource than most Red Sea coastal areas. The wind resource is more variable in coastal areas along the Arabian Gulf than their Red Sea counterparts at a similar latitude. Persistent wind is found along the coast of the Arabian Gulf.

  5. Modeling of Regional Climate over Red Sea and Arabian Peninsula

    Stenchikov, Georgiy L.

    2011-04-09

    Observations, re-analyses, and climate model simulations show strong surface temperature trends in Middle East and Arabian Peninsula in the last 30 years. Trends are especially pronounced in summer exceeding +1K/decade. However, some regions, e.g., the So

  6. New and interesting Orthoptera from the Arabian Peninsula and Socotra

    Bruno Massa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on some interesting taxa recently found in the Arabian Peninsula and the island of Socotra. Among them is a new species of brachypterous grasshopper Sphodromerus carapezzanus sp. n. (Acrididae: Calliptaminae, described from an isolated area in Dhofar (Oman. A female Heteracris hemiptera (Uvarov, 1935 (Acrididae: Eyprepocnemidinae is reported, with morphological characters which do not fully comply with those of any known subspecies. Two species, hitherto rarely documented, are also reported, Phaneroptila insularis Uvarov, 1957 (Tettigoniidae: Phaneropterinae from Socotra and Cataloipus thomasi Uvarov, 1933 (Acrididae: Eyprepocnemidinae from Oman. Pycnodictya dentata Krauss, 1902 (Acrididae: Oedipodinae is reported from Saudi Arabia, constituting a new record for the country.

  7. The Marbat metamorphic core-complex (Southern Arabian Peninsula) : reassessment of the evolution of a Neoproterozoic island-arc from petrological, geochemical and U-Pb zircon data

    Barbey, P.; Denele, Y.; Paquette, J. L.; Berger, J.; Ganne, Jérôme; Roques, D.

    2018-01-01

    The Marbat basement (Sultanate of Oman) belongs to the Neoproterozoic accretion domain of the Arabian-Nubian shield. We present new geochronological, petrological and geochemical data as an extension of our previous study (Denele et al., 2017) re-interpreting this basement as a metamorphic core complex (MCC). We showed that this MCC consists of a metamorphic unit (Juffa complex) separated by an extensional detachment from a plutonic unit (Sadh complex and Tonalite plutons). Geochemical data s...

  8. First record of Vespertilio murinus from the Arabian Peninsula

    Monadjem, Ara; Joubert, Christiaan; Richards, Leigh

    2016-01-01

    A specimen of Vespertilio murinus was captured on 13 May 2014 on the grounds of the Breeding Centre for Endangered Arabian Wildlife, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. The species was unambiguous-ly identified based on molecular (cytochrome b gene) and morphological characters. This represents...... the first record of V. murinus from the Arabian Peninsula. A revised checklist of the Vespertilionidae is presented for the Arabian Peninsula which includes 27 species belonging to 13 genera. A phylogeny for the Arabian vespertilionid species is also presented showing the paraphyly of Eptesicus...

  9. Hydrogeology of the Umm Er Radhuma Aquifer (Arabian peninsula)

    Dirks, Heiko; Al Ajmi, Hussain; Kienast, Peter; Rausch, Randolf

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this article is to enhance the understanding of the Umm Er Radhuma aquifer's genesis, and its hydraulic and hydrochemical development over time. This is a prerequisite for wise use of the fossil groundwater resources contained within. The Umm Er Radhuma is a karstified limestone aquifer, extending over 1.6 Mio. km2 in the eastern part of the Arabian Peninsula. Both epigene and hypogene karstification contributed to the genesis of what is today the most prolific aquifer in the region. Besides man-made abstractions, even the natural outflows are higher than the small recharge (natural storage depletion). The Umm Er Radhuma shows that large aquifers in arid regions are never in "steady state" (where inflows equal outflows), considering Quaternary climate history. The aquifer's adaption to climate changes (precipitation, sea level) can be traced even after thousands of years, and is slower than the climate changes themselves.

  10. The prehistory of the Arabian peninsula: deserts, dispersals, and demography.

    Groucutt, Huw S; Petraglia, Michael D

    2012-05-01

    As a geographic connection between Africa and the rest of Eurasia, the Arabian Peninsula occupies a central position in elucidating hominin evolution and dispersals. Arabia has been characterized by extreme environmental fluctuation in the Quaternary, with profound evolutionary and demographic consequences. Despite the importance of the region, Arabia remains understudied. Recent years, however, have seen major developments in environmental studies and archeology, revealing that the region contains important records that should play a significant role in future paleoanthropological narratives.(1-3) The emerging picture of Arabia suggests that numerous dispersals of hominin populations into the region occurred. Populations subsequently followed autochthonous trajectories, creating a distinctive regional archeological record. Debates continue on the respective roles of regional hominin extinctions and population continuity, with the latter suggesting adaptation to arid conditions. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. The Dependency between the Arabian Peninsula Wet Events and Sea Level Pressure Patterns during Spring Season

    El Kenawy, Ahmed M.; McCabe, Matthew; Stenchikov, Georgiy L.; Raj, Jerry

    2014-01-01

    This work investigates the relationships between regional extreme wet events in the Arabian Peninsula during the spring season (MAM) and sea level pressure (SLP) patterns. Based on NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data, S-mode principal components were computed

  12. Links between Synoptic Weather Types and Extreme Wet Events in the Arabian Peninsula (1960-2100)

    El Kenawy, Ahmed M.; McCabe, Matthew; Stenchikov, Georgiy L.; Raj, Jerry

    2014-01-01

    In this work, an automated version of the Lamb weather type classification scheme was applied to classify daily weather types in the Arabian Peninsula. The output catalogue included ten basic weather types, which describe the direction and vorticity

  13. EMERGING CITIES ON THE ARABIAN PENINSULA: URBAN SPACE IN THE KNOWLEDGE ECONOMY CONTEXT

    Alain Thierstein

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Networks of the growing knowledge economy significantly influence spatial development on different scales. This paper proposes a framework for analyzing the impact of global knowledge economy networks on the rapidly developing urban space of emerging cities on the Arabian Peninsula, and vice versa. Two aspects of the described research are innovative: First, a global relational geography-perspective builds the basis for approaching the analysis of urban space development in emerging cities on the Arabian Peninsula. Second, the empirical methodology of the research project is a newly defined method triangulation, setting an example for systematic analysis of local urban development in a global context. The method triangulation combines three different research angles: A knowledge economy firm perspective, an on-site observation perspective and a planner perspective. The method triangulation defines the procedure for the research application in selected case study cities on the Arabian Peninsula. Initial results from applying the research methodology in the city of Dubai give a first indication, that emerging cities on the Arabian Peninsula play a significant role in the global and regional knowledge economy networks. Locally developed urban spaces reflect and influence the significance of cities in the global knowledge economy context. Especially the global visibility of urban spaces on a city district scale, which specifically address the needs of knowledge economy players, contributes significantly to the attractiveness of emerging cities on the Arabian Peninsula.

  14. Groundwater Dynamics in Fossil Fractured Carbonate Aquifers in Eastern Arabian Peninsula

    Farag, A. Z. A.; Heggy, E.; Helal, M.; Thirunavukkarasu, D.; Scabbia, G.; Palmer, E. M.

    2017-12-01

    The Eastern Arabian Peninsula, notably the Qatar Peninsula, represents one of the highest natural groundwater discharge areas for the Arabian platform fossil aquifer system. Groundwater flow dynamics in these aquifers trace the paleoclimatic conditions that have prevailed the Arabian Peninsula during the Quaternary. In such settings, connections between aquifers strongly affect the flow dynamics, water quality and availability as well as karst formation and landscape evolution. Geological structures such as folds, faults and fractures are central to aquifer connectivity, yet their role on groundwater flow is poorly understood. Herein, we performed a detailed mapping of exposed and buried structural features in Qatar using Landsat, Sentinel and ALOS-PalSAR scenes, correlated with field and laboratory measurements to understand their role in aquifer connectivity and groundwater dynamics. Our results suggest that E-W oriented fold-related faults act as vertical conduits along which artesian upward leakages from the deep aquifers (e.g. Aruma and Umm er Radhuma) take place into the shallower aquifers (e.g. Rus and Dammam). Evidence includes: (1) the high potentiometric surfaces of deep aquifers (6 to 25 m amsl) compare to the shallower aquifers (2-3 m amsl for the same region); (2) anomalous elevation of groundwater levels and steeper hydraulic gradients in densely faulted regions; (3) mixed isotopic composition in shallow aquifers (δ18O: -5 to -2 ‰, δ2H: -40 to -10 ‰) between reported deep fossil waters (δ18O: -6.3 ‰, δ2H: -55 ‰) and modern meteoric waters (weighted average: δ18O: -0.6 ‰, δ2H: 4 ‰); (4) abundant meso-crystalline fibrous gypsum veins along fault zones in the Dammam Formation (up to 28 m amsl) in southern Qatar where the anhydritic member of the Rus Formation predominates the subsurface leading to gypsum oversaturation of groundwater. The similarity of crystal morphology (platy crystals under SEM), mineralogical compositions from XRD

  15. Climatology of the African Easterly Jet and Subtropical Highs over North Africa and Arabian Peninsula and a Numerical Case Study of an Intense African Easterly Wave

    Spinks, James D.

    North African climate is analyzed between 1979 and 2010 with an emphasis on August using the European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) global dataset to investigate the effects of the subtropical anticyclones over North Africa and the Arabian Peninsula on the Africa easterly jet (AEJ). It was found that the AEJ encloses a core with a local wind maximum (LWM) in both West and East Africa, in which the west LWM core has a higher zonal wind speed. The strength of both cores is distinctly different by way of thermal wind balance. The variability of these synoptic weather features is higher in East Africa. The most noticeable variability of intensity occurred with easterly waves. Maintenance of easterly waves from the Arabian Peninsula into East Africa is dependent on strong zonal gradients from the AEJ. These zonal gradients were induced by the strengthening of the subtropical highs and the presence of a westerly jet in Central Africa and south of the Arabian Peninsula. During positive ENSO periods, these systems are generally weaker while in negative periods are stronger. The origins of an intense African easterly wave (AEW) and mesoscale convective system (MCS) in August 2004 (A04) were traced back to the southern Arabian Peninsula, Asir Mountains, and Ethiopian Highlands using gridded satellite (GridSat) data, ERA-I, and the WRF-ARW model. A vorticity budget was developed to investigate the dynamics and mechanisms that contribute to the formation of A04's vorticity perturbation.

  16. Diurnal cycle of the dust instantaneous direct radiative forcing over the Arabian Peninsula

    Osipov, Sergey; Stenchikov, Georgiy L.; Brindley, H.; Banks, J.

    2015-01-01

    In this study we attempted to better quantify radiative effects of dust over the Arabian Peninsula and their dependence on input parameters. For this purpose we have developed a stand-alone column radiation transport model coupled with the Mie, T

  17. Forgotten in the taxonomic literature: Resurrection of the scleractinian coral genus Sclerophyllia (Scleractinia, Lobophylliidae) from the Arabian Peninsula and its phylogenetic relationships

    Arrigoni, Roberto; Berumen, Michael L.; Terraneo, Tullia Isotta; Caragnano, Annalisa; Bouwmeester, Jessica; Benzoni, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    to Acanthastrea maxima, an uncommon species from waters around the Arabian peninsula (the Gulf of Aden, Arabian Sea, Gulf of Oman and Persian Gulf). Sclerophyllia margariticola and A. maxima share several macro- and micromorphological characters

  18. Diversification of Afrobatrachian Frogs and the Herpetofauna of the Arabian Peninsula

    Portik, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The identification of biotic and abiotic factors that promote the diversification of clades across Africa and the Arabian Peninsula remains a difficult challenge. A variety of ecological and evolutionary processes can be driving such patterns, and clade-specific traits may also play a role in the evolution of these groups. Comparative evolutionary studies of particular clades, relying on a phylogenetic framework, can be used to investigate many of these topics. Beyond these mechanisms ther...

  19. A bridge too far: dispersal barriers and cryptic speciation in an Arabian Peninsula grouper (Cephalopholis hemistiktos)

    Priest, Mark; DiBattista, Joseph; McIlwain, Jennifer L.; Taylor, Brett M.; Hussey, Nigel E.; Berumen, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: We use genetic and age-based analyses to assess the evidence for a biogeographical barrier to larval dispersal in the yellowfin hind, Cephalopholis hemistiktos, a commercially important species found across the Arabian Peninsula. Location: Red Sea, Gulf of Aden, Gulf of Oman and Arabian Gulf. Methods: Mitochondrial DNA cytochrome-c oxidase subunit-I and nuclear DNA (S7) sequences were obtained for C. hemistiktos sampled throughout its distributional range. Phylogeographical and population-level analyses were used to assess patterns of genetic structure and to identify barriers to dispersal. Concurrently, age-based demographic analyses using otoliths determined differences in growth and longevity between regions. Results: Our analyses revealed significant genetic structure congruent with growth parameter differences observed across sampling sites, suggesting cryptic speciation between populations in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden versus the Gulf of Oman and Arabian Gulf. Coalescence analyses indicated these two regions have been isolated for > 800,000 years. Main conclusions: Our results indicate historical disruption to gene flow and a contemporary dispersal barrier in the Arabian Sea, which C. hemistiktos larvae are unable to effectively traverse. This provides yet another example of a (cryptic) species with high dispersive potential whose range is delimited by a lack of suitable habitat between locations or an inability to successfully recruit at the range edge. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. A bridge too far: dispersal barriers and cryptic speciation in an Arabian Peninsula grouper (Cephalopholis hemistiktos)

    Priest, Mark

    2015-12-12

    Aim: We use genetic and age-based analyses to assess the evidence for a biogeographical barrier to larval dispersal in the yellowfin hind, Cephalopholis hemistiktos, a commercially important species found across the Arabian Peninsula. Location: Red Sea, Gulf of Aden, Gulf of Oman and Arabian Gulf. Methods: Mitochondrial DNA cytochrome-c oxidase subunit-I and nuclear DNA (S7) sequences were obtained for C. hemistiktos sampled throughout its distributional range. Phylogeographical and population-level analyses were used to assess patterns of genetic structure and to identify barriers to dispersal. Concurrently, age-based demographic analyses using otoliths determined differences in growth and longevity between regions. Results: Our analyses revealed significant genetic structure congruent with growth parameter differences observed across sampling sites, suggesting cryptic speciation between populations in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden versus the Gulf of Oman and Arabian Gulf. Coalescence analyses indicated these two regions have been isolated for > 800,000 years. Main conclusions: Our results indicate historical disruption to gene flow and a contemporary dispersal barrier in the Arabian Sea, which C. hemistiktos larvae are unable to effectively traverse. This provides yet another example of a (cryptic) species with high dispersive potential whose range is delimited by a lack of suitable habitat between locations or an inability to successfully recruit at the range edge. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Links between Synoptic Weather Types and Extreme Wet Events in the Arabian Peninsula (1960-2100)

    El Kenawy, Ahmed M.

    2014-05-01

    In this work, an automated version of the Lamb weather type classification scheme was applied to classify daily weather types in the Arabian Peninsula. The output catalogue included ten basic weather types, which describe the direction and vorticity of airflow in the peninsula (i.e., cyclonic, anticyclonic and directional). These large-scale patterns were first defined for the observed climate (1960-2013), allowing for an assessment of the spatial and temporal variations in circulation-rainfall relationships over the peninsula using rainfall data from 209 weather observatories. The same methodology was then applied to assess how the defined weather types will be presented in future climate simulations (under RCP45 and RCP85 emission scenarios) and to explore their probable dependency with rainfall characteristics. In this regard, daily simulated SLP derived from an ensemble of 12 climate models within the CMIP5 project were used for two future time-slices (2035-2060 and 2075-2100). Our findings indicate that the cyclonic (C) type represented the most frequent classification with 69.2% of days, followed by SE directional flows (21%). It was also found that the main circulation features influencing winter (spring) rainfall across the peninsula are the strong influence of the anticyclonic (easterly and southeasterly) air masses. Generally, the role of airflows originating from the Indian Ocean is larger than those of the Mediterranean and the Red Seas. The trend results of defined weather types show that the cyclonic (anticyclonic) conditions tend to decrease (increase). This picture is likely to continue during the 21st century. The only exception corresponds to the summer season. Here, understanding the association between atmospheric circulation patterns and rainfall in the Arabian Peninsula can be important for the understanding of climatic variability and thus developing circulation-based downscaling methods in this region.

  2. Geology of the Arabian Peninsula; shield area of western Saudi Arabia

    Brown, Glen F.; Schmidt, Dwight L.; Huffman, A. Curtis

    1989-01-01

    Western Arabia lies within the low-latitude desert of north Africa and the Middle East, the core being the Arabian segment of the African Shield. The core of complex basement rocks accounts for about 670,000 km2, or one-third of the Arabian Peninsula. Reconnaissance mapping of these crystalline rocks, together with bordering sedimentary rocks and volcanic flows, begun in 1950, resulted during the next 13 years in a series of geologic and geographic maps without extensive texts. The maps served as general guides for development of natural resources, including water supplies, ore deposits, and building materials. An intensive exploration program that began in 1963 and involved numerous geologists has vastly increased geologic information.

  3. Characterization of synoptic patterns causing dust outbreaks that affect the Arabian Peninsula

    Hermida, L.; Merino, A.; Sánchez, J. L.; Fernández-González, S.; García-Ortega, E.; López, L.

    2018-01-01

    Dust storms pose serious weather hazards in arid and semiarid regions of the earth. Understanding the main synoptic conditions that give rise to dust outbreaks is important for issuing forecasts and warnings to the public in cases of severe storms. The aim of the present study is to determine synoptic patterns that are associated with or even favor dust outbreaks over the Arabian Peninsula. In this respect, red-green-blue dust composite images from the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellite are used to detect dust outbreaks affecting the Arabian Peninsula, with possible influences in southwestern Asia and northeastern Africa, between 2005 and 2013. The Meteosat imagery yielded a sample of 95 dust storm days. Meteorological fields from NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data of wind fields at 10 m and 250 hPa, mean sea level pressure, and geopotential heights at 850 and 500 hPa were obtained for the dust storm days. Using principal component analysis in T-mode and non-hierarchical k-means clustering, we obtained four major atmospheric circulation patterns associated with dust outbreaks during the study days. Cluster 4 had the largest number of days with dust events, which were constrained to summer, and cluster 3 had the fewest. In clusters 1, 2 and 3, the jet stream favored the entry of a low-pressure area or trough that varied in location between the three clusters. Their most northerly location was found in cluster 4, along with an extensive low-pressure area supporting strong winds over the Arabian Peninsula. The spatial distribution of aerosol optical depth for each cluster obtained was characterized using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer data. Then, using METAR stations, clusters were also characterized in terms of frequency and visibility.

  4. Monitoring temporal variations in water resources across the Arabian Peninsula and identification of their controlling factors

    Ahmed, M.; Sultan, M.; Othman, A.

    2015-12-01

    Assessment, monitoring, and development of the fresh water resources in the Arabian Peninsula (AP) are critical for the sustenance of the AP's growing population and water consumption. Monthly (01/2003-12/2013) Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) data along with other relevant climatic, geologic, hydrogeologic, and remote sensing datasets were used to monitor the spatiotemporal variability in the AP's water resources and to investigate the causes of those variations. Four regions were selected; in our selection, we tried to cover major aquifers, follow political boundaries, and exceed GRACE footprint (~0.20×106 km2) to minimize uncertainties. The selected regions are: (1) Northern Saudi Arabia and Jordan (area: 0.53×106 km2), (2) Southern Saudi Arabia, Qatar and United Arab Emiratis (area: 0.97×106 km2), (3) Yemen (area: 0.45×106 km2), and (4) Oman (area: 0.32×106 km2). Results indicate: (1) Northern Saudi Arabia and Jordan area is experiencing large depletions (-8.76±0.94 mm/yr; -4.68±0.50 km3/yr) in GRACE-derived terrestrial water storage (TWS) that is largely related to groundwater extraction as well as decrease in rainfall rates throughout the investigated period compared to the preceding period (average annual rainfall [AAR]: 2003-2013: 58 mm; 1979-2002: 103 mm), (2) Southern Saudi Arabia, Qatar and United Arab Emiratis area is experiencing a moderate depletion (-2.73±1.0 mm/yr; -2.63±0.96 km3/yr) in TWS that might be related to groundwater/oil extraction as well as a moderate decrease in rainfall rates (AAR: 2003-2013: 61 mm; 1979-2002: 82 mm), (3) Yemen is experiencing a slight depletion (-0.82±0.30 mm/yr; -0.36±0.13 km3/yr) in TWS that might be related groundwater extraction, and (4) Oman is experiencing slight increase (+0.78±0.30 mm/yr; +0.25±0.09 km3/yr) in TWS that might be related an increase in rainfall rates. Our preliminary results are being further examined by: (1) extracting temporal variations in groundwater storage by

  5. THE FIRST RECORD OF CAMBRIAN CONODONTS FROM THE HUQF-HAUSHI OUTCROPS, OMAN, ARABIAN PENINSULA

    GABRIELLA BAGNOLI

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Outcrops of Cambrian sediments of the uppermost Miqrat Formation, the Al Bashair Formation and the basal Barik Formation were sampled for conodont and palynomorph studies. The units are part of the Palaeozoic Haima Supergroup, exposed in the Huqf-Haushi area in central eastern Oman, Arabian Peninsula. Palynomorphs were absent but conodont samples yielded a small conodont fauna. The presence of Muellerodus? erectus allows the recognition of the Muellerodus? erectus Zone established for North China (late Paibian – early Jiangshanian, in accordance with previous reports on the trilobite fauna from the same interval.

  6. Assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources of the Arabian Peninsula and Zagros Fold Belt, 2012

    Pitman, Janet K.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pollastro, Richard M.

    2012-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated means of 86 billion barrels of oil and 336 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered natural gas resources in the Arabian Peninsula and Zagros Fold Belt. The USGS assessed the potential for undiscovered conventional oil and gas accumulations within the Arabian Peninsula and Zagros Fold Belt as part of the USGS World Petroleum Resources Project. Twenty-three assessment units within seven petroleum systems were quantitatively assessed in this study, which represents a reassessment of this area last published in 2000.

  7. Study of Diurnal Cycle Variability of Planetary Boundary Layer Characteristics over the Red Sea and Arabian Peninsula

    Li, Weigang

    2012-07-01

    This work is aimed at investigating diurnal cycle variability of the planetary boundary layer characteristics over the Arabian Peninsula and the Red Sea region. To fulfill this goal the downscaling simulations are performed using Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. We analyze planetary boundary layer height, latent and sensible heat fluxes, and surface air temperature. The model results are compared with observations in different areas, for different seasons, and for different model resolutions. The model results are analyzed in order to better quantify the diurnal cycle variability over the Arabian Peninsula and the Red Sea. The specific features of this region are investigated and discussed.

  8. The Dependency between the Arabian Peninsula Wet Events and Sea Level Pressure Patterns during Spring Season

    El Kenawy, Ahmed M.

    2014-05-01

    This work investigates the relationships between regional extreme wet events in the Arabian Peninsula during the spring season (MAM) and sea level pressure (SLP) patterns. Based on NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data, S-mode principal components were computed from the de-seasonalized daily SLP for spring months between 1960 and 2013. The analysis covered a window for the region (15-70°E and 2.5-50°N). This window coupled different oceanic-land influences (e.g. the Indian, Mediterranean and the Sahara configurations) that may impart an effect on rainfall variations in the study domain. A set of eight significant circulation spatial patterns were retained, which explained 84.8% of the total explained variance. The derived patterns explained a wide variety of flows over the peninsula, with a clear distinction between zonal and meridional advections. The extreme wet events (R95 and R99) were defined from a relatively dense network of 209 observatories covering the peninsula, using the 95th and 99th percentile of rainfall distribution respectively. The links between the dominant SLP patterns and significant wet events were established and the physical interpretations of these associations were examined. The results, as revealed by the location and intensity of high pressure centers, highlight the strength of eastern and southeastern advections corresponding to these extreme events. Other patterns have a local character, suggesting an orographic origin of some wet events in the region. The relationships described in this research can advance the understanding of the large-scale processes that contribute to the wet weather events in the Arabian Peninsula. These findings can therefore contribute to better management of water resources and agricultural practices in the region.

  9. Diurnal cycle of the dust instantaneous direct radiative forcing over the Arabian Peninsula

    Osipov, Sergey

    2015-08-27

    In this study we attempted to better quantify radiative effects of dust over the Arabian Peninsula and their dependence on input parameters. For this purpose we have developed a stand-alone column radiation transport model coupled with the Mie, T-matrix and geometric optics calculations and driven by reanalysis meteorological fields and atmospheric composition. Numerical experiments were carried out for a wide range of aerosol optical depths, including extreme values developed during the dust storm on 18–20 March 2012. Comprehensive ground-based observations and satellite retrievals were used to estimate aerosol optical properties, validate calculations and carry out radiation closure. The broadband surface albedo, fluxes at the bottom and top of the atmosphere as well as instantaneous dust radiative forcing were estimated both from the model and observations. Diurnal cycle of the shortwave instantaneous dust direct radiative forcing was studied for a range of aerosol and surface characteristics representative of the Arabian Peninsula. Mechanisms and parameters responsible for diurnal variability of the radiative forcing were evaluated. We found that intrinsic variability of the surface albedo and its dependence on atmospheric conditions, along with anisotropic aerosol scattering, are mostly responsible for diurnal effects.

  10. Population genetics of four heavily exploited shark species around the Arabian Peninsula

    Spaet, Julia L.Y.

    2015-05-01

    The northwestern Indian Ocean harbors a number of larger marine vertebrate taxa that warrant the investigation of genetic population structure given remarkable spatial heterogeneity in biological characteristics such as distribution, behavior, and morphology. Here, we investigate the genetic population structure of four commercially exploited shark species with different biological characteristics (Carcharhinus limbatus, Carcharhinus sorrah, Rhizoprionodon acutus, and Sphyrna lewini) between the Red Sea and all other water bodies surrounding the Arabian Peninsula. To assess intraspecific patterns of connectivity, we constructed statistical parsimony networks among haplotypes and estimated (1) population structure; and (2) time of most recent population expansion, based on mitochondrial control region DNA and a total of 20 microsatellites. Our analysis indicates that, even in smaller, less vagile shark species, there are no contemporary barriers to gene flow across the study region, while historical events, for example, Pleistocene glacial cycles, may have affected connectivity in C. sorrah and R. acutus. A parsimony network analysis provided evidence that Arabian S. lewini may represent a population segment that is distinct from other known stocks in the Indian Ocean, raising a new layer of conservation concern. Our results call for urgent regional cooperation to ensure the sustainable exploitation of sharks in the Arabian region.

  11. The impact of dust storms on the Arabian Peninsula and the Red Sea

    Jish Prakash, P.

    2015-01-12

    Located in the dust belt, the Arabian Peninsula is a major source of atmospheric dust. Frequent dust outbreaks and some 15 to 20 dust storms per year have profound effects on all aspects of human activity and natural processes in this region. To quantify the effect of severe dust events on radiation fluxes and regional climate characteristics, we simulated the storm that occurred from 18 to 20 March 2012 using a regional weather research forecast model fully coupled with the chemistry/aerosol module (WRF–Chem). This storm swept over a remarkably large area affecting the entire Middle East, northeastern Africa, Afghanistan, and Pakistan. It was caused by a southward propagating cold front, and the associated winds activated the dust production in river valleys of the lower Tigris and Euphrates in Iraq; the coastal areas in Kuwait, Iran, and the United Arab Emirates; the Rub al Khali, An Nafud, and Ad Dahna deserts; and along the Red Sea coast on the west side of the Arabian Peninsula. Our simulation results compare well with available ground-based and satellite observations. We estimate the total amount of dust generated by the storm to have reached 94 Mt. Approximately 78% of this dust was deposited within the calculation domain. The Arabian Sea and Persian Gulf received 5.3 Mt and the Red Sea 1.2 Mt of dust. Dust particles bring nutrients to marine ecosystems, which is especially important for the oligotrophic Northern Red Sea. However, their contribution to the nutrient balance in the Red Sea remains largely unknown. By scaling the effect of one storm to the number of dust storms observed annually over the Red Sea, we estimate the annual dust deposition to the Red Sea, associated with major dust storms, to be 6 Mt.

  12. The impact of dust storms on the Arabian Peninsula and the Red Sea

    Jish Prakash, P.; Stenchikov, Georgiy L.; Kalenderski, Stoitchko; Osipov, Sergey; Bangalath, Hamza Kunhu

    2015-01-01

    Located in the dust belt, the Arabian Peninsula is a major source of atmospheric dust. Frequent dust outbreaks and some 15 to 20 dust storms per year have profound effects on all aspects of human activity and natural processes in this region. To quantify the effect of severe dust events on radiation fluxes and regional climate characteristics, we simulated the storm that occurred from 18 to 20 March 2012 using a regional weather research forecast model fully coupled with the chemistry/aerosol module (WRF–Chem). This storm swept over a remarkably large area affecting the entire Middle East, northeastern Africa, Afghanistan, and Pakistan. It was caused by a southward propagating cold front, and the associated winds activated the dust production in river valleys of the lower Tigris and Euphrates in Iraq; the coastal areas in Kuwait, Iran, and the United Arab Emirates; the Rub al Khali, An Nafud, and Ad Dahna deserts; and along the Red Sea coast on the west side of the Arabian Peninsula. Our simulation results compare well with available ground-based and satellite observations. We estimate the total amount of dust generated by the storm to have reached 94 Mt. Approximately 78% of this dust was deposited within the calculation domain. The Arabian Sea and Persian Gulf received 5.3 Mt and the Red Sea 1.2 Mt of dust. Dust particles bring nutrients to marine ecosystems, which is especially important for the oligotrophic Northern Red Sea. However, their contribution to the nutrient balance in the Red Sea remains largely unknown. By scaling the effect of one storm to the number of dust storms observed annually over the Red Sea, we estimate the annual dust deposition to the Red Sea, associated with major dust storms, to be 6 Mt.

  13. Late Neoproterozoic adakitic lavas in the Arabian-Nubian shield, Sinai Peninsula, Egypt

    Abdelfadil, Khaled M.; Obeid, Mohamed A.; Azer, Mokhles K.; Asimow, Paul D.

    2018-06-01

    The Sahiya and Khashabi volcano-sedimentary successions are exposed near the southern tip of the Sinai Peninsula, the northernmost segment of the Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS). These Neoproterozoic successions include a series of intermediate to acidic lavas and associated pyroclastic deposits. Field observations and geochemical data reveal two distinct eruptive phases. The lavas representing each phase are intercalated with volcaniclastic greywackes and siltstones. The first eruptive phase, well exposed at Wadi Sahiya, includes basaltic andesite, andesite and dacite with minor rhyolite. The rocks of this sequence are at most weakly deformed and slightly metamorphosed. The second eruptive phase, well exposed at Wadi Khashabi, includes only undeformed and unmetamorphosed dacite and rhyolite. The two volcano-sedimentary successions were separated and dismembered during intrusion of post-collisional calc-alkaline and alkaline granites. Geochemical compositions of the Sahiya and Khashabi volcanic rocks confirm the field data indicating discrete phases of magmatism, however all the compositions observed might plausibly be derived from a common source and be related to one another dominantly through fractional crystallization. The low and variable Mg# values (55-33) measured in the basaltic andesites and andesites preclude their equilibration with a mantle source. Rather, even the most primitive observed lavas are already the products of significant fractional crystallization, dominated by removal of amphibole and plagioclase. Continued fractionation eventually produced dacite and rhyolite marked by significant depletion in Y and HREE. The gradual appearance of negative Nb-Ta anomalies with increasing SiO2 through both suites suggests at least some component of progressive crustal contamination. The medium- to high-K calc-alkaline character of the Sahiya and Khashabi volcanics could be explained either by their formation at an active continental margin or by a two

  14. The Malaria Transition on the Arabian Peninsula: Progress toward a Malaria-Free Region between 1960–2010

    Snow, Robert W.; Amratia, Punam; Zamani, Ghasem; Mundia, Clara W.; Noor, Abdisalan M.; Memish, Ziad A.; Al Zahrani, Mohammad H.; Al Jasari, Adel; Fikri, Mahmoud; Atta, Hoda

    2014-01-01

    The transmission of malaria across the Arabian Peninsula is governed by the diversity of dominant vectors and extreme aridity. It is likely that where malaria transmission was historically possible it was intense and led to a high disease burden. Here, we review the speed of elimination, approaches taken, define the shrinking map of risk since 1960 and discuss the threats posed to a malaria-free Arabian Peninsula using the archive material, case data and published works. From as early as the 1940s, attempts were made to eliminate malaria on the peninsula but were met with varying degrees of success through to the 1970s; however, these did result in a shrinking of the margins of malaria transmission across the peninsula. Epidemics in the 1990s galvanised national malaria control programmes to reinvigorate control efforts. Before the launch of the recent global ambition for malaria eradication, countries on the Arabian Peninsula launched a collaborative malaria-free initiative in 2005. This initiative led a further shrinking of the malaria risk map and today locally acquired clinical cases of malaria are reported only in Saudi Arabia and Yemen, with the latter contributing to over 98% of the clinical burden. PMID:23548086

  15. Biogeography and molecular diversity of coral symbionts in the genus Symbiodinium around the Arabian Peninsula

    Ziegler, Maren; Arif, Chatchanit; Burt, John A.; Dobretsov, Sergey; Roder, Cornelia; Lajeunesse, Todd C.; Voolstra, Christian R.

    2017-01-01

    Aim: Coral reefs rely on the symbiosis between scleractinian corals and intracellular, photosynthetic dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium making the assessment of symbiont diversity critical to our understanding of ecological resilience of these ecosystems. This study characterizes Symbiodinium diversity around the Arabian Peninsula, which contains some of the most thermally diverse and understudied reefs on Earth. Location: Shallow water coral reefs throughout the Red Sea (RS), Sea of Oman (SO), and Persian/Arabian Gulf (PAG). Methods: Next-generation sequencing of the ITS2 marker gene was used to assess Symbiodinium community composition and diversity comprising 892 samples from 46 hard and soft coral genera. Results: Corals were associated with a large diversity of Symbiodinium, which usually consisted of one or two prevalent symbiont types and many types at low abundance. Symbiodinium communities were strongly structured according to geographical region and to a lesser extent by coral host identity. Overall symbiont communities were composed primarily of species from clade A and C in the RS, clade A, C, and D in the SO, and clade C and D in the PAG, representing a gradual shift from C- to D-dominated coral hosts. The analysis of symbiont diversity in an Operational Taxonomic Unit (OTU)-based framework allowed the identification of differences in symbiont taxon richness over geographical regions and host genera. Main conclusions: Our study represents a comprehensive overview over biogeography and molecular diversity of Symbiodinium in the Arabian Seas, where coral reefs thrive in one of the most extreme environmental settings on the planet. As such our data will serve as a baseline for further exploration into the effects of environmental change on host-symbiont pairings and the identification and ecological significance of Symbiodinium types from regions already experiencing 'Future Ocean' conditions.

  16. Biogeography and molecular diversity of coral symbionts in the genus Symbiodinium around the Arabian Peninsula

    Ziegler, Maren

    2017-01-02

    Aim: Coral reefs rely on the symbiosis between scleractinian corals and intracellular, photosynthetic dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium making the assessment of symbiont diversity critical to our understanding of ecological resilience of these ecosystems. This study characterizes Symbiodinium diversity around the Arabian Peninsula, which contains some of the most thermally diverse and understudied reefs on Earth. Location: Shallow water coral reefs throughout the Red Sea (RS), Sea of Oman (SO), and Persian/Arabian Gulf (PAG). Methods: Next-generation sequencing of the ITS2 marker gene was used to assess Symbiodinium community composition and diversity comprising 892 samples from 46 hard and soft coral genera. Results: Corals were associated with a large diversity of Symbiodinium, which usually consisted of one or two prevalent symbiont types and many types at low abundance. Symbiodinium communities were strongly structured according to geographical region and to a lesser extent by coral host identity. Overall symbiont communities were composed primarily of species from clade A and C in the RS, clade A, C, and D in the SO, and clade C and D in the PAG, representing a gradual shift from C- to D-dominated coral hosts. The analysis of symbiont diversity in an Operational Taxonomic Unit (OTU)-based framework allowed the identification of differences in symbiont taxon richness over geographical regions and host genera. Main conclusions: Our study represents a comprehensive overview over biogeography and molecular diversity of Symbiodinium in the Arabian Seas, where coral reefs thrive in one of the most extreme environmental settings on the planet. As such our data will serve as a baseline for further exploration into the effects of environmental change on host-symbiont pairings and the identification and ecological significance of Symbiodinium types from regions already experiencing \\'Future Ocean\\' conditions.

  17. Simulation of synoptic and sub-synoptic phenomena over East Africa and Arabian Peninsula for current and future climate using a high resolution AGCM

    Raj, Jerry; Bangalath, Hamza Kunhu; Stenchikov, Georgiy L.

    2015-01-01

    between regional and global scale processes. Our initial results show that HiRAM simulations for historic period well reproduce the regional climate in East Africa and the Arabian Peninsula with their complex interplay of regional and global processes. Our

  18. Future projections of synoptic weather types over the Arabian Peninsula during the twenty-first century using an ensemble of CMIP5 models

    El Kenawy, Ahmed M.; McCabe, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    An assessment of future change in synoptic conditions over the Arabian Peninsula throughout the twenty-first century was performed using 20 climate models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) database. We employed the mean

  19. Mechanisms and Effects of Summertime Transport of African Dust Through the Tokar Mountain Gap to the Red Sea and Arabian Peninsula

    Kalenderski, S.; Stenchikov, G. L.

    2015-12-01

    Very high dust loading over the Red Sea region in summer strongly affects the nutrition balance and thermal and dynamic regimes of the sea. The observations suggest that small-scale local dynamic and orographic effects, from both the Arabian and African sides, strongly contribute to dust plume formation. To better understand and quantify these processes we present here the first high resolution modeling study of the dust outbreak phenomena in June 2012 over East Africa, the Red Sea, and the Arabian Peninsula using the WRF-Chem model. We identified several dust generating dynamical processes that range from convective to synoptic scales, including: synoptic cyclones, nocturnal low-level jets, and cold pools of mesoscale convective systems. The simulations reveal an eastward transport of African dust across the Red Sea. Over the northern part of the Red Sea most of the dust transport occurs beyond 2 km above ground level and is strengthened by a pressure gradient formed by low pressure over the eastern Mediterranean and high pressure over the Arabian Peninsula. Across the central and southern parts of the Red Sea dust is mostly transported below 2 km height. During the study period dust is a dominant contributor (87%) to aerosol optical depth (AOD), producing a domain average cooling effect of -12.1 W m-2 at surface, a warming of 7.1 W m-2 in the atmosphere, and a residual cooling of -4.9 W m-2 at the top of the atmosphere. WRF-Chem simulations demonstrate that both dry and wet deposition processes contribute significantly to dust removal from the atmosphere. During the dust outbreak 49.2 Tg of dust deposits within the calculation domain, which is approximately 90% of the total dust emission of 54.5 Tg. Model results compare well with available ground-based and satellite observations but generally underestimate the observed AOD maximum values.

  20. Timber resource of Michigan's Southern Lower Peninsula Unit, 1980.

    Jerold T. Hahn

    1982-01-01

    The fourth inventory of the timber resource of Michigan's Southern Lower Peninsula Survey Unit shows a 12% decline in commercial forest area and a 26% gain in growing-stock volume between 1966 and 1980. Presented are highlights and statistics on area, volume, growth, mortality, removals, utilization, and biomass.

  1. Dynamic thinning of glaciers on the Southern Antarctic Peninsula

    Wouters, B.; Martin-Espanol, A.; Helm, V.; Flament, T.; van Wessem, J. M.; Ligtenberg, S. R. M.; van den Broeke, M. R.; Bamber, J. L.

    2015-01-01

    Growing evidence has demonstrated the importance of ice shelf buttressing on the inland grounded ice, especially if it is resting on bedrock below sea level. Much of the Southern Antarctic Peninsula satisfies this condition and also possesses a bed slope that deepens inland. Such ice sheet geometry

  2. Crustal structure beneath the southern Korean Peninsula from local earthquakes

    Kim, Kwang-Hee; Park, Jung-Ho; Park, Yongcheol; Hao, Tian-Yao; Kim, Han-Joon

    2017-05-01

    The 3-D subsurface structure beneath the southern Korean Peninsula is poorly known, even though such information could be key in verifying or rejecting several competing models of the tectonic evolution of East Asia. We constructed a 3-D velocity model of the upper crust beneath the southern Korean Peninsula using 19 935 P-wave arrivals from 747 earthquakes recorded by high-density local seismic networks. Results show significant lateral and vertical variations: velocity increases from northwest to southeast at shallow depths, and significant velocity variations are observed across the South Korea Tectonic Line between the Okcheon Fold Belt and the Youngnam Massif. Collision between the North and South China blocks during the Early Cretaceous might have caused extensive deformation and the observed negative velocity anomalies in the region. The results of the tomographic inversion, combined with the findings of previous studies of Bouguer and isostatic gravity anomalies, indicate the presence of high-density material in the upper and middle crust beneath the Gyeongsang Basin in the southeastern Korean Peninsula. Although our results partially support the indentation tectonic model, it is still premature to discard other tectonic evolution models because our study only covers the southern half of the peninsula.

  3. High-resolution regional modeling of summertime transport and impact of African dust over the Red Sea and Arabian Peninsula

    Kalenderski, Stoitchko Dimitrov

    2016-05-23

    Severe dust outbreaks and high dust loading over Eastern Africa and the Red Sea are frequently detected in the summer season. Observations suggest that small-scale dynamic and orographic effects, from both the Arabian and African sides, strongly contribute to dust plume formation. To better understand these processes, we present here the first high resolution modeling study of a dust outbreak in June 2012 developed over East Africa, the Red Sea, and the Arabian Peninsula. Using the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry component (WRF-Chem), we identified several dust generating dynamical processes that range from convective to synoptic scales, including synoptic cyclones, nocturnal low-level jets, and cold pools of mesoscale convective systems. The simulations reveal an eastward transport of African dust across the Red Sea. Over the northern part of the Red Sea, most of the dust transport occurs above 2 km height, whereas across the central and southern parts of the sea, dust is mostly transported below 2 km height. Dust is the dominant contributor (87%) to the aerosol optical depth, producing a domain average cooling effect of -12.1 W m-2 at the surface, a warming of 7.1 W m-2 in the atmosphere, and a residual cooling of -4.9 W m-2 at the top of the atmosphere. Both dry and wet deposition processes contribute significantly to dust removal from the atmosphere. Model results compare well with available ground-based and satellite observations, but generally underestimate the observed maximum values of aerosol optical depth. The satellite-retrieved mean optical depth at some locations are underestimated by a factor of two. A sensitive experiment suggests that these large local differences may result from poor characterization of dust emissions in some areas of the modeled domain. In this case study we successfully simulate the major fine-scale dust generating dynamical processes, explicitly resolving convection and haboob

  4. Quantifying the impacts of landscape heterogeneity and model resolution on dust emissions in the Arabian Peninsula

    Shi, Mingjie; Yang, Zong-Liang; Stenchikov, Georgiy L.; Parajuli, Sagar P.; Tao, Weichun; Kalenderski, Stoitchko

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluates the spatiotemporal variability of dust emission in the Arabian Peninsula and quantifies the emission sensitivity to the land-cover heterogeneity by using the Community Land Model version 4 (CLM43) at three different spatial resolutions. The land-cover heterogeneity is represented by the CLM4-default plant function types (PFTs) and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) land cover types, respectively, at different grids. We area-average surface vegetation data and use the default nearest neighbor method to interpolate meteorological variables. We find that using MODIS data leads to a slightly higher coverage of vegetated land than the default PFT data; the former also gives more dust emission than the latter at 25- and 50-km grids as the default PFT data have more gridcells favoring less dust emission. The research highlights the importance of using proper data-processing methods or dust emission thresholds to preserve the dust emission accuracy in land models. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Natural radioactivity in groundwater from the south-eastern Arabian Peninsula and environmental implications.

    Murad, A; Zhou, X D; Yi, P; Alshamsi, D; Aldahan, A; Hou, X L; Yu, Z B

    2014-10-01

    Groundwater is the most valuable resource in arid regions, and recognizing radiological criteria among other water quality parameters is essential for sustainable use. In the investigation presented here, gross-α and gross-β were measured in groundwater samples collected in the south-eastern Arabian Peninsula, 67 wells in Unite Arab Emirates (UAE), as well as two wells and one spring in Oman. The results show a wide gross-α and gross-β activities range in the groundwater samples that vary at 0.01∼19.5 Bq/l and 0.13∼6.6 Bq/l, respectively. The data show gross-β and gross-α values below the WHO permissible limits for drinking water in the majority of the investigated samples except those in region 4 (Jabel Hafit and surroundings). No correlation between groundwater pH and the gross-α and gross-β, while high temperatures probably enhance leaching of radionuclides from the aquifer body and thereby increase the radioactivity in the groundwater. This conclusion is also supported by the positive correlation between radioactivity and amount of total dissolved solid. Particular water purification technology and environmental impact assessments are essential for sustainable and secure use of the groundwater in regions that show radioactivity values far above the WHO permissible limit for drinking water.

  6. Quantifying the impacts of landscape heterogeneity and model resolution on dust emissions in the Arabian Peninsula

    Shi, Mingjie

    2016-01-11

    This study evaluates the spatiotemporal variability of dust emission in the Arabian Peninsula and quantifies the emission sensitivity to the land-cover heterogeneity by using the Community Land Model version 4 (CLM43) at three different spatial resolutions. The land-cover heterogeneity is represented by the CLM4-default plant function types (PFTs) and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) land cover types, respectively, at different grids. We area-average surface vegetation data and use the default nearest neighbor method to interpolate meteorological variables. We find that using MODIS data leads to a slightly higher coverage of vegetated land than the default PFT data; the former also gives more dust emission than the latter at 25- and 50-km grids as the default PFT data have more gridcells favoring less dust emission. The research highlights the importance of using proper data-processing methods or dust emission thresholds to preserve the dust emission accuracy in land models. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Planktonic foraminifera from a quaternary deep sea core from the southern Arabian Sea

    Naidu, P.D.; Rao, P.S.; Pattan, J.N.

    An investigation on planktonic foraminifera and calcium carbonate content of a box core collected at a depth of 2556 m from the southern part of the Arabian sea indicates faunal changes depicting Quaternary climatic fluctuations. Based on the study...

  8. Modeling a typical winter-time dust event over the Arabian Peninsula and the Red Sea

    S. Kalenderski

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We used WRF-Chem, a regional meteorological model coupled with an aerosol-chemistry component, to simulate various aspects of the dust phenomena over the Arabian Peninsula and Red Sea during a typical winter-time dust event that occurred in January 2009. The model predicted that the total amount of emitted dust was 18.3 Tg for the entire dust outburst period and that the two maximum daily rates were ~2.4 Tg day−1 and ~1.5 Tg day−1, corresponding to two periods with the highest aerosol optical depth that were well captured by ground- and satellite-based observations. The model predicted that the dust plume was thick, extensive, and mixed in a deep boundary layer at an altitude of 3–4 km. Its spatial distribution was modeled to be consistent with typical spatial patterns of dust emissions. We utilized MODIS-Aqua and Solar Village AERONET measurements of the aerosol optical depth (AOD to evaluate the radiative impact of aerosols. Our results clearly indicated that the presence of dust particles in the atmosphere caused a significant reduction in the amount of solar radiation reaching the surface during the dust event. We also found that dust aerosols have significant impact on the energy and nutrient balances of the Red Sea. Our results showed that the simulated cooling under the dust plume reached 100 W m−2, which could have profound effects on both the sea surface temperature and circulation. Further analysis of dust generation and its spatial and temporal variability is extremely important for future projections and for better understanding of the climate and ecological history of the Red Sea.

  9. Modeling a typical winter-time dust event over the Arabian Peninsula and the Red Sea

    Kalenderski, Stoitchko

    2013-02-20

    We used WRF-Chem, a regional meteorological model coupled with an aerosol-chemistry component, to simulate various aspects of the dust phenomena over the Arabian Peninsula and Red Sea during a typical winter-time dust event that occurred in January 2009. The model predicted that the total amount of emitted dust was 18.3 Tg for the entire dust outburst period and that the two maximum daily rates were ?2.4 Tg day-1 and ?1.5 Tg day-1, corresponding to two periods with the highest aerosol optical depth that were well captured by ground-and satellite-based observations. The model predicted that the dust plume was thick, extensive, and mixed in a deep boundary layer at an altitude of 3-4 km. Its spatial distribution was modeled to be consistent with typical spatial patterns of dust emissions. We utilized MODIS-Aqua and Solar Village AERONET measurements of the aerosol optical depth (AOD) to evaluate the radiative impact of aerosols. Our results clearly indicated that the presence of dust particles in the atmosphere caused a significant reduction in the amount of solar radiation reaching the surface during the dust event. We also found that dust aerosols have significant impact on the energy and nutrient balances of the Red Sea. Our results showed that the simulated cooling under the dust plume reached 100 W m-2, which could have profound effects on both the sea surface temperature and circulation. Further analysis of dust generation and its spatial and temporal variability is extremely important for future projections and for better understanding of the climate and ecological history of the Red Sea.

  10. Simulation and analysis of synoptic scale dust storms over the Arabian Peninsula

    Beegum, S. Naseema; Gherboudj, Imen; Chaouch, Naira; Temimi, Marouane; Ghedira, Hosni

    2018-01-01

    Dust storms are among the most severe environmental problems in arid and semi-arid regions of the world. The predictability of seven dust events, viz. D1: April 2-4, 2014; D2: February 23-24, 2015; D3: April 1-3, 2015; D4: March 26-28, 2016; D5: August 3-5, 2016; D6: March 13-14, 2017 and D7:March 19-21, 2017, are investigated over the Arabian Peninsula using a regionally adapted chemistry transport model CHIMERE coupled with the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model. The hourly forecast products of particulate matter concentrations (PM10) and aerosol optical depths (AOD) are compared against both satellite-based (MSG/SEVRI RGB dust, MODIS Deep Blue Aerosol Optical Depth: DB-AOD, Ozone Monitoring Instrument observed UV Aerosol Absorption Index: OMI-AI) and ground-based (AERONET AOD) remote sensing products. The spatial pattern and the time series of the simulations show good agreement with the observations in terms of the dust intensity as well as the spatiotemporal distribution. The causative mechanisms of these dust events are identified by the concurrent analyses of the meteorological data. From these seven storms, five are associated with synoptic scale meteorological processes, such as prefrontal storms (D1 and D7), postfrontal storms of short (D2), and long (D3) duration types, and a summer shamal storm (D6). However, the storms D4 and D6 are partly associated with mesoscale convective type dust episodes known as haboobs. The socio-economic impacts of the dust events have been assessed by estimating the horizontal visibility, air quality index (AQI), and the dust deposition flux (DDF) from the forecasted dust concentrations. During the extreme dust events, the horizontal visibility drops to near-zero values co-occurred withhazardous levels of AQI and extremely high dust deposition flux (250 μg cm- 2 day- 1).

  11. Natality and calf mortality of the Northern Alaska Peninsula and Southern Alaska Peninsula caribou herds

    Richard A. Sellers

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available We studied natality in the Northern Alaska Peninsula (NAP and Southern Alaska Peninsula (SAP caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti herds during 1996-1999, and mortality and weights of calves during 1998 and 1999- Natality was lower in the NAP than the SAP primarily because most 3-year-old females did not produce calves in the NAP Patterns of calf mortality in the NAP and SAP differed from those in Interior Alaska primarily because neonatal (i.e., during the first 2 weeks of life mortality was relatively low, but mortality continued to be significant through August in both herds, and aggregate annual mortality was extreme (86% in the NAP Predators probably killed more neonatal calves in the SAP, primarily because a wolf den (Canis lupus was located on the calving area. Despite the relatively high density of brown bears (Ursus arctos and bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus, these predators killed surprisingly few calves. Golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos were uncommon on the Alaska Peninsula. At least 2 calves apparently died from pneu¬monia in the range of the NAP but none were suspected to have died from disease in the range of the SAP. Heavy scav¬enging by bald eagles complicated determining cause of death of calves in both the NAP and SAP.

  12. Radiation closure and diurnal cycle of the clear-sky dust instantaneous direct radiative forcing over Arabian Peninsula

    Osipov, Sergey

    2015-04-01

    To better quantify radiative effects of dust over the Arabian Peninsula we have developed a standalone column radiation transport model coupled with the Mie calculations and driven by reanalysis meteorological fields and atmospheric composition. Numerical experiments are carried out for a wide range of aerosol optical depths, including extreme values developed during the dust storm on 18-20 March 2012. Comprehensive ground-based observations and satellite retrievals are used to estimate aerosol optical properties, validate calculations and carry out radiation closure. The broadband surface albedo, fluxes at the bottom and top of the atmosphere as well as instantaneous dust radiative forcing are estimated both from the model and from observations. Diurnal cycle of the the shortwave instantaneous dust direct radiative forcing is studied for a range of aerosol and surface characteristics representative for the Arabian Peninsula. Mechanisms and parameters responsible for diurnal variability of the radiative forcing are evaluated. We found that intrinsic variability of the surface albedo and its dependence on atmospheric conditions along with anisotropic aerosol scattering are mostly responsible for diurnal effects. We also discuss estimates of the climatological dust instantaneous direct radiative forcing over land and the Red Sea using two approaches. The first approach is based on the probability density function of the aerosol optical depth, and the second is based on the climatologically average Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) aerosol optical depth. Results are compared with Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget (GERB) derived top of the atmosphere climatological forcing over the Red Sea.

  13. Genetic variability of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci and its secondary endosymbionts in the Arabian Peninsula

    Ragab, Alaa I.

    2013-05-01

    The whitefly Bemisia tabaci species complex has been well documented as one of the most economically important emergent plant virus vectors, through serious feeding damage to its broad range of plant hosts and transmission of plant viruses to important agricultural crops. It has been shown to have associations with endosymbionts which have significant effects on the insect fitness. The purpose of this study was to provide information for the biotype and secondary endosymbiont distribution for B. tabaci populations in the relatively unstudied Arabian peninsula. The geographical localization and variation in endosymbiont populations across the region were identified using a sequence-driven analysis of the population genetics of the secondary endosymbiont. Live field specimens were collected from 22 different locations in the region and preserved in 70% ethanol for genetic studies. Previously established procedures were used to extract and purify total insect DNA from 24-30 individual whiteflies for each location (Frohlich et al., 1999; Chiel et al., 2007). Specimens were subjected to PCR amplification using the respective 16S rDNAprimers for the Rickettsia, Hamiltonella, and Wolbachia to amplify endosymbiont DNA. PCR was run with primers for the highly conserved whitefly mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene for biotyping. Samples were sequenced using the Sanger method and the data analyzed to correlate the presence, prevalence and geographical distribution of endosymbionts in B. tabaci. Phylogenies 5 were constructed to track evolutionary differences amongst the endosymbionts and insects and how they have influenced the evolution of the regional populations. Samples were characterized by differences in the genomes and endosymbionts of common whitefly ‘biotypes’ that have different host plant preferences, vector capacities and insecticide resistance characteristics. It was found that the B biotype is the predominant haplotype, with no evidence of

  14. Water-Energy Nexus Challenges & Opportunities in the Arabian Peninsula under Climate Change

    Flores-Lopez, F.; Yates, D. N.; Galaitsi, S.; Binnington, T.; Dougherty, W.; Vinnaccia, M.; Glavan, J. C.

    2016-12-01

    Demand for water in the GCC countries relies mainly on fossil groundwater resources and desalination. Satisfying water demand requires a great deal of energy as it treats and moves water along the supply chain from sources, through treatment processes, and ultimately to the consumer. Hence, there is an inherent connection between water and energy and with climate change, the links between water and energy are expected to become even stronger. As part of AGEDI's Local, National, and Regional Climate Change Programme, a study of the water-energy nexus of the countries in the Arabian Peninsula was implemented. For water, WEAP models both water demand - and its main drivers - and water supply, simulating policies, priorities and preferences. For energy, LEAP models both energy supply and demand, and is able to capture the impacts of low carbon development strategies. A coupled WEAP-LEAP model was then used to evaluate the future performance of the energy-water system under climate change and policy scenarios. The coupled models required detailed data, which were obtained through literature reviews and consultations with key stakeholders in the region. As part of this process, the outputs of both models were validated for historic periods using existing data The models examined 5 policy scenarios of different futures of resource management to the year 2060. A future under current management practices with current climate and a climate projection based on the RCP8.5; a High Efficiency scenario where each country gradually implements policies to reduce the consumption of water and electricity; a Natural Resource Protection scenario with resource efficiency and phasing out of groundwater extraction and drastic reduction of fossil fuel usage in favor of solar; and an Integrated Policy scenario that integrates the prior two policy scenarios Water demands can mostly be met in any scenario through supply combinations of groundwater, desalination and wastewater reuse, with some

  15. Water scarcity in the Arabian Peninsula and socio-economic implications

    Odhiambo, George O.

    2017-09-01

    The Arabian Gulf, one of the driest parts of the world, is already passing the water scarcity line as defined by the World Health Organization (WHO). The scarcity of renewable water resources and the growing discrepancy between demand and supply of water is a major challenge. Water scarcity is further worsened by rapidly growing demands due to rapid population growth, unsustainable consumption, climate change and weak management institutions and regulations. Water scarcity erodes the socio-economic sustainability of the communities that depend on the depleting storage. In this paper, an analysis of the water security situation within the Arabian Gulf region and the consequent socio-economic implications is presented.

  16. Pollination Biology and Spatio-Temporal Structuring of Some Major Acacia Species (Leguminosae) of the Arabian Peninsula

    Adgaba, N.; Alghamidi, A.; Tadesse, Y.; Getachew, A.; Ansari, M. J.

    2016-01-01

    Acacias are the dominant woody plant species distributed over the vast tracts of land throughout the Arabian Peninsula. However, information on spatio-temporal structuring and pollination biology of the species is not precisely available. To determine whether any variations exist among the Acacia species in their temporal distribution, their flowering period was determined through monitoring the commencing, peaking and ending of flowering of each species. Moreover, if any variations exist in release of floral rewards among the different co-existing and co-flowering species as mechanisms of partitioning of pollinators, to minimize competition for pollination, the progress of their anthesis over time was recorded by scoring polyads to anthers ratio at different hours of a day. In addition, the amount and dynamics of nectar sugar per inflorescence (N =225/species) was determined following flower nectar sugar washing technique. Types and frequencies of flower visitors and their preferences were determined by recording the visitors 6 times a day. The current study revealed that the Acacia species of the Arabian Peninsula are spatio-temporally structured: some species co-exist yet have different flowering seasons, whereas others co-exist, flowering concurrently yet exhibit a shift in their time of peak flowering and in the time at which the peak pollen is released during the day. This study demonstrates that all Acacia species examined secrete a considerable amount of nectar (2.24+-1.72 -10.02+-4.0mg/inflorescence) which serves as a floral reward for pollinators. Insects of the Order Hymenoptera are the most prevalent visitors to Acacia species in the region. The variations in spatio-temporal structuring of the Acaciaspecies could be due to their adaptation of reducing competition for pollinators and minimizing hetero-specific pollen transfer. (author)

  17. A systematic review of physical activity and sedentary behaviour research in the oil-producing countries of the Arabian Peninsula

    Ruth Mabry

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The dramatic rise in Noncommunicable Diseases (NCD in the oil-producing countries of the Arabian Peninsula is driven in part by insufficient physical activity, one of the five main contributors to health risk in the region. The aim of this paper is to review the available evidence on physical activity and sedentary behaviour for this region. Based on the findings, we prioritize an agenda for research that could inform policy initiatives with regional relevance. Methods We reviewed regional evidence on physical activity and sedentary behaviour to identify the needs for prevention and policy-related research. A literature search of peer-reviewed publications in the English language was conducted in May 2016 using PubMed, Web of Science and Google Scholar. 100 studies were identified and classified using the Behavioural Epidemiology Framework. Results Review findings demonstrate that research relevant to NCD prevention is underdeveloped in the region. A majority of the studies were epidemiological in approach with few being large-scale population-based studies using standardised measures. Correlates demonstrated expected associations with health outcomes, low levels of physical activity (particularly among young people, high levels of sedentary behaviour (particularly among men and young people and expected associations of known correlates (e.g. gender, age, education, time, self-motivation, social support, and access. Very few studies offered recommendations for translating research findings into practice. Conclusions Further research on the determinants of physical activity and sedentary behaviour in the Arabian Peninsula using standard assessment tools is urgently needed. Priority research includes examining these behaviours across the four domains (household, work, transport and leisure. Intervention research focusing on the sectors of education, health and sports sectors is recommended. Furthermore, adapting and testing

  18. Fractal behaviour of the seismicity in the Southern Iberian Peninsula

    X. Lana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The fractal behaviour of the seismicity in the Southern Iberian Peninsula is analysed by considering two different series of data: the distance and the elapsed time between consecutive seismic events recorded by the seismic network of the Andalusian Institute of Geophysics (AIG. The fractal analyses have been repeated by considering four threshold magnitudes of 2.5, 3.0, 3.5 and 4.0. The re-scaled analysis lets to determine if the seismicity shows strong randomness or if it is characterised by time-persistence and the cluster dimension indicates the degree of time and spatial clustering of the seismicity. Another analysis, based on the reconstruction theorem, permits to evaluate the minimum number of nonlinear equations describing the dynamical mechanism of the seismicity, its 'loss of memory', its chaotic character and the instability of a possible predicting algorithm. The results obtained depict some differences depending on distances or elapsed times and the different threshold levels of magnitude also lead to slightly different results. Additionally, only a part of the fractal tools, the re-scaled analysis, have been applied to five seismic crises in the same area.

  19. Millennial-scale record of overwash deposits preserved within lagoon sediments from the Arabian Peninsula

    Griffis, A. M.; Jessica, P.; Reinhardt, E. G.; Kosciuch, T. J.; Kovacs, S. E.; Hoffmann, G.

    2017-12-01

    Coastlines along the Arabian Sea are susceptible to tsunami-related inundation due to their proximity to the Makran Subduction Zone (MSZ). This subduction zone has seen decades of low intensity events, but has historically produced large tsunamigenic-earthquakes that have impacted the 100 million people living along the Arabian Sea. One major problem in assessing the seismic risk of the MSZ is that the historical record of events are spatially and temporally limited and rely heavily on eye witness accounts. This hinders our ability to forecast the potential magnitude and recurrence intervals of earthquakes and tsunamis that can be expected in the future. Sediments deposited by paleotsunamis are useful as they expand the decadal record of events to include millennial timescales that more accurately capture the full range of magnitudes and recurrence intervals. On November 28, 1945 a 8.1 Mw earthquake originating from the MSZ generated a tsunami inundating coastlines along the Arabian Sea with wave heights up to 13m. At Sur, a small village on the northeastern coastline of Oman, the tsunami deposited a laterally continuous shell-rich layer within a 12 km2 lagoon. This layer contained distinctive taphonomic assemblages of foraminifera and bivalves. Below the 1945 shelly deposit at Sur Lagoon, seven anomalous sand layers were found preserved within fine-grained lagoonal sediment. These layers of medium-coarse sands range in thickness from 5 to 35 cm and are separated by sandy-mud sediment. Grain size analysis shows that these anomalously coarse layers are followed by an abrupt return to lagoonal mud. The sand layers have features consistent with the 1945 tsunami deposit such as fining upward trends, sharp basal contact, and marine foraminifera (e.g., Amphistegina sp., planktics). In contrast, the surrounding lagoon deposits are generally massive, finer in grain size, and contain foraminiferal species typically found in shallow quiescent coastal environments (e

  20. Verification of Rapid Focused-Recharge in Depressions of Kuwait and the Arabian Peninsula Using Thermal and VNIR Remote Sensing

    Rotz, R. R.; Milewski, A.

    2013-12-01

    In the Arabian Peninsula, freshwater recharge from rainfall is infrequent. Recharge is typically focused in small depressions that fill with seasonal runoff and potentially form freshwater lenses. This phenomenon has been verified in the Raudhatain watershed in Kuwait. This study aims to substantiate previously hypothesized lens locations and detect water in the subsurface by using thermal remote sensing and rainfall data. Potential freshwater lenses (~142) have been previously postulated throughout Kuwait and Saudi Arabia, but lack verification due to inadequate monitoring networks. We hypothesize that due to water's unique heat capacity, recharge zones can be detected by identifying areas with lower changes in surface radiance values than neighboring dry areas between day and night after peak or sustained rainfall. If successful, recharge zones and freshwater lenses can be identified and verified in remote hyper-arid regions. We collected 320 high-resolution (15m - 90m), low cloud cover (lens locations, runoff channels, agricultural regions, and wetlands were detected in areas where radiance values change between 0.067 - 2.25 Wsr-1m-2 from day to night scenes and verified by Google Earth (15m), Landsat (30m), and ASTER VNIR (15m) images. Additionally, two seasonal peak rainfall (~35mm/day) events positively correlate with the surface radiance difference values. Surface radiance values for dry areas adjacent to the postulated lens locations range between 2.25 - 12.2 Wsr-1m-2. Results demonstrate the potential for shallow groundwater detection through the presence of ephemeral water bodies in hyper-arid regions en masse; however, the absence of comparable diurnal images limits data in these regions. Linking high rainfall events with low diurnal surface radiance images is ideal for capturing the presence of temporary surface runoff and recharge zones. Expanded research on hyper-arid regions including thermal values, proposed lens locations, and in-situ data will

  1. Implications of Water Budget Deficits on Socio-Economic Stability and Food Security in the Arabian Peninsula and in North Africa

    Mazzoni, A.; Heggy, E.; Scabbia, G.

    2017-12-01

    Water scarcity in the Arabian Peninsula and North Africa is accentuated by forecasted climatic variability, decreasing precipitation volumes and projected population growth, urbanization and economic development, increasing water demand. These factors impose uncertainties on food security and socio-economic stability in the region. We develop a water-budget model combining hydrologic, climatic and economic data to quantify water deficit volumes and groundwater depletion rates for the main aquifer systems in the area, taking into account three different climatic scenarios, and calculated from the precipitation forecast elaborated in the CSIRO, ECHAM4 and HADCM3 global circulation models from 2016 to 2050 over 1-year intervals. Water demand comprises water requirements for each economic sector, derived from data such as population, GDP, cropland cover and electricity production, and is based upon the five different SSPs. Conventional and non-conventional water resource supply data are retrieved from FAO Aquastat and institutional databases. Our results suggest that in the next 35 years, in North Africa, only Egypt and Libya will exhibit severe water deficits with respectively 44% and 89.7% of their current water budgets by 2050 (SSP2-AVG climatic scenario), while all the countries in the Arabian Peninsula will be subjected to water stress; the majority of small-size aquifers in the Arabian Peninsula will reach full depletion by 2050. In North Africa, the fossil aquifers' volume loss will be 1-15% by 2050, and total depletion within 200-300 years. Our study suggests that (1) anthropogenic drivers on water resources are harsher than projected climatic variability; (2) the estimated water deficit will induce substantial rise in domestic food production's costs, causing higher dependency on food imports; and (3) projected water deficits will most strongly impact the nations with the lowest GDPP, namely Egypt, Yemen and Libya.

  2. J.M. Gratale on Tore T. Petersen’s Richard Nixon, Great Britain and the Anglo-American Alignment in the Persian Gulf and Arabian Peninsula

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Tore T. Petersen. Richard Nixon, Great Britain and the Anglo-American Alignment in the Persian Gulf and Arabian Peninsula: Making Allies out of Clients. Sussex Academic Press, 2009.  172pp.  978-1-84519-277-8.Since the events of 9-11 there has been a sizeable quantity of books published on American foreign policy in broad terms, as well as more focused studies on contemporary developments in southwest Asia, more commonly referred to as the Middle East. Many of these volumes are highly politic...

  3. Population History of the Red Sea. Genetic Exchanges Between the Arabian Peninsula and East Africa Signaled in the Mitochondrial DNA HV1 Haplogroup

    Musilová, E.; Fernandes, V.; Silva, N. M.; Soares, P.; Alshamali, F.; Harich, N.; Cherni, L.; El Gaaied, A. B. A.; Al-Meeri, A.; Pereira, L.; Černý, Viktor

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 145, č. 4 (2011), s. 592-598 ISSN 0002-9483 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 917 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80020508 Keywords : mtDNA genomes * HV1 haplogroup * Arabian Peninsula * East Africa Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology Impact factor: 2.824, year: 2011 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ajpa.21522/abstract;jsessionid=06420E45513D054B63DFDE068F111692.d03t01

  4. Geological analysis of parts of the southern Arabian Shield based on Landsat imagery

    Qari, Mohammed Yousef Hedaytullah T.

    This thesis examines the capability and applicability of Landsat multispectral remote sensing data for geological analysis in the arid southern Arabian Shield, which is the eastern segment of the Nubian-Arabian Shield surrounding the Red Sea. The major lithologies in the study area are Proterozoic metavolcanics, metasediments, gneisses and granites. Three test-sites within the study area, located within two tectonic assemblages, the Asir Terrane and the Nabitah Mobile Belt, were selected for detailed comparison of remote sensing methods and ground geological studies. Selected digital image processing techniques were applied to full-resolution Landsat TM imagery and the results are interpreted and discussed. Methods included: image contrast improvement, edge enhancement for detecting lineaments and spectral enhancement for geological mapping. The last method was based on two principles, statistical analysis of the data and the use of arithmetical operators. New and detailed lithological and structural maps were constructed and compared with previous maps of these sites. Examples of geological relations identified using TM imagery include: recognition and mapping of migmatites for the first time in the Arabian Shield; location of the contact between the Asir Terrane and the Nabitah Mobile Belt; and mapping of lithologies, some of which were not identified on previous geological maps. These and other geological features were confirmed by field checking. Methods of lineament enhancement implemented in this study revealed structural lineaments, mostly mapped for the first time, which can be related to regional tectonics. Structural analysis showed that the southern Arabian Shield has been affected by at least three successive phases of deformation. The third phase is the most dominant and widespread. A crustal evolutionary model in the vicinity of the study area is presented showing four stages, these are: arc stage, accretion stage, collision stage and post

  5. 3-D crustal structure beneath the southern Korean Peninsula from local earthquakes

    Kim, K. H.; Park, J. H.; Park, Y.; Hao, T.; Kang, S. Y.; Kim, H. J.

    2017-12-01

    Located at the eastern margin of the Eurasian continent, the geology and tectonic evolution of the Korean Peninsula are closely related to the rest of the Asian continent. Although the widespread deformation of eastern Asia and its relation to the geology and tectonics of the Korean Peninsula have been extensively studied, the answers to many fundamental questions about the peninsula's history remain inconclusive. The three-dimensional subsurface structure beneath the southern Korean Peninsula is poorly known, even though such information could be key in verifying or rejecting several competing models of the tectonic evolution of East Asia. We constructed a three-dimensional velocity model of the upper crust beneath the southern Korean Peninsula using 19,935 P-wave arrivals from 747 earthquakes recorded by high-density local seismic networks maintained by Korea Meteorological Administration and Korea Institute of Geosciences and Mineral Resources. Results show significant lateral and vertical variations: velocity increases from northwest to southeast at shallow depths, and significant velocity variations are observed across the South Korea Tectonic Line between the Okcheon Fold Belt and the Youngnam Massif. Collision between the North China and South China blocks during the Early Cretaceous might have caused extensive deformation and the observed negative velocity anomalies in the region. The results of the tomographic inversion, combined with the findings of previous studies of Bouguer and isostatic gravity anomalies, indicate the presence of high-density material in the upper and middle crust beneath the Gyeongsang Basin in the southeastern Korean Peninsula. Although our results partially support the indentation tectonic model, it is still premature to discard other tectonic evolution models because our study only covers the southern half of the peninsula.

  6. Wetlands, wild Bovidae species richness and sheep density delineate risk of Rift Valley fever outbreaks in the African continent and Arabian Peninsula.

    Michael G Walsh

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Rift Valley fever (RVF is an emerging, vector-borne viral zoonosis that has significantly impacted public health, livestock health and production, and food security over the last three decades across large regions of the African continent and the Arabian Peninsula. The potential for expansion of RVF outbreaks within and beyond the range of previous occurrence is unknown. Despite many large national and international epidemics, the landscape epidemiology of RVF remains obscure, particularly with respect to the ecological roles of wildlife reservoirs and surface water features. The current investigation modeled RVF risk throughout Africa and the Arabian Peninsula as a function of a suite of biotic and abiotic landscape features using machine learning methods. Intermittent wetland, wild Bovidae species richness and sheep density were associated with increased landscape suitability to RVF outbreaks. These results suggest the role of wildlife hosts and distinct hydrogeographic landscapes in RVF virus circulation and subsequent outbreaks may be underestimated. These results await validation by studies employing a deeper, field-based interrogation of potential wildlife hosts within high risk taxa.

  7. Seascape genetics along environmental gradients in the Arabian Peninsula: insights from ddRAD sequencing of anemonefishes

    Saenz Agudelo, Pablo

    2015-11-17

    Understanding the processes that shape patterns of genetic structure across space is a central aim of landscape genetics. However, it remains unclear how geographic features and environmental variables shape gene flow, particularly for marine species in large complex seascapes. Here, we evaluated the genomic composition of the two-band anemonefish Amphiprion bicinctus across its entire geographic range in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden, as well as its close relative, Amphiprion omanensis endemic to the southern coast of Oman. Both the Red Sea and the Arabian Sea are complex and environmentally heterogeneous marine systems that provide an ideal scenario to address these questions. Our findings confirm the presence of two genetic clusters previously reported for A. bicinctus in the Red Sea. Genetic structure analyses suggest a complex seascape configuration, with evidence of both Isolation by Distance (IBD) and Isolation by Environment (IBE). In addition to IBD and IBE, genetic structure among sites was best explained when two barriers to gene flow were also accounted for. One of these coincides with a strong oligotrophic-eutrophic gradient at around 16-20˚N in the Red Sea. The other agrees with an historical bathymetric barrier at the straight of Bab al Mandab. Finally, these data support the presence of inter-specific hybrids at an intermediate suture zone at Socotra and indicate complex patterns of genomic admixture in the Gulf of Aden with evidence of introgression between species. Our findings highlight the power of recent genomic approaches to resolve subtle patterns of gene flow in marine seascapes.

  8. Seascape genetics along environmental gradients in the Arabian Peninsula: insights from ddRAD sequencing of anemonefishes

    Saenz Agudelo, Pablo; DiBattista, Joseph; Piatek, Marek J.; Gaither, Michelle R.; Harrison, Hugo B.; Nanninga, Gerrit B.; Berumen, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the processes that shape patterns of genetic structure across space is a central aim of landscape genetics. However, it remains unclear how geographic features and environmental variables shape gene flow, particularly for marine species in large complex seascapes. Here, we evaluated the genomic composition of the two-band anemonefish Amphiprion bicinctus across its entire geographic range in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden, as well as its close relative, Amphiprion omanensis endemic to the southern coast of Oman. Both the Red Sea and the Arabian Sea are complex and environmentally heterogeneous marine systems that provide an ideal scenario to address these questions. Our findings confirm the presence of two genetic clusters previously reported for A. bicinctus in the Red Sea. Genetic structure analyses suggest a complex seascape configuration, with evidence of both Isolation by Distance (IBD) and Isolation by Environment (IBE). In addition to IBD and IBE, genetic structure among sites was best explained when two barriers to gene flow were also accounted for. One of these coincides with a strong oligotrophic-eutrophic gradient at around 16-20˚N in the Red Sea. The other agrees with an historical bathymetric barrier at the straight of Bab al Mandab. Finally, these data support the presence of inter-specific hybrids at an intermediate suture zone at Socotra and indicate complex patterns of genomic admixture in the Gulf of Aden with evidence of introgression between species. Our findings highlight the power of recent genomic approaches to resolve subtle patterns of gene flow in marine seascapes.

  9. Petrology and chemistry of Jebel Tanumah complex, Khamis Mushayt, Southern Arabian shield, Saudi Arabia

    Nassief, M. O.; Ali, H. M.; Zakir, F. A.

    The mafic intrusive complex at Jebel Tanumah is located 15 km north-west of Khamis Mushayt in the southern Arabian Shield and includes olivine-bearing gabbro as well as amphibole-diopside-hornblende gabbro cumulates. These rocks have been generally metamorphosed to upper greeenschist-lower amphibolite facies. Fourteen white rock silicate analyses indicate that the majority of the rocks are calc-alkaline to tholeiitic in composition. The two major structural units in the Khamis Mushayt region identified by Coleman consist of the basement complex of Asir Mountains and the younger metamorphic rocks. Syntectonic granitic rocks intruded the antiforms characterizing the younger rocks whereas the lower parts of the synforms are intruded by post-tectonic intrusions of layered gabbros such as the one studied at Jebel Tanumah.

  10. The role of land surface fluxes in Saudi-KAU AGCM: Temperature climatology over the Arabian Peninsula for the period 1981-2010

    Ashfaqur Rahman, M.; Almazroui, Mansour; Nazrul Islam, M.; O'Brien, Enda; Yousef, Ahmed Elsayed

    2018-02-01

    A new version of the Community Land Model (CLM) was introduced to the Saudi King Abdulaziz University Atmospheric Global Climate Model (Saudi-KAU AGCM) for better land surface component representation, and so to enhance climate simulation. CLM replaced the original land surface model (LSM) in Saudi-KAU AGCM, with the aim of simulating more accurate land surface fluxes globally, but especially over the Arabian Peninsula. To evaluate the performance of Saudi-KAU AGCM, simulations were completed with CLM and LSM for the period 1981-2010. In comparison with LSM, CLM generates surface air temperature values that are closer to National Centre for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) observations. The global annual averages of land surface air temperature are 9.51, 9.52, and 9.57 °C for NCEP, CLM, and LSM respectively, although the same atmospheric radiative and surface forcing from Saudi-KAU AGCM are provided to both LSM and CLM at every time step. The better temperature simulations when using CLM can be attributed to the more comprehensive plant functional type and hierarchical tile approach to the land cover type in CLM, along with better parameterization of upward land surface fluxes compared to LSM. At global scale, CLM exhibits smaller annual and seasonal mean biases of temperature with respect to NCEP data. Moreover, at regional scale, CLM demonstrates reasonable seasonal and annual mean temperature over the Arabian Peninsula as compared to the Climatic Research Unit (CRU) data. Finally, CLM generated better matches to single point-wise observations of surface air temperature and surface fluxes for some case studies.

  11. Simulation of synoptic and sub-synoptic phenomena over East Africa and Arabian Peninsula for current and future climate using a high resolution AGCM

    Raj, Jerry

    2015-04-01

    Climate regimes of East Africa and Arabia are complex and are poorly understood. East Africa has large-scale tropical controls like major convergence zones and air streams. The region is in the proximity of two monsoons, north-east and south-west, and the humid and thermally unstable Congo air stream. The domain comprises regions with one, two, and three rainfall maxima, and the rainfall pattern over this region has high spatial variability. To explore the synoptic and sub-synoptic phenomena that drive the climate of the region we conducted climate simulations using a high resolution Atmospheric General Circulation Model (AGCM), GFDL\\'s High Resolution Atmospheric Model (HiRAM). Historic simulations (1975-2004) and future projections (2007-2050), with both RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 pathways, were performed according to CORDEX standard. The sea surface temperature (SST) was prescribed from the 2°x2.5° latitude-longitude resolution GFDL Earth System Model runs of IPCC AR5, as bottom boundary condition over the ocean. Our simulations were conducted at a horizontal grid spacing of 25 km, which is an ample resolution for regional climate simulation. In comparison with the regional models, global HiRAM has the advantage of accounting for two-way interaction between regional and global scale processes. Our initial results show that HiRAM simulations for historic period well reproduce the regional climate in East Africa and the Arabian Peninsula with their complex interplay of regional and global processes. Our future projections indicate warming and increased precipitation over the Ethiopian highlands and the Greater Horn of Africa. We found significant regional differences between RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 projections, e.g., west coast of the Arabian Peninsula, show anomalies of opposite signs in these two simulations.

  12. Forgotten in the taxonomic literature: Resurrection of the scleractinian coral genus Sclerophyllia (Scleractinia, Lobophylliidae) from the Arabian Peninsula and its phylogenetic relationships

    Arrigoni, Roberto

    2014-11-21

    The monospecific scleractinian coral genus Sclerophyllia Klunzinger, 1879 was originally described from Al-Qusayr (Egypt) in the Red Sea based on a series of solitary specimens. Thenceforth, it has been considered a junior synonym of Symphyllia and Cynarina based on corallum macromorphology. In this study, several specimens of Sclerophyllia margariticola were collected on the coasts of Saudi Arabia in the northern and central Red Sea. Four molecular markers were sequenced, COI and the intergenic spacer between COI and l-rRNA from mitochondrial DNA and Histone H3 and ribosomal ITS2 from nuclear DNA. Phylogenetic trees and haplotype network analyses show that S. margariticola belongs to the family Lobophylliidae and that it is closely related to Acanthastrea maxima, an uncommon species from waters around the Arabian peninsula (the Gulf of Aden, Arabian Sea, Gulf of Oman and Persian Gulf). Sclerophyllia margariticola and A. maxima share several macro- and micromorphological characters, such as the presence of free septa, high elliptical septal teeth perpendicular to the septal margin, irregular lobate tips, very wide tooth spacing, a very strong granulation with granules scattered all along the septal sides, and a palisade interarea structure, and their micromorphology differs substantially from that of Acanthastrea echinata, the type species of Acanthastrea. Therefore, we formally resurrect Sclerophyllia, provide a revised diagnosis for the genus, and move A. maxima into Sclerophyllia.

  13. Hydrographic Data from the U.S. Naval Oceanographic Office: Persian Gulf, Southern Red Sea, and Arabian Sea 1923-1996

    Alessi, Carrol

    1999-01-01

    Temperature-salinity-depth profile data were obtained for the Persian Gulf, Southern Red Sea and parts of the Arabian Sea from the Master Oceanographic Observations Data Set (MOODS), located at the U.S...

  14. A new species of Namanereis (Polychaeta: Nereididae: Namanereidinae) in groundwater of the sultanate of Oman, Arabian peninsula

    Glasby, Christopher J.

    1997-01-01

    A new species of namanereid polychaete, Namanereis araps n. sp., is described from groundwater of the Sultanate of Oman. It occurs in fresh groundwater of natural springs, man-made water channels (falaj) and dry stream beds (wadis) in recently uplifted limestone areas of the south-eastern Arabian

  15. Transpressional regime in southern Arabian Shield: Insights from Wadi Yiba Area, Saudi Arabia

    Hamimi, Zakaria; El-Shafei, Mohamed; Kattu, Ghazi; Matsah, Mohammed

    2013-10-01

    Detailed field-structural mapping of Neoproterozoic basement rocks exposed in the Wadi Yiba area, southern Arabian Shield, Saudi Arabia illustrates an important episode of late Neoproterozoic transpression in the southern part of the Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS). This area is dominated by five main basement lithologies: gneisses, metavolcanics, Ablah Group (meta-clastic and marble units) and syn- and post-tectonic granitoids. These rocks were affected by three phases of deformation (D1-D3). D1 formed tight to isoclinal and intrafolial folds (F1), penetrative foliation (S1), and mineral lineation (L1), which resulted from early E-W (to ENE-WSW) shortening. D2 deformation overprinted D1 structures and was dominated by transpression and top-to-the-W (-WSW) thrusting as shortening progressed. Stretching lineation trajectories, S-C foliations, asymmetric shear fabrics and related mylonitic foliation, and flat-ramp and duplex geometries further indicate the inferred transport direction. The N- to NNW-orientation of both “in-sequence piggy-back thrusts” and axial planes of minor and major F2 thrust-related overturned folds also indicates the same D2 compressional stress trajectories. The Wadi Yiba Shear Zone (WYSZ) formed during D2 deformation. It is one of several N-S trending brittle-ductile Late Neoproterozoic shear zones in the southern part of the ANS. Shear sense indicators reveal that shearing during D2 regional-scale transpression was dextral and is consistent with the mega-scale sigmoidal patterns recognized on Landsat images. The shearing led to the formation of the WYSZ and consequent F2 shear zone-related folds, as well as other unmappable shear zones in the deformed rocks. Emplacement of the syn-tectonic granitoids is likely to have occurred during D2 transpression and occupied space created during thrust propagation. D1 and D2 structures are locally overprinted by mesoscopic- to macroscopic-scale D3 structures (F3 folds, and L3 crenulation lineations and

  16. Influence of Subtropical Jetstream on Arabian Gulf Precipitation

    Sandeep, S.; Pauluis, O.; Ravindran, A. M.; TP, S.

    2017-12-01

    The Arabian Gulf and surrounding regions are predominantly arid. However, this region hosts a large population due to the intense economic activity that is centered on the exploration of natural resources in and around the Arabian Gulf. Thus, few precipitation events that occur during boreal winter are important for society and ecology of this region. The mechanisms of winter precipitation over the Gulf are not well understood, partly due to a lack of long term meteorological observation. Here we explore the dynamics of Arabian Gulf winter precipitation events using available observations and a high resolution atmospheric model simulation. Our analyses show that the northern Gulf receives about six times more precipitation than the southern Gulf. Often, the southern Gulf precipitation forms as a result of downstream development of northern Gulf disturbance. The southward movement of northern Gulf disturbances is influenced by the location of subtropical jet. The probability of a northern Gulf precipitating weather system to move south is higher when the subtropical jet is located equatorward of 30°N. The equatorward position of jet favors the penetration of mid-latitude weather systems over the Arabian Peninsula, which in turn pushes the Arabian anticyclone eastward and triggers moisture transport from the Arabian Sea that is essential for southern Gulf precipitation events.

  17. Accumulation of Carbonates Contributes to Coastal Vegetated Ecosystems Keeping Pace With Sea Level Rise in an Arid Region (Arabian Peninsula)

    Saderne, Vincent; Cusack, Michael; Almahasheer, Hanan; Serrano, Oscar; Masqué , Pere; Arias-Ortiz, Ariane; Krishnakumar, Periyadan Kadinjappalli; Rabaoui, Lotfi; Qurban, Mohammad Ali; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2018-01-01

    Anthropogenic sea level rise (SLR) presents one of the greatest risks to human lives and infrastructures. Coastal vegetated ecosystems, that is, tidal marshes, seagrass meadows, and mangrove forests, elevate the seabed through soil accretion, providing a natural coastline protection against SLR. The soil accretion of these ecosystems has never been assessed in hot desert climate regions, where water runoff is negligible. However, tropical marine ecosystems are areas of intense calcification that may constitute an important source of sediment supporting seabed elevation, compensating for the lack of terrestrial inputs. We estimated the long-term (C-centennial) and short-term (Pb-20th century) soil accretion rates (SARs) and inorganic carbon (C) burial in coastal vegetated ecosystems of the Saudi coasts of the central Red Sea and the Arabian Gulf. Short-term SARs (±SE) in mangroves of the Red Sea (0.27 ± 0.22 cm/year) were twofold the SLR for that region since 1925 (0.13 cm/year). In the Arabian Gulf, only mangrove forest SAR is equivalent to local SLR estimates for the period 1979-2007 (0.21 ± 0.09 compared to 0.22 ± 0.05 cm/year, respectively). Long-term SARs are comparable or higher than the global estimates of SLR for the late Holocene (0.01 cm/year). In all habitats of the Red Sea and Arabian Gulf, SARs are supported by high carbonate accretion rates, comprising 40% to 60% of the soil volume. Further studies on the role of carbonates in coastal vegetated ecosystems are required to understand their role in adaptation to SLR.

  18. Accumulation of Carbonates Contributes to Coastal Vegetated Ecosystems Keeping Pace With Sea Level Rise in an Arid Region (Arabian Peninsula)

    Saderne, Vincent

    2018-04-12

    Anthropogenic sea level rise (SLR) presents one of the greatest risks to human lives and infrastructures. Coastal vegetated ecosystems, that is, tidal marshes, seagrass meadows, and mangrove forests, elevate the seabed through soil accretion, providing a natural coastline protection against SLR. The soil accretion of these ecosystems has never been assessed in hot desert climate regions, where water runoff is negligible. However, tropical marine ecosystems are areas of intense calcification that may constitute an important source of sediment supporting seabed elevation, compensating for the lack of terrestrial inputs. We estimated the long-term (C-centennial) and short-term (Pb-20th century) soil accretion rates (SARs) and inorganic carbon (C) burial in coastal vegetated ecosystems of the Saudi coasts of the central Red Sea and the Arabian Gulf. Short-term SARs (±SE) in mangroves of the Red Sea (0.27 ± 0.22 cm/year) were twofold the SLR for that region since 1925 (0.13 cm/year). In the Arabian Gulf, only mangrove forest SAR is equivalent to local SLR estimates for the period 1979-2007 (0.21 ± 0.09 compared to 0.22 ± 0.05 cm/year, respectively). Long-term SARs are comparable or higher than the global estimates of SLR for the late Holocene (0.01 cm/year). In all habitats of the Red Sea and Arabian Gulf, SARs are supported by high carbonate accretion rates, comprising 40% to 60% of the soil volume. Further studies on the role of carbonates in coastal vegetated ecosystems are required to understand their role in adaptation to SLR.

  19. A comparison of the physical properties of desert dust retrieved from the sunphotometer observation of major events in the Sahara, Sahel, and Arabian Peninsula

    Masmoudi, Mohamed

    2015-05-01

    © 2015 Elsevier B.V. The objective of this work is to assess the variability of the size-distribution, real (n) and imaginary (k) parts of the refractive index, asymmetry parameter (g), and single scattering albedo (SSA) of desert dust events observed in the Sahara, Sahel, and Arabian Peninsula areas. For this we use the level-2 inversions of 14 AERONET sunphotometers representative of the area of study. In the dataset, the dust-dominated events are discriminated on the basis of their large optical depth and low (<. 0.3) Ångström exponent (α) calculated between 440. nm and 870. nm. In all the volume size-distributions a coarse mode (CM) of particles is observed but a fine mode (FM) of particles with radii. <. 0.2. μm is also present. The volume fraction represented by the FM is lower (3%) during the most intense dust storms than during moderate ones (12%). The inter-site variability of the characteristics of the CM-dominated situations is found to be non-significant and at 440, 675, 870, and 1020. nm a common set of values can be adopted for n (1.54 ± 0.03, 1.53 ± 0.02, 1.50 ± 0.02, 1.48 ± 0.02), k (0.0037 ± 0.0007, 0.0012 ± 0.0002, 0.0011 ± 0.0002, 0.0012 ± 0.0002), g (0.77 ± 0.01, 0.74 ± 0.01, 0.73 ± 0.01, 0.74 ± 0.01), and the SSA (0.90 ± 0.02, 0.97 ± 0.01, 0.98 ± 0.01, 0.98 ± 0.01). However; during the less intense dust-events the growing influence of the FM leads to regional differentiation of the dust properties and 2 main areas can be distinguished: 1) the relatively clean central Sahara/Sahel, and 2) the more polluted continuum constituted by the Mediterranean coast and the Arabian Peninsula.

  20. A comparison of the physical properties of desert dust retrieved from the sunphotometer observation of major events in the Sahara, Sahel, and Arabian Peninsula

    Masmoudi, Mohamed; Alfaro, Sté phane C.; El Metwally, Mossad

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Elsevier B.V. The objective of this work is to assess the variability of the size-distribution, real (n) and imaginary (k) parts of the refractive index, asymmetry parameter (g), and single scattering albedo (SSA) of desert dust events observed in the Sahara, Sahel, and Arabian Peninsula areas. For this we use the level-2 inversions of 14 AERONET sunphotometers representative of the area of study. In the dataset, the dust-dominated events are discriminated on the basis of their large optical depth and low (<. 0.3) Ångström exponent (α) calculated between 440. nm and 870. nm. In all the volume size-distributions a coarse mode (CM) of particles is observed but a fine mode (FM) of particles with radii. <. 0.2. μm is also present. The volume fraction represented by the FM is lower (3%) during the most intense dust storms than during moderate ones (12%). The inter-site variability of the characteristics of the CM-dominated situations is found to be non-significant and at 440, 675, 870, and 1020. nm a common set of values can be adopted for n (1.54 ± 0.03, 1.53 ± 0.02, 1.50 ± 0.02, 1.48 ± 0.02), k (0.0037 ± 0.0007, 0.0012 ± 0.0002, 0.0011 ± 0.0002, 0.0012 ± 0.0002), g (0.77 ± 0.01, 0.74 ± 0.01, 0.73 ± 0.01, 0.74 ± 0.01), and the SSA (0.90 ± 0.02, 0.97 ± 0.01, 0.98 ± 0.01, 0.98 ± 0.01). However; during the less intense dust-events the growing influence of the FM leads to regional differentiation of the dust properties and 2 main areas can be distinguished: 1) the relatively clean central Sahara/Sahel, and 2) the more polluted continuum constituted by the Mediterranean coast and the Arabian Peninsula.

  1. Sedimentary architecture of the Holocene mud deposit off the southern Shandong Peninsula in the Yellow Sea

    Qiu, Jiandong; Liu, Jian; Xu, Hong; Zhou, Liangyong

    2018-01-01

    Newly acquired high-resolution seismic profiles reveal a nearshore and an offshore mud depocenter offthe southern Shandong Peninsula in the Yellow Sea. The nearshore depocenter is distributed in bands along the south coast of Shandong Peninsula. The offshore depocenter is part of the distal subaqueous deltaic lobe, which deposited around the southeastern tip of the Shandong Peninsula. Between the two depocenters is a linear depression. The mud deposits directly overlie the postglacial transgressive surface and can be divided into lower and upper units by the Holocene maximum flooding surface. The nearshore and offshore units display different seismic structures. The lower unit of the nearshore deposit exhibits basal onlap, whereas the upper unit is characterized by progradation. The lower and upper units of the offshore deposit display distinct acoustic features. The lower unit has low-angle aggradation with internal reflectors generally dipping seaward and truncated by the Holocene maximum flooding surface, whereas the upper unit is characterized by aggradation and progradation landward rather than seaward. Results of geochemistry analysis of QDZ03 sediments and mineral analysis of WHZK01 sediments suggest that the nearshore deposit and the lower unit of the offshore deposit are derived from the proximal coastal sediments of the Shandong Peninsula and the Huanghe (Yellow) River sediments. The upper unit of the offshore deposit is mainly Huanghe River-derived. The lower unit of the mud deposit represents a post-glacial transgressive system tract according to dates of core QDZ03, and the upper unit represents a highstand system tract from middle Holocene to the present. These results will be of great significance to further understanding of the transportation of the Huanghe River sediments into the Yellow Sea and the spatial distribution of the subaqueous delta.

  2. Ants of the Monomorium monomorium species-group (Hymenoptera: Formicidae in the Arabian Peninsula with description of a new species from southwestern Saudi Arabia

    Mostafa Sharaf

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We revise the taxonomy of the myrmicine ants of the Monomorium monomorium species-group for the Arabian Peninsula. Six species are recognized: Monomorium aeyade Collingwood & Agosti, 1996, M. clavicorne André, 1881, M. exiguum Forel, 1894, M. holothir Bolton, 1987, M. mohammedi sp. n., and M. sarawatense Sharaf & Aldawood, 2013. On the basis of the worker caste, we describe Monomorium mohammedi sp. n. from the southwestern region of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA. We designate a neotype for Monomorium aeyade Collingwood & Agosti and redescribe and illustrate the worker caste. Furthermore, we provide a worker-based species identification key, distribution maps for the treated species, and ecological and biological notes, if available. Monomorium holothir is recorded for the first time from the KSA. Also, we propose M. clavicorne var. punica Santschi, 1915a as a junior synonym of M. clavicorne, as well as M. dryhimi Aldawood & Sharaf, 2011 and M. montanum Collingwood & Agosti, 1996 to be treated as junior synonyms of Monomorium exiguum.

  3. Environmental geophysics at the Southern Bush River Peninsula, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Davies, B.E.; Miller, S.F.; McGinnis, L.D. [and others

    1995-05-01

    Geophysical studies have been conducted at five sites in the southern Bush River Peninsula in the Edgewood Area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. The goals of the studies were to identify areas containing buried metallic objects and to provide diagnostic signatures of the hydrogeologic framework of the site. These studies indicate that, during the Pleistocene Epoch, alternating stands of high and low sea level resulted in a complex pattern of channel-fill deposits. Paleochannels of various sizes and orientations have been mapped throughout the study area by means of ground-penetrating radar and EM-31 techniques. The EM-31 paleochannel signatures are represented onshore either by conductivity highs or lows, depending on the depths and facies of the fill sequences. A companion study shows the features as conductivity highs where they extend offshore. This erosional and depositional system is environmentally significant because of the role it plays in the shallow groundwater flow regime beneath the site. Magnetic and electromagnetic anomalies outline surficial and buried debris throughout the areas surveyed. On the basis of geophysical measurements, large-scale (i.e., tens of feet) landfilling has not been found in the southern Bush River Peninsula, though smaller-scale dumping of metallic debris and/or munitions cannot be ruled out.

  4. Characterization of the largest relic Eurasian wild grapevine reservoir in Southern Iberian Peninsula

    Arroyo-García, R.; Cantos, M.; Lara, M.; López, M.A.; Gallardo, A.; Ocete, C.A.; Pérez, A.; Bánáti, B.; García, J.L.; Ocete, R.

    2016-11-01

    Wild grapevine is becoming a threatened species in the Iberian Peninsula due to human impacts. The aim of this work was to carry out a holistic study for six years of the largest wild grapevine population found up to date in SW Iberian Peninsula. This population has 115 vines. Ampelographic and soil characteristics have been studied. Evaluation of its environment has also been studied by describing the main parasitic species and natural enemies of pests. The ability of this plant material for its micropropagation and storage in slow-growth conditions has been tested. Microvinification resulted in a wine with good acidity and medium color intensity, two interesting characteristics under a warm climatology. Finally, the identification of private alleles in this wild population, absent in other locations from the Northern and Southern Iberian territories, is a very valuable feature and confirms the importance of establishing conservation programs. The population here studied is genetically unique and potentially useful for commercial rootstocks and cultivars breeding that would improve viticulture and enology. (Author)

  5. Future projections of synoptic weather types over the Arabian Peninsula during the twenty-first century using an ensemble of CMIP5 models

    El Kenawy, Ahmed M.

    2016-07-28

    An assessment of future change in synoptic conditions over the Arabian Peninsula throughout the twenty-first century was performed using 20 climate models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) database. We employed the mean sea level pressure (SLP) data from model output together with NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data and compared the relevant circulation types produced by the Lamb classification scheme for the base period 1975–2000. Overall, model results illustrated good agreement with the reanalysis, albeit with a tendency to underestimate cyclonic (C) and southeasterly (SE) patterns and to overestimate anticyclones and directional flows. We also investigated future projections for each circulation-type during the rainy season (December–May) using three Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs), comprising RCP2.6, RCP4.5, and RCP8.5. Overall, two scenarios (RCP4.5 and RCP 8.5) revealed a statistically significant increase in weather types favoring above normal rainfall in the region (e.g., C and E-types). In contrast, weather types associated with lower amounts of rainfall (e.g., anticyclones) are projected to decrease in winter but increase in spring. For all scenarios, there was consistent agreement on the sign of change (i.e., positive/negative) for the most frequent patterns (e.g., C, SE, E and A-types), whereas the sign was uncertain for less recurrent types (e.g., N, NW, SE, and W). The projected changes in weather type frequencies in the region can be viewed not only as indicators of change in rainfall response but may also be used to inform impact studies pertinent to water resource planning and management, extreme weather analysis, and agricultural production.

  6. Future projections of synoptic weather types over the Arabian Peninsula during the twenty-first century using an ensemble of CMIP5 models

    El Kenawy, Ahmed M.; McCabe, Matthew F.

    2017-10-01

    An assessment of future change in synoptic conditions over the Arabian Peninsula throughout the twenty-first century was performed using 20 climate models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) database. We employed the mean sea level pressure (SLP) data from model output together with NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data and compared the relevant circulation types produced by the Lamb classification scheme for the base period 1975-2000. Overall, model results illustrated good agreement with the reanalysis, albeit with a tendency to underestimate cyclonic (C) and southeasterly (SE) patterns and to overestimate anticyclones and directional flows. We also investigated future projections for each circulation-type during the rainy season (December-May) using three Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs), comprising RCP2.6, RCP4.5, and RCP8.5. Overall, two scenarios (RCP4.5 and RCP 8.5) revealed a statistically significant increase in weather types favoring above normal rainfall in the region (e.g., C and E-types). In contrast, weather types associated with lower amounts of rainfall (e.g., anticyclones) are projected to decrease in winter but increase in spring. For all scenarios, there was consistent agreement on the sign of change (i.e., positive/negative) for the most frequent patterns (e.g., C, SE, E and A-types), whereas the sign was uncertain for less recurrent types (e.g., N, NW, SE, and W). The projected changes in weather type frequencies in the region can be viewed not only as indicators of change in rainfall response but may also be used to inform impact studies pertinent to water resource planning and management, extreme weather analysis, and agricultural production.

  7. Post-tsunami oceanographic conditions in southern Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal

    AnilKumar, N.; Sarma, Y.V.B.; Babu, K.N.; Sudhakar, M.; Pandey, P.C.

    m depth. This high - salinity water mass was earlier ident i fied as Arabian Sea High Salinity Water mass ( ASHSW), which forms in the northern Arabian Sea du r- ing winter 12 . A pool of low - s a linity waters occupies the upper 50 m around... of t he Bay of Bengal du r ing the southwest monsoon season flows southward along the coast by the coastal currents during winter period 9 . The relatively high s a line waters (33.7 psu) are seen north of Nagapattinam, separating two low - salinity...

  8. First record of the myrmicine ant genus Meranoplus Smith, 1853 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae from the Arabian Peninsula with description of a new species and notes on the zoogeography of southwestern Kingdom of [corrected] Saudi Arabia.

    Mostafa R Sharaf

    Full Text Available The ant genus Meranoplus is reported for the first time from the Arabian Peninsula (Kingdom of Saudi Arabia by the new species M. pulcher sp. n., based on the worker caste. Specimens were collected from Al Sarawat and Asir Mountains of southwestern Kingdom of Saudi Arabia using pitfall traps. Meranoplus pulcher sp. n. is included in the Afrotropical M. magretii-group, with greatest similarity to M. magrettii André from Sudan. A key to the Afrotropical species of the M. magretii-group is presented. A brief review of the ant taxa with Afrotropical affinities in southwestern region of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is given.

  9. Climatic controls of the interannual to decadal variability in Saudi Arabian dust activity: Towards the development of a seasonal prediction tool

    Yu, Y.; Notaro, M.; Liu, Z.; Alkolibi, F.; Fadda, E.; Bakhrjy, F.

    2013-12-01

    Atmospheric dust significantly influences the climate system, as well as human life in Saudi Arabia. Skillful seasonal prediction of dust activity with climatic variables will help prevent some negative social impacts of dust storms. Yet, the climatic regulators on Saudi Arabian dust activity remain largely unaddressed. Remote sensing and station observations show consistent seasonal cycles in Saudi Arabian dust activity, which peaks in spring and summer. The climatic controls on springtime and summertime Saudi Arabian dust activity during 1975-2010 are studied using observational and reanalysis data. Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) of the observed Saudi Arabian dust storm frequency shows a dominant homogeneous pattern across the country, which has distinct interannual and decadal variations, as revealed by the power spectrum. Regression and correlation analyses reveal that Saudi Arabian dust activity is largely tied to precipitation on the Arabian Peninsula in spring and northwesterly (Shamal) wind in summer. On the seasonal-interannual time scale, warm El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phase (El Niño) in winter-to-spring inhibits spring dust activity by increasing the precipitation over the Rub'al Khali Desert, a major dust source region on the southern Arabian Peninsula; warm ENSO and warm Indian Ocean Basin Mode (IOBM) in winter-to-spring favor less summer dust activity by producing anomalously low sea-level pressure over eastern north Africa and Arabian Peninsula, which leads to the reduced Shamal wind speed. The decadal variation in dust activity is likely associated with the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO), which impacts Sahel rainfall and North African dust, and likely dust transport to Saudi Arabia. The Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and tropical Indian Ocean SST also have influence on the decadal variation in Saudi Arabian dust activity, by altering precipitation over the Arabian Peninsula and summer Shamal wind speed. Using eastern

  10. An overview of UAE2 flight operations: Observations of summertime atmospheric thermodynamic and aerosol profiles of the southern Arabian Gulf

    Reid, Jeffrey S.; Piketh, Stuart J.; Walker, Annette L.; Burger, Roelof P.; Ross, Kristy E.; Westphal, Douglas L.; Bruintjes, Roelof T.; Holben, Brent N.; Hsu, Christina; Jensen, Tara L.; Kahn, Ralph A.; Kuciauskas, Arunas P.; Al Mandoos, Abdulla; Al Mangoosh, Abdulla; Miller, Steven D.; Porter, John N.; Reid, Elizabeth A.; Tsay, Si-Chee

    2008-07-01

    In August through September 2004 the United Arab Emirates Unified Aerosol Experiment (UAE2) was conducted in the southern Arabian Gulf region. We present atmospheric thermodynamic and aerosol data collected on 18 flights by the South African Aerocommander aircraft. In the first few kilometers, we observed high concentrations of both regional dust (from 100 to 300 μg m-3 in background, to over 1.5 mg m-3 in events) and ubiquitous sulfate based pollution from the Gulf's prevalent petroleum industry (10-100 μg m-3). Smoke and pollution from Europe and possibly Africa were found at levels between 1.5 and 5 km. Inland, classic deep over desert boundary layer characteristics were found. Over the Arabian Gulf, dust and pollution were most often either trapped below or sequestered above a strong stable boundary. However, there were cases where a well-distributed aerosol layer crossed the inversion uniformly. Data suggest that the observed vertical profiles can be explained by the rapid formation of stable marine boundary layers as air moves offshore. This can decouple aerosol layers from within the boundary layer to those aloft in regions of vertical wind shear. In the case of pollution, the ability of flaring plumes to penetrate the inversion may also in part determine layering. In coastal regions without vertical wind shear, uniform concentrations with height across the inversion are a result of internal boundary layer development. We conclude that the bulk of the observed variability in particle vertical distribution appear to be controlled by mesoscale and microscale processes, such as the sea/land breeze.

  11. The Distribution of Geomagnetic Field Components on the Southern Part of the Korean Peninsula for Epoch 2010.0

    Mutaek Lim

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available NGII(National Geography Information Institute of Korea consigned KIGAM(Korea Institute of Geoscience & Mineral Resources to do absolute geomagnetic measurements on 32 geomagnetic repeat stations evenly distributed on the southern part of Korean Peninsula in the year 2010 and to produce geomagnetic field components' distribution maps for the year 2010.0. The result of the processing of the measured data, i. e., the geomagnetic field components' distribution, shows a near similarity with that calculated from IGRF-11 although the latter was processed without any real geomagnetic data measured on the Korean Peninsula as an input. This implies that we installed the repeat stations on sites with good geomagnetic conditions and that our result in accordance with the IGRF represents well the regional distribution trend, i. e., it is dominated by relatively long wavelength components.

  12. Confirmation of the presence of Heniochus acuminatus (Linnaeus, 1758 (Chaetodontidae and Pomacanthus maculosus (Forsskål, 1775 (Pomacanthidae in Iraqi marine waters, Arabian Gulf

    Jawad, L. A

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Two specimens (116,119 mm TL of Heniochus acuminatus (Linnaeus, 1758 and four specimens (171–190 mm TL of Pomacanthus maculosus (Forsskål, 1775 were collected from Iraqi marine waters of the Arabian Gulf. These findings confirm the presence of H. acuminatus and establish the first record of P. maculosus from Iraqi waters. The samples were captured by hook and line off the coasts of Al–Fao City Peninsula, southern Iraq. Arabian Gulf. morphometric and meristic data are provided and compared with data from other parts of the world.

  13. Possible salt mine and brined cavity sites for radioactive waste disposal in the northeastern southern peninsula of Michigan

    Landes, K.K.; Bourne, H.L.

    1976-01-01

    A reconnaissance report on the possibilities for disposal of radioactive waste covers Michigan only, and is more detailed than an earlier one involving the northeastern states. Revised ''ground rules'' for pinpointing both mine and dissolved salt cavern sites for waste disposal include environmental, geologic, and economic factors. The Michigan basin is a structural bowl of Paleozoic sediments resting on downwarped Precambrian rocks. The center of the bowl is in Clare and Gladwin Counties, a short distance north of the middle of the Southern Peninsula. The strata dip toward this central area, and some stratigraphic sequences, including especially the salt-containing Silurian section, increase considerably in thickness in that direction. Lesser amounts of salt are also present in the north central part of the Lower Peninsula. Michigan has been an oil and gas producing state since 1925 and widespread exploration has had two effects on the selection of waste disposal sites: (1) large areas are leased for oil and gas; and (2) the borehole concentrations, whether producing wells, dry holes, or industrial brine wells that penetrated the salt section, should be avoided. Two types of nuclear waste, low level and high level, can be stored in man-made openings in salt beds. The storage facilities are created by (1) the development of salt mines where the depths are less than 3000 ft, and (2) cavities produced by pumping water into a salt bed, and bringing brine back out. The high level waste disposal must be confined to mines of limited depth, but the low level wastes can be accommodated in brine cavities at any depth. Seven potential prospects have been investigated and are described in detail

  14. A New Subspecies Identification and Population Study of the Asian Small-Clawed Otter (Aonyx cinereus in Malay Peninsula and Southern Thailand Based on Fecal DNA Method

    M. K. A. Rosli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Three species of otter can be found throughout Malay Peninsula: Aonyx cinereus, Lutra sumatrana, and Lutrogale perspicillata. In this study, we focused on the A. cinereus population that ranges from the southern and the east coast to the northern regions of Malay Peninsula up to southern Thailand to review the relationships between the populations based on the mitochondrial D-loop region. Forty-eight samples from six populations were recognized as Johor, Perak, Terengganu, Kelantan, Ranong, and Thale Noi. Among the 48 samples, 33 were identified as A. cinereus, seven as L. sumatrana, and eight as L. perspicillata. Phylogenetically, two subclades formed for A. cinereus. The first subclade grouped all Malay Peninsula samples except for samples from Kelantan, and the second subclade grouped Kelantan samples with Thai sample. Genetic distance analysis supported the close relationships between Thai and Kelantan samples compared to the samples from Terengganu and the other Malaysian states. A minimum-spanning network showed that Kelantan and Thailand formed a haplogroup distinct from the other populations. Our results show that Thai subspecies A. cinereus may have migrated to Kelantan from Thai mainland. We also suggest the classification of a new subspecies from Malay Peninsula, the small-clawed otter named A. cinereus kecilensis.

  15. A new subspecies identification and population study of the Asian small-clawed otter (Aonyx cinereus) in Malay Peninsula and southern Thailand based on fecal DNA method.

    Rosli, M K A; Syed-Shabthar, S M F; Abdul-Patah, P; Abdul-Samad, Z; Abdul, S N; Burhanuddin, M N; Zulkifli, N A; Shukor, M N; Budsabong, K; Changtragoon, S; Sekiguchi, T; Sasaki, H; Md-Zain, B M

    2014-01-01

    Three species of otter can be found throughout Malay Peninsula: Aonyx cinereus, Lutra sumatrana, and Lutrogale perspicillata. In this study, we focused on the A. cinereus population that ranges from the southern and the east coast to the northern regions of Malay Peninsula up to southern Thailand to review the relationships between the populations based on the mitochondrial D-loop region. Forty-eight samples from six populations were recognized as Johor, Perak, Terengganu, Kelantan, Ranong, and Thale Noi. Among the 48 samples, 33 were identified as A. cinereus, seven as L. sumatrana, and eight as L. perspicillata. Phylogenetically, two subclades formed for A. cinereus. The first subclade grouped all Malay Peninsula samples except for samples from Kelantan, and the second subclade grouped Kelantan samples with Thai sample. Genetic distance analysis supported the close relationships between Thai and Kelantan samples compared to the samples from Terengganu and the other Malaysian states. A minimum-spanning network showed that Kelantan and Thailand formed a haplogroup distinct from the other populations. Our results show that Thai subspecies A. cinereus may have migrated to Kelantan from Thai mainland. We also suggest the classification of a new subspecies from Malay Peninsula, the small-clawed otter named A. cinereus kecilensis.

  16. Seabed images from Southern Ocean shelf regions off the northern Antarctic Peninsula and in the southeastern Weddell Sea

    Piepenburg, Dieter; Buschmann, Alexander; Driemel, Amelie; Grobe, Hannes; Gutt, Julian; Schumacher, Stefanie; Segelken-Voigt, Alexandra; Sieger, Rainer

    2017-07-01

    Recent advances in underwater imaging technology allow for the gathering of invaluable scientific information on seafloor ecosystems, such as direct in situ views of seabed habitats and quantitative data on the composition, diversity, abundance, and distribution of epibenthic fauna. The imaging approach has been extensively used within the research project DynAMo (Dynamics of Antarctic Marine Shelf Ecosystems) at the Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research Bremerhaven (AWI), which aimed to comparatively assess the pace and quality of the dynamics of Southern Ocean benthos. Within this framework, epibenthic spatial distribution patterns have been comparatively investigated in two regions in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean: the shelf areas off the northern tip of the Antarctic Peninsula, representing a region with above-average warming of surface waters and sea-ice reduction, and the shelves of the eastern Weddell Sea as an example of a stable high-Antarctic marine environment that is not (yet) affected by climate change. The AWI Ocean Floor Observation System (OFOS) was used to collect seabed imagery during two cruises of the German research vessel Polarstern, ANT-XXIX/3 (PS81) to the Antarctic Peninsula from January to March 2013 and ANT-XXXI/2 (PS96) to the Weddell Sea from December 2015 to February 2016. Here, we report on the image and data collections gathered during these cruises. During PS81, OFOS was successfully deployed at a total of 31 stations at water depths between 29 and 784 m. At most stations, series of 500 to 530 pictures ( > 15 000 in total, each depicting a seabed area of approximately 3.45 m2 or 2.3 × 1.5 m) were taken along transects approximately 3.7 km in length. During PS96, OFOS was used at a total of 13 stations at water depths between 200 and 754 m, yielding series of 110 to 293 photos (2670 in total) along transects 0.9 to 2.6 km in length. All seabed images taken during the two cruises

  17. GPS horizontal deformation model in the southern region of the Iberian Peninsula and northern Africa (SPINA)

    Rosado Moscoso, B.; Fernández-Ros, A.; Jiménez Jiménez, A.; Berrocoso Domínguez, M.

    2017-01-01

    Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), and in particular Global Positioning System (GPS) technology provides a powerful tool for studying geodynamic processes. As a consequence of GPS studies, it is now possible to analyze the interaction between tectonic plates in order to evaluate and establish the characteristics of their boundaries. In this study, our main interest is to focus on the time series analysis obtained from observations of GNSS-GPS satellites. Each GPS observation session provides topocentric geodetic coordinates (east, north, elevation) of the permanent stations that constitute the geodetic network established for this purpose. This paper shows a detailed topocentric coordinate time-series study for sites belonging to what we call the SPINA network, which stands for south of the Iberian Peninsula, north of Africa region. The series under study are processed by techniques of relative positioning with respect to the IGS (International GNSS Service) reference station located in Villafranca. These times series have been analyzed using filter processes, harmonic adjustments and wavelets. A surface velocity field is derived from the time series of daily solutions for each station, whose observations span 8 years or longer. This allows us to obtain a horizontal displacement model to show the regional geodynamic main characteristics. [es

  18. New Neanderthal remains from Mani peninsula, Southern Greece: the Kalamakia Middle Paleolithic cave site.

    Harvati, Katerina; Darlas, Andreas; Bailey, Shara E; Rein, Thomas R; El Zaatari, Sireen; Fiorenza, Luca; Kullmer, Ottmar; Psathi, Eleni

    2013-06-01

    The Kalamakia cave, a Middle Paleolithic site on the western coast of the Mani peninsula, Greece, was excavated in 1993-2006 by an interdisciplinary team from the Ephoreia of Paleoanthropology and Speleology (Greek Ministry of Culture) and the Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle (Paris). The site is dated to between ca. 100,000 and >39,000 years BP (Before Present) and has yielded Mousterian lithics, a rich fauna, and human remains from several layers. The latter include 10 isolated teeth, a cranial fragment and three postcranial elements. The remains represent at least eight individuals, two of them subadults, and show both carnivore and anthropogenic modifications. They can be identified as Neanderthal on the basis of diagnostic morphology on most specimens. A diet similar to that of Neanderthals from mixed habitat is suggested by our analysis of dental wear (occlusal fingerprint analysis) and microwear (occlusal texture microwear analysis), in agreement with the faunal and palynological analyses of the site. These new fossils significantly expand the Neanderthal sample known from Greece. Together with the human specimens from Lakonis and Apidima, the Kalamakia human remains add to the growing evidence of a strong Neanderthal presence in the Mani region during the Late Pleistocene. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Productivity and linkages of the food web of the southern region of the western Antarctic Peninsula continental shelf

    Ballerini, Tosca; Hofmann, Eileen E.; Ainley, David G.; Daly, Kendra L.; Marrari, Marina; Ribic, Christine A.; Smith, Walker O.; Steele, John H.

    2014-01-01

    The productivity and linkages in the food web of the southern region of the west Antarctic Peninsula continental shelf were investigated using a multi-trophic level mass balance model. Data collected during the Southern Ocean Global Ocean Ecosystem Dynamics field program were combined with data from the literature on the abundance and diet composition of zooplankton, fish, seabirds and marine mammals to calculate energy flows in the food web and to infer the overall food web structure at the annual level. Sensitivity analyses investigated the effects of variability in growth and biomass of Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) and in the biomass of Antarctic krill predators on the structure and energy fluxes in the food web. Scenario simulations provided insights into the potential responses of the food web to a reduced contribution of large phytoplankton (diatom) production to total primary production, and to reduced consumption of primary production by Antarctic krill and mesozooplankton coincident with increased consumption by microzooplankton and salps. Model-derived estimates of primary production were 187–207 g C m−2 y−1, which are consistent with observed values (47–351 g C m−2 y−1). Simulations showed that Antarctic krill provide the majority of energy needed to sustain seabird and marine mammal production, thereby exerting a bottom-up control on higher trophic level predators. Energy transfer to top predators via mesozooplanton was a less efficient pathway, and salps were a production loss pathway because little of the primary production they consumed was passed to higher trophic levels. Increased predominance of small phytoplankton (nanoflagellates and cryptophytes) reduced the production of Antarctic krill and of its predators, including seabirds and seals.

  20. Productivity and linkages of the food web of the southern region of the western Antarctic Peninsula continental shelf

    Ballerini, Tosca; Hofmann, Eileen E.; Ainley, David G.; Daly, Kendra; Marrari, Marina; Ribic, Christine A.; Smith, Walker O.; Steele, John H.

    2014-03-01

    The productivity and linkages in the food web of the southern region of the west Antarctic Peninsula continental shelf were investigated using a multi-trophic level mass balance model. Data collected during the Southern Ocean Global Ocean Ecosystem Dynamics field program were combined with data from the literature on the abundance and diet composition of zooplankton, fish, seabirds and marine mammals to calculate energy flows in the food web and to infer the overall food web structure at the annual level. Sensitivity analyses investigated the effects of variability in growth and biomass of Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) and in the biomass of Antarctic krill predators on the structure and energy fluxes in the food web. Scenario simulations provided insights into the potential responses of the food web to a reduced contribution of large phytoplankton (diatom) production to total primary production, and to reduced consumption of primary production by Antarctic krill and mesozooplankton coincident with increased consumption by microzooplankton and salps. Model-derived estimates of primary production were 187-207 g C m-2 y-1, which are consistent with observed values (47-351 g C m-2 y-1). Simulations showed that Antarctic krill provide the majority of energy needed to sustain seabird and marine mammal production, thereby exerting a bottom-up control on higher trophic level predators. Energy transfer to top predators via mesozooplanton was a less efficient pathway, and salps were a production loss pathway because little of the primary production they consumed was passed to higher trophic levels. Increased predominance of small phytoplankton (nanoflagellates and cryptophytes) reduced the production of Antarctic krill and of its predators, including seabirds and seals.

  1. An assessment on the MODIS quality data over the Iberian Peninsula (Southern Europe)

    Huesca, Margarita; Merino-de-Miguel, Silvia; Cicuéndez, Víctor; Litago, Javier; Palacios-Orueta, Alicia

    2014-05-01

    Satellite remote sensing may provide land surface processes observations at high temporal frequency over long periods of time. However, many influences have a bearing on the spectral properties which may be derived from multi-spectral data. The MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) Land Science Team provides quality assessment (QA) data. QA is key information for the correct interpretation of remote sensing products since we need to discrimite between real changes on the Earth surface and satellite product artefacts (Roy et al., 2002). The present work focuses on evaluating the quality of the MOD09A1 (Surface Reflectance 8-Day L3 Global 500m) product over the Iberian Peninsula during the period 2000-2008. The quality was estimated in terms of identifying the most important noise sources that might distort the data as well as identifying the areas and seasons where they were dominant. The specific objectives were: (i) to select the most relevant QA parameters based on their frequency over the study area, (ii) to analyze the spatial distribution of the QA parameters and stratify the territory based on this information, and (iii) to analyze the temporal distribution of the QA parameters. The quality data founded within the MOD09A1 product provides information: (i) at the pixel level, (ii) per reflectance band and (iii) for the whole file. In particular, QA is stored in two different layers or bands, one related to each band and based on sensor characteristics and image acquisition (named 'Surface Reflectance Data' QA layer), and the other one related to each pixel and based on external conditions (named 'Surface Reflectance Data State' QA layer). The present work focuses only on this second one. The QA parameters were analyzed in terms of the number of dates where we found low quality pixels, and of the presence of long gaps (four or more consecutive low quality dates). The next step consisted of using the number of low quality dates and the number of

  2. Glacier History of the Northern Antarctic Peninsula Region Since the End of the Last Ice Age and Implications for Southern Hemisphere Westerly-Climate Changes

    Kaplan, M. R.; Schaefer, J. M.; Strelin, J. A.; Peltier, C.; Southon, J. R.; Lepper, K. E.; Winckler, G.

    2017-12-01

    For the area around James Ross Island, we present new cosmogenic 10Be exposure ages on glacial deposits, and 14C ages on associated fossil materials. These data allow us to reconstruct in detail when and how the Antarctic Peninsula Ice Sheet retreated around the Island as the last Ice Age ended, and afterward when local land-based glaciers fluctuated. Similar to other studies, we found widespread deglaciation during the earliest Holocene, with fjords and bays becoming ice free between about 11,000 and 8,000 years ago. After 7,000 years ago, neoglacial type advances initiated. Then, both expansions and ice free periods occurred from the middle to late Holocene. We compare the new glacier record to those in southern Patagonia, which is on the other side of the Drake Passage, and published Southern Ocean marine records, in order to infer past middle to high latitude changes in the Southern Hemisphere Westerlies. Widespread warmth in the earliest Holocene, to the north and south of the Drake Passage, led to small glacier systems in Patagonia and wide-ranging glacier recession around the northern Antarctic Peninsula. We infer that this early Holocene period of overall glacier recession - from Patagonia to the northern Peninsula - was caused by a persistent far-southerly setting of the westerlies and accompanying warm climates. Subsequently, during the middle Holocene renewed glacier expansions occurred on both sides of the Drake Passage, which reflects that the Westerlies and associated colder climate systems were generally more equatorward. From the middle to late Holocene, glacier expansions and ice free periods (and likely related ice shelf behavior) document how the Westerlies and associated higher-latitude climate systems varied.

  3. Late Proterozoic island-arc complexes and tectonic belts in the southern part of the Arabian Shield, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Greenwood, William R.; Stoeser, D.B.; Fleck, R.J.; Stacey, J.S.

    1983-01-01

    Two main subdivisions of layered rocks are recognized in the southern Arabian Shield south of lat 22? N. These are an older ensimatic-arc complex, which formed 1100-800 m.y. ago, and a younger marginal-arc complex, which formed 800-690 m.y. ago. The older ensimatic-arc complex, located in the southwestern part of the Shield, includes graywacke and mafic to intermediate volcanic rocks of the essentially contemporaneous Baish, Bahah, and Jiddah groups. Although the younger arc complex is also dominantly ensimatic in character, it is also partly superimposed over the older ensimaticarc complex. The superimposed portions of the younger arc complex are represented by the Ablah, Samran, and possibly the Ararat groups. The ensimatic portion of the younger arc group is represented by the Halaban group, which was deposited to the east and northeast of the older ensimatic-arc complex. The Halaban group includes andesitic and dacitic volcanic rocks and associated clastic sedimentary rocks. The layered rocks of both arc complexes are intruded by dioritic (quartz diorite, tonalite, trondhjemite) plutonic rocks. The southern Shield is also subdivided into a number of structurally bounded, north-trending tectonic belts. Within the older ensimatic complex, three belts are recognized. From west to east, these are the Lith, Bidah, and Tayyah belts. Within these three belts, progressive facies changes indicate a gradation from deep-water facies in the south to shallow-water or-terrestrial facies in the north. The distribution of dioritic batholiths, as well as the distribution of layered-rock facies, suggests a northwest-trending axis for the older ensimatic-arc complex. The younger arc complex is present within six belts, the Makkah source papers. In Fleck and others (1980), the term 'quartz diorite' includes both tonalite and quartz diorite as defined in the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS) system of plutonic rock classification (Streckeisen, 1973). Initial 87Sr/86

  4. Non-stationary influence of El Niño-Southern Oscillation and winter temperature on oak latewood growth in NW Iberian Peninsula.

    Rozas, Vicente; García-González, Ignacio

    2012-09-01

    The properties of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), such as period, amplitude, and teleconnection strength to extratropical regions, have changed since the mid-1970s. ENSO affects the regional climatic regime in SW Europe, thus tree performance in the Iberian Peninsula could be affected by recent ENSO dynamics. We established four Quercus robur chronologies of earlywood and latewood widths in the NW Iberian Peninsula. The relationship between tree growth and the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI), the atmospheric expression of ENSO, showed that only latewood growth was correlated negatively with the SOI of the previous summer-autumn-winter. This relationship was non-stationary, with significant correlations only during the period 1952-1980; and also non-linear, with enhanced latewood growth only in La Niña years, i.e. years with a negative SOI index for the previous autumn. Non-linear relationship between latewood and SOI indicates an asymmetric influence of ENSO on tree performance, biassed towards negative SOI phases. During La Niña years, climate in the study area was warmer and wetter than during positive years, but only for 1952-1980. Winter temperatures became the most limiting factor for latewood growth since 1980, when mean regional temperatures increased by 1°C in comparison to previous periods. As a result, higher winter respiration rates, and the extension of the growing season, would probably cause an additional consumption of stored carbohydrates. The influence of ENSO and winter temperatures proved to be of great importance for tree growth, even at lower altitudes and under mild Atlantic climate in the NW Iberian Peninsula.

  5. Assessment of darkling beetle fauna after implementation of an environmental restoration program in the southern Iberian Peninsula affected by the Aznalcóllar toxic spill.

    Cárdenas, Ana M; Bujalance, José L; Hidalgo, Juan M

    2011-01-01

    This study is part of the Follow up Restoration Program of animal communities that colonize the Guadiamar River Basin. In 1998, the area was affected by a release of toxic sludge after the retention walls of the Aznalcóllar Mines (southern Iberian Peninsula) broke. The main objective of this study was to assess the current state of the population of Tenebrionidae, one of the most representative groups of edaphic Coleoptera inhabiting the Guadiamar River Basin. This paper analyses the progress made by the darkling beetle community six years after the disaster occurred and the Restoration Program was implemented. The study is based on faunistic data from systematic sampling carried out for six years to monitor plots distributed across the damaged area. To make an overall assessment of the tenebrionid fauna in relation to adjacent areas qualitative and quantitative ecological indices were applied, and temporal follow up and biogeographical comparisons were also made. The results indicate that, on the whole, tenebrionid fauna was somewhat affected by the Aznalcóllar Mine spill, and that a greater loss of fauna was detected closer to the accident site. The analysis of the temporal population dynamic suggests that the most affected zones are undergoing a process of re-colonization. However, this process varies widely by species and has not yet reached the expected levels of a non-affected river basin in the southern Iberian Peninsula.

  6. Wind resource characterization in the Arabian Peninsula

    Yip, Chak Man Andrew; Gunturu, Udaya; Stenchikov, Georgiy L.

    2015-01-01

    Wind energy is expected to contribute to alleviating the rise in energy demand in the Middle East that is driven by population growth and industrial development. However, variability and intermittency in the wind resource present significant

  7. Travelers' Health: MERS in the Arabian Peninsula

    ... Qatar; Saudi Arabia; Syria; the United Arab Emirates (UAE); and Yemen. File Formats Help: How do I ... RSS CDC Media Listen Watch YouTube About CDC Employment Newsroom Training/Education Funding CDC's Organization Mission and ...

  8. Yellow-bellied or white-bellied? Identity of Arabian house bats ...

    The yellow-bellied Scotophilus dinganii is the only African house bat species reported to occur in the Arabian Peninsula. Formerly, the Arabian house bats were referred to similar-looking white-bellied S. leucogaster, which differs from S. dinganii mainly by the colour of ventral pelage. We reassessed the taxonomic status of ...

  9. Geophysical techniques for detecting magmas and high-temperature fluids. Their application to the Onikobe-Narugo volcanic region and the southern Kii Peninsula

    Asamori, Koichi; Umeda, Koji

    2005-01-01

    The effects of volcanism on the geological environments include a dynamic destruction and subsidence of basement rocks, caused by the intrusion and eruption of magma. To ensure the long-term stability of geological disposal system, a possibility of renewed volcanism at the site might be examined based on the geotectonic data of the deep underground using geophysical and geochemical approaches. This paper describes an overview of geophysical approaches for detecting magmas and/or high temperature fluids related to volcanism within the crust and uppermost mantle. Moreover, we present the images of the seismic velocity and electrical resistivity structure beneath the Onikobe-Narugo volcanic region and the southern Kii Peninsula, carried out in JNC's R and D program. (author)

  10. Isotopic measurements in research on seawater ingression in the carbonate aquifer of the Salentine Peninsula, Southern Italy

    Cotecchia, V.; Tazioli, G.S.; Magri, G.

    1974-01-01

    Cretaceous calcareous and dolomitic rocks, bedded, jointed and karstified, and hence generally very permeable, form the basement of the Salentine Peninsula. These rocks constitute a huge aquifer with fresh and brackish groundwaters that float on groundwaters of marine origin. Sea level constitutes the base level of the ground waters. A basic outline is first given of the hydrogeology and the paleohydrogeology, so as to provide the necessary background information on the seawater intrusion phenomenon and to permit comparison of the results of the isotope data with those obtained by the classical methods of hydrogeological investigation. This is followed by presentation of the results of the isotopic measurements on 18 O, D, 13 C and 14 C. The δ 13 C contents indicate, in good agreement with the carbon dioxide and bicarbonate concentrations, that seawater ingression leads to the migration of carbon dioxide from the fresh and brackish waters towards the subjacent intrusive waters of marine origin. Along those stretches of coast where the seawaters are in direct communication with the groundwaters, all the isotope data point to very active renewal of groundwaters of marine origin by seawater. In the central parts of the peninsula and along those stretches of coast where direct communication between seawaters and groundwaters is impeded by impervious clays, the 14 C contents indicate that the seawater intrusion and consequently the migration of carbon dioxide are either very slow and continuous in time or that they occurred relatively rapidly in the past. Taking into consideration the paleohydrogeology of the peninsula, and the fact that the δ 18 O and δD values are higher than those of the present seawaters, leads to the belief that seawater intrusion may well have occurred during major variations in the sea level in the past, when climatic conditions were different from those now prevailing. (author)

  11. Rapid ice unloading in the Fleming Glacier region, southern Antarctic Peninsula, and its effect on bedrock uplift rates

    Zhao, Chen; King, Matt A.; Watson, Christopher S.

    2017-01-01

    deformation. We subtract modeled elastic deformation rates, and a suite of modeled viscous rates, from GPS-derived three-dimensional bedrock velocities at sites to the south of Fleming Glacier to infer properties of Earth rheology. Assuming the pre-breakup bedrock uplift was positive due to post-Last Glacial...... Maximum (LGM) ice retreat, our viscoelastic-corrected GPS uplift rates suggest upper mantle viscosities are >2×1019 Pas and likely >1×1020 Pas in this region, 1–2 orders of magnitude greater than previously found for the northern Antarctic Peninsula. Horizontal velocities at the GPS site nearest...

  12. Climate variability during the deglaciation and Holocene in a high-altitude alpine lake deduced from the sedimentary record from Laguna Seca, Sierra Nevada, southern Iberian Peninsula

    Camuera, Jon; Jiménez-Moreno, Gonzalo; José Ramos-Román, María; García-Alix, Antonio; Jiménez-Espejo, Francisco; Anderson, R. Scott

    2017-04-01

    High-resolution X-ray fluorescence (XRF), magnetic susceptibility (MS), color and lithological analyses have been carried out on a 3.6 m-long sediment core from Laguna Seca, a high-elevation dry lake from Sierra Nevada mountain range, southern Spain. This is the longest sedimentary record retrieved from an alpine lake in southern Iberian Peninsula. Besides, alpine lakes are very sensitive environments to climate changes and previous studies showed that Laguna Seca could provide an excellent record to identify millennial-scale climate variations during deglaciation and the whole Holocene. XRF analyses, in particular high calcium and low K/Ca ratios, show aridity phases, very well represented during Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and the Younger Dryas (YD). Arid events are also shown at ca. 8.1 ka BP, ca. 4.4 ka BP and the latest Holocene. On the other hand, negative values in calcium and positive values in K/Ca appear in the Bølling-Allerød (BA) and during the early Holocene until ca. 6 ka BP, indicating more humidity and higher run-off. A progressive aridification trend is also observed in the Holocene, changing from more humid conditions during the early Holocene to more aridity during the late Holocene.

  13. Late Neoproterozoic layered mafic intrusion of arc-affinity in the Arabian-Nubian Shield: A case study from the Shahira layered mafic intrusion, southern Sinai, Egypt

    Azer, M.K.; Obeid, M.A.; Gahalan, H.A.

    2016-07-01

    The Shahira Layered Mafic Intrusion (SLMI), which belongs to the late Neoproterozoic plutonic rocks of the Arabian-Nubian Shield, is the largest layered mafic intrusion in southern Sinai. Field relations indicate that it is younger than the surrounding metamorphic rocks and older than the post-orogenic granites. Based on variation in mineral paragenesis and chemical composition, the SLMI is distinguished into pyroxene-hornblende gabbro, hornblende gabbro and diorite lithologies. The outer zone of the mafic intrusion is characterized by fine-grained rocks (chilled margin gabbroic facies), with typical subophitic and/or microgranular textures. Different rock units from the mafic intrusion show gradational boundaries in between. They show some indications of low grade metamorphism, where primary minerals are transformed into secondary ones. Geochemically, the Shahira layered mafic intrusion is characterized by enrichment in LILE relative to HFSE (e.g. Nb, P, Zr, Ti, Y), and LREE relative to HREE [(La/Lu)n= 4.75–8.58], with subalkaline characters. It has geochemical characteristics of pre-collisional arc-type environment. The geochemical signature of the investigated gabbros indicates partial melting of mantle wedge in a volcanic-arc setting, being followed by fractional crystallization and crustal contamination. Fractional crystallization processes played a vital role during emplacement of the Shahira intrusion and evolution of its mafic and intermediate rock units. The initial magma was evolved through crystallization of hornblende which was caused by slight increasing of H2O in the magma after crystallization of liquidus olivine, pyroxene and Ca-rich plagioclase. The gabbroic rocks crystallized at pressures between 4.5 and 6.9kbar (~15–20km depth). Whereas, the diorites yielded the lowest crystallization pressure between 1.0 to 4.4Kbar (<10km depth). Temperature was estimated by several geothermometers, which yielded crystallization temperatures ranging from 835

  14. Thermohaline structure and water masses in the north of Antarctic Peninsula from data collected in situ by southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina

    Ilana E. K. C. Wainer

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Western Antarctic Peninsula is rapidly warming and exhibits high indices of biodiversity concentrated mostly along its continental shelf. This region has great importance due to the the mixing caused by the interaction of waters from Weddell Sea (MW, Bransfield Strait (EB and the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (CCA transmits thermohaline characteristics and nutrients of different sites and finally connects with all the world’s oceans. However, studies focusing on the temporal variability of the region’s oceanographic conditions that finally determine the water mass formation are sparse due to the logistical difficulties of conducting oceanographic surveys and traditional monitoring during the winter. For this study, variations of the thermohaline structure and water masses in the vicinity and below the sea ice in the North of the Antarctic Peninsula (AP and Scotia Sea (SS were recorded between February and November 2008 by two female southern elephant seals (SES, Mirounga leonina tagged with Conductivity–Temperature–Depth/Satellite-Relay Data Logger (CTD–SRDL. One thousand three hundred and thirty vertical profiles of temperature and salinity were collected by seals which were tagged by the MEOP-BR Project team at the Elephant Island, South Shetlands. These profiles, together with spread state diagrams allowed the identification of water masses and their variances in the ocean’s vertical structure. Among the set of identified water masses we cite: Antarctic Surface Water (AASW, Winter Water (WW, Warm Deep Water (WDW, Modified Warm Deep Water (MWDW, Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW, Upper Circumpolar Deep Water (UCDW, Lower Circumpolar Deep Water (LCDW and Ice Shelf Water (ISW. Our results show that the oceanic vertical structure undergoes changes that cannot be traditionally monitored, particularly during the Austral winter and that SES are important and modern oceanographic data collection platforms allowing for the improvement of our

  15. Minicoy in southern Arabian Sea

    tainty in aerosol influences on climate is critical to the understanding of ... J. Earth Syst. Sci. 117, S1, July 2008, pp. .... tamination due to very thin clouds, wherein obser- vations were made .... and models have shown that south Asia and the.

  16. Population-Level Transcriptomic Responses of the Southern Ocean Salp Salpa thompsoni to Environment Variability of the Western Antarctic Peninsula Region

    Bucklin, A. C.; Batta Lona, P. G.; Maas, A. E.; O'Neill, R. J.; Wiebe, P. H.

    2015-12-01

    In response to the changing Antarctic climate, the Southern Ocean salp Salpa thompsoni has shown altered patterns of distribution and abundance that are anticipated to have profound impacts on pelagic food webs and ecosystem dynamics. The physiological and molecular processes that underlay ecological function and biogeographical distribution are key to understanding present-day dynamics and predicting future trajectories. This study examined transcriptome-wide patterns of gene expression in relation to biological and physical oceanographic conditions in coastal, shelf and offshore waters of the Western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) region during austral spring and summer 2011. Based on field observations and collections, seasonal changes in the distribution and abundance of salps of different life stages were associated with differences in water mass structure of the WAP. Our observations are consistent with previous suggestions that bathymetry and currents in Bransfield Strait could generate a retentive cell for an overwintering population of S. thompsoni, which may generate the characteristic salp blooms found throughout the region later in summer. The statistical analysis of transcriptome-wide patterns of gene expression revealed differences among salps collected in different seasons and from different habitats (i.e., coastal versus offshore) in the WAP. Gene expression patterns also clustered by station in austral spring - but not summer - collections, suggesting stronger heterogeneity of environmental conditions. During the summer, differentially expressed genes covered a wider range of functions, including those associated with stress responses. Future research using novel molecular transcriptomic / genomic characterization of S. thompsoni will allow more complete understanding of individual-, population-, and species-level responses to environmental variability and prediction of future dynamics of Southern Ocean food webs and ecosystems.

  17. Forecasting olive crop yields based on long-term aero biological data series and bio climatic conditions for the southern Iberian Peninsula

    Aguilera, F.; Ruiz-Valenzuela, L.

    2014-06-01

    In the present study, bio-meteorological models for predicting olive-crop production in the southern Iberian Peninsula were developed. These covered a 16-year period: 1994-2009. The forecasting models were constructed using the partial least-squares regression method, taking the annual olive yield as the dependent variable, and both aero biological and meteorological parameters as the independent variables. Two regression models were built for the prediction of crop production prior to the final harvest at two different times of the year: July and November. The percentage variance explained by the models was between 83% and 93%. Through these forecasting models, the main factors that influence olive-crop yield were identified. Pollen index and accumulated precipitation, especially as rain recorded during the pre-flowering months, were the most important parameters for providing an explanation of fluctuations in fruit production. The temperature recorded during the two months preceding budburst was another important variable, which showed positive effects on the final yield. The July model that provides accurate predictions of fruit production eight months prior to the final harvest is proposed as an optimal model to forecast fruit produced by olive trees in western Mediterranean areas. (Author)

  18. Millennial-scale climate variations in western Mediterranean during late Pleistocene-early Holocene: multi-proxy analyses from Padul peatbog (southern Iberian Peninsula)

    Camuera, Jon; Jiménez-Moreno, Gonzalo; José Ramos-Román, María; García-Alix, Antonio; Jiménez-Espejo, Francisco; Toney, Jaime L.; Anderson, R. Scott; Kaufman, Darrell; Bright, Jordon; Sachse, Dirk

    2017-04-01

    Padul peatbog, located in southern Iberian Peninsula (western Mediterranean region) is a unique area for palaeoenvironmental studies due to its location, between arid and temperate climates. Previous studies showed that the Padul peatbog contains a continuous record of the last ca. 0.8-1 Ma, so it is an extraordinary site to identify glacial-interglacial phases as well as Heinrich and D-O events, linked to orbital- and suborbital-scale variations. In 2015, a new 42 m long core was taken from this area, providing an excellent sediment record probably for the last ca. 300,000 years. This study is focused on the paleoenvironmental and climatic reconstruction of the late Pleistocene and the early Holocene (ca. from 50,000 to 9,500 cal. yrs BP), using AMS 14C and AAR dating, high-resolution pollen analysis, lithology, continuous XRF-scanning, X-ray diffraction, magnetic susceptibility and organic geochemistry. These different proxies provide information not only about the regional environment change but also about local changes in the conditions of the Padul lake/peatbog due to variations in water temperature, pH or nutrients.

  19. Magnetic signature of river sediments drained into the southern and eastern part of the South China Sea (Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Borneo, Luzon and Taiwan)

    Kissel, Catherine; Liu, Zhifei; Li, Jinhua; Wandres, Camille

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic properties of 22 river samples collected in the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Borneo, Luzon and Taiwan have been investigated in order to magnetically characterize the sediments drained and deposited into the South China Sea. The geological formations as well as the present climatic conditions are different from one region to another. Laboratory analyses include low-field magnetic susceptibility, anhysteretic (ARM) and isothermal (IRM) remanent magnetizations acquisition and decay, back-field acquisition, thermal demagnetization of three-axes IRM, hysteresis cycles and low-temperature magnetic measurements. The magnetic properties indicate that the sediments are a mixture of hematite, magnetite and pyrrhotite in different proportions depending on the region. Combined with results previously reported for the three main Asian rivers (Pearl, Red and Mekong rivers), the new data indicate that, in general, hematite-rich sediments are delivered to the southern basin of the South China Sea while the northern basin is fed with magnetite and pyrrhotite-rich sediments. In addition to this general picture, some variability is observed at smaller geographic scales. Indeed, the magnetic assemblages are closely related to the geology of the various catchments while clay minerals, previously reported for the same samples, are more representative of the climatic conditions under which the parent rocks have evolved within each catchment. The magnetic fraction, now well characterized in the main river sediments drained into the South China Sea, can be used as a tracer for changes in precipitation on land and in oceanic water mass transport and exchange.

  20. Biogeochemistry of iron in the Arabian sea

    Moffett, J.W.; Vedamati, J.; Goepfert, T.J.; Pratihary, A.K.; Gauns, M.; Naqvi, S.W.A.

    Biogeochemistry of iron in the Arabian Sea James W. Moffett,*1 Jagruti Vedamati,†1 Tyler J. Goepfert,1 Anil Pratihary,2 Mangesh Gauns,2 S. W. A. Naqvi2 1Department of Biological Sciences, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 2National...

  1. Extended spawning in brown trout (Salmo trutta populations from the Southern Iberian Peninsula: the role of climate variability

    José E. Larios-López

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The reproductive periods of brown trout (Salmo trutta populations in 12 rivers in the Baetic Mountains in southern Spain were studied from 2008 to 2013. This area is an ecological and geographical limit for the distribution of this species in Europe. We found that the spawning period has been markedly extended in these fish. The mean spawning dates in the studied populations are consistent with the European trend at this latitude, but our data suggest that females from most of the populations that we studied are able to produce eggs from early October through late April or early May, yielding a reproductive period of between 150 and 170 days, the longest and most delayed brown trout reproduction periods that have been reported in the literature. We believe that such expanded spawning periods result primarily from the unpredictability of the Mediterranean climate, although it is possible that other factors may have contributed to the development of this reproductive behaviour. This hypothesis is discussed in the context of a comparison of our results with those found for other European S. trutta populations.

  2. Tectonic implications of the 2017 Ayvacık (Çanakkale) earthquakes, Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey

    Özden, Süha; Över, Semir; Poyraz, Selda Altuncu; Güneş, Yavuz; Pınar, Ali

    2018-04-01

    The west to southwestward motion of the Anatolian block results from the relative motions between the Eurasian, Arabian and African plates along the right-lateral North Anatolian Fault Zone in the north and left-lateral East Anatolian Fault Zone in the east. The Biga Peninsula is tectonically influenced by the Anatolian motion originating along the North Anatolian Fault Zone which splits into two main (northern and southern) branches in the east of Marmara region: the southern branch extends towards the Biga Peninsula which is characterized by strike-slip to oblique normal faulting stress regime in the central to northern part. The southernmost part of peninsula is characterized by a normal to oblique faulting stress regime. The analysis of both seismological and structural field data confirms the change of stress regime from strike-slip character in the center and north to normal faulting character in the south of peninsula where the earthquake swarm recently occurred. The earthquakes began on 14 January 2017 (Mw: 4.4) on Tuzla Fault and migrated southward along the Kocaköy and Babakale's stepped-normal faults of over three months. The inversion of focal mechanisms yields a normal faulting stress regime with an approximately N-S (N4°E) σ3 axis. The inversion of earthquakes occurring in central and northern Biga Peninsula and the north Aegean region gives a strike-slip stress regime with approximately WNW-ESE (N85°W) σ1 and NNE-SSW (N17°E) σ3 axis. The strike-slip stress regime is attributed to westward Anatolian motion, while the normal faulting stress regime is attributed to both the extrusion of Anatolian block and the slab-pull force of the subducting African plate along the Hellenic arc.

  3. Carbon and nitrogen dynamics of the intertidal seagrass, Zostera japonica, on the southern coast of the Korean peninsula

    Kim, Jong-Hyeob; Kim, Seung Hyeon; Kim, Young Kyun; Lee, Kun-Seop

    2016-12-01

    Seagrasses require a large amount of nutrient assimilation to support high levels of production, and thus nutrient limitation for growth often occurs in seagrass habitats. Seagrasses can take up nutrients from both the water column and sediments. However, since seagrasses inhabiting in the intertidal zones are exposed to the air during low tide, the intertidal species may exhibit significantly different carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) dynamics compared to the subtidal species. To examine C and N dynamics of the intertidal seagrass, Zostera japonica, C and N content and stable isotope ratios of above- and below-ground tissues were measured monthly at the three intertidal zones in Koje Bay on the southern coast of Korea. The C and N content and stable isotope (δ13C and δ15N) ratios of seagrass tissues exhibited significant seasonal variations. Both leaf and rhizome C content were not significantly correlated with productivity. Leaf δ13C values usually exhibited negative correlations with leaf productivity. These results of tissue C content and δ13C values suggest that photosynthesis of Z. japonica in the study site was not limited by inorganic C supply, and sufficient inorganic C was provided from the atmosphere. The tissue N content usually exhibited negative correlations with leaf productivity except at the upper intertidal zone, suggesting that Z. japonica growth was probably limited by N availability during high growing season. In the upper intertidal zone, no correlations between leaf productivity and tissue elemental content and stable isotope ratios were observed due to the severely suppressed growth caused by strong desiccation stress.

  4. Environmental behaviour of airborne Amaranthaceae pollen in the southern part of the Iberian Peninsula, and its role in future climate scenarios.

    Cariñanos, Paloma; Alcázar, Purificación; Galán, Carmen; Domínguez, Eugenio

    2014-02-01

    The Amaranthaceae family includes a number of species which, through a series of specific adaptations, thrive in salty soils, arid environments and altered human settlements. Their ability to tolerate high temperatures favours summer flowering, giving rise to the widespread involvement of Amaranthaceae pollen grains in summer allergies, both in Mediterranean Europe and in areas with arid climates. This study analysed a 21-year set of historical airborne Amaranthaceae pollen records for an area located in the southern part of the Iberian Peninsula, in order to chart species' environmental reaction to changing climate conditions which occurred in the last decades. Airborne pollen data were collected from January 1991 to December 2011 using a Hirst-type volumetric impact sampler. Results showed that Amaranthaceae pollen remained in the atmosphere for over 6 months along the year, from early spring until early autumn. The annual Pollen Index ranged from barely 200 grains to almost 2000 grains, and was strongly influenced by rainfall during the flowering period, which prompted the development of new individuals and thus an increase in pollen production. A trend was noted towards increasingly early pollen peak dates; peaks were recorded in August-September in years with summer rainfall, but as early as May-June in years when over 50% of annual rainfall was recorded in the months prior to flowering. The gradual decline in the annual Pollen Index over later years is attributable not only to growing urbanisation of the area but also to a change in rainfall distribution pattern. High maximum temperatures in spring were also directly related to the peak date and the Pollen Index. This ability to adapt to changeable and occasionally stressful and restrictive, environmental conditions places Amaranthaceae at a competitive advantage with respect to other species sharing the same ecological niche. An increased presence of Amaranthaceae is likely to have a greater impact on future

  5. Holocene climate aridification trend and human impact interrupted by millennial- and centennial-scale climate fluctuations from a new sedimentary record from Padul (Sierra Nevada, southern Iberian Peninsula)

    Ramos-Román, María J.; Jiménez-Moreno, Gonzalo; Camuera, Jon; García-Alix, Antonio; Anderson, R. Scott; Jiménez-Espejo, Francisco J.; Carrión, José S.

    2018-01-01

    Holocene centennial-scale paleoenvironmental variability has been described in a multiproxy analysis (i.e., lithology, geochemistry, macrofossil, and microfossil analyses) of a paleoecological record from the Padul Basin in Sierra Nevada, southern Iberian Peninsula. This sequence covers a relevant time interval hitherto unreported in the studies of the Padul sedimentary sequence. The ˜ 4700-year record has preserved proxies of climate variability, with vegetation, lake levels, and sedimentological change during the Holocene in one of the most unique and southernmost wetlands in Europe. The progressive middle and late Holocene trend toward arid conditions identified by numerous authors in the western Mediterranean region, mostly related to a decrease in summer insolation, is also documented in this record; here it is also superimposed by centennial-scale variability in humidity. In turn, this record shows centennial-scale climate oscillations in temperature that correlate with well-known climatic events during the late Holocene in the western Mediterranean region, synchronous with variability in solar and atmospheric dynamics. The multiproxy Padul record first shows a transition from a relatively humid middle Holocene in the western Mediterranean region to more aridity from ˜ 4700 to ˜ 2800 cal yr BP. A relatively warm and humid period occurred between ˜ 2600 and ˜ 1600 cal yr BP, coinciding with persistent negative North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) conditions and the historic Iberian-Roman Humid Period. Enhanced arid conditions, co-occurring with overall positive NAO conditions and increasing solar activity, are observed between ˜ 1550 and ˜ 450 cal yr BP (˜ 400 to ˜ 1400 CE) and colder and warmer conditions occurred during the Dark Ages and Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA), respectively. Slightly wetter conditions took place during the end of the MCA and the first part of the Little Ice Age, which could be related to a change towards negative NAO conditions

  6. Holocene climate aridification trend and human impact interrupted by millennial- and centennial-scale climate fluctuations from a new sedimentary record from Padul (Sierra Nevada, southern Iberian Peninsula

    M. J. Ramos-Román

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Holocene centennial-scale paleoenvironmental variability has been described in a multiproxy analysis (i.e., lithology, geochemistry, macrofossil, and microfossil analyses of a paleoecological record from the Padul Basin in Sierra Nevada, southern Iberian Peninsula. This sequence covers a relevant time interval hitherto unreported in the studies of the Padul sedimentary sequence. The  ∼  4700-year record has preserved proxies of climate variability, with vegetation, lake levels, and sedimentological change during the Holocene in one of the most unique and southernmost wetlands in Europe. The progressive middle and late Holocene trend toward arid conditions identified by numerous authors in the western Mediterranean region, mostly related to a decrease in summer insolation, is also documented in this record; here it is also superimposed by centennial-scale variability in humidity. In turn, this record shows centennial-scale climate oscillations in temperature that correlate with well-known climatic events during the late Holocene in the western Mediterranean region, synchronous with variability in solar and atmospheric dynamics. The multiproxy Padul record first shows a transition from a relatively humid middle Holocene in the western Mediterranean region to more aridity from  ∼  4700 to  ∼  2800 cal yr BP. A relatively warm and humid period occurred between  ∼  2600 and  ∼  1600 cal yr BP, coinciding with persistent negative North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO conditions and the historic Iberian–Roman Humid Period. Enhanced arid conditions, co-occurring with overall positive NAO conditions and increasing solar activity, are observed between  ∼  1550 and  ∼  450 cal yr BP (∼  400 to  ∼  1400 CE and colder and warmer conditions occurred during the Dark Ages and Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA, respectively. Slightly wetter conditions took place during the end of

  7. Spatial and temporal variability of column-integrated aerosol optical properties in the southern Arabian Gulf and United Arab Emirates in summer

    Eck, T. F.; Holben, B. N.; Reid, J. S.; Sinyuk, A.; Dubovik, O.; Smirnov, A.; Giles, D.; O'Neill, N. T.; Tsay, S.-C.; Ji, Q.; Al Mandoos, A.; Ramzan Khan, M.; Reid, E. A.; Schafer, J. S.; Sorokine, M.; Newcomb, W.; Slutsker, I.

    2008-01-01

    A mesoscale network of 14 AERONET Sun photometers was established in the UAE and adjacent Arabian Gulf from August through September 2004 as a component of the United Arab Emirates Unified Aerosol Experiment (UAE2). These measurements allowed for spatial, temporal and spectral characterization of the complex aerosol mixtures present in this environment where coarse mode desert dust aerosols often mix with fine mode pollution aerosols largely produced by the petroleum industry. Aerosol loading was relatively high with 2-month averages of aerosol optical depth (AOD) at 500 nm (τa500) ranging from 0.40 to 0.53. A higher fine mode fraction of AOD was observed over Arabian Gulf island sites with Angstrom exponent at 440-870 nm (α440-870) of 0.77 as compared to an average of 0.64 over coastal sites and 0.50-0.57 at inland desert sites. During pollution events with α440-870 > 1 the retrieved fine mode radius was larger over an island site than a desert site probably because of hygroscopic growth over the humid marine environment. For these same pollution cases, single scattering albedo (ωo) at all wavelengths was ˜0.03 higher (less absorption) over the marine environment than over the desert, also consistent with aerosol humidification growth. At an inland desert location, the ωo at 440 nm remained relatively constant as Angstrom exponent varied since the fine mode pollution and coarse mode dust were both strong absorbers at short wavelengths. However, at longer wavelengths (675-1020 nm) the dust was much less absorbing than the pollution resulting in dynamic ωo as a function of α440-870.

  8. Total petroleum systems of the Paleozoic and Jurassic, Greater Ghawar Uplift and adjoining provinces of central Saudi Arabia and northern Arabian-Persian Gulf

    Pollastro, Richard M.

    2003-01-01

    The greater Paleozoic and Jurassic petroleum systems of the Arabian Peninsula form two of the most prolific petroleum-producing systems in the world. Source rocks of these systems extend throughout the eastern Arabian Peninsula and Arabian-Persian Gulf. Primary elements of these Paleozoic and Jurassic petroleum systems - source, reservoir, and seal rocks - are of great areal extent and exceptional quality. The combination of these regionally extensive, exceptional petroleum-system elements, and the formation of large subtle structural closures prior to, or coincident with, peak oil generation and migration, have produced oil and gas fields with reserve volumes second to none.

  9. New initiatives for managment of red palm weevil threats to historical Arabian date palms

    The date palm is an important part of the religious, cultural, and economic heritage of the Arabian Peninsula. This heritage is threatened by the recent invasion of the red palm weevil(RPW) from Southeast Asia. In Saudi Arabia, a national campaign for control of RPW by containment/destruction of inf...

  10. A critical evaluation of depositional parameters controlling the variability of organic carbon in Arabian Sea sediments

    Paropkari, A.L.; PrakashBabu, C.; Mascarenhas, A.

    source of organic matter. However, a critical examination reveals that the organic enrichment on the slope of the Indian margin is two to four fold higher (max. 16.71%) than on the slope of the Arabian Peninsula (max. 7.54%) while the productivity...

  11. Biological data from a data-deficient shark: the Arabian smoothhound Mustelus mosis (Carcharhiniformes: Triakidae).

    Moore, A B M; Henderson, A C; Farrell, E D; Weekes, L B

    2016-06-01

    The present study provides information on length distribution, reproductive biology and diet of Mustelus mosis based on individuals caught in waters off the eastern Arabian Peninsula. Although ageing of vertebral centra was attempted, band pairs were of low clarity and counts could not be confidently assigned. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  12. Regional variation in the structure and function of parrotfishes on Arabian reefs

    Hoey, Andrew; Feary, David A.; Burt, John A.; Vaughan, Grace; Pratchett, Morgan S.; Berumen, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    the southern Arabian Gulf, and as such rates of grazing and erosion were negligible. This regional variation in abundance and functional composition of parrotfishes appears to be related to local environmental conditions.

  13. Foraminiferal production and monsoonal upwelling in the Arabian sea: evidence from sediment traps

    Curry, W.B.; Ostermann, D.R.; Guptha, M.V.S.; Ittekkot, V.

    Planktonic foraminifera collected in sediment traps in the Arabian Sea during 1986 and 1987 responded to the southern Asian monsoon with changes in productivity, relative abundance of species and isotopic shell chemistry. Most species...

  14. Geomorphic Evidence of Coseismic Coastline Changes in Southern Miura Peninsula Associated with the Recent Kanto Earthquakes: Analysis of the LIDAR Data, air Photos and Topo Maps

    Kim, H.; Kumaki, Y.; Satake, K.

    2011-12-01

    In order to study geomorphic evidence related to the past Kanto earthquakes, we analyzed LIDAR data, air photos and topographical maps, and traced uplifted marine terraces during the recent earthquakes including the 1923 and 1703 earthquakes. Tokyo Metropolitan Area's well-documented earthquake history is dominated by the 1703 and 1923 great Kanto earthquakes, that were resulted from the subducting Philippine Sea plate. Around the source region of the past Kanto earthquakes, Miura and Boso Peninsulas are located facing the Sagami Bay. The average recurrence interval of Kanto earthquake has been estimated on basis of the seismological, geodetic, geological and gemorophological data. The Earthquake Research Committee [2004] proposed that there are types of earthquakes with the recurrence intervals of 200-400 years, and about 2300 years. They produced different amounts of uplift at Boso Peninsula, but the uplifts of Miura Peninsula are similar. The uplift amounts of Miura Peninsula have been estimated about 1.5 m in 1923 and 1703, from the wave-cut-benches, -notches and the distribution of fossil remains along the coast [Matsuda et al. (1978), Shishikura et al. (2007)]. The coastline just before the 1923 earthquakes can be restored from the old topographical map. By using it, the coseismic uplifts associated with the 1923 and 1703 earthquakes may be more accurately estimated. The air photos we used are by 1946 U.S. forces photography and 1963/1966 Geographical Survey Institute photography; the topographical maps are 1:25,000 topographical maps measured in 1921 and 1:20,000 topographical maps of the Meiji period. In addition, we made a high-density (50 cm mesh) digital elevations map by aerial measurements of the Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR). In Miura Peninsula, three additional steps of marine terrace surface are formed at 7 to 20 m above MSL, at ~5200,~3300 and ~1500 cal. BC, and these are called Nobi 1, 2 and 3 in order from top [Kumaki, 1985; 14C Age was

  15. Winter monsoon circulation of the northern Arabian Sea and Somali Current

    Schott, Friedrich A.; Fischer, Jürgen

    2000-03-01

    The winter monsoon circulation in the northern inflow region of the Somali Current is discussed on the basis of an array of moored acoustic Doppler current profiler and current meter stations deployed during 1995-1996 and a ship survey carried out in January 1998. It is found that the westward inflow into the Somali Current regime occurs essentially south of 11°N and that this inflow bifurcates at the Somali coast, with the southward branch supplying the equatorward Somali Current and the northward one returning into the northwestern Arabian Sea. This northward branch partially supplies a shallow outflow through the Socotra Passage between the African continent and the banks of Socotra and partially feeds into eastward recirculation directly along the southern slopes of Socotra. Underneath this shallow surface flow, southwestward undercurrent flows are observed. Undercurrent inflow from the Gulf of Aden through the Socotra Passage occurs between 100 and 1000 m, with its current core at 700-800 m, and is clearly marked by the Red Sea Water (RSW) salinity maximum. The observations suggest that the maximum RSW inflow out of the Gulf of Aden occurs during the winter monsoon season and uses the Socotra Passage as its main route into the Indian Ocean. Westward undercurrent inflow into the Somali Current regime is also observed south of Socotra, but this flow lacks the RSW salinity maximum. Off the Arabian peninsula, eastward boundary flow is observed in the upper 800 m with a compensating westward flow to the south. The observed circulation pattern is qualitatively compared with recent high-resolution numerical model studies and is found to be in basic agreement.

  16. Crustal structure of the Arabian plate: new constraints of receiver functions

    Cui, Z.; Mai, P. M.; Pei, S.

    2013-12-01

    , the crust thins dramatically to approximately 29 km across a 30-50 km wide zone, then thins to 22 km over a 100-200km distance. At station FRSS located at the Farasan Island in the southern Red Sea shows a Moho depth of 13km. The Poisson's ratio are low along the Red Sea coast, most of them are smaller than 0.25, suggesting that the average crustal composition here mainly consists of felsic and slight intermediate rocks. This indicates that continental thinning at this region due to the Red Sea spreading and heat erosion may mainly happen in the lower crust. Some interspersed high values of Poisson's ratio along the Red Sea coast, especially around the Gulf of Aqaba, are spatially consistent with the location of local magmatic underplate and volcanic eruption. Poisson's ratio increases eastward and shows normal values about 0.25-0.27 in the interior of Arabian Peninsula.

  17. Regional variation in the structure and function of parrotfishes on Arabian reefs

    Hoey, Andrew

    2015-11-20

    Parrotfishes (f. Labridae) are a unique and ubiquitous group of herbivorous reef fishes. We compared the distribution and ecosystem function (grazing and erosion) of parrotfishes across 75 reefs in Arabia. Our results revealed marked regional differences in the abundance, and taxonomic and functional composition of parrotfishes between the Red Sea, Arabian Sea, and Arabian Gulf. High densities and diversity of parrotfishes, and high rates of grazing (210% year) and erosion (1.57 kg m year) characterised Red Sea reefs. Despite Arabian Sea and Red Sea reefs having broadly comparable abundances of parrotfishes, estimates of grazing (150% year) and erosion (0.43 kg m year) were markedly lower in the Arabian Sea. Parrotfishes were extremely rare within the southern Arabian Gulf, and as such rates of grazing and erosion were negligible. This regional variation in abundance and functional composition of parrotfishes appears to be related to local environmental conditions.

  18. علاقات النجف مع حواضر الجزيرة العربية في العهد العثماني الأخير حتى عام 1921... حائل أنموذجاً Najaf relations with the capitals of the Arabian Peninsula In the Last Ottoman period until 1921 ... Hail as model

    Moukidam Abdul Hassan Fayad مقدام عبد الحسن الفياض

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Najaf city Own a solid relationships and consistent with its surroundings geographical ( local and regional , as it is a city with have its centrality of scientific and its system of intellectual and maintain close contact with different parts of the Islamic world , it was also a commercial center and industrially important is the gate of Iraq on the western plateau and the population of the desert went to this city the most their needs. And is active around the movement of negative sentences convoys coming from the Arabian Peninsula and find Hail and Hijaz. The convoys are flocking to the desert of Najaf consistently as one of the centers markets necessary in Iraq . Its economy and adopted a semi-desert nature of the non-agricultural mainly on trade , and the resources they bring religious tourism . This is an activity the most important source for the movement financially.

  19. Continental margin evolution of the northern Arabian platform in Syria

    Best, J.A.; Barazangi, M. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)); Al-Saad, D.; Sawaf, T.; Gebran, A. (Syrian Petroleum Company, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic))

    1993-02-01

    Synthesis of available geological and geophysical data in the Syrian Arab Republic permits a descriptive account of the pre-Cenozoic geologic history of the northern Arabian platform. The northern Arabian platform appears to be a composite plate similar up to that interpreted in the rocks of the Arabian shield. The structural and stratigraphic relationships of the Paleozoic and Mesozoic sedimentary sections in Syria record the transformation of an eastward-facing Gondwana passive margin in the early Paleozoic into a westward-facing Levantine margin in the Mesozoic, at which time the northern platform was closely associated with the creation of the eastern Mediterranean basin. Timing of the margin transformation is inferred from the orientation and thickness variations of Lower Triassic rocks, but the transformation may have initiated as early as the Permian. The diversity and timing of geological features in Syria suggest that the northern Arabian platform did not behave as a rigid plate throughout its geological history. The present-day Palmyride mountain belt, located within the northern Arabian platform in Syria and initiated in the early Mesozoic as a northeast-trending rift nearly perpendicular to the Levantine margin, subsequently was inverted in the Cenozoic by transpression. The location of the rift may be associated with the reactivation of a zone of crustal weakness, i.e., a Proterozoic suture zone previously proposed from modeling of Bouguer gravity data. Thus, the northern and southern parts of the Arabian platform are similar in their respective geologic histories during the Proterozoic and Paleozoic; however, the northern Arabian platform was greatly affected by Mesozoic rifting and the creation of the eastern Mediterranean basin during the Mesozoic. 13 figs.

  20. Cenozoic tectonic and climatic events in southern Iberian Peninsula: Implications for the evolutionary history of freshwater fish of the genus Squalius (Actinopterygii, Cyprinidae).

    Perea, Silvia; Cobo-Simon, Marta; Doadrio, Ignacio

    2016-04-01

    Southern Iberian freshwater ecosystems located at the border between the European and African plates represent a tectonically complex region spanning several geological ages, from the uplifting of the Betic Mountains in the Serravalian-Tortonian periods to the present. This area has also been subjected to the influence of changing climate conditions since the Middle-Upper Pliocene when seasonal weather patterns were established. Consequently, the ichthyofauna of southern Iberia is an interesting model system for analyzing the influence of Cenozoic tectonic and climatic events on its evolutionary history. The cyprinids Squalius malacitanus and Squalius pyrenaicus are allopatrically distributed in southern Iberia and their evolutionary history may have been defined by Cenozoic tectonic and climatic events. We analyzed MT-CYB (510 specimens) and RAG1 (140 specimens) genes of both species to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships and to estimate divergence times and ancestral distribution ranges of the species and their populations. We also assessed their levels of genetic structure and diversity as well as the amount of gene flow between populations. To investigate recent paleogeographical and climatic factors in southern Iberia, we modeled changes-through-time in sea level from the LGM to the present. Phylogenetic, geographic and population structure analyses revealed two well-supported species (S. malacitanus and S. pyrenaicus) in southern Iberia and two subclades (Atlantic and Mediterranean) within S. malacitanus. The origin of S. malacitanus and the separation of its Atlantic and Mediterranean populations occurred during the Serravalian-Tortonian and Miocene-Pliocene periods, respectively. These divergence events occurred in the Middle Pliocene and Pleistocene in S. pyrenaicus. In both species, Atlantic basins possessed populations with higher genetic diversity than Mediterranean, which may be explained by the Janda Lagoon. The isolation of S. malacitanus was

  1. Global change in marine ecosystems: implications for semi-enclosed Arabian seas

    Duarte, Carlos M.

    2015-12-07

    Global Change has been defined as the impact of human activities on the key processes that determine the functioning of the Biosphere. Global Change is a major threat for marine ecosystems and includes climate change as well as other global impacts such as inputs of pollutants, overfishing and coastal sprawl. The Semi-enclosed Arabian Seas, including the Arabian Gulf and the Red Sea, have supported human livelihoods in the Arabian Peninsula over centuries and continue to do so, but are also threatened by Global Change. These threats are particularly severe as Semi-enclosed Arabian Seas already present rather extreme conditions, in terms of temperature, salinity and oxygen concentration. The vulnerability of the unique marine ecosystems of the Semi-enclosed Arabian Seas to Global Change vectors is largely unknown, but predictions based on first principles suggest that they may be at or near the tipping point for many pressures, such as warming and hypoxia. There is an urgent need to implement international collaborative research programs to accelerate our understanding of the vulnerability of Semi-enclosed Arabian Seas to Global Change vectors in order to inform conservation and management plans to ensure these Seas continue to support the livelihoods and well-being of the Arab nations.

  2. Seasonal cycle of circulation in the Antarctic Peninsula and the off-shelf transport of shelf waters into southern Drake Passage and Scotia Sea

    Jiang, Mingshun; Charette, Matthew A.; Measures, Christopher I.; Zhu, Yiwu; Zhou, Meng

    2013-06-01

    The seasonal cycle of circulation and transport in the Antarctic Peninsula shelf region is investigated using a high-resolution (˜2 km) regional model based on the Regional Oceanic Modeling System (ROMS). The model also includes a naturally occurring tracer with a strong source over the shelf (radium isotope 228Ra, t1/2=5.8 years) to investigate the sediment Fe input and its transport. The model is spun-up for three years using climatological boundary and surface forcing and then run for the 2004-2006 period using realistic forcing. Model results suggest a persistent and coherent circulation system throughout the year consisting of several major components that converge water masses from various sources toward Elephant Island. These currents are largely in geostrophic balance, driven by surface winds, topographic steering, and large-scale forcing. Strong off-shelf transport of the Fe-rich shelf waters takes place over the northeastern shelf/slope of Elephant Island, driven by a combination of topographic steering, extension of shelf currents, and strong horizontal mixing between the ACC and shelf waters. These results are generally consistent with recent and historical observational studies. Both the shelf circulation and off-shelf transport show a significant seasonality, mainly due to the seasonal changes of surface winds and large-scale circulation. Modeled and observed distributions of 228Ra suggest that a majority of Fe-rich upper layer waters exported off-shelf around Elephant Island are carried by the shelfbreak current and the Bransfield Strait Current from the shallow sills between Gerlache Strait and Livingston Island, and northern shelf of the South Shetland Islands, where strong winter mixing supplies much of the sediment derived nutrients (including Fe) input to the surface layer.

  3. The Arabian Sea

    Naqvi, S.W.A.; Naik, H.; Narvekar, P.V.

    high chI are also encountered offshore, presumably associated with the mesoscale features such as filaments and eddies. In conformity with the satellite data, elevated chI levels persist~lOOOkmfrom the Omani coast. During the Sl, chI levels are quite... is consumed rapidly for the degradation of copious amounts of organic matter produced within the Arabian Sea itself. Consequently, 02 levels fall very close to zero while nutrients accumulate in high concentrations within a zone that extends from the base...

  4. Arabian Sea oceanography and fisheries

    Madhupratap, M.; Nair, K.N.V.; Venugopal, P.; Gauns, M.; Haridas, P.; Gopalakrishnan, T.C.; Nair, K.K.C.

    The physical and chemical forcing which drive the Arabian production is now fairly well understood. The main attributes, which contribute to the productivity are (1) the boundary processes which manifest as upwelling during summer monsoon and (2...

  5. Characteristics of lithology and tectonic setting in the Korean peninsula

    Lee, Byungjoo; Chae, Byunggon; Choi, Junghae

    2011-01-01

    The west coast of the Korean Peninsula is bounded by the Korean Bay to the north and the Yellow Sea to the south; the east coast is bounded by the East Sea. Two hundred kilometers separate the peninsula from eastern China. The Japanese islands of Honshu and Kyushu are located 206 kilometers to the southeast, just across the Korea Strait. Because of its unique geographical location, Chinese culture filtered into Japan through Korea; a common cultural sphere of Buddhism and Confucianism was thus established between the three countries. The total area of the peninsula, including the islands, is 222,154 square kilometers of which about 45 percent, excluding the area in the Demilitarized Zone, constitutes the territory of South Korea. There are about 3,000 islands belonging to Korea. The islands are located mostly around the Yellow Sea; Ulleungdo, the largest island in the East Sea, serves as a major fishery base as does Dokdo island. Important islands within South Korea territory include Jejudo, the largest island, which lies off the southwest corner of the peninsula, Geojedo, Ganghwado, and Namhaedo. Nearly 70 percent of the Korean Peninsula is covered by mountains and hills. Located mostly in the southern and the western regions, these hills give way gradually to increasingly higher mountains toward the eastern and the northern end. On the whole, the western and southern slopes of the peninsula are wide with some plains and basins along rivers, while the eastern slope is very narrow because the high mountains hug the East Sea coastline

  6. Characteristics of lithology and tectonic setting in the Korean peninsula

    Lee, Byungjoo; Chae, Byunggon; Choi, Junghae [KIGAM, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-07-01

    The west coast of the Korean Peninsula is bounded by the Korean Bay to the north and the Yellow Sea to the south; the east coast is bounded by the East Sea. Two hundred kilometers separate the peninsula from eastern China. The Japanese islands of Honshu and Kyushu are located 206 kilometers to the southeast, just across the Korea Strait. Because of its unique geographical location, Chinese culture filtered into Japan through Korea; a common cultural sphere of Buddhism and Confucianism was thus established between the three countries. The total area of the peninsula, including the islands, is 222,154 square kilometers of which about 45 percent, excluding the area in the Demilitarized Zone, constitutes the territory of South Korea. There are about 3,000 islands belonging to Korea. The islands are located mostly around the Yellow Sea; Ulleungdo, the largest island in the East Sea, serves as a major fishery base as does Dokdo island. Important islands within South Korea territory include Jejudo, the largest island, which lies off the southwest corner of the peninsula, Geojedo, Ganghwado, and Namhaedo. Nearly 70 percent of the Korean Peninsula is covered by mountains and hills. Located mostly in the southern and the western regions, these hills give way gradually to increasingly higher mountains toward the eastern and the northern end. On the whole, the western and southern slopes of the peninsula are wide with some plains and basins along rivers, while the eastern slope is very narrow because the high mountains hug the East Sea coastline.

  7. On the dynamics of the Lakshadweep high and low in the southeastern Arabian Sea

    Shankar, D.; Shetye, S.R.

    chain in the vicinity of where they form, propagate westward, extending across the southern Arabian Sea a few months after genesis. We investigate the dynamics of the high and low with an analytic model and with numerical simulations using a dynamical...

  8. Fossil plume head beneath the Arabian lithosphere?

    Stein, Mordechai; Hofmann, Albrecht W.

    1992-12-01

    Phanerozoic alkali basalts from Israel, which have erupted over the past 200 Ma, have isotopic compositions similar to PREMA ("prevalent mantle") with narrow ranges of initial ɛ Nd(T) = +3.9-+5.9; 87Sr/ 86Sr(T)= 0.70292-0.70334; 206Pb/ 204Pb(T)= 18.88-19.99; 207Pb/ 204Pb(T)= 15.58-15.70; and 208Pb/ 204Pb(T)= 38.42-39.57. Their Nb/U(43 ± 9) and Ce/Pb(26 ± 6) ratios are identical to those of normal oceanic basalts, demonstrating that the basalts are essentially free of crustal contamination. Overall, the basalts are chemically and isotopically indistinguishable from many ordinary plume basalts, but no plume track can be identified. We propose that these and other, similar, magmas from the Arabian plate originated from a "fossilized" head of a mantle plume, which was unable to penetrate the continental lithosphere and was therefore trapped and stored beneath it. The plume head was emplaced some time between the late Proterozoic crust formation and the initiation of the Phanerozoic magmatic cycles. Basalts from rift environments in other continental localities show similar geochemistry to that of the Arabian basalts and their sources may also represent fossil plume heads trapped below the continents. We suggest that plume heads are, in general, characterized by the PREMA isotopic mantle signature, because the original plume sources (which may have HIMU or EM-type composition) have been diluted by overlying mantle material, which has been entrained by the plume heads during ascent. On the Arabian plate, rifting and thinning of the lithosphere caused partial melting of the stored plume, which led to periodic volcanism. In the late Cenozoic, the lithosphere broke up and the Red Sea opened. N-MORB tholeiites are now erupting in the central trough of the Red Sea, where the lithosphere has moved apart and the fossil plume has been exhausted, whereas E-MORBs are erupting in the northern and southern troughs, still tapping the plume reservoir. Fossil plumes, which are

  9. Precipitation Dynamics and Feedback mechanisms of the Arabian Desert

    Burger, Roelof; Kucera, Paul; Piketh, Stuart; Axisa, Duncan; Chapman, Michael; Krauss, Terry; Ghulam, Ayman

    2010-05-01

    The subtropical Arabian desert extends across the entire Peninsula. The Arabian desert finds itself in the downward branch of the Hadley cell with persistent subsidence. This stabilizes the atmosphere and lowers the relative humidity. The result is a strongly capped convective boundary layer and an extremely dry mid troposphere. Most of the area experience very little rainfall, generally below 100 mm per year, resulting in the largest uninterrupted sand desert in the world. However, local factors such as an unbroken 1000 km escarpment along the Red Sea, rocky mountains between 2000 and 3000 m, and gravel plains cut by wadis, causes micro climates with significant altered precipitation characteristics. Altitude oases with annual rainfall between 200 mm and 500 mm are found on the Asir mountains in the south west and over the Jebel Akdhar mountains on the Gulf coast of Oman. This region receives most of its rainfall in the Northern Hemisphere summer driven by a monsoon trough and the ITCZ. During summer, moist surface winds from the Red Sea converges with dry easterlies triggering convection along the Asir escarpment on a daily basis. Clear mornings grow into a layer of Altocumulus stratiformis cumulogenites by noon, which usually last until sunset. This cloud deck interacts with large severe convective cells which grow to the top of the troposphere by mid afternoon. The north experience a mediterranean climate with eastward propagating midlatitude cyclones causing wintertime rainfall. Characteristic cloud bands form over the northern interior. Vertically layered embedded convective cells that are not coupled with the surface propagate on north easterly tracks. This result in another oasis with annual rainfall exceeding 200 mm. Surface based convection causes isolated thunderstorms during spring and early summer, but cloud bases increase as the season progress until the evaporating downdraft causes dust storms. In-situ measurements, WRF model runs, radiosonde ascends

  10. Saharan and Arabian Dust Aerosols: A Comparative Case Study of Lidar Ratio

    Córdoba-Jabonero Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a first comparative study of the Lidar Ratio (LR values obtained for dust particles in two singular dust-influenced regions: the Canary Islands (Spain, close to the African coast in the North Atlantic Ocean, frequently affected by Saharan dust intrusions, and the Kuwait area (Arabian Peninsula as usually influenced by Arabian dust storms. Synergetic lidar and sun-photometry measurements are carried out in two stations located in these particular regions for that purpose. Several dusty cases were observed during 2014 in both stations and, just for illustration, two specific dusty case studies have been selected and analyzed to be shown in this work. In general, mean LR values of 54 sr and 40 sr were obtained in these studies cases for Saharan and Arabian dust particles, respectively. Indeed, these results are in agreement with other studies performed for dust particles arriving from similar desert areas. In particular, the disparity found in Saharan and Arabian dust LR values can be based on the singular composition of the suspended dust aerosols over each station. These results can be useful for CALIPSO extinction retrievals, where a single LR value (40 sr is assumed for pure dust particles independently on the dust source region.

  11. Antioxidant effect of Arabian coffee (Coffea arabica L) blended with ...

    antioxidants (GSH, vitamins C and E) were significantly elevated (p < 0.05) in mice administered. Arabian coffee ... cancer [9,10]. In addition ... HFD alone. IV. HFD + Arabian coffee + cardamom. V. HFD + Arabian coffee + cardamom + cloves.

  12. Indian Ocean dipole modulated wave climate of eastern Arabian Sea

    Anoop, T.R.; SanilKumar, V.; Shanas, P.R.; Glejin, J.; Amrutha, M.M.

    –378, 2016 www.ocean-sci.net/12/369/2016/ doi:10.5194/os-12-369-2016 © Author(s) 2016. CC Attribution 3.0 License. Indian Ocean Dipole modulated wave climate of eastern Arabian Sea T. R. Anoop1, V. Sanil Kumar1, P. R. Shanas1,2, J. Glejin1, and M. M. Amrutha1... are available on the website of the Japanese Agency of Marine–Earth Science and Technology (www.jamstec.go.jp). The tropical IO displays strong inter-annual climate vari- ability associated with the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the IOD (Murtugudde et...

  13. Nitrogen cycling in the suboxic waters of the Arabian Sea

    Devol, A.H.; Naqvi, S.W.A.; Codispoti, L.A.

    primary production in a section extending about 1000 km off shore from the Arabian coast (1.5 g C m-* d-'; [6]). The Northeast Monsoon (December- February) is characterized by moderate winds From the Himalayas that send cool, dry air over the region... the surface oxygen concentration is high, but by time it reaches the southern border of the ODZ (- 14"N) it loses almost all of its dissolved oxygen (Fig 1; 1771). Thus the combination of high oxygen demand and low oxygen source waters results in the strong...

  14. Geodetic constraints on present-day motion of the Arabian Plate: Implications for Red Sea and Gulf of Aden rifting

    Arrajehi, Abdullah; McClusky, Simon; Reilinger, Robert; Daoud, Mohamed; Alchalbi, Abdulmutaleb; Ergintav, Semih; Gomez, Francisco; Sholan, Jamal; Bou-Rabee, Firyal; Ogubazghi, Ghebrebrhan; Haileab, Biniam; Fisseha, Shimelles; Asfaw, Laike; Mahmoud, Salah; Rayan, Ali; Bendik, Rebecca; Kogan, Lewis

    2010-06-01

    Five years of continuously recording GPS observations in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia together with new continuous and survey-mode GPS observations broadly distributed across the Arabian Peninsula provide the basis for substantially improved estimates of present-day motion and internal deformation of the Arabian plate. We derive the following relative, geodetic Euler vectors (latitude (°N), longitude (°E), rate (°/Myr, counterclockwise)) for Arabia-Nubia (31.7 ± 0.2, 24.6 ± 0.3, 0.37 ± 0.01), Arabia-Somalia (22.0 ± 0.5, 26.2 ± 0.5, 0.40 ± 0.01), Arabia-India (18.0 ± 3.8, 87.6 ± 3.3, 0.07 ± 0.01), Arabia-Sinai (35.7 ± 0.8, 17.1 ± 5.0, 0.15 ± 0.04), and Arabia-Eurasia (27.5 ± 0.1, 17.6 ± 0.3, 0.404 ± 0.004). We use these Euler vectors to estimate present-day stability of the Arabian plate, the rate and direction of extension across the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden, and slip rates along the southern Dead Sea fault south of the Lebanon restraining bend (4.5-4.7 ± 0.2 mm/yr, left lateral; 0.8-1.1 ± 0.3 mm/yr extension) and the Owens fracture zone (3.2-2.5 ± 0.5 mm/yr, right lateral, increasing from north to south; 1-2 mm/yr extension). On a broad scale, the Arabian plate has no resolvable internal deformation (weighted root mean square of residual motions for Arabia equals 0.6 mm/yr), although there is marginally significant evidence for N-S shortening in the Palmyride Mountains, Syria at ≤ 1.5 mm/yr. We show that present-day Arabia plate motion with respect to Eurasia is consistent within uncertainties (i.e., ±10%) with plate tectonic estimates since the early Miocene when Arabia separated from Nubia. We estimate the time of Red Sea and Gulf of Aden rifting from present-day Arabia motion, plate tectonic evidence for a 70% increase in Arabia-Nubia relative motion at 13 Ma, and the width of the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden and find that rifting initiated roughly simultaneously (±2.2 Myr) along the strike of the Red Sea from the Gulf of Suez to the Afar

  15. Nitrite maxima in the Northern Arabian Sea

    Sankaranarayanan, V.N.; DeSousa, S.N.; Fondekar, S.P.

    There are 2 nitrite maxima in the Northern Arabian Sea, one at the thermocline depth and the other at depths between 300 and 500 m. The 2nd maximum is more prominent in the northeastern part of the Arabian Sea. The 1st maximum is associated...

  16. Sredinnyy Khrebet, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    2002-01-01

    The Kamchatka Peninsula in eastern Russia is shown in this scene created from a preliminary elevation model derived from the first data collected during the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) on February 12, 2000. Sredinnyy Khrebet, the mountain range that makes up the spine of the peninsula, is a chain of active volcanic peaks. Pleistocene and recent glaciers have carved the broad valleys and jagged ridges that are common here. The relative youth of the volcanism is revealed by the topography as infilling and smoothing of the otherwise rugged terrain by lava, ash, and pyroclastic flows, particularly surrounding the high peaks in the south central part of the image. Elevations here range from near sea level up to 2,618 meters (8,590 feet). Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the north-south direction. Northern slopes appear bright and southern slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow, red, and magenta, to white at the highest elevations. Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense, and the German and Italian space

  17. Biological, physical, nutrients, sediment, and other data from sediment sampler-grab, bottle, and CTD casts in the Arabian Sea, Equatorial Pacific Ocean, Northeast Atlantic Ocean, and Southern Oceans as part of the Long Term Monitoring East-West Flower Garden Banks project from 08 January 1995 to 08 April 1998 (NODC Accession 0001155)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Biological, physical, nutrients, sediment, and other data were collected using sediment sampler-grab, bottle and CTD casts in the Arabian Sea, North/South Pacific...

  18. The Korean Peninsula

    Jeon Bu-Guan

    1994-01-01

    A realistic approach to North-South arms control and disarmament would require a step-by-step formula encompassing measures for political and military confidence building, arms limitation and reduction. The most fundamental and important condition for achieving meaningful results in disarmament talks is securing political and military confidence. The problem which arose on the Korean peninsula originates from relations of North Korea and IAEA. North Korean position poses a serious threat to the Non-proliferation Treaty, in particular to the IAEA Safeguards regime. Nuclear non-proliferation and the ultimate elimination of nuclear weapons are the primary concerns of the post-cold war era. The Government of South Korea hopes that this issue can be solved through dialogue and negotiations

  19. The nuclear peninsula

    Zonabend, F.

    1993-01-01

    This book reports a study of the social and psychological implications for the people who work in or live near a high-risk industrial establishment. The establishment focussed on the studies is the nuclear reprocessing plant at la Hague on the Cotentin Peninsula in Normandy, France. The ways in which those working in the plant and living nearby come to terms with the risks in their daily lives is described. A sociology of the nuclear work place with its diversions and hierarchies is developed and an explanation offered for the often unexpected responses of the workers to the fear of irradiation and contamination. By analysing work practices and the language of the work-place it is shown how workers and locals can recognise the possibility of nuclear catastrophe while, at the same time, denying that it could ever happen to them. (UK)

  20. Tectonic evolution of the Pan-African arc assemblage in Southern Sinai An example from the Sa'al-Zaghra belt

    Hassan, M.; Fowler, A.; Hassan, I.; Abu-Alam, T.; Stüwe, K.

    2012-04-01

    The southern Sinai basement is part of the broader Neoproterozoic Arabian-Nubian Shield, which occupies parts of northeastern Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. The Sinai exposures of the shield are uniquely located as they form a bridge between the two halves of the shield that are elsewhere separated by the Red Sea rift. For shield terrain fragments are exposed in Sinai: the Feiran-Solaf, Kid, Taba-Elat and Sa'al-Zaghra metamorphic belts. Of these, the Sa'al Zaghra terrain has received the least attention. The four terrains are separated from each other by vast areas of syn- and post tectonic granitoids that complicate the correlation and have led to numerous controversies with respect to their interpretation. In this project structural, petrological and age dating will be carried out to clarify the evolution of the Sa'al Zaghra terrain in order to establish the relationship between it and the other terrains. Preliminary work already undertaken during this research suggests that the Sa'al-Zaghra and Kid terrains have much in common with respect to their lithological assemblages, as well as their structural and metamorphic histories. The same may be said of the Feiran-Solaf and Taba-Elat terrains. Juxtaposition of these paired terrains presents an enigma in that the Sa'al-Zaghra and Kid terrains appear to separate the Feiran-Solaf and Taba-Elat terrains from each other. There are possibilities of ancient transform systems that may explain this configuration.

  1. Submarine physiography off Lakshadweep Islands, Arabian Sea

    Chauhan, O.S; Chaubey, A

    Analysis of echosoundings, side scan sonar and shallow seismic data, supplementEd. by 152 sediment samples, collected along 150 km around Lakshadweep Islands, Arabian Sea, revealed that the islands have a very narrow shelf, and an abrupt, shelf...

  2. Denitrification processes in the Arabian Sea

    Naqvi, S.W.A.

    rate in the vicinity of 30 Tg Ny@u-1@@, but the extent of benthic contribution remains unknown. A decoupling of denitrification from primary production, unique to the Arabian Sea, is revealed by nitrite, Electron Transport System (ETS) activity...

  3. Trapping of insects in the Arabian Sea

    Pathak, S.C.; Parulekar, A.H.

    Some insects caught on RV Gaveshani, while on a cruise in the Arabian Sea in May-June 1986 is reported Of the 23 insects caught, 16 were lepidopterans An interesting flight behaviour of Psychota sp is described...

  4. The world's most isolated and distinct whale population? Humpback whales of the Arabian Sea.

    Cristina Pomilla

    Full Text Available A clear understanding of population structure is essential for assessing conservation status and implementing management strategies. A small, non-migratory population of humpback whales in the Arabian Sea is classified as "Endangered" on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, an assessment constrained by a lack of data, including limited understanding of its relationship to other populations. We analysed 11 microsatellite markers and mitochondrial DNA sequences extracted from 67 Arabian Sea humpback whale tissue samples and compared them to equivalent datasets from the Southern Hemisphere and North Pacific. Results show that the Arabian Sea population is highly distinct; estimates of gene flow and divergence times suggest a Southern Indian Ocean origin but indicate that it has been isolated for approximately 70,000 years, remarkable for a species that is typically highly migratory. Genetic diversity values are significantly lower than those obtained for Southern Hemisphere populations and signatures of ancient and recent genetic bottlenecks were identified. Our findings suggest this is the world's most isolated humpback whale population, which, when combined with low population abundance estimates and anthropogenic threats, raises concern for its survival. We recommend an amendment of the status of the population to "Critically Endangered" on the IUCN Red List.

  5. The world's most isolated and distinct whale population? Humpback whales of the Arabian Sea.

    Pomilla, Cristina; Amaral, Ana R; Collins, Tim; Minton, Gianna; Findlay, Ken; Leslie, Matthew S; Ponnampalam, Louisa; Baldwin, Robert; Rosenbaum, Howard

    2014-01-01

    A clear understanding of population structure is essential for assessing conservation status and implementing management strategies. A small, non-migratory population of humpback whales in the Arabian Sea is classified as "Endangered" on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, an assessment constrained by a lack of data, including limited understanding of its relationship to other populations. We analysed 11 microsatellite markers and mitochondrial DNA sequences extracted from 67 Arabian Sea humpback whale tissue samples and compared them to equivalent datasets from the Southern Hemisphere and North Pacific. Results show that the Arabian Sea population is highly distinct; estimates of gene flow and divergence times suggest a Southern Indian Ocean origin but indicate that it has been isolated for approximately 70,000 years, remarkable for a species that is typically highly migratory. Genetic diversity values are significantly lower than those obtained for Southern Hemisphere populations and signatures of ancient and recent genetic bottlenecks were identified. Our findings suggest this is the world's most isolated humpback whale population, which, when combined with low population abundance estimates and anthropogenic threats, raises concern for its survival. We recommend an amendment of the status of the population to "Critically Endangered" on the IUCN Red List.

  6. Pleistocene-Holocene boundary in Southern Arabia from the perspective of human mtDNA variation

    Al-Abri, A.-R.; Podgorná, E.; Rose, J. I.; Pereira, L.; Mulligan, C. J.; Silva, N. M.; Bayoumi, R.; Soares, P.; Černý, Viktor

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 149, č. 2 (2012), s. 291-298 ISSN 0002-9483 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 917 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80020508 Keywords : mtDNA variation * Arabian Peninsula * migrations Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology Impact factor: 2.481, year: 2012

  7. Picophytoplankton variability: Influence of winter convective mixing and advection in the northeastern Arabian Sea

    Bemal, Suchandan; Anil, Arga Chandrashekar; Shankar, D.; Remya, R.; Roy, Rajdeep

    2018-04-01

    The deepening of mixed layer and ensuing changes in optical and physicochemical properties of euphotic zone can influence phytoplankton community dynamics in the northeastern Arabian Sea during winter monsoon. The response of picophytoplankton community to such changes during winter convective mixing is not well understood. Herein, we have compared variations in the picophytoplankton community structure during early (November-December 2012), peak (end-January 2014) and late (mid-February 2015) winter monsoon from three separate cruises in the southern northeastern Arabian Sea. The higher Synechococcus abundance owing to entrainment of nutrients in mixed layer was observed during peak winter monsoon, while the concomitant changes in nitrate concentration, light and oxygen environment restricted Prochlorococcus growth resulting in lower abundance during the same period. This highlights the diverse responses of picophytoplankton groups to physicochemical changes of water column during winter convective mixing. The divinyl chlorophyll b/a ratio (marker for Prochlorococcus ecotypes) indicated prevalence of one low-light adapted ecotype (sensitive to light shock) in sub-surface water, one high-light adapted ecotype in surface water during early winter monsoon and both disappeared during intense mixing period in peak winter monsoon. Subsequently, a distinct low-light adapted ecotype, capable to tolerate light shock, was noticed during late winter monsoon and we argue that this ecotype is introduced to southern northeastern Arabian Sea through advection from north by sub-surface circulation. The total picophytoplankton biomass available to microbial loop is restored during late winter monsoon, when stratification begins, with a higher abundance of Synechococcus and the re-occurrence of Prochlorococcus population in the region. These inferences indicate that variability in picophytoplankton community structure and their contribution to the microbial loop are driven by

  8. Genetic diversity of Syrian Arabian horses.

    Almarzook, S; Reissmann, M; Arends, D; Brockmann, G A

    2017-08-01

    Although Arabian horses have been bred in strains for centuries and pedigrees have been recorded in studbooks, to date, little is known about the genetic diversity within and between these strains. In this study, we tested if the three main strains of Syrian Arabian horses descend from three founders as suggested by the studbook. We examined 48 horses representing Saglawi (n = 18), Kahlawi (n = 16) and Hamdani (n = 14) strains using the Equine SNP70K BeadChip. For comparison, an additional 24 Arabian horses from the USA and three Przewalski's horses as an out group were added. Observed heterozygosis (H o ) ranged between 0.30 and 0.32, expected heterozygosity (H e ) between 0.30 and 0.31 and inbreeding coefficients (F is ) between -0.02 and -0.05, indicating high genetic diversity within Syrian strains. Likewise, the genetic differentiation between the three Syrian strains was very low (F st  horses. Among Arabian horses, we found three clusters containing either horses from the USA or horses from Syria or horses from Syria and the USA together. Individuals from the same Syrian Arabian horse strain were spread across different sub-clusters. When analyzing Syrian Arabian horses alone, the best population differentiation was found with three distinct clusters. In contrast to expectations from the studbook, these clusters did not coincide with strain affiliation. Although this finding supports the hypothesis of three founders, the genetic information is not consistent with the currently used strain designation system. The information can be used to reconsider the current breeding practice. Beyond that, Syrian Arabian horses are an important reservoir for genetic diversity. © 2017 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  9. Ecology and biology of luminous bacteria in the Arabian Sea

    Ramaiah, N.; Chandramohan, D.

    Extensive studies on occurrence, distribution and species composition of luminous bacteria in the Arabian Sea were carried out from various habitats. Luminous bacterial population was by far the highest in the environs of the Arabian Sea...

  10. Factors controlling vertical fluxes of prrticles in the Arabian Sea

    Nair, T.M.B.; Ramaswamy, V.; Parthiban, G.; Shankar, R.

    )) in the western Arabian Sea. Carbonate contributed mainly by foraminifers and coccolithophorids, are the dominant component in all the traps. Opal fluxes were maximum in the western Arabian Sea. At all the locations, lithogenic percentages increased with depth...

  11. Distribution of organic carbon in sediments from the Arabian Sea

    Paropkari, A.L.; Mascarenhas, A.; PrakashBabu, C.

    Many earlier studies on the distribution of organic carbon in the Arabian Sea, sediments have projected contradictory opinions on the factors favouring accumulation and preservation of organic carbon in the Arabian Sea. An attempt is made...

  12. Geology of Southern Quintana Roo (Mexico) and the Chicxulub Ejecta Blanket

    Schönian, F.; Tagle, R.; Stöffler, D.; Kenkmann, T.

    2005-03-01

    In southern Quintana Roo (Mexico) the Chicxulub ejecta blanket is discontinuously filling a karstified pre-KT land surface. This suggests a completely new scenario for the geological evolution of the southern Yucatán Peninsula.

  13. Arabian Plate Deformation: The role of inherited structures in the localization of strain in the Red Sea extensional system

    Aldaajani, T.; Furlong, K.; Malservisi, R.

    2017-12-01

    The Red Sea rift structural architecture changes dramatically along strike from narrow localized spreading (with creation of new oceanic crust) in the south to asymmetrical diffuse extension north of 21 ° latitude. The region of diffuse extension falls within a triangle that is bounded to the east by the Sarhan graben, (a Cenozoic failed rift), to the west by the northern Red Sea Rift, and to the south by the Makkah-Madinah-Nafud (MMN) volcanic line. Geological observations appear to show that tectonic stresses acting on inherited structures within the NW Arabian margin are associated with the region of diffuse extension. In contrast, in the southern Red Sea, a single strong block within the SW Arabian margin led to localize the extension there. Using current velocities from more than 30 GNSS stations distributed within the Arabian plate, we are able to map its rigidity and the distribution of strain along the plate margin. The data show that the transition between the two styles of extension within the Red Sea (crustal accretion vs crustal extension) corresponds with a transition between rigid behavior and diffuse extension within the Arabian Plate. This suggests that the preexisting structures within the Arabian plate play a significant role in the style of extension along the Red Sea margin.

  14. Recent changes in the summer monsoon circulation and their impact on dynamics and thermodynamics of the Arabian Sea

    Pratik, Kad; Parekh, Anant; Karmakar, Ananya; Chowdary, Jasti S.; Gnanaseelan, C.

    2018-05-01

    The present study examines changes in the low-level summer monsoon circulation over the Arabian Sea and their impact on the ocean dynamics using reanalysis data. The study confirms intensification and northward migration of low-level jet during 1979 to 2015. Further during the study period, an increase in the Arabian Sea upper ocean heat content is found in spite of a decreasing trend in the net surface heat flux, indicating the possible role of ocean dynamics in the upper ocean warming. Increase in the anti-cyclonic wind stress curl associated with the change in the monsoon circulation induces downwelling over the central Arabian Sea, favoring upper ocean warming. The decreasing trend of southward Ekman transport, a mechanism transporting heat from the land-locked north Indian Ocean to southern latitudes, also supports increasing trend of the upper ocean heat content. To reinstate and quantify the role of changing monsoon circulation in increasing the heat content over the Arabian Sea, sensitivity experiment is carried out using ocean general circulation model. In this experiment, the model is forced by inter-annual momentum forcing while rest of the forcing is climatological. Experiment reveals that the changing monsoon circulation increases the upper ocean heat content, effectively by enhancing downwelling processes and reducing southward heat transport, which strongly endorses our hypothesis that changing ocean dynamics associated with low-level monsoon circulation is causing the increasing trend in the heat content of the Arabian Sea.

  15. Spatial Analysis of b-value Variability in Armutlu Peninsula (NW Turkey

    Yeken Tekin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Spatial variations of b values were studied by means of 2376 earthquakes with a magnitude completeness of 2.7 in the Armutlu Peninsula (NW Turkey during a 15-year period following the destructive earthquake on August 17, 1999 in Kocaeli. The b value of L6 for the entire Armutlu Peninsula represents a large value for a global value, but this analysis suggested that the distribution of b value around the Armutlu Peninsula varied extensively from 1.2 to 2.6. Several pockets of high bvalue reflected changes in the physical properties of the Armutlu Peninsula. The southern part of the peninsula represents a lower b value against the northern part of the peninsula. A high b value was observed around Termal and Armutlu towns where plenty of geothermal springs occur. Seismic tomography studies revealed a low velocity zone beneath the Termal area where the high b value was imaged in this study. A seismic swarm which is considered to be related with geothermal activity also occurred in 2014 at the same place. This observation suggests that it is possible to propose that the high b value in the northern part of the peninsula could be related to hydrothermal/geothermal activity which contributes to lowering the effective stress.

  16. Helminths of brown bears (Ursus arctos) in the Kola Peninsula.

    Bugmyrin, S V; Tirronen, K F; Panchenko, D V; Kopatz, A; Hagen, S B; Eiken, H G; Kuznetsova, A S

    2017-06-01

    We present data on the species composition of helminths in brown bears (Ursus arctos) from the Murmansk Region, Russia. The absence of any information about helminths of brown bear in the region necessitated the conduct of these studies. Samples were collected in 2014 and 2015 in the southern part of the Kola Peninsula from the White Sea coastal habitats. Annually, in the study area, 1-3 bears are legally hunted and biological samples for examination are very difficult to obtain. Therefore, we used fecal samples. We studied 93 feces and identified parasite eggs identified in 43 of them by morphometric criteria. The surveys revealed eggs of the following helminths: Dicrocoelium sp., Diphyllobothrium sp., Anoplocephalidae, Capillariidae, Baylisascaris sp., Strongylida 1, and Strongylida 2. These results represent the first reconnaissance stage, which allowed characterizing the taxonomic diversity and prevalence of parasites of brown bears of the Kola Peninsula.

  17. Potential uranium provinces in some arabian countries

    Salman, A A [Nuclear materials authority, El Maadi, Cairo, (Egypt)

    1995-10-01

    This work represents an attempt to delineate potential uranium provinces in some Arabian countries using various related recognition criteria. Definition of these provinces is based on the available geologic and tectonic setting beside geochronological sequence and some geochemical characteristics. This trial would be of a great help for interchanging the ideas and necessary data for the development in the fields of uranium exploration and production. As a result of this study, a number of promising potential uranium provinces are recommended in some arabian countries. 5 figs.

  18. Potential uranium provinces in some arabian countries

    Salman, A.A.

    1995-01-01

    This work represents an attempt to delineate potential uranium provinces in some Arabian countries using various related recognition criteria. Definition of these provinces is based on the available geologic and tectonic setting beside geochronological sequence and some geochemical characteristics. This trial would be of a great help for interchanging the ideas and necessary data for the development in the fields of uranium exploration and production. As a result of this study, a number of promising potential uranium provinces are recommended in some arabian countries. 5 figs

  19. Stratigraphy of Karaburun Peninsula

    Burhan Erdoğan

    1990-06-01

    Full Text Available In the Karaburun peninsula, a tectonic bell with a thick Mesozoic succession is located bordering the Izmir-Ankara zone on its western side. In the stratigraphic column of the Karaburun belt, the oldest unit is the Lower and Middle Carboniferous Alandere formation consisting dominantly of fossiliferous limestones. Lower Triassic rocks rest directly above this unit and Upper Carboniferous and Permian sections are missing. The Lower Triassic is represented by rock units showing facies changes in short distances along vertical and horizontal directions. In this part of the section, the Karareis and Gerence formations are differentiated which are collectively named as the Denizgiren group. The Karareis formation is composed of intercalations of sandstones, bedded-black cherts, pelagic limestones and mafic volcanics, whereas the Gerence formation composed dominantly of ammonitic red limestones, thinly-bedded gray limestones, and cherty limestones. The Karareis and Gerence formations grade laterally into each other and range in age from Scythian to Late Anisian. The Camiboğazı formation resting with a gradational contact on each of these units consists of massive limestones with reefal facies in places and yields an age of Ladinian-Camian. The Güvercinlik formation lies conformably above the Camiboğazı formation and consists of algal stromatolites, megalodon-bearing limestones, and quartzitic sandstone intervals. This unit ranges in age from Norian-Rheatian. The Nohutalan formation which is dominantly represented by thick-bedded neritic limestones overlies the Güvercinlik formation gradationally and yields an age ranging from Liassic to Albian. This unit appears to be lithologically continuous in the field without any indications of a break in the stratigraphic or structural record, however, the Dogger age has not been determined which may probably indicate a presence of a hiatus. Above this Mesozoic comprehensive succession with an age

  20. Colored Height and Shaded Relief, Kamchatka Peninsula

    2002-01-01

    Russia's Kamchatka Peninsula, lying between the Sea of Okhotsk to the west and the Bering Sea and Pacific Ocean to the east, is one of the most active volcanic regions along the Pacific Ring of Fire. It covers an area about the size of Colorado but contains more than 100 volcanoes stretching across the 1000-kilometer-long (620-mile-long) land mass. A dozen or more of these have active vents, with the youngest located along the eastern half of the peninsula. This color-coded shaded relief image, generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), shows Kamchatka's volcanic nature to dramatic effect.Kliuchevskoi, one of the most active and renowned volcanoes in the world, dominates the main cluster of volcanoes called the Kliuchi group, visible as a circular feature in the center-right of the image. The two other main volcanic ranges lie along northeast-southwest lines, with the older, less active range occupying the center and western half of Kamchatka. The younger, more active belt begins at the southernmost point of the peninsula and continues upward along the Pacific coastline.Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the north-south direction, so northern slopes appear bright and southern slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and brown to white at the highest elevations.The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission flew aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. The mission used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (200

  1. Sinai Peninsula, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    2004-01-01

    The Sinai Peninsula, located between Africa and Asia, is a result of those two continents pulling apart from each other. Earth's crust is cracking, stretching, and lowering along the two northern branches of the Red Sea, namely the Gulf of Suez, seen here on the west (left), and the Gulf of Aqaba, seen to the east (right). This color-coded shaded relief image shows the triangular nature of the peninsula, with the coast of the Mediterranean Sea forming the northern side of the triangle. The Suez Canal can be seen as the narrow vertical blue line in the upper left connecting the Red Sea to the Mediterranean. The peninsula is divided into three distinct parts; the northern region consisting chiefly of sandstone, plains and hills, the central area dominated by the Tih Plateau, and the mountainous southern region where towering peaks abound. Much of the Sinai is deeply dissected by river valleys, or wadis, that eroded during an earlier geologic period and break the surface of the plateau into a series of detached massifs with a few scattered oases. Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations. Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed

  2. Dependence of Indian monsoon rainfall on moisture fluxes across the Arabian Sea and the impact of coupled model sea surface temperature biases

    Levine, Richard C. [Met Office Hadley Centre, Devon (United Kingdom); Turner, Andrew G. [University of Reading, NCAS-Climate, Department of Meteorology, Reading (United Kingdom)

    2012-06-15

    The Arabian Sea is an important moisture source for Indian monsoon rainfall. The skill of climate models in simulating the monsoon and its variability varies widely, while Arabian Sea cold sea surface temperature (SST) biases are common in coupled models and may therefore influence the monsoon and its sensitivity to climate change. We examine the relationship between monsoon rainfall, moisture fluxes and Arabian Sea SST in observations and climate model simulations. Observational analysis shows strong monsoons depend on moisture fluxes across the Arabian Sea, however detecting consistent signals with contemporaneous summer SST anomalies is complicated in the observed system by air/sea coupling and large-scale induced variability such as the El Nino-Southern Oscillation feeding back onto the monsoon through development of the Somali Jet. Comparison of HadGEM3 coupled and atmosphere-only configurations suggests coupled model cold SST biases significantly reduce monsoon rainfall. Idealised atmosphere-only experiments show that the weakened monsoon can be mainly attributed to systematic Arabian Sea cold SST biases during summer and their impact on the monsoon-moisture relationship. The impact of large cold SST biases on atmospheric moisture content over the Arabian Sea, and also the subsequent reduced latent heat release over India, dominates over any enhancement in the land-sea temperature gradient and results in changes to the mean state. We hypothesize that a cold base state will result in underestimation of the impact of larger projected Arabian Sea SST changes in future climate, suggesting that Arabian Sea biases should be a clear target for model development. (orig.)

  3. The Struggle for Yemen and the Challenge of Al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula

    2013-06-01

    political party to which he belonged. Yet, if Saleh expected Hadi to act as a puppet , he must have been crushingly disappointed. Hadi seemed to...May 8, 2012. 148. Qusa was supposed to film the sinking of the USS Cole as a propaganda spectacle but overslept and missed the attack. 149. Fawaz al

  4. Modeling a typical winter-time dust event over the Arabian Peninsula and the Red Sea

    Kalenderski, Stoitchko; Stenchikov, Georgiy L.; Zhao, C.

    2013-01-01

    2009. The model predicted that the total amount of emitted dust was 18.3 Tg for the entire dust outburst period and that the two maximum daily rates were ?2.4 Tg day-1 and ?1.5 Tg day-1, corresponding to two periods with the highest aerosol optical

  5. Natural radioactivity in groundwater from the south-eastern Arabian Peninsula and environmental implications

    Murad, A.; Zhou, X. D.; Yi, P.

    2014-01-01

    increase the radioactivity in the groundwater. This conclusion is also supported by the positive correlation between radioactivity and amount of total dissolved solid. Particular water purification technology and environmental impact assessments are essential for sustainable and secure use...

  6. Political Dynamics and Security in the Arabian Peninsula Through the 1990s,

    1993-01-01

    Moreover, not only were historical and ideological differences between Syria and Iraq present, but Dam- ascus had supported Iran throughout the Iran...Iraq wanted to rebuild its war-dam- aged facilities as well as expand its industrial capacity., The need to show something for the war, coupled with a...outlooks, Gulf shaykhdoms articulated na- tional security policies through age -old political survival techniques. By 1992, however, and in large

  7. Al Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP): An Al Qaeda Affiliate Case Study

    2017-10-01

    Villarosa, Al-Qaeda in Yemen, Carnegie Endowment, July 7, 2009, http://carnegieendowment.org/2009/07/07/Al-Qaeda-in-yemen- event-1372. 53 Brian Whitaker...73 Khaled Fattah, “Yemen’s Insecurity Dilemma,” Yemen Times, February 11, 2014, http:// carnegie -mec.org/2014/02...Johnsen, and Shari Villarosa, “Al-Qaeda in Yemen.” Carnegie Endowment. July 7, 2009. http://carnegieendowment.org/2009/07/07/Al-Qaeda-in- yemen-event

  8. The Exploitation of a Weak State: Al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula in Yemen

    2010-06-01

    of the cease-fire to this point, it is unlikely the truce will last. In June 2007, the Qatar government mediated a joint cease- fire between the...http://www.thenational.ae/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20090925/FOREIGN/709249878/1135. 54 rapidly receding aquifers .”160 In rural areas, only 45...needs to persuade Middle Eastern countries like Qatar to act as a mediator between the Yemeni government and its two disgruntled entities. The Qatari

  9. Terrestrial snakebites in the South East of the Arabian Peninsula: patient characteristics, clinical presentations, and management.

    Juma M Alkaabi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To describe the characteristics, clinical presentations, management and complications of snakebites in the border region between Al-Ain, United Arab Emirates (UAE and Buraimi, Sultanate of Oman. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We carried out a retrospective review of medical records to study snakebite cases over four-year duration at three tertiary hospitals. Overall, 64 snakebite cases were studied with median hospitalization of 2 (interquartile range [IQR] 1-4 days. The majority of cases were male (87.5%, and most (61% of the incidents occurred during summer months. The bite sites were predominantly (95% to the feet and hands. Main clinical features included pain, local swelling, and coagulopathy, blistering and skin peeling. Overall, there were no deaths, but few major complications occurred; extensive skin peeling (n = 5, 8%, multi-organ failure (n = 1, 1.5%, and compartment syndrome (n = 1, 1.5%. Polyvalent anti snake venom (ASV, analgesia, tetanus toxoid, intravenous fluids, and antibiotics such as ampicillin, cloxacillin, and cephalosporins were commonly instituted as part of treatment protocols in the three hospitals. CONCLUSION: The overwhelming majority of bites occurred during summer months, and envenomations were more common in, relatively, young male farmers, but with no serious clinical complications. Prevention and treatment strategies should include increasing public awareness, developing management guidelines, and manufacturing specific ASV for a wide spectrum of the local venomous snakes.

  10. Population genetics of four heavily exploited shark species around the Arabian Peninsula

    Spaet, Julia L.Y.; Jabado, Rima W.; Henderson, Aaron C.; Moore, Alec B. M.; Berumen, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    The northwestern Indian Ocean harbors a number of larger marine vertebrate taxa that warrant the investigation of genetic population structure given remarkable spatial heterogeneity in biological characteristics such as distribution, behavior

  11. Winter cooling in the northern Arabian Sea

    PrasannaKumar, S.; Prasad, T.G.

    forcing that leads to the observed high productivity during winter in the northern Arabian Sea. The weak northerly winds and increased solar insolation during the inter-monsoon period, led to the development of a highly stratified upper layer with warm sea...

  12. Salinity extrema in the Arabian Sea

    Shenoi, S.S.C.; Shetye, S.R.; Gouveia, A.D.; Michael, G.S.

    are described. Two of the maxima arise from the influence of Red Sea and the Persian Gulf Water. The third, which lies at the bottom of the Equatorial Surface Water, forms due to freshening at the surface of high salinity Arabian Sea near-surface waters...

  13. Pyritized ooids from the Arabian Sea basin

    Rao, P.S.; Rao, Ch.M.; Reddy, N.P.C.

    Pyritized ooids in association with turbidites were observed in a box core collected at a depth of 3627 m from the Arabian Sea Basin. Ooids having a shallow water origin were transported to the present depth by turbidity currents or slumping...

  14. The nitrogen cycle in the Arabian Sea

    Bange, H.W.; Naqvi, S.W.A.; Codispoti, L.A.

    to enhanced rates of denitrification that occur in suboxic portions of the water column in the Arabian Sea. Sedimentary denitrification is small compared to water column denitrification, and additions of fixed-N via N sub(2) fixation also are small compared...

  15. Distinctiveness of Saudi Arabian EFL Learners

    Habbash, Manssour; Idapalapati, Srinivasa Rao

    2016-01-01

    In view of the increasing concern among English language teachers dealing with students from Saudi Arabia, as it manifests in TESOL community discussions, about the uniqueness of Saudi Arabian EFL learners, this paper attempts to document the outcome of a study of their distinctiveness from the perspective of expatriate teachers working for PYPs…

  16. Kinematic evolution of the southwestern Arabian continental margin: implications for the origin of the Red Sea

    Voggenreiter, W.; Hötzl, H.

    The tectonic and magnetic evolution of the Jizan coastal plain (Tihama Asir) in southwest Arabia was dominated by SW-NE lithospheric extension related to the development of the Red Sea Rift. A well-exposed, isotopically-dated succession of magmatic rocks (Jizan Group volcanics, Tihama Asir Magmatic Complex) allows a kinematic analysis for this part of the Arabian Red Sea margin. A mafic dyke swarm and several generations of roughly NW-trending normal faults characterized the continental rift stage from Oligocene to early Miocene time. Major uplift of the Arabian graben shoulder probably began about 14 Ma ago. By this time, extension and magmatism ceased in the Jizan area and were followed by an approximately 10 Ma interval of tectonic and magmatic quiescence. A second phase of extension began in the Pliocene and facilitated a vast outpouring of alkaliolivine basalts on the coastal plain. The geometry of faulting in the Jizan area supports a Wernicke-type simple-shear mechanism of continental rifting for the southern Arabian continental margin of the Red Sea.

  17. Provenance and recycling of Arabian desert sand

    Garzanti, Eduardo; Vermeesch, Pieter; Andò, Sergio; Vezzoli, Giovanni; Valagussa, Manuel; Allen, Kate; Kadi, Khalid A.; Al-Juboury, Ali I. A.

    2013-05-01

    This study seeks to determine the ultimate origin of aeolian sand in Arabian deserts by high-resolution petrographic and heavy-mineral techniques combined with zircon U-Pb geochronology. Point-counting is used here as the sole method by which unbiased volume percentages of heavy minerals can be obtained. A comprehensive analysis of river and wadi sands from the Red Sea to the Bitlis-Zagros orogen allowed us to characterize all potential sediment sources, and thus to quantitatively constrain provenance of Arabian dune fields. Two main types of aeolian sand can be distinguished. Quartzose sands with very poor heavy-mineral suites including zircon occupy most of the region comprising the Great Nafud and Rub' al-Khali Sand Seas, and are largely recycled from thick Lower Palaeozoic quartzarenites with very minor first-cycle contributions from Precambrian basement, Mesozoic carbonate rocks, or Neogene basalts. Instead, carbonaticlastic sands with richer lithic and heavy-mineral populations characterize coastal dunes bordering the Arabian Gulf from the Jafurah Sand Sea of Saudi Arabia to the United Arab Emirates. The similarity with detritus carried by the axial Tigris-Euphrates system and by transverse rivers draining carbonate rocks of the Zagros indicates that Arabian coastal dunes largely consist of far-travelled sand, deposited on the exposed floor of the Gulf during Pleistocene lowstands and blown inland by dominant Shamal northerly winds. A dataset of detrital zircon U-Pb ages measured on twelve dune samples and two Lower Palaeozoic sandstones yielded fourteen identical age spectra. The age distributions all show a major Neoproterozoic peak corresponding to the Pan-African magmatic and tectonic events by which the Arabian Shield was assembled, with minor late Palaeoproterozoic and Neoarchean peaks. A similar U-Pb signature characterizes also Jafurah dune sands, suggesting that zircons are dominantly derived from interior Arabia, possibly deflated from the Wadi al

  18. Water vapour flux divergence over the Arabian Sea during 1987 summer monsoon using satellite data

    Vinayachandran, P.N.; RameshKumar, M.R.

    the AS or the southern Indian Ocean. Another question which remains unanswered is whether all the NFD over AS is utilized only for precipitation over the Indian subcontinent or part of it is utilized for precipitation over the other southeast Asian countries. Only a... detailed and systematic surface and upper air data collection programme over the tropical Indian Ocean can throw light on the above questions. WATER VAPOUR FLUX DIVERGENCE OVER THE ARABIAN SEA 207 500 60’ 700 80” 500 60” 70” 500 60’ 70” 60” 700 Fig. 7...

  19. Airborne pollen trends in the Iberian Peninsula.

    Galán, C; Alcázar, P; Oteros, J; García-Mozo, H; Aira, M J; Belmonte, J; Diaz de la Guardia, C; Fernández-González, D; Gutierrez-Bustillo, M; Moreno-Grau, S; Pérez-Badía, R; Rodríguez-Rajo, J; Ruiz-Valenzuela, L; Tormo, R; Trigo, M M; Domínguez-Vilches, E

    2016-04-15

    Airborne pollen monitoring is an effective tool for studying the reproductive phenology of anemophilous plants, an important bioindicator of plant behavior. Recent decades have revealed a trend towards rising airborne pollen concentrations in Europe, attributing these trends to an increase in anthropogenic CO2 emissions and temperature. However, the lack of water availability in southern Europe may prompt a trend towards lower flowering intensity, especially in herbaceous plants. Here we show variations in flowering intensity by analyzing the Annual Pollen Index (API) of 12 anemophilous taxa across 12 locations in the Iberian Peninsula, over the last two decades, and detecting the influence of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). Results revealed differences in the distribution and flowering intensity of anemophilous species. A negative correlation was observed between airborne pollen concentrations and winter averages of the NAO index. This study confirms that changes in rainfall in the Mediterranean region, attributed to climate change, have an important impact on the phenology of plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Marine exotic isopods from the Iberian Peninsula and nearby waters.

    Martínez-Laiz, Gemma; Ros, Macarena; Guerra-García, José M

    2018-01-01

    Effective management of marine bioinvasions starts with prevention, communication among the scientific community and comprehensive updated data on the distribution ranges of exotic species. Despite being a hotspot for introduction due to numerous shipping routes converging at the Strait of Gibraltar, knowledge of marine exotics in the Iberian Peninsula is scarce, especially of abundant but small-sized and taxonomically challenging taxa such as the Order Isopoda. To fill this gap, we conducted several sampling surveys in 44 marinas and provide the first comprehensive study of marine exotic isopods from the Iberian Peninsula, the southern side of the Strait of Gibraltar (northern Africa) and the Balearic Islands. Exotic species included Ianiropsis serricaudis (first record for the Iberian Peninsula and Lusitanian marine province), Paracerceis sculpta (first record for the Alboran Sea ecoregion), Paradella dianae , Paranthura japonica (earliest record for the Iberian Peninsula) and Sphaeroma walkeri . Photographs with morphological details for identification for non-taxonomic experts are provided, their worldwide distribution is updated and patterns of invasion are discussed. We report an expansion in the distribution range of all species, especially at the Strait of Gibraltar and nearby areas. Ianiropsis serricaudis and Paranthura japonica are polyvectic, with shellfish trade and recreational boating being most probable vectors for their introduction and secondary spread. The subsequent finding of the studied species in additional marinas over the years points at recreational boating as a vector and indicates a future spread. We call for attention to reduce lags in the detection and reporting of small-size exotics, which usually remain overlooked or underestimated until the invasion process is at an advanced stage.

  1. Metformin, an Anthropogenic Contaminant of Seidlitzia rosmarinus Collected in a Desert Region near the Gulf of Aqaba, Sinai Peninsula

    Hassan, Ahmed R; El-Kousy, Salah M; El-Toumy, Sayed A

    2017-01-01

    A phytochemical investigation of Seidlitzia rosmarinus collected along the shoreline of the Gulf of Aqaba in the remote southern desert region of the Sinai peninsula has revealed the presence of the registered drug metformin (4). However, analysis of the (14)C content revealed the drug to be an a......A phytochemical investigation of Seidlitzia rosmarinus collected along the shoreline of the Gulf of Aqaba in the remote southern desert region of the Sinai peninsula has revealed the presence of the registered drug metformin (4). However, analysis of the (14)C content revealed the drug...

  2. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and a key to Saudi Arabian species

    Jane

    2011-10-24

    Oct 24, 2011 ... of the related species from Arabian region. A key to Saudi Arabian ... only two of these subgenera viz., Bracotritoma Csiki and. Phanerotoma s.str. .... species is also closely related to P. (B.) ebneri Fahringer from Sudan but ...

  3. Carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide in the Arabian Sea

    Naqvi, S.W.A; Sengupta, R.; DileepKumar, M.

    This review concentrates on some aspects of biogeochemical cycling of carbon and nitrogen in the Arabian Sea with emphasis on the atmospheric fluxes of CO sub(2) and N sub(2)O. The Arabian Sea appears to serve as a net sink for combined nitrogen...

  4. Processes controlling carbon components in the Arabian Sea

    DileepKumar, M.; Rajendran, R.; Somasundar, K.; Ittekkot, V.; Desai, B.N.

    production in the western Arabian Sea, relatively low CaCO sub(3) dissolution (approximately 100 mol dm/3 near and below 3000m) is attributed to skeletal material incorporation into faecal material and the subsequent faster deposition rates. Arabian Sea water...

  5. Neoproterozoic tectonics of the Arabian-Nubian Shield

    Blasband, B.

    2006-01-01

    The Neoproterozoic tectonic development of the Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS) can be divided in three parts: 1) the oceanic stage; 2) the arc-accretion stage; 3) the extensional stage. Three key-areas in the Arabian-Nubian Shield, namely the Bi'r Umq Complex, The Tabalah and Tarj Complex and the Wadi

  6. Estimating groundwater discharge into the ocean in the Yucatán Peninsula

    Alvarez Rodriguez, G.; Gutierrez-Jurado, H. A.; Uuh-Sonda, J.

    2017-12-01

    The Yucatán peninsula is an emerged flat carbonate block abundant in soluble rocks. High permeability and dissolution of the rock, facilitates the development of channels, sinkholes and caves where underground rivers discharge into the ocean. There are no rivers or streams acting as a surface drainage system, all rainfall water entering the peninsula is discharged either as evapotranspiration (ET) or as underground runoff into the ocean. To date there are no estimates of the total groundwater discharge from the peninsula into the sea, and of the spatial distribution of recharge and discharge areas thereby hindering efforts to understand the dynamics of a complex hydrologic system. In this study, we estimate the discharge (Q) by solving the water balance equation (ΔS=PPT-ET-Q) using remote sensing products over a period of 12 years; the change in storage (ΔS) was retrieved from the satellite GRACE; precipitation (PPT) from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission; and evapotranspiration (ET) from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer. Results show that freshwater discharge via evapotranspiration can be a significant portion of the water budget depending on the climatic conditions throughout the year. We observe high recharge-discharge inter-annual variability in the center of the peninsula and some clearly defined recharge and discharge zones around the perimeter. On average the dryer north-east and wetter north-western parts of the peninsula act as recharge zones (where the influx of water is higher than the outflow), while the central-northern part of the peninsula corresponding to agricultural lands, acts as a discharge zone (outflow is higher than influx). The most southern region of the peninsula and the western mangroves are always discharge zones. Finally, our analyses reveal a number of highly subsidized zones, where precipitation levels are consistently lower than evapotranspiration, hence indicating the presence of groundwater dependent

  7. Evaluation of the atmospheric model WRF on the Qatar peninsula for a converging sea-breeze event

    Balan Sobhana, Sandeepan; Nayak, Sashikant; Panchang, Vijay

    2016-04-01

    Qatar, a narrow peninsula covering an area of 11437 sq km, extends northwards into the Arabian Gulf for about 160km and has a maximum width of 88km. The convex shape of the coast-line and narrowness of the peninsula results in the Qatar region experiencing complex wind patterns. The geometry is favorable for formation of the land-sea breeze from both coastal sides of the peninsula. This can lead to the development of sea breeze convergence zones in the middle of the country. Although circulations arising from diurnal thermal contrast of land and water are amongst most intensively studied meteorological phenomena, there is no reported study for the Qatar peninsula and very few studies are reported for the Arabian Gulf region as whole. It is necessary to characterize the wind field for applications such as assessing air pollution, renewable energy etc. A non-hydrostatic mesoscale model, Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) with a nested high resolution grid permits the investigation of such fine scale phenomena. Data from eighteen land based Automated Weather Stations (AWS) and two offshore buoys deployed and maintained by the Qatar Meteorological Department were analyzed. Based on the analysis a clear case of sea breeze convergence were seen on 18 September 2015. Model simulations were used to investigate the synoptic conditions associated with the formation of this event. The season is characterized by week ambient north westerly wind over the Arabian Gulf. The WRF model performance is validated using observed in-situ data. Model simulations show that vertical extent of sea breeze cell was up to 1 km and the converging sea breeze regions were characterized with high vertical velocities. The WRF simulation also revealed that with high resolution, the model is capable of reproducing the fine scale patterns accurately. The error of predictions in the inner domain (highest resolution) are found to be relatively lower than coarse resolution domain. The maximum wind speed

  8. Controlling factors of the oxygen balance in the Arabian Sea's OMZ

    L. Resplandy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of OMZs (oxygen minimum zones due to climate change and their possible evolution and impacts on the ecosystems and the atmosphere are still debated, mostly because of the unability of global climate models to adequatly reproduce the processes governing OMZs. In this study, we examine the factors controlling the oxygen budget, i.e. the equilibrium between oxygen sources and sinks in the northern Arabian Sea OMZ using an eddy-resolving biophysical model.

    Our model confirms that the biological consumption of oxygen is most intense below the region of highest productivity in the western Arabian Sea. The oxygen drawdown in this region is counterbalanced by the large supply of oxygenated waters originated from the south and advected horizontally by the western boundary current. Although the biological sink and the dynamical sources of oxygen compensate on annual average, we find that the seasonality of the dynamical transport of oxygen is 3 to 5 times larger than the seasonality of the biological sink. In agreement with previous findings, the resulting seasonality of oxygen concentration in the OMZ is relatively weak, with a variability of the order of 15% of the annual mean oxygen concentration in the oxycline and 5% elsewhere. This seasonality primarily arises from the vertical displacement of the OMZ forced by the monsoonal reversal of Ekman pumping across the basin. In coastal areas, the oxygen concentration is also modulated seasonally by lateral advection. Along the western coast of the Arabian Sea, the Somali Current transports oxygen-rich waters originated from the south during summer and oxygen-poor waters from the northeast during winter. Along the eastern coast of the Arabian Sea, we find that the main contributor to lateral advection in the OMZ is the Indian coastal undercurrent that advects southern oxygenated waters during summer and northern low-oxygen waters during winter. In this region, our model indicates that

  9. 3D Electromagnetic Imaging of Fluid Distribution Below the Kii Peninsula, SW Japan Forearc

    Kinoshita, Y.; Ogawa, Y.; Ichiki, M.; Yamaguchi, S.; Fujita, K.; Umeda, K.; Asamori, K.

    2017-12-01

    Although Kii peninsula is located in the forearc of southwest Japan, it has high temperature hot springs and fluids from mantle are inferred from the isotopic ratio of helium. Non-volcanic tremors underneath the Kii Peninsula suggest rising fluids from the slab.Previously, in the southern part of the Kii Peninsula, wide band magnetotelluric measurements were carried out (Fujita et al. ,1997; Umeda et al., 2004). These studies could image the existence of the conductivity anomaly in the shallow and deep crust, however they used two dimensional inversions and three-dimensionality is not fully taken into consideration. As part of the "Crustal Dynamics" project, we have measured 20 more stations so that the whole wide-band MT stations constitute grids for three-dimensional modeling of the area. In total we have 51 wide-band magnetotelluric sites. Preliminary 3d inverse modeling showed the following features. (1) The high resistivity in the eastern Kii Peninsula at depths of 5-40km. This may imply consolidated magma body of Kumano Acidic rocks underlain by resistive Philippine Sea Plate which subducts with a low dip angle. (2) The northwestern part of Kii Peninsula has the shallow low resistivity in the upper crust, around which high seismicity is observed. (3) The northwestern part of the survey area has a deeper conductor. This implies a wedge mantle where the Philippine Sea subduction has a higher dip angle.

  10. The East Africa Oligocene intertrappean beds: Regional distribution, depositional environments and Afro/Arabian mammal dispersals

    Abbate, Ernesto; Bruni, Piero; Ferretti, Marco Peter; Delmer, Cyrille; Laurenzi, Marinella Ada; Hagos, Miruts; Bedri, Omar; Rook, Lorenzo; Sagri, Mario; Libsekal, Yosief

    2014-11-01

    The extensive outpouring of the Oligocene Trap basalts over eastern Africa and western Arabia was interrupted by a period of quiescence marked by the deposition of terrestrial sediments. These so-called intertrappean beds are often lignitiferous and yield recurrent floras and faunas, sometimes represented by endemic mammals. We intended to highlight the peculiar features of these sedimentary intercalations using a large-scale approach including eastern Africa and the western Arabian peninsula. Starting from a new mapping in the Eritrean highland, the intertrappean beds resulted a continuous level that was a few tens of meters thick and traceable for some tens of kilometers. They consist of fluvial red, green and gray mudstones and siltstones with subordinate channelized pebbly sandstones, and lignite seams. Two new 40Ar-39Ar datings constraint the age of the intertrappean beds between 29.0 Ma and 23.6 Ma. The outcrops near Mendefera have yielded the remains of two proboscidean families, the Deinotheriidae and the Gomphoteriidae. The morphological grade of the two Mendefera proboscideans would suggest a more derived stage than that of representatives of the same families from other Oligocene African sites (e.g., Chilga, Ethiopia). An Oligocene age could be inferred for them. The occurrence of the genus Prodeinotherium at Mai Gobro possibly represents the first occurrence of this taxon, while the Gomphotheirum sp. might represent the oldest occurrence of this taxon in Africa before its dispersal towards Asia and Europe. Proboscideans have also been found in the lowland intertrappean beds of Dogali near Massawa. These sediments were contiguous with the Eritrean highland intertrappean beds during the Oligocene, but are now tectonically displaced from them by two thousand meters of vertical topographical distance. Dogali is also known for the occurrence of possible Deinotheriidae remains and the primitive elephantoid Eritreum. Entering the Ethiopian highland, an

  11. The Characteristics on the Terrace and Uplift around the South-eastern part of Korean Peninsula for a Suitability of High level Radioactive Waste Disposal in Korea

    Koh, Yong Kwon; Bae, Dae Seok; Kim, Kyung Su; Kim, Geon Young; Park, Kyung Woo; Ji, Sung Hoon; Ryu, Ji Hoon

    2009-08-01

    The result of existing studies on the uplift in Korean peninsula would be regarded as high variety and rough uplifting range because of different approach method and various geologic formation with some location. As the results of this studies, the uplift around the southern part of Korean peninsula was estimated as the range from 0.0096mm to 1.4mm/year according to a geologic formation and location. It could be For the applying to HLW disposal project, the study on the uplift characteristics should be conducted according to the following guidelines: - should be a master program for the characterization of uplift in Korean peninsula considering long-term and systematic - should be applied scientific and quantitative approach methods and made subjective results - should be required an effective approach focused on limited area such as eastern, southern and western part of peninsula

  12. Taxonomy Icon Data: Arabian camel [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available Arabian camel Camelus dromedarius Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/Artiodactyla Camel...us_dromedarius_L.png Camelus_dromedarius_NL.png Camelus_dromedarius_S.png Camelus_dromedarius_...NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Camelus+dromedarius&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxo...nomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Camelus+dromedarius&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Camel...us+dromedarius&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Camelus+dromedarius&t=NS ...

  13. Metformin, an Anthropogenic Contaminant of Seidlitzia rosmarinus Collected in a Desert Region near the Gulf of Aqaba, Sinai Peninsula

    Hassan, Ahmed R.; El-Kousy, Salah M.; El-Toumy, Sayed A.

    2017-01-01

    A phytochemical investigation of Seidlitzia rosmarinus collected along the shoreline of the Gulf of Aqaba in the remote southern desert region of the Sinai peninsula has revealed the presence of the registered drug metformin (4). However, analysis of the (14)C content revealed the drug to be an a...

  14. Assessment of undiscovered conventionally recoverable petroleum resources of the Arabian-Iranian Basin

    Masters, Charles D.; Klemme, H. Douglas; Coury, Anny B.

    1982-01-01

    The estimates of undiscovered conventionally recoverable petroleum resources in the Arabian-Iranian basin at probability levels of 95 percent, 5 percent, and statistical mean are for oil (in billions of barrels): 72, 337, and 174; and for gas (in trillions of cubic feet): 299, 1792, and 849. The occurrence of petroleum can be accounted for in five definitive geological settings or plays. The assessment of undiscovered resource potential assumes that the new discoveries will expand the occurrence of petroleum in these basic plays; no additional plays with significant petroleum potential were recognized. The five plays listed by geologic age are: (I) Upper Cretaceous and Tertiary, (II) Lower and Middle Cretaceous sandstone, (III) Lower and Middle Cretaceous limestone, (IV) Jurassic, and (V) Permian. The Permian play, located in the south-central Arabian Gulf region and extending northeast-southwest from southern Iran to the Ar Rub' al Khali in Saudi Arabia, accounts for over four-fifths of the mean estimate of undiscovered gas. The remainder of the gas is divided about equally among the other four plays. The Jurassic play, located on the south side of the Arabian Gulf, accounts for slightly less than one-third of the estimated undiscovered oil, which is split equally between Saudi Arabia and Iraq. The Lower and Middle Cretaceous limestone play is located in the southern Gulf region and accounts for about one-fifth of the undiscovered oil, most of which is located in Saudi Arabia and the remainder in the United Arab Emirates. The Lower and Middle Cretaceous sandstone play is centralized in Kuwait at the head of the Arabian Gulf with significant potential extending to the northwest in Iraq; the play accounts for about one-third of the undiscovered oil, the great majority of which is estimated to be in Iraq with the remainder divided between Saudi Arabia and Kuwait. The upper Cretaceous-Tertiary play is located in the Zagros fold belt of Iran and Iraq and accounts for

  15. Continental lithosphere of the Arabian Plate: A geologic, petrologic, and geophysical synthesis

    Stern, Robert J.; Johnson, Peter

    2010-07-01

    The Arabian Plate originated ˜ 25 Ma ago by rifting of NE Africa to form the Gulf of Aden and Red Sea. It is one of the smaller and younger of the Earth's lithospheric plates. The upper part of its crust consists of crystalline Precambrian basement, Phanerozoic sedimentary cover as much as 10 km thick, and Cenozoic flood basalt (harrat). The distribution of these rocks and variations in elevation across the Plate cause a pronounced geologic and topographic asymmetry, with extensive basement exposures (the Arabian Shield) and elevations of as much as 3000 m in the west, and a Phanerozoic succession (Arabian Platform) that thickens, and a surface that descends to sea level, eastward between the Shield and the northeastern margin of the Plate. This tilt in the Plate is partly the result of marginal uplift during rifting in the south and west, and loading during collision with, and subduction beneath, the Eurasian Plate in the northeast. But a variety of evidence suggests that the asymmetry also reflects a fundamental crustal and mantle heterogeneity in the Plate that dates from Neoproterozoic time when the crust formed. The bulk of the Plate's upper crystalline crust is Neoproterozoic in age (1000-540 Ma) reflecting, in the west, a 300-million year process of continental crustal growth between ˜ 850 and 550 Ma represented by amalgamated juvenile magmatic arcs, post-amalgamation sedimentary and volcanic basins, and granitoid intrusions that make up as much as 50% of the Shield's surface. Locally, Archean and Paleoproterozoic rocks are structurally intercalated with the juvenile Neoproterozoic rocks in the southern and eastern parts of the Shield. The geologic dataset for the age, composition, and origin of the upper crust of the Plate in the east is smaller than the database for the Shield, and conclusions made about the crust in the east are correspondingly less definitive. In the absence of exposures, furthermore, nothing is known by direct observation about the

  16. Using GNSS for Assessment Recent Sea Level Rise in the Northwestern Part of the Arabian Gulf

    Alothman, A. O.; Bos, M. S.; Fernandes, R.

    2017-12-01

    Due to the global warming acting recently (in the 21st century) on the planet Earth, an associated sea level rise is predicted to reach up to 30 cm to 60 cm in some regions. Sea level monitoring is important for the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, since it is surrounded by very long cost of about 3400 km in length and hundreds of isolated islands. The eastern coast line of KSA, in the Arabian Gulf, needs some monitoring in the long term, due to low land nature of the region. Also, the ongoing oil withdrawal activities in the area, may affect the regional sea level rise. In addition to these two facts, the tectonic structure of the Arabian Peninsula is one factor. The Regional Relative sea level in the eastern cost of Saudi Arabia has been estimated in the past using tide gauge data of more than 28 years using the vertical displacement of permanent Global Navigation Satellite System GNSS stations having time span of only about 3 years. In this paper, we discuss and update the methodology and results from Alothman et al. (2014), particularly by checking and extending the GNSS solutions. Since 3 of the 6 GPS stations used only started observing in the end of 2011, the longer time series have now significantly lower uncertainties in the estimated vertical rate. Longer time span of GNSS observations were included and 500 synthetic time series were estimated and seasonal signals were analysed. it is concluded that the varying seasonal signal present in the GNSS time series causes an underestimation of 0.1 mm/yr for short time series of 3 years. In addition to the implications of using short time series to estimate the vertical land motion, we found that if the varying seasonal signals are present in the data, the problem is aggravated. This finding can be useful for other studies analyzing short GNSS time series.

  17. Distinctiveness of Saudi Arabian EFL Learners

    Manssour Habbash

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In view of the increasing concern among English language teachers dealing with students from Saudi Arabia, as it manifests in TESOL community discussions, about the uniqueness of Saudi Arabian EFL learners, this paper attempts to document the outcome of a study of their distinctiveness from the perspective of expatriate teachers working for PYPs (Preparatory Year Programs in Saudi Arabia. This study examines the distinctiveness with regard to the learning attitudes of Saudi students that are often cultivated by the culture and academic environment in their homeland. Employing an emic approach for collecting the required data an analysis was carried out in light of the other studies on ‘education’ in Saudi Arabia that have particular reference to the factors that can positively influence student motivation, student success and the academic environment. The findings were used in constructing the rationale behind such distinctiveness. Assuming that the outcome of the discussion on the findings of this exploration can be helpful for teachers in adapting their teaching methodology and improving their teacher efficacy in dealing with students both from the kingdom and in the kingdom, some recommendations are made. Keywords: China Distinctiveness, Saudi Arabian University context, Expatriate teachers’ perspective, Distinctiveness Theory

  18. First find of serpentinite in the cliffs of the Heracleian Peninsula of Southwestern Crimea

    Demina, L. I.; Promyslova, M. Yu.; Koronovskii, N. V.; Tzarev, V. V.

    2017-07-01

    This paper reports on the geological position and composition of serpentinite and serpentinitized peridotite, which we were the first to find in the cliffs of the southern part of the Heracleian Peninsula of Southwestern Crimea. In combination with pillow lava, gabbro, fragments of parallel dikes, and jasper, these rocks form an ophiolite association, which formerly belonged to the ancient crust of a back-arc basin that had reached the spreading stage of development.

  19. In situ observations of a possible skate nursery off the western Antarctic Peninsula.

    Amsler, M O; Smith, K E; McClintock, J B; Singh, H; Thatje, S; Vos, S C; Brothers, C J; Brown, A; Ellis, D; Anderson, J; Aronson, R B

    2015-06-01

    A dense aggregation of skate egg cases was imaged during a photographic survey of the sea floor along the western Antarctic Peninsula in November 2013. Egg cases were noted in a narrow band between 394 and 443 m depth. Although some skate species in other oceans are known to utilize restricted areas to deposit eggs in great numbers, such nurseries have not been described in the Southern Ocean. © 2015 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  20. Seismic Velocity Structure and Depth-Dependence of Anisotropy in the Red Sea and Arabian Shield from Surface Wave Analysis

    Hansen, S; Gaherty, J; Schwartz, S; Rodgers, A; Al-Amri, A

    2007-07-25

    We investigate the lithospheric and upper mantle structure as well as the depth-dependence of anisotropy along the Red Sea and beneath the Arabian Peninsula using receiver function constraints and phase velocities of surface waves traversing two transects of stations from the Saudi Arabian National Digital Seismic Network. Frequency-dependent phase delays of fundamental-mode Love and Rayleigh waves, measured using a cross-correlation procedure, require very slow shear velocities and the presence of anisotropy throughout the upper mantle. Linearized inversion of these data produce path-averaged 1D radially anisotropic models with about 4% anisotropy in the lithosphere, increasing to about 4.8% anisotropy across the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB). Models with reasonable crustal velocities in which the mantle lithosphere is isotropic cannot satisfy the data. The lithospheric lid, which ranges in thickness from about 70 km near the Red Sea coast to about 90 km beneath the Arabian Shield, is underlain by a pronounced low-velocity zone with shear velocities as low as 4.1 km/s. Forward models, which are constructed from previously determined shear-wave splitting estimates, can reconcile surface and body wave observations of anisotropy. The low shear velocity values are similar to many other continental rift and oceanic ridge environments. These low velocities combined with the sharp velocity contrast across the LAB may indicate the presence of partial melt beneath Arabia. The anisotropic signature primarily reflects a combination of plate- and density-driven flow associated with active rifting processes in the Red Sea.

  1. Avian Habitat Data; Seward Peninsula, Alaska, 2012

    Department of the Interior — This data product contains avian habitat data collected on the Seward Peninsula, Alaska, USA, during 21 May – 10 June 2012. We conducted replicated 10-min surveys...

  2. Comparative Profiling of coral symbiont communities from the Caribbean, Indo-Pacific, and Arabian Seas

    Arif, Chatchanit

    2014-12-01

    Coral reef ecosystems are in rapid decline due to global and local anthropogenic factors. Being among the most diverse ecosystems on Earth, a loss will decrease species diversity, and remove food source for people along the coast. The coral together with its symbionts (i.e. Symbiodinium, bacteria, and other microorganisms) is called the ‘coral holobiont’. The coral host offers its associated symbionts suitable habitats and nutrients, while Symbiodinium and coral-associated bacteria provide the host with photosynthates and vital nutrients. Association of corals with certain types of Symbiodinium and bacteria confer coral stress tolerance, and lack or loss of these symbionts coincides with diseased or bleached corals. However, a detailed understanding of the coral holobiont diversity and structure in regard to diseases and health states or across global scales is missing. This dissertation addressed coral-associated symbiont diversity, specifically of Symbiodinium and bacteria, in various coral species from different geographic locations and different health states. The main aims were (1) to expand the scope of existing technologies, (2) to establish a standardized framework to facilitate comparison of symbiont assemblages over coral species and sites, (3) to assess Symbiodinium diversity in the Arabian Seas, and (4) to elucidate whether coral health states have conserved bacterial footprints. In summary, a next generation sequencing pipeline for Symbiodinium diversity typing of the ITS2 marker is developed and applied to describe Symbiodinium diversity in corals around the Arabian Peninsula. The data show that corals in the Arabian Seas are dominated by a single Symbiodinium type, but harbor a rich variety of types in low abundant. Further, association with different Symbiodinium types is structured according to geographic locations. In addition, the application of 16S rRNA gene microarrays to investigate how differences in microbiome structure relate to

  3. The Caucasian-Arabian segment of the Alpine-Himalayan collisional belt: Geology, volcanism and neotectonics

    E. Sharkov

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Caucasian-Arabian belt is part of the huge late Cenozoic Alpine-Himalayan orogenic belt formed by collision of continental plates. The belt consists of two domains: the Caucasian-Arabian Syntaxis (CAS in the south and the EW-striking Greater Caucasus in the north. The CAS marks a zone of the indentation of the Arabian plate into the southern East European Craton. The Greater Caucasus Range is located in the south of the Eurasian plate; it was tectonically uplifted along the Main Caucasian Fault (MCF, which is, in turn, a part of a megafault extended over a great distance from the Kopetdag Mts. to the Tornquist-Teisseyre Trans-European Suture Zone. The Caucasus Mts. are bounded by the Black Sea from the west and by the Caspian Sea from the east. The SN-striking CAS is characterized by a large geophysical isostatic anomaly suggesting presence of mantle plume head. A 500 km long belt of late Cenozoic volcanism in the CAS extends from the eastern Anatolia to the Lesser and Greater Caucasus ranges. This belt hosts two different types of volcanic rocks: (1 plume-type intraplate basaltic plateaus and (2 suprasubduction-type calc-alkaline and shoshonite-latite volcanic rocks. As the CAS lacks signatures of subduction zones and is characterized by relatively shallow earthquakes (50–60 km, we suggest that the “suprasubduction-type” magmas were derived by interaction between mantle plume head and crustal material. Those hybrid melts were originated under conditions of collision-related deformation. During the late Cenozoic, the width of the CAS reduced to ca. 400 km due to tectonic “diffluence” of crustal material provided by the continuing Arabia-Eurasia collision.

  4. Quantitative observations on tropical cyclone tracks in the Arabian Sea

    Terry, James P.; Gienko, Gennady

    2018-03-01

    The Arabian Sea basin represents a minor component of global total cyclones annually and has not featured so prominently in cyclone research compared with other basins where greater numbers of cyclones are registered each year. This paper presents the results of exploratory analysis of various features of cyclone tracks in the Arabian Sea, with a particular focus on examining their temporal and spatial patterns. Track morphometry also reveals further information on track shape. The study indicates how cyclones spawned during May in the early pre-monsoon period (often strong events) have a tendency to follow more sinuous tracks, whereas cyclones occurring in October in the post-monsoon period tend to follow straighter tracks. Track sinuosity is significantly related to other attributes, including cyclone longevity and intensity. Comparisons are also drawn between the general characteristics of cyclone tracks in the Arabian Sea and other ocean basins, suggesting how the size and geography of the Arabian Sea basin exert influences on these characteristics.

  5. The oxygen minimum zone in the Arabian Sea during 1995

    Morrison, J.M.; Codispoti, L.A; Smith, S.L.; Wishner, K.; Flagg, C.; Gardner, W.D.; Gaurin, S.; Naqvi, S.W.A; Manghnani, V.; Prosperie, L.; Gundersen, J.S.

    as identify regions where denitrification is observed. The suboxic conditions within the northern Arabian Sea are documented, as well as biological adn chemical consequences of this phenomenon. Overall, the conditions found in the suboxic portion of the water...

  6. Status of mangroves along the countries bordering the Arabian Sea

    Untawale, A.G.; Wafar, S.; Jagtap, T.G.

    Distribution of mangroves in the countries bordering the Arabian Sea, including Gulf of Oman, Persian Gulf, Gulf of Aden and Red Sea, is reviewed and their present status is discussed. The estimated area of mangrove vegetation is 1140 sq. km...

  7. Serum testosterone in Arabian stallions during breeding and non ...

    Jane

    2011-10-12

    Oct 12, 2011 ... serum testosterone concentration during the non-breeding season is lower than that of the breeding season. .... confirm no impact of the stressful environmental conditions on the reproductive function of Arabian stallions.

  8. Nitrogen uptake in the northeastern Arabian Sea during winter cooling

    Kumar, S.; Ramesh, R.; Dwivedi, R.M.; Raman, M.; Sheshshayee, M.S.; DeSouza, W.

    /plain; charset=UTF-8 Hindawi Publishing Corporation International Journal of Oceanography Volume 2010, Article ID 819029, 11 pages doi:10.1155/2010/819029 Research Article Nitrogen Uptake in the Northeastern Arabian Sea during Winter Cooling S. Kumar, 1...

  9. Measurement of inherent optical properties in the Arabian Sea

    Suresh, T.; Desa, E.; Kurian, J.; Mascarenhas, A.A.M.Q.

    Inherent optical properties, absorption and began attenuation were measured in situ using a reflective tube absorption meter at nint wavelength, 412, 440, 488, 510, 555, 630, 650, 676 and 715 nm, in the Arabian Sea during March. Since inherent...

  10. Nitrogen fixation rates in the eastern Arabian Sea

    Ahmed, A.; Gauns, M.; Kurian, S.; Bardhan, P.; Pratihary, A.K.; Naik, H.; Shenoy, D.M.; Naqvi, S.W.A.

    The Arabian Sea experiences bloom of the diazotroph Trichodesmium during certain times of the year when optimal sea surface temperature and oligotrophic condition favour their growth. We measured nitrogen fixation rates in the euphotic zone during...

  11. Coccolithophores from the central Arabian Sea: Sediment trap results

    35.8 E were analyzed for temporal variation of coccolithophore fluxes from Octo- ber 1993 to ... production in the central Arabian Sea due to southward extent of nutrients from the northeast ... increases its residence period in the water column.

  12. Characteristics of humic and fulvic acids in Arabian Sea sediments

    Sardessai, S.

    Humic and fulvic acids isolated from some of the shelf, slope and offshore sediments of the Arabian Sea were studied. The molecular weight, functional groups, elemental composition and infrared spectra were examined. Humic substances, dominated...

  13. Preliminary notes on the decapod larvae of the Arabian Sea

    Menon, M.K.; Menon, P.G.; Paulinose, V.T.

    The note presents some general facts regarding the distribution of some of the larger groups of decapod larvae in the Arabian Sea Their relative numbers and the families and subfamilies, so far as can be recognized, represented within each group...

  14. Marine magnetic anomalies in the northeastern Arabian Sea

    Bhattacharya, G.C.; Chaubey, A; Murty, G.P.S.; Rao, D.G.; Scherbakov, V.S.; Lygin, V.A; Philipenko, A; Bogomyagkov, A

    Based on the analysis of some additional magnetic profiles, an updated correlation and identification of the sea-floor spreading type magnetic lineations in the northeastern Arabian Sea is presented. The anomaly 24 A-B sequence, characteris...

  15. Ocean biogeochemistry and atmospheric composition: Significance of the Arabian Sea

    Naqvi, S.W.A.; Jayakumar, D.A.

    -deficiency at mid-depths in this region modulates oceanic combined nitrogen inventory and consequently biological productivity. Due to a delicate biogeochemical balance the Arabian Sea is expected to be among the first to react to potential anthropogenic...

  16. Chemical oceanography of the Arabian Sea Part iv Laccadive sea

    SenGupta, R.; Moraes, C.; Kureishy, T.W.; Sankaranarayanan, V.N.; Jana, T.K.; Naqvi, S.W.A.; Rajagopal, M.D

    Patterns of distribution of nutrients and nutrients-oxygen relationships are similar to those observed in other parts of the Arabian Sea High magnesium and low fluoride concentrations in the water indicate probable loss of the latter as insoluble ion...

  17. Bouguer gravity trends and crustal structure of the Palmyride Mountain belt and surrounding northern Arabian platform in Syria

    Best, John A.; Barazangi, Muawia; Al-Saad, Damen; Sawaf, Tarif; Gebran, Ali

    1990-12-01

    This study examines the crustal structure of the Palmyrides and the northern Arabian platform in Syria by two- and three-dimensional modeling of the Bouguer gravity anomalies. Results of the gravity modeling indicate that (1) western Syria is composed of at least two different crustal blocks, (2) the southern crustal block is penetrated by a series of crustal-scale, high-density intrusive complexes, and (3) short-wavelength gravity anomalies in the southwest part of the mountain belt are clearly related to basement structure. The crustal thickness in Syria, as modeled on the gravity profiles, is approximately 40 ±4 km, which is similar to crustal thicknesses interpreted from refraction data in Jordan and Saudi Arabia. The different crustal blocks and large-scale mafic intrusions are best explained, though not uniquely, by Proterozoic convergence and suturing and early Paleozoic rifting, as interpreted in the exposed rocks of the Arabian shield. These two processes, combined with documented Mesozoic rifting and Cenozoic transpression, compose the crustal evolution of the northern Arabian platform beneath Syria.

  18. Bouguer gravity trends and crustal structure of the Palmyride Mountain belt and surrounding northern Arabian platform in Syria

    Best, J.A.; Barazangi, M. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (USA)); Al-Saad, D.; Sawaf, T.; Gebran, A. (Syrian Petroleum Company, Damascus (Syria))

    1990-12-01

    This study examines the crustal structure of the Palmyrides and the northern Arabian platform in Syria by two- and three-dimensional modeling of the Bouguer gravity anomalies. Results of the gravity modeling indicate that (1) western Syria is composed of at least two different crustal blocks, (2) the southern crustal block is penetrated by a series of crustal-scale, high-density intrusive complexes, and (3) short-wavelength gravity anomalies in the southwest part of the mountain belt are clearly related to basement structure. The crustal thickness in Syria, as modeled on the gravity profiles, is approximately 40{plus minus}4 km, which is similar to crustal thicknesses interpreted from refraction data in Jordan and Saudi Arabia. The different crustal blocks and large-scale mafic intrusions are best explained, though not uniquely, by Proterozoic convergence and suturing and early Paleozoic rifting, as interpreted in the exposed rocks of the Arabian shield. These two processes, combined with documented Mesozoic rifting and Cenozoic transpression, compose the crustal evolution of the northern Arabian platform beneath Syria.

  19. Crustal growth history of the Korean Peninsula:Constraints from detrital zircon ages in modern river sediments

    Taejin Choi; Yong Il Lee; Yuji Orihashi

    2016-01-01

    U-Pb analyses were carried out on detrital zircon grains from major river-mouth sediments draining South Korea to infer provenance characteristics and the crustal growth history of the southern Korean Peninsula, using a laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (LA-ICP-MS). The Korean Peninsula is located in the East Asian continental margin and mainly comprises three Precambrian massifs and two metamorphic belts in between them. We obtained 515 concordant to slightly discordant zircon ages ranging from ca. 3566 to ca. 48 Ma. Regardless of river-mouth location, predominance of Mesozoic (249e79 Ma) and Paleoproterozoic (2491e1691 Ma) ages with subordinate Archean ages in-dicates that the zircon ages reflect present exposures of plutonic/metamorphic rocks in the drainage basins of the South Korean rivers and the crustal growth of the southern Korean Peninsula was focused in these two periods. Comparison of detrital zircon-age data between the North and South Korean river sediments reveals that the Paleoproterozoic zircon age distributions of both regions are nearly identical, while the NeoproterozoicePaleozoic ages exist and the Mesozoic ages are dominant in southern Korean Peninsula. This result suggests that Precambrian terrains in Korea record the similar pre-Mesozoic magmatic history and that the influence of Mesozoic magmatism was mainly focused in South Korea.

  20. Advective pathways near the tip of the Antarctic Peninsula: Trends, variability and ecosystem implications

    Renner, Angelika H. H.; Thorpe, Sally E.; Heywood, Karen J.; Murphy, Eugene J.; Watkins, Jon L.; Meredith, Michael P.

    2012-05-01

    Pathways and rates of ocean flow near the Antarctic Peninsula are strongly affected by frontal features, forcings from the atmosphere and the cryosphere. In the surface mixed layer, the currents advect material from the northwestern Weddell Sea on the eastern side of the Peninsula around the tip of the Peninsula to its western side and into the Scotia Sea, connecting populations of Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) and supporting the ecosystem of the region. Modelling of subsurface drifters using a particle tracking algorithm forced by the velocity fields of a coupled sea ice-ocean model (ORCA025-LIM2) allows analysis of the seasonal and interannual variability of drifter pathways over 43 years. The results show robust and persistent connections from the Weddell Sea both to the west into the Bellingshausen Sea and across the Scotia Sea towards South Georgia, reproducing well the observations. The fate of the drifters is sensitive to their deployment location, in addition to other factors. From the shelf of the eastern Antarctic Peninsula, the majority enter the Bransfield Strait and subsequently the Bellingshausen Sea. When originating further offshore over the deeper Weddell Sea, drifters are more likely to cross the South Scotia Ridge and reach South Georgia. However, the wind field east and southeast of Elephant Island, close to the tip of the Peninsula, is crucial for the drifter trajectories and is highly influenced by the Southern Annular Mode (SAM). Increased advection and short travel times to South Georgia, and reduced advection to the western Antarctic Peninsula can be linked to strong westerlies, a signature of the positive phase of the SAM. The converse is true for the negative phase. Strong westerlies and shifts of ocean fronts near the tip of the Peninsula that are potentially associated with both the SAM and the El Niño-Southern Oscillation restrict the connection from the Weddell Sea to the west, and drifters then predominantly follow the open

  1. Bacterioplankton activity in the surface waters of the Arabian Sea during and after the 1994 SW monsoon

    Pomroy, Alan; Joint, Ian

    1999-03-01

    Bacterial biomass and production were measured on two cruises to the northwestern Arabian Sea in 1994; the first cruise took place towards the end of the SW monsoon in September, and the second cruise during the inter-monsoon period in November and December. Although phytoplankton production was significantly higher during the monsoon, bacterial numbers showed little difference. Bacteria were most abundant in the euphotic zone and highest bacterial numbers were measured during the monsoon period in the Gulf of Oman and the shelf waters off southern Oman; in these regions, numbers ranged from 0.9 to 1.6×10 9 bacteria l -1. On both cruises, bacteria were less abundant in the euphotic zone of the central Arabian Sea and typically ca 0.8×10 9 cells l -1 were present. The majority of bacteria (80-95%) were small cocci that were larger (median diameter 0.40 μm) during the monsoon period than the inter-monsoon, when the cells had a diameter of 0.36 μm; there was no comparable change in cell dimensions of bacteria present as rods. Bacterial production was measured by the incorporation of 3H-thymidine and 3H-leucine. On both cruises, uptake rates were highest on the Omani shelf and decreased offshore. In the central Arabian Sea, thymidine incorporation rates were similar in the monsoon and inter-monsoon periods, but higher rates of leucine incorporation were measured during the monsoon period. Bacterial production was a relatively small proportion of phytoplankton production in both periods sampled; bacterial production was equivalent to between 10 and 30% of the daily primary production in the Arabian Sea.

  2. Geology of the Prince William Sound and Kenai Peninsula region, Alaska

    Wilson, Frederic H.; Hults, Chad P.

    2012-01-01

    The Prince William Sound and Kenai Peninsula region includes a significant part of one of the world’s largest accretionary complexes and a small part of the classic magmatic arc geology of the Alaska Peninsula. Physiographically, the map area ranges from the high glaciated mountains of the Alaska and Aleutian Ranges and the Chugach Mountains to the coastal lowlands of Cook Inlet and the Copper River delta. Structurally, the map area is cut by a number of major faults and postulated faults, the most important of which are the Border Ranges, Contact, and Bruin Bay Fault systems. The rocks of the map area belong to the Southern Margin composite terrane, a Tertiary and Cretaceous or older subduction-related accretionary complex, and the Alaska Peninsula terrane. Mesozoic rocks between these two terranes have been variously assigned to the Peninsular or the Hidden terranes. The oldest rocks in the map area are blocks of Paleozoic age within the mélange of the McHugh Complex; however, the protolith age of the greenschist and blueschist within the Border Ranges Fault zone is not known. Extensive glacial deposits mantle the Kenai Peninsula and the lowlands on the west side of Cook Inlet and are locally found elsewhere in the map area. This map was compiled from existing mapping, without generalization, and new or revised data was added where available.

  3. New Initiatives for Management of Red Palm Weevil Threats to Historical Arabian Date Palms *

    Mukhtar, Muhammad

    2011-12-01

    The date palm is an important part of the religious, cultural, and economic heritage of the Arabian Peninsula. This heritage is threatened by the recent invasion of the red palm weevil (RPW) from Southeast Asia. In Saudi Arabia, a national campaign for control of RPW by containment/destruction of infested plants, injection and spraying of biochemical and chemical pesticide treatments in heavily infested and newly infested areas, and the use of pheromone/ kairomone traps for monitoring and reduction of RPW populations has been only partially successful in controlling its spread. New methods are needed to help manage the RPW populations. At a workshop in Riyadh in March 2010, plans were recommended to 1) devise and test new biological, chemical, and biotechnological methods to manage RPW in farms and urban palms; 2) compare the economic and logistic feasibility of acoustic and other detection methods against RPW larvae; and 3) develop biosensor indicators of RPW infestation in date palms. If these initiatives are successful, they will be of great assistance to landscape and orchard managers dealing with such a challenging pest of a highly valuable tree.

  4. Influence of orographically enhanced SW monsoon flux on coastal processes along the SE Arabian Sea

    Chauhan, O.S.; Raghavan, B.R.; Singh, K.; Rajawat, A; Ajai; Kader, U.S.A; Nayak, S.

    The Arabian Sea has an excess evaporation over precipitation regime. The southeast Arabian Sea is, however, anomalous because it has ~2800–4800 mm rainfall during the southwest monsoon (SWM). Despite a high rainfall, the fluvial influence on supply...

  5. Mechanism of the biological response to winter cooling in the northeastern Arabian Sea

    Madhupratap, M.; PrasannaKumar, S.; Bhattathiri, P.M.A.; DileepKumar, M.; Raghukumar, S.; Nair, K.K.C.; Ramaiah, N.

    The Arabian Sea is one of the most biologically productive ocean regions, mainly due to the upwelling of nutrients during the summer (southwest) monsoon. But the northern Arabian Sea continues to sustain fairly high biological production after...

  6. Isotopic and chemical investigations of quaternary aquifer in sinai peninsula

    Sadek, M.A.; Ahmed, M.A.; Awad, M.A.

    2001-01-01

    The present study has been conducted to investigate the renewal activity and mineralization potential of the quaternary aquifer in Sinai peninsula using environmental isotopes and hydrochemistry. The quaternary aquifer is vital for development processes as it has a wide extension and shallow water table. The total dissolved salts vary greatly from one location to another and range widely between 510-7060 mg/1, reflecting all categories from fresh to saline water. The change in salinity all over Sinai can be attributed to variations in the rate of evaporation. Leaching and dissolution of terrestrial salts during floods as well as the effects of sea spray and saline water intrusion. The main sources of groundwater recharge are the infiltration of Local precipitation and surface runoff as well as lateral flow through hydraulic connection with fractured aquifers. Snow melt also contributes to aquifer recharge in some areas in the central part of southern Sinai. The environmental stable isotopic contents of the ground water in the quaternary aquifer in Sinai reflect the isotopic composition of rain water from continental and east Mediterranean precipitation and monsonal air mass which comes from Indian ocean as well as the seepage of partly evaporated floodwater. The southern samples are more suitable for drinking and irrigation purposes due to its lower salinity and sodium hazard

  7. Speedup and fracturing of George VI Ice Shelf, Antarctic Peninsula

    T. O. Holt

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available George VI Ice Shelf (GVIIS is located on the Antarctic Peninsula, a region where several ice shelves have undergone rapid breakup in response to atmospheric and oceanic warming. We use a combination of optical (Landsat, radar (ERS 1/2 SAR and laser altimetry (GLAS datasets to examine the response of GVIIS to environmental change and to offer an assessment on its future stability. The spatial and structural changes of GVIIS (ca. 1973 to ca. 2010 are mapped and surface velocities are calculated at different time periods (InSAR and optical feature tracking from 1989 to 2009 to document changes in the ice shelf's flow regime. Surface elevation changes are recorded between 2003 and 2008 using repeat track ICESat acquisitions. We note an increase in fracture extent and distribution at the south ice front, ice-shelf acceleration towards both the north and south ice fronts and spatially varied negative surface elevation change throughout, with greater variations observed towards the central and southern regions of the ice shelf. We propose that whilst GVIIS is in no imminent danger of collapse, it is vulnerable to ongoing atmospheric and oceanic warming and is more susceptible to breakup along its southern margin in ice preconditioned for further retreat.

  8. Plants and soil microbes respond to recent warming on the Antarctic Peninsula

    Amesbury, M. J.; Royles, J.; Hodgson, D.; Convey, P.; Griffiths, H.; Charman, D.

    2013-12-01

    The Antarctic Peninsula is one of the most rapidly warming regions on Earth, with temperature increases of as much as 3°C recorded since the 1950s. However, the longer-term context of this change is limited and existing records are not suitably located to be able to trace the spatial signature of change over time. This paper will present the first published results from a wider project exploiting peat moss banks spanning 10 degrees of latitude along the Antarctic Peninsula as an archive of late Holocene climate variability. These moss banks are ideal archives for palaeoclimate research as they are well-preserved by freezing, generally monospecific, easily dated by radiocarbon techniques and have sufficiently high accumulation rates to permit decadal resolution. A unique time series of past moss growth and soil microbial activity has been produced from a 150 year old moss bank at Lazarev Bay, Alexander Island, a site at the southern limit of significant plant growth in the Antarctic Peninsula region. We use accumulation rates, cellulose δ13C and fossil testate amoebae to provide an indication of ecosystem productivity. We show that both moss and microbial population growth rates rose rapidly in the 1960s, consistent with temperature change, although recently may have stalled, concurrent with other evidence. The increase in terrestrial plant growth rates and soil microbial activity is unprecedented in the last 150 years. The observed relationship between moss growth, microbial activity and climate at Lazarev Bay suggests that moss bank records have the potential to test the regional expression of temperature variability shown by instrumental data on the Antarctic Peninsula over centennial to millennial timescales, by providing long-term records of summer growth conditions, complementing the more distant and widely dispersed ice core records. As a result, we will conclude by placing the Lazarev Bay record into the wider context of the latest progress of analysis of

  9. Vegetation stability and the habitat associations of the endemic taxa of the Olympic Peninsula, Washington, USA

    Daniel G. Gavin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Explanations for areas of endemism often involve relative climatic stability, or low climate velocity, over time scales ranging from the Pleistocene to the late Cenozoic. Given that many narrowly endemic taxa in forested landscapes display discrete habitat associations, habitat stability should be similarly important for endemic persistence. Furthermore, while past climate variability is exceedingly difficult to quantify on millennial time scales, past distributions of habitats may be robustly inferred from paleoecological records. The Olympic Peninsula, Washington, supports a biota with several insular features including 29 endemic plant and animal taxa. Here I present the geographic distribution and habitat of the endemic taxa, and then examine the vegetation stability of the past 14,300 years from five pollen records associated with discrete vegetation zones on the peninsula. I show that 11 endemics have distributions centered on dry alpine scree and rock in the northeastern quadrant of the peninsula, and nine occur in shaded riparian forests in the southwest. Vegetation turnover during the post-glacial period was smallest in these areas. However, another long pollen record from the western peninsula reveals existence of shrub tundra and greatly reduced forest cover, indicating southward displacement of shaded riparian habitats by perhaps as much as 100 km. Although this study supports an association of post-glacial vegetation stability with endemism, records spanning the glacial maximum indicate widespread tundra during long periods of the late Pleistocene and therefore suggest southern displacement of forest-associated endemics. While some of the alpine scree-associated endemics may have persisted in situ, many others likely arrived via a variety of dispersal trajectories. These histories include dispersal from southern refugia towards ocean barriers preventing further northward dispersal, contraction from more widespread distributions, and

  10. Neogene vertebrates from the Gargano Peninsula, Italy

    Freudenthal, M.

    1971-01-01

    Fissure-fillings in Mesozoic limestones in the Gargano Peninsula yield rich collections of fossil vertebrates, which are characterized by gigantism and aberrant morphology. Their age is considered to be Vallesian or Turolian. The special features of the fauna are probably due to isolation on an

  11. Historic magmatism on the Reykjanes Peninsula, Iceland

    Peate, David W.; Baker, Joel A.; Jakobssen, Sveinn P.

    2009-01-01

    We present new compositional data on a suite of historic lava flows from the Reykjanes Peninsula, Iceland. They were erupted over a short time period between c. 940 and c. 1340 AD and provide a snap-shot view of melt generation and evolution processes beneath this onshore, 65 km long, ridge segment...

  12. Crustal parameters in the Iberian Peninsula

    Banda, E.

    1988-06-01

    The structure of the crust in the Iberian Peninsula has been investigated for the last 15 years by Spanish and Portuguese groups in close collaboration with other European institutions. The first experiments were carried out in Portugal (Mueller et al., 1973) with the aim of investigating the crustal structure of the Hercynian belt in the southwest corner of the Iberian peninsula. Other experiments have been subsequently realized to study different aspects of the crust in various regions of Portugal. In Spain the main effort has been focused in Alpine areas, with the first experiments in the Alboran Sea and the Betic Cordilleras (Working Group for Deep Seismic Sounding in Spain, 1974-1975, 1977; Working Group for Deep Seismic Sounding in the Alboran Sea, 1974-1975, 1978). Follow-up experiments until 1981 completed the work in the Betic Cordillera. Extensive experiments were carried out in the Pyrenees in 1978. Further surveys covered the Balearic Islands in 1976, the Valencia Trough in 1976 and 1983, and the Celtiberian Chain (or Iberic system) in 1981. The Hercynian belt has only been studied in detail in the northwest corner of Spain in 1982, with smaller studies in the central Iberian Massif in 1976 and 1986. Mostaanpour (1984) has compiled some crustal parameters (crustal thickness, average crustal velocity and Pn velocity) for western Europe. Meanwhile, more complete data are available for the Iberian Peninsula. The results presented here were derived from a large number of seismic refraction experiments which have been carried out mostly along or close to coastal areas of the Iberian Peninsula. Offshore explosions of various sizes were used as the energy source in most cases, in addition to some quarry blasts. Unfortunately this leaves most of the inner part of the Iberian Peninsula unsurveyed. Our purpose is to summarize some of the crustal parameters obtained so far and to detail the appropriate literature for the interested reader.

  13. Breastfeeding patterns in the Arabian Gulf countries.

    Musaiger, A O

    1995-01-01

    The rapid economic change experienced in the Arab Gulf countries in the past two decades has resulted in a dramatic decline in the number of infants breast fed and the duration of breast feeding. This survey describes the current status of breast feeding in the Arabian Gulf countries in terms of the duration of exclusive breast feeding; initiation, frequency, and duration of breast feeding; bottle feeding practices; breast feeding and fertility; reasons for cessation of breast feeding; and the relationship between breast feeding and gastroenteritis. After a brief discussion of weaning practices, the paper considers factors influencing the decision to breast feed, including mothers age, education, urban-rural residence, and employment status; the influence of house maids and health workers; and the sex of the child. The marketing of baby foods in the area is described, as are various programs to support breast feeding, such as maternity protection, educational activities, marketing activities, support of appropriate weaning practices, workshops and seminars, and research activities. It is concluded that these programs have had very little effect on the promotion of breast feeding in the region for the following reasons: 1) lack of coordination; 2) lack of health regulations covering formulas and baby foods; 3) the encouragement of bottle feeding in private hospitals; 4) insufficient knowledge of managing breast feeding among health personnel; 5) a shortage of studies relating to breast feeding; and 6) insufficient training of health personnel. The institution of a global promotional policy is recommended. Such a policy would include the development of strict regulations covering marketing of substitutes, training of health workers, mass media campaigns, school and university curricula changes, and convincing policy-makers that breast feeding is beneficial.

  14. Physical and chemical properties of deposited airborne particulates over the Arabian Red Sea coastal plain

    Engelbrecht, Johann P.; Stenchikov, Georgiy; Jish Prakash, P.; Lersch, Traci; Anisimov, Anatolii; Shevchenko, Illia

    2017-09-01

    Mineral dust is the most abundant aerosol, having a profound impact on the global energy budget. This research continues our previous studies performed on surface soils in the Arabian Peninsula, focusing on the mineralogical, physical and chemical composition of dust deposits from the atmosphere at the Arabian Red Sea coast. For this purpose, aerosols deposited from the atmosphere are collected during 2015 at six sites on the campus of the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) situated on the Red Sea coastal plain of Saudi Arabia and subjected to the same chemical and mineralogical analysis we conducted on soil samples. Frisbee deposition samplers with foam inserts were used to collect dust and other deposits, for the period December 2014 to December 2015. The average deposition rate measured at KAUST for this period was 14 g m-2 per month, with lowest values in winter and increased deposition rates in August to October. The particle size distributions provide assessments of particle size fractions in the dust deposits.X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of a subset of samples confirms variable amounts of quartz, feldspars, micas, and halite, with lesser amounts of gypsum, calcite, dolomite, hematite, and amphibole. Freeze-dried samples were re-suspended onto the Teflon® filters for elemental analysis by X-ray fluorescence (XRF), while splits from each sample were analyzed for water-soluble cations and anions by ion chromatography. The dust deposits along the Red Sea coast are considered to be a mixture of dust emissions from local soils and soils imported from distal dust sources. Airborne mineral concentrations are greatest at or close to dust sources, compared to those through medium- and long-range transport. It is not possible to identify the exact origin of deposition samples from the mineralogical and chemical results alone. These aerosol data are the first of their kind from the Red Sea region. They will help assess their potential

  15. Projected changes in climate extremes over Qatar and the Arabian Gulf region

    Kundeti, K.; Kanikicharla, K. K.; Al sulaiti, M.; Khulaifi, M.; Alboinin, N.; Kito, A.

    2015-12-01

    The climate of the State of Qatar and the adjacent region is dominated by subtropical dry, hot desert climate with low annual rainfall, very high temperatures in summer and a big difference between maximum and minimum temperatures, especially in the inland areas. The coastal areas are influenced by the Arabian Gulf, and have lower maximum, but higher minimum temperatures and a higher moisture percentage in the air. The global warming can have profound impact on the mean climate as well as extreme weather events over the Arabian Peninsula that may affect both natural and human systems significantly. Therefore, it is important to assess the future changes in the seasonal/annual mean of temperature and precipitation and also the extremes in temperature and wind events for a country like Qatar. This study assesses the performance of the Coupled Model Inter comparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) simulations in present and develops future climate scenarios. The changes in climate extremes are assessed for three future periods 2016-2035, 2046-2065 and 2080-2099 with respect to 1986-2005 (base line) under two RCPs (Representative Concentrate Pathways) - RCP4.5 and RCP8.5. We analyzed the projected changes in temperature and precipitation extremes using several indices including those that capture heat stress. The observations show an increase in warm extremes over many parts in this region that are generally well captured by the models. The results indicate a significant change in frequency and intensity of both temperature and precipitation extremes over many parts of this region which may have serious implications on human health, water resources and the onshore/offshore infrastructure in this region. Data from a high-resolution (20km) AGCM simulation from Meteorological Research Institute of Japan Meteorological Agency for the present (1979-2003) and a future time slice (2075-2099) corresponding to RCP8.5 have also been utilized to assess the impact of climate change on

  16. Physical and chemical properties of deposited airborne particulates over the Arabian Red Sea coastal plain

    Engelbrecht, Johann

    2017-09-27

    Mineral dust is the most abundant aerosol, having a profound impact on the global energy budget. This research continues our previous studies performed on surface soils in the Arabian Peninsula, focusing on the mineralogical, physical and chemical composition of dust deposits from the atmosphere at the Arabian Red Sea coast. For this purpose, aerosols deposited from the atmosphere are collected during 2015 at six sites on the campus of the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) situated on the Red Sea coastal plain of Saudi Arabia and subjected to the same chemical and mineralogical analysis we conducted on soil samples. Frisbee deposition samplers with foam inserts were used to collect dust and other deposits, for the period December 2014 to December 2015. The average deposition rate measured at KAUST for this period was 14 g m−2 per month, with lowest values in winter and increased deposition rates in August to October. The particle size distributions provide assessments of  < 10 and  < 2.5 µm dust deposition rates, and it is suggested that these represent proxies for PM10 (coarse) and PM2. 5 (fine) particle size fractions in the dust deposits. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of a subset of samples confirms variable amounts of quartz, feldspars, micas, and halite, with lesser amounts of gypsum, calcite, dolomite, hematite, and amphibole. Freeze-dried samples were re-suspended onto the Teflon® filters for elemental analysis by X-ray fluorescence (XRF), while splits from each sample were analyzed for water-soluble cations and anions by ion chromatography. The dust deposits along the Red Sea coast are considered to be a mixture of dust emissions from local soils and soils imported from distal dust sources. Airborne mineral concentrations are greatest at or close to dust sources, compared to those through medium- and long-range transport. It is not possible to identify the exact origin of deposition samples from the

  17. Monitoring Aquifer Depletion from Space: Case Studies from the Saharan and Arabian Aquifers

    Ahmed, M.; Sultan, M.; Wahr, J. M.; Yan, E.

    2013-12-01

    Access to potable fresh water resources is a human right and a basic requirement for economic development in any society. In arid and semi-arid areas, the characterization and understanding of the geologic and hydrologic settings of, and the controlling factors affecting, these resources is gaining increasing importance due to the challenges posed by increasing population. In these areas, there is immense natural fossil fresh water resources stored in large extensive aquifers, the transboundary aquifers. Yet, natural phenomena (e.g., rainfall patterns and climate change) together with human-related factors (e.g., population growth, unsustainable over-exploitation, and pollution) are threatening the sustainability of these resources. In this study, we are developing and applying an integrated cost-effective approach to investigate the nature (i.e., natural and anthropogenic) and the controlling factors affecting the hydrologic settings of the Saharan (i.e., Nubian Sandstone Aquifer System [NSAS], Northwest Sahara Aquifer System [NWSA]) and Arabian (i.e., Arabian Peninsula Aquifer System [APAS]) aquifer systems. Analysis of the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE)-derived Terrestrial Water Storage (TWS) inter-annual trends over the NSAS and the APAS revealed two areas of significant TWS depletions; the first correlated with the Dakhla Aquifer System (DAS) in the NSAS and second with the Saq Aquifer System (SAS) in the APAS. Annual depletion rates were estimated at 1.3 × 0.66 × 109 m3/yr and 6.95 × 0.68 × 109 m3/yr for DAS and SAS, respectively. Findings include (1) excessive groundwater extraction, not climatic changes, is responsible for the observed TWS depletions ;(2) the DAS could be consumed in 350 years if extraction rates continue to double every 50 years and the APAS available reserves could be consumed within 60-140 years at present extraction (7.08 × 109 m3/yr) and depletion rates; and (3) observed depletions over DAS and SAS and their

  18. An Information Manual to Support Base Engineer Emergency Force (Prime BEEF) Team Deployment to Egypt or the Arabian Peninsula.

    1983-09-01

    for OMAN, Zone A 22. BARIK Location: 20055’N 56030’E (8) Users: no data Pavement: no data No. runways: 1 (8) Runway length: over 4,000 ft (8) Elevation...Baluza, 62 Qatar, 203 Barik , 175 224 L Bateen International, 193 People’s Democratic Battery maintenance, 38 Republic of Yemen, 140 Beihan, 153 Qatar

  19. High-resolution regional modeling of summertime transport and impact of African dust over the Red Sea and Arabian Peninsula

    Kalenderski, Stoitchko; Stenchikov, Georgiy L.

    2016-01-01

    is mostly transported below 2 km height. Dust is the dominant contributor (87%) to the aerosol optical depth, producing a domain average cooling effect of -12.1 W m-2 at the surface, a warming of 7.1 W m-2 in the atmosphere, and a residual cooling of -4.9 W

  20. Radiation closure and diurnal cycle of the clear-sky dust instantaneous direct radiative forcing over Arabian Peninsula

    Osipov, Sergey; Stenchikov, Georgiy L.; Brindley,  Helen; Banks,  Jamie

    2015-01-01

    Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) aerosol optical depth. Results are compared with Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget (GERB) derived top of the atmosphere climatological forcing over the Red Sea.

  1. SEDIMENTOLOGY, MINERALOGY AND ORIGIN OF THE FIRST DISCOVER MAGNESITE-DOLOMITE BELT IN MA'RIB DISTRICT, SW ARABIAN PENINSULA

    Sa’ad Zeki A.kader AL-MASHAIKIE

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Magnesite mineralization of high purity was discovered and described herein for the first time from metamorphosed folded belt from Al-Thanyiah locality in Rub’Al-Khali sector, 360 km east of Sana’a City, northwest Yemen. The magnesite-metamorphic belt, belonging to the Precambrian/Neoproterozoic age? comprises thrust belt, which trends generally N-S direction.Magnesite mineralization was identified in an extended carbonate-metamorphic belt for several tens of kilometers cf. 31 km and occurred in association with 8 stratigraphic units. The thicknesses of pure magnesite bearing units are variable and ranges from 20 to 60 m. associated with dark green chlorite-schist with intersecting huge ultrabasic intrusions.Geochemical, mineralogical and petrographic analysis show that the magnesite concentrations in the stratigraphic units are ranging from 78% up to high purity of 99.6% cf. 35 to 48.9% MgO, with minor dolomite and calcite respectively. Little to rare content of talc and brucite were also recognized. Two thick, productive and high purity magnesite beds, the first is of 40 m thick and the second is 60 m in thickness, which reveals more than 95% MgCO3 and considered to be economic. The suggested origin of the magnesite mineralization is coming from high stress of regional metamorphism associated with ultramafic intrusions cf. amphibolite and harzburgite associated with diagenetic solutions rich in Mg2+, associated with the heat of magma. The alteration of dolomite to magnesite was formed by multiple phases to transform calcite and/or dolomite to magnesite.

  2. Red fox takeover of arctic fox breeding den : an observation from Yamal Peninsula, Russia

    Rodnikova, Anna; Ims, Rolf Anker; Sokolov, Alexander; Skogstad, Gunhild; Sokolov, Vasily; Shtro, Victor; Fuglei, Eva

    2011-01-01

    Here, we report from the first direct observation of a red fox (Vulpes vulpes) intrusion on an arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus) breeding den from the southern Arctic tundra of Yamal Peninsula, Russia in 2007. At the same time, as a current range retraction of the original inhabitant of the circumpolar tundra zone the arctic fox is going on, the red fox is expanding their range from the south into arctic habitats. Thus, within large parts of the northern tundra areas the two species are sympatric w...

  3. Summer cooling of the Arabian sea - a review

    Sastry, J.S.; RameshBabu, V.

    in association with the deepening of current shear zone. The surface heat losses during the passage of a cyclone over the east central Arabian Sea account for only 40% of the total heat change in the surface layer while the rest is lost into the interior. Also...

  4. Late Quaternary faunal change in coastal Arabian sea sediments

    Borole, D.V.; Rao, K.K; Krishnamurthy, R.V.; Somayajulu, B.L.K

    Carbonate content and faunal composition of two gravity cores from the coastal Arabian Sea provide evidence of a major environmental change in surface ocean waters about 13,000 yr B.P. Radiocarbon dating indicates that deposition rates ranged from 1...

  5. Evidence for change in depositional environment in the Arabian Sea

    Rao, P.S.; Rao, Ch.M.

    Sediments of late Pleistocene and Holocene periods, from a 12 m long core collected at a depth of 3627 m from the Arabian Sea, have been studied in order to understand the depositional environment. Sub-samples selected at 5 cm and occasionally at 10...

  6. Tracer signals of the intermediate layer of the Arabian Sea

    Rhein, Monika; Stramma, Lothar; Plähn, Olaf

    In 1995, hydrographic and chlorofluorocarbon (CFCs, components F11, F12) measurements were carried out in the Gulf of Aden, in the Gulf of Oman, and in the Arabian Sea. In the Gulf of Oman, the F12 concentrations in the Persian Gulf outflow (PGW) at about 300m depth were significantly higher than in ambient surface water with saturations reaching 270%. These high values could not be caused by air-sea gas exchange. The outflow was probably contaminated with oil, and the lipophilic character of the CFCs could then lead to the observed supersaturations. The intermediate F12 maximum decreased rapidly further east and south. At the Strait of Bab el Mandeb in the Gulf of Aden, the Red Sea outflow (RSW) was saturated with F12 to about 65% at 400m depth, and decreased to 50% while descending to 800m depth. The low saturation is not surprising, because the outflow contains deep and intermediate water masses from the Red Sea which were isolated from the surface for some time. The tracer contributions to the Arabian Sea for Indian Central Water (ICW) and PGW are about equal, while below 500m depth the RSW contribution greatly exceeds ICW. Modeling the CFC budget of the Arabian Sea, the inflow of ICW north of 12°N is estimated to be 1-6 Sv, depending mainly on the strength of the flow of Red Sea Water into the Arabian Sea.

  7. Selected Lexical Patterns in Saudi Arabian Sign Language

    Young, Lesa; Palmer, Jeffrey Levi; Reynolds, Wanette

    2012-01-01

    This combined paper will focus on the description of two selected lexical patterns in Saudi Arabian Sign Language (SASL): metaphor and metonymy in emotion-related signs (Young) and lexicalization patterns of objects and their derivational roots (Palmer and Reynolds). The over-arcing methodology used by both studies is detailed in Stephen and…

  8. Observations on Word Order in Saudi Arabian Sign Language

    Sprenger, Kristen; Mathur, Gaurav

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on the syntactic level of the grammar of Saudi Arabian Sign Language by exploring some word orders that occur in personal narratives in the language. Word order is one of the main ways in which languages indicate the main syntactic roles of subjects, verbs, and objects; others are verbal agreement and nominal case morphology.…

  9. On Selected Phonological Patterns in Saudi Arabian Sign Language

    Tomita, Nozomi; Kozak, Viola

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on two selected phonological patterns that appear unique to Saudi Arabian Sign Language (SASL). For both sections of this paper, the overall methodology is the same as that discussed in Stephen and Mathur (this volume), with some additional modifications tailored to the specific studies discussed here, which will be expanded…

  10. Evaporation over the Arabian Sea during two contrasting monsoons

    RameshKumar, M.R.; Sadhuram, Y.

    monsoon rainfall. It is noticed that in general, the sea surface temperatures are higher in 1983 throughout the monsoon season than in 1979 in the Arabian Sea excepting western region. The mean rates of evaporation on a seasonal scale are found to be equal...

  11. Nitrogen isotopic studies in the suboxic Arabian Sea

    Naqvi, S.W.A; Yoshinari, T.; Brandes, J.A; Devol, A; Jayakumar, D.A; Narvekar, P.V.; Altabet, M.A; Codispoti, L.A.

    sub(2) and oxygen (O sub(2)), respectively] have been made in water column at several locations in the Arabian Sea, a region with one of the thickest and most intense O sub(2) minima observed in the open ocean. Microbially-mediated reduction of NO sub...

  12. Prevalence and characteristics of foal rejection in Arabian mares.

    Juarbe-Díaz, S V; Houpt, K A; Kusunose, R

    1998-09-01

    Separate surveys of Thoroughbred, Paint, and Arabian mare owners revealed a higher than expected rate of foal rejection in Arabian mares. A behavioural history form was submitted by owners of foal rejecting and nonrejecting Arabian mares, and maternal behaviour and management practices compared. Four generation pedigrees of rejecting and nonrejecting Arabian mares were also examined. Foal rejecting mares were more likely to avoid, threaten, squeal at, chase, bite, and kick their foals post partum than nonrejecting mares. Nonrejecting mares were more likely to lick, nicker and defend their foals post partum than rejecting mares. No statistically significant relationship was found between foal rejection and the type of breeding method (natural vs. artificial insemination), the presence of people at birth, the presence of nearby horses at birth, or assistance of the first nursing bout. The presence at least once of 1 of 2 related sires was statistically higher in the pedigrees of rejecting vs. nonrejecting mares. Inherited and learned or environmental factors are likely to affect the expression of foal rejection behaviour.

  13. Some aspects of the nitrogen cycling in the Arabian Sea

    Naqvi, S.W.A.; Noronha, R.J.; Shailaja, M.S.; Somasundar, K.; SenGupta, R.

    in the intensity of the oxygen-deficient conditions is providEd. by data on the nitrogen system as well as the activity of the electron transport system (ETS). The results imply a quick renewal of the oxygen-depleted waters. Denitrification in the Arabian Sea...

  14. Spreading history of the Arabian Sea: Some new constraints

    Chaubey, A.K.; Bhattacharya, G.C.; Murty, G.P.S.; Desa, M.

    Based on a new identification of magnetic anomalies, additional constraints are provided on the two episodes of spreading history of the Arabian Sea. Commencing at A27, the older phase ended at A21 and sprading of the younger phase started shortly...

  15. Aluminium in the northwestern Indian Ocean (Arabian Sea)

    Upadhyay, S.; SenGupta, R.

    37-52 nM) A pronounced maximum in the surface mixed layer suggests the dissolution of Al from atmospherically derived particles to be the sourec of excess Al in the offshore waters of the Arabian Sea, compared to other oceanic regions...

  16. "Going Mobile" in Business Communication at an Arabian Gulf University

    Rapanta, Chrysi; Nickerson, Catherine; Goby, Valerie Priscilla

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we describe a project in which undergraduate business seniors at a university in the Arabian Gulf created or evaluated the chapters of an iBook as part of their final course in business communication. Students were surveyed throughout the project, and they also participated in a focus group discussion at the end. The aim was to…

  17. The Arabian Sea: Physical environment, zooplankton and myctophid abundance

    Nair, K.K.C.; Madhupratap, M.; Gopalakrishnan, T.C.; Haridas, P.; Gauns, M.

    that there are considerable spatial and temporal variations in the area in primary productivity. Nonetheless, contrary to earlier thinking, it would seem that the mesozooplankton abundance in the Arabian Sea is fairly high in the mixed layer all through the year. This paradox...

  18. Enumeration of thraustochytrids (Heterotrophic microorganisms) from the Arabian Sea

    Raghukumar, S.

    The number of thraustochytrids in seawater has been estimated in several samples from the Arabian Sea by concentrating the sample on a glass-fibre filter and plating on a nutrient medium. The number ranged from 1 to 69 liter in the oceanic water...

  19. Challenges in modelling spatiotemporally varying phytoplankton blooms in the Northwestern Arabian Sea and Gulf of Oman

    Sedigh Marvasti, S.; Gnanadesikan, A.; Bidokhti, A. A.; Dunne, J. P.; Ghader, S.

    2015-07-01

    We examine interannual variability of phytoplankton blooms in northwestern Arabian Sea and Gulf of Oman. Satellite data (SeaWIFS ocean color) shows two climatological blooms in this region, a wintertime bloom peaking in February and a summertime bloom peaking in September. A pronounced anti-correlation between the AVISO sea surface height anomaly (SSHA) and chlorophyll is found during the wintertime bloom. On a regional scale, interannual variability of the wintertime bloom is thus dominated by cyclonic eddies which vary in location from one year to another. These results were compared against the outputs from three different 3-D Earth System models. We show that two coarse (1°) models with the relatively complex biogeochemistry (TOPAZ) capture the annual cycle but neither eddies nor the interannual variability. An eddy-resolving model (GFDL CM2.6) with a simpler biogeochemistry (miniBLING) displays larger interannual variability, but overestimates the wintertime bloom and captures eddy-bloom coupling in the south but not in the north. The southern part of the domain is a region with a much sharper thermocline and nutricline relatively close to the surface, in which eddies modulate diffusive nutrient supply to the surface (a mechanism not previously emphasized in the literature). We suggest that for the model to simulate the observed wintertime blooms within cyclones, it will be necessary to represent this relatively unusual nutrient structure as well as the cyclonic eddies. This is a challenge in the Northern Arabian Sea as it requires capturing the details of the outflow from the Persian Gulf.

  20. Challenges in modeling spatiotemporally varying phytoplankton blooms in the Northwestern Arabian Sea and Gulf of Oman

    Sedigh Marvasti, S.; Gnanadesikan, A.; Bidokhti, A. A.; Dunne, J. P.; Ghader, S.

    2016-02-01

    Recent years have shown an increase in harmful algal blooms in the Northwest Arabian Sea and Gulf of Oman, raising the question of whether climate change will accelerate this trend. This has led us to examine whether the Earth System Models used to simulate phytoplankton productivity accurately capture bloom dynamics in this region - both in terms of the annual cycle and interannual variability. Satellite data (SeaWIFS ocean color) show two climatological blooms in this region, a wintertime bloom peaking in February and a summertime bloom peaking in September. On a regional scale, interannual variability of the wintertime bloom is dominated by cyclonic eddies which vary in location from one year to another. Two coarse (1°) models with the relatively complex biogeochemistry (TOPAZ) capture the annual cycle but neither eddies nor the interannual variability. An eddy-resolving model (GFDL CM2.6) with a simpler biogeochemistry (miniBLING) displays larger interannual variability, but overestimates the wintertime bloom and captures eddy-bloom coupling in the south but not in the north. The models fail to capture both the magnitude of the wintertime bloom and its modulation by eddies in part because of their failure to capture the observed sharp thermocline and/or nutricline in this region. When CM2.6 is able to capture such features in the Southern part of the basin, eddies modulate diffusive nutrient supply to the surface (a mechanism not previously emphasized in the literature). For the model to simulate the observed wintertime blooms within cyclones, it will be necessary to represent this relatively unusual nutrient structure as well as the cyclonic eddies. This is a challenge in the Northern Arabian Sea as it requires capturing the details of the outflow from the Persian Gulf - something that is poorly done in global models.

  1. Monomorium dryhimi sp. n., a new ant species (Hymenoptera, Formicidae of the M. monomorium group from Saudi Arabia, with a key to the Arabian Monomorium monomorium-group

    Abdulrahman Aldawood

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A new ant species, Monomorium dryhimi, is described based on workers from a single colony collected in Al Bahah, Asir Province, Saudi Arabia. This is the fourth species of the Monomorium monomorium-group collected from Arabian Peninsula, and appears to be closely related to Monomorium holothir Bolton, 1987, from Kenya. It can be distinguished by the following characters: head in profile with a weakly convex dorsal surface and a clearly convex ventral surface; eyes of moderate size with maximum diameter EL 0.19–0.25 × HW and with 6 ommatidia in the longest row; body colour yellow to light brownish yellow. In some individuals, head and gaster slightly but conspicuously darker than rest of body. Second halves of first and second gastral tergites with two characteristic brownish transverse bands. An identification key to the workers of the Arabian species of the Monomorium monomorium-group is presented. Scanning electron micrographs are given to illustrate the new species.

  2. Five years MIQE guidelines: the case of the Arabian countries.

    Afif M Abdel Nour

    Full Text Available The quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR has become a key molecular enabling technology with an immense range of research, clinical, forensic as well as diagnostic applications. Its relatively moderate instrumentation and reagent requirements have led to its adoption by numerous laboratories, including those located in the Arabian world, where qPCR, which targets DNA, and reverse transcription qPCR (RT-qPCR, which targets RNA, are widely used for region-specific biotechnology, agricultural and human genetic studies. However, it has become increasingly apparent that there are significant problems with both the quality of qPCR-based data as well as the transparency of reporting. This realisation led to the publication of the Minimum Information for Publication of Quantitative Real-Time PCR Experiments (MIQE guidelines in 2009 and their more widespread adoption in the last couple of years. An analysis of the performance of biomedical research in the Arabian world between 2001-2005 suggests that the Arabian world is producing fewer biomedical publications of lower quality than other Middle Eastern countries. Hence we have analysed specifically the quality of RT-qPCR-based peer-reviewed papers published since 2009 from Arabian researchers using a bespoke iOS/Android app developed by one of the authors. Our results show that compliance with 15 essential MIQE criteria was low (median of 40%, range 0-93% and few details on RNA quality controls (22% compliance, assays design (12%, RT strategies (32%, amplification efficiencies (30% and the normalisation process (3%. These data indicate that one of the reasons for the poor performance of Arabian world biomedical research may be the low standard of any supporting qPCR experiments and identify which aspects of qPCR experiments require significant improvements.

  3. Lower Miocene stratigraphy along the Panama Canal and its bearing on the Central American Peninsula.

    Michael Xavier Kirby

    Full Text Available Before the formation of the Central American Isthmus, there was a Central American Peninsula. Here we show that southern Central America existed as a peninsula as early as 19 Ma, based on new lithostratigraphic, biostratigraphic and strontium chemostratigraphic analyses of the formations exposed along the Gaillard Cut of the Panama Canal. Land mammals found in the Miocene Cucaracha Formation have similar body sizes to conspecific taxa in North America, indicating that there existed a terrestrial connection with North America that allowed gene flow between populations during this time. How long did this peninsula last? The answer hinges on the outcome of a stratigraphic dispute: To wit, is the terrestrial Cucaracha Formation older or younger than the marine La Boca Formation? Previous stratigraphic studies of the Panama Canal Basin have suggested that the Cucaracha Formation lies stratigraphically between the shallow-marine Culebra Formation and the shallow-to-upper-bathyal La Boca Formation, the latter containing the Emperador Limestone. If the La Boca Formation is younger than the Cucaracha Formation, as many think, then the peninsula was short-lived (1-2 m.y., having been submerged in part by the transgression represented by the overlying La Boca Formation. On the other hand, our data support the view that the La Boca Formation is older than the Cucaracha Formation. Strontium dating shows that the La Boca Formation is older (23.07 to 20.62 Ma than both the Culebra (19.83-19.12 Ma and Cucaracha (Hemingfordian to Barstovian North American Land Mammal Ages; 19-14 Ma formations. The Emperador Limestone is also older (21.24-20.99 Ma than the Culebra and Cucaracha formations. What has been called the "La Boca Formation" (with the Emperador Limestone, is re-interpreted here as being the lower part of the Culebra Formation. Our new data sets demonstrate that the main axis of the volcanic arc in southern Central America more than likely existed as a

  4. Lower Miocene stratigraphy along the Panama Canal and its bearing on the Central American Peninsula.

    Kirby, Michael Xavier; Jones, Douglas S; MacFadden, Bruce J

    2008-07-30

    Before the formation of the Central American Isthmus, there was a Central American Peninsula. Here we show that southern Central America existed as a peninsula as early as 19 Ma, based on new lithostratigraphic, biostratigraphic and strontium chemostratigraphic analyses of the formations exposed along the Gaillard Cut of the Panama Canal. Land mammals found in the Miocene Cucaracha Formation have similar body sizes to conspecific taxa in North America, indicating that there existed a terrestrial connection with North America that allowed gene flow between populations during this time. How long did this peninsula last? The answer hinges on the outcome of a stratigraphic dispute: To wit, is the terrestrial Cucaracha Formation older or younger than the marine La Boca Formation? Previous stratigraphic studies of the Panama Canal Basin have suggested that the Cucaracha Formation lies stratigraphically between the shallow-marine Culebra Formation and the shallow-to-upper-bathyal La Boca Formation, the latter containing the Emperador Limestone. If the La Boca Formation is younger than the Cucaracha Formation, as many think, then the peninsula was short-lived (1-2 m.y.), having been submerged in part by the transgression represented by the overlying La Boca Formation. On the other hand, our data support the view that the La Boca Formation is older than the Cucaracha Formation. Strontium dating shows that the La Boca Formation is older (23.07 to 20.62 Ma) than both the Culebra (19.83-19.12 Ma) and Cucaracha (Hemingfordian to Barstovian North American Land Mammal Ages; 19-14 Ma) formations. The Emperador Limestone is also older (21.24-20.99 Ma) than the Culebra and Cucaracha formations. What has been called the "La Boca Formation" (with the Emperador Limestone), is re-interpreted here as being the lower part of the Culebra Formation. Our new data sets demonstrate that the main axis of the volcanic arc in southern Central America more than likely existed as a peninsula

  5. Kelp gulls, Larus dominicanus (Aves: Laridae, breeding in Keller Peninsula, King George Island, Antarctic Peninsula

    Joaquim O. Branco

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We examined the distribution, abundance and density of the Kelp Gull, Larus dominicanus (Lichtenstein, 1823, at Keller Peninsula on two occasions during the breeding season of 2007-2008 (once for incubation and once for chick stages and compared our results with previously published data. We present information on the number of eggs, incubation success, and initial development of L. dominicanus chicks in the studied sites. The abundance and density of the species has remained statistically similar in Keller Peninsula over the last 30 years (since 1978-1979. Although the abundance and density were almost unchanged, we recorded alterations in the occupation of the breeding areas by L. dominicanus, mainly the abandonment of breeding sites in the eastern portion of Keller Peninsula. The results of the present study compared with similar previous investigations on the abundance of L. dominicanus indicate that the populations have been in equilibrium over the years.

  6. Sibling vole species (Microtus in the fragmented landscape of south-eastern part of Thrace, Balkan Peninsula: species presence, habitat selection and craniometry

    GEORGI MARKOV

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The presence of sibling vole species (Microtus in the most common forests and open landscapes in south-eastern part of Thrace (Balkan Peninsula of contemporary territories of Bulgaria and Turkey was studied. Only the southern vole (Microtus levis was found in the investigated region. In his northern part, the Southern vole is associated with semi dry, upland habitats such as deserted and overgrown with wild vegetation vines near sparse forests and large agricultural fields under autumn crops with adjacent non-arable lands with shrub vegetation. In the southern part, it is presented in open landscape related to water areas (meadows near rivers and wetlands. On the basis of trapping the Southern vole is a common species in the north part of Strandzha region. The established craniological characteristics of the Southern vole from investigated region, which can be considered as a zoogeographical crossroads, with a late Pleistocene connection between the Balkan Peninsula and the mammalian fauna of Anatolian peninsula, enriched the knowledge about its craniological variation in Europe.

  7. Geologic framework of the Alaska Peninsula, southwest Alaska, and the Alaska Peninsula terrane

    Wilson, Frederic H.; Detterman, Robert L.; DuBois, Gregory D.

    2015-01-01

    The Alaska Peninsula is composed of the late Paleozoic to Quaternary sedimentary, igneous, and minor metamorphic rocks that record the history of a number of magmatic arcs. These magmatic arcs include an unnamed Late Triassic(?) and Early Jurassic island arc, the early Cenozoic Meshik arc, and the late Cenozoic Aleutian arc. Also found on the Alaska Peninsula is one of the most complete nonmetamorphosed, fossiliferous, marine Jurassic sedimentary sections known. As much as 8,500 m of section of Mesozoic sedimentary rocks record the growth and erosion of the Early Jurassic island arc.

  8. Past Penguin Colony Linkages to Climate Change and Catastrophic Volcanism on the Northern Antarctic Peninsula

    Roberts, S. J.; Monien, P.; Foster, L. C.; Loftfield, J.; Schnetger, B.; Pearson, E. J.; Hocking, E. P.; Fretwell, P.; Ireland, L.; Ochyra, R.; Haworth, A.; Allen, C. S.; Brumsack, H. J.; Bentley, M.; Hodgson, D.

    2016-12-01

    Recent warming and reductions in sea-ice in some parts of Antarctica are thought to be having a negative impact on populations of `ice-dependent' penguin species (e.g., Emperor, Adélie) that feed at the sea-ice edge because populations of `ice-avoiding'/more `adaptable' species (e.g., Gentoo, Chinstrap) have remained stable or increased, and some Adélie colonies located in areas of sea-ice expansion have increased. This hypothesis is based on short observational records and limited subfossil evidence, but has not been tested over longer, mid-late Holocene, timescales on the Antarctic Peninsula. Between 1950-1997, the northern Antarctic Peninsula was one of the most rapidly warming regions in the Southern Hemisphere and, over the last 30 years, the largest breeding population of Gentoo penguins in Antarctica on Ardley Island, north-western Antarctic Peninsula, has increased. We tracked past changes in the Ardley Island penguin colony size by comparing detailed biogeochemical analysis of an 8,500-year Ardley Lake sediment profile with past records of penguin presence, climate and sea-ice extent across the Antarctic Peninsula and found that the colony also responded positively during some local-regionally warmer parts of the late Holocene. However, at least three large volcanic eruptions from nearby Deception Island had a devastating impact on the colony between 7000-2000 years ago, with colony recovery taking up to 800 years following the most disruptive period of volcanic activity c. 5500-5000 years ago.

  9. Mammal (Mammalia Fauna of Kapıdağ Peninsula

    Erdem HIZAL

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of studies on mammals of Kapıdag Peninsula is insufficent. The present study is based on mammal species collected and observed in Kapıdag Peninsula. Kapıdag Peninsula was visited as a total of 226 days between 2001-2007. Field collections yielded 32 mammal species from 6 orders: Insectivora (5, Chiroptera (9,Lagomorpha (1, Rodentia (7, Carnivora (7, Artiodactyla (3. Of the species recorded in this study are rare for Kapıdag Peninsula: Lynx lynx and Felis silvestris.

  10. Comparative phylogeography of reef fishes from the Gulf of Aden to the Arabian Sea reveals two cryptic lineages

    DiBattista, Joseph; Gaither, Michelle R.; Hobbs, Jean-Paul A.; Saenz Agudelo, Pablo; Piatek, Marek J.; Bowen, Brian W.; Rocha, Luiz A.; Howard Choat, J.; McIlwain, Jennifer H.; Priest, Mark; Sinclair-Taylor, Tane; Berumen, Michael L.

    2017-01-01

    The Arabian Sea is a heterogeneous region with high coral cover and warm stable conditions at the western end (Djibouti), in contrast to sparse coral cover, cooler temperatures, and upwelling at the eastern end (southern Oman). We tested for barriers to dispersal across this region (including the Gulf of Aden and Gulf of Oman), using mitochondrial DNA surveys of 11 reef fishes. Study species included seven taxa from six families with broad distributions across the Indo-Pacific and four species restricted to the Arabian Sea (and adjacent areas). Nine species showed no significant genetic partitions, indicating connectivity among contrasting environments spread across 2000 km. One butterflyfish (Chaetodon melannotus) and a snapper (Lutjanus kasmira) showed phylogenetic divergences of d = 0.008 and 0.048, respectively, possibly indicating cryptic species within these broadly distributed taxa. These genetic partitions at the western periphery of the Indo-Pacific reflect similar partitions recently discovered at the eastern periphery of the Indo-Pacific (the Hawaiian and the Marquesan Archipelagos), indicating that these disjunctive habitats at the ends of the range may serve as evolutionary incubators for coral reef organisms.

  11. Comparative phylogeography of reef fishes from the Gulf of Aden to the Arabian Sea reveals two cryptic lineages

    DiBattista, Joseph

    2017-02-01

    The Arabian Sea is a heterogeneous region with high coral cover and warm stable conditions at the western end (Djibouti), in contrast to sparse coral cover, cooler temperatures, and upwelling at the eastern end (southern Oman). We tested for barriers to dispersal across this region (including the Gulf of Aden and Gulf of Oman), using mitochondrial DNA surveys of 11 reef fishes. Study species included seven taxa from six families with broad distributions across the Indo-Pacific and four species restricted to the Arabian Sea (and adjacent areas). Nine species showed no significant genetic partitions, indicating connectivity among contrasting environments spread across 2000 km. One butterflyfish (Chaetodon melannotus) and a snapper (Lutjanus kasmira) showed phylogenetic divergences of d = 0.008 and 0.048, respectively, possibly indicating cryptic species within these broadly distributed taxa. These genetic partitions at the western periphery of the Indo-Pacific reflect similar partitions recently discovered at the eastern periphery of the Indo-Pacific (the Hawaiian and the Marquesan Archipelagos), indicating that these disjunctive habitats at the ends of the range may serve as evolutionary incubators for coral reef organisms.

  12. Satellite Gravity Transforms Unmask Tectonic Pattern of Arabian-African Region

    Eppelbaum, Lev; Katz, Youri

    2017-04-01

    -Turonian). Many authors note an important role of Zagros terrane in the region under study and within the Caucasian-Arabian Sintaxis (e.g., Reilinger et al., 2006; Bordenave, 2008; Agard et al., 2011; Verges et al., 2011; Sharkov et al., 2015; Tunini et al., 2015). We propose that present study will unmask some tectono-geodynamic peculiarities of this complex tectonic unit. The Mesozoic terrane belt was delineated in the Eastern Mediterranean by the use of variety of geological and geophysical methods (multilevel gravity and magnetic data examination, thermal data analysis, seismic and seismological data) application (Ben- Avraham et al., 2002; Eppelbaum et al., 2012; Eppelbaum, 2015; Eppelbaum and Katz, 2015a, 2015b, 2016). At the same time, eastern Zagros-Makran part of the Mesozoic terrane belt never was analyzed as a separately developing structural part (unit) of the Arabian craton. In all known paleogeographical reconstructions the Zagros-Makran structure is shown as a part of its northern periphery. However, analysis of facial, sedimentary and structural data (presented in Bordenave, 2008) indicates that there is a sharp discordant joining between the Arabian craton and Zagros belt. Axes of anticline structures of the Arabian craton have a meridional strike, while axes of the Zagros anticline structures are disposed discordantly to them at SW 35 - 500. Besides this, paleogeological maps of Paleozoic (Bordenave, 2008) indicate that Devonian and Carboniferous deposits widely developed within the Arabian craton, do not presented in the Zagros belt. It testifies an uplift of Zagros structure and its isolated evaluation in the post-Carboniferous time when the Tethys Ocean began to form. Geological factors of Zagros structure isolation indicate that it was possibly a part of terrane belt in the southern part of the Neothetys Ocean forming. It is necessary to take into account that Zagros structure most likely occupied different tectonic positions at different periods of

  13. Post-collisional deformation of the Anatolides and motion of the Arabian indenter: A paleomagnetic analysis

    Piper, J; Tatar, O; Gursoy, H; Mesci, B L; Kocbulut, F; Huang, B

    2008-01-01

    In the Anatolides of Turkey the neotectonic (post collisional) phase of deformation embraces the period since final closure of the southern arm of Neotethys in mid-Miocene times. The Arabian Shield indenter has continued to deform into the weak Anatolian accretionary collage resulting from subduction of this ocean by a combination of differential movement relative to the African Plate and counterclockwise (CCW) rotation. Much of resulting deformation has been accommodated by slip along major transforms comprising the North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ), the East Anatolian Fault Zone (EAFZ) and the northward extension of the Dead Sea Fault Zone (DSFZ) but has also been distributed as differential block rotations through the zone of weak crust in between. Facets of this deformation comprise crustal thickening and uplift to produce the Anatolian Plateau, establishment of transform faults and tectonic escape as Arabia has continued to impinge into the Anatolian collage. Paleomagnetic analysis of this deformation is facilitated by the widespread distribution of neotectonic volcanism and graben infills, and rotations relative to the Eurasian reference frame are recognised on two scales. Rapid rotation (up to 5 0 /10,000 years) of small fault blocks is identified between master faults along the intracontinental transforms but deformation does not extend away from these zones and shows that seismogenic upper crust is decoupled from a lower continental lithosphere undergoing continuum deformation. The broad area of weak accreted crust between the transforms is dissected into large fault blocks which exhibit much lower rotation rates (mostly 0 /100,000 years) that vary systematically across the Anatolides. Large CCW rotations near the Arabian indenter diminish westwards to become zero then CW near the limit of tectonic escape in western Turkey. The view that the collage has rotated anticlockwise as a single plate, either uniformly or episodically, during the Neotectonic era is

  14. Arabian Sea GEOSECS stations revisited: Tracer-depth profiles reveal temporal variations?

    Mulsow, S.; Povinec, P.P.; Somayajulu, B.L.K.

    2002-01-01

    waters in this region. After examining vertical variations in the water column in this region, we could compare our 137 Cs and 3 H data with GEOSECS data. In both cases some changes were discovered over the 15 year interval. We found that at the three stations there appears to be a net outflow of water masses from the Arabian Sea to the Southern Ocean. This observation is particularly true for surface waters down to 100-200 m and deeper at GEOSECS station 416. We have also found a similar pattern with 3 H vertical profiles (not shown here). Possible temporal variations regarding oceanographic settings due to climate changes and/or anthropogenic changes such as global warming will be further discussed in more detail

  15. Abundance and breeding distribution of seabirds in the northern part of the Danco Coast, Antarctic Peninsula

    Mariana A. Juáres

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Seabird abundances and breeding distribution have the potential to serve as ecological indicators. The western Antarctic Peninsula is one of the three sites in the world with the greatest increases in local temperature during the last 50 years. The aim of this study was to monitor the distribution and abundance of breeding populations of seabirds in the northern sector of the Danco Coast, north-west of the Antarctic Peninsula, during the breeding season 2010/11. The birds were the Wilson′s storm petrel (Oceanites oceanicus, South Polar skua (Stercorarius maccormicki, kelp gull (Larus dominicanus, Antarctic tern (Sterna vittata, snowy sheathbill (Chionis alba, chinstrap penguin (Pygoscelis antarctica, southern giant petrel (Macronectes giganteus, gentoo penguin (Pygoscelis papua, Cape petrel (Daption capense and Antarctic shag (Phalacrocorax bransfieldensis. Annual breeding population growth increased in pygoscelids, southern giant petrel and sheathbill, and for the remaining species, breeding population trends were stable. Given that seabird populations can provide valuable information on the conditions of their feeding and nesting environments, this study highlights the need to maintain basics monitoring studies.

  16. Heavy metal, trace element and petroleum hydrocarbon pollution in the Arabian Gulf: Review

    Afnan Mahmood Freije

    2015-01-01

    The Arabian Gulf environmental status was assessed based on studies conducted in Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, and United Arab Emirates (UAE) during 1983–2011. This review examines all sorts of pollutions in the Arabian Gulf area over the last three decades. Approximately 50 published studies were reviewed in order to determine the pollution status in the Arabian Gulf regarding heavy metals and organic substances. Three types of environmental pollutions including marine and coas...

  17. Coastal versus open-ocean denitrification in the Arabian Sea

    Naqvi, S.W.A.; Naik, H.; Pratihary, A.K.; DeSouza, W.; Narvekar, P.V.; Jayakumar, D.A.; Devol, A.H.; Yoshinari, T.; Saino, T.

    through advection from the south. The waters Published by Copernicus GmbH on behalf of the European Geosciences Union. 622 S. W. A. Naqvi et al.: Arabian Sea denitrification 60 E 70 E 10 N 20 N 3204 3939 3201 TN039/18 CATS � � (a) o o o 0 500 1000 1500....: Arabian Sea denitrification 625 150 100 50 Temperature (oC) 100 50 O2 (M) Distance from coast (km) 150 100 50 Salinity G2 CATS G9 �P�P 150 100 50 150 100 50 150 NO2- (M) 150 100 50 NO3-(M) N2O (nM) 150 100 50 NH4+(M) 80 60 40 20 0 Distance from coast (km...

  18. In vitro antiplasmodial, antileishmanial and antitrypanosomal activities of selected medicinal plants used in the traditional Arabian Peninsular region

    Al-Musayeib Nawal M

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Worldwide particularly in developing countries, a large proportion of the population is at risk for tropical parasitic diseases. Several medicinal plants are still used traditionally against protozoal infections in Yemen and Saudi Arabia. Thus the present study investigated the in vitro antiprotozoal activity of twenty-five plants collected from the Arabian Peninsula. Methods Plant materials were extracted with methanol and screened in vitro against erythrocytic schizonts of Plasmodium falciparum, intracellular amastigotes of Leishmania infantum and Trypanosoma cruzi and free trypomastigotes of T. brucei. Cytotoxic activity was determined against MRC-5 cells to assess selectivity. The criterion for activity was an IC50 T. brucei and selectivity index of >4. Results Antiplasmodial activity was found in the extracts of Chrozophora oblongifolia, Ficus ingens, Lavandula dentata and Plectranthus barbatus. Amastigotes of T. cruzi were affected by Grewia erythraea, L. dentata, Tagetes minuta and Vernonia leopoldii. Activity against T. brucei was obtained in G. erythraea, L. dentata, P. barbatus and T. minuta. No relevant activity was found against L. infantum. High levels of cytotoxicity (MRC-5 IC50 Cupressus sempervirens, Kanahia laniflora and Kniphofia sumarae. Conclusion The results endorse that medicinal plants can be promising sources of natural products with antiprotozoal activity potential. The results support to some extent the traditional uses of some plants for the treatment of parasitic protozoal diseases.

  19. Upwelling in the Minicoy region of the Arabian Sea

    Rao, L.V.G.; Jayaraman, R.

    in the Minicoy Region of the Arabian Sea CurrentScience sankaran (Atomic Energy Establishment). The principles of the field emission and the field ion microscopes were the subject of symposium talks by Drs. Ramakhshna Rao and Bahadur. Dr (Mrs ) Satyavati M... the methodology and applications of cytochemistry at the ultrastructural level. All the participants, irrespective of their scientific background, had to undergo the practical course in the various techniques of specimen preparation in both physical and bio...

  20. Isotopic evidences of past upwelling intensity in the Arabian Sea

    Naidu, P.D.

    and understand the history of upwelling as it is recorded in deep-sea sediments. The southwest (SW) monsoon strongly influences the climatic conditions in South and Southeast Asia and biological productivity in the Arabian Sea. ability at the ODP Site 728... climatic change and ocean history (McCrea, 1950; Epstein et al., 1953; Emiliani, 1955). The isotopic role of planktic forami- nifera expanded, it was recognized that foraminifera did not secret their shells in isotopic equilibrium with ambient water (Be...

  1. Nitrous oxide emissions from the Arabian Sea: A synthesis

    Bange, H.W.; Andreae, M.O.; Lal, S.; Law, C.S.; Naqvi, S.W.A.; Patra, P.K.; Rixen, P.K.; Upstill-Goddard, R.C.

    ) seasonal and annual nitrous oxide (N2O) con- centration fields for the Arabian Sea surface layer using a database containing more than 2400 values measured be- tween December 1977 and July 1997. N2O concentrations are highest during the southwest (SW... is much more tightly constrained than the previous con- sensus derived using averaged in-situ data from a smaller number of studies. However, the tendency to focus on mea- surements in locally restricted features in combination with insufficient seasonal...

  2. Arabian Oryx (Oryx leucoryx) Trachea: a Descriptive and Morphometric Analysis

    Al-Zhgoul, Mohammad Borhan; Dalab, Abdul Hafeed S; Abdulhakeem, ElJarah; Ismail, Zuhair Bani; Thanain, Al Thanain

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to report the distinctive anatomical and histological features of the trachea of the Arabian Oryx (Oryx leucoryx). The number of tracheal rings and tracheal length were measured. The diameter, thickness and cross sectional area of tracheal ring were determined at four tracheal regions (cranial cervical (CCR), middle cervical, thoracic inlets and intra thoracic). Tracheal rings were also collected for histological analysis. The mean length of the trachea was 54....

  3. Antioxidant effect of Arabian coffee ( Coffea arabica L) blended with ...

    Purpose: To investigate the antioxidant activity of Coffea Arabica L in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed C57BL/6J mice. Methods: A decoction of Arabian coffee blended with or without cardamom or cloves was orally administered to HFD-fed C57BL/6J mice for a period of 60 days. At the end of the treatment, blood and tissue samples ...

  4. Guidelines to classification and nomenclature of Arabian felsic plutonic rocks

    Ramsay, C.R.; Stoeser, D.B.; Drysdall, A.R.

    1986-01-01

    Well-defined procedures for classifying the felsic plutonic rocks of the Arabian Shield on the basis of petrographic, chemical and lithostratigraphic criteria and mineral-resource potential have been adopted and developed in the Saudi Arabian Deputy Ministry for Mineral Resources over the past decade. A number of problems with conventional classification schemes have been identified and resolved; others, notably those arising from difficulties in identifying precise mineral compositions, continue to present difficulties. The petrographic nomenclature used is essentially that recommended by the International Union of Geological Sciences. Problems that have arisen include the definition of: (1) rocks with sodic, zoned or perthitic feldspar, (2) trondhjemites, and (3) alkali granites. Chemical classification has been largely based on relative molar amounts of alumina, lime and alkalis, and the use of conventional variation diagrams, but pilot studies utilizing univariate and multivariate statistical techniques have been made. The classification used in Saudi Arabia for stratigraphic purposes is a hierarchy of formation-rank units, suites and super-suites as defined in the Saudi Arabian stratigraphic code. For genetic and petrological studies, a grouping as 'associations' of similar and genetically related lithologies is commonly used. In order to indicate mineral-resource potential, the felsic plutons are classed as common, precursor, specialized or mineralized, in order of increasing exploration significance. ?? 1986.

  5. Review: The Yucatán Peninsula karst aquifer, Mexico

    Bauer-Gottwein, Peter; Gondwe, Bibi Ruth Neuman; Charvet, Guillaume

    2011-01-01

    in the vicinity of the North American/Caribbean plate boundary and has been reshaped by a series of tectonic events over its long geologic history. At the end of the Cretaceous period, the Yucatán Peninsula was hit by a large asteroid, which formed the Chicxulub impact crater. The Yucatán Peninsula karst aquifer...

  6. Benthic nitrogen loss in the Arabian Sea off Pakistan

    Sarah eSokoll

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A pronounced deficit of nitrogen (N in the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ of theArabian Sea suggests the occurrence of heavy N-loss that is commonly attributed to pelagicprocesses. However, the OMZ water is in direct contact with sediments on three sides of thebasin. Contribution from benthic N-loss to the total N-loss in the Arabian Sea remains largelyunassessed. In October 2007, we sampled the water column and surface sediments along atransect cross-cutting the Arabian Sea OMZ at the Pakistan continental margin, covering arange of station depths from 360 to 1430 m. Benthic denitrification and anammox rates weredetermined by using 15N-stable isotope pairing experiments. Intact core incubations showeddeclining rates of total benthic N-loss with water depth from 0.55 to 0.18 mmol N m-2 d-1.While denitrification rates measured in slurry incubations decreased from 2.73 to 1.46 mmolN m-2 d-1 with water depth, anammox rates increased from 0.21 to 0.89 mmol N m-2 d-1.Hence, the contribution from anammox to total benthic N-loss increased from 7% at 360 m to40% at 1430 m. This trend is further supported by the quantification of nirS, the biomarkerfunctional gene encoding for cytochrome cd1-nitrite reductases of microorganisms involved inboth N-loss processes. Anammox-like nirS genes within the sediments increased in proportionto total nirS gene copies with water depth. Moreover, phylogenetic analyses of nirS revealeddifferent communities of both denitrifying and anammox bacteria between shallow and deepstations. Together, rate measurement and nirS analyses showed that anammox, determined forthe first time in the Arabian Sea sediments, is an important benthic N-loss process at thecontinental margin off Pakistan, especially in the sediments at deeper water depths.Extrapolation from the measured benthic N-loss to all shelf sediments within the basinsuggests that benthic N-loss may be responsible for about half of the overall N-loss in theArabian Sea.

  7. A Call for More Research from the Arabian Gulf.

    AlMarri, Fatemah; Al Sabah, Salman; Al Haddad, Eliana; Vaz, Jonathan D

    2017-08-01

    Obesity has become an epidemic in the Arabian Gulf, with the prevalence of obesity according to the latest report from the World Health Organization (WHO) showing the gulf region to be countries with the highest incidence of obesity in the 30% plus group. This study aims to examine publications on bariatric surgery and compare them with the other countries with a high incidence of obesity in the world. A literature review on bariatric surgery published from the earliest detected year of publication up until March 2016 using SCOPUS, PubMed, Ovid, and Google Scholar was conducted. Individual papers were assessed for types of surgery, preoperative measures, names of journals, authors, and outcomes. The data was analyzed using Endnote library and SPSS. Key words used in the search included "Bariatric Surgery," "Arabian Gulf," "Kuwait," "Qatar," "Saudi Arabia," "United Arab Emirates," "Oman," "USA," "Australia," "weight loss surgery," "sleeve gastrectomy," "gastric bypass," "gastric band," "mini-gastric bypass," "biliropancreatic diversion," "duodenal switch," and "intragastric balloon." Original papers, systematic reviews and case reports were included. From our review, the gastric sleeve proved to be the most popular published on procedure in the Arabian Gulf, whereas the USA had the highest percentage of gastric bypass surgeries and Australia had equivalent numbers when it came to gastric bypass and band. The numbers of studies from Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, UAE, Bahrain, Qatar, and Oman were 70, 44, 20, 7, 6, and 0, respectively. The mean impact factor of the published articles was 2.53 +/- 1.76 SD. Most of the publications were published in Obesity Surgery (29%), Surgery for Obesity and Related Diseases (5%), and Surgical Endoscopy (5%). The Arabian Gulf has both the highest percentage of bariatric procedures performed as well as the highest prevalence of obesity. However, they have the lowest number of publications and research when compared to their western

  8. Micromammal biostratigraphy of the Alcoy Basin (Eastern Spain): remarks on the Mio-Pliocene boundary of the Iberian Peninsula

    Mansino, S.; Fierro, I.; Tossal, A.; Montoya, P.; Ruiz-Sánchez, F.J.

    2017-01-01

    The study of 13 micromammal localities in the southern section of the Gormaget ravine (Alcoi Basin, SE Spain) and another 4 localities in the northern section has allowed us to define four local biozones in the dawn of the Pliocene, possibly recording the Mio-Pliocene boundary. The great density of localities close to the Mio-Pliocene boundary has enabled us to achieve a great resolution in the biozonation of the earliest Pliocene, only comparable in the Iberian Peninsula to the record of the Teruel Basin (NE Spain). We interpret these biozones in the light ofthe Neogene Mammal units and the European Land Mammal Ages, and correlate them with other local biozones defined for the same time span in the Iberian Peninsula.

  9. Micromammal biostratigraphy of the Alcoy Basin (Eastern Spain): remarks on the Mio-Pliocene boundary of the Iberian Peninsula

    Mansino, S.; Fierro, I.; Tossal, A.; Montoya, P.; Ruiz-Sánchez, F.J.

    2017-11-01

    The study of 13 micromammal localities in the southern section of the Gormaget ravine (Alcoi Basin, SE Spain) and another 4 localities in the northern section has allowed us to define four local biozones in the dawn of the Pliocene, possibly recording the Mio-Pliocene boundary. The great density of localities close to the Mio-Pliocene boundary has enabled us to achieve a great resolution in the biozonation of the earliest Pliocene, only comparable in the Iberian Peninsula to the record of the Teruel Basin (NE Spain). We interpret these biozones in the light ofthe Neogene Mammal units and the European Land Mammal Ages, and correlate them with other local biozones defined for the same time span in the Iberian Peninsula.

  10. Seasonal phytoplankton blooms associated with monsoonal influences and coastal environments in the sea areas either side of the Indochina Peninsula

    Tang, Dan Ling; Kawamura, Hiroshi; Shi, Ping; Takahashi, Wataru; Guan, Lei; Shimada, Teruhisa; Sakaida, Futoki; Isoguchi, Osamu

    2006-03-01

    The Gulf of Thailand (GoT) is a semienclosed sea on the west and southwest side of the Indochina Peninsula and connects with the near-coastal waters of the South China Sea (SCS) on the east and northeast side of the Malay Peninsula. The objective of the present study is to understand dynamic features of the phytoplankton biology in the GoT and the nearby SCS, on both sides of the Indochina Peninsula, using remote-sensing measurements of chlorophyll-a (Chl a), sea surface temperature (SST), and surface vector winds obtained during the period from September 1997 to March 2003. Results show that seasonal variations of the phytoplankton blooms are primarily controlled by the monsoonal winds and related coastal environments. The GoT and the near-coastal SCS have a peak in the averaged monthly Chl a in December and January, which is associated with the winter northeaster monsoon. The near-coastal SCS have another big peak in the averaged monthly Chl a in summer (July to September), which is associated with the summer southwest monsoon. The offshore bloom in the GoT occurs in its southern part and enhances the December-January peak of averaged monthly Chl a. By contrast, the offshore bloom in the nearby SCS is observed northeast of the Peninsula, and represents the primary source of the July-September peak Chl a. Here the coastal upwelling associated with the offshore Ekman transport caused by the coastal surface winds parallel to the Vietnam east coast gives physical conditions favorable to the development of offshore phytoplankton blooms. The Mekong River discharge waters flow in different directions, depending on the monsoon winds, and contributes to seasonal blooms on both sides of the Peninsula.

  11. Distribution and abundance of Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) along the Antarctic Peninsula

    Siegel, Volker; Reiss, Christian S.; Dietrich, Kimberly S.; Haraldsson, Matilda; Rohardt, Gerhard

    2013-07-01

    Net-based data on the abundance, distribution, and demographic patterns of Antarctic krill are quantified from a contemporaneous two ship survey of the Antarctic Peninsula during austral summer 2011. Two survey areas were sampled focussed on Marguerite Bay in the south, and the tip of the Antarctic Peninsula in the north. Data from 177 stations showed that the highest concentrations of krill were found in the southern sampling area. Differences between areas were associated with a few large catches of one year old krill found in anomalously warm and productive waters in Marguerite Bay, and small krill catches in the less-productive, offshore waters in the north. Estimated krill density across the survey area was 3.4 krill m-2, and was low compared to the long-term average of 45 krill m-2 for the Elephant Island area. Overall recruitment between the two survey regions was similar, but per capita recruitment was about 60% lower than historical mean recruitment levels measured at Elephant Island since the late 1970s. Demographic patterns showed small krill concentrated near the coast, and large krill concentrated offshore on the shelf and slope all along the survey area. The offshore distribution of adult krill was delineated by the warm (˜1 °C), low salinity (33.8) water at 30 m, suggesting that most krill were present shoreward of the southern boundary of Antarctic Circumpolar Current Front. Distributions of larvae indicated that three hotspot areas were important for the production of krill: slope areas outside Marguerite Bay and north of the South Shetland Islands, and near the coast around Antarctic Sound. Successful spawning, as inferred from larval abundance, was roughly coincident with the shelf break and not with inshore waters. Given the rapid changes in climate along the Antarctic Peninsula and the lower per capita recruitment observed in recent years, studies comparing and contrasting production, growth, and recruitment across the Peninsula will be

  12. A discussion on the tectonic implications of Ediacaran late- to post-orogenic A-type granite in the northeastern Arabian Shield, Saudi Arabia

    Robinson, F. A.; Bonin, B.; Pease, V.; Anderson, J. L.

    2017-03-01

    The transition from late-orogenic to post-orogenic magmatism following major orogenic episodes such as the Neoproterozoic to Cambrian East African Orogen (EAO) is an important, yet not well-understood geological event marking the cessation of subduction-controlled magmatism between buoyant lithospheric fragments. Forming the northern part of the EAO in the Arabian-Nubian Shield are three granitic suites that successively intruded the same northeastern area and post-date the 640 Ma major orogenic episode: (1) 620-600 Ma alkali feldspar (hypersolvous) granite with alkaline/ferroan/A-type geochemistry, (2) 599 Ma granite cumulates (some garnet-bearing) with calc-alkaline/magnesian affinities, and (3) 584-566 Ma alkali feldspar (hypersolvous) granite (aegirine-bearing) with a distinctive peralkaline/ferroan/A-type signature. Combining whole-rock geochemistry from the southern and northern Arabian Shield, suites 1 and 2 are suggested to be products of late-orogenic slab tear/rollback inducing asthenospheric mantle injection and lower crustal melting/fractionation toward A-type/ferroan geochemistry. Suite 3, however, is suggested to be produced by post-orogenic lithospheric delamination, which replaced the older mantle with new asthenospheric (rare earth element-enriched) mantle that ultimately becomes the thermal boundary layer of the new lithosphere. Major shear zones, such as the 620-540 Ma Najd Fault System (NFS), are some of the last tectonic events recorded across the Arabian Shield. Data presented here suggest that the NFS is directly related to the late-orogenic (620-600 Ma) slab tear/rollback in the northeastern Shield as it met with opposing subduction polarity in the southern Shield. Furthermore, this study infers that east and west Gondwana amalgamation interacted with opposing convergence reflected by the NFS.

  13. Seismotectonics of the Armutlu peninsula (Marmara Sea, NW Turkey) from geological field observation and regional moment tensor inversion

    Kinscher, J.; Krüger, F.; Woith, H.; Lühr, B. G.; Hintersberger, E.; Irmak, T. S.; Baris, S.

    2013-11-01

    The Armutlu peninsula, located in the eastern Marmara Sea, coincides with the western end of the rupture of the 17 August 1999, İzmit MW 7.6 earthquake which is the penultimate event of an apparently westward migrating series of strong and disastrous earthquakes along the NAFZ during the past century. We present new seismotectonic data of this key region in order to evaluate previous seismotectonic models and their implications for seismic hazard assessment in the eastern Marmara Sea. Long term kinematics were investigated by performing paleo strain reconstruction from geological field investigations by morphotectonic and kinematic analysis of exposed brittle faults. Short term kinematics were investigated by inverting for the moment tensor of 13 small to moderate recent earthquakes using surface wave amplitude spectra. Our results confirm previous models interpreting the eastern Marmara Sea Region as an active transtensional pull-apart environment associated with significant NNE-SSW extension and vertical displacement. At the northern peninsula, long term deformation pattern did not change significantly since Pliocene times contradicting regional tectonic models which postulate a newly formed single dextral strike slip fault in the Marmara Sea Region. This area is interpreted as a horsetail splay fault structure associated with a major normal fault segment that we call the Waterfall Fault. Apart from the Waterfall Fault, the stress strain relation appears complex associated with a complicated internal fault geometry, strain partitioning, and reactivation of pre-existing plane structures. At the southern peninsula, recent deformation indicates active pull-apart tectonics constituted by NE-SW trending dextral strike slip faults. Earthquakes generated by stress release along large rupture zones seem to be less probable at the northern, but more probable at the southern peninsula. Additionally, regional seismicity appears predominantly driven by plate boundary

  14. Influenza seasonality goes south in the Yucatan Peninsula: The case for a different influenza vaccine calendar in this Mexican region.

    Ayora-Talavera, Guadalupe; Flores, Gerardo Montalvo-Zurbia; Gómez-Carballo, Jesus; González-Losa, Refugio; Conde-Ferraez, Laura; Puerto-Solís, Marylin; López-Martínez, Irma; Díaz-Quiñonez, Alberto; Barrera-Badillo, Gisela; Acuna-Soto, Rodolfo; Livinski, Alicia A; Alonso, Wladimir J

    2017-08-24

    While vaccination may be relatively straightforward for regions with a well-defined winter season, the situation is quite different for tropical regions. Influenza activity in tropical regions might be out of phase with the dynamics predicted for their hemispheric group thereby impacting the effectiveness of the immunization campaign. To investigate how the climatic diversity of Mexico hinders its existing influenza immunization strategy and to suggest that the hemispheric vaccine recommendations be tailored to the regional level in order to optimize vaccine effectiveness. We studied the seasonality of influenza throughoutMexico by modeling virological and mortality data.De-trended time series of each Mexican state were analyzed by Fourier decomposition to describe the amplitude and timing of annual influenza epidemic cycles and to compare with each the timing of the WHO's Northern and Southern Hemispheric vaccination schedule. The timings of the primary (major) peaks of both virological and mortality data for most Mexican states are well aligned with the Northern Hemisphere winter (December-February) and vaccine schedule. However, influenza peaks in September in the three states of the Yucatan Peninsula. Influenza-related mortality also peaks in September in Quintana Roo and Yucatan whereas it peaks in May in Campeche. As the current timing of vaccination in Mexico is between October and November, more than half of the annual influenza cases have already occurred in the Yucatan Peninsula states by the time the Northern Hemispheric vaccine is delivered and administered. The current Northern Hemispheric influenza calendar adopted for Mexico is not optimal for the Yucatan Peninsula states thereby likely reducing the effectiveness of the immunization of the population. We recommend that Mexico tailor its immunization strategy to better reflect its climatologic and epidemiological diversity and adopt the WHO Southern Hemisphere influenza vaccine and schedule for the

  15. The Khida terrane - Geology of Paleoproterozoic rocks in the Muhayil area, eastern Arabian Shield, Saudi Arabia

    Stoeser, D.B.; Whitehouse, M.J.; Stacey, J.S.

    2001-01-01

    The bulk of the Arabian Shield of Saudi Arabia is underlain by Neoproterozoic terranes of oceanic affinity that were accreted during Pan-African time (about 680- 640Ma). Geologicalmappingandisotopicinvestigations during the 1980’s,however, provided the first evidence for Paleoproterozoic continental crust within the east- central part of the shield in Saudi Arabia. These studies delineated an older basement domain, herein referred to as the Khida terrane (Fig. l), which is defined as that part of the southern Afif composite terrane underlain by Paleoproterozoicto Archean continental crust (Stoeser and Stacey, 1988). The isotopic and geochronologic work to support our current studies within the Khida terrane are discussed in a companion abstract (Whitehouse et al., this volume). The regional geology and geochronology of the region has been summarized in detail by Johnson (1996). The current study is based on the continued use of samples previously collected in the Khida area by the authors and others as well as new field work conducted by us in 1999. This work further defines the occurrence of late Paleoproterozoic rocks at Jabal Muhayil, which is located at the eastern margin of the exposed terrane (Fig. 1). Our isotopic work is at an early stage and this abstract partly relates geologic problems that remain to be resolved. 

  16. Identification of environmental factors affecting the speed of purebred Arabian racehorses in The Netherlands

    Schurink, A.; Theunissen, H.; Ducro, B.J.; Bijma, P.; Grevenhof, van E.M.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of our study was to identify environmental factors affecting the speed of purebred Arabian racehorses in The Netherlands. Data contained 380 records on 88 purebred Arabian racehorses of varying age and sex. Data were collected from March 2005 through June 2006 during 52 races of varying

  17. Circulation and watermass structure in the Central Arabian Sea during December 1982

    Sarma, Y.V.B.; Murty, V.S.N.; Rao, D.P.; Sastry, J.S.

    After the cessation of the SW monsoon over Arabian Sea, the North Equatorial Current sets strongly and the low saline waters from the Bay of Bengal and the equatorial Indian Ocean penetrate into the Arabian Sea. This results in strong horizontal...

  18. Formation and spreading of Arabian Sea high-salinity water mass

    PrasannaKumar, S.; Prasad, T.G.

    The formation and seasonal spreading of the Arabian Sea High-Salinity Water (ASHSW) mass were studied based on the monthly mean climatology of temperature and salinity in the Arabian Sea, north of the equator and west of 80 degrees E, on a 2 degrees...

  19. Sound speed structure in the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal

    PrasannaKumar, S.; Navelkar, G.S.; Murty, T.V.R.; Somayajulu, Y.K.; Murty, C.S.

    Sound speed computed from annual mean temperature and salinity data of Levitus reveals that spatial variation in the Arabian Sea is greater than that in the Bay of Bengal. Maximum spatial variation of sound speed in the Arabian Sea noticed between...

  20. A comparative study of vertical stabilities in the Arabian sea and Bay of Bengal

    Sastry, J.S.; Rao, D.P.

    Stabilities in the upper 300 m in the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal are computed and presented seasonwise. The water column in the Bay of Bengal is more strongly stratified than that in the Arabian Sea. These studies suggest that the vertical...

  1. High-Resolution Aeromagnetic Survey over the Yucatan Peninsula - Implications for Chicxulub Impact, Secondary Craters and Regional Crustal Structures

    Fucugauchi, J. U.; Lopez-Loera, H.; Rebolledo-Vieyra, M.

    2011-12-01

    We present the initial results of a low-altitude high-resolution aeromagnetic study over the Yucatan peninsula. Area surveyed extends from 86W to 91W and 18N to 21N, covering the peninsula and adjacent continental margin of Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea. Aeromagnetic surveys are integrated into a regional map, and regional and residual anomalies are separated using spectral and least-squares methods. For the study, aeromagnetic field was reduced to the pole and several data filtering techniques were used, including first and second vertical derivatives, analytical signal, and upward and downward analytical continuations. The region is characterized by large amplitude broad elongated magnetic anomalies oriented north-south in the northern sector of the continental shelf, and northwest-southeast and northeast-southwest over the western and eastern sides of the peninsula, respectively. Major regional anomalies extend from the continental shelf into the peninsula, whereas other anomaly trends in the central northern sector, at northeast limit of Chicxulub crater, are restricted to the shelf. Largest anomaly on the east extends over the Holbox fracture zone. At its southern end, south of Chetumal a parallel trend extends over the Rio Hondo fault zone between Quintana Roo and Belize. On the western peninsula the anomaly is characterized by two parallel trends offset between Yucatan and Campeche. The central zone of Chicxulub is characterized by a semi-circular anomaly pattern, surrounded by long wavelength small amplitude anomalies extending to the east on the peninsula and shelf, isolated from the regional broad anomalies. To the south of Chicxulub anomaly, there is an elongated low with a central high extending southward from the terrace zone inside the crater rim. The elongated magnetic anomaly correlates with a broad gravity low, which is apparent south of the concentric zone of anomalies. To the north of Chicxulub anomaly, a magnetic high inside the crater is

  2. Quantifying local-scale dust emission from the Arabian Red Sea coastal plain

    Anisimov, Anatolii

    2017-01-23

    Dust plumes emitted from the narrow Arabian Red Sea coastal plain are often observed on satellite images and felt in local population centers. Despite its relatively small area, the coastal plain could be a significant dust source; however, its effect is not well quantified as it is not well approximated in global or even regional models. In addition, because of close proximity to the Red Sea, a significant amount of dust from the coastal areas could be deposited into the Red Sea and serve as a vital component of the nutrient balance of marine ecosystems. In the current study, we apply the offline Community Land Model version 4 (CLM4) to better quantify dust emission from the coastal plain during the period of 2009-2011. We verify the spatial and temporal variability in model results using independent weather station reports. We also compare the results with the MERRA Aerosol Reanalysis (MERRAero). We show that the best results are obtained with 1 km model spatial resolution and dust source function based on Meteosat Second Generation Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI) measurements. We present the dust emission spatial pattern, as well as estimates of seasonal and diurnal variability in dust event frequency and intensity, and discuss the emission regime in the major dust generation hot spot areas. We demonstrate the contrasting seasonal dust cycles in the northern and southern parts of the coastal plain and discuss the physical mechanisms responsible for dust generation. This study provides the first estimates of the fine-scale spatial and temporal distribution of dust emissions from the Arabian Red Sea coastal plain constrained by MERRAero and short-term WRF-Chem simulations. The estimate of total dust emission from the coastal plain, tuned to fit emissions in MERRAero, is 7.5 ± 0.5 Mt a. Small interannual variability indicates that the study area is a stable dust source. The mineralogical composition analysis shows that the coastal plain

  3. Quantifying local-scale dust emission from the Arabian Red Sea coastal plain

    Anisimov, Anatolii; Tao, Weichun; Stenchikov, Georgiy L.; Kalenderski, Stoitchko; Jish Prakash, P.; Yang, Zong Liang; Shi, Mingjie

    2017-01-01

    Dust plumes emitted from the narrow Arabian Red Sea coastal plain are often observed on satellite images and felt in local population centers. Despite its relatively small area, the coastal plain could be a significant dust source; however, its effect is not well quantified as it is not well approximated in global or even regional models. In addition, because of close proximity to the Red Sea, a significant amount of dust from the coastal areas could be deposited into the Red Sea and serve as a vital component of the nutrient balance of marine ecosystems. In the current study, we apply the offline Community Land Model version 4 (CLM4) to better quantify dust emission from the coastal plain during the period of 2009-2011. We verify the spatial and temporal variability in model results using independent weather station reports. We also compare the results with the MERRA Aerosol Reanalysis (MERRAero). We show that the best results are obtained with 1 km model spatial resolution and dust source function based on Meteosat Second Generation Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI) measurements. We present the dust emission spatial pattern, as well as estimates of seasonal and diurnal variability in dust event frequency and intensity, and discuss the emission regime in the major dust generation hot spot areas. We demonstrate the contrasting seasonal dust cycles in the northern and southern parts of the coastal plain and discuss the physical mechanisms responsible for dust generation. This study provides the first estimates of the fine-scale spatial and temporal distribution of dust emissions from the Arabian Red Sea coastal plain constrained by MERRAero and short-term WRF-Chem simulations. The estimate of total dust emission from the coastal plain, tuned to fit emissions in MERRAero, is 7.5 ± 0.5 Mt a. Small interannual variability indicates that the study area is a stable dust source. The mineralogical composition analysis shows that the coastal plain

  4. Lithospheric mantle evolution in the Afro-Arabian domain: Insights from Bir Ali mantle xenoliths (Yemen)

    Sgualdo, P.; Aviado, K.; Beccaluva, L.; Bianchini, G.; Blichert-Toft, J.; Bryce, J. G.; Graham, D. W.; Natali, C.; Siena, F.

    2015-05-01

    Detailed petrological and geochemical investigations of an extensive sampling of mantle xenoliths from the Neogene-Quaternary Bir Ali diatreme (southern Yemen) indicate that the underlying lithospheric mantle consists predominantly of medium- to fine-grained (often foliated) spinel-peridotites (85-90%) and spinel-pyroxenites (10-15%) showing thermobarometric estimates in the P-T range of 0.9-2.0 GPa and 900-1150 °C. Peridotites, including lherzolites, harzburgites and dunites delineate continuous chemical, modal and mineralogical variations compatible with large extractions of basic melts occurring since the late Proterozoic (~ 2 Ga, according to Lu-Hf model ages). Pyroxenites may represent intrusions of subalkaline basic melts interacting and equilibrated with the host peridotite. Subsequent metasomatism has led to modal changes, with evidence of reaction patches and clinopyroxene and spinel destabilization, as well as formation of new phases (glass, amphibole and feldspar). These changes are accompanied by enrichment of the most incompatible elements and isotopic compositions. 143Nd/144Nd ranges from 0.51419 to 0.51209 (εNd from + 30.3 to - 10.5), 176Hf/177Hf from 0.28459 to 0.28239 (εHf from + 64.4 to - 13.6), and 208Pb/204Pb from 36.85 to 41.56, thus extending from the depleted mantle (DM) towards the enriched OIB mantle (EM and HIMU) components. 3He/4He (R/RA) ratios vary from 7.2 to 7.9 with He concentrations co-varying with the most incompatible element enrichment, in parallel with metasomatic effects. These metasomatic events, particularly effective in harzburgites and dunites, are attributable to the variable interaction with alkaline basic melts related to the general extensional and rifting regime affecting the East Africa-Arabian domain during the Cenozoic. In this respect, Bir Ali mantle xenoliths resemble those occurring along the Arabian margins and the East Africa Rift system, similarly affected by alkaline metasomatism, whereas they are

  5. Persistent genetic signatures of colonization in Brachionus manjavacas rotifers in the Iberian Peninsula.

    Gómez, Africa; Montero-Pau, Javier; Lunt, David H; Serra, Manuel; Campillo, Sergi

    2007-08-01

    Recent phylogeographical assessments have consistently shown that continental zooplankton display high levels of population subdivision, despite the high dispersal capacity of their diapausing propagules. As such, there is an apparent paradox between observed cosmopolitanism in the zooplankton that is associated with long-distance dispersal, and strong phylogeographical structures at a regional scale. Such population dynamics, far from migration-drift equilibrium, have been shown in the rotifer species complex Brachionus plicatilis, a group of over a dozen species inhabiting salt lakes and coastal lagoons worldwide. Here we present the mitochondrial DNA phylogeography of one of these species, Brachionus manjavacas, in the Iberian Peninsula, where it often co-occurs with the morphologically similar species B. plicatilis sensu stricto. We obtained sequences from 233 individuals from diapausing eggs and clonal cultures from 16 lakes in the Iberian Peninsula, and a Tunisian lake. Two strongly supported deep mitochondrial DNA clades were found (A and B). Phylogenetic and nested clade analysis showed that clade A has a strong phylogeographical structure, with a strong similarity of phylogeographical patterns between B. manjavacas clade A and B. plicatilis s.s. These include (i) signatures of allopatric fragmentation between central and southern populations, and (ii) range expansions in the Iberian Peninsula, both likely to have occurred during the Pleistocene. We find evidence for a glacial refugium in the Guadiana basin. Clades A and B co-occurred in several of these lakes because of range expansion and secondary contact between both clades. The co-occurrence between B. plicatilis s.s. and B. manjavacas is not recent, and both species might have experienced similar environmental challenges during the Pleistocene. The strong correlation of genetic and geographical distance found suggests that historical events can lead to such correlation, mirroring the effects of

  6. A safety decision analysis for Saudi Arabian nuclear research facility

    Abulfaraj, W.H.; Abdul-Fattah, A.F.

    1985-01-01

    Establishment of a nuclear research facility should be the first step in planning for introducing the nuclear energy to Saudi Arabia. The fuzzy set decision theory is selected among different decision theories to be applied for this analysis. Four research reactors from USA are selected for the present study. The IFDA computer code, based on the fuzzy set theory is applied. Results reveal that the FNR reactor is the best alternative for the case of Saudi Arabian nuclear research facility, and MITR is the second best. 17 refs

  7. Tracer signals of the intermediate layer of the Arabian Sea

    Rhein, Monika; Stramma, Lothar; Plähn, Olaf

    1997-01-01

    In 1995, hydrographic and chlorofluorocarbon (CFCs, components F11, F12) measurements were carried out in the Gulf of Aden, in the Gulf of Oman, and in the Arabian Sea. In the Gulf of Oman, the F12 concentrations in the Persian Gulf outflow (PGW) at about 300m depth were significantly higher than in ambient surface water with saturations reaching 270%. These high values could not be caused by air-sea gas exchange. The outflow was probably contaminated with oil, and the lipophilic character of...

  8. The problems of the Arabian-Persian gulf

    Labrousse, H.

    2004-01-01

    The origin of the problems of the Arabian-Persian gulf is the delimitation of the maritime borders between the different bordering states and the exploitation rights of the offshore fields. Despite some bilateral agreements, the non-ratification by two bordering states of the United Nations convention on sea rights, deprives some negotiations of any legal framework. The Hormuz strait, the only opening of the gulf towards the Indian ocean, is tightly controlled by maritime powers which will never accept any interference with the maritime circulation in this pathway of considerable importance for petroleum transportation and for the world economy. (J.S.)

  9. GPS horizontal deformation model in the southern region of the Iberian Peninsula and northern Africa (SPINA); Modelo de deformación horizontal GPS de la región sur de la Península Ibérica y norte de África (SPINA)

    Rosado Moscoso, B.; Fernández-Ros, A.; Jiménez Jiménez, A.; Berrocoso Domínguez, M.

    2017-09-01

    Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), and in particular Global Positioning System (GPS) technology provides a powerful tool for studying geodynamic processes. As a consequence of GPS studies, it is now possible to analyze the interaction between tectonic plates in order to evaluate and establish the characteristics of their boundaries. In this study, our main interest is to focus on the time series analysis obtained from observations of GNSS-GPS satellites. Each GPS observation session provides topocentric geodetic coordinates (east, north, elevation) of the permanent stations that constitute the geodetic network established for this purpose. This paper shows a detailed topocentric coordinate time-series study for sites belonging to what we call the SPINA network, which stands for south of the Iberian Peninsula, north of Africa region. The series under study are processed by techniques of relative positioning with respect to the IGS (International GNSS Service) reference station located in Villafranca. These times series have been analyzed using filter processes, harmonic adjustments and wavelets. A surface velocity field is derived from the time series of daily solutions for each station, whose observations span 8 years or longer. This allows us to obtain a horizontal displacement model to show the regional geodynamic main characteristics. [Spanish] El Sistema Global de Navegación por Satélite (GNSS), y, en particular, el Sistema Global de Posicionamiento (GPS) proporcionan una importante herramienta en el estudio de los procesos geodinámicos. Como consecuencia de estos estudios, es posible analizar la interacción entre las placas tectónicas con el fin de evaluar y establecer las características de sus límites. Este trabajo se centra principalmente, en el análisis de series temporales obtenidas a partir de observaciones de los satélites GNSS-GPS en estaciones geodésicas permanentes ubicadas en la región sur de la Península Ibérica y norte de

  10. 2013-2014 USGS Lidar: Olympic Peninsula (WA)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TASK NAME: USGS Olympic Peninsula Washington LIDAR LiDAR Data Acquisition and Processing Production Task USGS Contract No. G10PC00057 Task Order No. G13PD00849...

  11. Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for alcids, shorebirds, waterfowl, diving birds, pelagic birds, gulls and terns in Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula,...

  12. Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska ESI: VOLCANOS (Volcano Points)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains the locations of volcanos in Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. Vector points in the data set represent the location of the volcanos....

  13. Macrofouling community structure in Kanayama Bay, Kii Peninsula (Japan)

    Raveendran, T.V.; Harada, E.

    An investigation on the macrofouling community in Kanayama Bay, Kill Peninsula, Japan was undertaken from June 1994 to May 1995 by exposing fiber reinforced plastic (FRP) panels at subsurface and bottom (2.2 m) depths. The composition and abundance...

  14. Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska ESI: NESTS (Nest Points)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for alcids, shorebirds, waterfowl, diving birds, pelagic birds, gulls and terns in Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula,...

  15. 24 arc-second Kenai Peninsula Bororugh Alaska Elevation Grid

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 24 arc-second Kenai Peninsula Bororugh Alaska Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 24 second resolution in geographic coordinates....

  16. A Satellite Based Fog Study of the Korean Peninsula

    McDonald, David K

    2007-01-01

    Fog has always been a difficult phenomenon to forecast. Its unpredictable nature and propensity to quickly decrease visibilities have had adverse effects on military operations for many years across the Korean peninsula...

  17. Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska ESI: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for razor clams in Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. Vector polygons in this data set represent locations of...

  18. Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for herring spawning areas in Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. Vector polygons in this data set represent...

  19. Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska ESI: FISHL (Fish Lines)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for anadromous fish streams in Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. Vector lines in this data set represent...

  20. Timber resource statistics for the Olympic Peninsula, Washington.

    Patricia M. Bassett; Daniel D. Oswald

    1961-01-01

    This report summarizes a 1978-79 timber resource inventory of five counties in the Olympic Peninsula of Washington: Clallam, Grays Harbor, Jefferson, Mason, and Thurston. Detailed tables of forest area, timber volume, growth, mortality, and harvest are presented.

  1. Endemic earthworms (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae) of the Balkan Peninsula: a review.

    Trakić, Tanja; Valchovski, Hristo; Stojanović, Mirjana

    2016-11-10

    A list of the endemic earthworms of the Balkan Peninsula is presented. Comprehensive information on the ecology, distribution on the Balkan Peninsula and zoogeographical type of all endemics is given. The list comprises 90 species and subspecies, belonging to 11 genera of the family Lumbricidae. The largest number of the Balkan endemic earthworms belongs to a narrow range group (63.3%). Broad range endemic species take part with 36.7%. Our study shows that the degree of endemism on the Balkan Peninsula is extremely high (about 40%) suggesting an important process of autochthonous speciation on the Balkan Peninsula. This appearance is attributable to relative isolation of the mountains compared to the lowlands within the context of paleoenvironmental changes.

  2. A Holocene progradation record from Okains Bay, Banks Peninsula, Canterbury, New Zealand

    Stephenson, W.; Shulmeister, J.

    1999-01-01

    Fifty-eight distinct ridges are preserved on the Holocene progradation plain in Okains Bay, Banks Peninsula, Canterbury. Of these, 48 represent beach berm and foredune complexes and the remaining 10 are transverse dune ridges. Periods of rapid coastal progradation are marked by multiple beach berm preservation, whereas intervening periods of lower sediment accumulation result in a stable coastline and transverse dune formation. Infilling of the bay began following sea-level stabilisation in the mid Holocene. The fill is dominantly fine sand, which is derived from sediment carried around Banks Peninsula in the Southland Current and washed into Okains Bay by wave action. Variations in the progradation rate are therefore proxy indicators of coastal erosion in the Canterbury Bight. We demonstrate that there is little progradational fill preserved between c. 6500 and 2000 yr BP. This implies significant changes in sediment delivery to the Southland Current within the last 2000 yr, which we attribute to increased coastal erosion in South Canterbury. We speculate that this increasing erosion resulted from increased wave energy regimes, which in turn may relate to increasing Southern Hemisphere seasonality following the precessional cycle. (author). 32 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  3. Distribution of some Calanoida (Crustacea: Copepoda from the Yucatán Peninsula, Belize and Guatemala

    Gerd-Oltmann Brandorff

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Southern Mexico and Central America have many water bodies of different morphology and water chemistry with an interesting zooplankton fauna, originating from North or South America. A set of 63 samples, taken in 2005 and 2008, from water bodies of the Yucatan Peninsula karst, Belize and Guatemala, were studied for the content of calanoid copepods. Old and recent literature was used to determine animals to species level. Drawings were prepared with a microscope and a camera lucida. A total of 32 samples with totally six species contained calanoid copepods: one estuarine pseudodiaptomid and five freshwater diaptomids. Pseudodiaptomus marshi was found at different salinities. It is confirmed that the commonest diaptomids in the Yucatan Peninsula are Arctodiaptomus dorsalis and Mastigodiaptomus nesus. The former was also recorded from Lake Amatitlan. Mastigodiaptomus nesus is as widespread as A. dorsalis but it is absent from the Lake Peten area in Guatemala. Mastigodiaptomus reidae was found in two shallow habitats, these specimens differ from those from the type locality by having a set of peculiar large spine-like processes on the last thoracic and the urosome segments of the females. Leptodiaptomus siciloides was found only in Lake Ayarza with high salinity. Prionodiaptomus colombiensis occurred in the highlands of Guatemala in Lago de Güija and in the Peten area in Laguna Sacpuy. We contributed with our occurrence records to a better knowledge of the geographic distribution of some calanoid copepods. Morphological findings in some species are of value for taxonomic differentiation between species.

  4. A Surface Soil Radioactivity Mapping Has Been Carried Out at Muria Peninsula, Central Java

    Soepradto-Tjokrokardono; Nasrun-Syamsul; Supardjo-AS; Djodi-R-Mappa; Kurnia-Setyawan W

    2004-01-01

    The air of this mapping is to gain exposure dose value of the soil surface of Muria Peninsula. Central Java, in the area of 75 km radius from Ujung Lemah Abang. Lemah Abang is the proposed site of the first indonesian nuclear Power Plant. A radioactivity data obtained in 1995/1996 to 1998/1999 researches has been used for input data. For further analysis, a conversation factor multiplication is applied. This conversation factor is obtained from linear regression equation of the relationship between radioactivity and exposure values gained from re-measured randomly 44 points which are representative for high, medium, and low radiation areas obtained in 1995/1996 to 1998/1999 activities and it taking soil samples. The conversation data result is being constructed of the Surface Exposure Dose Map of Muria Peninsula. Those data show that the exposure dose of northern slope of Muria Volcano is relatively higher than that of southern slope, it means be harmonizing to the soil sample radioactivity values. The maximum radioactivity value of the soil samples is 3,56.10 -2 Bq/gram (α radiation), 8,22.10 -1 Bq/gram (β radiation) and 6,20.10 -1 Bq/gram (γ radiation) and the minimum values are 4,44 10 -3 Bq/gram (α radiation), 1,50. 10 -1 Bq/gram (β radiation) and 4,09. 10 -2 Bq/gram (γ radiation). (author)

  5. Spatial Patterns of Variability in Antarctic Surface Temperature: Connections to the Southern Hemisphere Annular Mode and the Southern Oscillation

    Kwok, Ron; Comiso, Josefino C.; Koblinsky, Chester J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The 17-year (1982-1998) trend in surface temperature shows a general cooling over the Antarctic continent, warming of the sea ice zone, with moderate changes over the oceans. Warming of the peripheral seas is associated with negative trends in the regional sea ice extent. Effects of the Southern Hemisphere Annular Mode (SAM) and the extrapolar Southern Oscillation (SO) on surface temperature are quantified through regression analysis. Positive polarities of the SAM are associated with cold anomalies over most of Antarctica, with the most notable exception of the Antarctic Peninsula. Positive temperature anomalies and ice edge retreat in the Pacific sector are associated with El Nino episodes. Over the past two decades, the drift towards high polarity in the SAM and negative polarity in the SO indices couple to produce a spatial pattern with warmer temperatures in the Antarctic Peninsula and peripheral seas, and cooler temperatures over much of East Antarctica.

  6. A new species of Dalbergia (Leguminosae from Malay Peninsula

    Bambang - Sunarno

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available SUNARNO, BAMBANG & OHASHI, HIROSHI. 2002. A new species of Dalbergia (Leguminosae from Malay Peninsula. Reinwardtia 12(1: 117–119. ⎯ A new species, Dalbergia johoriensis from the Malay Peninsula is described. It is close to D. rostrata and D. havilandii but readily distinguished by the grooved midrib beneath, flowers with narrower standard and wings and style hairy in the lower part.

  7. Modelling of sediment transport at Muria peninsula coastal, Jepara

    Heni Susiati; Yarianto SBS; Wahyu Pandoe; Eko Kusratmoko; Aris Poniman

    2010-01-01

    Modelling of transport sediment modelling at Muria Peninsula have been done. In this study we had been used mathematical model that consist of hydrodynamics and sediment transport . Data input for modelling has been used tidal, monsoon wind, and river debit. Simulation result of sediment transport modelling showed that tides pattern and seasonal variations are the main causes of variations in the suspended sediment distribution in Muria Peninsula. (author)

  8. Sulfur transfer in the distillate fractions of Arabian crude oils under gamma-irradiation

    Basfar, Ahmed A.; Soliman, Yasser S.; Alkhuraiji, Turki S.

    2017-01-01

    Desulfurization of light distillation fractions including gasoline, kerosene and diesel obtained from the four Arabian crude oils (heavy, medium, light and extra light) upon γ-rays irradiation to different doses was investigated. In addition, yields vol%, FTIR analysis, kinematic viscosity and density of all distillation fractions of irradiated crude oils were evaluated. Limited radiation-induced desulfurization of those fractions was observed up to an irradiation dose of 200 kGy. FTIR analysis of those fractions indicates the absence of oxidized sulfur compounds, represented by S=O of sulfone group, indicating that γ-irradiation of the Arabian crude oils at normal conditions does not induce an oxidative desulfurization in those distillation fractions. Radiation-induced sulfur transfer decreases by 28.56% and increases in total sulfur by 16.8% in Arabian extra light oil and Arabian medium crude oil respectively. - Highlights: • Limited desulfurization in the light distillate fraction of Arabian crude oils using γ-rays was observed. • FTIR analysis confirms limited unchanged in density, viscosity and yields of Arabian crude oils. • In absence of oxidizer, radiation-induced sulfur transfer was observed in gasoline and diesel fractions of Arabian crude oils. • Radiation-induced oxidative desulfuration of the light distillate fractions depends on its characteristics.

  9. Structural evolution of Halaban Area, Eastern Arabian Shield, Saudi Arabia

    Al-Amri, Yousef; Kassem1, Osama M. K.

    2017-04-01

    Neoproterozoic basement complex comprises a metamorphic/igneous suite (Abt schist and sheared granitoids) with syn-accretionary transpressive structures, unconformably overlain by a post-amalgamation volcanosedimentary sequence. This study aims to attempt to exposed post-accretionary thrusting and thrust-related structures at Halaban area, Eastern Arabian Shield. The Rf/ϕ and Fry methods are utilized on quartz and feldspar porphyroclasts, as well as on mafic crystals, such as hornblende and biotite, in eighteen samples. The X/Z axial ratios range from 1.12 to 4.99 for Rf/ϕ method and from 1.65 to 4.00 for Fry method. The direction of finite strain for the long axes displays clustering along the WNW trend (occasionally N) with slight plunging. Finite strain accumulated without any significant volume change contemporaneously with syn-accretionary transpressive structures. It indicates that the contacts between various lithological units in the Halaban area were formed under brittle to semi-ductile deformation conditions. The penetrative subhorizontal foliation was concurrent with thrusting and shows nearly the same attitudes of tectonic contacts with the overlying nappes. Keywords: Finite strain analysis, volcanosedimentary sequence, Halaban area, Eastern Arabian Shield, Saudi Arabia.

  10. Geological evolution of the Afro-Arabian dome

    Almond, D. C.

    1986-12-01

    The Afro-Arabian dome includes the elevated continental regions enclosing the Red Sea, Gulf of Aden, and the Ethiopian rift system, and extends northwards as far as Jordan. It is more than an order of magnitude larger than other African uplifts. Both the structures and the igneous rocks of the dome appear to be products of the superimposition of two, perhaps three, semi-independent generating systems, initiated at different times but all still active. A strain pattern dominated by NW-trending basins and rifts first became established early in the Cretaceous. By the end of the Oligocene, much of the extensional strain had been taken up along the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden axes, which subsequently developed into an ocean. Palaeogene "trap" volcanism of mildly alkaline to transitional character was related to this horizontal extension rather than to doming. Further west, the East Sahara swell has a history of intermittent alkaline volcanicity which began in the Mesozoic and was independent of magmatism in the Afro-Arabian dome. Volcanicity specifically related to doming began in the Miocene along a N-S zone of uplift extending from Ethiopia to Syria. This elongated swell forms the northern termination of the East African system of domes and rifts, characterized by episodic vertical uplift but very little extension. Superimposition of epeirogenic uplift upon structures formed by horizontal extension took place in the Neogene. Volcanicity related to vertical tectonics is mildly alkaline in character, whereas transitional and tholeiitic magmas are found along the spreading axes.

  11. Preliminary results of a 30-year daily rainfall data base in southern Italy

    Federico, Stefano; Avolio, Elenio; Pasqualoni, Loredana

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents first exploratory results and analyses performed on a 30-year (1978–2007) homogeneous precipitation database that has been created for the Calabria peninsula, southern Italy. The database consists of complete time series of daily values of precipitation from 88 stations...

  12. The outstanding synergy between drought, heatwaves and fuel on the 2007 Southern Greece exceptional fire season

    Gouveia, Célia M.; Bistinas, Ioannis; Liberato, Margarida L.R.; Bastos, Ana; Koutsias, Nikos; Trigo, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    The fire season of 2007 was particularly devastating for Greece, achieving the new all-time record of estimated burnt area (225,734. ha) since 1980. The season was remarkably severe in Peloponnese Peninsula, in southern continental Greece, being considered the most extreme natural disaster in the

  13. Geological evolution of the Iraqi Mesopotamia Foredeep, inner platform and near surroundings of the Arabian Plate

    Sissakian, Varoujan K.

    2013-08-01

    The Iraqi territory could be divided into four main tectonic zones; each one has its own characteristics concerning type of the rocks, their age, thickness and structural evolution. These four zones are: (1) Inner Platform (stable shelf), (2) Outer Platform (unstable shelf), (3) Shalair Zone (Terrain), and (4) Zagros Suture Zone. The first two zones of the Arabian Plate lack any kind of metamorphism and volcanism. The Iraqi territory is located in the extreme northeastern part of the Arabian Plate, which is colliding with the Eurasian (Iranian) Plate. This collision has developed a foreland basin that includes: (1) Imbricate Zone, (2) High Folded Zone, (3) Low Folded Zone and (4) Mesopotamia Foredeep. The Mesopotamia Foredeep, in Iraq includes the Mesopotamia Plain and the Jazira Plain; it is less tectonically disturbed as compared to the Imbricate, High Folded and Low Folded Zones. Quaternary alluvial sediments of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers and their tributaries as well as distributaries cover the central and southeastern parts of the Foredeep totally; it is called the Mesopotamian Flood Plain. The extension of the Mesopotamia Plain towards northwest however, is called the Jazira Plain, which is covered by Miocene rocks. The Mesopotamia Foredeep is represented by thick sedimentary sequence, which thickens northwestwards including synrift sediments; especially of Late Cretaceous age, whereas on surface the Quaternary sediments thicken southeastwards. The depth of the basement also changes from 8 km, in the west to 14 km, in the Iraqi-Iranian boarders towards southeast. The anticlinal structures have N-S trend, in the extreme southern part of the Mesopotamia Foredeep and extends northwards until the Latitude 32°N, within the Jazira Plain, there they change their trends to NW-SE, and then to E-W trend. The Mesozoic sequence is almost without any significant break, with increase in thickness from the west to the east, attaining 5 km. The sequence forms the main

  14. Microbiology of Kamchatka Peninsula Hot Springs

    Bonch-Osmolovsk, E.

    2005-12-01

    Hot springs of Uzon Caldera, Geyser Valley, Moutnovsky Volcano (Kamchatka Peninsula) served as the sources of isolation of numerous thermophilic prokaryotes, many of them representing new taxa. Among new isolates there were hyperthermophilic archaea - neutrophilic or acidophilic anaerobic organotrophs, able to use a wide range of polymeric organic substrates. Bacterial isolates were in majority represented by moderate thermophiles - organotrophs and lithoautotrophs. Latter group consisted of anaerobes oxidizing molecular hydrogen in the course of sulfate, sulfur or iron reduction, and of anaerobic CO-oxidizing, hydrogen-producing bacteria. Some of new isolates represented deep phylogenetic lineages in Bacteria domain. Microbial activity in Kamchatka hot springs was studied by means of radioisotopic tracing. The rates of methanogenesis, acetogenesis, inorganic carbon assimilation, acetate oxidation were determined in three different hot springs with pH ranging from 3.0 to 8.5 and water temeperature being in the range from 55 to 85oC. The results indicated the presence and activity of novel metabolic groups of thermophilic prokaryotes that so far have not been known in laboratory cultures.

  15. Pharmaceutical ethnobotany in Northern Navarra (Iberian Peninsula).

    Cavero, R Y; Akerreta, S; Calvo, M I

    2011-01-07

    This paper provides significant ethnobotanical information on pharmaceutical plant uses in Northern Navarra from an area known both for its high biological diversity and its cultural significance, suggesting the survival of uses lost elsewhere. Collect, analyze and evaluate the ethnobotanical knowledge about medicinal plants in Northern Navarra (Iberian Peninsula) with 4243 km(2) and 71,069 inhabitants. We performed semi-structured interviews with 253 informants (mean age 69; 61% women, 39% men) in 120 locations, identified the plant reported and analyzed the results, comparing them with those from other territories. The informants reported data on 174 medicinal plants belonging to 63 botanical families. This work is focused on human medicinal plant uses, which represent 98% of the pharmaceutical uses (1725 use reports). The species with the highest number of cites are Chamaemelum nobile, Sambucus nigra and Verbena officinalis, with a long tradition of use in The Mountain (Navarra). All different plant parts are used; aerial part is exploited more frequently than other plant parts. Most of the listed remedies use a single ingredient, typically soaked in water. Usually, the administration is primarily oral followed by topical applications. The main ailments treated are digestive troubles, wounds and dermatological problems, and respiratory affections. Informants reported 24 new or scarcely cited uses for 23 medicinal plants. For 35% of the species (8) we have not found bibliographical references in the scientific literature and 48% (11) have only one to three references. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Long-term (1993-2013) changes in macrozooplankton off the Western Antarctic Peninsula

    Steinberg, Deborah K.; Ruck, Kate E.; Gleiber, Miram R.; Garzio, Lori M.; Cope, Joseph S.; Bernard, Kim S.; Stammerjohn, Sharon E.; Schofield, Oscar M. E.; Quetin, Langdon B.; Ross, Robin M.

    2015-07-01

    The Western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) is one of the most rapidly warming regions on Earth, and where a high apex predator biomass is supported in large part by macrozooplankton. We examined trends in summer (January-February) abundance of major taxa of macrozooplankton along the WAP over two decades (1993-2013) and their relationship with environmental parameters (sea ice, atmospheric climate indices, sea surface temperature, and phytoplankton biomass and productivity). Macrozooplankton were collected from the top 120 m of the water column in a mid-Peninsula study region divided into latitudinal (North, South, and Far South) and cross-shelf (coastal, shelf, slope) sub-regions. Trends for krill species included a 5-year cycle in abundance peaks (positive anomalies) for Euphausia superba, but no directional long-term trend, and an increase in Thysanoessa macrura in the North; variability in both species was strongly influenced by primary production 2-years prior. E. crystallorophias abundance was best explained by the Southern Annular Mode (SAM) and Multivariate El Niño Southern Oscillation Index (MEI), and was more abundant in higher ice conditions. The salp Salpa thompsoni and thecosome pteropod Limacina helicina cycled between negative and positive anomalies in the North, but showed increasing positive anomalies in the South over time. Variation in salp and pteropod abundance was best explained by SAM and the MEI, respectively, and both species were more abundant in lower ice conditions. There was a long-term increase in some carnivorous gelatinous zooplankton (polychaete worm Tomopteris spp.) and amphipods. Abundance of Pseudosagitta spp. chaetognaths was closely related to SAM, with higher abundance tied to lower ice conditions. Long-term changes and sub-decadal cycles of WAP macrozooplankton community composition may affect energy transfer to higher trophic levels, and alter biogeochemical cycling in this seasonally productive and sensitive polar ecosystem.

  17. Species Identification, Strain Differentiation, and Antifungal Susceptibility of Dermatophyte Species Isolated From Clinically Infected Arabian Horses

    El Damaty, Hend M; Tartor, Yasmine H; Mahmmod, Yasser Saadeldien Ibrahim

    2017-01-01

    Arabian horses, the eldest equine breeds, have great economic and social significance for its long, unique, and storied history. Molecular characterization of dermatophyte species affecting Arabian horses is a crucial necessity for epidemiologic and therapeutic purposes. The objective of this study...... are more effective against T. mentagrophytes and T. verrucosum. In conclusion, PCR-RFLP technique is a reliable tool for the identification of dermatophyte species from Arabian horses. Internal transcribed spacer sequencing provides a precise and useful technique for the identification and differentiation...

  18. Can captive populations function as sources of genetic variation for reintroductions into the wild? A case study of the Arabian oryx from the Phoenix Zoo and the Shaumari Wildlife Reserve, Jordan

    Ochoa, Alexander; Wells, Stuart A.; West, Gary; Al-Smadi, Ma’en; Redondo, Sergio A.; Sexton, Sydnee R.; Culver, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    The Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx) historically ranged across the Arabian Peninsula and neighboring countries until its extirpation in 1972. In 1963–1964 a captive breeding program for this species was started at the Phoenix Zoo (PHX); it ultimately consisted of 11 animals that became known as the ‘World Herd’. In 1978–1979 a wild population was established at the Shaumari Wildlife Reserve (SWR), Jordan, with eight descendants from the World Herd and three individuals from Qatar. We described the mtDNA and nuclear genetic diversity and structure of PHX and SWR. We also determined the long-term demographic and genetic viability of these populations under different reciprocal translocation scenarios. PHX displayed a greater number of mtDNA haplotypes (n = 4) than SWR (n = 2). Additionally, PHX and SWR presented nuclear genetic diversities of N¯AN¯A = 2.88 vs. 2.75, H¯OH¯O = 0.469 vs. 0.387, and H¯EH¯E = 0.501 vs. 0.421, respectively. Although these populations showed no signs of inbreeding (F¯ISF¯IS ≈ 0), they were highly differentiated (G′′STGST′′ = 0.580; P populations can function as sources of genetic variation for reintroduction programs, we recommend promoting mutual and continuous gene flow with wild populations to ensure the long-term survival of this species.

  19. Stable isotopes and Antarctic moss banks: Plants and soil microbes respond to recent warming on the Antarctic Peninsula

    Royles, Jessica; Amesbury, Matthew; Ogée, Jérôme; Wingate, Lisa; Convey, Peter; Hodgson, Dominic; Griffiths, Howard; Leng, Melanie; Charman, Dan

    2014-05-01

    The Antarctic Peninsula is one of the most rapidly warming regions on Earth, with air temperature increases of as much as 3°C recorded since the 1950s. However, the longer-term context of this change is limited and existing records, largely relying on ice core data, are not suitably located to be able to trace the spatial signature of change over time. We are working on a project exploiting stable isotope records preserved in moss peat banks spanning 10 degrees of latitude along the Antarctic Peninsula as an archive of late Holocene climate variability. Here we present a unique time series of past moss growth and soil microbial activity that has been produced from a 150 year old moss bank at Lazarev Bay, Alexander Island (69°S), a site at the southern limit of significant plant growth in the Antarctic Peninsula region. These moss banks are ideal archives for palaeoclimate research as they are well-preserved by freezing, generally monospecific, easily dated by radiocarbon techniques, and have sufficiently high accumulation rates to permit decadal resolution. We use accumulation rates, cellulose δ13C and fossil testate amoebae to show that growth rates, assimilation and microbial productivity rose rapidly in the 1960s, consistent with temperature change, although recently may have stalled, concurrent with other evidence. The increase in biological activity is unprecedented in the last 150 years. Along with work completed on Signy Island (60°S), in the South Orkney Islands, in which we used carbon isotope evidence to show recent climate-related enhancement of CO2 assimilation and peat accumulation rates in Antarctica, the observed relationships between moss growth, microbial activity and climate suggests that moss bank records have the potential to test the regional expression of temperature variability shown by instrumental data on the Antarctic Peninsula over centennial to millennial timescales, by providing long-term records of summer growth conditions

  20. Upper mantle structure under western Saudi Arabia from Rayleigh wave tomography and the origin of Cenozoic uplift and volcanism on the Arabian Shield

    Park, Y; Nyblade, A; Rodgers, A; Al-Amri, A

    2007-11-09

    The shear velocity structure of the shallow upper mantle beneath the Arabian Shield has been modeled by inverting new Rayleigh wave phase velocity measurements between 45 and 140 s together with previously published Rayleigh wave group velocity measurement between 10 and 45 s. For measuring phase velocities, we applied a modified array method that minimizes the distortion of raypaths by lateral heterogeneity. The new shear velocity model shows a broad low velocity region in the lithospheric mantle across the Shield and a low velocity region at depths {ge} 150 km localized along the Red Sea coast and Makkah-Madinah-Nafud (MMN) volcanic line. The velocity reduction in the upper mantle corresponds to a temperature anomaly of {approx}250-330 K. These finding, in particular the region of continuous low velocities along the Red Sea and MMN volcanic line, do not support interpretations for the origin of the Cenozoic plateau uplift and volcanism on the Shield invoking two separate plumes. When combined with images of the 410 and 660 km discontinuities beneath the southern part of the Arabian Shield, body wave tomographic models, a S-wave polarization analysis, and SKS splitting results, our new model supports an interpretation invoking a thermal upwelling of warm mantle rock originating in the lower mantle under Africa that crosses through the transition zone beneath Ethiopia and moves to the north and northwest under the eastern margin of the Red Sea and the Arabian Shield. In this interpretation, the difference in mean elevation between the Platform and Shield can be attributed to isostatic uplift caused by heating of the lithospheric mantle under the Shield, with significantly higher region along the Red Sea possibly resulting from a combination of lithosphere thinning and dynamic uplift.

  1. Drought trends in the Iberian Peninsula over the last 112 years

    Gouveia, Célia M.; Ramos, Patrícia; Russo, Ana; Trigo, Ricardo M.

    2015-04-01

    The Iberian Peninsula is often affected by drought events with strong influences in ecosystems and the related social and economic impacts (Gouveia et al. 2012, Trigo et al., 2013). In the last decades the severity of droughts in Iberia have increased due to the higher atmospheric evaporative demand (Vicente-Serrano et al., 2014). The need for a deeper knowledge of drought frequency, duration and intensity over the Iberian Peninsula during the last 112 years is reinforced by the findings showing that the period of 1970-2010 over the Mediterranean region was considered drier when compared with 1901-1970. Together with the increasing dryness, the projections point for an increase of drought conditions during the twenty-first century (Hoerling et al., 2012) will tend to exacerbate these problems. The evolution of drought in the Iberian Peninsula was analyzed, using the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) and the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), for the period 1901-2012, and the sub-periods 1901-1937, 1938-1974 and 1975-2012. We have used SPI and SPEI for the time scale of 12 months, as obtained from CRU TS3.21 database between 1901 and 2012, using a spatial resolution of 0.5°. The drought indices were analyzed in order to identify significant trends during the entire period and sub-periods. Trends in annual precipitation and PET were also performed. Drought's duration, magnitude and time spanned between drought events were computed. SPI and SPEI significant trends show areas with opposite signals in the period 1901-2012, following precipitation patterns. Precipitation trends are significant and positive in the Northwestern region of the IP, and significant and negative in the Southern areas. SPEI identified dryer conditions and an increase in the area affected by droughts, which is in agreement with the increase in PET on the majority of the territory. The same spatial differences were identified in the drought duration, magnitude and

  2. Extreme precipitation events in the Iberian Peninsula and its association with Atmospheric Rivers

    Ramos, Alexandre M.; Liberato, Margarida L. R.; Trigo, Ricardo M.

    2015-04-01

    , Minho, Tagus and Duero) is noteworthy, while for the eastern and southern basins (Ebro, Guadiana and Guadalquivir) the impact of ARs is reduced. In addition, meteorological large scale influence associated with ARs was also analyzed. The anomalies between the extended winter (ONDJFM) long term mean and the composite for the persistent ARs time steps were computed for the IVT and SLP fields. Negative SLP anomalies are found centered in Ireland with slight positive anomalies of SLP located over northern Africa. It was found that the ARs hitting the IP are strongly correlated with the EA pattern, while the influence of other patterns such as the NAO or SCAND is weak. Main results presented are currently in print (Ramos et al., 2015) Ramos et al (2014), A ranking of high-resolution daily precipitation extreme events for the Iberian Peninsula. Atmospheric Science Letters, doi: 10.1002/asl2.507. Ramos et al. (2015), Daily precipitation extreme events in the Iberian Peninsula and its association with Atmospheric Rivers. Journal Hydrometeorology, in press. This work was partially supported by FEDER (Fundo Europeu de Desenvolvimento Regional) funds through the COMPETE (Programa Operacional Factores de Competitividade) and by national funds through FCT (Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia, Portugal) under project STORMEx FCOMP-01-0124-FEDER-019524 (PTDC/AAC-CLI/121339/2010). A. M. Ramos was also supported by a FCT postdoctoral grant (FCT/DFRH/SFRH/BPD/84328/2012).

  3. Potamogeton schweinfurthii in the Iberian Peninsula

    Petit, Albert

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We provide the first records for the Iberian Peninsula of Potamogeton schweinfurthii A. Benn., a species distributed mainly in Africa that was not discovered in Europe until 2005, where it is assumed to be indigenous but it has generally been confused with P. lucens. The Iberian specimens, which for the most part are from recent collections, have been identified based on morphological characteristics and molecular studies. We have detected 8 localities, 4 in the northeastern area of the Peninsula (Catalonia and Navarra and 4 from the West (south and north of Portugal and western Andalusia. Our studies show that it is a very rare species on a regional level. Although it is a mainly tropical and subtropical species, we have found that P. schweinfurthii (both natural populations and those cultivated has a high tolerance to climates with severe winters and frequent frosts. The large proportion of populations found in anthropogenic habitats, and the fact that most European records are from the past half-century, suggest that P. schweinfurthii may have experienced a recent expansion favoured by the construction of large number of artificial water bodies in the Mediterranean region. This raises the possibility that P. schweinfurthii in Europe is a species that forms temporary populations and has a naturally unstable area.Se aportan las primeras citas de Potamogeton schweinfurthii A. Benn. en la Península Ibérica, una especie de área básicamente africana que no fue descubierta en Europa hasta 2005, donde se supone que es autóctona y en general había sido confundida con P. lucens. Los ejemplares ibéricos han sido identificados por sus caracteres morfológicos y por estudios moleculares y, en su mayor parte, proceden de recolecciones recientes. Se ha detectado en 8 localidades, 4 del noreste peninsular (Cataluña y Navarra y 4 del oeste (sur y norte de Portugal y Andalucía occidental. Según la información actualmente disponible, se trataría de

  4. Saker Falcon on the Crimean Peninsula

    Igor V. Karyakin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article we made a revaluation of a number of the Saker (Falco cherrug on the Crimean Peninsula based on data obtained in an expedition conducted in May 9–26 of 2015. During this expedition Sakers were observed on 58 sites (31 times they were seen on pylons of power lines, 14 – on cliffs in the foothills of Crimean Mountains, 8 – on the coastal cliffs and 4 on the coastal precipices, and one adult male was seen in the forest shelter belt near Syvash lagoon. We revealed 49 breeding territories of Saker including 42 occupied nests with successful breeding. The estimation of the total number of breeding population on peninsula is 145–184 (mean 165 breeding pairs, including 125–159 (mean 142 pairs which breeding attempts were successful in 2015. The distance between the neighboring pairs is 1.95–15.21 km (mean 6.56±3.37 km, n=43. Pylons of power lines were used by 30 breeding pairs (61.22% out of 49, and 29 successful nests (69.05% out of 42 were built on pylons. Supposedly, 63.83% of all breeding pairs in Crimea are bred on pylons, and the percentage of successful nests out of the total number of nests in population is 71.89%. From the 34 nests that were built on pylons, 24 (70.59% were located on the concrete pylons and 10 (29.41% on the metal ones. On cliffs and precipices we found 24 nests in total. Eighteen (75% of them were built on a bare ground, while the others were found in the nests built by other bird species (most of them were made in the former nests of the Raven (Corvus corax, and one pair occupies a nest of the Long-legged Buzzard (Buteo rufinus located on cliff. The percentage of successful nests out of occupied ones was 85.71%. We found broods of 1–4 nestlings, which in average (n=23 makes 2.83±0.78 nestling per successful nest. The majority of broods (65.22% consisted of 3 nestlings. On 20 breeding territories (90.91% male birds were older then 2 years old, and two breeding territories (9.09% were occupied

  5. Elemental (C, H, N) composition of zooplankton from north Arabian Sea

    Matondkar, S.G.P.; Bhat, K.L.; Ansari, Z.A.; Parulekar, A.H.

    found to be much lower than the values presently used in routine conversion factors. Such factors are now essentially needed for accounting role of zooplankton in sediment trap collections in Arabian Sea region...

  6. Seafloor characterisation using echo peak amplitudes of multibeam hydrosweep system - A preliminary study at Arabian Sea

    Chakraborty, B.; Sudhakar, T.

    In this paper an interface to acquire 59-beams echo peak amplitudes of the Hydrosweep Multibeam system is established. The echo peak amplitude values collected at varying seabed provinces of Arabian sea are presented. The study reveals...

  7. Vertical distribution of mesozooplankton in the central and eastern Arabian Sea during the winter monsoons

    Padmavati, G.; Haridas, P.; Nair, K.K.C.; Gopalakrishnan, T.C.; Shiney, P.; Madhupratap, M.

    The vertical distribution of mesozooplankton in the central and eastern Arabian Sea was investigated during the winter monsoon in 1995. Samples were analysed from discrete depth zones defined according to oxygen and temperature profiles of the water...

  8. Palynological investigation of the sediment cores from the Arabian Sea 2: Dinoflagellate cysts and acritarchs

    Saxena, R.K.; Chandra, A.; Setty, M.G.A.P.

    The present paper incorporates the study of dinoflagellate cysts and acritarchs recovered from five sediment cores from the Arabian Sea This assemblage is represented by 15 genera and 22 species Of these, 14 species belonging to 11 genera...

  9. Penaeoid and sergestoid shrimps from the deep scattering layer (DSL) in the Arabian Sea

    Karuppasamy, P.K.; Menon, N.G.

    Results of a preliminary study on the occurrence and distribution of seventeen species of Penaeoid and Sergestoid shrimps from the deep scattering layer (DSL) of the Indian EEZ of Arabian Sea are presented here based on the IKMT samples collected...

  10. Monsoonal reversal of remote sensing biases in latent heat flux over eastern Arabian Sea

    Muraleedharan, P.M.; Pankajakshan, T.; Sathe, P.V.; Murty, V.S.N.; Santosh, K.R.

    The Arabian Sea is a unique basin where a number of atmospheric and oceanographic processes occur due to the contrasting climatic conditions, which it experiences. The drastic monsoonal variability occurring in the boundary layer adversely affects...

  11. Massive outbreaks of Noctiluca scintillans blooms in the Arabian Sea due to spread of hypoxia.

    Gomes, H.R.; Goes, J.I.; Matondkar, S.G.P.; Buskey, E.J.; Basu, S.; Parab, S.G.; Thoppil, P.G.

    In the last decade, the northern Arabian Sea has witnessed a radical shift in the composition of winter phytoplankton blooms, which previously comprised mainly of diatoms, the unicellular, siliceous photosynthetic organisms favoured by nutrient...

  12. Evaluation of antioxidant and cytotoxic properties of Cynobacteria, Limnothrix sp. and Leptolyngbya sp. from Arabian sea

    Anas, A.; Vinothkumar, S.; Gupta, S.; Jasmin, C.; Joseph, V.; Parameswaran, P.S.; Nair, S.

    The hexane fractions of the marine cyanobacteria: Leptolyngbya sp. and Limnothrix sp., collected from Arabian Sea were found to display promising antioxidant properties than their ethyl acetate fraction during radical scavenging ABTS/DPPH assays (IC...

  13. Seasonal variability in distribution and fluxes of methane in the Arabian Sea

    Patra, P.K.; Lal, S.; Venkataramani, S.; Gauns, M.; Sarma, V.V.S.S.

    Methane, a biogeochemically important gas in Earth's atmosphere was measured in the water column and air in the Arabian Sea in different seasons, viz., northeast monsoon, intermonsoon, and southwest monsoon, as part of the Joint Global Ocean Flux...

  14. Sulfur transfer in the distillate fractions of Arabian crude oils under gamma-irradiation

    Basfar, Ahmed A.; Soliman, Yasser S.; Alkhuraiji, Turki S.

    2017-05-01

    Desulfurization of light distillation fractions including gasoline, kerosene and diesel obtained from the four Arabian crude oils (heavy, medium, light and extra light) upon γ-rays irradiation to different doses was investigated. In addition, yields vol%, FTIR analysis, kinematic viscosity and density of all distillation fractions of irradiated crude oils were evaluated. Limited radiation-induced desulfurization of those fractions was observed up to an irradiation dose of 200 kGy. FTIR analysis of those fractions indicates the absence of oxidized sulfur compounds, represented by S=O of sulfone group, indicating that γ-irradiation of the Arabian crude oils at normal conditions does not induce an oxidative desulfurization in those distillation fractions. Radiation-induced sulfur transfer decreases by 28.56% and increases in total sulfur by 16.8% in Arabian extra light oil and Arabian medium crude oil respectively.

  15. Macrobenthic community structure response to coastal hypoxia off Southeastern Arabian sea

    Ingole, B.S.; Periasamy, R.; De, K.

    occurrence of coastal hypoxia condition (30 to 100 m depth) and normoxic bottom waters over the Southeastern Arabian Sea (SEAS). The macrofaunal communities patterns were analyzed by using various statistical methods (e.g. rank correlation, hierarchical...

  16. Denitrification as the dominant nitrogen loss process in the Arabian Sea

    Ward, B.B.; Devol, A.H.; Rich, J.J.; Chang, B.X.; Bulow, S.E.; Naik, H.; Pratihary, A.K.; Jayakumar, A.

    experiments in the Arabian Sea denitrification is responsible for 87-99% of the total N sub(2) production. The dominance of denitrification is reproducible using two independent isotope incubation methods. In contrast, anammox is dominant in the Eastern...

  17. The lowering of sea surface temperature in the east central Arabian sea associated with a cyclone

    Murty, V.S.N.; Rao, D.P.; Sastry, J.S.

    An analysis of thermal Structure in the East Central Arabian Sea associated with a moderate cyclone is presented. The heat storage and the heat budget components have been computed. Under the influence of the cyclone the Sea Surface Temperature (SST...

  18. A first report on a bloom of the marine prymnesiophycean, Phaeocystis globosa from the Arabian Sea

    Madhupratap, M.; Sawant, S.S.; Gauns, M.

    A thick bloom of the marine prymnesiophycean, Phaeocystis globosa was observed in the central Arabian Sea during the summer monsoon period (July-August, 1996). The cells were mostly in colonial form, embedded in gelatinous matrics. The cell diameter...

  19. Ecology and distribution of recent planktonic foraminifera in eastern part of Arabian Sea

    Rao, K.K.; Jayalakshmy, K.V.; Kutty, M.K.

    Thirty species of living planktonic foraminifera have been studied from 97 plankton tows collected from the eastern Arabian Sea with an accent on their ecological and distributional aspects. Species density is higher with less dominance in the deep...

  20. Monsoon induced cobalt enrichment in Porites (coral) from the Arabian Sea

    Naqvi, S.A.S.; Nath, B.N.

    Cobalt concentrations in growth bands of a reef building coral (Porites sp.) collected from Kalpeni Atoll of the Lakshadweep group of islands (Arabian Sea), rvealed that cobalt concentrations and Co/Ca ratios exhibit similar trend. Study indicates...

  1. Retrieved bacteria from Noctiluca miliaris (green) bloom of the northeastern Arabian Sea

    Basu, S.; Matondkar, S.G.P.; Furtado, I.

    In recent years, seasonal blooms of the dinoflagellate Noctiluca miliaris have appeared in the open-waters of the northern Arabian Sea (NAS). This study provides the first characterization of bacteria from a seasonal bloom of green Noctiluca of NAS...

  2. Spatial zonation of zooplankton in the northwestern Arabian Sea: A multivariate approach

    Jayalakshmy, K.V.

    Latitudinal variation in abundance, diversity, dominance pattern and zonation of the major groups of zooplankton was studied n the coastal waters of northwestern Arabian Sea, between 25°44' N and 10°44' N. Maxwell Boltzmann Statistic...

  3. Studies on the microzooplankton from the central and eastern Arabian Sea

    Gauns, M; Mohanraju, R.; Madhupratap, M

    Numerical abundance and composition of microzooplankton in the upper 200 m were studied from the central and eastern Arabian Sea during three seasons. Protozoans, comprising of ciliates (loricates and aloricates), flagellates and sarcodines were...

  4. Characteristics of long-period swells measured in the near shore regions of eastern Arabian Sea

    Johnson, G.; SanilKumar, V.; Amrutha, M.M.; Singh, J.

    Measured wave data covering two years simultaneously at 3 locations along the eastern Arabian Sea reveals the presence of long-period (peak wave period > 18 s) low-amplitude waves (significant wave height < 1 m) and the characteristics...

  5. Estimation of evaporation rates over the Arabian Sea from Satellite data

    Rao, M.V.; RameshBabu, V.; Rao, L.V.G.; Sastry, J.S.

    Utilizing both the SAMIR brightness temperatures of Bhaskara 2 and GOSSTCOMP charts of NOAA satellite series, the evaporation rates over the Arabian Sea for June 1982 are estimated through the bulk aerodynamic method. The spatial distribution...

  6. Dissolved aluminium in the surface microlayer of the eastern Arabian Sea

    Narvekar, P.V.; Singbal, S.Y.S.

    Measurements of dissolved aluminium (Al) in surface microlayer (SML) samples from the eastern Arabian Sea during the southwest (summer) and northwast (winter) monsoon periods have revealed much higher concentrations (23-657 nmol kg sup(-1)) than...

  7. Seasonal variations in inorganic carbon components in the central and eastern Arabian Sea

    Sarma, V.V.S.S; DileepKumar, M.; George, M.D.; Rajendran, A

    Extensive observations have been made on the carbon dioxide system in the Arabian Sea during three different seasons as part of the Indian Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS) Programme. Concentrations of total carbon dioxide and partial pressure...

  8. Fluctuations in productivity and denitrification in the southeastern Arabian Sea during the Late Quaternary

    Kessarkar, P; Rao, V.P; Naqvi, S.W.A.; Chivas, A.R.; Saino, T.

    Sedimentological and stable isotopic characteristics of sediments have been studied in a core from the southeastern Arabian Sea containing records of the past 70 ka. Palaeoproductivity proxies such as organic carbon (C sub(org)), total nitrogen (TN...

  9. Marine sediments and palaeoclimatic variations since the Late Pleistocene: An overview for the Arabian Sea

    Nigam, R.; Hashimi, N.H.

    A large number of surfacial and sub-surface sediments from the Arabian Sea have been studied to enhance our understanding of palaeoclimatic variations over the Indian region. Bsically the surficial sediments have been studied for their living...

  10. Geographical extent of denitrification in the Arabian Sea in relation to some physical processes

    Naqvi, S.W.A.

    . This provides a mechanism for the injection of appreciable quantities of labile dissolved organic carbon (DOC) into the oxygen-minimum layer and, in conjunction with the high horizontal diffusivity in the Arabian Sea, could account for the observed lack...

  11. Seasonal spreading of the Persian Gulf water mass in the Arabian Sea

    Prasad, T.G.; Ikeda, M.; PrasannaKumar, S.

    The characteristics of the subsurface salinity maximum associated with the Persian Gulf Water mass (PGW) are used to quantify the spreading and mixing of PGW in the thermocline of the Arabian Sea based on a bimonthly climatology of temperature...

  12. On the renewal of the denitrifying layer in the Arabian Sea

    Somasundar, K.; Naqvi, S.W.A.

    A one-dimensional (vertical) advection-diffusion model has been applied to the deep layer characterized by a linear potential temperature(theta)-salinity relationship in the Arabian Sea to estimate the velocity of ascending motion. The results...

  13. Some aspects of the oxygen-deficient conditions and denitrification in the Arabian Sea

    Naqvi, S.W.A.

    Utilizing a fairly large amount of recently collected data, some outstanding questions concerning the Arabian Sea denitrification problem are addressed. The true level of dissolved oxygen, determined colorimetrically, are about an order of magnitude...

  14. Distribution of calanoid copepods in the Arabian sea and Bay of Bengal

    Stephen, R.

    The distribution of calanoid copepods from the northern Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal is discussed in relation to thermocline. The inshore offshore zonation of a neritic, shelf an oceanic communities was traced based on the species composition...

  15. Arabian Sea Biogeochemistry from 27 August 1994 to 19 December 1994 (NODC Accession 0000064)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Arabesque was a multidisciplinary oceanographic research project focused on the Arabian Sea and Northwest Indian Ocean during the monsoon and intermonsoon season in...

  16. Seismic Tomography of the Arabian-Eurasian Collision Zone and Surrounding Areas

    Toksoz, M. N; Van der Hilst, Robert D; Sun, Youshun; Gulen, Levent; Kalafat, Dogan; Kuleli, Huseyin S; Li, Chang; Zhang, Haijiang

    2008-01-01

    ... and surrounding areas, including Iran, Arabia, Eastern Turkey, and the Caucasus. The Arabian-Eurasian plate boundary is a complex tectonic zone shaped by continent-continent collision processes...

  17. Seasonal variations in carbon biomass of bacteria, thraustochytrids and microzooplankton in the northern Arabian Sea

    Ramaiah, N.; Raghukumar, S.; Gauns, M.; Madhupratap, M.

    sup(-1) d sup(-1) below 100 m. In the NAS, heterotrophic bacteria appear to playa significant role in sustaining microzooplankton and the so-called 'Arabian Sea mesozooplankton stable-biomass paradox' through microbial loop. Sizable quantities of Hbac...

  18. Population structure of Cicada barbara Stål (Hemiptera, Cicadoidea) from the Iberian Peninsula and Morocco based on mitochondrial DNA analysis.

    Pinto-Juma, G A; Quartau, J A; Bruford, M W

    2008-02-01

    We assess the genetic history and population structure of Cicada barbara in Morocco and the Iberian Peninsula, based on analysis of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. The divergence between Morocco and the Iberian Peninsula populations was strongly corroborated by the molecular data, suggesting genetically isolated populations with a low level of gene flow. The Ceuta population from Spanish North Africa was more similar to the Iberian populations than the surrounding Moroccan populations, suggesting that the Strait of Gibraltar has not been acting as a strict barrier to dispersal while the Rif Mountains have. The Iberian Peninsula specimens showed a signature of demographic expansion before that which occurred in Morocco, but some of the assumptions related to the demographic parameters should be considered with caution due to the small genetic variation found. The high haplotype diversity found in Morocco implies higher demographic stability than in the Iberian Peninsula populations. These results do not, however, suggest a Moroccan origin for Iberian cicadas; but the most northwest region in Africa, such as Ceuta, might have acted as a southern refuge for Iberian cicadas during the most severe climatic conditions, from where they could expand north when climate improved. The separation of two subspecies within C. barbara (C. barbara lusitanica and C. barbara barbara) finds support with these results.

  19. Morphologic Features of Kapıdağ Peninsula and its Coasts (NW-Turkey using by Remote Sensing and DTM

    Cem Gazioğlu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Although it is an inland sea, the Sea of Marmara and its surroundings have rather complex morphology due to the active tectonics of the North Anatolian Fault (NAF zone in this region. The Kapıdağ Peninsula which is located at its southern coasts also represents a complex morphology. Macro morphologic units of Kapıdağ Peninsula are N-S trending deep valley systems, mountain areas and Belkıs isthmus. The most coastal area of peninsula has terraces, coastal plains and alluvial valley floors. These unique morphologic features can explain some parameters of active tectonics of the Sea of Marmara region. In order to investigate these geomorphologic features of the Kapıdağ peninsula in detail, some land observations, satellite data, Digital Terrain Models (DTMs which have been evaluated from topographic maps with a vertical precision of ±3m and cell size of 8m, Geographic Information Systems (GIS, traditional methods and some integrated techniques such as image processing were used.

  20. QUATERNARY HISTORY OF CEDRUS IN SOUTHERN EUROPE

    D. Magri

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A database of 68 pollen records of Pleistocene age was compiled from the western Mediterranean regions, with the aim of reconstructing the history of Cedrus in south Europe during the last 2 Ma. Marine pollen records from the Alboran Sea suggest that Cedrus was present in Morocco throughout the Quaternary, while it was absent from the Iberian peninsula, except a possible local presence in a coastal site of southern Spain. In France, Cedrus pollen was recorded in Pliocene deposits, but its Quaternary finds are always very sparse and suggest a long distance origin of cedar pollen. Cedrus was widespread in all the Italian sites during the Early Pleistocene, but it is sporadically found in the Middle Pleistocene deposits. Although times and modes of the disappearance of Cedrus from Italy are not known, it appears that the marked climate changes occurred between 0.9 and 0.7 Ma determined its local extinction. A similar trend is found in Greece, where Cedrus may have persisted a little longer than in the Italian Peninsula. On the whole, the history of Cedrus in southern Europe indicates that it is a taxon vulnerable to global climate changes and warns of a future risk of extinction also in the rest of the Mediterranean Basin.

  1. Phylogeography and demographic history of Lacerta lepida in the Iberian Peninsula: multiple refugia, range expansions and secondary contact zones

    Hewitt Godfrey M

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Iberian Peninsula is recognized as an important refugial area for species survival and diversification during the climatic cycles of the Quaternary. Recent phylogeographic studies have revealed Iberia as a complex of multiple refugia. However, most of these studies have focused either on species with narrow distributions within the region or species groups that, although widely distributed, generally have a genetic structure that relates to pre-Quaternary cladogenetic events. In this study we undertake a detailed phylogeographic analysis of the lizard species, Lacerta lepida, whose distribution encompasses the entire Iberian Peninsula. We attempt to identify refugial areas, recolonization routes, zones of secondary contact and date demographic events within this species. Results Results support the existence of 6 evolutionary lineages (phylogroups with a strong association between genetic variation and geography, suggesting a history of allopatric divergence in different refugia. Diversification within phylogroups is concordant with the onset of the Pleistocene climatic oscillations. The southern regions of several phylogroups show a high incidence of ancestral alleles in contrast with high incidence of recently derived alleles in northern regions. All phylogroups show signs of recent demographic and spatial expansions. We have further identified several zones of secondary contact, with divergent mitochondrial haplotypes occurring in narrow zones of sympatry. Conclusions The concordant patterns of spatial and demographic expansions detected within phylogroups, together with the high incidence of ancestral haplotypes in southern regions of several phylogroups, suggests a pattern of contraction of populations into southern refugia during adverse climatic conditions from which subsequent northern expansions occurred. This study supports the emergent pattern of multiple refugia within Iberia but adds to it by identifying a

  2. Phylogeography and demographic history of Lacerta lepida in the Iberian Peninsula: multiple refugia, range expansions and secondary contact zones.

    Miraldo, Andreia; Hewitt, Godfrey M; Paulo, Octavio S; Emerson, Brent C

    2011-06-17

    The Iberian Peninsula is recognized as an important refugial area for species survival and diversification during the climatic cycles of the Quaternary. Recent phylogeographic studies have revealed Iberia as a complex of multiple refugia. However, most of these studies have focused either on species with narrow distributions within the region or species groups that, although widely distributed, generally have a genetic structure that relates to pre-Quaternary cladogenetic events. In this study we undertake a detailed phylogeographic analysis of the lizard species, Lacerta lepida, whose distribution encompasses the entire Iberian Peninsula. We attempt to identify refugial areas, recolonization routes, zones of secondary contact and date demographic events within this species. Results support the existence of 6 evolutionary lineages (phylogroups) with a strong association between genetic variation and geography, suggesting a history of allopatric divergence in different refugia. Diversification within phylogroups is concordant with the onset of the Pleistocene climatic oscillations. The southern regions of several phylogroups show a high incidence of ancestral alleles in contrast with high incidence of recently derived alleles in northern regions. All phylogroups show signs of recent demographic and spatial expansions. We have further identified several zones of secondary contact, with divergent mitochondrial haplotypes occurring in narrow zones of sympatry. The concordant patterns of spatial and demographic expansions detected within phylogroups, together with the high incidence of ancestral haplotypes in southern regions of several phylogroups, suggests a pattern of contraction of populations into southern refugia during adverse climatic conditions from which subsequent northern expansions occurred. This study supports the emergent pattern of multiple refugia within Iberia but adds to it by identifying a pattern of refugia coincident with the southern distribution

  3. Evaluation of wet cupping therapy on the arterial and venous blood parameters in healthy Arabian horses

    Turke Shawaf; Wael El-Deeb; Jamal Hussen; Mahmoud Hendi; Shahab Al-Bulushi

    2018-01-01

    Aim: Recently, the complementary therapies such as cupping and acupuncture are being used in veterinary medicine. This research was carried out to determine the effects of wet cupping therapy (Hijama) on the hematological and the biochemical parameters in the healthy Arabian horses for the first time. Materials and Methods: In this study, seven clinically healthy Arabian horses were randomly selected. Four points on the animal body were selected to perform the cupping therapy. Two points ...

  4. Environmental studies of the Arabian Sea using remote sensing, GIS and GPS techniques

    Saxena, A.

    Fig 4. Principle of Radar altimetry 17 Fig 5. Block diagram of ArcGIS platform 20 CHAPTER IV RESULT AND DISCUSSION CHAPTER II TOOL FOR STUDY Fig 6. Seasonal Variation of Sea Surface Temperature 24 Fig 7. Seasonal... from any major rivers, the excessive evaporation over precipitation (E-P) as well as proximity to the Red Sea and Persian Gulf makes the surface salinity of Arabian Sea high, in excess of 36psu (practical salinity unit). Motivation Arabian Sea...

  5. Reproductive Performance of Arabian and Thoroughbred Mares under Subtropical Conditions of Pakistan.

    Warriach, H M; Memon, M A; Ahmad, N; Norman, S T; Ghafar, A; Arif, M

    2014-07-01

    Breeding records of 57 Arabian and 66 Thoroughbred mares were analysed to assess their reproductive performance under the subtropical conditions of Pakistan. The Arabian mares showed significantly higher conception rates (p500±32 days) was significantly (psummer (June to August) months. Age of mares affected the conception rates, as mares at ages 3 to 7 and 8 to 12 years of ages had significantly higher conception rates (psummer months.

  6. 25-Hydoxyvitamin D. levels among healthy Saudi Arabian women

    Sadat-Ali, M.; Al-Elq, Abdulmohsen H.; Al-Turki, HaifaA.; Al-Mulhim, Fathma A.; Al-Ali, Amein K.

    2008-01-01

    Objective was to assess the serum level of 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD)among healthy Saudi Arabian women living in the eastern province. Across-sectional randomized study was conducted between February 1st 2008 andMay 31st at the King Fahd University Hospital, Al-Khobar, Kingdom of SaudiArabia in 200 Saudi women between 25-35 years (group 1) and women of >=50years (group 2). Clinical examination, laboratory tests, a complete bloodpicture, serum calcium, phosphorous, alkaline phosphatase, parathromone, andthe serum levels of 25 OHD levels were carried out. Data on life style,dietary and demographic questionnaires were collected. Vitamin D was definedas deficient with serum level =50 years. This study indicates that hypovitaminosis D is commonin young and postmenopausal women. Efforts are required augment andencouraged women for adequate exposure to sunlight and increased intake offortified vitamin D products to maintain skeletal health. (author)

  7. The Current Issues on Osteoporosis among Male Saudi Arabians

    Mir Sadat-Ali

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Osteoporosis was reported to be common among Saudi Arabian population. In the last decade there have been no reports related to the male osteoporosis in Saudi Arabian citizens. The objective of this study was to find the hospital-based prevalence of male osteoporosis among Saudi Arabians. Methodology: This is the retrospective study between January 2014 and December 2016 in which all patients who were referred for DEXA (Dual Energy X ray Absorptiometry scan to the radiology department of the King Fahd Hospital of the University, AlKhobar. Patient’s demographic data was collected from the medical records. Patients who were younger than 50 years and those who had a fragility fracture were excluded from the analysis. From the IPAC the readings of the DEXA were collected. Associated diseases of the patients were also extracted from the QuadruMed Data Base. The data was entered in the database and analyzed using SPSS Inc. version 19 and p value of <0.05 was considered significant. Results: Four hundred and fifty five patients had a DEXA scan during the study period. Three hundred and seventy one (81.5% were ≥50 years. The average was 65.33±9.85 years (Range 50-97. On the basis of Spinal T score, 222 (59.8% were osteoporotic with the spinal T score of <-3.58±0.88, while with hip T score 120 (32.3% were osteoporotic with T score of <-3.24±0.59. Thirty-six (9.7% had a normal DEXA of spine and 74(19.9% of patients had normal DEXA when Hip was taken into consideration. Patients could be divided into four groups based on their diseases; they were on treatment for Cardiac disease 106 (28.5%, Diabetes mellitus 95 (25.7%, osteoarthritis 141 (38% and Respiratory Disease 29 (7.8%. Based on the Spinal T score osteoporosis was observed in 61/106 (57.5% patients with cardiac disease, 62/95 (65.3% Diabetics, in osteoarthritis 83/141 (58.9% and 16/29 (55.1% in patients with respiratory system diseases. Majority of the patients had

  8. Indoor radon measurements in dwellings of four Saudi Arabian cities

    Al-Jarallah, M.I. E-mail: mibrahim@kfupm.edu.sa; Fazal-ur-Rehman; Abu-Jarad, F.; Al-Shukri, A

    2003-06-01

    An indoor radon survey of a total of 269 dwellings, with one dosimeter per house, distributed in four Saudi Arabian cities was carried out. The objective of this survey was to carry out indoor radon measurements of two cities in the Eastern Province, Khafji and Hafr Al-Batin and to compare this with two cities in the Western Province, Al-Madina and Taif. The survey provides additional information about indoor radon concentrations in Saudi Arabia. The results of the survey in these cities showed that the overall minimum, maximum and average radon concentration were 7,137 and 30 Bq m{sup -3}, respectively. The lowest average radon concentration (20 Bq m{sup -3}) was found in Hafr Al-Batin, while the highest average concentration was found in Khafji (40 Bq m{sup -3})

  9. Perception of Nursing Care: View of Saudi Arabian Female Nurses

    Jørgensen, Jette

    2008-01-01

    ‘Values are principles and standards that have meaning and worth to an individual, family, group, or community’ (Purnell & Paulanka 1998: 3). Values are central to the care provided by nurses. The provision of nursing care within the context of value clarification, has been explored from various...... perspectives, however, as values vary within cultures, there is a limited range of studies reflecting on Saudi Arabian nurses’ perspectives of nursing care. Through a Heideggerian phenomenological research design, six nurses were enrolled through purposive sampling. Semi-structured, in-depth interviews, which...... were audio tape-recorded, were chosen as the methods of data collection. A seven stage framework approach was applied to analyse and organise the research findings in three conceptual themes: values in context of Islam, the nurse-patient relationship, and identity’s influence on being in the world...

  10. Arabian Red Sea coastal soils as potential mineral dust sources

    P. Jish Prakash

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Both Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS and Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI satellite observations suggest that the narrow heterogeneous Red Sea coastal region is a frequent source of airborne dust that, because of its proximity, directly affects the Red Sea and coastal urban centers. The potential of soils to be suspended as airborne mineral dust depends largely on soil texture, moisture content and particle size distributions. Airborne dust inevitably carries the mineralogical and chemical signature of a parent soil. The existing soil databases are too coarse to resolve the small but important coastal region. The purpose of this study is to better characterize the mineralogical, chemical and physical properties of soils from the Arabian Red Sea coastal plain, which in turn will help to improve assessment of dust effects on the Red Sea, land environmental systems and urban centers. Thirteen surface soils from the hot-spot areas of windblown mineral dust along the Red Sea coastal plain were sampled for analysis. Analytical methods included optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES, ion chromatography (IC, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and laser particle size analysis (LPSA. We found that the Red Sea coastal soils contain major components of quartz and feldspar, as well as lesser but variable amounts of amphibole, pyroxene, carbonate, clays and micas, with traces of gypsum, halite, chlorite, epidote and oxides. The range of minerals in the soil samples was ascribed to the variety of igneous and metamorphic provenance rocks of the Arabian Shield forming the escarpment to the east of the Red Sea coastal plain. The analysis revealed that the samples contain compounds of nitrogen, phosphorus and iron that are essential nutrients to marine life. The analytical results from this study will provide a valuable input into dust emission models

  11. Oil exploration in Central Arabian Arch using Landsat images

    Sabins, F.F. (Remote Sensing Engerprises, Inc., Fullerton, CA (United States))

    1996-01-01

    Beginning in 1988, the Chevron Remote Sensing Research Group and Aramco digitally processed and interpreted seven Landsat thematic mapper images of the Central Arabian Arch for two purposes: 1. Map geology at 1:250,000 scale; 2. Identify anomalies that may be surface expression of structural traps. The well-exposed outcrops are predominantly marine strata of Mesozoic age with regional dips to east and southeast at less than 2[degrees]. This structural setting lacks the patterns of arcuate and offset beds that characterize folds and faults in more strongly deformed terrains. Therefore we developed a model to predict the image expression of structures in this homoclinal terrain. We based the model on oil fields in the Arabian Gulf region that are drape anticlines overlying high-angle faults that offset basement rocks and Palecizoic strata. The anticlines grade upward into structural terraces caused by flattening of the regional dip. Erosion of the terraces produces subtle topographic and stratigraphic anomalies that are recognizable on the images. The model was used to interpret a number of image anomalies. We field-checked the anomalies and eliminated a few. Aramco then acquired seismic data for several of the more promising anomalies that confirmed the presence of subsurface structure. Drilling resulted in discovery of Raghib and Dilam fields that produce from the Unayzah Sandstone (Permian). Initial production in the discovery and development wells ranges from 3000 to 4300 BOPD with gravity of 44 to 46[degrees] API. The source of this high-quality oil is the Qusaiba Shale (Silurian). The new discoveries are approximately 100 km from the nearest fields. Less than two years elapsed from beginning of digital image processing to completion of the discovery wells.

  12. Oil exploration in Central Arabian Arch using Landsat images

    Sabins, F.F. [Remote Sensing Engerprises, Inc., Fullerton, CA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Beginning in 1988, the Chevron Remote Sensing Research Group and Aramco digitally processed and interpreted seven Landsat thematic mapper images of the Central Arabian Arch for two purposes: 1. Map geology at 1:250,000 scale; 2. Identify anomalies that may be surface expression of structural traps. The well-exposed outcrops are predominantly marine strata of Mesozoic age with regional dips to east and southeast at less than 2{degrees}. This structural setting lacks the patterns of arcuate and offset beds that characterize folds and faults in more strongly deformed terrains. Therefore we developed a model to predict the image expression of structures in this homoclinal terrain. We based the model on oil fields in the Arabian Gulf region that are drape anticlines overlying high-angle faults that offset basement rocks and Palecizoic strata. The anticlines grade upward into structural terraces caused by flattening of the regional dip. Erosion of the terraces produces subtle topographic and stratigraphic anomalies that are recognizable on the images. The model was used to interpret a number of image anomalies. We field-checked the anomalies and eliminated a few. Aramco then acquired seismic data for several of the more promising anomalies that confirmed the presence of subsurface structure. Drilling resulted in discovery of Raghib and Dilam fields that produce from the Unayzah Sandstone (Permian). Initial production in the discovery and development wells ranges from 3000 to 4300 BOPD with gravity of 44 to 46{degrees} API. The source of this high-quality oil is the Qusaiba Shale (Silurian). The new discoveries are approximately 100 km from the nearest fields. Less than two years elapsed from beginning of digital image processing to completion of the discovery wells.

  13. Attitudes of Saudi Arabian Undergraduate Medical Students towards Health Research

    Sara M. Al-Hilali

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate attitudes, perceptions and perceived barriers towards health research among Saudi Arabian undergraduate medical students. Methods: This cross-sectional study took place between August and October 2014 and included 520 students from five medical schools across Saudi Arabia. An anonymous online survey with 21 close-ended questions was designed to assess students’ attitudes towards research, contribution to research-related activities, awareness of the importance of research, perception of available resources/opportunities for research, appreciation of medical students’ research contributions and perceived barriers to research. Responses were scored on a 5-point Likert scale. Results: A total of 401 students participated in the study (response rate: 77.1%. Of these, 278 (69.3% were female. A positive attitude towards research was reported by 43.9% of the students. No statistically significant differences were observed between genders with regards to attitudes towards and available resources for research (P = 0.500 and 0.200, respectively. Clinical students had a significantly more positive attitude towards research compared to preclinical students (P = 0.007. Only 26.4% of the respondents believed that they had adequate resources/opportunities for research. According to the students, perceived barriers to undertaking research included time constraints (n = 200; 49.9%, lack of research mentors (n = 95; 23.7%, lack of formal research methodology training (n = 170; 42.4% and difficulties in conducting literature searches (n = 145; 36.2%. Conclusion: Less than half of the surveyed Saudi Arabian medical students had a positive attitude towards health research. Medical education policies should aim to counteract the barriers identified in this study.

  14. Arabian Red Sea coastal soils as potential mineral dust sources

    Prakash, P. Jish

    2016-09-26

    Both Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI) satellite observations suggest that the narrow heterogeneous Red Sea coastal region is a frequent source of airborne dust that, because of its proximity, directly affects the Red Sea and coastal urban centers. The potential of soils to be suspended as airborne mineral dust depends largely on soil texture, moisture content and particle size distributions. Airborne dust inevitably carries the mineralogical and chemical signature of a parent soil. The existing soil databases are too coarse to resolve the small but important coastal region. The purpose of this study is to better characterize the mineralogical, chemical and physical properties of soils from the Arabian Red Sea coastal plain, which in turn will help to improve assessment of dust effects on the Red Sea, land environmental systems and urban centers. Thirteen surface soils from the hot-spot areas of windblown mineral dust along the Red Sea coastal plain were sampled for analysis. Analytical methods included optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), ion chromatography (IC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and laser particle size analysis (LPSA). We found that the Red Sea coastal soils contain major components of quartz and feldspar, as well as lesser but variable amounts of amphibole, pyroxene, carbonate, clays and micas, with traces of gypsum, halite, chlorite, epidote and oxides. The range of minerals in the soil samples was ascribed to the variety of igneous and metamorphic provenance rocks of the Arabian Shield forming the escarpment to the east of the Red Sea coastal plain. The analysis revealed that the samples contain compounds of nitrogen, phosphorus and iron that are essential nutrients to marine life. The analytical results from this study will provide a valuable input into dust emission models used in climate

  15. Large-scale control of the Arabian Sea monsoon inversion in August

    Wu, Chi-Hua; Wang, S.-Y. Simon; Hsu, Huang-Hsiung

    2017-12-01

    The summer monsoon inversion in the Arabian Sea is characterized by a large amount of low clouds and August as the peak season. Atmospheric stratification associated with the monsoon inversion has been considered a local system influenced by the advancement of the India-Pakistan monsoon. Empirical and numerical evidence from this study suggests that the Arabian Sea monsoon inversion is linked to a broader-scale monsoon evolution across the African Sahel, South Asia, and East Asia-Western North Pacific (WNP), rather than being a mere byproduct of the India-Pakistan monsoon progression. In August, the upper-tropospheric anticyclone in South Asia extends sideways corresponding with the enhanced precipitation in the subtropical WNP, equatorial Indian Ocean, and African Sahel while the middle part of this anticyclone weakens over the Arabian Sea. The increased heating in the adjacent monsoon systems creates a suppression effect on the Arabian Sea, suggesting an apparent competition among the Africa-Asia-WNP monsoon subsystems. The peak Sahel rainfall in August, together with enhanced heating in the equatorial Indian Ocean, produces a critical effect on strengthening the Arabian Sea thermal inversion. By contrast, the WNP monsoon onset which signifies the eastward expansion of the subtropical Asian monsoon heating might play a secondary or opposite role in the Arabian Sea monsoon inversion.

  16. Orbital-scale denitrification changes in the Eastern Arabian Sea during the last 800 kyrs.

    Kim, Ji-Eun; Khim, Boo-Keun; Ikehara, Minoru; Lee, Jongmin

    2018-05-04

    Denitrification in the Arabian Sea is closely related to the monsoon-induced upwelling and subsequent phytoplankton production in the surface water. The δ 15 N values of bulk sediments collected at Site U1456 of the International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 355 reveal the orbital-scale denitrification history in response to the Indian Monsoon. Age reconstruction based on the correlation of planktonic foraminifera (Globigerinoides ruber) δ 18 O values with the LR04 stack together with the shipboard biostratigraphic and paleomagnetic data assigns the study interval to be 1.2 Ma. Comparison of δ 15 N values during the last 800 kyrs between Site U1456 (Eastern Arabian Sea) and Site 722B (Western Arabian Sea) showed that δ 15 N values were high during interglacial periods, indicating intensified denitrification, while the opposite was observed during glacial periods. Taking 6‰ as the empirical threshold of denitrification, the Eastern Arabian Sea has experienced a persistent oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) to maintain strong denitrification whereas the Western Arabian Sea has undergone OMZ breakdown during some glacial periods. The results of this study also suggests that five principal oceanographic conditions were changed in response to the Indian Monsoon following the interglacial and glacial cycles, which controls the degree of denitrification in the Arabian Sea.

  17. Groundwater recharge studies using isotope-chemical techniques in wadi gharandal, sinai peninsula(E G))

    Awad, M.A.A.; Salem, W.M.; Ezzeldin

    1999-01-01

    Wadi Gharandal lies on southwestern part of sinai peninsula with its outlets into the Gulf of suez. Eight groundwater samples were collected from quaternary aquifer in wadi gharandal to identify the sources of replenishment and evaluation of its water quality. The variation in chemical composition of water samples is due to water-rock interaction and the effect of sea spray. The distribution of chemical species in the examined groundwater samples is controlled by geography and climate conditions prevailing in the area of study. The salinity increase towards the gulf of suez. The isotopic data indicate that precipitation and floods are considered to be the main sources of recharge in this area. The investigated groundwater samples are found to be suitable for irrigation purposes based on sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) and unsuitable for domestic usages due to high salinity and hardness values

  18. Growth and Maturation of Plectropomus spp. in the Saudi Arabian Red Sea

    DesRosiers, Noah

    2011-05-01

    Two species of plectropomid grouper (Plectropomus areolatus and P. pessuliferus) are found in the Red Sea. In Saudi Arabia these are the most valuable fishes by weight, averaging wholesale prices around US $15 per kilogram (personal observation). Over the past two decades, the number of fishing vessels in the Saudi Arabian Red Sea has tripled. Despite this increase in fishing effort Saudi Arabia has not implemented any marine resource management for Red Sea fisheries. Little biological data are currently available to inform managers. The research presented here addresses knowledge gaps on the growth pattern, longevity and sexual ontogeny of Plectropomus spp. in the Red Sea. Collections of each species were established by purchasing landed individuals from fishermen and fish markets distributed evenly between three latitudinal regions around the country. The total length of each fish was measured to the nearest millimeter. Age was estimated by enumerating annual bands visualized in transverse sections of sagittal otoliths. Sexual stage was determined via histological examination of gonadal tissue. Plots of total length versus age were fitted with reparameterized von Bertalanffy growth functions constrained to a size-at-settlement estimate of 20 mm. P. pessuliferus achieved a larger size (maximum 960 mm) and an older age (maximum 19 years) than P. areolatus (maximum size 570 mm, maximum age 9 years). While no regional patterns were found for P. pesuliferus, likelihood ratio tests revealed regional differences in growth pattern for P. areolatus, finding an increasing mean age, increasing mean length, and decreasing growth rate with decreasing latitude. In addition, males of P. areolatus were more abundant in the Southern region. These findings contradict existing theories about the effects of latitudinal temperature gradients on life history. It is hypothesized that the broader continental shelf in the Southern region may be providing a haven for these species in the

  19. Salinity-driven decadal changes in phytoplankton community in the NW Arabian Gulf of Kuwait.

    Al-Said, Turki; Al-Ghunaim, Aws; Subba Rao, D V; Al-Yamani, Faiza; Al-Rifaie, Kholood; Al-Baz, Ali

    2017-06-01

    Evaluation of hydrological data obtained between 2000 and 2013 from a time series station in Kuwait Bay (station K6) and an offshore southern location (station 18) off Kuwait showed drastic increase in salinity by 6 units. We tested the hypothesis that increased salinity impacted phytoplankton community characteristics in these semiarid waters. The Arabian Gulf receives seasonal freshwater discharge in the north via Shatt Al-Arab estuary with a peak during March-July. A north to south gradient in the proportion of the freshwater exists between station A in the vicinity of Shatt Al-Arab estuary and station 18 in the southern offshore area. At station A, the proportion of freshwater was the highest (25.6-42.5%) in 1997 but decreased to 0.8-4.6% by 2012-2013. The prevailing hyperhaline conditions off Kuwait are attributed to decrease in the river flow. Phytoplankton data showed a decrease in the number of constituent taxa in the last one decade from 353 to 159 in the Kuwait Bay and from 164 to 156 in the offshore area. A shift in their biomass was caused by a decrease in diatom species from 243 to 92 in the coastal waters and from 108 to 83 in the offshore areas with a concomitant increase of smaller algae. Mutivariate agglomerative hierarchical cluster analysis, non-metric multi-dimensional scaling, and one-way analysis of similarity analyses on phytoplankton data at different taxonomic levels confirmed significant changes in their community organization on a decadal scale. These evidences support our hypothesis that the salinity-related environmental changes have resulted in a coincidental decrease in species diversity and significant changes in phytoplankton community between the years 2000-2002 and 2012-2013, off Kuwait. This in turn would affect the pelagic trophodynamics as evident from a drastic decrease in the catch landings of Tenulosa ilisha (Suboor), Carangoides sp. (Hamam), Otolithes ruber (Nowaiby), Parastromateus niger (Halwaya), and Epinephelus

  20. Possibilities for wind energy on the Kola peninsula

    Wolff, J; Rathmann, O; Lundsager, P [and others

    1999-03-01

    This paper presents an extensive feasibility study regarding the introduction of wind energy in the energy supply of the Kola peninsula in north-western Russia that was carried out during 1996-97. The study covers as well grid connected wind turbines as autonomous systems and a wind atlas was prepared. Special emphasis is put on non-technical activities and objectives like financing models, international funding and a sound politic support. The wind resources on the Kola peninsula are excellent and there are still no reasons to why wind energy installations couldn`t be carried out successfully. Recommendations for starting this development are presented. (au)

  1. Genetic signatures of a Mediterranean influence in Iberian Peninsula sheep husbandry.

    Pereira, Filipe; Davis, Simon J M; Pereira, Luísa; McEvoy, Brian; Bradley, Daniel G; Amorim, António

    2006-07-01

    Highly adaptable and versatile populations of domestic sheep, the result of millennia of intense husbandry, are found in almost every corner of the world. Here we describe a genetic survey of sheep from the western fringe of its European distribution. We studied the mitochondrial DNA control region sequences from 161 individuals belonging to 7 Portuguese sheep breeds. Our study revealed a high level of genetic diversity, with an average breed haplotype diversity of 0.983, substantially above that observed in central European breeds, as well as the presence of maternal lineages until now only found in the Middle East and Asia. A broad north-south pattern describes the most important trend in the Portuguese sheep population with a southern population clearly distinct from most other breeds. A recurrent influx of new genetic diversity, probably via the Mediterranean Sea, may explain these patterns and appears to corroborate the importance of this maritime route in the history of both mankind and livestock. Zooarchaeological studies of sheep bones from southern Portugal indicate a marked size increase during the Moslem period that may reflect an improvement of this animal--perhaps part of the well known "Arab agricultural revolution" in Andalusia. This could have been a time when the gene pool of Iberian sheep was substantially enriched and may help to explain the history of modern sheep breeds in this peninsula.

  2. Holocene glacier fluctuations inferred from lacustrine sediment, Emerald Lake, Kenai Peninsula, Alaska

    LaBrecque, Taylor S.; Kaufman, Darrell S.

    2016-01-01

    Physical and biological characteristics of lacustrine sediment from Emerald Lake were used to reconstruct the Holocene glacier history of Grewingk Glacier, southern Alaska. Emerald Lake is an ice-marginal threshold lake, receiving glaciofluvial sediment when Grewingk Glacier overtops the topographic divide that separates it from the lake. Sub-bottom acoustical profiles were used to locate core sites to maximize both the length and resolution of the sedimentary sequence recovered in the 4-m-long cores. The age model for the composite sequence is based on 13 14C ages and a 210Pb profile. A sharp transition from the basal inorganic mud to organic-rich mud at 11.4 ± 0.2 ka marks the initial retreat of Grewingk Glacier below the divide of Emerald Lake. The overlaying organic-rich mud is interrupted by stony mud that records a re-advance between 10.7 ± 0.2 and 9.8 ± 0.2 ka. The glacier did not spill meltwater into the lake again until the Little Ice Age, consistent with previously documented Little Ice Ages advances on the Kenai Peninsula. The retreat of Grewingk Glacier at 11.4 ka took place as temperature increased following the Younger Dryas, and the subsequent re-advance corresponds with a climate reversal beginning around 11 ka across southern Alaska.

  3. New active faults on Eurasian-Arabian collision zone: Tectonic activity of Özyurt and Gülsünler faults (Eastern Anatolian Plateau, Van-Turkey)

    Dicle, S.; Üner, S.

    2017-11-01

    The Eastern Anatolian Plateau emerges from the continental collision between Arabian and Eurasian plates where intense seismicity related to the ongoing convergence characterizes the southern part of the plateau. Active deformation in this zone is shared by mainly thrust and strike-slip faults. The Özyurt thrust fault and the Gülsünler sinistral strike-slip fault are newly determined fault zones, located to the north of Van city centre. Different types of faults such as thrust, normal and strike-slip faults are observed on the quarry wall excavated in Quaternary lacustrine deposits at the intersection zone of these two faults. Kinematic analysis of fault-slip data has revealed coeval activities of transtensional and compressional structures for the Lake Van Basin. Seismological and geomorphological characteristics of these faults demonstrate the capability of devastating earthquakes for the area.

  4. New active faults on Eurasian-Arabian collision zone: Tectonic activity of Özyurt and Gülsünler faults (Eastern Anatolian Plateau, Van-Turkey)

    Dicle, S.; Üner, S.

    2017-01-01

    The Eastern Anatolian Plateau emerges from the continental collision between Arabian and Eurasian plates where intense seismicity related to the ongoing convergence characterizes the southern part of the plateau. Active deformation in this zone is shared by mainly thrust and strike-slip faults. The Özyurt thrust fault and the Gülsünler sinistral strike-slip fault are newly determined fault zones, located to the north of Van city centre. Different types of faults such as thrust, normal and strike-slip faults are observed on the quarry wall excavated in Quaternary lacustrine deposits at the intersection zone of these two faults. Kinematic analysis of fault-slip data has revealed coeval activities of transtensional and compressional structures for the Lake Van Basin. Seismological and geomorphological characteristics of these faults demonstrate the capability of devastating earthquakes for the area.

  5. Upper Cenozoic deposits of the central Delmarva Peninsula, Maryland and Delaware

    Owens, James Patrick; Denny, Charles Storrow

    1979-01-01

    The surface and shallow subsurface sediments of the lower Delmarva Peninsula include beds ranging in age from Miocene to Holocene. The oldest beds appear to be typical shelf deposits of the Chesapeake Group (Calvert-Choptank age). These marine units are overlain by deltaic deposits, which range from fluviatile facies in the north (Pensauken Formation) to marginal marine and marine beds in the south ('Yorktown(?) and Cohansey(?)' Formations as used by Rasmussen and Slaughter in 1955). This large deltaic mass underlies most of the Delmarva Peninsula. Fossil age determinations supplemented by some radiometric dates indicate the delta to be largely late Miocene in age. The nonmarine facies of the delta, the Pensauken Formation, previously was considered to be Pleistocene in age. The late Miocene delta and possibly the Yorktown Formation (lower to middle Pliocene) are overlain by a feldspathic sand, the Beaverdam, which is at least in part marginal marine. Microflora recovered from this formation include species no longer indigenous to the Delmarva region ('exotics'). On the basis of existing information, microfloral assemblages containing 'exotics' are pre-Pleistocene in age. The Beaverdam therefore is pre-Pleistocene in age, probably late Pliocene. A highly dissected and weathered unit, the Walston Silt, caps the uplands of the central Delmarva Peninsula, where it overlies the Beaverdam. The Walston has a microflora containing 'exotics' and therefore is considered to be the youngest Tertiary unit (uppermost Pliocene) in this area. Sediments forming a barrier-back-barrier sequence fringe most of the southern Maryland-Delaware part of the Delmarva Peninsula and are found at altitudes of as much as 15 m (50 ft) above sea level. This sequence, the Omar Formation, is Sangamon in age and has been dated radiometrically as 60,000 to about 100,000 years old. The microflora in these beds contains no 'exotics,' and the assemblage suggests a warm-temperate environment. The Omar

  6. Predicted Water and Carbon Fluxes as well as Vegetation Distribution on the Korean Peninsula in the Future with the Ecosystem Demography Model version 2

    Kim, J. B.; Kim, Y.

    2017-12-01

    This study investigates how the water and carbon fluxes as well as vegetation distribution on the Korean peninsula would vary with climate change. Ecosystem Demography (ED) Model version 2 (ED2) is used in this study, which is an integrated terrestrial biosphere model that can utilize a set of size- and age- structured partial differential equations that track the changing structure and composition of the plant canopy. With using the vegetation distribution data of Jeju Island, located at the southern part of the Korean Peninsula, ED2 is setup and driven for the past 10 years. Then the results of ED2 are evaluated and adjusted with observed forestry data, i.e., growth and mortality, and the flux tower and MODIS satellite data, i.e., evapotranspiration (ET) and gross primary production (GPP). This adjusted ED2 are used to simulate the water and carbon fluxes as well as vegetation dynamics in the Korean Peninsula for the historical period with evaluating the model against the MODIS satellite data. Finally, the climate scenarios of RCP 2.6 and 6.0 are used to predict the fluxes and vegetation distribution of the Korean Peninsula in the future. With using the state-of-art terrestrial ecosystem model, this study would provide us better understanding of the future ecosystem vulnerability of the Korean Peninsula. AcknowledgementsThis work was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT & Future Planning (2015R1C1A2A01054800) and by the Korea Meteorological Administration R&D Program under Grant KMIPA 2015-6180. This work was also supported by the Yonsei University Future-leading Research Initiative of 2015(2016-22-0061).

  7. Post-rift deformation of the Red Sea Arabian margin

    Zanoni, Davide; Schettino, Antonio; Pierantoni, Pietro Paolo; Rasul, Najeeb

    2017-04-01

    Starting from the Oligocene, the Red Sea rift nucleated within the composite Neoproterozoic Arabian-Nubian shield. After about 30 Ma-long history of continental lithosphere thinning and magmatism, the first pulse of oceanic spreading occurred at around 4.6 Ma at the triple junction of Africa, Arabia, and Danakil plate boundaries and propagated southward separating Danakil and Arabia plates. Ocean floor spreading between Arabia and Africa started later, at about 3 Ma and propagated northward (Schettino et al., 2016). Nowadays the northern part of the Red Sea is characterised by isolated oceanic deeps or a thinned continental lithosphere. Here we investigate the deformation of thinned continental margins that develops as a consequence of the continental lithosphere break-up induced by the progressive oceanisation. This deformation consists of a system of transcurrent and reverse faults that accommodate the anelastic relaxation of the extended margins. Inversion and shortening tectonics along the rifted margins as a consequence of the formation of a new segment of ocean ridge was already documented in the Atlantic margin of North America (e.g. Schlische et al. 2003). We present preliminary structural data obtained along the north-central portion of the Arabian rifted margin of the Red Sea. We explored NE-SW trending lineaments within the Arabian margin that are the inland continuation of transform boundaries between segments of the oceanic ridge. We found brittle fault zones whose kinematics is consistent with a post-rift inversion. Along the southernmost transcurrent fault (Ad Damm fault) of the central portion of the Red Sea we found evidence of dextral movement. Along the northernmost transcurrent fault, which intersects the Harrat Lunayyir, structures indicate dextral movement. At the inland termination of this fault the evidence of dextral movement are weaker and NW-SE trending reverse faults outcrop. Between these two faults we found other dextral transcurrent

  8. Phylogeography of the Asian lesser white-toothed shrew, Crocidura shantungensis, in East Asia: role of the Korean Peninsula as refugium for small mammals.

    Lee, Seo-Jin; Lee, Mu-Yeong; Lin, Liang-Kong; Lin, Y Kirk; Li, Yuchun; Shin, E-Hyun; Han, Sang-Hoon; Min, Mi-Sook; Lee, Hang; Kim, Kyung Seok

    2018-04-01

    Many peninsulas in the temperate zone played an important role as refugia of various flora and fauna, and the southern Korean Peninsula also served as a refugium for many small mammals in East Asia during the Pleistocene. The Asian lesser white-toothed shrew, Crocidura shantungensis, is a widely distributed species in East Asia, and is an appropriate model organism for exploring the role of the Korean Peninsula as a refugium of small mammals. Here, we investigated phylogenetic relationships and genetic diversity based on the entire sequence of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (1140 bp). A Bayesian tree for 98 haplotypes detected in 228 C. shantungensis specimens from East Asia revealed the presence of three major groups with at least 5 subgroups. Most haplotypes were distributed according to their geographic proximity. Pairwise F ST 's and analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed a high degree of genetic differentiation and variance among regions as well as among populations within region, implying little gene flow among local populations. Genetic evidence from South Korean islands, Jeju-do Island of South Korea, and Taiwan leads us to reject the hypothesis of recent population expansion. We observed unique island-type genetic characteristics consistent with geographic isolation and resultant genetic drift. Phylogeographic inference, together with estimates of genetic differentiation and diversity, suggest that the southern most part the Korean Peninsula, including offshore islands, played an important role as a refugium for C. shantungensis during the Pleistocene. However, the presence of several refugia on the mainland of northeast Asia is also proposed.

  9. Climate change and the marine ecosystem of the western Antarctic Peninsula

    Clarke, Andrew; Murphy, Eugene J; Meredith, Michael P; King, John C; Peck, Lloyd S; Barnes, David K.A; Smith, Raymond C

    2006-01-01

    The Antarctic Peninsula is experiencing one of the fastest rates of regional climate change on Earth, resulting in the collapse of ice shelves, the retreat of glaciers and the exposure of new terrestrial habitat. In the nearby oceanic system, winter sea ice in the Bellingshausen and Amundsen seas has decreased in extent by 10% per decade, and shortened in seasonal duration. Surface waters have warmed by more than 1 K since the 1950s, and the Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW) of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current has also warmed. Of the changes observed in the marine ecosystem of the western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) region to date, alterations in winter sea ice dynamics are the most likely to have had a direct impact on the marine fauna, principally through shifts in the extent and timing of habitat for ice-associated biota. Warming of seawater at depths below ca 100 m has yet to reach the levels that are biologically significant. Continued warming, or a change in the frequency of the flooding of CDW onto the WAP continental shelf may, however, induce sublethal effects that influence ecological interactions and hence food-web operation. The best evidence for recent changes in the ecosystem may come from organisms which record aspects of their population dynamics in their skeleton (such as molluscs or brachiopods) or where ecological interactions are preserved (such as in encrusting biota of hard substrata). In addition, a southwards shift of marine isotherms may induce a parallel migration of some taxa similar to that observed on land. The complexity of the Southern Ocean food web and the nonlinear nature of many interactions mean that predictions based on short-term studies of a small number of species are likely to be misleading. PMID:17405211

  10. Age-specific survival of tundra swans on the lower Alaska Peninsula

    Meixell, Brandt W.; Lindberg, Mark S.; Conn, Paul B.; Dau, Christian P.; Sarvis, John E.; Sowl, Kristine M.

    2013-01-01

    The population of Tundra Swans (Cygnus columbianus columbianus) breeding on the lower Alaska Peninsula represents the southern extremity of the species' range and is uniquely nonmigratory. We used data on recaptures, resightings, and recoveries of neck-collared Tundra Swans on the lower Alaska Peninsula to estimate collar loss, annual apparent survival, and other demographic parameters for the years 1978–1989. Annual collar loss was greater for adult males fitted with either the thinner collar type (0.34) or the thicker collar type (0.15) than for other age/sex classes (thinner: 0.10, thicker: 0.04). The apparent mean probability of survival of adults (0.61) was higher than that of immatures (0.41) and for both age classes varied considerably by year (adult range: 0.44–0.95, immature range: 0.25–0.90). To assess effects of permanent emigration by age and breeding class, we analyzed post hoc the encounter histories of swans known to breed in our study area. The apparent mean survival of known breeders (0.65) was generally higher than that of the entire marked sample but still varied considerably by year (range 0.26–1.00) and indicated that permanent emigration of breeding swans was likely. We suggest that reductions in apparent survival probability were influenced primarily by high and variable rates of permanent emigration and that immigration by swans from elsewhere may be important in sustaining a breeding population at and near Izembek National Wildlife Refuge.

  11. Climate change and the marine ecosystem of the western Antarctic Peninsula.

    Clarke, Andrew; Murphy, Eugene J; Meredith, Michael P; King, John C; Peck, Lloyd S; Barnes, David K A; Smith, Raymond C

    2007-01-29

    The Antarctic Peninsula is experiencing one of the fastest rates of regional climate change on Earth, resulting in the collapse of ice shelves, the retreat of glaciers and the exposure of new terrestrial habitat. In the nearby oceanic system, winter sea ice in the Bellingshausen and Amundsen seas has decreased in extent by 10% per decade, and shortened in seasonal duration. Surface waters have warmed by more than 1 K since the 1950s, and the Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW) of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current has also warmed. Of the changes observed in the marine ecosystem of the western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) region to date, alterations in winter sea ice dynamics are the most likely to have had a direct impact on the marine fauna, principally through shifts in the extent and timing of habitat for ice-associated biota. Warming of seawater at depths below ca 100 m has yet to reach the levels that are biologically significant. Continued warming, or a change in the frequency of the flooding of CDW onto the WAP continental shelf may, however, induce sublethal effects that influence ecological interactions and hence food-web operation. The best evidence for recent changes in the ecosystem may come from organisms which record aspects of their population dynamics in their skeleton (such as molluscs or brachiopods) or where ecological interactions are preserved (such as in encrusting biota of hard substrata). In addition, a southwards shift of marine isotherms may induce a parallel migration of some taxa similar to that observed on land. The complexity of the Southern Ocean food web and the nonlinear nature of many interactions mean that predictions based on short-term studies of a small number of species are likely to be misleading.

  12. Dubai: A Pioneer Smart City in the Arabian Territory

    Virtudes, Ana; Abbara, Arwa; Sá, João

    2017-10-01

    Nowadays, one of the main issues that the cities are facing is related with how they are dealing with the challenges toward smartness, including infrastructures, economic, social and environmental aspects. In this sense, some of the current challenges on the global scale, trying to find solutions regarding urban societies, are based on the concept of “smart city”. Therefore, is clear that new ideas regarding the cities improvements, which are on the top of global agenda, could be found at the concept of “smart city”. As the literature reveals, this is a topic reason among the researchers, which is in a continuous development, in particular regarding societies, countries or regions where it is emerging, such as in the Arabian territories. Dubai, a city in the United Arab Emirates, is an example where in a short period of time, after the oil discovery in the decade of 1970, one small and badly known urban settlement became a pioneer reference in terms of smart cities requirements. Thus, this article presents background information about smart cities, their assets and key pillars, their smart infrastructures and features in cultural, social and environmental terms. The main goals are based on a theoretical approach, developed in order to get more details about smart cities, regarding the features of the Arabian territories. It argues around the case of Dubai, as a pioneer smart city in the Arab world. Among of the main conclusions, there is the idea that the urban transformation process in contemporary societies to secure the smartness, should apply to the use of ICT / information and communication technologies. This use will increase the efficiency concerns to the natural resources, and provide a high quality of life for citizens. The example of Dubai has shown that the decision-makers have built each sector and part of the city in a solid performance, in order to achieve the smart sustainability concept. This city is nowadays a reference on this matter, not

  13. Modelling and simulation of Holocene marine terrace development in Boso Peninsula, central Japan

    Noda, Akemi; Miyauchi, Takahiro; Sato, Toshinori; Matsu'ura, Mitsuhiro

    2018-04-01

    In the southern part of Boso Peninsula, central Japan, we can observe a series of well-developed Holocene marine terraces. We modeled the development of these marine terraces by considering sea-level fluctuation and steady land uplift. The evolution of coastal landform is generally described as follows: altitude change = - erosion + deposition - sea-level rise + land uplift. In this study, the erosion rate is supposed to be proportional to the dissipation rate of wave energy, and the deposition rate of eroded materials to decay exponentially as they are transported seaward. The rate of sea-level rise is given by the time derivative of a sea-level curve obtained from the sediment core records of oxygen isotope ratios. Steady plate subduction generally brings about steady crustal uplift/subsidence independently of earthquake occurrence, and so the land-uplift rate is regarded as time independent on a long-term average. Our simulation results show that a pair of sea cliff and abrasion platform is efficiently formed about a stationary point of the sea-level curve. The Holocene sea-level curve has four peaks and three troughs, and so basically seven terraces are formed one by one during the past 10,000 yr. However, when the land-uplift rate is low, most of the terraces formed at older times sink in the sea. When the land-uplift rate is high, the overlap and/or reverse of older and younger terraces occur frequently, and so the correspondence between the age and present altitude of terraces is not necessarily one-to-one. Taking the land-uplift rate to be 3-4 mm/yr, we can reproduce a series of well-developed Holocene marine terraces in Boso Peninsula independently of coseismic uplifts. From these simulation results, we may conclude that the Holocene marine terraces in Boso Peninsula were developed as a result of the composite process of sea-level fluctuation and steady coastal uplift.

  14. Trends in photochemical smog in the Cape Peninsula and the ...

    There has been growing public concern over reports of increasing air pollution in the Cape Peninsula. Attention has been focused on the 'brown haze' and on photochemical smog. Because of deficiencies in the monitoring equipment, information on trends in photochemical smog levels over the past decade is limited.

  15. Terrestrial Birds and Conservation Priorities in Baja California Peninsula

    Ricardo Rodriguez-Estrella

    2005-01-01

    The Baja California peninsula has been categorized as an Endemic Bird Area of the world and it is an important wintering area for a number of aquatic, wading and migratory landbird species. It is an important area for conservation of bird diversity in northwestern México. In spite of this importance, only few, scattered studies have been done on the ecology...

  16. A sketch of language history in the Korean Peninsula.

    Lee, Sean

    2015-01-01

    Among 7100 languages spoken on Earth, the Koreanic language is the 13th largest, with about 77 million speakers in and around the Korean Peninsula. In comparison to other languages of similar size, however, surprisingly little is known about the evolution of the Koreanic language. This is mainly due to two reasons. The first reason is that the genealogical relationship of the Koreanic to other neighboring languages remains uncertain, and thus inference from the linguistic comparative method provides only provisional evidence. The second reason is that, as the ancestral Koreanic speakers lacked their own writing system until around 500 years ago, there are scant historical materials to peer into the past, except for those preserved in Sinitic characters that we have no straightforward way of interpreting. Here I attempt to overcome these disadvantages and shed some light on the linguistic history of the Korean Peninsula, by analyzing the internal variation of the Koreanic language with methods adopted from evolutionary biology. The preliminary results presented here suggest that the evolutionary history of the Koreanic language is characterized by a weak hierarchical structure, and intensive gene/culture flows within the Korean Peninsula seem to have promoted linguistic homogeneity among the Koreanic variants. Despite the gene/culture flows, however, there are still three detectable linguistic barriers in the Korean Peninsula that appear to have been shaped by geographical features such as mountains, elevated areas, and ocean. I discuss these findings in an inclusive manner to lay the groundwork for future studies.

  17. Recolonisation of the Robberg Peninsula (Plettenberg Bay, South ...

    The Cape fur seal Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus colony at Robberg Peninsula, Plettenberg Bay, on the south-east coast of South Africa, was driven to extinction by indiscriminate harvesting by the late 1800s. Seals only began to recolonise this site in the 1990s. This study describes the recolonisation process from 2000 to ...

  18. Timberland resources of the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska, 1987.

    Willem W.S. van Hees; Frederic R. Larson

    1991-01-01

    The 1987 inventory of the forest resources of the Kenai Peninsula was designed to assess the impact of the spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis (Kirby)) on the timberland component of the forest resource. Estimates of timberland area, volumes of timber, and growth and mortality of timber were developed. These estimates of timber resource...

  19. Drought variability and change across the Iberian Peninsula

    Coll, J. R.; Aguilar, E.; Ashcroft, L.

    2017-11-01

    Drought variability and change was assessed across the Iberian Peninsula over more than 100 years expanding through the twentieth century and the first decade of the twenty-first century. Daily temperature and precipitation data from 24 Iberian time series were quality controlled and homogenized to create the Monthly Iberian Temperature and Precipitation Series (MITPS) for the period 1906-2010. The Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), driven only by precipitation, and the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI), based on the difference between the precipitation and the reference evapotranspiration (ET0), were computed at annual and seasonal scale to describe the evolution of droughts across time. The results confirmed that a clear temperature increase has occurred over the entire Iberian Peninsula at the annual and seasonal scale, but no significant changes in precipitation accumulated amounts were found. Similar drought variability was provided by the SPI and SPEI, although the SPEI showed greater drought severity and larger surface area affected by drought than SPI from 1980s to 2010 due to the increase in atmospheric evaporative demand caused by increased temperatures. Moreover, a clear drying trend was found by the SPEI for most of the Iberian Peninsula at annual scale and also for spring and summer, although the SPI did not experience significant changes in drought conditions. From the drying trend identified for most of the Iberian Peninsula along the twentieth century, an increase in drought conditions can also be expected for this region in the twenty-first century according to future climate change projections and scenarios.

  20. 78 FR 10595 - Olympic Peninsula Resource Advisory Committee

    2013-02-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Olympic Peninsula Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Outreach for new RAC Replacement members. SUMMARY: Interested citizens are... information, please contact Donna Nemeth at 360-956-2274 or Bill Shelmerdine at 360-956- 2282. Dated: February...

  1. 77 FR 65359 - Olympic Peninsula Resource Advisory Committee

    2012-10-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Olympic Peninsula Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Outreach for new RAC members. SUMMARY: Interested citizens are invited to... information, please contact Donna Nemeth at 360-956-2274 or Bill Shelmerdine at 360-956- 2282. Dated: October...

  2. The oceanic forecasting system near the Shimokita Peninsula, Japan

    In, Teiji; Nakayama, Tomoharu; Matsuura, Yasutaka; Shima, Shigeki; Ishikawa, Yoichi; Awaji, Toshiyuki; Kobayashi, Takuya; Kawamura, Hideyuki; Togawa, Orihiko; Toyoda, Takahiro

    2007-01-01

    The oceanic forecasting system off the Shimokita Peninsula was constructed. To evaluate the performance of this system, we carried out the hindcast experiment for the oceanic conditions in 2003. The results showed the system had good reproducibility. Especially, it was able to reproduce the feature of seasonal variation of the Tsugaru Warm Water (TWW). We expect it has enough performance in actual forecasting. (author)

  3. Origin of the flora of the Malay Peninsula

    Ridley, H.N.

    1937-01-01

    In my work on the Malay Peninsula, I included such plants as were known from the districts of North Kedah, Perlis and Setul. Botanically however, the Malayan flora ceases at a line running from a little north of Kedah peak Lat. 6.5, to Kota Bahru in North Kelantan Lat. 6.10. It is in fact

  4. SEASONAL ASSESSMENT OF HYDROGRAPHIC VARIABLES AND PHYTOPLANKTON COMMUNITY IN THE ARABIAN SEA WATERS OF KERALA, SOUTHWEST COAST OF INDIA

    Sushanth Vishwanath Rai

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The seasonal variation of the hydrographic variables and phytoplankton species in the Arabian Sea waters of the Kerala coast, Southern India was investigated during different seasons. The variables such as pH, temperature, salinity, turbidity and chlorophyll-a contents of water were found to be high during pre-monsoon season and the dissolved oxygen content was minimal. The concentration of nutrients viz., nitrate, phosphate, silicate varied independently. In the study a total of 53 species of phytoplankton were recorded. Their density was higher during the post-monsoon season than during other seasons and the diatoms were found to be the dominant species. The major phytoplankton in terms of frequency and abundance were the species namely, Biddulphia mobiliensis, Chaetoceros curvisetus, Licmophora abbreviata, Skeletonema costatum, Prorocentrum micans and Oscillatoria sp. They showed significant positive correlation with pH, temperature, salinity, nitrate, phosphate and chlorophyll-a contents, whereas turbidity, dissolved oxygen and silicate exhibited significant negative correlation. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA developed two principal components with 84.74% of total variability in the water quality which separated pre- and post-monsoon periods from the monsoon season on axis I, and pre-monsoon and monsoon periods from post-monsoon on axis II.

  5. Suspected myofibrillar myopathy in Arabian horses with a history of exertional rhabdomyolysis.

    Valberg, S J; McKenzie, E C; Eyrich, L V; Shivers, J; Barnes, N E; Finno, C J

    2016-09-01

    Although exertional rhabdomyolysis (ER) is common in Arabian horses, there are no dedicated studies describing histopathological characteristics of muscle from Arabian horses with ER. To prospectively identify distinctive histopathological features of muscle from Arabian endurance horses with a history of ER (pro-ER) and to retrospectively determine their prevalence in archived samples from Arabian horses with exertional myopathies (retro-ER). Prospective and retrospective histopathological description. Middle gluteal muscle biopsies obtained from Arabian controls (n = 14), pro-ER (n = 13) as well as archived retro-ER (n = 25) muscle samples previously classified with type 2 polysaccharide storage myopathy (15/25), recurrent exertional rhabdomyolysis (7/25) and no pathology (3/25) were scored for histopathology and immunohistochemical staining of cytoskeletal proteins. Glutaraldehyde-fixed samples (2 pro-ER, one control) were processed for electron microscopy. Pro-ER and retro-ER groups were compared with controls using Mann-Whitney U and Fisher's exact tests. Centrally located myonuclei in mature myofibres were found in significantly more (Prhabdomyolysis, ectopic accumulation of cytoskeletal proteins and Z-disc degeneration bear a strong resemblance to a myofibrillar myopathy. While many of these horses were previously diagnosed with type 2 polysaccharide storage myopathy, pools of glycogen forming within disrupted myofibrils appeared to give the false appearance of a glycogen storage disorder. © 2015 EVJ Ltd.

  6. Oil-consuming microbial consortia floating in the Arabian Gulf

    Radwan, S.S.; Al-Hasan, R.H.; Ali, N.; Salamah, S.; Khanafer, M.

    2005-01-01

    Picocyanobacteria floating on the surface of the water body in the Arabian Gulf were found associated with heterotrophic bacteria. Haemocytometer counting of fresh 1 -cm surface water revealed 10 7 - 10 8 bacterial cells ml -1 , but only 10 2 - 10 3 cells ml -1 in 10-cm deep water samples. The heterotrophic bacteria comprised hydrocarbon utilizers that could grow on a mineral medium containing crude oil as sole carbon and energy source. Three-week liquid cultures of the picocyanobacteria Synechococcus, Synechocystis, Pleurocapsa and Dermocarpella were found by dilution plating to contain 10 6 - 10 13 oil-utilizing bacteria ml -1 . These were members of the genera Pseudomonas, Bacillus and Acinetobacter and nocardioforms. Growth and hydrocarbon consumption potential of individual types of oil-utilizing bacteria in culture were higher in the presence of the picocyanobacteria than in their absence. Evidence was presented that picocyanobacterial cells may accumulate hydrocarbons from the medium, and subsequently make those compounds available to the associated hydrocarbon-utilizing bacteria. It was concluded that this microbial consortium, which is apparently of cosmopolitan occurrence, could be active in controlling marine oil-pollution. (author)

  7. Accumulation of organic carbon in northwestern Arabian sea sediments

    Khan, A.A.

    1999-01-01

    In this study accumulation of organic carbon in marine sediments of northwestern Arabian sea has been discussed. This paper presents the geochemical analysis of Organic carbon content and accumulation, delta 13 stable carbon isotope and Ba/Al. The primary objective was to investigate the high resolution information about the variations in paleoproductivity and source of organic matter in sediments below an upwelling area. Undisturbed sediments (Piston core NIOP-486) of late Pleistocene time were collected during Netherlands Indian Ocean Program (NIOP-1992-93). The core NIOP-486 was raised from a depth of 2077 meters near the Owen Ridge. This core records deposition history of last 200,000 years and includes 4 warm and 3 cold periods. The distribution of organic carbon content in studied core shows a pronounced cyclicity during glacial and interglacial stages. Organic carbon accumulation trends show that high sedimentation rates in glacial stages results in rapid burial and hence increase organic carbon accumulation. Paleoproductivity indicator Ba/Al has been used to compare with the organic carbon content and is correlated with the warm and cold periods variations in monsoons upwelling intensity. Generally, low paleoproductivity is found in glacial stages. The organic carbon content and accumulation, in sediments however seems to differ from the paleoproductivity trends shown by Ba/Al in glacial sediments of stage 6. Delta 13 C.org isotope results of the core NIOP-486 confirm that organic matter in sediments is predominantly marine (-20 to -23% ). (author)

  8. Metabolic alterations during training of Purebred Arabian Breed equines

    César Andrey Galindo Orozco

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was made to 12 purebred Arabian breed equines, two adult males and ten adult females, ranging from four to eleven years old. The animals were divided in two groups, with six equines each, thus making the GI and GII groups alike. They performed 3 weekly sessions of 45 minutes. On the first 45 days, the average speed was 13.9km/h and on the following 45 days, 15.7km/h. Each two weeks, an additional session was conducted, being this one in the GI with the same speed and duration as the others; in the GII, it was with a 4-hour duration, prevailing the walk gait. The animals performed three tests on a treadmill: before (non-trained and after 45 days (1st phase and 90 days (2nd phase of training. The glucose values increased during the Test and later returned to the basal values six hours after the end of the exercise for both groups, presenting statistical difference between these, reaching higher values in the T maximum peak (T3 and at the end of the warm down (T4. Concerning to the plasmatic insulin values, these diminished drastically in the T3 of the ET in the G1 and G2 during the progressive advance of the physical effort test for both training groups, presenting statistical difference for each group and between groups. Finally, the cortisol levels were higher in the T3 of Test.

  9. Learner Involvement at Arabian Gulf University Self-Access Centre

    Diane Malcolm

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Arabian Gulf University (AGU College of Medicine and Medical Sciences was established around 25 years ago to train students in the Arab Gulf states, including Bahrain, where it is located, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates, and Oman to become doctors of medicine (MDs using the problem-based learning approach (PBL. As is the case in most regional higher education institutions, entering students are expected to be proficient in English, the language through which course content is delivered. In reality, many students do not achieve the desired standard in English, thus must take one or more semesters of English language training before beginning their academic studies. IAGU has an annual intake of around 150 students of widely varying English proficiency levels, but has only recently begun to accept some students to a foundation English programme. Before that, our small English unit had to find ways of helping the least proficient improve their English skills, while providing a basis in English for medical purposes for all students, within the same course framework. Our self-access centre (SAC, though small and definitely not state of the art, has had an important role to play in accommodating the different students’ needs and interests, supplementing their course material and providing opportunities for increased language exposure.

  10. Climate oscillations reflected within the microbiome of Arabian Sea sediments

    Orsi, William D.

    2017-07-14

    Selection of microorganisms in marine sediment is shaped by energy-yielding electron acceptors for respiration that are depleted in vertical succession. However, some taxa have been reported to reflect past depositional conditions suggesting they have experienced weak selection after burial. In sediments underlying the Arabian Sea oxygen minimum zone (OMZ), we performed the first metagenomic profiling of sedimentary DNA at centennial-scale resolution in the context of a multi-proxy paleoclimate reconstruction. While vertical distributions of sulfate reducing bacteria and methanogens indicate energy-based selection typical of anoxic marine sediments, 5–15% of taxa per sample exhibit depth-independent stratigraphies indicative of paleoenvironmental selection over relatively short geological timescales. Despite being vertically separated, indicator taxa deposited under OMZ conditions were more similar to one another than those deposited in bioturbated intervals under intervening higher oxygen. The genomic potential for denitrification also correlated with palaeo-OMZ proxies, independent of sediment depth and available nitrate and nitrite. However, metagenomes revealed mixed acid and Entner-Dourdoroff fermentation pathways encoded by many of the same denitrifier groups. Fermentation thus may explain the subsistence of these facultatively anaerobic microbes whose stratigraphy follows changing paleoceanographic conditions. At least for certain taxa, our analysis provides evidence of their paleoenvironmental selection over the last glacial-interglacial cycle.

  11. Climate oscillations reflected within the microbiome of Arabian Sea sediments

    Orsi, William D.; Coolen, Marco J. L.; Wuchter, Cornelia; He, Lijun; More, Kuldeep D.; Irigoien, Xabier; Chust, Guillem; Johnson, Carl; Hemingway, Jordon D.; Lee, Mitchell; Galy, Valier; Giosan, Liviu

    2017-01-01

    Selection of microorganisms in marine sediment is shaped by energy-yielding electron acceptors for respiration that are depleted in vertical succession. However, some taxa have been reported to reflect past depositional conditions suggesting they have experienced weak selection after burial. In sediments underlying the Arabian Sea oxygen minimum zone (OMZ), we performed the first metagenomic profiling of sedimentary DNA at centennial-scale resolution in the context of a multi-proxy paleoclimate reconstruction. While vertical distributions of sulfate reducing bacteria and methanogens indicate energy-based selection typical of anoxic marine sediments, 5–15% of taxa per sample exhibit depth-independent stratigraphies indicative of paleoenvironmental selection over relatively short geological timescales. Despite being vertically separated, indicator taxa deposited under OMZ conditions were more similar to one another than those deposited in bioturbated intervals under intervening higher oxygen. The genomic potential for denitrification also correlated with palaeo-OMZ proxies, independent of sediment depth and available nitrate and nitrite. However, metagenomes revealed mixed acid and Entner-Dourdoroff fermentation pathways encoded by many of the same denitrifier groups. Fermentation thus may explain the subsistence of these facultatively anaerobic microbes whose stratigraphy follows changing paleoceanographic conditions. At least for certain taxa, our analysis provides evidence of their paleoenvironmental selection over the last glacial-interglacial cycle.

  12. Hydrography and biogeochemistry of the north western Bay of Bengal and the north eastern Arabian Sea during winter monsoon

    Balachandran, K.K.; Laluraj, C.M.; Jyothibabu, R.; Madhu, N.V.; Muraleedharan, K.R.; Vijay, J.G.; Maheswaran, P.A.; Ashraf, T.T.M.; Nair, K.K.C.; Achuthankutty, C.T.

    in the Arabian Sea is driven by net heat loss from the ocean, whereas the Bay of Bengal does not contribute to such large heat loss to the atmosphere. It appears that the subduction of high saline Arabian Sea water mass is the mechanism behind the formation of a...

  13. Boron/calcium ratios in Globigerinoides ruber from the Arabian Sea: Implications for controls on boron incorporation

    Naik, S.S.; Naidu, P.D.

    of Globigerinoides ruber from the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 723A (western Arabian Sea) and Core AAS9/21 (eastern Arabian Sea) from the last 22 kyr were analysed for B/Ca, delta18O and Mg/Ca. B/Ca was compared to reconstructed salinity and sea...

  14. Southern blotting.

    Brown, T

    2001-05-01

    Southern blotting is the transfer of DNA fragments from an electrophoresis gel to a membrane support (the properties and advantages of the different types of membrane, transfer buffer, and transfer method are discussed in detail), resulting in immobilization of the DNA fragments, so the membrane carries a semipermanent reproduction of the banding pattern of the gel. After immobilization, the DNA can be subjected to hybridization analysis, enabling bands with sequence similarity to a labeled probe to be identified. This appendix describes Southern blotting via upward capillary transfer of DNA from an agarose gel onto a nylon or nitrocellulose membrane, using a high-salt transfer buffer to promote binding of DNA to the membrane. With the high-salt buffer, the DNA becomes bound to the membrane during transfer but not permanently immobilized. Immobilization is achieved by UV irradiation (for nylon) or baking (for nitrocellulose). A Support Protocol describes how to calibrate a UV transilluminator for optimal UV irradiation of a nylon membrane. An alternate protocol details transfer using nylon membranes and an alkaline buffer, and is primarily used with positively charged nylon membranes. The advantage of this combination is that no post-transfer immobilization step is required, as the positively charged membrane binds DNA irreversibly under alkaline transfer conditions. The method can also be used with neutral nylon membranes but less DNA will be retained. A second alternate protocol describes a transfer method based on a different transfer-stack setup. The traditional method of upward capillary transfer of DNA from gel to membrane described in the first basic and alternate protocols has certain disadvantages, notably the fact that the gel can become crushed by the weighted filter papers and paper towels that are laid on top of it. This slows down the blotting process and may reduce the amount of DNA that can be transferred. The downward capillary method described in

  15. H10544: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Southern Alaska Peninsula, Alaska, 1994-06-29

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  16. Smelting crucibles to reduce copper minerals in the Iberian Peninsula and in southern France

    Rovira, Salvador

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available As was shown in Spain by the end of the 1980s, the use of common earthenware vessels as containers for prehistoric copper metallurgy has also been discovered in France. The authors propose in this article a synthesis of the knowledge concerning the use of this technology in Spain, its chronological and geographical frameworks and the more relevant mineralogical and metallurgical features. All this allows us to show the effectiveness and simplicity of the resources used to practice this early metallurgy. The finds in France are more modest and rarely have been analysed properly in the laboratory. However, the review of the archaeological record suggests that specific research informed by the results presented in the article would provide evidence of the impact of this technology through the Copper and Bronze Ages.

    [es] Puesta en evidencia en España a finales de la década de los ochenta, la utilización de vasijas de cerámica común como recipiente de la metalurgia del cobre prehistórico ha sido identificada también en Francia. Los autores proponen una síntesis del estado de los conocimientos sobre el uso de esta técnica en España, su encuadre geográfico y cronológico y sus principales características mineralógicas y metalúrgicas. Estas últimas permiten mostrar la eficacia y la simplicidad de los medios puestos en juego para la realización de esta metalurgia inicial. En contrapartida, en Francia los hallazgos son todavía modestos y sólo unos pocos han sido objeto de los apropiados análisis de laboratorio. No obstante, la revisión de la documentación arqueológica sugiere que investigaciones específicas orientadas por los resultados expuestos en este artículo deberían permitir en Francia, como ha sucedido en España en el curso de los últimos años, poner de manifiesto el impacto de esta técnica durante las Edades del Cobre y del Bronce. [fr] Les céramiques à réduire le minerai de cuivre dans la Péninsule Ibérique et en France méridionale. Mise en évidence en Espagne à la fin des années quatre-vingts, l´utilisation de céramiques banales comme récipient de la métallurgie du cuivre préhistorique a été désormais repérée en France. Dans cet article, les auteurs proposent une synthèse de l'état des connaissances concernant l'utilisation de cette technique en Espagne, son cadre géographique et chronologique, ses principales caractéristiques minéralogiques et métallurgiques. Elles permettent de montrer V efficacité et la simplicité des moyens mis enjeu dans la réalisation de cette métallurgie précoce. En France, les données restent en contrepartie modestes, et n’ont fait que rarement encore l´objet d'analyses de laboratoire ad hoc. Néanmoins, la recension des documents archéologiques suggère qu’une recherche spécifique, éclairée par les résultats exposés dans cet article, devrait permettre en France, comme ce fût le cas en Espagne au cours des dernières années, de montrer l'impact de cette technique au cours des âges du Cuivre et du Bronze.

  17. Nemacheilus Paucimaculatus, a new species of loach from the Southern Malay Peninsula (Teleostei: Nemacheilidae)

    Bohlen, Jörg; Šlechtová, Vendula

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 2 (2011), 201-204 ISSN 0217-2445 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/08/0637; GA ČR GA206/05/2556; GA AV ČR IAA600450508 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : Cobitoidea * Malaysia * Johor Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.467, year: 2011

  18. Isopod fauna, excluding Epicaridea, from the Strait of Gibraltar and nearby areas (Southern Iberian Peninsula

    José Castelló

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available A total of 42 isopod species from the Strait of Gibraltar and nearby areas were found, including the first record of Munna fabricii, Monodanthura maroccana, Campecopea hirsute, and Natatolana gallica from the Mediterranean; Synisoma nadejda and Uromunna petiti from the Atlantic; and Munna fabricii, Uromunna petiti, Monodanthura maroccana, Stellanthura cryptobia and Natatolana gallica from the Iberian waters. This article includes the previous records from the Iberian waters for all the species. The greatest number of species were found in Tarifa (16 species, located in the transition zone between the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea. According to depth, the distribution of species was as follows: 18 species were collected in the intertidal zone, mostly Dynamene edwardsi and Ischyromene lacazei; 33 species were found between 1 and 10 m, 13 species were found between 11 and 20 m, and 6 species were found between 21 and 28 m, mostly Janira maculosa. According to habitat, 16 species were collected on soft bottoms, 2 species on Zostera, and 22 species on algae substrata, mostly Halopteris, Asparagopsis and Cystoseira. The most diverse genus was Cymodoce (5 species. This paper contributes to the taxonomic, faunistic and biogeographical knowledge of the benthic communities from the Strait of Gibraltar and nearby areas.

  19. H10477: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Southern Alaska Peninsula, Alaska, 1993-06-15

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  20. Further naturalised Cactaceae in northeastern Iberian Peninsula

    Dana Sánchez, Elías D.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available During the floristic work carried out in 2004 in the Baix Camp region of Tarragona (NE Spain we found four new species of alien naturalised Cactaceae. Of these, three are reported for the second time from Europe and the other is new to Catalonia region. Southern Catalonia, with eleven species of Cactaceae, harbours the highest diversity of the family in Europe. Our results demonstrate that this diversity is even higher than previously believed. The introduction of these exotic taxa is, once again, due to the development of gardening based exclusively on foreign elements, to the unscrupulous and uncontrolled dumping of their remains in the natural environment, and to the existence of a favourable climate.Durante la campaña de prospección florística llevada a cabo en 2004 por la comarca del Baix Camp (Tarragona, NE de España hemos encontrado cuatro especies de cactáceas alóctonas naturalizadas. De ellas, tres se citan por segunda vez de Europa y la otra es nueva para Cataluña. Nuestros resultados aumentan aún más la diversidad de cactáceas del sur de Cataluña que, con once especies, es la mayor de toda Europa. La introducción de estos táxones exóticos que ahora damos a conocer se debe, una vez más, al desarrollo de una jardinería basada casi exclusivamente en elementos foráneos, en el vertido desaprensivo e incontrolado de sus restos en el medio natural y en la existencia de una climatología muy favorable.

  1. Hurricane Ike Deposits on the Bolivar Peninsula, Galveston Bay, Texas

    Evans, Cynthia A.; Wilkinson, M. J.; Eppler, Dean

    2011-01-01

    In September 2008, Hurricane Ike made landfall on Galveston Bay, close to the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC). The storm flooded much of the area with a storm surge ranging from 11 -20 feet. The Bolivar peninsula, the southeastern coast of Galveston Bay, experienced the brunt of the surge. Several agencies collected excellent imagery baselines before the storm and complementary data a few days afterward that helped define the impacts of the storm. In April of 2011, a team of scientists and astronauts from JSC conducted field mapping exercises along the Bolivar Peninsula, the section of the Galveston Bay coast most impacted by the storm. Astronauts routinely observe and document coastal changes from orbit aboard the International Space Station. As part of their basic Earth Science training, scientists at the Johnson Space Center take astronauts out for field mapping exercises so that they can better recognize and understand features and processes that they will later observe from the International Space Station. Using pre -storm baseline images of the Bolivar Peninsula near Rollover Pass and Gilchrist (NOAA/Google Earth Imagery and USGS aerial imagery and lidar data), the astronauts mapped current coastline positions at defined locations, and related their findings to specific coastal characteristics, including channel, jetties, and other developments. In addition to mapping, we dug trenches along both the Gulf of Mexico coast as well as the Galveston Bay coast of the Bolivar peninsula to determine the depth of the scouring from the storm on the Gulf side, and the amount of deposition of the storm surge deposits on the Bay side of the peninsula. The storm signature was easy to identify by sharp sediment transitions and, in the case of storm deposits, a layer of storm debris (roof shingles, PVC pipes, etc) and black, organic rich layers containing buried sea grasses in areas that were marshes before the storm. The amount of deposition was generally about 20 -25 cm

  2. Eastward shift and maintenance of Arabian Sea oxygen minimum zone: Understanding the paradox

    Acharya, Shiba Shankar; Panigrahi, Mruganka K.

    2016-09-01

    The dominance of Oxygen Minimum Zone in the eastern part of the Arabian Sea (ASOMZ) instead of the more bio-productive and likely more oxygen consuming western part is the first part of the paradox. The sources of oxygen to the ASOMZ were evaluated through the distributions of different water masses using the extended optimum multiparameter (eOMP) analysis, whereas the sinks of oxygen were evaluated through the organic matter remineralization, using the apparent oxygen utilization (AOU). The contributions of major source waters to the Arabian Sea viz. Indian Deep water (dIDW), Indian Central water (ICW), Persian Gulf Water (PGW) and Red Sea Water (RSW) have been quantified through the eOMP analysis which shows that the PGW and RSW are significant for the eastward shift of ASOMZ instead of voluminous ICW and dIDW. The distribution of Net Primary Production (NPP) and AOU clearly suggest the transport of organic detritus from the highly productive western Arabian Sea to its eastern counterpart which adds to the eastward shifting of ASOMZ. A revised estimate of the seasonal variation of areal extent and volume occupied by ASOMZ through analysis of latest available data reveals a distinct intensification of ASOMZ by 30% and increase in its volume by 5% during the spring-summer transition. However, during this seasonal transition the productivity in the Arabian Sea shows 100% increase in mean NPP. This disparity between ASOMZ and monsoonal variation of productivity is the other part of the paradox, which has been constrained through apparent oxygen utilization, Net Primary Production along with a variation of core depths of source waters. This study reveals a subtle balance between the circulation of marginal oxygen-rich water masses from the western Arabian Sea and organic matter remineralization in the eastern Arabian Sea in different seasons that explains the maintenance of ASOMZ throughout the year.

  3. Are Low Salinity Waters the Remedy to Noctiluca scintillans Blooms in the Arabian Sea?

    Gibson, J.

    2017-12-01

    Noctiluca scintillans (Noctiluca) is a mixotrophic, green dinoflagellate that for the past two decades has been producing problematic algal blooms in the Arabian Sea (AS). As a mixotroph, Noctiluca obtains energy from both consumption of phytoplankton as well as its intracellular photosynthesizing endosymbionts named, Pedinomonas noctilucae. It is this autotrophic and heterotrophic dual capability that has largely enabled Noctiluca to be a highly dominant species at the planktonic trophic layer in the AS. Exacerbated by non-point source/point-source pollution in the AS, ocean acidification, and intensified monsoons, Noctiluca currently algal blooms can be as big as three times the size of Texas. By depleting the AS of oxygen, clogging the gills of fish, and altering the AS food web, these algal blooms result in mass fish die offs. In turn this propagates financial and food insecurity issues in countless coastal communities. However, through satellite imaging over the years, it has been observed that the proliferation of Noctiluca is precluded or encounters a "wall" about mid-way along the west coast of India. It is theorized that this "wall" is due to a significant change in salinity. Snow from atop the Himalayan Mountains melts and adds fresh water to the Bay of Bengal (BB), and in winter the East Indian Coastal Current (EICC) carries this fresher water around the southern tip of India and towards the AS. It is believed that this dilution effect impedes the growth of Noctiluca further south. Ultimately, in this study the salinity gradient from the Bay of Bengal (BB) around the horn of India into the AS was replicated in six pairs of culture bottles. Noctiluca was grown in six different salinities including 26, 28, 30, 32, 34, and 38 psu. Algae grown in the 34 and 38 psu bottles, were healthier and 38 psu treated Noctiluca provided optimal conditions for its photosynthesizing endosymbionts. Noctiluca does not grow well at lower salinities, thus applications of low

  4. Floristic affinities of the lowland savannahs of Belize and southern Mexico.

    Canché-Estrada, Idalia Arely; Ortiz-Díaz, Juan Javier; Tun-Garrido, Juan

    2018-01-01

    Environmental heterogeneity of Belize and southern Mexico savannahs as well as their geographical location suggest that these plant communities share floristic elements, making them conducive to a phytogeographical analysis. The aim of this study was to analyse the floristic affinities of nine savannahs of Belize and southern Mexico and to explain the similarities and differences amongst them. A binary data matrix containing 915 species was built based on the authors' own collections and on nine floristic lists already published. A second data matrix, consisting of 113 species representing trees, was also used since most literature on neotropical savannahs has focused on this life form. In addition, the ten most species-rich families as well as the characteristic species present in more than five savannahs were analysed. Floristic similarities were calculated using the Jaccard index. Dendrograms obtained in both types of analysis showed clusters with low similarity values, corresponding to geographic locations formed by the savannahs of Belize-Tabasco and the Yucatan Peninsula. The floristic affinities of the savannahs may be explained in terms of heterogeneity in climate and physiography. The Yucatan Peninsula and Belize-Tabasco groups have differences in climate type and the amount of rainfall. In addition, the Yucatan Peninsula savannahs are established at the bottom of karstic valleys, while the Belize and Tabasco savannahs develop on extensive flatlands. The savannahs of Oaxaca have the same climate type and amount of rainfall as those of the Yucatan Peninsula but they are distributed along peaks and the slopes of shale hills. Fabaceae and Poaceae mainly dominated the local floras with 121 and 116 species each; remarkably, Melastomataceae was absent in the Yucatan Peninsula and Oaxaca. Nine species occurred in five to seven savannahs, confirming that they are widespread in both Belize and southern Mexico, and the Neotropics. Geographic location and floristic

  5. Seasonal changes in the denitrification regime of the Arabian Sea

    Naqvi, S.W.A.; Noronha, R.J.; Somasundar, K.; SenGupta, R.

    ), it is possible to determine the end-members' compositions with reasonable confidence. We selected two stations to serve as the northern and southern end-members. The northern end-member (EM no. 1, AN 2346; Lat. 22°15.9'N, Long. 60°55.9'E) was occupied during... a cruise of Atlantis 11 in January 1977, and the southern end-member (EM no. 2, 110S; Lat. 15°00. I'N, Long. 72°00'E) was sampled in August 1987. The rationale of selection was as follows. Both the stations were apparently located outside the zone...

  6. A comparison of single and multiple aliquot TT-OSL data sets for sand-sized quartz from the Arabian Peninsula

    Rosenberg, T.M.; Preusser, F.; Wintle, A.G.

    2011-01-01

    The quartz OSL signal from dune sands from Saudi Arabia and Oman start to saturate at doses of about 100 Gy. In order to try to date dune sands with greater expected doses, a previously published, single-aliquot, regenerative-dose protocol (SAR) for thermally-transferred optically stimulated luminescence (TT-OSL) was tested. Dose recovery tests, recycling and recuperation ratios showed robust functioning and dose response curves demonstrated the potential to extend the dose range to beyond 600 Gy. Multiple aliquot additive dose (MAAD) TT-OSL protocols were used to test for sensitivity changes in the SAR TT-OSL protocol up to doses of 1200 Gy. A strong dose dependent deviation of the SAR TT-OSL relative to the MAAD TT-OSL dose response is observed. Comparison of the TT-OSL and OSL sensitivity data obtained from the MAAD and SAR data sets shows a lack of proportionality between TT-OSL and OSL for the SAR data which will result in a problem when SAR dose response curves are constructed using many regeneration points with doses above 300 Gy.

  7. A deep intronic CLRN1 (USH3A) founder mutation generates an aberrant exon and underlies severe Usher syndrome on the Arabian Peninsula.

    Khan, Arif O; Becirovic, Elvir; Betz, Christian; Neuhaus, Christine; Altmüller, Janine; Maria Riedmayr, Lisa; Motameny, Susanne; Nürnberg, Gudrun; Nürnberg, Peter; Bolz, Hanno J

    2017-05-03

    Deafblindness is mostly due to Usher syndrome caused by recessive mutations in the known genes. Mutation-negative patients therefore either have distinct diseases, mutations in yet unknown Usher genes or in extra-exonic parts of the known genes - to date a largely unexplored possibility. In a consanguineous Saudi family segregating Usher syndrome type 1 (USH1), NGS of genes for Usher syndrome, deafness and retinal dystrophy and subsequent whole-exome sequencing each failed to identify a mutation. Genome-wide linkage analysis revealed two small candidate regions on chromosome 3, one containing the USH3A gene CLRN1, which has never been associated with Usher syndrome in Saudi Arabia. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) identified a homozygous deep intronic mutation, c.254-649T > G, predicted to generate a novel donor splice site. CLRN1 minigene-based analysis confirmed the splicing of an aberrant exon due to usage of this novel motif, resulting in a frameshift and a premature termination codon. We identified this mutation in an additional two of seven unrelated mutation-negative Saudi USH1 patients. Locus-specific markers indicated that c.254-649T > G CLRN1 represents a founder allele that may significantly contribute to deafblindness in this population. Our finding underlines the potential of WGS to uncover atypically localized, hidden mutations in patients who lack exonic mutations in the known disease genes.

  8. Nutrient biogeochemistry of the eastern Arabian Sea during the southwest monsoon retreat

    George, R; Muraleedharan, K.R; Martin, G.D.; Sabu, P.; Gerson, V.J.; Dineshkumar, P.K.; Nair, S.M.; Chandramohanakumar, N.; Nair, K.K.C.

    and adjoining southeastern Arabian Sea. Curr Sci 96:364–375 Jyothibabu R, Madhu NV, Jayalakshmi KV, Balachandran KK, Shiyas CA, Martin GD, Nair KKC (2006) Impact of freshwater influx on microzooplankton mediated food web in a tropical estuary (Cochin backwaters... ARTICLE Nutrient biogeochemistry of the eastern Arabian Sea during the southwest monsoon retreat Rejomon George • K. R. Muraleedharan • G. D. Martin • P. Sabu • Vijay John Gerson • P. K. Dineshkumar • S. M. Nair • N. Chandramohanakumar • K. K. C. Nair...

  9. CHEMTAX-derived phytoplankton community structure associated with temperature fronts in the northeastern Arabian Sea..

    Roy, R; Chitari, R; Kulkarni, V.; Krishna, M.S.; Sarma, V.V.S.S.; Anil, A.C.

    and northern Arabian Sea. Deep-Sea Res. I 34, 713-723. Barlow, R., Kyewalyanga, M., Sessions, H., Van den Berg, M., Morris, T., 2008. Phytoplankton pigments, functional types, and absorption properties in the Delagoa and Natal Bights of the Agulhas... for Prochlorococcus sp. in low-light suboxic environments in the Arabian Sea and the Eastern Tropical North Pacific. Deep-Sea Res. I. 47, 1183-1205. Grasshoff, K., Erhardt, M., Kremiling, K., 1983. Methods of seawater analysis, Verlag Chemie. 419 Haynes, R...

  10. Free-Living Marine Interstitial Hypotrichid Ciliates from Jubail Marine Wildlife Sanctuary in the Arabian Gulf

    K.A.S. AL-Rasheid

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Sediment samples were collected at low tide from various localities of the Jubail Marine Wildlife Sanctuary in the Arabian Gulf on several occasions during l996-l997 for the study of the marine interstitial ciliate fauna of the Sanctuary. Twenty three species belonging to the order Hypotrichida were identified after protargol impregnation, 20 of which represent new records of the fauna of Saudi Arabia, and of the Arabian Gulf at large. The distribution of each species is compared to those in similar habitats worldwide. The present study increases the total known number of hypotrichid ciliates species in Saudi Arabia to 40 species.

  11. EPR and Fluorescence Spectroscopy in the Photodegradation Study of Arabian and Colombian Crude Oils

    Carmen L. B. Guedes

    2006-01-01

    W/m2. The reduction in the linewidth of the free radical of 9.8% in Arabian oil and 18.5% in Colombian oil, as well as the decrease in radical numbers, indicated photochemical degradation, especially in Colombian oil. The linewidth narrowing corresponding to free radicals in the irradiated oils occurred due to the rearrangement among radicals and aromatic carbon consumption. The irradiated oils showed a reduction in the relative intensity of fluorescence of the aromatics with high molecular mass, polar aromatics, and asphaltene. The fluorescent fraction was reduced by 61% in Arabian oil and 72% in Colombian oil, corresponding to photochemical degradation of crude oil aromatic compounds.

  12. 'Shamal' swells in the Arabian Sea and their influence along the west coast of India

    Aboobacker, V.M.; Vethamony, P.; Rashmi, R.

    on the meteorological and oceanographic conditions of the Arabian Sea, and this has not been studied so far. Rapid changes in wind patterns during these shamal events can alter the wave characteristics of the Arabian Sea. This has motivated us to take up the present... generated in the Gulf of Oman and the east coast of Oman propagate in the NW direction. Another swell system formed off Salalah coast (Figure 4a) propagates in the NNW direction. Since the present study aims at understanding the influence of shamal swells...

  13. Controlling factors of the oxygen balance in the Arabian Sea's OMZ

    Resplandy, L.; Levy, M.; Bopp, L.; Echevin, V.; Pous, S.; Sarma, V.V.S.S.; Kumar, M.D.

    , 5095–5109, 2012 www.biogeosciences.net/9/5095/2012/ doi:10.5194/bg-9-5095-2012 © Author(s) 2012. CC Attribution 3.0 License. Biogeosciences Controlling factors of the oxygen balance in the Arabian Sea’s OMZ L. Resplandy1, M. Le´vy2, L. Bopp1, V. Echevin.... Resplandy et al.: Oxygen balance in the Arabian Sea OMZ OMZs are carefully examined for their possible interactions with the climate system and impacts on ecosystems. They could modulate atmospheric concentrations of major green- house gases such as CO2...

  14. Stable water isotopes of precipitation and firn cores from the northern Antarctic Peninsula region as a proxy for climate reconstruction

    F. Fernandoy

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the climate variability in the northern Antarctic Peninsula region, this paper focuses on the relationship between stable isotope content of precipitation and firn, and main meteorological variables (air temperature, relative humidity, sea surface temperature, and sea ice extent. Between 2008 and 2010, we collected precipitation samples and retrieved firn cores from several key sites in this region. We conclude that the deuterium excess oscillation represents a robust indicator of the meteorological variability on a seasonal to sub-seasonal scale. Low absolute deuterium excess values and the synchronous variation of both deuterium excess and air temperature imply that the evaporation of moisture occurs in the adjacent Southern Ocean. The δ18O-air temperature relationship is complicated and significant only at a (multiseasonal scale. Backward trajectory calculations show that air-parcels arriving at the region during precipitation events predominantly originate at the South Pacific Ocean and Bellingshausen Sea. These investigations will be used as a calibration for ongoing and future research in the area, suggesting that appropriate locations for future ice core research are located above 600 m a.s.l. We selected the Plateau Laclavere, Antarctic Peninsula as the most promising site for a deeper drilling campaign.

  15. Genetic variation of the endangered Gentiana lutea L. var. aurantiaca (Gentianaceae) in populations from the Northwest Iberian Peninsula.

    González-López, Oscar; Polanco, Carlos; György, Zsuzsanna; Pedryc, Andrzej; Casquero, Pedro A

    2014-06-05

    Gentiana lutea L. (G. lutea L.) is an endangered plant, patchily distributed along the mountains of Central and Southern Europe. In this study, inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers were used to investigate the genetic variation in this species within and among populations of G. lutea L. var. aurantiaca of the Cantabrian Mountains (Northwest Iberian Peninsula). Samples of G. lutea L. collected at different locations of the Pyrenees and samples of G. lutea L. subsp. vardjanii of the Dolomites Alps were also analyzed for comparison. Using nine ISSR primers, 106 bands were generated, and 89.6% of those were polymorphic. The populations from the Northwest Iberian Peninsula were clustered in three different groups, with a significant correlation between genetic and geographic distances. Gentiana lutea L. var. aurantiaca showed 19.8% private loci and demonstrated a remarkable level of genetic variation, both among populations and within populations; those populations with the highest level of isolation show the lowest genetic variation within populations. The low number of individuals, as well as the observed genetic structure of the analyzed populations makes it necessary to protect them to ensure their survival before they are too small to persist naturally.

  16. Distribution of Euphausia mucronata at the upwelling area of Peninsula Mejillones, northern Chile: The influence of the oxygen minimum layer

    R. Escribano

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of zooplankton samples from 53 stations obtained around Peninsula Mejillones (Northern Chile, from two strata: 0-50 m and 150-200 m, during active upwelling in December 1996, allowed the study of horizontal and vertical distribution of Euphausia mucronata, endemic Krill of the Humboldt Current. Information from CTDO and a fluorometer was used to analyze the influence of oceanographic variables on distribution of E. mucronata. E. mucronata was found distributed all around the Peninsula, although with greater aggregations in the southern area, especially in the deeper layer. Stepwise multiple regression showed that none of the variables (temperature, salinity and chlorophyll was significantly correlated to numerical abundance of the species. However there was a significant effect of depth of the oxygen minimum layer (OML, defined as 0.5 ml O2 l-1, on integrated abundance of the species, such that individuals are more likely to be found in areas where the OML is deeper. A vertical distribution parameter suggested a diurnal migrational pattern. This parameter was also correlated with distance to shoreline. The OML rises abrutply in nearshore areas because of active upwelling, but there are still nearshore zones where the OML remains deep. Therefore E. mucronata appears to aggregate around the upwelling lenses and filaments, where phytoplankton is more concentrated, but at the same time avoiding places where the OML is too shallow.

  17. Widespread occurrence of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in contemporary and historical samples of the endangered Bombina pachypus along the Italian peninsula.

    Daniele Canestrelli

    Full Text Available Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis is considered a main driver of the worldwide declines and extinctions of amphibian populations. Nonetheless, fundamental questions about its epidemiology, including whether it acts mainly as a "lone killer" or in conjunction with other factors, remain largely open. In this paper we analysed contemporary and historical samples of the endangered Apennine yellow-bellied toad (Bombina pachypus along the Italian peninsula, in order to assess the presence of the pathogen and its spreading dynamics. Once common throughout its range, B. pachypus started to decline after the mid-1990s in the northern and central regions, whereas no declines have been observed so far in the southern region. We show that Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis is currently widespread along the entire peninsula, and that this was already so at least as early as the late 1970s, that is, well before the beginning of the observed declines. This temporal mismatch between pathogen occurrence and host decline, as well as the spatial pattern of the declines, suggests that the pathogen has not acted as a "lone killer", but in conjunction with other factors. Among the potentially interacting factors, we identified two as the most probable, genetic diversity of host populations and recent climate changes. We discuss the plausibility of this scenario and its implications on the conservation of B. pachypus populations.

  18. Development of GNSS PWV information management system for very short-term weather forecast in the Korean Peninsula

    Park, Han-Earl; Yoon, Ha Su; Yoo, Sung-Moon; Cho, Jungho

    2017-04-01

    Over the past decade, Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) was in the spotlight as a meteorological research tool. The Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI) developed a GNSS precipitable water vapor (PWV) information management system to apply PWV to practical applications, such as very short-term weather forecast. The system consists of a DPR, DRS, and TEV, which are divided functionally. The DPR processes GNSS data using the Bernese GNSS software and then retrieves PWV from zenith total delay (ZTD) with the optimized mean temperature equation for the Korean Peninsula. The DRS collects data from eighty permanent GNSS stations in the southern part of the Korean Peninsula and provides the PWV retrieved from GNSS data to a user. The TEV is in charge of redundancy of the DPR. The whole process is performed in near real-time where the delay is ten minutes. The validity of the GNSS PWV was proved by means of a comparison with radiosonde data. In the experiment of numerical weather prediction model, the GNSS PWV was utilized as the initial value of the Weather Research & Forecasting (WRF) model for heavy rainfall event. As a result, we found that the forecasting capability of the WRF is improved by data assimilation of GNSS PWV.

  19. Genetic Variation of the Endangered Gentiana lutea L. var. aurantiaca (Gentianaceae in Populations from the Northwest Iberian Peninsula

    Oscar González-López

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Gentiana lutea L. (G. lutea L. is an endangered plant, patchily distributed along the mountains of Central and Southern Europe. In this study, inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR markers were used to investigate the genetic variation in this species within and among populations of G. lutea L. var. aurantiaca of the Cantabrian Mountains (Northwest Iberian Peninsula. Samples of G. lutea L. collected at different locations of the Pyrenees and samples of G. lutea L. subsp. vardjanii of the Dolomites Alps were also analyzed for comparison. Using nine ISSR primers, 106 bands were generated, and 89.6% of those were polymorphic. The populations from the Northwest Iberian Peninsula were clustered in three different groups, with a significant correlation between genetic and geographic distances. Gentiana lutea L. var. aurantiaca showed 19.8% private loci and demonstrated a remarkable level of genetic variation, both among populations and within populations; those populations with the highest level of isolation show the lowest genetic variation within populations. The low number of individuals, as well as the observed genetic structure of the analyzed populations makes it necessary to protect them to ensure their survival before they are too small to persist naturally.

  20. External rhinoplasty for the Arabian nose: a columellar scar analysis.

    Foda, Hossam M T

    2004-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate columellar scar problems after external rhinoplasty in the Arabian population, and to analyze the technical factors that help prevent such problems and maximize the scar cosmesis. The investigation was conducted in university and private practice settings of the author in Alexandria, Egypt. A total of 600 Arab patients who underwent external rhinoplasty were included in the study. All the patients underwent surgery using the external rhinoplasty approach, in which bilateral alar marginal incisions were connected by an inverted V-shaped transcolumellar incision. At completion of the procedure, a two-layer closure of the columellar incision was performed. At a minimum of 1 year postoperatively, the columellar scar was evaluated subjectively by means of a patient questionnaire, and objectively by clinical examination and comparison of the close-up pre- and postoperative basal view photographs. Objectively, anything less than a barely visible, leveled, thin, linear scar was considered unsatisfactory. Subjectively, 95.5% of the patients rated the scar as unnoticeable, 3% as noticeable but acceptable, and 1.5% as unacceptable. Objectively, the scar was unsatisfactory in 7% of the cases. This was because of scar widening with or without depression (5%), hyperpigmentation (1.5%), and columellar rim notching (0.5%). The use of a deep 6/0 polydioxanon (PDS) suture significantly decreased the incidence of scar widening (p < 0.005).The columellar incision can be used safely in the Arab population regardless of their thick, dark, and oily skin. Technical factors that contributed to the favorable outcome of the columellar scar included proper planning of location and design of the incision used, precise execution, meticulous multilayered closure, and good postoperative care.

  1. The Power of Cinema on the Korean Peninsula

    Samyel Lee

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: The Korean peninsula is constantly in a dynamic discussion of identity and direction. For South Korean society, it is no surprise that the Korean War and the existential threat that North Korea poses loom large over its collective conscience. Although mostly disregarded within scholarly discussions in international relations, cinema has always been, and continues to be, an insightful, powerful, and transformative forum. This essay discusses the ways in which cinema as an art form ha...

  2. Geochemical signatures of tephras from Quaternary Antarctic Peninsula volcanoes

    Kraus,Stefan; Kurbatov,Andrei; Yates,Martin

    2013-01-01

    In the northern Antarctic Peninsula area, at least 12 Late Plelstocene-Holocene volcanic centers could be potential sources of tephra layers in the region. We present unique geochemical fingerprints for ten of these volcanoes using major, trace, rare earth element, and isotope data from 95 samples of tephra and other eruption products. The volcanoes have predominantly basaltic and basaltic andesitic compositions. The Nb/Y ratio proves useful to distinguish between volcanic centers located on ...

  3. Dynamical characteristics of the seasonal circulations over the Korea peninsula

    1989-10-01

    This paper reports dynamical characteristics of the seasonal circulations over the Korean peninsula. It consists of summary, research method, result, consideration and conclusion. It introduces the method of research ; characteristics of circulation over seasonal wind in Asia, characteristic of upper jet stream related cold wave and monsoon in East Asia and dynamics of pulsation and maintain of high atmospheric pressure in siberia in winter. It was reported by Korea science foundation in 1989.

  4. Wild reindeer of the Kamchatka Peninsula - past, present, and future

    Vladimir Mosolov

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available A unique subspecies of wild reindeer (Rangifer tarandus phylarchus Hollister that is endemic to the Kamchatka Peninsula has been declining in number since the 1950s due to commercial hunting, increasing industrial development and competition with domestic reindeer. The largest remaining herd of wild reindeer occurs in the Kronotsky Reserve in northeastern Kamchatka, and the reserve is now critical to the preservation of this subspecies of reindeer.

  5. A study of secondary fabrics in rocks from the lizard Peninsula and adjacent areas in southwest cornwall, england

    Rathore, Jaswant Singh

    1980-09-01

    Magnetic susceptibility anisotropy techniques were applied to samples taken in selected areas of the Lizard Peninsula in order to study secondary fabrics due to: (1) the intrusion of granites into sediments; (2) the compression in the sediments to the north of the Lizard thrust boundary; and (3) the intrusion of serpentine into hornblende schists of the Lizard metamorphic block. The magnetic fabric around the Carnmenellis and Godolphin granite masses shows a strong compressional fabric, tending to suggest that the Devonian sediments were compressed radially as the granites intruded them. The high degree of anisotropy observed at the Lizard boundary falls, with increasing distance from the thrust, systematically down to low values in the Devonian sediments. The distinct changes in the fabric parameters at the north end of Church Cove-Landewednack and the southern end of Cadgwith Cove appear to be the remnant secondary fabrics due to the intrusion of serpentine into hornblende schists.

  6. Salinity and temperature variations around Peninsula Malaysia coastal waters

    Abdul Kadir Ishak; Jeremy Andy Anak Dominic; Nazrul Hizam Yusof; Mohd Rafaei Murtadza

    2004-01-01

    Vertical profiles of salinity and temperature were measured at several offshore stations along east and west coast of Peninsula Malaysia coastal waters. The measurements which covered South China Sea and Straits of Malacca were made during sampling cruises for Marine Database Project for Peninsula Malaysia, and during an IAEA regional training course for Marine Pollution Project. The results show that the water temperature is highest at the surface and minimum at bottom, while the salinity is lowest at the surface and highest at the bottom. In Malacca Straits, the highest surface water temperature was 30.6 degree C and the lowest bottom water temperature was 20.4 degree C, recorded at a station located in Andaman Sea. The same station also recorded the highest surface and bottom salinity i.e. 31.3 ppt and 34.4 ppt, respectively. For South China Sea, the maximum surface water temperature was 30.4 degree C and the minimum bottom temperature was 25.9 degree C, while the highest surface salinity was 33.2 ppt and the highest bottom salinity was 34.1 ppt. The water in South China Sea also showed some degrees of stratifications with thermocline zones located between 10-40 m water depths. In Malacca Straits, stronger thermocline develops at higher latitude, while at lower latitude the water is more readily mixed. Beside the spatial variations, the seawater temperature and salinity around Peninsula Malaysia also subjected to temporal variation as seawater. (Author)

  7. Russia and the Issues of the Korean Peninsula

    George D. Toloraya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of Korean Peninsula in Russian foreign strategy is based on the need to preserve peace and stability in the Russia's Far East "soft underbelly" and to be a part of international efforts to solve the Korean problem, as well as to promote regional economic cooperation. In 1990-s Russia's position on the peninsula weakened, mainly because of the rupture of ties with North Korea, while relations with South Korea were reactive in nature. Rebalancing relations with the two Koreas in 2000-s increased Russia's involvement into Korean settlement, including the 6- party format. Russia/s relations with North Korea are now based on good neighborhood principle, however, they are far from idyllic as Russia disapproves of Pyongyang's behavior, especially its nuclear and missile activities. However to influence the situation more Russia should deepen its ties with the current Pyongyang leadership regardless of how irritating its behavior might be. Relations with the ROK are aimed at becoming strategic, but in reality are limited due to ROK's alliance with the USA. However South Korea has become the third most important economic partner in Asia. Russia is especially interested in three- party projects, such as Trans-Korean railroad (linked to Transsiberan transit way, gas pipeline and electricity grid. However implementation of these project is negatively influenced by the tensions in Korean peninsula. It can be solved only by multilateral efforts for comprehensive solution combining security guarantees for North Korea and its abandonment of nuclear option.

  8. Carbonate rocks of the Seward Peninsula, Alaska: Their correlation and paleogeographic significance

    Dumoulin, Julie A.; Harris, Alta; Repetski, John E.

    2014-01-01

    associated calcareous metaturbidites of Ordovician age as well as shallow-water Silurian dolostones. Scattered metacarbonate rocks are chiefly Cambrian, Ordovician, Silurian, and Devonian dolostones that formed in shallow, warm-water settings with locally restricted circulation and marbles of less constrained Paleozoic age. Carbonate metaturbidites occur on the northeast and southeast coasts and yield mainly Silurian and lesser Ordovician and Devonian conodonts; the northern succession also includes debris flows with meter-scale clasts and an argillite interval with Late Ordovician graptolites and lenses of radiolarian chert. Mafic igneous rocks at least partly of Early Devonian age are common in the southern succession. Carbonate rocks on Seward Peninsula experienced a range of deformational and thermal histories equivalent to those documented in the Brooks Range. Conodont color alteration indices (CAIs) from Seward Peninsula, like those from the Brooks Range, define distinct thermal provinces that likely reflect structural burial. Penetratively deformed high-pressure metamorphic rocks of the Nome Complex (CAIs ≥5) correspond to rocks of the Schist belt in the southern Brooks Range; both record subduction during early stages of the Jurassic–Cretaceous Brooks Range orogeny. Weakly metamorphosed to unmetamorphosed strata of the York terrane (CAIs mainly 2–5), like Brooks Range rocks in the Central belt and structural allochthons to the north, experienced moderate to shallow burial during the main phase of the Brooks Range orogeny. The nature of the contact between the York terrane and the Nome Complex is uncertain; it may be a thrust fault, an extensional surface, or a thrust fault later reactivated as an extensional fault. Lithofacies and biofacies data indicate that, in spite of their divergent Mesozoic histories, rocks of the York terrane and protoliths of the Nome Complex formed as part of the same lower Paleozoic carbonate platform. Stratigraphies in both

  9. Extratropical Cyclone in the Southern Ocean

    2002-01-01

    These images from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) portray an occluded extratropical cyclone situated in the Southern Ocean, about 650 kilometers south of the Eyre Peninsula, South Australia. The left-hand image, a true-color view from MISR's nadir (vertical-viewing) camera, shows clouds just south of the Yorke Peninsula and the Murray-Darling river basin in Australia. Retrieved cloud-tracked wind velocities are indicated by the superimposed arrows. The image on the right displays cloud-top heights. Areas where cloud heights could not be retrieved are shown in black. Both the wind vectors and the cloud heights were derived using data from multiple MISR cameras within automated computer processing algorithms. The stereoscopic algorithms used to generate these results are still being refined, and future versions of these products may show modest changes. Extratropical cyclones are the dominant weather system at midlatitudes, and the term is used generically for regional low-pressure systems in the mid- to high-latitudes. In the southern hemisphere, cyclonic rotation is clockwise. These storms obtain their energy from temperature differences between air masses on either side of warm and cold fronts, and their characteristic pattern is of warm and cold fronts radiating out from a migrating low pressure center which forms, deepens, and dissipates as the fronts fold and collapse on each other. The center of this cyclone has started to decay, with the band of cloud to the south most likely representing the main front that was originally connected with the cyclonic circulation. These views were acquired on October 11, 2001, and the large view represents an area of about 380 kilometers x 1900 kilometers. Image courtesy NASA/GSFC/LaRC/JPL, MISR Team.

  10. Cascading of high salinity bottom waters from the Arabian/Persian Gulf to the northern Arabian Sea

    Shapiro, Georgy; Wobus, Fred; Solovyev, Vladimir; Francis, Xavier; Hyder, Patrick; Chen, Feng; Asif, Muhammad

    2017-04-01

    Cascading (aka shelf convection) is a specific type of buoyancy driven current in which dense water is formed over the continental shelf and then descends down the slope to a greater depth. The cascades of dense water down continental slopes provide a mechanism for shelf-ocean exchange in many parts of the world's oceans (Shapiro et al, 2003). Dense water is formed on the shelf by a number of processes, with high evaporation, limited river discharge and low precipitation being the major processes in warm climates (Ivanov et al, 2004). The formation and outflow of high salinity waters in the near-bottom layer of the Arabian/Persian Gulf is an example of dense water cascading (Bower et al 2000). Despite of its importance for the self-cleaning and the state of the marine ecosystem in the Arabian/Persian Gulf, the properties of the outflow have so far mainly been analysed using climatologically averaged data or observations of a limited set of parameters (mainly temperature), see (Bower et al 2000). In this paper we study the dynamics of the flow using a comprehensive set of observational data (temperature, salinity velocity and turbidity profiles) obtained during the GRASP (Gulf Reconnaissance And Selective Profiling) observational campaign in the Gulf of Oman, which are complemented by the results of numerical modelling of the area using a number of 3D ocean models, and some ARGO T/S profiles. The GRASP measurements were carried out using an Aqualog climbing moored profiler, which was equipped with a Seabird CTD sensor, a Nortek Aquadopp current meter and a Seapoint turbidity meter. The Ocean circulation models used in the study include PGM4 and IND12 (UK Met Office); and AS20 and AG60 (University of Plymouth). All models are based on NEMO (Nucleus for European Modelling of the Ocean) codebase with a resolution from 9 km down to 1.8 km. The models were calibrated and validated against ARGO float profiles in the area. The study revealed the mesoscale and sub

  11. Can captive populations function as sources of genetic variation for reintroductions into the wild? A case study of the Arabian oryx from the Phoenix Zoo and the Shaumari Wildlife Reserve, Jordan

    Ochoa, Alexander; Wells, Stuart A.; West, Gary; Al-Smadi, Ma’en; Redondo, Sergio A.; Sexton, Sydnee R.; Culver, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    The Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx) historically ranged across the Arabian Peninsula and neighboring countries until its extirpation in 1972. In 1963–1964 a captive breeding program for this species was started at the Phoenix Zoo (PHX); it ultimately consisted of 11 animals that became known as the ‘World Herd’. In 1978–1979 a wild population was established at the Shaumari Wildlife Reserve (SWR), Jordan, with eight descendants from the World Herd and three individuals from Qatar. We described the mtDNA and nuclear genetic diversity and structure of PHX and SWR. We also determined the long-term demographic and genetic viability of these populations under different reciprocal translocation scenarios. PHX displayed a greater number of mtDNA haplotypes (n = 4) than SWR (n = 2). Additionally, PHX and SWR presented nuclear genetic diversities of N¯AN¯A = 2.88 vs. 2.75, H¯OH¯O = 0.469 vs. 0.387, and H¯EH¯E = 0.501 vs. 0.421, respectively. Although these populations showed no signs of inbreeding (F¯ISF¯IS ≈ 0), they were highly differentiated (G′′STGST′′ = 0.580; P extinction in PHX during 25 generations. Under such scenarios, maximum genetic diversities were achieved in the first generations before the effects of genetic drift became predominant. Although captive populations can function as sources of genetic variation for reintroduction programs, we recommend promoting mutual and continuous gene flow with wild populations to ensure the long-term survival of this species.

  12. Microbial diversity and community structure across environmental gradients in Bransfield Strait, Western Antarctic Peninsula

    Camila Negrão Signori

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Southern Ocean is currently subject to intense investigations, mainly related to its importance for global biogeochemical cycles and its alarming rate of warming in response to climate change. Microbes play an essential role in the functioning of this ecosystem and are the main drivers of the biogeochemical cycling of elements. Yet, the diversity and abundance of microorganisms in this system remains poorly studied, in particular with regards to changes along environmental gradients. Here, we used amplicon sequencing of 16S rRNA gene tags using primers covering both Bacteria and Archaea to assess the composition and diversity of the microbial communities from four sampling depths (surface, the maximum and minimum of the oxygen concentration, and near the seafloor at ten oceanographic stations located in Bransfield Strait (northwest of the Antarctic Peninsula (AP and near the sea ice edge (north of the AP. Samples collected near the seafloor and at the oxygen minimum exhibited a higher diversity than those from the surface and oxygen maximum for both bacterial and archaeal communities. The main taxonomic groups identified below 100 m were Thaumarchaeota, Euryarchaeota and Proteobacteria (Gamma-, Delta-, Beta- and Alphaproteobacteria, whereas in the mixed layer above 100 m Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria (mainly Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria were found to be dominant. A combination of environmental factors seems to influence the microbial community composition. Our results help to understand how the dynamic seascape of the Southern Ocean shapes the microbial community composition and set a baseline for upcoming studies to evaluate the response of this ecosystem to future changes.

  13. Reprint of "Seismic monitoring of the Plosky Tolbachik eruption in 2012-2013 (Kamchatka Peninsula Russia)"

    Senyukov, S. L.; Nuzhdina, I. N.; Droznina, S. Ya.; Garbuzova, V. T.; Kozhevnikova, T. Yu.; Sobolevskaya, O. V.; Nazarova, Z. A.; Bliznetsov, V. E.

    2015-12-01

    The active basaltic volcano Plosky Tolbachik (Pl. Tolbachik) is located in the southern part of the Klyuchevskoy volcano group on the Kamchatka Peninsula. The previous 1975-1976 Great Tolbachik Fissure Eruption (1975-1976 GTFE) occurred in the southern sector of Pl. Tolbachik. It was preceded by powerful earthquakes with local magnitudes between 2.5 and 4.9 and it was successfully predicted with a short-term forecast. The Kamchatka Branch of Geophysical Survey (KBGS) of the Russian Academy of Science (RAS) began to publish the results of daily seismic monitoring of active Kamchatka volcanoes on the Internet in 2000. Unlike the 1975-1976 GTFE precursor, (1) seismicity before the 2012-2013 Tolbachik Fissure Eruption (2012-2013 TFE) was relatively weak and earthquake magnitudes did not exceed 2.5. (2) Precursory earthquake hypocenters at 0-5 km depth were concentrated mainly under the southeastern part of the volcano. (3) The frequency of events gradually increased in September 2012, and rose sharply on the eve of the eruption. (4) According to seismic data, the explosive-effusive 2012-2013 TFE began at 05 h 15 min UTC on November 27, 2012; the outbreak occurred between the summit of the Pl. Tolbachik and the Northern Breakthrough of the 1975-1976 GTFE. (5) Because of bad weather, early interpretations of the onset time and the character of the eruption were made using seismological data only and were confirmed later by other monitoring methods. The eruption finished in early September 2013. This article presents the data obtained through real-time seismic monitoring and the results of retrospective analysis, with additional comments on the future monitoring of volcanic activity.

  14. Religious diversity and patrimonialization A case study of the Nianli Festival in Leizhou Peninsula, China

    Shanshan Zheng

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available With the emergence of the neologism ‘intangible cultural heritage’ in 2003 and the adoption of the Intangible Cultural Heritage Law of the People’sRepublic of China in 2011 various popular religious practices in China which used to be considered as feudal superstitions started to be recognized as examples of cultural heritage worthy of protection. If we examine the concept of religious diversity at a local level in contemporary China, the process of a ‘patrimonialization’ of popular religious practices that reflect the dynamic relationships which can be detected across diverse discourses, multiple stakeholders and cultural policies in different arenas could offer us a new perspective on religious practices to explore. In this article I offer an analysis, based on fieldwork conducted between 2013 and 2016 on the Leizhou Peninsula in southern China’s Guangdong Province, of the varying degrees of acceptance, accommodation and resistance prompted by the actualization of popular religious practices in this era of patrimonialization.

  15. A third case of amelia in Morelet's crocodile from the Yucatan Peninsula.

    Charruau, Pierre; Niño-Torres, Carlos A

    2014-07-03

    Congenital defects in crocodilians have received little interest. In the context of global change and increasing threats to biodiversity, data on birth defects occurring in wildlife could be of importance for estimating the health of species populations and their ecosystems. Herein, we report the first case of amelia (i.e. absence of limbs) in Morelet's crocodiles Crocodylus moreletii from Mexico and the third on the southern Yucatan Peninsula. The crocodile in question was a juvenile (41 cm total length) captured in July 2012 in the Río Hondo, the river that forms the border between Mexico and Belize south of the state of Quintana Roo. The prevalence of this malformation in the C. moreletii population of Río Hondo (0.35%) is similar to that reported in 2 previous cases in Belize. Several causes of birth defects in crocodilians have previously been cited in the literature. Although we do not have relevant information to elucidate this case, we discuss some plausible explanations for this birth defect.

  16. Investigation of hydrological variability in the Korean Peninsula with the ENSO teleconnections

    S. Yoon

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes nonlinear behavior links with atmospheric teleconnections between hydrologic variables and climate indices using statistical models during warm season (June to September over the Korean Peninsula (KP. The ocean-related major climate factor, which is the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO was used to analyze the atmospheric teleconnections by principal component analysis (PCA and a singular spectrum analysis (SSA. The nonlinear lag time correlations between climate indices and hydrologic variables are calculated by Mutual Information (MI technique. The nonlinear correlation coefficients (CCs by MI were higher than linear CCs, and ENSO shows a few months of lag time correlation. The warm season hydrologic variables in KP shows a significant increasing tendency during the warm pool (WP, and the cold tongue (CT El Niño decaying years shows a significant decreasing tendency, while the La Niña year shows slightly above normal conditions, respectively. A better understanding of the relationship between climate indices and streamflow, and their local impacts can help to prepare for the river discharge management by water managers and scientists. Furthermore, these results provide useful data for policy makers and end-users to support long-range water resources prediction and water-related policy.

  17. Biogeographical region and host trophic level determine carnivore endoparasite richness in the Iberian Peninsula.

    Rosalino, L M; Santos, M J; Fernandes, C; Santos-Reis, M

    2011-05-01

    We address the question of whether host and/or environmental factors might affect endoparasite richness and distribution, using carnivores as a model. We reviewed studies published in international peer-reviewed journals (34 areas in the Iberian Peninsula), describing parasite prevalence and richness in carnivores, and collected information on site location, host bio-ecology, climate and detected taxa (Helminths, Protozoa and Mycobacterium spp.). Three hypotheses were tested (i) host based, (ii) environmentally based, and (iii) hybrid (combination of environmental and host). Multicollinearity reduced candidate variable number for modelling to 5: host weight, phylogenetic independent contrasts (host weight), mean annual temperature, host trophic level and biogeographical region. General Linear Mixed Modelling was used and the best model was a hybrid model that included biogeographical region and host trophic level. Results revealed that endoparasite richness is higher in Mediterranean areas, especially for the top predators. We suggest that the detected parasites may benefit from mild environmental conditions that occur in southern regions. Top predators have larger home ranges and are likely to be subjected to cascading effects throughout the food web, resulting in more infestation opportunities and potentially higher endoparasite richness. This study suggests that richness may be more affected by historical and regional processes (including climate) than by host ecological processes.

  18. Holocene evolution of Dahab coastline - Gulf of Aqaba, Sinai Peninsula, Egypt

    Torab, Magdy

    2018-03-01

    Dahab is a little Bedouin-village in Sinai Peninsula on the east coast of the Gulf of Aqaba and it lies approximately 90 km north of Sharm-el-Sheikh City. Dahab means "gold" in the Arabic language; over the past 20 years it has become one of the most visited tourist sites in Egypt. The basement complex is composed mostly of biotite aplite-granite, mica-aplite granite, granodiorite, quartz diorite, alaskite, and diorite. This composition correlates to similar igneous rocks in the most southern areas of Sinai and the Red Sea. Wadi Dahab is composed of igneous and metamorphic rocks and the coastline is formed of fragments of its rocks mixed with fragments of coral reef. The morphology of Dahab's coastline is characterized by a hooked marine spit composed of fluvial sediments carried by marine currents from the mouth of Wadi Dahab. This spit encloses a shallow lagoon, but the active deposition on the lagoon bottom will turn it into saline marsh. This paper investigates the evolution of the Dahab spit and lagoon during the Holocene and over the last 100 years, as well as the potential impacts of future management of the coastal area. The coastline mapping during the study was dependent on GIS techniques and data were collected by using total station, aerial photographs and satellite image interpretation as well as soil sample dating.

  19. Dynamics of phytoplankton communities during late summer around the tip of the Antarctic Peninsula

    Mendes, Carlos Rafael Borges; de Souza, Márcio Silva; Garcia, Virginia Maria Tavano; Leal, Miguel Costa; Brotas, Vanda; Garcia, Carlos Alberto Eiras

    The composition and distribution of phytoplankton assemblages around the tip of the Antarctic Peninsula were studied during two summer cruises (February/March 2008 and 2009). Water samples were collected for HPLC/CHEMTAX pigment and microscopic analysis. A great spatial variability in chlorophyll a (Chl a) was observed in the study area: highest levels in the vicinity of the James Ross Island (exceeding 7 mg m-3 in 2009), intermediate values (0.5 to 2 mg m-3) in the Bransfield Strait, and low concentrations in the Weddell Sea and Drake Passage (below 0.5 mg m-3). Phytoplankton assemblages were generally dominated by diatoms, especially at coastal stations with high Chl a concentration, where diatom contribution was above 90% of total Chl a. Nanoflagellates, such as cryptophytes and/or Phaeocystis antarctica, replaced diatoms in open-ocean areas (e.g., Weddell Sea). Many species of peridinin-lacking autotrophic dinoflagellates (e.g., Gymnodinium spp.) were also important to total Chl a biomass at well-stratified stations of Bransfield Strait. Generally, water column structure was the most important environmental factor determining phytoplankton communities' biomass and distribution. The HPLC pigment data also allowed the assessment of different physiological responses of phytoplankton to ambient light variation. The present study provides new insights about the dynamics of phytoplankton in an undersampled region of the Southern Ocean highly susceptible to global climate change.

  20. High resolution reconstruction of monthly autumn and winter precipitation of Iberian Peninsula for last 150 years.

    Cortesi, N.; Trigo, R.; González-Hidalgo, J. C.; Ramos, A.

    2012-04-01

    Precipitation over Iberian Peninsula (IP) presents large values of interannual variability and large spatial contrasts between wet mountainous regions in the north and dry regions in the southern plains. Unlike other European regions, IP was poorly monitored for precipitation during 19th century. Here we present a new approach to fill this gap. A set of 26 atmospheric circulation weather types (Trigo R.M. and DaCamara C.C., 2000) derived from a recent SLP dataset, the EMULATE (European and North Atlantic daily to multidecadal climate variability) Project, was used to reconstruct Iberian monthly precipitation from October to March during 1851-1947. Principal Component Regression Analysis was chosen to develop monthly precipitation reconstruction back to 1851 and calibrated over 1948-2003 period for 3030 monthly precipitation series of high-density homogenized MOPREDAS (Monthly Precipitation Database for Spain and Portugal) database. Validation was conducted over 1920-1947 at 15 key site locations. Results show high model performance for selected months, with a mean coefficient of variation (CV) around 0.6 during validation period. Lower CV values were achieved in western area of IP. Trigo, R. M., and DaCamara, C.C., 2000: "Circulation weather types and their impact on the precipitation regime in Portugal". Int. J. Climatol., 20, 1559-1581.