WorldWideScience

Sample records for southeastern yunnan province

  1. The Path Analysis of Farmers' Income Structure in Yunnan Province

    OpenAIRE

    XIAO, Yongtian; CUI, Yu; HU, Lijia

    2015-01-01

    The problem of farmers' income growth is the key of issues concerning agriculture, countryside and farmers, so the farmers’ income growth is the fundamental starting point for agricultural and rural economic development. In this paper, we use the statistics concerning farmers' income in Yunnan Province from 1995 to 2012, to perform the path analysis of components of farmers' income in Yunnan Province, study the path of influence of components of farmers' income on farmers' net income, and t...

  2. HLA alleles and haplotypes distribution in Dai population in Yunnan province, Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, L; Yao, Y F; Shi, L; Matsushita, M; Yu, L; Lin, Q K; Tao, Y F; Oka, T; Chu, J Y; Tokunaga, K

    2010-02-01

    Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) analysis would be a useful tool to trace the origin of modern humans. In this study, we provided the first four digital HLA-A, -B, -C and -DRB1 allele and haplotype data in the Dai ethnic population, which is a unique and representative Kam-Tai-speaking ethnic minority living in the Yunnan province of Southwestern China. Our results showed that the Dai population has unique HLA characteristic that are most closely related to the Southeastern Asia group and similar to the Kam-Tai speaking populations in China and Thailand.

  3. Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae in Yunnan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Zheng; Dehua, Liu; Hua, Niu; Yue, Feng; Yunmin, Xu; Jianhua, Li; Xueshan, Xia

    2016-11-22

    Among 144 carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae strains isolated from 4 hospitals in Yunnan province, 113 were identified as carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE). Bla KPC-2 (99/113, 87.6%) was the most common carbapenemase gene and Klebsiella pneumoniae (100/113, 88.5%) was the most common species. Bla NDM-1 (11/113, 9.7%), bla IMP-4 (10/113, 8.8%), and bla IMP-1 (1/113, 0.9%) genes were also detected. Extended-spectrum β-lactamase genes were common in CPE, and the SHV- and CTX-M-types were predominant.

  4. Profiling elements in Puerh tea from Yunnan province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianyang; Ma, Guicen; Chen, Liyan; Liu, Ting; Liu, Xin; Lu, Chengyin

    2017-09-01

    Puerh tea, as the most representative Chinese dark tea, has attracted global interest in recent years. Profiling the levels of metal elements in Puerh tea is very important since its presence is related to human health. In this study, 41 elements in 98 Puerh tea samples from Yunnan province, China including Puerh raw tea and Puerh ripe tea were evaluated by microwave digestion combined with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry . The content of toxic elements, essential elements and rare earth elements of Puerh tea from different regions was discussed in detail. The concentrations of Ba, Cr, As, Pb, Bi, Fe, Zn, V, Mn, Be, Ag and Tl showed significant differences (p tea from different regions. This study provided a comprehensive database for Puerh tea quality control and intake risk assessment.

  5. Two new species of Indonemoura (Plecoptera: Nemouridae) from Yunnan Province of southwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weihai; Wu, Limin; Yang, Ding

    2017-02-09

    Two new species of the nemourid genus Indonemoura are described, Indonemoura curvispina sp. nov. and I. spirocornua sp. nov., from the Gaoligong Mountains of Yunnan Province of southwestern China. The taxonomic relationships with related species are discussed.

  6. Study of an evaluation index system of well-off water conservancy in Yunnan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Chang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available To achieve good water conservancy under the well-off society before 2020, the future water conservancy planning is undergoing in Yunnan Province. In this study, by analysing the research results of domestic relevant water evaluation index systems and combining this with the water conservancy construction key of Yunnan Province, an unique evaluation index system was proposed to evaluate the well-off water conservancy level of Yunnan Province. It is composed of three levels which are the target layer, criterion layer and index layer. And the criterion layer includes six systems, namely flood control and drought relief mitigation, reasonable allocation of water resources, highly effective water utilization, water source protection and river health security, water management and securing of water development. The analytic hierarchy process (AHP was used to determine the weight of each index. According to the present situation of water development and the related water conservancy planning in Yunnan Province, the target value of each index and evaluation standards are put forward for Yunnan Province in 2020. The results show that the evaluation results are consistent with the actual condition of water development in Yunnan Province and can be used to examine the effects of well-off water conservancy planning.

  7. Poverty and malaria in the Yunnan province, China

    OpenAIRE

    Bi, Yan; Tong, Shilu

    2014-01-01

    Poverty and malaria appear to have an intertwined link. This paper aims to define the relationship between poverty and malaria in Yunnan, China, and to make recommendations for future research in this important area. Data on malaria prevalence and the population’s income in each county between 2005 and 2010 were obtained from the Yunnan Center for Disease Control and Prevention and the Yunnan Bureau of Statistics, respectively. Geographic mapping shows an apparent spatial convergence of pover...

  8. Gendered Responses to Drought in Yunnan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufang Su

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Vulnerability to and perceptions of climate change may be significantly affected by gender. However, in China, gender is rarely addressed in climate adaption or resource management strategies. This paper demonstrates the relevance of gender in responses to climate change in the mountainous province of Yunnan in southwest China. Based on surveys undertaken during a record-breaking drought, the paper explores how women and men in a village in Baoshan Prefecture differ in their perceptions of and responses to drought, and how the changing roles of women and men in the home and the community are influencing water management at the village level. Our results show that despite the increasingly active role of women in managing water during the drought, they are excluded from community-level decision-making about water. The paper argues that given the importance of gender differences in perceptions of and responses to drought, the lack of a gender perspective in Chinese policy may undermine efforts to support local resource management and climate adaptation.

  9. Evaluation of ecosystem service based on scenario simulation of land use in Yunnan Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong; Liao, Xiaoli; Zhai, Tianlin

    2018-04-01

    Climate change and rapid urbanization are important factors restricting future land use. Situational analysis, as an important foundation for the optimization of land use, needs to focus on the impact of climate factors and socio-economic factors. In this paper, the Markov model and the DLS (Simulation of Land System Dynamics) model are combined for the first time, and the land use pattern in 2020 is simulated based on the data of land use in 2000 and 2010 as well as the climate, soil, topography and socio-economic factors of Yunnan Province. In his paper, we took Yunnan Province as the case study area, and selected 12 driving factors by logistic regression method, then the land use demands and layout of Yunnan Province in 2020 has been forecasted and simulated under business as usual (BAU) scenario and farmland protection (FP) scenario and the changes in ecosystem service value has been calculated. The result shows that: (1) after the regression analysis and ROC (Relative Operating Characteristics) test, the 12 factors selected in this paper have a strong ability to explain the land use change in Yunnan Province. (2) Under the two scenarios, the significant reduction of arable land area is a common feature of land use change in Yunnan Province in the future, and its main land use type will be construction land. However, under FP scenario, the current situation where construction land encroach on arable land will be improved. Compared with the change from 2000 to 2010, the trend of arable land, forest land, water area, construction land and unused land will be the same under the two scenarios, whereas the change trend of grassland was opposite. (3) From 2000 to 2020, the value of ecosystem services in Yunnan Province is on the rise, but the ecosystem service value under FP scenario is higher than that of the ecosystem services under BAU scenario. In general, land use in 2020 in Yunnan Province continues the pattern of 2010, but there are also significant spatial

  10. Study on Optimal Spatial Allocation between Tourism Industry and Subject--The Case of Yunnan Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Zhang, Mu; Luo, Jing

    2016-01-01

    There exists mutual improvement and restriction between regional tourism industry and the development of the tourism subject. With the rapid development of the tourism industry, it has set up the tourism program in the universities of Yunnan Province. However, the regional development of the construction of tourism subject is not balanced and its…

  11. Two new species of Willowsia (Collembola: Entomobryidae from Yunnan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Chai

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We describe two new species of Willowsia: W. baoshanensis sp. nov. and W. zhaotongensis sp. nov. This is the first report of Willowsia from Yunnan Province, China. W. baoshanensis sp. nov. is mainly characterized by its chaetotaxy, W. zhaotongensis sp. nov. by its color pattern and chaetotaxy.

  12. Application of Multi-Source Remote Sensing Image in Yunnan Province Grassland Resources Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J.; Wen, G.; Li, D.

    2018-04-01

    Trough mastering background information of Yunnan province grassland resources utilization and ecological conditions to improves grassland elaborating management capacity, it carried out grassland resource investigation work by Yunnan province agriculture department in 2017. The traditional grassland resource investigation method is ground based investigation, which is time-consuming and inefficient, especially not suitable for large scale and hard-to-reach areas. While remote sensing is low cost, wide range and efficient, which can reflect grassland resources present situation objectively. It has become indispensable grassland monitoring technology and data sources and it has got more and more recognition and application in grassland resources monitoring research. This paper researches application of multi-source remote sensing image in Yunnan province grassland resources investigation. First of all, it extracts grassland resources thematic information and conducts field investigation through BJ-2 high space resolution image segmentation. Secondly, it classifies grassland types and evaluates grassland degradation degree through high resolution characteristics of Landsat 8 image. Thirdly, it obtained grass yield model and quality classification through high resolution and wide scanning width characteristics of MODIS images and sample investigate data. Finally, it performs grassland field qualitative analysis through UAV remote sensing image. According to project area implementation, it proves that multi-source remote sensing data can be applied to the grassland resources investigation in Yunnan province and it is indispensable method.

  13. Slope Controls Grain Yield and Climatic Yield in Mountainous Yunnan province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, X.; Rong, L.; Gu, Z.; Feng, D.

    2017-12-01

    Mountainous regions are increasingly vulnerable to food insecurity because of limited arable land, growing population pressure, and climate change. Development of sustainable mountain agriculture will require an increased understanding of the effects of environmental factors on grain and climatic yields. The objective of this study was to explore the relationships between actual grain yield, climatic yield, and environmental factors in a mountainous region in China. We collected data on the average grain yield per unit area in 119 counties in Yunnan province from 1985 to 2012, and chose 17 environmental factors for the same period. Our results showed that actual grain yield ranged from 1.43 to 6.92 t·ha-1, and the climatic yield ranged from -0.15 to -0.01 t·ha-1. Lower climatic yield but higher grain yield was generally found in central areas and at lower slopes and elevations in the western and southwestern counties of Yunnan province. Higher climatic yield but lower grain yield were found in northwestern parts of Yunnan province on steep slopes. Annual precipation and temperature had a weak influence on the climatic yield. Slope explained 44.62 and 26.29% of the variation in grain yield and climatic yield. The effects of topography on grain and climatic yields were greater than climatic factors. Slope was the most important environmental variable for the variability in climatic and grain yields in the mountainous Yunnan province due to the highly heterogeneous topographic conditions. Conversion of slopes to terraces in areas with higher climatic yields is an effective way to maintain grain production in response to climate variability. Additionally, soil amendments and soil and water conservation measures should be considered to maintain soil fertility and aid in sustainable development in central areas, and in counties at lower slopes and elevations in western and southwestern Yunnan province.

  14. [A study on genotype of 271 mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in 6 prefectures in Yunnan Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L Y; Yang, X; Ru, H H; Yang, H J; Yan, S Q; Ma, L; Chen, J O; Yang, R; Xu, L

    2018-01-06

    Objective: To understand the characteristics of genotypes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in Yunnan province, and provide the molecular epidemiological evidence for prevention and control of tuberculosis in Yunnan Province. Methods: Mycobacterium Tuberculosis isolates were collected from 6 prefectures of Yunnan province in 2014 and their Genetypes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates were obtained using spoligotyping and multiple locus variable numbers of tandem repeats analysis (MLVA). The results of spoligotyping were entered into the SITVITWEB database to obtain the Spoligotyping International Type (SIT) patterns and the sublineages of MTB isolates. The genoyping patterns were clustered with BioNumerics (version 5.0). Results: A total of 271 MTB isolates represented patients were collected from six prefectures in Yunnan province. Out of these patients, 196 (72.3%) were male. The mean age of the patients was (41.9±15.1) years. The most MTB isolates were from Puer, totally 94 iusolates(34.69%). Spoligotyping analysis revealed that 151 (55.72%) MTB isolates belonged to the Beijing genotype, while the other 120 (44.28%) were from non-Beijing genotype; 40 genotypes were consisted of 24 unique genotypes and 16 clusters. The 271 isolates were differentiated into 30 clusters (2 to 17 isolates per cluster) and 177 unique genotypes, showing a clustering rate of 23.62%. Beijing genotype strains showed higher clustering rate than non-Beijing genotype strains (29.14% vs 16.67%). The HGI of 12-locus VNTR in total MTB strains, Beijing genotype strains and non-Beijing genotype was 0.993, 0.982 and 0.995 respectively. Conclusion: The Beijing genotype was the predominant genotype in Yunnan Province, the characteristics of Mycobacterium tuberculosis showed high genetic diversity. The genotyping data reflect the potential recent ongoing transmission in some area, which highlights the urgent need for early diagnosis and treatment of the infectious TB cases, to cut off the

  15. [Risk Factors of Lung Cancer in Xuanwei, Yunnan Province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liqun; Wan, Xia; Chen, Gongbo; Ma, Xiangyun; Ning, Bofu; Yang, Gonghuan

    2017-08-20

    Since 1970s, Xuanwei in Yunnan province has been one of the towns with highest lung cancer mortality in China. Moreover, the characters of high female lung cancer mortality and sub-regional clustering high lung cancer mortality have not changed. In this study, we further described the exposure situation of risk factors of lung cancer in Xuanwei nowadays, in order to explore the trend of the distribution of lung cancer there. Firstly we divided the 26 towns of Xuanwei city to high-, median- and low- lung cancer areas by the lung cancer mortality in 2010-2012. We chose 2 towns within each area according to topography and orientation, and randomly picked 4 villages in each town to be our study area. We did a questionnaire about lung cancer related risk factors upon the sample population in the study area. We calculated the exposure percentages of each risk factor, in whole sample population and subgroups, for nowadays and for 10 years ago (only living environmental risk factors), and compared them between areas or time points using standardized rates and the statistical test of standardized rate comparison, or chi-square test. 65%-80% male in the study area has a history of smoking; 60%-90% non-smoker has been exposed to second hand smoke. These situations are worse in high and median lung cancer areas. 50% male in median lung cancer area have coal mining work experience, which is 2 times of the percentages in the other two areas; while 15%-25% people in high lung cancer area have other occupational exposure history to particulate air pollution, which is 3-5 times of the percentages in the other two areas. From ten years ago until nowadays, 80% families in median lung cancer area use 2 tons or more smoky coal per year; more than 90% families burn coal for household heating; more than 60% families suffer from smog in the kitchen during cook; 60% families most frequently use stove in the ground with chimney. Only 20% families in high lung cancer area now use 2 tons or

  16. Risk Factors of Lung Cancer in Xuanwei, Yunnan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqun LIU

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Since 1970s, Xuanwei in Yunnan province has been one of the towns with highest lung cancer mortality in China. Moreover, the characters of high female lung cancer mortality and sub-regional clustering high lung cancer mortality have not changed. In this study, we further described the exposure situation of risk factors of lung cancer in Xuanwei nowadays, in order to explore the trend of the distribution of lung cancer there. Methods Firstly we divided the 26 towns of Xuanwei city to high-, median- and low- lung cancer areas by the lung cancer mortality in 2010-2012. We chose 2 towns within each area according to topography and orientation, and randomly picked 4 villages in each town to be our study area. We did a questionnaire about lung cancer related risk factors upon the sample population in the study area. We calculated the exposure percentages of each risk factor, in whole sample population and subgroups, for nowadays and for 10 years ago (only living environmental risk factors, and compared them between areas or time points using standardized rates and the statistical test of standardized rate comparison, or chi-square test. Results 65%-80% male in the study area has a history of smoking; 60%-90% non-smoker has been exposed to second hand smoke. These situations are worse in high and median lung cancer areas. 50% male in median lung cancer area have coal mining work experience, which is 2 times of the percentages in the other two areas; while 15%-25% people in high lung cancer area have other occupational exposure history to particulate air pollution, which is 3-5 times of the percentages in the other two areas. From ten years ago until nowadays, 80% families in median lung cancer area use 2 tons or more smoky coal per year; more than 90% families burn coal for household heating; more than 60% families suffer from smog in the kitchen during cook; 60% families most frequently use stove in the ground with chimney

  17. [Study on suitable harvest time of Dendrobium officinale in Yunnan province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shan-bao; Zhou, Ke-jun; Zhang, Zhen; Lu, Rui-rui; Li, Xian; Li, Xiao-hua

    2015-09-01

    In order to determine the suitable harvest time of Dendrobium officinale from different regions in Yunnan province, the drying rate, mannose and glucose peak area ratio, extract, contents of polysaccharide and mannose of D. officinale samples collected from six producing areas in Ynnnan province were determined. The results indicate that drying rate and the contents of polysaccharide and mannose arrived the peak from January to April, extract reached a higher content from September to December, and mannose and glucose peak area ratio from October to February of the coming met the requirment of the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. Hence, the suitable harvesting time of D. officinale in Yunnan province is from December to February of the coming year,according to the experimental results and the request of the Chinese Pharmacopoeia.

  18. First report of Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in peafowls in Yunnan Province, Southwestern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Yi-Ming

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular protozoan parasite infecting almost all warm-blooded animals, including birds, with a worldwide distribution. Surveys of T. gondii infection in wild birds have been reported extensively in the world, but little is known of T. gondii infection in peafowls worldwide. This study was performed to determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in peafowls in Yunnan Province, southwestern China. Methods Sera from 277 peafowls, including 272 blue peafowls (Pavo cristatus and 5 green peafowls (Pavo muticus originated from two geographic areas in Yunnan Province were assayed for T. gondii antibodies using the modified agglutination test (MAT. Results Specific T. gondii antibodies were detected in 35 of 277 (12.64% peafowls (MAT titer ≥ 1:5. Seropositive birds were found in both species, 33 in 272 blue peafowls and 2 in 5 green peafowls. There was no significant difference in T. gondii seroprevalence between the adolescent birds (6.74% and the adult birds (6.67% (P > 0.05. The geographical origins of peafowls was found to be highly associated with T. gondii infection in the present study, a statistically significant difference in T. gondii seropositivity was observed between peafowls from Kunming (31.08% and those from Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture (5.91% (OR = 10.956, 95% CI = 1.632-73.545, P = 0.014. Statistical analyses showed that there were no significant interactions between ages and geographical origins of peafowls (P > 0.05. Conclusions The results of the present survey indicated that infection of peafowls with T. gondii is widespread in Yunnan Province, which has significant public health concerns and implications for prevention and control of toxoplamosis in this province. To our knowledge, this is the first seroprevalence report of T. gondii infection in China’s southwestern Yunnan Province.

  19. First report of Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in peafowls in Yunnan Province, Southwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yi-Ming; Dai, Fei-Yan; Huang, Si-Yang; Deng, Zu-Hong; Duan, Gang; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Yang, Jian-Fa; Weng, Ya-Biao; Zhu, Xing-Quan; Zou, Feng-Cai

    2012-09-19

    Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular protozoan parasite infecting almost all warm-blooded animals, including birds, with a worldwide distribution. Surveys of T. gondii infection in wild birds have been reported extensively in the world, but little is known of T. gondii infection in peafowls worldwide. This study was performed to determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in peafowls in Yunnan Province, southwestern China. Sera from 277 peafowls, including 272 blue peafowls (Pavo cristatus) and 5 green peafowls (Pavo muticus) originated from two geographic areas in Yunnan Province were assayed for T. gondii antibodies using the modified agglutination test (MAT). Specific T. gondii antibodies were detected in 35 of 277 (12.64%) peafowls (MAT titer ≥ 1:5). Seropositive birds were found in both species, 33 in 272 blue peafowls and 2 in 5 green peafowls. There was no significant difference in T. gondii seroprevalence between the adolescent birds (6.74%) and the adult birds (6.67%) (P > 0.05). The geographical origins of peafowls was found to be highly associated with T. gondii infection in the present study, a statistically significant difference in T. gondii seropositivity was observed between peafowls from Kunming (31.08%) and those from Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture (5.91%) (OR = 10.956, 95% CI = 1.632-73.545, P = 0.014). Statistical analyses showed that there were no significant interactions between ages and geographical origins of peafowls (P > 0.05). The results of the present survey indicated that infection of peafowls with T. gondii is widespread in Yunnan Province, which has significant public health concerns and implications for prevention and control of toxoplamosis in this province. To our knowledge, this is the first seroprevalence report of T. gondii infection in China's southwestern Yunnan Province.

  20. Economic development and conservation of biological and cultural diversity in Yunnan Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stendell, R.C.; Johnson, Richard L.; Mosesso, J.P.; Zhang, X.

    2001-01-01

    Chinese and American scientists are co-operating to develop concepts, strategies, agreements, and proposals in support of an economic development and sustainable ecosystems project in Yunnan Province, People's Republic of China. Yunnan's Provincial Government has initiated a major programme to develop and further utilise its biological resources to help improve economic conditions for its citizens. They are co-operating with the US Geological Survey (USGS) on evaluation and management of biological resources so economic development will be compatible with sustainable ecological systems. Scientists from the USGS and co-operating universities will provide expertise on synthesising biological data, conducting a Gap Analysis for the Province, evaluating innovative economic opportunities, and designing an effective education, training, and outreach programme.

  1. Health Digital Divide in the Era of Precision Healthcare: Taking Yunnan Province as an Example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yan; Yan, Li; Kuanghua, Liuwang; Tang, Guozheng

    2017-01-01

    With healthcare coming into the era of Precision Healthcare, it will facilitate the development of health informatics from information processing, integration, analysis, application and other uses. If we ignore the e-health development of developing areas, it will bring a health digital divide. This study takes Yunnan province as an example, and analyzes the problems of e-health development in a developing area, hoping to get more attention from researchers and regulators.

  2. Genetic Diversity of Wild Rice Species in Yunnan Province of China

    OpenAIRE

    Zai-quan CHENG; Fu-you YING; Ding-qing LI; Teng-qiong YU; Jian FU; Hui-jun YAN; Qiao-fang ZHONG; Dun-yu ZHANG; Wei-jiao LI; Xing-qi HUANG

    2012-01-01

    Yunnan Province of China is one of the important centers for origin and evolution of cultivated rice worldwide. Wild rice is the ancestor of the cultivated rice. Many elite traits of wild rice have widened the genetic basis in cultivated rice. However, many populations of wild rice species have disappeared in the past few years. Therefore, the current status of wild rice resources should be updated and the genetic diversity of wild rice species should be examined for further germplasm preserv...

  3. A review of the microbiology of the Rehai geothermal field in Tengchong, Yunnan Province, China

    OpenAIRE

    Hedlund, Brian P.; Cole, Jessica K.; Williams, Amanda J.; Hou, Weiguo; Zhou, Enmin; Li, Wenjun; Dong, Hailiang

    2012-01-01

    The Rehai Geothermal Field, located in Tengchong County, in central-western Yunnan Province, is the largest and most intensively studied geothermal field in China. A wide physicochemical diversity of springs (ambient to ∼97 °C; pH from ≤1.8 to ≥9.3) provides a multitude of niches for extremophilic microorganisms. A variety of studies have focused on the cultivation, identification, basic physiology, taxonomy, and biotechnological potential of thermophilic microorganisms from Rehai. Thermophil...

  4. [Effect of agroforestry model on inhibition of Oncomelania snails in plateau mountainous area of Yunnan Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chun-Hua; Tang, Guo-Yong; Liu, Fang-Yan; Li, Kun

    2012-10-01

    To evaluate the effect of agroforestry models on the inhibition of Oncomelania snails in the plateau mountainous area of Yunnan Province. The experimental field was established at Sanying Village of Eryuan County, Yunnan Province, where the "Flourishing Forest and Controlling Snails Project" was implemented. Different drought crops (alfalfa, vegetables, broad bean, garlic, lettuce, celery, green onions, and wheat) were intercropped under walnut forest in experimental groups, and the crops were not intercropped under walnut forest in a control group. The growth of forest, the change of snails and short-term income of residents were investigated. Agroforestry models promoted the forestry growth and effectively inhibited the growth of snails. There was a little snail in one of the experimental group that forest was intercropped with alfalfa (the occurrence rate of frames with living snails was 3.33%, the average density of living snails was 0.004/0.1 m2, and the declining rates were both 50.00%). The snails were not found in other intercropped models. The income of residents in the experimental groups increased (900-6 800 Yuan per year) compared with that in the control group. The model of walnut forest intercropped with crops not only has the obvious effect on inhibition of snails, but also has good economic and ecological benefits in the plateau mountainous area of Yunnan Province.

  5. [Epidemiology of scrub typhus and influencing factors in Yunnan province, 2006-2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Y; Shi, C; Li, X L; Fang, L Q; Cao, W C

    2018-01-10

    Objective: To understand the epidemiological characteristics of scrub typhu s and influencing factors in Yunnan province, and provide further information for the prevention and control of scrub typhus. Methods: Based on the incidence data of scrub typhus reported in Yunnan from 2006 to 2013, the epidemiological characteristics of scrub typhus were analyzed and related environmental factors were identified with panel negative binomial regression model. Results: A total of 8 980 scrub typhus cases were reported during 2006-2013 in Yunnan. The average annual incidence was 2.46/100 000, with an uptrend observed. Natural focus expansion was found, affecting 71.3% of the counties in 2013. The epidemic mainly occurred in summer and autumn with the incidence peak during July-October. The annual incidence was higher in females than in males. More cases occurred in children and farmers, the proportions of cases in farmers and pre-school aged children showed an obvious increase. Panel negative binomial regression model indicated that the transmission risk of scrub typhus was positive associated with monthly temperature and monthly relative humidity. Furthermore, an "U" pattern between the risk and the increased coverage of cropland and grassland as well as an "inverted-U" pattern between the risk and increased coverage of shrub were observed. Conclusion: It is necessary to strengthen the scrub typhus surveillance in warm and moist areas as well as the areas with high coverage of cropland and grassland in Yunnan, and the health education in children and farmers who are at high risk.

  6. Remediation of Legacy Arsenic Mining Areas in Yunnan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian H. von Lindern

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions. The success of the demonstration project was recognized and has provided direction and momentum for a wider effort by the Province to address mining pollution and water contamination challenges. It demonstrates the success of using known techniques for environmental remediation in the US, with local partners in China responding to their communities’ health and environmental problems.

  7. Human paleodiet and animal utilization strategies during the Bronze Age in northwest Yunnan Province, southwest China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lele Ren

    Full Text Available Reconstructing ancient diets and the use of animals and plants augment our understanding of how humans adapted to different environments. Yunnan Province in southwest China is ecologically and environmentally diverse. During the Neolithic and Bronze Age periods, this region was occupied by a variety of local culture groups with diverse subsistence systems and material culture. In this paper, we obtained carbon (δ13C and nitrogen (δ15N isotopic ratios from human and faunal remains in order to reconstruct human paleodiets and strategies for animal exploitation at the Bronze Age site of Shilinggang (ca. 2500 Cal BP in northwest Yunnan Province. The δ13C results for human samples from Shilinggang demonstrate that people's diets were mainly dominated by C3-based foodstuffs, probably due to both direct consumption of C3 food and as a result of C3 foddering of consumed animals. Auxiliary C4 food signals can also be detected. High δ15N values indicate that meat was an important component of the diet. Analysis of faunal samples indicates that people primarily fed pigs and dogs with human food waste, while sheep/goats and cattle were foddered with other food sources. We compare stable isotope and archaeobotanical data from Shilinggang with data from other Bronze Age sites in Yunnan to explore potential regional variation in subsistence strategies. Our work suggests that people adopted different animal utilization and subsistence strategies in different parts of Yunnan during the Bronze Age period, probably as local adaptations to the highly diversified and isolated environments in the region.

  8. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors of Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Buffaloes, Sheep and Goats in Yunnan Province, Southwestern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengcai ZOU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in buffaloes, sheep and goats in Yunnan Province, southwestern China was conducted between May 2012 and December 2013.Methods: A total of 973 (427 buffaloes, 154 sheep and 392 goats serum samples were collected from seven administrative regions of Yunnan Province, and exam­ined for T. gondii antibodies by indirect hemagglutination (IHA test. Some risk fac­tors related to species, age, gender and geographical origin were determined using a multinomial logistic regression.Results: The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii in ruminant species was estimated at 11.9%. The final logistic regression model demonstrated that host species and geographical origin were the main risk factors associated with T. gondii infection (P﹤0.05.Conclusion: Taken together, the results of the present study revealed a high expo­sure to T. gondii in ruminant species in Yunnan Province, which has an important implication for public health.

  9. Survey, Research And Prospect Of Signage Systems In National Parks In Yunnan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    wenjuan XU

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Signage System is essential to establishing a national park. The authors conducted surveys, analysis and research of identification signs, informational sign, directional signs and functional signs from the signage systems adopted by five national parks in Yunnan Province. Relying on the results, with reference to industry experience, years of research related to national park, successful cases of overseas national parks and the current signage systems across China’s national parks, the paper aims to explore future development strategies of national park signage systems that are suitable for China.

  10. Study on thermoluminescence dating for Nideping terrace of Dongchuan, Yunnan province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Bin; Wei Mingjian; Liu Chao; Zhang Yongdong; Zhou Rui; Liu Junxin; Liu Tiantian; Zhao Qiuyue; Song Bo

    2013-01-01

    The sequence of geological age on Nideping terrace in Dongchuan, Yunnan Province was established by thermoluminescence. The result shows that the age of the terrace is 9.3-57.1 ka. The vertical age of ancient debris flow terraces was established, and the time structure of Nideping mud was received. The age data was provided for the restoration ancient environment of the debris flow. It is shown that the debris flow deposits have discontinuities through age data and exist age inversion. The radioactive elements such as uranium, thorium, potassium may be leaching deposition affected by the presence of local rainfall and the annual dose rate increases with depth. (authors)

  11. Rediscovery of the sun bear (Helarctos malayanus) in Yingjiang County,Yunnan Province,China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fei; Zheng, Xi; Jiang, Xue-Long; Chan, Bosco Pui Lok

    2017-07-18

    The sun bear, Helarctos malayanus (Raffles, 1821), is a forest-dependent bear species distributed in tropical Southeast Asia. The species was previously reported from scattered localities in southwestern China, which is at the northeastern edge of its global range. Due to the scarcity of reliable recent records, some authorities cast doubt on the continued existence of sun bear in China. Here we present the rediscovery of this species in Yingjiang County, western Yunnan Province, China, near the international border with Myanmar's Kachin State.

  12. Responses of the Carbon Storage and Sequestration Potential of Forest Vegetation to Temperature Increases in Yunnan Province, SW China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiwu Zhou

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of forest vegetation and forest carbon sequestration potential are significantly influenced by climate change. In this study, a map of the current distribution of vegetation in Yunnan Province was compiled based on data from remote sensing imagery from the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS from 2008 to 2011. A classification and regression tree (CART model was used to predict the potential distribution of the main forest vegetation types in Yunnan Province and estimate the changes in carbon storage and carbon sequestration potential (CSP in response to increasing temperature. The results show that the current total forest area in Yunnan Province is 1.86 × 107 ha and that forest covers 48.63% of the area. As the temperature increases, the area of forest distribution first increases and then decreases, and it decreases by 11% when the temperature increases from 1.5 to 2 °C. The mean carbon density of the seven types of forest vegetation in Yunnan Province is 84.69 Mg/ha. The total carbon storage of the current forest vegetation in Yunnan Province is 871.14 TgC, and the CSP is 1100.61 TgC. The largest CSP (1114.82 TgC occurs when the temperature increases by 0.5 °C. Incremental warming of 2 °C will sharply decrease the forest CSP, especially in those regions with mature coniferous forest vegetation. Semi-humid evergreen broad-leaved forests were highly sensitive to temperature changes, and the CSP of these forests will decrease with increasing temperature. Warm-hot coniferous forests have the greatest CSP in all simulation scenarios except the scenario of a 2 °C temperature increase. These results indicate that temperature increases can influence the CSP in Yunnan Province, and the largest impact emerged in the 2 °C increase scenario.

  13. Assessing Agricultural Drought Vulnerability by a VSD Model: A Case Study in Yunnan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiansheng Wu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Drought vulnerability of agriculture is significant to economic development and sustainable food production. In this paper, we proposed a framework to evaluate the regional agricultural-eco environment in the face of drought caused by climate change. Based on a vulnerability scoping diagram (VSD model, we built up a comprehensive system to evaluate the agricultural drought vulnerability of Yunnan Province in China. The model highlights the human-land relationship by considering both natural conditions and human activities. Twelve indicators were generated to construct three components of the model: exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity. During the construction of the VSD model, the entropy and the analytic hierarchy process (AHP comprehensive analysis method were adopted to generate the weights and to compute the composite index for each section. Furthermore, the factor analysis method was used to determine the dominant factors of different cities and the main indicators driving the system. The results indicated a spatial pattern that the vulnerability value was high on the eastern and western sides, but low in the middle of Yunnan Province. Most of the vulnerable regions were concentrated in remote areas. Indicators such as population density, irrigation level, annual average precipitation, cultivation land ratio, and difficulty of water supply were the main driving factors. This means that there is a deep connection between agricultural drought vulnerability and urbanization. The evaluation system developed during this research will provide guidance for drought mitigation in regions of complex terrain.

  14. Wide Distribution and Genetic Diversity of Babesia microti in Small Mammals from Yunnan Province, Southwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zi-Hou; Huang, Tao-Hua; Jiang, Bao-Gui; Jia, Na; Liu, Zheng-Xiang; Shao, Zong-Ti; Jiang, Rui-Ruo; Liu, Hong-Bo; Wei, Ran; Li, Yu-Qiong; Yao, Hong-Wu; von Fricken, Michael E; Jiang, Jia-Fu; Du, Chun-Hong; Cao, Wu-Chun

    2017-10-01

    Babesia, usually found in wild and domestic mammals worldwide, have recently been responsible for emerging malaria-like zoonosis in infected patients. Human B. microti infection has been identified in China, primarily in the Southwest along the Myanmar border but little direct surveillance of B. microti infection in rodents has been carried out here (Yunnan province). In this region, a diverse topographic range combined with tropical moisture sustains a high biodiversity of small mammals, which might play important role on Babesia transmission. Small mammals were captured in 141 sample locations from 18 counties located Yunnan Province, and screened for B. microti-like parasites infection by a nested PCR to target 18S rRNA gene of Babesia, plus directly sequencing for positive samples. Univariate and multivariate forward stepwise logistic regression analysis was used to access the association between infections and some related risk factors. Infection with Babesia microti was confirmed in 2.4% (53/ 2204) of small mammals. Significant differences in prevalence rates of B. microti were observed based on variations in forest, agricultural, and residential landscapes. Furthermore, adult small mammals had higher prevalence rates than younger, pubertal mammals. The near full-length 18S rRNA gene revealed that there were two types of B. microti, Kobe and Otsu, which demonstrate the genetic diversity and regional distribution. There exists a wide distribution and genetic diversity of endemic B. microti in Southwestern China, warranting further investigations and monitoring of clinical disease in individuals presenting with Babesia like symptoms in these areas.

  15. A remarkable new species of Nemoura (Plecoptera: Nemouridae) from Chuxiong Yi Autonomous Prefecture of Yunnan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yu-Han; Xiao, Qian; Chen, Zhi-Teng; Du, Yu-Zhou

    2018-01-24

    A new species of the genus Nemoura, N. latilongispina sp. nov. from Chuxiong Yi Autonomous Prefecture of Yunnan Province, southwestern China is described and illustrated. The new species is characterized by ventral sclerite of epiproct extended laterally, forming upcurved plates fringed with long spines along upper margin, and by the strongly sclerotized, fork-shaped cercus.

  16. Abundance and diversity of archaeal accA gene in hot springs in Yunnan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhao-Qi; Wang, Li; Wang, Feng-Ping; Jiang, Hong-Chen; Chen, Jin-Quan; Zhou, En-Min; Liang, Feng; Xiao, Xiang; Li, Wen-Jun

    2013-09-01

    It has been suggested that archaea carrying the accA gene, encoding the alpha subunit of the acetyl CoA carboxylase, autotrophically fix CO2 using the 3-hydroxypropionate/4-hydroxybutyrate pathway in low-temperature environments (e.g., soils, oceans). However, little new information has come to light regarding the occurrence of archaeal accA genes in high-temperature ecosystems. In this study, we investigated the abundance and diversity of archaeal accA gene in hot springs in Yunnan Province, China, using DNA- and RNA-based phylogenetic analyses and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The results showed that archaeal accA genes were present and expressed in the investigated Yunnan hot springs with a wide range of temperatures (66-96 °C) and pH (4.3-9.0). The majority of the amplified archaeal accA gene sequences were affiliated with the ThAOA/HWCG III [thermophilic ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA)/hot water crenarchaeotic group III]. The archaeal accA gene abundance was very close to that of AOA amoA gene, encoding the alpha subunit of ammonia monooxygenase. These data suggest that AOA in terrestrial hot springs might acquire energy from ammonia oxidation coupled with CO2 fixation using the 3-hydroxypropionate/4-hydroxybutyrate pathway.

  17. The impact of precipitation regimes on forest fires in Yunnan Province, southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feng; Niu, Shukui; Tong, Xiaojuan; Zhao, Jinlong; Sun, Yu; He, Tengfei

    2014-01-01

    The amount, frequency, and duration of precipitation have important impact on the occurrence and severity of forest fires. To fully understand the effects of precipitation regimes on forest fires, a drought index was developed with number of consecutive dry days (daily precipitation less than 2 mm) and total precipitation, and the relationships of drought and precipitation with fire activities were investigated over two periods (i.e., 1982-1988 and 1989-2008) in five ecoregions of Yunnan Province. The results showed that precipitation regime had a significant relationship with fire activities during the two periods. However, the influence of the drought on fire activities varied by ecoregions, with more impacts in drier ecoregions IV-V and less impacts in the more humid ecoregions I-III. The drought was more closely related to fire activities than precipitation during the two study periods, especially in the drier ecoregions, indicating that the frequency and the duration of precipitation had significant influences on forest fires in the drier areas. Drought appears to offer a better explanation than total precipitation on temporal changes in fire regimes across the five ecoregions in Yunnan. Our findings have significant implications for forecasting the local fire dangers under the future climate change.

  18. Geotourism Aspects of the Lufeng Dinosaur National Geopark in Yunnan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daněk Tomáš

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Lufeng Dinosaur National Geopark in Yunnan province, China, is important part of geoheritage with a great scientific and aesthetic value. The area has been under scientific research since 1938 when the first dinosaur fossils were discovered here by geologist Bian Meinian and technician Wang Cunyi. Professor Yang announced the discovery of new early Jurassic herbivore prosauropod by Lufeng in 1941, which he gave the name Lufengosaurus huenei. In 2004, the area was listed as the China`s National Geopark. It was opened for visitors in 2008. Besides the high scientific value, the geopark is also an important resource for science based and educational tourism. This paper briefly introduces the history of scientific research, the basic geology of the site and the most important fossils discovered here. The main characteristics, geodiversity, and geotourism of fossil geoheritage in the area are discussed here.

  19. [Study on malnutrition status among Wa ethnicity children and adolescents in Lingcang prefecture, Yunnan province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yunjuan; Chang, Litao; Chen, Lu; Wei, Xijing

    2015-12-01

    To analyze the malnutrition status among children and adolescents of Wa ethnicity in Lincang prefecture, Yunnan province from 2005 to 2014, and to provide evidence for the improvement of the situation. From 2005 to 2014, children and adolescents aged 7 to 18, from 19 primary and secondary schools in Cangyuan county of Lincang prefecture, Yunnan province, were chosen, using the multistage-stratified-random cluster sampling method, to receive physic examination. WHO-2006 standard was used. Situation related to the rate of growth retardation and malnutrition among students was analyzed, from 2005 to 2014. Data was from the National Student Physical Health Research Project. From 2000 to 2014, trends on nutrition development among these students were also studied. The rates related to growth retardation among 7-18 years-old Wa boys in 2005, 2010 and 2014 were 45.61%, 52.36% and 35.85%, with the rates of thinness as 1.44%, 0.76% and 1.36% , respectively. Rates on malnutrition were 52.35% , 56.01% and 41.13% , respectively. Rates related to growth retardation among 7-18 years-old Wa girls were 42.03%, 47.41% and 33.06%, respectively, with rates of thinness as 0.91%, 0.68% and 0.83%, respectively. The rates on malnutrition were 46.13%, 49.77% and 35.56%, respectively. From year 2005 to 2014, spurt on height growth of boys and girls were among the 13-14 years-old and 9-10 years-old, respectively. Girls were 4 years earlier, entering the sudden increase in the peak age than boys. Sex difference on height among the 18 years-old Wa youngsters were 11.99, 9.34 and 11.38 cm in 2005, 2010 and 2014, respectively. Malnutrition status of retardation on growth among Wa children and adolescents remained quite serious.

  20. An equilibrium analysis of the land use structure in the Yunnan Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jiao; Zhan, Jinyan; Lin, Yingzhi; Zhao, Chunhong

    2014-09-01

    Global land use structure is changing rapidly due to unceasing population growth and accelerated urbanization, which leads to fierce competition between the rigid demand for built-up area and the protection of cultivated land, forest, and grassland. It has been a great challenge to realize the sustainable development of land resources. Based on a computable general equilibrium model of land use change with a social accounting matrix dataset, this study implemented an equilibrium analysis of the land use structure in the Yunnan Province during the period of 2008-2020 under three scenarios, the baseline scenario, low TFP (total factor productivity) scenario, and high TFP scenario. The results indicated that under all three scenarios, area of cultivated land declined significantly along with a remarkable expansion of built-up area, while areas of forest, grassland, and unused land increased slightly. The growth rate of TFP had first negative and then positive effects on the expansion of built-up area and decline of cultivated land as it increased. Moreover, the simulated changes of both cultivated land and built-up area were the biggest under the low TFP scenario, and far exceeded the limit in the Overall Plan for Land Utilization in the Yunnan Province in 2020. The scenario-based simulation results are of important reference value for policy-makers in making land use decisions, balancing the fierce competition between the protection of cultivated land and the increasing demand for built-up area, and guaranteeing food security, ecological security, and the sustainable development of land resources.

  1. [Species composition and geographical distribution of threatened fishes in Yunnan Province of Southwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Zhong, Jin-Xin

    2013-05-01

    Based on the related published papers, and by using Geographic Information System (ArcGIS 9.3), this paper analyzed the species composition and geographical distribution of threatened fishes in Yunnan Province of Southwest China. There were 83 threatened species living in the Province, belonging to 5 orders, 13 families, and 47 genera. Cypriniformes was absolutely dominant, with 64 species, followed by Siluriformes, with 16 species. Cyprinidae fishes had 51 species, accounting for 79.7% of Cypriniformes. The most species of Cyprinid fishes were of Barbinae (14 species), Cyprininae (10 species), and Cultrinae (10 species). The threatened fishes could be divided into two zoogeographical regions, i. e., Tibetan Plateau region and Oriental region, and their species composition and geographical distribution were resulted from the historical evolution adapted to the related environments. Whatever in rivers and in lakes, the Cyprinid fishes were both absolutely dominant, occupying 36.1% and 31.3% of the total, respectively. The Cyprinid fishes in rivers were mostly of endangered species, while those in lakes were mostly of vulnerable species. The factors affecting the threatened fishes in the Province were discussed from the two aspects of geodynamic evolution and present situation.

  2. Cross-border spread, lineage displacement and evolutionary rate estimation of rabies virus in Yunnan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuzhen; Vrancken, Bram; Feng, Yun; Dellicour, Simon; Yang, Qiqi; Yang, Weihong; Zhang, Yunzhi; Dong, Lu; Pybus, Oliver G; Zhang, Hailin; Tian, Huaiyu

    2017-06-03

    Rabies is an important but underestimated threat to public health, with most cases reported in Asia. Since 2000, a new epidemic wave of rabies has emerged in Yunnan Province, southwestern China, which borders three countries in Southeast Asia. We estimated gene-specific evolutionary rates for rabies virus using available data in GenBank, then used this information to calibrate the timescale of rabies virus (RABV) spread in Asia. We used 452 publicly available geo-referenced complete nucleoprotein (N) gene sequences, including 52 RABV sequences that were recently generated from samples collected in Yunnan between 2008 and 2012. The RABV N gene evolutionary rate was estimated to be 1.88 × 10 -4 (1.37-2.41 × 10 -4 , 95% Bayesian credible interval, BCI) substitutions per site per year. Phylogenetic reconstructions show that the currently circulating RABV lineages in Yunnan result from at least seven independent introductions (95% BCI: 6-9 introductions) and represent each of the three main Asian RABV lineages, SEA-1, -2 and -3. We find that Yunnan is a sink location for the domestic spread of RABV and connects RABV epidemics in North China, South China, and Southeast Asia. Cross-border spread from southeast Asia (SEA) into South China, and intermixing of the North and South China epidemics is also well supported. The influx of RABV into Yunnan from SEA was not well-supported, likely due to the poor sampling of SEA RABV diversity. We found evidence for a lineage displacement of the Yunnan SEA-2 and -3 lineages by Yunnan SEA-1 strains, and considered whether this could be attributed to fitness differences. Overall, our study contributes to a better understanding of the spread of RABV that could facilitate future rabies virus control and prevention efforts.

  3. Prevalence of photodermatosis in four regions at different altitudes in Yunnan province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Danqi; Hang, Yuntao; Chen, Hao; Li, Hanying

    2006-08-01

    Idiopathic photodermatoses are common diseases in dermatology clinics that are associated with ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. The group includes a few dermatoses such as polymorphous light eruption (PLE) and chronic actinic dermatitis (CAD). The prevalence of PLE and CAD in China has not been previously reported. To investigate the population-based prevalence of polymorphous light eruption (PLE) and chronic actinic dermatitis (CAD) in six minority groups living in four regions with significantly different altitudes in the Yunnan province, a questionnaire survey was administered to 4899 residents of random villages in Yuanjiang county (Dai and Hani minorities), Kunming city (Han people and Yi minority), Lijiang county (Naxi minority), and Shangri-La county (Zang minority). The altitudes of these counties are 380 m, 1870 m, 2410 m and 3280 m a.s.l., respectively. The results showed that, first, there were 2400 males (49.0%) and 2499 females (51.0%). The prevalence of PLE was 0.65% (32/4899), and the prevalence of CAD was 0.18% (9/4899). PLE was higher among females than males (3.8 vs 1, P 0.05). Second, the prevalence of PLE was increased in higher elevations regions compared to lower elevations (P 0.05). Third, the mean times of sun exposure for PLE and CAD were 6.0 and 6.5 h/day, respectively. The mean durations of PLE and CAD were 5.8 years, and 6.6 years, respectively. The study demonstrated that the prevalence of PLE is higher than that of CAD in Yunnan, and that the prevalence of PLE is correlated with altitude.

  4. Clusters of sudden unexplained death associated with the mushroom, Trogia venenata, in rural Yunnan Province, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Qing Shi

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Since the late 1970's, time-space clusters of sudden unexplained death (SUD in northwest Yunnan, China have alarmed the public and health authorities. From 2006-2009, we initiated enhanced surveillance for SUD to identify a cause, and we warned villagers to avoid eating unfamiliar mushrooms. METHODS: We established surveillance for SUD, defined as follows: sudden onset of serious, unexplained physical impairment followed by death in <24 hours. A mild case was onset of any illness in a member of the family or close socially related group of a SUD victim within 1 week of a SUD. We interviewed witnesses of SUD and mild case-persons to identify exposures to potentially toxic substances. We tested blood from mild cases, villagers, and for standard biochemical, enzyme, and electrolyte markers of disease. RESULTS: We identified 33 SUD, a 73% decline from 2002-2005, distributed among 21 villages of 11 counties. We found a previously undescribed mushroom, Trogia venenata, was eaten by 5 of 7 families with SUD clusters compared to 0 of 31 other control-families from the same villages. In T. venenata-exposed persons SUD was characterized by sudden loss of consciousness during normal activities. This mushroom grew nearby 75% of 61 villages that had time-space SUD clusters from 1975 to 2009 compared to 17% of 18 villages with only single SUD (p<0.001, Fisher's exact test. DISCUSSION: Epidemiologic data has implicated T. venenata as a probable cause of clusters of SUD in northwestern Yunnan Province. Warnings to villagers about eating this mushroom should continue.

  5. Epidemiological and molecular characteristics of emergent dengue virus in Yunnan Province near the China-Myanmar-Laos border, 2013-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ting-Song; Zhang, Hai-Lin; Feng, Yun; Fan, Jian-Hua; Tang, Tian; Liu, Yong-Hua; Zhang, Liu; Yin, Xiao-Xiong; Chen, Gang; Li, Hua-Chang; Zu, Jin; Li, Hong-Bin; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Yu, Jing; Zhang, Fu-Qiang; Fan, Quan-Shui

    2017-05-08

    Yunnan Province is located in southwestern China and neighbors the Southeast Asian countries, all of which are dengue-endemic areas. In 2000-2013, sporadic imported cases of dengue fever (DF) were reported almost annually in Yunnan Province. During 2013-2015, we confirmed that a large-scale indigenous DF outbreak emerged in cities of Yunnan Province near the China-Myanmar-Laos border. Epidemiological characteristics of DF in Yunnan Province during 2013-2015 were evaluated by retrospective analysis. A total of 232 dengue virus (DENV)-positive sera were randomly collected for sequence analysis of the capsid/premembrane region of DENV from patients with DF in Yunnan Province. The envelope gene of DENV isolates was also amplified and sequenced. Phylogenetic analyses were performed using the neighbor-joining method with the Tajima-Nei model. Phylogenetically, all DENV-positive samples could be classified into DENV-1 genotype I and DENV-2 Asian I genotype during 2013-2015 and DENV-4 genotype I in 2015 from Ruili City; and DENV-3 genotype II in 2013 and DENV-2 Cosmopolitan genotype in 2015 from Xishuangbanna Prefecture. Our results indicated that imported DF from patients from Laos and Myanmar was the primary cause of the DF epidemic in Yunnan Province. Additionally, DENV strains of all four serotypes were identified in indigenous cases in Yunnan Province during the same time period, while the dengue epidemic pattern observed in southwestern Yunnan showed characteristics of a hypoendemic nature: circulation of DENV-1 and DENV-2 over consecutive years.

  6. Calamagrostis nyingchiensis, a new combination for Deyeuxia nyingchiensis (Poaceae: Agrostidinae, and its first record from Yunnan Province, SW China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paszko Beata

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Deyeuxia nyingchiensis is here recombined as Calamagrostis nyingchiensis comb. nov. as a result of recent studies of worldwide Agrostidinae. A new record of C. nyingchiensis is reported from Shangri-la (Zhongdian County in Yunnan Province, SW China. Previously, C. nyingchiensis was noted from eastern Xizang and southern Sichuan, SW China. It is compared with the morphologically similar species C. scabrescens. A map with all known geographic records of C. nyingchiensis is presented.

  7. Seroprevalence survey of avian influenza A (H5) in wild migratory birds in Yunnan Province, Southwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hua; Dai, Feiyan; Liu, Zili; Yuan, Feizhou; Zhao, Siyue; Xiang, Xun; Zou, Fengcai; Zeng, Bangquan; Fan, Yating; Duan, Gang

    2014-02-03

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) is a highly contagious disease which is a zoonotic pathogen of significant economic and public health concern. The outbreaks caused by HPAIV H5N1 of Asian origin have caused animal and human disease and mortality in several countries of Southeast Asia, such as Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand and Viet Nam. For the first time since 1961, this HPAIV has also caused extensive mortality in wild birds and has sparked debate of the role wild birds have played in the spread of this virus. Other than confirmed mortality events, little is known of this virus in wild birds. There is no report on the seroprevalence of avian influenza H5 infection in wild migratory birds in Yunnan Province. In this study we examined live wild birds in Yunnan Province for H5 specific antibody to better understand the occurrence of this disease in free living birds. Sera from 440 wild birds were collected from in Kunming and Northern Ailaoshan of Yunnan Province, Southwestern China, and assayed for H5 antibodies using the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays. The investigation revealed that the seroprevalence of avian influenza H5 was as following: Ciconiiformes 2.6%, Strigiformes 13.04%, Passeriformes 20%, Cuculiformes 21.74%, Gruiformes 0%, Columbiformes 0%, Charadriiformes 0% and Coraciiformes 0%. Statistical analyses showed that there was a significant difference of prevalence between the orders (P avian influenza H5 antibodies were detected in 23 of 440 (5.23%) sera. Mean HI titer 23 positive sera against H5 were 5.4 log₂. The results of the present survey indicated that the proportion of wild birds had previously infected AIV H5 at other times of the year. To our knowledge, this is the first seroprevalence report of avian influenza H5 infection in wild migratory birds in China' s southwestern Yunnan Province. The results of the present survey have significant public health concerns.

  8. Analysis on temporal and spatial distribution of reference evapotranspiration and its possible influencing factors in Yunnan Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yashan; Nan, Lijun; Wang, Yanjun; Xu, Chengdong; Yang, Yunyuan; Cui, Changwei; Yang, Junmei; Guo, Yuan; Li, Miaorong

    2018-04-01

    This article was based on the climate data of 125 meteorological stations from 1982 to 2011 in Yunnan Province, the daily basis ET0 was calculated with Penman-Monteith equation recommended by FAO in 1998. Then the Kriging interpolation method and related methods of climate statistical diagnosis analysis were used to analyze the features. The main results showed that the highest value of annual ET0 of Yunnan Province was the joint parts of Dali, Lijiang and Chuxiong, and also the north of Chuxiong and Kunming, while the least value was the northeast and northwest of Yunnan Province. The ET0 was showed rising trend, the speed was about 5.9mm/10a, but the rising trend was not significant. The ET0 of spring was highest, and the ET0 of summer and autumn was taken the second place, the ET0 of winter was last. The ET0 of spring, summer, autumn, winter was account for 33.35 per cent, 28.91 per cent, 20.36, per cent, 17.39 per cent of annual ET0 respectively. The ET0 of May was highest and December was least in annual. ET0 was closely related to wind speed, relative humidity, hours of sunshine and the daily maximum temperature. The correlation between wind speed, hours of sunshine, the daily maximum temperature and ET0 was very significantly positive, while the correlation between relative humidity and ET0 was very significantly negative.

  9. Evaluation of the radioactive contamination in fungi genus Boletus in the region of Europe and Yunnan Province in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falandysz, Jerzy; Zalewska, Tamara; Krasińska, Grażyna; Apanel, Anna; Wang, Yuanzhong; Pankavec, Sviatlana

    2015-10-01

    Numerous species of wild-grown mushrooms are among the most vulnerable organisms for contamination with radiocesium released from a radioactive fallout. A comparison was made on radiocesium as well as the natural gamma ray-emitting radionuclide ((40)K) activity concentrations in the fruiting bodies of several valued edible Boletus mushrooms collected from the region of Europe and Yunnan Province in China. Data available for the first time for Boletus edulis collected in Yunnan, China, showed a very weak contamination with (137)Cs. Radiocesium concentration activity of B. edulis samples that were collected between 2011 and 2014 in Yunnan ranged from 5.2 ± 1.7 to 10 ± 1 Bq kg(-1) dry matter for caps and from 4.7 ± 1.3 to 5.5 ± 1.0 Bq kg(-1) dry matter for stipes. The mushrooms Boletus badius, B. edulis, Boletus impolitus, Boletus luridus, Boletus pinophilus, and Boletus reticulatus collected from the European locations between 1995 and 2010 showed two to four orders of magnitude greater radioactivity from (137)Cs compared to B. edulis from Yunnan. The nuclide (40)K in B. badius was equally distributed between the caps and stipes, while for B. edulis, B. impolitus, B. luridus, B. pinophilus, and B. reticulatus, the caps were richer, and for each mushroom, activity concentration seemed to be more or less species-specific.

  10. Seasonal patterns in microbial communities inhabiting the hot springs of Tengchong, Yunnan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Brandon R; Brodie, Eoin L; Tom, Lauren M; Dong, Hailiang; Jiang, Hongchen; Huang, Qiuyuan; Wang, Shang; Hou, Weiguo; Wu, Geng; Huang, Liuquin; Hedlund, Brian P; Zhang, Chuanlun; Dijkstra, Paul; Hungate, Bruce A

    2014-06-01

    Studies focusing on seasonal dynamics of microbial communities in terrestrial and marine environments are common; however, little is known about seasonal dynamics in high-temperature environments. Thus, our objective was to document the seasonal dynamics of both the physicochemical conditions and the microbial communities inhabiting hot springs in Tengchong County, Yunnan Province, China. The PhyloChip microarray detected 4882 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) within 79 bacterial phylum-level groups and 113 OTUs within 20 archaeal phylum-level groups, which are additional 54 bacterial phyla and 11 archaeal phyla to those that were previously described using pyrosequencing. Monsoon samples (June 2011) showed increased concentrations of potassium, total organic carbon, ammonium, calcium, sodium and total nitrogen, and decreased ferrous iron relative to the dry season (January 2011). At the same time, the highly ordered microbial communities present in January gave way to poorly ordered communities in June, characterized by higher richness of Bacteria, including microbes related to mesophiles. These seasonal changes in geochemistry and community structure are likely due to high rainfall influx during the monsoon season and indicate that seasonal dynamics occurs in high-temperature environments experiencing significant changes in seasonal recharge. Thus, geothermal environments are not isolated from the surrounding environment and seasonality affects microbial ecology. © 2013 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Tidal triggering of earthquakes in the Ning'er area of Yunnan Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Chaodi; Lei, Xinglin; Zhao, Xiaoyan; Ma, Qingbo; Yang, Simeng; Wang, Yingnan

    2017-05-01

    To investigate the potential effect of tidal modulation on the seismicity in the Ning'er area, a seismically and geothermally active zone in Yunnan Province, China, we studied the correlation between Earth tides and the occurrence of M ≥ 6.0 earthquakes dating back to 1970, as well as their aftershock sequences, using theoretically calculated tidal stresses and a statistical test. The results show a significant correlation between Earth tides and the occurrence of earthquakes. Six of seven main events occurred when the Earth tide increased the Coulomb failure stress on the source fault. Four main events occurred in a narrow range of phase angle corresponding to the maximum loading rate of tidal stress. Furthermore, the histories of the aftershock sequence as a function of the tidal phases demonstrate clear tidal modulation with a high significance. Thus, we conclude that Earth tides have a clear role in triggering (or modulating) the rupture of the fault systems in the Ning'er area.

  12. Longitudinal Surveillance of Betacoronaviruses in Fruit Bats in Yunnan Province, China During 2009-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yun; Li, Bei; Jiang, Ren-Di; Hu, Bing-Jie; Luo, Dong-Sheng; Zhu, Guang-Jian; Hu, Ben; Liu, Hai-Zhou; Zhang, Yun-Zhi; Yang, Xing-Lou; Shi, Zheng-Li

    2018-02-01

    Previous studies indicated that fruit bats carry two betacoronaviruses, BatCoV HKU9 and BatCoV GCCDC1. To investigate the epidemiology and genetic diversity of these coronaviruses, we conducted a longitudinal surveillance in fruit bats in Yunnan province, China during 2009-2016. A total of 59 (10.63%) bat samples were positive for the two betacorona-viruses, 46 (8.29%) for HKU9 and 13 (2.34%) for GCCDC1, or closely related viruses. We identified a novel HKU9 strain, tentatively designated as BatCoV HKU9-2202, by sequencing the full-length genome. The BatCoV HKU9-2202 shared 83% nucleotide identity with other BatCoV HKU9 stains based on whole genome sequences. The most divergent region is in the spike protein, which only shares 68% amino acid identity with BatCoV HKU9. Quantitative PCR revealed that the intestine was the primary infection organ of BatCoV HKU9 and GCCDC1, but some HKU9 was also detected in the heart, kidney, and lung tissues of bats. This study highlights the importance of virus surveillance in natural reservoirs and emphasizes the need for preparedness against the potential spill-over of these viruses to local residents living near bat caves.

  13. An HIV/AIDS intervention programme with Buddhist aid in Yunnan Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Feng; Zhang, Kong-lai; Shan, Guang-liang

    2010-04-20

    The prevalence of HIV/AIDS in Chinese ethnic minorities is an important component of China's AIDS issues. In this study, we launched an intervention programme in Yunnan Province of China, where the Dai people live, to carry out the community-based HIV/AIDS health education and behavioral interventions on ordinary Dai farmers. The Dai people believe in Theravada Buddhism. Four rural communities were randomly divided into two groups. In one group (Buddhist group), HIV/AIDS health education and behavioral intervention were carried out by monks. The other group (women group) was instructed by women volunteers. The intervention continued for one year and the data were collected before and after the intervention project. In the Buddhist group, the villagers' AIDS related knowledge score was boosted from 3.11 to 3.65 (P Buddhist group, the villager's attitude score towards the people living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHA) also increased significantly from 1.51 to 2.16 (P Buddhist organization has limited success in promoting the use of condoms, but plays an important role in eliminating HIV/AIDS related discrimination.

  14. Patterns and socioeconomic influences of tobacco exposure in tobacco cultivating rural areas of Yunnan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai Le

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study describes the patterns and socioeconomic influences of tobacco use among adults in tobacco-cultivating regions of rural southwest China. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 8681 adults aged ≥18 years in rural areas of Yunnan Province, China from 2010 to 2011. A standardized questionnaire was administered to obtain data about participants’ demographic characteristics, individual socioeconomic status, ethnicity, self-reported smoking habits, and exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS. The socioeconomic predictors of current smoking, nicotine addiction, and SHS exposure were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression. Results The prevalence rates of tobacco use were much higher in men compared with women (current smoking 68.5% vs. 1.3%; and nicotine dependence 85.2% vs. 72.7%. However, the rate of SHS exposure was higher in women compared with men (76.6% vs. 70.5%. Tobacco farmers had higher prevalence rates of current smoking, nicotine dependence, and SHS exposure compared with participants not engaged in tobacco farming (P Conclusions This study suggests that tobacco control efforts in rural southwest China must be tailored to address tobacco-cultivating status and socioeconomic factors.

  15. Geochemistry and zircon U-Pb geochronology of the Pulang complex, Yunnan province, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pang, Zhenshan; Du, Yangsong; Cao, Yi; Gao, Fuping; Wang, Gongwen; Dong, Qian

    2014-01-01

    The Pulang complex is located tectonically at the southern margin of the Yidun-Zhongdian island arc belt in Yunnan province, China, and is closely related to formation of the Pulang copper deposit, which is the largest copper deposit in Asia. The Pulang complex can be divided into three intrusion stages based on contact relationships and petrological characteristics: (1) a first stage of quartz dioritic porphyry; (2) a second stage of quartz monzonitic porphyry; and (3) a third stage of granodioritic porphyry. The crystallization ages of these intrusion stages were determined by single-zircon U-Pb dating, yielding ages of 221.0 ± 1.0, 211.8 ± 0.5, and 206.3 ± 0.7 Ma for the first, second, and third stages, respectively. These dates, integrated with previous geochronological data and field investigations, indicate that the second-stage quartz monzonitic porphyry has a close spatial and temporal relationship with the large Pulang porphyry copper deposit. These age data, geochemical and Sr-Nd isotopic results suggest that the Pulang complex formed in the Indo-Chinese epoch (257∼ 205 Ma) by multiphase intrusion of a mixture of mantle- and crust-derived magmas. (author)

  16. [Epidemiological investigation on fascioliasis and its risk factors in population of Binchuan County, Yunnan Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feng; Liu, Yu-hua; Yang, Hui; Duan, Yii-chun; Yang, Jing; Zhao, Yin-jiao; Hao, Ming-ming; Pan, Li-juan; Deng, Yin-ju; Shi, Ya-nan; Chen, Fu-ling; Zhang, Jian-guo; Luo, Jia-jun

    2015-08-01

    To understand the infection status of Fasciola and related risk factors in population of Binchuan County, Yunnan Province. In February and March, 2014, 6 natural villages from 2 administrative villages in Zhoucheng Town were selected as investigated sites, and the permanent residents aged ≥ 5 years were examined by ELISA for the serum antibody detection, and then the positive ones were examined by Kato-Katz technique and the hatching method for Fasciola egg detection. Meanwhile, the fascioliasis cases that checked out by the above methods were further surveyed, and the residents who with the same gender, similar age and negative results in the blood examination were selected as the controls, then the risk factors were explored through a case control study. Totally 1 207 people were included in the blood examination, and 36 positives were found with a positive rate of 2.98%. Though the differences between the positive rates of the serum antibody in people with different genders and age were not statistically significant (χ2 = 1.686, 7.106, both P > 0.05) , those between the rates of people in different administrative villages and natural villages were statistically significant (χ2 = 4.103, 13.181, both P 0.05). There is still sporadic Fasciola infection in Binchuan County. Eating raw vegetables and drinking unboiled water which are contaminated by Fasciola metacercariae may be the infection routes of local people, and to find out the exact entrance way is the key points for the infection control.

  17. First human case of avian influenza A (H5N6 in Yunnan province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jibo He

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To report clinical, virological, and epidemiological features of the first death caused by a H5N6 avian influenza virus in Yunnan Province, China. Method: The case was described in clinical expression, chest radiography, blood test and treatment. Real-time RT-PCR was used to detect H5N6 virus RNA in clinical and environment samples. Epidemiological investigation was performed including case exposure history determinant, close contacts follow up, and environment sample collection. Results: The patient initially developed sore throat and coughs on 27 January 2015. The disease progressed to severe pneumonia, multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, and acute respiratory distress syndrome. And the patient died on 6 February. A highly pathogenic avian influenza A H5N6 virus was isolated from the tracheal aspirate specimen of the patient. The viral genome analyses revealed that the H5 hemmagglutinin gene belongs to 2.3.4.4 clade. Epidemiological investigation showed that the patient had exposure to wild bird. All close contacts of the patient did not present the same disease in seven consecutive days. A high H5 positive rate was detected in environmental samples from local live poultry markets. Conclusion: The findings suggest that studies on the source of the virus, transmission models, serologic investigations, vaccines, and enhancing surveillance in both humans and birds are necessary.

  18. [Survey on the transmission of HIV drug resistance in Kunming, Yunnan province in 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Min; Ma, Yan-ling; Chu, Cheng-xia; Xing, Hui; Xu, Yan-sheng; Su, Ying-zhen; Yang, Ying; Chen, Hui-chao; Luo, Hong-bing; Jia, Man-hong; Lu, Lin

    2012-01-01

    To study the HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) transmission in Kunming city of Yunnan province in 2010. Referring to the guidelines for HIV drug resistance threshold survey (HIVDR-TS) set by WHO, 62 plasma samples of recently reported HIV-infected individuals who were older than 25 years of age, were collected from January to August 2010. Genotyping of pol genetic mutations associated with HIVDR with reverse transcriptional PCR was performed and the prevalence of HIV-1 drug resistance transmission was evaluated. Of the 62 plasma samples, 54 were successfully sequenced and genotyped on pol sequence. Based on the pol sequences, HIV subtypes including CRF08_BC (53.2%), CRF07_BC (25.5%), CRF01_AE (19.1%) and C (2.1%) were identified. According to the time of sampling, the first 47 sequenced samples were used for drug resistance prevalence analysis. A protease inhibitor (PI) relative mutation was found in one sample. Based on the WHO standard, the prevalence of transmitted HIV-1 drug resistance was scientific management to AIDS patients seemed to be quite important.

  19. A new basal sauropodiform dinosaur from the Lower Jurassic of Yunnan Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ya-Ming; You, Hai-Lu; Wang, Tao

    2017-02-01

    The Lufeng Formation in Lufeng Basin of Yunnan Province, southwestern China preserves one of the richest terrestrial Lower Jurassic vertebrate faunas globally, especially for its basal sauropodomorphs, such as Lufengosaurus and Yunnanosaurus. Here we report a new taxon, Xingxiulong chengi gen. et sp. nov. represented by three partial skeletons with overlapping elements. Xingxiulong possesses a number of autapomorphies, such as transversely expanded plate-like summit on top of the neural spine of posterior dorsal vertebrae, four sacral vertebrae, robust scapula, and elongated pubic plate approximately 40% of the total length of the pubis. Phylogenetic analysis resolves Xingxiulong as a basal member of Sauropodiformes, and together with another two Lufeng basal sauropodiforms Jingshanosaurus and Yunnanosaurus, they represent the basalmost lineages of this clade, indicating its Asian origin. Although being relatively primitive, Xingxiulong displays some derived features normally occurred in advanced sauropodiforms including sauropods, such as a four sacral-sacrum, a robust scapula, and a pubis with elongated pubic plate. The discovery of Xingxiulong increases the diversity of basal sauropodomorphs from the Lufeng Formation and indicates a more complicated scenario in the early evolution of sauropodiforms.

  20. Factors affecting trace element content in periurban market garden subsoil in Yunnan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zu, Yanqun; Bock, Laurent; Schvartz, Christian; Colinet, Gilles; Li, Yuan

    2011-01-01

    Field investigations were conducted to measure subsoil trace element content and factors influencing content in an intensive periurban market garden in Chenggong County, Yunnan Province, South-West China. The area was divided into three different geomorphological units: specifically, mountain (M), transition (T) and lacustrine (L). Mean trace element content in subsoil were determined for Pb (58.2 mg/kg), Cd (0.89 mg/kg), Cu (129.2 mg/kg), and Zn (97.0 mg/kg). Strong significant relationships between trace element content in topsoil and subsoil were observed. Both Pb and Zn were accumulated in topsoil (RTS (ratio of mean trace element in topsoil to subsoil) of Pb and Zn > or =1.0) and Cd and Cu in subsoil (RTS of Cd and Cu related to relief, stoniness, soil color, clay content, and cation exchange capacity. Except for 7.5 YR (yellow-red) color, trace element content increased with color intensity from brown to reddish brown. Significant positive relationships were observed between Fe content and that of Pb and Cu. Trace element content in mountain unit subsoil was higher than in transition and lacustrine units (M > T > L), except for Cu (T > M > L). Mean trace element content in calcareous subsoil was higher than in sandstone and shale. Mean trace element content in clay texture subsoil was higher than in sandy and sandy loam subsoil, and higher Cu and Zn content in subsoil with few mottles. It is possible to model Pb, Cd, Cu, and Zn distribution in subsoil physico-chemical characteristics to help improve agricultural practice.

  1. Carbon storage estimation of main forestry ecosystems in Northwest Yunnan Province using remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinliang; Wang, Xiaohua; Yue, Cairong; Xu, Tian-shu; Cheng, Pengfei

    2014-05-01

    Estimating regional forest organic carbon pool has became a hot issue in the study of forest ecosystem carbon cycle. The forest ecosystem in Shangri-La County, Northwest Yunnan Province, are well preserved, and the area of Picea Likiangensis, Quercus Aquifolioides, Pinus Densata and Pinus Yunnanensis amounts to 80% of the total arboreal forest area in Shangri-La County. Based on the field measurements, remote sensing data and GIS analysis, three models were established for carbon storage estimation. The remote sensing information model with the highest accuracy were used to calculate the carbon storages of the four main forest ecosystems. The results showed: (1) the total carbon storage of the four forest ecosystems in Shangri-La is 302.984 TgC, in which tree layer, shrub layer, herb layer, litter layer, soil layer are 60.196TgC, 5.433TgC, 1.080TgC, 3.582TgC and 232.692TgC, accounting for 19.87%, 1.79%, 0.36%, 1.18%, 76.80% of the total carbon storage respectively. (2)The order of the carbon storage from high to low is soil layer, tree layer, shrub layer, litter layer and herb layer respectively for the four main forest ecosystems. (3)The total average carbon density of the four main forest ecosystems is 403.480 t/hm2, and the carbon densities of the Picea Likiangensis, Quercus Aquifolioides, Pinus Densata and Pinus Yunnanensis are 576.889 t/hm2, 326.947 t/hm2, 279.993 t/hm2 and 255.792 t/hm2 respectively.

  2. A review of the microbiology of the Rehai geothermal field in Tengchong, Yunnan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian P. Hedlund

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The Rehai Geothermal Field, located in Tengchong County, in central-western Yunnan Province, is the largest and most intensively studied geothermal field in China. A wide physicochemical diversity of springs (ambient to ∼97 °C; pH from ≤1.8 to ≥9.3 provides a multitude of niches for extremophilic microorganisms. A variety of studies have focused on the cultivation, identification, basic physiology, taxonomy, and biotechnological potential of thermophilic microorganisms from Rehai. Thermophilic bacteria isolated from Rehai belong to the phyla Firmicutes and Deinococcus-Thermus. Firmicutes include neutrophilic or alkaliphilic Anoxybacillus, Bacillus, Caldalkalibacillus, Caldanaerobacter, Laceyella, and Geobacillus, as well as thermoacidophilic Alicyclobacillus and Sulfobacillus. Isolates from the Deinococcus-Thermus phylum include several Meiothermus and Thermus species. Many of these bacteria synthesize thermostable polymer-degrading enzymes that may be useful for biotechnology. The thermoacidophilic archaea Acidianus, Metallosphaera, and Sulfolobus have also been isolated and studied. A few studies have reported the isolation of thermophilic viruses belonging to Siphoviridae (TTSP4 and TTSP10 and Fuselloviridae (STSV1 infecting Thermus spp. and Sulfolobus spp., respectively. More recently, cultivation-independent studies using 16S rRNA gene sequences, shotgun metagenomics, or “functional gene” sequences have revealed a much broader diversity of microorganisms than represented in culture. Studies of the gene and mRNA encoding the large subunit of the ammonia monooxygenase (amoA of ammonia-oxidizing Archaea (AOA and the tetraether lipid crenarchaeol, a potential biomarker for AOA, suggest a wide diversity, but possibly low abundance, of thermophilic AOA in Rehai. Finally, we introduce the Tengchong Partnerships in International Research and Education (PIRE project, an international collaboration between Chinese and U.S. scientists with

  3. Spatial risk profiling of Schistosoma japonicum in Eryuan county, Yunnan province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Steinmann

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Bayesian spatial risk profiling holds promise to enhance our understanding of the epidemiology of parasitic diseases, and to target interventions in a cost-effective manner. Here, we present findings from a study using Bayesian variogram models to map and predict the seroprevalence of Schistosoma japonicum in Eryuan county, Yunnan province, China, including risk factor analysis. Questionnaire and serological data were obtained through a cross-sectional survey carried out in 35 randomly selected villages with 3,220 people enrolled. Remotely-sensed environmental data were derived from publicly available databases. Bivariate and non-spatial Bayesian multiple logistic regression models were used to identify associations between the local seroprevalence and demographic (i.e. age and sex, environmental (i.e. location of village, altitude, slope, land surface temperature and normalized difference vegetation index and socio-economic factors. In the spatially-explicit Bayesian model, S. japonicum seroprevalence was significantly associated with sex, age and the location of the village. Males, those aged below 10 years and inhabitants of villages situated on steep slopes (inclination ≥20° or on less precipitous slopes of >5° above 2,150 m were at lower risk of seroconversion than their respective counterparts. Our final prediction model revealed an elevated risk for seroconversion in the plains of the eastern parts of Eryuan county. In conclusion, the prediction map can be utilized for spatial targeting of schistosomiasis control interventions in Eryuan county. Moreover, S. japonicum seroprevalence studies might offer a convenient means to assess the infection pressure experienced by local communities, and to improve risk profiling in areas where the prevalence and infection intensities have come down following repeated rounds of praziquantel administration.

  4. Postglacial fire history and interactions with vegetation and climate in southwestern Yunnan Province of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xiayun; Haberle, Simon G.; Shen, Ji; Xue, Bin; Burrows, Mark; Wang, Sumin

    2017-06-01

    A high-resolution, continuous 18.5 kyr (1 kyr = 1000 cal yr BP) macroscopic charcoal record from Qinghai Lake in southwestern Yunnan Province, China, reveals postglacial fire frequency and variability history. The results show that three periods with high-frequency and high-severity fires occurred during the periods 18.5-15.0, 13.0-11.5, and 4.3-0.8 ka, respectively. This record was compared with major pollen taxa and pollen diversity indices from the same core, and tentatively related to the regional climate proxy records with the aim to separate climate- from human-induced fire activity, and discuss vegetation-fire-climate interactions. The results suggest that fire was mainly controlled by climate before 4.3 ka and by the combined actions of climate and humans after 4.3 ka. Before 4.3 ka, high fire activity corresponded to cold and dry climatic conditions, while warm and humid climatic conditions brought infrequent and weak fires. Fire was an important disturbance factor and played an important role in forest dynamics around the study area. Vegetation responses to fire after 4.3 ka are not consistent with those before 4.3 ka, suggesting that human influence on vegetation and fire regimes may have become more prevalent after 4.3 ka. The comparisons between fire activity and vegetation reveal that evergreen oaks are flammable plants and fire-tolerant taxa. Alnus is a fire-adapted taxon and a nonflammable plant, but density of Alnus forest is a key factor to decide its fire resistance. The forests dominated by Lithocarpus/Castanopsis and/or tropical trees and shrubs are not easy to ignite, but Lithocarpus/Castanopsis and tropical trees and shrubs are fire-sensitive taxa. Fire appears to be unfavourable to plant diversity in the study area.

  5. Risk Assessment of Heavy Metal Pollution in Soils of Gejiu Tin Ore and Other Metal Deposits of Yunnan Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shuran; Danek, Tomas; Cheng, Xianfeng; Huang, Qianrui

    2017-12-01

    This paper aims to study three main metal mining areas in Yunnan Province, to summarize and analyze the heavy metal pollution situation in each mining area, and to assess the ecological risk of the mining areas. The results showed that heavy metal pollution existed in different regions of the three mining areas with pollution elements of Cd, As, Cu, Pb, Zn. Risk level, besides Zhen Yuan mining area (class C), for the other two areas was class D, with Beichang mining area in Lanping as the most serious polluted mining area.

  6. Opportunities and challenges for smallholder pig production systems in a mountainous region of Xishuangbanna, Yunnan Province, China

    OpenAIRE

    Riedel, Simon; Schiborra, Anne; Huelsebusch, Christian; Huanming, Mao; Schlecht, Eva

    2012-01-01

    China’s small-scale pig keepers are the largest community of pork producers worldwide. About 56 % of the world's pigs originate from such systems, each producing 2–5 head per year. This study analyzes pig smallholders in Xishuangbanna, a prefecture of Yunnan Province. Categorical principal component analysis and two-step cluster analysis were used to identify three main production systems: livestock-corn-based (LB; 41 %), rubber based (RB; 39 %), and pig based (PB; 20 %) systems. RB farms ear...

  7. [Influencing factors of malnutrition of the children within 6 years in pour rural areas of Yunnan Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jiang; Wan, Rong; Wan, Qingqing; Li, Juanjuan

    2012-07-01

    To analyze the status of malnutrition for the children within 6 years in pour rural areas of Yunnan during 2006 - 2009 and to study it's influencing factors. By the random cluster sampling and stratified sampling methods, 4873 children within 6 years in rural areas were selected from four poverty-stricken counties in Yunnan Province. The questionnaire survey including questionnaire, anthropometric measurement and dietary survey such as body height and weight were used respectively for the survey. Z scores were calculated to evaluate the nutritional status. The prevalence of malnutrition was calculated by statistics software. Multiple factors analysis were finished by non condition logistic regression in software. During 2006 - 2009, of all children under the age of 6 years, the underweight rate is 15.2%, stunted growth rate is 11.5% and emaciation rate is 7.1% in impoverished rural area of Yunnan Province. Removing other variables, the result indicated: (1) The children with breastfeeding in first six months are less possible to get malnutrition than the children with formula feeding or mixed breastfeeding and formula feeding. (2) The children who are complemented grains, eggs, fruits and zinc supplement are less possible to get malnutrition than those children who are not. (3) Comparing these children who are provided with calcium supplement, the children who are not are more possible to get malnutrition. (4) Supplying supplementary such as animal liver and blood in earlier period can decrease the possibility to get malnutrition among 2-5 years old children. The main influencing factors of Children malnutrition include feeding ways in first six months, increasing supplementary food in recent one month among the children younger than 2 years old, month age when supplementary food were introduced in 2-5 years old children, and the types and frequency of introducing supplementary food among 2-5 years old children.

  8. Investigation and analysis of interventional procedures being carried out in the primary hospital in Yunnan province of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Rong; Huang Ming; Zhou Jinmei; Yang Yinshan; Zhao Ling; Wu Hao; Wu Qijie

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate and analyze the interventional techniques being employed or being anticipated to be adopted in the primary hospitals in Yunnan province of China in order to further promote the interventional procedures in clinical practice. Methods: A total of 52 Yunnan provincial state hospitals and county hospitals were enrolled in this investigation. During the period from Sep. 2009 to Dec. 2012, questionnaires were used to find out the interventional techniques being employed or being anticipated to be adopted in these 52 hospitals, and the results were analyzed. The common clinical issues were discussed and the improvement measures were suggested. Results: The number of effective questionnaire was 38 (38/52). Four county hospitals did not have basic condition to carry out the interventional technique, 41.70-/o of hospitals expected that they would be able to develop the technique of inferior vena cava filter, 35.3% of hospitals anticipated to employ 125 I seed implantation with stenting for liver cancer, and 32.3% of hospitals wanted to use digestive tract stent implantation. The difficulties to hinder the development of interventional techniques included the shortage of necessary interventional equipment and the irrational orderly system of professional succession. Conclusion: The interventional procedures being carried out nowadays in the primary hospitals in Yunnan province of China are quite few. The difference in the interventional techniques being anticipated to be carried out between the municipal hospitals and county hospitals is not significant. With the increasing demand of interventional treatment, the primary hospitals will have broad prospects in developing interventional treatment. (authors)

  9. [The application of National AIDS spending assessment in a county of Dehong prefecture, Yunnan province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Duo; Sun, Jiang-ping; Yakusik, Anna; Chen, Zhong-dan; Yuan, Jian-hua; Li, Tao; Duan, Song; Yang, Xing; Wei, Mei; Michael, Sante; Ye, Run-hua; Xiang, Li-fen; Yang, Yue-cheng; Ren, Da

    2012-11-01

    To calculate the actual expenditures in a county of Dehong prefecture, Yunnan province, China by using the method of National AIDS Spending Assessment (NASA) in 2010. Data were collected through NASA data collection form based on adapted NASA classification in the county of Dehong prefecture from October to December, 2011, and complemented by semi-structured interview with 16 well trained programmatic and financial representatives in 8 spending units. Data were entered in Resource Tracking Software (RTS) V 2009.3.0, and SPSS 13.0 was used for data processing and analysis. The NASA estimations showed that the county spent a total of ¥16 235 954 on HIV/AIDS in 2010. Public funds constituted 96.3% of the total expenditure (¥15 630 937), followed by Global Fund which accounted for 3.0% (¥484 585) and private sources which accounted for 0.7% (¥120 432). Findings based on NASA categories showed that AIDS spendings were mainly on 4 areas, and expenditure on Care & Treatment was ¥12 401 382 (76.4% of total expenditure), followed by Prevention which accounted for 14.3% (¥2 325 707), Program Management & Administration which accounted for 7.8% (¥1 268 523) and human resources which accounted for 1.5% (¥240 342). The most beneficial population group was People Living with HIV (PLHIV), accounting for 84.7% of total expenditure. (¥13 753 428), followed by 4.8% for high risk population, including female sex workers and their partners (¥297 333), injection drug users and their partners (¥293 143), men having sex with men and their partners (¥185 136) and 1.5% (¥241 429) for the general population. The local funds for HIV/AIDS in this county was insufficient. The local government should increase corresponding funds based on central government funding. Care and treatment was the first spending priority in the county and the investment of prevention services needs to be increased. Prevention and treatment and care should be combined to ensure the effectiveness of

  10. Effect of Cold-Water Irrigation on Grain Quality Traits in japonica Rice Varieties from Yunnan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-zhen ZHAO

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The response of grain quality traits to cold-water irrigation and its correlation with cold tolerance were studied in 11 japonica rice varieties from Yunnan Province, China. The results indicated that the response of grain quality traits to the cold-water stress varied with rice varieties and grain quality traits. Under the cold-water stress, grain width, chalky rice rate, whiteness, 1000-grain weight, brown rice rate, taste meter value, peak viscosity, trough viscosity, breakdown viscosity and final viscosity significantly decreased, whereas grain length-width ratio, head rice rate, alkali digestion value, protein content and setback viscosity markedly increased. However, the other traits such as grain length, amylose content, milled rice rate, peak viscosity time and pasting temperature were not significantly affected by the cold-water stress. Significant correlations were discovered between phenotypic acceptability and cold response indices of taste meter value, protein content, peak viscosity and breakdown viscosity. Therefore, it would be very important to improve the cold tolerance of Yunnan rice varieties in order to stabilize and improve their eating quality.

  11. Population data and mutation rates of 20 autosomal STR loci in a Chinese Han population from Yunnan Province, Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiufeng; Liu, Linlin; Xie, Runfang; Wang, Guiyi; Shi, Yuan; Gu, Tao; Hu, Liping; Nie, Shengjie

    2018-07-01

    The genetic polymorphisms of 20 autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) loci included in the PowerPlex® 21 kit were evaluated from 2068 unrelated, healthy individuals from the Chinese Han population of Yunnan Province in southwest China. All of the loci reached Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. These loci were examined to determine allele frequencies and forensic statistical parameters. The genetic relationships among the Yunnan Han and other Chinese populations were also estimated. The combined discrimination power and probability of excluding paternity of the 20 STR loci were 0.99999999999999999999999126 and 0.999999975, respectively. In addition, mutation rates from 4363 parentage cases (2215 trios and 2148 duos) were investigated in this study. A total of 164 mutations were observed in 6578 meioses from the 20 loci. The highest mutation rate was observed in D12S391 (0.30%), and the lowest mutation rates were observed in D13S317 (0.03%) and TPOX (0.03%). The average mutation rate for the 20 loci was estimated to be 1.246 × 10 -3 per meiosis. The mutations were primarily single-step and paternal mutations.

  12. Distribution of mosquitoes and mosquito-borne arboviruses in Yunnan Province near the China-Myanmar-Laos border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinglin; Zhang, Hailin; Sun, Xiaohong; Fu, Shihong; Wang, Huanqin; Feng, Yun; Wang, Huanyu; Tang, Qing; Liang, Guo-Dong

    2011-05-01

    Economic development and increased tourism in the southern region of Yunnan Province in China, adjacent to several countries in Southeast Asia, has increased the likelihood of import and export of vectors and vector-borne diseases. We report the results of surveillance of mosquitoes and mosquito-borne arboviruses along the border of China-Myanmar-Laos in 2005 and 2006, and information associating several arboviruses with infections and possibly disease in local human populations. Seventeen mosquito species representing four genera were obtained, and 14 strains of mosquito-borne viruses representing six viruses in five genera were isolated from Culex tritaeniorhynchus. In addition, IgM against Japanese encephalitis virus, Sindbis virus, Yunnan orbivirus and novel Banna virus was detected in acute-phase serum samples obtained from hospitalized patients with fever and encephalitis near the areas where the viruses were isolated. This investigation suggests that Japanese encephalitis virus, Sindbis virus, and lesser-known arboviruses circulate and may be infecting humans in the China-Myanmar-Laos border region.

  13. Cluster and principal component analysis based on SSR markers of Amomum tsao-ko in Jinping County of Yunnan Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Mengli; Lei, En; Meng, Hengling; Wang, Tiantao; Xie, Linyan; Shen, Dong; Xianwang, Zhou; Lu, Bingyue

    2017-08-01

    Amomum tsao-ko is a commercial plant that used for various purposes in medicinal and food industries. For the present investigation, 44 germplasm samples were collected from Jinping County of Yunnan Province. Clusters analysis and 2-dimensional principal component analysis (PCA) was used to represent the genetic relations among Amomum tsao-ko by using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Clustering analysis clearly distinguished the samples groups. Two major clusters were formed; first (Cluster I) consisted of 34 individuals, the second (Cluster II) consisted of 10 individuals, Cluster I as the main group contained multiple sub-clusters. PCA also showed 2 groups: PCA Group 1 included 29 individuals, PCA Group 2 included 12 individuals, consistent with the results of cluster analysis. The purpose of the present investigation was to provide information on genetic relationship of Amomum tsao-ko germplasm resources in main producing areas, also provide a theoretical basis for the protection and utilization of Amomum tsao-ko resources.

  14. Variations in Element Levels Accumulated in Different Parts of Boletus edulis Collected from Central Yunnan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-Mei Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ICP-AES and microwave assisted digestion were applied to determine P, Mg, Ca, Zn, Na, Cu, Ba, Ni, V, Cd, Sr, Co, and Li in the caps and stipes of Boletus edulis collected from six spatially distant sites in Yunnan province, China. Fruiting bodies of King Bolete are abundant in P, Mg, Ca, Zn, Cu, and Na, followed by Ba, Cd, Ni, V, Li, Sr, and Co. Contents of P, Mg, Zn, and Cu are more abundant in caps than in stipes of King Bolete. However, elements such as Na, Ba, Cd, Ni, V, Li, Sr, and Co prefer to accumulate in stipes of mushrooms from Yaoan, Chuxiong. The results of this study indicate that spatial variations of elements between caps and stipes are mainly related to different bedrock soil geochemistry and enrichment capability for various elements.

  15. Genetic analysis of 20 autosomal STR loci in the Miao ethnic group from Yunnan Province, Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiufeng; Hu, Liping; Du, Lei; Nie, Aiting; Rao, Min; Pang, Jing Bo; Xiran, Zeng; Nie, Shengjie

    2017-05-01

    The genetic polymorphisms of 20 autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) loci included in the PowerPlex ® 21 kit were evaluated from 748 unrelated healthy individuals of the Miao ethnic minority living in the Yunnan province in southwestern China. All of the loci reached Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. These loci were examined to determine allele frequencies and forensic statistical parameters. The genetic relationship between the Miao population and other Chinese populations were also estimated. The combined discrimination power and probability of excluding paternity of the 20 STR loci were 0.999 999 999 999 999 999 999 991 26 and 0.999 999 975, respectively. The results suggested that the 20 STR loci were highly polymorphic, which makes them suitable for forensic personal identification and paternity testing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Detection of geothermal anomalies in Tengchong, Yunnan Province, China from MODIS multi-temporal night LST imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H.; Kusky, T. M.; Peng, S.; Zhu, M.

    2012-12-01

    Thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing is an important technique in the exploration of geothermal resources. In this study, a geothermal survey is conducted in Tengchong area of Yunnan province in China using multi-temporal MODIS LST (Land Surface Temperature). The monthly night MODIS LST data from Mar. 2000 to Mar. 2011 of the study area were collected and analyzed. The 132 month average LST map was derived and three geothermal anomalies were identified. The findings of this study agree well with the results from relative geothermal gradient measurements. Finally, we conclude that TIR remote sensing is a cost-effective technique to detect geothermal anomalies. Combining TIR remote sensing with geological analysis and the understanding of geothermal mechanism is an accurate and efficient approach to geothermal area detection.

  17. Genetic diversity analysis of Amomum tsao-ko in Jinping County of Yunnan Province using SSR markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Mengli; Wang, Tiantao; Lei, En; Meng, Hengling; Xie, Linyan; Zhu, Kunlong; Duan, Shaoze; Li, Wenqiang; Lu, Bingyue

    2017-08-01

    Genetic diversity analysis is very important for germplasm resources conservation and utilization. The objective of this study was to assess the genetic diversity among 44 individuals of Amomum tsao-ko from Jinping County of Yunnan Province using 5 selected SSR (simple sequence repeat) markers. A total of 23 polymorphic loci were detected among these germplasms, with an average of 4.6 polymorphic loci per SSR primer combination. The percentage of polymorphic loci was 100%, whereas the mean effective number of alleles (Ne), observed heterozygosity(Ho), expected heterozygosity (He), Shannon's information index (I), and the mean polymorphism information content (PIC) were 3. 410, 0. 491, 0. 679, 1.266 and 0. 672, respectively, indicating that the Amomum tsao-ko germplasms from Jinping County had high genetic diversity.

  18. Historical reconstruction of atmospheric lead pollution in central Yunnan province, southwest China: an analysis based on lacustrine sedimentary records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Enfeng; Zhang, Enlou; Li, Kai; Nath, Bibhash; Li, Yanling; Shen, Ji

    2013-12-01

    Atmospheric lead (Pb) pollution during the last century in central Yunnan province, one of the largest non-ferrous metal production centers in China, was reconstructed using sediment cores collected from Fuxian and Qingshui Lakes. Lead concentrations and isotopic ratios ((207)Pb/(206)Pb and (208)Pb/(206)Pb) were measured in sediment cores from both lakes. The operationally defined chemical fractions of Pb in sediment core from Fuxian Lake were determined by the optimized BCR procedure. The chronology of the cores was reconstructed using (210)Pb and (137)Cs dating methods. Similar three-phase variations in isotopic ratios and enrichment factors of Pb were observed in the sediment cores from both lakes. Before the 1950s, the sediment data showed low (207)Pb/(206)Pb and (208)Pb/(206)Pb ratios and enrichment factors (EFs=~1), indicating that the sedimentary Pb was predominantly of lithogenic origin. However, these indices were increased gradually between the 1950s and the mid-1980s, implying an atmospheric Pb deposition. The EFs and isotopic ratios of Pb reached their peak during recent years, indicating aggravating atmospheric Pb pollution. The average anthropogenic Pb fluxes since the mid-1980s were estimated to be 0.032 and 0.053 g m(-2) year(-1) recorded in Fuxian and Qingshui cores, respectively. The anthropogenic Pb was primarily concentrated in the reducible fraction. Combining the results of Pb isotopic compositions and chemical speciations in the sediment cores and in potential sources, we deduced that recent aggravating atmospheric Pb pollution in central Yunnan province should primarily be attributed to regional emissions from non-ferrous metal production industries.

  19. Genetic polymorphisms of 20 autosomal STR loci in the Vietnamese population from Yunnan Province, Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiufeng; Hu, Liping; Du, Lei; Nie, Aiting; Rao, Min; Pang, Jing Bo; Nie, Shengjie

    2017-05-01

    The genetic polymorphisms of 20 autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) loci included in the PowerPlex® 21 kit were evaluated in 522 healthy unrelated Vietnamese from Yunnan, China. All of the loci reached the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. These loci were examined to determine allele frequencies and forensic statistical parameters. The combined discrimination power and probability of excluding paternity of the 20 STR loci were 0.999999999999999999999991 26 and 0.999999975, respectively. Results suggested that the 20 STR loci are highly polymorphic, which is suitable for forensic personal identification and paternity testing.

  20. Dominance of HIV-1 subtype CRF01_AE in sexually acquired cases leads to a new epidemic in Yunnan province of China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Zhang

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Dating back to the first epidemic among injection drug users in 1989, the Yunnan province has had the highest number of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 infections in China. However, the molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 in Yunnan has not been fully characterized.Using immunoassays, we identified 103,015 accumulated cases of HIV-1 infections in Yunnan between 1989 and 2004. We studied 321 patients representing Yunnan's 16 prefectures from four risk groups, 11 ethnic populations, and ten occupations. We identified three major circulating subtypes: C/CRF07_BC/CRF08_BC (53%, CRF01_AE (40.5%, and B (6.5% by analyzing the sequence of p17, which is part of the gag gene. For patients with known risk factors, 90.9% of injection drug users had C/CRF07_BC/CRF08_BC viruses, whereas 85.4% of CRF01_AE infections were acquired through sexual transmission. No distinct segregation of CRF01_AE viruses was found among the Dai ethnic group. Geographically, C/CRF07_BC/CRF08_BC was found throughout the province, while CRF01_AE was largely confined to the prefectures bordering Myanmar. Furthermore, C/CRF07_BC/CRF08_BC viruses were found to consist of a group of viruses, including C, CRF08_BC, CRF07_BC, and new BC recombinants, based on the characterization of their reverse transcriptase genes.This is the first report of a province-wide HIV-1 molecular epidemiological study in Yunnan. While C/CRF07_BC/CRF08_BC and CRF01_AE are codominant, the discovery of many sexually transmitted CRF01_AE cases is new and suggests that this subtype may lead to a new epidemic in the general Chinese population. We discuss implications of our results for understanding the evolution of the HIV-1 pandemic and for vaccine development.

  1. Characterization of Fasciola samples by ITS of rDNA sequences revealed the existence of Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica in Yunnan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Fan-Fan; Lv, Rui-Qing; Zhang, Yi-Fang; Duan, Gang; Wu, Ding-Yu; Li, Bi-Feng; Yang, Jian-Fa; Zou, Feng-Cai

    2012-08-01

    On mainland China, liver flukes of Fasciola spp. (Digenea: Fasciolidae) can cause serious acute and chronic morbidity in numerous species of mammals such as sheep, goats, cattle, and humans. The objective of the present study was to examine the taxonomic identity of Fasciola species in Yunnan province by sequences of the first and second internal transcribed spacers (ITS-1 and ITS-2) of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA). The ITS rDNA was amplified from 10 samples representing Fasciola species in cattle from 2 geographical locations in Yunnan Province, by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the products were sequenced directly. The lengths of the ITS-1 and ITS-2 sequences were 422 and 361-362 base pairs, respectively, for all samples sequenced. Using ITS sequences, 2 Fasciola species were revealed, namely Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica. This is the first demonstration of F. gigantica in cattle in Yunnan Province, China using a molecular approach; our findings have implications for studying the population genetic characterization of the Chinese Fasciola species and for the prevention and control of Fasciola spp. in this province.

  2. [Genotyping of ABO Blood Group in Partial Population of Yunnan Province by SNaPshot Technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, S X; Zeng, F M; Jin, Y Z; Wan, H J; Zhai, D; Xing, Y M; Cheng, B W

    2017-06-01

    To detect the genotype of ABO blood group by SNaPshot technology. DNA were extracted from the peripheral blood samples with known blood groups (obtained by serology) of 107 unrelated individuals in Yunnan. Six SNP loci of the 261th, 297th, 681th, 703th, 802th, and 803th nucleotide positions were detected by SNaPshot Multiplex kit, and relevant genetics parameters were calculated. In 107 blood samples, the allele frequencies of types A, B, O A , and O G were 0.355 1, 0.168 2, 0.230 0 and 0.247 6, respectively, while that of types A G and cis AB were not detected. The genotyping results of ABO blood group were consistent with that of serologic testing. SNaPshot technology can be adapted for genotyping of ABO blood group. Copyright© by the Editorial Department of Journal of Forensic Medicine

  3. Status of Human Papillomavirus Infection in the Ethnic Population in Yunnan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulqarnain Baloch

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available HPV genotypes have distinct distributions among various ethnic populations worldwide. In December 2013, 237 and 159 cervical samples were collected from Hani and Han ethnic women, respectively, in Mojiang, a rural county in southern Yunnan. The overall HPV infection rate (21.1% among the Hani women was significantly higher than that among the Han women (12.6%. The high-risk (HR and low-risk (LR HPV and single- and multiple-genotype infection rates among the Hani women were 11.0%, 4.6%, 15.6%, and 5.5%, respectively. HPV-16 (3.8% was the most prevalent genotype among the Hani women, followed by HPV-52 (1.7%, HPV-31 (0.8%, and HPV-33 (0.8%. Comparatively, the Han women had lower infection rates of high-risk (8.2%, low-risk (1.2%, single-genotype (9.4%, and multiple-genotype HPV infections (3.1%. HPV-16 (3.1% was also the predominant genotype among the Han women, followed by HPV-52 (1.3%, HPV-33 (0.6%, HPV-44 (0.6%, and HPV-54 (0.6%. The area background, number of children, and past history of STIs were recognized as potential risk factors for HPV infection. Rural background, age, education level, number of children, and illness history were significantly associated with HPV infection among the Hani women. These findings highlight the urgent need for HPV prevention and control strategies in Yunnan, particularly for the Hani ethnic women.

  4. Investigation and Analysis on the Construction Situation of “Three Links and Two Platforms” of Education for Nationalities in Yunnan Province in China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhilin Zhao; Jianhou Gan

    2017-01-01

    “Three Links and Two Platforms”, which refers to schools links to ICTs, high-quality resource of class links to ICTs, people links to ICTs, public service platform for educational resources and public service platform for educational management, has played a crucial role in improving the educational equality in minority areas in Yunnan province and in realizing the sharing of high-quality educational resources. This research mainly adopts method of document investigation, which has investigat...

  5. Investigation and Analysis on the Construction Situation of “Three Links and Two Platforms” of Education for Nationalities in Yunnan Province in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhilin Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available “Three Links and Two Platforms”, which refers to schools links to ICTs, high-quality resource of class links to ICTs, people links to ICTs, public service platform for educational resources and public service platform for educational management, has played a crucial role in improving the educational equality in minority areas in Yunnan province and in realizing the sharing of high-quality educational resources. This research mainly adopts method of document investigation, which has investigated the construction situation of “Three Links and Two Platforms” in eight ethnic autonomous prefectures in Yunnan province in China including Chuxiong Yi Nationality Autonomous Prefecture, etc. The results show that the average value of the construction of “Three Links” is 63.55%n 14.75% and 9.00% respectively. “Two Platforms” mainly focus on public service platform for educational resources and public service platform for the construction of educational statistics, and the informatization of national education in Yunnan province should be improved greatly.

  6. Geological and Geochemical Characteristics of Skarn Type Lead-Zinc Deposit in Baoshan Block, Yunnan Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xue; Wang, Peng

    2017-11-01

    Baoshan block is an important Pb-Zn-Fe-Cu polymetallic ore-concentration area which is located in southern of the Sanjiang metallogenic belt in western Yunnan. The article is studying about the geological and geochemical characteristics of the skarn type lead-zinc deposit in Baoshan block. The skarn-type lead-zinc deposit Baoshan block is characterized by skarn and skarn marble, and the orebodies are layered, or bedded along the interlayer fault, which are significantly controlled by structure. The research about Stable isotope S, H and O indicates that the ore-forming fluids are mainly derived from magmatic water, partly mixed with parts of metamorphic water and atmospheric precipitation. The initial Sr isotopic Sr87/Sr86 ratio suggests that the ore-forming materials derived from deep concealed magmatic rock, age of Rb-Sr mineralization is similar to that of Yanshanian granite. In conclusion, the Yanshanian tectonic-magmatic-fluid coupling mineralization of Yanshan formation is the main reason for the skarn-type lead-zinc deposit in the Baoshan block.

  7. Diversity of Cultured Thermophilic Anaerobes in Hot Springs of Yunnan Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, L.; Lu, Y.; Dong, X.; Liu, X.; Wei, Y.; Ji, X.; Zhang, C.

    2010-12-01

    Thermophilic anaerobes including Archaea and Bacteria refer to those growing optimally at temperatures above 50°C and do not use oxygen as the terminal electron acceptor for growth. Study on thermophilic anaerobes will help to understand how life thrives under extreme conditions. Meanwhile thermophilic anaerobes are of importance in potential application and development of thermophilic biotechnology. We have surveyed culturable thermophilic anaerobes in hot springs (pH6.5-7.5; 70 - 94°C) in Rehai of Tengchong, Bangnazhang of Longlin, Eryuan of Dali,Yunnan, China. 50 strains in total were cultured from the hot springs water using Hungate anaerobic technique, and 30 strains were selected based on phenotypic diversity for analysis of 16S rDNA sequences. Phylogenetic analysis showed that 28 strains belonged to the members of five genera: Caldanaerobacter, Calaramator, Thermoanaerobacter, Dictyoglomus and Fervidobacterium, which formed five branches on the phylogenetic tree. Besides, 2 strains of methanogenic archaea were obtained. The majority of the isolates were the known species, however, seven strains were identified as novel species affiliated to the five genera based on the lower 16S rDNA sequence similarities (less than 93 - 97%) with the described species. This work would provide the future study on their diversity, distribution among different regions and the potential application of thermophilic enzyme. Supported by State Key Laboratory of Microbial Resources, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences(SKLMR-080605)and the Foundation of State Natural Science (30660009, 30960022, 31081220175).

  8. [Responses of Picea likiangensis radial growth to climate change in the Small Zhongdian area of Yunnan Province, Southwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhi-Jiang; Tan, Liu-Yi; Kang, Dong-Wei; Liu, Qi-Jing; Li, Jun-Qing

    2012-03-01

    Picea likiangensis (Franch. ) Pritz. primary forest is one of the dominant forest types in the Small Zhongdian area in Shangri-La County of Yunnan Province. In this paper, the responses of P. likiangensis tree-ring width to climate change were analyzed by dendrochronological methods, and the dendrochronology was built by using relatively conservative detrending negative exponential curves or linear regression. Correlation analysis and response function analysis were applied to explore the relationships between the residual chronology series (RES) and climatic factors at different time scales, and pointer year analysis was used to explain the reasons of producing narrow and wide rings. In the study area, the radial growth of P. likiangensis and the increasing air temperature from 1990 to 2008 had definite 'abruption'. The temperature and precipitation in previous year growth season were the main factors limiting the present year radial growth, and especially, the temperature in previous July played a negative feedback role in the radial growth, while the sufficient precipitation in previous July promoted the radial growth. The differences in the temperature variation and precipitation variation in previous year were the main reasons for the formation of narrow and wide rings. P. likiangensis radial growth was not sensitive to the variation of PDSI.

  9. ISSR Analysis on Genetic Diversity of the 34 Populations of Oryza meyeriana Distributing in Yunnan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-tao WAN

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The genetic diversity of the 34 populations of wild rice Oryza meyeriana Baill. distributed in Yunnan Province, China was analyzed using 13 inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR markers. A total of 168 bands were amplified, of which 135 polymorphic bands were discovered and the percentage of polymorphic bands (PPB was 80.36%. A genetic diversity was revealed as Nei's gene diversity (H = 0.2666 and Shannon information index (I = 0.4028 at population level. The 34 populations were divided into different groups based on administrative regions, latitude and longitudes, river areas, altitudes of their origins, and their indexes such as Na (number of alleles, Ne (effective number of alleles, H, I and PPB were calculated. Richer genetic diversity was found in the wild rice populations distributed in Simao Prefecture than that in Lingcang Prefecture or Xishuangbanna Prefecture whereas the least genetic diversity was in Baoshan Prefecture or Dehong Prefecture. Rich genetic diversity was also discovered in the wild rice populations originated from higher than 710 m altitude around the middle and lower reaches of the Lancang River belonging to the Pacific Ocean drainage system. The 34 populations could be classified into two groups, one group covered the wild rice distributing in Simao Prefecture only while the other group covered ones in Lingcang, Xishuangbanna and Dehong Prefectures. The issue on how to effectively conserve the wild rice germplasm was discussed.

  10. [Melissopalynology and trophic niche of Apis cerana ceraca and Apis mellifera ligustica in Yunnan Province of Southwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-Jia; Zhao, Tian-Rui; Zhao, Feng-Yun

    2013-01-01

    In 2010 and 2011, the honey samples of Apis cerana cerana and A. mellifera ligustica were collected from Kunming and Mengzi of Yunnan Province, respectively, aimed to analyze the melissopalynology and tropic niche of the two bee species. The absolute pollen concentration of the honey of A. cerana cerana was 1.55 x 10(4) ind x g(-1), being significantly higher than that (1.01 x 10(4) ind x g(-1)) of A. mellifera ligustica, and the number of nectar plant species collected by A. cerana cerana was 12.9, also significantly higher than that (7.7) collected by A. mellifera ligustica, indicating that A. cerana cerana could utilize more nectar plants, while A. mellifera ligustica had stronger selectivity to the nectar plants. The trophic niche breadth of A. cerana cerana was 0.35, which was significantly higher than that (0.23) of A. mellifera ligustica. The trophic niche overlap index between the two bee species was 0.71, and the interspecific competition index was 0.93, suggesting that the food competition between A. cerana cerana and A. mellifera ligustica was fierce.

  11. Soil seed banks along elevational gradients in tropical, subtropical and subalpine forests in Yunnan Province, southwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaqin Luo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Soil seed banks are a vital part of ecosystems and influence community dynamics and regeneration. Although soil seed banks in different habitats have been reported, how soil seed banks vary with elevational gradients in different climatic zones is still unknown. This paper investigates seed density, species composition and nonconstituent species of forest soil seed banks in Yunnan Province, southwest China. Similarity between the soil seed bank and standing vegetation was also examined. We collected soil samples from sites spanning 12 elevations in tropical rain forests, subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forests and subalpine coniferous forests, and transported them to a glasshouse for germination trials for species identification. The soil seed banks of tropical and subtropical forests had much higher seed densities and species richness than those of subalpine forests. Seeds of woody species dominated the soil seed banks of tropical and subtropical forests, while herbs dominated those of subalpine forests. The nonconstituent species in the soil seed banks were all herbs and were most abundant in tropical forests, followed by subtropical forests but were completely absent from subalpine forests.

  12. Human infection with a highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N6) virus in Yunnan province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wen; Li, Hong; Jiang, Li

    2016-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza A H5N6 virus has caused four human infections in China. This study reports the preliminary findings of the first known human case of H5N6 in Yunnan province. The patient initially developed symptoms of sore throat and coughing on 27 January 2015. The disease rapidly progressed to severe pneumonia, multiple organ dysfunctions and acute respiratory distress syndrome and the patient died on 6 February. Virological analysis determined that the virus belonged to H5 clade 2.3.4.4 and it has obtained partial ability for mammalian adaptation and amantadine resistance. Environmental investigation found H5 in 63% of the samples including poultry faeces, tissues, cage surface swabs and sewage from local live poultry markets by real-time RT-PCR. These findings suggest that the expanding and enhancing of surveillance in both avian and humans are necessary to monitor the evolution of H5 influenza virus and to facilitate early detection of suspected cases.

  13. Soil seed banks along elevational gradients in tropical, subtropical and subalpine forests in Yunnan Province, southwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaqin Luo; Min Cao; Min Zhang; Xiaoyang Song; Jieqiong Li; Akihiro Nakamura; Roger Kitching

    2017-01-01

    Soil seed banks are a vital part of ecosystems and influence community dynamics and regeneration.Although soil seed banks in different habitats have been reported,how soil seed banks vary with elerational gradients in different climatic zones is still unknown.This paper investigates seed density,species composition and nonconstituent species of forest soil seed banks in Yunnan Province,southwest China.Similarity between the soil seed bank and standing vegetation was also examined.We collected soil samples from sites spanning 12 elevations in tropical rain forests,subtropical evergreen broadleaved forests and subalpine coniferous forests,and transported them to a glasshouse for germination trials for species identification.The soil seed banks of tropical and subtropical forests had much higher seed densities and species richness than those of subalpine forests.Seeds of woody species dominated the soil seed banks of tropical and subtropical forests,while herbs dominated those of subalpine forests.The nonconstituent species in the soil seed banks were all herbs and were most abundant in tropical forests,followed by subtropical forests but were completely absent from subalpine forests.

  14. Analysis of HIV Correlated Factors in Chinese and Vietnamese Female Sex Workers in Hekou, Yunnan Province, a Chinese Border Region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjie Wang

    Full Text Available To assess the prevalence and correlated factors of HIV-1 among Chinese and Vietnamese female sex workers (FSW in the border county of Hekou, Yunnan province, China.A cross-sectional survey was conducted collecting information on demographics, sexual behavior, medical history, and drug use. Blood samples were obtained to test for HIV/STIs. Multivariate logistic regression model was used to examine associations between factors and HIV-1 infection.Of 345 FSWs who participated in this study, 112 (32.5% were Chinese and 233 (67.5 were Vietnamese. Vietnamese FSWs were significantly more likely to be HIV-1 positive (7.7% compared with Chinese FSWs (0.9% (p = 0.009. In multivariate analysis, sexual debut at age ≤ 16 (OR 3.8: 95% CI: 1.4, 10.6, last client's payment <150 RMB ($22 USD (OR: 5.2, 95% CI; 1.7, 16.6, and HSV-2 (OR: 12.3; 95% CI: 1.6, 94.8 were significant for HIV-1 infection.Differences in HIV prevalence in Vietnamese and Chinese FSWs may be indicative of differential risk. It is important to characterize the nature of trans-border transmission in order to gain a better understanding of the potential impact on the international HIV epidemic. Understanding the correlated factors for HIV in Vietnamese and Chinese FSWs is important for designing interventions for this vulnerable population.

  15. HIV prevalence and correlated factors of female sex workers and male clients in a border region of Yunnan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jing; Yuan, Rui; Hu, Dan; Zhu, Zhibin; Wang, Ning; Wang, Bei

    2018-04-01

    Female sex workers (FSWs) and their male clients are vulnerable to HIV infection and serve as a bridge in HIV transmission from the high-risk population to the general, low-risk population. To examine the factors of FSWs and male clients that correlate with the prevalence of HIV infection in the Chinese-Vietnamese border region, a cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2014 in the Hekou county of the Yunnan province of China. We performed a questionnaire survey to collect data on demographics, sexual behavior, and drug use. Blood and urine samples were collected for testing of HIV/sexually transmitted infections and drug use. We found that the prevalence of HIV infection among FSWs was 2.74%, and 15 male clients (2.62%) were HIV-positive. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that herpes simplex virus type 2 infection was a risk factor for HIV infection in FSWs and male clients, suggesting the increased role of sexual transmission in the HIV epidemic in the Chinese-Vietnamese border region. Positive urinalysis result for amphetamine-type stimulants was observed in FSWs with HIV infection. History of drug use was correlated with HIV infection, which increased the HIV infection risk of male clients, confirming that drug use is an important target in future interventions for HIV prevention.

  16. Opportunities and challenges for smallholder pig production systems in a mountainous region of Xishuangbanna, Yunnan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, Simon; Schiborra, Anne; Huelsebusch, Christian; Huanming, Mao; Schlecht, Eva

    2012-12-01

    China's small-scale pig keepers are the largest community of pork producers worldwide. About 56 % of the world's pigs originate from such systems, each producing 2-5 head per year. This study analyzes pig smallholders in Xishuangbanna, a prefecture of Yunnan Province. Categorical principal component analysis and two-step cluster analysis were used to identify three main production systems: livestock-corn-based (LB; 41 %), rubber based (RB; 39 %), and pig based (PB; 20 %) systems. RB farms earn high income from rubber and fatten cross-bred pigs, often using purchased feeds. PB farms own similar-sized rubber plantations and raise pigs, with fodder mainly being cultivated and collected in the forest. LB farms grow corn, rice, and tea while also raising pigs, fed with collected and cultivated fodder as well. About one third of pigs were marketed (LB, 20 %; RB, 42 %; PB, 25 %), and local pig meat is highly appreciated in the nearby town. High mortality, low reproductive performance, and widespread malnourishment are the systems' main constraints. Basic training in hygiene and reproduction management could significantly increase production; most effective measures would be counterbalancing seasonal malnourishment and exploration of locally available protein feeds. Through support by external expertise, farmers could more effectively trade their pigs at lucrative town markets.

  17. [Analysis on HIV-1 genetics and threshold of drug resistance in Dehong prefecture of Yunnan province in 2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yanling; Wang, Jibao; Xing, Hui; Chen, Min; Yao, Shitang; Chen, Huichao; Yang, Jin; Li, Yanling; Duan, Song; Jia, Manhong

    2015-06-01

    To study the HIV-1 genotypes and transmitted drug resistance (TDR) in Dehong prefecture of Yunnan province in 2013. Referring to the guidelines for HIV drug resistance threshold survey (HIVDR-TS), 54 plasma samples of recently reported HIV-infected individuals, aged between 16 and 25 years, were collected in Dehong prefecture from January to August 2013. Genotyping of partial pol gene was performed by using reverse transcriptional PCR. HIV-1 genotype. Prevalent levels of HIV-1 drug resistance transmission were analyzed. Forty-eight plasma samples were successfully sequenced and analyzed. Among them, 45.8% were Chinese and the rest 54.2% were all Burmese. Based on pol sequences, identified HIV genotypes included subtype C (41.7%), URF (31.3%), CRF01_AE (12.5%), CRF07_BC (10.4%), CRF08_BC (2.1%) and subtype B (2.1%), C subtype appeared dominated in Chinese while URF was dominated in Burmese. One drug resistant mutation to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) was detected in one sequence from Burmese. Based on the statistical method of HIVDR-TS, the prevalence of transmitted HIV-1 drug resistance was adjusted as scientific management for people living with HIV/AIDS should be strictly followed. Meanwhile, relevant surveillance, including drug resistance surveillance should also be performed among cross-border migrant population.

  18. Market survey on traditional medicine of the third month fair in Dali Prefecture in Yunnan Province, South West China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dequan; Duan, Lizhen; Zhou, Nong

    2014-01-01

    The Third Month Fair in Dali is a historical festival and fair. The market of traditional medicine (TM) is one of the main parts in the fair, which has important influence on local and peripheral people. In this study, approaches of ethnobotany, pharmacognosy, and participatory rural appraisal were used in market survey. Twenty-six druggists were selected randomly as informants and their TMs were recorded. As a result, 427 TMs were recorded including 362 plant medicines, 33 animal medicines, 13 mineral medicines and 19 unidentified medicines. Xinyi, Shanza and Gancao were the most popular medicines due to their popular usages, whereas Sanqi, Tianma and Renshen were relatively fewer in this investigation probably owing to high price and limited output. The plant medicines were from medicinal plants of 117 families belonged to Angiosperm, Gymnospermae, Pteridophyta, Bryophyta, Lichenes and Fungi. Asteraceae, Apiaceae and Fabaceae provided the maximum numbers of TMs successively. Moreover, these TMs were mainly from the cultivated especially familiar TMs, which reflected significant progress in utilization and conservation of medicinal resource in China. Medicinal market in the Third Month Fair is the most important traditional bazaar in Yunnan province. This study systematically surveyed TMs in the fair for the first time, analyzing and revealing resource compositions and current market situations. These newly gathered data provided precious information for development of medicine cultivation, resource protection and market management as well as further pharmacognostical, pharmacological and clinical researches.

  19. Common and Privatized: Conditions for Wise Management of Matsutake Mushrooms in Northwest Yunnan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuefei Yang

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Since Hardin's (1968 paper on the "Tragedy of the Commons," property rights of common-pool resources have been a central concern for natural resource management scholars. Matsutake, a common-pool resource, is an economically important mushroom in several locations around the world. Driven by growing international demand over the last few decades, matsutake management is a relatively new practice both for local communities and government agencies. In Northwest Yunnan, China, one of the most productive areas for matsutake globally, numerous local practices and systems have emerged in the last two to three decades. In this study, we investigate the differences between management systems in eight communities and the factors associated with them. The methods used for field research included key-informant interviews, household surveys, and questionnaires. Three main management patterns were identified through use of statistical clustering based on indicators such as physical environment, resource characteristics, tenure arrangements, regulations and implementation, harvesting behavior, income, and market regulation. It was found that private access - the principal characteristic of which is the exclusive use of resources - results in more income at lower labor cost per household than either of the other open-access management patterns. Even though under the context of ongoing Second Forest Tenure Reform in China - in which collective forest privatization is the key task - application of private-access regimes is limited because of site conditions including physical, institutional, and market environments. Common-access management systems have advantages in terms of managing conflict and balancing equity needs. No matter the type of access right, the key issue for wise matsutake management is institutional. Locally rooted innovative strategies should be encouraged, and institutional capacity building should be carried out to support innovations in

  20. Alcohol use and subsequent sex among HIV-infected patients in an ethnic minority area of Yunnan Province, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofeng Luo

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine alcohol use and subsequent HIV risky behaviors among a sample of predominately ethnic minority people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA in a rural community in Yunnan Province, China. METHOD: A cross-sectional study with a face-to-face questionnaire interview was conducted among eligible participants. RESULTS: In total, 455 (94.4% out of 482 eligible HIV patients participated in the study. Of them, 82.6% were ethnic minorities; 15.4% were never married; 96.5% were sexually experienced; 55.4% had used drugs, 67% were receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART. Over 65% were ever drinkers; of whom 61.5% were current drinkers. Among current drinkers, 32.4% drank daily and 41.2% were hazardous drinkers. Chinese white wine was the preferred choice. Higher level of alcohol use among drinkers in the preceding month was positively associated with being males (OR = 2.76, 95%CI: 1.03-7.43, ethnic minorities (OR Jingpo = 2.21, 95%CI: 1.06-4.59; OR other minorities = 3.20, 95%CI: 1.34-7.62, higher education (OR1-6 = 1.98, 95%CI: 0.99-3.96; OR≥7 = 2.35, 95%CI: 1.09-5.06 and being ART-naive (OR = 2.69, 95%CI: 1.67-4.32. About 39% of ever drinkers reported having engaged in sex after drinking since HIV diagnosis. Those who were younger than 46 years (OR16-25 = 7.77, 95%CI: 1.22-49.60, OR26-35 = 2.79, 95%CI: 1.06-7.35, OR36-45 = 2.96, 95%CI: 1.57-7.58, hazardous drinkers (OR = 1.99, 95%CI: 1.00-3.97 and drug users (OR = 3.01, 95%CI: 1.19-7.58 were more likely to have had sex after drinking. Approximately 56% of drug users had used drugs after drinking. CONCLUSIONS: High prevalence of alcohol use and subsequent risky behaviors including sexual engagement and drug use among HIV patients in rural Yunnan require tremendous and integrated efforts for prevention and control of alcohol and drug abuse and HIV spreading.

  1. Analysis on Heavy Metal Distribution in Overlying Deposit and Pollution Characteristics in Rivers around Dahongshan Fe&Cu Mine in Yunnan Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qianrui; Cheng, Xianfeng; Qi, Wufu; Xu, Jun; Yang, Shuran

    2017-12-01

    Dahongshan Fe&Cu mine in Yunnan Province was endowed with the title of “National Green Mine Pilots” by Chinese Ministry of Land and Resources in April 2013. In order to verify the implementation effects of the green mine and better drive the construction of the green mine by other mine enterprises in Yunnan, the project team investigated overlying deposit in rivers around the Dahongshan mine in the wet season (August) of 2016, investigated mine enterprises, and applied the Potential Ecological Risk Index to evaluate potential ecological hazards of heavy metal pollution in overlying deposit. The results showed that all sampling points were less than 105, indicating the lower ecological hazard degree.

  2. A Linkage Between Parent Materials of Soil and Potential Risk of Heavy Metals in Yunnan province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, X.

    2015-12-01

    A large area exceeding soil quality standards for heavy metals in South western China has been identified previously reported on a nationwide survey of soil pollution, yet the ecological risk of heavy metal in soil is unknown or uncertainty.To assess thoroughly the ecological risk in this region, seven soil profiles with a depth of 2m on the different parent materials of soil were conducted in Yunnan province, China, and the level of total concentrations and the fraction of water soluble, ion exchangeable, carbonates, humic acid, iron and manganese oxides and organic matter of As, Cd, Hg and Pb was investigated in soil profiles. The results indicate that parent materials of soil critically influenced the ecological risk of heavy metal.The fraction of water soluble and ion exchangeable of Cd and Hg in alluvial material and in terrigenous clastic rocks showed 2-6 times higher than those in carbonate rock; As and Pb has almost same fraction of water soluble and ion exchangeable in three parent materials of soil.The findings suggest that parent materials of soil play a critical role in ecological risk of heavy metal.Thus, more studies are needed to better understand a linkage between the parent materials of soil, different soil-forming processes and the potential risk of heavy metals under various geographic conditions, which is the key for the evaluating soil quality and food safety. Those soils with high concentration of Cd and Hg originated alluvial material and terrigenous clastic rocks need to be continuously monitored before determining a cost-effective remediation technology. Keywords: Heavy metals; Ecological risk;Parent materials of soil;China

  3. Partial AZFc duplications not deletions are associated with male infertility in the Yi population of Yunnan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jun-jie; Ma, Li; Yang, Li-juan; Wang, Jin-huan; Wang, Yue-li; Guo, Hai; Gong, Ning; Nie, Wen-hui; Zhao, Shu-hua

    2013-09-01

    There are many reports on associations between spermatogenesis and partial azoospermia factor c (AZFc) deletions as well as duplications; however, results are conflicting, possibly due to differences in methodology and ethnic background. The purpose of this study is to investigate the association of AZFc polymorphisms and male infertility in the Yi ethnic population, residents within Yunnan Province, China. A total of 224 infertile patients and 153 fertile subjects were selected in the Yi ethnic population. The study was performed by sequence-tagged site plus/minus (STS+/-) analysis followed by gene dosage and gene copy definition analysis. Y haplotypes of 215 cases and 115 controls were defined by 12 binary markers using single nucleotide polymorphism on Y chromosome (Y-SNP) multiplex assays based on single base primer extension technology. The distribution of Y haplotypes was not significantly different between the case and control groups. The frequencies of both gr/gr (7.6% vs. 8.5%) and b2/b3 (6.3% vs. 8.5%) deletions do not show significant differences. Similarly, single nucleotide variant (SNV) analysis shows no significant difference of gene copy definition between the cases and controls. However, the frequency of partial duplications in the infertile group (4.0%) is significantly higher than that in the control group (0.7%). Further, we found a case with sY1206 deletion which had two CDY1 copies but removed half of DAZ genes. Our results show that male infertility is associated with partial AZFc duplications, but neither gr/gr nor b2/b3 deletions, suggesting that partial AZFc duplications rather than deletions are risk factors for male infertility in Chinese-Yi population.

  4. Predatory Ground Beetles (Insecta: Coleoptera: Carabidae) of the Gaoligong Mountain Region of Western Yunnan Province, China: the Tribe Cyclosomini

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cueva-Dabkoski, M.; Kavanaugh, D.

    2013-12-01

    Between 1998 and 2007, the California Academy of Sciences (CAS) was the lead institution in a multi-national, multi-disciplinary biodiversity inventory project in the Gaoligong Shan region (GLGS) in the Yunnan province of China. The project surveyed the species diversity of both higher plants and bryophytes, fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals and selected groups of arachnids and insects. The GLGS of China is one of the most biodiverse areas in all of Asia, yet it is also very poorly sampled and in great threat from increasing human activities in the region. CAS's biodiversity inventory project there has increased the number of carabid species known from just 50 to more than 550 species, an eleven-fold increase. The task that remains is to identify all of those 500 additional species and describe any that are new to science. This project is part of that larger biodiversity survey. Our objective was to identify and/or describe carabid beetles of the tribe Cyclosomini represented by nearly a hundred specimens collected in the GLSG. Among those specimens, six morphospecies were identified - one belonging to the genus Cyclosomus Latreille 1829, and the other five belonging to the genus Tetragonoderus Dejean 1829. Following this initial identification process, a list of known distributions of taxa in both genera was assembled to determine which described species to consider for comparative work. Original descriptions were then located for candidate species with known distributions in or near the GLGS; and these are being used now in morphological comparison of specimens. Type specimens for each of the candidate species have been requested from various academic institutions, and morphological comparisons with these types are underway. Morphological characteristics being examined include body proportions and overall shape, color of appendages, color and shape of pronotum, elytral color patterns, and shape and internal structure of male genitalia.

  5. Relation of radon exposure and tobacco use to lung cancer among tin miners in Yunnan Province, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiao, Y.L.; Taylor, P.R.; Yao, S.X.; Schatzkin, A.; Mao, B.L.; Lubin, J.; Rao, J.Y.; McAdams, M.; Xuan, X.Z.; Li, J.Y.

    1989-01-01

    We studied the relation of radon exposure and tobacco use to lung cancer among tin miners in Yunnan Province in the People's Republic of China. Interviews were conducted in 1985 with 107 living tin miners with lung cancer and an equal number of age-matched controls from among tin miners without lung cancer to obtain information on lung cancer risk factors including a detailed history of employment and tobacco use. Occupational history was combined with extensive industrial hygiene data to estimate cumulative working level months (WLM) of radon daughter exposure. Similar data were also used to estimate arsenic exposure for control in the analysis. Results indicate an increased risk of lung cancer for water pipe smoking, a traditional form of tobacco use practiced in 91% of cases and 85% of controls. The use of water pipes was associated with a twofold elevation in risk when compared with tobacco abstainers, and a dose-response relation was observed with increasing categories of pipe-year (dose times duration) usage. Estimated WLM of radon exposure varied from 0 to 1,761 among subjects but averaged 515 in cases versus only 244 in controls. Analyses indicated that the persons in the highest quarter of the radon exposure distribution had an odds ratio (OR) = 9.5 (95% confidence interval = 2.7-33.1) compared to persons without radon exposure after controlling for arsenic exposure and other potential confounders. Examination of duration and rate of radon exposure indicated higher risk associated with long duration as opposed to high rate of exposure. Cross-categorizations of radon exposure and tobacco use suggest greater risk associated with radon exposure than tobacco in these workers

  6. [Epidemiological study on thalassemia among the children of 0 - 7 years old among the six ethnic groups in Xishuangbanna and Dehong of Yunnan province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhong-Ming; Yao, Li-Qin; Fan, Li-Mei; Zou, Tuan-Biao; Chen, Qian; Hu, Li-Sha; Yang, Fa-Bin; Liu, Jin-Tao; Wang, Xing-Tian

    2011-04-01

    To investigate the prevalence rate of thalassemia among children of 0 - 7 years old, from six ethnic groups in Xishuangbanna and Dehong, Yunnan province. 4973 blood samples from children under 7 years old were automatically undergone blood cell count, red cell osmotic fragility and hemoglobin electrophoresis testings. The incidence rates of thalassaemia, β-thalassemia was 37.4%, and α-thalassaemia were 22.6% and 14.7% respectively. The thalassaemia incidence rates were significantly different among age groups but not in gender. The incidence of α-thalassaemia was decreasing along with the increase of age, while the incidence of β-thalassaemia was increasing along with the increase of age. Xishuangbanna had the higher incidence than in Dehong and the differences were significant between counties, The incidence of thalassemia of Mengla ranked the first (52.2%) in Xishuangbanna, The differences between different regions and different nationalities were significant, with β-thalassemia of Achang ranked the first (40.6%), The incidence of α-thalassemia among Han ranked the first as 45.5% while α-thalassaemia and β-thalassemia were different in regions. α-thalassaemia and β-thalassemia were significantly different between different ethnic people in the same regions. Multiple factor analysis showed that region seemed to be a risk factor and the mother's ethnicity was a protective factor and dependent variable on thalassaemia. The incidence of thalassaemia in Yunnan Xishuangbanna and Dehong was high among children under the age of 7 and were related to ethnic and regional differences in the areas. Specific genes were proliferated along with the extension of time. Our data provided valuable information on prevention and genetic studies on thalassaemia in the minorities of Xishuangbanna and Dehong in Yunnan province.

  7. Volatile organic compounds from vegetation in southern Yunnan Province, China: Emission rates and some potential regional implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geron, Chris; Owen, Sue; Guenther, Alex; Greenberg, Jim; Rasmussen, Rei; Hui Bai, Jian; Li, Qing-Jun; Baker, Brad

    Little information is currently available regarding emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) in southern Asia. To address the need for BVOC emission estimates in regional atmospheric chemistry simulations, 95 common plant species were screened for emissions of BVOC in and near the Xishuangbanna Tropical Biological Gardens in southern Yunnan Province, Peoples' Republic of China in February 2003. In situ measurements with leaf cuvettes and branch bag enclosures were used in combination with portable gas chromatography, flame ionization, photoionization, and mass spectral detection to identify and quantify BVOC emissions. Forty-four of the species examined emitted isoprene at rates exceeding 20 μg C g -1 (leaf dry weight) h -1. An emphasis was placed on the genus Ficus, which is important in the region and occupies a wide range of ecological niches. Several species in the footprint of a nearby flux tower were also examined. Several palm species and an abundant fern ( Cyclosorus parasiticus) emitted substantial amounts of isoprene, and probably accounted for observed daytime mean isoprene fluxes from the understory of a Hevea brasiliensis plantation of 1.0 and 0.15 mg C m -2 h -1 during the wet and dry seasons, respectively. These measurements verify that both the forest floor and canopy in this region can be sources of isoprene. Monoterpene emissions exceeded 1.0 μg-C g -1 (leaf dry weight) h -1 from only 4 of 38 species surveyed, including some Ficus species and H. brasiliensis. However most of the trees of the latter species were sparsely foliated due to dry season senescence, and emission factors are approximately an order of magnitude lower than those reported during the wet season. BVOC emission rates and physiology of many species are impacted by reduced moisture availability, especially Mangifera indica. South Asia is a region undergoing rapid landuse change and forest plantation establishment, with large increases in area of high BVOC

  8. Food poisoning associated with ingestion of wild wasp broods in the upstream region of the Lancang river valley, Yunnan province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Li; Huang, Tian

    2018-04-01

    Food poisoning due to wild wasp broods ingestion has long been noted in the upstream region of the Lancang river valley, Yunnan province, China. This study describes the epidemiological and clinical features of the poisoning and possible causes. Surveillance data collected between 2008 and 2016 were analyzed to produce demographic data on patients, information on clinical presentations, wasp species identification, and estimations of possible risk factors for symptomatic cases. Eleven poisoning events were associated with the ingestion of wild wasp broods, including 46 exposed persons with 31 symptomatic living cases and 8 deceased cases that were reported in the Yunnan province between 2008 and 2016. Poisoning cases were only detected in the upstream region of the Lancang river valley in the autumn. The severity of the symptoms was correlated with an evident dose-effect relationship regarding the quantity ingested. The mean latent period from wild wasp broods ingestion to the onset of the symptoms was 10 h for symptomatic living cases and 7 h for deceased cases, respectively. Both gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms were commonly observed in the poisoning cases. The toxin source may be indirectly caused by the wasp broods due to the prevalence of local poisonous plants, such as Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F, Tripterygium hypoglaucum Hutch and Vaccinium bracteatum Thunb. Educational programs at the start of wasp harvest season in September in the high-risk area should be carried out to reduce the incidence of poisonings. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Renewable energy markets in China: An analysis of renewable energy markets in Guangdong, Jiangxi, Jilin, and Yunnan provinces, with updated information from Beijing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaupen, S.B.

    1999-12-13

    The People's Republic of China has undergone many changes over the past decade that have led to new growth and created opportunities for many industries, including the renewable energy industry. China has consistently had one of the fastest-growing economies in Asia. This report is a continuation of a market assessment done in 1997, which analyzed six provinces (Inner Mongolia, Gansu, Shandong, Qinghai, Xinjiang, and Zhejiang) in China. The information contained in this report comes mainly from interviews conducted with central and local government officials, state and local power bureau officials, and various company executives. The report provides valuable market information necessary for any company interested in entering China's renewable energy market. It also details the legal, competitive, sociocultural, technological, geographic, and economic environments of four provinces in China: Guangdong, Jiangxi, Jilin, and Yunnan. In addition, it outlines the major central government policies and contacts important to renewable energy development within China.

  10. [Abundances of ammonia-oxidizing archaeal accA and amoA genes in response to NO2 - and NO3 - of hot springs in Yunnan province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhaoqi; Wang, Li; Zhou, Enmin; Wang, Fengping; Xiao, Xiang; Zhang, Chuanlun; Li, Wenjun

    2014-12-04

    Yunnan hot springs have highly diverseammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA), which are autotrophic and can fix CO2 using the 3-hydroxypropionate/ 4-hydroxybutyrate (HP/HD) pathway. In this study, we investigated the abundances of prokaryotic 16S rRNA gene and archaeal accA and amoA genes in the sediments of hot springs of Yunnan Province, and analysed the correlations between the above gene abundances and environmental factors. We selected the sediments of twenty representative hot springs, and detected the gene abundances by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The principal component analysis (PCA) and the Mantel test in the R software package were performed for the correlations of gene abundance and environmental variables. The bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA gene abundances were from 6.6 x 10(7) to 4.19 x 10(11) and from 1.27 x 10(6) to 1.51 x 10(11) copies/g sediment, respectively; Archaeal accA and amoA genes were from 8.89 x 10(3) to 6.49 x 10(5) and from 7.64 x 10(3) to 4.36 x 10(5) copies/g sediment, respectively. The results of mantel test showed that accA gene was significantly (R = 0.98, P < 0.001) correlated with amoA gene; Both of them also were correlated significantly with NO2- and NO3 -, but not with pH. The abundances of bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA genes and the ratio between them varied significantly among Yunnan hot springs. The archaealaccA and amoA genes showed significant correlation with each other, validating our previous finding that AOA in terrestrial hot springs might acquire energy from ammonia oxidation coupled with CO2 fixation using the 3-hydroxypropionate/4-hydroxybutyrate pathway.

  11. The Causal Factors Underlying the Unwillingness of Farm Laborers’ Migration to Towns: a Case Study of Yunnan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo Li

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Farmers’ settling down in small towns is not only a process of identity-changing, i.e., from rural population into urban population, but also a process of institutional change. At present, China’s urbanization rate is 52.57%. However, in reality, the farm laborers do not often hold a positive and active view about migrating to the towns permanently. Statistics show that in 6 counties in Yunnan Shangri-La, Xishuangbanna, Lijiang border areas and 5 central Yunnan counties, the non-agricultural household staff does not grow very rapidly. By analyzing a lot of underlying factors, this paper finds that influential factors for the transformation of rural population to towns may vary, mainly including factors such as fewer jobs, the issue of rural land use, the poor quality of education, higher level of living standard, and also puts forward some solutions accordingly.

  12. Mineralogical, crystallographic, and isotopic constraints on the precipitation of aragonite and calcite at Shiqiang and other hot springs in Yunnan Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Brian; Peng, Xiaotong

    2016-11-01

    Two active spring vent pools at Shiqiang (Yunnan Province, China) are characterized by a complex array of precipitates that coat the wall around the pool and the narrow ledges that surround the vent pool. These precipitates include arrays of aragonite crystals, calcite cone-dendrites, red spar calcite, unattached dodecahedral and rhombohedral calcite crystals, and late stage calcite that commonly coats and disguises the earlier formed precipitates. Some of the microbial mats that grow on the ledges around the pools have been partly mineralized by microspheres that are formed of Si and minor amounts of Fe. The calcite and aragonite that are interspersed with each other at all scales are both primary precipitates. Some laminae, for example, change laterally from aragonite to calcite over distances of only a few millimetres. The precipitates at Shiqiang are similar to precipitates found in and around the vent pools of other springs found in Yunnan Province, including those at Gongxiaoshe, Zhuyuan, Eryuan, and Jifei. In all cases, the δDwater and δ18Owater indicate that the spring water is of meteoric origin. These are thermogene springs with the carrier CO2 being derived largely from the mantle and reaction of the waters with bedrock. Variations in the δ13Ctravertine values indicate that the waters in these springs were mixed, to varying degrees, with cold groundwater and its soil-derived CO2. Calcite and aragonite precipitation took place once the spring waters had become supersaturated with respect to CaCO3, probably as a result of rapid CO2 degassing. These precipitates, which were not in isotopic equilibrium with the spring water, are characterized by their unusual crystal morphologies. The precipitation of calcite and aragonite, seemingly together, can probably be attributed to microscale variations in the saturation levels that are, in turn, attributable to microscale variations in the rate of CO2 degassing.

  13. Content of arsenic, selenium, mercury in the coal, food, clay and drinking water on the Zhaotong fluorosis area, eastern Yunnan Province

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo Kun-li; Li Hui-jie; Chen Tong-bin (and others) [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research

    2008-03-15

    About 160 samples of coal, corn, capsicum and drinking water were collected from the endemic fluorosis area of Zhenxiong and Weixin County, Zhaotong City of Yunnan Province, to determine the arsenic (As), selenium (Se) and mercury (Hg) content by AAF-800. The study found that the As content in the main coal seam from the Late Permian coal mines in Zhaotong City is 8.84 mg/kg and some civil coal can reach 89.09 mg/kg. The Se and Hg in the coal samples of Late Permian is lower, but Se and Hg are more concentrated in the pyritic coal balls and the pyritic gangue of the coal seam. The As content in corn and capsicum dried by coal-burning is more than 0.7 mg/kg, the natural standard amount of arsenic content permitted in food by China. The Se and Hg content in corn dried by coal-burning is lower than the natural standard of Se and Hg content in food in China but the Se and Hg content of capsicum dried by coal-burning exceeds the amount permitted by the natural standard for food in China. Clay, used as an additive for the coal-burning process and as a binder in making briquettes, contains a high content of As, generally more than 16 mg/kg. However, the Se and Hg content of clay itself are low. The As, Se and Hg content of drinking water are lower than the natural standard of As, Se and Hg content in the drinking water. So, there is high-As content coal and high-As content dried corn and capsicum in the endemic fluorosis area of Zhaotong City of Yunnan Province. The high As content of the dried corn and capsicum might have originated from the high arsenic content of burnt coal and clay. 30 refs., 4 tabs.

  14. Yellow and purple nutsedges survey in the southeastern Buenos Aires Province, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyherabide Juan José

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A survey of 79 fields was conducted between December 1993 and January 1994, to determine the distribution and relative importance of species of the genus Cyperus, to justify developing management strategies in the southeastern of Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. Yellow and purple nutsedge were found in 43% and 9% respectively of the surveyed fields. Thirty eight per cent of the surveyed area showed a heavy infestation of yellow nutsedge, and in 90% of cases yellow nutsedge was invading fields cultivated with summer crops and associated with one or more of other seven perennial weeds, mainly bermudagrass.

  15. [Epidemiological characteristics of newly reported HIV infections in Chinese and Burmese residents, during 2012-2016 in Dehong Dai and Jingpo Autonomous Prefecture, Yunnan province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J B; Chen, X C; Duan, X; Yang, J; Wang, Y K; Yang, T; Ye, R H; Yang, Y C; Yao, S T; Jiang, Y; Duan, S; He, N

    2017-10-10

    Objective: To understand the epidemiological characteristics of newly reported HIV infections in Chinese and Burmese residents during 2012-2016 in Dehong Dai and Jingpo Autonomous Prefecture of Yunnan province (Dehong) and to provide evidence for the development of related programs on prevention and control. Methods: All the HIV infections who were newly reported during 2012-2016 in Dehong, were recruited as the study subjects, with epidemiological characteristics of the cases analyzed by using the software SPSS 22.0. Results: A total of 5 692 HIV infections were newly reported between 2012 and 2016 (including 5 592 in this study), in which the Chinese patients accounted for 43.3 % (2 419) and the rest 56.7 % (3 173) were Burmese. Differences in age, gender and other social characteristics of these newly reported HIV infections were statistically significant between the Chinese and the Burmese (all p -values Chinese patients but through injecting drug use among the Burmese patients. Conclusions: Epidemiological characteristics of the newly reported HIV infections were different between the Chinese and the Burmese, between 2012 and 2016 in Dehong. Targeted prevention and control programs should be taken.

  16. Performance, Economics and Potential Impact of Perennial Rice PR23 Relative to Annual Rice Cultivars at Multiple Locations in Yunnan Province of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangfu Huang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Perennial grain crops hold the promise of stabilizing fragile lands, while contributing grain and grazing in mixed farming systems. Recently, perennial rice was reported to successfully survive, regrow, and yield across a diverse range of environments in Southern China and Laos, with perennial rice PR23 being identified as a prime candidate for release to farmers. This paper reports the evaluation of PR23 for release, by (1 comparing its survival, regrowth, performance, and adaptation with preferred annual rices across nine ecological regions in southern Yunnan Province of China; (2 examining the economic costs and benefits of perennial versus annual rice there; and (3 discussing the evidence for the release of PR23 as a broadly adapted and acceptable cultivar for farmers. Overall, the grain yield of PR23 was similar to those of the preferred annual rice cultivars RD23 and HXR7, but the economic analysis indicated substantial labour savings for farmers by growing the perennial instead of the annual. PR23 was comparable to the annuals in phenology, plant height, grain yield, and grain size, and was acceptable in grain and cooking quality. Farmers were keen to grow it because of reduced costs and especially savings in labour. PR23 is proposed for release to farmers because of its comparable grain yields to annual rices, its acceptable grain and milling quality, its cost and labour savings, and the likely benefits to soil stability and ecological sustainability, along with more flexible farming systems.

  17. Contaminant Characteristics and Health Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Soils from Lead-Zincs Melting Plant in Huize County, Yunnan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIU Xiao-yan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to explore history environmental problems of lead-zinc smelting, Huize County, Yunnan Province, forty-two surface soil samples were collected randomly from 14 sampling sites surrounding lead-zinc smelting plant. Heavy metals(Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn, Cd, As and Hg in all samples were determined by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy and atomic fluorescence spectrophotometer. Contamination characteristics of heavy metals in soils were observed on the basis of background values of comprehensive pollution index method. Potential risk was evaluated by using the geoaccumulation index(Igeo, potential ecological risk index(RI and health risk assessment method. The results indicated that the average concentrations of Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn, Cd, As and Hg were 92.25, 226.81, 1 567.45, 65.16, 394.66, 1 451.63, 11.16, 43.81, 0.47 mg·kg-1, respectively. Based on the Environmental Quality Standard for Soil, the multiple super scale of Cd concentration was highest, more than 274 times. According to the Igeo, Cd ranged from partial severity to serious degree. The RI indicated that the soils around lead-zinc smelting plant were at the serious ecological hazard level. Health risk assessment showed that Pb and Cd in soils surrounding old site had potential health risk to children.

  18. Anisian (Middle Triassic) marine ichnocoenoses from the eastern and western margins of the Kamdian Continent, Yunnan Province, SW China: Implications for the Triassic biotic recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xueqian; Chen, Zhong-Qiang; Woods, Adam; Pei, Yu; Wu, Siqi; Fang, Yuheng; Luo, Mao; Xu, Yaling

    2017-10-01

    Two Anisian (Middle Triassic) marine ichnocoenoses are reported from the Boyun and Junmachang (JMC) sections located along the eastern and western margins of the Kamdian Continent, Yunnan Province, Southwest China, respectively. The Boyun ichnoassemblage is middle Anisian in age and is dominated by robust Rhizocorallium, while the JMC ichnoassemblage is of an early Anisian age and is characterized by the presence of Zoophycos. The ichnoassemblage horizons of the Boyun section represent an inner ramp environment, while the JMC section was likely situated in a mid-ramp setting near storm wave base as indicated by the presence of tempestites. The ichnofossil-bearing successions are usually highly bioturbated in both the Boyun (BI 3-5, BPBI 5) and JMC (BI 3-4, BPBI 3-4) sections. Three large, morphologically complicated ichnogenera: 1) Rhizocorallium; 2) Thalassinoides; and, 3) Zoophycos characterize the Anisian ichnocoenoses. Of these, Rhizocorallium has mean and maximum tube diameters up to 20.4 mm and 28 mm, respectively, while Thalassinoides mean and maximum tube diameters are 14.2 mm and 22 mm, respectively. Zoophycos is present in the early Anisian strata of the JMC section, and represents the oldest known occurrence of this ichnogenus following the latest Permian mass extinction. Similar to coeval ichnoassemblages elsewhere in the world, the Yunnan ichnocoenoses embrace a relatively low ichnodiversity, but their burrows usually penetrate deeply into the sediment, and include large and complex Rhizocorallium and Thalassinoides. All of these ichnologic features are indicative of recovery stage 4 after the latest Permian crisis. Anisian ichnoassemblages occur globally in six different habitat settings, and all show similar ecologic characteristics except for slightly different degrees of ichnotaxonomic richness, indicating that depositional environment is not a crucial factor shaping the recovery of the trace-makers, but may have an impact on their ichnodiversity

  19. Laminae development in opal-A precipitates associated with seasonal growth of the form-genus Calothrix (Cyanobacteria), Rehai geothermal area, Tengchong, Yunnan Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Brian; Peng, Xiaotong

    2015-04-01

    The western discharge apron at Meinuquan (Rehai geothermal area, Yunnan Province, China), which incorporates the upper terrace, terrace front, and lower terrace, is covered with laminated opal-A precipitates that have formed from the spring waters that flow across its surface. Laminae are formed of silicified Calothrix mats or featureless opal-A that contains no microbes, scattered spherical and rod-shaped microbes, and/or rare Calothrix. Rapid silicification of the Calothrix led to preservation of their basal heterocysts, vegetative cells, trichomes, tapering filaments, and laminated and splayed sheaths. The Calothrix mats grew during the dry season when there was maximum sunlight because of low cloud cover. During this time, the mats grew under stable conditions because the water that flowed across the discharge apron was sourced from the springs, and temperature and water geochemistry was more or less constant. Growth of the Calothrix mats decreased during the wet season (April to late September) when sunlight is reduced due to the extensive cloud cover associated with the monsoonal rains. During the wet season, water flowing over the discharge apron is a mixture of rainwater, runoff from the surrounding hillsides, and spring water. Such variable flow conditions, water temperatures, and water geochemistry curtailed microbe growth and impacted silica precipitation. The precipitates at Meinuquan are like those associated with some Icelandic hot springs. Although growth of Calothrix is controlled by sunlight in both settings, the periods of maximum sunlight in China (October-March) and Iceland (June-August) are at different times of the year because of their geographic locations.

  20. Control of soil-transmitted helminthiasis in Yunnan province, People's Republic of China: experiences and lessons from a 5-year multi-intervention trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmann, Peter; Yap, Peiling; Utzinger, Jürg; Du, Zun-Wei; Jiang, Jin-Yong; Chen, Ran; Wu, Fang-Wei; Chen, Jia-Xu; Zhou, Hui; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2015-01-01

    The current global strategy for the control of soil-transmitted helminthiasis emphasises periodic administration of anthelminthic drugs to at-risk populations. However, this approach fails to address the root social and ecological causes of soil-transmitted helminthiasis. For sustainable control, it has been suggested that improvements in water, sanitation and hygiene behaviour are required. We designed a 5-year multi-intervention trial in Menghai county, Yunnan province, People's Republic of China. Three different interventions were implemented, each covering a village inhabited by 200-350 people. The interventions consisted of (i) initial health education at study inception and systematic treatment of all individuals aged ≥2 years once every year with a single dose of albendazole; (ii) initial health education and bi-annual albendazole administration; and (iii) bi-annual treatment coupled with latrine construction at family level and regular health education. Interventions were rigorously implemented for 3 years, whilst the follow-up, which included annual albendazole distribution, lasted for 2 more years. Before the third round of treatment, the prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides was reduced by only 2.8% in the annual treatment arm, whilst bi-annual deworming combined with latrine construction and health education resulted in a prevalence reduction of 53.3% (phelminthiasis will not be achieved in the short run even with a package of interventions, and probably requires improvements in living conditions, changes in hygiene behaviour and more efficacious anthelminthic drugs and treatment regimens. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Swamp buffalo keeping – an out-dated farming activity? A case study in smallholder farming systems in Xishuangbanna, Yunnan Province, PR China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Schiborra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Expansion of rubber tree plantations and agricultural mechanization caused a decline of swamp buffalo numbers in the Naban River National Nature Reserve (NRNNR, Yunnan Province, China. We analysed current use of buffaloes for field work and the recent development of the regional buffalo population, based on interviews with 184 farmers in 2007/2008 and discussions with 62 buffalo keepers in 2009. Three types of NRNNR farms were distinguished, differing mainly in altitude, area under rubber, and involvement in livestock husbandry. While pig based farms (PB; n=37 have abandoned buffalo keeping, 11% of the rubber based farms (RB; n=71 and 100% of the livestock-corn based farms (LB; n=76 kept buffaloes in 2008. Herd size was 2.5 +/-1.80 (n=84 buffaloes in early 2008 and 2.2 +/-1.69 (n=62 in 2009. Field work on own land was the main reason for keeping buffaloes (87.3 %, but lending work buffaloes to neighbours (79.0% was also important. Other purposes were transport of goods (16.1%, buffalo trade (11.3% and meat consumption (6.4%. Buffalo care required 6.2 +/-3.00 working hours daily, while annual working time of a buffalo was 294 +/-216.6 hours. The area ploughed with buffaloes remained constant during the past 10 years despite an expansion of land cropped per farm. Although further replacement of buffaloes by tractors occurs rapidly, buffaloes still provide cheap work force and buffer risks on poor NRNNR farms. Appropriate advice is needed for improved breeding management to increase the efficiency of buffalo husbandry and provide better opportunities for buffalo meat sale in the region.

  2. [Epidemiological investigation of fascioliasis and analysis of a chronic human fascioliasis case in Binchuan County, Yunnan Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feng; Yang, Hui; Liu, Yu-hua; Duan, Yu-chun; Yang, Jing; Cui, Yu-hua; Yang, Li-qun; Yang, Qiong; Zhang, Jian-guo; Luo, Jia-jun

    2014-12-01

    From February to March 2014, six natural villages in Zhoucheng Town, Binchuan County of Yunan Province, were randomly selected by cluster sampling. Serum anti-fascioliasis IgG was detected by ELISA. The sero-positive individuals were further tested for Fasciola infection using sediment detection with nylon bag (260 meshes) and Kato-Katz method. Among 1207 sampled persons, the sero-positive rate was 3.0% (36/1207). The rate in males and females was 2.3% (12/530) and 3.6% (24/677) (u=1.46, P>0.05). The sero-positive rate in Zhoucheng Village and Baizhuang Village was 4.0% (24/616) and 2.0% (12/591), respectively (u=2.07, Pfascioliasis.

  3. Health Utility of Pregnant Women Living with HIV/AIDS: Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV (PMTCT) Programs in Yunnan Province: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaowen; Guo, Guangping; Liang, Xiumin; Zhou, Ling; Zheng, Jiarui; Li, Shaoqin; Luo, Hongzhuan; Yang, Yuyan; Yang, Liyuan; Tan, Ting; Yu, Jun; Lu, Lin

    2018-05-01

    Health utility (HU) is essential to understanding the effects of HIV infection as a chronic disease. No HU data on pregnant women living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in Yunnan Province are available. This study aims to construct a database on HU and explore factors associated with HU by pregnant women living with HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) who were enrolled in the Prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) programs in Yunnan Province. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Yunnan Province on pregnant women living with HIV who were selected by convenience sampling. Sociodemographic, HIV-related, social support, and HU data were collected through face-to-face interviews. The European quality of life five-dimensional three-level (EQ-5D-3L) questionnaire and the social support rate scale (SSRS) were applied. One hundred and one pregnant women (mean age of 30.4 ± 5.1 years) participated in the survey. The mean EQ-5D index score and the EQ visual analogue scale (EQ-VAS) score of participants were 0.77 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.74-0.79) and 75.77 (95% CI 75.00-80.00), respectively. The effect of social support on HU was maintained significant difference even after adjusting for such factors as education level, household income per year, and HIV disclosure, demonstrating a significant difference within EQ-5D index scores and EQ-VAS scores. Pregnant women living with HIV/AIDS who were enrolled in PMTCT programs reported the same level of HU as other patients living with HIV/AIDS. Integrating measurements of HU by using the EQ-5D-3L questionnaire could be helpful for economic evaluation of the PMTCT program. This study also suggests a potential benefit of appropriate social support. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Sulfonamide-Resistant Bacteria and Their Resistance Genes in Soils Fertilized with Manures from Jiangsu Province, Southeastern China

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Na; Yang, Xiaohong; Jiao, Shaojun; Zhang, Jun; Ye, Boping; Gao, Shixiang

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotic-resistant bacteria and genes are recognized as new environmental pollutants that warrant special concern. There were few reports on veterinary antibiotic-resistant bacteria and genes in China. This work systematically analyzed the prevalence and distribution of sulfonamide resistance genes in soils from the environments around poultry and livestock farms in Jiangsu Province, Southeastern China. The results showed that the animal manure application made the spread and abundance of a...

  5. Bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera of the southeastern Truong Son Mountains, Quang Ngai Province, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Truong Son

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Bat communities of mainland Southeast Asia can be highly diverse. Many are under threat. Despite this, regional faunal composition is not well documented for many areas, including regions of Vietnam.  We assessed the biodiversity of bats in a watershed protection forest in the southeastern Truong Son (Annamite Mountains, southwestern Quang Ngai Province, Vietnam in 2011–2013.  Twenty species of insectivorous bats were documented including a high diversity of Murina species Tube-nosed Bats.  Diversity and abundance indices were compared with that recorded previously in two nature reserves and one national park in Vietnam, and were higher or comparable in several measures despite the lack of a karst substrate for roosts.  Reproduction in the insectivorous bat fauna coincided with the early rainy season.  In the late dry season, pregnant females of several species were observed but volant juveniles were not present, whereas in the early wet season adult females were lactating or post-lactating and volant juveniles of nine species were detected.  We recorded echolocation calls of 14 bat species; for each species, we compared features of calls with those reported previously in other Asian localities.  For some species we found discrepancies in call metrics among studies, perhaps suggesting a greater hidden biodiversity of bats in Southeast Asia.

  6. Assessment of the detectability of geo-hazards using Google Earth applied to the Three Parallel Rivers Area, Yunnan province of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voermans, Michiel; Mao, Zhun; Baartman, Jantiene EM; Stokes, Alexia

    2017-04-01

    Anthropogenic activities such as hydropower, mining and road construction in mountainous areas can induce and intensify mass wasting geo-hazards (e.g. landslides, gullies, rockslides). This represses local safety and socio-economic development, and endangers biodiversity at larger scale. Until today, data and knowledge to construct geo-hazard databases for further assessments are lacking. This applies in particular to countries with a recently emerged rapid economic growth, where there are no previous hazard documentations and where means to gain data from e.g. intensive fieldwork or VHR satellite imagery and DEM processing are lacking. Google Earth (GE, https://www.google.com/earth/) is a freely available and relatively simple virtual globe, map and geographical information program, which is potentially useful in detecting geo-hazards. This research aimed at (i) testing the capability of Google Earth to detect locations of geo-hazards and (ii) identifying factors affecting the diagnosing quality of the detection, including effects of geo-hazard dimensions, environs setting and professional background and effort of GE users. This was tested on nine geo-hazard sites following road segments in the Three Parallel Rivers Area in the Yunnan province of China, where geo-hazards are frequently occurring. Along each road site, the position and size of each geo-hazard was measured in situ. Next, independent diagnosers with varying professional experience (students, researchers, engineers etc.) were invited to detect geo-hazard occurrence along each of the eight sites via GE. Finally, the inventory and diagnostic data were compared to validate the objectives. Rates of detected geo-hazards from 30 diagnosers ranged from 10% to 48%. No strong correlations were found between the type and size of the geo-hazards and their detection rates. Also the years of expertise of the diagnosers proved not to make a difference, opposite to what may be expected. Meanwhile the amount of time

  7. A comprehensive census of microbial diversity in hot springs of Tengchong, Yunnan Province China using 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiguo Hou

    Full Text Available The Rehai and Ruidian geothermal fields, located in Tengchong County, Yunnan Province, China, host a variety of geochemically distinct hot springs. In this study, we report a comprehensive, cultivation-independent census of microbial communities in 37 samples collected from these geothermal fields, encompassing sites ranging in temperature from 55.1 to 93.6°C, in pH from 2.5 to 9.4, and in mineralogy from silicates in Rehai to carbonates in Ruidian. Richness was low in all samples, with 21-123 species-level OTUs detected. The bacterial phylum Aquificae or archaeal phylum Crenarchaeota were dominant in Rehai samples, yet the dominant taxa within those phyla depended on temperature, pH, and geochemistry. Rehai springs with low pH (2.5-2.6, high temperature (85.1-89.1°C, and high sulfur contents favored the crenarchaeal order Sulfolobales, whereas those with low pH (2.6-4.8 and cooler temperature (55.1-64.5°C favored the Aquificae genus Hydrogenobaculum. Rehai springs with neutral-alkaline pH (7.2-9.4 and high temperature (>80°C with high concentrations of silica and salt ions (Na, K, and Cl favored the Aquificae genus Hydrogenobacter and crenarchaeal orders Desulfurococcales and Thermoproteales. Desulfurococcales and Thermoproteales became predominant in springs with pH much higher than the optimum and even the maximum pH known for these orders. Ruidian water samples harbored a single Aquificae genus Hydrogenobacter, whereas microbial communities in Ruidian sediment samples were more diverse at the phylum level and distinctly different from those in Rehai and Ruidian water samples, with a higher abundance of uncultivated lineages, close relatives of the ammonia-oxidizing archaeon "Candidatus Nitrosocaldus yellowstonii", and candidate division O1aA90 and OP1. These differences between Ruidian sediments and Rehai samples were likely caused by temperature, pH, and sediment mineralogy. The results of this study significantly expand the current

  8. A comprehensive census of microbial diversity in hot springs of Tengchong, Yunnan Province China using 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Weiguo; Wang, Shang; Dong, Hailiang; Jiang, Hongchen; Briggs, Brandon R; Peacock, Joseph P; Huang, Qiuyuan; Huang, Liuqin; Wu, Geng; Zhi, Xiaoyang; Li, Wenjun; Dodsworth, Jeremy A; Hedlund, Brian P; Zhang, Chuanlun; Hartnett, Hilairy E; Dijkstra, Paul; Hungate, Bruce A

    2013-01-01

    The Rehai and Ruidian geothermal fields, located in Tengchong County, Yunnan Province, China, host a variety of geochemically distinct hot springs. In this study, we report a comprehensive, cultivation-independent census of microbial communities in 37 samples collected from these geothermal fields, encompassing sites ranging in temperature from 55.1 to 93.6°C, in pH from 2.5 to 9.4, and in mineralogy from silicates in Rehai to carbonates in Ruidian. Richness was low in all samples, with 21-123 species-level OTUs detected. The bacterial phylum Aquificae or archaeal phylum Crenarchaeota were dominant in Rehai samples, yet the dominant taxa within those phyla depended on temperature, pH, and geochemistry. Rehai springs with low pH (2.5-2.6), high temperature (85.1-89.1°C), and high sulfur contents favored the crenarchaeal order Sulfolobales, whereas those with low pH (2.6-4.8) and cooler temperature (55.1-64.5°C) favored the Aquificae genus Hydrogenobaculum. Rehai springs with neutral-alkaline pH (7.2-9.4) and high temperature (>80°C) with high concentrations of silica and salt ions (Na, K, and Cl) favored the Aquificae genus Hydrogenobacter and crenarchaeal orders Desulfurococcales and Thermoproteales. Desulfurococcales and Thermoproteales became predominant in springs with pH much higher than the optimum and even the maximum pH known for these orders. Ruidian water samples harbored a single Aquificae genus Hydrogenobacter, whereas microbial communities in Ruidian sediment samples were more diverse at the phylum level and distinctly different from those in Rehai and Ruidian water samples, with a higher abundance of uncultivated lineages, close relatives of the ammonia-oxidizing archaeon "Candidatus Nitrosocaldus yellowstonii", and candidate division O1aA90 and OP1. These differences between Ruidian sediments and Rehai samples were likely caused by temperature, pH, and sediment mineralogy. The results of this study significantly expand the current understanding of

  9. Yunnan Smelting Group Examines an Aluminum Project for Possible Investment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>Tian Yong,General Manager of Yunnan Smelt- ing Group,has gone to Zha gai NuoEr in Heilongjiang Province with a study group to conduct a full careful examination on the feasi- bility of the investment in the aluminum pro- ject.Yunnan Smelting Group is a large-scale

  10. [Prevalence and causes of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment among adults aged 50 years or above in Luxi County of Yunnan Province: the China Nine-Province survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Ning; Yuan, Yuan-sheng; Zhao, Jia-liang; Zhong, Hua; Ellwein, Leon B; Chen, Miao-miao; Dan, Ai-hua; Sun, Peng; Luo, Ting-hao; Wang, Yu; Gao, Xue-cheng

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the prevalence and causes of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment among adults aged ≥ 50 years in Luxi County of Yunnan Province, China. It was a population-based cross-section study. Geographically defined cluster sampling was used in randomly selecting 5575 individuals aged ≥ 50 years in Luxi County. The survey was preceded by a pilot study where operational methods were refined and quality assurance evaluation was carried out. All participants were enumerated through village registers followed door-to-door visits.Eligible individuals were invited to receive visual acuity measurement and eye examination. Prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment was calculated according to different age, gender or education. And the reasons of blindness were analyzed.Statistical analyses were performed using Stata/SE Statistical Software, release 9.0. Chi-square test was used to investigate the association of age, gender and education with presenting and best corrected visual acuity. Five thousands five hundreds and seventy-five individuals were enumerated and 5151 persons were examined, the response rate was 92.39%. Based on the criteria of World Health Organization visual impairment classification in 1973, the prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment defined as best corrected visual acuity was 4.95% (255/5151) and 9.51% (490/5151) , respectively. The prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment defined as presenting visual acuity was 5.40% (278/5151) and 15.84% (816/5151) , respectively. The prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment was higher in aged (χ(2) = 1349.21, P = 0.000) , illiterate (χ(2) = 203.55, P = 0.000) persons. Cataract was still the first leading cause of blindness and visual impairment. The prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment is highest in China Nine-Province Survey among older adults aged ≥ 50 years

  11. Members of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) Cryptic Species and the Status of Two Invasive Alien Species in the Yunnan Province (China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jian; Jiang, Zhi-Lin; Nardi, Francesco; Liu, Yuan-Yuan; Luo, Xiao-Rong; Li, Hong-Xiang; Zhang, Zhong-Kai

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is a cryptic species complex that includes some of the most significant pests of agriculture and horticulture worldwide. To understand the diversity and distribution of B. tabaci cryptic species in Yunnan, a famous biodiversity hotspot in China, a large-scale sampling was conducted from year 2010 to 2013 in 10 prefectures. Mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I gene sequences were used to identify different cryptic species. Phylogenetic analyses were performed using Bayesian methods to assess the position of a new B. tabaci cryptic species in the context of the B. tabaci diversity in Asia. The survey indicates at least eight B. tabaci cryptic species are present in Yunnan, two invasive (MEAM1 and MED) and six indigenous (China 2, China3, China 4, Asia I, Asia II 1, and Asia II 6), MEAM1, MED, and Asia I being the three predominant cryptic species in Yunnan. Compared with MEAM1, MED has a wider distribution. Based on molecular data, a new cryptic species, here named China 4, was identified that appears to be related to China 1, China 2, and China 3. Future efforts should focus on the interactions between predominant B. tabaci cryptic species and begomoviruses and on the development of effective control strategies. PMID:25502045

  12. Optimization of Road Project Financing Mode in Yunnan Province Based on ANP%基于ANP的云南省公路项目融资模式优选研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟笋; 张铖

    2015-01-01

    To select the optimal financing mode of the road projects in Yunnan Province,this study described the foreign and domestic research about the financing modes of the road projects,and the problems occurred in the process of the project financing. Based on ANP,this study took a road project constructed by Kunming Industrial Development and Investment Company for example to analyze the factors that influence the project financing and the optimal financing mode, then analyzed the reasons of the optimal financing mode selection and proposed suggestions to improve the financing environment on the basis of the actual situation in Yunnan Province. This study has theoretical and practical significance,and has referential value for the road project financing in the other provinces.%为解决云南省公路项目最优融资模式选择问题,阐述了国内外关于公路项目融资模式的研究成果和公路项目融资过程中出现的问题及研究的必要性,运用ANP模型,以昆明产业投资开发有限责任公司承建的某公路项目为例,分析对云南省公路项目融资影响最大的因素及其最优的融资模式。结合云南省实际情况,分析最优融资模式的选择原因,并对云南省如何改善项目融资环境提出建议和对策,具有理论和实践双重意义,对我国其他省份的公路项目融资问题研究也有参考价值。

  13. Epidemiological profile and risk factors of HIV and HBV/HCV co-infection in Fujian Province, southeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shouli; Yan, Pingping; Yang, Tianfei; Wang, Zhenghua; Yan, Yansheng

    2017-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the epidemiological features of HIV-infected subjects co-infected with HBV/HCV in Fujian Province, southeastern China, and identify the risk factors. Blood samples were collected from 2,028 HIV antibody-positive subjects in Fujian Province. Serum HBsAg and anti-HCV antibody were detected, and CD4 + T cell count was measured. Of the 2,028 subjects, the prevalence of HIV-HBV, HIV-HCV, and HIV-HBV-HCV co-infections was 16.22%, 3.7%, and 0.79%, respectively. Man (OR = 1.912, 95% CI: 1.371-2.667), key population (OR = 0.756, 95% CI: 0.57-0.976) and detainee (OR = 0.486, 95% CI: 0.259-0.909) were risk factors of HIV-HBV co-infection, and man (OR = 2.227, 95% CI: 1.096-4.525), minority (OR = 5.04, 95% CI: 1.696-14.98), junior high school or lower education (OR = 2.32, 95% CI: 1.071-5.025), intravenous drug use (OR = 38.46, 95% CI: 11.46-129.11) and detainee (OR = 5.687, 95% CI: 2.44-13.25) were risk factors of HIV-HCV co-infection. In addition, a lower mean CD4 + T cell count was measured in HIV/HBV and HIV/HCV co-infected subjects than in HIV-infected subjects among the untreated individuals, while in the treated populations, a higher mean CD4 + T cell count was detected in HIV/HBV and HIV/HCV co-infected subjects than in HIV-infected subjects. HIV co-infection with HBV or HCV, notably HIV-HBV co-infection, is widespread in southeastern China. Hepatitis virus screening should be included in monitoring of HIV infection, and HIV and hepatitis virus co-infection should be considered during the development of HIV antiretroviral therapy scheme. J. Med. Virol. 89:443-449, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. DEFORESTATION AND LANDSLIDES IN YUNNAN, CHINA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Gerald F.; Wu, Jishan; Li, Tianchi

    1987-01-01

    Landslides historically have caused severe erosion problems in the Xiao River drainage region of northeastern Yunnan Province, China, that hence resulted in serious economic and social consequences. Owing to monsoonal storms of high rainfall intensity, the erosion potential is high in this mountainous, seismically active region. Landslides transported large quantities of materials into the ravines. During intense storms, high runoff from the deforested areas has mobilized this material into debris flows. Where these flows emerged onto flatter slopes in the lower parts of the watersheds, the channels were too small to hold them, so farmland and villages were inundated. Debris flows in this region during June-August 1985 killed 12 people, damaged roads and the main rail line to Kunming, the capital of Yunnan Province, inundated farmland, and overflowed debris-retention structures. To mitigate these severe erosion problems, several different methods have been used.

  15. Time-space variability of satellite chlorophyll-α in the Easter Island Province, southeastern Pacific Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Andrade

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Easter Island Province (EIP encompasses Easter Island (EI and Salas y Gómez Island (SGI, which are located in the eastern boundary of the south Pacific subtropical gyre. This province is one of the most oligotrophic region in the world ocean with a high degree of endemism and distinguished by having the clearest waters in the world. Issues related to the biophysical coupling that sustains biological production in this region are still poorly understood. Satellite data compiled over a ten year period was used to characterize the spatial and temporal chlorophyll-α (Chl-α variability around the EIP and determine the relationship between Chl-α and several physical forcing. Results shows a clear Chl-α annual cycle around the EIP, with maximum concentration during the austral winter. Chl-α spatial distribution shows a strong zonal dipole over EI that divides the island into two zones: southeast and northwest. Due to its small size and low elevation of SGI, it does not generate a significant local effect in Chl-α concentration, but a Chl-α increase is observed southeast of this island (~2 km associated to a seamount. The mean geostrophic current in the EIP flows eastward, associated with the southeastern boundary of the subtropical gyre. However, recurrent mesoscale eddies traveling northwestward and produce large surface current variability with periods of high velocities in opposite direction. In the spring, wakes of high Chl-α concentration can be observed over EI, associated with the generation and detachment of submesoscale eddies from EI, which could have important biological implications during periods of low regional biological production.

  16. Sulfonamide-resistant bacteria and their resistance genes in soils fertilized with manures from Jiangsu Province, Southeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Na; Yang, Xiaohong; Jiao, Shaojun; Zhang, Jun; Ye, Boping; Gao, Shixiang

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotic-resistant bacteria and genes are recognized as new environmental pollutants that warrant special concern. There were few reports on veterinary antibiotic-resistant bacteria and genes in China. This work systematically analyzed the prevalence and distribution of sulfonamide resistance genes in soils from the environments around poultry and livestock farms in Jiangsu Province, Southeastern China. The results showed that the animal manure application made the spread and abundance of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) increasingly in the soil. The frequency of sulfonamide resistance genes was sul1 > sul2 > sul3 in pig-manured soil DNA and sul2 > sul1 > sul3 in chicken-manured soil DNA. Further analysis suggested that the frequency distribution of the sul genes in the genomic DNA and plasmids of the SR isolates from manured soil was sul2 > sul1 > sul3 overall (psulfonamide resistance genes. The present study also indicated that Bacillus, Pseudomonas and Shigella were the most prevalent sul-positive genera in the soil, suggesting a potential human health risk. The above results could be important in the evaluation of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and genes from manure as sources of agricultural soil pollution; the results also demonstrate the necessity and urgency of the regulation and supervision of veterinary antibiotics in China.

  17. Indoor radon measurements and radon prognosis for the province of Kymi, southeastern Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pennanen, M.; Maekelaeinen, I.; Voutilainen, A.

    1996-12-01

    The purpose of the regional radon prognosis is to classify areas with different levels of radon risk. The radon prognosis gives the percentages of future homes expected to have indoor radon concentrations exceeding the levels of 200 and 400 Bq/m 3 . It is assumed that no protection against the entry of radon is used in construction. In this study about 5900 indoor radon measurements made in single family houses, semi-detached houses and row houses were used. Data on the location, geology and construction of buildings were determined from maps and questionnaires. An empirical statistical model, the adjusted indoor radon measurements and geological data were used to assess the radon risk from soil and bedrock in different areas. The building sites of the province of Kymi were divided into thirteen sub-areas. The radon prognosis are calculated for the most radon-prone foundation types including 1) houses with a slab-on-grade and 2) houses with a basement or hillside houses with open stairwells between basement and first floor. The radon levels are generally greater in the western part of the area. The radon risk is highest in gravel-dominated esker areas in southwestern, western (in Pyhtaa, Kotka, Anjalankoski, litti, Valkeala) and central (Taipalsaari) parts of the area. The radon risk is also high in some bedrock and till areas, also in southwestern and western parts of the area. In these areas the level of 200 Bq/m 3 will be exceeded in 80 % of new houses. About half of the future houses in these areas will have indoor radon concentrations exceeding 400 Bq/m 3 . The radon risk is lowest in the eastern part of the province of Kymi in every soil type. In this area the level of 200 Bq/m 3 will be exceeded in 30 % of new houses. Below 10 % will exceed 400 Bq/m 3 . (orig.) (14 refs.)

  18. [Constructing ecological security patterns in mountain areas based on geological disaster sensitivity: A case study in Yuxi City, Yunnan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jian; Guo, Xiao Nan; Hu, Yi Na; Liu, Yan Xu

    2017-02-01

    As one of the key topics in the research of landscape ecology, regional ecological security patterns can effectively promote regional sustainable development and terrestrial ecological barriers construction. It is extremely important for middle Yunnan, with frequent disasters and fragile ecolo-gical environment, to construct ecological security patterns so as to effectively avoid the geological disasters, maintain ecosystem health, and promote the coordinated development of regional ecological system and social economic system. Taking Yuxi City as a case study area, this study firstly estimated the ecosystem services importance of water conservation, carbon fixation and oxygen release, soil conservation, and biodiversity according to the basal characteristics of regional ecological environment, and then identified ecological sources in consideration of the quality of integrated ecosystem services and single types. Secondly, the resistance surface based on land use types was modified by the sensitivity of regional geological disasters. Lastly, the ecological corridors were identified using minimum cumulative resistance model, and as a result, the ecological security pattern of Yuxi City was constructed. The results showed that there were 81 patches for ecological sources in Yuxi City, accounting for 38.4% of the total area, and overlaying 75.2% of nature protection areas. The ecological sources were mainly distributed in the western mountainous areas as well as eastern water areas of the city. The length of ecological corridors was 1642.04 km, presenting a spatial pattern of one vertical and three horizontals, and extending along river valleys and fault basins with high vegetation coverage. This paper constructed ecological security patterns in mountainous areas aiming at the characteristics of geological disasters, providing spatial guidance for development and conservation decision-making in mountain areas.

  19. [Growth response of Abies fargesii to climate in Shennongjia Mount of Hubei Province, Southeastern China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Xin-yuan; Shi, Jiang-feng; Li, Ling-ling; Lu, Hua-yu

    2015-03-01

    A well-replicated Abies fargesii tree-ring width chronology in the Shennongjia Mount was developed to investigate its radial growth response to climate variables (e.g., monthly mean tempe- rature and total precipitation) and other growing season indicators (e.g., cumulative temperature, continuous days, initial and final dates). Correlation analyses showed that the tree-ring width was positively correlated to the mean temperatures of February, April and September, and negatively correlated to the total precipitation of September, prior September and prior December. The analyses between the chronology and other growing season parameters showed that tree growth responded positively to the cumulative temperature and continuous days of the growing season. The correlation was the highest when the growing season was defined as the days above the temperature threshold of 9.0 °C. Defined this way, the growing season typically started in late-May and ended in mid-September, lasting about 120 days. Correlation analyses were also conducted between the tree-ring growth and the initial and final dates of the growing season. Results showed that correlation was the highest for initial dates defined at 9.0 °C (with the coefficient of -0.25 and p-value close to 0.05), and for final dates defined at 9.3 °C (with the coefficient of 0.33 and p-value less than 0.05). All these results indicated that the sensitive temperature threshold for photosynthesis of A. fargesii was around 9.0 °C. The year 1978 marked an abrupt shift of climate in southeast China. We compared A. fargesii growth between pre-1978 and post-1978 periods. Results showed that as temperature rose, the growing season was lengthened with both earlier initial dates and later final dates. Longer growing season increased the A. fargesii growth in the Shennongjia Mount, southeastern China.

  20. Sulfonamide-resistant bacteria and their resistance genes in soils fertilized with manures from Jiangsu Province, Southeastern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Wang

    Full Text Available Antibiotic-resistant bacteria and genes are recognized as new environmental pollutants that warrant special concern. There were few reports on veterinary antibiotic-resistant bacteria and genes in China. This work systematically analyzed the prevalence and distribution of sulfonamide resistance genes in soils from the environments around poultry and livestock farms in Jiangsu Province, Southeastern China. The results showed that the animal manure application made the spread and abundance of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs increasingly in the soil. The frequency of sulfonamide resistance genes was sul1 > sul2 > sul3 in pig-manured soil DNA and sul2 > sul1 > sul3 in chicken-manured soil DNA. Further analysis suggested that the frequency distribution of the sul genes in the genomic DNA and plasmids of the SR isolates from manured soil was sul2 > sul1 > sul3 overall (p<0.05. The combination of sul1 and sul2 was the most frequent, and the co-existence of sul1 and sul3 was not found either in the genomic DNA or plasmids. The sample type, animal type and sampling time can influence the prevalence and distribution pattern of sulfonamide resistance genes. The present study also indicated that Bacillus, Pseudomonas and Shigella were the most prevalent sul-positive genera in the soil, suggesting a potential human health risk. The above results could be important in the evaluation of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and genes from manure as sources of agricultural soil pollution; the results also demonstrate the necessity and urgency of the regulation and supervision of veterinary antibiotics in China.

  1. Two new species of Amphinemura (Plecoptera: Nemouridae) from the Gaoligong Mountains of Yunnan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weihai; Wang, Ying; Yang, Ding

    2016-11-29

    Two new species of the nemourid genus Amphinemura, A. apicilobata sp. nov. and A. bimaculata sp. nov. are described from the Gaoligong Mountains of Yunnan Province, China. The new species are compared with related congeners.

  2. [A study on the effectiveness of prevention of mother-to-child HIV, syphilis, and hepatitis B transmission among pregnant women in Dehong prefecture,Yunnan province, China from 2011 to 2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Duo; Wang, Juan; Sun, Jiangping; Duan, Song; Guo, Yunsong

    2014-11-01

    To demonstrate the effectiveness of prevention of mother-to-child HIV, syphilis, and hepatitis B transmission among pregnant women in Dehong prefecture, Yunnan province, China from 2011 to 2013. Data were collected mainly from the continuous HIV surveillance system and prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) reporting system of Dehong prefecture, and supplemented by annual reported data on HIV, syphilis, and hepatitis B PMTCT to know the general demographic characteristics, HIV testing and counseling service, PMTCT service, and other medical services. Data were presented as absolute numbers and proportions. From 2011 to 2013, the number of pregnant women participating in HIV, syphilis, and hepatitis B testing in Dehong prefecture increased and the HIV testing rates were 99.2% (18 694/18 854), 99.9% (22 047/22 060) and 99.9% (21 751/21 756), the syphilis testing rates were 56.0% (10 550/18 854), 99.6% (21 980/22 060) and 99.9% (21 751/21 756), and the hepatitis B testing rates were 60.2% (11 358/18 854), 99.6% (21 974/22 060) and 99.9% (21 751/21 756). From 2011 to 2013, the HIV positive rates were 0.87% (327/37 787),0.82% (319/38 817) and 0.85% (315/37 261), the syphilis positive rates were 0.05% (10/18 520),0.12% (43/36 817) and 0.11% (40/35 888), the hepatitis B positive rates were 2.46% (456/18 520), 2.23% (794/35 547) and 2.14% (739/34 468), respectively. The rates of HIV-positive pregnant women giving birth in hospitals were 99.2% (128/129), 100.0% (141/141) and 100.0% (141/141). From 2011 to 2013, the proportions of HIV-positive pregnant women receiving antiretroviral therapy were 99.2% (128/129), 99.3% (140/141) and 99.3% (140/141), respectively. And the treatment rate of syphilis-positive pregnant women were 71% (5/7), 89% (16/18) and 97% (32/33). The rates of hepatitis B immunoglobulin injection among new-borns of hepatitis B-positive pregnant women were 92.9% (263/283), 99.7% (612/614) and 99.4% (629/633). The estimated rates of mother

  3. Investigation and Analysis of Situation of Alcohol Use in College Students in Yunnan Province%云南高校学生饮酒情况调查及分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗瑜; 杨惠萍; 何梦恒; 李栋; 王蕊; 肖蓉

    2012-01-01

    目的:为了解云南高校大学生饮酒情况及相关问题,分析其原因及危害,对云南省部分高校的大学生进行问卷调查。方法:2011年6-7月,采用分群随机抽样调查方法,以调查问卷的形式,对云南部分高校的大学生进行饮酒状况、动机与心理以及对饮酒危害性认识等方面的调查研究。结果:调查总人数为503名,饮酒者363名,总饮酒率为72.17%,男女饮酒率分别为83.5%和56.25%,男饮酒者饮酒率远大于女饮酒者;男女饮酒行为类型、首次饮酒时间、单次饮酒量、醉酒率等均有显著性差异(P〈0.01)。饮酒行为多受周围人群、心理和环境等因素的影响。结论:目前大学生的饮酒率高、饮酒危害大,应引起足够的重视,学校和家长应进一步加强对大学生的饮酒危害教育,使大学生形成正确的饮酒观念,预防饮酒问题的出现。%[Objective] To understand alcohol-drink and related problems in college students in Yunnan province and to analyze the causes and harm. [Method] Questionnaires were applied from June to July 2011 among college students in Yunnan province. The information was collected concerning their alcohol drinking status, motive and related factors. [Resull] Among 503 college students, the number of alcohol users were 363 and the prevalence total rate of alcohol users was 72.17% . The drinking-rate in male and female was 83.3% and 56.25%, respectively. There were highly significant differences in alcohol drinking pattern, situation and types of alcohol beverage they drank between males and females. The alcohol drinking pattern was mainly affected by peer-related factors, psychological factors and environmental factors. [Conclusion] At present, the rate of alcohol users among college students was pretty high, which was of harm for students to drink alcohol beverage. Education of health about alcohol drinking should be emphasized and

  4. Measurement of activity concentrations for "1"3"7Cs and "4"0K in edible wild mushrooms collected from Mangshi, Yunnan province and evaluation of dose to adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuo Fei; Xu Cuihua; Zhang Jing; Li Wenhong; Zhou Qiang; Zhang Qing; Su Xu

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the activity concentration of radionuclides for "1"3"7Cs and "4"0K in edible wild mushrooms, and to evaluate the extent of radioactive contamination and ingestion doses to adults from consumption of these wild mushrooms. Methods: A total of 33 samples for 18 edible wild mushroom species were collected from natural forest Mangshi, Yunnan province. The activity concentrations of "1"3"7Cs and "4"0K were analyzed by using high-purity germanium (HPGe) gamma spectrometry. Results: Except for one sample that was below the MDA, "1"3"7Cs artificial radionuclides were detected in other 32 samples, with activity concentration of "1"3"7Cs in the range of 0.45-339.58 Bq/kg (dry weight) and an average of 25.47 Bq/kg (dry weight). In regards to "4"0K in edible mushrooms, all species presented the activity concentrations for this radionuclide and the levels varied from 453.4 to 1882.6 Bq/kg (dry weight), with an average of 815.1 Bq/kg (dry weight). After species of mushroom with only one sample were eliminated, there was significant difference for "1"3"7Cs(F = 21.13, P < 0.05) among 6 species of mushroom named Gomphus floccosus (Schw.) Sing., Boletus edulis bull, Boletus edulis bull, Tylopllus bolloul (Peck) Sing., Lentinus edodes (Berk.) Sing. and Boletus brunneissimus W.F.Chin, but without significant difference for "4"0K. Conclusions: These 6 different mushroom species have different capacity to retain radionuclides of "1"3"7Cs in soil. These wild mushrooms, such as Gomphus floccosus (Schw.) Sing. and Lentinus edodes (Berk.) Sing. have large affinity ability for radionuclides"1"3"7Cs. The effective dose to adults attributable to consuming these kinds of mushrooms is small and below the level that could cause harm. (authors)

  5. Total HIV/AIDS expenditures in Dehong Prefecture, Yunnan province in 2010: the first systematic evaluation of both health and non-health related HIV/AIDS expenditures in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Duo; Sun, Jiangping; Yakusik, Anna; Chen, Zhongdan; Yuan, Jianhua; Li, Tao; Fu, Jeannia; Khoshnood, Kaveh; Yang, Xing; Wei, Mei; Duan, Song; Bulterys, Marc; Sante, Michael; Ye, Runhua; Xiang, Lifen; Yang, Yuecheng

    2013-01-01

    We assessed HIV/AIDS expenditures in Dehong Prefecture, Yunnan Province, one of the highest prevalence regions in China, and describe funding sources and spending for different categories of HIV-related interventions and at-risk populations. 2010 HIV/AIDS expenditures in Dehong Prefecture were evaluated based on UNAIDS' National AIDS Spending Assessment methodology. Nearly 93% of total expenditures for HIV/AIDS was contributed by public sources. Of total expenditures, 52.7% was allocated to treatment and care, 24.5% to program management and administration and 19.8% to prevention. Spending on treatment and care was primarily allocated to the treatment of opportunistic infections. Most (40.4%) prevention spending was concentrated on most-at-risk populations, injection drug users (IDUs), sex workers, and men who have sex with men (MSM), with 5.5% allocated to voluntary counseling and testing. Prevention funding allocated for MSM, partners of people living with HIV and prisoners and other confined populations was low compared to the disproportionate burden of HIV/AIDS in these populations. Overall, people living with HIV accounted for 57.57% of total expenditures, while most-at-risk populations accounted for only 7.99%. Our study demonstrated the applicability of NASA for tracking and assessing HIV expenditure in the context of China, it proved to be a useful tool in understanding national HIV/AIDS response from financial aspect, and to assess the extent to which HIV expenditure matches epidemic patterns. Limited funding for primary prevention and prevention for MSM, prisoners and partners of people living with HIV, signal that resource allocation to these key areas must be strengthened. Comprehensive analyses of regional and national funding strategies are needed to inform more equitable, effective and cost-effective HIV/AIDS resource allocation.

  6. Total HIV/AIDS expenditures in Dehong Prefecture, Yunnan province in 2010: the first systematic evaluation of both health and non-health related HIV/AIDS expenditures in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duo Shan

    Full Text Available We assessed HIV/AIDS expenditures in Dehong Prefecture, Yunnan Province, one of the highest prevalence regions in China, and describe funding sources and spending for different categories of HIV-related interventions and at-risk populations.2010 HIV/AIDS expenditures in Dehong Prefecture were evaluated based on UNAIDS' National AIDS Spending Assessment methodology.Nearly 93% of total expenditures for HIV/AIDS was contributed by public sources. Of total expenditures, 52.7% was allocated to treatment and care, 24.5% to program management and administration and 19.8% to prevention. Spending on treatment and care was primarily allocated to the treatment of opportunistic infections. Most (40.4% prevention spending was concentrated on most-at-risk populations, injection drug users (IDUs, sex workers, and men who have sex with men (MSM, with 5.5% allocated to voluntary counseling and testing. Prevention funding allocated for MSM, partners of people living with HIV and prisoners and other confined populations was low compared to the disproportionate burden of HIV/AIDS in these populations. Overall, people living with HIV accounted for 57.57% of total expenditures, while most-at-risk populations accounted for only 7.99%.Our study demonstrated the applicability of NASA for tracking and assessing HIV expenditure in the context of China, it proved to be a useful tool in understanding national HIV/AIDS response from financial aspect, and to assess the extent to which HIV expenditure matches epidemic patterns. Limited funding for primary prevention and prevention for MSM, prisoners and partners of people living with HIV, signal that resource allocation to these key areas must be strengthened. Comprehensive analyses of regional and national funding strategies are needed to inform more equitable, effective and cost-effective HIV/AIDS resource allocation.

  7. Diatom distribution in the surficial sediments of Lake Fuxian, Yunnan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-11-30

    Nov 30, 2011 ... (18.2%); there were some phosphorus post-mines which led to higher total phosphorus concentration than that in southern part. The most outstanding characteristic of diatom ... (212 km2 in surface area) is located in the central Yunnan. Province; it is a oligotrophic freshwater lake. It is the second deepest ...

  8. Bilobate leaves of Bauhinia (Leguminosae, Caesalpinioideae, Cercideae) from the middle Miocene of Fujian Province, southeastern China and their biogeographic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yanxiang; Wong, William Oki; Shi, Gongle; Shen, Si; Li, Zhenyu

    2015-11-16

    Morphological and molecular phylogenetic studies suggest that the pantropical genus Bauhinia L. s.l. (Bauhiniinae, Cercideae, Leguminosae) is paraphyletic and may as well be subdivided into nine genera, including Bauhinia L. s.s. and its allies. Their leaves are usually characteristic bilobate and are thus easily recognized in the fossil record. This provides the opportunity to understand the early evolution, diversification, and biogeographic history of orchid trees from an historical perspective under the framework of morphological and molecular studies. The taxonomy, distribution, and leaf architecture of Bauhinia and its allies across the world are summarized in detail, which formed the basis for classifying the bilobate leaf fossils and evaluating the fossil record and biogeography of Bauhinia. Two species of Bauhinia are described from the middle Miocene Fotan Group of Fujian Province, southeastern China. Bauhinia ungulatoides sp. nov. is characterized by shallowly to moderately bilobate, pulvinate leaves with shallowly cordate bases and acute apices on each lobe, as well as paracytic stomatal complexes. Bauhinia fotana F.M.B. Jacques et al. emend. possesses moderately bilobate, pulvinate leaves with moderately to deeply cordate bases and acute or slightly obtuse apices on each lobe. Bilobate leaf fossils Bauhinia ungulatoides and B. fotana together with other late Paleogene - early Neogene Chinese record of the genus suggest that Bauhinia had been diverse in South China by the late Paleogene. Their great similarities to some species from South America and South Asia respectively imply that Bauhinia might have undergone extensive dispersals and diversification during or before the Miocene. The fossil record, extant species diversity, as well as molecular phylogenetic analyses demonstrate that the Bauhiniinae might have originated in the Paleogene of low-latitudes along the eastern Tethys Seaway. They dispersed southwards into Africa, migrated from Eurasia to

  9. Biogeographical divergence of the flora of Yunnan, southwestern China initiated by the uplift of Himalaya and extrusion of Indochina block.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Hua

    Full Text Available The floral composition of Yunnan is conspicuously linked to the biogeographical history of this extremely species-rich province in southwestern China. The floristic compositions of three representative regions in Yunnan were compared to reveal their variation with geography. From southern Yunnan, 4150 native species (including subspecies and varieties from 1240 genera and 183 families of seed plants were recognized. From central Yunnan 3389 native species from 1095 genera and 167 families of seed plants were recognized. From northwestern Yunnan 6807 native species from 1296 genera and 166 families of seed plants were recognized. Although these three floras across Yunnan are similar in familial composition, similarities between the floras of southern and northwestern Yunnan are low at the generic and specific levels. The flora of northwestern Yunnan is dominated by families and genera with cosmopolitan and north temperate distributions, while the flora of southern Yunnan is dominated by tropical families and genera. Northwestern Yunnan is composed largely of temperate genera, of which the highest proportion has a north temperate distribution. In contrast, southern Yunnan has mainly tropical genera, of which most have a tropical Asian distribution. The flora of central Yunnan is a combination of southern and northwestern Yunnan. These three floras might be derived from a common Tertiary tropical or subtropical East Asian flora, but the geological history of each region has influenced its flora, and they have remained divergent since the late Tertiary. The flora of northwestern Yunnan has evolved with the uplift of the Himalayas and by gradual proliferation of mainly cosmopolitan and north temperate floristic elements, while the flora of southern Yunnan has evolved with extrusion of the Indochina block and the influence of mainly tropical Asian elements.

  10. Biogeographical divergence of the flora of Yunnan, southwestern China initiated by the uplift of Himalaya and extrusion of Indochina block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Zhu

    2012-01-01

    The floral composition of Yunnan is conspicuously linked to the biogeographical history of this extremely species-rich province in southwestern China. The floristic compositions of three representative regions in Yunnan were compared to reveal their variation with geography. From southern Yunnan, 4150 native species (including subspecies and varieties) from 1240 genera and 183 families of seed plants were recognized. From central Yunnan 3389 native species from 1095 genera and 167 families of seed plants were recognized. From northwestern Yunnan 6807 native species from 1296 genera and 166 families of seed plants were recognized. Although these three floras across Yunnan are similar in familial composition, similarities between the floras of southern and northwestern Yunnan are low at the generic and specific levels. The flora of northwestern Yunnan is dominated by families and genera with cosmopolitan and north temperate distributions, while the flora of southern Yunnan is dominated by tropical families and genera. Northwestern Yunnan is composed largely of temperate genera, of which the highest proportion has a north temperate distribution. In contrast, southern Yunnan has mainly tropical genera, of which most have a tropical Asian distribution. The flora of central Yunnan is a combination of southern and northwestern Yunnan. These three floras might be derived from a common Tertiary tropical or subtropical East Asian flora, but the geological history of each region has influenced its flora, and they have remained divergent since the late Tertiary. The flora of northwestern Yunnan has evolved with the uplift of the Himalayas and by gradual proliferation of mainly cosmopolitan and north temperate floristic elements, while the flora of southern Yunnan has evolved with extrusion of the Indochina block and the influence of mainly tropical Asian elements.

  11. Modes and Experience of Green Mine Construction in Yunnan, China: Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xianfeng; Huang, Qianrui; Yang, Shuran; Xu, Jun; Fan, Youcai; Xu, Gang; Yang, Jiaqing; Yuan, Jia; Qi, Wufu

    2017-12-01

    Yunnan is one of most important provinces with mineral resources and exploration in China. Meanwhile, Yunnan is Chinese ecological protective screen and try to be Pacesetter of ecological civilization. However, mining industry always disturbs ecological environment seriously. So green mine construction is inevitable and the best choice for Yunnan. In this paper, achievement of green mine construction in Yunnan was summarized. Then the paper takes two mines from Dahongshan and 4 mines from Yunnan Phosphate Chemical Group Co., Ltd (YPC for short) as case studies. Technological innovation in Dahongshan Fe Mine and Dahongshan Cu Mine guarantees their success of green mine construction. Land rehabilitation and harmonious community are highlights of 4 mines from YPC. These modes and experience could be referential to construct green mine.

  12. The Carolina Sandhills: Quaternary eolian sand sheets and dunes along the updip margin of the Atlantic Coastal Plain province, southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swezey, Christopher; Fitzwater, Bradley A.; Whittecar, G. Richard; Mahan, Shannon; Garrity, Christopher P.; Aleman Gonzalez, Wilma B.; Dobbs, Kerby M.

    2016-01-01

    The Carolina Sandhills is a physiographic region of the Atlantic Coastal Plain province in the southeastern United States. In Chesterfield County (South Carolina), the surficial sand of this region is the Pinehurst Formation, which is interpreted as eolian sand derived from the underlying Cretaceous Middendorf Formation. This sand has yielded three clusters of optically stimulated luminescence ages: (1) 75 to 37 thousand years ago (ka), coincident with growth of the Laurentide Ice Sheet; (2) 28 to 18 ka, coincident with the last glacial maximum (LGM); and (3) 12 to 6 ka, mostly coincident with the Younger Dryas through final collapse of the Laurentide Ice Sheet. Relict dune morphologies are consistent with winds from the west or northwest, coincident with modern and inferred LGM January wind directions. Sand sheets are more common than dunes because of effects of coarse grain size (mean range: 0.35–0.59 mm) and vegetation. The coarse grain size would have required LGM wind velocities of at least 4–6 m/sec, accounting for effects of colder air temperatures on eolian sand transport. The eolian interpretation of the Carolina Sandhills is consistent with other evidence for eolian activity in the southeastern United States during the last glaciation.

  13. Land use and desertification in the Binh Thuan Province of Southeastern Vietnam: mitigation and adaptation options now and under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobin, A.; Le Trinh, H.; Pham Ha, L.; Hens, L.

    2012-04-01

    Desertification and drought affects approximately 300,000 ha of land in the southeastern provinces of Vietnam, much of which is located on agricultural land and forest in the Binh Thuan Province. The methodology for analysing mitigation and adaptation options follows a chain of risk approach that includes a spatio-temporal characterisation of (1) the hazard, (2) the bio-physical and socio-economic impact, (3) the vulnerability to different activities as related to land uses, and (4) risk management options. The present forms of land degradation include sand dune formation and severe erosion (63%), degradation due to laterisation (14%), salinisation (13%), and rock outcrops (10%). The climate is characterized by a distinct dry season with high temperatures, a lot of sunshine and a warm land wind resulting in high evapotranspiration rates. Delays in the onset of the rainy season, e.g. with 20 days in 2010, cause a shift in the growing season. Damages due to drought are estimated at hundreds billion VND (US 1 = VND 20,8900) and contribute to poverty in the rural areas. The current risk-exposure is exacerbated further by climate change. Combined effects of desertification and climate change cause increased degradation of natural resources including land cover. At the same time land use changes are crucial in influencing responses to climate change and desertification. A further SWOT analysis combined with spatio-temporal analysis for each of the major sectors (agriculture, forestry and nature protection, urban and rural development, water resources and fisheries, industry) demonstrates a series of adaptation and mitigation options. Land is a valuable and limited resource. An integrated approach to land use and management is therefore essential to combat environmental hazards such as desertification and climate change.

  14. The geochemistry and geochronology of some proterozoic granitoid rocks from the Natal structural and metamorphic province, Southeastern Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, A.; Milne, G.C.; Eglington, B.M.

    1987-01-01

    The Natal Structural and Metamorphic Province is thought to be an eastern extension of the Namaqua Metamorphic Province. Until recently few geochemical and isotopic data have been available on many of the rocks of this mobile belt. This paper presentes initial geochemical and geochronological information on the granitoids and associated rocks from three areas NSMP. Together, these areas provide a traverse through central and southern parts of the Mapumulo Group. Supracrustal gneisses, of uncertain age, are the oldest rocks in all areas, while the granitic intrusives range from 1,200-850 Ma, with a tendency for younger dates towards dates towards the south. Low initial 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios for these plutonic units suggest that the rocks were the products of partial melting of a relatively juvenile (circa 1,400 Ma) protolith. A type granites are common within the NSMP and give a range of ages, indicating that conditions suitable for their formation persited in this part of the African continent for an extended period of time. Economic deposits are lacking in eastern (Natal) sector of the mobile belt. Reconnaissance studies, however indicate that syn-tolate-Kinematic granitoids, intruded circa 1,000 Ma, are enriched in uranium and thorium irrespective of bulk chemistry, textural nature,mineralogy,structural setting, and isotopic characteristics. (author) [pt

  15. Early Cretaceous high-Ti and low-Ti mafic magmatism in Southeastern Tibet: Insights into magmatic evolution of the Comei Large Igneous Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yaying; Zeng, Lingsen; Asimow, Paul D.; Gao, Li-E.; Ma, Chi; Antoshechkina, Paula M.; Guo, Chunli; Hou, Kejun; Tang, Suohan

    2018-01-01

    The Dala diabase intrusion, at the southeastern margin of the Yardoi gneiss dome, is located within the outcrop area of the 132 Ma Comei Large Igneous Province (LIP), the result of initial activity of the Kerguelen plume. We present new zircon U-Pb geochronology results to show that the Dala diabase was emplaced at 132 Ma and geochemical data (whole-rock element and Sr-Nd isotope ratios, zircon Hf isotopes and Fe-Ti oxide mineral chemistry) to confirm that the Dala diabase intrusion is part of the Comei LIP. The Dala diabase can be divided into a high-Mg/low-Ti series and a low-Mg/high-Ti series. The high-Mg/low-Ti series represents more primitive mafic magma compositions that we demonstrate are parental to the low-Mg/high-Ti series. Fractionation of olivine and clinopyroxene, followed by plagioclase within the low-Mg series, lead to systematic changes in concentrations of mantle compatible elements (Cr, Co, Ni, and V), REEs, HFSEs, and major elements such as Ti and P. Some Dala samples from the low-Mg/high-Ti series contain large ilmenite clusters and show extreme enrichment of Ti with elevated Ti/Y ratios, likely due to settling and accumulation of ilmenite during the magma chamber evolution. However, most samples from throughout the Comei LIP follow the Ti-evolution trend of the typical liquid line of descent (LLD) of primary OIB compositions, showing strong evidence of control of Ti contents by differentiation processes. In many other localities, however, primitive magmas are absent and observed Ti contents of evolved magmas cannot be quantitatively related to source processes. Careful examination of the petrogenetic relationship between co-existing low-Ti and high-Ti mafic rocks is essential to using observed rock chemistry to infer source composition, location, and degree of melting.

  16. Alphonsea glandulosa (Annonaceae, a New Species from Yunnan, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bine Xue

    Full Text Available Alphonsea glandulosa sp. nov. is described from Yunnan Province in south-west China. It is easily distinguished from all previously described Alphonsea species by the possession of glandular tissue at the base of the adaxial surface of the inner petals. Nectar was observed throughout the flowering period, including the pistillate phase and subsequent staminate phase. Small curculionid beetles were observed as floral visitors and are inferred to be effective pollinators since they carry pollen grains. A phylogenetic analysis was conducted to confirm the placement of this new species within Alphonsea and the evolution of the inner petal glands and specialized pollinator reward tissues throughout the family.

  17. Cenozoic plant diversity of Yunnan: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjiang Huang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Yunnan in southwestern China is renowned for its high plant diversity. To understand how this modern botanical richness formed, it is critical to investigate the past biodiversity throughout the geological time. In this review, we present a summary on plant diversity, floristics and climates in the Cenozoic of Yunnan and document their changes, by compiling published palaeobotanical sources. Our review demonstrates that thus far a total of 386 fossil species of ferns, gymnosperms and angiosperms belonging to 170 genera within 66 families have been reported from the Cenozoic, particularly the Neogene, of Yunnan. Angiosperms display the highest richness represented by 353 species grouped into 155 genera within 60 families, with Fagaceae, Fabaceae, Lauraceae and Juglandaceae being the most diversified. Most of the families and genera recorded as fossils still occur in Yunnan, but seven genera have disappeared, including Berryophyllum, Cedrelospermum, Cedrus, Palaeocarya, Podocarpium, Sequoia and Wataria. The regional extinction of these genera is commonly referred to an aridification of the dry season associated with Asian monsoon development. Floristic analyses indicate that in the late Miocene, Yunnan had three floristic regions: a northern subtropical floristic region in the northeast, a subtropical floristic region in the east, and a tropical floristic region in the southwest. In the late Pliocene, Yunnan saw two kinds of floristic regions: a subalpine floristic region in the northwest, and two subtropical floristic regions separately in the southwest and the eastern center. These floristic concepts are verified by results from our areal type analyses which suggest that in the Miocene southwestern Yunnan supported the most Pantropic elements, while in the Pliocene southwestern Yunnan had abundant Tropical Asia (Indo–Malaysia type and East Asia and North America disjunct type that were absent from northwestern Yunnan. From the late Miocene to

  18. The symphytognathoid spiders of the Gaoligongshan, Yunnan, China (Araneae, Araneoidea): Systematics and diversity of micro-orbweavers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miller, J.A.; Griswold, C.E.; Yin, C.M.

    2009-01-01

    A ten-year inventory of the Gaoligongshan in western Yunnan Province, China, yielded more than 1000 adult spider specimens belonging to the symphytognathoid families Theridiosomatidae, Mysmenidae, Anapidae, and Symphytognathidae. These specimens belong to 36 species, all herein described as new. In

  19. Ecosystem Evapotranspiration as a Response to Climate and Vegetation Coverage Changes in Northwest Yunnan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hao; Luo, Peng; Wang, Jun; Mou, Chengxiang; Mo, Li; Wang, Zhiyuan; Fu, Yao; Lin, Honghui; Yang, Yongping; Bhatta, Laxmi Dutt

    2015-01-01

    Climate and human-driven changes play an important role in regional droughts. Northwest Yunnan Province is a key region for biodiversity conservation in China, and it has experienced severe droughts since the beginning of this century; however, the extent of the contributions from climate and human-driven changes remains unclear. We calculated the ecosystem evapotranspiration (ET) and water yield (WY) of northwest Yunnan Province, China from 2001 to 2013 using meteorological and remote sensing observation data and a Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) model. Multivariate regression analyses were used to differentiate the contribution of climate and vegetation coverage to ET. The results showed that the annual average vegetation coverage significantly increased over time with a mean of 0.69 in spite of the precipitation fluctuation. Afforestation/reforestation and other management efforts attributed to vegetation coverage increase in NW Yunnan. Both ET and WY considerably fluctuated with the climate factors, which ranged from 623.29 mm to 893.8 mm and -51.88 mm to 384.40 mm over the time period. Spatially, ET in the southeast of NW Yunnan (mainly in Lijiang) increased significantly, which was in line with the spatial trend of vegetation coverage. Multivariate linear regression analysis indicated that climatic factors accounted for 85.18% of the ET variation, while vegetation coverage explained 14.82%. On the other hand, precipitation accounted for 67.5% of the WY. We conclude that the continuous droughts in northwest Yunnan were primarily climatically driven; however, man-made land cover and vegetation changes also increased the vulnerability of local populations to drought. Because of the high proportion of the water yield consumed for subsistence and poor infrastructure for water management, local populations have been highly vulnerable to climate drought conditions. We suggest that conservation of native vegetation and development of water

  20. Ecosystem Evapotranspiration as a Response to Climate and Vegetation Coverage Changes in Northwest Yunnan, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Yang

    Full Text Available Climate and human-driven changes play an important role in regional droughts. Northwest Yunnan Province is a key region for biodiversity conservation in China, and it has experienced severe droughts since the beginning of this century; however, the extent of the contributions from climate and human-driven changes remains unclear. We calculated the ecosystem evapotranspiration (ET and water yield (WY of northwest Yunnan Province, China from 2001 to 2013 using meteorological and remote sensing observation data and a Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS model. Multivariate regression analyses were used to differentiate the contribution of climate and vegetation coverage to ET. The results showed that the annual average vegetation coverage significantly increased over time with a mean of 0.69 in spite of the precipitation fluctuation. Afforestation/reforestation and other management efforts attributed to vegetation coverage increase in NW Yunnan. Both ET and WY considerably fluctuated with the climate factors, which ranged from 623.29 mm to 893.8 mm and -51.88 mm to 384.40 mm over the time period. Spatially, ET in the southeast of NW Yunnan (mainly in Lijiang increased significantly, which was in line with the spatial trend of vegetation coverage. Multivariate linear regression analysis indicated that climatic factors accounted for 85.18% of the ET variation, while vegetation coverage explained 14.82%. On the other hand, precipitation accounted for 67.5% of the WY. We conclude that the continuous droughts in northwest Yunnan were primarily climatically driven; however, man-made land cover and vegetation changes also increased the vulnerability of local populations to drought. Because of the high proportion of the water yield consumed for subsistence and poor infrastructure for water management, local populations have been highly vulnerable to climate drought conditions. We suggest that conservation of native vegetation and development of water

  1. Outbreak of acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis in Yunnan, People's Republic of China, 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Wenbo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract An outbreak of acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis (AHC occurred in Yunnan Province, China between August and September in 2007. A total of 3,597 cases were officially reported and the incidence rate reached 1390.94/100,000. Descriptive epidemiological analysis of the outbreak was conducted using the data from National Disease Supervision Information Management System (NDSIMS. To determine the causative agent for this outbreak and to analyze their genetic features, 30 conjunctival swabs and 19 paired serum specimens of acute and convalescent phase were collected from 30 patients with AHC, and viral isolation, molecular typing, antibody assay and phylogenetic analysis were performed. 11 virus strains were isolated from 30 conjunctival swabs. Amplification and sequencing of the VP4 region of these strains identified that coxsackievirus A24 variant (CA24v could be the causative agent of the AHC outbreak and this was further confirmed by subsequent virus neutralizing antibody test on 19 paired serum specimens. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 3C regions showed that the Yunnan CA24v strains belonged to Group 3 and clustered with the strains isolated from worldwide AHC outbreaks after 2002. Phylogenetic analysis based on the partial VP1 revealed that the Yunnan strains differed from the strains isolated from AHC outbreak in Guangdong of China in 2007 with 2.8 - 3.0% nucleotide divergence, suggesting that two different lineages of CA24v caused the independent AHC outbreaks in Yunnan and Guangdong, respectively.

  2. [Ecotourism exploitation model in Bita Lake Natural Reserve of Yunnan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, G; Wang, Y; Zhong, L

    2000-12-01

    Bita lake provincial natural reserve is located in Shangri-La region of North-western Yunnan, and was set as a demonstrating area for ecotourism exploitation in 1998. After a year's exploitation construction and half a year's operation as a branch of the 99' Kunming International Horticulture Exposition to accept tourists, it was proved that the ecotourism demonstrating area attained four integrated functions of ecotourism, i.e., tourism, protection, poverty clearing and environment education. Five exploitation and management models including function zoned exploitation model, featured tourism communication model signs system designing model, local Tibetan family reception model and environmental monitoring model, were also successful, which were demonstrated and spreaded to the whole province. Bita lake provincial natural reserve could be a good sample for the ecotourism exploitation natural reserves of the whole country.

  3. Papillary thyroid carcinoma risk factors in the Yunnan plateau of southwestern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng R

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Rong Zeng,1–3 Tao Shou,3 Kun-xian Yang,4 Tao Shen,5 Jin-ping Zhang,5 Rong-xia Zuo,5 Yong-qing Zheng,5 Xin-ming Yan5 1Faculty of Environmental Science and Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming, People’s Republic of China; 2Faculty of Life Science and Technology, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming, People’s Republic of China; 3Medical Oncology, The First People’s Hospital of Yunnan Province, Kunming, People’s Republic of China; 4Surgical Oncology, The First People’s Hospital of Yunnan Province Kunming, People’s Republic of China; 5Institute of Clinical and Basic Medicine Research, The Affiliated Hospital of Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming, People’s Republic of China Objective: This study investigated clinical and pathological characteristics and risk factors in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC patients’ native to Yunnan plateau in southwestern China. Methods: Clinical data from 1,198 patients diagnosed with PTC (n=578 and control subjects (n=620 with benign thyroid disease (ie, thyroid nodule disease, benign thyroid diseases [BTD] in Yunnan province were analyzed retrospectively. Results: The mean patient age was lower for PTC than for BTD. Positive ratios of thyroid peroxidase antibody, thyroglobulin antibody (TGAb, and thyrotrophin receptor antibody (TRAb were higher in PTC than in BTD patients. The ratio of PTC coexisting with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT or with lymphocytic thyroiditis was higher than that of BTD. The number of patients whose age at menarche was ≤13 years, who had given birth to less than or equal to two children, or who were in premenopause were higher in the PTC than in the BTD group. Multivariate conditional logistic regression analyses revealed that age >45 years, nodal size >1 cm, and elevated TG levels were protective factors against PTC. Abnormally elevated TGAb and TRAb levels were independent risk factors for PTC in females

  4. Forest Classification Based on Forest texture in Northwest Yunnan Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinliang; Gao, Yan; Wang, Xiaohua; Fu, Lei

    2014-03-01

    Forest texture is an intrinsic characteristic and an important visual feature of a forest ecological system. Full utilization of forest texture will be a great help in increasing the accuracy of forest classification based on remote sensed data. Taking Shangri-La as a study area, forest classification has been based on the texture. The results show that: (1) From the texture abundance, texture boundary, entropy as well as visual interpretation, the combination of Grayscale-gradient co-occurrence matrix and wavelet transformation is much better than either one of both ways of forest texture information extraction; (2) During the forest texture information extraction, the size of the texture-suitable window determined by the semi-variogram method depends on the forest type (evergreen broadleaf forest is 3×3, deciduous broadleaf forest is 5×5, etc.). (3)While classifying forest based on forest texture information, the texture factor assembly differs among forests: Variance Heterogeneity and Correlation should be selected when the window is between 3×3 and 5×5 Mean, Correlation, and Entropy should be used when the window in the range of 7×7 to 19×19 and Correlation, Second Moment, and Variance should be used when the range is larger than 21×21.

  5. Forest Classification Based on Forest texture in Northwest Yunnan Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jinliang; Gao, Yan; Fu, Lei; Wang, Xiaohua

    2014-01-01

    Forest texture is an intrinsic characteristic and an important visual feature of a forest ecological system. Full utilization of forest texture will be a great help in increasing the accuracy of forest classification based on remote sensed data. Taking Shangri-La as a study area, forest classification has been based on the texture. The results show that: (1) From the texture abundance, texture boundary, entropy as well as visual interpretation, the combination of Grayscale-gradient co-occurrence matrix and wavelet transformation is much better than either one of both ways of forest texture information extraction; (2) During the forest texture information extraction, the size of the texture-suitable window determined by the semi-variogram method depends on the forest type (evergreen broadleaf forest is 3×3, deciduous broadleaf forest is 5×5, etc.). (3)While classifying forest based on forest texture information, the texture factor assembly differs among forests: Variance Heterogeneity and Correlation should be selected when the window is between 3×3 and 5×5; Mean, Correlation, and Entropy should be used when the window in the range of 7×7 to 19×19; and Correlation, Second Moment, and Variance should be used when the range is larger than 21×21

  6. Needle and syringe programs in Yunnan, China yield health and financial return

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xun Zhuang

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As a harm reduction strategy in response to HIV epidemics needle and syringes programs (NSPs were initiated throughout China in 2002. The effectiveness of NSPs in reducing the spread of infection in such an established epidemic is unknown. In this study we use data from Yunnan province, the province most affected by HIV in China, to (1 estimate the population benefits in terms of infections prevented due to the programs; (2 calculate the cost-effectiveness of NSPs. Methods We developed a mathematical transmission model, informed by detailed behavioral and program data, which accurately reflected the unique HIV epidemiology among Yunnan injecting drug users (IDUs in the presence of NSPs. We then used the model to estimate the likely epidemiological and clinical outcomes without NSPs and conducted a health economics analysis to determine the cost-effectiveness of the program. Results It is estimated that NSPs in Yunnan have averted approximately 16-20% (5,200-7,500 infections of the expected HIV cases since 2002 and led to gains of 1,300-1,900 DALYs. The total $1.04 million spending on NSPs from 2002 to 2008 has resulted in an estimated cost-saving over this period of $1.38-$1.97 million due to the prevention of HIV and the associated costs of care and management. Conclusion NSPs are not only cost-effective but cost-saving in Yunnan. Significant scale-up of NSPs interventions across China and removal of the societal and political barriers that compromise the effects of NSPs should be a health priority of the Chinese government.

  7. Mineralogy, fluid inclusion petrography, and stable isotope geochemistry of Pb-Zn-Ag veins at the Shizhuyuan deposit, Hunan Province, southeastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shenghua; Mao, Jingwen; Yuan, Shunda; Dai, Pan; Wang, Xudong

    2018-01-01

    The Shizhuyuan polymetallic deposit is located in the central part of the Nanling region, southeastern China, and consists of proximal W-Sn-Mo-Bi skarns and greisens and distal Pb-Zn-Ag veins. The sulfides and sulfosalts in the distal veins formed in three distinct stages: (1) an early stage of pyrite and arsenopyrite, (2) a middle stage of sphalerite and chalcopyrite, and (3) a late stage of galena, Ag-, Sn-, and Bi-bearing sulfides and sulfosalts, and pyrrhotite. Combined sulfide and sulfosalt geothermometry and fluid inclusion analyses indicate that the early stage of mineralization occurred at a temperature of 400 °C and involved boiling under hydrostatic pressure ( 200 bar), with the temperature of the system dropping during the late stage to 200 °C. Laser Raman analysis indicates that the fluid inclusions within the studied minerals are dominated by H2O, although some contain carbonate solids and CH4 gas. Vein-hosted sulfides have δ34S values of 3.8-6.3‰ that are interpreted as indicative of a magmatic source of sulfur. The mineralization process can be summarized as follows: an aqueous fluid exsolved on final crystallization of the Qianlishan pluton, ascended along fracture zones, cooled to <400 °C, and boiled under hydrostatic conditions, and with decreasing temperature and sulfur fugacity, sulfide and sulfosalt minerals precipitated successively from the Ag-Cu-Zn-Fe-Pb-Sb-As-S-bearing fluid system.

  8. Pine wilt disease in Yunnan, China: Evidence of non-local pine sawyer Monochamus alternatus (Coloptera: Cerambycidae) populations revealed by mitochondrial DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da-Ying Fu; Shao-Ji Hu; Hui Ye; Robert A. Haack; Ping-Yang. Zhou

    2010-01-01

    Monochamus alternatus (Hope) specimens were collected from nine geographical populations in China,where the pinewood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Steiner et Buhrer) was present. There were seven populations in southwestern China in Yunnan Province (Ruili,Wanding, Lianghe, Pu'er, Huaning, Stone Forest and Yongsheng),...

  9. Water footprint characteristic of less developed water-rich regions: Case of Yunnan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yiying; Dong, Huijuan; Geng, Yong; Zhong, Shaozhuo; Tian, Xu; Yu, Yanhong; Chen, Yihui; Moss, Dana Avery

    2018-03-30

    Rapid industrialization and urbanization pose pressure on water resources in China. Virtual water trade proves to be an increasingly useful tool in water stress alleviation for water-scarce regions, while bringing opportunities and challenges for less developed water-rich regions. In this study, Yunnan, a typical province in southwest China, was selected as the case study area to explore its potential in socio-economic development in the context of water sustainability. Both input-output analysis and structural decomposition analysis on Yunnan's water footprint for the period of 2002-2012 were performed at not only an aggregated level but also a sectoral level. Results show that although the virtual water content of all economic sectors decreased due to technological progress, Yunnan's total water footprint still increased as a result of economic scale expansion. From the sectoral perspective, sectors with large water footprints include construction sector, agriculture sector, food manufacturing & processing sector, and service sector, while metal products sector and food manufacturing & processing sector were the major virtual water exporters, and textile & clothing sector and construction sector were the major importers. Based on local conditions, policy suggestions were proposed, including economic structure and efficiency optimization, technology promotion and appropriate virtual water trade scheme. This study provides valuable insights for regions facing "resource curse" by exploring potential socio-economic progress while ensuring water security. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Extreme Drought-induced Trend Changes in MODIS EVI Time Series in Yunnan, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Kaicheng; Zhou, Tao; Zhao, Xiang

    2014-01-01

    Extreme climatic events triggered by global climate change are expected to increase significantly hence research into vegetation response is crucial to evaluate environmental risk. Yunnan province, locating in southwest China, experienced an extreme drought event (from autumn of 2009 to spring of 2010), with the lowest percentage rainfall anomaly and the longest non-rain days in the past 50 years. This study aimed to explore the characteristics and differences in the response to drought of four land cover types in Yunnan province, including forest, grassland, shrub, and cropland during the period 2001-2011. We used remote sensing data, MODIS-derived EVI (Enhanced Vegetation Index) to study the vegetation responses to this extreme drought event. The EVI time series were decomposed into trend, seasonal and remainder components using BFAST (Breaks For Additive Seasonal and Trend) which accounts for seasonality and enables the detection of trend changes within the time series. The preliminary results showed that: (1) BFAST proved to be capable of detecting drought-induced trend changes in EVI time series. (2) Changes in the trend component over time consisted of both gradual and abrupt changes. (3) Different spatial patterns were found for abrupt and gradual changes. (4) Cropland exhibited an abrupt change, due to its sensitivity to severe drought, while the forest seemed least affected by the extreme drought

  11. Clay mineralogy indicates a mildly warm and humid living environment for the Miocene hominoid from the Zhaotong Basin, Yunnan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunxia; Guo, Zhengtang; Deng, Chenglong; Ji, Xueping; Wu, Haibin; Paterson, Greig A.; Chang, Lin; Li, Qin; Wu, Bailing; Zhu, Rixiang

    2016-01-01

    Global and regional environmental changes have influenced the evolutionary processes of hominoid primates, particularly during the Miocene. Recently, a new Lufengpithecus cf. lufengensis hominoid fossil with a late Miocene age of ~6.2 Ma was discovered in the Shuitangba (STB) section of the Zhaotong Basin in Yunnan on the southeast margin of the Tibetan Plateau. To understand the relationship between paleoclimate and hominoid evolution, we have studied sedimentary, clay mineralogy and geochemical proxies for the late Miocene STB section (~16 m thick; ca. 6.7–6.0 Ma). Our results show that Lufengpithecus cf. lufengensis lived in a mildly warm and humid climate in a lacustrine or swamp environment. Comparing mid to late Miocene records from hominoid sites in Yunnan, Siwalik in Pakistan, and tropical Africa we find that ecological shifts from forest to grassland in Siwalik are much later than in tropical Africa, consistent with the disappearance of hominoid fossils. However, no significant vegetation changes are found in Yunnan during the late Miocene, which we suggest is the result of uplift of the Tibetan plateau combined with the Asian monsoon geographically and climatically isolating these regions. The resultant warm and humid conditions in southeastern China offered an important refuge for Miocene hominoids. PMID:26829756

  12. Study on the Development of Yunnan Floral E-commerce

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yulan; KUANG; Qifang; LI; Wangyun; NING

    2013-01-01

    Cut flower production in Yunnan accounts for 80%nationwide.In order to expand the Yunnan Flower sales channels,the promotion of the development of e-commerce is necessary.In 2012 China’s online shopping users reached 247 million people,but e-commerce of fresh flowers lagged behind due to the constraints of preservation facilities and logistics cost.The analysis of the factors restricting the development of floral e-commerce and the proposition of solutions to this problem can promote faster development of Yunnan floral e-commerce.

  13. Skyscraper dams in Yunnan : China's new electricity generator should step in

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryder, G.

    2006-05-12

    The construction of a series of high-head hydroelectric power dams in China's earthquake-prone Yunnan province has raised concerns in China's scientific and environmental communities. The series of skyscraper-high dams are being built to meet Beijing's power production targets without the benefit of market discipline or effective regulatory oversight. Dam building is central to Beijing's plan for tripling the country's hydropower production by 2020. To meet that target, the State Council granted exclusive development rights to Hydrolancang, the Yunnan Huadian Nu River Hydropower Development Company and the Three Gorges Corporation. The Hydrolancang company is building 2 of the world's tallest and most controversial hydro dams on the Lancang River. When completed in 2012, Xiaowan will be the world's tallest arch dam at 292 metres high. Another dam, the 254 metre high Nuozhadu dam is expected to start generating power in 2017. In addition, there are plans for 13 other high dams along the Nu River, one of only 2 major rivers in China that remains free-flowing. This document expressed that China's new electricity regulator should initiate a full-cost review of state dam-building in the earthquake-prone province. It was argued that as state-owned power companies, the dam builders are not market-driven and are shielded from many of the financial risks and environmental liabilities associated with large dams. The author argued that China's electricity regulator should examine the dam builders' projects costs and profits and review the economic implications of the hydro policy for China's power consumers. It was also suggested that the country's modernization goals for the power industry should be reviewed. The immediate concerns are ecological damage and the frequency with which Yunnan province is hit by earthquakes, rock falls and landslides. Experts caution that the extra weight of the high dams and reservoirs

  14. Study on the Development of Yunnan Floral E-commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Kuang, Yulan; Li, Qifang; Ning, Wangyun

    2013-01-01

    Cut flower production in Yunnan accounts for 80% nationwide. In order to expand the Yunnan Flower sales channels, the promotion of the development of e-commerce is necessary. In 2012 China's online shopping users reached 247 million people, but e-commerce of fresh flowers lagged behind due to the constraints of preservation facilities and logistics cost. The analysis of the factors restricting the development of floral e-commerce and the proposition of solutions to this problem can promote fa...

  15. Bacterial and archaeal diversities in Yunnan and Tibetan hot springs, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhao-Qi; Wang, Feng-Ping; Zhi, Xiao-Yang; Chen, Jin-Quan; Zhou, En-Min; Liang, Feng; Xiao, Xiang; Tang, Shu-Kun; Jiang, Hong-Chen; Zhang, Chuanlun L; Dong, Hailiang; Li, Wen-Jun

    2013-04-01

    Thousands of hot springs are located in the north-eastern part of the Yunnan-Tibet geothermal zone, which is one of the most active geothermal areas in the world. However, a comprehensive and detailed understanding of microbial diversity in these hot springs is still lacking. In this study, bacterial and archaeal diversities were investigated in 16 hot springs (pH 3.2-8.6; temperature 47-96°C) in Yunnan Province and Tibet, China by using a barcoded 16S rRNA gene-pyrosequencing approach. Aquificae, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Deinococcus-Thermus and Bacteroidetes comprised the large portion of the bacterial communities in acidic hot springs. Non-acidic hot springs harboured more and variable bacterial phyla than acidic springs. Desulfurococcales and unclassified Crenarchaeota were the dominated groups in archaeal populations from most of the non-acidic hot springs; whereas, the archaeal community structure in acidic hot springs was simpler and characterized by Sulfolobales and Thermoplasmata. The phylogenetic analyses showed that Aquificae and Crenarchaeota were predominant in the investigated springs and possessed many phylogenetic lineages that have never been detected in other hot springs in the world. Thus findings from this study significantly improve our understanding of microbial diversity in terrestrial hot springs. © 2012 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Coexistence and Competition between Tomicus yunnanensis and T. minor (Coleoptera: Scolytinae in Yunnan Pine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Chun Lu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Competition and cooperation between bark beetles, Tomicus yunnanensis Kirkendall and Faccoli and Tomicus minor (Hartig (Coleoptera: Scolytinae were examined when they coexisted together in living Yunnan pine trees (Pinus yunnanensis Franchet in Yunnan province in Southwest China. T. yunnanensis bark beetles were observed to initiate dispersal from pine shoots to trunks in November, while the majority of T. minor begins to transfer in December. T. yunnanensis mainly attacks the top and middle parts of the trunk, whereas T. minor mainly resides in the lower and middle parts of the trunk. The patterns of attack densities of these two species were similar, but with T. yunnanensis colonizing the upper section of the trunk and T. minor the lower trunk. The highest attack density of T. Yunnanensis was 297 egg galleries/m2, and the highest attack density of T. minor was 305 egg galleries/m2. Although there was significant overlap for the same bark areas, the two species generally colonize different areas of the tree, which reduces the intensity of competition for the relatively thin layer of phloem-cambium tissues where the beetles feed and reside.

  17. Characterization of alphasatellites associated with monopartite begomovirus/betasatellite complexes in Yunnan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gong Huanran

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alphasatellites are single-stranded molecules that are associated with monopartite begomovirus/betasatellite complexes. Results Alphasatellites were identified in begomovirus-infected plant samples in Yunnan, China. All samples that contained alphasatellites also contained betasatellites, but only some samples that contained betasatellites contained alphasatellites. Thirty-three alphasatellites were sequenced, and they ranged from 1360 to 1376 nucleotides. All alphasatellites contain 3 conserved features: a single open reading frame (Rep, a conserved hairpin structure, and an adenine-rich (A-rich region. On the basis of the phylogenetic tree of the complete nucleotide sequences, the alphasatellites were divided into 3 types with one exception. Type 1 was associated with Tomato yellow leaf curl China virus (TYLCCNV/Tomato yellow leaf curl China betasatellite (TYLCCNB complex. Type 2 was associated with Tobacco curly shoot virus (TbCSV/Tobacco curly shoot betasatellite (TbCSB complex. Type 3 was associated with TbCSV/Ageratum yellow vein betasatellite (AYVB complex. Within each type, nucleotide sequence identity ranged from 83.4 to 99.7%, while 63.4-81.3% identity was found between types. Mixed infections of alphasatellites associated with begomovirus/betasatellite complexes were documented. Conclusions Our results validate that alphasatellites are only associated with begomovirus/betasatellite complexes. Thirty-three sequenced alphasatellites isolated from Yunnan Province, China were divided into 3 types--each associated with a specific begomovirus/betasatellite complex. Mix-infections of alphasatellite molecules may not be unusual.

  18. The changing HIV-1 genetic characteristics and transmitted drug resistance among recently infected population in Yunnan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M; Jia, M H; Ma, Y L; Luo, H B; Chen, H C; Yang, C J; Dai, J; Yang, L; Dong, L J; Lu, R; Song, L J; Han, Y; Lu, J Y; Cheung, A K L; Chen, Z W; Lu, L

    2018-04-01

    Multiple human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 genotypes in China were first discovered in Yunnan Province before disseminating throughout the country. As the HIV-1 epidemic continues to expand in Yunnan, genetic characteristics and transmitted drug resistance (TDR) should be further investigated among the recently infected population. Among 2828 HIV-positive samples newly reported in the first quarter of 2014, 347 were identified as recent infections with BED-captured enzyme immunoassay (CEIA). Of them, 291 were successfully genotyped and identified as circulating recombinant form (CRF)08_BC (47.4%), unique recombinant forms (URFs) (18.2%), CRF01_AE (15.8%), CRF07_BC (14.4%), subtype C (2.7%), CRF55_01B (0.7%), subtype B (0.3%) and CRF64_BC (0.3%). CRF08_BC and CRF01_AE were the predominant genotypes among heterosexual and homosexual infections, respectively. CRF08_BC, URFs, CRF01_AE and CRF07_BC expanded with higher prevalence in central and eastern Yunnan. The recent common ancestor of CRF01_AE, CRF07_BC and CRF08_BC dated back to 1983.1, 1992.1 and 1989.5, respectively. The effective population sizes (EPS) for CRF01_AE and CRF07_BC increased exponentially during 1991-1999 and 1994-1999, respectively. The EPS for CRF08_BC underwent two exponential growth phases in 1994-1998 and 2001-2002. Lastly, TDR-associated mutations were identified in 1.8% of individuals. These findings not only enhance our understanding of HIV-1 evolution in Yunnan but also have implications for vaccine design and patient management strategies.

  19. Phylogenetic analysis of several Thermus strains from Rehai of Tengchong, Yunnan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lianbing; Zhang, Jie; Wei, Yunlin; Chen, Chaoyin; Peng, Qian

    2005-10-01

    Several Thermus strains were isolated from 10 hot springs of the Rehai geothermal area in Tengchong, Yunnan province. The diversity of Thermus strains was examined by sequencing the 16S rRNA genes and comparing their sequences. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the 16S rDNA sequences from the Rehai geothermal isolates form four branches in the phylogenetic tree and had greater than 95.9% similarity in the phylogroup. Secondary structure comparison also indicated that the 16S rRNA from the Rehai geothermal isolates have unique secondary structure characteristics in helix 6, helix 9, and helix 10 (reference to Escherichia coli). This research is the first attempt to reveal the diversity of Thermus strains that are distributed in the Rehai geothermal area.

  20. Analyzing the present Yunnan provincial condition and countermeasure of radioactive environmental management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jianping; Sun Ye; Zhou Liqiang

    2005-01-01

    Being aware of the present Yunnan provincial realities of the nuclear technology application, the present supervision conditions on nuclear safety and radioactive environment are analysed. Some suggestions, such as constituting Yunnan supervision structure of radioactive environment, demonstrating radiation supervisions in critical regions, and speeding up the system development of Yunnan provincial supervision on radiation environment, are brought out to the details. (authors)

  1. Crustal deformation mechanism in southeastern Tibetan Plateau: Insights from numerical modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.; Liu, S.; Chen, L.

    2017-12-01

    The Indo-Asian collision developed the complicated crustal deformation around the southeastern Tibetan plateau. Numerous models have proposed to explain the crustal deformation, but the mechanism remains controversial, especially the increasing multi-geophysics data, which demonstrate the existence of lower velocity, lower resistivity and high conductivity, implying that lower crustal flow is responsible for the crustal deformation, arguing for the lower crust flow model. To address the relations between the crust flow and the surface deformation, we employ a three-dimensional viscoelastic finite model to investigate the possible influence on the surface deformation, and discuss the stress field distribution under the model. Our preliminary results suggest that lower crustal flow plays an important role in crustal deformation in southeastern Tibetan plateau. The best fitting is achieved when the flow velocity of the lower crust is approximately 10-11 mm/a faster than that of the upper crust. Crustal rheological properties affect regional crustal deformation, when the viscosity of the middle and lower crust in the South China block reaches 1022 and 1023 Pa.s, respectively; the predicted match observations well, especially for the magnitude within the South China block. The maximum principal stress field exhibits clear zoning, gradually shifting from an approximately east-west orientation in the northern Bayan Har block to southeast in the South China block, southwest in the western Yunnan block, and a radially divergent distribution in the Middle Yunnan and Southern Yunnan blocks.

  2. Ethnic and geographic variations in HPV prevalence and genotype distribution in north-western Yunnan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baloch, Zulqarnain; Yuan, Tao; Wang, Binghui; Tai, Wenlin; Feng, Yue; Liu, Yanqing; Li, Xiao; Feng, Yue; Liu, Li; Zhang, A-mei; Wu, Xiaomei; Xia, Xueshan

    2016-03-01

    The prevalence and genotype distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) vary throughout the world. To assess the prevalence and genotype distribution of HPV among three ethnic groups in two geographic locations in north-western Yunnan, we recruited 522 women in Shangri-le (n = 255) and Lijiang (n = 267). PCR amplification of HPV DNA was performed on cervical cells from these women using two consensus primer systems (MY09/11 and GP5/6). Amplified-HPV DNA was genotyped using the HPV GenoArray test. Geographically, the HPV prevalence was significantly higher (P = 0.002) among Shangri-le women than among Lijiang women. Infections with high-risk (HR)-HPV and with multiple HPV genotypes were also significantly more common (P = 0.001) among women in Shangri-le than women in Lijiang. Additionally, the prevalence of overall, HR-HPV, and single genotype HPV infections was significantly higher (P = 0.001) among Tibetan women than among Naxi and Han women. HPV-16 and HPV-33 were significantly more frequent in Shangri-le women compared with Lijiang (P = 0.006) women. In addition, HPV-16 (9.81%) and HPV-33 (5.88%) were significantly more prevalent in Tibetan women than in Naxi and Han women. Here, for the first time, we highlight the significant variation in the prevalence and genotype distribution of HPV in various populations in the north-western region of Yunnan Province. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Women's health, equality and empowerment in tobacco farming - findings from two counties in Yunnan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weilin Jie

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Research takes place in Yunnan, the most important tobacco producing province in China, to gather empirical evidence of women´s role in tobacco farming. Methods Research adopts mixed methods. Quantitative data was collected with structured questionnaire while qualitative data was obtained through individual interviews and focus group discussions. Participatory research method was employed as well in order to better understand the workload of women. Due to sensitivity of tobacco control in Yunnan, respondents had to be reached through personal contacts. Thus a convenience sampling method was used. The information was collected from a sample of 436 female tobacco farmers in two counties in October - November 2015. Results Women spend 50% of working hours on tobacco farming. In tobacco farming season, women work 16+ hours a day and on average they spend 2-3 hours more than their husbands on tobacco farming. 50.1% of respondents had to hire temporary help and 58.0% had to exchange labour (without pay with neighbours / relatives for tobacco farming. 62.4% of respondents borrowed money for tobacco farming. The average income from tobacco farming is US$1,490, accounting for about 26-35% of the household income. Respondents experienced discomforts while growing and picking tobacco leaf, but did not associate these discomforts with tobacco farming. 50.5% of respondents were not aware of negative health effect of tobacco farming. There is no mechanism or entity representing tobacco farmers to bargain with the tobacco corporation. Instead, farmers lost autonomy over farming activity under the pressure of both government and tobacco corporation. Women are even more vulnerable because they rarely participate in decision making at community and above levels although they have significant power over family finance and household farming activity.. Conclusions Being at the bottom of exploitation chain, women lack awarness, knowledge, resource and

  4. SHRIMP zircon U–Pb ages from coal beds across the Permian–Triassic boundary, eastern Yunnan, southwestern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Wang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The first SHRIMP zircon U–Pb ages from coal beds close to the end-Permian mass extinction are reported from the C1 coal seam in the Yantang Mine in Laibin Town, Xuanwei County, eastern Yunnan Province. Zircons were extracted from kaolinite claystone layers, defined as tonsteins (volcanic ash deposits, in the sub-seam B1 and B3 of the coal seam C1. The U–Pb ages are 252.0 ± 2.3 Ma and 250.3 ± 2.1 Ma for the sub-seam B1 and B3, respectively. Within analytical uncertainties, these U–Pb ages include the time period of the onset of the mass extinction at 251.941 ± 0.037 Ma, which was obtained from the marine Meishan section in Zhejiang Province, ∼1600 km away from the Yantang Mine. These new ages represent not only the first and closest ages to the PTB mass extinction in terrestrial coal beds, but also ages from the nearest site to the Emeishan volcanoes investigated so far. Therefore these new data provide the most accurate stratigraphic horizon of terrestrial facies of the end-Permian extinction in South China. The Emeishan volcanoes were likely the source of volcanic ash in the coal seams at the Xuanwei County and broader areas in South China. Furthermore, the minerals and geochemistry characteristics of the C1 coal seam also implied the influences of contemporaneous volcanic activities. Keywords: PTB mass extinction, C1 coal seam, SHRIMP U–Pb isotope age, Xuanwei County, Yunnan Province

  5. Study on 3-D velocity structure of crust and upper mantle in Sichuan-yunnan region, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C.; Mooney, W.D.; Wang, X.; Wu, J.; Lou, H.; Wang, F.

    2002-01-01

    Based on the first arrival P and S data of 4 625 regional earthquakes recorded at 174 stations dispersed in the Yunnan and Sichuan Provinces, the 3-D velocity structure of crust and upper mantle in the region is determined, incorporating with previous deep geophysical data. In the upper crust, a positive anomaly velocity zone exists in the Sichuan basin, whereas a negative anomaly velocity zone exists in the western Sichuan plateau. The boundary between the positive and negative anomaly zones is the Longmenshan fault zone. The images of lower crust and upper mantle in the Longmenshan fault, Xianshuihe fault, Honghe fault and others appear the characteristic of tectonic boundary, indicating that the faults litely penetrate the Moho discontinuity. The negative velocity anomalies at the depth of 50 km in the Tengchong volcanic area and the Panxi tectonic zone appear to be associated with the temperature and composition variations in the upper mantle. The overall features of the crustal and the upper mantle structures in the Sichuan-Yunnan region are the lower average velocity in both crust and uppermost mantle, the large crustal thickness variations, and the existence of high conductivity layer in the crust or/and upper mantle, and higher geothermal value. All these features are closely related to the collision between the Indian and the Asian plates. The crustal velocity in the Sichuan-Yunnan rhombic block generally shows normal.value or positive anomaly, while the negative anomaly exists in the area along the large strike-slip faults as the block boundary. It is conducive to the crustal block side-pressing out along the faults. In the major seismic zones, the seismicity is relative to the negative anomaly velocity. Most strong earthquakes occurred in the upper-mid crust with positive anomaly or normal velocity, where the negative anomaly zone generally exists below.

  6. Fission track dating of authigenic quartz in red weathering crusts of carbonate rocks in Guizhou province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiuming; Wang Shijie; Zhang Feng

    2004-01-01

    The Cenozoic evolution history of Guizhou Province, which is located on the southeastern flank of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, is unclear because of the lack of sedimentation records. The red weathering crusts widespread on the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau may bear critical information about their evolution history. This work firstly determined the ages of four red weathering crusts in eastern, central and northern Guizhou. The material used in fission track dating is well-crystallized quartz occurring in many in-situ weathering crusts of carbonate rocks. The results showed that the fission track ages of quartz vary over a wide range from 1 Ma to 25 Ma in the four profiles, significantly younger than the ages of Triassic and Cambrian parent rocks. In combination with the regionally geological evolution history during the period from 25 Ma to 1 Ma, the ages of quartz can exclude the possibility that the origin of quartz has nothing to do with primary clastic minerals in parent rocks, authigenesis during diagenesis and hydrothermal precipitation or replacement by volcanic activities. It is deduced that the well-crystallized quartz was precipitated from Si-rich weathering fluids during weathering processes of carbonate rocks. The recorded ages of quartz from the four profiles are consistent with the episodes of planation surfaces on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, the stages of red soil in the tropics of South China, the tectonically stable periods in Guizhou, and the ages of weathering in other parts of the world during the Cenozoic era. That is to say, the ages of authigenic quartz dated by the fission track method are well feasible and credible. (authors)

  7. Seedling Resistance to Stem Rust and Molecular Marker Analysis of Resistance Genes in Wheat Cultivars of Yunnan, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Ya Li

    Full Text Available Stem rust is one of the most potentially harmful wheat diseases, but has been effectively controlled in China since 1970s. However, the interest in breeding wheat with durable resistance to stem rust has been renewed with the emergence of Ug99 (TTKSK virulent to the widely used resistance gene Sr31, and by which the wheat stem rust was controlled for 40 years in wheat production area worldwide. Yunnan Province, located on the Southwest border of China, is one of the main wheat growing regions, playing a pivotal role in the wheat stem rust epidemic in China. This study investigated the levels of resistance in key wheat cultivars (lines of Yunnan Province. In addition, the existence of Sr25, Sr26, Sr28, Sr31, Sr32, and Sr38 genes in 119 wheat cultivars was assessed using specific DNA markers. The results indicated that 77 (64.7% tested wheat varieties showed different levels of resistance to all the tested races of Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici. Using molecular markers, we identified the resistance gene Sr31 in 43 samples; Sr38 in 10 samples; Sr28 in 12 samples, and one sample which was resistant against Ug99 (avirulent to Sr32. No Sr25 or Sr26 (effective against Ug99 was identified in any cultivars tested. Furthermore, 5 out of 119 cultivars tested carried both Sr31 and Sr38 and eight contained both Sr31 and Sr28. The results enable the development of appropriate strategies to breed varieties resistant to stem rust.

  8. Earthquake precursors: spatial-temporal gravity changes before the great earthquakes in the Sichuan-Yunnan area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yi-Qing; Liang, Wei-Feng; Zhang, Song

    2018-01-01

    Using multiple-scale mobile gravity data in the Sichuan-Yunnan area, we systematically analyzed the relationships between spatial-temporal gravity changes and the 2014 Ludian, Yunnan Province Ms6.5 earthquake and the 2014 Kangding Ms6.3, 2013 Lushan Ms7.0, and 2008 Wenchuan Ms8.0 earthquakes in Sichuan Province. Our main results are as follows. (1) Before the occurrence of large earthquakes, gravity anomalies occur in a large area around the epicenters. The directions of gravity change gradient belts usually agree roughly with the directions of the main fault zones of the study area. Such gravity changes might reflect the increase of crustal stress, as well as the significant active tectonic movements and surface deformations along fault zones, during the period of gestation of great earthquakes. (2) Continuous significant changes of the multiple-scale gravity fields, as well as greater gravity changes with larger time scales, can be regarded as medium-range precursors of large earthquakes. The subsequent large earthquakes always occur in the area where the gravity changes greatly. (3) The spatial-temporal gravity changes are very useful in determining the epicenter of coming large earthquakes. The large gravity networks are useful to determine the general areas of coming large earthquakes. However, the local gravity networks with high spatial-temporal resolution are suitable for determining the location of epicenters. Therefore, denser gravity observation networks are necessary for better forecasts of the epicenters of large earthquakes. (4) Using gravity changes from mobile observation data, we made medium-range forecasts of the Kangding, Ludian, Lushan, and Wenchuan earthquakes, with especially successful forecasts of the location of their epicenters. Based on the above discussions, we emphasize that medium-/long-term potential for large earthquakes might exist nowadays in some areas with significant gravity anomalies in the study region. Thus, the monitoring

  9. The Phylogeography and Population Demography of the Yunnan Caecilian (Ichthyophis bannanicus: Massive Rivers as Barriers to Gene Flow.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Wang

    Full Text Available Ichthyophis bannanicus is the only caecilian species in China. In this study, the phylogeography and population demography of I. bannanicus were explored, based on the mitochondrial DNA genes (cyt b and ND2 and 15 polymorphic microsatellite loci. Altogether 158 individuals were collected from five populations in Yunnan province, Guangxi province, Guangdong province, and Northern Vietnam. Phylogeographical and population structure analysis identified either two groups (Xishuangbanna, Northern Vietnam-Yulin-Yangchun-Deqing or three groups (Xishuangbanna, Northern Vietnam-Yulin-Yangchun, and Deqing, indicating that the Red River and Pearl River systems may have acted as gene-flow barriers for I. bannanicus. Historical population expansion that happened 15-17 Ka ago was detected for mtDNA data and was possibly triggered by warmer weather after the Last Glacial Maximum. However, the Bayesian simulations of population history based on microsatellite data pinpointed population decline in all populations since 19,123 to 1,029 years ago, demonstrating a significant influence of anthropogenic habitat alteration on I. bannanicus.

  10. SIMILARITY COMPARISON AND CLASSIFICATION OF SUCKING LOUSE COMMUNITIES ON SOME SMALL MAMMALS IN YUNNAN, CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xian-guoGuo; Ti-junQian; Li-junGuo; Wen-geDong

    2004-01-01

    The similarity and classification of sucking louse communities on 24 species of small mammals were studied in Yunnan Province, China, through a hierarchical cluster analysis. All the louse species on the body surface of a certain species of small mammals are regarded as a louse community unit. The results reveal that the community structure of sucking lice on small mammals is simple with low species diversity. Most small mammals usually have certain louse species on their body surface; there exists a high degree of host specificity. Most louse communities on the same genus of small mammals show a high similarity and are classified into the same group based on hierarchical cluster analysis. When the hosts have a close affinity in taxonomy, the louse communities on their body surface would tend to be similar with the same or similar dominant louse species (as observed in genus Rattus, Niviventer, Apodemus and Eothenomys). The similarity of sucking louse communities is highly consistent with the affinity of small mammal hosts in taxonomy. The results suggest a close relationship of co-evolution between sucking lice and their hosts.

  11. SPECIES DIVERSITY AND COMMUNITY STRUCTURE OF SUCKING LICE IN YUNNAN, CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xian-guoGuo; Ti-junQian; Li-junGuo; JingWang; Wen-geDong; LiZhang; Zhi-minMa; andWeiLi

    2004-01-01

    On the basis of investigating 9 counties (towns) in Yunnan Province of China, the species diversity and community structure of sucking lice on the body surface of small mammal hosts are studied in the paper. Species richness (S) is used to stand for the species diversity. The calculation of community diversity index and evenness are based on Shannon-Wiener's method. 2745 small mammals captured from the investigated sites belong to 10 families, 25 genera and 41 species in 5 orders (Rodentia, Insectivora, Scandentia, Logomorpha and Carnivora) while 18165 individuals of sucking lice collected from the body surface of the small mammal hosts are identified into 4 families, 6 genera and 22 species. The species of sucking lice are much less than the species of their hosts. Most species of small mammals have their fixed sucking lice on their body surface. One species of small mammals usually have few species of sucking lice (1 to 4 species). The close species of the hosts in the taxonomy are found to have the same or similar dominant species of sucking lice on their body surface. The results reveal that the species diversity of sucking lice on small mammals is very low with a very simple community structure. The results also imply there may be a close co-evolution relationship between the lice and the hosts.

  12. Crustal structure in Tengchong Volcano-Geothermal Area, western Yunnan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chun-Yong; Huangfu, Gang

    2004-02-01

    Based upon the deep seismic sounding profiles carried out in the Tengchong Volcano-Geothermal Area (TVGA), western Yunnan Province of China, a 2-D crustal P velocity structure is obtained by use of finite-difference inversion and forward travel-time fitting method. The crustal model shows that a low-velocity anomaly zone exists in the upper crust, which is related to geothermal activity. Two faults, the Longling-Ruili Fault and Tengchong Fault, on the profile extend from surface to the lower crust and the Tengchong Fault likely penetrates the Moho. Moreover, based on teleseismic receiver functions on a temporary seismic network, S-wave velocity structures beneath the geothermal field show low S-wave velocity in the upper crust. From results of geophysical survey, the crust of TVGA is characterized by low P-wave and S-wave velocities, low resistivity, high heat-flow value and low Q. The upper mantle P-wave velocity is also low. This suggests presence of magma in the crust derived from the upper mantle. The low-velocity anomaly in upper crust may be related to the magma differentiation. The Tengchong volcanic area is located on the northeast edge of the Indian-Eurasian plate collision zone, away from the eastern boundary of the Indian plate by about 450 km. Based on the results of this paper and related studies, the Tengchong volcanoes can be classified as plate boundary volcanoes.

  13. Characteristics of Type 2 Diabetes with Ketosis in Baoshan, Yunnan of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Shichun; Yang, Xia; Shi, Degang; Su, Qing

    2016-01-01

    The study provided data to demonstrate the characteristics of type 2 diabetes (T2D) with ketosis in rural parts of south-west border of China in order to help health professionals with optimizing diabetic care. All hospitalized adult diabetic patients consecutively between January 2011 and July 2015 in Baoshan People's Hospital, Yunnan province of China, were evaluated. T2D with ketosis, ordinary T2D (without ketosis), and type 1 diabetes (T1D) patients were analyzed according to the clinical and biochemical parameters and chronic complications in these subjects. The prevalence of T2D with ketosis was 12% in the whole study subjects. Overweight and obese patients were predominant (49.1%) in T2D patients with ketosis. The mean HbA1c (13.3 ± 3.1%, P = 0.01), fasting plasma glucose (16.9 ± 6 mmol/L, P ketosis were significantly higher than ordinary T2D patients without ketosis. Infections were the most common inducements in T2D patients with ketosis. Chronic complications including peripheral neuropathy (34.9%), retinopathy (12.7%), diabetic foot (18.1%), and persistent microalbuminuria (11.7%) were common in T2D patients with ketosis. . This study indicated the poor glycemic control in diabetic patients in rural areas of south-west part of China. More efforts were urgently required to popularize public health education and improve medical quality in diabetic treatment in these regions.

  14. Analysis of Characteristics of Ore about Iron Deposit of Da Hong Mountain in Yun Nan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yuefeng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This thesis aims to analyse the deposit characteristics about Da Hong Mountains Iron ore in Yunnan province. The texture and structure, especially the chemical composition, is different in every section of deposit after comparing. Moreover, the content of SiO2 is much higher than general iron ore. However, the content of other noble metals cannot reach the lowest industrial grade. Da Hong Mountains Iron ore has unique features because of metallogenic periods.

  15. Fire frequency effects on fuel loadings in pine-oak forests of the Madrean Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco J. Escobedo; Peter F. Ffolliott; Gerald J. Gottfried; Florentino Garza

    2001-01-01

    Loadings of downed woody fuels in pine-oak forests of the Madrean Province are heavier on sites in southeastern Arizona with low fire frequencies and lower on sites in northeastern Sonora, Mexico, with high fire frequencies. Low fire frequencies in southeastern Arizona are attributed largely to past land uses and the fire suppression policies of land management...

  16. Subjective Well-Being among Those Who Exchange Sex and Money, Yunnan, China and Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk-Turner, Elizabeth; Turner, Charlie

    2010-01-01

    This work explores differences in subjective well-being (SWB) between two samples. Survey data from Yunnan China was collected by Yang and Luo in 2003 and was funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse. A second pilot data set was collected in Thailand during January and February 2007. Predictors of SWB were explored among the Yunnan sample as…

  17. A new species of poison-dart frog (Anura: Dendrobatidae) from Manu province, Amazon region of southeastern Peru, with notes on its natural history, bioacoustics, phylogenetics, and recommended conservation status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Rojas, Shirley J; Whitworth, Andrew; Villacampa, Jaime; May, Rudolf VON; Gutiérrez, Roberto C; Padial, José M; Chaparro, Juan C

    2017-01-16

    We describe and name a new species of poison-dart frog from the Amazonian slopes of the Andes in Manu Province, Madre de Dios Department, Peru; specifically within the Amarakaeri Communal Reserve and the buffer zone of Manu National Park. Ameerega shihuemoy sp. nov. is supported by a unique combination of characters: black dorsum with cream to light orange dorsolateral lines, blue belly reticulated with black, and the lack of axillary, thigh and calf flash marks. Within Ameerega, it shares the general appearance of A. altamazonica, A. boliviana, A. hahneli, A. ignipedis, A. petersi, A. picta, A. pongoensis, A. pulchripecta, A. simulans, A. smaragdina, and A. yungicola; each possessing a granular black to brown dorsum, a light labial bar, a conspicuous dorsolateral line running from the snout to the groin, and a metallic blue belly and underside of arms and hind limbs. From most of these species it can be distinguished by lacking flash marks on the axillae, thighs, and calves (absent in only A. boliviana and A. smaragdina, most A. petersi, and some A. pongoensis), by having bright cream to orange dorsolateral stripes (white, intense yellow, or green in all other species, with the exception of A. picta), and by its blue belly reticulated with black (bluish white and black in A. boliviana, green and blue with black marbling in A. petersi, and green and blue lacking black marbling in A. smaragdina). Its mating call also shows clear differences to morphologically similar species, with a lower note repetition rate, longer space between calls, and higher fundamental and dominant frequencies. Phylogenetic analyses based on the 16S mitochondrial rRNA fragment also support the distinctiveness of the new species and suggest that A. shihuemoy is most closely related to Ameerega macero, A. altamazonica, A. rubriventris, and two undescribed species (Ameerega sp. from Porto Walter, Acre, Brazil, and Ameerega sp. from Ivochote, Cusco, Peru). Genetically, the new species is most

  18. Multiple Introduction and Naturally Occuring Drug Resistance of HCV among HIV-Infected Intravenous Drug Users in Yunnan: An Origin of China's HIV/HCV Epidemics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Chen

    Full Text Available The human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1 epidemic in China historically stemmed from intravenous drug users (IDUs in Yunnan. Due to a shared transmission route, hepatitis C virus (HCV/HIV-1 co-infection is common. Here, we investigated HCV genetic characteristics and baseline drug resistance among HIV-infected IDUs in Yunnan.Blood samples of 432 HIV-1/HCV co-infected IDUs were collected from January to June 2014 in six prefectures of Yunnan Province. Partial E1E2 and NS5B genes were sequenced. Phylogenetic, evolutionary and genotypic drug resistance analyses were performed.Among the 293 specimens successfully genotyped, seven subtypes were identified, including subtypes 3b (37.9%, 111/293, 3a (21.8%, 64/293, 6n (14.0%, 41/293, 1b (10.6%, 31/293, 1a (8.2%, 24/293, 6a (5.1%, 15/293 and 6u (2.4%, 7/293. The distribution of HCV subtypes was mostly related to geographic location. Subtypes 3b, 3a, and 6n were detected in all six prefectures, however, the other four subtypes were detected only in parts of the six prefectures. Phylogeographic analyses indicated that 6n, 1a and 6u originated in the western prefecture (Dehong and spread eastward and showed genetic relatedness with those detected in Burmese. However, 6a originated in the southeast prefectures (Honghe and Wenshan bordering Vietnam and was transmitted westward. These subtypes exhibited different evolutionary rates (between 4.35×10-4 and 2.38×10-3 substitutions site-1 year-1 and times of most recent common ancestor (tMRCA, between 1790.3 and 1994.6, suggesting that HCV was multiply introduced into Yunnan. Naturally occurring resistance-associated mutations (C316N, A421V, C445F, I482L, V494A, and V499A to NS5B polymerase inhibitors were detected in direct-acting antivirals (DAAs-naïve IDUs.This work reveals the temporal-spatial distribution of HCV subtypes and baseline HCV drug resistance among HIV-infected IDUs in Yunnan. The findings enhance our understanding of the characteristics and

  19. Ethnoveterinary plant remedies used by Nu people in NW Yunnan of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Shicai

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nu people are the least populous ethnic group in Yunnan Province of China and most are distributed in Gongshan County, NW Yunnan. Animal production plays an important role in Nu livelihoods and the Nu people have abundant traditional knowledge of animal management and ethnoveterinary practices. This study documents the animal diseases, ethnoveterinary plant remedies and related traditional knowledge in three Nu villages of Gongshan County. Methods This study was carried out in three Nu villages of Gongshan County between July 2009 and February 2010. Data was obtained through the use of semi-structured questionnaires, field observation and PRA tools. A total of 60 Nu respondents (34 men and 26 women provided information on animal ailments and ethnoveterinary plant medicines used for Nu livestock production. Information on traditional ethnoveterinary medicine knowledge and choice of treatment providers was also obtained. Results Thirty-five animal conditions were identified in the surveyed area. The major and most common animal diseases among livestock were skin conditions, diarrhea, heat, fevers, colds, and parasites. Most ailments occurred between June and August. The ethnoveterinary medicinal use of 45 plant species was documented. Most medicinal species (86.7% were collected from the wild. The most frequently used plant parts were whole plants (35.6%, followed by roots (22.2%. The most important medicinal plant species were Saussurea costus (Falc. Lipech. (UV = 0.67, Senecio scandens Buch.-Ham.ex D.Don (UV = 0.67, Plantago depressa Willd. (UV = 0.63, Rubus corchorifolius L. f. (UV = 0.62, Bupleurum yunnanense Franch. (UV = 0.60, and Polygonum paleaceum Wall. (UV = 0.60. Animal diseases treated with the highest number of ethnoveterinary plant remedies were diarrhea (16 plant species, heat, fever, colds (11 plant species, retained afterbirth (11 plant species, and skin conditions and sores (11 plant species. Many Nu villagers

  20. [Study on the vibrational spectra and XRD characters of Huanglong jade from Longling County, Yunnan Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Jing-cheng; Fan, Lu-wei; Xie, Hao

    2014-12-01

    Based on the conventional test methods, the infrared absorption spectrum, Raman spectrum and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were employed to study the characters of the vibration spectrum and mineral composition of Huanglong jade. The testing results show that Huanglong jade shows typical vibrational spectrum characteristics of quartziferous jade. The main infrared absorption bands at 1162, 1076, 800, 779, 691, 530 and 466 cm(-1) were induced by the asymmetric stretching vibration, symmetrical stretching vibration and bending vibration of Si-O-Si separately. Especially the absorption band near 800 cm(-1) is split, which indicates that Huanglong jade has good crystallinity. In Raman spectrum, the main strong vibration bands at 463 and 355 cm(-1) were attributed to bending vibration of Si-O-Si. XRD test confirmed that Quartz is main mineral composition of Huanglong jade and there is a small amount of hematite in red color samples which induced the red color of Huanglong jade. This is the first report on the infrared, Raman and XRD spectra feature of Huanglong jade. It will provide a scientific basis for the identification, naming and other research for huanglong jade.

  1. Effect of soil-rock system on speleothems weathering in Bailong Cave, Yunnan Province, China*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Song, Lin-hua

    2005-01-01

    Bailong Cave with its well-developed Middle Triassic calcareous dolomite’s system was opened as a show cave for visitors in 1988. The speleothem scenery has been strongly weathered as white powder on the outer layers. Study of the cave winds, permeability of soil-rock system and the chemical compositions of the dripping water indicated: (1) The cave dimension structure distinctively affects the cave winds, which were stronger at narrow places. (2) Based on the different soil grain size distribution, clay was the highest in composition in the soil. The response sense of dripping water to the rainwater percolation was slow. The density of joints and other openings in dolomite make the dolomite as mesh seepage body forming piles of thin and high columns and stalactites. (3) Study of 9 dripping water samples by HYDROWIN computer program showed that the major mineral in the water was dolomite. PMID:15682505

  2. Receptivity to malaria in the China-Myanmar border in Yingjiang County, Yunnan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tianmu; Zhang, Shaosen; Zhou, Shui-Sen; Wang, Xuezhong; Luo, Chunhai; Zeng, Xucan; Guo, Xiangrui; Lin, Zurui; Tu, Hong; Sun, Xiaodong; Zhou, Hongning

    2017-11-21

    The re-establishment of malaria has become an important public health issue in and out of China, and receptivity to this disease is key to its re-emergence. Yingjiang is one of the few counties with locally acquired malaria cases in the China-Myanmar border in China. This study aimed to understand receptivity to malaria in Yingjiang County, China, from June to October 2016. Light-traps were employed to capture the mosquitoes in 17 villages in eight towns which were categorized into four elevation levels: level 1, 0-599 m; level 2, 600-1199 m; level 3, 1200-1799 m; and level 4, > 1800 m. Species richness, diversity, dominance and evenness were used to picture the community structure. Similarity in species composition was compared between different elevation levels. Data of seasonal abundance of mosquitoes, human biting rate, density of light-trap-captured adult mosquitoes and larvae, parous rate, and height distribution (density) of Anopheles minimus and Anopheles sinensis were collected in two towns (Na Bang and Ping Yuan) each month from June to October, 2016. Over the study period, 10,053 Anopheles mosquitoes were collected from the eight towns, and 15 Anopheles species were identified, the most-common of which were An. sinensis (75.4%), Anopheles kunmingensis (15.6%), and An. minimus (3.5%). Anopheles minimus was the major malaria vector in low-elevation areas (malaria in the China-Myanmar border in Yingjiang County.

  3. Research on Remote Sensing recognition features of Yuan Yang Terraces in Yunnan Province (China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Jie; Chen, Jianping; Lai, ZiLi; Yang, Wei

    2016-04-01

    Yuan Yang terraces is one of the most famous terraces in China, and it was successfully listed in the world heritage list at the 37th world heritage convention. On the one hand, Yuan Yang terraces retain more soil and water, to reduce both hydrological connectivity and erosion, and to support irrigation. On the other hand, It has the important tourism value, bring the huge revenue to local residents. In order to protect and make use of Yuan Yang terraces better, This study analyzed the spatial distribution and spectral characteristics of terraces:(1) Through visual interpretation, the study recognized the terraces based on the spatial adjusted remote sensing image (2010 Geoeye-1 with resolution of 1m/pix), and extracted topographic feature (elevation, slope, aspect, etc.) based on the digital elevation model with resolution of 20m/pix. The terraces cover a total area of about 11.58Km2, accounted for 24.4% of the whole study area. The terraces appear at range from 1400m to 1800m in elevation, 10°to 20°in slope, northwest to northeast in aspect; (2) Using the method of weight of evidence, this study assessed the importance of different topographic feature. The results show that the sort of importance: elevation>slope>aspect; (3) The study counted the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) changes of terraces throughout the year, based on the landsat-5 image with resolution of 30m/pix. The results show that the changes of terraces' NDVI are bigger than other stuff (e.g. forest, road, house, etc.). Those work made a good preparations for establishing the dynamic remote sensing monitoring system of Yuan Yang terraces.

  4. Content and distribution of fluorine in rock, clay and water in fluorosis area Zhaotong, Yunnan Province

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, K.; Li, H.; Feng, F. (and others) [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China)

    2007-04-15

    About 160 samples of coal, pyritic coal balls, coal seam gangue, clay, corn, capsicum and drinking water were collected from the endemic fluorosis area of Zhenxiong and Weixin county, China to determine the fluorine content, distribution pattern and source in this fluorosis area. The study shows that the average fluorine content in the coal samples collected from 3 coal mines of the Late Permian coals in Zhenxiong and Weixin county, Zhaotong City, which are the main mining coals there, is 77.13 mg/kg. The average fluorine content coals collected form thee typical fluorosis villages in 72.56 mg/kg. Both of them are close to the world average and little low than the Chinese average. The fluorine content of drinking water is lower than 0.35 mg/L, the clay used as an additive for coal-burning and as a binfer in briquette-making by local residents has a high content of fluorine, ranging from 367-2,435 mg/kg, with the majority higher than 600 mg/kg and an average of 1,084.2 mg/kg. 29 refs., 5 tabs.

  5. Hot spring deposits on a cliff face: A case study from Jifei, Yunnan Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Brian; Peng, Xiaotong

    2014-04-01

    A cliff face in the Jifei karst area, southwest China, is covered by a spectacular succession of precipitates that formed from the hot spring water that once flowed down its surface. This layered succession is formed of aragonite layers that are formed largely of “fountain dendrites”, calcite layers that are formed mostly of “cone dendrites”, and microlaminated layers that contain numerous microbes and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). Many of the aragonite crystals are hollow due to preferential dissolution of their cores. The calcite cone dendrites are commonly covered with biofilms, reticulate Si-Mg coatings, and other precipitates. The microbial layers include dodecahedral calcite crystals and accessory minerals that include opal-A, amorphous Si-Mg coatings, trona, barite, potassium sulfate crystals, mirabillite, and gaylussite. Interpretation of the δ18O(calcite) and δ18O(aragonite) indicates precipitation from water with a temperature of 54 to 66 °C. The active hot spring at the top of the cliff presently ejects water at a temperature of 65 °C. Layers, 1 mm to 6 cm thick, record temporal changes in the fluids from which the precipitates formed. This succession is not, however, formed of recurring cycles that can be linked to diurnal or seasonal changes in the local climate. Indeed, it appears that the climatic contrast between the wet season and the dry season had little impact on precipitation from the spring waters that flowed down the cliff face. Integration of currently available evidence suggests that the primary driving force was aperiodic changes in the CO2 content of the spring waters because that seems to be the prime control on the saturation levels that underpinned precipitation of the calcite and aragonite as well as the dissolution of the aragonite. Such variations in the CO2 content of the spring water were probably due to changes that took place in the subterranean plumbing system of the spring.

  6. AHP 6: Matrilineal Marriage in Tibetan Areas In Western Sichuan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Féng Mǐn 冯敏

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The marriage and family organization of the Zhaba 扎巴 people in Western Sichuan 四川 Province is similar to that practiced by the Naxi Mosuo 纳西摩梭 during the 1960s. The Zhaba2 Region is another matrilineal culture region in addition to the Lugu 泸沽 Region in Yunnan 云南 Province. The area has only recently begun modernizing because of its isolation. 'Visiting marriages' and matrilineal family organization continue to play an important role in Zhaba culture. This research contributes new material to the anthropological study of matrilineal societies.

  7. AHP 6: Matrilineal Marriage in Tibetan Areas In Western Sichuan Province

    OpenAIRE

    Féng Mǐn 冯敏; Mtsho mo skyid; Gerald Roche

    2010-01-01

    The marriage and family organization of the Zhaba 扎巴 people in Western Sichuan 四川 Province is similar to that practiced by the Naxi Mosuo 纳西摩梭 during the 1960s. The Zhaba2 Region is another matrilineal culture region in addition to the Lugu 泸沽 Region in Yunnan 云南 Province. The area has only recently begun modernizing because of its isolation. 'Visiting marriages' and matrilineal family organization continue to play an important role in Zhaba culture. This research contributes new material to ...

  8. Descriptive Study on the Epidemiology of Lung Cancer in Coal-producing Area in Eastern Yunnan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihua LI

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Xuanwei county is located at Late Permian coal-accumulating area in eastern Yunnan and western Guizhou, China. The lung cancer mortality rate in Xuanwei county is among the highest in China and has been attributed to exposure to indoor smoky coal emissions that contain very high levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs. Recent years, the pollution and the higher mortality rate of lung cancer has been watched in the area around Xuanwei, and there is no report about whether the epidemic levels and the pathogen of lung cancer in other area of eastern Yunnan is similar to that in xuanwei. The aim of this study is to epidemic levels and cause of lung cancer in coal-producing area in the east of Yunnan province. Methods 382 study units (nature villages were selected by stratified cluster random sampling from coalproducing area in eastern Yunnan province, China. The villagers who were aged 30-79 years with no history of lung cancer were enrolled. All the participants received an initial single-view posterior-anterior chest radiograph and administered a questionnaire survey (which involves the information of demography, household and fuel use, lifestyle, tobacco and occupational exposure history, family and personal medical history, etc. The subjects with a positive screen by chest x-ray underwent to have a computed tomography scan of the chest and biopsy examination. The confidence interval of the standardized rate ratio were adopted to evaluate the statistical significance of differences in different regions. Results 52,833 villagers were surveyed and screened with X-ray. 604 of them were suspicious lung cancer with an initial chest radiograph, 541 underwent CT scan (362 were diagnosed by CT and 109 were diagnosed by histology. The adjusted positive rates for lung cancer screening with CT is 763.08 per 100,000, the age-standardized rate (ASR with the world standard population is 426.28 per 100,000 (95% confidence

  9. Multielement stoichiometry of submerged macrophytes across Yunnan plateau lakes (China).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Wei; Wu, Haoping; Shi, Qiao; Hao, Beibei; Liu, Han; Wang, Zhixiu; Liu, Guihua

    2015-05-13

    Stoichiometric homeostasis of element composition is one of the central concepts of ecological stoichiometry. We analyzed concentrations of macroelements (C, N, P, Ca, K, Mg, S), microelements (Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Zn) and beneficial elements (Na, Se, Si) in submerged macrophytes, water and sediments across 20 Yunnan plateau lakes. We predicted that tissue element composition in submerged macrophytes is affected by lake trophic level and taxonomy, and submerged macrophytes have weak stoichiometric homeostasis for all above 16 elements. Canonical discriminant analyses successfully discriminated among trophic level groups and taxa groups. Of all the elements, C, N, P and S most effectively discriminated among trophic level groups across 20 lakes, revealing lake trophic level mostly affect tissue macroelement composition in submerged macrophytes; while Ca, K and Se most effectively discriminated among submerged macrophytes taxa groups, suggesting taxonomy mostly affect compositions of macroelements and beneficial elements in submerged macrophytes. In addition, the stoichiometric homeostatic coefficient of 1/HCa:C for all five taxa of submerged macrophytes were less than zero, suggesting submerged macrophytes in Yunnan plateau lakes have strong Ca stoichiometric homeostasis. Our findings, not only broaden the knowledge of multielement stoichiometric homeostasis, but also help to choose most appropriate lake management strategy.

  10. Southeastern Science Policy Colloquium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humphries, F.

    1995-06-22

    This conference covers four main topics: (1) Southeastern Labor Market and its Impact on Corporate/Industry Development; (2) New Issues for Science and Technology in the Year 2000 and Beyond; (3) The Role of Academia in Developing the Labor Force of the Southeast; and (4) K-12 Education: Challenges for the 21st Century.

  11. Prevalence, awareness, medication, control, and risk factors associated with hypertension in Yi ethnic group aged 50 years and over in rural China: the Yunnan minority eye study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lixing; Zong, Yuan; Wei, Tao; Sheng, Xun; Shen, Wei; Li, Jun; Niu, Zhiqiang; Zhou, Hua; Zhang, Yang; Yuan, Yuansheng; Chen, Qin; Zhong, Hua

    2015-04-15

    Hypertension is an important public health issue in China, but there are few studies examining hypertension in ethnic groups in Yunnan, China. This study, Yunnan Minority Eye Study (YMES), was initially designed to determine the prevalence and impact of eye diseases, including hypertension and diabetes mellitus. As a part of YMES, the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension and the associated risk factors among the Yi ethnic population in rural China are reported. A population-based survey was conducted in 2012 with adult participants over 50 from rural communities in Shilin Yi Autonomous County, Yunnan Province, located in southwest China. A random cluster sampling method was used to select a representative sample. The participants' blood pressure, height, weight, and waist circumference were measured. Hypertension was defined as mean systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mmHg, and/or current use of antihypertensive medications. A total of 2208 adults were assessed. The prevalence of hypertension was 38.5%, and the age- and gender-adjusted prevalence was 37.0%. The proportion of patients who were aware of their hypertension among those diagnosed with hypertension was 24.8%. Of those aware of having hypertension, 23.6% took antihypertensive drugs. Among all hypertensive patients, only 7.2% had controlled their hypertension (population of the Yi ethnic group in China. The ratio of awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension were considerately low. Hypertension education and screening programs in rural China are recommended to improve the health status of this population.

  12. Establishment of dna fingerprinting in clonal tea improved cultivars from yunnan of china using issr markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, B.Y.; Zhao, C.M.; Sun, X.M.; Jiang, H.B.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, DNA fingerprints were constructed by using ISSR markers for 20 clonal improved varieties developed by two breeding institutes in Yunnan province. Seven core ISSR primers were selected from 15 primers. A total of 110 bands were generated by PAGE with seven core primers, 93 of which were polymorphic bands, the percentage of polymorphic band (PPB) was 84.54%, and the mean value of polymorphism information content (PIC) reached 0.417; the genetic similarity coefficient of the cultivars was 0.574-0.854. The two primers, UBC835 and ISSR2, had high PIC values, and could be used to distinguish all cultivars, presenting the most efficient single primers. Among the all of primer combinations from the seven core primers, the three combinations, UBC835/UBC811, UBC835/ISSR2, and UBC835/ISSR3 showed lower similar coefficients, and more efficient in identifying the 20 improved varieties than the other primer combinations. Then these three primer combinations were further scored in 15 traditional cultivars. The results showed that UBC835/ISSR2 was the optimal primer combination, which could be used to distinguish each material among the 20 clonal improved varieties and 15 traditional cultivals. Finally, the DNA fingerprints of the 20 clonal improved varieties were constructed based on country and region code, breeding institute, core primer name and ISSR marker data. The established fingerprints could provide reliable scientific base for the protection of intellectual property right for these clonal improved varieties, and the important molecular information contained in these fingerprints would be useful for the authenticity identification and genetic relationship analysis of tea varieties. (author)

  13. Medicinal plants used by Tibetans in Shangri-la, Yunnan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Chunyan

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medicinal plants used by the local people in Xizang (Tibet have been investigated since the 1960s. The others out of Xizang, however, have been less understood, although they may be easily and strongly influenced by the various local herbal practices, diverse environments, local religious beliefs and different prevalent types of diseases. In 2006, two ethnobotanical surveys were organized in the county of Shangri-la, Yunnan Province, SW China, to document the traditional medicinal plants used by the Tibetan people. Methods After literature surveying, four local townships were selected to carry out the field investigation. Three local healers were interviewed as key informants. The methods of ethnobotany, anthropology and participatory rural appraisal (PRA were used in the field surveys. Plant taxonomic approach was adopted for voucher specimen identification. Results Sixty-eight medicinal plant species in 64 genera of 40 families were recorded and collected. Among them, 23 species were found to have medicinal values that have not been recorded in any existing Tibetan literatures before, and 31 species were recorded to have traditional prescriptions. Moreover, the traditional preparations of each species and some folk medicinal knowledge were recorded and analyzed. These traditional prescriptions, preparations, new medicinal plants and folk medicinal knowledge and principles were discovered and summarized by local traditional Tibetan healers through times of treatment practices, and were passed down from generation to generation. Conclusion As a part of the cultural diversity of Tibetan community, these traditional medicinal knowledge and experiences may provide data and information basis for the sustainable utilization and development of Tibetan medicine, and may contribute to the local economic development. However, for many reasons, they are disappearing gradually as time goes by. Our study showed that there were abundant

  14. Medicinal plants used by Tibetans in Shangri-la, Yunnan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanchun; Dao, Zhiling; Yang, Chunyan; Liu, Yitao; Long, Chunlin

    2009-05-05

    Medicinal plants used by the local people in Xizang (Tibet) have been investigated since the 1960s. The others out of Xizang, however, have been less understood, although they may be easily and strongly influenced by the various local herbal practices, diverse environments, local religious beliefs and different prevalent types of diseases. In 2006, two ethnobotanical surveys were organized in the county of Shangri-la, Yunnan Province, SW China, to document the traditional medicinal plants used by the Tibetan people. After literature surveying, four local townships were selected to carry out the field investigation. Three local healers were interviewed as key informants. The methods of ethnobotany, anthropology and participatory rural appraisal (PRA) were used in the field surveys. Plant taxonomic approach was adopted for voucher specimen identification. Sixty-eight medicinal plant species in 64 genera of 40 families were recorded and collected. Among them, 23 species were found to have medicinal values that have not been recorded in any existing Tibetan literatures before, and 31 species were recorded to have traditional prescriptions. Moreover, the traditional preparations of each species and some folk medicinal knowledge were recorded and analyzed. These traditional prescriptions, preparations, new medicinal plants and folk medicinal knowledge and principles were discovered and summarized by local traditional Tibetan healers through times of treatment practices, and were passed down from generation to generation. As a part of the cultural diversity of Tibetan community, these traditional medicinal knowledge and experiences may provide data and information basis for the sustainable utilization and development of Tibetan medicine, and may contribute to the local economic development. However, for many reasons, they are disappearing gradually as time goes by. Our study showed that there were abundant traditional Tibetan medicinal prescriptions and using methods. It

  15. Did Eucalyptus contribute to environment degradation? Implications from a dispute on causes of severe drought in Yunnan and Guizhou, China

    OpenAIRE

    WenJun Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Various viewpoints were proposed to explain the causes of recent years' severe drought occurred in Yunnan and Guizhou, China. In general there are two parties of viewpoints, the Eucalyptus cause and climate change cause. I think Yunnan-Guizhou drought has been mainly caused by abnormal climate change. Eucalyptus was not significant in the formation of Yunnan-Guizhou drought. However, the forestation effect of Eucalyptus in China was not good. Environment quality and biodiversity in Eucalyptus...

  16. A remarkable new species of winter stonefly (Plecoptera: Capniidae) from Southeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yu-Zhou; Chen, Zhi-Teng

    2016-09-22

    A new species of the genus Capnia s.l., C. zijinshana Du & Chen, sp. nov. is described and illustrated from Jiangsu Province, of southeastern China. The new species is distinguished from other known Chinese capniid species by the unique thoracic sclerites and genitalic characters.

  17. Yunnan-III models for evolutionary population synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, F.; Li, L.; Han, Z.; Zhuang, Y.; Kang, X.

    2013-02-01

    We build the Yunnan-III evolutionary population synthesis (EPS) models by using the mesa stellar evolution code, BaSeL stellar spectra library and the initial mass functions (IMFs) of Kroupa and Salpeter, and present colours and integrated spectral energy distributions (ISEDs) of solar-metallicity stellar populations (SPs) in the range of 1 Myr to 15 Gyr. The main characteristic of the Yunnan-III EPS models is the usage of a set of self-consistent solar-metallicity stellar evolutionary tracks (the masses of stars are from 0.1 to 100 M⊙). This set of tracks is obtained by using the state-of-the-art mesa code. mesa code can evolve stellar models through thermally pulsing asymptotic giant branch (TP-AGB) phase for low- and intermediate-mass stars. By comparisons, we confirm that the inclusion of TP-AGB stars makes the V - K, V - J and V - R colours of SPs redder and the infrared flux larger at ages log(t/yr) ≳ 7.6 [the differences reach the maximum at log(t/yr) ˜ 8.6, ˜0.5-0.2 mag for colours, approximately two times for K-band flux]. We also find that the colour-evolution trends of Model with-TPAGB at intermediate and large ages are similar to those from the starburst99 code, which employs the Padova-AGB stellar library, BaSeL spectral library and the Kroupa IMF. At last, we compare the colours with the other EPS models comprising TP-AGB stars (such as CB07, M05, V10 and POPSTAR), and find that the B - V colour agrees with each other but the V-K colour shows a larger discrepancy among these EPS models [˜1 mag when 8 ≲ log(t/yr) ≲ 9]. The stellar evolutionary tracks, isochrones, colours and ISEDs can be obtained on request from the first author or from our website (http://www1.ynao.ac.cn/~zhangfh/). Using the isochrones, you can build your EPS models. Now the format of stellar evolutionary tracks is the same as that in the starburst99 code; you can put them into the starburst99 code and get the SP's results. Moreover, the colours involving other passbands

  18. 退耕还林工程驱动下的土地利用变化合理性研究——以云南芒市为例%The Rationality Evaluation of Land Use Changes in the Middle and Low Mountain Basin and Valley Area of Southwest Yunnan Province Driven by the National Project of Converting Farmland to Forest:A Case Study in Luxi City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨子生; 韩华丽; 朱玉碧; 赵乔贵

    2011-01-01

    In present study on land use/land cover change (LUCC), rationality analysis and evaluation of land use change has not been taken seriously. In particular, there is hardly any study on the theory and method system for evaluating rationality of land use change. By taking Luxi City as an example, which is located in the middle and low mountainous basin and valley area in southwest Yunnan, this paper has discussed the concept and connotation of rational degree of land use change and constructed the evaluation target, estimation method, and grading standard system for studying rational degree of land use change. Then, based on these, it has quantitatively analyzed and evaluated the rational degree of the change in every land use type and rational degree of the overall land use change driven by the nearly-eight-year Program of Converting Farmland to Forest in Luxi City. It aims to provide basic foundation for promoting the sustainable use of land resources in mountainous areas and scientific implementation of the Program of Converting Farmland to Forest. The evaluation results reveal the following facts: 1 ) During recent eight years, the whole city witnessed land use type changes in a total area of 77602.80 hm2. Rational degree ( RD value) of the change was only 48.98% while the irrational degree (ID value) was 51.02%, making the change at the "moderately rational" level. 2) Among all land use types, farmland, forest and waste grassland had the largest changes. Farmland was mainly changed into forest, garden plot and waste grassland, a result driven by the Program of Converting Farmland to Forest. During recent eight years, the whole city had 19661.07 hm2 of farmland converted to ecological uses. Of which, 18886. 09 hm2 were the farmland suitable for cultivation (farmland that "should not have been converted" ) and only 774. 98 hm2 were the farmland not suitable for cultivation ( farmland that "should be converted"). The nearly-eight-year Program of Converting

  19. [Spatial and temporal clustering characteristics of typhoid and paratyphoid fever and its change pattern in 3 provinces in southwestern China, 2001-2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L X; Yang, B; Yan, M Y; Tang, Y Q; Liu, Z C; Wang, R Q; Li, S; Ma, L; Kan, B

    2017-11-10

    Objective: To analyze the spatial and temporal clustering characteristics of typhoid and paratyphoid fever and its change pattern in Yunnan, Guizhou and Guangxi provinces in southwestern China in recent years. Methods: The incidence data of typhoid and paratyphoid fever cases at county level in 3 provinces during 2001-2012 were collected from China Information System for Diseases Control and Prevention and analyzed by the methods of descriptive epidemiology and geographic informatics. And the map showing the spatial and temporal clustering characters of typhoid and paratyphoid fever cases in three provinces was drawn. SaTScan statistics was used to identify the typhoid and paratyphoid fever clustering areas of three provinces in each year from 2001 to 2012. Results: During the study period, the reported cases of typhoid and paratyphoid fever declined with year. The reported incidence decreased from 30.15 per 100 000 in 2001 to 10.83 per 100 000 in 2006(annual incidence 21.12 per 100 000); while during 2007-2012, the incidence became stable, ranging from 4.75 per 100 000 to 6.83 per 100 000 (annual incidence 5.73 per 100 000). The seasonal variation of the incidence was consistent in three provinces, with majority of cases occurred in summer and autumn. The spatial and temporal clustering of typhoid and paratyphoid fever was demonstrated by the incidence map. Most high-incidence counties were located in a zonal area extending from Yuxi of Yunnan to Guiyang of Guizhou, but were concentrated in Guilin in Guangxi. Temporal and spatial scan statistics identified the positional shifting of class Ⅰ clustering area from Guizhou to Yunnan. Class Ⅰ clustering area was located around the central and western areas (Zunyi and Anshun) of Guizhou during 2001-2003, and moved to the central area of Yunnan during 2004-2012. Conclusion: Spatial and temporal clustering of typhoid and paratyphoid fever existed in the endemic areas of southwestern China, and the clustering area

  20. A Mixed Application of Geographically Weighted Regression and Unsupervised Classification for Analyzing Latex Yield Variability in Yunnan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oh Seok Kim

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a mixed method approach for analyzing the determinants of natural latex yields and the associated spatial variations and identifying the most suitable regions for producing latex. Geographically Weighted Regressions (GWR and Iterative Self-Organizing Data Analysis Technique (ISODATA are jointly applied to the georeferenced data points collected from the rubber plantations in Xishuangbanna (in Yunnan province, south China and other remotely-sensed spatial data. According to the GWR models, Age of rubber tree, Percent of clay in soil, Elevation, Solar radiation, Population, Distance from road, Distance from stream, Precipitation, and Mean temperature turn out statistically significant, indicating that these are the major determinants shaping latex yields at the prefecture level. However, the signs and magnitudes of the parameter estimates at the aggregate level are different from those at the lower spatial level, and the differences are due to diverse reasons. The ISODATA classifies the landscape into three categories: high, medium, and low potential yields. The map reveals that Mengla County has the majority of land with high potential yield, while Jinghong City and Menghai County show lower potential yield. In short, the mixed method can offer a means of providing greater insights in the prediction of agricultural production.

  1. Thermus tengchongensis sp. nov., isolated from a geothermally heated soil sample in Tengchong, Yunnan, south-west China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tian-Tian; Yao, Ji-Cheng; Ming, Hong; Yin, Yi-Rui; Zhou, En-Min; Liu, Min-Jiao; Tang, Shu-Kun; Li, Wen-Jun

    2013-03-01

    A Gram-stain negative aerobic bacterium, designated YIM 77924(T), was isolated from a geothermally heated soil sample collected at Rehai National Park, Tengchong, Yunnan province, south-west China. Growth was found to occur from 55 to 75 °C (optimum 65 °C), pH 6.0-8.0 (optimum pH 7.0) and 0-1 % NaCl (w/v). Cells were observed to be rod-shaped and the colonies convex, circular, smooth, yellow and non-transparent. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that strain YIM 77924(T) belongs to the genus Thermus. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity values between strain YIM 77924(T) and other species of the genus Thermus were all below 97 %. The polar lipids of strain YIM 77924(T) were determined to be aminophospholipid, phospholipid and glycolipid. The predominant respiratory quinone was determined to be MK-8 and the G+C content was 66.64 mol%. The major fatty acids identified were iso-C(16:0), iso-C(15:0), iso-C(17:0) and C(16:0). On the basis of the morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics as well as genotypic data, strain YIM 77924(T) is proposed to represent a novel species, Thermus tengchongensis sp. nov., in the genus Thermus. The type strain is YIM 77924(T) (=KCTC 32025(T) = CCTCC AB2012063(T)).

  2. Mid-Term Electricity Market Clearing Price Forecasting with Sparse Data: A Case in Newly-Reformed Yunnan Electricity Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuntian Cheng

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available For the power systems, for which few data are available for mid-term electricity market clearing price (MCP forecasting at the early stage of market reform, a novel grey prediction model (defined as interval GM(0, N model is proposed in this paper. Over the traditional GM(0, N model, three major improvements of the proposed model are: (i the lower and upper bounds are firstly identified to give an interval estimation of the forecasting value; (ii a novel whitenization method is then established to determine the definite forecasting value from the forecasting interval; and (iii the model parameters are identified by an improved particle swarm optimization (PSO instead of the least square method (LSM for the limitation of LSM. Finally, a newly-reformed electricity market in Yunnan province of China is studied, and input variables are contrapuntally selected. The accuracy of the proposed model is validated by observed data. Compared with the multiple linear regression (MLR model, the traditional GM(0, N model and the artificial neural network (ANN model, the proposed model gives a better performance and its superiority is further ensured by the use of the modified Diebold–Mariano (MDM test, suggesting that it is suitable for mid-term electricity MCP forecasting in a data-sparse electricity market.

  3. Lihuaxuella thermophila gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from a geothermal soil sample in Tengchong, Yunnan, south-west China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tian-Tian; Zhang, Bing-Huo; Yao, Ji-Cheng; Tang, Shu-Kun; Zhou, En-Min; Yin, Yi-Rui; Wei, Da-Qiao; Ming, Hong; Li, Wen-Jun

    2012-11-01

    A novel filamentous bacterium, designated YIM 77831(T), was isolated from a geothermal soil sample collected at Rehai National Park, Tengchong, Yunnan province, south-west China. Growth occurred from 28 to 65 °C (optimum 50 °C), pH 6.0-8.0 (optimum pH 7.0). The strain formed branched substrate mycelia, endospores were produced on the substrate mycelium and aerial mycelium was not produced on any of the growth media tested. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain YIM 77831(T) was affiliated with the family Thermoactinomycetaceae. The stain YIM 77831(T) contained meso-diaminopimelic acid in the cell wall. Whole-cell hydrolysates contained glucose, galactose, mannose, ribose and rhamnose. The polar lipids were phosphatidylmethylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, an unidentified aminophospholipid and four unknown phospholipids. The only menaquinone was MK-7. Major fatty acids were iso-C(15:0), anteiso-C(15:0) and anteiso-C(17:0). The G+C content was 55.6 mol%. On the basis of the morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics as well as genotypic data, strain YIM 77831(T) represents a novel genus and species, Lihuaxuella thermophila gen. nov., sp. nov., in the family Thermoactinomycetaceae. The type strain is YIM 77831(T) (CCTCC AA 2011024(T) = JCM 18059(T)).

  4. Reproductive Ecology of Rhynchanthus beesianus W. W. Smith (Zingiberaceae) in South Yunnan, China: A Ginger with Bird Pollination Syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang-Yun Gao; Zi-Hui Yang; Pan-Yu Ren; Qing-Jun Li

    2006-01-01

    Rhynchanthus beesianus W. W. Smith (Zingiberaceae) is an epiphytic tropical ginger with a very conspicuous floral display, but almost no fruit set under field conditions. The reproductive ecology encompassing phenology, floral biology, and pollination and breeding systems was investigated in an evergreen broad-leaved forest in Yunnan Province, Southwest China. The flowers possess a typical bird pollination syndrome,but no effective pollinators were observed during 138 h of observation. Female Black-breasted Sunbird (Aethopyga saturata) and bumblebees visited R. beesianus regularly, but they all played roles as nectar robbers. No fruit was found in the bagging treatment, and fruit set following manual self-pollination ((57.55 ± 4.08)%) was comparable with cross-pollination ((64.32 ± 4.42)%), suggesting that R. beesianus is self-compatible but spontaneous self-pollination in this species does not occur. Seed set of open-pollination ((26.42 ± 3.11)%) was significantly lower than manual self-pollination ((73.41 ± 4.16)%) and cross-pollination ((75.56 ± 4.52)%), confirming that R. beesianus was dependent on animals for fertilization and suffered a serious pollinator-limitation.

  5. The permeability and loss of potassium in three types of Yunnan soil measured by using 86Rb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Dayong; Bie Zhilong; Wan Zhaoliang

    1997-01-01

    The permeability and loss of potassium in three types of soil (purple, paddy and red soil) used for planting tobacco in Yunnan province were studied by using 86 Rb tracer method. The results showed that for the treatment of 0.1 gK 2 O/kg soil, the potassium loss in soils was in order of purple soil>paddy soil>red soil. The loss of potassium in purple soil and paddy soil increased with sampling time. In the same soil, the loss of potassium was fast with the treatment of 0.1 gK 2 O/kg soil, but it was slow with the treatment of 0.2 gK 2 O/kg soil and 0.3 gK 2 O/kg soil. The potassium residues in soil surface was in order of red soil>paddy soil>purple soil. And the amounts of potassium in soil surface was positively correlated with potassium added. With the increase of soil depth, a slight decrease of potassium residue was found for the treatment of 0.2 gK 2 O/kg soil and 0.3 gK 2 O/kg soil, while a slight increase for the treatment of 0.1 gK 2 O/kg soil

  6. Kinematics and 40Ar/ 39Ar geochronology of the Gaoligong and Chongshan shear systems, western Yunnan, China: Implications for early Oligocene tectonic extrusion of SE Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuejun; Fan, Weiming; Zhang, Yanhua; Peng, Touping; Chen, Xinyue; Xu, Yigang

    2006-06-01

    The Gaoligong and Chongshan shear systems (GLSS and CSSS) in western Yunnan, China, have similar tectonic significance to the Ailaoshan-Red River shear system (ASRRSS) during the Cenozoic tectonic development of the southeastern Tibetan syntaxis. To better understand their kinematics and the Cenozoic tectonic evolution of SE Asia, this paper presents new kinematic and 40Ar/ 39Ar geochronological data for these shear systems. All the structural and microstructural evidence indicate that the GLSS is a dextral strike-slip shear system while the CSSS is a sinistral strike-slip shear system, and both were developed under amphibolite- to greenschist-grade conditions. The 40Ar/ 39Ar dating of synkinematic minerals revealed that the strike-slip shearing on the GLSS and CSSS at least began at ˜ 32 Ma, possibly coeval with the onset of other major shear systems in SE Asia. The late-stage shearing on the GLSS and CSSS is dated at ˜ 27-29 Ma by the biotite 40Ar/ 39Ar ages, consistent with that of the Wang Chao shear zone (WCSZ), but ˜ 10 Ma earlier than that of the ASRRSS. The dextral Gaoligong shear zone within the GLSS may have separated the India plate from the Indochina Block during early Oligocene. Combined with other data in western Yunnan, we propose that the Baoshan/Southern Indochina Block escaped faster southeastward along the CSSS to the east and the GLSS to the west than the Northern Indochina Block along the ASRRSS, accompanying with the obliquely northward motion of the India plate during early Oligocene (28-36 Ma). During 28-17 Ma, the Northern Indochina Block was rotationally extruded along the ASRRSS relative to the South China Block as a result of continuously impinging of the India plate.

  7. Geographical patterns of Yunnan seed plants may be influenced by the Clockwise Rotation of the Simao-Indochina Geoblock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu eHua

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Floristic patterns of seed plants in Yunnan, southwestern China, were studied to assess the relationship between the floristic geography and geological history. A database of 38 regional floristic studies covering Yunnan was used and the patterns of seed plant distributions across these regional floras were quantified at the generic level. Genera with tropical Asian distributions are the most dominant geographical elements in the Yunnan flora. They show oblique patterns of abundance across Yunnan. They are most abundant in southern and western Yunnan, and their proportion in regional floras declines abruptly in eastern, central and northern Yunnan. The oblique abundance patterns of geographical elements in Yunnan differ from those of genera in southern and eastern China, which had a high correlation with latitudinal gradients controlled by climate. They cannot be explained by climate alone, but can be explained at least partly by the geological history. The oblique abundance patterns of Yunnan seed plants correspond well to the clockwise rotation and southeastward extrusion of the Simao-Indochina geoblock caused by the collision of India with Asia.

  8. Evidence against barium in the mushroom Trogia venenata as a cause of sudden unexpected deaths in Yunnan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Li, Yanchun; Wu, Gang; Feng, Bang; Yoell, Shanze; Yu, Zefen; Zhang, Keqin; Xu, Jianping

    2012-12-01

    This study examined barium concentrations in the mushroom Trogia venenata, the leading culprit for sudden unexpected deaths in Yunnan, southwest China. We found that barium concentrations in T. venenata from Yunnan were low and comparable to other foods, inconsistent with barium concentrations in this mushroom as a significant contributor to these deaths.

  9. First evidence of prey capture and meat eating by wild Yunnan snub-nosed monkeys in Yunnan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoping REN, Dayong LI, Zhijin LIU, Baoguo LI, Fuwen WEI, Ming LI

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Most extant nonhuman primates occasionally prey on fast-moving, warm-blooded animals; however, Indriidae, Lepilemuridae, and Colobinae either scavenged for meat or did not eat meat at all. Here we report six cases of animal consumption by the snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus bieti in a wild, habituated group between 2004 and 2009 in Yunnan, China. At present, only males in an all-male unit within the study group were involved in active hunting. Such a male-biased activity may be related to the group structure and spatial spread of R. bieti. Two females were observed eating freshly killed birds. The findings confirmed that R. bieti engaged in scavenging and, when hunting, employed a cranio-cervical bite to kill their prey. Meat eating is likely a nutrient maximization feeding strategy in R. bieti, especially in males. A begging behavior occurred after successful prey capture. Although begging was observed, no sharing of the meat was seen. The present findings illuminate the dietary diversity of R. bieti and their ability to expand their dietary spectrum [Current Zoology 56 (2 : 227–231, 2010].

  10. Study of fecal bacterial diversity in Yunnan snub-nosed monkey ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    The bacterial diversity in fecal samples from Yunnan snub-nosed monkey ... Based on the phylogenetic analysis, the fecal bacteria of R. bieti distributed ... and conservation genetics, but research on fecal bacterial ... The large number of microorganisms in the intestine of .... There was high evolutional relativity between.

  11. Combining endangered plants and animals as surrogates to identify priority conservation areas in Yunnan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Feiling; Hu, Jinming; Wu, Ruidong

    2016-08-01

    Suitable surrogates are critical for identifying optimal priority conservation areas (PCAs) to protect regional biodiversity. This study explored the efficiency of using endangered plants and animals as surrogates for identifying PCAs at the county level in Yunnan, southwest China. We ran the Dobson algorithm under three surrogate scenarios at 75% and 100% conservation levels and identified four types of PCAs. Assessment of the protection efficiencies of the four types of PCAs showed that endangered plants had higher surrogacy values than endangered animals but that the two were not substitutable; coupled endangered plants and animals as surrogates yielded a higher surrogacy value than endangered plants or animals as surrogates; the plant-animal priority areas (PAPAs) was the optimal among the four types of PCAs for conserving both endangered plants and animals in Yunnan. PAPAs could well represent overall species diversity distribution patterns and overlap with critical biogeographical regions in Yunnan. Fourteen priority units in PAPAs should be urgently considered as optimizing Yunnan’s protected area system. The spatial pattern of PAPAs at the 100% conservation level could be conceptualized into three connected conservation belts, providing a valuable reference for optimizing the layout of the in situ protected area system in Yunnan.

  12. Environmental legacy of copper metallurgy and Mongol silver smelting recorded in Yunnan Lake sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, Aubrey L; Abbott, Mark B; Yu, JunQing; Bain, Daniel J; Chiou-Peng, TzeHuey

    2015-03-17

    Geochemical measurements on well-dated sediment cores from Lake Er (Erhai) are used to determine the timing of changes in metal concentrations over 4500 years in Yunnan, a borderland region in southwestern China noted for rich mineral deposits but with inadequately documented metallurgical history. Our findings add new insight into the impacts and environmental legacy of human exploitation of metal resources in Yunnan history. We observe an increase in copper at 1500 BC resulting from atmospheric emissions associated with metallurgy. These data clarify the chronological issues related to links between the onset of Yunnan metallurgy and the advent of bronze technology in adjacent Southeast Asia, subjects that have been debated for nearly half a century. We also observe an increase from 1100 to 1300 AD in a number of heavy metals including lead, silver, zinc, and cadmium from atmospheric emissions associated with silver smelting. Culminating during the rule of the Mongols, known as the Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368 AD), these metal concentrations approach levels three to four times higher than those from industrialized mining activity occurring within the catchment today. Notably, the concentrations of lead approach levels at which harmful effects may be observed in aquatic organisms. The persistence of this lead pollution over time created an environmental legacy that likely contributes to known issues in modern day sediment quality. We demonstrate that historic metallurgical production in Yunnan can cause substantial impacts on the sediment quality of lake systems, similar to other paleolimnological findings around the globe.

  13. Visceral Leishmaniasis in Southeastern Iran: A Narrative Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraj SHARIFI

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL has strong links with poverty, substantial medical and veterinary impacts. This review aimed to focus in studies published during 1994-2016 on VL in southeastern Iran.Methods: The present review is based on expert knowledge and historical studies published during the past 23 yr (1994-2016 on VL in southeastern Iran. In addition, related literature found in PubMed by using the keywords such as visceral leishmaniasis, kala-azar, and Leishmania infantum are included.Results: Overall, 118 children aged 4.2 yr were detected as infected with human VL (HVL. The majority of the cases were from Orzoieh district (37.1% in southwest of Kerman Province, followed by Sirjan (15.7%, Jiroft (14.8%, Kahnuj (9.3% and to lesser extent from other areas. The male to female ratio was 1.7. The three most frequent clinical features were represented by fever (100.0%, anemia (95.0% and splenomegaly (91.5%. Altogether, 42.0% of the VL cases developed secondary bacterial infections, the overall case-fatality rate was 3.4%, and majorities (88.0% of the VL patients were undernourished. Overall, 733 dogs and wild canines were examined by different techniques with various seroprevalence ranges.Conclusion: In southeastern Iran, VL is endemic in Orzoieh district in Kerman Province. While the dogs are implicated as the main domestic reservoir of VL, wide range of wild canines can serve as a secondary potential reservoir host.

  14. The symphytognathoid spiders of the Gaoligongshan, Yunnan, China (Araneae: Araneoidea: Systematics and diversity of micro-orbweavers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Miller

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available A ten-year inventory of the Gaoligongshan in western Yunnan Province, China, yielded more than 1000 adult spider specimens belonging to the symphytognathoid families Theridiosomatidae, Mysmenidae, Anapidae, and Symphytognathidae. These specimens belong to 36 species, all newly described here. In the Theridiosomatidae: Epeirotypus dalong n. sp., Ogulnius barbandrewsi n. sp., Baalzebub nemesis n. sp., Theridiosoma diwang n. sp., Theridiosoma shuangbi n. sp., Zoma dibaiyin n. sp., Wendilgarda muji n. sp., Coddingtonia euryopoides n. gen., n. sp.; in the Mysmenidae: Mysmena changouzi n. sp., Mysmena jinlong n. sp., Mysmena bizi n. sp., Mysmena goudao n. sp., Mysmena haban n. sp., Mysmena shibali n. sp., Simaoa yaojia n. gen., n. sp., Simaoa kavanaugh n. sp., Simaoa maku n. sp., Simaoa bianjing n. sp., Gaoligonga changya n. gen., n. sp., Gaoligonga zhusun n. sp., Mosu nujiang n. gen., n. sp., Mosu huogou n. sp., Chanea suukyii n. gen., n. sp., Maymena paquini n. sp., Maymena kehen n. sp.; in the Anapidae: Gaiziapis zhizhuba n. gen., n. sp.; in the Symphytognathidae: Patu jidanweishi n. sp., Patu qiqi n. sp., Patu xiaoxiao n. sp., Crassignatha pianma n. sp., Crassignatha yinzhi n. sp., Crassignatha quanqu n. sp., Crassignatha yamu n. sp., Crassignatha ertou n. sp., Crassignatha gudu n. sp., Crassignatha longtou n. sp. The first species of Zoma Saaristo, 1996 (previously monotypic, known from the Seychelles and Maymena Gertsch, 1960 (previously known from the Americas are reported from China. The genus Crassignatha Wunderlich, 1995 (previously known from a single male from Malaysia is represented by seven new Chinese species and is transferred to Symphytognathidae. The first Epeirotypus O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1894 species from beyond the Neotropics is described, although the presence of the genus in Asia was previously noted. Notes on morphological characters exhibited by this fauna and implications for the limits and diagnosis of some symphytognathoid

  15. Measurement and modeling of indoor air pollution in rural households with multiple stove interventions in Yunnan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Zohir; Campanella, Luke; Gray, Christen; Al Masud, Abdullah; Marter-Kenyon, Jessica; Pennise, David; Charron, Dana; Zuzhang, Xia

    2013-03-01

    In the developing world, indoor air pollution (IAP) created from solid fuel used in traditional biomass cook stoves is a leading contributor of poor respiratory health, global burden of disease, and greenhouse pollutant emissions. In the present study, we piloted an experimental cross-sectional monitoring and evaluation design with 30 households in rural Lijiang and Deqin counties in northwest Yunnan province, China. This approach offers the ability to examine the effectiveness of improved cook stove (ICS) programs with a much smaller sample size than the typical population based pre- and post-intervention study that requires a large sample representative of the population. Continuous PM2.5 was measured with the UCB (currently known as UCB-PATS) and the TSI DustTrak and continuous CO was measured with the HOBO CO logger. Using the traditional method of cooking and heating, mean 24-h PM2.5 and CO concentrations in the kitchen were measured in the range of 0.15-0.71 mg m-3 for PM2.5 and 3.0-11 ppm for CO. These concentrations were compared to using a combination of improved stoves in the kitchen where PM2.5 and CO concentrations were measured in the range of 0.08-0.18 mg m-3 for PM2.5 and 0.7-5.5 ppm for CO. These concentrations yielded statistically significant reduction in IAP when replacing the traditional fireplace or traditional stove with an improved stove combination. Finally, we show a strong correlation between CO and PM2.5 (R2 = 0.72-0.76). The combination of this experimental design along with the monitoring and evaluation protocol presented here may provide a robust framework to rapidly assess the effectiveness of ICS interventions in progress.

  16. Microlunatus cavernae sp. nov., a novel actinobacterium isolated from Alu ancient cave, Yunnan, South-West China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Juan; Chen, Wei; Huo-Zhang, Bing; Nimaichand, Salam; Zhou, En-Min; Lu, Xin-Hua; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Li, Wen-Jun

    2013-07-01

    A Gram-positive, coccoid, non-endospore-forming actinobacterium, designated YIM C01117(T), was isolated from a soil sample collected from Alu ancient cave, Yunnan province, south-west China. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain YIM C01117(T) was shown to belong to the genus Microlunatus, with highest sequence similarity of 97.4 % to Microlunatus soli DSM 21800(T). The whole genomic DNA relatedness as shown by the DNA-DNA hybridization study between YIM C01117(T) and M. soli DSM 21800(T) had a low value (47 ± 2 %). Strain YIM C01117(T) was determined to contain LL-diaminopimelic acid with Gly, Glu and Ala amino acids (A3γ' type) in the cell wall. Whole-cell hydrolysates were found to contain glucose, galactose, mannose and ribose. The major polar lipids were determined to be phosphatidylglycerol and diphosphatidylglycerol. The predominant menaquinone system present is MK-9(H4), while the major fatty acids were identified to be anteiso-C15:0 (24.1 %), iso-C16:0 (22.3 %) and iso-C15:0 (11.4 %). The G+C content of the genomic DNA was determined to be 65.9 mol%. The chemotaxonomic and genotypic data support the affiliation of the strain YIM C01117(T) to the genus Microlunatus. The results of physiological and biochemical tests allow strain YIM C01117(T) to be differentiated phenotypically from recognized Microlunatus species. Strain YIM C01117(T) is therefore considered to represent a novel species of the genus Microlunatus, for which the name Microlunatus cavernae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YIM C01117(T) (= DSM 26248(T) = JCM 18536(T)).

  17. The relationship between species richness and aboveground biomass in a primary Pinus kesiya forest of Yunnan, southwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuaifeng; Lang, Xuedong; Liu, Wande; Ou, Guanglong; Xu, Hui; Su, Jianrong

    2018-01-01

    The relationship between biodiversity and biomass is an essential element of the natural ecosystem functioning. Our research aims at assessing the effects of species richness on the aboveground biomass and the ecological driver of this relationship in a primary Pinus kesiya forest. We sampled 112 plots of the primary P. kesiya forests in Yunnan Province. The general linear model and the structural equation model were used to estimate relative effects of multivariate factors among aboveground biomass, species richness and the other explanatory variables, including climate moisture index, soil nutrient regime and stand age. We found a positive linear regression relationship between the species richness and aboveground biomass using ordinary least squares regressions. The species richness and soil nutrient regime had no direct significant effect on aboveground biomass. However, the climate moisture index and stand age had direct effects on aboveground biomass. The climate moisture index could be a better link to mediate the relationship between species richness and aboveground biomass. The species richness affected aboveground biomass which was mediated by the climate moisture index. Stand age had direct and indirect effects on aboveground biomass through the climate moisture index. Our results revealed that climate moisture index had a positive feedback in the relationship between species richness and aboveground biomass, which played an important role in a link between biodiversity maintenance and ecosystem functioning. Meanwhile, climate moisture index not only affected positively on aboveground biomass, but also indirectly through species richness. The information would be helpful in understanding the biodiversity-aboveground biomass relationship of a primary P. kesiya forest and for forest management.

  18. Roseomonas alkaliterrae sp. nov., isolated from an alkali geothermal soil sample in Tengchong, Yunnan, South-West China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Lei; Ming, Hong; Yin, Yi-Rui; Duan, Yan-Yan; Zhou, En-Min; Nie, Guo-Xing; Feng, Hui-Geng; Liu, Lan; Li, Wen-Jun

    2014-05-01

    An alkalitolerant, thermotolerant and Gram-stain negative bacterium, designated strain YIM 78007(T), was isolated from an alkaline geothermal soil sample from Hehua hot spring, Tengchong, Yunnan province, south-west China. Cells of strain YIM 78007(T) were observed to be aerobic and short rod-shaped. The colonies were observed to be orange-red, convex and circular. 16S rRNA gene sequence-based phylogenetic analysis showed that strain YIM 78007(T) clustered with members of the genus Roseomonas (with similarities from 97.2 to 92.2 %). Optimal growth of strain YIM 78007 occurs at 40-50 °C and pH 8.0-10.0. The predominant ubiquinone was identified as Q-10 and the major fatty acids were identified as C18:1 ω7c and C16:0. The polar lipids were identified as diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, two unidentified aminolipids and one unknown phospholipid. The G + C content of the genomic DNA was determined to be 63 mol %. The levels of DNA-DNA hybridization relatedness between strain YIM 78007(T) and its closet neighbours (Roseomonas lacus JCM 13283(T) and Roseomonas terrae JCM 14592(T)) were well below the threshold required for the proposal of a novel species. The results of physiological and biochemical characteristics, the phylogenetic analysis, as well as low DNA-DNA hybridization values, allowed the phenotypic and genotypic differentiation of strain YIM 78007(T) from its closest phylogenetic neighbours. Therefore, strain YIM 78007(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Roseomonas, for which the name Roseomonas alkaliterrae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YIM 78007(T) (=BCRC 80644(T) = JCM 19656(T)).

  19. Eating from the wild: diversity of wild edible plants used by Tibetans in Shangri-la region, Yunnan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Yan; Zhuo, Jingxian; Liu, Bo; Long, Chunlin

    2013-04-19

    Locally harvested wild edible plants (WEPs) provide food as well as cash income for indigenous people and are of great importance in ensuring global food security. Some also play a significant role in maintaining the productivity and stability of traditional agro-ecosystems. Shangri-la region of Yunnan Province, SW China, is regarded as a biodiversity hotspot. People living there have accumulated traditional knowledge about plants. However, with economic development, WEPs are threatened and the associated traditional knowledge is in danger of being lost. Therefore, ethnobotanical surveys were conducted throughout this area to investigate and document the wild edible plants traditionally used by local Tibetan people. Twenty-nine villages were selected to carry out the field investigations. Information was collected using direct observation, semi-structured interviews, individual discussions, key informant interviews, focus group discussions, questionnaires and participatory rural appraisal (PRA). Information about 168 wild edible plant species in 116 genera of 62 families was recorded and specimens were collected. Most species were edible greens (80 species) or fruits (78). These WEPs are sources for local people, especially those living in remote rural areas, to obtain mineral elements and vitamins. More than half of the species (70%) have multiple use(s) besides food value. Some are crop wild relatives that could be used for crop improvement. Several also have potential values for further commercial exploitation. However, the utilization of WEPs and related knowledge are eroding rapidly, especially in the areas with convenient transportation and booming tourism. Wild food plants species are abundant and diverse in Shangri-la region. They provide food and nutrients to local people and could also be a source of cash income. However, both WEPs and their associated indigenous knowledge are facing various threats. Thus, conservation and sustainable utilization of these

  20. Descriptive Study of the Environmental Epidemiology of High Lung Cancer 
Incidence Rate in Qujing, Yunnan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linlin ZHANG

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Qujing, located in Southwest China, is an area with an extremely high lung cancer incidence. Combustion of coal has exposed local people to great health hazards. The aim of this study is to achieve a thorough understanding of the relationship between environmental pollution and the high incidence of lung cancer in Qujing, Yunnan Province, China. The results would provide a scientific basis and support for the etiology of lung cancer, as well as suggestions on improving the environmental conditions in the area. Methods A total of 280 rural villages were selected through stratified cluster random sampling. Environmental background and pollution were investigated, including details on fuel type, coking plant, metal smelting, and chemical plant, among others. Logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the investigated factors. Results Out of the total number of local villages studied, 78.1% of those with high incidence often use smoky coal and coking. On the other hand, 78.8% of the low-incidence areas use smokeless coal or wood. Logistic regression analysis indicated that the coal type used for everyday life was a main risk factor related to lung cancer (P<0.05. Using smoky and coking coals create an alarmingly high risk for developing lung cancer. Meanwhile, smokeless coals and wood seemed to have no significant relationship to the lung cancer incidence. Conclusion The fuel type used for everyday life is an important factor in the high incidence of lung cancer in Qujing. Evidently, the use of smoky coal and coke increased the incidence of lung cancer, whereas smokeless coal and wood seem to bring about the contrary.

  1. Whole-genome analyses of human adenovirus type 55 emerged in Tibet, Sichuan and Yunnan in China, in 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenbo; Liu, Yuan; Zhou, Yifan; Gu, Liangqi; Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Xuelian; Chen, Maomao; Zou, Ziying; Qiu, Wei; Hu, Xiaobing; Fan, Quanshui

    2017-01-01

    Three outbreaks of acute respiratory disease occurred at military camps in 2016 at Tibet, Sichuan and Yunnan province, China. The pathogen induced these three outbreaks were all confirmed as HAdV-55 by genotype-specific PCR. The outbreak in Tibet was the first report that HAdV-55 occurred in the high altitude (HA, above sea level 3658 m). This study aims to determine the gene variation and evolution characteristics of these viral strains. Three strains of adenoviruses, LS89/Tibet/2016 (GenBank accession no. KY002683), SF04/SC/2016 (GenBank accession no. KY002684) and KM03/YN/2016 (GenBank accession no. KY002685) were obtained and confirmed by wholegenome sequencing. No multi-gene fragments recombination were found in these isolated HAdV-55 virus compared with previous reported HAdV-55 strains in China. The outbreaks in Tibet and in Sichuan continuously occurred. Virus isolated from Tibet (LS89/Tibet/2016) and Sichuan (SF04/SC/2016) had a similar mutation pattern and had a closer genetic evolutionary distance than KM03/YN/2016 strain, which indicates that the pathogens causing these two outbreaks may be of the same origin. Moreover, we found that heating was an effective way to inactive these viruses, which provide valuable information for the development of HAdV-55 vaccines. Our data provide new information for genetic evolution of HAdV-55, and contribute to the prevention and control of HAdV-55 infection in the future.

  2. Tuberculosis among transhumant pastoralist and settled communities of south-eastern Mauritania

    OpenAIRE

    L?, Aissata; Tall-Dia, Anta; Bonfoh, Bassirou; Schelling, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Background: Transhumant pastoralists of Mauritania were assumed to have a high prevalence of tuberculosis (TB) because of reduced access to diagnostic testing. No population-based survey on TB has been published for Mauritania.Objective: The goal of this study was to estimate the prevalence of presumptive TB cases among mobile pastoralists and villagers in a remote zone of Mauritania.Design: In the south-eastern province of Hodh Ech Chargui, 250 adult pastoralists and 250 villagers were rando...

  3. Suicide in Batman, Southeastern Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altindag, Abdurrahman; Ozkan, Mustafa; Oto, Remzi

    2005-01-01

    The southeastern part of Turkey has comparatively high female suicide rates. We aimed to research social, economic, cultural, and psychiatric reasons of suicides in Batman in a case-controlled psychological autopsy study comparing suicides with matched community controls. The female suicide rate was 9.3 per 100.000 and the female/male ratio was…

  4. Haladaptatus pallidirubidus sp. nov., a halophilic archaeon isolated from saline soil samples in Yunnan and Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bing-Bing; Zhao, Wan-Yu; Chu, Xiao; Hozzein, Wael N; Prabhu, Deene Manik; Wadaan, Mohammed A M; Tang, Shu-Kun; Zhang, Li-Li; Li, Wen-Jun

    2014-11-01

    Two extremely halophilic archaea, designated YIM 90917 and YIM 93656(T), were isolated from saline soils in Yunnan province and Lup nur region in Xinjiang province, western China, respectively. Colonies of the two strains were observed to be pink-pigmented. The cells were found to be Gram-stain negative, coccoid and non-motile. The organisms were found to be aerobic and could grow in an NaCl range of 6-35 % (optimum 18 %), temperatures ranging from 25 to 50 °C (optimum 37-42 °C), pH range from 6.0-8.5 (optimum pH 7.0-7.5) and Mg(2+) range from 0 to 1.5 M (optimum 0.5-1.0 M); Mg(2+) was not necessary for growth. Cells were not observed to lyse in distilled water. Strains YIM 90917 and YIM 93656(T) showed the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities to Haladaptatus cibarius JCM 15962(T) (97.6 and 97.9 %, respectively). In addition, the DNA-DNA hybridizations of strains YIM 90917 and YIM 93656(T) with type strains H. cibarius JCM 15962(T), Haladaptatus litoreus JCM 15771(T) and Haladaptatus paucihalophilus JCM 13897(T) were 37.2 and 38.2 %, 36.6 and 39.0 % and 27.9 and 27.7 %, respectively. The DNA G+C contents of strains YIM 90917 and YIM 93656(T) were determined to be 56.0 and 57.4 mol%. The major polar lipids of the two strains were identified as phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol phosphate methyl ester, phosphatidylglycerol sulfate, sulfated mannosyl glucosyl diether and other four unidentified glycolipids. On the basis of physiological, chemotaxonomic data and phylogenetic analysis, the strains YIM 90917 and YIM 93656(T) can be classified as a novel species of the genus Haladaptatus, for which the name Haladaptatus pallidirubidus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YIM 93656(T) (=JCM 17504(T) = CCTCC AB2010454(T)).

  5. Comparative homegarden medical ethnobotany of Naxi healers and farmers in Northwestern Yunnan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lixin; Ahmed, Selena; Stepp, John Richard; Mi, Kai; Zhao, Yanqiang; Ma, Junzeng; Liang, Chen; Pei, Shengji; Huai, Huyin; Xu, Gang; Hamilton, Alan C; Yang, Zhi-wei; Xue, Dayuan

    2014-01-10

    Homegardens are ecologically and culturally important systems for cultivating medicinal plants for wellbeing by healers and farmers in Naxi communities of the Sino Himalayan region. The cultivation of medicinal plants in Naxi communities and associated ethnomedical knowledge base for maintaining and utilizing these resources is at risk with expanded commercialization of natural resources, development policies and rapid socio-economic change in China. Research is needed to understand the medicinal plant species maintained in Naxi homegardens, their use and contribution to community wellbeing, and how these practices and knowledge base varies between Naxi healers and farmers in order to develop plans for biodiversity conservation and preservation of ethnomedical practices. The main objective of this study is to document and compare medicinal plant species in Naxi homegardens and associated ethnomedical knowledge between Naxi healers and farmers. Ethnobotanical homegarden surveys were conducted with three Naxi healers and 28 farmer households in two Naxi communities in Lijiang Prefecture in Northwest Yunnan Province of China. Surveys included inventories of medicinal plants in homegardens and semi-structured interviews with homegarden managers to document traditional medicinal uses of inventoried plants. Inventoried plants were classified into 13 'usage categories' of medical condition groupings that impact a system of the body. Finally, plant species richness was calculated for each homegarden and species richness was compared between healers and farmers as well as between study sites using a Least Square Means Tukey HSD function. Ethnobotanical surveys at the study sites found that 13% of households rely exclusively on traditional Naxi medicine, 26% exclusively use Western medicine and 61% use a combination of traditional Naxi and Western medicine. A total of 106 medicinal plants were inventoried in Naxi homegardens representing 50 botanical families. Over 85% of

  6. Land use/land cover change geo-informative Tupu of Nujiang River in Northwest Yunnan Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin-liang; Yang, Yue-yuan; Huang, You-ju; Fu, Lei; Rao, Qing

    2008-10-01

    Land Use/Land Cover Change (LUCC) is the core components of global change researches. It is significant for understanding regional ecological environment and LUCC mechanism of large scale to develop the study of LUCC of regional level. Nujiang River is the upper reaches of a big river in the South Asia--Salween River. Nujiang River is a typical mountainous river which is 3200 kilometer long and its basin area is 32.5 × 105 square kilometer. It locates in the core of "Three Parallel Rivers" World Natural Heritage. It is one of international biodiversity conservation center of the world, the ecological fragile zone and key ecological construction area, as well as a remote undeveloped area with high diversity ethnic. With the rapidly development of society and economy, the land use and land cover changed in a great degree. The function of ecosystem has being degraded in some areas which will not only impact on the ecological construction of local area, but also on the ecological safety of lower reaches -- Salween River. Therefore it is necessary to carry out the research of LUCC of Nujiang River. Based on the theory and methods of geo-information Tupu, the "Spatial Pattern" and "Change Process" of land use of middle reach in Nujiang River from 1974 to 2004 had been studied in quantification and integration, so as to provide a case study in local area and mesoscale in time. Supported by the remote sensing and GIS technology, LUCC Tupu of 1974-2004 had been built and the characteristics of LUCC have been analyzed quantificationally. The results showed that the built-up land (Included in this category are cities, towns, villages, strip developments along highways, transportation, power, and communications facilities, and areas such as those occupied by mills, shopping centers, industrial and commercial complexes, and institutions that may, in some instances, be isolated from urban areas), agriculture land, shrubbery land, meadow & grassland, difficultly/unused land increased from 1974 to 2004, the increased area of shrubbery land was the greatest, while the area of forest, artificial forest, waters, glacier and snow covered land decreased. The biggest decreased area was forest land. The biggest LUCC was the transformation from forest land to shrubbery land, the transformation from forest land to rangeland and agriculture land was the second. The main area of LUCC located at Nujiang River valley, between 2200-3700m of the east slope in the Gaoligong Mountain and 2800-3900m of the west slope of the Biluo Snow Mountain. From the valley to peak of mountain, the main land use type was transited from built-up land, agricultures land, artificial forest land to natural forest, shrubbery and grass land. The natural forest was the main land in the past 30 years. The main driving forces were the increase of population of local area, the governmental policies (Conversion of Farmland to Forests and Grass Land Projects, etc.) and urbanization. In order to accelerate the sustainable development of society economy and the ecological environment protection in this ecological fragile zone, strict management should be adopted to adjust the behaviors of human beings. Finally, VCM (variable clumping method) curve had been used to analyses the internal spatial distribution difference of land-use/land cover which shown that the landscape fragmentation was increased, the number of patches was added, the distance between patches was diminished during the past thirty years (1974-2004).

  7. Establishing a rainfall threshold for flash flood warnings based on the DFFG method in Yunnan province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, M.; Wang, H.; Chen, Y.; Tang, G.; Hong, Z.; Zhang, K.; Hong, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Flash floods, one of the deadliest natural hazards worldwide due to their multidisciplinary nature, rank highly in terms of heavy damage and casualties. Such as in the United States, flash flood is the No.1 cause of death and the No. 2 most deadly weather-related hazard among all storm-related hazards, with approximately 100 lives lost each year. According to China Floods and Droughts Disasters Bullet in 2015 (http://www.mwr.gov.cn/zwzc/hygb/zgshzhgb), about 935 deaths per year on average were caused by flash floods from 2000 to 2015, accounting for 73 % of the fatalities due to floods. Therefore, significant efforts have been made toward understanding flash flood processes as well as modeling and forecasting them, it still remains challenging because of their short response time and limited monitoring capacity. This study advances the use of high-resolution Global Precipitation Measurement forecasts (GPMs), disaster data obtained from the government officials in 2011 and 2016, and the improved Distributed Flash Flood Guidance (DFFG) method combining the Distributed Hydrologic Model and Soil Conservation Service Curve Numbers. The objectives of this paper are (1) to examines changes in flash flood occurrence, (2) to estimate the effect of the rainfall spatial variability ,(2) to improve the lead time in flash floods warning and get the rainfall threshold, (3) to assess the DFFG method applicability in Dongchuan catchments, and (4) to yield the probabilistic information about the forecast hydrologic response that accounts for the locational uncertainties of the GPMs. Results indicate: (1) flash flood occurrence increased in the study region, (2) the occurrence of predicted flash floods show high sensitivity to total infiltration and soil water content, (3) the DFFG method is generally capable of making accurate predictions of flash flood events in terms of their locations and time of occurrence, and (4) the accumulative rainfall over a certain time span is an appropriate threshold for flash flood warnings. Finally, the article highlights the importance of accurately simulating the hydrological processes and high-resolution satellite rainfall data on the accurate forecasting of rainfall triggered flash flood events.

  8. [Evaluation of soil quality under different land use types in Naban River watershed, Yunnan Province of Southwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jin; Li, Zhao-Li; Li, Yong-Mei; Guo, Fang-Fang

    2011-12-01

    Eighty-six topsoil (0-20 cm) samples were collected from 8 land use types (natural forest land, maize field, tea garden, paddy field, rubber plantation, flax field, banana plantation, and sugarcane field) in the Naban River Watershed National Nature Reserve and its surrounding areas, and the soil physical and chemical properties were analyzed, aimed to study the effects of land use type on the soil quality by the method of soil quality index (SQI). Comparing with natural forest land, all the cultivated lands had somewhat decreased soil organic matter content and higher soil bulk density, and the soil bulk density was significantly higher in tea garden, paddy field, rubber plantation, and banana plantation. In cultivated lands, fertilization and reclamation made the soil available potassium and phosphorus contents maintained at a higher level, probably due to the input of mineral potassium and phosphorus and the decomposition of soil organic matter. The SQI of the 8 land use types was in the order of flax field (0.595) > natural forest land (0.532) > maize field (0.516) > banana plantation (0.485) tea garden (0.480) sugarcane field (0.463) > paddy field (0.416) > rubber plantation (0.362). The soils in higher altitude production demonstration areas (1614 +/-115 m) had significant higher SQI, compared to the soils in lower altitude buffer areas (908 +/- 98 m) and junction areas (926 +/- 131 m). Among the 8 land use types, the rubber plantation in lower altitude areas had the lowest SQI, due to the lower soil organic matter and available potassium and phosphorus contents and the highest soil bulk density. Application of organic manure or intercropping with leguminous plants could be an available practice to improve the soil quality of the rubber plantation.

  9. RELATION BETWEEN PRECIPITATION AND INITIATION OF DEBRIS FLOWS IN THE JIANGJIA RAVINE,YUNNAN PROVINCE, SOUTHWEST CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zili FENG; Peng CUI; Xiaoqing CHEN; Jie CHEN

    2006-01-01

    In the Jiangjia Ravine, debris flows are often triggered by short-duration rainstorms frequently. To reveal the unique initiation process of debris flows, rainfall and debris flow initiation in an upstream area was continually observed. It is concluded that flash floods resulting from short-duration rainstorms play a key role in the initiation of debris flows. Surface runoff forms flash floods due to special topographic conditions. The flash floods mobilize the sediment deposits in the upper section of the branch gullies,hence, high density viscous debris flows initiate. The initiation of debris flows in the Jiangjia Ravine has a close relation with precipitation. Applying the Takahashi model of debris flow initiation, it is concluded that: to mobilize cohesive deposits in the gully bed the depth of flash floods must exceed a critical depth. This critical depth of floods makes the definition of thresholds of rainfall intensity possible. Considering the change in the initial infiltration rate at different initial water content of bank slopes, and the influence of antecedent precipitation on the initial water content, the relation between the thresholds of rainfall intensity and the antecedent precipitation show good agreement with the empirical relation established by previous research.

  10. Intrinsic versus extrinsic controls on the development of calcite dendrite bushes, Shuzhishi Spring, Rehai geothermal area, Tengchong, Yunnan Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Brian; Peng, Xiaotong

    2012-04-01

    In the Rehai geothermal area, located near Tengchong, there is an old succession of crystalline calcite that formed from a spring that is no longer active. The thin-bedded succession, exposed on the south bank of Zaotang River, is formed of three-dimensional dendrite bushes that are up to 6 cm high and 3 cm in diameter with multiple levels of branching. Bedding is defined by color, which ranges from white to gray to almost black and locally accentuated by differential weathering that highlights the branching motif of the dendrites. The succession developed through repeated tripartite growth cycles that involved: Phase I that was characterized by rapid vertical growth of the dendrite bushes with ever-increasing branching; Phase II that developed once growth of the dendrites had almost or totally ceased, and involved an initial phase of etching that was followed by the precipitation of various secondary minerals (sheet calcite, trigonal calcite crystals, hexagonal calcite crystals, hexagonal plates formed of Ca and P, Mn precipitates, Si-Mg reticulate coatings, opal-CT lepispheres) on the branches of the calcite dendrites, and Phase III that involved deposition of detrital quartz, feldspar, clay, and calcite on top of the dendrite bushes. The tripartite growth cycle is attributed primarily to aperiodic cycles in the CO2 content of the spring water that was controlled by subsurface igneous activity rather than climatic controls. High CO2 coupled with rapid CO2 degassing triggered growth of the dendrite bushes. As CO2 levels waned, saturation levels in the spring water decreased and calcite dendrite growth ceased and precipitation of the secondary minerals took place, possibly in the microcosms of microbial mats. Deposition of the detrital sediment was probably related to surface runoff that was triggered by periods of high rainfall. Critically, this study shows that intrinsic factors rather than extrinsic factors (e.g., climate) were the prime control on the development of the tripartite growth cycle.

  11. Indoor concentrations of nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide from burning solid fuels for cooking and heating in Yunnan Province, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seow, Wei Jie; Downward, George S; Wei, Hu; Rothman, Nathaniel; Reiss, Boris; Xu, Jun; Bassig, Bryan A; Li, Jihua; He, Jun; Hosgood, H Dean; Wu, Guoping; Chapman, Robert S; Tian, Linwei; Wei, Fusheng; Caporaso, Neil E; Vermeulen, Roel; Lan, Qing

    2016-01-01

    The Chinese national pollution census has indicated that the domestic burning of solid fuels is an important contributor to nitrogen dioxide (NO2 ) and sulfur dioxide (SO2 ) emissions in China. To characterize indoor NO2 and SO2 air concentrations in relation to solid fuel use and stove ventilation

  12. Multi-geophysical approaches to detect karst channels underground - A case study in Mengzi of Yunnan Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Fuping; Han, Kai; Lan, Funing; Chen, Yuling; Zhang, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Mengzi locates in the south 20 km away from the outlet of Nandong subsurface river, and has been suffering from water deficiency in recent years. It is necessary to find out the water resources underground according to the geological characteristics such as the positions and buried depths of the underground river to improve the civil and industrial environments. Due to the adverse factors such as topographic relief, bare rocks in karst terrains, the geophysical approaches, such as Controlled Source Audio Magnetotellurics and Seismic Refraction Tomography, were used to roughly identify faults and fracture zones by the geophysical features of low resistivity and low velocity, and then used the mise-a-la-masse method to judge which faults and fracture zones should be the potential channels of the subsurface river. Five anomalies were recognized along the profile of 2.4 km long and showed that the northeast river system has several branches. Drilling data have proved that the first borehole indicated a water bearing channel by a characteristics of rock core of river sands and gravels deposition, the second one encountered water-filled fracture zone with abundant water, and the third one exposed mud-filled fracture zone without sustainable water. The results from this case study show that the combination of Controlled Source Audio Magnetotellurics, Seismic Refraction Tomography and mise-a-la-Masse is one of the effective methods to detect water-filled channels or fracture zones in karst terrains.

  13. Mobile population dynamics and malaria vulnerability: a modelling study in the China-Myanmar border region of Yunnan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tian-Mu; Zhang, Shao-Sen; Feng, Jun; Xia, Zhi-Gui; Luo, Chun-Hai; Zeng, Xu-Can; Guo, Xiang-Rui; Lin, Zu-Rui; Zhou, Hong-Ning; Zhou, Shui-Sen

    2018-04-29

    The China-Myanmar border region presents a great challenge in malaria elimination in China, and it is essential to understand the relationship between malaria vulnerability and population mobility in this region. A community-based, cross-sectional survey was performed in five villages of Yingjiang county during September 2016. Finger-prick blood samples were obtained to identify asymptomatic infections, and imported cases were identified in each village (between January 2013 and September 2016). A stochastic simulation model (SSM) was used to test the relationship between population mobility and malaria vulnerability, according to the mechanisms of malaria importation. Thirty-two imported cases were identified in the five villages, with a 4-year average of 1 case/year (range: 0-5 cases/year). No parasites were detected in the 353 blood samples from 2016. The median density of malaria vulnerability was 0.012 (range: 0.000-0.033). The average proportion of mobile members of the study population was 32.56% (range: 28.38-71.95%). Most mobile individuals lived indoors at night with mosquito protection. The SSM model fit the investigated data (χ 2  = 0.487, P = 0.485). The average probability of infection in the members of the population that moved to Myanmar was 0.011 (range: 0.0048-0.1585). The values for simulated vulnerability increased with greater population mobility in each village. A high proportion of population mobility was associated with greater malaria vulnerability in the China-Myanmar border region. Mobile population-specific measures should be used to decrease the risk of malaria re-establishment in China.

  14. BIOGEOGRAPHICAL IMPLICATIONS OF SOME PLANT SPECIES FROM A TROPICAL MONTANE RAIN FOREST IN SOUTHERN YUNNAN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Hua

    2004-01-01

    A pristine montane rain forest was recently discovered from Mengsong of Xishuangbanna in the southern Yunnan.It attracts botanists that many primitive plant taxa across various life forms were co-existed in the montane rain forest.In order to know the biogeography of the montane rain forest,distribution patterns of some species of biogeographical importance from the montane forest were enumerated and their biogeographical implications were discussed with geological explanation.It was concluded that the montane rain forest in the southern Yunnan has strong affinity to montane rain forests in Sumatra or Southeast Asia in broad sense.It was tentatively suggested that Sumatra could be once connected to Myanmar and drifted away due to northward movement of continental Asia by bumping of India plate.

  15. Monitoring of organochlorine pesticides using PFU systems in Yunnan lakes and rivers, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun; Zhang, Wenjing; Shen, Yunfen; Feng, Weisong; Wang, Xinhua

    2007-01-01

    Polyurethane foam unit (PFU) systems were collected from 11 lakes and three rivers in the Yunnan Plateau, China and, the PFU extrusion liquids were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) by gas chromatography with electron capture detection (GC-ECD). The concentrations of pp'-DDE, HCB and HCHs were undetectable to 1.86 microgl-1 (mean 0.27 microgl-1), undetectable to 0.72 microgl-1 (mean 0.11 microgl-1), and 0.24-21.95 microgl-1 (mean 7.39 microgl-1) respectively in lakes; and those in rivers were undetectable to 0.23 microgl-1 (mean 0.08 microgl-1), 0.68-2.93 microgl-1 (mean 1.70 microgl-1), and 2.71-37.56 microgl-1 (mean 17.01 microgl-1) respectively. Notably, some residue levels of OCPs exceeded the US National Recommended Water Quality Criteria, implying Yunnan has levels of OCPs potentially harmful to human health. Further, the contamination by OCPs showed an obvious spatial distribution pattern. Amongst the lakes, Dianchi, Xingyun, Lugu and Yangzonghai had the highest OCP levels dominated by beta-HCH, whereas among rivers, Nujiang and Lancang Rivers had the highest contents of OCPs dominated by alpha-HCH. This demonstrates that HCHs are the predominant contaminants and some point sources of HCHs may still exist in Yunnan. The pollution levels in Yunnan were compared with other studies, suggesting the PFU method is suitable for long-term on-line monitoring of trace OCPs in aquatic ecosystems. Therefore, continuous studies monitoring OCPs in lakes and rivers are needed to further understand the future trend of contamination.

  16. Study on Status, Problems and Countermeasures of Developing Popular Science Tourism of Geoparks in Yunnan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Wufu; Cheng, Xianfeng; Huang, Qianrui

    2017-12-01

    Tourism development of Yunnan geoparks keeps in the stage of “sightseeing tour” and the real “popular science tourism” keeps in the explorative stage, thus it has a series of problems, such as uncorrelation between tourist attractions and geology, uncorrelation between geologic observation spot and tourism, and insufficient scientificity of commentary, etc. By aiming at these problems, corresponding countermeasures and suggestion were proposed.

  17. Tourism: an alternative to development?: reconsidering farming, tourism and conservation incentives in Northwest Yunnan mountainous communities

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Mingyu; Hens, Luc; Ou, XiaoKun; De Wulf, Robert

    2009-01-01

    In the last decade, tourism has developed rapidly in the mountainous areas of northwest Yunnan. This growth has led to substantial economic and social changes, with resulting environmental consequences. This article uses a case study to illustrate how local farmers involved in tourism changed their agricultural practices as a result of the transformations that took place in the area. The aim was to examine tourism's expected benefits of poverty alleviation and conservation incentives. Tourism...

  18. Coptis teeta-based agroforestry system and its conservation potential: a case study from northwest Yunnan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ji; Long, Chunlin

    2007-06-01

    Coptis teeta (Ranunculaceae), is a nontimber forest product (NTFP) that only grows in northwest Yunnan and northeast India. Its tenuous rhizome, known as "Yunnan goldthread" in the traditional Chinese medicine system, has been used as an antibacterial and as an antiinflammatory medicine for a long time. The increasing demand has resulted in commercial harvesting pressure on wild populations that were already dwindling as a result of deforestation, and wild populations are at risk of extinction. Fortunately, there exists at least 2000 hectares of a C. teeta-based agroforestry system initiated by the Lisu people in Nujiang, northwest Yunnan. This cultivation supplies us with a valuable study case for the balance between conservation and sustainable use. This case study investigated the traditional management system and history of C. teeta in Nujiang through ethnobotanical methods and field investigation. We also contrasted initial costs, economic returns, and labor demands for C. teeta cultivation with other major land uses in the region. Compared with swidden agriculture, the major land-use type in the region, C. teeta cultivation offers high economic returns and low labor and initial costs; moreover, C. teeta cultivation does not interfere with subsistence agricultural duties. This agroforestry system reflected that the cultivation of NTFPs is a conservation strategy for maintaining forest diversity, while providing a stable economic return to local forest communities, and indicates how local people manage biodiversity effectively.

  19. A Cohort Study on Risk Factors of Lung Cancer in Yunnan Tin Miners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong JIANG

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Smoking is a major cause of lung cancer. Studies of lung cancer among miners have shown that occupational exposure also played an important role. The aim of this study is to investigate radon, cigarette use and other risk factors of lung cancer in Yunnan tin miners and to provide a scientific basis for the prevention and control of occupational lung cancer. Methods A prospective cohort study was conducted among Yunnan tin miners, the associations between potential risk factors for lung cancer were analyzed by multivariate Cox regression model. Effects of age at first radon exposure and radon exposure rate on lung cancer risk were analyzed. The relationship between cumulative working level month and lung cancer was analyzed according to smoking status. The joint effect of tobacco use and cumulative radon exposure was analyzed based on additive and multiplicative models. Results Increased risk of lung cancer was associated with age at enrollment, tobacco use, prior bronchitis, and cumulative arsenic and radon exposure, while higher education level was associated with decreased lung cancer risk. An inverse effect of radon exposure rate was observed. There was no significant association between lung cancer risk and first radon exposure age. There was a significant additive interaction between tobacco use and radon exposure on lung cancer risk. Conclusion Several risk factors may contribute to the high incidence of lung cancer in Yunnan tin miners. Further studies are warranted to evaluate joint effect of different risk factors.

  20. Fluoride content and distribution pattern in groundwater of eastern Yunnan and western Guizhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Kunli; Liu, Yonglin; Li, Huijie

    2012-02-01

    For study, the fluoride (F) content and distribution pattern in groundwater of eastern Yunnan and western Guizhou fluorosis area in southwestern China, the F content of 93 water samples [groundwater (fissure water, cool spring, and hot springs), rivers water] and 60 rock samples were measured. The result shows the F content of the fissure water and cold spring water is 0.027-0.47 mg/L, and river water is 0.048-0.224 mg/L. The F content of hot spring water is 1.02-6.907 mg/L. The drinking water supplied for local resident is mainly from fissure water, cool spring, and river water. And the F content in all of them is much lower than the Chinese National Standard (1.0 mg/L), which is the safe intake of F in drinking water. The infected people in eastern Yunnan and western Guizhou fluorosis area have very little F intake from the drinking water. The hot spring water in fluorosis area of eastern Yunnan and western Guizhou, southwest China has high F content, which is not suitable for drinking. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

  1. Rapid Re-Infection with Soil-Transmitted Helminths after Triple-Dose Albendazole Treatment of School-Aged Children in Yunnan, People's Republic of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Peiling; Du, Zun-Wei; Wu, Fang-Wei; Jiang, Jin-Yong; Chen, Ran; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Hattendorf, Jan; Utzinger, Jürg; Steinmann, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Post-treatment soil-transmitted helminth re-infection patterns were studied as part of a randomized controlled trial among school-aged children from an ethnic minority group in Yunnan province, People's Republic of China. Children with a soil-transmitted helminth infection (N = 194) were randomly assigned to triple-dose albendazole or placebo and their infection status monitored over a 6-month period using the Kato-Katz and Baermann techniques. Baseline prevalence of Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm, and Strongyloides stercoralis were 94.5%, 93.3%, 61.3%, and 3.1%, respectively, with more than half of the participants harboring triple-species infections. For the intervention group (N = 99), the 1-month post-treatment cure rates were 96.7%, 91.5%, and 19.6% for hookworm, A. lumbricoides, and T. trichiura, respectively. Egg reduction rates were above 88% for all three species. Rapid re-infection with A. lumbricoides was observed: the prevalence 4 and 6 months post-treatment was 75.8% and 83.8%, respectively. Re-infection with hookworm and T. trichiura was considerably slower. PMID:23690551

  2. From a Yunnan mountain to a Tibetan highland-the story of a hundred years of cosmic ray research in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Youheng

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of cosmic rays a hundred years ago opened a new field of view to the universe and the mysterious particle world, leading to the birth of particle physics. Cosmic ray research in China was started in the early 50's of the last century by several senior scientists who had already distinguished themselves abroad in this subject. The first cosmic ray observatory in China was built on a mountain in Yunnan province, and many high level results were obtained in the ensuing ten years. Then after almost twenty years of political unrest, the national 'Reform and Opening up' policy provided a good opportunity to stimulate development and to narrow the wide gap caused by long term stagnation. The second generation of Chinese cosmic ray researchers chose high altitude extensive air showers as their new target of observation, and embarked on twenty years of hard work to build a modern international cosmic ray experimental station at Yangbajing in Tibet, 4300 m above sea level. The manually operated cloud chamber was transformed into a large-scale high-technology facility , capable of performing various international research programs with its unique low threshold energy, high trigger rate and wide field of view. The Yanbajing Observatory symbolizes that China's cosmic ray research has started on a new march towards excellence. (author)

  3. Dynamics of the HIV epidemic in southern China: sexual and drug-using behaviours among female sex workers and male clients in Yunnan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, J J; Smith, M K; Chu, J; Ding, G W; Chang, D F; Sharp, G B; Qian, H Z; Lu, L; Bi, A M; Wang, N

    2012-09-01

    To examine the HIV/sexually transmitted infection (STI)-related risk behaviours among community-based female sex workers (FSWs) and their clients in Yunnan Province, China, we performed a cross-sectional study of 705 FSWs and 100 male clients. We found that HIV seroprevalence among FSWs was 13.0% and the most prevalent STI was herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) (71.1%), followed by Chlamydia trachomatis (18.1%) and syphilis (8.8%). The 20% of FSWs who reported injection drug use also reported needle-sharing behaviours in the last three months. Drug-using FSWs had substantially higher HIV and HSV-2 prevalence, serviced more clients and had a longer history of sex work than non-using FSWs. In total, 57.0% of male clients did not consistently use condoms with FSWs, 2.0% reported illicit drug use and 17.0% had STI symptoms in the last year. The dual risk behaviours of drug-using FSWs and clients place them at greater risk of HIV infection. Intervention programmes must adopt comprehensive methods.

  4. [The incidence of oral candidiasis in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome from Yunnan, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yan; Li, Chengwen; Pei, Junhaoxiang; Bai, Jinsong; Yang, Xianghong; Duan, Kaiwen

    2014-08-01

    To assess the incidence of oral candidiasis and its influencing factors in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS). An oral examination was conducted in the 1 566 HIV/AIDS patients in the Third Hospital of Kunming from March 2008 to September 2012 (M/F: 1 062/504, age range: 0.2 to 84.0 years old). The HIV viral load (HIV- RNA) and peripheral blood CD4 count were respectively analyzed by Bayer Q340 fluorescence signal surveying instrument (bDNA method) and flow cytometry analysis. The information on usage of highly active anti-retroviral (HAART) drugs and transmission of HIV were obtained through questionnaires. The incidence of oral candidiasis in patients with different HIV-RNA levels and CD4 count and the use of HAART was analyzed and compared. The total incidence of oral candidosis was 31.0% (486/1 566) and there was no difference in sex. The oral lesions were presented by three types, psudomembranous candidosis (PC), erythematous candidosis (EC) and angular cheilitis (AC), and the morbidity was 13.9% (217/1 566), 17.0% (267/1 566) and 4.9% (77/1 566), respectively. The average level of CD4 count in psudomembranous candidosis, erythematous candidosis and angular cheilitis [81.0 (146.0), 74.0 (152.0) and 69.0 (121.5) cell/µl] showed no significant difference (P > 0.05). The incidence of oral candidiasis in non-HAART and HAART subjects were 36.3% (402/1 107) and 18.3% (84/459), respectively (P = 0.000). The CD4 count and absolute counts of HIV viral load in oral candidiasis patients and non-oral candidiasis patients had significant difference (Z = -10.261, P = 0.000 and Z = -4.762, P = 0.000). The morbidity of oral candidiasis in HIV/AIDS patients in Yunnan Province was high, including PC, EC and AC and hyperplastic candidosis was not detected. The incidence was related to the degree of immune suppression and HIV viral load.

  5. Financial Support for Farmers’ Cooperative Organizations——A Case of Yunan Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In the paper,the status quo of the development of farmers’ cooperative organizations in Yunnan Province is introduced.And then a series of problems exist in the financial support of farmers’ cooperatives in Yunnan is analyzed,covering the unitary mainstay of credit and loan supply;inadequate credit and loan supply caused by famers’ lack of security and mortgage;farmers’ difficulties in loaning from banks or other financial institutions;single financial service,which can not satisfy the demands of farmers;the private loans are active while lacks right direction and guide;the outflow of capital in rural areas has limited the development of rural economy.In view of the above mentioned problems,countermeasures and relevant suggestions are put forward,namely increasing the subjects of the loan and credit supply and expanding the financing channels.Therefore,the spheres of business of the Agricultural Development Bank of China should be expanded.Besides,the support from Agricultural Bank of China for rural construction should be strengthened and the major role played by rural credit cooperatives in rural finance should be enforced.In addition,the innovation of financial products should be highlighted;the appearance of private financing should be allowed;financial support from the government should be increased and the preferential policies for taxes and fees should be implemented.

  6. Phonological sketch and classification of Lawu, an undocumented Ngwi language of Yunnan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathryn Yang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lawu is a severely endangered, undocumented Ngwi (Loloish language spoken in Yunnan, China. This paper presents a preliminary sketch of Lawu phonology based on lexico-phonetic data recorded from two speakers in 2008, with special attention to the tone splits and mergers that distinguish Lawu from other Ngwi languages. All tone categories except Proto-Ngwi Tone *3, a mid level pitch, have split, conditioned by the voicing of the initial segment. In the conditioning and effect of these tone splits, Lawu shows affinity with other Central Ngwi languages such as Lisu and Lahu and is provisionally classified as a Central Ngwi language.

  7. A study on the spiral shell in Dianchi, Yunnan, as domestic feed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Shouxiang; Yang Ruikun

    1990-01-01

    This article studies the accumulation and the metastasis of natural radioactive nuclei in the corporal of chicken when spiral shell is used as domestic feed. The result shows that the contents of natural radioactivity nuclei U, Th, and 226 Ra vary with the chicken meat, chicken bone, chicken egg and egg capsule. Their accumulation and metastasis are in the order: Th > U > 226 Ra, but the levels of the three radioactive nuclei are all below the limited levels of radioactive substances in the food standard of the People's Republic of China. This study provides a basis for developing and making use of the spiral shell as domestic feed in Dianchi, Yunnan

  8. The Design and Implementation of Virtual Roaming in Yunnan Diqing Tibetan traditional Villages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Lucheng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional residence is the continuation of intangible cultural heritage and the primitive soil for development. At present, the protection and inheritance of traditional villages have been impacted by the process of modernization, and the phenomenon of assimilation is very serious. This article takes the above questions as the breakthrough point, and then analyzes why and how to use virtual reality technology to better solve the above problems, and take the Yunnan Diqing Tibetan traditional dwellings as the specific example to explore. First, using VR technology, with real images and sound, the paper simulate a near real virtual world. Secondly, we collect a large amount of real image information, and make the visualization model of building by using 3DMAX software platform, UV Mapping and Rendering optimization. Finally, the Vizard virtual reality development platform was used to establish the roaming system and realize the virtual interaction. The roaming system was posted online so that overcome the disadvantages of not intuitive and low capability of interaction, and these new ideas can give a whole new meaning in the protection projects of the cultural relic buildings. At the same time, visitors could enjoy the "Dian-style" architectural style and cultural connotation of dwelling house in Diqing Yunnan.

  9. Research on the Digital Communication and Development of Yunnan Bai Embroidery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wu; Jin, Chunjie; Su, Ying; Wu, Lei; He, Jin

    2017-12-01

    Our country attaches great importance to the protection and development of intangible culture these days, but the shortcoming of discoloration, breakage and occupying too much space still exist in the traditional way of museum protection. This paper starts from the analysis of the above problems, and then cogitates why and how to use the virtual reality (VR) technology to better solve these problems and analyzes this specific object of the Yunnan Bai embroidery in order to achieve its full human value and economic value. Firstly, using 3D MAX to design and produce the three-dimensional model of the embroideries of Bai nationality. Secondly, using the large number of embroidery model data that we collect to construct the Yunnan Bai embroidery model database. Next, creating a digital display system of virtual embroidery and putting the digital display system to the PC client websites and mobile phone applications to achieve information sharing. Finally, through the use of virtual display technology for three-dimensional design of embroidery, the embroidery clothing, bedding and other works with modern style can be designed so as to continuously pursue and give full play to the charm and economic value of embroidery.

  10. Distribution of the Crustal Magnetic Field in Sichuan-Yunnan Region, Southwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhua Bai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the new and higher degree geomagnetic model NGDC-720-V3, we have investigated the spatial distribution, the altitude decay characteristics of the crustal magnetic anomaly, the contributions from different wavelength bands to the anomaly, and the relationship among the anomaly, the geological structure, and the geophysical field in Sichuan-Yunnan region of China. It is noted that the most outstanding feature in this area is the strong positive magnetic anomaly in Sichuan Basin, a geologically stable block. Contrasting with this feature, a strong negative anomaly can be seen nearby in Longmen Mountain block, an active block. This contradiction implies a possible relationship between the magnetic field and the geological activity. Completely different feature in magnetic field distribution is seen in the central Yunnan block, another active region, where positive and negative anomalies distribute alternatively, showing a complex magnetic anomaly map. Some fault belts, such as the Longmen Mountain fault, Lijiang-Xiaojinhe fault, and the Red River fault, are the transitional zones of strong and weak or negative and positive anomalies. The corresponding relationship between the magnetic anomaly and the geophysical fields was confirmed.

  11. Topical Yunnan Baiyao administration as an adjunctive therapy for bleeding complications in adolescents with advanced cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladas, E J; Karlik, J B; Rooney, D; Taromina, K; Ndao, D H; Granowetter, L; Kelly, K M

    2012-12-01

    Yunnan Baiyao (White Medicine from Yunnan, YNB) is a Chinese herbal medicinal powder used to stop bleeding and improve circulation in traumatic injuries. We describe the use of YNB in adolescents with cancer as an adjunct to uncontrolled bleeding in the palliative care setting. Through a retrospective chart review of all patients receiving integrative medicine consultations at the Integrative Therapies Program at Columbia University from January 1, 2007 to January 31, 2012, we describe the outcome of patients treated with YNB for management of uncontrolled bleeding. Four patients were identified who received topical YNB for uncontrolled bleeding; patients included two males and two females with diagnoses of solid tumors (n = 3) and Burkitt's lymphoma (n = 1). Mean age was 15.5 years (range 15-17). Fifty percent had life-threatening bleeding from the tumor site and 50 % experienced uncontrollable epistaxis. All patients received preceding therapy with packed red blood cells and platelet transfusions, topical thrombin, and oral aminocaproic acid. Two patients used YNB in the inpatient setting, and all four patients used YNB as outpatients. In all patients, bleeding control improved with the addition of YNB to conventional hemostatic interventions. Two patients using YNB in their home reported control of bleeding episodes. There were no adverse events reported. YNB may be an efficacious agent for uncontrolled bleeding in conjunction with conventional hemostatic agents in adolescents with advanced cancer. It is well accepted by patients. YNB may be especially valuable in the outpatient setting to prevent the recurrence of hemorrhage.

  12. Attraction of Tomicus yunnanensis (Coleoptera: Scolytidae to Yunnan Pine Logs with and without Periderm or Phloem: An Effective Monitoring Bait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Chun Lu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Yunnan pine shoot beetle, Tomicus yunnanensis Kirkendall and Faccoli (Coleoptera: Scolytinae is an important pest of Yunnan pine (Pinus yunnanensis Franch in China. Experiments with host log baits were done to develop a pest monitoring system using host tree kairomone. Five Yunnan pine logs (each 10–15 cm diam. × 30-cm long in a trap-log bundle were treated by peeling periderm (outer bark off to expose the phloem, and half of each log was covered with sticky adhesive to capture any attracted adult beetles. Significantly, more beetles were attracted and caught on the periderm-peeled logs (ca 30 beetles/m2 log surface/day than on untreated control logs with adhesive (ca 2.5/m2/day. No significant differences were observed between catches on logs taken from lower or upper halves of Yunnan pines. T. yunnanensis flies mostly during the afternoon according to trap catches throughout the day. Attraction to the periderm-peeled logs decreased considerably when they were peeled further to remove the phloem, indicating phloem volatiles play a role in selection of the host by the beetle. The readily-available log baits appear useful for monitoring pine shoot beetle populations in integrated pest management programs.

  13. Mineralogical and Geochemical Characteristics of Late Permian Coals from the Mahe Mine, Zhaotong Coalfield, Northeastern Yunnan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xibo Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the mineralogical and geochemical compositions of the Late Permian C2, C5a, C5b, C6a, and C6b semianthracite coals from the Mahe mine, northeastern Yunnan, China. Minerals in the coals are mainly made up of quartz, chamosite, kaolinite, mixed-layer illite/smectite (I/S, pyrite, and calcite; followed by anatase, dolomite, siderite, illite and marcasite. Similar to the Late Permian coals from eastern Yunnan, the authigenic quartz and chamosite were precipitated from the weathering solution of Emeishan basalt, while kaolinite and mixed-layer I/S occurring as lenses or thin beds were related to the weathering residual detrital of Emeishan basalt. However, the euhedral quartz and apatite particles in the Mahe coals were attributed to silicic-rock detrital input. It further indicates that there has been silicic igneous eruption in the northeastern Yunnan. Due to the silicic rock detrital input, the Eu/Eu* value of the Mahe coals is lower than that of the Late Permian coals from eastern Yunnan, where the detrital particles were mainly derived from the basalt. The high contents of Sc, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Ga, and Sn in the Mahe coals were mainly derived from the Kangdian Upland.

  14. Late Pliocene diversity and distribution of Drynaria (Polypodiaceae in western Yunnan explained by forest vegetation and humid climates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Jiang Huang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The palaeodiversity of flowering plants in Yunnan has been extensively interpreted from both a molecular and fossil perspective. However, for cryptogamic plants such as ferns, the palaeodiversity remains poorly known. In this study, we describe a new ferny fossil taxon, Drynaria lanpingensis sp. nov. Huang, Su et Zhou (Polypodiaceae, from the late Pliocene of northwestern Yunnan based on fragmentary frond and pinna with in situ spores. The frond is pinnatifid and the pinnae are entirely margined. The sori are arranged in one row on each side of the primary vein. The spores have a semicircular to bean-shaped equatorial view and a tuberculate surface. Taken together with previously described fossils, there are now representatives of three known fossil taxa of Drynaria from the late Pliocene of western Yunnan. These finds suggest that Drynaria diversity was considerable in the region at that time. As Drynaria is a shade-tolerant plant, growing preferably in wet conditions in the understory of forests, its extensive existence may indicate forest vegetation and humid climates in western Yunnan during the late Pliocene. This is in line with results from floristic investigations and palaeoclimatic reconstructions based on fossil floras.

  15. Did Eucalyptus contribute to environment degradation? Implications from a dispute on causes of severe drought in Yunnan and Guizhou, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WenJun Zhang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Various viewpoints were proposed to explain the causes of recent years' severe drought occurred in Yunnan and Guizhou, China. In general there are two parties of viewpoints, the Eucalyptus cause and climate change cause. I think Yunnan-Guizhou drought has been mainly caused by abnormal climate change. Eucalyptus was not significant in the formation of Yunnan-Guizhou drought. However, the forestation effect of Eucalyptus in China was not good. Environment quality and biodiversity in Eucalyptus plantation forests has been degrading in last decades. Enhancement of alleopathy of Eucalyptus trees under drought conditions would partly contribute to biodiversity reduction and environment degradation in Eucalyptus plantation forests. For existing Eucalyptus plantation forests of Yunnan, I suggest that some improvement measures should be adopted. Artificial weeding and cleaning in Eucalyptus plantation forests should be banned. Density of Eucalyptus trees needs to be reduced. Biodiversity should be artificially improved in Eucalyptus plantation forests. In the future, the mountains and lands with better vegetation cover must not be reclaimed for Eucalyptus planting. Eucalyptus plantation forests should be made in barren mountains and lands with poor biodiversity.

  16. Crustal Structure and Deformation of the Sichuan-Yunnan Region Revealed by receiver Function Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, S.; Zheng, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Sichuan-Yunnan and its surrounding areas locates in the southeast side to the Tibetan Plateau, due to the intrusion of the Indian Plate under the Tibetan Plateau, materials escape from the Tibetan Plateau and flow southward to southeastward. Because of such tectonic environment, the Sichuan-Yunnan region is experiencing high tectonic movement, and is capable of highly diffused seismicity. Based on dynamic simulation and field survey investigations, tectonic and geological studies proposed a decoupling model in this region and lower crustal flow may inflate in the crust. However, this idea needs more evidences, especially anisotropic structures to support it, since the anisotropic structures are usually directly related to the movement of materials, or to the tectonic distributions. In the past several years, a number of works have been done on the anisotropic structures in the Tibetan Plateau and its surroundings. In usually, previous studies were mainly carried out by two kinds of methods. First, the shear wave splitting of SKS, which mainly reflects the accumulation effect of the anisotropy of the crust to the mantle; the other way is use surface wave to investigate the anisotropic features at different azimuths and depths. In the recent years, receiver function is used to determine the inclination and anisotropy of the subsurface structure, comparing with the other two methods, receiver functions can provide higher resolution and reliable anisotropic features in the crust. Following the method of Liu and Niu(2012), we collected teleseismic data from the Himalayan first term network, and picked out high quality data based on the waveform SNR ratio, as well as the azimuthal distributions. Comparing with previous work (e.g., Sun et al.,2012), our work can provide more receiver functions results with higher reliability. We find that the crust beneath the Sichuan-Yunnan region has a thickness of 30-60 km and Vp/Vs ratio of 1.70-1.80. The Moho depth from northwest to

  17. Prescription practice of anti-tuberculosis drugs in Yunnan, China: A clinical audit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Xu

    Full Text Available China has a high burden of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB. As irrational use and inadequate dosing of anti-TB drugs may contribute to the epidemic of drug-resistant TB, we assessed the drug types and dosages prescribed in the treatment of TB cases in a representative sample of health care facilities in Yunnan.We applied multistage cluster sampling using probability proportion to size to select 28 counties in Yunnan. Consecutive pulmonary TB patients were enrolled from either the TB centers of Yunnan Center of Disease Control or designated TB hospitals. Outcomes of interest included the regimen used in the treatment of new and retreatment TB patients; and the proportion of patients treated with adequate dosing of anti-TB drugs. Furthermore, we assess whether there has been reduction in the use of fluoroquinolone and second line injectables in Tuberculosis Clinical Centre (TCC after the training activity in late 2012.Of 2390 TB patients enrolled, 582 (24.4% were prescribed second line anti-TB drugs (18.0% in new cases and 60.9% in retreatment cases; 363(15.2% prescribed a fluoroquinolone. General hospitals (adjusted odds ratio (adjOR 1.97, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.47-2.66, retreatment TB cases (adjOR 4.75, 95% CI 3.59-6.27, smear positive cases (adjOR 1.69, 95% CI 1.22-2.33, and extrapulmonary TB (adjOR 2.59, 95% CI 1.66-4.03 were significantly associated with the use of fluoroquinolones. The proportion of patients treated with fluoroquinolones decreased from 41.4% before 2013 to 13.5% after 2013 (adjOR 0.19, 95% CI 0.12-0.28 in TCC. The proportion of patients with correct, under and over dosages of isoniazid was 88.2%, 1.5%, and 10.4%, respectively; of rifampicin was 50.2%, 46.8%, and 2.9%; of pyrazinamide was 67.6%, 31.7% and 0.7%; and of ethambutol was 41.4%, 57.5%, and 1.0%.The prescribing practice of anti-TB drugs was not standardized, findings with significant programmatic implication.

  18. Dosis óptima económica de nitrógeno en trigo segun momento de fertilización en el Sudeste Bonaerense Economic optimal nitrogen rate for wheat as affected by fertilization timing in Southeastern Buenos Aires Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo A Barbieri

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available La fertilización nitrogenada en el cultivo de trigo es una práctica habitual en el SE Bonaerense, sin embargo es escasa la información local para definir la dosis de nitrógeno (N que responde al máximo beneficio económico. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la dosis óptima económica (DOE de fertilizante nitrogenado para el cultivo de trigo en función de la variedad (tradicional o francesa y momento de aplicación del N (siembra o macollaje en dicha región, considerando dos modelos matemáticos (cuadrático y cuadrático-plateau. Se utilizó información de ensayos de fertilización en trigo de diferentes sitios (Otamendi, Balcarce, Mar del Plata y Tandil y años (2002/03 a 2007/08. El modelo cuadrático-plateau produjo los resultados más racionales desde el punto de vista agronómico determinando DOEs menores que el cuadrático. El estadío de macollaje permitió determinar DOEs menores que al momento de la siembra. La diferencia en la DOE entre momentos de fertilización fue menor para las variedades francesas que para las tradicionales, lo que sería explicado por una mayor EUN de las primeras. Por último, para las variedades francesas la potencialidad del año condicionó la DOE en mayor medida que la relación de precios N-grano de trigo. Estos resultados enfatizan la importancia de identificar con precisión el rendimiento objetivo del cultivo ya que el mismo tendría un impacto mayor que los cambios en las relaciones de precios N-grano de trigo a la hora de definir la DOE.Nitrogen fertilization in wheat is a common practice in the SE of Buenos Aires Province. However, there is a lack of local information to define the nitrogen (N rate that responds to the maximum economic benefit. The objective of this work was to determine the economic optimal nitrogen rate (DOE for genotypes of wheat (traditional or french fertilized at sowing or tillering in this region. Two mathematic models were evaluated (quadratic and quadratic

  19. Discovery of chemical oscillatory layering in adarce from Rehai, Tengchong, Yunnan and its genetic mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jianghai; Dong Jinquan

    1994-01-01

    Based on characteristics of mineral assemblages and compositions of sinter in several typical region, Western Yunnan, it is recognized that rhythmic compositional layering is widespread in sinter. According to self-organization theory and fluid dynamic experiments completed by predecessors, the authors have studied dynamic features of fluids in thermo-chamber; and concluded that in which double-diffusive convection layering would imperatively take place on the basis of estimation of dynamic parameters and determination of differences between RT and R0. Finally, a two-stage genetic model has been put forward for explaining the rhythmic layering in sinter, i.e. :1) double-diffusive convection of fluid in chambers was induced by the gradients of temperature and concentration; and 2) the rising of layered fluids and the precipitation of the chemical material occurred. Obviously, rhythmic layering in sinter is a typical self-organizational phenomenon

  20. Linking Tengchong Terrane in SW Yunnan with Lhasa Terrane in southern Tibet through magmatic correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jincheng; Zhu, Dicheng; Dong, Guochen; Zhao, Zhidan; Wang, Qing

    2016-04-01

    New zircon U-Pb data, along with the data reported in the literature, reveal five phases of magmatic activity in the Tengchong Terrane since the Early Paleozoic with spatial and temporal variations summarized as: Cambrian-Ordovician (500-460 Ma) to the eastern, minor Triassic (245-206 Ma) in the eastern and western, abundant Early Cretaceous (131-114 Ma) in the eastern, extensive Late Cretaceous (77-65 Ma) in the central, and Paleocene-Eocene (65-49 Ma) in the central and western Tengchong Terrane, in which the Cretaceous-Eocene magmatism was migrated from east to west (Xu et al., 2012). The increased zircon eHf(t) of the Early Cretaceous granitoids from -12.3 to -1.4 at ca. 131-122 Ma to -4.6 to +7.1 at ca. 122-114 Ma identified for the first time in this study and the magmatic flare-up at ca. 53 Ma in the central and western Tengchong Terrane (Wang et al., 2014, Ma et al., 2015) indicate the increased contributions from mantle- or juvenile crust-derived components. The spatial and temporal variations and changing magmatic compositions with time in the Tengchong Terrane closely resemble the Lhasa Terrane in southern Tibet. Such similarities, together with the data of stratigraphy and paleobiogeography (Zhang et al., 2013), enable us to propose that the Tengchong Terrane in SW Yunnan is most likely linked with the Lhasa Terrane in southern Tibet, both of which experience similar tectonomagmatic histories since the Early Paleozoic. References Ma, L.Y., Wang, Y.J., Fan, W.M., Geng, H.Y., Cai, Y.F., Zhong, H., Liu, H.C., Xing, X.W., 2014. Petrogenesis of the early Eocene I-type granites in west Yingjiang (SW Yunnan) and its implication for the eastern extension of the Gangdese batholiths. Gondwana Research 25, 401-419. Wang, Y.J., Zhang, L.M., Cawood, P.A., Ma, L.Y., Fan, W.M., Zhang, A.M., Zhang, Y.Z., Bi, X.W., 2014. Eocene supra-subduction zone mafic magmatism in the Sibumasu Block of SW Yunnan: Implications for Neotethyan subduction and India-Asia collision

  1. Paleomagnetic results from the upper silurian of the Shan-Thai-Malay Block, southwest Yunnan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haihong; Zhong, Dalai; Heller, Friedrich; Dobson, Jon P.

    77 paleomagnetic samples from the Upper Silurian reddish limestone and marlstone of the Shan-Thai-Malay block near Baoshan ( 99.1°E, 24.8°N ), western Yunnan, China, reveal a pre-folding remnant magnetization, with a mean direction of D=49.6°, I= -3.2°, k=9.7, a95=5.5°, corresponding a paleopole at 207.0°E, 36.8°N. These results, unlike the upper Paleozoic data with steeper inclinations published earlier, suggest that the block was located at equatorial latitude during late Silurian time, probably adjacent to the northern margin of Gondwanaland.

  2. Quantifying Structural and Compositional Changes in Forest Cover in NW Yunnan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakkenberg, C.

    2012-12-01

    NW Yunnan, China is a region renowned for high levels of biodiversity, endemism and genetically distinct refugial plant populations. It is also a focal area for China's national reforestation efforts like the Natural Forest Protection Program (NFPP), intended to control erosion in the Upper Yangtze watershed. As part of a larger project to investigate the role of reforestation programs in facilitating the emergence of increasingly species-rich forest communities on a previously degraded and depauperate land mosaic in montane SW China, this study uses a series of Landsat TM images to quantify the spatial pattern and rate of structural and compositional change in forests recovering from medium to large-scale disturbances in the area over the past 25 years. Beyond the fundamental need to assess the outcomes of one of the world's largest reforestation programs, this research offers approaches to confronting two critical methodological issues: (1) techniques for characterizing subtle changes in the nature of vegetation cover, and (2) reducing change detection uncertainty due to persistent cloud cover and shadow. To address difficulties in accurately assessing the structure and composition of vegetative regrowth, a biophysical model was parameterized with over 300 ground-truthed canopy cover assessment points to determine pattern and rate of long-term vegetation changes. To combat pervasive shadow and cloud cover, an interactive generalized additive model (GAM) model based on topographic and spatial predictors was used to overcome some of the constraints of satellite image analysis in Himalayan regions characterized by extreme topography and extensive cloud cover during the summer monsoon. The change detection is assessed for accuracy using ground-truthed observations in a variety of forest cover types and topographic positions. Results indicate effectiveness in reducing the areal extent of unclassified regions and increasing total change detection accuracy. In addition

  3. [Molecular epidemiological study on HIV/AIDS under the follow-up program in Zhejiang province in 2009].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jia-feng; Pan, Xiao-hong; Ding, Xiao-bei; Chen, Lin; Guo, Zhi-hong; Xu, Yun; Huang, Jing-jing

    2013-01-01

    To analyze the molecular epidemiological characteristics on HIV infectors/AIDS patients (HIV/AIDS) under a follow-up program in Zhejiang province in 2009. 303 cases were randomly sampled. Information on the cases was collected and followed by genomic DNA extraction. Gag gene fragments were amplified by nested PCR, followed by sequencing and bio-informatic analysis. The rate of success for sequence acquisition was 74.3% (225/303). Distributions of HIV subtypes were as follows: CRF01_AE (58.7%), CRF07_BC (13.8%), CRF08_BC (9.8%), B' (15.1%), C (1.8%), G (0.4%) and unassigned BC (unique recombinant form 0.4%). from the HIV BLAST analysis showed that the sources of strains with the highest homology involved in 10 provinces/municipalities (Liaoning, Guangxi, Yunnan, Henan, etc.) and five other countries (Thailand, Vietnam, India, South Africa and Libya). The CRF01_AE phylogenetic tree was divided into four clusters. The sequences of HIV/AIDS with homosexual transmission showed a gather in cluster 1, and mix with those infected through heterosexual contact. Circulating recombinant forms of HIV seemed to play a dominant role in Zhejiang province. Unique recombinant form and new subtype of HIV were found. People living with HIV under homosexual transmission and heterosexual transmission had a trend of interwoven with each other. Increase of both the diversity and complexity of HIV strains were also noticed in Zhejiang province.

  4. Application of serum microRNA-9-5p, 21-5p, and 223-3p combined with tumor markers in the diagnosis of non-small-cell lung cancer in Yunnan in southwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yanlong; Chen, Kai; Zhou, Yongchun; Hu, Zaoxiu; Chen, Shuai; Huang, Yunchao

    2018-01-01

    Xuanwei City is located in late Permian coal-accumulating areas of the northeastern region of Yunnan Province. In China, morbidity and mortality from lung cancer are highest in Yunnan. Identifying useful circulating markers suitable for the diagnosis of lung cancer in this region is quite meaningful. In this study, we evaluated diagnostic roles of serum miR-9-5p, 21-5p, 223-3p, 135b-5p, 339-5p, and 501-5p in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in Yunnan. Moreover, we evaluated the diagnostic performance of several tumor markers, including carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), cytokeratin 19 fragment 21-1 (CYFRA21-1), and squamous cell carcinoma-related antigen (SCC). Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction detected six miRNAs in the serum of 104 NSCLC patients and 50 cancer-free controls. Other markers, including CEA, CYFRA21-1, and SCC, in serum were also measured. The diagnostic ability of miRNAs and tumor markers was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. The diagnostic performance of these serum markers was also evaluated in Xuanwei and non-Xuanwei subjects, because the etiological and the epidemiological characteristics of lung cancer in Xuanwei were quite different from those in other regions. Serum miR-9-5p, miR-21-5p, miR-223-3p, CEA, CYFRA21-1, and SCC were upregulated in NSCLC patients, compared with cancer-free controls. No significant difference was found in miR-135b-5p, miR-339-5p, and miR-501-5p expression. The area under ROC curves (AUCs) of miR-9-5p, miR-21-5p, miR-223-3p, CEA, CYFRA21-1, and SCC were 0.706, 0.765, 0.744, 0.749, 0.735, and 0.616, respectively. When combined, miRNAs and tumor markers yielded the highest diagnostic power, with AUC of 0.886, sensitivity of 82.69%, and specificity of 88.00%. In Xuanwei subjects, miR-223-3p and CEA may be suitable biomarkers to distinguish NSCLC from cancer-free states with AUCs of 0.752 and 0.791, respectively. The diagnostic power of the combination of mi

  5. Cultes de fertilité chez les Drung du Yunnan (Chine Fertility Rituals among the Drung People of of Yunnan (China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Gros

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available L’absence, chez les Drung du Yunnan, de rituels clairement identifiables comme rituels territoriaux implique de se questionner sur l’articulation entre l’ancestralité, le territoire et le pouvoir politique dans le cadre d’un objectif rituel commun : l’obtention de la fertilité. Après une description de deux pratiques rituelles liées à cette notion de fertilité, le sacrifice de bovins et le culte aux montagnes, telles qu’elles coexistaient autrefois chez les Drung, l’auteur questionne les liens entre ces deux pratiques et leurs implications politiques respectives. Si ces deux rituels peuvent se définir comme des cultes à la fertilité, ils manifestent cependant un rapport différent au territoire dans sa définition politique. D’un côté le sacrifice manifeste un caractère dynamique et compétitif de la relation politique (lié au prestige sans réelle inscription spatiale, tandis que de l’autre le culte aux montagnes manifeste un fort ancrage territorial révélateur de l’ancienne structure politique hiérarchique dans laquelle les Drung se trouvaient intégrés sous l’autorité de chefs tibétains (considérés comme les anciens maîtres des lieux. À un autre niveau, ces deux cultes de fertilité cristallisent une relation plus complexe au territoire vu comme un espace communautaire au sein duquel s’articulent les relations entre hommes et esprits.Among the Drung of Yunnan, the absence of any clearly identifiable territorial rituals calls into question the relationship between ancestrality, territory and political power within the framework of a common ritual goal : achieving fertility. This article presents an ethnographic description of two rituals associated with the notion of fertility—the ox sacrifice and the mountain cult—that used to coexist in Drung society. The links between these two rituals and their respective political implications are thus explored. While both rituals can be defined as

  6. Innovation Strategy Research of Yunnan Image in Modern Entertainment Channels based on Regression and Inheritance of Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Shao[1

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we conduct innovation strategy research of the Yunnan image in the modern entertainment channels based on regression and inheritance of culture. The concept of culture and complicated contents as simply includes material culture and spiritual culture. Cultural inheritance is the process of acculturation a nation it not only is the transmission of national culture, the inheritance and development that also can be refl ected by many indexes. Multicultural education theory formed in the American civil rights movement in the 1960s. Multicultural education theory is that, when the mainstream national culture and the minority subculture in contact, every culture shall be entitled to retain their own cultural traits. Our research integrate the regression and inheritance of culture to then propose the innovation strategy research of the Yunnan image that will promote further development of the corresponding and related industry.

  7. Research on refugees and immigrants social integration in Yunnan Border Area: An empirical analysis on the multivariable linear regression model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Nai

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A great number of immigration populations resident permanently in Yunnan Border Area of China. To some extent, these people belong to refugees or immigrants in accordance with International Rules, which significantly features the social diversity of this area. However, this kind of social diversity always impairs the social order. Therefore, there will be a positive influence to the local society governance by a research on local immigration integration. This essay hereby attempts to acquire the data of the living situation of these border area immigration and refugees. The analysis of the social integration of refugees and immigration in Yunnan border area in China will be deployed through the modeling of multivariable linear regression based on these data in order to propose some more achievable resolutions.

  8. A Study on Earthquake-Related Geoid Deformation at Beijing-Tangshan and West Yunnan During 1985-1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z.

    2006-05-01

    Based on the determination of the non-tidal variations in the deflection of the vertical (or PlumbLine Variations, PLVs) at Beijing astronomical observatory, the work has been extended into a determination of the PLV array within a 4 x 1 (degree) area at Beijing-Tangshan. By repeated observations of the gravimetric network, 46 batches of this PLV array, and consequently the relative geoid deformation (RGD), of the area during 1987- 1998 have been determined. Together with the 23 earthquakes (Mb > 4.0) in the area during the same period, a comparison is done between an earthquake event and the related RGD. Similar study has also been carried out for the case in West Yunnan, where 32 batches of repeated gravimetric observations of the network there during 1985-1998 have been performed from which the 32 PLV array, as well as the corresponding RGD, of a 2 x 2 (dergee) area has been calculated. A comparison is also done at West Yunnan between an earthquake event and its related RGD. It is interesting to see that the earthquake and the RGD measured are related. It appears that there is usually a detectable RGD nearby well before an earthquake, but a contrary RGD afterwards. The study provides us a new approach in geodesy on the RGD determination, as well as a new measurable phenomenon in an earthquake event at Beijing-Tangshan and West Yunnan. The study also provides us evidence in which the existence of the PLVs, as well as the corresponding RGD, at Beijing- Tangshan and West Yunnan becomes more conclusive. Their potential usage in geodesy and seismology, as well as in other related sciences, is now expected.

  9. Southeastern Power Administration 2011 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-12-31

    Dear Secretary Chu: I am pleased to submit Southeastern Power Administration’s (Southeastern) fiscal year (FY) 2011 Annual Report for your review. This report reflects our agency’s programs, accomplishments, operational, and financial activities for the 12-month period beginning October 1, 2010, and ending September 31, 2011. This past year, Southeastern marketed approximately 6.2 billion kilowatt-hours of energy to 489 wholesale customers in 10 southeastern states. Revenues from the sale of this power totaled more than $264 million. With the financial assistance and support of Southeastern’s customers, funding for capitalized equipment purchases and replacements at hydroelectric facilities operated by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) continued in FY 2011. This funding, which totaled more than $45 million, provided much needed repairs and maintenance for aging projects in Southeastern’s marketing area. Currently, there are more than 214 customers participating in the funding efforts in the Georgia-Alabama-South Carolina, Kerr-Philpott, and Cumberland Systems of projects. Drought conditions continued in the southeastern region of the United States this past year, particularly in the Savannah River Basin. Lack of rain placed strains on our natural and financial resources. Power purchases for FY 2011 totaled approximately $38 million. About $9 million of this amount was for replacement power, which is purchased only during adverse water conditions in order to meet Southeastern’s customer contract requirements. Southeastern’s goal is to maximize the benefits of our region’s water resources. Competing uses of these resources will present another challenging year for Southeastern’s employees. With the cooperation and communication among the Department of Energy (DOE), preference customers, and Corps, I am certain Southeastern is positioned to meet these challenges in the future. We are committed to providing reliable hydroelectric power to

  10. Southeastern Power Administration 2012 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-01-01

    Dear Secretary Moniz: I am pleased to submit Southeastern Power Administration’s (Southeastern) fiscal year (FY) 2012 Annual Report for your review. This report reflects our agency’s programs, accomplishments, operational, and financial activities for the 12-month period beginning October 1, 2011, and ending September 30, 2012. This past year, Southeastern marketed approximately 5.4 billion kilowatt-hours of energy to 487 wholesale customers in 10 southeastern states. Revenues from the sale of this power totaled about $263 million. With the financial assistance and support of Southeastern’s customers, funding for capitalized equipment purchases and replacements at hydroelectric facilities operated by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) continued in FY 2012. Currently, there are more than 214 customers participating in funding infrastructure renewal efforts of powerplants feeding the Georgia-Alabama-South Carolina, Kerr-Philpott, and Cumberland Systems. This funding, which totaled more than $71 million, provided much needed repairs and maintenance for aging projects in Southeastern’s marketing area. Drought conditions continued in the southeastern region of the United States this past year, particularly in the Savannah River Basin. Lack of rainfall strained our natural and financial resources. Power purchases for FY 2012 in the Georgia-Alabama-South Carolina System totaled approximately $29 million. About $8 million of this amount was for replacement power, which is purchased only during adverse water conditions in order to meet Southeastern’s customer contract requirements. Southeastern’s goal is to maximize the benefits of our region’s water resources. Competing uses of these resources will present another challenging year for Southeastern’s employees. With the cooperation and communication among the Department of Energy (DOE), preference customers, and Corps, I am certain Southeastern is positioned to meet these challenges in the future. We

  11. Assessment of environmental radioactivity for Sanliurfa region of southeastern Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozkurt, Ahmet; Yorulmaz, Nuri; Kam, Erol; Karahan, Gursel; Osmanlioglu, Ahmet Erdal

    2007-01-01

    This study assesses the level of background radiation for Sanliurfa province of southeastern Turkey. Measurements of outdoor gamma radiation (of terrestrial and cosmic origin) in air were performed at 112 locations using a plastic scintillator and the average absorbed dose was found as 60.9 nGy/h (corresponding to an effective dose of 74.7μSv/y). The radionuclide activity concentrations in 45 soil samples collected from the study area were measured through gamma-ray spectrometry and the average activities were determined as 20.8, 24.95 and 298.6 for the natural radionuclides 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K, respectively, and 9.08 Bq/kg for the fission product 137 Cs. The natural radioactivity sources resulted in an effective dose of 46.9μSv/y. The radioactivity levels of 53 drinking water samples were measured as 0.038 Bq/l for gross-alpha activity and 0.1324 Bq/l for gross-beta activity using gross-alpha and gross-beta counting methods (equivalent to an effective dose of 7.76μSv/y). When compared with the data available for other Turkish cities, the outdoor gamma doses and soil radioactivity concentrations obtained in this study indicate a background radiation level that falls within natural limits. On the other hand, the measured gross-alpha and -beta activities in drinking water are relatively higher

  12. Land Use Change and Land Degradation in Southeastern Mediterranean Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symeonakis, Elias; Calvo-Cases, Adolfo; Arnau-Rosalen, Eva

    2007-07-01

    The magnitude of the environmental and social consequences of soil erosion and land degradation in semiarid areas of the Mediterranean region has long been recognized and studied. This paper investigates the interrelationship between land use/cover (LULC) changes and land degradation using remotely sensed and ancillary data for southeastern Spain. The area of study, the Xaló River catchment situated in the north of the Alicante Province, has been subjected to a number of LULC changes during the second half of the 20th century such as agricultural abandonment, forest fires, and tourist development. Aerial photographs dating back to 1956 were used for the delineation of historic LULC types; Landsat ETM+ data were used for the analysis and mapping of current conditions. Two important indicators of land degradation, namely, susceptibility to surface runoff and soil erosion, were estimated for the two dates using easily parametrizable models. The comparison of 1956 to 2000 conditions shows an overall “recuperating” trend over the catchment and increased susceptibility to soil erosion only in 3% of the catchment area. The results also identify potential degradation hot-spots where mitigation measures should be taken to prevent further degradation. The readily implemented methodology, based on modest data requirements demonstrated by this study, is a useful tool for catchment to regional scale land use change and land degradation studies and strategic planning for environmental management.

  13. Combined community ecology and floristics, a synthetic study on the upper montane evergreen broad-leaved forests in Yunnan, southwestern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua Zhu; Yong Chai; Shisun Zhou; Lichun Yan; Jipu Shi; Guoping Yang

    2016-01-01

    The upper montane evergreen broad-leaved forest in Yunnan occurs mainly in the zone of persistent cloud and has a discontinuous, island-like, distribution. It is diverse, rich in endemic species, and likely to be sensitive to climate change. Six 1-ha sampling plots were established across the main distribution area of the upper montane evergreen broad-leaved forest in Yunnan. All trees with d.b.h.>1 cm in each plot were identified. Patterns of seed plant distributions were quantified at the specific, generic and family levels. The forests are dominated by the families Fagaceae, Lauraceae, Theaceae and Magnoliaceae, but are very diverse with only a few species shared between sites. Floristic similarities at the family and generic level were high, but they were low at the specific level, with species complementarity between plots. Diversity varied greatly among sites, with greater species richness and more rare species in western Yunnan than central Yunnan. The flora is dominated by tropical biogeographical elements, mainly the pantropic and the tropical Asian distributions at the family and genus levels. In contrast, at the species level, the flora is dominated by the southwest or the southeast China distributions, including Yunnan endemics. This suggests that the flora of the upper montane forest in Yunnan could have a tropical floristic origin, and has adapted to cooler temperatures with the uplift of the Himalayas. Due to great sensitivity to climate, high endemism and species complementarity, as well as the discontinuous, island-like, distribution patterns of the upper montane forest in Yunnan, the regional conservation of the forest is especially needed.

  14. Clay Mineralogy of Coal-Hosted Nb-Zr-REE-Ga Mineralized Beds from Late Permian Strata, Eastern Yunnan, SW China: Implications for Paleotemperature and Origin of the Micro-Quartz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixin Zhao

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The clay mineralogy of pyroclastic Nb(Ta-Zr(Hf-REE-Ga mineralization in Late Permian coal-bearing strata from eastern Yunnan Province; southwest China was investigated in this study. Samples from XW and LK drill holes in this area were analyzed using XRD (X-ray diffraction and SEM (scanning electronic microscope. Results show that clay minerals in the Nb-Zr-REE-Ga mineralized samples are composed of mixed layer illite/smectite (I/S; kaolinite and berthierine. I/S is the major component among the clay assemblages. The source volcanic ashes controlled the modes of occurrence of the clay minerals. Volcanic ash-originated kaolinite and berthierine occur as vermicular and angular particles, respectively. I/S is confined to the matrix and is derived from illitization of smectite which was derived from the original volcanic ashes. Other types of clay minerals including I/S and berthierine precipitated from hydrothermal solutions were found within plant cells; and coexisting with angular berthierine and vermicular kaolinite. Inferred from the fact that most of the I/S is R1 ordered with one case of the R3 I/S; the paleo-diagenetic temperature could be up to 180 °C but mostly 100–160 °C. The micro-crystalline quartz grains (<10 µm closely associated with I/S were observed under SEM and were most likely the product of desiliconization during illitization of smectite.

  15. Emerging Energy Alternatives for the Southeastern States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanakos, E. K. (Editor)

    1978-01-01

    The proceedings of the first symposium on emerging energy alternatives for the Southeastern States are presented. Some topics discussed are: (1) solar energy, (2) wood energy, (3) novel energy sources, (4) agricultural and industrial process heat, (5) waste utilization, (6) energy conservation and (7) ocean thermal energy conversion.

  16. Summary of southeastern group breakout sessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bob Ford; Charles P. Nicholson

    1993-01-01

    The breakout sessions held by the southeastern representatives at the Partners In Flight meeting in Colorado were extremely well attended Most states were represented, as well as several federal agencies (including USFS, USFWS, TVA, EPA), and non-government organizations. Two sessions were held, one to discuss a strategy of management by...

  17. [Roosting-site characteristics of wintering black-necked cranes (Grus nigricollis) at Napahai, Yunnan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Peng; Kong, De-Jun; Liu, Qiang; Yu, Hong-Zhong; Zhao, Jian-Lin; Yang, Xiao-Jun

    2011-04-01

    From November 2009 to April 2010, roosting-site characteristics of black-necked cranes (Grus nigricollis) were observed at Napahai Provincial Nature Reserve, Shangri-La, Yunnan, China. The positions of roosting-sites were determined by triangulation with markers and field correction. All of the 63 roosting-sites observed were located in patchy marshes with water, which contained some mud on the bottom and 81% of the roosting-sites were covered by plants. They also had a certain distance to areas of human activities and had a certain distance to the shore. A comparison of roosting sites and random sites showed that roosting-sites had thicker mud layers, a higher ratio of open water, longer distance to roads, villages, and farmland, and water depth. Another comparison of before and after usage of roosting-sites found a significant difference in area of marsh patch. Principal component analysis indicated that the usage of roosting-site of black-necked cranes was affected by human disturbance, area of marsh patch, and the condition of the shallow water environment.

  18. Characteristics of isostatic gravity anomaly in Sichuan-Yunnan region, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingcheng Liu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Sichuan-Yunnan region in China, a tectonic transition belt where earthquakes occurred frequently and intensely, has a distinct variation characteristic of gradient zone of Bouguer gravity anomaly (BGA. Many deep faults and epicenters of severe earthquake scatter along the BGA gradient zones. Here we apply two forward models (Airy model and Vening Meinesz model of isostatic gravity mechanisms (local versus regional in this region to calculated the isostatic gravity anomaly (IGA. Afterwards, the relationship between IGA and distribution of faults as well as seismicity is also illustrated. The IGA results show that the two models are similar and most parts of the study area are in an isostatic state. Most featured faults are distributed along the steep anomaly gradient zones; earthquakes tend to occur in the non-isostatic area and steep gradient belt of IGA. The distribution of root thickness based on regional mechanism can be associated with the main trend of BGA variation. The regional mechanism is more plausible and closer to the reality because of its relatively further consideration of the horizontal forces derived from adjacent particles in the crust. Then we analyze the effect of isostasy on the tectonic movements and find that the isostatic adjustment is not the main cause of the continuous uplift process of Longmenshan Mountain fault zone, which is due to the Indian-Eurasian continental collision.

  19. Social organization of Shortridge's capped langur (Trachypithecus shortridgei) at the Dulongjiang Valley in Yunnan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying-Chun; Liu, Feng; He, Xiao-Yang; Ma, Chi; Sun, Jun; Li, Dong-Hui; Xiao, Wen; Cui, Liang-Wei

    2015-05-18

    Non-human primates often live in socially stable groups characterized by bonded relationships among individuals. Social organization can be used to evaluate living conditions and expansion potential. Bisexual group size, ratio of males to females and group composition are essential elements determining the type of social organization. Although the first report on Shortridge's capped langurs (Trachypithecus shortridgei) was in the 1970s, until now, the species only inhabits forests of the Dulongjiang valley in northwest Yunnan, China, with c. 250-370 individuals in 19 populations. To understand its social organization, we collected data from five groups of Shortridge's langurs at Silaluo in the Dulongjiang valley during August 2012-October 2013. Family groups consist of one adult male, 2-3 adult females and up to five young. Group size averaged 8 (7-9) individuals. The ratio of adult males to females (M/F) was 1:2.9, infants to adult females was (I/F) 1:2.2; and ratio of adults to immatures was 1:1.2, indicating the potential of a population increasing. Birth season was during March-July and the inter-birth interval was two years.

  20. Genetic diversity of Begonia versicolor (Begoniaceae, a narrow endemic species in southeast Yunnan of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Li

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Begonia versicolor Irmscher, a narrow endemic Begonia species in southeast Yunnan of China, is a wonderful ornamental plant with huge diversity in colored foliage. To investigate its variations, the genetic diversity and population structure were studied based on 56 individuals sampled from four localities using 12 polymorphic microsatellite loci transferred from other species of Begonia. The results showed a relatively low level of genetic diversity in B. versicolor comparing with other species of Begonia using microsatellite. Positive inbreeding coefficient (FIS values were found in three populations (SWC, XPZ and DSD. AMOVA analysis indicated that genetic variations occurred mainly within populations (55.9% rather than among populations (9.7% and among groups (34.4%. Four populations were grouped into two clusters based on STRUCTURE. AMOVA and STRUCTURE analysis showed a high level and significant genetic differentiation in the populations of B. versicolor. Based on its genetic status and rarity in the wild, the sustainable in-situ and ex-situ conservation strategies should be urgently carried out to protect this species with high horticultural and scientific values.

  1. Processes Underlying 50 Years of Local Forest-Cover Change in Yunnan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Frayer

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Recognition of the importance of forests for local livelihoods, biodiversity and the climate system has spurred a growing interest in understanding the factors that drive forest-cover change. Forest transitions, the change from net deforestation to net reforestation, may follow different pathways depending on a complex interplay of driving forces. However, most studies on forest transitions focus on the national level rather than the local level. Here, case studies from 10 villages in Yunnan, China, are used to clarify the complex interactions among various pathways of forest transitions, derive insights on the underlying drivers that shaped the forest transitions, and determine the importance of changes in drivers over time. The results demonstrate that China’s recent forest transition was caused by a range of interrelated pathways that were mediated by local circumstances. The degradation of forest ecosystem services caused by rampant deforestation and forest degradation created a scarcity of forest products and triggered state-initiated afforestation efforts, particularly in the 1990s, which continue to be important. More recently, economic development concomitant with smallholder intensification spurred reforestation, while the importance of state forest policy declined. The complexity of local land-use changes demonstrates the difficulty of identifying distinct transition pathways and calls for a more diverse approach that recognizes the interdependence of local processes.

  2. Analysis of surface air temperature variations and local urbanization effects on central Yunnan Plateau, SW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yunling; Wu, Zhijie; Liu, Xuelian; Deng, Fuying

    2018-01-01

    With the surface air temperature (SAT) data at 37 stations on Central Yunnan Plateau (CYP) for 1961-2010 and the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program/Operational Linescan System (DMSP/OLS) nighttime light data, the temporal-spatial patterns of the SAT trends are detected using Sen's Nonparametric Estimator of Slope approach and MK test, and the impact of urbanization on surface warming is analyzed by comparing the differences between the air temperature change trends of urban stations and their corresponding rural stations. Results indicated that annual mean air temperature showed a significant warming trend, which is equivalent to a rate of 0.17 °C/decade during the past 50 years. Seasonal mean air temperature presents a rising trend, and the trend was more significant in winter (0.31 °C/decade) than in other seasons. Annual/seasonal mean air temperature tends to increase in most areas, and higher warming trend appeared in urban areas, notably in Kunming city. The regional mean air temperature series was significantly impacted by urban warming, and the urbanization-induced warming contributed to approximately 32.3-62.9 % of the total regional warming during the past 50 years. Meantime, the urbanization-induced warming trend in winter and spring was more significant than that in summer and autumn. Since 1985, the urban heat island (UHI) intensity has gradually increased. And the urban temperatures always rise faster than rural temperatures on the CYP.

  3. Traditional oral health beliefs and practices of Bulang people in Yunnan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shinan; Lo, Edward C M; Chu, Chun-Hung

    2018-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore traditional oral health beliefs among the Bulang ethnic minority group in China. Eighteen village leaders, chiefs, elders, and seniors in Yunnan, China were assigned to three focus groups for discussion of traditional oral health beliefs. The discussions were led by a facilitator. Transcripts were made, and data were extracted. The focus group discussions on traditional oral health beliefs addressed three themes: (a) the perception of oral health; (b) the impact of healthy teeth (oral health), in that healthy teeth essentially have an impact on physical health, emotions, and social status; and (c) toothache management, which was regarded as tooth decay (dental caries). Blackening teeth was a pain relief method. Blackened teeth were reported to be part of ethnic identity, and considered esthetically pleasing. It also indicated the marital status of women. Some Bulang people believed that healthy dentition has no spacing, pain, or functioning problems. Well-aligned dentition was associated with higher social status. Toothaches were considered to be caused by tooth worms. Consulting a monk was another way to manage a toothache. Tooth blackening was considered traditional, and effective for caries prevention. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  4. Southeastern Power Administration 2008 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-12-29

    Dear Secretary Chu: I am pleased to submit Southeastern Power Administration’s (Southeastern’s) fiscal year (FY) 2008 Annual Report for your review. The information included in this document reflects our agency’s programs, accomplishments, operational and financial activities for the 12-month period beginning October 1, 2007 and ending September 30, 2008. Southeastern marketed more than 4.5 billion kilowatt-hours of energy to 491 wholesale customers in ten southeastern states this past year. Revenues from the sale of this power totaled approximately $263 million. Drought conditions persisted in the southeastern region of the United States during FY 2008 placing strains on our natural and financial resources. Power purchases for FY 2008 totaled $91 million. Approximately $44 million of this amount was for replacement power which is paid only during adverse water conditions in order to meet our customers’ contract requirements. With the continued financial assistance and support of our Federal power customers, funding for capitalized equipment purchases and replacements at U.S. Army Corps of Engineers’ (Corps) hydroelectric projects provided much needed repairs and maintenance for these aging facilities. Southeastern’s cyber and physical security programs continued to be reviewed and updated to meet Department of Energy (DOE), Homeland Security, and North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) standards and requirements. In the coming year, Southeastern will continue open communication and cooperation with DOE, the Federal power customers, and the Corps to maximize the benefits of our region’s water resources. Although competing uses of water and the prolonged drought conditions will present another challenging year for our agency, Southeastern’s employees will meet these challenges and continue to provide reliable hydroelectric power to the people in the southeast. Sincerely, Kenneth E.Legg Administrator

  5. Entrepreneur achievement. Liaoning province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, R

    1994-03-01

    This paper reports the successful entrepreneurial endeavors of members of a 20-person women's group in Liaoning Province, China. Jing Yuhong, a member of the Family Planning Association at Shileizi Village, Dalian City, provided the basis for their achievements by first building an entertainment/study room in her home to encourage married women to learn family planning. Once stocked with books, magazines, pamphlets, and other materials on family planning and agricultural technology, dozens of married women in the neighborhood flocked voluntarily to the room. Yuhong also set out to give these women a way to earn their own income as a means of helping then gain greater equality with their husbands and exert greater control over their personal reproductive and social lives. She gave a section of her farming land to the women's group, loaned approximately US$5200 to group members to help them generate income from small business initiatives, built a livestock shed in her garden for the group to raise marmots, and erected an awning behind her house under which mushrooms could be grown. The investment yielded $12,000 in the first year, allowing each woman to keep more than $520 in dividends. Members then soon began going to fairs in the capital and other places to learn about the outside world, and have successfully ventured out on their own to generate individual incomes. Ten out of twenty women engaged in these income-generating activities asked for and got the one-child certificate.

  6. Self-rated quality of life and school performance in relation to helminth infections: case study from Yunnan, People's Republic of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Expert opinion-derived disability weights are widely employed for estimating the global burden of diseases and injuries. For chronic diseases such as soil-transmitted helminthiasis and schistosomiasis, it has been suggested that a patient-based quality of life (QoL) approach should be considered for a more accurate appraisal of disability weights. Methods and Results We carried out a cross-sectional survey and assessed the prevalence and intensity of soil-transmitted helminth infections as well as self-rated QoL indicators among 252 students attending grades 5-8 in two schools (Bulangshan and Pu'er) in Yunnan province, People's Republic of China. Each student provided a single stool sample, which was subjected to duplicate Kato-Katz thick smear readings and a single FLOTAC examination for parasitological diagnosis. Prevalence rates for hookworm, Trichuris trichiura and Ascaris lumbricoides were high in Bulangshan (75.9%, 70.0% and 68.2%), while the respective prevalence rates in Pu'er were 66.9%, 56.5% and 9.2%. Students were interviewed with two standardised questionnaires, the EuroQoL-5 Dimensions (EQ-5D) and ShortForm-12 (SF-12) Health Survey. Impairment in any of the five dimensions of the EQ-5D was reported by 87% of the students. However, no clear differences could be observed between individuals with and those without helminth infections, and there were discrepancies between the two schools. A multivariate logistic regression model revealed no differences between students with varying infection status in the domains of the SF-12 (odds ratio close to 1.0). Somewhat more pronounced, yet not statistically significant differences were observed when end-of-school-term marks were compared with students' helminth infection status: infected individuals had lower marks in Chinese, English and mathematics, but not in sports, compared to their helminth-free counterparts. Conclusions Our results point to unresolved issues and challenges regarding the cultural

  7. Self-rated quality of life and school performance in relation to helminth infections: case study from Yunnan, People's Republic of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fürst Thomas

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Expert opinion-derived disability weights are widely employed for estimating the global burden of diseases and injuries. For chronic diseases such as soil-transmitted helminthiasis and schistosomiasis, it has been suggested that a patient-based quality of life (QoL approach should be considered for a more accurate appraisal of disability weights. Methods and Results We carried out a cross-sectional survey and assessed the prevalence and intensity of soil-transmitted helminth infections as well as self-rated QoL indicators among 252 students attending grades 5-8 in two schools (Bulangshan and Pu'er in Yunnan province, People's Republic of China. Each student provided a single stool sample, which was subjected to duplicate Kato-Katz thick smear readings and a single FLOTAC examination for parasitological diagnosis. Prevalence rates for hookworm, Trichuris trichiura and Ascaris lumbricoides were high in Bulangshan (75.9%, 70.0% and 68.2%, while the respective prevalence rates in Pu'er were 66.9%, 56.5% and 9.2%. Students were interviewed with two standardised questionnaires, the EuroQoL-5 Dimensions (EQ-5D and ShortForm-12 (SF-12 Health Survey. Impairment in any of the five dimensions of the EQ-5D was reported by 87% of the students. However, no clear differences could be observed between individuals with and those without helminth infections, and there were discrepancies between the two schools. A multivariate logistic regression model revealed no differences between students with varying infection status in the domains of the SF-12 (odds ratio close to 1.0. Somewhat more pronounced, yet not statistically significant differences were observed when end-of-school-term marks were compared with students' helminth infection status: infected individuals had lower marks in Chinese, English and mathematics, but not in sports, compared to their helminth-free counterparts. Conclusions Our results point to unresolved issues and challenges

  8. Effects of Seasonal and Perennial Grazing on Soil Fauna Community and Microbial Biomass Carbon in the Subalpine Meadows of Yunnan, Southwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Shengjie; YANG Xiaodong; Anthony R.IVES; FENG Zhili; SHA Liqing

    2017-01-01

    Grazing and over-grazing may drive changes in the diversity and functioning of below-ground meadow ecosystems.A field soil survey was conducted to compare microbial biomass carbon (Cmin) and soil fauna communities in the two main grassland management systems in subalpine regions of Yunnan Province,China:perennial grazing currently practiced due to increasing herd sizes and traditional seasonal grazing.A three-year exclosure experiment was then conducted to further compare the effects of different grazing practices,including treatments of no mowing,perennial grazing (NM + G),mowing followed by seasonal grazing (M + G),mowing and no grazing (M + NG),and no mowing or grazing (NM + NG).The comparative survey result revealed that Cmin and total density of soil fauna were significantly lower at a perennially grazed site than at a seasonally grazed site.The experiment results showed that in comparison to non-grazing treatments (M + NG and NM + NG),grazing (NM + G and M + G) reduced total fauna density (by 150 individuals m-2) and the number of taxonomic groups present (by 0.32 taxa m-2).Mowing decreased Cmin (by 0.31 mg g-1).Furthermore,the NM + G treatment (perennial grazing) had the lowest density of Collembola (16.24 individuals m-2),one of the two most common taxonomic groups,although other taxonomic groups responded differently to the treatments.Treatment effects on soil fauna were consistent with those on above-ground grasses,in which C:N ratios were greatly reduced by grazing,with this effect being the greatest for the NM + G treatment.In contrast,different grazing treatments had little effect on C:N ratio of soil.Furthermore,the traditional grazing method (mowing followed by seasonal grazing) may have less severe effects on some taxonomic groups than perennial grazing.Therefore,an appropriate management should aim to protect soil fauna and microbes in this area from over-grazing and against further degradation.

  9. Floral characteristics and pollination ecology of Manglietia ventii (Magnoliaceae, a plant species with extremely small populations (PSESP endemic to South Yunnan of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Wang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Manglietia ventii is a highly endangered plant species endemic to Yunnan province in China, where there are only five known small populations. Despite abundant flowering there is very low fruit and seed set, and very few seedlings in natural populations, indicating problems with reproduction. The causes of low fecundity in M. ventii are not known, largely because of insufficient knowledge of the species pollination ecology and breeding system. We conducted observations and pollination experiments, and analyzed floral scents to understand the pollinator–plant interactions and the role of floral scent in this relationship, as well as the species breeding system. Like the majority of Magnoliaceae, M. ventii has protogynous and nocturnal flowers that emit a strong fragrance over two consecutive evenings. There is a closing period (the pre-staminate stage during the process of anthesis of a flower, and we characterize the key flowering process as an “open-close-reopen” flowering rhythm with five distinct floral stages observed throughout the floral period of this species: pre-pistillate, pistillate, pre-staminate, staminate, and post-staminate. Flowers are in the pistillate stage during the first night of anthesis and enter the staminate stage the next night. During anthesis, floral scent emission occurs in the pistillate and staminate stages. The effective pollinators were weevils (Sitophilus sp. and beetles (Anomala sp., while the role of Rove beetles (Aleochara sp. and thrips (Thrips sp. in pollination of M. ventii appears to be minor or absent. The major chemical compounds of the floral scents were Limonene, β-Pinene, α-Pinene, 1,8-Cineole, Methyl-2-methylbutyrate, p-Cymene, Methyl-3-methyl-2-butenoate and 2-Methoxy-2-methyl-3-buten, and the relative proportions of these compounds varied between the pistillate and staminate stages. Production of these chemicals coincided with flower visitation by weevils and beetles. The results of

  10. Mineralogical and compositional characteristics of Late Permian coals from an area of high lung cancer rate in Xuan Wei, Yunnan, China: Occurrence and origin of quartz and chamosite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Shifeng; Zhao, Lei; Cao, Hongzhi; Ren, Deyi [State Key Laboratory of Coal Resources and Safe Mining, China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing 100083 (China); Tian, Linwei [School of Public Health, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR (China); Chou, Chen-Lin [Illinois State Geological Survey (Emeritus), 615 East Peabody Drive, Champaign, IL 61820 (United States); Zhou, Yiping; Zhang, Mingquan; Wang, Jumin; Yang, Zong [Yunnan Institute of Coal Geology Prospection, Kunming 650218 (China)

    2008-12-01

    Some townships in Xuan Wei County, Yunnan Province, have one of the highest lung cancer mortality rates in China and the epidemic disease in the area has generally been attributed to the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) released from domestic coal burning. However, the cancer-causing culprit is not settled as Tian [Tian, L., 2005. Coal Combustion Emissions and Lung Cancer in Xuan Wei, China. Ph.D. thesis, University of California, Berkeley.] found nanometer quartz in these coals, soot emissions, and lung cancer tissues. We have conducted mineralogical and geochemical studies of the coals from Xuan Wei for the purpose of shedding light on the minerals which may be related to the epidemic lung cancer. In this paper, abundances, modes of occurrence, and origins of minerals and elements in the coals from two mines in Xuan Wei have been studied using optical microscope, low-temperature ashing, X-ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron microscope equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer, and inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The minerals in the coals are mainly composed of quartz, chamosite, kaolinite, and calcite. The particle size of quartz is rather small, mostly less than 20 {mu}m and it is of authigenic origin. Chamosite occurs mainly as cell-fillings. The occurrence of quartz and chamosite indicates that they were derived from the hydrothermal fluids. Epigenetic calcite is derived from calcic fluids. Kaolinite is derived mainly from sediment source region of Kangdian Oldland to the west of coal basin. The composition of Xuan Wei coal is high in SiO{sub 2}, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, TiO{sub 2}, CaO, MnO, V, Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn. The high SiO{sub 2} content is attributed to quartz, and the Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} content to chamosite. The high Mn and low Mg contents in the coal indicate the inputs of hydrothermal fluids. CaO occurs mainly in epigenetic calcite. Elements Ti, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, and rare earth elements were derived from the basaltic rocks

  11. FORECASTING AND ADAPTATION METHODS FOR HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT USED FOR TOURIST PURPOSE IN CITIES OF SOUTH-EASTERN CHINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qai Liu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers methodological statements concerning formation and development of cultural and tourist zones and complexes in the Chinese cities with precious historical and cultural heritage. Characteristic types of historical buildings in the cities of the Tsiansu province which are located in the south-eastern part ofChinaare given in the paper. The paper contains methods for renovation of historical development for tourist purpose and gives proposals pertaining to arrangement of tourist service objects there that permit to preserve individual image of historical regions.

  12. Solar PV Industry in Jiangsu Province [China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-03-01

    Jiangsu Province is a leading province in China both in terms of Solar PV application as well as its implementation. The Netherlands Business Support Office in Nanjing reports on the photovoltaic solar cell industry in Jiangsu Province with details on opportunities for foreign investors; applications of solar energy in the province; Chinese government; relevant organizations; and key Chinese players in this sector.

  13. Projecting distribution of the overwintering population of Sogatella furcifera (Hemiptera: Delphacidae), in Yunnan, China with analysis on key influencing climatic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shao-Ji; Liu, Xiao-Fei; Fu, Da-Ying; Huang, Wei; Wang, Xue-Ying; Liu, Xiao-Jun; Lü, Jian-Ping; Ye, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Sogatella furcifera (Horváth) is the most threatening migratory rice pest in Yunnan, China. S. furcifera overwinters in low- altitude basins and valleys in southern Yunnan and migrates northward in spring and summer of the following year, causing serious damage during migration. The overwintering distribution, areas, and spatial pattern of S. furcifera are relevant to the migration and outbreak of this pest. Based on a 4-yr field survey (2010-2013), this study projected areas suitable for S. furcifera to overwinter using a species distribution model, and analyzed the key influencing climatic factors using principal component analysis (PCA) and ecological niche factor analysis (ENFA). Our field survey showed that the northern latitudinal- and upper elevation limits of overwintering S. furcifera was 25.4° N and 1,608 m in western Yunnan and 24.2° N and 1,563 m in eastern Yunnan. The species distribution model produced a fragmented distribution pattern, with most of which in western Yunnan and only a few in eastern Yunnan. The PCA and ENFA analyses showed that the mean temperature of the driest quarter and the precipitation of the coldest quarter significantly influenced the distribution of S. furcifera in winter. The results suggested that the complex topography, spatial differences in winter temperatures, and host availability altogether determined the distribution of overwintering S. furcifera. Compared with previous surveys, the northern latitudinal- and upper elevation limits of overwintering S. furcifera were higher, while the population became rarer in some suitable areas due to change of farmland utilization in winter and possibly climate change. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  14. Effect of Construction Land Expansion on Energy-Related Carbon Emissions: Empirical Analysis of China and Its Provinces from 2001 to 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuankai Deng

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Construction land expansion significantly affects energy-related carbon emissions. This paper analyzed the effect of construction land expansion on energy-related carbon emissions in China and its provinces from 2001 to 2011 by using the logarithmic mean Divisia index method. We divided the study into two intervals (2001–2006 and 2006–2011 and categorized the 30 provinces of China into eight zones. Results indicated that construction land expansion exerted the second largest positive effect on carbon emission growth in China and in the 30 provinces from 2001 to 2011. The north, east, and south coastal regions as well as the middle Yellow River region, were the highly affected regions in the same period. Between the two study intervals, the effect of construction land expansion on carbon emissions decreased in China and in the coastal regions, but increased in inland regions. The Hebei, Shandong, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Fujian, Guangdong, Yunnan, Chongqing, Ningxia, and Xinjiang provinces, which are concentrated in the north, east, and south coastal regions, were selected for the reduction of carbon emissions by controlling construction land expansion.

  15. Patterns of Livestock Predation by Carnivores: Human-Wildlife Conflict in Northwest Yunnan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xueyou; Buzzard, Paul; Chen, Yongchun; Jiang, Xuelong

    2013-12-01

    Alleviating human-carnivore conflict is central to large carnivore conservation and is often of economic importance, where people coexist with carnivores. In this article, we report on the patterns of predation and economic losses from wild carnivores preying on livestock in three villages of northern Baima Xueshan Nature Reserve, northwest Yunnan during a 2-year period between January 2010 and December 2011. We analyzed claims from 149 households that 258 head of livestock were predated. Wolves ( Canis lupus) were responsible for 79.1 % of livestock predation; Asiatic black bears ( Selenarctos thibetanus) and dholes ( Cuon alpinus) were the other predators responsible. Predation frequency varied between livestock species. The majority of livestock killed were yak-cattle hybrids or dzo (40.3 %). Wolves killed fewer cattle than expected, and more donkeys and horses than expected. Wolves and bears killed more adult female and fewer adult male livestock than expected. Intensified predation in wet season coincided with livestock being left to graze unattended in alpine meadows far away from villages. On average, carnivore attacks claimed 2.1 % of range stock annually. This predation represented an economic loss of 17 % (SD = 14 %) of the annual household income. Despite this loss and a perceived increase in carnivore conflict, a majority of the herders (66 %) still supported the reserve. This support is primarily due to the benefits from the collection of nontimber resources such as mushrooms and medicinal plants. Our study also suggested that improvement of husbandry techniques and facilities will reduce conflicts and contribute to improved conservation of these threatened predators.

  16. Antiretroviral Therapy Reduces HIV Transmission in Discordant Couples in Rural Yunnan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Na; Duan, Song; Ding, Yingying; Rou, Keming; McGoogan, Jennifer M.; Jia, Manhong; Yang, Yuecheng; Wang, Jibao; Montaner, Julio S. G.; Wu, Zunyou

    2013-01-01

    Background Although HIV treatment as prevention (TasP) via early antiretroviral therapy (ART) has proven to reduce transmissions among HIV-serodiscordant couples, its full implementation in developing countries remains a challenge. In this study, we determine whether China's current HIV treatment program prevents new HIV infections among discordant couples in rural China. Methods A prospective, longitudinal cohort study was conducted from June 2009 to March 2011, in rural Yunnan. A total of 1,618 HIV-discordant couples were eligible, 1,101 were enrolled, and 813 were followed for an average of 1.4 person-years (PY). Routine ART was prescribed to HIV-positive spouses according to eligibility (CD4HIV incidence. Results A total of 17 seroconversions were documented within 1,127 PY of follow-up, for an overall incidence of 1.5 per 100 PY. Epidemiological and genetic evidence confirmed that all 17 seroconverters were infected via marital secondary sexual transmission. Having an ART-experienced HIV-positive partner was associated with a lower rate of seroconvertion compared with having an ART-naïve HIV-positive partner (0.8 per 100 PY vs. 2.4 per 100 PY, HR = 0.34, 95%CI = 0.12–0.97, p = 0.0436). While we found that ART successfully suppressed plasma viral load to HIV incidence among discordant couples in our sample, demonstrating the effectiveness of China's HIV treatment program at preventing new infections, and providing support for earlier ART initiation and TasP implementation in this region. PMID:24236010

  17. Human impacts on functional and taxonomic homogenization of plateau fish assemblages in Yunnan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guohuan Su

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Human activities and the consequent extinctions of native species and invasions of non-native species have been changing the composition of species assemblages worldwide. These anthropogenic impacts alter not only the richness of assemblages but also the biological dissimilarity among them. However, much of the research effort to date has focused on changes in taxonomic dissimilarity (i.e. accounting for species composition whether assessments of functional dissimilarity (i.e. accounting for the diversity of biological traits are much more scarce, despite revealing important complimentary information by accounting for changes in the diversity of biological traits. Here, we assess the temporal (1950s against 2000s changes in both taxonomic and functional dissimilarities of freshwater fish assemblages across lakes from the Yunnan Plateau in China. The Jaccard index to quantify the changes in both taxonomic and functional dissimilarity. We then partitioned dissimilarity to extract its turnover component and measured the changes in the contribution of turnover to dissimilarity. We found that functional and taxonomic homogenization occurred simultaneously. However, patterns between these two processes differed for some lakes. Taxonomic and functional homogenizations were stronger when the historical level of taxonomic dissimilarity among assemblages was high. The impact of extinctions of native species and invasions of non-native species on homogenization was otherwise complex to disentangle with no significant effect of any of the studied environmental factors. In agreement with other studies, our study proved that change in taxonomic dissimilarity cannot be used to predict changes in functional dissimilarity and, as an indicator of ecosystem functioning, functional dissimilarity should be used together with taxonomic dissimilarity to attain a more holistic understanding of human impacts on natural ecosystems.

  18. Southeastern Power Administration 2007 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2007-12-28

    Dear Secretary Chu: I am proud to submit Southeastern Power Administration’s (Southeastern’s) fiscal year (FY) 2007 Annual Report for your review. The information included in this report reflects Southeastern’s programs, accomplishments, and financial activities for the 12-month period beginning October 1, 2006 and ending September 30, 2007. Southeastern marketed more than 5 billion kilowatt-hours of energy to 492 wholesale Federal power customers in an 11-state marketing area in FY 2007. Revenues from the sale of this power totaled approximately $219 million. Drought conditions continued to plague the southeast region of the United States during 2007 placing strains on our natural and financial resources. Southeastern purchased more than $40 million in replacement power to meet customer contract requirements to ensure the continued reliability of our nation’s power grid. With the financial assistance and support of our Federal power customers, continued funding for capitalized equipment replacements at various Corps of Engineers’ (Corps) hydroelectric projects provided much needed repairs and maintenance for aging facilities. Southeastern’s cyber and physical security program continued to be reviewed and updated to meet Department of Energy (DOE), Homeland Security, and North American Electric Reliability Corporation standards and requirements. Plans for the upcoming year include communication and cooperation with DOE, Federal power customers, and the Corps to maximize the benefits of our nation’s water resources. Competition for the use of water and the prolonged drought conditions will present another challenging year for our agency. The employees at Southeastern will be proactive in meeting these challenges and providing reliable hydroelectric power to the people in the southeast. Sincerely, Kenneth E. Legg Administrator

  19. Zirconium and hafnium in the southeastern Atlantic States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertie, J.B.

    1958-01-01

    The principal source of zirconium and hafnium is zircon, though a minor source is baddeleyite, mined only in Brazil. Zircon is an accessory mineral in igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks, but rarely occurs in hardrock in minable quantities. The principal sources of zircon are therefore alluvial deposits, which are mined in many countries of five continents. The principal commercial deposits in the United States are in Florida, though others exist elsewhere in the southeastern Coastal Plain. The evidence indicates that conditions for the accumulation of workable deposits of heavy minerals were more favorable during the interglacial stages of the Pleistocene epoch than during Recent time. Therefore detrital ores of large volume and high tenor are more likely to be found in the terrace deposits than along the present beaches. Other concentrations of heavy minerals, however, are possible at favored sites close to the Fall Line where the Tuscaloosa formation rests upon the crystalline rocks of the Piedmont province. A score of heavy and semiheavy minerals occur in the detrital deposits of Florida, but the principal salable minerals are ilmenite, leucoxene, rutile, and zircon, though monazite and staurolite are saved at some mining plants. Commercial deposits of heavy minerals are generally required to have a tenor of 4 percent, though ores with a lower tenor can be mined at a profit if the content of monazite is notably high. The percentages of zircon in the concentrates ranges from 10 to 16 percent, and in eastern Florida from 13 to 15 percent. Thus the tenor in zircon of the ore-bearing sands ranges from 0.4 to 0.6 percent. The content of hafnium in zircon is immaterial for many uses, but for some purposes very high or very low tenors in hafnium are required. Alluvial zircon cannot be separated into such varieties, which, if needed, must be obtained from sources in bedrock. It thus becomes necessary to determine the Hf : Zr ratios in zircon from many kinds of

  20. The genomic history of southeastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieson, Iain; Alpaslan-Roodenberg, Songül; Posth, Cosimo; Szécsényi-Nagy, Anna; Rohland, Nadin; Mallick, Swapan; Olalde, Iñigo; Broomandkhoshbacht, Nasreen; Candilio, Francesca; Cheronet, Olivia; Fernandes, Daniel; Ferry, Matthew; Gamarra, Beatriz; Fortes, Gloria González; Haak, Wolfgang; Harney, Eadaoin; Jones, Eppie; Keating, Denise; Krause-Kyora, Ben; Kucukkalipci, Isil; Michel, Megan; Mittnik, Alissa; Nägele, Kathrin; Novak, Mario; Oppenheimer, Jonas; Patterson, Nick; Pfrengle, Saskia; Sirak, Kendra; Stewardson, Kristin; Vai, Stefania; Alexandrov, Stefan; Alt, Kurt W; Andreescu, Radian; Antonović, Dragana; Ash, Abigail; Atanassova, Nadezhda; Bacvarov, Krum; Gusztáv, Mende Balázs; Bocherens, Hervé; Bolus, Michael; Boroneanţ, Adina; Boyadzhiev, Yavor; Budnik, Alicja; Burmaz, Josip; Chohadzhiev, Stefan; Conard, Nicholas J; Cottiaux, Richard; Čuka, Maja; Cupillard, Christophe; Drucker, Dorothée G; Elenski, Nedko; Francken, Michael; Galabova, Borislava; Ganetsovski, Georgi; Gély, Bernard; Hajdu, Tamás; Handzhyiska, Veneta; Harvati, Katerina; Higham, Thomas; Iliev, Stanislav; Janković, Ivor; Karavanić, Ivor; Kennett, Douglas J; Komšo, Darko; Kozak, Alexandra; Labuda, Damian; Lari, Martina; Lazar, Catalin; Leppek, Maleen; Leshtakov, Krassimir; Vetro, Domenico Lo; Los, Dženi; Lozanov, Ivaylo; Malina, Maria; Martini, Fabio; McSweeney, Kath; Meller, Harald; Menđušić, Marko; Mirea, Pavel; Moiseyev, Vyacheslav; Petrova, Vanya; Price, T Douglas; Simalcsik, Angela; Sineo, Luca; Šlaus, Mario; Slavchev, Vladimir; Stanev, Petar; Starović, Andrej; Szeniczey, Tamás; Talamo, Sahra; Teschler-Nicola, Maria; Thevenet, Corinne; Valchev, Ivan; Valentin, Frédérique; Vasilyev, Sergey; Veljanovska, Fanica; Venelinova, Svetlana; Veselovskaya, Elizaveta; Viola, Bence; Virag, Cristian; Zaninović, Joško; Zäuner, Steve; Stockhammer, Philipp W; Catalano, Giulio; Krauß, Raiko; Caramelli, David; Zariņa, Gunita; Gaydarska, Bisserka; Lillie, Malcolm; Nikitin, Alexey G; Potekhina, Inna; Papathanasiou, Anastasia; Borić, Dušan; Bonsall, Clive; Krause, Johannes; Pinhasi, Ron; Reich, David

    2018-03-08

    Farming was first introduced to Europe in the mid-seventh millennium bc, and was associated with migrants from Anatolia who settled in the southeast before spreading throughout Europe. Here, to understand the dynamics of this process, we analysed genome-wide ancient DNA data from 225 individuals who lived in southeastern Europe and surrounding regions between 12000 and 500 bc. We document a west-east cline of ancestry in indigenous hunter-gatherers and, in eastern Europe, the early stages in the formation of Bronze Age steppe ancestry. We show that the first farmers of northern and western Europe dispersed through southeastern Europe with limited hunter-gatherer admixture, but that some early groups in the southeast mixed extensively with hunter-gatherers without the sex-biased admixture that prevailed later in the north and west. We also show that southeastern Europe continued to be a nexus between east and west after the arrival of farmers, with intermittent genetic contact with steppe populations occurring up to 2,000 years earlier than the migrations from the steppe that ultimately replaced much of the population of northern Europe.

  1. The spatial distribution of forest damages in southeastern Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jokinen, J.; Maekinen, E.; Meinander, O.; Haarala, S. [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland)

    1995-12-31

    Up to the present time scientists researching the causes of the vast areas of forest damages observed in Europe and North America have presented many different hypotheses. Among the first explanations was the damaging effect of acid rain. Some researchers claimed that of all air pollutants ozone was the most important damaging agent. The stress theory emphasizes the interaction of nitrogen oxides and sulphur dioxide with oxidants, hydrocarbons and heavy metals to be the main cause of toxic effects. In addition to above-mentioned theories, projects carried out by the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) have revealed that under northern conditions coniferous forests have been damaged even in situations where the emissions consist of sulphur and nitrogen compounds occurring together. This theory postulates that the interaction of the above pollutants may be responsible by themselves for the effects on coniferous forests. The interaction is supposed to cause damages by two different mechanisms, namely, by causing direct toxic effects or through wintering failures. These mechanisms are indicated by the total nitrogen and sulphur concentration relationships of the needles. In the first case both sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides occur at such a high levels in the air that they cause direct damages, while in the second case sulphur dioxide concentration, in particular, is lower and both compounds can then be used as nutrients causing nutrient imbalance and a loss of wintering hardiness of the needles. The study area in these projects was southeastern Finland, which is one of the most polluted areas in our country. Domestic emissions from the paper and pulp industry, as well as the Russian emissions (e g. from the Leningrad region) affect this area. The aim of this study was to test the sulphur-nitrogen hypothesis using data collected from the Kymi province, S.E. Finland. (author)

  2. The spatial distribution of forest damages in southeastern Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jokinen, J; Maekinen, E; Meinander, O; Haarala, S [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Up to the present time scientists researching the causes of the vast areas of forest damages observed in Europe and North America have presented many different hypotheses. Among the first explanations was the damaging effect of acid rain. Some researchers claimed that of all air pollutants ozone was the most important damaging agent. The stress theory emphasizes the interaction of nitrogen oxides and sulphur dioxide with oxidants, hydrocarbons and heavy metals to be the main cause of toxic effects. In addition to above-mentioned theories, projects carried out by the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) have revealed that under northern conditions coniferous forests have been damaged even in situations where the emissions consist of sulphur and nitrogen compounds occurring together. This theory postulates that the interaction of the above pollutants may be responsible by themselves for the effects on coniferous forests. The interaction is supposed to cause damages by two different mechanisms, namely, by causing direct toxic effects or through wintering failures. These mechanisms are indicated by the total nitrogen and sulphur concentration relationships of the needles. In the first case both sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides occur at such a high levels in the air that they cause direct damages, while in the second case sulphur dioxide concentration, in particular, is lower and both compounds can then be used as nutrients causing nutrient imbalance and a loss of wintering hardiness of the needles. The study area in these projects was southeastern Finland, which is one of the most polluted areas in our country. Domestic emissions from the paper and pulp industry, as well as the Russian emissions (e g. from the Leningrad region) affect this area. The aim of this study was to test the sulphur-nitrogen hypothesis using data collected from the Kymi province, S.E. Finland. (author)

  3. Shift in HIV/AIDS Epidemic in Southeastern China: A Longitudinal Study from 1987 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yansheng; Wu, Shouli; Chen, Liang; Yan, Pingping; Qiu, Yuefeng; Xie, Meirong; Wang, Zhenghua; Lin, Xun

    2016-08-06

    The aim of this study was to investigate the shift in the epidemiological features of HIV/AIDS during the last three decades in Fujian Province, southeastern China, so as to provide evidence for the development of novel HIV/AIDS control strategies. Data pertaining to the conventional surveillance, sentinel surveillance and epidemiological survey in Fujian Province during the period from 1987 to 2015 were collected. The epidemiological trends were described, and the subtypes of HIV strain were genotyped. In addition, the response to antiretroviral therapy was evaluated, and HIV genotypic resistance was assayed. There was an increasing trend observed in the reported cases of HIV/AIDS in Fujian Province. From 1987 to the end of 2015, a total of 8651 HIV/AIDS cases were reported across the province, with totally 1557 deaths found. Among the total cases, the ratio of male/female cases was 3.7:1, which appeared to be an increasing trend; 77.1% cases were detected in young and middle-aged populations aged 19 to 50 years, however, the new HIV infections recently tended to occur in young people aged 15 to 18 years and in populations aged 50 years and older. Among all infected individuals, 49.3% were married, however, the percentage of unmarried cases increased from 6.67% before 1994 to 40.1% in 2015; 64.8% had junior high school education or lower, however, the proportion of HIV/AIDS cases with junior college education or above gradually increased from 6.5% in 2009 to 21.4% in 2015. The reported HIV/AIDS cases were predominantly found in coastal regions; however, a rapidly increasing trend was seen in the number of HIV/AIDS cases in inland regions, and the geographical variation of the cases gradually reduced. There were multiple routes of HIV transmission found in Fujian Province, and 94.2% infections were sexually transmitted, with a large increase in the percentage of male homosexual transmission. A variety of HIV-1 subtypes were genotyped in the province during the

  4. The implications of ritual practices and ritual plant uses on nature conservation: a case study among the Naxi in Yunnan Province, Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Yanfei; Hu, Guoxiong; Ranjitkar, Sailesh; Shi, Yinxian; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Yuhua

    2017-10-25

    Conservation of biodiversity is primary important of today's critically vulnerable environment. Efficient conservation can be possible only with the long-term participation and understanding of the communities. Ritual beliefs of the indigenous people are one of the important tools to understand the local communities and aid the nature conservation. In this paper, we documented contemporary ritual practices and ritual plant uses among the Naxi people and discussed the importance of traditional knowledge on ritual practice in the conservation of plants in the mountains presenting a case study of the Dongba culture. This study was carried out from July in 2013 to July in 2014. To document and analyze the present state of the ritual plant used by the Naxi people we conducted an ethnobotanical survey. We interviewed local people including Dongba priests using the semi-structured questionnaire. During the field study, we participated in the local religious activities to witness the use of different plants in ritual activities of the Naxi people. We interviewed twenty-two key informants and eleven of them were male. All the specimens of documented species were collected and deposited at the herbarium of Kunming Institute of Botany. The survey results revealed the Naxi people possessed sound knowledge of the traditional ritual plants and great diversity of plants used in many of Naxi rituals and festivals. From the survey, we documented 32 ritual plant species belonging to 24 genera of 17 families used in various ritual activities. The ritual plants were grouped into two categories, namely those burned as incense, and those used for decoration. The incense plants like Olea europaea subsp. cuspidata and Pistacia weinmanniifolia were probably promising natural aromatic resource. Plants of genus Quercus were the most frequently used species. The places for ritual activities were diverse, such as the incense burners inside and outside the house and sacred trees at the Baishuitai. Local people except the young generation had an abundant of traditional knowledge. Our study shows the live ritual activities and the beliefs of the residents are keeping the plant diversity and the entire forest preserved as sacred mountains. Our study emphasizes traditional belief and an alternative view of conservation that is not led mainly by governmental policies, as local practices and ritual plants uses play as constant reminders to the Naxi on nature conservation. However, further research is recommended for in-depth understanding the role of traditional belief in biodiversity conservation.

  5. Density/area power-law models for separating multi-scale anomalies of ore and toxic elements in stream sediments in Gejiu mineral district, Yunnan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Cheng

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This contribution introduces a fractal filtering technique newly developed on the basis of a spectral energy density vs. area power-law model in the context of multifractal theory. It can be used to map anisotropic singularities of geochemical landscapes created from geochemical concentration values in various surface media such as soils, stream sediments, tills and water. A geochemical landscape can be converted into a Fourier domain in which the spectral energy density is plotted against the area (in wave number units, and the relationship between the spectrum energy density (S and the area (A enclosed by the above-threshold spectrum energy density can be fitted by power-law models. Mixed geochemical landscape patterns can be fitted with different S-A power-law models in the frequency domain. Fractal filters can be defined according to these different S-A models and used to decompose the geochemical patterns into components with different self-similarities. The fractal filtering method was applied to a geochemical dataset from 7,349 stream sediment samples collected from Gejiu mineral district, which is famous for its word-class tin and copper production. Anomalies in three different scales were decomposed from total values of the trace elements As, Sn, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd. These anomalies generally correspond to various geological features and geological processes such as sedimentary rocks, intrusions, fault intersections and mineralization.

  6. Delineating Potential Karst Water-Bearing Structures based on Resistivity Anomalies and Microtremor Analyses-A Case Study in Yunnan Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, F.; Su, C.; Liu, W.; Zhao, W.

    2016-12-01

    Heterogeneity, anisotropy and rugged landforms become challenges for geophysicists to locate drilling site by water-bearing structure profiling in Karst region. If only one geophysical method is used to achieve this objective, low resistivity anomalies deduced to be water-rich zones could actually be zones rich in marl and shale. In this study, integrated geophysical methods were used to locate a favorable drilling position for the provision of karst water to Juede village, which had been experiencing severe water shortages over a prolonged period. According to site conditions and hydrogeological data, appropriate geophysical profiles were conducted, approximately perpendicular to the direction of groundwater flow. In general, significant changes in resistivity occur between water-filled caves/ fractures and competent rocks. Thus, electrical and electromagnetic methods have been widely applied to search for karst groundwater indirectly. First, electrical resistivity tomography was carried out to discern shallow resistivity distributions within the profile where the low resistivity anomalies were of most interest. Second, one short profile of audio-frequency magnetotelluric survey was used to ascertain the vertical and horizontal extent of these low resistivity anomalies. Third, the microtremor H/V spectral ratio method was applied to identify potential water-bearing structures from low resistivity anomalies and to differentiate these from the interference of marl and shale with low resistivity. Finally, anomalous depths were estimated by interpreting Schlumberger sounding data to determine an optimal drilling site. The study shows that karst hydrogeology and geophysical methods can be effectively integrated for the purposes of karst groundwater exploration.

  7. Steinernema xueshanense n. sp. (Rhabditida, Steinernematidae), a new species of entomopathogenic nematode from the province of Yunnan, southeast Tibetan Mts., China

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mráček, Zdeněk; Qi-zhi, L.; Nguyen, K. B.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 102, č. 1 (2009), s. 68-79 ISSN 0022-2011 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME08085 Grant - others:Ministry of Science and Technology of the People´s Republic of China(CN) 2006AA06Z532; National Key Technology R&D Program(CN) 2008 BAD92B08 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : description * entomopathogenic nermatodes * molecular characterization Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.807, year: 2009

  8. Study of aroma formation and transformation during the manufacturing process of Biluochun green tea in Yunnan Province by HS-SPME and GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chen; Lv, Shidong; Wu, Yuanshuang; Lian, Ming; Gao, Xuemei; Meng, Qingxiong

    2016-10-01

    Biluochun is a typical non-fermented tea and is also famous for its unique aroma in China. Few studies have been performed to evaluate the effect of the manufacturing process on the formation and content of its aroma. The volatile components were extracted at different manufacturing process steps of Biluochun green tea using fully automated headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and further characterised by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Among 67 volatile components collected, the fractions of linalool oxides, β-ionone, phenylacetaldehyde, aldehydes, ketones, and nitrogen compounds were increased while alcohols and hydrocarbons declined during the manufacturing process. The aroma compounds decreased the most during the drying steps. We identified a number of significantly changed components that can be used as markers and quality control during the producing process of Biluochun. The drying step played a major role in the aroma formation of green tea products and should be the most important step for quality control. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Discussion on the genesis and mineralization of sandstone type uranium deposit in the southern-central Longchuanjiang basin, western Yunnan province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Yuqi; Li Mangen

    2002-01-01

    The author mainly discusses the character of the depositional systems, geological structures and ore-bearing series in the south-central Longchuanjiang basin, and points out that the uranium mineralization is closely related to the two depositional discontinuities caused by the tectonic evolution. Based on the characteristics of uranium mineralization in the area, pitchblende, uranium blacks and phosphuranylite are discovered in No. 382 uranium deposit and radiometric super-micro-minerals in No. 381 deposit. The research on the uranium mineralization age in No. 382 deposit shows that the mineralization in the south-central part of the basin has genetically multi-staged

  10. The Construction of Islamic Social-Cultural Space in a Mixed Community of Hui and Han---the Case of Nagu,Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue Ximing; Yang Xihao; Ma Chuang

    2015-01-01

    The cultural space of multi ethnic residential regions is always diverse and complicat-ed,and the conflicts and integration of multi cul-tures is the main driving force in the process of constructing cultural space. The structure of this kind of culture space is not always stable or un-changeable. On one hand,the nature of cultural space is that it will exhibit new changes following with a deepening of the degree of integration among various cultures,which in turn might play an ac-tive role on the self-renewal of the cultural space. On the other hand,the dramatic cultural conflict produced from cultural misunderstandings might split the former cultural space,especially if some of the ethnic religions or belief systems are misun-derstood. In this case,ethnic or religious conflicts will be unavoidable—and,this will further influ-ence the social stability of a multi-ethnic country or region. Hence,the research on the form and the mechanism for constructing the cultural space of a multi-ethnic residential community becomes very important.

  11. Distribution and risk evaluation of heavy metals in agricultural soils of southeastern Zunyi city, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Hongliang; Xu Huajie; Song Yuping; Tan Hong; Xie Feng; He Jinlin

    2008-01-01

    The pollution of heavy metals (As, Pb, Cd, Cr, and Hg) in agricultural soils of Southeastern Zunyi, Guizhou Province were investigated and assessed in this paper. The results showed that the average contents of heavy metals in the soils were As 11.39mg/kg, Pb 38.75mg/kg, Cd 0.34mg/kg, Cr 40.45mg/kg, Hg 0.21mg/kg. The Cd is the main contamination element, with an average single pollution index of 1.13, and an average single ecological risk index of 50.85, showing this area is in medium ecological risk class. The highest pollution index is 1.43 in Zunyi County, with an average single ecological risk index of 64.35. The results also indicated that Cd and Hg had caused some relevant ecological risk by comparing the pollution index with the ecological risk index of heavy metals. (authors)

  12. [Investigation of nutritional status of pupils and dietary survey in primary schools in poor counties of Guangxi and Yunnan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wenjing; Shen, Xiuhua; Mao, Xuanxia; Huang, Jingyan; Cai, Wei

    2013-07-01

    To understand the nutritional status of pupils and to provide basic evidence for the nutritional interventions. The subjects of the study were 2046 pupils from 9 primary schools in poor counties of Guangxi and Yunnan. The contents of the investigation included medical physical examination, haematoglobin determination and dietary survey. Nutritional Status was evaluated according to WHO growth standards. The prevalence of stunting and wasting in children from 6 to 14 years old in poor areas of Guangxi and Yunnan were 34.3% and 6.5% respectively. The anemia prevalence of them was 20.5%. The diet provided by the canteens of local school was mainly composed of plant food. Animal food was deficient. The cooking oil in local school was most of lard oil. The per pupil average daily intake of energy, protein, thiamin, riboflavin, vitamin C and calcium was 1491.29 kcal, 36.36 g, 179.15 ug, 0.57 mg, 0.37 mg, 53.67 mg and 163.14 mg respectively, which were lower than RNI or Al. The chronic malnutrition of pupils in poor areas is still serious. The variety of food provided by the canteens of local school is quite single, and the quality of the meals is low. Intakes of energy, protein and micronutrient from school diet are insufficient for pupils.

  13. Vertebrate endemism in south-eastern Africa numerically redefines a biodiversity hotspot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Sandun J; ProcheŞ, Şerban; Ratnayake-Perera, Dayani; Ramdhani, Syd

    2018-02-20

    We use numerical methods to explore patterns of vertebrate endemism in south-eastern Africa, refining the boundaries of the intuitively-defined Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany biodiversity hotspot, also proposing a zoogeographic regionalisation. An incidence matrix of 300 vertebrate species endemic to south-eastern Africa sensu lato in 37 operational geographic units were used in (a) phenetic cluster analysis (PCA) using the algorithm of unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averages (phenetic approach), and (b) parsimony analysis of endemicity (PAE; parsimony approach), in order to numerically evaluate the bioregional delimitations. The analyses provide a valid biogeographical entity 37% larger than the Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany hotspot, but substantially (131%) higher in vertebrate endemicity viz. the Greater Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany (GMPA) region of vertebrate endemism. South-east Africa is recognised as a dominion in the global zoogeographical area hierarchy, with subordinate units including the GMPA province. Various spatially-based measures of endemism were mapped for vertebrate species restricted to the dominion, i.e. endemic to south-eastern Africa sensu stricto. Areas and centres of endemism detected respectively from PAE and PCA, within the south-east Africa dominion also support the refined boundary of the GMPA region of endemism, which provides a better spatial conservation priority compared to the Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany hotspot. Reptiles and amphibians are found to be the main drivers of the overall pattern of endemism, while the pattern in freshwater fish is the most distinctive. Our analyses also indicate a good congruence of the centres of endemism across different terrestrial vertebrate taxa.

  14. Timing of floods in southeastern China: Seasonal properties and potential causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Gu, Xihui; Singh, Vijay P.; Shi, Peijun; Luo, Ming

    2017-09-01

    Flood hazards and flood risks in southeastern China have been causing increasing concerns due to dense population and highly-developed economy. This study attempted to address changes of seasonality, timing of peak floods and variability of occurrence date of peak floods using circular statistical methods and the modified Mann-Kendall trend detection method. The causes of peak flood changes were also investigated. Results indicated that: (1) floods were subject to more seasonality and temporal clustering when compared to precipitation extremes. However, seasonality of floods and extreme precipitation was subject to spatial heterogeneity in northern Guangdong. Similar changing patterns of peak floods and extreme precipitation were found in coastal regions; (2) significant increasing/decreasing seasonality, but no confirmed spatial patterns, were observed for peak floods and extreme precipitation. Peak floods in northern Guangdong province had decreasing variability, but had larger variability in coastal regions; (3) tropical cyclones had remarkable impacts on extreme precipitation changes in coastal regions of southeastern China, and peak floods as well. The landfalling of tropical cyclones was decreasing and concentrated during June-September; this is the major reason for earlier but enhanced seasonality of peak floods in coastal regions. This study sheds new light on flood behavior in coastal regions in a changing environment.

  15. Revision of the genus Draconarius Ovtchinnikov 1999 (Agelenidae: Coelotinae) in Yunnan, China, with an analysis of the Coelotinae diversity in the Gaoligongshan Mountains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, X.-P.; Griswold, C.E.; Miller, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    A total of 71 species of the spider subfamily Coelotinae are recorded from Yunnan, China. The seven species that belong to the Coelotes pseudoterrestris species group were revised by Wang et al. (2009). Three species of the genus Pireneitega, one species of the genus Platocoelotes will be studied in

  16. Accumulated phenocrysts and origin of feldspar porphyry in the Chanho area, western Yunnan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xing-Wang; Jiang, Neng; Yang, Kai; Zhang, Bao-Lin; Liang, Guang-He; Mao, Qian; Li, Jin-Xiang; Du, Shi-Jun; Ma, Yu-Guang; Zhang, Yong; Qin, Ke-Zhang

    2009-12-01

    The No. 1 feldspar porphyry in the Chanho area, western Yunnan, China is characterized by the development of deformed glomeroporphyritic aggregates (GA) that contain diagnostic gravity settling textures. These textures include interlocking curved grain boundaries caused by compaction, bent twins, and arch-like structures. The GAs are accumulated phenocrysts (AP) and antecrysts. The unstable textural configurations such as extensive penetrative microfractures that are restricted within the AP and fractured cores of zircon grains, all suggest that the GAs are transported fragments of fractured cumulates that formed in a pre-emplacement magma chamber rather than form in situ at the current intrusion site. Compositions of minerals and melt as represented by different mineral aggregates formed at various stages of the magmatic process and their relations to the composition of porphyry bodies in the Chanho area indicate that the porphyritic melt for the No. 1 feldspar porphyry experienced two stages of melt mixing. Pulses of potassic melt flowed into a pre-emplacement magma chamber and mixed with crystallizing dioritic magma containing phenocrysts resulted in the first hybrid alkaline granitic melt. The mixing caused denser phenocrysts to settle and aggregate to form cumulates. Secondly, new dioritic melt was injected into the magma chamber and was mixed with the previously formed hybrid alkaline granitic melt to produce syenitic melt. Geochron data, including U-Pb age of zircon and 39Ar/ 40Ar age of hornblende and oligoclase phenocrysts, indicate that hornblende and oligoclase phenocrysts, as well as the core of zircon grains, were antecrysts that formed in a number of crystallization events between 36.3 and 32.78 Ma. Gravity settling of phenocrysts took place at about 33.1 to 32.78 Ma and melts with deformed GAs were transported upwards and emplaced into the current site at 32 Ma. Results of this research indicate that the No. 1 feldspar porphyry was a shallow

  17. Carbon exchanges and their responses to temperature and precipitation in forest ecosystems in Yunnan, Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Xuehai; Song, Qinghai; Zhang, Yiping; Liu, Yuntong; Sha, Liqing; Yu, Guirui; Zhang, Leiming; Duan, Changqun; Deng, Yun; Wu, Chuansheng; Lu, Zhiyun; Luo, Kang; Chen, Aiguo; Xu, Kun; Liu, Weiwei; Huang, Hua; Jin, Yanqiang; Zhou, Ruiwu; Li, Jing; Lin, Youxing; Zhou, Liguo; Fu, Yane; Bai, Xiaolong; Tang, Xianhui; Gao, Jinbo; Zhou, Wenjun; Grace, John

    2018-03-01

    Forest ecosystems play an increasingly important role in the global carbon cycle. However, knowledge on carbon exchanges, their spatio-temporal patterns, and the extent of the key controls that affect carbon fluxes is lacking. In this study, we employed 29-site-years of eddy covariance data to observe the state, spatio-temporal variations and climate sensitivity of carbon fluxes (gross primary productivity (GPP), ecosystem respiration (R eco ), and net ecosystem carbon exchange (NEE)) in four representative forest ecosystems in Yunnan. We found that 1) all four forest ecosystems were carbon sinks (the average NEE was -3.40tCha -1 yr -1 ); 2) contrasting seasonality of the NEE among the ecosystems with a carbon sink mainly during the wet season in the Yuanjiang savanna ecosystem (YJ) but during the dry season in the Xishuangbanna tropical rainforest ecosystem (XSBN), besides an equivalent NEE uptake was observed during the wet/dry season in the Ailaoshan subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest ecosystem (ALS) and Lijiang subalpine coniferous forest ecosystem (LJ); 3) as the GPP increased, the net ecosystem production (NEP) first increased and then decreased when the GPP>17.5tCha -1 yr -1 ; 4) the precipitation determines the carbon sinks in the savanna ecosystem (e.g., YJ), while temperature did so in the tropical forest ecosystem (e.g., XSBN); 5) overall, under the circumstances of warming and decreased precipitation, the carbon sink might decrease in the YJ but maybe increase in the ALS and LJ, while future strength of the sink in the XSBN is somewhat uncertain. However, based on the redundancy analysis, the temperature and precipitation combined together explained 39.7%, 32.2%, 25.3%, and 29.6% of the variations in the NEE in the YJ, XSBN, ALS and LJ, respectively, which indicates that considerable changes in the NEE could not be explained by variations in the temperature and precipitation. Therefore, the effects of other factors (e.g., CO 2 concentration, N

  18. Perforated peptic ulcer in southeastern Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chin-Hsien; Chang, Wen-Hsiung; Shih, Shou-Chuan; Lin, Shee-Chan; Bair, Ming-Jong

    2010-09-01

    No studies focus on the population with perforated peptic ulcer in southeastern Taiwan. The present study aimed to assess the differences between the different races and the risk factors related to mortality and morbidity in postoperative patients in southeastern Taiwan. The medical records of 237 patients were reviewed retrospectively. The following factors were analyzed: patient profiles, coexisting illnesses, diagnostic method, fever, preoperative shock, clinical data at emergency room, delay operation, site of perforation, operative method, positive ascites culture, species of microbes in ascites culture, postoperative complications, death and the length of hospital stay. Aborigines were significantly different from non-aborigines in the ratio of female cases and in the habits of alcohol drinking and betel nut chewing. There were also four significantly different variables between them: fever, hemoglobin value, site of perforation and operative method. Total postoperative complication rate was 41.3% and 39 patients (16.6%) died. In multivariate analysis, age > or = 65 years, lipase > upper normal limit and preoperative shock were independent predictors of mortality. Significant risk factors associated with morbidity were NSAIDs use, creatinine > 1.5 mg/dL and preoperative shock. Aborigines were different from non-aborigines in several categories. In southeastern Taiwan, NSAIDs use, creatinine > 1.5 mg/dL and preoperative shock were independent risk factors of morbidity, and age > or = 65 years, lipase > upper normal limit and preoperative shock were independent risk factors of mortality in postoperative perforated peptic ulcer. Lipase > upper normal limit is needed for further research on the influence on mortality.

  19. 1. The Province of Philosophers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 4. Mapmakers - The Province of Philosophers. Harini Nagendra. Series Article Volume 4 Issue 4 April 1999 pp 6-11. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/004/04/0006-0011 ...

  20. Flammability of litter from southeastern trees: a preliminary assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Morgan Varner; Jeffrey M. Kane; Erin M. Banwell; Jesse K. Kreye

    2015-01-01

    The southeastern United States possesses a great diversity of woody species and an equally impressive history of wildland fires. Species are known to vary in their flammability, but little is known about southeastern species. We used published data and our own collections to perform standard litter flammability tests on a diverse suite of 25 native overstory trees from...

  1. Zoonotic Leprosy in the Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rahul; Singh, Pushpendra; Loughry, W.J.; Lockhart, J. Mitchell; Inman, W. Barry; Duthie, Malcolm S.; Pena, Maria T.; Marcos, Luis A.; Scollard, David M.; Cole, Stewart T.

    2015-01-01

    Nine-banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus) are naturally infected with Mycobacterium leprae and have been implicated in zoonotic transmission of leprosy. Early studies found this disease mainly in Texas and Louisiana, but armadillos in the southeastern United States appeared to be free of infection. We screened 645 armadillos from 8 locations in the southeastern United States not known to harbor enzootic leprosy for M. leprae DNA and antibodies. We found M. leprae–infected armadillos at each location, and 106 (16.4%) animals had serologic/PCR evidence of infection. Using single-nucleotide polymorphism variable number tandem repeat genotyping/genome sequencing, we detected M. leprae genotype 3I-2-v1 among 35 armadillos. Seven armadillos harbored a newly identified genotype (3I-2-v15). In comparison, 52 human patients from the same region were infected with 31 M. leprae types. However, 42.3% (22/52) of patients were infected with 1 of the 2 M. leprae genotype strains associated with armadillos. The geographic range and complexity of zoonotic leprosy is expanding. PMID:26583204

  2. Review of potential host rocks for radioactive waste disposal in the southeastern United States. Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bledsoe, H.W. Jr.; Marine, I.W.

    1980-10-01

    The geology of the southeastern United States was studied to recommend areas that should be considered for field exploration in order to select a site for a radioactive waste repository. The region studied included the Piedmont Province, the Triassic Basins, and the Atlantic Coastal Plain in Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia. This study was entirely a review of literature and existing knowledge from a geotechnical point of view and was performed by subcontractors whose individual reports are listed in the bibliography. No field work was involved. The entire study was geotechnical in nature, and no consideration was given to socioeconomic or demographic factors. These factors need to be addressed in a separate study. For all areas, field study is needed before any area is further considered. A total of 29 areas are recommended for further consideration in the Piedmont Province subregion: one area in Maryland, 8 areas in Virginia, 4 areas in North Carolina, 6 areas in South Carolina, and 10 areas in Georgia. Of the 14 exposed and 5 buried or hypothesized basins identified in the Triassic basin subregion, 6 are recommended for further study: one basin in Virginia, 3 basins in North Carolina, and 2 basins in South Carolina. Four potential candidate areas are identified within the Atlantic Coastal Plain subregion: one in Maryland, one in North Carolina, and 2 in Georgia

  3. Potential Climatic Zoning of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Golestan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afrough Sadat Baniaghil

    2017-12-01

    digital elevation model (DEM with a topo-to-raster function. Method of study In this study, the first agro-ecological requirements and of wheat were determined based on scientific resources. Studied climatic variables were included average, minimum and maximum temperatures, precipitation in the date planting and during growth season of crop. Data of the last 10 years were collected and recorded from 25 stations located within the study area. The standardization of data was used from fuzzy method and Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP was used for weighting the criteria. Finally, using weighted linear combination (WLC in the software IDRISI, wheat cultivation potential map was prepared. Results and Discussion The results showed that the weighted criteria of AHP, the amount of precipitation during the growing season had the highest amount with 0.3407 and minimum temperature in the emergence stage with 0.0306 had the lowest coefficient in the rankings. The digital environmental layers overlaid and integration in GIS media then zoning of lands carried out in 4 classes (high suitable, suitable, less suitable and unsuitable. The results showed that 9.54% and 54.53% of this area were high suitable and suitable for wheat cropping, respectively. Conclusion In the output map from weighted linear combination, the located lands in East, Southeastern, South and Southwest had the lowest potential production for wheat. These areas were consisted of steep slopes, highest elevation, less precipitation and less favorable area in terms of areas which had unfavorable climate areas and other areas that located in the Northeastern, center and Northwest of the province had the best potential for wheat production which can be said cause of sufficient amount precipitation, low slope and elevation, favorable soil and temperature.

  4. Natural incidence of Fusarium species and fumonisins B1 and B2 associated with maize kernels from nine provinces in China in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Meng; Li, Renjie; Guo, Congcong; Pang, Minhao; Liu, Yingchao; Dong, Jingao

    2015-01-01

    Fusarium species, which can produce mycotoxins, are the predominant pathogens causing maize ear rot, a disease that results in severe economic losses and serves as a potential health risk for humans and animals. A survey was conducted in 2012 to investigate the contamination of maize by Fusarium species and fumonisins B1 and B2. A total of 250 maize samples were randomly collected from nine provinces (Hebei, Shanxi, Inner Mongolia, Yunnan, Sichuan, Guizhou, Heilongjiang, Liaoning and Ningxia) in China. Fusarium species were isolated and identified using morphological (electron microscope) and molecular methods (polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing). Fumonisins B1 and B2 were analysed using high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD) with OPA (2-Mercaptoethanol, o-phthaldialdehyde) post-column derivatisation. A total of 2321 Fusarium isolates (20.7%) were obtained from all the samples. These isolates included nine Fusarium species, namely, F. graminearum, F. verticillioides, F. subglutinans, F. proliferatum, F. temperatum, F. oxysporum, F. equiseti, F. meridionale and F. chlamydosporum. The incidence of occurrence of Fusarium species in Guizhou was the highest, while in Inner Mongolia it was the lowest. F. verticillioides was the dominant species of maize ear rot in Liaoning, Sichuan, Hebei and Ningxia. F. graminearum was the dominant species in Yunnan, Guizhou and Shanxi. F. subglutinans was the dominant species in Heilongjiang. F. verticillioides and F. graminearum percentages were the same in Inner Mongolia. The incidence of fumonisins in Liaoning was high (up to 81.0%) and in Heilongjiang low (up to 10.3%). Except Shanxi, more than 50% of maize samples from other provinces were contaminated with fumonisins, with concentrations less than 500 ng g(-1). About 33% of maize samples from Yunnan were contaminated with high levels of fumonisins, and average of fumonisin levels were 5191 ng g(-1). Fusarium species causing maize

  5. Petroleum Systems and Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas in the Raton Basin - Sierra Grande Uplift Province, Colorado and New Mexico - USGS Province 41

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higley, Debra K.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Oil and Gas Assessment is to develop geologically based hypotheses regarding the potential for additions to oil and gas reserves in priority areas of the United States. The USGS recently completed an assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Raton Basin-Sierra Grande Uplift Province of southeastern Colorado and northeastern New Mexico (USGS Province 41). The Cretaceous Vermejo Formation and Cretaceous-Tertiary Raton Formation have production and undiscovered resources of coalbed methane. Other formations in the province exhibit potential for gas resources and limited production. This assessment is based on geologic principles and uses the total petroleum system concept. The geologic elements of a total petroleum system include hydrocarbon source rocks (source rock maturation, hydrocarbon generation and migration), reservoir rocks (sequence stratigraphy and petrophysical properties), and hydrocarbon traps (trap formation and timing). The USGS used this geologic framework to define two total petroleum systems and five assessment units. All five assessment units were quantitatively assessed for undiscovered gas resources. Oil resources were not assessed because of the limited potential due to levels of thermal maturity of petroleum source rocks.

  6. Local Sustainability and Gender Ratio: Evaluating the Impacts of Mining and Tourism on Sustainable Development in Yunnan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganlin Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study employed rapid evaluation methods to investigate how the leading industries of mining and tourism impact sustainability as manifest through social, economic and environmental dimensions in Yunnan, China. Within the social context, we also consider the differentiated impact on gender ratio—which is a salient feature of sustained development trajectories. Our results indicate that mining areas performed better than tourism areas in economic aspects but fell behind in social development, especially regarding the issue of gender balance. Conclusions on environmental status cannot be drawn due to a lack of data.  The results from the environmental indicators are mixed. Our study demonstrates that rapid evaluation using currently available data can provide a means of greater understanding regarding local sustainability and highlights areas that need attention from policy makers, agencies and academia.

  7. Local sustainability and gender ratio: evaluating the impacts of mining and tourism on sustainable development in Yunnan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ganlin; Ali, Saleem

    2015-01-19

    This study employed rapid evaluation methods to investigate how the leading industries of mining and tourism impact sustainability as manifest through social, economic and environmental dimensions in Yunnan, China. Within the social context, we also consider the differentiated impact on gender ratio-which is a salient feature of sustained development trajectories. Our results indicate that mining areas performed better than tourism areas in economic aspects but fell behind in social development, especially regarding the issue of gender balance. Conclusions on environmental status cannot be drawn due to a lack of data.  The results from the environmental indicators are mixed. Our study demonstrates that rapid evaluation using currently available data can provide a means of greater understanding regarding local sustainability and highlights areas that need attention from policy makers, agencies and academia.

  8. Local Sustainability and Gender Ratio: Evaluating the Impacts of Mining and Tourism on Sustainable Development in Yunnan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ganlin; Ali, Saleem

    2015-01-01

    This study employed rapid evaluation methods to investigate how the leading industries of mining and tourism impact sustainability as manifest through social, economic and environmental dimensions in Yunnan, China. Within the social context, we also consider the differentiated impact on gender ratio—which is a salient feature of sustained development trajectories. Our results indicate that mining areas performed better than tourism areas in economic aspects but fell behind in social development, especially regarding the issue of gender balance. Conclusions on environmental status cannot be drawn due to a lack of data.  The results from the environmental indicators are mixed. Our study demonstrates that rapid evaluation using currently available data can provide a means of greater understanding regarding local sustainability and highlights areas that need attention from policy makers, agencies and academia. PMID:25607602

  9. High attributable risk due to arsenic for lung cancer in Yunnan tin mine reported by WD Hazelton et al

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Shiquan

    2004-01-01

    Using two-stage clonal expansion model with data-base provided by Lubin, WD Hazelton et al indicated the high risk of arsenic, but not radon, in the etiology of Yunnan tin miner's lung cancer. The author of this review iterated the problems in the data-base of Lubin, and considered that it may result in low estimate for the risk of radon in paper of Hazelton et al. Attributable risk was estimated by them with changing exposure patterns of each individual ,but the efficacy of this two-stage model will be violated by the invariability of appointed radon/arsenic exposures. Risk comparison was used to distinguish the contribution from radon/arsenic, which was hampered by the high correlation between their joint exposures. As Lubin, Hazelton et al neglected the confounding from environmental arsenic pollution in early years. From all of above, their viewpoint is worth to be deliberated

  10. Book review: Large igneous provinces

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Bray, Edward A.

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive compilation of all aspects of large igneous provinces (LIPs). Published in 2014, the book is now the definitive source of information on the petrogenesis of this type of globally important, voluminous magmatic activity. In the first few pages, LIPs are characterized as magmatic provinces with areal extents >0.1 Mkm2 that are dominated by mafic magmas emplaced or erupted in intraplate settings during relatively short (1–5 m.y.) time intervals. Given these parameters, particularly areal extent, LIPs clearly represent significant contributions to global geologic evolution through time. This point is underscored, also in the introductory chapter, by a series of figures that aptly characterize the global time-space distribution of LIPs; an accompanying, particularly useful table identifies individual LIPs, quantifies their basic characteristics, and enumerates pertinent references. Accordingly, this compilation is a welcome addition to the geologic literature.

  11. Neotectonics in the maritime provinces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, G.L.

    1988-03-01

    Seismic risk assessment in the Maritime Provinces requires input from not just historical, but also geological sources. A detailed search through published and unpublished geological literature reveals many examples - some probable, some possible -of neotectonic movement in the area. Examples range in tectonic significance from those that reflect exaggerated local imbalance to those that signify deep-seated stress. Evidence for neotectonism in the Maritimes is multidisciplined. It includes deformation in bedrock and quaternary deposits, and regional warping. Recent movement also is indicated by changes in relative sea level, in situ stress fields and geodetic fluctuations. Finally, and most unequivocally, neotectonism in the Maritime Provinces is manifested as the seismic events that have sporadically affected the area throughout its recent geological history, and continue up to the present day. 288 refs

  12. Field-trip guide to the vents, dikes, stratigraphy, and structure of the Columbia River Basalt Group, eastern Oregon and southeastern Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Victor E; Reidel, Stephen P.; Ross, Martin E.; Brown, Richard J.; Self, Stephen

    2017-06-22

    The Columbia River Basalt Group covers an area of more than 210,000 km2 with an estimated volume of 210,000 km3. As the youngest continental flood-basalt province on Earth (16.7–5.5 Ma), it is well preserved, with a coherent and detailed stratigraphy exposed in the deep canyonlands of eastern Oregon and southeastern Washington. The Columbia River flood-basalt province is often cited as a model for the study of similar provinces worldwide.This field-trip guide explores the main source region of the Columbia River Basalt Group and is written for trip participants attending the 2017 International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth’s Interior (IAVCEI) Scientific Assembly in Portland, Oregon, USA. The first part of the guide provides an overview of the geologic features common in the Columbia River flood-basalt province and the stratigraphic terminology used in the Columbia River Basalt Group. The accompanying road log examines the stratigraphic evolution, eruption history, and structure of the province through a field examination of the lavas, dikes, and pyroclastic rocks of the Columbia River Basalt Group.

  13. Redistribution of cesium-137 in southeastern watersheds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McHenry, J.R.; Ritchie, J.C.

    1975-01-01

    Sediment samples from 14 southeastern agricultural reservoirs and surface samples from representative soils from the contributing water shed areas were analyzed for 137 Cs. The concentrations of 137 Cs measured reflect the nature of the watershed, its cover, its use, and man's activities. Since the redistribution of 137 Cs was assumed to result from soil erosion, recent erosion rates can be calculated from the measured 137 Cs accumulations in sediments and from the decreases in the 137 Cs calculated to have been deposited on upland soils. Measured concentrations of 137 Cs ranged from 14 to 158 nCi/m 2 in surface soils. As much as 525 nCi/m 2 of 137 Cs was measured in the deposited sediment profile. Watershed budgets for 137 Cs were calculated for three representative watersheds using available sediment survey information and the measured 137 Cs concentrations

  14. Seroepidemiology and risk factors of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever among butchers and slaughterhouse workers in southeastern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Mostafavi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever (CCHF is a viral zoonotic disease. Butchers and slaughterhouse workers are considered to be high risk occupational groups for the disease. Sistan and Baluchistan province is an area in southeastern Iran which is endemic for CCHF, and the most confirmed cases of the disease are reported from this province. The aim of this study was to investigate the seroprevalence of CCHF and risk factors for seropositivity among them in Sistan and Baluchistan province in 2011. Methods: Questionnaire data and blood sample collection were carried out for each participant and the sera samples were sent to the national reference laboratory for ELISA IgG testing. Results: In this study, the seroprevalence of CCHF among 190 butchers and slaughterhouse workers from 11 counties was 16.49%. 79% of participants were aware that they were at risk of zoonosis and 39.7% did not use any personal protective equipment during their work. Of 31 CCHF IgG positive individuals in this study, eleven individuals had a previous record of CCHF infection in 57 months prior to the study. Conclusions: High seroprevalence of CCHF among butchers and slaughterhouse workers and minimal use of personal protective equipment’s during daily work indicates the need for training courses, for these groups to increase their knowledge, attitude and practice with respect to zoonosis. Keywords: Seroepidemiology, Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever, Butchers, Slaughterhouse Workers, Iran

  15. Leptospirosis in Cattle From Markets of Almaty Province, Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirkimbayeva Zhumagul

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is the first study of the prevalence of leptospirosis in the cattle at slaughter from a rural area of Kazakhstan. Five hundred and seventy three samples of serum, urine, and kidneys from cattle of Alatau, Kazakh white and Auliyekol breed, aged from 2 to 5 years (unknown vaccination status, from the province of Almaty in the South-Eastern region were collected during four years (March 2010 to October 2013. The serological, bacteriological, and molecular analyses were performed. Serum samples were tested with 14 reference Leptospira serovars by microscopic agglutination test (MAT. MAT results showed that 89 (15.53% serum samples had detectable antibodies against seven serovars of L. interrogans at a dilution of ≥1:100. Serovars: Pomona (38.2%, Tarassovi (27.2%, and Kabula (18.8% were the most prevalent and their titres ranged from 100 to 1200. The spirochetes were detected in 11 samples of urine and nine samples of kidneys under dark-field microscope observation. The pure cultures were obtained from three samples. PCR technique confirmed leptospirosis in 23 out of 89 urine samples from cows, which showed the presence of leptospiral antibodies in microagglutination test. The high disease prevalence in cows indicates the high Leptospira contamination in this area. It was concluded that the bovine leptospirosis is an endemic and locally widespread disease in Kazakhstan, and that it may play a role in zoonotic transmission to humans.

  16. Hierarchical, quantitative biogeographic provinces for all North American turtles and their contribution to the biogeography of turtles and the continent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennen, Joshua R.; Matamoros, Wilfredo A.; Agha, Mickey; Lovich, Jeffrey E.; Sweat, Sarah C.; Hoagstrom, Christopher W.

    2017-01-01

    Our study represents the first attempt to describe biogeographic provinces for North American (México, United States, and Canada) turtles. We analyzed three nested data sets separately: (1) all turtles, (2) freshwater turtles, and (3) aquatic turtles. We georeferenced North American turtle distributions, then we created presence–absence matrices for each of the three data sets. We used watershed unit as biogeographic units. We conducted an unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean clustering analysis on each Jaccard index distance matrix from our watershed species matrices to delineate biogeographic provinces. Provinces were then tested for significant differences in species compositions in a global model with the use of a one-way analysis of similarity. We conducted a best subset of environmental variables with maximum (rank) correlation with community dissimilarities that determined the best model of abiotic variables explaining province delineation (i.e., climate, topography, and stream channel). To identify which species contributed the most to province delineations, we conducted an indicator species analysis and a similarity-percentage analysis. There were 16 all-turtle provinces, 15 freshwater provinces, and 13 aquatic provinces. Species compositions delineating the provinces were explained by abiotic variables, including mean annual precipitation, mean precipitation seasonality, and diversity of streams. Province delineations correspond closely with geographical boundaries, many of which have Pleistocene origins. For example, rivers with a history of carrying glacial runoff (e.g., Arkansas, Mississippi) sometimes dissect upland provinces, especially for aquatic and semiaquatic turtles. Compared with freshwater fishes, turtles show greater sensitivity to decreased temperature with restriction of most taxa south of the last permafrost maximum. Turtles also exhibit higher sensitivity to climatic, geomorphic, and tectonic instability, with richness

  17. The Assessment Of Small Games On Fadama Land In Southeastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Assessment Of Small Games On Fadama Land In Southeastern Nigeria And The Potential For Development. ... country can offer feasible operational strategy for sustainable wildlife species development. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  18. The potential of energy farming in the southeastern California desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew, V.

    1980-04-01

    The use of energy forms to provide future sources of energy for California is considered. Marginal desert lands in southeastern California are proposed for the siting of energy farms using acacia, eucalyptus, euphorbia, guayule, jojoba, mesquite, or tamarisk.

  19. The vegetation of Malilangwe Wildlife Reserve, south-eastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The vegetation of Malilangwe Wildlife Reserve, south-eastern Zimbabwe. ... African Journal of Range and Forage Science ... Comparisons with other southern African savannas are made, and similarities and differences are discussed.

  20. Transamazonic foundation from Borborema Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackpacher, P.C.; Dantas, E.L.; Van Schums, W.R.

    1990-01-01

    Geochronological data obtained in plutonic rocks of the Sao Vicente/Caico Groups present U/Pb values around 2.15 Ga. These rocks may have involved from an initial mantle or lower crust melting and fractionation process by 2.62-2.65 Ga., that is evidenced from Sm/Nd model ages. Relation betwen TTG-sequence and tectonic setting of the area and other localities in NE-Brazil suggest that the Transamazonic orogeny was the main crust-forming episode of the Borborema Province. (author)

  1. Rickettsia parkeri in Gulf Coast Ticks, Southeastern Virginia, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Rickettsia parkeri in Gulf Coast Ticks, Southeastern Virginia, USA Chelsea L. Wright, Robyn M. Nadolny, Ju Jiang, Allen L. Richards, Daniel E...Virginia. We found that 43.1% of the adult Gulf Coast ticks collected in the summer of 2010 carried Rickettsia parkeri, suggesting that persons living in...or visiting southeastern Virginia are at risk for infection with this pathogen. Rickettsia parkeri is an obligate intracellular bacterium belonging

  2. Uranium assessment for the Precambrian pebble conglomerates in southeastern Wyoming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borgman, L.E.; Sever, C.; Quimby, W.F.; Andrew, M.E.; Karlstrom, K.E.; Houston, R.S.

    1981-03-01

    This volume is a geostatistical resource estimate of uranium and thorium in quartz-pebble conglomerates, and is a companion to Volume 1: The Geology and Uranium Potential to Precambrian Conglomerates in the Medicine Bow Mountains and Sierra Madre of Southeastern Wyoming; and to Volume 2: Drill-Hole Data, Drill-Site Geology, and Geochemical Data from the Study of Precambrian Uraniferous Conglomerates of the Medicine Bow Mountains and the Sierra Madre of Southeastern Wyoming

  3. The seed plant flora of the Mount Jinggangshan region, southeastern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Wang

    Full Text Available The Mount Jinggangshan region is located between Jiangxi and Hunan provinces in southeastern China in the central section of the Luoxiao Mountains. A detailed investigation of Mount Jinggangshan region shows that the seed plant flora comprises 2,958 species in 1,003 genera and 210 families (Engler's system adjusted according to Zhengyi Wu's concept. Among them, 23 species of gymnospermae belong to 17 genera and 9 families, and 2,935 species of angiosperms are in 986 genera and 201 families. Moreover, they can also be sorted into woody plants (350 genera and 1,295 species and herbaceous plants (653 genera and 1,663 species. The dominant families are mainly Fagaceae, Lauraceae, Theaceae, Hamamelidaceae, Magnoliaceae, Ericaceae, Styracaceae, Aquifoliaceae, Elaeocarpaceae, Aceraceae, Rosaceae, Corylaceae, Daphniphyllaceae, Symplocaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Pinaceae, Taxodiaceae, Cupressaceae and Taxaceae. Ancient and relic taxa include Ginkgo biloba, Fokieniahodginsii, Amentotaxusargotaenia, Disanthuscercidifolia subsp. longipes, Hamamelismollis, Manglietiafordiana, Magnoliaofficinalis, Tsoongiodendronodorum, Fortuneariasinensis, Cyclocaryapaliurus, Eucommiaulmoides, Sargentodoxacuneata, Bretschneiderasinensis, Camptothecaacuminata, Tapisciasinensis, etc. The flora of Mount Jinggangshan region includes 79 cosmopolitan genera and 924 non-cosmopolitan genera, which are 7.88% and 92.12% of all genera. The latter includes 452 tropical genera (48.92% and 472 temperate genera (51.08%. The temperate elements include 44 genera endemic to China, accounting for 4.76% of all genera. Among 1,003 genera, 465 have only a single species and 401 are oligotypic genera (with 2-5 species. These genera account for 86.34% of all genera. The floristic analysis indicates that the flora of Mount Jinggangshan region is closely related to the flora of Mount Wuyishan region in southeastern China. The flora of Mount Jinggangshan region also contains many elements of central and

  4. CORN (Zea mays L. ADAPTATION STUDIES UNDER IRRIGATED CONDITIONS OF SOUTHEASTERN ANATOLIA REGION OF TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Öktem

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Southeastern Anatolia region of Turkey has a great agricultural potential. When the Southeastern Anatolia Project (GAP is complete, 1.7 million hectare area will be irrigated. Corn has a great importance due to have high-yield and being a secondary crop at GAP region which has suitable soil and climate conditions for corn production. The main goal of this study was to determine the suitable corn varieties for GAP region. This research was conducted with 14 hybrid dent corn varieties at Agriculture Faculty in Şanlıurfa province during the growth season of 1997-1998. At this study grain yield, tassel flowering date, plant height, ear length, kernel number of ear, grain weight of ear, 1000 seeds weight and grain moisture at harvest were investigated. Variance analysis results showed that there were significant differences (P<0.01 in grain yield and yield characteristics among tested varieties. According to the average of two years, grain yield varied between 8.83 (Alimax and 13.92 (Rx.770 t /ha and grain moisture at harvest varied from 15.81% (Antbey to 25.92% (P.3394. Antbey had the highest tassel flowering date value (62.3 day and the lowest value was obtained from C.6127 (55.5 day genotype. Plant height varied between 190.5 cm (C.6127 and 243.4 cm (Antbey. Ear length ranged from 18.9 cm (Alimax to 21.8 cm (Tambre. Kernel number of ear varied from 439.0 number/ear (Antbey to 670.9 number/ear (P.3279. The highest grain weight of ear value was obtained from Rx.770 genotype (239.5 g and also the lowest value was 162.1 g (Antbey. 1000 seed weight ranged from 328.9 g (P.3279 to 383.0 g (Tambre. All tested varieties gave over 10 t /ha yield except Alimax, Sele and Antbey varieties.

  5. Major uranium provinces: Yilgarn block and Gascoyne Province, Western Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butt, C.R.M.

    1988-01-01

    The Archaean Yilgarn Block and the adjacent Proterozoic Gascoyne Province, Western Australia, form the basement and source rocks for numerous occurrences of surficial uranium mineralization, the largest being the Yeelirrie deposit (35 million tonnes at 0.15% U 3 O 8 ). The mineralization, almost exclusively in the form of carnotite, has been deposited in the regolith and appears to be less than 1 Ma old, with some deposits still forming. The nature and distribution of the mineralization are controlled by basement and surface geology, geomorphology, hydrology and climate, being restricted to deeply weathered, semi-arid terrain with granitoid source rocks. A few small occurrences in the Gascoyne Province may be pedogenic in origin but the majority, in the north of Yilgarn Block, occur in unrejuvenated palaeodrainage channels now choked by colluvial, alluvial and chemical sediments. These sediments, which are aquifers for the present, predominantly sub-surface, drainage, can exceed 10-15 m. Uranium released from the weathering granitoids has been transported in groundwaters in uranyl carbonate complexes and precipitated as carnotite where, (i) concentrations of uranium and potassium have been elevated by evaporation and, (ii) dissolved vanadium has been oxidized to the 5-valent state. Precipitation is in calcretes and associated sediments in the drainage axes, in 'chemical deltas' where the drainages enter playas and in the playas themselves. This style of mineralization was first recognized in 1969-1970 as the result of investigations into the source of radiometric anomalies delineated by airborne surveys. The majority of discoveries have similarly been by radiometric surveys but hydrogeochemical surveys have promise and may become important in future search for blind mineralization and/or young deposits not in radioactive equilibrium. (author). 61 refs, 6 figs

  6. Wind potential assessment of Quebec Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilinca, A.; Chaumel, J.-L.; Retiveau, J.-L.

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents the development of a comprehensive wind atlas of the Province of Quebec. This study differs from previous studies by 1) use of a standard classification index to categorize the wind resource, 2) extensive review of surface and upper air data available for the Province to define the wind resource, and 3) integration of available wind data with the topography of the Province. The wind resource in the Province of Quebec is classified using the scheme proposed by Battelle-Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The Battelle-PNL classification is a numerical one which includes rankings from Wind Power Class 1 (lowest) to Wind Power Class 7 (highest). Associated with each numerical classification is a range of wind power and associated mean wind speed at 10 m and 50 m above ground level. For this study, a classification for 30 m above ground level was interpolated and used. A significant amount of wind data was gathered for the Province. These data were obtained from Atmospheric Environment Service (AES), Canada, from wind project developers, and from climatological summaries of surface and upper air data. A total of 35 primary data sites were selected in the Province. Although a number of wind data sites in the Province were identified and used in the analysis, large areas of the Province lacked any specific wind information. The Province was divided into grid blocks having dimensions of 1/4 o latitude by 1/3 o longitude. Each grid block is assigned a numerical Wind Power Class value ranging from 1 to 7. This value is based on the integration of the available wind data and the topography within the square. The majority of the Province was classified as 1 or 2. Coastal locations and topographic features in the interior of the Province typically have Wind Power Class 3 or higher. (author)

  7. Southeastern Cancer Study Group: breast cancer studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smalley, R.V.; Bartolucci, A.A.; Moore, M.

    1983-01-01

    During the past 10 years, the Southeastern Cancer Study Group (SECSG) has been engaged in one major adjuvant study and three major advanced disease studies for patients with adenocarcinoma of the breast. The adjuvant study is demonstrating that six months of adjuvant CMF is the therapeutic equivalent of 12 months and that post-operative irradiation is of no added therapeutic benefit. In patients with advanced disease, a low dose 5 drug combination of CMFVP induces more objective responses than single agent 5FU, but improves survival only for those patients with liver metastases when compared to the sequential use of the same 5 single agents. The three drug combination, CAF, utilizing doxorubicin, induces more objective responses than low dose CMFVP, but it does not improve overall survival. The addition of a phase active combination, CAMELEON, (i.e., sequentially alternating therapy) of CAF has not improved the duration of disease control and survival for patients with liver metastases, lymphangitic and nodular lung metastases compared to CAF. Aggressive combination chemotherapeutic approaches to patients with advanced disease provide better and longer disease and tumor control but only marginal improvements in overall survival. Adding additional agents to a maximally tolerable regimen has not improved the therapeutic outcome

  8. Karst in evaporites in southeastern New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachman, G.O.

    1987-09-01

    Permian evaporites in southeastern New Mexico include gypsum, anhydrite, and salt, which are subject to both blanket and local, selective dissolution. Dissolution has produced many hundreds of individual karst features including collapse sinks, karst valleys, blind valleys, karst plains, caves, and breccia pipes. Dissolution began within some formations during Permian time and has been intermittent but continual ever since. Karst features other than blanket deposits of breccia are not preserved from the early episodes of dissolution, but some karst features preserved today - such as breccia pipes - are remnants of karst activity that was active at least as early as mid-Pleistocene time. Rainfall was much more abundant during Late Pleistocene time, and many features visible today may have been formed then. The drainage history of the Pecos River is related to extensive karstification of the Pecos Valley during mid-Pleistocene time. Large-scale stream piracy and dissolution of salt in the subsurface resulted in major shifts and excavations in the channel. In spite of intensive groundwater studies that have been carried out in the region, major problems in near-surface evaporite karst remain to be solved. Among these are determination of recharge areas and time of recharge. 109 refs., 31 figs., 1 tab

  9. Groundwater Quality of Southeastern Brazzaville, Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matini Laurent

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The groundwater in southeastern Brazzaville (Congo was analyzed for their fluoride contents and others related parameters in rainy season. The fluoride contents in water samples (wells and spring can be gather in three classes in the study area: low, optimal, high. Fluoride concentration in water samples presents a low significant correlation with Ca2+. This suggests that fluoride in the groundwater come from fluoride-bearing minerals such as CaF2 (fluorite. Maps were drawn to show the geographical distribution of EC, Ca2+, Mg2+and F-. Factor analysis and cluster analysis were applied to the dataset. Factor analysis resulted in four factors explained 76.90% of the total groundwater quality variance. Factor 1 (hardness of the groundwater includes total hardness, the concentration of K+, Ca2+ and pH. Factor 2 (low mineralization of the groundwater includes concentrations of TDS, Cl--, SO42+ and EC. Factor 3 (anthropogenic activities with the impact of agricultural fertilizers, farming activities, domestic wastewater, septic tanks includes concentrations of Na+ and NO3-. Factor 4 (weathering of calcium minerals includes concentrations of F-. For cluster analysis, Ward’s method and the Euclidean distance were used. The findings of the cluster analysis are presented in the form of dendrogram of the well water sites (cases. The discriminating parameters between clusters have been highlighted from the Student test. In majority, they are in accordance with those highlighted by factor analysis.

  10. Seismic risk map for Southeastern Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mioto, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    During the last few years, some studies regarding seismic risk were prepared for three regions of Brazil. They were carried on account of two basic interests: first, toward the seismic history and recurrence of Brazilian seismic events; second, in a way as to provide seismic parameters for the design and construction of hydro and nuclear power plants. The first seismic risk map prepared for the southeastern region was elaborated in 1979 by 6he Universidade de Brasilia (UnB-Brasilia Seismological Station). In 1981 another seismic risk map was completed on the basis of seismotectonic studies carried out for the design and construction of the Nuclear power plants of Itaorna Beach (Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro) by IPT (Mining and Applied Geology Division). In Brazil, until 1984, seismic studies concerning hydro and nuclear power plants and other civil construction of larger size did not take into account the seismic events from the point of view of probabilities of seismic recurrences. Such analysis in design is more important than the choice of a level of intensity or magnitude, or adoption of a seismicity level ased on deterministic methods. In this way, some considerations were made, concerning the use of seisms in Brazilian designs of hydro and nuclear power plants, as far as seismic analysis is concerned, recently altered over the current seismic risk panorama. (D.J.M.) [pt

  11. Dengue Virus in Bats from Southeastern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotomayor-Bonilla, Jesús; Chaves, Andrea; Rico-Chávez, Oscar; Rostal, Melinda K.; Ojeda-Flores, Rafael; Salas-Rojas, Mónica; Aguilar-Setien, Álvaro; Ibáñez-Bernal, Sergio; Barbachano-Guerrero, Arturo; Gutiérrez-Espeleta, Gustavo; Aguilar-Faisal, J. Leopoldo; Aguirre, A. Alonso; Daszak, Peter; Suzán, Gerardo

    2014-01-01

    To identify the relationship between landscape use and dengue virus (DENV) occurrence in bats, we investigated the presence of DENV from anthropogenically changed and unaltered landscapes in two Biosphere Reserves: Calakmul (Campeche) and Montes Azules (Chiapas) in southern Mexico. Spleen samples of 146 bats, belonging to 16 species, were tested for four DENV serotypes with standard reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) protocols. Six bats (4.1%) tested positive for DENV-2: four bats in Calakmul (two Glossophaga soricina, one Artibeus jamaicensis, and one A. lituratus) and two bats in Montes Azules (both A. lituratus). No effect of anthropogenic disturbance on the occurrence of DENV was detected; however, all three RT-PCR–positive bat species are considered abundant species in the Neotropics and well-adapted to disturbed habitats. To our knowledge, this study is the first study conducted in southeastern Mexico to identify DENV-2 in bats by a widely accepted RT-PCR protocol. The role that bats play on DENV's ecology remains undetermined. PMID:24752688

  12. Assessment of tsunami hazard for coastal areas of Shandong Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xingru; Yin, Baoshu

    2017-04-01

    Shandong province is located on the east coast of China and has a coastline of about 3100 km. There are only a few tsunami events recorded in the history of Shandong Province, but the tsunami hazard assessment is still necessary as the rapid economic development and increasing population of this area. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential danger posed by tsunamis for Shandong Province. The numerical simulation method was adopted to assess the tsunami hazard for coastal areas of Shandong Province. The Cornell multi-grid coupled tsunami numerical model (COMCOT) was used and its efficacy was verified by comparison with three historical tsunami events. The simulated maximum tsunami wave height agreed well with the observational data. Based on previous studies and statistical analyses, multiple earthquake scenarios in eight seismic zones were designed, the magnitudes of which were set as the potential maximum values. Then, the tsunamis they induced were simulated using the COMCOT model to investigate their impact on the coastal areas of Shandong Province. The numerical results showed that the maximum tsunami wave height, which was caused by the earthquake scenario located in the sea area of the Mariana Islands, could reach up to 1.39 m off the eastern coast of Weihai city. The tsunamis from the seismic zones of the Bohai Sea, Okinawa Trough, and Manila Trench could also reach heights of >1 m in some areas, meaning that earthquakes in these zones should not be ignored. The inundation hazard was distributed primarily in some northern coastal areas near Yantai and southeastern coastal areas of Shandong Peninsula. When considering both the magnitude and arrival time of tsunamis, it is suggested that greater attention be paid to earthquakes that occur in the Bohai Sea. In conclusion, the tsunami hazard facing the coastal area of Shandong Province is not very serious; however, disasters could occur if such events coincided with spring tides or other

  13. Determination of selenium in cereals, legumes and dry fruits from southeastern Spain for calculation of daily dietary intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz-Alarcon, J.P.; Navarro-Alarcon, M.; Lopez-Garcia de la Serrana, H.; Lopez-Martinez, M.C.

    1996-01-01

    Hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry was used to determine selenium content in cereals, legumes and dry fruits from the coast of the province of Granada (southeastern Spain). Accuracy was assured using both a NIST SRM 1572 and recovery experiments. The precision expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD) varied between 6.50% for seeds and 15.98% for bread. The highest selenium concentrations were found for dry fruits (294.6 ng/g), followed by legumes (111.8 ng/g), and the lowest for cereals (27.8 ng/g). Considering the average daily individual consumption of these foods in Andalusia (southern Spain), the daily dietary intake of selenium supplied by this source is 15.36 μg/day for an adult. The content of total selenium in corn samples taken from the zone is independent of both human and industrial activities (P 0.05)

  14. An Analysis of the Social Capital, Organizational Commitment and Performance in the Public Sector of Southeastern Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdurrahim EMHAN

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Social capital and organizational commitment and performance have long been the subjects of many studies as these concepts drive organizational outputs. This study aims to investigate the relationships between these concepts. The study collected data using a questionnaire survey comprising 26 questions conducted with 308 offi cers working in the tax offi ces of the provinces of Diyarbakır, Batman and Mardin in Southeastern Turkey. A separate form was used to collect some demographic variables from the respondents. The fi ndings indicate a positive and signifi cant relationship between social capital and performance. This study also confi rmed that organizational commitment has a mediating effect between social capital and performance.

  15. Customary Homicides in Diyarbakir Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Eyyup; Canturk, Nergis; Erkol, Zerrin; Kumral, Bahadir; Okumus, Ali M

    2015-09-01

    This study presents an analysis of the causes of so-called honor killings in the context of "customary homicide" and a discussion of preventive measures. Finalized case files of customary homicide between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2012 were retrospectively examined in Diyarbakir Province, Turkey. Of a total of 28 case victims, 17 (60.7%) were females and 11 (39.3%) were males. All perpetrators were male. There was a significant difference between male and female victims in terms of economic independence (p=0.000). A direct blood relationship or relationship by marriage (such as brother-in-law) was found to have a significant association with the gender of the victim (phomicide, which represents a multifaceted problem. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  16. Ethnic variations in myopia and ocular biometry among adults in a rural community in China: the Yunnan minority eye studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Chen-Wei; Chen, Qin; Sheng, Xun; Li, Jun; Niu, Zhiqiang; Zhou, Hua; Wei, Tao; Yuan, Yuansheng; Zhong, Hua

    2015-05-01

    To determine the prevalence of myopia and ocular biometry in population-based samples of ethnic Yi and Han people living in an inland rural community in China. A random cluster sampling strategy was used to select ethnic Han and Yi adults aged 50 years or older living in Yunnan. Refractive error was determined by subjective refraction and ocular biometric parameters, including axial length (AL), anterior chamber depth (ACD), vitreous chamber depth (VCD), and lens thickness (LT), which were measured using an Echoscan. Adults of Yi ethnicity had lower prevalence of myopia (10.3% vs. 8.1%; P = 0.02) and high myopia (2.3% vs. 1.6%; P = 0.10) than their counterparts of Han ethnicity. The prevalence of myopia increased with age (P for trend ethnic groups (both P for trend > 0.05). In multivariate analysis, time spent outdoors was associated with myopia (P = 0.003) and AL (P ethnicity and other risk factors on myopia (all P > 0.05). Adjustment for lens nuclear opacity score reduced the excess prevalence of myopia in Han ethnicity by 37.5%. There was little evidence showing that ethnic disparities existed in the prevalence and risk factors between the major and minor ethnic groups living in the same communities in rural China. The "cohort effect" on myopia observed in many other populations was not seen in this study.

  17. [Seasonal variation of soil respiration and its components in tropical rain forest and rubber plantation in Xishuangbanna, Yunnan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hua-Zheng; Sha, Li-Qing; Wang, Jun; Hu, Wen-Yan; Wu, Bing-Xia

    2009-10-01

    By using trenching method and infrared gas analyzer, this paper studied the seasonal variation of soil respiration (SR), including root respiration (RR) and heterotrophic respiration (HR), in tropical seasonal rain forest (RF) and rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) plantation (RP) in Xishuangbanna of Yunnan, China. The results showed that the SR and HR rates were significantly higher in RF than in RP (P dry-hot season > foggy season, but the RR rate was rainy season > foggy season > dry-hot season in RF, and foggy season > rainy season > dry-hot season in RP. The contribution of RR to SR in RF (29%) was much lower than that in RP (42%, P < 0.01), while the contribution of HR to SR was 71% in RF and 58% in RP. When the soil temperature at 5 cm depth varied from 12 degrees C to 32 degrees C, the Q10 values for SR, HR, and RR rates were higher in RF than in RP. HR had the highest Q10 value, while RR had the lowest one.

  18. A novel acidophilic, thermophilic iron and sulfur-oxidizing archaeon isolated from a hot spring of tengchong, yunnan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiannan Ding

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A novel thermoacidophilic iron and sulfur-oxidizing archaeon, strain YN25, was isolated from an in situ enriched acid hot spring sample collected in Yunnan, China. Cells were irregular cocci, about 0.9-1.02 µm×1.0-1.31 µm in the medium containing elemental sulfur and 1.5-2.22 µm×1.8-2.54 µm in ferrous sulfate medium. The ranges of growth and pH were 50-85 (optimum 65 and pH 1.0-6.0 (optimum 1.5-2.5. The acidophile was able to grow heterotrophically on several organic substrates, including various monosaccharides, alcohols and amino acids, though the growth on single substrate required yeast extract as growth factor. Growth occurred under aerobic conditions or via anaerobic respiration using elemental sulfur as terminal electron acceptor. Results of morphology, physiology, fatty acid analysis and analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that the strain YN25 should be grouped in the species Acidianus manzaensis. Bioleaching experiments indicated that this strain had excellent leaching capacity, with a copper yielding ratio up to 79.16% in 24 d. The type strain YN25 was deposited in China Center for Type Culture Collection (=CCTCCZNDX0050.

  19. Ranging behavior of eastern hoolock gibbon (Hoolock leuconedys) in a northern montane forest in Gaoligongshan, Yunnan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dao; Fei, Han-Lan; Yuan, Sheng-Dong; Sun, Wen-Mo; Ni, Qing-Yong; Cui, Liang-Wei; Fan, Peng-Fei

    2014-04-01

    Generally, food abundance and distribution exert important influence on primate ranging behavior. Hoolock gibbons (genus Hoolock) live in lowland and montane forests in India, Bangladesh, Myanmar and China. All information about hoolock gibbons comes from studies on western hoolock gibbons (Hoolock hoolock) living in lowland forest. Between August 2010 and September 2011, we studied the ranging behavior of one habituated group of eastern hoolock gibbon (H. leuconedys) living in a seasonal montane forest in Gaoligongshan, Yunnan, China. Results show that the study group did not increase foraging effort, calculated in this study as the daily path length, when fruit was less available. Instead, the gibbons fed more on leaves and decreased traveling to conserve energy. They relied heavily on a single food species in most study months which was patchily distributed within their total (14-month) home range, and during most months they used only a small portion of their total home range. In order to find enough food, the group shifted its monthly home range according to the seasonal availability of food species. To satisfy their annual food requirements, they occupied a total home range of 93 ha. The absence of neighboring groups of gibbons and the presence of tsaoko cardamom (Amomum tsaoko) plantations may also have influenced the ranging behavior of the group. Further long-term studies of neighboring groups living in intact forests are required to assess these effects.

  20. Numerical Modeling on Co-seismic Influence of Wenchuan 8.0 Earthquake in Sichuan-Yunnan Area, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L.; Li, H.; Lu, Y.; Li, Y.; Ye, J.

    2009-12-01

    In this paper, a three dimensional finite element model for active faults which are handled by contact friction elements in Sichuan-Yunnan area is built. Applying the boundary conditions determined through GPS data, a numerical simulations on spatial patterns of stress-strain changes induced by Wenchuan Ms8.0 earthquake are performed. Some primary results are: a) the co-seismic displacements in Longmen shan fault zone by the initial cracking event benefit not only the NE-direction expanding of subsequent fracture process but also the focal mechanism conversions from thrust to right lateral strike for the most of following sub-cracking events. b) tectonic movements induced by the Wenchuan earthquake are stronger in the upper wall of Longmen shan fault belt than in the lower wall and are influenced remarkably by the northeast boundary faults of the rhombic block. c) the extrema of stress changes induced by the main shock are 106Pa and its spatial size is about 400km long and 100km wide. The total stress level is reduced in the most regions in Longmen shan fault zone, whereas stress change is rather weak in its southwest segment and possibly result in fewer aftershocks in there. d) effects induced by the Wenchuan earthquake to the major active faults are obviously different from each other. e) triggering effect of the Wenchuan earthquake to the following Huili 6.1 earthquake is very weak.

  1. Dazai super-large uranium-bearing germanium deposit in western Yunnan region metallogenic geological conditions and prospect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Yanrong; Yuan Qingbang; Li Yonghua; Zhang Ling; Dai Jiemin

    1995-05-01

    The Dazai super-large uranium-bearing germanium deposit is located in Bangmai Fault Basin, Western Yunnan, China. The basin basement is migmatitic granite and the cover is miocene coal-bearing clastics, Bangmai Formation. The basin development had undergone faulted rhombus basin forming, synsedimentary structure-developing and up-lifted-denuded stages. Synsedimentary faults had controlled distribution of sedimentary formation and lithofacies, and uranium and germanium mineralization. Germanium ore-bodies occur mainly in master lignite-bed of lower rhythmite. Hosted germanium-lignite is taken as main ore-type. Germanium occurs in vitrinite of lignite in the form of metal-organic complex. The metallogenetic geological conditions of the deposit are that ground preparation is uplift zone-migmatitic granite-fault basin-geothermal anomaly area, rich and thick ore-body is controlled by synsedimentary fault, peat-bog phase is favorable to accumulation for ore-forming elements, and unconformity between overlying cover and underlying basement is a channel-way of mineralizing fluid. A multiperiodic composite, being regarded sedimentation and diagenesis as a major process, uranium and germanium ore deposit has been formed through two mineralization. Four prospecting areas have been forecasted and two deposits have been accordingly discovered again. Technical-economic provableness shows that the deposit is characterized by shallow-buried, rich grade, large scale, easy mining and smelting. (9 figs.)

  2. Analysis of uranium metallogenic conditions and prospective prognosis on the south-central part of the Xikang-Yunnan Axis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Baochi; Qian Farong; Cai Yuqi; Zhang Daishi

    1996-08-01

    Three types of uranium mineralizations (i.e., sandstone type, sodium metasomatite type and Proterozoic epimetamorphic rock type) are distinguished in the south-central part of the Xikang-Yunnan Axis, and their major characteristics are expounded. It is proposed that the Early Proterozoic crust has three elevation stages: primitive old land formation stage, subsidence stage and base mental reconsolidation stage, and that the Middle Proterozoic Kunyang Group is different from typical carbonate-siliceous-politic sedimentary formation which contains many regional uranium-rich horizons. The primitive uranium contents of some rocks in the region have been studied for the first time, and proposed a new knowledge that some relative rocks be recognized as the uranium source rocks of the region. It is pointed out that there are two kinds of hydrothermal alterations, namely, alkaline alteration and acidic alteration, and some areas with development of alkaline alteration have promising uranium-metallogenic potential. As for the U-metallogenic prospect of the region, three conclusions are summarized: (1) This region does not have favourable geologic conditions for the Australian-Canadian type Proterozoic unconformity-related uranium deposit; (2) The Proterozoic unconformity different from that of Australian-Canadian type does not have permission U-metallogenic potential either; (3) The alkaline (sodium) metasomatite type uranium mineralization in the region has some prospecting potential. Therefore on the basis of above-mentioned conclusions five relatively promising uranium-metallogenic prospects are selected. (4 refs.)

  3. Determinations of directions of the mean stress field in Sichuan-Yunnan region from a number of focal mechanism solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Ji-Mao; Cheng, Wan-Zheng

    2006-07-01

    Based on the spatial orientation and slip direction of the fault plane solutions, we present the expression of corresponding mechanical axis tensor in geographic coordinate system, and then put forward a method for calculating average mechanical axis tensor and its eigenvalues, which involves solving the corresponding eigenequation. The method for deducing mean stress field from T, B, and P axes parameters of a number of focal mechanism solutions has been verified by inverting data of mean stress fields in Fuyun region and in Tangshan region with fitting method of slip direction, and both results are consistent. To study regional average stress field, we need to choose a population of focal mechanism solutions of earthquakes in the massifs where there are significant tectonic structures. According to the focal mechanism solutions of 256 moderate-strong earthquakes occurred in 13 seismic zones of Sichuan-Yunnan region, the quantitative analysis results of stress tensor in each seismic zone have been given. The algorithm of such method is simple and convenient, which makes the method for analyzing tectonic stress field with large amount of focal mechanism solution data become quantified.

  4. Association of vectors and environmental conditions during the emergence of Peruvian horse sickness orbivirus and Yunnan orbivirus in northern Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-López, María R; Attoui, Houssam; Florin, David; Calisher, Charles H; Florian-Carrillo, J Christian; Montero, Stephanie

    2015-12-01

    Since 1983, cases of diseased donkeys and horses with symptoms similar to those produced by alphaviruses were identified in two departments in northern Peru; however serological testing ruled out the presence of those viruses and attempts to isolate an agent were also unproductive. In 1997, also in northern Peru, two new orbiviruses were discovered, each recognized as a causative agent of neurological diseases in livestock and domestic animals and, at the same time, mosquitoes were found to be infected with these viruses. Peruvian horse sickness virus (PHSV) was isolated from pools of culicid mosquitoes, Aedes serratus and Psorophora ferox, and Yunnan virus (YUOV) was isolated from Aedes scapularis in the subtropical jungle (upper jungle) located on the slope between the east side of the Andes and the Amazonian basin in the Department of San Martín. Both viruses later were recovered from mosquitoes collected above the slope between the west side of the Andes and the coast (Department of Piura) in humid subtropical areas associated with the Piura River basin. In this region, PHSV was isolated from Anopheles albimanus and YUOV was isolated from Ae. scapularis. We discuss the ecology of vector mosquitoes during the outbreaks in the areas where these mosquitoes were found. © 2015 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  5. [Changes in vegetation and soil characteristics under tourism disturbance in lakeside wetland of northwest Yunnan Plateau, Southwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ming-Yan; Yang, Yong-Xing

    2014-05-01

    The characteristics of vegetation and soil were investigated in Bita Lake and Shudu Lake wetlands in northwest Yunnan Plateau under tourism disturbance. The 22 typical plots in the wetlands were classified into 4 types by TWINSPAN, including primary wetland, light degradation, moderate degradation, and severe degradation. Along the degradation gradient, the plant community density, coverage, species number and Shannon diversity index increased and the plant height decreased in Bita Lake and Shudu Lake wetlands, and Whittaker diversity index increased in Bita Lake wetland. Plant species number, soil organic matter, total nitrogen, porosity, available nitrogen, available phosphorus and available potassium contents were higher in Shudu Lake wetland than in Bita Lake wetland, but the plant density, height, soil total potassium and pH were opposite. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) by importance values of 42 plants and 11 soil variables showed that soil organic matter, total nitrogen and total potassium were the key factors on plant species distribution in Bita Lake and Shudu Lake wetlands under tourism disturbance. TWINSPAN classification and analysis of vegetation-soil characteristics indicated the effects of tourism disturbance in Bita Lake wetland were larger than in Shudu Lake wetland.

  6. Land Use Suitability Assessment in Low-Slope Hilly Regions under the Impact of Urbanization in Yunnan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gui Jin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the conflict between land development and land conservation has become increasingly serious in China. The plan called “town of mountain” is carried out in many nonplain areas to alleviate the conflict. To avoid geological disasters and ecological risks in those areas, land use suitability assessment is of great importance. In this paper, the fuzzy weight of evidence model is applied into land use suitability assessment in low-slope hilly regions in Yunnan, China. Fuzzy weight of evidences is calculated to determine 9 map layers. Finally, posterior probabilities are modified after synthesizing each map layer, which are used to generate a land use suitability map. The results show that 9.33%, 26.18%, 45.98%, and 18.51% of low-slope hilly regions are separately highly suitable, moderately suitable, marginally suitable, and unsuitable for development. Besides, highly and moderately suitable areas are mainly located in towns with excellent natural and socioeconomic conditions. The largest areas which are marginally suitable for development are most widely distributed. Unsuitable areas are mainly distributed far away from towns and water sources. The findings of the research will promote the rational use and scientific management of the land.

  7. Description of two new sympatric species of the genus Leptolalax (Anura: Megophryidae from western Yunnan of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Huan Yang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The Asian leaf litter toads of the genus Leptolalax represent a highly diverse species group and currently contain 53 recognized species. During herpetological surveys in Yingjiang County, western Yunnan of China, we collected series of Leptolalax specimens from an isolated small fragment of montane evergreen forest. Subsequent study based on acoustic, morphological and molecular data reveals that there were three different species among the specimens sampled: while one of them belongs to Leptolalax ventripunctataus, the other two species represent unknown taxa and are described herein: Leptolalax purpurus sp. nov. and Leptolalax yingjiangensis sp. nov. The two new species can be distinguished from other congeners by the molecular divergences, acoustic data, and by a combination of morphological characters including: body size, dorsal and ventral patterns, dorsal skin texture, sizes of pectoral and femoral glands, degree of webbing and fringing on the toes and fingers, dorsum coloration and iris coloration in life. Our results further reveal that species diversity of the genus Leptolalax still remains highly underestimated and warrants further attention.

  8. Soil heavy metal pollution and risk assessment associated with the Zn-Pb mining region in Yunnan, Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xianfeng; Danek, Tomas; Drozdova, Jarmila; Huang, Qianrui; Qi, Wufu; Zou, Liling; Yang, Shuran; Zhao, Xinliang; Xiang, Yungang

    2018-03-07

    The environmental assessment and identification of sources of heavy metals in Zn-Pb ore deposits are important steps for the effective prevention of subsequent contamination and for the development of corrective measures. The concentrations of eight heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in soils from 40 sampling points around the Jinding Zn-Pb mine in Yunnan, China, were analyzed. An environmental quality assessment of the obtained data was performed using five different contamination and pollution indexes. Statistical analyses were performed to identify the relations among the heavy metals and the pH in soils and possible sources of pollution. The concentrations of As, Cd, Pb, and Zn were extremely high, and 23, 95, 25, and 35% of the samples, respectively, exceeded the heavy metal limits set in the Chinese Environmental Quality Standard for Soils (GB15618-1995, grade III). According to the contamination and pollution indexes, environmental risks in the area are high or extremely high. The highest risk is represented by Cd contamination, the median concentration of which exceeds the GB15618-1995 limit. Based on the combination of statistical analyses and geostatistical mapping, we identified three groups of heavy metals that originate from different sources. The main sources of As, Cd, Pb, Zn, and Cu are mining activities, airborne particulates from smelters, and the weathering of tailings. The main sources of Hg are dust fallout and gaseous emissions from smelters and tailing dams. Cr and Ni originate from lithogenic sources.

  9. [Isolation methods and diversity of culturable fecal actinobacteria associated with Panthera tigris tigris in Yunnan Safari Park].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yanru; Jiang, Yi; Li, Youlong; Chen, Xiu; Jin, Rongxian; He, Wenxiang

    2012-07-04

    We studied the isolation methods and diversity of culturable fecal actinobacteria associated with Panthera tigris tigris by using culture-dependent approaches. Fresh fecal samples of healthy Panthera tigris tigris were collected from Yunnan Safari Park. Pretreatment of the samples, isolation media and inhibitors were tested for actinobacteria isolation. 16S rRNA genes of actinobacteria were sequenced and subjected to phylogenetic analysis. The abundance of culturable actinobacteria was 1.10 x 10(8) cfu/g colony forming units (CFU) per gram of feces (wet weight). We obtained 110 purified cultural actinobacterium strains. The analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that these strains were distributed in 10 different families and 12 genera of actinobacteria at least, and most of them were non-filamentous, such as Arthrobacter, Dietzia, Kocuria, Corynebacterium and Microbacterium. Streptomyces was the mainly classical filamentous actinobacteria, and up to 64% of total. Drying and heating up the fecal samples can greatly increase the rate of the actinobacteria. Many kinds of inhibitors and chemical defined media are suitable for isolation of fecal actinobacteria. The culturable actinobacteria are abundant in Panthera tigris tigris feces. Our study found an effective method to isolate animals' fecal actinobacteria and it's useful for studying and exploiting animals' fecal actinobacteria.

  10. Review of potential host rocks for radioactive waste disposal in the southeast United States: Southeastern Coastal Plain Subregion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-10-01

    A literature review was made of the geological characteristics of the Southeastern Coastal Plain physiograhic province in the states of Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia. The purpose of this study was to identify candidate exploration areas for the possible location of a mined repository for the storage of radioactive waste in the argillaceous sedimentary rocks of the Coastal Plain. Candidate areas were selected on the basis of geological characteristics, available subsurface data, and generally accepted requirements for waste isolation developed by previous studies. Factors considered in the evaluation include the stratigraphy and lithology, geologic history, structure, seismicity, hydrogeology, and natural resources of the candidate area. Unlike other potential regions, the Southeastern Coastal Plain is not composed of competent rock, but consists primarily of unconsolidated and water-saturated sediments overlying a basement of crystalline and metavolcanic rocks. Thus, construction of both shafts and tunnels to depths of approx. 1000 meters may encounter difficulties. Socio-economic and construction considerations have not been addressed in the evaluation. Based on the applied criteria, four areas were selected as being most favorable for future field investigation. These include one in Maryland, one in North Carolina, and two in Georgia

  11. Confirmation of Two Sibling Species among Anopheles fluviatilis Mosquitoes in South and Southeastern Iran by Analysis of Cytochrome Oxidase I Gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naddaf, Saied Reza; Oshaghi, Mohammad Ali; Vatandoost, Hassan

    2012-12-01

    Anopheles fluviatilis, one of the major malaria vectors in Iran, is assumed to be a complex of sibling species. The aim of this study was to evaluate Cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene alongside 28S-D3 as a diagnostic tool for identification of An. fluviatilis sibling species in Iran. DNA sample belonging to 24 An. fluviatilis mosquitoes from different geographical areas in south and southeastern Iran were used for amplification of COI gene followed by sequencing. The 474-475 bp COI sequences obtained in this study were aligned with 59 similar sequences of An. fluviatilis and a sequence of Anopheles minimus, as out group, from GenBank database. The distances between group and individual sequences were calculated and phylogenetic tree for obtained sequences was generated by using Kimura two parameter (K2P) model of neighbor-joining method. Phylogenetic analysis using COI gene grouped members of Fars Province (central Iran) in two distinct clades separate from other Iranian members representing Hormozgan, Kerman, and Sistan va Baluchestan Provinces. The mean distance between Iranian and Indian individuals was 1.66%, whereas the value between Fars Province individuals and the group comprising individuals from other areas of Iran was 2.06%. Presence of 2.06% mean distance between individuals from Fars Province and those from other areas of Iran is indicative of at least two sibling species in An. fluviatilis mosquitoes of Iran. This finding confirms earlier results based on RAPD-PCR and 28S-D3 analysis.

  12. AHP 44: THE VITALITY OF KHAMS TIBETAN VARIETIES IN WEIXI COUNTY

    OpenAIRE

    Hiroyuki Suzuki

    2017-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the multilingual situation of Weixi County, Yunnan Province, in the southeastern Tibetosphere, and discusses the vitality of several Tibetan varieties currently used by Tibetans in Weixi who live alongside Naxi, Lisu, Bai, Yi, and Pumi people. In this borderland area, most Tibetans are multilingual, speaking Lisu and/or Naxi in addition to Yunnanese, a dialect of Mandarin. I focus on two local Tibetan varieties: Gagatang and Tacheng. The former has become ...

  13. Saline water in southeastern New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiss, W.L.; Peterson, J.B.; Ramsey, T.R.

    1969-01-01

    Saline waters from formations of several geologic ages are being studied in a seven-county area in southeastern New Mexico and western Texas, where more than 30,000 oil and gas tests have been drilled in the past 40 years. This area of 7,500 sq. miles, which is stratigraphically complex, includes the northern and eastern margins of the Delaware Basin between the Guadalupe and Glass Mountains. Chloride-ion concentrations in water produced from rocks of various ages and depths have been mapped in Lea County, New Mexico, using machine map-plotting techniques and trend analyses. Anomalously low chloride concentrations (1,000-3,000 mg/l) were found along the western margin of the Central Basin platform in the San Andres and Capitan Limestone Formations of Permian age. These low chloride-ion concentrations may be due to preferential circulation of ground water through the more porous and permeable rocks. Data being used in the study were obtained principally from oil companies and from related service companies. The P.B.W.D.S. (Permian Basin Well Data System) scout-record magnetic-tape file was used as a framework in all computer operations. Shallow or non-oil-field water analyses acquired from state, municipal, or federal agencies were added to these data utilizing P.B.W.D.S.-compatible reference numbers and decimal latitude-longitude coordinates. Approximately 20,000 water analyses collected from over 65 sources were coded, recorded on punch cards and stored on magnetic tape for computer operations. Extensive manual and computer error checks for duplication and accuracy were made to eliminate data errors resulting from poorly located or identified samples; non-representative or contaminated samples; mistakes in coding, reproducing or key-punching; laboratory errors; and inconsistent reporting. The original 20,000 analyses considered were reduced to 6,000 representative analyses which are being used in the saline water studies. ?? 1969.

  14. Hydrology of the Upper Malad River basin, southeastern Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluhowski, Edward J.

    1970-01-01

    The report area comprises 485 square miles in the Basin and Range physiographic province. It includes most of eastern' Oneida County and parts of Franklin, Bannock, and Power Counties of southeastern Idaho. Relief is about 5,000 feet; the floor of the Malad Valley is at an average altitude of about 4,400 feet. Agriculture is, by far, ,the principal economic .activity. In 1960 the population of the upper Malad River basin was about 3,600, of which about 60 percent resided in Malad City, the county seat of Oneida County. The climate is semiarid throughout the Malad Valley and its principal tributary valleys; ,above 6,500 feet the climate is subhumid. Annual precipitation ranges from about 13 inches in the lower Malad Valley to more than 30 inches on the highest peaks of the Bannock and Malad ranges. Owing to ,the normally clear atmospheric conditions, large daily and seasonal temperature fluctuations are common. Topography, distance from the Pacific Ocean, .and the general atmospheric circulation are the principal factors governing the climate of the Malad River basin. The westerlies transport moisture from the P.acific Ocean toward southeastern Idaho. The north-south tren4ing mountains flanking the basin are oriented orthogonally to the moisture flux so that they are very effective in removing precipitable water from the air. A minimum uplift of 6,000 feet is required to transport moisture from the Pacific source region; accordingly, most air masses are desiccated long before they reach the Malad basin. Heaviest precipitation is generally associated with steep pressure gradients in the midtroposphere that are so oriented as to cause a deep landward penetration of moisture from the Pacific Ocean. Annual water yields in the project area range from about 0.8 inch in the, lower Malad Valley to more than 19 inches on the high peaks north and east of Malad City. The mean annual water yield for the entire basin is 4 inches, or about 115,000 acre-feet. Evaporation is

  15. A discussion for the evolution model of Pb isotope of the upper mantle in western Yunnan and its interpretation to the lead isotopic compositions of the regional alkali-rich porphyries and their related rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Kaixing; Hu Ruizhong; Bi Xianwu; Zhang Qian; Peng Jiantang

    2003-01-01

    Thirty Pb isotope data of the upper mantle in the area of western Yunnan have the similar trends with the Stacey-Kramers' two stage model growth curves but apparently deviate from it on the lead isotope composition programs, which may suggest Pb isotope of the upper mantle in the area of western Yunnan might have two stage evolution history though not fit very well to the Stacey-Kramers' two stage model growth curves. In this paper, a two-stage growth curves which can better fit the Pb isotope data was constructed based on the lead isotope data of the upper mantle in western Yunnan and the principle that Stacey and Kramers constructed the two-stage model and a reasonable interpretation was given to the lead isotopic compositions of the regional alkali-rich porphyries and their related rocks using the model. (authors)

  16. Potential uranium provinces in some arabian countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salman, A A [Nuclear materials authority, El Maadi, Cairo, (Egypt)

    1995-10-01

    This work represents an attempt to delineate potential uranium provinces in some Arabian countries using various related recognition criteria. Definition of these provinces is based on the available geologic and tectonic setting beside geochronological sequence and some geochemical characteristics. This trial would be of a great help for interchanging the ideas and necessary data for the development in the fields of uranium exploration and production. As a result of this study, a number of promising potential uranium provinces are recommended in some arabian countries. 5 figs.

  17. Isostatic model for the Tharsis province, Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sleep, N.H.; Phillips, R.J.

    1979-01-01

    A crust-upper mantle configuration is proposed for the Tharsis province of Mars which is isostatic and satisfies the observed gravity data. The model is that of a low density upper mantle compensating loads at both the surface and crust-mantle boundary. Solutions are found for lithospheric thickness greater than about 300 km, for which the stress differences are less than 750 bars. This model for Tharsis is similar to the compensation mechanism under the Basin and Range province of the western United States. These provinces also compare favorably in the sense that they are both elevated regions of extensional tectonics and extensive volcanism

  18. Potential uranium provinces in some arabian countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salman, A.A.

    1995-01-01

    This work represents an attempt to delineate potential uranium provinces in some Arabian countries using various related recognition criteria. Definition of these provinces is based on the available geologic and tectonic setting beside geochronological sequence and some geochemical characteristics. This trial would be of a great help for interchanging the ideas and necessary data for the development in the fields of uranium exploration and production. As a result of this study, a number of promising potential uranium provinces are recommended in some arabian countries. 5 figs

  19. Molecular and phylogenetic characterisation of Fasciola spp. isolated from cattle and sheep in southeastern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Mirahmadi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the genotype of Fasciola spp. in animal hosts from Za-hedan, Sistan and Baluchestan province, southeastern Iran using PCR-RFLP. Overall, 50 and 43 adult Fasciola spp. were isolated from bile ducts of naturally infected cattle and sheep. PCR-RFLP with RsaI restriction enzyme and sequence analysis of the first nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS 1 region from Fasciola spp. were used to conduct the study. RFLP pattern with RsaI produced 180 and 331 bp fragments in F. gigantica and amplicons of F. hepatica had a size of 77, 104 and 331 bp. Results based on PCR-RFLP analysis were confirmed by sequence analysis of repre-sentative ITS 1 amplicons. No hybrid forms were detected in the present study. All sheep were in-fected with F. hepatica while cattle were infected with both species. The results of our study showed that F. hepatica and F. gigantica isolates were of common H1 and G1 haplotypes.

  20. High levels of antimony in dust from e-waste recycling in southeastern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bi, Xiangyang; Li, Zhonggen; Zhuang, Xiaochun; Han, Zhixuan; Yang, Wenlin

    2011-01-01

    Environmental contamination due to uncontrolled e-waste recycling is an emerging global issue. Antimony (Sb) is a toxic element used in semiconductor components and flame retardants for circuit board within electronic equipment. When e-waste is recycled, Sb is released and contaminates the surrounding environment; however, few studies have characterized the extent of this problem. In this study, we investigated Sb and arsenic (As) distributions in indoor dust from 13 e-waste recycling villages in Guiyu, Guangdong Province, southeastern China. Results revealed significantly elevated concentrations of Sb (6.1-232 mg/kg) in dust within all villages, which were 3.9-147 times higher than those from the non e-waste sites, indicating e-waste recycling was an important source of Sb pollution. On the contrary, As concentrations (5.4-17.7 mg/kg) in e-waste dusts were similar to reference values from the control sites. Therefore, dusts emitted from e-waste recycling may be characterized by high Sb/As ratios, which may help identify the contamination due to the e-waste recycling activities. - Highlights: → Antimony and arsenic concentrations in dust from e-waste recycling were investigated. → E-waste recycling is an important emerging source of Sb pollution. → Sb/As ratios may help identify the e-waste contamination.

  1. High levels of antimony in dust from e-waste recycling in southeastern China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bi, Xiangyang, E-mail: bixy@cug.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Biogeology and Environmental Geology, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Faculty of Earth Science, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Li, Zhonggen [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang 550002 (China); Zhuang, Xiaochun [Faculty of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Han, Zhixuan [State Key Laboratory of Biogeology and Environmental Geology, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Faculty of Earth Science, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Yang, Wenlin [Faculty of Earth Science, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2011-11-01

    Environmental contamination due to uncontrolled e-waste recycling is an emerging global issue. Antimony (Sb) is a toxic element used in semiconductor components and flame retardants for circuit board within electronic equipment. When e-waste is recycled, Sb is released and contaminates the surrounding environment; however, few studies have characterized the extent of this problem. In this study, we investigated Sb and arsenic (As) distributions in indoor dust from 13 e-waste recycling villages in Guiyu, Guangdong Province, southeastern China. Results revealed significantly elevated concentrations of Sb (6.1-232 mg/kg) in dust within all villages, which were 3.9-147 times higher than those from the non e-waste sites, indicating e-waste recycling was an important source of Sb pollution. On the contrary, As concentrations (5.4-17.7 mg/kg) in e-waste dusts were similar to reference values from the control sites. Therefore, dusts emitted from e-waste recycling may be characterized by high Sb/As ratios, which may help identify the contamination due to the e-waste recycling activities. - Highlights: {yields} Antimony and arsenic concentrations in dust from e-waste recycling were investigated. {yields} E-waste recycling is an important emerging source of Sb pollution. {yields} Sb/As ratios may help identify the e-waste contamination.

  2. In Vivo Susceptibility of Plasmodium Vivax to Chloroquine in Southeastern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Dittrich

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Plasmodium vivax is the predominant species causes of malaria with about 90% total annual reported malaria in Iran. This study conducted to determine the susceptibility of Plasmodium vivax isolates to chloroquine in Sistan and Balochistan Province, southeastern Iran.Methods: A total 270 subjects with symptomatic malaria and confirmed P. vivax infection completed the designed 28-day in vivo study. The thick and thin film blood smears were screened for malaria parasites by microscopy. The nested PCR was applied using the Plasmodium 18 subunit ribosomal ribonu­cleic (Ssr RNA genes for detecting mixed infections and diagnosis of parasites in the samples with low parasite on days 0, 5, 6, 7, and 28. Results: P. vivax was cleared in 15%, 50%, 95%, and 100% of patients on days 1, 2, 3, 4 respectively by microscopy assessment. Six patients were exhibited specific P. vivax band in nested PCR on day 5. No recurrence was observed on days 7, 14 and 28. Mean (±standard deviation parasite clearance time was 2.41 (±0.8 days. Conclusion: P. vivax is still susceptible to chloroquine in Southeatern Iran. This finding is compati­ble with results of neighboring countries Pakistan and Afghanistan.

  3. Tectonic history of the southeastern North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatcher, R.D. Jr. (Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

    1993-03-01

    The present-day configuration of the crust of southeastern North America (SENA) is the product of a lengthy history traceable through more than 1 billion yr. of geologic time. The Appalachians (AP) record complete Wilson cycles of opening and closing of several oceans from ca. 690 Ma to 245 M. The final event forming the AP was the collision of SENA with Gondwana to form the supercontinent Pangaea. The Ouachitas (OA) had a somewhat different history culminating with island-arc collision during the Pennsylvanian--before the final collision began in the AP. SENA faced the open lapetos ocean no earlier than the Early Cambrian. The AP and OA were built on an earlier margin formed by rifting of the Rodonia super-continent formed by construction of the 1.2 to 1.0 Ga Grenville orogen, and farther west, a crust formed by still earlier (1.3 and 1.8 Ga) events. Recent suggestions that part of the AP platform is in Argentina raises the possibility that a fragment was rifted from between the AP and OA during the early Paleozoic. The crust beneath the Mississippi Embayment is atypical of continental crust, and would have been rifted during the Neoproterozoic and early Paleozoic. The Argentine fragment may have been removed along a transform that was reactivated several times since. Northern Pangaea was rifted during the Late Triassic and Early Jurassic and SENA once again faced open ocean-the nascent present Atlantic (AT) when spreading began. The Gulf of Mexico (GOM) also opened then forming extensive salt deposits. The AT opened partly along the old suture, but produced a failed rift in GA and FL leaving a piece of Africa forming the crust beneath the Coastal Plain as far south as central FL. The overlying sediments record recurrent uplift and decay of the AP and OA, cooling of new AT oceanic crust, eustatic sea-level changes during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic, and uplift of the Rockies providing a new source of voluminous detritus that is still being deposited in the GOM.

  4. Extending GIS Technology to Study Karst Features of Southeastern Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Y.; Tipping, R. G.; Alexander, E. C.; Alexander, S. C.

    2001-12-01

    This paper summarizes ongoing research on karst feature distribution of southeastern Minnesota. The main goals of this interdisciplinary research are: 1) to look for large-scale patterns in the rate and distribution of sinkhole development; 2) to conduct statistical tests of hypotheses about the formation of sinkholes; 3) to create management tools for land-use managers and planners; and 4) to deliver geomorphic and hydrogeologic criteria for making scientifically valid land-use policies and ethical decisions in karst areas of southeastern Minnesota. Existing county and sub-county karst feature datasets of southeastern Minnesota have been assembled into a large GIS-based database capable of analyzing the entire data set. The central database management system (DBMS) is a relational GIS-based system interacting with three modules: GIS, statistical and hydrogeologic modules. ArcInfo and ArcView were used to generate a series of 2D and 3D maps depicting karst feature distributions in southeastern Minnesota. IRIS ExplorerTM was used to produce satisfying 3D maps and animations using data exported from GIS-based database. Nearest-neighbor analysis has been used to test sinkhole distributions in different topographic and geologic settings. All current nearest-neighbor analyses testify that sinkholes in southeastern Minnesota are not evenly distributed in this area (i.e., they tend to be clustered). More detailed statistical methods such as cluster analysis, histograms, probability estimation, correlation and regression have been used to study the spatial distributions of some mapped karst features of southeastern Minnesota. A sinkhole probability map for Goodhue County has been constructed based on sinkhole distribution, bedrock geology, depth to bedrock, GIS buffer analysis and nearest-neighbor analysis. A series of karst features for Winona County including sinkholes, springs, seeps, stream sinks and outcrop has been mapped and entered into the Karst Feature Database

  5. Southeastern Regional Geologic Characterization Report. Executive summary. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-08-01

    This Executive Summary of the final Southeastern Regional Geologic Characterization Report (RGCR) is issued primarily for public information purposes, and provides a general overview of the report. The complete RGCR presents available regional geologic information pertinent to siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in central Maryland; noncoastal Virginia, North Carolina, and South Carolina; and northern Georgia. For each of the states within the Southeastern Region, information is provided on the geologic disqualifying factor and the geologic regional screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening

  6. Characterizing rainfall parameters which influence erosivity in southeastern Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obi, M.E.; Salako, F.K.

    1993-12-01

    An investigation was carried out to characterize some selected parameters which influence rainfall erosivity in southeastern Nigeria. Rainfall amount, distribution, duration, intensity, storm types, energy loads and frequency of rain events in the region were studied using data from stations located in three major agroecological zones. Raindrop size and detaching capacity were evaluated in one of the stations for two months. The mean annual rainfall erosivity values for southeastern Nigeria point to the fact that rainfall tend to be highly erosive. 25 refs, 6 figs, 8 tabs

  7. Southeastern Regional Environmental Characterization Report: executive summary. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-08-01

    This Executive Summary of the final ''Southeastern Regional Environmental Characterization Report'' (RECR) is issued primarily for public information purposes and provides a general overview of the report. The complete RECR presents available regional environmental information pertinent to siting a repository or high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in central Maryland; noncoastal Virginia, North Carolina, and South Carolina; and northern Georgia. For each of the states within the Southeastern Region, information is provided on the environmental disqualifying factors and the environmental regional screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening

  8. Facies-succession and architecture of the third-order sequences and their stratigraphic framework of the Devonian in Yunnan-Guizhou-Guangxi area, South China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Mingxiang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Caledonian orogeny at the end of the Silurian resulted in great changes in the palaeogeography in the Yunnan-Guizhou-Guangxi area of South China; the continental area of the Early Paleozoic evolved into the extensive Dian-Qian-Gui Sea in the Late Paleozoic. Early in the Devonian, as a result of a major transgression, seawater encroached gradually from the south to the north and clastic facies were deposited. Carbonate deposition was then established in the Yunnan-Guizhou-Guangxi area, with a palaeogeography marked by attached platforms, isolated platforms and narrow basins. As a result of the Ziyun movement towards the end of the Devonian, the Upper Devonian strata are regressive and thin out from the open-sea to the land areas. A study of the nature and distribution of sedimentary facies in space and time recognises 13 third-order sequences in the Devonian strata in Yunnan-Guizhou-Guangxi area, and these form two second-order sequences. The strata of the Lower Devonian comprise 5 third-order sequences (SQ1 to SQ5, which are dominated by transgressive clastics. 4 third-order sequences (SQ6 to SQ9 in the Middle Devonian are characterized by alternations of transgressive clastics and highstand carbonates. In the Upper Devonian, carbonates constitute 4 third-order sequences (SQ10 to SQ13, which are generally marked by the transgressive limestones and highstand dolomites. On the basis of earlier biostratigraphic studies, sea-level changes represented by the third-order sequences with their different facies successions are explored, and the sequence stratigraphic framework is established. Therefore, the Devonian strata in the study area provide an example for further understanding of depositional trends within the sequence-stratigraphic framework.

  9. Testing and comparison of three frequency-based magnitude estimating parameters for earthquake early warning based events in the Yunnan region, China in 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianjing; Li, Hongjie

    2018-06-01

    To mitigate potential seismic disasters in the Yunnan region, China, building up suitable magnitude estimation scaling laws for an earthquake early warning system (EEWS) is in high demand. In this paper, the records from the main and after-shocks of the Yingjiang earthquake (M W 5.9), the Ludian earthquake (M W 6.2) and the Jinggu earthquake (M W 6.1), which occurred in Yunnan in 2014, were used to develop three estimators, including the maximum of the predominant period ({{τ }{{p}}}\\max ), the characteristic period (τ c) and the log-average period (τ log), for estimating earthquake magnitude. The correlations between these three frequency-based parameters and catalog magnitudes were developed, compared and evaluated against previous studies. The amplitude and period of seismic waves might be amplified in the Ludian mountain-canyon area by multiple reflections and resonance, leading to excessive values of the calculated parameters, which are consistent with Sichuan’s scaling. As a result, τ log was best correlated with magnitude and τ c had the highest slope of regression equation, while {{τ }{{p}}}\\max performed worst with large scatter and less sensitivity for the change of magnitude. No evident saturation occurred in the case of M 6.1 and M 6.2 in this study. Even though both τ c and τ log performed similarly and can well reflect the size of the Earthquake, τ log has slightly fewer prediction errors for small scale earthquakes (M ≤ 4.5), which was also observed by previous research. Our work offers an insight into the feasibility of a EEWS in Yunnan, China, and this study shows that it is necessary to build up an appropriate scaling law suitable for the warning region.

  10. Prevalence, types and awareness of glaucoma in a multi-ethnic population in rural China: the Yunnan Minority Eye Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Chen-Wei; Zhao, Chun-Hua; Yu, Min-Bin; Cun, Qing; Chen, Qin; Shen, Wei; Li, Jun; Xu, Jian-Gang; Yuan, Yuansheng; Zhong, Hua

    2016-11-01

    To determine the prevalence, types and awareness of glaucoma in a rural community in China and to examine possible ethnic variations. The Yunnan Minority Eye Study was a multi-ethnic community-based eye survey using random cluster sampling strategies. 2133 Bai, 2205 Han and 2208 Yi Chinese aged 50 years or older participated in this study. Glaucoma including primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG) and secondary glaucoma was defined based on the International Society of Geographical and Epidemiological Ophthalmology criteria. The overall age-standardized prevalence of all glaucoma was 2.6% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.2-3.1%) in this population. It was 1.8% (95% CI: 1.1-1.9%) for POAG and 0.5% (95% CI: 0.9-1.6%) for PACG, respectively. Among 29 people with secondary glaucoma, 27 (93%) were blind in at least one eye. The presence of primary open-angle glaucoma was associated with male gender (odds ratio [OR] = 2.94; comparing men with women), Yi ethnicity (OR = 2.27; comparing Yi with Han people), higher IOP (OR = 1.09 per mmHg increase), and the presence of myopia (OR = 1.84). Of the 212 participants with glaucoma, only 38 (18%) were aware of the disease and had been diagnosed previously as having glaucoma or suspected glaucoma. Patients who were better educated tended to be aware of the disease. Significant ethnic difference in the prevalence of POAG was observed in this study. The low awareness of glaucoma highlights the pressing need to increase public awareness of this potentially blinding condition in rural China. © 2016 The Authors Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2016 The College of Optometrists.

  11. Eutrophication in the Yunnan Plateau lakes: the influence of lake morphology, watershed land use, and socioeconomic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenzhi; Li, Siyue; Bu, Hongmei; Zhang, Quanfa; Liu, Guihua

    2012-03-01

    Lakes play an important role in socioeconomic development and ecological balance in China, but their water quality has deteriorated considerably in recent decades. In this study, we investigated the spatial-temporal variations of eutrophication parameters (secchi depth, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, chemical oxygen demand, chlorophyll-a, trophic level index, and trophic state index) and their relationships with lake morphology, watershed land use, and socioeconomic factors in the Yunnan Plateau lakes. Results indicated that about 77.8% of lakes were eutrophic according to trophic state index. The plateau lakes showed spatial variations in water quality and could be classified into high-nutrient and low-nutrient groups. However, because watersheds were dominated by vegetation, all eutrophication parameters except chlorophyll-a showed no significant differences between the wet and dry seasons. Lake depth, water residence time, volume, and percentage of built-up land were significantly related to several eutrophication parameters. Agricultural land use and social-economic factors had no significant correlation with all eutrophication parameters. Stepwise regression analyses demonstrated that lake depth and water residence time accounted for 73.8% to 87.6% of the spatial variation of single water quality variables, respectively. Redundancy analyses indicated that lake morphology, watershed land use, and socioeconomic factors together explained 74.3% of the spatial variation in overall water quality. The results imply that water quality degradation in the plateau lakes may be mainly due to the domestic and industrial wastewaters. This study will improve our understanding of the determinants of lake water quality and help to design efficient strategies for controlling eutrophication in the plateau region.

  12. Diversity and abundance of the arsenite oxidase gene aioA in geothermal areas of Tengchong, Yunnan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhou; Li, Ping; Jiang, Dawei; Wu, Geng; Dong, Hailiang; Wang, Yanhong; Li, Bing; Wang, Yanxin; Guo, Qinghai

    2014-01-01

    A total of 12 samples were collected from the Tengchong geothermal areas of Yunnan, China, with the goal to assess the arsenite (AsIII) oxidation potential of the extant microbial communities as inferred by the abundance and diversity of the AsIII oxidase large subunit gene aioA relative to geochemical context. Arsenic concentrations were higher (on average 251.68 μg/L) in neutral or alkaline springs than in acidic springs (on average 30.88 μg/L). aioA abundance ranged from 1.63 × 10(1) to 7.08 × 10(3) per ng of DNA and positively correlated with sulfide and the ratios of arsenate (AsV):total dissolved arsenic (AsTot). Based on qPCR estimates of bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA gene abundance, aioA-harboring organisms comprised as much as ~15% of the total community. Phylogenetically, the major aioA sequences (270 total) in the acidic hot springs (pH 3.3-4.4) were affiliated with Aquificales and Rhizobiales, while those in neutral or alkaline springs (pH 6.6-9.1) were inferred to be primarily bacteria related to Thermales and Burkholderiales. Interestingly, aioA abundance at one site greatly exceeded bacterial 16S rRNA gene abundance, suggesting these aioA genes were archaeal even though phylogenetically these aioA sequences were most similar to the Aquificales. In summary, this study described novel aioA sequences in geothermal features geographically far removed from those in the heavily studied Yellowstone geothermal complex.

  13. Seasonal and Daily Variations of Subsurface Velocity Revealed by the Air-gun Source in Binchuan, Yunnan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Y.; Yang, H.; Wang, B.

    2017-12-01

    We derive temporal variations of subsurface structure using a large-volume air-gun source excited in Binchuan, Yunnan, southwest China, the first transmitting seismic station that can generate high-quality repeating waveforms. The data were collected between January 2013 and December 2015 that were recorded by 40 stations within 150 km, including permanent and newly deployed air-gun array stations. Firstly, we conduct cluster analysis using the waveforms at the nearest station and find the clustering result is not only governed by the water level of the reservoir, but also has seasonal variations. Furthermore, we use the records of the nearest station to approximate the source time functions and then retrieve empirical Green's functions (EGF) by deconvolution. Then we obtain travel time difference by comparing the EGF. The travel time difference exhibits clear seasonal variation, and the pattern correlates the best with surface air temperature. The increasing temperature coincides with increasing delay time i.e. decreasing seismic velocity. We interpret the observed seasonal variation of subsurface velocity is partly caused by thermo-elastic strain. However, our calculated thermo-elastic strain is only half in amplitude of the observed strain, indicating other factors such as precipitation and ground water level may play a role in the subsurface changes. Moreover, we derive the daily variation of subsurface velocity in December 2015 when air-gun shots were made in every hour. The delay time clearly correlates with the barometric pressure change and the tidal strain. Here we demonstrate that both long-term (seasonal) and short-term (daily) structural variations can be derived using the newly constructed active source, which is a powerful tool to advance our understanding of rheological properties of the crust as well as well processes associated with earthquakes and other natural hazards.

  14. A new stellar spectrum interpolation algorithm and its application to Yunnan-III evolutionary population synthesis models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Liantao; Zhang, Fenghui; Kang, Xiaoyu; Wang, Lang

    2018-05-01

    In evolutionary population synthesis (EPS) models, we need to convert stellar evolutionary parameters into spectra via interpolation in a stellar spectral library. For theoretical stellar spectral libraries, the spectrum grid is homogeneous on the effective-temperature and gravity plane for a given metallicity. It is relatively easy to derive stellar spectra. For empirical stellar spectral libraries, stellar parameters are irregularly distributed and the interpolation algorithm is relatively complicated. In those EPS models that use empirical stellar spectral libraries, different algorithms are used and the codes are often not released. Moreover, these algorithms are often complicated. In this work, based on a radial basis function (RBF) network, we present a new spectrum interpolation algorithm and its code. Compared with the other interpolation algorithms that are used in EPS models, it can be easily understood and is highly efficient in terms of computation. The code is written in MATLAB scripts and can be used on any computer system. Using it, we can obtain the interpolated spectra from a library or a combination of libraries. We apply this algorithm to several stellar spectral libraries (such as MILES, ELODIE-3.1 and STELIB-3.2) and give the integrated spectral energy distributions (ISEDs) of stellar populations (with ages from 1 Myr to 14 Gyr) by combining them with Yunnan-III isochrones. Our results show that the differences caused by the adoption of different EPS model components are less than 0.2 dex. All data about the stellar population ISEDs in this work and the RBF spectrum interpolation code can be obtained by request from the first author or downloaded from http://www1.ynao.ac.cn/˜zhangfh.

  15. UPPER FRASNIAN (UPPER DEVONIAN POLYGNATHUS AND ICRIODUS CONODONTS FROM THE BAHRAM FORMATION, HUR SECTION, KERMAN PROVINCE, SOUTHEASTERN IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TAYEBEH AHMADI

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Conodont fauna from the Upper Devonian (Frasnian Bahram Formation at the Hur section, north of Kerman, southeast Iran, is dominated by species of Icriodus and Polygnathus. This fauna allowed discrimination of two biointervals from the Lower rhenana Zone to an Upper rhenana-linguiformis interval. The age of the lower part of the studied section is tentatively considered to be older than the Lower rhenana Zone. 

  16. Quantifying evaporation on the surface of slimes dams in the southeastern part of the North West Province

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    M.A. (Geography and Environmental Management) Water can be regarded as a scarce commodity in South Africa and one cannot rely solely on the discovery of new water resources to meet the ever increasing demands. Water is arguably the most precious resource in South Africa and its proper management in all spheres of activity is imperative ( Middleton and Stern,1987 ). This is no different in the mining industry where a primary consumptive use of water is in the tailings dams and associated re...

  17. Study on Banana Cooperatives in Hainan Province

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Huide; Zhang, Wanzhen; Liu, Enping; Zhang, Xizhu

    2013-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the distribution, member scale, production and operation of banana cooperatives in Hainan Province, and points out the market risk and natural risk faced by the production of banana cooperatives in Hainan Province. In order to promote the banana cooperatives to form new agricultural management system integrating organization and intensification, this paper puts forth the production and operation recommendations, such as joint production of banana cooperatives, ...

  18. [Predictive distribution and planting GAP of Cyathula officinalis in China based on 3S technology and MaxEnt modelling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ming-Yan; He, Lan; Chen, Jia-Li; Dong, Guang; Cheng, Wu-Xue

    2017-11-01

    Research on predictive distribution and planting GAP of Cyathula officinalis in China is helpful to provide scientific basis for its protection and planting popularization. According to the data in 63 distribution sites and 49 ecological variables, using MaxEnt ecological niche model and 3S technology, we performed a quantitative analysis of suitable distribution and planting GAP of C. officinalis in China. Our results show that: ① the area of suitable distribution of C. officinalis is about 634 385.80 km² in total, and mainly in Northeastern and Southeastern Sichuan, Northern and Southeastern Yunnan, Western and Southwestern Guizhou, Southwestern and Northeastern Chongqing, Southwestern Shaanxi, Southeastern Gansu, Western Guangxi, Southeastern Tibet. ② The main ecological factors determining the potential distribution are precipitation, altitude, minimum temperature of coldest month, soil type, monthly mean temperature. ③ The planting GAP region are mainly in Guangyuan, Mianyang, Ya'an, Leshan, Liangshan, Panzhihua of Sichuan province, Hanzhong of Shaanxi province, Dali, Nujiang, Chuxiong, Baoshan, Qujing, Wenshan of Yunnan province, southwestern autonomous prefecture in Guizhou province. The results are of great significance for realizing the growth environment, predicting the potential distribution and promoting planting popularization for C. officinalis. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  19. An ethnobotanical survey on hormozgan province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Safa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study is based on an ethnobotanical research project conducted in Hormozgan province that is located in south of Iran, bordering waters of the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea. This survey was carried out in order to recover the ethnobotanical and ethnomedicinal knowledge of the residents of this province. They are using medicinal and functional plants for treating or preventing several diseases. Materials and Methods: Ethnobotanical data sheets were run with the native inhabitants and people of the province by arranging frequent field trips to different parts of the province and direct interviews with them especially those who were more familiar with the plants and their usage.Results: A total of 150 plant species belonging to 53 families were recorded for their ethnobotanical and ethnomedicinal uses among the people of province. The records were developed by scientific names, family names, local names, medicinal parts used, different ways of their application, and traditional uses of the plants. There was high compliance in the use of plants in painful disorders, gastrointestinal, and dermatological diseases.Conclusion: This study revealed that the people of Hormozgan province have a rich knowledge of natural resources. The use and consumption of medicinal plants are still important parts of their life. Rational use of native medicinal plants may benefit and improve their living standards and quality of life. The results of this study can be used as a basis for selecting herbs for further pharmacological, phytochemical, and pharmacognostical studies.

  20. State of pine decline in the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lori Eckhardt; Mary Anne Sword Sayer; Don Imm

    2010-01-01

    Pine decline is an emerging forest health issue in the southeastern United States. Observations suggest pine decline is caused by environmental stress arising from competition, weather, insects and fungi, anthropogenic disturbances, and previous management. The problem is most severe for loblolly pine on sites that historically supported longleaf pine, are highly...

  1. Some Spatial Aspects of Southeastern United States Climatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soule, Peter T.

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on the climatology of an eight-state region in the southern and southeastern United States. Discusses general controls of climate and spatial patterns of various climatic averages. Examines mapped extremes as a means of fostering increased awareness of the variability that exists for climatic conditions in the region. (CMK)

  2. Economics of conservation systems research in the Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of conservation systems in crop production is not a new concept in the southeastern United States. In 1978, researchers from across the Southeast met in Griffin, Georgia for the first annual Southern Conservation Agricultural Systems Conference. Four of the ten presentations specifically men...

  3. preliminary investigation of pegmatites in obudu area, southeastern

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stream sediment samples were collected from Southern Obudu. Plateau area ... The elements in Obudu stream sediments show perfect, strong, moderate and weak correlations among themselves ..... also be due to the low radioactive materials in the area. However .... geochemistry in southeastern Asia: soils, sediments ...

  4. Southeastern Community College Annual Progress Report, December 1995.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, R. Gene

    Presenting information on the status of Southeastern Community College (SCC), in Iowa, this annual progress report highlights basic institutional data, financial information, and improvements and planned changes of the college as of 1995. Part 1 presents basic data on SCC, including facility locations, assessed property valuation, district…

  5. Plant community variability on a small area in southeastern Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    James G. MacCracken; Daniel W. Uresk; Richard M. Hansen

    1984-01-01

    Plant communities are inherently variable due to a number of environmental and biological forces. Canopy cover and aboveground biomass were determined for understory vegetation in plant communities of a prairie grassland-forest ecotone in southeastern Montana. Vegetation units were described using polar ordination and stepwise discriminant analysis. Nine of a total of...

  6. Mulching An Arenic Hapludult In Southeastern Nigeria: Effects On ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out over two cropping seasons at Umudike, southeastern Nigeria, to determine the type and quantity of mulch that would improve some selected physical properties of an Arenic Hapludult and optimize the rhizome yield of turmeric. Effects of mulch rate on bulk density (BD), total porosity (TP), ...

  7. Hepatitis C virus infection in pregnant women in Southeastern Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the seroprevalence of Hepatitis C virus and its possible risk factors in antenatal clinic attendees. Methods: A cross-sectional survey involving 820 consecutive and consenting antenatal clinic attendees at five antenatal clinics in Aba, Southeastern Nigeria over the period 15 June – 15 November, ...

  8. The Economics Of Goat Production In Southeastern Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The West African Dwarf goat is indigenous to Southeastern Nigeria and is raised by many families under small·scale and intensive management systems. Results showed that the average households kept 6 goats, but that expansion was limited by hour and feed procurement problems. Both males and females owned goats ...

  9. Oak-Black Bear Relationships in Southeastern Uplands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph D. Clark

    2004-01-01

    Bears (Ursus americanus) primarily occur in upland habitats in the Southeast because uplands were the last to be developed for agriculture and were more likely to become publicly owned. National parks and forests created in the early to mid-1900s served as sources to supply surrounding uplands with bears. Bears could not survive in southeastern...

  10. Lowland riparian herpetofaunas: the San Pedro River in southeastern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip C. Rosen

    2005-01-01

    Previous work has shown that southeastern Arizona has a characteristic, high diversity lowland riparian herpetofauna with 62-68 or more species along major stream corridors, and 46-54 species in shorter reaches within single biomes, based on intensive fieldwork and museum record surveys. The San Pedro River supports this characteristic herpetofauna, at least some of...

  11. Circulation in the Southeastern Mediterranean Sea (EGITTO-NICOP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-30

    Circulation in the Southeastern Mediterranean Sea (EGITTO-NICOP) Pierre-Marie Poulain Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica ...Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale,Borgo Grotta Gigante, 42/c,34010 Sgonico (Trieste), Italy, , 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER

  12. Physico-chemical properties of a Haplic Acrisol in Southeastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physico-chemical properties of a Haplic Acrisol in Southeastern Nigeria amended with rice mill waste and NPK fertilizer. ... conductivity (Ksat) and mean weight diameter (MWD) of water stable aggregates significantly by 41.1, 368.2 and 155.8%, respectively, and resulted in 20.9% significant decrease in bulk density (BD).

  13. Recent U.S. Geological Survey Studies in the Tintina Gold Province, Alaska, United States, and Yukon, Canada-Results of a 5-Year Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, Larry P.; Day, Warren C.

    2010-01-01

    This report presents summary papers of work conducted between 2002 and 2007 under a 5-year project effort funded by the U.S. Geological Survey Mineral Resources Program, formerly entitled 'Tintina Metallogenic Province: Integrated Studies on Geologic Framework, Mineral Resources, and Environmental Signatures.' As the project progressed, the informal title changed from 'Tintina Metallogenic Province' project to 'Tintina Gold Province' project, the latter being more closely aligned with the terminology used by the mineral industry. As Goldfarb and others explain in the first chapter of this report, the Tintina Gold Province is a convenient term used by the mineral exploration community for a 'region of very varied geology, gold deposit types, and resource potential'. The Tintina Gold Province encompasses roughly 150,000 square kilometers, bounded by the Kaltag-Tintina fault system on the north and the Farewell-Denali fault system on the south. It extends westward in a broad arc, some 200 km wide, from northernmost British Columbia, through the Yukon, through southeastern and central Alaska, to southwestern Alaska. The climate is subarctic and, in Alaska, includes major physiographic delineations and ecoregions such as the Yukon-Tanana Upland, Tanana-Kuskokwim Lowlands, Yukon River Lowlands, and the Kuskokwim Mountains. Although the Tintina Gold Province is historically important for some of the very first placer and lode gold discoveries in northern North America, it has recently seen resurgence in mineral exploration, development, and mining activity. This resurgence is due to both new discoveries (for example, Pogo and Donlin Creek) and to the application of modern extraction methods to previously known, but economically restrictive, low-grade, bulk-tonnage gold resources (for example, Fort Knox, Clear Creek, and Scheelite Dome). In addition, the Tintina Gold Province hosts numerous other mineral deposit types, possessing both high and low sulfide content, which

  14. Geologic implications of topographic, gravity, and aeromagnetic data in the northern Yukon-Koyukuk province and its borderlands, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cady, J.W.

    1989-01-01

    The northern Yukon-Koyukuk province is characterized by low elevation and high Bouguer gravity and aeromagnetic anomalies in contrast to the adjacent Brooks Range and Ruby geanticline. Using newly compiled digital topographic, gravity, and aeromagnetic maps, the province is divided into three geophysical domains. The Koyukuk domain, which is nearly equivalent to the Koyukuk lithotectonic terrane, is a horseshoe-shaped area, open to the south, of low topography, high gravity, and high-amplitude magnetic anomalies caused by an intraoceanic magmatic arc. The Angayucham and Kanuti domains are geophysical subdivisions of the Angayucham lithotectonic terrane that occur along the northern and southeastern margins of the Yukon-Koyukuk province, where oceanic rocks have been thrust over continental rocks of the Brooks Range and Ruby geanticline. The modeling supports, but does not prove, the hypothesis that the crust of the Kobuk-Koyukuk basin is 32-35 km thick, consisting of a tectonically thickened section of Cretaceous volcanic and sedimentary rocks and older oceanic crust. -from Author

  15. Regional Characteristics of Stress State of Main Seismic Active Faults in Mid-Northern Part of Sichuan-Yunnan Block

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiwei, W.; Yaling, W.

    2017-12-01

    We restore the seismic source spectrums of 1012 earthquakes(2.0 ≤ ML ≤ 5.0) in the mid-northern part of Sichuan-Yunnan seismic block(26 ° N-33 ° N, 99 ° E-104 ° E),then calculate the source parameters.Based on the regional seismic tectonic background, the distribution of active faults and seismicity, the study area is divided into four statistical units (Z1 Jinshajiang and Litang fault zone, Z2 Xianshuihe fault zone, Z3 Anninghe-Zemuhe fault zone, Z4 Lijiang-Xiaojinhe fault zone). Seismic source stress drop results show the following, (1)The stress at the end of the Jinshajiang fault is low, strong earthquake activity rare.Stress-strain loading deceases gradually from northwest to southeast along Litang fault, the northwest section which is relatively locked is more likely to accumulate strain than southeast section. (2)Stress drop of Z2 is divided by Kangding, the southern section is low and northern section is high. Southern section (Kangding-Shimian) is difficult to accumulate higher strain in the short term, but in northern section (Garzê-Kangding), moderate and strong earthquakes have not filled the gaps of seismic moment release, there is still a high stress accumulation in partial section. (3)High stress-drop events were concentrated on Z3, strain accumulation of this unit is strong, and stress level is the highest, earthquake risk is high. (4)On Z4, stress drop characteristics of different magnitude earthquakes are not the same, which is related to complex tectonic setting, the specific reasons still need to be discussed deeply.The study also show that, (1)Stress drops display a systematic change with different faults and locations, high stress-drop events occurs mostly on the fault intersection area. Faults without locking condition and mainly creep, are mainly characterized by low stress drop. (2)Contrasting to what is commonly thought that "strike-slip faults are not easy to accumulate stress ", Z2 and Z3 all exhibit high stress levels, which

  16. Complete genome analysis of dengue virus type 3 isolated from the 2013 dengue outbreak in Yunnan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaodan; Ma, Dehong; Huang, Xinwei; Li, Lihua; Li, Duo; Zhao, Yujiao; Qiu, Lijuan; Pan, Yue; Chen, Junying; Xi, Juemin; Shan, Xiyun; Sun, Qiangming

    2017-06-15

    In the past few decades, dengue has spread rapidly and is an emerging disease in China. An unexpected dengue outbreak occurred in Xishuangbanna, Yunnan, China, resulting in 1331 patients in 2013. In order to obtain the complete genome information and perform mutation and evolutionary analysis of causative agent related to this largest outbreak of dengue fever. The viruses were isolated by cell culture and evaluated by genome sequence analysis. Phylogenetic trees were then constructed by Neighbor-Joining methods (MEGA6.0), followed by analysis of nucleotide mutation and amino acid substitution. The analysis of the diversity of secondary structure for E and NS1 protein were also performed. Then selection pressures acting on the coding sequences were estimated by PAML software. The complete genome sequences of two isolated strains (YNSW1, YNSW2) were 10,710 and 10,702 nucleotides in length, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis revealed both strain were classified as genotype II of DENV-3. The results indicated that both isolated strains of Xishuangbanna in 2013 and Laos 2013 stains (KF816161.1, KF816158.1, LC147061.1, LC147059.1, KF816162.1) were most similar to Bangladesh (AY496873.2) in 2002. After comparing with the DENV-3SS (H87) 62 amino acid substitutions were identified in translated regions, and 38 amino acid substitutions were identified in translated regions compared with DENV-3 genotype II stains Bangladesh (AY496873.2). 27(YNSW1) or 28(YNSW2) single nucleotide changes were observed in structural protein sequences with 7(YNSW1) or 8(YNSW2) non-synonymous mutations compared with AY496873.2. Of them, 4 non-synonymous mutations were identified in E protein sequences with (2 in the β-sheet, 2 in the coil). Meanwhile, 117(YNSW1) or 115 (YNSW2) single nucleotide changes were observed in non-structural protein sequences with 31(YNSW1) or 30 (YNSW2) non-synonymous mutations. Particularly, 14 single nucleotide changes were observed in NS1 sequences with 4/14 non

  17. Uranium provinces and the exploration industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, J.; Michie, U.McL.

    1988-01-01

    There is little doubt that exploration by mining companies in established districts or 'provinces' has led to the discovery of substantial additional ore reserves. However, the competition for, and expenses of, land acquisitions in these known districts often prompts companies to search further afield. In some cases, new discoveries can merely be regarded as extensions of known provinces while others are located in completely new areas. Whether the explorers utilized concepts of metallogenic provinces in the course of such discoveries is questionable; rather, they would have sought the particular combinations of geological circumstances required by the model. Once a new deposit is found, however, the concept of a province, whether correct in that situation or not, is usually responsible for stimulating further activity. Recent examples of such behaviour are the Arizona Strip and NE Nebraska (USA) in provincial extensions and Roxby Downs, Lone Gull (NW Territories, Australia) and Lagoa Real (Brazil) in new areas. More routine and scientific application of metallogenic province theory by the uranium exploration industry would require evidence that not only the bulk of the world's uranium reserves but also the majority of the individual world-class deposits fall into geologically definable provinces. Such evidence should include the demonstration that particular areas of the Earth's crust had been enriched in uranium (with or without related elements) and that this enrichment had persisted through periods of crustal reworking and been responsible for concentrations of the metal ore deposits. The evidence described in the volume is critically reviewed in this context. (author). Refs, 4 figs

  18. [Comparative analysis on the complete genome sequence of mumps epidemic strain and mumps vaccine strain S79 isolated in Zhejiang province, China between year 2005 and 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dong-Yan; Feng, Yan; Zhong, Shu-Ling; Lu, Yi-Yu; Zhuang, Fang-Cheng; Xu, Chang-Ping

    2012-03-01

    Yunnan province (0.013); the difference showing statistical significance (t = 4.14, P mumps vaccine in Zhejiang province.

  19. INTERNET ADDICTION IN BALKAN AND SOUTH-EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis PETASAKIS

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of Internet has increased dramatically in recent years. Although there is no standardized definition of Internet addiction, there is acknowledgement among researchers that this phenomenon does exist. In this study, we identify various similarities and differences among people in the Balkan and South-Eastern European countries about Internet addiction. There are many factors such as cultural differences, gender differences, psychosocial variables, computer attitudes and time.We present the experience from studies concerning Internet addiction in all over the world. A specific research with the use of Young's 20-scale was also conducted in five Balkan and South-Eastern European countries (Republic of Moldova, Romania, Republic of Bulgaria, Hellenic Republic, Republic of Cyprus.The findings are interesting. Although there is a need for Interest using, there are also cases where the addiction, dependence and abuse is apparent.

  20. Ecosystem vulnerability to climate change in the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, Jennifer M.; Costanza, Jennifer

    2016-08-11

    Two recent investigations of climate-change vulnerability for 19 terrestrial, aquatic, riparian, and coastal ecosystems of the southeastern United States have identified a number of important considerations, including potential for changes in hydrology, disturbance regimes, and interspecies interactions. Complementary approaches using geospatial analysis and literature synthesis integrated information on ecosystem biogeography and biodiversity, climate projections, vegetation dynamics, soil and water characteristics, anthropogenic threats, conservation status, sea-level rise, and coastal flooding impacts. Across a diverse set of ecosystems—ranging in size from dozens of square meters to thousands of square kilometers—quantitative and qualitative assessments identified types of climate-change exposure, evaluated sensitivity, and explored potential adaptive capacity. These analyses highlighted key gaps in scientific understanding and suggested priorities for future research. Together, these studies help create a foundation for ecosystem-level analysis of climate-change vulnerability to support effective biodiversity conservation in the southeastern United States.

  1. Geothermometric evaluation of geothermal resources in southeastern Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neupane, G.; Mattson, E. D.; McLing, T. L.; Palmer, C. D.; Smith, R. W.; Wood, T. R.; Podgorney, R. K.

    2016-01-01

    Southeastern Idaho exhibits numerous warm springs, warm water from shallow wells, and hot water from oil and gas test wells that indicate a potential for geothermal development in the area. We have estimated reservoir temperatures from chemical composition of thermal waters in southeastern Idaho using an inverse geochemical modeling technique (Reservoir Temperature Estimator, RTEst) that calculates the temperature at which multiple minerals are simultaneously at equilibrium while explicitly accounting for the possible loss of volatile constituents (e.g., CO2), boiling and/or water mixing. The temperature estimates in the region varied from moderately warm (59 °C) to over 175 °C. Specifically, hot springs near Preston, Idaho, resulted in the highest reservoir temperature estimates in the region.

  2. Cluster analysis of Southeastern U.S. climate stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stooksbury, D. E.; Michaels, P. J.

    1991-09-01

    A two-step cluster analysis of 449 Southeastern climate stations is used to objectively determine general climate clusters (groups of climate stations) for eight southeastern states. The purpose is objectively to define regions of climatic homogeneity that should perform more robustly in subsequent climatic impact models. This type of analysis has been successfully used in many related climate research problems including the determination of corn/climate districts in Iowa (Ortiz-Valdez, 1985) and the classification of synoptic climate types (Davis, 1988). These general climate clusters may be more appropriate for climate research than the standard climate divisions (CD) groupings of climate stations, which are modifications of the agro-economic United States Department of Agriculture crop reporting districts. Unlike the CD's, these objectively determined climate clusters are not restricted by state borders and thus have reduced multicollinearity which makes them more appropriate for the study of the impact of climate and climatic change.

  3. Mechanical mastication as a fuels treatment in southeastern forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesse K. Kreye; J. Morgan Varner; Leda N. Kobziar

    2016-01-01

    Mastication is an increasingly common fuels treatment that redistributes ‘‘ladder’’ fuels to the forest floor to reduce vertical fuel continuity, crown fire potential, and fireline intensity. Despite its widespread adoption, it remains unclear how mastication impacts fuels, fire behavior, or plant communities  across Southeastern forest ecosystems. We evaluated these...

  4. Stratigraphy and Tectonics of Southeastern Serenitatis. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, T. A.

    1976-01-01

    Results of investigations of returned Apollo 17 samples, and Apollo 15 and 17 photographs have provided a broad data base on which to interpret the southeastern Serenitatis region of the moon. Although many of the pre-Apollo 17 mission interpretations remain valid, detailed mapping of this region and correlation with earth-based and orbital remote-sensing data have resulted in a revision of the local mare stratigraphy.

  5. A new species of Dorstenia (Moraceae from southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Santos

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Dorstenia stellaris is a new species from southeastern Brazil. This species is endemic to the region and differs from the others by its star shaped coenanthium and cordiform leaves. A description and illustration of this species is presented here. Dorstenia stellaris is found in moist and shady places, in small populations within the type locality, thus we recommend its inclusion in the endangered (EN status of conservation.

  6. Load shedding scheme in the south/southeastern interconnected system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira Filho, Xisto; Couri, J J.G.; Gomes, P; Almeida, P C [ELETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1988-12-31

    This paper presents some characteristics of the Brazilian interconnected system and discusses the load shedding scheme in its different stages considering the beginning of operation of the Itaipu power plant. The present situation of the South and Southeastern load shedding scheme combination is also commented. Finally, the interconnected system evolution and the effects on the load shedding schemes are discussed. 4 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Provenance of Late Ordovician Sandstones along the southeastern Appalachian Mountains: Implications for the Tectonic Model of the Taconic Orogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, J. C.; Herrmann, A. D.; Haynes, J.

    2017-12-01

    A provenance study of sandstones along the southeastern Appalachian Mountains has been conducted in order to test the current volcanic arc-continent collision and foreland basin formation model of the Taconic Orogeny. Samples along the southeastern Appalachians were taken from sandstone sequences deposited between 460-450 Ma. Results from these sandstones show three dominate age ranges: 465-685 Ma, 980-1300 Ma, and 1300-1500 Ma. The 980-1300 Ma and 1300-1500 Ma ages are seen throughout the study area and are compatible with previously reported ages of the Grenville Orogeny and the Rhyolite-Granite Province. The northernmost samples have a small quantity of 465-685 Ma zircons which is attributed to an accretionary wedge that formed as a result of the continent-island arc collision and acted as a physical barrier keeping sediment from depositing within the basin. The younger age signal becomes stronger to the south, as samples in Georgia and Alabama show strong concentrations of 465-685 zircons. These ages are attributed to exotic terranes (Dalhonega Terrane and Carolina Terrane) that were accreted onto Laurentia during the Taconic Orogeny and/or a possible change in subduction direction leading to a back-arc basin model for the southern Appalachian Taconic Orogeny. The results from this provenance analysis support previous studies indicating that the model for the Taconic Orogeny is a combined A-type subduction for the north and a B-type subduction model for the southern part of the orogeny.

  8. Establishment and cryopreservation of a skin fibroblast cell line derived from Yunnan semi-fine wool sheep in the presence of synthetic ice blocker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shuai Shuai; Li, Dong Jiang; Lv, Chun Rong; Yang, Hong Yuan; Zhu, Lan; Li, Wei Juan; Quan, Guo Bo; Hong, Qiong Hua

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the fibroblasts cell line derived from ear marginal tissue of Yunnan semi-fine wool sheep was successfully established using the primary explants technique and cryopreservation technology. Additionally, the protective effect of synthetic ice blocker (SIB) including 1, 3-cyclohexanediol (1, 3-CHD) and 1, 4-cyclohexanediol (1, 4-CHD) on frozen fibroblast cells was also assessed and compared. Propidium iodide (PI) was used to stain the dead cells following cryopreservation and thawing. The results showed that compared with Medium 199 (M199) and Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium : Nutrient Mixture F-12 (1 : 1) Mixture (DMEM/F12), Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) may be more suitable for the primary culture of fibroblast cells of Yunnan semi-fine wool sheep. The growth curve of cells is a typical "S" type. After subculture for four days, the cells entered the plateau phase and began to degenerate. Biological analysis showed that the population doubling time (PDT) for subculturing fibroblast cells was approximately 26h. The Karyotyping data indicated that the percentage of fibroblast cells with normal chromosome number 2n = 54 was over 90% following subculture for 10 passages. Moreover, the tests for bacteria, fungi, viruses and mycoplasma were negative. After serial subculture for 5 generations, the fibroblast cells were cryopreserved in the presence or absence of 1, 3-CHD or 1, 4-CHD. The data indicated that with increase of the synthetic ice blocker concentrations, the viability of frozen-thawed fibroblast cells was firstly increased and then decreased. When the concentration of 1, 3-CHD or 1, 4-CHD was 50 mM, the viable percentage of frozen-thawed fibroblast cells was 91.93% +/- 2.24% and 94.13% +/- 0.55% respectively and significantly higher than that of the cells frozen in the absence of synthetic ice blockers (88.10% +/- 1.49%, P skin fibroblast cell line of Yunnan semi-fine wool sheep was firstly established in this study. Additionally

  9. Improving rapeseed production practices in the southeastern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, D.L.; Breve, M.A.; Raymer, P.L.; Minton, N.A.; Sumner, D.R. (Georgia Univ., Tifton, GA (USA). Georgia Coastal Plain Experiment Station)

    1990-04-01

    Oilseed rape or rapeseed is a crop which offers a potential for double-cropping in the southeastern United States. This final project report describes the results from a three year study aimed at evaluating the effect of different planting and harvesting practices on establishment and yield of three rape cultivars, and the double cropping potential of rapeseed in the southeastern United States. The project was conducted on two yield sites in Tifton, Georgia during 1986--87, 1987--88 and 1988--89. The general objective of this research is to improve the seed and biomass yield of winter rapeseed in the southeastern United States by developing appropriate agronomic practices for the region. The primary constraint is to grow rapeseed within the allowable period for double cropping with an economically desirable crop, such as peanut or soybean. Planting and harvesting are the most critical steps in this process. Therefore, the specific objectives of this research were: evaluate and improve the emergence of rapeseed by developing planting techniques that enhance the soil, water and seed regimes for winter rapeseed in the southeast, and evaluate and improve the yields of harvested rapeseed by developing techniques for determining the optimum timing of harvest and efficient methods for harvesting winter rapeseed in the southeast. 6 refs., 12 figs., 9 tabs.

  10. Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera in springs in Trentino (south-eastern Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana SILVERI

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Within the CRENODAT project (Biodiversity assessment and integrity evaluation of springs of Trentino - Italian Alps - and longterm ecological research, 2004-2008 we studied a total of 90 springs in Trentino (south-eastern Alps, Italy, 75 of which were used for statistical analysis. The springs were grouped into seven different types and represented all the available lithologies in the study area. Macrozoobenthos (Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera; EPT was collected from stones, bryophytes and sediments. We investigated which physical, chemical or environmental features were important in determining EPT assemblage metrics at sites, by calculating the Shannon-Wiener diversity index, and applying a one-way ANOVA test, ANOSIM and SIMPER analyses. Statistical results highlighted the island character of the springs, each spring having its specific history and abiotic characteristics, which select for unique community patterns. For the faunistic analyses, we considered all springs where EPT taxa were recorded; a total of 88 taxa. Highest species richness was recorded among the Trichoptera, followed by the Plecoptera and Ephemeroptera, with 52, 30 and 6 taxa respectively. Fifteen Trichoptera and three Plecoptera species were recorded as new for the Autonomous Province of Trento. Our results confirm that, in the harsh environment of the Alps, the mild and stable ecological conditions that characterize spring-fed brooks contribute to maintaining and enhancing the regional biodiversity. Springs act as refuge areas for stream biota, providing more favourable conditions during spates or droughts (common in Alpine headwaters, or for particular stages of the insect life cycles. Springs also provide specific habitats for strictly crenobiontic species.

  11. Crustal thickness and Vp/Vs beneath the southeastern United States: Constraints from receiver function stacking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Q.; Gao, S. S.; Liu, K. H.

    2017-12-01

    To provide new constraints on crustal structure and evolution models beneath a collage of tectonic provinces in the southeastern United States, a total of 10,753 teleseismic receiver functions recorded by 125 USArray and other seismic stations are used to compute crustal thickness and Vp/Vs values. The resulting crustal thicknesses range from 25 km at the coast to 51 km beneath the peak of the southern Appalachians with an average of 36.2 km ± 5.5 km. The resulting crustal thicknesses correlate well with surface elevation and Bouguer gravity anomalies. Beneath the Atlantic Coastal Plain, the crustal thicknesses show a clear eastward thinning with a magnitude of 10 km, from about 40 km beneath the western margin to 30 km beneath the coast. The Vp/Vs values for the entire study area range from 1.71 to 1.90 with a mean value of 1.80 ± 0.04. The mean Vp/Vs value is 1.82±0.035 in the southern Appalachian Mountain. The slightly larger than normal crustal Vp/Vs for this area might be the result of significant erosion of the felsic upper crust over the past 300 million years. Alternatively, it could also suggest the existence of pervasive magmatic intrusion into the Appalachian crust. The Vp/Vs measurements in the Atlantic Coastal Plain increase toward the east, ranging from 1.75 to 1.82, probably indicating a gradual increase of mafic magmatic intrusion into thinner crust during the development of the passive continental margin.

  12. Tularemia and plague survey in rodents in an earthquake zone in southeastern Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyuranecz, Miklós

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Earthquakes are one the most common natural disasters that lead to increased mortality and morbidity from transmissible diseases, partially because the rodents displaced by an earthquake can lead to an increased rate of disease transmission. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of plague and tularemia in rodents in the earthquake zones in southeastern Iran. METHODS: In April 2013, a research team was dispatched to explore the possible presence of diseases in rodents displaced by a recent earthquake magnitude 7.7 around the cities of Khash and Saravan in Sistan and Baluchestan Province. Rodents were trapped near and in the earthquake zone, in a location where an outbreak of tularemia was reported in 2007. Rodent serums were tested for a serological survey using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: In the 13 areas that were studied, nine rodents were caught over a total of 200 trap-days. Forty-eight fleas and 10 ticks were obtained from the rodents. The ticks were from the Hyalomma genus and the fleas were from the Xenopsylla genus. All the trapped rodents were Tatera indica. Serological results were negative for plague, but the serum agglutination test was positive for tularemia in one of the rodents. Tatera indica has never been previously documented to be involved in the transmission of tularemia. CONCLUSIONS: No evidence of the plague cycle was found in the rodents of the area, but evidence was found of tularemia infection in rodents, as demonstrated by a positive serological test for tularemia in one rodent. PMID:26602769

  13. Tuberculosis among transhumant pastoralist and settled communities of south-eastern Mauritania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aissata Lô

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Transhumant pastoralists of Mauritania were assumed to have a high prevalence of tuberculosis (TB because of reduced access to diagnostic testing. No population-based survey on TB has been published for Mauritania. Objective: The goal of this study was to estimate the prevalence of presumptive TB cases among mobile pastoralists and villagers in a remote zone of Mauritania. Design: In the south-eastern province of Hodh Ech Chargui, 250 adult pastoralists and 250 villagers were randomly enrolled using multistage cluster sampling in February 2012. A TB centre nurse examined participants using a standard clinical protocol, and a participant questionnaire was completed. Focus group discussions and interviews were conducted with community members and health personnel, respectively. Results: Fourteen new presumptive TB cases were identified, leading to an overall prevalence of 2.8%, (95% confidence interval (CI 1.5–4.7%. The prevalence was non-significantly higher among villagers than pastoralists (3.6% vs. 2.0%. Assuming illness duration was 3 years and all presumptive cases started treatment, an overall crude incidence of 933 cases/100,000 was derived. Five of six presumptive cases in Djiguenni were confirmed by sputum smear microscopy, but none out of eight presumptive cases were confirmed in Néma, although the same nurse performed all clinical examinations in both departments. This result was attributed to the use of expired reagents in Néma. Communities mentioned distance rather than lack of information as the main constraint to seeking diagnosis, but poor diagnostic centre performance also delayed decision-making. Conclusions: TB prevalences were high among both pastoralists and villagers. None of the 14 presumptive cases sought prior diagnostic testing. TB diagnostic centres in the remote rural study zone were poorly equipped. These centres must remain in operation to reduce TB incidence in vulnerable communities in insecure

  14. Sedimentary rocks Uranium in Cerro Largo Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scaron, P.; Garau Tous, M.

    1976-01-01

    With the aim of the uranium minerals exploration has been carried out several studies by UTE technicians in Cerro Largo Province from 1968 to 1969. In uranium concentration has been found pyrite, phosphate, iron oxides and manganese in uranium. Furthermore in La Divisa Ore were studied concentration Uranium enrichment has been studied in La Divisa ore

  15. Policing powers, Politics, Pragmatism and the Provinces ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The draft Western Cape Community Safety Bill, introduced in the provincial legislature in February 2012, is part of a broader provincial government initiative to tackle issues of safety in the province. The Bill sets out to concretise the powers allocated to provincial governments by the Constitution. Specific provisions reflect the ...

  16. Payenia volcanic province, southern Mendoza, Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søager, Nina; Holm, Paul Martin; Llambias, Eduardo Jorge

    2013-01-01

    The Pleistocene to Holocene Payenia volcanic province is a backarc region of 60,000 km2 in Mendoza, Argentina, which is dominated by transitional to alkaline basalts and trachybasalts. We present major and trace element compositions of 139 rocks from this area of which the majority are basaltic...

  17. Cogeneration opportunities in the maritime provinces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacPherson, S.W.

    1999-01-01

    With the arrival of natural gas in New Brunswick in November 1999, the province will be faced with new power generation development opportunities in four different categories of power projects. These include industrial self generation (including cogeneration), merchant power plants, power projects to replace aging facilities, and power projects to help meet future environmental needs. New Brunswick's competitive advantage in harnessing the power generation development opportunities lies in the fact that it is close to major electricity markets in Quebec and New England. It also has many available generation sites. The province's many pulp and paper plants with large process steam needs are also ideal candidates for cogeneration. Some of the major competitive advantages of natural gas over coal are its lower operation and maintenance costs, it is thermally more efficient, produces lower emissions to the environment and prices are competitive. One of the suggestions in New Brunswick Power's new restructuring proposal is to unbundle electricity service in the province into generation and transmission and distribution services. Three gas-fired projects have already been proposed for the province. The 284 MW Bayside Power Project at the Courtenay Bay Generating Station is the most advanced

  18. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Brucellosis in Jazan Province ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    this study was to determine the sero-prevalence of brucellosis in Jazan Province, Saudi Arabia and assess the ... Conclusion: These results indicate the need for a vaccination program in Jazan Province and for public .... from blue to yellow.

  19. Large igneous provinces (LIPs) and carbonatites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Richard E.; Bell, Keith

    2010-03-01

    There is increasing evidence that many carbonatites are linked both spatially and temporally with large igneous provinces (LIPs), i.e. high volume, short duration, intraplate-type, magmatic events consisting mainly of flood basalts and their plumbing systems (of dykes, sills and layered intrusions). Examples of LIP-carbonatite associations include: i. the 66 Ma Deccan flood basalt province associated with the Amba Dongar, Sarnu-Dandali (Barmer), and Mundwara carbonatites and associated alkali rocks, ii. the 130 Ma Paraná-Etendeka (e.g. Jacupiranga, Messum); iii. the 250 Ma Siberian LIP that includes a major alkaline province, Maimecha-Kotui with numerous carbonatites, iv. the ca. 370 Ma Kola Alkaline Province coeval with basaltic magmatism widespread in parts of the East European craton, and v. the 615-555 Ma CIMP (Central Iapetus Magmatic Province) of eastern Laurentia and western Baltica. In the Superior craton, Canada, a number of carbonatites are associated with the 1114-1085 Ma Keweenawan LIP and some are coeval with the pan-Superior 1880 Ma mafic-ultramafic magmatism. In addition, the Phalaborwa and Shiel carbonatites are associated with the 2055 Ma Bushveld event of the Kaapvaal craton. The frequency of this LIP-carbonatite association suggests that LIPs and carbonatites might be considered as different evolutionary ‘pathways’ in a single magmatic process/system. The isotopic mantle components FOZO, HIMU, EM1 but not DMM, along with primitive noble gas signatures in some carbonatites, suggest a sub-lithospheric mantle source for carbonatites, consistent with a plume/asthenospheric upwelling origin proposed for many LIPs.

  20. Review of the comb-tailed spider genus Hahnia C.L. Koch 1841 (Hahniidae) from Gaoligong Mountains in Yunnan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Gui-Qiang; Zhang, Zhi-Sheng; Liu, Ying-Hong

    2017-11-08

    Gaoligong Mountains in Yunnan, China are famous for the biodiversity and are part of Indo-Burmese hotspot. We present a review on the comb-tailed spider genus Hahnia C.L. Koch 1841 based on newly collected specimens. Four new species of Hahnia are described: H. biapophysis sp. nov. (male), H. dongi sp. nov. (male), H. subsaccata sp. nov. (male, female) and H. wangi sp. nov. (male, female). Two additional known species are redescribed: H. himalayaensis Hu & Zhang, 1990 and H. musica Brignoli, 1978. Hahnia musica previously known from Bhutan is recorded from China for the first time. Photos of habitus and genitalia of all species and additionally illustrations of new species are given.

  1. Confirmation of Two Sibling Species among Anopheles Fluviatilis Mosquitoes in South and Southeastern Iran by Analysis of Cytochrome Oxidase I Gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saied Reza Naddaf

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anopheles fluviatilis, one of the major malaria vectors in Iran, is assumed to be a complex of sibling species. The aim of this study was to evaluate Cytochrome oxidase I (COI gene alongside 28S-D3 as a diagnostic tool for identification of An. fluviatilis sibling species in Iran.Methods: DNA sample belonging to 24 An. fluviatilis mosquitoes from different geographical areas in south and southeastern Iran were used for amplification of COI gene followed by sequencing. The 474–475 bp COI sequences obtained in this study were aligned with 59 similar sequences of An. fluviatilis and a sequence of Anopheles minimus, as out group, from GenBank database. The distances between group and individual sequences were calculated and phy­logenetic tree for obtained sequences was generated by using Kimura two parameter (K2P model of neighbor-join­ing method.Results: Phylogenetic analysis using COI gene grouped members of Fars Province (central Iran in two distinct clades separate from other Iranian members representing Hormozgan, Kerman, and Sistan va Baluchestan Provinces. The mean distance between Iranian and Indian individuals was 1.66%, whereas the value between Fars Province individ­uals and the group comprising individuals from other areas of Iran was 2.06%.Conclusion: Presence of 2.06% mean distance between individuals from Fars Province and those from other areas of Iran is indicative of at least two sibling species in An. fluviatilis mosquitoes of Iran. This finding confirms earlier results based on RAPD-PCR and 28S-D3 analysis.

  2. Engaging HIV-infected patients in antiretroviral therapy services: CD4 cell count testing after HIV diagnosis from 2005 to 2009 in Yunnan and Guangxi, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yao; Ray Y. Chen; ZHANG Fu-jie; LU Lin; LI Hui-qin; LIU Wei; TANG Zhi-rong; FANG Hua; Jennifer Y. Chen; MA Ye; ZHAO Yan

    2011-01-01

    Background The initiation and expansion of China's national free antiretroviral therapy program has led to significant improvement of survival among its participants. Success of further scaling up treatment coverage rests upon intensifying HIV screening and efficient linkage of care. Timely CD4 cell count testing after HIV diagnosis is necessary to determine whether a patient meets criteria for antiretroviral treatment, and represents a crucial link to engage HIV-infected patients in appropriate care, which has not been evaluated in China.Methods We evaluated all patients ≥16 years who tested HIV positive from 2005 to 2009 in Yunnan and Guangxi.Multivariate Logistic regression models were applied to identify factors associated with lack of CD4 cell count testing within 6 months after HIV diagnosis.Results A total of 83 556 patients were included. Over the study period, 30 635 (37%) of subjects received a CD4 cell count within 6 months of receiving the HIV diagnosis. The rate of CD4 cell count testing within 6 months of HIV diagnosis increased significantly from 7% in 2005 to 62% in 2009. Besides the earlier years of HIV diagnosis, negative predictors for CD4 cell count testing in multivariate analyses included older age, not married or unclear marriage status,incarceration, diagnosis at sexual transmitted disease clinics, mode of HIV transmission classified as men who have sex with men, intravenous drug users or transmission route unclear, while minority ethnicity, receipt of high school or higher education, diagnosis at voluntary counseling and testing clinics, and having HIV positive parents were protective.Conclusions Significant progress has been made in increasing CD4 testing among newly diagnosed HIV positive patients in Yunnan and Guangxi from 2005-2009. However, a sizable proportion of HIV positive patients still lack CD4testing within 6 months of diagnosis. Improving CD4 testing, particularly among patients with identified risk factors, is essential to

  3. Current re-vegetation patterns and restoration issues in degraded geological phosphorus-rich mountain areas: A synthetic analysis of Central Yunnan, SW China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Yan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available China has the largest area of inland geological phosphorus-rich (GPR mountains in the world, where vegetation restoration is key to safeguarding the environment. We reviewed the published literature and collected new data in order to analyze re-vegetation patterns and the status of plant communities in central Yunnan. The aim of our analysis was to suggest future improvements to restoration strategies in GPR mountain regions. Our results showed that spontaneous recovery was the most widespread type of restoration. N-fixing species such as Coriaria nepalensis and Alnus nepalensis play a vital role in succession. In the past, monoculture tree plantation was the primary method used in afforestation activities in central Yunnan; in recent years however, several different methods of restoration have been introduced including the use of agroforestry systems. For practical restoration, we found that spontaneous recovery was capable of delivering the best results, but that during its early stages, restoration results were affected by several factors including erosion risk, the origin of propagates and environmental variation. In contrast, methods employing human-made communities performed better in their early stages, but were constrained by higher costs and vulnerability to degradation and erosion. The use of N-fixing species such as A. nepalensis and Acacia mearnsii in plantations were unsuccessful in restoring full ecosystem functions. The success of restoration activities in GPR mountain regions could be improved through the following measures: (1 developing a better understanding of the respective advantages and disadvantages of current natural and human-engineered restoration approaches; (2 elucidating the feedback mechanism between phosphorus-rich soil and species selected for restoration, especially N-fixing species; (3 introducing market incentives aimed at encouraging specific restoration activities such as agroforestry, and improving the

  4. Species Profile: Flatwoods Salamander (Ambystoma cingulatum) on Military Installations in the Southeastern United States

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Palis, John

    1997-01-01

    .... Fish and Wildlife Service. The species inhabits the lower Southeastern Coastal Plain from southern South Carolina to northern Florida, and westward through Georgia to extreme southwestern Alabama...

  5. Coal comprehensive utilization is the gateway for Shanxi Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, L.; Gui, G.

    1997-01-01

    Shanxi Province is abundant in coal reserve. Taiyuan Coal Gasification Corporation is a large sized union enterprise engaged in comprehensive use of coal in Shanxi province, and significant economic, social, environmental benefits have been brought forth with it. This leads people to believe that coal comprehensive utilization is the gateway for Shanxi Province in the fields of improvement of environment and development of economy

  6. Response to state comments on the revised draft Southeastern Regional Characterization Reports for the Crystalline Repository Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-08-01

    The purpose of this document is to respond to the comments received from the states of the Southeastern Region on the revised draft Southeastern Regional Characterization Reports (RCRs). The responses in this document indicate the manner in which the suggestions or comments received have been considered in modifying the revised draft Southeastern RCRs. Both general comments related to the overall Crystalline Repository Project (CRP) and comments on specific sections of the RCRs are addressed. This document responds to Southeastern State comments on both the revised draft Southeastern Regional Geologic Characterization Report (RGCR) and the revised draft Southeastern Regional Environmental Characterization Report (RECR)

  7. Political rotations and cross-province acquisitions in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muratova, Yulia; Arnoldi, Jakob; Chen, Xin

    2018-01-01

    The underdeveloped institutional framework and trade barriers between China’s provinces make cross-province acquisitions challenging. We explore how Chinese firms can mitigate this problem. Drawing on social network theory we propose that cross-province rotation of political leaders—a key element...... of the promotion system of political cadres in China—is a mechanism enabling growth through cross-province acquisitions. We conceptualize rotated leaders as brokers between two geographically dispersed networks. We contribute to the literature on the characteristics of Chinese social networks, the effect...... of political connections on firm strategy, and the impact of political rotations on firm growth in China’s provinces....

  8. Analysis on the inbound tourist source market in Fujian Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    YU, Tong

    2017-06-01

    The paper analyzes the development and structure of inbound tourism in Fujian Province by Excel software and conducts the cluster analysis on the inbound tourism market by SPSS 23.0 software based on the inbound tourism data of Fujian Province from 2006 to 2015. The results show: the rapid development of inbound tourism in Fujian Province and the diversified inbound tourist source countries indicate the stability of inbound tourism market; the inbound tourist source market in Fujian Province can be divided into four categories according to the cluster analysis, and tourists from the United States, Japan, Malaysia, and Singapore are the key of inbound tourism in Fujian Province.

  9. Zircon U-Pb and molybdenite Re-Os geochronology and Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotopic constraints on the genesis of the Xuejiping porphyry copper deposit in Zhongdian, Northwest Yunnan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Cheng-Biao; Zhang, Xing-Chun; Hu, Rui-Zhong; Wang, Shou-Xu; Zhong, Hong; Wang, Wai-Quan; Bi, Xian-Wu

    2012-10-01

    The Xuejiping porphyry copper deposit is located in northwestern Yunnan Province, China. Tectonically, it lies in the southern part of the Triassic Yidun island arc. The copper mineralization is mainly hosted in quartz-dioritic and quartz-monzonitic porphyries which intruded into clastic-volcanic rocks of the Late Triassic Tumugou Formation. There are several alteration zones including potassic, strong silicific and phyllic, argillic, and propylitic alteration zones from inner to outer of the mineralized porphyry bodies. The ages of ore-bearing quartz-monzonitic porphyry and its host andesite are obtained by using the zircon SIMS U-Pb dating method, with results of 218.3 ± 1.6 Ma (MSWD = 0.31, N = 15) and 218.5 ± 1.6 Ma (MSWD = 0.91, N = 16), respectively. Meanwhile, the molybdenite Re-Os dating yields a Re-Os isochronal age of 221.4 ± 2.3 Ma (MSWD = 0.54, N = 5) and a weighted mean age of 219.9 ± 0.7 Ma (MSWD = 0.88). They are quite in accordance with the zircon U-Pb ages within errors. Furthermore, all of them are contemporary with the timing of the Garzê-Litang oceanic crust subduction in the Yidun arc. Therefore, the Xuejiping deposit could be formed in a continental margin setting. There are negative ɛNd(t) values ranging from -3.8 to -2.1 and relatively high initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios from 0.7051 to 0.7059 for the Xuejiping porphyries and host andesites. The (206Pb/204Pb)t, (207Pb/204Pb)t and (208Pb/204Pb)t values of the Xuejiping porphyries and host andesites vary from 17.899 to 18.654, from 15.529 to 15.626, and from 37.864 to 38.52, respectively, indicative of high radiogenic Pb isotopic features. In situ Hf isotopic analyses on zircons by using LA-MC-ICP-MS exhibit that there are quite uniform and slightly positive ɛHf(t) values ranging from -0.2 to +3.2 (mostly between 0 and +2), corresponding to relatively young single-stage Hf model ages from 735 Ma to 871 Ma. These isotopic features suggest that the primary magmas of the Xuejiping porphyries and

  10. USMC Rethinking Coin in Helmand Province Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    the national power of Afghanistan, but continued to challenge each other for control at the provincial level . The Akhundzadek clan dominated...external powers dominating the central government of the province through the capital of Lashkar Gah, but demanded some autonomy at the local level .18...commands in a MAGTF are the ground combat element ( GCE ), air combat element (ACE), and logistic combat element (LCE). Flexibility and tempo are the

  11. A Glance at Bohai Bay Oil Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Shoubai

    1995-01-01

    @@ Chinese oil industry keeps on developing in 1994. The oil production of Bohai Bay Oil Province located in East China also keeps on growing. Geologically,the total area of Bohai Bay Basin is about 200 000 km2 and the main structural units are: Liaohe Depression, Huanghua Depression,Jizhong Depression, Linqing Depression, Jiyang Depression, Changwei Depression, Bozhong Depression,Chengning Uplift and Cangjing Uplift (see figure 1). Area of the main structural units is listed in following:

  12. An ethnobotanical survey on hormozgan province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Safa

    2012-12-01

    Conclusion: This study revealed that the people of Hormozgan province have a rich knowledge of natural resources. The use and consumption of medicinal plants are still important parts of their life.Rational use of native medicinal plants may benefit and improve their living standards and quality of life. The results of this study can be used as a basis for selecting herbs for further pharmacological, phytochemical, and pharmacognostical studies.

  13. Hurdles to Forest Friendly Farming: Sustainability Lessons from Southeastern Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Keys

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide the search is on for sustainable solutions to the competing needs for forest conservation and agricultural development. A strategy with contemporary salience arises in intensive, sedentarized agriculture that can protect forests and enhance livelihoods for forest dwellers. This paper investigates why intensive agriculture does not limit deforestation in southeastern Mexico’s Calakmul Municipality. It argues that agriculture faces challenges from a range of biophysical and socioeconomic factors in tropical regions and that this encourages expanded land use for intensive farmers.

  14. Observations On Some Upper Amazonian Wetlands of Southeastern Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Householder, J. E.; Muttiah, R.; Khanal, S.

    2007-05-01

    Upper Amazonian wetlands represent little studied, poorly understood, and grossly under protected systems. Scientific investigation of Amazonian wetlands is in its infancy; nor is there much known about their ecological services. Regionally, wetlands form a ubiquitous and significant component of floodplain habitat fed by perennial springs as well as overland runoff. Locally, wetland vegetation forms bewilderingly complex vegetation mosaics that seem to be governed by local topography and hydrology. Drawing upon intensive field campaigns and remotely sensed imagery, we summarize the results and experiences gathered in wetlands of southeastern Peru.

  15. Characterization of Nighttime Light Variability Over the Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Tony A.; Molthan, Andrew L.; Schultz, Lori A.

    2016-01-01

    City lights provide indications of human activity at night. Nighttime satellite imagery offers daily snapshots of this activity. With calibrated, science-quality imagery, long-term monitoring can also be achieved. The degree to which city lights fluctuate, however, is not well known. For the application of detecting power outages, this degree of variability is crucial for assessing reductions to city lights based on historical trends. Eight southeastern U.S. cities are analyzed to understand the relationship between emission variability and several population centers. A preliminary, example case power outage study is also discussed as a transition into future work.

  16. The impact of climate change on hailstorms in southeastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niall, Stephanie; Walsh, Kevin

    2005-11-01

    Data from a number of locations around southeastern Australia were analysed to determine the influence of climate change on the frequency and intensity of hail events in this region. The relationship between Convective Available Potential Energy (CAPE), frequently used as a measure of atmospheric instability, and hailstorms was investigated using both NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data (a data set comprising a blend of observations and model simulations) and also direct sounding data obtained from the Australian National Climate Centre. Two locations were chosen in southeastern Australia, Mount Gambier and Melbourne, over the months August to October for the period 1980-2001. A statistically significant relationship between hail incidence and CAPE values was established for both NCEP/NCAR and sounding data at both study sites. A stronger relationship was found between hail incidence and the CAPE, which was calculated using NCEP/NCAR data, than that between hail and the CAPE from the actual sounding data. A similar analysis was also conducted at both sites using the totals-totals index (TT index), which is an alternative measure of atmospheric instability.The CSIRO Mk3 Climate System Model was used to simulate values of CAPE for Mount Gambier in an environment containing double the pre-industrial concentrations of equivalent CO2. The results showed a significant decrease in CAPE values in the future. From this, assuming the relationship between CAPE and hail remains unchanged under enhanced greenhouse conditions, it is possible that there will be a decrease in the frequency of hail in southeastern Australia if current rates of CO2 emission are sustained. The severity of future hail events was investigated using crop-loss data from insurance companies. Strongest correlations were found between the crop-loss ratio (value of crop lost to hail damage over the total insured value of crop) and the number of days in a crop season with a TT index greater than 55. Results from the

  17. 40 CFR 81.30 - Southeastern Wisconsin Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.30 Section 81.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.30 Southeastern Wisconsin Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Milwaukee Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Wisconsin) has been renamed the Southeastern...

  18. 40 CFR 81.123 - Southeastern Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.123 Section 81.123 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.123 Southeastern Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Southeastern Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by the...

  19. Entropy dynamics in cone production of longleaf pine forests in the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiongwen Chen; Dale G. Brockway; Qinfeng Guo

    2016-01-01

    Sporadic temporal patterns of seed production are a challenge for the regeneration and restoration of longleaf pine, which is a keystone component of an endangered ecosystem in the southeastern United States. In this study, long-term data for longleaf pine cone production, collected at six sites across the southeastern region, was examined from the perspective of...

  20. 76 FR 33967 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Southeastern States; Suspension of Marketing Order Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    ... IR] Irish Potatoes Grown in Southeastern States; Suspension of Marketing Order Provisions AGENCY... suspends the marketing order for Irish potatoes grown in Southeastern states (order), and the rules and regulations implemented thereunder, through March 1, 2014. The order regulates the handling of Irish potatoes...

  1. Evidence for a western extension of the Angaran phytogeographic province in the Early Permian

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunderlin, David [Department of the Geophysical Sciences, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, 60637 (United States)

    2010-08-01

    A newly described Early Permian fossil plant assemblage in the Mt. Dall conglomerate in the Farewell terrane (Alaska Range, USA) is analyzed from a paleobiogeographic perspective. These data constitute the youngest paleontological dataset yet discovered in this terrane, represent the terrane's only predominantly terrestrial fossil assemblage, and are the only plant macrofossil remains of Early Permian age within a > 1500 km radius today. A suite of multivariate statistical analyses comparing the Mt. Dall paleoflora to similar age (Asselian-Artinskian) collections from the Angaran, Euramerican, and Cathaysian Permian phytogeographic provinces reveals that the Mt. Dall paleoflora has a paleobiogeographic affinity with Sub-Angaran plant fossil assemblages collected from Mongolia and the Primorye region of southeastern Russia. The paleoflora has dual importance in the construction and testing of hypotheses for which there are geographically and temporally few controls. First, these data may be used in association with other faunal and floral remains to test models of the assembly of Alaska, which seek, in part, an understanding of the paleogeographic and lithological origins of accreted terranes. That the Mt. Dall paleoflora indicates mixed Eurasia-North America paleobiogeographic affinity among individual taxa and plots in multivariate space with mid-latitude assemblages on northern Pangea may suggest deposition in that latitudinal belt. Second, contrary to the well-sampled fossil plant-bearing Permo-Carboniferous of the paleotropics and the northeastern temperate Pangean regions (Angaraland), terrestrial biome structure and vegetation type of northwestern Pangea are poorly known. This lack of understanding is due to the paucity of paleofloral collections from this region in this time period and the paleogeographic uncertainty of their position along the ancient active margin of Laurentia. The Mt. Dall paleoflora's phytogeographic affinity to paleobotanical

  2. Transfer characteristics of cadmium and lead from soil to the edible parts of six vegetable species in southeastern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Guo; Su Miaoyu; Chen Yanhui; Lin Fenfang; Luo Dan; Gao Shufang

    2006-01-01

    The transfer characteristics of Cd and Pb from soils to the edible parts of six vegetable species were calculated from plant and corresponding surface soil samples collected from the fields in Fujian Province, southeastern China. The soil-to-plant transfer factors (TF) calculated from both total and DTPA-extractable Cd and Pb in the soils decreased with increasing total or DTPA-extractable Cd and Pb, indicating that the TF values of Cd and Pb depend on the soil metal content. For most plants studied, there was a significant relation between the TF values and the corresponding soil metal concentrations (total or DTPA-extractable) that was best described by an exponential equation (y = ax b ). We recommend that the representative TF value for a given crop-metal system should be estimated from the regression models between the transfer factors and the corresponding soil metal concentrations and at a given soil metal concentration. - Soil-to-plant transfer factors of Cd and Pb decreased with increasing soil contents of Cd and Pb

  3. Climate Change Impacts on Flooding in Southeastern Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switanek, Matt; Truhetz, Heimo; Reszler, Christian

    2015-04-01

    Floods in southeastern Austria can cause significant damage to life, property and infrastructure. These flood events are often the result of extreme precipitation from small-scale convective storms. In order to more accurately model the changes to flood magnitude and frequency, Regional Climate Models (RCMs) must be able to simulate small-scale convective storms similar to those that have been observed. Even as computational resources have increased, RCMs are just now achieving the high spatial and temporal scales necessary to physically resolve the processes that govern small-scale convection. With increased resolution, RCMs can rely on their internal physics to model convective precipitation and need not depend on parameterization. This study uses historical and future scenarios of Regional Climate Models (RCMs) run at a spatial scale of 3 km and temporal scale of 1 hr. In order to subsequently force a hydrological flood model, the sub-daily precipitation and temperature data from the RCMs are first bias corrected. A newly proposed bias correction method is presented and compared to the commonly used quantile mapping. The proposed bias correction method performs better in its ability to preserve the model projected climate change signal (measured by changes in mean and variance). Lastly, the changes in the quantity and frequency of projected extreme precipitation, at the watershed level, are analyzed with respect to the historic time period. With these improvements in dynamical modeling and bias correction methods, a clearer picture emerges revealing the more likely impacts climate change will have on floods in southeastern Austria.

  4. Geothermal Reservoir Temperatures in Southeastern Idaho using Multicomponent Geothermometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neupane, Ghanashyam [Idaho National Lab. (INL) and Center for Advanced Energy Studies, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Mattson, Earl D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL) and Center for Advanced Energy Studies, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); McLing, Travis L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Center for Advanced Energy Studies; Palmer, Carl D. [Univ. of Idaho, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Smith, Robert W. [Univ. of Idaho and Center for Advanced Energy Studies, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Wood, Thomas R. [Univ. of Idaho and Center for Advanced Energy Studies, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Podgorney, Robert K. [Idaho National Lab. (INL) and Center for Advanced Energy Studies, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Southeastern Idaho exhibits numerous warm springs, warm water from shallow wells, and hot water within oil and gas test wells that indicate a potential for geothermal development in the area. Although the area exhibits several thermal expressions, the measured geothermal gradients vary substantially (19 – 61 ºC/km) within this area, potentially suggesting a redistribution of heat in the overlying ground water from deeper geothermal reservoirs. We have estimated reservoir temperatures from measured water compositions using an inverse modeling technique (Reservoir Temperature Estimator, RTEst) that calculates the temperature at which multiple minerals are simultaneously at equilibrium while explicitly accounting for the possible loss of volatile constituents (e.g., CO2), boiling and/or water mixing. Compositions of a selected group of thermal waters representing southeastern Idaho hot/warm springs and wells were used for the development of temperature estimates. The temperature estimates in the the region varied from moderately warm (59 ºC) to over 175 ºC. Specifically, hot springs near Preston, Idaho resulted in the highest temperature estimates in the region.

  5. Geothermal Reservoir Temperatures in Southeastern Idaho using Multicomponent Geothermometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neupane, Ghanashyam; Mattson, Earl D.; McLing, Travis L.; Smith, Robert W.; Wood, Thomas R.; Podgorney, Robert K.

    2015-01-01

    Southeastern Idaho exhibits numerous warm springs, warm water from shallow wells, and hot water within oil and gas test wells that indicate a potential for geothermal development in the area. Although the area exhibits several thermal expressions, the measured geothermal gradients vary substantially (19 - 61 °C/km) within this area, potentially suggesting a redistribution of heat in the overlying ground water from deeper geothermal reservoirs. We have estimated reservoir temperatures from measured water compositions using an inverse modeling technique (Reservoir Temperature Estimator, RTEst) that calculates the temperature at which multiple minerals are simultaneously at equilibrium while explicitly accounting for the possible loss of volatile constituents (e.g., CO2), boiling and/or water mixing. Compositions of a selected group of thermal waters representing southeastern Idaho hot/warm springs and wells were used for the development of temperature estimates. The temperature estimates in the the region varied from moderately warm (59 °C) to over 175 °C. Specifically, hot springs near Preston, Idaho resulted in the highest temperature estimates in the region.

  6. Facebook Usage by Mayors in Central and Southeastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milica Vučković

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The ever increasing rise of social media network users consequently leaves a mark on political communication. While social media tools are already adopted in political marketing, primarily in election campaigning, governments are still new in using social media. The aim of this study is to examine how Facebook is used by city mayors in countries of Central and Southeastern Europe in two months period, from March 1st to April 30th of 2012. Using content analysis we first analyzed status massages in order to see what kind of status messages they post: personal or political. Secondly, we conducted an analysis of comments on the examined statuses, in order to examine if citizens make constructive, cynical, supportive or neutral comments. We examined ten city mayors’ Facebook pages in five countries, Bulgaria, Croatia, Hungary, Macedonia and Slovenia. The results have revealed that city mayors in Central and Southeastern Europe use Facebook almost exclusively for official purposes. Secondly, the analysis of citizens’ comments demonstrates that expressing cynicism on Facebook is not the trend in these countries. The findings further confirm that Facebook is a good platform for gathering supporters, while there were no strong evidence found that it serves as platform for constructive discussion. The paper finally discusses how politician’s status messages can engage a larger number of citizens.

  7. Drought-sensitive aquifer settings in southeastern Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Tammy M.; Risser, Dennis W.

    2005-01-01

    This report describes the results of a study conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, Bureau of Topographic and Geologic Survey, to determine drought-sensitive aquifer settings in southeastern Pennsylvania. Because all or parts of southeastern Pennsylvania have been in drought-warning or drought-emergency status during 6 of the past 10 years from 1994 through 2004, this information should aid well owners, drillers, and water-resource managers in guiding appropriate well construction and sustainable use of Pennsylvania's water resources. 'Drought-sensitive' aquifer settings are defined for this study as areas unable to supply adequate quantities of water to wells during drought. Using information from previous investigations and a knowledge of the hydrogeology and topography of the study area, drought-sensitive aquifer settings in southeastern Pennsylvania were hypothesized as being associated with two factors - a water-table decline (WTD) index and topographic setting. The WTD index is an estimate of the theoretical water-table decline at the ground-water divide for a hypothetical aquifer with idealized geometry. The index shows the magnitude of ground-water decline after cessation of recharge is a function of (1) distance from stream to divide, (2) ground-water recharge rate, (3) transmissivity, (4) specific yield, and (5) duration of the drought. WTD indices were developed for 39 aquifers that were subsequently grouped into categories of high, moderate, and low WTD index. Drought-sensitive settings determined from the hypothesized factors were compared to locations of wells known to have been affected (gone dry, replaced, or deepened) during recent droughts. Information collected from well owners, drillers, and public agencies identified 2,016 wells affected by drought during 1998-2002. Most of the available data on the location of drought-affected wells in the study area were

  8. LAND-USE CHANGE AND ITS DRIVING FORCES OF "THREE PARALLEL RIVERS" IN NORTHWEST YUNNAN PROVINCE%滇西北三江并流区土地利用变化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王金亮; 蒋莲芳; 李瑞林

    2005-01-01

    土地利用变化会改变地表覆盖,从而影响环境质量及陆地生态系统性质.开展区域土地利用/土地覆盖变化研究,可为区域土地资源优化利用和可持续发展提供科学依据.以第二次土壤普查资料和土地详查资料为依据,采用土地利用变化指数模型,定量分析三江并流区1983年到1999年土地利用变化特征,结果表明:(1)与土地利用结构分析法相比,土地利用变化指数模型更能反