WorldWideScience

Sample records for southeastern south america

  1. Satellite-Enhanced Regional Downscaling for Applied Studies: Extreme Precipitation Events in Southeastern South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, A.; Gomes, G.; Ivanov, V. Y.

    2016-12-01

    Frequently found in southeastern South America during the warm season from October through May, strong and localized precipitation maxima are usually associated with the presence of mesoscale convective complexes (MCCs) travelling across the region. Flashfloods and landslides can be caused by these extremes in precipitation, with damages to the local communities. Heavily populated, southeastern South America hosts many agricultural activities and hydroelectric production. It encompasses one of the most important river basins in South America, the La Plata River Basin. Therefore, insufficient precipitation is equally prejudicial to the region socio-economic activities. MCCs are originated in the warm season of many regions of the world, however South American MCCs are related to the most severe thunderstorms, and have significantly contributed to the precipitation regime. We used the hourly outputs of Satellite-enhanced Regional Downscaling for Applied Studies (SRDAS), developed at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro in Brazil, in the analysis of the dynamics and physical characteristics of MCCs in South America. SRDAS is the 25-km resolution downscaling of a global reanalysis available from January 1998 through December 2010. The Regional Spectral Model is the SRDAS atmospheric component and assimilates satellite-based precipitation estimates from the NOAA/Climate Prediction Center MORPHing technique global precipitation analyses. In this study, the SRDAS atmospheric and land-surface variables, global reanalysis products, infrared satellite imagery, and the physical retrievals from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), on board of the NASA's Aqua satellite, were used in the evaluation of the MCCs developed in southeastern South America from 2008 and 2010. Low-level circulations and vertical profiles were analyzed together to establish the relevance of the moisture transport in connection with the upper-troposphere dynamics to the development of those MCCs.

  2. Summer precipitation variability over Southeastern South America in a global warming scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junquas, C. [UPMC/CNRS, Laboratoire de Meteorologie Dynamique, Institut Pierre Simon Laplace, Ecole Polytechnique, Paris (France); UMI-IFAECI CNRS-CONICET-UBA, Centro de Investigaciones del Mar y la Atmosfera (CIMA), DCAO/FCEyN, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Vera, C. [UMI-IFAECI CNRS-CONICET-UBA, Centro de Investigaciones del Mar y la Atmosfera (CIMA), DCAO/FCEyN, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Li, L.; Le Treut, H. [UPMC/CNRS, Laboratoire de Meteorologie Dynamique, Institut Pierre Simon Laplace, Ecole Polytechnique, Paris (France)

    2012-05-15

    December-January-February (DJF) rainfall variability in southeastern South America (SESA) is studied in 18 coupled general circulation models from the WCRP/CMIP3 dataset, for present climate and the SRES-A1B climate change scenario. The analysis is made in terms of properties of the first leading pattern of rainfall variability in the region, characterized by a dipole-like structure with centers of action in the SESA and South Atlantic Convergence Zone (SACZ) regions. The study was performed to address two issues: how rainfall variability in SESA would change in a future climate and how much of that change explains the projected increasing trends in the summer mean rainfall in SESA identified in previous works. Positive (negative) dipole events were identified as those DJF seasons with above (below) normal rainfall in SESA and below (above) normal rainfall in the SACZ region. Results obtained from the multi-model ensemble confirm that future rainfall variability in SESA has a strong projection on the changes of seasonal dipole pattern activity, associated with an increase of the frequency of the positive phase. In addition, the frequency increase of positive dipole phase in the twenty first century seems to be associated with an increase of both frequency and intensity of positive SST anomalies in the equatorial Pacific, and with a Rossby wave train-like anomaly pattern linking that ocean basin to South America, which regionally induces favorable conditions for moisture transport convergence and rainfall increase in SESA. (orig.)

  3. Analysis and evaluation of WRF microphysical schemes for deep moist convection over south-eastern South America (SESA) using microwave satellite observations and radiative transfer simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sol Galligani, Victoria; Wang, Die; Alvarez Imaz, Milagros; Salio, Paola; Prigent, Catherine

    2017-10-01

    In the present study, three meteorological events of extreme deep moist convection, characteristic of south-eastern South America, are considered to conduct a systematic evaluation of the microphysical parameterizations available in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model by undertaking a direct comparison between satellite-based simulated and observed microwave radiances. A research radiative transfer model, the Atmospheric Radiative Transfer Simulator (ARTS), is coupled with the WRF model under three different microphysical parameterizations (WSM6, WDM6 and Thompson schemes). Microwave radiometry has shown a promising ability in the characterization of frozen hydrometeors. At high microwave frequencies, however, frozen hydrometeors significantly scatter radiation, and the relationship between radiation and hydrometeor populations becomes very complex. The main difficulty in microwave remote sensing of frozen hydrometeor characterization is correctly characterizing this scattering signal due to the complex and variable nature of the size, composition and shape of frozen hydrometeors. The present study further aims at improving the understanding of frozen hydrometeor optical properties characteristic of deep moist convection events in south-eastern South America. In the present study, bulk optical properties are computed by integrating the single-scattering properties of the Liu(2008) discrete dipole approximation (DDA) single-scattering database across the particle size distributions parameterized by the different WRF schemes in a consistent manner, introducing the equal mass approach. The equal mass approach consists of describing the optical properties of the WRF snow and graupel hydrometeors with the optical properties of habits in the DDA database whose dimensions might be different (Dmax') but whose mass is conserved. The performance of the radiative transfer simulations is evaluated by comparing the simulations with the available coincident

  4. Recent changes in frost days events characteristics in Uruguay-Southeastern South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renom, Madeleine; De Mello, Santiago

    2015-04-01

    There are few studies about extreme temperature events in Southeastern South America as is it mentioned in the SREX report (2009), although these events generate human health impacts and big economical looses. Southeastern South America is one of the major agricultural production regions worldwide. Particularly in Uruguay, agricultural production represents a high percentage of the GDP and, in the last 15 years there has been a significant increase in the area used for that economic activity. Although frost is not always is considered as an extreme event it causes, in the case of Uruguay, an impact on society, energy consumption and agricultural losses. Previous studies have shown a negative trend in the occurrence of cold nights (TN10) during winter (June-July-August) and autumn (March-April-May) in Uruguay. This work try to determine if these trends affects the occurrences and characteristics of frost days (Tmin< 0°C). Based on a high-quality daily minimum temperature for 11 meteorological stations that cover the period 1950-2009, we analyzed different features of frost days. Long term trends do not present a clear spatial behaviour suggesting that there is a not clear relationship between the percentile based index (TN10) and a fixed index (FD). At monthly scale, May and September show a negative trend, although these months present a low number of cases that difficult the statistical treatment. It is noticeable that from a decadal point of view the last decade (2000-2009) was the decade with fewer occurrences comparing with the rest, while the 90's is the decade that presents more cases. We also analyzed changes in frost period (FP) which commonly extends from May to September. In general all the stations present a decrease in the FP in accordance with the negative trend detected at monthly scale, suggesting a warming in autumn and spring time. Although we detected different behaviour in two stations, one located inner land and the other located on the

  5. Protoparmelia capitata (Ascomycota: Parmeliaceae: new record for South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Aptroot

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The sterile corticolous crustose lichen Protoparmelia capitata (Ascomycota: Parmeliaceae, recently described for southeastern North America, is reported as a new record for South America in the Serra da Jiboia mountain range, near the municipality of Santa Teresinha, in the state of Bahia, in northeastern Brazil. This species is locally common and is probably closely related to P. isidiata, which has the same pigmentation and medullary chemistry, P. capitata differing from P. isidiata in that the former features soredia rather than isidia.

  6. Religions in South-Eastern Europe: The Historico-Anthropological Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Mitterauer

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The article approaches religious phenomena in South-Eastern Europe in a historico-anthropological manner. With the aid of historical comparison, the author tries to throw light on the religious phenomena of South-Eastern Europe and to present them in a lucid review. A significant place in this process is given to historical sociology as a discipline which, among other, also deals with the religious conditioning of social processes. The text consists of two parts. In the first, the author deals with the question of the religious particularity of South-Eastern Europe and considers it from several viewpoints. The author regards the most important features of the religious situation in that part of Europe as being particularism, archaicism and syncretism. He analyses the historical conditioning of the viability of the three monotheistic world religions in the region, their influence on the social development of South-Eastern Europe, the stance of the authorities towards religious communities and the existence of diverse traditions within individual religious cultures. Along with analysis of the presence of ancient elements and the continuity of pre-Christian rituals and beliefs, the author also stresses the strong syncretism marking the religious traditions of South-Eastern Europe. In the second part of the text the author compares religious phenomena in South-Eastern Europe and analyses regional religious traditions. He presents from the historico-anthropological aspect the religious rituals, the bearers of rituals, the place and time of rituals and the ritual languages of each of the world religions represented in the region. Emphasising the continuity of religious life and religious traditions in South-Eastern Europe, the author ends with the period of Communist rule in the second half of the 20th century, and deliberation that Communism, too, with its atheist doctrine in the secular form of cult, in fact carried on from religious tradition.

  7. Economic prospects and policy framework of forest biotechnology in the Southern U.S.A. and South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick W. Cubbage; David N. Wear; Zohra Bennadji

    2005-01-01

    An economic framework is presented for analyzing forest biotechnology with a focus on the case of transgenic forest trees in the southeastern U.S., Uruguay, and South America. Prospective economic benefits of forest biotechnology could reach hundreds of millions of dollars per year, but greatly increased research expenditures will also be required to achieve this...

  8. Land-atmosphere interaction patterns in southeastern South America using satellite products and climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spennemann, P. C.; Salvia, M.; Ruscica, R. C.; Sörensson, A. A.; Grings, F.; Karszenbaum, H.

    2018-02-01

    In regions of strong Land-Atmosphere (L-A) interaction, soil moisture (SM) conditions can impact the atmosphere through modulating the land surface fluxes. The importance of the identification of L-A interaction regions lies in the potential improvement of the weather/seasonal forecast and the better understanding of the physical mechanisms involved. This study aims to compare the terrestrial segment of the L-A interaction from satellite products and climate models, motivated by previous modeling studies pointing out southeastern South America (SESA) as a L-A hotspot during austral summer. In addition, the L-A interaction under dry or wet anomalous conditions over SESA is analyzed. To identify L-A hotspots the AMSRE-LPRM SM and MODIS land surface temperature products; coupled climate models and uncoupled land surface models were used. SESA highlights as a strong L-A interaction hotspot when employing different metrics, temporal scales and independent datasets, showing consistency between models and satellite estimations. Both AMSRE-LPRM bands (X and C) are consistent showing a strong L-A interaction hotspot over the Pampas ecoregion. Intensification and a larger spatial extent of the L-A interaction for dry summers was observed in both satellite products and models compared to wet summers. These results, which were derived from measured physical variables, are encouraging and promising for future studies analyzing L-A interactions. L-A interaction analysis is proposed here as a meeting point between remote sensing and climate modelling communities of Argentina, within a region with the highest agricultural and livestock production of the continent, but with an important lack of in-situ SM observations.

  9. Can coyotes affect deer populations in Southeastern North America?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilgo, J., C.; Ray, H., Scott; Ruth, Charles; Miller, Karl, V.

    2010-07-01

    ABSTRACT The coyote (Canis latrans) is a recent addition to the fauna of eastern North America, and in many areas coyote populations have been established for only a decade or two. Although coyotes are known predators of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in their historic range, effects this new predator may have on eastern deer populations have received little attention. We speculated that in the southeastern United States, coyotes may be affecting deer recruitment, and we present 5 lines of evidence that suggest this possibility. First, the statewide deer population in South Carolina has declined coincident with the establishment and increase in the coyote population. Second, data sets from the Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina indicate a new mortality source affecting the deer population concurrent with the increase in coyotes. Third, an index of deer recruitment at SRS declined during the period of increase in coyotes. Fourth, food habits data from SRS indicate that fawns are an important food item for coyotes during summer. Finally, recent research from Alabama documented significant coyote predation on fawns there. Although this evidence does not establish cause and effect between coyotes and observed declines in deer recruitment, we argue that additional research should proactively address this topic in the region. We identified several important questions on the nature of the deer–coyote relationship in the East.

  10. SOUTH AMERICA: INDUSTRIAL ROUNDWOOD SUPPLY POTENTIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronalds W. Gonzalez

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available South America has substantial potential to expand its forest plantations and raw material supply. From 1997 to 2005, South America had a high annual growth rate in the production of industrial roundwood, with Brazil and Chile being the most important countries. In the same period, Asia had the only negative regional production growth rate in the world, and China became the largest round wood importer in the world. This paper summarizes the status of production, consumption, imports, and exports of industrial roundwood and forest products in South America. Produc-tion and exports from South America have continually increased at annual growth rates exceeding the forestry sector in general and the U.S. in particular. Based on timber growing investments to date, a strong timber production and forest products manufacturing sector has developed in the Southern Cone countries of Chile, Brazil, Argentina, and Uruguay, and is increasing in other countries in Latin America. There will be continued opportunities for forest plantations and new manufacturing facilities throughout South America, tempered somewhat by perceived country financial and political risks. These opportunities will allow South America to increase its share of world production and increase imports to North America and to Asia.

  11. Perspectivs and challenges of phenology research on South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrícia Morellato, Leonor

    2017-04-01

    Detecting plant responses to environmental changes across the Southern Hemisphere is an important question in the global agenda, as there is still a shortage of studies addressing phenological trends related to global warming. Here I bring a fresh perspective on the current knowledge of South America's phenology, and discusss the challenges and future research agendas for one of the most diverse regions of the world. I will syntethize: (i) What is the current focus of contemporany phenological research in South America? (ii) Is phenology contributing to the detection of trends and shifts related to climate or antropogenic changes? (iii) How has phenology been integrated to conservation, restoration, and management of natural vegetation and endangered species? (iv) What would be the main challenges and new avenues for South American phenological research in the 21st century? (v) Can we move towards phenology monitoring networks, linked to citizen science and education? My perspective is based on recent reviews addressing the Southeastern Hemisphere, South America, and Neotropical phenology; and on reviews and essays on the contribution of phenological research to biodiversity conservation, management, and ecological restoration, emphasizing tropical, species-rich ecosystems. Phenological research has grown at an unprecedented rate in the last 20 years, surpassing 100 articles per year after 2010. There is still a predominance of short-term studies (2-3 years) describing patterns and drivers for reproduction and leaf exchange. Only 10 long-term studies were found, based on direct observations or plant traps, and this number did not add much to the previous surveys. Therefore, we remain in need of more long-term studies to enhance the contribution of phenology to climate change research in South America. It is also mandatory to bring conservation issues to phenology research. The effects of climatic and antropogenic changes on plant phenology have been addressed

  12. The vegetation of Malilangwe Wildlife Reserve, south-eastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The vegetation of Malilangwe Wildlife Reserve, south-eastern Zimbabwe. ... African Journal of Range and Forage Science ... Comparisons with other southern African savannas are made, and similarities and differences are discussed.

  13. Neosporosis in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, D P

    2005-01-20

    This work gathers reports about Neospora-infections in South America. Neospora-infections have been reported from Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay, Peru and Uruguay. Evidence of exposure to N. caninum was mentioned in cattle, goats, sheep, dogs, cats, water buffaloes, alpacas, llamas, South American opossums, wolves and other wild canids. No antibodies were found in horses. Interesting epidemiological and pathological data were described. Two isolations were performed from dogs, one from cattle, and recently five from water buffaloes. Since the cattle industry is important in South America and reproductive losses caused by Neospora-infection have been identified, more investigations are needed in order to understand its epidemiology and control the disease.

  14. Anaglyph, South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    This anaglyph (stereoscopic view) of South America was generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). It is best viewed at or near full resolution with anaglyph glasses. For this broad view the resolution of the data was first reduced to 30 arcseconds (about 928 meters north-south but variable east-west), matching the best previously existing global digital topographic data set called GTOPO30. The data were then resampled to a Mercator projection with approximately square pixels (about one kilometer, or 0.6 miles, on each side). Even at this decreased resolution the variety of landforms comprising the South American continent is readily apparent.Topographic relief in South America is dominated by the Andes Mountains, which extend all along the Pacific Coast. These mountains are created primarily by the convergence of the Nazca and South American tectonic plates. The Nazca Plate, which underlies the eastern Pacific Ocean, slides under western South America resulting in crustal thickening, uplift, and volcanism. Another zone of plate convergence occurs along the northwestern coast of South America where the Caribbean Plate also slides under the South American Plate and forms the northeastern extension of the Andes Mountains.East of the Andes, much of northern South America drains into the Amazon River, the world's largest river in terms of both watershed area and flow volume. Topographic relief is very low in much of the Amazon Basin but SRTM data provide an excellent detailed look at the basin's three-dimensional drainage pattern, including the geologic structural trough (syncline) that hosts the eastern river channel.North of the Amazon, the Guiana Highlands commonly stand in sharp contrast to the surrounding lowlands, indeed hosting the world's tallest waterfall, Angel Falls (979 meters or 3212 feet). Folded and fractured bedrock structures are distinctive in the topographic pattern.South of the Amazon, the Brazilian Highlands show a mix of

  15. Gravity derived Moho for South America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meijde, M.; Julia, J.; Assumpcao, M.

    2013-01-01

    Crustal structure in South America is one of the least understood among the Earth's continental areas. Variations in crustal thickness are still poorly constrained over large portions of the continent because of scarce or unevenly distributed crustal thickness estimates throughout South America. To

  16. The Africa South America Intercontinental Teleconnection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, K. H.; Hsieh, J.-S.; Hagos, S. M.

    2004-07-01

    The influence of heating over Africa on the South American precipitation climatology, and the influence of South America on Africa, is examined through the application of GCM simulations with idealized boundary conditions and perpetual solstice (January and July) conditions.The presence of Africa is associated with a pronounced (up to 4 mm day-1) decrease in precipitation in Brazil's Nordeste region during austral summer. Low-level moisture divergence and dry-air advection associated with the downbranch of a Walker circulation induced by heating over southern Africa is amplified over the Nordeste due to the response of the land surface. The response is much smaller during austral winter due to differences in the heat source over Africa and a reduced sensitivity in the surface heat balance over tropical South America. Forcing from South America in January shifts the position of the South Indian convergence zone (SICZ) to the southwest over southern Africa in association with the formation of the South Atlantic convergence zone (SACZ). In July, a Rossby wave train generated over South America induces a response in the surface temperature of Africa that leads to stronger precipitation in central and western Africa.This study suggests a zonal mode of variability for South American and African circulation and precipitation fields. The resulting perturbations depend as much on land surface atmosphere interactions as on the direct forcing from the adjacent continent, and the mechanisms are highly nonlinear.

  17. Potential distribution of the invasive freshwater dinoflagellate Ceratium furcoides (Levander) Langhans (Dinophyta) in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meichtry de Zaburlín, Norma; Vogler, Roberto E; Molina, María J; Llano, Víctor M

    2016-04-01

    Dinoflagellates of the genus Ceratium are predominantly found in marine environments, with a few species in inland waters. Over the last decades, the freshwater species Ceratium hirundinella and Ceratium furcoides have colonized and invaded several South American basins. The purpose of this study was to create a distribution model for the invasive dinoflagellate C. furcoides in South America in order to further investigate the basins at potential risk, as well as the environmental conditions that influence its expansion. This species is known to develop blooms due to its mobility, resistance to sedimentation, and optimized use of resources. Although nontoxic, blooms of the species cause many problems to both the natural ecosystems and water users. Potential distribution was predicted by using a maximum entropy algorithm (MaxEnt). Model was run with 101 occurrences obtained from the scientific literature, and climatic, hydrological and topographic variables. The developed model had a very good performance for the study area. The most susceptible areas identified were mainly concentrated in the basins between southeastern Brazil and northeastern Argentina. Besides already affected regions, new potentially suitable areas were identified in temperate regions of South America. The information generated here will be useful for authorities responsible for water and watershed management to monitor the spread of this species and address problems related to its establishment in new environments. © 2015 Phycological Society of America.

  18. Energy market integration in South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammons, T.J.; Franco, N. de; Sbertoli, L.V.; Khelil, C.; Rudnick, H.; Clerici, A.; Longhi, A.

    1997-01-01

    This article is a summary of presentations made during the 1997 Winter Meeting panel session on Power and Natural Gas in Latin America: Towards an Integrated Market. Reregulation and demand for energy resources to support economic growth are driving international natural gas and electricity exchange initiatives. Panelists focused on the gas and electric power industry in Latin America in terms of the: transport of gas or transmission of electricity; energy market integration in the southern cone of South America; and issues on gas use for electricity generation in South America countries. Countries such as Argentina, Bolivia, and Peru will export natural gas to Brazil, Uruguay, Paraguay and Chile, an the energy matrices of these countries will change

  19. INTERNET ADDICTION IN BALKAN AND SOUTH-EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis PETASAKIS

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of Internet has increased dramatically in recent years. Although there is no standardized definition of Internet addiction, there is acknowledgement among researchers that this phenomenon does exist. In this study, we identify various similarities and differences among people in the Balkan and South-Eastern European countries about Internet addiction. There are many factors such as cultural differences, gender differences, psychosocial variables, computer attitudes and time.We present the experience from studies concerning Internet addiction in all over the world. A specific research with the use of Young's 20-scale was also conducted in five Balkan and South-Eastern European countries (Republic of Moldova, Romania, Republic of Bulgaria, Hellenic Republic, Republic of Cyprus.The findings are interesting. Although there is a need for Interest using, there are also cases where the addiction, dependence and abuse is apparent.

  20. Cretaceous paleogeography and depositional cycles of western South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macellari, C. E.

    The western margin of South America was encroached upon by a series of marine advances that increased in extent from the Early Cretaceous to a maximum in the early Late Cretaceous for northern South America (Venezuela to Peru). In southern South America, however, the area covered by the marine advances decreased from a maximum in the Early Cretaceous to a minimum during mid-Cretaceous time, followed by a widespread advance at the end of the period. A series of unconformity-bounded depositional cycles was recognized in these sequences: five cycles in northern South America, and six (but not exactly equivalent) cycles in the Cretaceous back-arc basins of southern South America (Neuquén and Austral, or Magallanes, Basins). Both widespread anoxic facies and maximum flooding of the continent in northern South America coincide in general terms with recognized global trends, but this is not the case in southern South America. Here, anoxic facies are restricted to the Lower Cretaceous and seem to be controlled by local aspects of the basin evolution and configuration. The contrasts observed between northern and southern South America can be explained by differences in tectonic setting and evolution. To the north, sediments were deposited around the tectonically stable Guayana-Brazilian Massifs, and thus registered global "signals" such as anoxic events and major eustatic changes. The southern portion of the continent, on the contrary, developed in an active tectonic setting. Here, the mid-Cretaceous Peruvian Orogeny overprinted, to a large extent, world-wide trends and only the earliest and latest Cretaceous conform to global depositional patterns.

  1. Variability in warm-season atmospheric circulation and precipitation patterns over subtropical South America: relationships between the South Atlantic convergence zone and large-scale organized convection over the La Plata basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattingly, Kyle S.; Mote, Thomas L.

    2017-01-01

    Warm-season precipitation variability over subtropical South America is characterized by an inverse relationship between the South Atlantic convergence zone (SACZ) and precipitation over the central and western La Plata basin of southeastern South America. This study extends the analysis of this "South American Seesaw" precipitation dipole to relationships between the SACZ and large, long-lived mesoscale convective systems (LLCSs) over the La Plata basin. By classifying SACZ events into distinct continental and oceanic categories and building a logistic regression model that relates LLCS activity across the region to continental and oceanic SACZ precipitation, a detailed account of spatial variability in the out-of-phase coupling between the SACZ and large-scale organized convection over the La Plata basin is provided. Enhanced precipitation in the continental SACZ is found to result in increased LLCS activity over northern, northeastern, and western sections of the La Plata basin, in association with poleward atmospheric moisture flux from the Amazon basin toward these regions, and a decrease in the probability of LLCS occurrence over the southeastern La Plata basin. Increased oceanic SACZ precipitation, however, was strongly related to reduced atmospheric moisture and decreased probability of LLCS occurrence over nearly the entire La Plata basin. These results suggest that continental SACZ activity and large-scale organized convection over the northern and eastern sections of the La Plata basin are closely tied to atmospheric moisture transport from the Amazon basin, while the warm coastal Brazil Current may also play an important role as an evaporative moisture source for LLCSs over the central and western La Plata basin.

  2. Breaking away to South America

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2011-01-01

    In December 2010, Peter Dreesen of CERN’s Technology Department (TE) returned from a long trip to South America. In four months he traversed the entire Andean range, from the equator to a latitude of 55 degrees south—on a bicycle!   Peter Dreesen on the Salar de Uyuni Lake, Bolivia. 11 000 kilometres is one long bike ride! And yet, that’s what Peter Dreesen did, travelling from Quito, Ecuador to Ushuaia, Argentina. Peter, an engineer in the TE Department, is no novice: the year before, he cycled from Paris to Peking, a distance of 13 500 kilometres, in just over four months. His latest voyage began last August, when he loaded his bicycle and boarded a plane for South America. In the saddle. After a week of acclimatisation at three thousand metres altitude, Peter left Quito on 6 August 2010. He arrived in Ushuaia (el fin del mundo, the end of the world, as it’s known in South America) on 12 December 2010. He recounts: “It was a bizarre sensation...

  3. Vertebrate endemism in south-eastern Africa numerically redefines a biodiversity hotspot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Sandun J; ProcheŞ, Şerban; Ratnayake-Perera, Dayani; Ramdhani, Syd

    2018-02-20

    We use numerical methods to explore patterns of vertebrate endemism in south-eastern Africa, refining the boundaries of the intuitively-defined Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany biodiversity hotspot, also proposing a zoogeographic regionalisation. An incidence matrix of 300 vertebrate species endemic to south-eastern Africa sensu lato in 37 operational geographic units were used in (a) phenetic cluster analysis (PCA) using the algorithm of unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averages (phenetic approach), and (b) parsimony analysis of endemicity (PAE; parsimony approach), in order to numerically evaluate the bioregional delimitations. The analyses provide a valid biogeographical entity 37% larger than the Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany hotspot, but substantially (131%) higher in vertebrate endemicity viz. the Greater Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany (GMPA) region of vertebrate endemism. South-east Africa is recognised as a dominion in the global zoogeographical area hierarchy, with subordinate units including the GMPA province. Various spatially-based measures of endemism were mapped for vertebrate species restricted to the dominion, i.e. endemic to south-eastern Africa sensu stricto. Areas and centres of endemism detected respectively from PAE and PCA, within the south-east Africa dominion also support the refined boundary of the GMPA region of endemism, which provides a better spatial conservation priority compared to the Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany hotspot. Reptiles and amphibians are found to be the main drivers of the overall pattern of endemism, while the pattern in freshwater fish is the most distinctive. Our analyses also indicate a good congruence of the centres of endemism across different terrestrial vertebrate taxa.

  4. Fish biodiversity and conservation in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, R E; Albert, J S; Di Dario, F; Mincarone, M M; Petry, P; Rocha, L A

    2016-07-01

    The freshwater and marine fish faunas of South America are the most diverse on Earth, with current species richness estimates standing above 9100 species. In addition, over the last decade at least 100 species were described every year. There are currently about 5160 freshwater fish species, and the estimate for the freshwater fish fauna alone points to a final diversity between 8000 and 9000 species. South America also has c. 4000 species of marine fishes. The mega-diverse fish faunas of South America evolved over a period of >100 million years, with most lineages tracing origins to Gondwana and the adjacent Tethys Sea. This high diversity was in part maintained by escaping the mass extinctions and biotic turnovers associated with Cenozoic climate cooling, the formation of boreal and temperate zones at high latitudes and aridification in many places at equatorial latitudes. The fresh waters of the continent are divided into 13 basin complexes, large basins consolidated as a single unit plus historically connected adjacent coastal drainages, and smaller coastal basins grouped together on the basis of biogeographic criteria. Species diversity, endemism, noteworthy groups and state of knowledge of each basin complex are described. Marine habitats around South America, both coastal and oceanic, are also described in terms of fish diversity, endemism and state of knowledge. Because of extensive land use changes, hydroelectric damming, water divergence for irrigation, urbanization, sedimentation and overfishing 4-10% of all fish species in South America face some degree of extinction risk, mainly due to habitat loss and degradation. These figures suggest that the conservation status of South American freshwater fish faunas is better than in most other regions of the world, but the marine fishes are as threatened as elsewhere. Conserving the remarkable aquatic habitats and fishes of South America is a growing challenge in face of the rapid anthropogenic changes of the 21

  5. The ‘Mycenaeans’ in the south-eastern Aegean revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eerbeek, J.

    2014-01-01

    The main subject of this dissertation is the Mycenaean archaeological evidence from the south-eastern Aegean. The term "Mycenaean" is typically used to refer to the dominant archaeological culture of the central and southern Greek mainland during the Late Bronze Age, which is dated between about

  6. Migratory Fishes of South America : Biology, Fisheries, and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Migratory Fishes of South America : Biology, Fisheries, and Conservation Status. Couverture du livre Migratory Fishes of South America : Biology, Fisheries, and Conservation Status. Directeur(s) : Joachim Carolsfield, Brian Harvey, Carmen Ross et Anton Baer. Maison(s) d'édition : World Fisheries Trust, Banque mondiale, ...

  7. Global evolution of Equidae and Gomphotheriidae from South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, José L; Alberdi, María T

    2014-08-01

    The contemporary South American mammalian communities were determined by the emergence of the Isthmus of Panama and by the profound climatic oscillations during the Pleistocene. Horses and gomphotheres were 2 very conspicuous groups of immigrant mammals from North America that arrived in South America during the Pleistocene. The present study compiles updated data on the phylogeny, systematics and ecology of both groups in South America. The horses in South America are represented by 2 genera, Hippidion and Equus, as are the gomphotheres, represented by Cuvieronius and Stegomastodon. Both genera of horses include small (Hippidion devillei, H. saldiasi, E. andium and E. insulatus) and large forms (Equus neogeus and H. principale), which dispersed into South America using 2 different routes. The possible model for this dispersion indicates that the small forms used the Andes corridor, while larger horses dispersed through the eastern route and through some coastal areas. In the case of gomphotheres, Cuvieronius and Stegomastodon reached South America in 2 independent dispersal events, and Cuvieronius dispersed across the Andean corridor, while large Stegomastodon spread along the eastern route. Horses and gomphotheres present values of δ(13) C from woodlands to C4 grasslands. Hippidion present lower values of δ(13) C than Equus in the late Pleistocene, whereas the gomphotheres diverge from value of δ(18) O, reflecting that Cuvieronius inhabited the Andean corridor and Stegomastodon dispersed through eastern plains. The gomphothere and horse species recorded in South America became extinct around the time that humans arrived. © 2013 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  8. A warm thermal enclave in the late Pleistocene of the south-eastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Dale A; Rich, Fredrick J; Schneider, Vincent; Lynch-Stieglitz, Jean

    2009-05-01

    Physical and biological evidence supports the probable existence of an enclave of relatively warm climate located between the Southern Appalachian Mountains and the Atlantic Ocean in the United States during the Last Glacial Maximum. The region supported a mosaic of forest and prairie habitats inhabited by a "Floridian" ice-age biota. Plant and vertebrate remains suggest an ecological gradient towards Cape Hatteras (35 degreesN) wherein forests tended to replace prairies, and browsing proboscideans tended to replace grazing proboscideans. Beyond 35 degreesN, warm waters of the Gulf Stream were deflected towards the central Atlantic, and a cold-facies biota replaced "Floridian" biota on the Atlantic coastal plain. Because of niche diversity and relatively benign climate, biodiversity may have been greater in the south-eastern thermal enclave than in other unglaciated areas of North America. However, the impact of terminal Pleistocene megafaunal extinctions may also have been shorter and more severe in the enclave than further north. A comparison with biotic changes that occurred in North America approximately 55 million years (ma) ago at the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum suggests that similar processes of change took place under both ice-house and greenhouse climates.

  9. A hotspot of large branchiopod diversity in south-eastern Zimbabwe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Large branchiopods are considered threatened across much of their global range. However, because several regions, including Zimbabwe in general and its south-eastern lowveld in particular, remain largely unstudied, interpretations of species distribution patterns are often based on limited data. A detailed study of large ...

  10. Alien conifer invasions in South America: short fuse burning?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Richardson, DM

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available conifers has a much shorter history in South America, and invasions are a recent phenomenon. A workshop was convened in Argentina in May 2007 to discuss the rapid emergence of problems with invasive conifers in South America. Workshop delegates agreed that...

  11. Status of radiation curing in South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado, L.D.B.; Rotta, A.C.; Petrie, I.

    2007-01-01

    In August 2006, an agreement between the Rad tech International North America and the ATBCR, the Brazillian Technical Association for Radiation cure, turns ATCBR into RadTech South America. This new institution starts with already 10 years of history and pioneering technical experience and achievements in UV and EB radiation cure. Both RadTech institutions have asserted a whole cooperation and information exchange to continue with the initial ATBCR compromise in promoting UV and EB curing technology and to make it available to professionals, enterprise and other organizations. The RadTech South America has it's headquarter at the Energy and Nuclear Research Institute, IPEN, in Sao Paulo, Brazil, from whom also gets sponsorship. (Author)

  12. Literacy in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornberger, Nancy H.

    1991-01-01

    Literacy in South America must be understood in terms of the linguistic diversity there, where only 2 of 14 nations and territories are monolingual. Oral traditions, standardization of indigenous languages, nonstandard varieties of colonial languages, bilingual education and mother tongue literacy, literacy teaching, and politics are discussed.…

  13. Gravity and magnetic modelling in the Vrancea Zone, south-eastern Carpathians: Redefinition of the edge of the East European Craton beneath the south-eastern Carpathians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bocin, A.; Stephenson, R.; Matenco, L.; Mocanu, V.

    2013-01-01

    A 2D gravity and magnetic data model has been constructed along a 71. km densely observed profile, called DACIA PLAN GRAV MAN's. The profile crosses part of the nappe pile of the south-eastern Carpathians and includes the seismically active Vrancea Zone and was acquired with the objective to

  14. Tectonic history of the southeastern North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatcher, R.D. Jr. (Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

    1993-03-01

    The present-day configuration of the crust of southeastern North America (SENA) is the product of a lengthy history traceable through more than 1 billion yr. of geologic time. The Appalachians (AP) record complete Wilson cycles of opening and closing of several oceans from ca. 690 Ma to 245 M. The final event forming the AP was the collision of SENA with Gondwana to form the supercontinent Pangaea. The Ouachitas (OA) had a somewhat different history culminating with island-arc collision during the Pennsylvanian--before the final collision began in the AP. SENA faced the open lapetos ocean no earlier than the Early Cambrian. The AP and OA were built on an earlier margin formed by rifting of the Rodonia super-continent formed by construction of the 1.2 to 1.0 Ga Grenville orogen, and farther west, a crust formed by still earlier (1.3 and 1.8 Ga) events. Recent suggestions that part of the AP platform is in Argentina raises the possibility that a fragment was rifted from between the AP and OA during the early Paleozoic. The crust beneath the Mississippi Embayment is atypical of continental crust, and would have been rifted during the Neoproterozoic and early Paleozoic. The Argentine fragment may have been removed along a transform that was reactivated several times since. Northern Pangaea was rifted during the Late Triassic and Early Jurassic and SENA once again faced open ocean-the nascent present Atlantic (AT) when spreading began. The Gulf of Mexico (GOM) also opened then forming extensive salt deposits. The AT opened partly along the old suture, but produced a failed rift in GA and FL leaving a piece of Africa forming the crust beneath the Coastal Plain as far south as central FL. The overlying sediments record recurrent uplift and decay of the AP and OA, cooling of new AT oceanic crust, eustatic sea-level changes during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic, and uplift of the Rockies providing a new source of voluminous detritus that is still being deposited in the GOM.

  15. New views on American colonization: critical tests from South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Rourke, Dennis

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional view of colonization of the Americas as a migration across Beringia and subsequent dispersal southward following the last glacial maximum is being increasingly questioned. In North America, archaeological links to Siberia are tenuous and genetic data are more consistent with an earlier entry of people into the Americas, from Central rather than Northeast Siberia. An entry of populations into the Americas prior to the last glacial maximum forces a reconsideration not only of timing, but also geographic points of entry and speed of dispersal, based on ecological theory. A number of emerging alternative hypotheses on the colonization of the Americas predict early entry and dispersal of people into South America - earlier than, or coeval with, initial dispersal in North America. The study of genetic, morphological, and archaeological variation across South America is critical to testing these new, alternative hypotheses of Native American origins. I will review the evidence for emerging, alternative views of American Colonization, and suggest ways in which data from South American populations and prehistory will be crucial in testing them.

  16. Load shedding scheme in the south/southeastern interconnected system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira Filho, Xisto; Couri, J J.G.; Gomes, P; Almeida, P C [ELETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1988-12-31

    This paper presents some characteristics of the Brazilian interconnected system and discusses the load shedding scheme in its different stages considering the beginning of operation of the Itaipu power plant. The present situation of the South and Southeastern load shedding scheme combination is also commented. Finally, the interconnected system evolution and the effects on the load shedding schemes are discussed. 4 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. The Household Costs of Visceral Leishmaniasis Care in South-eastern Nepal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uranw, S.; Meheus, F.; Baltussen, R.M.; Rijal, S.; Boelaert, M.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an important public health problem in south-eastern Nepal affecting very poor rural communities. Since 2005, Nepal is involved in a regional initiative to eliminate VL. This study assessed the economic impact of VL on households and examined

  18. Food and vices in south-eastern Nigeria: implications for poverty ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objectives include among others an examination of the nature of poverty in South-Eastern Nigeria; an investigation to ascertain whether or not, poverty results in hunger, etc. The following were the findings: Hunger seems to have ravaged our society. This is because majority of our people are poor and are unable to ...

  19. Glazed pottery of the South-Eastern Crimea from the excavations of the Tsarev settlement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iudin Nikita I.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the findings of glazed ceramics produced in the South-Eastern Crimea, and then excavated at the Tsarev settlement. Their typology, chronology and topography are being introduced by the author. On the basis of the 165 analyzed fragments and whole vessels the author suggests a 4-level classification scheme, which includes the production center, functional purpose of the items, morphological characteristics and ornamentation of the vessels. Basic types and variations of vessels’ shapes are being described according to three major chronological periods: 1. Early 1300s, 2. 1330s, 3. The second half of the 14th century. Notably, the earliest findings of ceramics dated by the first two periods were located on the South-Eastern part of the Tsarev settlement. Most of all, its are the bowls on a circular underpan lacking ornamentation and covered with green transparent glazing. Since the second half of the 14th century the vessels from the South-Eastern Crimea had been widely spread on the entire area of the settlement. The assortment of vessels’ shapes used at this time along with jars and bowls, was now widened by aftobes and apothecary amphoras.

  20. Phylodynamic analysis of avian infectious bronchitis virus in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marandino, Ana; Pereda, Ariel; Tomás, Gonzalo; Hernández, Martín; Iraola, Gregorio; Craig, María Isabel; Hernández, Diego; Banda, Alejandro; Villegas, Pedro; Panzera, Yanina; Pérez, Ruben

    2015-06-01

    Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a coronavirus of chickens that causes great economic losses to the global poultry industry. The present study focuses on South American IBVs and their genetic relationships with global strains. We obtained full-length sequences of the S1 coding region and N gene of IBV field isolates from Uruguay and Argentina, and performed Phylodynamic analysis to characterize the strains and estimate the time of the most recent common ancestor. We identified two major South American genotypes, which were here denoted South America I (SAI) and Asia/South America II (A/SAII). The SAI genotype is an exclusive South American lineage that emerged in the 1960s. The A/SAII genotype may have emerged in Asia in approximately 1995 before being introduced into South America. Both SAI and A/SAII genotype strains clearly differ from the Massachusetts strains that are included in the vaccine formulations being used in most South American countries. © 2015 The Authors.

  1. Physical fertility of degraded acid sands in South-eastern Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We evaluated the physical fertility of degraded and undegraded acid sands in Akwa Ibom State, South-eastern Nigeria. The soils were similar in texture, being predominantly sandy, averaging 90.1% in degraded and 89.9% in undegraded soil. Bulk density averaged 1.50g/cm3 and 1.45g/cm3, while macropores averaged ...

  2. Historical Biogeography of Five Characidium Fish Species: Dispersal from the Amazon Paleobasin to Southeastern South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poveda-Martínez, Daniel; Sosa, Chrystian C; Chacón-Vargas, Katherine; García-Merchán, Víctor Hugo

    2016-01-01

    Characidium is a Neotropical fish genus. Its distribution ranges from eastern Panama to northern Argentina, and it is an important component of the Neotropical ichthyofauna present in the major rivers of South America. We here provide an approximation to the dispersal and historical distributions of Characidium. The biogeographic history of five species of the genus was analyzed through nuclear RAG-2 and mitochondrial 16S genes and a time-calibrated phylogenetic analysis using three outgroup species. A biogeographical reconstruction was performed to estimate ancestral geographic ranges and infer the historical events that impacted the geographic distributions of Characidium species. Our results showed Characidium as a monophyletic group. The molecular clock suggests that the most recent common ancestor of Characidium originated during the Eocene, about 50.2 Mya. In addition, different dispersion and vicariance events could be inferred, which possibly gave rise to the present geographical distribution of the genus. Our results point to the rise of the Andean mountains and sea fluctuations as being important events in the formations and delimitation of different rivers, which influenced the distribution of South American ichthyofauna.

  3. Gravity and magnetic modelling in the Vrancea Zone, south-eastern Carpathians: Redefinition of the edge of the East European Craton beneath the south-eastern Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocin, A.; Stephenson, R.; Matenco, L.; Mocanu, V.

    2013-11-01

    A 2D gravity and magnetic data model has been constructed along a 71 km densely observed profile, called DACIA PLAN GRAV MAN's. The profile crosses part of the nappe pile of the south-eastern Carpathians and includes the seismically active Vrancea Zone and was acquired with the objective to illuminate the basement structure and affinity in this area. The modelling approach was to create an initial model from well constrained geological information, integrate it with previous seismic ray tracing and tomographic models and then alter it outside the a priori constraints in order to reach the best fit between observed and calculated potential field anomalies. The results support a realignment of the position of the TTZ (Tornquist-Teisseyre Zone), the profound tectonic boundary within Europe that separates Precambrian cratonic lithosphere of the East European Craton (EEC) from younger accreted lithosphere of Phanerozoic mobile belts to its west. The TTZ is shown to lie further to the south-west than was previously inferred within Romania, where it is largely obscured by the Carpathian nappes. The crust of the EEC beneath the south-eastern Carpathians is inferred to terminate along a major crustal structure lying just west of the Vrancea seismogenic zone. The intermediate depth seismicity of the Vrancea Zone therefore lies within the EEC lithosphere, generally supporting previously proposed models invoking delamination of cratonic lithosphere as the responsible mechanism.

  4. Geological-uraniferous favourability of South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stipanicic, P.N.

    1984-01-01

    The South American continent includes several metallogenic provinces some of which have excellent uranium possibilities. Basically, two types of lithological complex have contributed to this favourability: the large Precambrian shields covering about 5,500,000 km 2 and the crystalline Hercynian nesocratons with about 300,000 km 2 as source rocks. Only in Argentina and Brazil has continuous uranium exploration in South America been carried out, with moderate budgets, during the last twenty-five years. In the rest of South America the search for uranium has been performed intermittently and with limited resources. However, during recent years interest has increased and more continuous operation has been recorded in some countries (Bolivia, Colombia, Chile, Peru). It can be estimated that only 20% of the favourable areas have been explored fairly intensively in Argentina and Brazil, the two most advanced uraniferous countries. Nevertheless, the uranium possibilities of South America are proved by the resources of 250,000 t U already defined (in Argentina and Brazil) for the category of production cost below US $130/kg U. The speculative uranium potential of the continent was estimated by the International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project as between 770,000 and 1,500,000 t U. Within the South American geostructural framework, five main uraniferous geological areas have been defined on the basis of the geotectonic evolution of the continent, the succession of sedimentary and magmatic processes, and the participation in them of the endogenous and exogenous phases of the uranium geochemical cycle. In this paper the principal uranium metallogenic models occurring in the above five main areas are studied together with the uranium potential of each area. The possibility of uranium recovery from these sources in relation to the respective costs of production is briefly discussed

  5. The south-eastern North Sea : losses of vertebrate fauna during the past 2000 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolff, W.J.

    At least 31 species of marine mammals, marine and coastal birds, and marine and anadromous fish have disappeared temporarily or permanently from the coasts of The Netherlands and in most cases also from the south-eastern North Sea (south of 54 degrees N) during the past 2000 years-In 18-22 cases,

  6. Taxonomy of interstate conflicts: is South America a peaceful region?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tássio Franchi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This article revisits theoretical efforts to classify interstate conflicts. It analyses South America and discuss the adequacy of influential interpretations about the intensity of interstate conflicts in the region as compared to global or other regions ones. The literature takes for granted that South America is a peaceful region. Such interpretation results from the indicators adopted. We argue that traditional indicators do not fully capture latent tensions and the actual level of conflicts in the region. The article suggests an alternative taxonomy that better fits the South America context and argues that a research agenda on the extent and nature of interstate conflics is needed.

  7. West Nile virus circulation in South-Eastern Romania, 2011 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinu, S; Cotar, A I; Pănculescu-Gătej, I R; Fălcuţă, E; Prioteasa, F L; Sîrbu, A; Oprişan, G; Bădescu, D; Reiter, P; Ceianu, C S

    2015-05-21

    Lineage 2 West Nile virus (WNV), previously found only in sub-Saharan Africa and Madagascar, was identified in Hungary in 2004 and has rapidly expanded in Europe in the past decade. Following a significant outbreak of West Nile fever with neurological cases caused by lineage 1 WNV in Romania in 1996, scattered cases have been recorded in the south-east of the country in each transmission season. Another outbreak, affecting a larger area and caused by lineage 2 WNV, was recorded in 2010. We analysed human sera from neuroinvasive West Nile fever cases and mosquitoes, sampled in south-eastern Romania between 2011 and 2013, for the presence of WNV genome, and obtained partial NS5 and envelope glycoprotein sequences. Human- and mosquito-derived WNV sequences were highly similar (99%) to Volgograd 2007 lineage 2 WNV and differed from isolates previously detected in central and southern Europe. WNV was detected in one pool of Culex pipiens s.l. males, documenting vertical transmission. Lineage 4 WNV, of unknown pathogenicity to mammals, was found in the amphibian-feeding mosquito Uranotaenia unguiculata from the Danube Delta. Our results present molecular evidence for the maintenance of the same isolates of Volgograd 2007-like lineage 2 WNV in south-eastern Romania between 2011 and 2013.

  8. Economic aspects for South America energy integration; Aspectos economicos para a integracao energetica da America do Sul

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vela, Jorge Alberto Alcala; Cardozo, Fernando Simoes [ELETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Expansion of the internal market and external, production on a large scale and more dynamic economic growth would be the consequences of a regional integration in South America. However, due to the specific characteristics of South America this process did not occur. Many attempts were made through the years with the creation of institutions that tried to promote the integration of different forms of South America. This article analyses the current economic conditions in which this initiative is to achieve an energy integration, which seems feasible given the provision expresses the presidents of South American countries before a possible rationing of energy. Through analysis of the results it may be concluded that there is a growing demand for energy in all countries, which should be resolved first in order not to cut the development of South America. The main economic aspects which affect the process of integrating energy are the commercial structures of energy, the energy complementarities, the degree of development of infrastructure for interconnection, the industrial structure and conformation electric business. However, an immediate solution would be to boost bilateral integration energy projects and construction of transmission lines that interconnect the regional stations for the supply of electric energy. Moreover, as the conditions are not improved political and economic and there is no compatible models between technical institutions and legal and administrative, will not be achieved significant progress in the process of regional energy integration of South America. (author)

  9. The Paleo-Indian Entry into South America According to Mitogenomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandini, Stefania; Bergamaschi, Paola; Cerna, Marco Fernando; Gandini, Francesca; Bastaroli, Francesca; Bertolini, Emilie; Cereda, Cristina; Ferretti, Luca; Gómez-Carballa, Alberto; Battaglia, Vincenza; Salas, Antonio; Semino, Ornella; Achilli, Alessandro; Olivieri, Anna; Torroni, Antonio

    2018-02-01

    Recent and compelling archaeological evidence attests to human presence ∼14.5 ka at multiple sites in South America and a very early exploitation of extreme high-altitude Andean environments. Considering that, according to genetic evidence, human entry into North America from Beringia most likely occurred ∼16 ka, these archeological findings would imply an extremely rapid spread along the double continent. To shed light on this issue from a genetic perspective, we first completely sequenced 217 novel modern mitogenomes of Native American ancestry from the northwestern area of South America (Ecuador and Peru); we then evaluated them phylogenetically together with other available mitogenomes (430 samples, both modern and ancient) from the same geographic area and, finally, with all closely related mitogenomes from the entire double continent. We detected a large number (N = 48) of novel subhaplogroups, often branching into further subclades, belonging to two classes: those that arose in South America early after its peopling and those that instead originated in North or Central America and reached South America with the first settlers. Coalescence age estimates for these subhaplogroups provide time boundaries indicating that early Paleo-Indians probably moved from North America to the area corresponding to modern Ecuador and Peru over the short time frame of ∼1.5 ka comprised between 16.0 and 14.6 ka. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  10. Genomic Insights into the Ancestry and Demographic History of South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homburger, Julian R.; Moreno-Estrada, Andrés; Gignoux, Christopher R.; Nelson, Dominic; Sanchez, Elena; Ortiz-Tello, Patricia; Pons-Estel, Bernardo A.; Acevedo-Vasquez, Eduardo; Miranda, Pedro; Langefeld, Carl D.; Gravel, Simon; Alarcón-Riquelme, Marta E.; Bustamante, Carlos D.

    2015-01-01

    South America has a complex demographic history shaped by multiple migration and admixture events in pre- and post-colonial times. Settled over 14,000 years ago by Native Americans, South America has experienced migrations of European and African individuals, similar to other regions in the Americas. However, the timing and magnitude of these events resulted in markedly different patterns of admixture throughout Latin America. We use genome-wide SNP data for 437 admixed individuals from 5 countries (Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Chile, and Argentina) to explore the population structure and demographic history of South American Latinos. We combined these data with population reference panels from Africa, Asia, Europe and the Americas to perform global ancestry analysis and infer the subcontinental origin of the European and Native American ancestry components of the admixed individuals. By applying ancestry-specific PCA analyses we find that most of the European ancestry in South American Latinos is from the Iberian Peninsula; however, many individuals trace their ancestry back to Italy, especially within Argentina. We find a strong gradient in the Native American ancestry component of South American Latinos associated with country of origin and the geography of local indigenous populations. For example, Native American genomic segments in Peruvians show greater affinities with Andean indigenous peoples like Quechua and Aymara, whereas Native American haplotypes from Colombians tend to cluster with Amazonian and coastal tribes from northern South America. Using ancestry tract length analysis we modeled post-colonial South American migration history as the youngest in Latin America during European colonization (9–14 generations ago), with an additional strong pulse of European migration occurring between 3 and 9 generations ago. These genetic footprints can impact our understanding of population-level differences in biomedical traits and, thus, inform future medical

  11. Genomic Insights into the Ancestry and Demographic History of South America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian R Homburger

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available South America has a complex demographic history shaped by multiple migration and admixture events in pre- and post-colonial times. Settled over 14,000 years ago by Native Americans, South America has experienced migrations of European and African individuals, similar to other regions in the Americas. However, the timing and magnitude of these events resulted in markedly different patterns of admixture throughout Latin America. We use genome-wide SNP data for 437 admixed individuals from 5 countries (Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Chile, and Argentina to explore the population structure and demographic history of South American Latinos. We combined these data with population reference panels from Africa, Asia, Europe and the Americas to perform global ancestry analysis and infer the subcontinental origin of the European and Native American ancestry components of the admixed individuals. By applying ancestry-specific PCA analyses we find that most of the European ancestry in South American Latinos is from the Iberian Peninsula; however, many individuals trace their ancestry back to Italy, especially within Argentina. We find a strong gradient in the Native American ancestry component of South American Latinos associated with country of origin and the geography of local indigenous populations. For example, Native American genomic segments in Peruvians show greater affinities with Andean indigenous peoples like Quechua and Aymara, whereas Native American haplotypes from Colombians tend to cluster with Amazonian and coastal tribes from northern South America. Using ancestry tract length analysis we modeled post-colonial South American migration history as the youngest in Latin America during European colonization (9-14 generations ago, with an additional strong pulse of European migration occurring between 3 and 9 generations ago. These genetic footprints can impact our understanding of population-level differences in biomedical traits and, thus, inform

  12. Genomic Insights into the Ancestry and Demographic History of South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homburger, Julian R; Moreno-Estrada, Andrés; Gignoux, Christopher R; Nelson, Dominic; Sanchez, Elena; Ortiz-Tello, Patricia; Pons-Estel, Bernardo A; Acevedo-Vasquez, Eduardo; Miranda, Pedro; Langefeld, Carl D; Gravel, Simon; Alarcón-Riquelme, Marta E; Bustamante, Carlos D

    2015-12-01

    South America has a complex demographic history shaped by multiple migration and admixture events in pre- and post-colonial times. Settled over 14,000 years ago by Native Americans, South America has experienced migrations of European and African individuals, similar to other regions in the Americas. However, the timing and magnitude of these events resulted in markedly different patterns of admixture throughout Latin America. We use genome-wide SNP data for 437 admixed individuals from 5 countries (Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Chile, and Argentina) to explore the population structure and demographic history of South American Latinos. We combined these data with population reference panels from Africa, Asia, Europe and the Americas to perform global ancestry analysis and infer the subcontinental origin of the European and Native American ancestry components of the admixed individuals. By applying ancestry-specific PCA analyses we find that most of the European ancestry in South American Latinos is from the Iberian Peninsula; however, many individuals trace their ancestry back to Italy, especially within Argentina. We find a strong gradient in the Native American ancestry component of South American Latinos associated with country of origin and the geography of local indigenous populations. For example, Native American genomic segments in Peruvians show greater affinities with Andean indigenous peoples like Quechua and Aymara, whereas Native American haplotypes from Colombians tend to cluster with Amazonian and coastal tribes from northern South America. Using ancestry tract length analysis we modeled post-colonial South American migration history as the youngest in Latin America during European colonization (9-14 generations ago), with an additional strong pulse of European migration occurring between 3 and 9 generations ago. These genetic footprints can impact our understanding of population-level differences in biomedical traits and, thus, inform future medical

  13. Malaria in South America: a drug discovery perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Luiza R; Spangenberg, Thomas; Lacerda, Marcus V G; Wells, Timothy N C

    2013-05-24

    The challenge of controlling and eventually eradicating malaria means that new tools are urgently needed. South America's role in this fight spans both ends of the research and development spectrum: both as a continent capable of discovering and developing new medicines, and also as a continent with significant numbers of malaria patients. This article reviews the contribution of groups in the South American continent to the research and development of new medicines over the last decade. Therefore, the current situation of research targeting malaria control and eradication is discussed, including endemicity, geographical distribution, treatment, drug-resistance and diagnosis. This sets the scene for a review of efforts within South America to discover and optimize compounds with anti-malarial activity.

  14. South America, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    This image of South America was generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). For this broad view the resolution of the data was first reduced to 30 arcseconds (about 928 meters north-south but variable east-west), matching the best previously existing global digital topographic data set called GTOPO30. The data were then resampled to a Mercator projection with approximately square pixels (about one kilometer, or 0.6 miles, on each side). Even at this decreased resolution the variety of landforms comprising the South American continent is readily apparent.Topographic relief in South America is dominated by the Andes Mountains, which extend all along the Pacific Coast. These mountains are created primarily by the convergence of the Nazca and South American tectonic plates. The Nazca Plate, which underlies the eastern Pacific Ocean, slides under western South America resulting in crustal thickening, uplift, and volcanism. Another zone of plate convergence occurs along the northwestern coast of South America where the Caribbean Plate also slides under the South American Plate and forms the northeastern extension of the Andes Mountains.East of the Andes, much of northern South America drains into the Amazon River, the world's largest river in terms of both watershed area and flow volume. Topographic relief is very low in much of the Amazon Basin but SRTM data provide an excellent detailed look at the basin's three-dimensional drainage pattern, including the geologic structural trough (syncline) that hosts the eastern river channel.North of the Amazon, the Guiana Highlands commonly stand in sharp contrast to the surrounding lowlands, indeed hosting the world's tallest waterfall, Angel Falls (979 meters or 3212 feet). Folded and fractured bedrock structures are distinctive in the topographic pattern.South of the Amazon, the Brazilian Highlands show a mix of landforms, including some broad areas of consistent topographic patterns that indicate the

  15. Fossil woods of Detarioideae subfamily (Fabaceae) from El Palmar Formation (Late Pleistocene) in South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, R. Soledad; Brea, Mariana; Kröhling, Daniela M.

    2017-11-01

    The main aim of the present paper is to describe the first Detarioideae fossil woods from El Palmar Formation (Late Pleistocene) in the Uruguay River Basin (Entre Ríos, Argentina). This study is based on five silicified wood specimens preserved in fluvial deposits, which were transported from their growth site. Two new genera and species are described: Paraoxystigma concordiensis gen. nov and sp. nov. has medium-sized vessels, paratracheal axial parenchyma, heterocellular and multiseriate rays, and diffuse axial canals similar in size and shape to vessels, and Gossweilerodendroxylon palmariensis gen. nov and sp. nov. has medium-sized vessels, alternate intervessel pits, paratracheal and apotracheal axial parenchyma, homocellular and uni to-multiseriate rays, and small diffuse axial canals. These Detarioideae fossil records in south-eastern South America support the existence of a very old relationship with the extant West African forests. Eco-anatomical features observed in these fossil woods, along with the climatic information available from the Nearest Living Relatives (NLRs) comparison, suggest warm and humid climatic conditions for the upper-middle basin of the Uruguay River during some periods of the Late Pleistocene.

  16. Tree species composition in areas of Atlantic Forest in southeastern Brazil is consistent with a new system for classifying the vegetation of South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Vasconcellos Eisenlohr

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Rigorous and well-defined criteria for the classification of vegetation constitute a prerequisite for effective biodiversity conservation strategies. In 2009, a new classification system was proposed for vegetation types in extra-Andean tropical and subtropical South America. The new system expanded upon the criteria established in the existing Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics classification system. Here, we attempted to determine whether the tree species composition of the formations within the Atlantic Forest Biome of Brazil is consistent with this new classification system. We compiled floristic surveys of 394 sites in southeastern Brazil (between 15º and 25ºS; and between the Atlantic coast and 55ºW. To assess the floristic consistency of the vegetation types, we performed non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS ordination analysis, followed by multifactorial ANOVA. The vegetation types, especially in terms of their thermal regimes, elevational belts and top-tier vegetation categories, were consistently discriminated in the first NMDS axis, and all assessed attributes showed at least one significant difference in the second axis. As was expected on the basis of the theoretical background, we found that tree species composition, in the areas of Atlantic Forest studied, was highly consistent with the new system of classification. Our findings not only help solidify the position of this new classification system but also contribute to expanding the knowledge of the patterns and underlying driving forces of the distribution of vegetation in the region.

  17. Molecular phylogenetics and systematic revision of the south-eastern Australian Helicarionidae (Gastropoda, Stylommatophora)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hyman, I.T.; Iglesia Lamborena, de la I.; Köhler, F.

    2017-01-01

    The south-eastern Australian helicarionid clade currently comprises six genera of snails and semislugs united by genital characters, including an epiphallic flagellum that produces a spiraling, spinose spermatophore, the absence of an epiphallic caecum, and the presence of at most a very short

  18. Quality of life and sex-differences in a South-Eastern Nigerian stroke ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study set out to provide preliminary data on the QOL of stroke survivors in South-Eastern Nigeria and also investigate sex-differences in the QOL. Methods One hundred and three volunteering stroke survivors (53 males, 50 females) were recruited from various settings. The Stroke-Specific Quality of Life (SS-QOL) scale ...

  19. Energy security in South America and Southern Africa: synthesis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiratu, Sheila

    2011-01-01

    In developing countries, the ability to provide adequate and reliable energy supplies is a key to sustainable economic development. The aim of this report is to study the energy supply security in both Southern Africa and South America and how these regions can participate in the international effort to combat climate change. This report showed that South Africa's energy sector mostly relies on carbon intensive coal while Brazil is mainly supplied by hydroelectricity. It was found that in both countries energy needs will increase significantly due to rising demand both internally and at a regional scale. However it was also shown that both Southern Africa and South America have important hydro, solar and wind renewable resources which could enhance their electricity security while minimizing their environmental impacts. This study demonstrated that Southern Africa and South America can enhance their electricity security through the use of renewable energies but that technology and financing is needed to develop the sector.

  20. South America's energy integration overshadows Venezuela-US confrontational posture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrantes, Dayse

    2006-01-01

    Venezuela's plans of a 10 000 km gas pipeline project spanning Latin America is presented. A brief analysis of Venezuela's petroleum industry is provided. President Hugo Chavez' main ambitions include reducing oil sales to the USA and to spark South America's energy integration

  1. IAEA/WHO postal dose audits for radiotherapy hospitals in Eastern and South-Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izewska, J.; Vatnitsky, S.; Shortt, K.R.

    2004-01-01

    The IAEA/WHO TLD programme has been in operation for 34 years. In this period the calibration of approximately 5200 high-energy photon beams in over 1300 radiotherapy hospitals in 115 countries worldwide was checked. Of these, 18% of the audits were performed in Eastern and South-Eastern Europe. There are large contrasts in the region; while the results are very good for most countries, a few countries struggle with basic problems in dosimetry. The hospitals operating radiotherapy services without qualified medical physicists or dosimetry equipment have poorer results than those properly equipped and staffed. Only about 2/3 of TLD audit participants in Eastern Europe have the appropriate dosimetry equipment. To achieve consistency of the audit results within Eastern and South-Eastern Europe, strengthening of radiotherapy infrastructure in a few countries would be necessary. (authors)

  2. Analysis of late Jurassic-recent paleomagnetic data from active plate margins of South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Myrl E.

    Paleomagnetic results for rocks of late Mesozoic and Cenozoic age from South America are analyzed and interpreted. Emphasis is placed on the active margins of the continent. Some important conclusions are reached, with varying degrees of certainty: (1) The reference APW path for stable South America is fairly well defined for the Late Jurassic and Cretaceous, and is not much different from the present rotation axis. (2) The so-called "Bolivian orocline" involved counterclockwise rotations in Peru and northernmost Chile and clockwise rotations in Chile south of about latitude 18.5S. These rotations probably are a result of in situ small-block rotations in response to shear, not actual oroclinal bending. (3) The Bonaire block of northern Venezuela and Colombia has been rotated clockwise relative to the stable interior of South America by about 90°. It also seems to have drifted northward relative to the craton by as much as 1600 km. It probably represents a true accreted terrane, one of very few recognized in South America so far. (4) The "Magellanes orocline" at the southern tip of South America apparently involves some counterclockwise rotation of paleomagnetic vectors, but this too is probably the result of distributed shear. (5) Tectonic processes have very thoroughly "rearranged" the rocks making up the active margins of South America. "Rearrange" here denotes displacement of crustal blocks relative to their surroundings, without significant internal deformation By analogy with North America "rearrangement" might entail in situ block rotation, translation of crustal blocks along the continental margin, and accretion of exotic "tectonostratigraphic terranes". However, in western South America "rearrangement" seems to have consisted dominantly of block rotations that were essentially in situ. For the parts of the Andes investigated so far, late Mesozoic and Cenozoic accretion of exotic terranes and large-scale translation of crustal slivers, as found in western

  3. PROCSEE: Policy Challenges for Professional Higher Education in Central and South-Eastern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Policnik, Jasmina; Sauli Miklavcic, Alicia Leonor; Alupei-Durach, Flavia; Nožica, Žarko; Chrást, Ondrej; Voldánová, Iva; Karpíšek, Michal; Dinya, László; Medve, Anna; Wéber, György; Racsko, Réka; Perényi, Petra; Camilleri, Anthony F.

    2016-01-01

    PROCSEE is a policy-oriented project, aimed at strengthening the provision of professional higher education, by strengthening the policy-work conducted by umbrella organizations representing professional higher education institutions in Central and South-Eastern in Europe. Working together over three years, the project intends to: (1) identify the…

  4. LEONA for TLE and HEET Research in South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    São Sabbas, F.; Souza, J. R. D.; Guerra, E. M.; Filho, A. C. J.; Galvão, R. M. O.; Branco, R.; Kherani, E. A.; Naccarato, K. P.; Federico, C. A.; Pazianotto, M. T.; Gatto, R. C.; Cisotto, M. V.; Brito, A. F. D.; Fontes, N. R.; Camargo, I. H.; Silva, A. L. G. D.

    2017-12-01

    In 2014 the core of LEONA, which is the "Transient Luminous Event and Thunderstorm High Energy Emission Collaborative Network in Latin America", was established in Brazil with 4 ground stations equipped to perform Transient Luminous Events - TLEs. This year a neutron detector was also installed to collect data on neutron flashes produced by lightning and thunderstorms themselves. Neutrons are one of the several types of High Energy Emissions from Thunderstorms - HEETs. The TLE stations are operated remotely via internet, by users logged in LEONA website, and the HEET station is continuously and automatically operated. Now a proposal to expand LEONA to have 12 TLE ground stations, 2 HEET ground stations (for neutrons, gamma and X rays) and 1 HEET mobile station (for gamma and X rays) is currently under evaluation by the Brazilian São Paulo Research Foundation - FAPESP, and if funded will start to be carried out in early 2018. The expanded version of LEONA will cover the Central Region of South America, including Southeast and Southern Brazil, Northern Argentina, Paraguay and Uruguay, which compose the most electrically active Region of South America. It will also have one TLE station in the Amazon and Northeast Regions of Brazil. South America is one of the most active thunderstorm regions of the world, with extremely large and long lived thunderstorms. Due to the South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly - SAMA, covering most of its territory, scientific satellites routinely turn off their equipment while flying over South America, therefore a ground network like LEONA is the only way to make consistent long term measurements of TLEs and HEET in this important region of the world. This paper will present LEONA in detail, its current operational status and its expansion plan over the next 4 years. It will also highlight the main results of the different TLE observations performed from Brazil up to date by the Atmospheric and Space Electrodynamical Coupling - ACATMOS group at

  5. Public Integrity and Performance of Governance. A Comparative Study for South-Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucica Matei

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The studies concerning the impact of corruption on the effectiveness of governance are numerous, valorising profound approaches, based on criteria and standards related to good governance, organizational behaviour.The concepts and mechanisms specific for econometrics and statistics provide the quantitative support for qualitative analyses, substantiating public policies, in view to assure effectiveness in performance measurement.For all South-Eastern European countries, the level of development and social organization determines specific ethical behaviours. In this context, the current paper aims a comparative economic and social evaluation of the correlations between corruption, performance and economic freedom in South-Eastern European countries, including Romania.The working hypotheses turn into consideration the following issues:- corruption holds national specific character and the statistic, econometric or sociologic analyses reveal that it is stable during the time;- an effective governance leads to increasing the citizens’ welfare;- if a country is poor and the economic freedom is reduced than the bureaucratic and political system tends to be more corrupted;- the perspective of accession into the EU has led to the perception concerning the reduction of the corruption level.The above hypotheses will be completed and we shall achieve comparative analyses, relevant for the group of South-Eastern European countries. The above quantitative analyses will use both own results of the researches carried out by the authors and public results of World Bank, Transparency International and Heritage Foundation, as well as results of authorities responsible for national statistics. The comparative research is achieved on a 10 years period, comprising also the moment of accession into the European Union for some states.

  6. Extensiveness and Effectiveness of Corporate Governance Regulations in South-Eastern Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Bobirca; Paul-Gabriel Miclaus

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the article is to illustrate the main characteristics of the corporate governance challenge facing the countries of South-Eastern Europe (SEE) and to subsequently determine and assess the extensiveness and effectiveness of corporate governance regulations in these countries. Therefore, we start with an overview on the subject of the key problems of corporate governance in transition. We then address the issue of corporate governance measurement for SEE coun...

  7. Genetic diversity and occurrence of the F129L substitutions among isolates of Alternaria solani in south-eastern Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odilbekov, Firuz; Edin, Eva; Garkava-Gustavsson, Larisa; Hovmalm, Helena Persson; Liljeroth, Erland

    2016-01-01

    Early blight, caused by the fungus Alternaria solani, occurs on potato mainly in the south-eastern part of Sweden, but also in other parts of the country. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic diversity of A. solani populations from different potato growing regions in south-eastern Sweden using AFLP marker analysis. In addition, the cultured isolates were examined for substitutions in the gene encoding cytochrome b , associated with loss of sensitivity against QoI fungicides. Nei's gene diversity index for the Swedish populations of A. solani revealed a gene diversity of up to 0.20. Also genetic differentiation was observed among populations of A. solani from different locations in south-eastern Sweden. The mitochondrial genotype of the isolates of A. solani was determined and both known genotypes, GI (genotype 1) and GII (genotype 2), were found among the isolates. The occurrence of the F129L substitution associated with a loss of sensitivity to strobilurins was confirmed among the GII isolates. In vitro conidial germination tests verified that isolates containing the F129L substitution had reduced sensitivity to azoxystrobin and, at a lower extent, to pyraclostrobin. Genetic diversity was relatively high among isolates of A. solani in south-eastern part of Sweden. F129L substitutions, leading to reduced sensitivity to strobilurins, have been established in field populations, which may have implications for the future efficacy of QoI fungicides.

  8. Southeast Asia-South America interregionalism: a complement to bilateralism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Florencia Rubiolo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Inter-state relations between the countries of South America and Southeast Asia (SEA have blossomed in the past 15 years, arousing the interest of a growing number of academics. Their interregional relations, on the other hand, have been less well examined, due, probably, to the fact that their development remains incipient, as well as sporadic and poorly institutionalised. The starting point for this work is the premise that in the case of non-central regions this level of connection complements and works as a feedback mechanism for bilateral links and encourages State-State, State-region and region-region rapprochement. It introduces notions of South American regionalism and centres on concepts related to non-triadic interregionalism in the initiatives between South America and SEA since 1999.

  9. Future hydroclimatological changes in South America based on an ensemble of regional climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaninelli, Pablo G.; Menéndez, Claudio G.; Falco, Magdalena; López-Franca, Noelia; Carril, Andrea F.

    2018-05-01

    Changes between two time slices (1961-1990 and 2071-2100) in hydroclimatological conditions for South America have been examined using an ensemble of regional climate models. Annual mean precipitation (P), evapotranspiration (E) and potential evapotranspiration (EP) are jointly considered through the balances of land water and energy. Drying or wetting conditions, associated with changes in land water availability and atmospheric demand, are analysed in the Budyko space. The water supply limit (E limited by P) is exceeded at about 2% of the grid points, while the energy limit to evapotranspiration (E = EP) is overall valid. Most of the continent, except for the southeast and some coastal areas, presents a shift toward drier conditions related to a decrease in water availability (the evaporation rate E/P increases) and, mostly over much of Brazil, to an increase in the aridity index (V = EP/P). These changes suggest less humid conditions with decreasing surface runoff over Amazonia and the Brazilian Highlands. In contrast, Argentina and the coasts of Ecuador and Peru are characterized by a tendency toward wetter conditions associated with an increase of water availability and a decrease of aridity index, primarily due to P increasing faster than both E and EP. This trend towards wetter soil conditions suggest that the chances of having larger periods of flooding and enhanced river discharges would increase over parts of southeastern South America. Interannual variability increases with V (for a given time slice) and with climate change (for a given aridity regimen). There are opposite interannual variability responses to the cliamte change in Argentina and Brazil by which the variability increases over the Brazilian Highlands and decreases in central-eastern Argentina.

  10. Central and South America GPS geodesy - CASA Uno

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, James N.; Dixon, Timothy H.

    1990-01-01

    In January 1988, scientists from over 25 organizations in 13 countries and territories cooperated in the largest GPS campaign in the world to date. A total of 43 GPS receivers collected approximately 590 station-days of data in American Samoa, Australia, Canada, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, New Zealand, Norway, Panama, Sweden, United States, West Germany, and Venezuela. The experiment was entitled CASA Uno. Scientific goals of the project include measurements of strain in the northern Andes, subduction rates for the Cocos and Nazca plates beneath Central and South America, and relative motion between the Caribbean plate and South America. A second set of measurements are planned in 1991 and should provide preliminary estimates of crustal deformation and plate motion rates in the region.

  11. Evaluating uncertainties in regional climate simulations over South America at the seasonal scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solman, Silvina A. [Centro de Investigaciones del Mar y la Atmosfera CIMA/CONICET-UBA, DCAO/FCEN, UMI-IFAECI/CNRS, CIMA-Ciudad Universitaria, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Pessacg, Natalia L. [Centro Nacional Patagonico (CONICET), Puerto Madryn, Chubut (Argentina)

    2012-07-15

    This work focuses on the evaluation of different sources of uncertainty affecting regional climate simulations over South America at the seasonal scale, using the MM5 model. The simulations cover a 3-month period for the austral spring season. Several four-member ensembles were performed in order to quantify the uncertainty due to: the internal variability; the definition of the regional model domain; the choice of physical parameterizations and the selection of physical parameters within a particular cumulus scheme. The uncertainty was measured by means of the spread among individual members of each ensemble during the integration period. Results show that the internal variability, triggered by differences in the initial conditions, represents the lowest level of uncertainty for every variable analyzed. The geographic distribution of the spread among ensemble members depends on the variable: for precipitation and temperature the largest spread is found over tropical South America while for the mean sea level pressure the largest spread is located over the southeastern Atlantic Ocean, where large synoptic-scale activity occurs. Using nudging techniques to ingest the boundary conditions reduces dramatically the internal variability. The uncertainty due to the domain choice displays a similar spatial pattern compared with the internal variability, except for the mean sea level pressure field, though its magnitude is larger all over the model domain for every variable. The largest spread among ensemble members is found for the ensemble in which different combinations of physical parameterizations are selected. The perturbed physics ensemble produces a level of uncertainty slightly larger than the internal variability. This study suggests that no matter what the source of uncertainty is, the geographical distribution of the spread among members of the ensembles is invariant, particularly for precipitation and temperature. (orig.)

  12. Domestication and human demographic history in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, S Ivan; Postillone, María Bárbara; Rindel, Diego

    2017-05-01

    The early groups of hunter-gatherers who peopled South America faced significant ecological changes in their trophic niche for a relatively short period after the initial peopling. In particular, the incorporation of cultigens during the Holocene led to a wider trophic niche and probably to an increased carrying capacity of the environment. Here, we study the relationship between the incorporation of domestic resources during the Holocene and the demographic dynamics of human populations at a regional scale in South America. We employ mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), radiocarbon data and Bayesian methods to estimate differences in population size, human occupation and explore the demographic changes of human populations in three regions (i.e., South-Central Andes, Northwest, and South Patagonia). We also use archaeological evidence to infer the main diet changes in these regions. The absolute population size during the later Late Holocene was fifteen times larger in the South-Central Andes than in Northwest Patagonia, and two times larger in the latter region than in South Patagonia. The South-Central Andes display the earlier and more abrupt population growth, beginning about 9000 years BP, whereas Northwest Patagonia exhibits a more slow growth, beginning about 7000-7500 years BP. South Patagonia represents a later and slower population increase. In this work we uncovered a well-supported pattern of the demographic change in the populations from South-Central Andes and Patagonia, obtained on the basis of different data and quantitative approaches, which suggests that the incorporation of domestic resources was paramount for the demographic expansion of these populations during the Holocene. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Conservation of placentation during the tertiary radiation of mammals in South America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Anthony Michael; Mess, Andrea Maria

    2013-01-01

    The eutherian placenta is considered to possess great plasticity, but it is not clear how this variation reflects adaptation to different ecological niches. Because South America was isolated for most of the Tertiary, it represents a natural laboratory to examine this question. We here describe...... placentation in three South American groups: Xenarthra have been part of the fauna from at least the mid-Paleocene whereas caviomorph rodents and Neotropical primates are each derived from a single founder that reached South America in the Eocene and Oligocene, respectively. The common ancestor of Xenarthra....... This pattern was present before arrival of these rodents in South America and enabled a successful radiation especially during the spread of grasslands. Neotropical primates have haemochorial, trabecular placentas with a specialized maternal blood supply; a pattern that contrasts with that of Old World monkeys...

  14. Water reuse in South America: A Chilean study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piero, M.D.

    1998-07-01

    The driest desert in the western hemisphere is the source of the largest and most lucrative copper mining and processing business in South America. The newest, most explosive capitalist economy in South America is fueled by an industry whose ancient water supply is on the verge of collapse. Farther south, a textbook example of 1950's industrial pollution continues to be dumped in the Bio Bio River, the water supply of the country's third largest city. In the temperate Central Valley, public health advisories regularly warn consumers against consuming vegetables irrigated with river water containing raw sewage. In the warm summer months, hepatitis and cholera epidemics are frequent and deadly. In the last 5 years, these areas have initiated major sewage treatment plant and system improvements with significant reuse components. The technologies and reuse applications of reclaimed water that are now being used in Chile are being monitored and evaluated by Peru, Argentina, and Brazil. Major efforts at environmental cleanups are now being combined with new strategies to sue reclaimed water to meet the needs of South American in the 21st century.

  15. Lynch syndrome in South America: past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccaro, Carlos A; Sarroca, Carlos; Rossi, Benedito; Lopez-Kostner, Francisco; Dominguez, Mev; Calo, Natalia Causada; Cutait, Raul; Valle, Adriana Della; Nuñez, Lina; Neffa, Florencia; Alvarez, Karin; Gonzalez, Maria Laura; Kalfayan, Pablo; Lynch, Henry T; Church, James

    2016-07-01

    After decades of unawareness about Lynch syndrome, the medical community in South America is increasingly interested and informed. The visits and support of mentors like H. T. Lynch had been crucial to this awakening. Several countries have at least one registry with skilled personnel in genetic counseling and research. However, this only represents a very restricted resource for the region. According to the GETH, there are 27 hereditary cancer care centers in South America (21 in Brazil, 3 in Argentina, 1 in Uruguay, 1 in Chile and 1 in Peru). These registries differ in fundamental aspects of function, capabilities and funding, but are able to conduct high quality clinical, research and educational activities due to the dedication and personal effort of their members, and organizational support. More support from the governments as well as the participation of the community would boost the initiatives of people leading these groups. Meantime, the collaboration among the South American registries and the involvement of registries and leaders from developed countries will allow to maximize the efficiency in caring for affected patients and their families. The aim of this article is to describe how the knowledge of LS began to be spread in South America, how the first registries were organized and to summarize the current state of progress. In addition, we will provide an update of the clinical and molecular findings in the region.

  16. Tuberculosis among transhumant pastoralist and settled communities of south-eastern Mauritania

    OpenAIRE

    L?, Aissata; Tall-Dia, Anta; Bonfoh, Bassirou; Schelling, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Background: Transhumant pastoralists of Mauritania were assumed to have a high prevalence of tuberculosis (TB) because of reduced access to diagnostic testing. No population-based survey on TB has been published for Mauritania.Objective: The goal of this study was to estimate the prevalence of presumptive TB cases among mobile pastoralists and villagers in a remote zone of Mauritania.Design: In the south-eastern province of Hodh Ech Chargui, 250 adult pastoralists and 250 villagers were rando...

  17. The palms of South America: diversity, distribution and evolutionary history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Christophe Pintaud

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an inventory of South American palms including 457 species and 50 genera. The distribution of palms within seven phytogeographical entities is analyzed. Factors which influence the evolution of palms in South America are discussed.

  18. Conservation of placentation during the tertiary radiation of mammals in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Anthony Michael; Mess, Andrea Maria

    2013-05-01

    The eutherian placenta is considered to possess great plasticity, but it is not clear how this variation reflects adaptation to different ecological niches. Because South America was isolated for most of the Tertiary, it represents a natural laboratory to examine this question. We here describe placentation in three South American groups: Xenarthra have been part of the fauna from at least the mid-Paleocene whereas caviomorph rodents and Neotropical primates are each derived from a single founder that reached South America in the Eocene and Oligocene, respectively. The common ancestor of Xenarthra had a villous, haemochorial placenta, from which the labyrinthine, endotheliochorial placenta of sloths later evolved. Placentation in Caviomorpha follows an extraordinary stable pattern, characterized by a haemomonochorial, labyrinthine and highly lobed structure with specialized growing areas. This pattern was present before arrival of these rodents in South America and enabled a successful radiation especially during the spread of grasslands. Neotropical primates have haemochorial, trabecular placentas with a specialized maternal blood supply; a pattern that contrasts with that of Old World monkeys and may have been present in the founder generation on arrival in South America. In conclusion, there is a dichotomy within Xenarthra but otherwise the ancient South American mammals do not show much variation in principal placental characters. Thus, the successful radiation of these three groups, and their adaptation to diverse ecological niches, did not require substantial alterations in placentation. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Highly specialized mammalian skulls from the Late Cretaceous of South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rougier, Guillermo W; Apesteguía, Sebastián; Gaetano, Leandro C

    2011-11-02

    Dryolestoids are an extinct mammalian group belonging to the lineage leading to modern marsupials and placentals. Dryolestoids are known by teeth and jaws from the Jurassic period of North America and Europe, but they thrived in South America up to the end of the Mesozoic era and survived to the beginnings of the Cenozoic. Isolated teeth and jaws from the latest Cretaceous of South America provide mounting evidence that, at least in western Gondwana, dryolestoids developed into strongly endemic groups by the Late Cretaceous. However, the lack of pre-Late Cretaceous dryolestoid remains made study of their origin and early diversification intractable. Here we describe the first mammalian remains from the early Late Cretaceous of South America, including two partial skulls and jaws of a derived dryolestoid showing dental and cranial features unknown among any other group of Mesozoic mammals, such as single-rooted molars preceded by double-rooted premolars, combined with a very long muzzle, exceedingly long canines and evidence of highly specialized masticatory musculature. On one hand, the new mammal shares derived features of dryolestoids with forms from the Jurassic of Laurasia, whereas on the other hand, it is very specialized and highlights the endemic, diverse dryolestoid fauna from the Cretaceous of South America. Our specimens include only the second mammalian skull known for the Cretaceous of Gondwana, bridging a previous 60-million-year gap in the fossil record, and document the whole cranial morphology of a dryolestoid, revealing an unsuspected morphological and ecological diversity for non-tribosphenic mammals.

  20. Toward an Understanding of People Management Issues in SMEs: a South-Eastern European Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szamosi, Leslie T.; Duxbury, Linda; Higgins, Chris

    2004-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on developing an understanding, and benchmarking, human resource management HRM issues in small and medium enterprises SMEs in South-Eastern Europe. The importance of SMEs in helping transition-based economies develop is critical, but at the same time the research indicates that the movement toward westernized business…

  1. Cross-Spectrum of Wind Speed for Meso-Gamma Scales in the Upper Surface Layer over South-Eastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Milton J.; Davy, Robert J.; Russell, Christopher J.; Coppin, Peter A.

    2011-10-01

    Analytical expressions for the cross-spectrum of wind speed are developed for the stochastic simulation of wind power in south-eastern Australia. The expressions are valid for heights above the ground in the range 40-80 m, site separations of 1-30 km, and frequencies of (1/6)-3 cycles h-1. The influence of site separation distance is taken into account, as are variables that are defined for blocks of time. These variables include the mean and standard deviation of wind speed and the mean wind direction. The parameters of the model equations are determined by non-linear least-squares regression with cross-validation over 10 years of wind measurements from 84 towers in south-eastern Australia.

  2. Neurocysticercosos in South-Central America and the Indian Subcontinent: a comparative evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gagandeep Singh

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Neurocysticercosis is an important public health problem in South-Central America and South Asia. A review of the differences in epidemiological and clinical attributes of cysticercosis and taeniasis in South Central America and India, respectively, is undertaken in the present communication. Intestinal taeniasis is hyperendemic in several American countries. In comparison, the prevalence of Taenia solium infestation is lower in India. The clinical manifestations in several American neurocysticercosis series comprise epilepsy, intracranial hypertension and meningeal - racemose cysticercosis, in roughly equal proportions. An overwhelming majority of the Indian subjects present with seizures. The commonest pathological substrate of the disorder in Indian patients is the solitary parenchymal degenerating cyst. The reasons for the predominance of solitary forms in India, and of multilesional forms in South Central America are discussed. The magnitude of Taenia solium infestation and the frequency of pork consumption in a given population appear to influence the quantum of cyst load in affected individuals.

  3. Paleohydrology Reconstruction of the Tropical South America for the Past 1.6 Million Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, A. S.; Baker, P. A.; Silva, C. G.; Dwyer, G. S.; Rigsby, C. A.; Chiessi, C. M.

    2016-12-01

    The western Atlantic equatorial margin has been recognized as an important part of global climate change. It is responsible for the transfer of moisture to South America and, heat and fresh water to the northern hemisphere. It might hold answers to past and present global climate. We reconstructed the last 1.6 million years of the paleoclimatic record of the Tropical South American to assess a long period of oceanic and atmospheric variability, which still remains unknown to science. Paleoclimate reconstructions of the Tropical South American are determined on a sediment core located on the Brazilian continental slope. High-resolution XRF analyses of Fe, Ti, K and Ca are used to define the paleohydrologic evolution. Here we present elemental ratios of Ti/Ca and Fe/K, to determine variability in Tropical South America. Differences in sediment input observed on Fe/K and Ti/Ca ratios suggest periods of increased chemical weathering and precipitation. Comparison of our data with the Cariaco basin Molybdenum (Mo) records, suggests that the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) is triggering wet periods on Tropical South America, distinguishing a clear North-South anti-phase over the last 600 ka. Southward displacement of the ITCZ in the Mid-Pleistocene Transition, indicates changes in the variability mode of the ITCZ N-S excursion, modulating the precipitation over Tropical South America. We also show that extensive northward migration of Antarctic Polar Front induces a drastic change in the Tropical South America hydrological system, triggering long periods of drought, potentially driven by cooler sea surface temperature of the South Atlantic. This study is funded by Capes- IODP 38/2014 and the Duke University.

  4. Synergistic effects of drought and deforestation on the resilience of the south-eastern Amazon rainforest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staal, A.; Dekkers, S.; Hirota Magalhaes, M.; Nes, van E.H.

    2015-01-01

    The south-eastern Amazon rainforest is subject to ongoing deforestation and is expected to become drier due to climate change. Recent analyses of the distribution of tree cover in the tropics show three modes that have been interpreted as representing alternative stable states: forest, savanna and

  5. Emerging Administrations and Sustainable Development in South-Eastern Europe. Case study: Romania and Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Berceanu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Fifteen years ago, Agenda 21, the United Nations' call to action for sustainable development, envisaged that the necessary harmonization and extension of existing policies and plans would occur through the adoption of an identifiable strategy for sustainable development. Since then, sustainable development is a widely used phrase and idea and it has many different meanings and therefore provokes many different responses. The aim of the article is to explore the role of the emerging South-Eastern administrations in the sustainable development under the changes and rules imposed by the European Union pressure. We will analyze both concepts, emerging administrations and sustainable development from the perspective of system theory and we will make the link with the concept of emergence, which is utilized to research and to analyze the nature of the changes in the public administration starting from the approach of the systemic theory. The research will be focused on the states form the south-eastern Europe, thus in the case study we will make a comparison between Romania and Bulgaria, as new member states of the European Union.

  6. Introduction: seismology and earthquake engineering in Central and South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, A.F.

    1983-01-01

    Reports the state-of-the-art in seismology and earthquake engineering that is being advanced in Central and South America. Provides basic information on seismological station locations in Latin America and some of the programmes in strong-motion seismology, as well as some of the organizations involved in these activities.-from Author

  7. Is the Central America forearc sliver part of the North America plate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman-Speziale, M.

    2012-04-01

    The Central America Forearc sliver is located between the Central America volcanic arc and the Middle America trench. Several authors have suggested that the forearc is being displaced to the northwest with respect to the Caribbean plate; they point to right-lateral, normal-faulting earthquakes along the Central America volcanic arc as prime evidence of this displacement. Apparently, the forearc continues to the northwest into southeastern Mexico, although this portion of the forearc is not being displaced. I present evidence that suggests that the forearc indeed continues into southeastern Mexico and that it belongs to the North America plate. Physiographically, there is a continuity of the forearc into the Coastal plains of southeastern (Chiapas) Mexico, across the Motagua and Polochic faults. Offshore, cross-sections of the Middle America trench are similar along the mexican (Chiapas) segment, and the Central American segment. Furthermore, at the northwestern end of the coastal plain there are no compressive structures, which suggests that the coastal plain is not being displaced to the northwest. As a matter of fact, fault-plane solutions for shallow earthquakes show extension rather than compression. Shallow, interplate earthquakes along the trench show similar parameters along both segments. P-axes and earthquake slip vectors have consistent azimuths, which relate better with Cocos-North America convergence than with Cocos-Caribbean. Azimuth of T-axes for normal-faulting earthquakes also agree well with Cocos-North America convergence. Similarity in several parameters is thus found across both segments, the Chiapas coastal plain and the Central America forearc sliver proper. This suggests that both segments are continuous and probably one and the same, and belonging to the North America plate. Perhaps more properly, the forearc sliver extends into southeastern Mexico and is part of the zone of deformation associated to the Cocos-North America-Caribbean plates

  8. Field Evaluations of Topical Arthropod Repellents in North, Central, and South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    De La Rocque et al. 2011) and their spread into higher elevations of Africa, Latin America , and Asia (Epstein 2001). Dengue fever and...denguehemorrhagic fever have resurgeddramatically in Latin America (Zell 2004). In North America ,West Nile virus has impacted signiÞcantly the health and welfare of...VECTOR CONTROL, PEST MANAGEMENT, RESISTANCE, REPELLENTS Field Evaluations of Topical Arthropod Repellents in North, Central , and South America KENDRA

  9. Impact craters in South America

    CERN Document Server

    Acevedo, Rogelio Daniel; Ponce, Juan Federico; Stinco, Sergio G

    2015-01-01

    A complete and updated catalogue of impact craters and structures in South America from 2014 is presented here. Approximately eighty proven, suspected and disproven structures have been identified by several sources in this continent. All the impact sites of this large continent have been exhaustively reviewed: the proved ones, the possible ones and some very doubtful. Many sites remain without a clear geological ""in situ"" confirmation and some of them could be even rejected. Argentina and Brazil are leading the list containing almost everything detected. In Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Guyana,

  10. Potential for Conflict in South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-06-01

    34Anglo-Argentine War." 2 Dov S. Zakheim, "The South Atlantic Conflict: Strategic, Military, and Technological Lessons", in Alberto Coll and Anthony Arendt...For example, Brazil’s period of greatest military growth after the war was during the civilian qovernment or Juscelino Kubitschek (1956-61); Joao ...W. Goodman and Juan Riel, eds., Civil Military Relations in Latin America: The Military ana Fower, c. August 1987. Coll, Alberto , and Anthony Arendt

  11. Brazilian Hybrid Security in South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Duarte Villa

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Existing research on security governance in South America functions on dichotomous lines. Analysis of Brazil’s security practices is a case in point. On the one hand, scholars point out the balance of power and hegemonic institutions as the main discourse in the security practices between Brazil and its South American neighbors. On the other hand, some other emphasize the importance of democracy, cooperation on defense and security, and peaceful conflict resolution between states in the region as indicators for the emergence of a security community between Brazil and its neighbors in the South American region. The way in which multiple orders coexist is not given adequate attention in empirical research. This article seeks to overcome this dichotomy. By foregrounding Brazil’s regional security practices, particularly during the Lula and Rousseff administration, I show the hybrid and sometimes ambivalent security governance system in Brazil, where mechanisms of balance of power and security community overlap in important ways.

  12. Corallimorpharia collected during the CANCAP expeditions (1976-1986) in the south-eastern part of the North Atlantic*

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, den J.C.; Ocaña, O.; Brito, A.

    1993-01-01

    Species of Corallimorpharia collected during the CANCAP expeditions in the south-eastern part of the North Atlantic are described and discussed, altogether five species belonging to three genera of Corallimorphidae: the shallow water forms Corynactis viridis Allman, 1846, Pseudocorynactis

  13. Intravitreal Angiostrongylus cantonensis: first case report in South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Costa de Andrade

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study reports the first case of intravitreal angiostrongyliasis in South America treated with posterior worm removal via pars plana vitrectomy. This was a retrospective, observational case study. Data from medical charts, wide-field digital imaging, ocular ultrasound, and visual evoked potential studies were reviewed. A 20-month-old boy presented with eosinophilic meningitis and right eye exotropia. Polymerase chain reaction analysis of the cerebrospinal fluid showed a positive result for Angiostrongylus cantonensis. Fundus examination revealed a pale optic disc, subretinal tracks, vitreous opacities, peripheral tractional retinal detachment, and a dead worm in the vitreous cavity. The patient underwent pars plana vitrectomy with worm removal. This case report illustrates the first case of intravitreal angiostrongyliasis in South America, possibly related to the uncontrolled spread of an exotic invasive species of snail.

  14. Spatio-temporal variability of NDVI-precipitation over southernmost South America: possible linkages between climate signals and epidemics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tourre, Y M [METEO-France, Meteopole, 42 Avenue Coriolis, 31057 Toulouse Cedex 1 (France); Jarlan, L [Centre d' Etudes Spatiales de la Biosphere (CESBIO), 18 avenue Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Lacaux, J-P [Universite Paul Sabatier (UPS), Observatoire Midi Pyrenees (OMP), 12 Avenue Edouard Belin, 31400 Toulouse (France); Rotela, C H [Instituto de Altos Estudios Espaciales ' Mario Gulich' , Comision Nacional de Actividades Espaciales (CONAE), Universidad Nacional de Cordoba (Argentina); Lafaye, M [CNES, DSP/ARP/AV, 18 Avenue Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France)

    2008-10-15

    Climate-environment variability affects the rates of incidence of vector-borne and zoonotic diseases and is possibly associated with epidemics outbreaks. Over southernmost South America the joint spatio-temporal evolution of climate-environment is analyzed for the 1982-2004 period. Detailed mapping of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and rainfall variability are then compared to zones with preliminary epidemiological reports. A significant quasi-biennial signal (2.2- to 2.4-year periods, or QB) for joint NDVI-rainfall variability is revealed. From rotated EOFs, dominant NDVI patterns are partitioned according to their lead frequencies: (1) the 'QB group' (2.1-to 3-year periods) includes six modes over southern Brazil, Uruguay, northern-central Argentina (two modes), the southern Paraguay-northern Argentina border, and the Santa Cruz Province; (2) the QB1 (2.4- to 3-year periods) + quasi-quadrennial (QQ) mode over the Misiones Province; and (3) the QB2 (2.1- to 2.5-year periods) + QQ + inter-annual (IA) (3- to 7-year periods) two modes over south-eastern Argentina. Modes within the 'QB group' are positively correlated with global climate signals and SST. The Uruguayan mode is correlated with global ENSO (8-month lag) whilst the southern Entre-Rios/northern Buenos Aires provinces are correlated with central equatorial Pacific SSTs (3-month lag). The Santa Cruz (Patagonia) Province is most correlated with the Pacific South America (PSA) index and SST patterns (3-month lag) along the Antarctica circumpolar current. The spatial distribution of lead NDVI modes includes the Formosa, Misiones, Chaco and Buenos Aires provinces among others, known for being prone to vector-borne epidemics such as dengue fever, malaria, leishmaniasis (American cutaneous leishmaniasis or ACL), hantivirus, chagas and Argentine hemorrhagic fever (AHF). Some provinces also correspond to regions where lead NDVI PCs' modes are associated with high

  15. Spatio-temporal variability of NDVI-precipitation over southernmost South America: possible linkages between climate signals and epidemics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tourre, Y M [METEO-France, Meteopole, 42 Avenue Coriolis, 31057 Toulouse Cedex 1 (France); Jarlan, L [Centre d' Etudes Spatiales de la Biosphere (CESBIO), 18 avenue Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Lacaux, J-P [Universite Paul Sabatier (UPS), Observatoire Midi Pyrenees (OMP), 12 Avenue Edouard Belin, 31400 Toulouse (France); Rotela, C H [Instituto de Altos Estudios Espaciales ' Mario Gulich' , Comision Nacional de Actividades Espaciales (CONAE), Universidad Nacional de Cordoba (Argentina); Lafaye, M [CNES, DSP/ARP/AV, 18 Avenue Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France)

    2008-10-15

    Climate-environment variability affects the rates of incidence of vector-borne and zoonotic diseases and is possibly associated with epidemics outbreaks. Over southernmost South America the joint spatio-temporal evolution of climate-environment is analyzed for the 1982-2004 period. Detailed mapping of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and rainfall variability are then compared to zones with preliminary epidemiological reports. A significant quasi-biennial signal (2.2- to 2.4-year periods, or QB) for joint NDVI-rainfall variability is revealed. From rotated EOFs, dominant NDVI patterns are partitioned according to their lead frequencies: (1) the 'QB group' (2.1-to 3-year periods) includes six modes over southern Brazil, Uruguay, northern-central Argentina (two modes), the southern Paraguay-northern Argentina border, and the Santa Cruz Province; (2) the QB1 (2.4- to 3-year periods) + quasi-quadrennial (QQ) mode over the Misiones Province; and (3) the QB2 (2.1- to 2.5-year periods) + QQ + inter-annual (IA) (3- to 7-year periods) two modes over south-eastern Argentina. Modes within the 'QB group' are positively correlated with global climate signals and SST. The Uruguayan mode is correlated with global ENSO (8-month lag) whilst the southern Entre-Rios/northern Buenos Aires provinces are correlated with central equatorial Pacific SSTs (3-month lag). The Santa Cruz (Patagonia) Province is most correlated with the Pacific South America (PSA) index and SST patterns (3-month lag) along the Antarctica circumpolar current. The spatial distribution of lead NDVI modes includes the Formosa, Misiones, Chaco and Buenos Aires provinces among others, known for being prone to vector-borne epidemics such as dengue fever, malaria, leishmaniasis (American cutaneous leishmaniasis or ACL), hantivirus, chagas and Argentine hemorrhagic fever (AHF). Some provinces also correspond to regions where lead NDVI PCs' modes are associated with high-frequency climate signals such as the

  16. Spatio-temporal variability of NDVI-precipitation over southernmost South America: possible linkages between climate signals and epidemics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourre, Y. M.; Jarlan, L.; Lacaux, J.-P.; Rotela, C. H.; Lafaye, M.

    2008-10-01

    Climate-environment variability affects the rates of incidence of vector-borne and zoonotic diseases and is possibly associated with epidemics outbreaks. Over southernmost South America the joint spatio-temporal evolution of climate-environment is analyzed for the 1982-2004 period. Detailed mapping of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and rainfall variability are then compared to zones with preliminary epidemiological reports. A significant quasi-biennial signal (2.2- to 2.4-year periods, or QB) for joint NDVI-rainfall variability is revealed. From rotated EOFs, dominant NDVI patterns are partitioned according to their lead frequencies: (1) the 'QB group' (2.1-to 3-year periods) includes six modes over southern Brazil, Uruguay, northern-central Argentina (two modes), the southern Paraguay-northern Argentina border, and the Santa Cruz Province; (2) the QB1 (2.4- to 3-year periods) + quasi-quadrennial (QQ) mode over the Misiones Province; and (3) the QB2 (2.1- to 2.5-year periods) + QQ + inter-annual (IA) (3- to 7-year periods) two modes over south-eastern Argentina. Modes within the 'QB group' are positively correlated with global climate signals and SST. The Uruguayan mode is correlated with global ENSO (8-month lag) whilst the southern Entre-Rios/northern Buenos Aires provinces are correlated with central equatorial Pacific SSTs (3-month lag). The Santa Cruz (Patagonia) Province is most correlated with the Pacific South America (PSA) index and SST patterns (3-month lag) along the Antarctica circumpolar current. The spatial distribution of lead NDVI modes includes the Formosa, Misiones, Chaco and Buenos Aires provinces among others, known for being prone to vector-borne epidemics such as dengue fever, malaria, leishmaniasis (American cutaneous leishmaniasis or ACL), hantivirus, chagas and Argentine hemorrhagic fever (AHF). Some provinces also correspond to regions where lead NDVI PCs' modes are associated with high-frequency climate signals such as the

  17. Spatio-temporal variability of NDVI-precipitation over southernmost South America: possible linkages between climate signals and epidemics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tourre, Y M; Jarlan, L; Lacaux, J-P; Rotela, C H; Lafaye, M

    2008-01-01

    Climate-environment variability affects the rates of incidence of vector-borne and zoonotic diseases and is possibly associated with epidemics outbreaks. Over southernmost South America the joint spatio-temporal evolution of climate-environment is analyzed for the 1982-2004 period. Detailed mapping of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and rainfall variability are then compared to zones with preliminary epidemiological reports. A significant quasi-biennial signal (2.2- to 2.4-year periods, or QB) for joint NDVI-rainfall variability is revealed. From rotated EOFs, dominant NDVI patterns are partitioned according to their lead frequencies: (1) the 'QB group' (2.1-to 3-year periods) includes six modes over southern Brazil, Uruguay, northern-central Argentina (two modes), the southern Paraguay-northern Argentina border, and the Santa Cruz Province; (2) the QB1 (2.4- to 3-year periods) + quasi-quadrennial (QQ) mode over the Misiones Province; and (3) the QB2 (2.1- to 2.5-year periods) + QQ + inter-annual (IA) (3- to 7-year periods) two modes over south-eastern Argentina. Modes within the 'QB group' are positively correlated with global climate signals and SST. The Uruguayan mode is correlated with global ENSO (8-month lag) whilst the southern Entre-Rios/northern Buenos Aires provinces are correlated with central equatorial Pacific SSTs (3-month lag). The Santa Cruz (Patagonia) Province is most correlated with the Pacific South America (PSA) index and SST patterns (3-month lag) along the Antarctica circumpolar current. The spatial distribution of lead NDVI modes includes the Formosa, Misiones, Chaco and Buenos Aires provinces among others, known for being prone to vector-borne epidemics such as dengue fever, malaria, leishmaniasis (American cutaneous leishmaniasis or ACL), hantivirus, chagas and Argentine hemorrhagic fever (AHF). Some provinces also correspond to regions where lead NDVI PCs' modes are associated with high-frequency climate signals such as the

  18. [Ritual use of Anadenanthera seeds among South America natives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carod-Artal, F J; Vázquez Cabrera, C B

    2007-01-01

    Several South-American native societies snuff psychoactive seeds in magic-religious rituals since ancient times. To describe archeological, historical and ethnographical evidences regarding the ritual use of vilca or yopo (Anadenanthera sp). Anadenanthera seeds were used in South America 3,000 years ago. Archeological studies found vilca seeds in funerary tombs from 1,000 BC in the north of Chile and Argentina; ceramics and snuff tubes were found in San Pedro de Atacama archeological sites from the same data, and in Tiwanaku ceremonial center in Bolivian Altiplano. Today, Anadenanthera sp is used by several native groups in Orinoco basin, where is known as yopo, and in the Brazilian and Colombian Amazon. Hallucinogenic effect is due to the presence of methyl-tryptamine derivatives. Most snuff is prepared from the roasted and powdered seeds, vegetable ash and/or lime obtained from shells. Archeological and ethnographical data suggest that vilca was used and is still used by native shamans as a sacred seed in South America, due to its hallucinogenic effects.

  19. Ecosystem Demography Model: Scaling Vegetation Dynamics Across South America

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This model product contains the source code for the Ecosystem Demography Model (ED version 1.0) as well as model input and output data for a portion of South America...

  20. Molecular typing of canine distemper virus strains reveals the presence of a new genetic variant in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarute, Nicolás; Pérez, Ruben; Aldaz, Jaime; Alfieri, Amauri A; Alfieri, Alice F; Name, Daniela; Llanes, Jessika; Hernández, Martín; Francia, Lourdes; Panzera, Yanina

    2014-06-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV, Paramyxoviridae, Morbillivirus) is the causative agent of a severe infectious disease affecting terrestrial and marine carnivores worldwide. Phylogenetic relationships and the genetic variability of the hemagglutinin (H) protein and the fusion protein signal-peptide (Fsp) allow for the classification of field strains into genetic lineages. Currently, there are nine CDV lineages worldwide, two of them co-circulating in South America. Using the Fsp-coding region, we analyzed the genetic variability of strains from Uruguay, Brazil, and Ecuador, and compared them with those described previously in South America and other geographical areas. The results revealed that the Brazilian and Uruguayan strains belong to the already described South America lineage (EU1/SA1), whereas the Ecuadorian strains cluster in a new clade, here named South America 3, which may represent the third CDV lineage described in South America.

  1. Prevalence of 1691G>A FV mutation in Poland compared with that in other Central, Eastern and South-Eastern European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grażyna Adler

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The 1691G>A FV variant has been described as a common genetic risk factor in venous thromboembolism. The purpose of this study was to provide a further frequency value for 1691G>A FV in Poland and to collate summary data from Central (Poland, Czech, Slovakia, Eastern (Russia, Belarus, Ukraine and South-Eastern (Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Montenegro, Macedonia, Bulgaria European countries. For this purpose in 2007 the 1691G>A FV variant was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism from DNA collected in 2005-2006. We studied 650 subjects: 400 newborns and 250 older individuals (mean age 46.1 y from Poland and compared results with reports from other countries, as well as with the frequency trend of 845G>A HFE across South-Eastern European countries using centroid cities. From our 1691G>A FV study we identified 626 GG homozygotes, 23 GA heterozygotes, and i AA homozygote (n = 650, giving an A allele frequency of 1.9%, and a summed frequency value for Poland of 2.0% (n = 1588; the frequency in Central European countries was 3.9% (n = 4559, mostly due to the high value in the Czech Republic: 5.1% (n = 2819; the South-Eastern European countries had 2.5% (n = 2410. Among the Eastern European countries the 1691G>A FV allele frequency was 1.9% (n=791, between the South-Eastern and Eastern European countries there was no significant difference (p=0.17. We confirm that the 1691G>A FV allele frequency in Poland, as well as other countries compared, is significantly lower than that in Czech.

  2. Prevalence of 1691G>A FV mutation in Poland compared with that in other Central, Eastern and South-Eastern European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Grażyna; Clark, Jeremy S C; Loniewska, Beata; Czerska, Ewa; Salkic, Nermin N; Ciechanowicz, Andrzej

    2012-05-01

    The 1691G>A FV variant has been described as a common genetic risk factor in venous thromboembolism. The purpose of this study was to provide a further frequency value for 1691G>A FV in Poland and to collate summary data from Central (Poland, Czech, Slovakia), Eastern (Russia, Belarus, Ukraine) and South-Eastern (Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Montenegro, Macedonia, Bulgaria) European countries. For this purpose in 2007 the 1691G>A FV variant was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism from DNA collected in 2005-2006. We studied 650 subjects: 400 newborns and 250 older individuals (mean age 46.1 y) from Poland and compared results with reports from other countries, as well as with the frequency trend of 845G>A HFE across South-Eastern European countries using centroid cities. From our 1691G>A FV study we identified 626 GG homozygotes, 23 GA heterozygotes, and 1 AA homozygote (n = 650), giving an A allele frequency of 1.9%, and a summed frequency value for Poland of 2.0% (n = 1588); the frequency in Central European countries was 3.9% (n = 4559), mostly due to the high value in the Czech Republic: 5.1% (n = 2819); the South-Eastern European countries had 2.5% (n = 2410). Among the Eastern European countries the 1691G>A FV allele frequency was 1.9% (n=791), between the South-Eastern and Eastern European countries there was no significant difference (p=0.17). We confirm that the 1691G>A FV allele frequency in Poland, as well as other countries compared, is significantly lower than that in Czech.

  3. Phylogenetic evidence of a new canine distemper virus lineage among domestic dogs in Colombia, South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinal, Maria A; Díaz, Francisco J; Ruiz-Saenz, Julian

    2014-08-06

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) is a highly contagious viral disease of carnivores affecting both wild and domestic populations. The hemagglutinin gene, encoding for the attachment protein that determines viral tropism, shows high heterogeneity among strains, allowing for the distinction of ten different lineages distributed worldwide according to a geographic pattern. We obtained the sequences of the full-length H gene of 15 wild-type CDV strains circulating in domestic dog populations from the Aburrá Valley, Colombia. A phylogenetic analysis of H gene nucleotide sequences from Colombian CDV viruses along with field isolates from different geographic regions and vaccine strains was performed. Colombian wild-type viruses formed a distinct monophyletic cluster clearly separated from the previously identified wild-type and vaccine lineages, suggesting that a novel genetic variant, quite different from vaccines and other lineages, is circulating among dog populations in the Aburrá Valley. We propose naming this new lineage as "South America 3". This information indicates that there are at least three different CDV lineages circulating in domestic and wild carnivore populations in South America. The first one, renamed Europe/South America 1, circulates in Brazil and Uruguay; the second, South America 2, appears to be restricted to Argentina; and the third, South America 3, which comprises all the strains characterized in this study, may also be circulating in other northern countries of South America. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Chagas Cardiomyopathy in New Orleans and the Southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Robert C; Burak, Joshua; Tiwari, Sumit; Chakraborti, Chayan; Sander, Gary E

    2016-01-01

    Chagas disease (CD), caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, affects 6-7 million people worldwide annually, primarily in Central and South America, and >300,000 people in the United States. CD consists of acute and chronic stages. Hallmarks of acute CD include fever, myalgia, diaphoresis, hepatosplenomegaly, and myocarditis. Symptoms of chronic CD include pathologic involvement of the heart, esophagus, and colon. Myocardial involvement is identifiable by electrocardiogram and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging showing inflammation and left ventricular wall functional abnormalities. We present two cases of CD identified in a single hospital in the Southeastern United States. Case 1 presents a patient with symptoms of anginal chest pain and associated shortness of breath with myocardial involvement suggestive of ischemic infarction but normal coronary arteries. Case 2 describes a patient with no physical symptoms and echocardiogram with ejection fraction of 50% with posterolateral and anterolateral wall hypokinesis but normal coronary arteries. With a growing number of immigrants from Central and South America in the United States, it is imperative for clinicians to include CD as part of the differential diagnosis for patients presenting with heart disease who have a history of exposure to T. cruzi endemic areas.

  5. Peterjamesia circumscripta (Leight.) D. Hawksw. (Roccellaceae: Ascomycota): First record to continental South America

    OpenAIRE

    Gumboski, Emerson; Eliasaro, Sionara

    2012-01-01

    Peterjamesia circumscripta, previously known from Australia, Europe, North Africa, North and Central America, and Galapagos Islands was collected in southern Brazil. This is the first record of this species in continental South America.

  6. An Evaluation of the Predictability of Austral Summer Season Precipitation over South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Vasubandhu

    2004-03-01

    In this study predictability of austral summer seasonal precipitation over South America is investigated using a 12-yr set of a 3.5-month range (seasonal) and a 17-yr range (continuous multiannual) five-member ensemble integrations of the Center for Ocean Land Atmosphere Studies (COLA) atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM). These integrations were performed with prescribed observed sea surface temperature (SST); therefore, skill attained represents an estimate of the upper bound of the skill achievable by COLA AGCM with predicted SST. The seasonal runs outperform the multiannual model integrations both in deterministic and probabilistic skill. The simulation of the January February March (JFM) seasonal climatology of precipitation is vastly superior in the seasonal runs except over the Nordeste region where the multiannual runs show a marginal improvement. The teleconnection of the ensemble mean JFM precipitation over tropical South America with global contemporaneous observed sea surface temperature in the seasonal runs conforms more closely to observations than in the multiannual runs. Both the sets of runs clearly beat persistence in predicting the interannual precipitation anomalies over the Amazon River basin, Nordeste, South Atlantic convergence zone, and subtropical South America. However, both types of runs display poorer simulations over subtropical regions than the tropical areas of South America. The examination of probabilistic skill of precipitation supports the conclusions from deterministic skill analysis that the seasonal runs yield superior simulations than the multiannual-type runs.

  7. Characterizing Temperature Variability and Associated Large Scale Meteorological Patterns Across South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detzer, J.; Loikith, P. C.; Mechoso, C. R.; Barkhordarian, A.; Lee, H.

    2017-12-01

    South America's climate varies considerably owing to its large geographic range and diverse topographical features. Spanning the tropics to the mid-latitudes and from high peaks to tropical rainforest, the continent experiences an array of climate and weather patterns. Due to this considerable spatial extent, assessing temperature variability at the continent scale is particularly challenging. It is well documented in the literature that temperatures have been increasing across portions of South America in recent decades, and while there have been many studies that have focused on precipitation variability and change, temperature has received less scientific attention. Therefore, a more thorough understanding of the drivers of temperature variability is critical for interpreting future change. First, k-means cluster analysis is used to identify four primary modes of temperature variability across the continent, stratified by season. Next, composites of large scale meteorological patterns (LSMPs) are calculated for months assigned to each cluster. Initial results suggest that LSMPs, defined using meteorological variables such as sea level pressure (SLP), geopotential height, and wind, are able to identify synoptic scale mechanisms important for driving temperature variability at the monthly scale. Some LSMPs indicate a relationship with known recurrent modes of climate variability. For example, composites of geopotential height suggest that the Southern Annular Mode is an important, but not necessarily dominant, component of temperature variability over southern South America. This work will be extended to assess the drivers of temperature extremes across South America.

  8. Development of regional future climate change scenarios in South America using the Eta CPTEC/HadCM3 climate change projections: climatology and regional analyses for the Amazon, Sao Francisco and the Parana River basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marengo, Jose A.; Chou, Sin Chan; Alves, Lincoln M.; Pesquero, Jose F.; Soares, Wagner R.; Santos, Daniel C.; Lyra, Andre A.; Sueiro, Gustavo; Chagas, Diego J.; Gomes, Jorge L.; Bustamante, Josiane F.; Tavares, Priscila [National Institute for Space Research (INPE) Cachoeira Paulista, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Kay, Gillian; Betts, Richard [UK Met Office Hadley Centre, Exeter, Devon (United Kingdom)

    2012-05-15

    The objective of this study is to assess the climate projections over South America using the Eta-CPTEC regional model driven by four members of an ensemble of the Met Office Hadley Centre Global Coupled climate model HadCM3. The global model ensemble was run over the twenty-first century according to the SRES A1B emissions scenario, but with each member having a different climate sensitivity. The four members selected to drive the Eta-CPTEC model span the sensitivity range in the global model ensemble. The Eta-CPTEC model nested in these lateral boundary conditions was configured with a 40-km grid size and was run over 1961-1990 to represent baseline climate, and 2011-2100 to simulate possible future changes. Results presented here focus on austral summer and winter climate of 2011-2040, 2041-2070 and 2071-2100 periods, for South America and for three major river basins in Brazil. Projections of changes in upper and low-level circulation and the mean sea level pressure (SLP) fields simulate a pattern of weakening of the tropical circulation and strengthening of the subtropical circulation, marked by intensification at the surface of the Chaco Low and the subtropical highs. Strong warming (4-6 C) of continental South America increases the temperature gradient between continental South America and the South Atlantic. This leads to stronger SLP gradients between continent and oceans, and to changes in moisture transport and rainfall. Large rainfall reductions are simulated in Amazonia and Northeast Brazil (reaching up to 40%), and rainfall increases around the northern coast of Peru and Ecuador and in southeastern South America, reaching up to 30% in northern Argentina. All changes are more intense after 2040. The Precipitation-Evaporation (P-E) difference in the A1B downscaled scenario suggest water deficits and river runoff reductions in the eastern Amazon and Sao Francisco Basin, making these regions susceptible to drier conditions and droughts in the future

  9. THE STRATEGIC IMPORTANCE AND THE ACTORS OF SOUTH-EASTERN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Eduard GROSARU

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is no doubt regarding the importance that south-eastern Europe has gained over the past years in geopolitical and geostrategic terms. Due to its history and considering the changes that have taken place here after the fall of the Iron Curtain, and also as a consequence of the “hot spots” emerged here on ideological, political, economic and terrorist grounds, this part of the continent still is an area of control and interests confrontations orchestrated by the actors that provide the international affairs with a multipolar dimension. All the aforementioned factors lead to various phenomena in which individual or group interests result in regional as well as global consequences.

  10. Correlation of uranium geology between South America and Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    Acting upon the recommendation of an Advisory Group Meeting held in 1980, the IAEA organized a Working Group on the Correlation of the Uranium Geology between South America and Africa because of the tremendous geological potential for uranium and the interest showed by the Member States of the regions concerned. The report of this Working Group is now presented. The aim of this report is to provide the nuclear industry and, in particular, the countries of the region with a broad but updated outline of current development in the uranium geology and the uranium potential of Africa and South America. The scope is such that it will provide, for those not directly involved in uranium exploration in the area, a general technical summary on the regional geology and tectonics of these two continents in order that the geodynamic setting of their uranium occurrences may be correlated. With respect to the area to be covered and bearing in mind the purpose of this study, the Working Group surveyed the most relevant parts of western Gondwanaland, of which the two continents form a part. The area covered by the report extends from north of the West African Craton and the Guiana Shield to the southern end of South America and Africa; from the Amazonian Province in western Brazil and western Argentina to the central part of the West African Craton, Congo-Kasai Craton. The Andean Chain in South America and the Atlas Mountains in North Africa, which were formed by continental accretion in recent geological time and post-dated the split and drift of the two land masses, were not considered. Some of the inner portions of those cratons distant from the coastlines and for which the correlation features do not apply have also been omitted. However, certain areas of important uranium mineralization outside the main study area have been described in order to offer comparative models for future exploration elsewhere. The subject of the report is discussed under six headings: cratonic areas

  11. Natural gas commercialization in South America and its role as a regional integration factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanton, Ed; Rotte, Jooste

    1994-01-01

    This paper reviews the development of the existing natural gas businesses in various parts of the world. Lessons that have been learnt are used as pointers to assist in further development of the gas potential in South America. The healthy prospects for gas in South America are reviewed together with the provisions that are essential for gas business development in the future. (author). 1 fig

  12. Natural gas commercialization in South America and its role as a regional integration factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanton, Ed; Rotte, Jooste [Shell International Gas (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    This paper reviews the development of the existing natural gas businesses in various parts of the world. Lessons that have been learnt are used as pointers to assist in further development of the gas potential in South America. The healthy prospects for gas in South America are reviewed together with the provisions that are essential for gas business development in the future. (author). 1 fig.

  13. Greening South America, one business at a time | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-09-06

    Sep 6, 2016 ... An employee at a print shop in Peru carries a stack of paper on his head ... medium-sized businesses across South America are learning more about. ... The 48th Asian Development Bank (ADB) annual meeting was held in ...

  14. Migratory Fishes of South America: Biology, Fisheries, and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2004-01-01

    Jan 1, 2004 ... Fish species that migrate within the great rivers of South America support important local fisheries but are little known outside their native range. This book represents the first collection of the work of local scientific experts on these remarkable fish. The authors cover the Upper Paraná, Paraguay-Paraná, ...

  15. Diversification in the Andes: age and origins of South American Heliotropium lineages (Heliotropiaceae, Boraginales).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luebert, Federico; Hilger, Hartmut H; Weigend, Maximilian

    2011-10-01

    The uplift of the Andes was a major factor for plant diversification in South America and had significant effects on the climatic patterns at the continental scale. It was crucial for the formation of the arid environments in south-eastern and western South America. However, both the timing of the major stages of the Andean uplift and the onset of aridity in western South America remain controversial. In this paper we examine the hypothesis that the Andean South American groups of Heliotropium originated and diversified in response to Andean orogeny during the late Miocene and a the subsequent development of aridity. To this end, we estimate divergence times and likely biogeographical origins of the major clades in the phylogeny of Heliotropium, using both Bayesian and likelihood methods. Divergence times of all Andean clades in Heliotropium are estimated to be of late Miocene or Pliocene ages. At least three independent Andean diversification events can be recognized within Heliotropium. Timing of the diversification in the Andean lineages Heliotropium sects.Heliothamnus, Cochranea, Heliotrophytum, Hypsogenia, Plagiomeris, Platygyne clearly correspond to a rapid, late Miocene uplift of the Andes and a Pliocene development of arid environments in South America. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Saver.net lidar network in southern South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristori, Pablo; Otero, Lidia; Jin, Yoshitaka; Barja, Boris; Shimizu, Atsushi; Barbero, Albane; Salvador, Jacobo; Bali, Juan Lucas; Herrera, Milagros; Etala, Paula; Acquesta, Alejandro; Quel, Eduardo; Sugimoto, Nobuo; Mizuno, Akira

    2018-04-01

    The South American Environmental Risk Management Network (SAVER-Net) is an instrumentation network, mainly composed by lidars, to provide real-time information for atmospheric hazards and risk management purposes in South America. This lidar network have been developed since 2012 and all its sampling points are expected to be fully implemented by 2017. This paper describes the network's status and configuration, the data acquisition and processing scheme (protocols and data levels), as well as some aspects of the scientific networking in Latin American Lidar Network (LALINET). Similarly, the paper lays out future plans on the operation and integration to major international collaborative efforts.

  17. The household costs of visceral leishmaniasis care in south-eastern Nepal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surendra Uranw

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL is an important public health problem in south-eastern Nepal affecting very poor rural communities. Since 2005, Nepal is involved in a regional initiative to eliminate VL. This study assessed the economic impact of VL on households and examined whether the intensified VL control efforts induced by the government resulted in a decrease in household costs. METHODS: Between August and September 2010, a household survey was conducted among 168 patients that had been treated for VL within 12 months prior to the survey in five districts in south-eastern Nepal. We collected data on health-seeking behaviour, direct and indirect costs and coping strategies. RESULTS: The median total cost of one episode of VL was US$ 165 or 11% of annual household income. The median delay between the onset of symptoms and presentation to a qualified provider was 25 days. Once the patient presented to a qualified provider, the delay to correct diagnosis was minimal (median 3 days. Direct and indirect costs (income losses represented 47% and 53% of total costs respectively. Households used multiple strategies to cope with the cost of illness, mainly mobilizing cash/savings (71% or taking a loan (56%. CONCLUSIONS: The provision of free VL diagnosis and drugs by the Nepalese control programme has been an important policy measure to reduce the cost of VL to households. But despite the free VL drugs, the economic burden is still important for households. More effort should be put into reducing indirect costs, in particular the length of treatment, and preventing the transmission of VL through vector control.

  18. A cold pool south of Indo-Sri Lanka channel and its intrus on into the southeastern Arabian Sea during winter

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, R.R.; GirishKumar, M.S.; Ravichandran, M.; Gopalakrishna, V.V.; Pankajakshan, T.

    northwestward by the Maldives Island Chain. The resultant near-surface circulation also appears to strengthen the amplitude of the near-surface thermal inversions observed in the SouthEastern Arabian Sea (SEAS)...

  19. What Do We Know about the Development of Creativity in South America?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preiss, David D.; Grau, Valeska; Ortiz, Dominga; Bernardino, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    We review recent research about the development of creativity in South America focusing on studies of individual differences in creativity and educational and developmental studies of children and adolescents' creativity. Most South American researchers are influenced by mainstream psychometric approaches, although computational and cultural…

  20. Homologous Recombination and Xylella fastidiosa Host-Pathogen Associations in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coletta-Filho, Helvécio D; Francisco, Carolina S; Lopes, João R S; Muller, Christiane; Almeida, Rodrigo P P

    2017-03-01

    Homologous recombination affects the evolution of bacteria such as Xylella fastidiosa, a naturally competent plant pathogen that requires insect vectors for dispersal. This bacterial species is taxonomically divided into subspecies, with phylogenetic clusters within subspecies that are host specific. One subspecies, pauca, is primarily limited to South America, with the exception of recently reported strains in Europe and Costa Rica. Despite the economic importance of X. fastidiosa subsp. pauca in South America, little is known about its genetic diversity. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) has previously identified six sequence types (ST) among plant samples collected in Brazil (both subsp. pauca and multiplex). Here, we report on a survey of X. fastidiosa genetic diversity (MLST based) performed in six regions in Brazil and two in Argentina, by sampling five different plant species. In addition to the six previously reported ST, seven new subsp. pauca and two new subsp. multiplex ST were identified. The presence of subsp. multiplex in South America is considered to be the consequence of a single introduction from its native range in North America more than 80 years ago. Different phylogenetic approaches clustered the South American ST into four groups, with strains infecting citrus (subsp. pauca); coffee and olive (subsp. pauca); coffee, hibiscus, and plum (subsp. pauca); and plum (subsp. multiplex). In areas where these different genetic clusters occurred sympatrically, we found evidence of homologous recombination in the form of bidirectional allelic exchange between subspp. pauca and multiplex. In fact, the only strain of subsp. pauca isolated from a plum host had an allele that originated from subsp. multiplex. These signatures of bidirectional homologous recombination between endemic and introduced ST indicate that gene flow occurs in short evolutionary time frames in X. fastidiosa, despite the ecological isolation (i.e., host plant species) of genotypes.

  1. Catalogue of meteorites from South America

    CERN Document Server

    Acevedo, Rogelio Daniel; García, Víctor Manuel

    2014-01-01

    The first Catalogue of Meteorites from South America includes new specimens never previously reported, while doubtful cases and pseudometeorites have been deliberately omitted.The falling of these objects is a random event, but the sites where old meteorites are found tend to be focused in certain areas, e.g. in the deflation surfaces in Chile's Atacama Desert, due to favorable climate conditions and ablation processes.Our Catalogue provides basic information on each specimen like its provenance and the place where it was discovered (in geographic co-ordinates and with illustrative maps), its

  2. Groundwater intensive use and mining in south-eastern peninsular Spain: Hydrogeological, economic and social aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custodio, Emilio; Andreu-Rodes, José Miguel; Aragón, Ramón; Estrela, Teodoro; Ferrer, Javier; García-Aróstegui, José Luis; Manzano, Marisol; Rodríguez-Hernández, Luis; Sahuquillo, Andrés; Del Villar, Alberto

    2016-07-15

    Intensive groundwater development is a common circumstance in semiarid and arid areas. Often abstraction exceeds recharge, thus continuously depleting reserves. There is groundwater mining when the recovery of aquifer reserves needs more than 50years. The MASE project has been carried out to compile what is known about Spain and specifically about the south-eastern Iberian Peninsula and the Canary Islands. The objective was the synthetic analysis of available data on the hydrological, economic, managerial, social, and ethical aspects of groundwater mining. Since the mid-20th century, intensive use of groundwater in south-eastern Spain allowed extending and securing the areas with traditional surface water irrigation of cash crops and their extension to former dry lands, taking advantage of good soils and climate. This fostered a huge economic and social development. Intensive agriculture is a main activity, although tourism plays currently an increasing economic role in the coasts. Many aquifers are relatively high yielding small carbonate units where the total groundwater level drawdown may currently exceed 300m. Groundwater storage depletion is estimated about 15km(3). This volume is close to the total contribution of the Tagus-Segura water transfer, but without large investments paid for with public funds. Seawater desalination complements urban supply and part of cash crop cultivation. Reclaimed urban waste water is used for irrigation. Groundwater mining produces benefits but associated to sometimes serious economic, administrative, legal and environmental problems. The use of an exhaustible vital resource raises ethical concerns. It cannot continue under the current legal conditions. A progressive change of water use paradigm is the way out, but this is not in the mind of most water managers and politicians. The positive and negative results observed in south-eastern Spain may help to analyse other areas under similar hydrogeological conditions in a less

  3. Causal attribution of mental illness in South-Eastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikwuka, Ugo; Galbraith, Niall; Nyatanga, Lovemore

    2014-05-01

    Understanding of mental illness in sub-Saharan Africa has remained under-researched in spite of the high and increasing neuropsychiatric burden of disease in the region. This study investigated the causal beliefs that the Igbo people of south-eastern Nigeria hold about schizophrenia, with a view to establishing the extent to which the population makes psychosocial, biological and supernatural attributions. Multi-stage sampling was used to select participants (N = 200) to which questionnaires were administered. Mean comparison of the three causal models revealed a significant endorsement of supernatural causation. Logistic regressions revealed significant contributions of old age and female gender to supernatural attribution; old age, high education and Catholic religious denomination to psychosocial attributions; and high education to biological attributions. It is hoped that the findings would enlighten, augment literature and enhance mental health care service delivery.

  4. Continent at a Crossroads: Prosperity, Justice, and Security in South America

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Scott, Frances K

    2006-01-01

    This Special Bibliography Series, Number 107, "Continent at the Crossroads: Prosperity, Justice, and Security in South America," was developed by Social Sciences Bibliographer and Reference Librarian Frances K...

  5. Observations on inshore and pelagic Dolphins on the South-Eastern Cape coast of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. S Saayman

    1972-12-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence, size and seaward distribution of schools of inshore and pelagic dolphins is described for three study areas on the south-eastern Cape coast (Algoa Bay; the Tsitsikama Coastal National Park and Plettenberg Bay. Inshore dolphins {Tursiops and Sousa sp. frequented the coastline in relatively small schools whereas pelagic dolphins {Delphinus delphis and Stenella caeruleoalba occurred in very large schools far out to sea. Different ecological zones were used by Sousa for feeding and for social behaviour and maintenance activities. The frequency of occurrence of Sousa at Plettenberg Bay was not affected by seasonal fluctuations in sea surface temperatures. The role of dolphins as predators and their implication in the regulation of the ecosystem of the Tsitsikama Coastal National Park is discussed.

  6. Saver.net lidar network in southern South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristori Pablo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The South American Environmental Risk Management Network (SAVER-Net is an instrumentation network, mainly composed by lidars, to provide real-time information for atmospheric hazards and risk management purposes in South America. This lidar network have been developed since 2012 and all its sampling points are expected to be fully implemented by 2017. This paper describes the network’s status and configuration, the data acquisition and processing scheme (protocols and data levels, as well as some aspects of the scientific networking in Latin American Lidar Network (LALINET. Similarly, the paper lays out future plans on the operation and integration to major international collaborative efforts.

  7. [Power and health in South America: international sanitary conferences, 1870-1889].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Cleide de Lima

    2013-06-01

    This article analyzes the international sanitary conferences that were held in South America in 1873 and 1887, involving the Brazilian Empire and the Republics of Argentina and Uruguay, as an integral part of a series of similar events that took place in Europe and North America starting in the second half of the nineteenth century. The interests of the countries involved, namely trade relations and immigration from Europe - both directly affected by the epidemics - are discussed, and the repercussions of these sanitary agreements on the other countries in the Americas are indicated. The American health conventions in the late nineteenth century represented the first initiatives in the Americas to solve international public health problems.

  8. Agriculture, Rio Sao Francisco, Brazil, South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    The large field patterns in this view of the Rio Sao Francisco basin, Brazil, South America, (11.5S, 43.5W) indicate a commercial agriculture venture; family subsistence farms are much smaller and laid out in different patterns. Land clearing in Brazil has increased at an alarming rate in recent years and preliminary estimates suggest a 25 to 30% increase in deforestation since 1984. The long term impact on the ecological processes are still unknown.

  9. Regional simulation of interannual variability over South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, V.; Dirmeyer, P. A.; Kirtman, B. P.; Juang, H.-M. Henry; Kanamitsu, M.

    2002-08-01

    Three regional climate simulations covering the austral summer season during three contrasting phases of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation cycle were conducted with the Regional Spectral Model (RSM) developed at the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP). The simulated interannual variability of precipitation over the Amazon River Basin, the Intertropical Convergence Zone, the Pacific and Atlantic Ocean basins, and extratropical South America compare reasonably well with observations. The RSM optimally filters the peturbations about a time-varying base field, thereby enhancing the information content of the global NCEP reanalysis. The model is better than the reanalysis in reproducing the observed interannual variability of outgoing longwave radiation at both high frequencies (3-30 days) and intraseasonal (30-60 days) scales. The low-level jet shows a peak in its speed in 1998 and a minimum in the 1999 simulations. The lag correlation of the jet index with convection over various areas in continental South America indicates that the jet induces precipitation over the Pampas region downstream. A detailed moisture budget was conducted over various subregions. This budget reveals that moisture flux convergence determines most of the interannual variability of precipitation over the Amazon Basin, the Atlantic Intertropical Convergence Zone, and the Nordeste region of Brazil. However, both surface evaporation and surface moisture flux convergence were found to be critical in determining the interannual variability of precipitation over the southern Pampas, Gran Chaco area, and the South Atlantic Convergence Zone.

  10. Deep-water chaunacid and lophiid anglerfishes (Pisces: Lophiiformes) off the south-eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, John H.; Ross, Steve W.; Sulak, K.J.; Sedberry, G.R.

    2007-01-01

    Recent research cruises to deep (80-910 m) reef habitats off the south-eastern U.S. and in the northern Gulf of Mexico have provided new information on the diagnostic characteristics, behaviours, colour patterns in life, bottom associations, distributions and maximum sizes of species of the anglerfish genera Chaunax, Lophiodes and Sladenia. Chaunax stigmaeus occurred much further south than previously known (Blake Plateau off South Carolina), and all C. stigmaeus observed were found associated with dense beds of dead coral (Lophelia pertusa) rubble or on broken hard bottom. In contrast, Chaunax suttkusi was found on soft bottoms. Chaunax stigmaeus and C. suttkusi appear to be sympatric over a major portion of their ranges. Because knowledge of pigmentation in live or freshly caught Chaunax is critical to distinguish some members of the genus, changes in the colouration of C. suttkusi were noted and documented photographically immediately after death and after fixation. The yellow spots found on some, but not all specimens, temporarily disappeared completely after death, but they reappeared after fixation, slowly disappearing thereafter along with other carotenoid pigments. Lophiodes beroe and Lophiodes monodi were collected for the first time off the Atlantic coast of the U.S., being previously known only from the Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean Sea and the northern coast of South America. For both species (L. beroe and L. monodi), the collections included the two largest known representatives of the species (400 and 325 mm standard length, respectively). Lophiodes beroe commonly occurred on L. pertusa rubble, and seemed to prefer this habitat. Occupying such a habitat that is deep and difficult to sample probably explains how this common species escaped detection. Only a single L. monodi was collected or observed, so this species appears to be uncommon in this geographic area or at least so on coral rubble habitat. Detailed aspects of the colour patterns of both species

  11. Living in South America. Young Discovery Library: No. 28.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry-Biabaud, Chantal

    Part of an international series of amply illustrated, colorful, small-sized books for children ages 5 to 10, this volume is designed to enhance learning and serve as an educational resource. The history, geography, customs, people, flora, and fauna of the countries of South America are described. Illustrations appear throughout the book. (DB)

  12. Eocene primates of South America and the African origins of New World monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Mariano; Tejedor, Marcelo F.; Campbell, Kenneth E.; Chornogubsky, Laura; Novo, Nelson; Goin, Francisco

    2015-04-01

    The platyrrhine primates, or New World monkeys, are immigrant mammals whose fossil record comes from Tertiary and Quaternary sediments of South America and the Caribbean Greater Antilles. The time and place of platyrrhine origins are some of the most controversial issues in primate palaeontology, although an African Palaeogene ancestry has been presumed by most primatologists. Until now, the oldest fossil records of New World monkeys have come from Salla, Bolivia, and date to approximately 26 million years ago, or the Late Oligocene epoch. Here we report the discovery of new primates from the ?Late Eocene epoch of Amazonian Peru, which extends the fossil record of primates in South America back approximately 10 million years. The new specimens are important for understanding the origin and early evolution of modern platyrrhine primates because they bear little resemblance to any extinct or living South American primate, but they do bear striking resemblances to Eocene African anthropoids, and our phylogenetic analysis suggests a relationship with African taxa. The discovery of these new primates brings the first appearance datum of caviomorph rodents and primates in South America back into close correspondence, but raises new questions about the timing and means of arrival of these two mammalian groups.

  13. Dynamic Downscaling of Seasonal Simulations over South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Vasubandhu; Dirmeyer, Paul A.; Kirtman, Ben P.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper multiple atmospheric global circulation model (AGCM) integrations at T42 spectral truncation and prescribed sea surface temperature were used to drive regional spectral model (RSM) simulations at 80-km resolution for the austral summer season (January-February-March). Relative to the AGCM, the RSM improves the ensemble mean simulation of precipitation and the lower- and upper-level tropospheric circulation over both tropical and subtropical South America and the neighboring ocean basins. It is also seen that the RSM exacerbates the dry bias over the northern tip of South America and the Nordeste region, and perpetuates the erroneous split intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) over both the Pacific and Atlantic Ocean basins from the AGCM. The RSM at 80-km horizontal resolution is able to reasonably resolve the Altiplano plateau. This led to an improvement in the mean precipitation over the plateau. The improved resolution orography in the RSM did not substantially change the predictability of the precipitation, surface fluxes, or upper- and lower-level winds in the vicinity of the Andes Mountains from the AGCM. In spite of identical convective and land surface parameterization schemes, the diagnostic quantities, such as precipitation and surface fluxes, show significant differences in the intramodel variability over oceans and certain parts of the Amazon River basin (ARB). However, the prognostic variables of the models exhibit relatively similar model noise structures and magnitude. This suggests that the model physics are in large part responsible for the divergence of the solutions in the two models. However, the surface temperature and fluxes from the land surface scheme of the model [Simplified Simple Biosphere scheme (SSiB)] display comparable intramodel variability, except over certain parts of ARB in the two models. This suggests a certain resilience of predictability in SSiB (over the chosen domain of study) to variations in horizontal

  14. Ten-year secular trend of overweight and obesity in school children in south-eastern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Mazur

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine the trend in prevalence of overweight and obesity in schoolchildren from south-eastern Poland over a 10-year period. Materials and Method. A cross-sectional study was conducted in randomly selected primary schools. In total, 4,248 children (2,182 boys and 2,066 girls, mean age 10.5±2.4 years, were examined in 1998, and 2,412 children (1,184 boys and 1,228 girls, mean age 10.5±2.3 years in 2008. In each school the entire population was studied. Results. In 2008, the prevalence of overweight in girls was 13.3% and obesity 7.7%, compared to 12.0% and 10.1% in 1998. The decrease in obesity prevalence was statistically significant. In boys, the prevalence of overweight in 2008 was 14.2% and obesity 6.4%, compared to 10.5% and 6.8% in 1998. The increase in overweight prevalence among boys was statistically significant. Conclusions. A trend toward stabilization of the prevalence of overweight and obesity was noted in school children from south-eastern Poland between 1998–2008. The declining prevalence of obesity in girls and increased prevalence of overweight in boys demonstrates that in this age group of children the secular trend is gender dependent.

  15. Variations in Nutrients Composition of Most Commonly Consumed Cassava (Manihot esculenta Mixed Dishes in South-Eastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. I. Davidson

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Variations in nutrient composition of most commonly consumed cassava (Manihot esculenta mixed dishes in South-eastern Nigeria were determined. Four communities were randomly selected from each of the five states in the South-east. Focus group discussions (FGD were conducted in each of the communities to determine commonly consumed foods and variations in recipes. 24-Hour dietary recall was conducted using 50 randomly selected households in those communities. Recipes collected during the FGD were standardized, prepared, and chemically analysed using standard methods. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics. Cassava-based dishes were the most commonly consumed in South-eastern Nigeria. Ninety-two percent of the study population ate cassava either in form of “fufu” (fermented cassava meal/garri (fermented and roasted cassava meal with soup or as “abacha” (tapioca salad. Commonly consumed soups were melon (Citrullus vulgaris seeds, “ora” (Pterocarpus soyauxii, and vegetable soups. Seven melon seed, six “ora,” and four vegetable soups and five “abacha” variations were identified. Except for vegetable soup, coefficient of variation for moisture was <10%, while large variations (19–71% were observed for energy and nutrients. These variations in cassava-based dishes need to be reflected in the country-specific food composition database to enable nutrient intake assessment or provision of dietary guidance using such food composition database as a reference material to be more effective.

  16. Land cover characterization and mapping of South America for the year 2010 using Landsat 30 m satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Chandra; Long, Jordan

    2014-01-01

    Detailed and accurate land cover and land cover change information is needed for South America because the continent is in constant flux, experiencing some of the highest rates of land cover change and forest loss in the world. The land cover data available for the entire continent are too coarse (250 m to 1 km) for resource managers, government and non-government organizations, and Earth scientists to develop conservation strategies, formulate resource management options, and monitor land cover dynamics. We used Landsat 30 m satellite data of 2010 and prepared the land cover database of South America using state-of-the-science remote sensing techniques. We produced regionally consistent and locally relevant land cover information by processing a large volume of data covering the entire continent. Our analysis revealed that in 2010, 50% of South America was covered by forests, 2.5% was covered by water, and 0.02% was covered by snow and ice. The percent forest area of South America varies from 9.5% in Uruguay to 96.5% in French Guiana. We used very high resolution (change database of South America with additional land cover classes is needed. The results from this study are useful for developing resource management strategies, formulating biodiversity conservation strategies, and regular land cover monitoring and forecasting.

  17. Simulation of the summer circulation over South America by two regional climate models. Part I: Mean climatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, J. P. R.; Franchito, S. H.; Rao, V. B.

    2006-09-01

    This study investigates the capabilities of two regional models (the ICTP RegCM3 and the climate version of the CPTEC Eta model - EtaClim) in simulating the mean climatological features of the summer quasi-stationary circulations over South America. Comparing the results with the NCEP/DOE reanalysis II data it is seen that the RegCM3 simulates a weaker and southward shifted Bolivian high (BH). But, the Nordeste low (NL) is located close to its climatological position. In the EtaClim the position of the BH is reproduced well, but the NL is shifted towards the interior of the continent. To the east of Andes, the RegCM3 simulates a weaker low level jet and a weaker basic flow from the tropical Atlantic to Amazonia while they are stronger in the EtaClim. In general, the RegCM3 and EtaClim show, respectively a negative and positive bias in the surface temperature in almost all regions of South America. For both models, the correlation coefficients between the simulated precipitation and the GPCP data are high over most of South America. Although the RegCM3 and EtaClim overestimate the precipitation in the Andes region they show a negative bias in general over the entire South America. The simulations of upper and lower level circulations and precipitation fields in EtaClim were better than that of the RegCM3. In central Amazonia both models were unable to simulate the precipitation correctly. The results showed that although the RegCM3 and EtaClim are capable of simulating the main climatological features of the summer climate over South America, there are areas which need improvement. This indicates that the models must be more adequately tuned in order to give reliable predictions in the different regions of South America.

  18. A new perspective on the regional hydrologic cycle over North and South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Shu-Ping

    The GEOS-1 vertically-integrated 3-hr moisture flux reanalyses and hourly-gridded United States station precipitation plus a satellite-based, 6-hr global precipitation estimate were employed to investigate the impacts of nocturnal low-level jets (LLJs) on the regional hydrological cycle over the central United States (Part I) and the subtropical plains of South America (Part II). Research stressed the influences of upper-level synoptic-scale waves (i.e., synoptic-scale forcings) upon the regional hydrologic processes, which were explored by the impacts associated with the occurrence of LLJ. Besides the conventional budget analysis, the adopted `synoptic-forcing approach' was proven illustrative in describing these impacts through the down-scaling process of LLJs. In Part 1, the major findings include: (1)the seasonal-averaged hydrological cycle over the Great Plains is strongly affected by the occurrence of GPLLJ, (2)the synoptic-scale forcing provided by the upper-level propagating jet (ULJ) streams is essential in generating the large-scale precipitation after the GPLLJ forms from the diurnal boundary layer process, (3)without the dynamic coupling between the ULJ and LLJ, the impact of LLJ on the hydrological cycle is demonstrated to be less important, and (4)the importance of synoptic-scale forcings in preconditioning the setting of wet/dry seasons in the interannual variability of rainfall anomaly is further illustrated by examining the changes of intensity as well as the occurrence frequency between the different types of LLJ. In Part II of this study, it was found that the occurrence of Andean LLJ represents a transient episode that detours the climatic rainfall activity along the South Atlantic Convergent Zone (SACZ) to the subtropical plains (Brazilian Nordeste) in its southwestern (northeastern) flank. The appearance of a seesaw pattern in the rainfall and flux convergence anomalies along the southeastern portion of South America, which is spatially in

  19. Shelf spawning habitat of Emmelichthys nitidus in south-eastern Australia - Implications and suitability for egg-based biomass estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neira, Francisco J.; Lyle, Jeremy M.; Keane, John P.

    2009-03-01

    The spawning habitat of Emmelichthys nitidus (Emmelichthyidae) in south-eastern Australia is described from vertical ichthyoplankton samples collected along the shelf region off eastern through to south-western Tasmania during peak spawning in October 2005-06. Surveys covered eastern waters in 2005 (38.8-43.5°S), and both eastern and southern waters in 2006 (40.5°S around to 43.5°S off the south-west). Eggs ( n = 10,393) and larvae ( n = 378) occurred along eastern Tasmania in both years but were rare along southern waters south and westwards of 43.5°S in 2006. Peak egg abundances (1950-2640 per m -2) were obtained off north-eastern Tasmania (40.5-41.5°S) between the shelf break and 2.5 nm inshore from the break. Eggs were up to 5-days old, while nearly 95% of larvae were at the early preflexion stage, i.e. close to newly emerged. Average abundances of aged eggs pooled across each survey declined steadily from day-1 to day-5 eggs both in 2005 (97-18) and 2006 (175-34). Moreover, day-1 egg abundances were significantly greater 2.5 nm at either side of the break, including at the break, than in waters ≥5 nm both inshore and offshore from the break. These results, complemented with egg and larval data obtained in shelf waters off New South Wales (NSW; 35.0-37.7°S) in October 2002-03, indicate that the main spawning area of E. nitidus in south-eastern Australia lies between 35.5°S off southern NSW and 43.5°S off south-eastern Tasmania, and that spawning activity declines abruptly south and westwards of 43.5°S around to the south-west coast. In addition, quotient analyses of day-1 egg abundances point to a preferred spawning habitat contained predominantly within a 5 nm corridor along the shelf break, where waters are 125-325 m deep and median temperatures 13.5-14.0 °C. Spawning off eastern Tasmania is timed with the productivity outburst typical of the region during the austral spring, and the temperature increase from the mixing between the southwards

  20. Synergistic effects of drought and deforestation on the resilience of the south-eastern Amazon rainforest

    OpenAIRE

    Staal, A.; Dekkers, S.; Hirota Magalhaes, M.; Nes, van, E.H.

    2015-01-01

    The south-eastern Amazon rainforest is subject to ongoing deforestation and is expected to become drier due to climate change. Recent analyses of the distribution of tree cover in the tropics show three modes that have been interpreted as representing alternative stable states: forest, savanna and treeless states. This situation implies that a change in environmental conditions, such as in the climate, could cause critical transitions from a forest towards a savanna ecosystem. Shifts to savan...

  1. Establishment of the South-Eastern Norway Regional Health Authority Resource Center for Children with Prenatal Alcohol/Drug Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gro C. C. Løhaugen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new initiative in the South-Eastern Health Region of Norway to establish a regional resource center focusing on services for children and adolescents aged 2–18 years with prenatal exposure to alcohol or other drugs. In Norway, the prevalence of fetal alcohol spectrum (FAS is not known but has been estimated to be between 1 and 2 children per 1000 births, while the prevalence of prenatal exposure to illicit drugs is unknown. The resource center is the first of its kind in Scandinavia and will have three main objectives: (1 provide hospital staff, community health and child welfare personnel, and special educators with information, educational courses, and seminars focused on the identification, diagnosis, and treatment of children with a history of prenatal alcohol/drug exposure; (2 provide specialized health services, such as diagnostic services and intervention planning, for children referred from hospitals in the South-Eastern Health Region of Norway; and (3 initiate multicenter studies focusing on the diagnostic process and evaluation of interventions.

  2. Using Remote Sensing Products for Environmental Analysis in South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Brito Silva

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Land cover plays a major role in many biogeochemical models that represent processes and connections with terrestrial systems; hence, it is a key component for public decisions in ecosystems management. The advance of remote sensing technology, combined with the emergence of new operational products, offers alternatives to improve the accuracy of environmental monitoring and analysis. This work uses the GLOBCOVER, the Vegetation Continuous Field (VCF, MODIS Fire Radiative Power (FRP and the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM remotely sensed databases to analyze the biomass burning distribution, the land use and land cover characteristics and the percent of tree cover in South America during the years 2000 to 2005. Initially, GLOBCOVER was assessed based on VCF product, and subsequently used for quantitative analysis of the spatial distribution of the South America fires with the fire radiative power (FRP. The results show that GLOBCOVER has a tendency to overestimate forest classes and to underestimate urban and mangroves areas. The fire quantification based on GLOBCOVER product shows that the highest incidence of fires can be observed in the arc of deforestation, located in the Amazon forest border, with vegetation cover composed mainly of broadleaved evergreen or semi-deciduous forest. A time series analysis of FRP database indicates that biomass burning occurs mainly in areas of broadleaved evergreen or semi-deciduous forest and in Brazilian Cerrado associated with grassland management, agricultural land clearing and with the deforestation of Amazon tropical rainforest. Also, variations in FRP intensity and spread can be attributed to rainfall anomalies, such as in 2004, when South America had a positive anomaly rainfall.

  3. DOES THE HIGHER EDUCATION PROMOTE STUDENTS’ ENTREPRENEURIAL POTENTIAL IN THE SOUTH-EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIMITAR NIKOLOSK

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, there is a widespread recognition that business start-ups are a driving force of economic growth and significant job creation. Given the segmented characteristics of the labour markets, youth population is among those segments that are disproportionally affected by high and sustained unemployment. The situation with youth unemployment is particularly unfavourable in developing countries such as South-Eastern European countries where almost half of the active young population is jobless. Even though the governments in these countries have repeatedly undertaken measures for improving the position of youth on the labour markets, it seems that these endeavours have not reached the planned goals. From this perspective, it is important to analyse the potential contribution of education, and particularly the higher education to the development of entrepreneurship. The aim of this paper is to assess the role of the higher education in South-Eastern European countries in fostering the students’ entrepreneurial potential. For this purpose we have carried out a survey on representative samples of students in two universities: “St. Kliment Ohridski” (Macedonia and “Aleksander Xhuvani” (Albania. We found that considerable number of surveyed students have ideas for starting own businesses, but only a small portion of them attempted to develop their business ideas in practice. As a consequence, we can conclude that there exists a wide room for further policy recommendations that will shape directions for future reforms in the SEECs higher education systems and will improve the students’ entrepreneurial potential

  4. Asia and South America: A Quasi-Common Economy Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Canuto, Otaviano; Sharma, Manu

    2011-01-01

    The Asian style of regional integration may be seen as a 'quasi-common economy' that eschews a formal linkup in political or monetary terms, but manages to generate similar results by strong physical integration and distributed chains of production and service delivery. This note proposes the Asian quasi-common economy as a benchmark for South America's regional integration efforts because...

  5. Diversification of tanagers, a species rich bird group, from lowlands to montane regions of South America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjeldså, Jon; Rahbek, Carsten

    2006-01-01

    in the Atlantic forests of south-eastern Brazil, and moderate densities of widespread species in the tropical lowlands. Contemporary climate explains well the variation in species richness for the 25% most widespread species; for the remaining 75% of species with more restricted distributions, variation can only...

  6. An alternative model for the early peopling of southern South America revealed by analyses of three mitochondrial DNA haplogroups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Saint Pierre, Michelle; Bravi, Claudio M; Motti, Josefina M B; Fuku, Noriyuki; Tanaka, Masashi; Llop, Elena; Bonatto, Sandro L; Moraga, Mauricio

    2012-01-01

    After several years of research, there is now a consensus that America was populated from Asia through Beringia, probably at the end of the Pleistocene. But many details such as the timing, route(s), and origin of the first settlers remain uncertain. In the last decade genetic evidence has taken on a major role in elucidating the peopling of the Americas. To study the early peopling of South America, we sequenced the control region of mitochondrial DNA from 300 individuals belonging to indigenous populations of Chile and Argentina, and also obtained seven complete mitochondrial DNA sequences. We identified two novel mtDNA monophyletic clades, preliminarily designated B2l and C1b13, which together with the recently described D1g sub-haplogroup have locally high frequencies and are basically restricted to populations from the extreme south of South America. The estimated ages of D1g and B2l, about ~15,000 years BP, together with their similar population dynamics and the high haplotype diversity shown by the networks, suggests that they probably appeared soon after the arrival of the first settlers and agrees with the dating of the earliest archaeological sites in South America (Monte Verde, Chile, 14,500 BP). One further sub-haplogroup, D4h3a5, appears to be restricted to Fuegian-Patagonian populations and reinforces our hypothesis of the continuity of the current Patagonian populations with the initial founders. Our results indicate that the extant native populations inhabiting South Chile and Argentina are a group which had a common origin, and suggest a population break between the extreme south of South America and the more northern part of the continent. Thus the early colonization process was not just an expansion from north to south, but also included movements across the Andes.

  7. Institutional Status of BRICS and Pragmatic Cooperation:The Case of South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernani Contipelli

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available As a group formed by emerging powers, the BRICS is characterized by its particular profile: a pragmatic politic strategythat presents contradictory actions between its members. Internal cooperation among the BRICS members is becomingmore “institutional” with the creation of its financial institutions, the New Development Bank (NDB and the ContingencyReserve Agreement (CRA. These have led the group to a next stage in its history without changing its essence. The NDBhas been created to mobilize resources for infrastructure and sustainable development projects in emerging and developingcountries, and the CRA has been established to provide liquidity to countries experiencing difficulties in their balance ofpayment and to head off future economic crises. Many developing countries are closely observing these financial institutions.South America appears particularly interested to take advantage of them by attracting investments and obtainingloans from BRICS members in order to develop infrastructure in their countries and to build more informal relationshipswith foreign partners with reduced political commitments. For South America, the BRICS is an example of a pragmaticformula for cooperation in contrast to the modus operandi of traditional powers. In other words, poor countries would havean alternative to the International Monetary Fund and World Bank. Relations between the BRICS and South America arecharacterized by a pragmatic approach that reflects the “way of being” of the group and the necessities of modernization ofthe region. This article analyzes the particular relationship that BRICS is establishing with the countries of South Americausing its institutional status and pragmatic approach.

  8. The drought of the 1890s in south-eastern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pribyl, Kathleen; Nash, David; Klein, Jorgen; Endfield, Georgina

    2016-04-01

    During the second half of the 1890s south-eastern Africa, from modern day Zimbabwe and Botswana down to South Africa, was hit by a drought driven ecological crisis. Using instrumental observations and previously unexploited documentary records in the form of British administrative sources, reports and letters by various Protestant mission societies and newspapers, the extent, duration and severity of the drought are explored. Generally the period was marked by a delayed onset of the rainy season of several months; rainfall totals dropped and perennial rivers such as the Limpopo dried up. The delay of the rainy season negatively impacted the rain-fed agriculture. Recurrent drought conditions during the rainy season frequently withered the young crops. In the interior of southern Africa, on the border of the Kalahari desert, the drought was more severe and continuous than towards the coast of the Indian Ocean. The prolonged dry conditions furthered the outbreak of locust plagues and cattle disease, which in the 1890s took the disastrous form of Rinderpest. A model is established showing how the drought as the original driver of the crisis, triggered a cascade of responses from harvest failure to famine and finally leading to profound socio-economic change.

  9. Brazilian foreign affairs: social capital and the democratic discourse in South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Duarte Villa

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian elites as well as foreign policy-makers have long shared a common belief that the ideas of democracy and democratization should serve as some "road map" to foreign policy-making. In areas such as security, regional integration, and disarmament, the goal has been to generate a positive social capital as well as to build trusting relations with Brazilian neighbors in South America. Therefore, under the impact of ideas brought about by new world visions, Brazilian foreign policy has changed a domestic policy feature - the democratic rearrangement of the political system - into a condition and resource for foreign policy-making towards South America. The result has been a fine improvement of Brazilian image and credibility in the regional South American scenario. In other words, there has been a significant increment in "trust" towards Brazil. This argument has been developed based on extracts and transcripts from official diplomatic speeches from Brazilian foreign policy-makers as well as a historical reconstruction of Brazil's diplomatic relations with two South American countries. Our study was based on two cases: Brazilian-Venezuelan and Brazilian-Argentine relations in the 80's and the 90's.

  10. Working towards residential Radon survey in South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zielinski, Jan M.; University of Ottawa, ON; Canoba, Analia C.; Shilnikova, Natalia S.; Veiga, Lene H. S.

    2008-01-01

    Information about residential radon levels in low and middle income countries is very sparse. In response to the World Health Organization initiative in the International Radon Project, we propose a research project that will address this knowledge gap in South America by conducting a residential radon survey. Following initial in vitro and in vivo studies of radon and studies of uranium miners exposed to radon, over twenty large case-control studies of lung cancer risk from exposure to residential radon have been completed worldwide by year 2004. Recently pooled data from these individual studies have been analyzed. These collaborative analyses of the indoor studies in Europe, North America, and China provide strong direct evidence that radon is causing a substantial number of lung cancers in the general population. To reduce radon lung cancer risk, national authorities must have methods and tools based on solid scientific evidence to develop sound public health policies. We propose to conduct a survey in ten South American countries using the distribution and analysis of passive alpha tracking detectors in houses selected at random in pre-selected cities in each participating country. We also present an approach to estimate the cost of carrying out such a survey and the radon laboratory infrastructure needed. The results of the proposed survey will allow to conduct assessment of the exposure to residential radon in the populations of South American countries and to assess the health impact of this exposure. The results of the project will also help national health authorities in developing national residential radon action levels and regulations, as well as provide public health guidance for radon awareness and mitigation. (author)

  11. Silurian deltaic progradation, Tassili n’Ajjer plateau, south-eastern Algeria: Sedimentology, ichnology and sequence stratigraphy

    OpenAIRE

    Djouder, Hocine; Lüning, Sebastian; Da Silva, Anne-Christine; Abdallah, Hussein; Boulvain, Frédéric

    2018-01-01

    The economic potential for unconventional shale oil and gas production in the Silurian of the Berkine – Ghadames and Illizi basins (BGI) in south-eastern Algeria has been recently confirmed through exploration drilling. The aim of the present paper attempts a better understanding of the Intra-Tassilian depression within the entire Silurian of the Tassili n’Ajjer plateau. The continuous deposits of the Silurian are exposed at the southern margin of the prolific BGI basins, in the Tassili n’Ajj...

  12. Seropositivity of agents causing abortion in local goat breeds in Eastern and South-eastern Anatolia, Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    BABÜR, Cahit; Tan, Tolga; ATASEVEN, Lale; ATASEVEN, Veysel Soydal; OĞUZOĞLU, Tuba Çiğdem

    2006-01-01

    The epidemiological information has not been available on the seroprevalenceof agents causing abortion and genital tract infection in indigenousgoats of Eastern and South-eastern regions of Turkey, yet. In these regions,the goats have importance for local economy and their production of meat,milk and mohair. There are also differences of the husbandry and climateconditions between two regions. The objective of this study was to describethe seroprevalence and distribution of antibodies to agen...

  13. Timber production in selectively logged tropical forests in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael Keller; Gregory P. Asner; Geoffrey Blate; Frank McGlocklin; John Merry; Marielos Peña-Claros; Johan Zweede

    2007-01-01

    Selective logging is an extensive land-use practice in South America. Governments in the region have enacted policies to promote the establishment and maintenance of economically productive and sustainable forest industries.However, both biological and policy constraints threaten to limit the viability of the industry over the long term.Biological constraints, such as...

  14. 7 CFR 319.56-26 - Melon and watermelon from certain countries in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Melon and watermelon from certain countries in South... and Vegetables § 319.56-26 Melon and watermelon from certain countries in South America. (a) Cantaloupe and watermelon from Ecuador. Cantaloupe (Cucumis melo) and watermelon (fruit) (Citrullus lanatus...

  15. Transport of North Pacific 137Cs labeled waters to the south-eastern Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Cabeza, J. A.; Levy, I.; Gastaud, J.; Eriksson, M.; Osvath, I.; Aoyama, M.; Povinec, P. P.; Komura, K.

    2011-04-01

    During the reoccupation of the WOCE transect A10 at 30°S by the BEAGLE2003 cruise, the SHOTS project partners collected a large number of samples for the analysis of isotopic tracers. 137Cs was mostly deposited on the oceans surface during the late 1950s and early 1960s, after the atmospheric detonation of large nuclear devices, which mostly occurred in the Northern Hemisphere. The development of advanced radioanalytical and counting techniques allowed to obtain, for the first time in this region, a zonal section of 137Cs water concentrations, where little information existed before, thus constituting an important benchmark for further studies. 137Cs concentrations in the upper waters (0-1000 m) of the south-eastern Atlantic Ocean are similar to those observed in the south-western Indian Ocean, suggesting transport of 137Cs labeled waters by the Agulhas current to the Benguela Current region. In contrast, bomb radiocarbon data do not show this feature, indicating the usefulness of 137Cs as a radiotracer of water mass transport from the Indian to the South Atlantic Ocean.

  16. Biogeographic range expansion into South America by Coccidioides immitis mirrors New World patterns of human migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Matthew C.; Koenig, Gina L.; White, Thomas J.; San-Blas, Gioconda; Negroni, Ricardo; Alvarez, Isidro Gutiérrez; Wanke, Bodo; Taylor, John W.

    2001-01-01

    Long-distance population dispersal leaves its characteristic signature in genomes, namely, reduced diversity and increased linkage between genetic markers. This signature enables historical patterns of range expansion to be traced. Herein, we use microsatellite loci from the human pathogen Coccidioides immitis to show that genetic diversity in this fungus is geographically partitioned throughout North America. In contrast, analyses of South American C. immitis show that this population is genetically depauperate and was founded from a single North American population centered in Texas. Variances of allele distributions show that South American C. immitis have undergone rapid population growth, consistent with an epidemic increase in postcolonization population size. Herein, we estimate the introduction into South America to have occurred within the last 9,000–140,000 years. This range increase parallels that of Homo sapiens. Because of known associations between Amerindians and this fungus, we suggest that the colonization of South America by C. immitis represents a relatively recent and rapid codispersal of a host and its pathogen. PMID:11287648

  17. FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENTS IN SOUTH-EASTERN EUROPE COUNTRIES ANALYSIS OF INFLUENCE FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad POPOVIĆ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available That influences the inflow of foreign direct investments (FDIs into South-Eastern Europe (SEE, whereby main emphasis will be put on republics of Former Yugoslavia, but also with some references to Romania’s case.Choice of the countries for comparison is made upon assumption that they were characterized by relatively the same industrial, market and social development before they entered the process of transition, so comparisons from the aspect of achieved results is of scientific importance. Special attention will be directed to the result made by the Republic of Serbia in the process of attracting FDIs. First of all, main terms of foreign direct investments will be defined in this paper and we will give general review of literature related to allocation of foreign direct investments. Then, recent trends of foreign direct investments in south-astern Europe will be described. Finally, the factors that influence allocation of FDIs,as well as relationship between index of global competitiveness of observed countries and accumulated FDIs during period of transition will be analyzed.

  18. Mechanism of climate change over South America during the LGM in coupled Ocean- Atmosphere model simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodri, M.

    2006-12-01

    On a regional perspective the database of proxy information for South America during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) shows large and regionally extensive changes of the mean climate and vegetation types over the Amazon basin. In some instances these changes were associated with decrease in the mean precipitation amount (and most probably in moist deep convection) over the Amazonian and South East Brazil monsoon regions and wetter mean conditions in present day drought-prone regions such as Northeast of Brazil (Nordeste). These changes have been interpreted as local responses to shift in the mean position and intensity of the Atlantic ITCZ due to glacial extratropical forcings or to changes in the South American Monsoons. However there are still two issues is the path to further understand the mechanism of climate change over South America during the LGM. The first is incomplete knowledge in both the modeling and observational communities of how the moist deep convection over the Amazonian region respond to glacial boundary condition and how this changes might interact with the meridional shift of rainfall over Nordeste and Atlantic Ocean. The second is our understanding of how ocean-atmosphere changes that do occur in the tropical Pacific region influence the climate of the remainder of the planet and on a regional way over South America. Using PMIP-2 coupled Ocean-Atmosphere simulations for LGM and comparison to paleodata we show that hydrological cycle changes over the Amazon basin might be independent of their Atlantic Ocean counterpart, while teleconnections with Pacific Ocean might have played a significant role in the observed changes over tropical South America.

  19. Geographically Sourcing Cocaine’s Origin - Delineation of the Nineteen Major Coca Growing Regions in South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallette, Jennifer R.; Casale, John F.; Jordan, James; Morello, David R.; Beyer, Paul M.

    2016-03-01

    Previously, geo-sourcing to five major coca growing regions within South America was accomplished. However, the expansion of coca cultivation throughout South America made sub-regional origin determinations increasingly difficult. The former methodology was recently enhanced with additional stable isotope analyses (2H and 18O) to fully characterize cocaine due to the varying environmental conditions in which the coca was grown. An improved data analysis method was implemented with the combination of machine learning and multivariate statistical analysis methods to provide further partitioning between growing regions. Here, we show how the combination of trace cocaine alkaloids, stable isotopes, and multivariate statistical analyses can be used to classify illicit cocaine as originating from one of 19 growing regions within South America. The data obtained through this approach can be used to describe current coca cultivation and production trends, highlight trafficking routes, as well as identify new coca growing regions.

  20. Fire Ants (Solenopsis spp. and Their Natural Enemies in Southern South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Briano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We review the fire ant research conducted by the ARS-South American Biological Control Laboratory (SABCL since 1987 to find a complex of natural enemies in southern South America and evaluate their specificity and suitability for field release as self-sustaining biological control agents. We also include those studies conducted by the ARS-Center for Medical, Agriculture, and Veterinary Entomology in the United States with the SABCL collaboration. Ecological and biological information is reported on local fire ants and their microsporidia, nematodes, viruses, phorid flies, eucharitid wasps, strepsiptera, and parasitic ants. Their biology, abundance, distribution, detrimental effect, field persistence, specificity, and phenology are discussed. We conclude that the objectives of the ARS program in South America are being achieved and that the pioneering studies have served to encourage further investigations in the United States and other countries and advanced the implementation of biological control programs to decrease imported fire ant densities and damage. Still, several promising organisms should be further investigated for eventual field release in the near future.

  1. Earth - South America (first frame of Earth Spin Movie)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    This color image of the Earth was obtained by Galileo at about 6:10 a.m. Pacific Standard Time on Dec. 11, 1990, when the spacecraft was about 1.3 million miles from the planet during the first of two Earth flybys on its way to Jupiter. The color composite used images taken through the red, green and violet filters. South America is near the center of the picture, and the white, sunlit continent of Antarctica is below. Picturesque weather fronts are visible in the South Atlantic, lower right. This is the first frame of the Galileo Earth spin movie, a 500- frame time-lapse motion picture showing a 25-hour period of Earth's rotation and atmospheric dynamics.

  2. Monitoring Diabrotica v. virgifera (Col.: Chrysomelidae) in southeastern Slovenia: increasing population trend and host spectrum expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrichs, C; Dinnesen, S; Nedelev, T; Hummel, H E; Modic, S; Urek, G

    2008-01-01

    Ever since the western corn rootworm (WCR) (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera), an alien invasive species from North America, has been introduced into Europe on at least 3 separate occasions, it spread within 15 years over the entire area of south-eastern and central Europe (except Denmark). Until quite recently, Zea mays L. was the only known host plant whereas in North America WCR also attacks members of the plant family Cucurbitaceae. In August of 2006, we were able to validate these findings also in the Old World by observing WCR visiting blossoms of oil pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.). Beside this first report of WCR on this regionally and economically important crop, a population increase in Gaberje near Lendava, Eastern Slovenia, was observed. Some future consequences of multiple hosts for integrated pest management (IPM) of WCR are being discussed.

  3. Quality assessment of published health economic analyses from South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Márcio; Iskedjian, Michael; Einarson, Thomas R

    2006-05-01

    Health economic analyses have become important to healthcare systems worldwide. No studies have previously examined South America's contribution in this area. To survey the literature with the purpose of reviewing, quantifying, and assessing the quality of published South American health economic analyses. A search of MEDLINE (1990-December 2004), EMBASE (1990-December 2004), International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (1990-December 2004), Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (1982-December 2004), and Sistema de Informacion Esencial en Terapéutica y Salud (1980-December 2004) was completed using the key words cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA), cost-utility analysis (CUA), cost-minimization analysis (CMA), and cost-benefit analysis (CBA); abbreviations CEA, CUA, CMA, and CBA; and all South American country names. Papers were categorized by type and country by 2 independent reviewers. Quality was assessed using a 12 item checklist, characterizing scores as 4 (good), 3 (acceptable), 2 (poor), 1 (unable to judge), and 0 (unacceptable). To be included in our investigation, studies needed to have simultaneously examined costs and outcomes. We retrieved 25 articles; one duplicate article was rejected, leaving 24 (CEA = 15, CBA = 6, CMA = 3; Brazil = 9, Argentina = 5, Colombia = 3, Chile = 2, Ecuador = 2, 1 each from Peru, Uruguay, Venezuela). Variability between raters was less than 0.5 point on overall scores (OS) and less than 1 point on all individual items. Mean OS was 2.6 (SD 1.0, range 1.4-3.8). CBAs scored highest (OS 2.8, SD 0.8), CEAs next (OS 2.7, SD 0.7), and CMAs lowest (OS 2.0, SD 0.5). When scored by type of question, definition of study aim scored highest (OS 3.0, SD 0.8), while ethical issues scored lowest (OS 1.5, SD 0.9). By country, Peru scored highest (mean OS 3.8) and Uruguay had the lowest scores (mean OS 2.2). A nonsignificant time trend was noted for OS (R2 = 0.12; p = 0.104). Quality scores of health economic analyses

  4. Land Cover Characterization and Mapping of South America for the Year 2010 Using Landsat 30 m Satellite Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Giri

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Detailed and accurate land cover and land cover change information is needed for South America because the continent is in constant flux, experiencing some of the highest rates of land cover change and forest loss in the world. The land cover data available for the entire continent are too coarse (250 m to 1 km for resource managers, government and non-government organizations, and Earth scientists to develop conservation strategies, formulate resource management options, and monitor land cover dynamics. We used Landsat 30 m satellite data of 2010 and prepared the land cover database of South America using state-of-the-science remote sensing techniques. We produced regionally consistent and locally relevant land cover information by processing a large volume of data covering the entire continent. Our analysis revealed that in 2010, 50% of South America was covered by forests, 2.5% was covered by water, and 0.02% was covered by snow and ice. The percent forest area of South America varies from 9.5% in Uruguay to 96.5% in French Guiana. We used very high resolution (<5 m satellite data to validate the land cover product. The overall accuracy of the 2010 South American 30-m land cover map is 89% with a Kappa coefficient of 79%. Accuracy of barren areas needs to improve possibly using multi-temporal Landsat data. An update of land cover and change database of South America with additional land cover classes is needed. The results from this study are useful for developing resource management strategies, formulating biodiversity conservation strategies, and regular land cover monitoring and forecasting.

  5. Fire Ants (Solenopsis spp.) and Their Natural Enemies in Southern South America

    OpenAIRE

    Briano, Juan; Calcaterra, Luis; Varone, Laura

    2012-01-01

    We review the fire ant research conducted by the ARS-South American Biological Control Laboratory (SABCL) since 1987 to find a complex of natural enemies in southern South America and evaluate their specificity and suitability for field release as self-sustaining biological control agents. We also include those studies conducted by the ARS-Center for Medical, Agriculture, and Veterinary Entomology in the United States with the SABCL collaboration. Ecological and biological information is repo...

  6. Maps showing geology, oil and gas fields, and geological provinces of South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, C. J.; Viger, R.J.; Anderson, C.P.

    1999-01-01

    This digitally compiled map includes geology, geologic provinces, and oil and gas fields of South America. The map is part of a worldwide series on CD-ROM by World Energy Project released of the U.S. Geological Survey . The goal of the project is to assess the undiscovered, technically recoverable oil and gas resources of the world and report these results by the year 2000. For data management purposes the world is divided into eight energy regions corresponding approximately to the economic regions of the world as defined by the U.S. Department of State. South America (Region 6) includes Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Columbia, Ecuador, Falkland Islands, French Guiana, Guyuna, Netherlands, Netherlands Antilles, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, Uruguay, and Venezuela.

  7. Predicting geographic distributions of Phacellodomus species (Aves: Furnariidae in South America based on ecological niche modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria da Salete Gurgel Costa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Phacellodomus Reichenbach, 1853, comprises nine species of Furnariids that occur in South America in open and generally dry areas. This study estimated the geographic distributions of Phacellodomus species in South America by ecological niche modeling. Applying maximum entropy method, models were produced for eight species based on six climatic variables and 949 occurrence records. Since highest climatic suitability for Phacellodomus species has been estimated in open and dry areas, the Amazon rainforest areas are not very suitable for these species. Annual precipitation and minimum temperature of the coldest month are the variables that most influence the models. Phacellodomus species occurred in 35 ecoregions of South America. Chaco and Uruguayan savannas were the ecoregions with the highest number of species. Despite the overall connection of Phacellodomus species with dry areas, species such as P. ruber, P. rufifrons, P. ferrugineigula and P. erythrophthalmus occurred in wet forests and wetland ecoregions.

  8. Ancient mitochondrial DNA reveals convergent evolution of giant short-faced bears (Tremarctinae) in North and South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Kieren J; Bray, Sarah C; Bover, Pere; Soibelzon, Leopoldo; Schubert, Blaine W; Prevosti, Francisco; Prieto, Alfredo; Martin, Fabiana; Austin, Jeremy J; Cooper, Alan

    2016-04-01

    The Tremarctinae are a subfamily of bears endemic to the New World, including two of the largest terrestrial mammalian carnivores that have ever lived: the giant, short-faced bears Arctodus simus from North America and Arctotherium angustidens from South America (greater than or equal to 1000 kg). Arctotherium angustidens became extinct during the Early Pleistocene, whereas Arctodus simus went extinct at the very end of the Pleistocene. The only living tremarctine is the spectacled bear (Tremarctos ornatus), a largely herbivorous bear that is today only found in South America. The relationships among the spectacled bears (Tremarctos), South American short-faced bears (Arctotherium) and North American short-faced bears (Arctodus) remain uncertain. In this study, we sequenced a mitochondrial genome from an Arctotherium femur preserved in a Chilean cave. Our molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed that the South American short-faced bears were more closely related to the extant South American spectacled bear than to the North American short-faced bears. This result suggests striking convergent evolution of giant forms in the two groups of short-faced bears (Arctodus and Arctotherium), potentially as an adaptation to dominate competition for megafaunal carcasses. © 2016 The Author(s).

  9. Near-vertical seismic reflection image using a novel acquisition technique across the Vrancea Zone and Foscani Basin, south-eastern Carpathians (Romania).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panea, I; Stephenson, R.A.; Knapp, C.; Mocanu, V.I.; Drijkoningen, G.; Matenco, L.C.; Knapp, J.; Prodehl, K.

    2005-01-01

    The DACIA PLAN (Danube and Carpathian Integrated Action on Process in the Lithosphere and Neotectonics) deep seismic sounding survey was performed in August-September 2001 in south-eastern Romania, at the same time as the regional deep refraction seismic survey VRANCEA 2001. The main goal of the

  10. Overweight and obesity: a review of their relationship to metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, and cancer in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aballay, Laura R; Eynard, Aldo R; Díaz, María del Pilar; Navarro, Alicia; Muñoz, Sonia E

    2013-03-01

    Socioeconomic and demographic transformations are occurring very rapidly in some areas of the world, especially in South America, and are accompanied by changes in lifestyle, dietary patterns, and the epidemiological profile of prevalent diseases. This review examines whether obesity and overweight are related to metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, and cancer in South America. Research carried out in more than 6,000 cases and controls was evaluated, along with most of the available publications related to South America. In South America, obesity and risk factors for cardiovascular disease are related mainly to aging, ethnicity effects, and preventable risky lifestyle conditions. Most of the studies that found an association between cancer and obesity are from the Southern Cone, the geographic area most affected by this pathology. Overall, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was highest in Chile, followed in decreasing order by Colombia, Peru, Argentina, and Ecuador, with differences noted between urban and rural areas or between urban and periurban areas. Obesity and cancer may be preventable, at least in part, by healthy behavior; hence, exercise, weight control, and healthy dietary habits are important to reduce the risk of these major chronic diseases. © 2013 International Life Sciences Institute.

  11. North-South precipitation patterns in western North America on interannual-to-decadal timescales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettinger, M.D.; Cayan, D.R.; Diaz, Henry F.; Meko, D.M.

    1998-01-01

    The overall amount of precipitation deposited along the West Coast and western cordillera of North America from 25??to 55??N varies from year to year, and superimposed on this domain-average variability are varying north-south contrasts on timescales from at least interannual to interdecadal. In order to better understand the north-south precipitation contrasts, their interannual and decadal variations are studied in terms of how much they affect overall precipitation amounts and how they are related to large-scale climatic patterns. Spatial empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs) and spatial moments (domain average, central latitude, and latitudinal spread) of zonally averaged precipitation anomalies along the westernmost parts of North America are analyzed, and each is correlated with global sea level pressure (SLP) and sea surface temperature series, on interannual (defined here as 3-7 yr) and decadal (>7 yr) timescales. The interannual band considered here corresponds to timescales that are particularly strong in tropical climate variations and thus is expected to contain much precipitation variability that is related to El Nino-Southern Oscillation; the decadal scale is defined so as to capture the whole range of long-term climatic variations affecting western North America. Zonal EOFs of the interannual and decadal filtered versions of the zonal-precipitation series are remarkably similar. At both timescales, two leading EOFs describe 1) a north-south seesaw of precipitation pivoting near 40??N and 2) variations in precipitation near 40??N, respectively. The amount of overall precipitation variability is only about 10% of the mean and is largely determined by precipitation variations around 40??-45??N and most consistently influenced by nearby circulation patterns; in this sense, domain-average precipitation is closely related to the second EOF. The central latitude and latitudinal spread of precipitation distributions are strongly influenced by precipitation

  12. Holocene glacial fluctuations in southern South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynhout, S.; Sagredo, E. A.; Kaplan, M. R.; Aravena, J. C.; Martini, M. A.; Strelin, J. A.; Schaefer, J. M.

    2016-12-01

    Understanding the timing and magnitude of former glacier fluctuations is critical to decipher long-term climatic trends and to unravel both natural cycles and human impact on the current glacial behavior. Despite more than seven decades of research efforts, a unifying model of Holocene glacial fluctuations in Southern South America remains elusive. Here, we present the state-of-the-art regarding the timing of Holocene glacial fluctuation in southern Patagonia-Tierra del Fuego, with a focus on a new generation of high-resolution radiocarbon and 10Be surface exposure dating chronologies. Recently acquired evidence suggest that after receding from advanced Late Glacial positions, Patagonian glaciers were for the most part close to, or even behind, present ice margins during the Early Holocene. On the other hand, emerging chronologies indicate that in some areas there were extensive expansions (century scale?) that punctuated the warm interval. Subsequently, we have evidence of multiple millennial timescale glacial advances starting in the middle Holocene. Several glacial maxima are defined by moraines and other landforms from 7000 years ago to the 19th century, with a gap sometime between 4,500 and 2,500 years ago. The last set of advances began around 800-600 years ago. Although glacial activity is documented in Patagonia at the same time as the European Little Ice Age, the extent of these glacial events are less prominent than those of the mid-Holocene. The causes that may explain these glacial fluctuations remain elusive. Finally, we discuss ongoing efforts to better define the timing and extent of Holocene glaciations in southern South America, and to establish the basis to test competing hypothesis of regional Holocene climate variability.

  13. Music as an Experience Integral to the Ethnicity of the "Mbyá"-Guarani of South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittau Sevilla, Zulma M.

    2016-01-01

    The "Mbyá" culture forms a part of the Guaraní ethnic group that mainly inhabits the territories of south-eastern Brazil, in the Province of Misiones--Argentina, and the Republic of Paraguay. This article will focus mainly on field observations I have made in different communities in these countries, and which will try to synthetically…

  14. Marine fronts at the continental shelves of austral South America - Physical and ecological processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acha, Eduardo M.; Mianzan, Hermes W.; Guerrero, Raúl A.; Favero, Marco; Bava, José

    2004-01-01

    Neritic fronts are very abundant in austral South America, covering several scales of space and time. However, this region is poorly studied from a systemic point of view. Our main goal is to develop a holistic view of physical and ecological patterns and processes at austral South America, regarding frontal arrangements. Satellite information (sea surface temperature and chlorophyll concentration), and historical hydrographic data were employed to show fronts. We compiled all existing evidence (physical and biological) about fronts to identify regions defined by similar types of coastal fronts and to characterize them. Fronts in austral South America can be arranged in six zones according to their location, main forcing, key physical variables, seasonality, and enrichment mechanisms. Four zones, the Atlantic upwelling zone; the temperate estuarine zone; the Patagonian tidal zone and the Argentine shelf-break zone, occupy most of the Atlantic side. The Chile-Peru upwelling zone, on the Pacific, is the largest and best-known region. The Patagonian cold estuarine zone encompasses the tip of South America, connecting the Pacific and Atlantic oceans, and remains poorly studied. When observed at a continental scale, the Pacific coast dominated by two large frontal zones appears simplest than the Atlantic coast in terms of frontal richness. The extension of the continental shelf in the Atlantic coast allows for the development of a great diversity of mesoscale fronts. Though frontal zones we defined are extensive areas of the continental shelves, fronts inside the zones are comparatively small areas. Even so, they play a paramount role in ecological processes, allowing for high biological production; offering feeding and/or reproductive habitats for fishes, squids, and birds; acting as retention areas for larvae of benthic species; and promoting establishment of benthic invertebrates that benefit from the organic production in the frontal area.

  15. A multi-criteria decision analysis approach to assessing malaria risk in northern South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temitope O. Alimi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria control in South America has vastly improved in the past decade, leading to a decrease in the malaria burden. Despite the progress, large parts of the continent continue to be at risk of malaria transmission, especially in northern South America. The objectives of this study were to assess the risk of malaria transmission and vector exposure in northern South America using multi-criteria decision analysis. Methods The risk of malaria transmission and vector exposure in northern South America was assessed using multi-criteria decision analysis, in which expert opinions were taken on the key environmental and population risk factors. Results Results from our risk maps indicated areas of moderate-to-high risk along rivers in the Amazon basin, along the coasts of the Guianas, the Pacific coast of Colombia and northern Colombia, in parts of Peru and Bolivia and within the Brazilian Amazon. When validated with occurrence records for malaria, An. darlingi, An. albimanus and An. nuneztovari s.l., t-test results indicated that risk scores at occurrence locations were significantly higher (p < 0.0001 than a control group of geographically random points. Conclusion In this study, we produced risk maps based on expert opinion on the spatial representation of risk of potential vector exposure and malaria transmission. The findings provide information to the public health decision maker/policy makers to give additional attention to the spatial planning of effective vector control measures. Therefore, as the region tackles the challenge of malaria elimination, prioritizing areas for interventions by using spatially accurate, high-resolution (1 km or less risk maps may guide targeted control and help reduce the disease burden in the region.

  16. Biological parameters and feeding behaviour of invasive whelk Rapana venosa Valenciennes, 1846 in the south-eastern Black Sea of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hacer Saglam

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine length-weight relationships, growth type and feeding behavior of the benthic predator Rapa whelk at the coast of Camburnu, south-eastern Black Sea. Methods: Rapa whelk was monthly collected by dredge sampling on the south-eastern Black Sea at 20 m depth. The relationships between morphometric parameters of Rapa whelk were described by linear and exponential models. The allometric growth of each variable relative to shell length (SL was calculated from the function Y=aSLb or logY=loga+blogSL. The functional regression b values were tested by t-test at the 0.05 significance level if it was significantly different from isometric growth. The total time spent on feeding either on mussel tissue or live mussels was recorded for each individual under controlled conditions in laboratory. Results: The length-weight relationships showed positive allometric growth and no inter-sex variability. Body size in the male population was significantly higher than in the individuals of the female. All characters in males and females showed a trend towards allometry rather than isometry. While the total time spent feeding increased with increasing prey size the total time that Rapana venosa spent feeding decreased with increasing Rapa whelk size. The total average feeding time needed by Rapa whelks was 160 min. But they took 310 min on live mussels in 27-28 °C in the laboratory conditions. Conclusions: Length and weight relationships, growth type, total time spent feeding of this species were explained in details for this region. It would be useful to sustainable management in the south-eastern Black Sea of Turkey. The results about the feeding behaviour of this species will contribute to the understanding of the role of this species within the ecosystem.

  17. Going like gangbusters: transnational tobacco companies "making a killing" in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stebbins, K R

    2001-06-01

    This article reports on the recent growth of transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) in South America. Although some scholarly attention has been directed toward such growth in Asia and eastern Europe, South America has also been targeted by the TTCs' aggressive expansionist practices in recent years. Fighting "Big Tobacco" is entirely different from combating most public health problems. Unlike cigarettes, most infectious diseases and maternal and child health problems never provide profits to transnational corporations and governments. Also, most public health problems (with alcohol being another notable exception) are not exacerbated by extensive advertising campaigns that promote the cause of the health problems. Supported by data gathered during three months of fieldwork in Ecuador, Peru, Chile, and Argentina in 1997, this article suggests that the TTCs' marketing strategies override cultural differences in the choices people make regarding smoking and health. Combining critical medical anthropology and public health, this article concludes that unless dramatic actions are taken, an avoidable outbreak of tobacco-related diseases will eventually reach epidemic proportions on the South American continent. It is also a "call to arms" for more medical anthropologists to investigate tobacco-related matters around the world.

  18. Aspects of sismo-tectonic stability in the South-Eastern region of Brazil of interest to geology of engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mioto, J.A.; Hasui, Y.

    1982-01-01

    The occurence of earthquakes in Brazil, mainly in the South-eastern region, and its relationship with the geologic features has been discussed by many Authors since the beginning of this Century. It is difficult to define intraplate seismicity and to understand the actual epirogenic displacent, but the definition of the regional stability is important for enginnering purposes and have been considered through seismologic, morphotectonic and geologic criteria. (Author) [pt

  19. Mortality in patients with HIV-1 infection starting antiretroviral therapy in South Africa, Europe, or North America: a collaborative analysis of prospective studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Boulle

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available High early mortality in patients with HIV-1 starting antiretroviral therapy (ART in sub-Saharan Africa, compared to Europe and North America, is well documented. Longer-term comparisons between settings have been limited by poor ascertainment of mortality in high burden African settings. This study aimed to compare mortality up to four years on ART between South Africa, Europe, and North America.Data from four South African cohorts in which patients lost to follow-up (LTF could be linked to the national population register to determine vital status were combined with data from Europe and North America. Cumulative mortality, crude and adjusted (for characteristics at ART initiation mortality rate ratios (relative to South Africa, and predicted mortality rates were described by region at 0-3, 3-6, 6-12, 12-24, and 24-48 months on ART for the period 2001-2010. Of the adults included (30,467 [South Africa], 29,727 [Europe], and 7,160 [North America], 20,306 (67%, 9,961 (34%, and 824 (12% were women. Patients began treatment with markedly more advanced disease in South Africa (median CD4 count 102, 213, and 172 cells/µl in South Africa, Europe, and North America, respectively. High early mortality after starting ART in South Africa occurred mainly in patients starting ART with CD4 count <50 cells/µl. Cumulative mortality at 4 years was 16.6%, 4.7%, and 15.3% in South Africa, Europe, and North America, respectively. Mortality was initially much lower in Europe and North America than South Africa, but the differences were reduced or reversed (North America at longer durations on ART (adjusted rate ratios 0.46, 95% CI 0.37-0.58, and 1.62, 95% CI 1.27-2.05 between 24 and 48 months on ART comparing Europe and North America to South Africa. While bias due to under-ascertainment of mortality was minimised through death registry linkage, residual bias could still be present due to differing approaches to and frequency of linkage.After accounting for under

  20. Spatial statistics detect clustering patterns of kidney diseases in south-eastern Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben I.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Medical geography was conceptualized almost ten years ago due to its obvious usefulness in epidemiological research. Still, numerous diseases in many regions were neglected in these aspects of research, and the prevalence of kidney diseases in Eastern Europe is such an example. We evaluated the spatial patterns of main kidney diseases in south-eastern Romania, and highlighted the importance of spatial modeling in medical management in Romania. We found two statistically significant hotspots of kidney diseases prevalence. We also found differences in the spatial patterns between categories of diseases. We propose to speed up the process of creating a national database of records on kidney diseases. Offering the researchers access to a national database will allow further epidemiology studies in Romania and finally lead to a better management of medical services.

  1. Genetic Differentiation within the Puccinia triticina Population in South America and Comparison with the North American Population Suggests Common Ancestry and Intercontinental Migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaf rust, caused by Puccinia triticina is the most prevalent and widespread disease of wheat in South America. The objective of this study was to determine the number of genetically differentiated groups of P. triticina that are currently present in South America, and to compare the South American ...

  2. Measuring vulnerability to shocks in the gas market in South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reymond, Mathias

    2012-01-01

    With a strong global demand for some 30 years, natural gas is a particular challenge for countries of South and Central America since each cubic meter of natural gas that is consumed is produced in this continent. It therefore seems appropriate to consider the risk of a collision gas and its effects on the countries most dependent on gas (either as producers or as consumers). Thus, in this paper, we study the vulnerability of gas in several countries on four ratios developed by Cabalu (2010). Once calculated from empirical data, these ratios helped to determine indicators and to classify countries according to their vulnerability in the event of a gas shock (sudden rise in prices). A picture emerges which represents an indicative classification of the countries. - Highlights: ► In this paper, we study the vulnerability of gas with four indicators. ► We focus on eight countries in South America and Central. ► These indicators helped to classify countries according to their vulnerability. ► The least vulnerable country is Bolivia. ► The most vulnerable countries are Chile and Venezuela.

  3. Hydrovatus caraibus Sharp, 1882 (Dytiscidae, Hydroporinae, Hydrovatini new for the fauna of South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benetti, C. J.

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available The species Hydrovatus caraibus Sharp, 1882 is recorded for the first time for South America, after the recollection of specimens of this species in the municipality of Gramado, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The range of distribution of the species, previously restricted to the Caribbean, is now extended to the latitude 29º 26’ South, approximately.

  4. Freshwater fish faunas, habitats and conservation challenges in the Caribbean river basins of north-western South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Segura, L F; Galvis-Vergara, G; Cala-Cala, P; García-Alzate, C A; López-Casas, S; Ríos-Pulgarín, M I; Arango, G A; Mancera-Rodríguez, N J; Gutiérrez-Bonilla, F; Álvarez-León, R

    2016-07-01

    The remarkable fish diversity in the Caribbean rivers of north-western South America evolved under the influences of the dramatic environmental changes of neogene northern South America, including the Quechua Orogeny and Pleistocene climate oscillations. Although this region is not the richest in South America, endemism is very high. Fish assemblage structure is unique to each of the four aquatic systems identified (rivers, streams, floodplain lakes and reservoirs) and community dynamics are highly synchronized with the mono-modal or bi-modal flooding pulse of the rainy seasons. The highly seasonal multispecies fishery is based on migratory species. Freshwater fish conservation is a challenge for Colombian environmental institutions because the Caribbean trans-Andean basins are the focus of the economic development of Colombian society, so management measures must be directed to protect aquatic habitat and their connectivity. These two management strategies are the only way for helping fish species conservation and sustainable fisheries. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  5. Origin of samples of Cannabis sativa through insect fragments associated with compacted hemp drug in South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Patrício Macedo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Origin of samples of Cannabis sativa through insect fragments associated with compacted hemp drug in South America. Insects associated with a seizure of Cannabis sativa L. may indicate the origin of the illicit drug. Nevertheless, no work regarding this subject has been previously published for South America. In the present investigation, seven kilograms of vegetal material (C. sativa were inspected for insect fragments. Three species were identified and used to test the origin of the seizure of cannabis plant material: Euschistus heros (Fabricius, 1794, Thyanta perditor (Fabricius, 1794 (Heteroptera, Pentatomidae, and Cephalotes pusillus (Klug, 1824 (Hymenoptera, Formicidae. These insect species restricted the geographic origin of the drug to the Neotropical region, and their distribution patterns showed an overlap of the State of Mato Grosso (Brazil, Argentina, and Paraguay. Based on this information, two of the three major C. sativa growing areas in South America were excluded: (1 the Colombian territory and (2 northeastern Brazil.

  6. Mortality in Patients with HIV-1 Infection Starting Antiretroviral Therapy in South Africa, Europe, or North America: A Collaborative Analysis of Prospective Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulle, Andrew; Schomaker, Michael; May, Margaret T.; Hogg, Robert S.; Shepherd, Bryan E.; Monge, Susana; Keiser, Olivia; Lampe, Fiona C.; Giddy, Janet; Ndirangu, James; Garone, Daniela; Fox, Matthew; Ingle, Suzanne M.; Reiss, Peter; Dabis, Francois; Costagliola, Dominique; Castagna, Antonella; Ehren, Kathrin; Campbell, Colin; Gill, M. John; Saag, Michael; Justice, Amy C.; Guest, Jodie; Crane, Heidi M.; Egger, Matthias; Sterne, Jonathan A. C.

    2014-01-01

    Background High early mortality in patients with HIV-1 starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) in sub-Saharan Africa, compared to Europe and North America, is well documented. Longer-term comparisons between settings have been limited by poor ascertainment of mortality in high burden African settings. This study aimed to compare mortality up to four years on ART between South Africa, Europe, and North America. Methods and Findings Data from four South African cohorts in which patients lost to follow-up (LTF) could be linked to the national population register to determine vital status were combined with data from Europe and North America. Cumulative mortality, crude and adjusted (for characteristics at ART initiation) mortality rate ratios (relative to South Africa), and predicted mortality rates were described by region at 0–3, 3–6, 6–12, 12–24, and 24–48 months on ART for the period 2001–2010. Of the adults included (30,467 [South Africa], 29,727 [Europe], and 7,160 [North America]), 20,306 (67%), 9,961 (34%), and 824 (12%) were women. Patients began treatment with markedly more advanced disease in South Africa (median CD4 count 102, 213, and 172 cells/µl in South Africa, Europe, and North America, respectively). High early mortality after starting ART in South Africa occurred mainly in patients starting ART with CD4 count Africa, Europe, and North America, respectively. Mortality was initially much lower in Europe and North America than South Africa, but the differences were reduced or reversed (North America) at longer durations on ART (adjusted rate ratios 0.46, 95% CI 0.37–0.58, and 1.62, 95% CI 1.27–2.05 between 24 and 48 months on ART comparing Europe and North America to South Africa). While bias due to under-ascertainment of mortality was minimised through death registry linkage, residual bias could still be present due to differing approaches to and frequency of linkage. Conclusions After accounting for under-ascertainment of mortality

  7. Age and sex prevalence of infectious dermatoses among primary school children in a rural South-Eastern Nigerian community

    OpenAIRE

    Kalu, Eziyi Iche; Wagbatsoma, Victoria; Ogbaini-Emovon, Ephraim; Nwadike, Victor Ugochukwu; Ojide, Chiedozie Kingsley

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Various dermatoses, due to their morbidity characteristics, have been shown to negatively impact on learning. The most epidemiologically important seem to be the infectious types because of their transmissibility and amenability to simple school-health measures. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and sex/age correlates of infectious dermatoses in a rural South-eastern Nigerian community. Methods The pupils were proportionately recruited from the three primary scho...

  8. Morphological records of storm floods exemplified by the impact of the 1872 Baltic storm on a sandy spit system in south-eastern Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Lars B; Bendixen, Mette; Hede, Mikkel Ulfeldt

    2014-01-01

    Beach-ridge systems are important geo-archives providing evidence for past wave climate including catastrophic storm flood events. This study investigates the morphological impacts of the 1872 Baltic storm flood on a beach-ridge system (sandy spit) in south-eastern Denmark and evaluates the frequ...

  9. Performance of a multi-RCM ensemble for South Eastern South America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carril, A.F.; Menendez, C.G.; Salio, P. [Ciudad Universitaria, Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires, Centro de Investigaciones del Mar y la Atmosfera (CIMA), CONICET-UBA, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Universidad de Buenos Aires, Departamento de Ciencias de la Atmosfera y los Oceanos (DCAO), FCEN, Buenos Aires (Argentina); UMI IFAECI/CNRS, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Remedio, A.R.C.; Jacob, D.; Pfeifer, S. [Max Planck Institute for Meteorology (MPI-M), Hamburg (Germany); Robledo, F.; Tencer, B. [Universidad de Buenos Aires, Departamento de Ciencias de la Atmosfera y los Oceanos (DCAO), FCEN, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Soerensson, A.; Zaninelli, P. [Ciudad Universitaria, Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires, Centro de Investigaciones del Mar y la Atmosfera (CIMA), CONICET-UBA, Buenos Aires (Argentina); UMI IFAECI/CNRS, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Boulanger, J.P. [LOCEAN, UMR CNRS/IRD/UPMC, Paris (France); Castro, M. de; Sanchez, E. [Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha (UCLM), Toledo (Spain); Le Treut, H.; Li, L.Z.X. [Sciences de l' Environnement en Ile de France, Laboratoire de Meteorologie Dynamique (LMD), Institut-Pierre-Simon-Laplace et Ecole Doctorale, Paris (France); Penalba, O.; Rusticucci, M. [Universidad de Buenos Aires, Departamento de Ciencias de la Atmosfera y los Oceanos (DCAO), FCEN, Buenos Aires (Argentina); UMI IFAECI/CNRS, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Samuelsson, P. [Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI), Norrkoeping (Sweden)

    2012-12-15

    The ability of four regional climate models to reproduce the present-day South American climate is examined with emphasis on La Plata Basin. Models were integrated for the period 1991-2000 with initial and lateral boundary conditions from ERA-40 Reanalysis. The ensemble sea level pressure, maximum and minimum temperatures and precipitation are evaluated in terms of seasonal means and extreme indices based on a percentile approach. Dispersion among the individual models and uncertainties when comparing the ensemble mean with different climatologies are also discussed. The ensemble mean is warmer than the observations in South Eastern South America (SESA), especially for minimum winter temperatures with errors increasing in magnitude towards the tails of the distributions. The ensemble mean reproduces the broad spatial pattern of precipitation, but overestimates the convective precipitation in the tropics and the orographic precipitation along the Andes and over the Brazilian Highlands, and underestimates the precipitation near the monsoon core region. The models overestimate the number of wet days and underestimate the daily intensity of rainfall for both seasons suggesting a premature triggering of convection. The skill of models to simulate the intensity of convective precipitation in summer in SESA and the variability associated with heavy precipitation events (the upper quartile daily precipitation) is far from satisfactory. Owing to the sparseness of the observing network, ensemble and observations uncertainties in seasonal means are comparable for some regions and seasons. (orig.)

  10. Breakup of pangaea and isolation of relict mammals in australia, South america, and madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fooden, J

    1972-02-25

    The composition of aboriginal land mammal faunas in Australia and New Guinea (prototherians and metatherians), South America (metatherians and eutherians) and Madagascar (eutherians only) is reconsidered in light of continental drift reconstructions of Mesozoic-Tertiary world paleogeography It is proposed that these three faunas represent successively detached samples of the evolving world mammal fauna as it existed when each of these land masses became faunally isolated from the rest of the world as a result of the progressive fragmentation of Pangaea. Isolation of aboriginal prototherians and metatherians in Australia and New Guinea may date from the Upper JurassicLower Cretaceous; isolation of aboriginal metatherians and eutherians in South America may date from the Middle Cretaceous-Upper Cretaceous; isolation of aboriginal eutherians in Madagascar may date from the Paleocene-Eocene.

  11. FORECASTING AND ADAPTATION METHODS FOR HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT USED FOR TOURIST PURPOSE IN CITIES OF SOUTH-EASTERN CHINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qai Liu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers methodological statements concerning formation and development of cultural and tourist zones and complexes in the Chinese cities with precious historical and cultural heritage. Characteristic types of historical buildings in the cities of the Tsiansu province which are located in the south-eastern part ofChinaare given in the paper. The paper contains methods for renovation of historical development for tourist purpose and gives proposals pertaining to arrangement of tourist service objects there that permit to preserve individual image of historical regions.

  12. Practical value of urban geography in urban planning - case study of the south-eastern part of Trbovlje

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naja Marot

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Two centuries of mining have significantly changed the town of Trbovlje in economic, social and spatial terms. This is especially evident in the south-eastern part of the town. On the basis of general geographical analysis of spatial, demographic and economic development, a query of public opinion and a survey of experts' ideas, with description of successful English urban renewal project we try to find out the most effective model and context of the future development in the area in question.

  13. Distribution, spread, and ecological associations of the introduced ant Pheidole obscurithorax in the southeastern United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shonna R. Storz

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available A field survey of the southeastern United States showed that Pheidole obscurithorax Naves, an ant introduced from South America, inhabits a 80-km-wide band along the coast between Mobile, Alabama, and Tallahassee, Florida, and is continuing to increase its range. In Tallahassee P. obscurithorax is rapidly spreading, and its nest density increased by a factor of 6.4 over a two-year period. Evidence suggests that P. obscurithorax has spread gradually by natural means. It coexists with the fire ant Solenopsis invicta Buren, appears to be part of a largely exotic community of ants that are tolerant of highly disturbed habitats, and seems to have little negative effect on the ant communities that it invades.

  14. USA, Russia and the Geopolitical Theatre in the South-Eastern Europe: The Place of Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Pintescu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Core issues addressed in this article are: the existing threats to address the interests of the US geopolitical and geostrategical, particularly in South-Eastern Europe; the resources available to the American State for the protection of those interests; main features (elements geopolitical of Romania; importance for Romania's Alliance with US. Only states or groups of states that may threaten the economic interests of the U.S. military are originated from Eurasia: China, Russia, the Organization of Shanghai cooperation, the European Union. The main opponent of the U.S. in South-Eastern Europe is Russia. Geostrategical interests of Russia remains fundamentally the attempt to divide alliance NATO (in particular by providing the economic benefits of Germany and France and isolate Eastern Europe; in this way, the US military presence in Europe would become problematic. Currently, the US has enough economic and military means in order to avoid this situation.Geopolitical and geostrategical problems of Romania are of two kinds: external and internal. Externally, Romania has some diplomatic disagreements with Ukraine. At the same time, Romania was not able to resolve in the manner of the former Federal Republic of Germany, a consequence of the Second World War: the unification with the Republic of Moldova, the State created artificially by former USSR after the Second World War. Internally, the main geopolitical problems of Romania are the following: underdevelopment and the absence of real economic competitiveness of industry and agriculture; the demographic decline, lowering the standard of living of population. In the absence of support of the USA for Romania, this country will increase the degree of economic dependence towards Russia.

  15. The first Oligocene sea turtle (Pan-Cheloniidae record of South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Cadena

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The evolution and occurrence of fossil sea turtles at the Pacific margin of South America is poorly known and restricted to Neogene (Miocene/Pliocene findings from the Pisco Formation, Peru. Here we report and describe the first record of Oligocene (late Oligocene, ∼24 Ma Pan-Cheloniidae sea turtle remains of South America. The fossil material corresponds to a single, isolated and well-preserved costal bone found at the Montañita/Olón locality, Santa Elena Province, Ecuador. Comparisons with other Oligocene and extant representatives allow us to confirm that belongs to a sea turtle characterized by: lack of lateral ossification, allowing the dorsal exposure of the distal end of ribs; dorsal surface of bone sculptured, changing from dense vermiculation at the vertebral scute region to anastomosing pattern of grooves at the most lateral portion of the costal. This fossil finding shows the high potential that the Ecuadorian Oligocene outcrops have in order to explore the evolution and paleobiogeography distribution of sea turtles by the time that the Pacific and the Atlantic oceans were connected via the Panama basin.

  16. A diplodocid sauropod survivor from the early cretaceous of South America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo A Gallina

    Full Text Available Diplodocids are by far the most emblematic sauropod dinosaurs. They are part of Diplodocoidea, a vast clade whose other members are well-known from Jurassic and Cretaceous strata in Africa, Europe, North and South America. However, Diplodocids were never certainly recognized from the Cretaceous or in any other southern land mass besides Africa. Here we report a new sauropod, Leikupal laticauda gen. et sp. nov., from the early Lower Cretaceous (Bajada Colorada Formation of Neuquén Province, Patagonia, Argentina. This taxon differs from any other sauropod by the presence of anterior caudal transverse process extremely developed with lateroventral expansions reinforced by robust dorsal and ventral bars, very robust centroprezygapophyseal lamina in anterior caudal vertebra and paired pneumatic fossae on the postzygapophyses in anterior-most caudal vertebra. The phylogenetic analyses support its position not only within Diplodocidae but also as a member of Diplodocinae, clustering together with the African form Tornieria, pushing the origin of Diplodocoidea to the Middle Jurassic or even earlier. The new discovery represents the first record of a diplodocid for South America and the stratigraphically youngest record of this clade anywhere.

  17. First case of New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase in Klebsiella pneumoniae from Ecuador: An update for South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Romero-Alvarez

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To describe a clinical case of Klebsiella pneumoniae harboring a New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM plasmid in Ecuador and to present a map of reports of NDM isolates in South America. Methods: The modified Hodge test, carbapenem inactivation method, imipenem–EDTA disk method (synergy, and Rapidec Carba NP test were used to identify antibiotic resistance mechanisms. The presence of resistance genes was explored with a conjugation assay, and molecular confirmation of NDM was performed by PCR and DNA sequencing. Plasmid characterization was conducted by PCR-based replicon typing. A literature review was performed in Google Scholar and PubMed to identify reports from South America. Results: An HIV-infected patient, who had never traveled abroad, developed a bloodstream infection caused by K. pneumoniae ST147 harboring the NDM-1 resistance gene in a plasmid from the IncA/C group. Local circulation of NDM has also been described in other South American countries, in particular in Colombia and Brazil, although published scientific records were not found for other countries. Conclusions: This report presents the first evidence of autochthonous circulation of the NDM-1 resistance gene harbored by an IncA/C plasmid isolated from a K. pneumoniae ST147 in Ecuador. Efforts should be implemented to monitor and characterize the spatial and temporal distribution of NDM in Ecuador and other countries of South America. Keywords: NDM, South America, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Antibiotic resistance, Plasmid

  18. Southeastern Power Administration 2012 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-01-01

    Dear Secretary Moniz: I am pleased to submit Southeastern Power Administration’s (Southeastern) fiscal year (FY) 2012 Annual Report for your review. This report reflects our agency’s programs, accomplishments, operational, and financial activities for the 12-month period beginning October 1, 2011, and ending September 30, 2012. This past year, Southeastern marketed approximately 5.4 billion kilowatt-hours of energy to 487 wholesale customers in 10 southeastern states. Revenues from the sale of this power totaled about $263 million. With the financial assistance and support of Southeastern’s customers, funding for capitalized equipment purchases and replacements at hydroelectric facilities operated by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) continued in FY 2012. Currently, there are more than 214 customers participating in funding infrastructure renewal efforts of powerplants feeding the Georgia-Alabama-South Carolina, Kerr-Philpott, and Cumberland Systems. This funding, which totaled more than $71 million, provided much needed repairs and maintenance for aging projects in Southeastern’s marketing area. Drought conditions continued in the southeastern region of the United States this past year, particularly in the Savannah River Basin. Lack of rainfall strained our natural and financial resources. Power purchases for FY 2012 in the Georgia-Alabama-South Carolina System totaled approximately $29 million. About $8 million of this amount was for replacement power, which is purchased only during adverse water conditions in order to meet Southeastern’s customer contract requirements. Southeastern’s goal is to maximize the benefits of our region’s water resources. Competing uses of these resources will present another challenging year for Southeastern’s employees. With the cooperation and communication among the Department of Energy (DOE), preference customers, and Corps, I am certain Southeastern is positioned to meet these challenges in the future. We

  19. Avian Influenza Virus Isolated in Wild Waterfowl in Argentina: Evidence of a potentially unique phylogenetic lineage in South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereda, Ariel J.; Uhart, Marcela; Perez, Alberto A.; Zaccagnini, Maria E.; La Sala, Luciano; Decarre, Julieta; Goijman, Andrea; Solari, Laura; Suarez, Romina; Craig, Maria I.; Vagnozzi, Ariel; Rimondi, Agustina; König, Guido; Terrera, Maria V.; Kaloghlian, Analia; Song, Haichen; Sorrell, Erin M.; Perez, Daniel R.

    2008-01-01

    Avian Influenza (AI) viruses have been sporadically isolated in South America. The most recent reports are from an outbreak in commercial poultry in Chile in 2002 and its putative ancestor from a wild bird in Bolivia in 2001. Extensive surveillance in wild birds was carried out in Argentina during 2006-2007. Using RRT-PCR, 12 AI positive detections were made from cloacal swabs. One of those positive samples yielded an AI virus isolated from a wild kelp gull (Larus dominicanus) captured in the South Atlantic coastline of Argentina. Further characterization by nucleotide sequencing reveals that it belongs to the H13N9 subtype. Phylogenetic analysis of the 8 viral genes suggests that the 6 internal genes are related to the isolates from Chile and Bolivia. The analysis also indicates that a cluster of phylogenetically related AI viruses from South America may have evolved independently, with minimal gene exchange, from influenza viruses in other latitudes. The data produced from our investigations are valuable contributions to the study of AI viruses in South America. PMID:18632129

  20. The Hydrologic Regime of the La Plata Basin in South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berbery, E. H.; Barros, V. R.

    2002-12-01

    The main components of the hydrologic cycle of the La Plata basin in southeastern South America are investigated using a combination of observations, satellite products and National Centers for Environmental Prediction-National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP-NCAR) global reanalyses. La Plata basin is second only to the Amazon basin in South America, and plays a critical role in the economies of the region. It is a primary factor in energy production, water resources, transportation, agriculture and livestock. Of particular interest was to evaluate the annual cycle of the hydrologic cycle components. The La Plata annual-mean river discharge is about 21,000 m3 s-1, and the amplitude of the mean annual cycle of La Plata River discharge is small: it is slightly larger during late summer, but continues with large volumes even during winter. The reason is that different precipitation regimes over different locations contribute to the total river discharge. One regime is found toward the northern boundary, where precipitation peaks during summer in association with the southernmost extension of the monsoon system. A second one is found over the central part of the basin, where precipitation peaks at different times in the seasonal cycle. Further analysis of the main tributaries of La Plata (Paran , Uruguay and Paraguay) reveals that each has a well defined annual cycle, but with different phases that can be traced primarily to each basin's physiography and precipitation regime. The upper and middle portions of the Paran River are most influenced by the summer monsoon regime, thus the river has a maximum discharge in late summer. The annual cycle of precipitation over the Uruguay River basin has two maxima, one in late autumn and the second one in spring and, consistently, the river discharge is largest in winter and spring. The smooth annual cycle of the Paraguay River discharge, with a maximum in winter, is the result of the Pantanal, a large wetland that

  1. Health outcomes among HIV-positive Latinos initiating antiretroviral therapy in North America versus Central and South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesar, Carina; Koethe, John R; Giganti, Mark J; Rebeiro, Peter; Althoff, Keri N; Napravnik, Sonia; Mayor, Angel; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Wolff, Marcelo; Padgett, Denis; Sierra-Madero, Juan; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Sterling, Timothy R; Willig, James; Levison, Julie; Kitahata, Mari; Rodriguez-Barradas, Maria C; Moore, Richard D; McGowan, Catherine; Shepherd, Bryan E; Cahn, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Latinos living with HIV in the Americas share a common ethnic and cultural heritage. In North America, Latinos have a relatively high rate of new HIV infections but lower rates of engagement at all stages of the care continuum, whereas in Latin America antiretroviral therapy (ART) services continue to expand to meet treatment needs. In this analysis, we compare HIV treatment outcomes between Latinos receiving ART in North America versus Latin America. Methods HIV-positive adults initiating ART at Caribbean, Central and South America Network for HIV (CCASAnet) sites were compared to Latino patients (based on country of origin or ethnic identity) starting treatment at North American AIDS Cohort Collaboration on Research and Design (NA-ACCORD) sites in the United States and Canada between 2000 and 2011. Cox proportional hazards models compared mortality, treatment interruption, antiretroviral regimen change, virologic failure and loss to follow-up between cohorts. Results The study included 8400 CCASAnet and 2786 NA-ACCORD patients initiating ART. CCASAnet patients were younger (median 35 vs. 37 years), more likely to be female (27% vs. 20%) and had lower nadir CD4 count (median 148 vs. 195 cells/µL, p<0.001 for all). In multivariable analyses, CCASAnet patients had a higher risk of mortality after ART initiation (adjusted hazard ratio (AHR) 1.61; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.32 to 1.96), particularly during the first year, but a lower hazard of treatment interruption (AHR: 0.46; 95% CI: 0.42 to 0.50), change to second-line ART (AHR: 0.56; 95% CI: 0.51 to 0.62) and virologic failure (AHR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.48 to 0.57). Conclusions HIV-positive Latinos initiating ART in Latin America have greater continuity of treatment but are at higher risk of death than Latinos in North America. Factors underlying these differences, such as HIV testing, linkage and access to care, warrant further investigation. PMID:26996992

  2. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a large South American industrial coastal area (Santos Estuary, Southeastern Brazil): Sources and depositional history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Cesar C.; Bicego, Marcia C.; Mahiques, Michel M.; Figueira, Rubens C.L.; Tessler, Moyses G.; Montone, Rosalinda C.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → In early 1980s, Santos Estuary became known as one of the worst polluted in the world. → PAHs levels were similar to the values reported for marine sediments worldwide. → PAHs analyses indicated multiple sources of these compounds (oil and pyrolitic origin). → The decline of oil consumption due to the world oil crisis (late 1970s) was shown. → The input of organic pollutants is a historical problem for the Santos Estuary. - Abstract: Located in southeastern Brazil, the Santos Estuary has the most important industrial and urban population area of South America. Since the 1950's, increased urbanization and industrialization near the estuary margins has caused the degradation of mangroves and has increased the discharge of sewage and industrial effluents. The main objectives of this work were to determine the concentrations and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediment cores in order to investigate the input of these substances in the last 50 years. The PAHs analyses indicated multiple sources of these compounds (oil and pyrolitic origin), basically anthropogenic contributions from biomass, coal and fossil fuels combustion. The distribution of PAHs in the cores was associated with the formation and development of Cubatao industrial complex and the Santos harbour, waste disposal, world oil crisis and the pollution control program, which results in the decrease of organic pollutants input in this area.

  3. Lithium Geopolitics in South America and the divergents national public policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Salgado Rodrigues

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to address the geopolitics of lithium in South America from the analysis of Argentine, Bolivian and Chilean public policies. Our hypothesis is that there is an institutional divergence between these countries with different projects related to this natural resource. From a geostrategic vision, we argued that regional integration can play a key role in the sovereignty of lithium for countries and their societies.

  4. First report of Raoiella indica Hirst (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) in South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasquez, Carlos; Quiros de G, Magally; Aponte, Orlando; Sandoval, D. Maria F.

    2008-01-01

    The presence of the red palm mite, Raoiella indica Hirst is recorded for the first time in South America. High populations and severe damages caused by this new invasive mite were found on coconut and banana leaves in Sucre (10 deg 27' 47 N and 64 deg 10' 38 W ) and Monagas (9 deg 46'60 N and 63 deg 12'0 W ) states in northeastern Venezuela. (author)

  5. Arrival of Paleo-Indians to the southern cone of South America: new clues from mitogenomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle de Saint Pierre

    Full Text Available With analyses of entire mitogenomes, studies of Native American mitochondrial DNA (MTDNA variation have entered the final phase of phylogenetic refinement: the dissection of the founding haplogroups into clades that arose in America during and after human arrival and spread. Ages and geographic distributions of these clades could provide novel clues on the colonization processes of the different regions of the double continent. As for the Southern Cone of South America, this approach has recently allowed the identification of two local clades (D1g and D1j whose age estimates agree with the dating of the earliest archaeological sites in South America, indicating that Paleo-Indians might have reached that region from Beringia in less than 2000 years. In this study, we sequenced 46 mitogenomes belonging to two additional clades, termed B2i2 (former B2l and C1b13, which were recently identified on the basis of mtDNA control-region data and whose geographical distributions appear to be restricted to Chile and Argentina. We confirm that their mutational motifs most likely arose in the Southern Cone region. However, the age estimate for B2i2 and C1b13 (11-13,000 years appears to be younger than those of other local clades. The difference could reflect the different evolutionary origins of the distinct South American-specific sub-haplogroups, with some being already present, at different times and locations, at the very front of the expansion wave in South America, and others originating later in situ, when the tribalization process had already begun. A delayed origin of a few thousand years in one of the locally derived populations, possibly in the central part of Chile, would have limited the geographical and ethnic diffusion of B2i2 and explain the present-day occurrence that appears to be mainly confined to the Tehuelche and Araucanian-speaking groups.

  6. Seismic hazard, risk, and design for South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Mark D.; Harmsen, Stephen; Jaiswal, Kishor; Rukstales, Kenneth S.; Luco, Nicolas; Haller, Kathleen; Mueller, Charles; Shumway, Allison

    2018-01-01

    We calculate seismic hazard, risk, and design criteria across South America using the latest data, models, and methods to support public officials, scientists, and engineers in earthquake risk mitigation efforts. Updated continental scale seismic hazard models are based on a new seismicity catalog, seismicity rate models, evaluation of earthquake sizes, fault geometry and rate parameters, and ground‐motion models. Resulting probabilistic seismic hazard maps show peak ground acceleration, modified Mercalli intensity, and spectral accelerations at 0.2 and 1 s periods for 2%, 10%, and 50% probabilities of exceedance in 50 yrs. Ground shaking soil amplification at each site is calculated by considering uniform soil that is applied in modern building codes or by applying site‐specific factors based on VS30">VS30 shear‐wave velocities determined through a simple topographic proxy technique. We use these hazard models in conjunction with the Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response (PAGER) model to calculate economic and casualty risk. Risk is computed by incorporating the new hazard values amplified by soil, PAGER fragility/vulnerability equations, and LandScan 2012 estimates of population exposure. We also calculate building design values using the guidelines established in the building code provisions. Resulting hazard and associated risk is high along the northern and western coasts of South America, reaching damaging levels of ground shaking in Chile, western Argentina, western Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador, Colombia, Venezuela, and in localized areas distributed across the rest of the continent where historical earthquakes have occurred. Constructing buildings and other structures to account for strong shaking in these regions of high hazard and risk should mitigate losses and reduce casualties from effects of future earthquake strong ground shaking. National models should be developed by scientists and engineers in each country using the best

  7. Feline immunodeficiency virus in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Bruno M; Hagiwara, Mitika K; Cruz, Juliano C M; Hosie, Margaret J

    2012-03-01

    The rapid emergence of AIDS in humans during the period between 1980 and 2000 has led to extensive efforts to understand more fully similar etiologic agents of chronic and progressive acquired immunodeficiency disease in several mammalian species. Lentiviruses that have gene sequence homology with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have been found in different species (including sheep, goats, horses, cattle, cats, and several Old World monkey species). Lentiviruses, comprising a genus of the Retroviridae family, cause persistent infection that can lead to varying degrees of morbidity and mortality depending on the virus and the host species involved. Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) causes an immune system disease in domestic cats (Felis catus) involving depletion of the CD4+ population of T lymphocytes, increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections, and sometimes death. Viruses related to domestic cat FIV occur also in a variety of nondomestic felids. This is a brief overview of the current state of knowledge of this large and ancient group of viruses (FIVs) in South America.

  8. Position paper: Inland waterways classification for South America : Core concepts and initial proposals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaimurzina, A.; Koedijk, O.C.; Wilmsmeier, G.; Dohms, A.; Montiel, D.; Pauli, G.; Rigo, P; Spengler, T.; Wens, F.

    2016-01-01

    South America, as of yet, has not been able to take full advantage of its extensive system of naturally navigable waterways and in making them an integrated part of the region’s transport network to cater for the ever increasing demand for cargo and human mobility. Infrastructure limitations are one

  9. Energy integration experiences at the Europe, at the Nordic countries and at the Central America: considerations relevant to the South America integration process; Experiencias de integracao energetica na Europa, nos paises nordicos e na America Central: consideracoes relevantes ao processo de integracao Sul-Americana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Adriana Fiorotti; Andreza, Fernanda Marques Pereira; Soares, Jeferson Borghetti; Pinheiro, Maria Fernanda Bacile; Oliveira, Ricardo Gorini de [Empresa de Pesquisa Energetica (EPE), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], Emails: adriana.campos@epe.gov.br, fernanda.andreza@epe.gov.br; jeferson.soares@epe.gov.br, maria.pinheiro, ricardo.gorini@epe.gov.br

    2010-07-01

    In view of institutional/contractual regulatory problems at the South America, some experiences of energy integration at the electrical sectors and natural gas (Nordic countries. European Union and Central America), identifying related vantages and advantageous. Besides, there is an attempt of characterization of the process step of energy integration, and the fitting of regions in these steps, observing that the process of energy integration in the South America it is found in a initial step yet if it is considered the used methodology by the Colombian enterprise Interconexion Electrica S.A.E.S.P. - ISA (2007)

  10. Rising Against the Thieves. Anti-Corruption Campaigns in South-Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Milan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the 2010s, bottom-up anti-corruption mobilizations have broken out in different countries of south-eastern Europe. Bosnia-Herzegovina in 2014 and Macedonia in 2015 and 2016 were amongst the states in democratic and economic transition in which thousands of people took to the streets to express their discontent against a ruling class blamed for corruption. Although triggered by different events, these mobilizations present a number of similarities. Building on qualitative interviews and ethnographic observation of interactions on social media platforms, this article investigates the discursive strategies that movement organizers used to frame their claims and the protestors' identity in both countries. The article explores the ways in which protest leaders in the two countries appropriated the topic of corruption "from below" to delegitimize the ruling class using similar motivational, identity and diagnostic frames, notwithstanding the protests being spurred by diverse events. Furthermore, it elucidates the similarities and differences among the prognostic frames, that is, the proposed solutions to the problem of political corruption.

  11. Hydrochemical and toxicological characteristics of state national nature park “Kolsay Kolderi" lakes (Kungei Alatau, South-Eastern Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krupa Elena G.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In August 2015 four ultrafresh mountain lakes of Kolsay National Nature Park, located at an altitude of 1829–3170 m a.s.l., were examined. The water mineralization of the lakes decreased from 123.9 to 26.6 mg/dm3 with decreasing altitude above sea level. The concentration of dissolved organic matter and nitrogen compounds was at levels below the temporary maximum allowable concentration (MAC. Phosphorus has not been found in the water. The concentration of iron in the water has reached 44.0–440.0 g/dm3. The concentration of heavy metals in the water, except copper, was 10–100 times lower than the maximum allowable concentrations for standards of fishery waterbodies. The concentration of copper in water exceeded the permissible limits 2.6–5.5 times. The concentration of lead, copper, zinc, nickel and chromium in water has decreased from Lower Kolsay to Upper Kolsay. The most highland and shallow lake, which located under the Sarybulak mountain pass, had a higher concentration of lead, copper, zinc and nickel in the water than in the downstream lakes. The concentration of zinc, cadmium, lead, chromium, cobalt and nickel in the water of the other high mountain reservoirs of South-Eastern Kazakhstan has not exceeded 0.7 of MAC temporary. The concentration of copper has reached 1.5–13.9 of MAC temporary. In mountain lakes and reservoirs, the metal concentrations in the water decreased at lower altitudes, similar but less pronounce to their spatial dynamics in mountain rivers. Background concentration of cadmium and zinc in the mountain reservoirs of South-Eastern Kazakhstan was equivalent to the uncontaminated waters of the Tien Shan, the Alps and the Western Sayan mountain ranges. However, the concentration of copper, lead and chromium were higher respectively. Considering the remoteness of the region from the sources of anthropogenic influences, the background concentrations of heavy metals for water reservoirs of South-Eastern Kazakhstan

  12. Deforestation and climate feedbacks threaten the ecological integrity of south-southeastern Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, Michael T; Marthews, Toby R; Costa, Marcos Heil; Galbraith, David R; Greenglass, Nora L; Imbuzeiro, Hewlley M A; Levine, Naomi M; Malhi, Yadvinder; Moorcroft, Paul R; Muza, Michel Nobre; Powell, Thomas L; Saleska, Scott R; Solorzano, Luis A; Wang, Jingfeng

    2013-06-05

    A mosaic of protected areas, including indigenous lands, sustainable-use production forests and reserves and strictly protected forests is the cornerstone of conservation in the Amazon, with almost 50 per cent of the region now protected. However, recent research indicates that isolation from direct deforestation or degradation may not be sufficient to maintain the ecological integrity of Amazon forests over the next several decades. Large-scale changes in fire and drought regimes occurring as a result of deforestation and greenhouse gas increases may result in forest degradation, regardless of protected status. How severe or widespread these feedbacks will be is uncertain, but the arc of deforestation in south-southeastern Amazonia appears to be particularly vulnerable owing to high current deforestation rates and ecological sensitivity to climate change. Maintaining forest ecosystem integrity may require significant strengthening of forest conservation on private property, which can in part be accomplished by leveraging existing policy mechanisms.

  13. Wood pellets, what else? : Greenhouse gas parity times of European electricity from wood pellets produced in the south-eastern United States using different softwood feedstocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanssen, Steef V.; Duden, Anna S.; Junginger, Martin; Dale, Virginia H.; van der Hilst, Floortje

    Several EU countries import wood pellets from the south-eastern United States. The imported wood pellets are (co-)fired in power plants with the aim of reducing overall greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from electricity and meeting EU renewable energy targets. To assess whether GHG emissions are

  14. Parallel Epidemics of Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus USA300 Infection in North and South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planet, Paul J; Diaz, Lorena; Kolokotronis, Sergios-Orestis; Narechania, Apurva; Reyes, Jinnethe; Xing, Galen; Rincon, Sandra; Smith, Hannah; Panesso, Diana; Ryan, Chanelle; Smith, Dylan P; Guzman, Manuel; Zurita, Jeannete; Sebra, Robert; Deikus, Gintaras; Nolan, Rathel L; Tenover, Fred C; Weinstock, George M; Robinson, D Ashley; Arias, Cesar A

    2015-12-15

    The community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) epidemic in the United States is attributed to the spread of the USA300 clone. An epidemic of CA-MRSA closely related to USA300 has occurred in northern South America (USA300 Latin-American variant, USA300-LV). Using phylogenomic analysis, we aimed to understand the relationships between these 2 epidemics. We sequenced the genomes of 51 MRSA clinical isolates collected between 1999 and 2012 from the United States, Colombia, Venezuela, and Ecuador. Phylogenetic analysis was used to infer the relationships and times since the divergence of the major clades. Phylogenetic analyses revealed 2 dominant clades that segregated by geographical region, had a putative common ancestor in 1975, and originated in 1989, in North America, and in 1985, in South America. Emergence of these parallel epidemics coincides with the independent acquisition of the arginine catabolic mobile element (ACME) in North American isolates and a novel copper and mercury resistance (COMER) mobile element in South American isolates. Our results reveal the existence of 2 parallel USA300 epidemics that shared a recent common ancestor. The simultaneous rapid dissemination of these 2 epidemic clades suggests the presence of shared, potentially convergent adaptations that enhance fitness and ability to spread. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Migration of Computer Science Graduates from South Asia to Europe and North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, W. A.; Siddiqi, A. B.; Ahmed, F.

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses the influx of computer science graduates from South Asia into Europe and North America. It analyses the need and supply chains between two points and identifies the pros and cons of the education imparted to these graduates. The effects of social disorder due to migrations are addressed. The resulting technological vacuum in…

  16. Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome—A Case Report from Guyana in South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Eapen

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of the Gilles de la Tourette syndrome from Guyana in South America is presented. The patient had a positive family history as well as coprolalia, echolalia, and attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity. The family history and cross-cultural similarity emphasise the biological factors in the aetiology of the syndrome.

  17. Multilocus genotypes indicate differentiation among Puccinia psidii populations from South America and Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. N. Graca; A. C. Alfenas; A. L. Ross-Davis; Ned Klopfenstein; M. -S. Kim; T. L. Peever; P. G. Cannon; J. Y. Uchida; C. Y. Kadooka; R. D. Hauff

    2011-01-01

    Puccinia psidii is the cause of rust disease of many host species in the Myrtaceae family, including guava (Psidium spp.), eucalypt (Eucalyptus spp.), rose apple (Syzygium jambos), and 'ohi'a (Metrosideros polymorpha). First reported in 1884 on guava in Brazil, the rust has since been detected in South America (Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Paraguay, Uruguay,...

  18. Comparison between weather station data in south-eastern Italy and CRU precipitation datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miglietta, D.

    2009-04-01

    Monthly precipitation data in south-eastern Italy from 1920 to 2005 have been extensively analyzed. Data were collected in almost 200 weather stations located 10-20km apart from each other and almost uniformly distributed in Puglia and Basilicata regions. Apart from few years around world war II, time series are mostly complete and allow a reliable reconstruction of climate variability in the considered region. Statistically significant trends have been studied by applying the Mann-Kendall test to annual, seasonal and monthly values. A comparison has been made between observations and precipitation data given by the Climate Research Unit (CRU), University of East Anglia, with both low (30') and high (10') space resolution grid. In particular, rainfall records, time series behaviors and annual cycles at each station have been compared to the corresponding CRU data. CRU time series show a large negative trend for winter since 1970. Trend is not significant if the whole 20th century is considered (both for the whole year and for winter only). This might be considered as an evidence of recent acceleration towards increasingly dry conditions. However correlation between CRU data and observations is not very high and large percent errors are present mainly in the mountains regions, where observations show a large annual cycle, with intense precipitation in winter, which is not present in CRU data. To identify trends, therefore observed data are needed, even at monthly scale. In particular observations confirm the overall trend, but also indicate large spatial variability, with locations where precipitation has even increased since 1970. Daily precipitation data coming from a subset of weather stations have also been studied for the same time period. The distributions of maximum annual rainfalls, wet spells and dry spells were analyzed for each station, together with their time series. The tools of statistical analysis of extremes have been used in order to evaluate

  19. Rediscovering South America

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ray, Charles; Shearer, Thomas D; Staszak, Michael

    1997-01-01

    In presenting the U.S. National Security Strategy of Engagement and Enlargement the Clinton Administration states that, "The unprecedented triumph of democracy and market economies throughout the (Latin America...

  20. Pb pollution from leaded gasoline in South America in the context of a 2000-year metallurgical history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichler, Anja; Gramlich, Gabriela; Kellerhals, Thomas; Tobler, Leonhard; Schwikowski, Margit

    2015-03-01

    Exploitation of the extensive polymetallic deposits of the Andean Altiplano in South America since precolonial times has caused substantial emissions of neurotoxic lead (Pb) into the atmosphere; however, its historical significance compared to recent Pb pollution from leaded gasoline is not yet resolved. We present a comprehensive Pb emission history for the last two millennia for South America, based on a continuous, high-resolution, ice core record from Illimani glacier. Illimani is the highest mountain of the eastern Bolivian Andes and is located at the northeastern margin of the Andean Altiplano. The ice core Pb deposition history revealed enhanced Pb enrichment factors (EFs) due to metallurgical processing for silver production during periods of the Tiwanaku/Wari culture (AD 450-950), the Inca empires (AD 1450-1532), colonial times (AD 1532-1900), and tin production at the beginning of the 20th century. After the 1960s, Pb EFs increased by a factor of 3 compared to the emission level from metal production, which we attribute to gasoline-related Pb emissions. Our results show that anthropogenic Pb pollution levels from road traffic in South America exceed those of any historical metallurgy in the last two millennia, even in regions with exceptional high local metallurgical activity.

  1. Pb pollution from leaded gasoline in South America in the context of a 2000-year metallurgical history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichler, Anja; Gramlich, Gabriela; Kellerhals, Thomas; Tobler, Leonhard; Schwikowski, Margit

    2015-01-01

    Exploitation of the extensive polymetallic deposits of the Andean Altiplano in South America since precolonial times has caused substantial emissions of neurotoxic lead (Pb) into the atmosphere; however, its historical significance compared to recent Pb pollution from leaded gasoline is not yet resolved. We present a comprehensive Pb emission history for the last two millennia for South America, based on a continuous, high-resolution, ice core record from Illimani glacier. Illimani is the highest mountain of the eastern Bolivian Andes and is located at the northeastern margin of the Andean Altiplano. The ice core Pb deposition history revealed enhanced Pb enrichment factors (EFs) due to metallurgical processing for silver production during periods of the Tiwanaku/Wari culture (AD 450–950), the Inca empires (AD 1450–1532), colonial times (AD 1532–1900), and tin production at the beginning of the 20th century. After the 1960s, Pb EFs increased by a factor of 3 compared to the emission level from metal production, which we attribute to gasoline-related Pb emissions. Our results show that anthropogenic Pb pollution levels from road traffic in South America exceed those of any historical metallurgy in the last two millennia, even in regions with exceptional high local metallurgical activity. PMID:26601147

  2. Pleistocene changes in the fauna and flora of South america.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuilleumier, B S

    1971-08-27

    forest elements (40) now justify the conclusion that the floras and faunas of these areas were also greatly affected by Pleistocene climatic shifts. In the broad region of South America that lies within the tropics, a series of humid-arid cycles (Appendix, 6, 8-10) drastically and repeatedly altered vegetation patterns during the Quaternary. Both montane and lowland rainforests were fragmented during dry periods and were able to reexpand during humid phases. Speciation of forest elements was initiated-and sometimes completed-in isolated patches of the fragmented forest. Secondary contact, with hybridization or reunition of populations that did not become reproductively isolated, occurred in periods of reexpansion. These biological data, combined with supportive geological evidence (Appendix, 1-11), show that climatic events during the last million or so years have affected the biota of South America as much as the Pleistocene glacial changes affected the biotas of Eurasia and North America. Since most of South America lies within tropical latitudes, it is suggested here that part of the diversity of species in the tropical areas of this continent is due to two historical factors: the lack of wholesale elimination of species (compared with northern and high latitudes), and ample opportunity for speciation in successive periods of ecological isolation. The apparent paradox of the wealth of species in the "stable tropics" is partially explained by the fact that the tropics have probably been quite unstable, from the point of view of their biotas, during the Pleistocene and perhaps part of the Tertiary.

  3. Effects of Biosolids Application on Pasture and Grape Vines in South-Eastern Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Nash

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Biosolids were applied to a pasture and a vineyard in south-eastern Australia. At both sites, soil Cd, Cu, and Zn concentrations linearly increased with biosolids application rates although not to the extent of exceeding soil quality guidelines. Biosolids marginally increased soil C and N concentrations at the pasture site but significantly increased P concentrations. With lower overall soil fertility at the vineyard, biosolids increased C, N, and P concentrations. At neither site did biosolids application affect soil microbial endpoints. Biosolids increased pasture production compared to the unfertilised control but had little effect on grape production or quality. Interestingly, over the 3-year trial, there was no difference in pasture production between the biosolids treated plots and plots receiving inorganic fertiliser. These results suggest that biosolids could be used as a fertiliser to stimulate pasture production and as a soil conditioner to improve vineyard soils in this region.

  4. Transition, Reconstruction and Stability in South-Eastern Europe. The Role of Vocational Education and Training. Working Document. [European Training Foundation and Kulturkontakt Austria Joint Workshop on "Civil Society and Vocational Education Training. The Role of Democratic Citizenship and Diversity Education" (Mavrovo, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, September 9-11, 1999)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    European Training Foundation, Turin (Italy).

    This document includes the following papers: "The European Training Foundation's Experience in Supporting Human Resource Development in South-Eastern Europe" (Peter de Rooij); "Transition, Reconstruction and Stability in South-Eastern Europe; The Role of Vocational Education and Training" (Cesar Birzea, Peter Grootings, Tzako…

  5. Future change of climate in South America in the late twenty-first century: intercomparison of scenarios from three regional climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marengo, Jose A.; Ambrizzi, Tercio; Da Rocha, Rosmeri P.; Alves, Lincoln M.; Cuadra, Santiago V.; Valverde, Maria C.; Torres, Roger R.; Santos, Daniel C.; Ferraz, Simone E. T.

    2010-11-01

    Regional climate change projections for the last half of the twenty-first century have been produced for South America, as part of the CREAS (Cenarios REgionalizados de Clima Futuro da America do Sul) regional project. Three regional climate models RCMs (Eta CCS, RegCM3 and HadRM3P) were nested within the HadAM3P global model. The simulations cover a 30-year period representing present climate (1961-1990) and projections for the IPCC A2 high emission scenario for 2071-2100. The focus was on the changes in the mean circulation and surface variables, in particular, surface air temperature and precipitation. There is a consistent pattern of changes in circulation, rainfall and temperatures as depicted by the three models. The HadRM3P shows intensification and a more southward position of the subtropical Pacific high, while a pattern of intensification/weakening during summer/winter is projected by the Eta CCS/RegCM3. There is a tendency for a weakening of the subtropical westerly jet from the Eta CCS and HadRM3P, consistent with other studies. There are indications that regions such of Northeast Brazil and central-eastern and southern Amazonia may experience rainfall deficiency in the future, while the Northwest coast of Peru-Ecuador and northern Argentina may experience rainfall excesses in a warmer future, and these changes may vary with the seasons. The three models show warming in the A2 scenario stronger in the tropical region, especially in the 5°N-15°S band, both in summer and especially in winter, reaching up to 6-8°C warmer than in the present. In southern South America, the warming in summer varies between 2 and 4°C and in winter between 3 and 5°C in the same region from the 3 models. These changes are consistent with changes in low level circulation from the models, and they are comparable with changes in rainfall and temperature extremes reported elsewhere. In summary, some aspects of projected future climate change are quite robust across this set of

  6. Neotropical mammal diversity and the Great American Biotic Interchange: spatial and temporal variation in South America's fossil record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, Juan D.; Forasiepi, Analía; Jaramillo, Carlos; Sánchez-Villagra, Marcelo R.

    2015-01-01

    The vast mammal diversity of the Neotropics is the result of a long evolutionary history. During most of the Cenozoic, South America was an island continent with an endemic mammalian fauna. This isolation ceased during the late Neogene after the formation of the Isthmus of Panama, resulting in an event known as the Great American Biotic Interchange (GABI). In this study, we investigate biogeographic patterns in South America, just before or when the first immigrants are recorded and we review the temporal and geographical distribution of fossil mammals during the GABI. We performed a dissimilarity analysis which grouped the faunal assemblages according to their age and their geographic distribution. Our data support the differentiation between tropical and temperate assemblages in South America during the middle and late Miocene. The GABI begins during the late Miocene (~10–7 Ma) and the putative oldest migrations are recorded in the temperate region, where the number of GABI participants rapidly increases after ~5 Ma and this trend continues during the Pleistocene. A sampling bias toward higher latitudes and younger records challenges the study of the temporal and geographic patterns of the GABI. PMID:25601879

  7. DISCUSSING THE ROLE OF MIGRATION AND EDUCATION IN FIGHTING ECONOMIC VULNERABILITY IN SOUTH-EASTERN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Raileanu-Szeles

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to examine the effects of the net migration rate and higher education on a set of economic vulnerability indicators in the South-Eastern EU countries, when controlling inter alia for other explanatory variables. These relationships are explored by panel data regression models, using macroeconomic variables collected over 10 years from the Eurostat dataset. The random effects Generalized Least Squares (GLS and the system Generalized Method of Moments (GMM estimators are comparatively examined. The paper finds that the tertiary education attainments do not represent a significant determinant of income inequality and subjective well-being, while the net migration rate and lifelong learning exert a significant and powerful impact on most our measures of economic vulnerability over the period of analysis.

  8. Wild and native plants and mushrooms sold in the open-air markets of south-eastern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper-Pakosz, Renata; Pietras, Marcin; Łuczaj, Łukasz

    2016-10-07

    The study of plants and fungi sold in open-air markets is an important part of ethnobotanical enquiry. Only few such studies were carried out in Europe. Four of the largest open-air markets of south-eastern Poland were visited regularly, and the plants sold in them were recorded between 2013 and 2015. The aim of the study was to record native and/or wild species sold in the markets. All the plants sold in the markets were photographed regularly. In each market, 25 sellers were interviewed. Voucher specimens were collected and fungi were identified using DNA barcoding. Altogether, 468 species of plants were recorded, 117 of them native to south-eastern Poland - 19 only collected from the wild and 11 both wild and cultivated. Seventeen of the species are under legal protection. Most protected plants were sold from cultivation, although proper authorization procedures had not been performed. Thirty-two species of fungi were sold (including two cultivated species), all of them for culinary purposes. Two species (Lactarius quieticolor, Leccinum schistophilum) are new to the mycobiota of Poland. Ornamental plants constituted a large section of the market, and they dominated the group of native species. Food plants dominated among wild-collected plants and were sold mainly as fruits for jams, juices and alcoholic drinks, or as culinary herbs. Very few medicinal or green vegetable plants were sold. An interesting feature of the markets was the sale of Ledum palustre as an insect repellent. Finding two species of fungi which are new to Poland highlights the importance of DNA barcoding in ethnomycological studies. Most items in the markets are ornamental plants, or edible fruits and mushrooms. Very few medicinal plants and green vegetables are sold, which differentiates the markets from southern European ones. Such a pattern is probably the model for most central European markets.

  9. The first Triassic dipteran (Insecta) from South America, with review of Hennigmatidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, María Belén; Lukashevich, Elena D

    2013-01-01

    The first Triassic dipteran from South America is described based on an isolated wing from the lower Upper Triassic deposits of Argentina (Mendoza Province, Potrerillos Formation, Quebrada del Durazno locality). Trihennigma zavattierii gen. et sp. nov. is a member of the Mesozoic family Hennigmatidae, previously recorded only from Eurasia. A key for the genera and species of Hennigmatidae is provided and systematic position of the taxa is discussed.

  10. Long-term trends and interannual variability of forest, savanna and agricultural fires in South America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Y.; Morton, D. C.; Yin, Y. F.; Collatz, G. J.; Kasibhatla, P. S.; van der Werf, G.R.; DeFries, R. S.; Randerson, J. T.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Landscape fires in South America have considerable impacts on ecosystems, air quality and the climate system. We examined long-term trends and interannual variability of forest, savanna and agricultural fires for the continent during 2001-2012 using multiple satellite-derived fire

  11. The sexual history of the global South: sexual politics in Africa, Asia and Latin America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, S.; Sívori, H.

    2013-01-01

    The Sexual History of the Global South explores the gap between sexuality studies and post-colonial cultural critique. Featuring twelve case studies, based on original historical and ethnographic research from countries in Africa, Asia, and Latin America, the book examines the sexual investments

  12. Feline Immunodeficiency Virus in South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno M. Teixeira

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The rapid emergence of AIDS in humans during the period between 1980 and 2000 has led to extensive efforts to understand more fully similar etiologic agents of chronic and progressive acquired immunodeficiency disease in several mammalian species. Lentiviruses that have gene sequence homology with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV have been found in different species (including sheep, goats, horses, cattle, cats, and several Old World monkey species. Lentiviruses, comprising a genus of the Retroviridae family, cause persistent infection that can lead to varying degrees of morbidity and mortality depending on the virus and the host species involved. Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV causes an immune system disease in domestic cats (Felis catus involving depletion of the CD4+ population of T lymphocytes, increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections, and sometimes death. Viruses related to domestic cat FIV occur also in a variety of nondomestic felids. This is a brief overview of the current state of knowledge of this large and ancient group of viruses (FIVs in South America.

  13. Microturbine applications for the oil and gas industries of South America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richards, Lee [Capstone Turbine Corp., Chatsworth, CA (United States); Vescovo, Edgardo [Capstone Turbine Corp. South America (Colombia)

    2008-07-01

    This paper will describe the application of power generation by the use of microturbine technology by Capstone Turbine Corporation throughout South America. The purpose of this paper is to describe the technology and the experience gained over the last six years. The microturbines are power generation systems that produce energy from a diverse range of liquid or gaseous fuels. The generator is driven by a small gas turbine with a common shaft for the rotors of the generator and the engine. (author)

  14. THE MILITARY STATE IN SOUTH AMERICA: INTERVENTIONISM, CAUDILLOS AND ARMED FORCES

    OpenAIRE

    PEDRO RIVAS NIETO

    2018-01-01

    In this work the author analyzes the elements of the Military State, which was the result of National Security Regimes. They ruled South America during the last third of the 20th century. The behaviour of the Armed Forces is compared with that of the classic caudillos. The Armed Forces-Civil Society relationship is studied too. And, of course, the intervention in political issues by the military and their relationship with political parties is also analyzed, as well. The conclusion ends with ...

  15. Using Key Informant Method to Determine the Prevalence and Causes of Childhood Blindness in South-Eastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghaji, Ada E; Ezegwui, Ifeoma R; Shiweobi, Jude O; Mamah, Cyril C; Okoloagu, Mary N; Onwasigwe, Ernest N

    2017-12-01

    To determine the prevalence and causes of childhood blindness in an underserved community in south-eastern Nigeria using the key informant method. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study. Key informants (KI) appointed by their respective communities received 1-day training on identification of blind children in their communities. Two weeks later, the research team visited the agreed sites within the community and examined the identified children. The World Health Organization eye examination record for blind children was used for data collection. Data entry and analysis were done with the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 17.0. Fifteen blind or severely visually impaired children (age range 3 months to 15 years) were identified in this community; nine of these were brought by the KIs. The prevalence of childhood blindness/severe visual impairment (BL/SVI) was 0.12 per 1000 children. By anatomical classification, operable cataract in 6 (40.0%) was the leading cause of BL/SVI in the series; followed by optic nerve lesions (atrophy/hypoplasia) in 3 (20.0%). The etiology of BL/SVI is unknown for the majority of the children (66.7%). It was presumed hereditary in four children (26.7%). Sixty percent of the blindness was judged avoidable. Only three children (20.0%) were enrolled in the Special Education Centre for the Blind. The prevalence of childhood BL/SVI in our study population is low but over half of the blindness is avoidable. There may be a significant backlog of operable childhood cataract in south-eastern Nigeria. The KI method is a practical method for case finding of blind children in rural communities.

  16. The first peopling of South America: new evidence from Y-chromosome haplogroup Q.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia, Vincenza; Grugni, Viola; Perego, Ugo Alessandro; Angerhofer, Norman; Gomez-Palmieri, J Edgar; Woodward, Scott Ray; Achilli, Alessandro; Myres, Natalie; Torroni, Antonio; Semino, Ornella

    2013-01-01

    Recent progress in the phylogenetic resolution of the Y-chromosome phylogeny permits the male demographic dynamics and migratory events that occurred in Central and Southern America after the initial human spread into the Americas to be investigated at the regional level. To delve further into this issue, we examined more than 400 Native American Y chromosomes (collected in the region ranging from Mexico to South America) belonging to haplogroup Q - virtually the only branch of the Y phylogeny observed in modern-day Amerindians of Central and South America - together with 27 from Mongolia and Kamchatka. Two main founding lineages, Q1a3a1a-M3 and Q1a3a1-L54(xM3), were detected along with novel sub-clades of younger age and more restricted geographic distributions. The first was also observed in Far East Asia while no Q1a3a1-L54(xM3) Y chromosome was found in Asia except the southern Siberian-specific sub-clade Q1a3a1c-L330. Our data not only confirm a southern Siberian origin of ancestral populations that gave rise to Paleo-Indians and the differentiation of both Native American Q founding lineages in Beringia, but support their concomitant arrival in Mesoamerica, where Mexico acted as recipient for the first wave of migration, followed by a rapid southward migration, along the Pacific coast, into the Andean region. Although Q1a3a1a-M3 and Q1a3a1-L54(xM3) display overlapping general distributions, they show different patterns of evolution in the Mexican plateau and the Andean area, which can be explained by local differentiations due to demographic events triggered by the introduction of agriculture and associated with the flourishing of the Great Empires.

  17. Human Linguatulosis Caused by Linguatula serrata in the City of Kerman, South-eastern Iran- Case Report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rostam Yazdani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Human linguatulosis poses an important medical and veterinary concern in endemic countries. Animals, as reservoir host, play a major role in transmission of infestation and epidemiology of the disease. This study reports a case of human linguatulosis caused by Linguatula serrata in the city of Kerman, South-eastern Iran. A woman suffering from upper respiratory symptoms is presented. The patient consumed raw liver of sheep who was admitted to the Afzalipour University Hospital in Kerman for the symptoms of upper respiratory tract. In microscopic examination of the nasopharyngeal discharge, L. serrata was detected. This report has future medical implication in precise diagnosis of L. serrata in patients with complaints of nasopharyngeal symptoms.

  18. Plutonium in Atlantic coastal estuaries in the southeastern United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, D.W.; LeRoy, J.H.; Cross, F.A.

    1976-01-01

    A survey was made to begin to provide baseline information on the plutonium distribution of representative estuarine and coastal areas of the southeastern United States of America. Sediments and marsh grass (Spartina) were collected and analysed from three locations within a tidal marsh. In the three estuaries (Savannah, Neuse and Newport) the suspended particulate matter (1μm and greater) was filtered from waters with different salinities and the plutonium content of the particulates determined. The Savannah river estuary, in addition to fall-out plutonium, has received up to 0.3Ci of plutonium from the Savannah River Plant (SRP) of the US Energy Research and Development Administration. The SRP plutonium has a variable isotopic composition that can influence plutonium isotopic ratios in the estuarine system. The other estuaries do not have nuclear installations upstream. Plutonium contents in surface marsh sediment from the Savannah River estuary are lower than those found in nearby bay sediments. In fact, total plutonium concentrations of sediments showed increases from the upper to lower portions of the estuary; however, higher contributions of 238 Pu in the upper portions indicate that releases from the Savannah River Plant do contribute plutonium to the Savannah river estuary. Plutonium concentrations in Spartina were less than 10fCi/g dry weight but are higher than plutonium contents of terrestrial plants ( 238 Pu to the total plutonium activities in the sediment and the Spartina. Plutonium concentrations were about three times higher in the Newport river estuary than in the Neuse and Savannah river estuaries. (author)

  19. Environmental and Human Controls of Ecosystem Functional Diversity in Temperate South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingo Alcaraz-Segura

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The regional controls of biodiversity patterns have been traditionally evaluated using structural and compositional components at the species level, but evaluation of the functional component at the ecosystem level is still scarce. During the last decades, the role of ecosystem functioning in management and conservation has increased. Our aim was to use satellite-derived Ecosystem Functional Types (EFTs, patches of the land-surface with similar carbon gain dynamics to characterize the regional patterns of ecosystem functional diversity and to evaluate the environmental and human controls that determine EFT richness across natural and human-modified systems in temperate South America. The EFT identification was based on three descriptors of carbon gain dynamics derived from seasonal curves of the MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI: annual mean (surrogate of primary production, seasonal coefficient of variation (indicator of seasonality and date of maximum EVI (descriptor of phenology. As observed for species richness in the southern hemisphere, water availability, not energy, emerged as the main climatic driver of EFT richness in natural areas of temperate South America. In anthropogenic areas, the role of both water and energy decreased and increasing human intervention increased richness at low levels of human influence, but decreased richness at high levels of human influence.

  20. Acculturation Strategies Among South Asian Immigrants: The Mediators of Atherosclerosis in South Asians Living in America (MASALA) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needham, Belinda L; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Bagchi, Pramita; Kim, Catherine; Mukherjea, Arnab; Kandula, Namratha R; Kanaya, Alka M

    2017-04-01

    In the past, epidemiologic research on acculturation and health has been criticized for its conceptual ambiguity and simplistic measurement approaches. This study applied a widely-used theoretical framework from cross-cultural psychology to identify acculturation strategies among South Asian immigrants in the US and to examine sociodemographic correlates of acculturation strategies. Data were from the Mediators of Atherosclerosis in South Asians Living in America study. We used latent class analysis to identify groups of individuals that were similar based on cultural attitudes and behaviors. We used latent class regression analysis to examine sociodemographic correlates of acculturation strategies. We found that South Asian immigrants employed three acculturation strategies, including separation (characterized by a relatively high degree of preference for South Asian culture over US culture), assimilation (characterized by a relatively high degree of preference for US culture over South Asian culture), and integration (characterized by a similar level of preference for South Asian and US cultures). Respondents with no religious affiliation, those with higher levels of income, those who lived a greater percentage of their lives in the US, and those who spoke English well or very well were less likely to use the separation strategy than the assimilation or integration strategies. Using epidemiologic cohort data, this study illustrated a conceptual and methodological approach that addresses limitations of previous research on acculturation and health. More work is needed to understand how the acculturation strategies identified in this study affect the health of South Asian immigrants in the US.

  1. Climate change and American Bullfrog invasion: what could we expect in South America?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Nori

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Biological invasion and climate change pose challenges to biodiversity conservation in the 21(st century. Invasive species modify ecosystem structure and functioning and climatic changes are likely to produce invasive species' range shifts pushing some populations into protected areas. The American Bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus is one of the hundred worst invasive species in the world. Native from the southeast of USA, it has colonized more than 75% of South America where it has been reported as a highly effective predator, competitor and vector of amphibian diseases. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We modeled the potential distribution of the bullfrog in its native range based on different climate models and green-house gases emission scenarios, and projected the results onto South America for the years of 2050 and 2080. We also overlaid projected models onto the South American network of protected areas. Our results indicate a slight decrease in potential suitable area for bullfrog invasion, although protected areas will become more climatically suitable. Therefore, invasion of these sites is forecasted. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: We provide new evidence supporting the vulnerability of the Atlantic Forest Biodiversity Hotspot to bullfrog invasion and call attention to optimal future climatic conditions of the Andean-Patagonian forest, eastern Paraguay, and northwestern Bolivia, where invasive populations have not been found yet. We recommend several management and policy strategies to control bullfrog invasion and argue that these would be possible if based on appropriate articulation among government agencies, NGOs, research institutions and civil society.

  2. First case of New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase in Klebsiella pneumoniae from Ecuador: An update for South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Alvarez, Daniel; Reyes, Jorge; Quezada, Viviana; Satán, Carolina; Cevallos, Nelson; Barrera, Sofía; Trueba, Gabriel; Escobar, Luis E; Villacís, José E

    2017-12-01

    To describe a clinical case of Klebsiella pneumoniae harboring a New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM) plasmid in Ecuador and to present a map of reports of NDM isolates in South America. The modified Hodge test, carbapenem inactivation method, imipenem-EDTA disk method (synergy), and Rapidec Carba NP test were used to identify antibiotic resistance mechanisms. The presence of resistance genes was explored with a conjugation assay, and molecular confirmation of NDM was performed by PCR and DNA sequencing. Plasmid characterization was conducted by PCR-based replicon typing. A literature review was performed in Google Scholar and PubMed to identify reports from South America. An HIV-infected patient, who had never traveled abroad, developed a bloodstream infection caused by K. pneumoniae ST147 harboring the NDM-1 resistance gene in a plasmid from the IncA/C group. Local circulation of NDM has also been described in other South American countries, in particular in Colombia and Brazil, although published scientific records were not found for other countries. This report presents the first evidence of autochthonous circulation of the NDM-1 resistance gene harbored by an IncA/C plasmid isolated from a K. pneumoniae ST147 in Ecuador. Efforts should be implemented to monitor and characterize the spatial and temporal distribution of NDM in Ecuador and other countries of South America. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. [Tobacco advertisement exposure and tobacco consumption among youths in South America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plamondon, Geneviève; Guindon, G Emmanuel; Paraje, Guillermo

    2017-01-01

    To assesses the statistical association between exposure to tobacco marketing and tobacco consumption among adolescents in South America, by using data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey. Using data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS), the exposure to tobacco marketing at the school level was studied from advertising in TV, radio, massive public events and street advertisement. Tobacco behaviour was considered. The total pooled sample used was 134 073 youths from Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Peru, Brazil, Uruguay, Suriname, Colombia, Guyana, Ecuador, Paraguay and Venezuela. The exposure to tobacco marketing is positively and significantly associated to the probability of youths experimenting with tobacco (at least once in their lifetime). For regular smokers, exposure to tobacco marketing is positively and significantly associated to smoking intensity. These results call for the implementation of strong restrictions on tobacco advertisement of various types in South American countries.

  4. Drevnyaya astronomiya Yuzhnoj Ameriki %t Ancient astronomy of the South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurevich, V. A.

    The article portrays our knowledge of the astronomy of the South America before its discovery by European. The archeoastronomical monuments display that the astronomy was the basis for the calendar, and its probable reconstruction is proposed. The author demonstrated that all solar and moon directions of the horizon astronomy were used in it. First chronicles and ethnographic data give information about the cosmological ideas of native-Americans, their worships of the celestial objects (the Sun, Moon), implication of astronomical phenomena in their religious rituals and feasts.

  5. Daily and seasonal activity patterns of free range South-American rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozetti, Alexandro M; Martins, Marcio

    2013-09-01

    This study aimed at describing daily and seasonal variation in the activity of a population of South-American rattlesnakes (Crotalus durissus) in a savanna like habitat (Cerrado) in Southeastern Brazil. Seasonal and daily activities of snakes were evaluated by the number of captures of snakes during road surveys, accidental encounters, and relocations by radio-tracking. Our results show that climatic variables such as air temperature and rainfall have little influence on the activity pattern of rattlesnakes. Our findings indicate that rattlesnakes spend most of the day resting and most of the night in ambush posture. The South-American rattlesnake is active throughout the year with a discrete peak in activity of males during the matting season. The possibility of maintaining activity levels even during the coldest and driest season can facilitate the colonization of several habitats in South America. This possibility currently facilitates the colonization of deforested areas by rattlesnakes.

  6. Variability in the air–sea interaction patterns and timescales within the south-eastern Bay of Biscay, as observed by HF radar data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fontán

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Two high-frequency (HF radar stations were installed on the coast of the south-eastern Bay of Biscay in 2009, providing high spatial and temporal resolution and large spatial coverage of currents in the area for the first time. This has made it possible to quantitatively assess the air–sea interaction patterns and timescales for the period 2009–2010. The analysis was conducted using the Barnett–Preisendorfer approach to canonical correlation analysis (CCA of reanalysis surface winds and HF radar-derived surface currents. The CCA yields two canonical patterns: the first wind–current interaction pattern corresponds to the classical Ekman drift at the sea surface, whilst the second describes an anticyclonic/cyclonic surface circulation. The results obtained demonstrate that local winds play an important role in driving the upper water circulation. The wind–current interaction timescales are mainly related to diurnal breezes and synoptic variability. In particular, the breezes force diurnal currents in waters of the continental shelf and slope of the south-eastern Bay. It is concluded that the breezes may force diurnal currents over considerably wider areas than that covered by the HF radar, considering that the northern and southern continental shelves of the Bay exhibit stronger diurnal than annual wind amplitudes.

  7. Tectonic evolution of the Caribbean and northwestern South America: The case for accretion of two Late Cretaceous oceanic plateaus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Andrew C.; Tarney, John

    2005-04-01

    It is widely accepted that the thickened oceanic crust of the Caribbean plate, its basaltic accreted margins, and accreted mafic terranes in northwestern South America represent the remnants of a single ca. 90 Ma oceanic plateau. We review geologic, geochemical, and paleomagnetic evidence that suggests that the Caribbean-Colombian oceanic plateau in fact represents the remnants of two different oceanic plateaus, both dated as ca. 90 Ma. The first of these plateaus, the Caribbean Plateau, formed ca. 90 Ma in the vicinity of the present-day Galapagos hotspot. Northeastward movement of the Farallon plate meant that this plateau collided with the proto Caribbean arc and northwestern South America Gorgona Plateau, formed at 26° 30°S, possibly at the site of the present-day Sala y Gomez hotspot. Over the next ˜45 m.y., this plateau was carried progressively northeastward on the Farallon plate and collided in the middle Eocene with the proto Andean subduction zone in northwestern South America. The recognition of a second ca. 90 Ma Pacific oceanic plateau strengthens the link between plateau formation and global oceanic anoxic events.

  8. Special challenges in the conservation of fishes and aquatic environments of South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, M F; Barletta, M

    2016-07-01

    In South America, the conservation of natural resources, particularly in relation to water and aquatic fauna, is an often-discussed issue. Unfortunately, there is still a large gap between thoughts and action. Scientists from different countries of the continent have however, produced a significant body of literature that should finally become the basis of emerging managerial models. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  9. Insecta, Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Cerambycinae, Trachyderini: New state and country records from South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quintino, H. Y. S.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the revision of the collections of the Museu Nacional, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro andthe National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, the current work provides new localities for 32 speciesand two subspecies of Trachyderini from South America. Thirteen new country records from Argentina, Brazil, Colombia,Ecuador, Peru, Surinam and Venezuela and 35 new state records from Brazil are registered.

  10. CULTURE STUDIES ON THE LIFE-HISTORY OF CHORDARIA-LINEARIS (PHAEOPHYCEAE) FROM TIERRA-DEL-FUEGO, SOUTH-AMERICA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PETERS, AF

    1992-01-01

    Studies of laboratory cultures of Chordaria linearis (Hooker et Harvey) Cotton from southernmost South America revealed that this species has an obligate sexual life history in which a macroscopic sporophyte alternates with a monoecious microscopic gametophyte. Sexual reproduction is isogamous and

  11. Discovery of an alien species of mayfly in South America (Ephemeroptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salles, Frederico F; Gattolliat, Jean-Luc; Angeli, Kamila B; De-Souza, Márcia R; Gonçalves, Inês C; Nessimian, Jorge L; Sartori, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Despite its wide, almost worldwide distribution, the mayfly genus Cloeon Leach, 1815 (Ephemeroptera: Baetidae) is restricted in the Western hemisphere to North America, where a single species is reported. In the Neotropics, except for some species wrongly attributed to the genus in the past, there are no records of Cloeon. Recently, however, specimens of true Cloeon were collected along the coast of Espírito Santo, Southeastern Brazil. In order to verify the hypothesis that this species was recently introduced to Brazil, our aim was to identify the species based on morphological and molecular characters and to confirm the presence of true representatives of the genus in the Neotropics. Our results revealed that the specimens found in Brazil belong to the Afrotropical species C. smaeleni Lestage, 1924. The identity of the species, its distribution, along with its previous absence in regularly sampled sites, is a clear sign that the specimens of C. smaeleni found in Espírito Santo are introduced, well established, and that the colonization took place very recently.

  12. Cornerstones of a renewable energy law for emerging markets in South America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kissel, Johannes M. [Department of Renewable Energies, Institute for Energy and Control Technology, Technical University Berlin (TUB), Sec. EM 4, Einsteinufer 11, D-10587 Berlin (Germany); Instituto IDEAL (World Council for Renewable Energy, Latin America), Rua Lauro Linhares, 2123 Torre A Sala 503, Trindade, CEP 88036-003/SC, Florianopolis (Brazil); Hanitsch, Rolf [Department of Renewable Energies, Institute for Energy and Control Technology, Technical University Berlin (TUB), Sec. EM 4, Einsteinufer 11, D-10587 Berlin (Germany); PI Photovoltaik-Institut Berlin AG, Module Technology: Testing, Consulting, Research, Einsteinufer 25, D-10587 Berlin (Germany); Krauter, Stefan C.W. [Department of Renewable Energies, Institute for Energy and Control Technology, Technical University Berlin (TUB), Sec. EM 4, Einsteinufer 11, D-10587 Berlin (Germany); PI Photovoltaik-Institut Berlin AG, Module Technology: Testing, Consulting, Research, Einsteinufer 25, D-10587 Berlin (Germany); Biberach University of Applied Sciences, P.O. Box 1260, 88382 Biberach (Germany)

    2009-09-15

    Since 1990, effective support schemes for renewable energies have been introduced mainly in European countries. In this article, the authors explain which consequences different general conditions could have on the design and functioning of feed-in laws. Cornerstones for an adjusted feed-in law to the particular general conditions of emerging and developing countries in South America will be drawn, which should give support to the decision-makers for designing an attuned and well-functioning feed-in legislation. (author)

  13. Cornerstones of a renewable energy law for emerging markets in South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kissel, Johannes M.; Hanitsch, Rolf; Krauter, Stefan C.W.

    2009-01-01

    Since 1990, effective support schemes for renewable energies have been introduced mainly in European countries. In this article, the authors explain which consequences different general conditions could have on the design and functioning of feed-in laws. Cornerstones for an adjusted feed-in law to the particular general conditions of emerging and developing countries in South America will be drawn, which should give support to the decision-makers for designing an attuned and well-functioning feed-in legislation.

  14. Phylogeography of a Morphologically Cryptic Golden Mole Assemblage from South-Eastern Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Mynhardt

    Full Text Available The Greater Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany (GMPA region of southern Africa was recently designated as a centre of vertebrate endemism. The phylogeography of the vertebrate taxa occupying this region may provide insights into the evolution of faunal endemism in south-eastern Africa. Here we investigate the phylogeographic patterns of an understudied small mammal species assemblage (Amblysomus endemic to the GMPA, to test for cryptic diversity within the genus, and to better understand diversification across the region. We sampled specimens from 50 sites across the distributional range of Amblysomus, with emphasis on the widespread A. hottentotus, to analyse geographic patterns of genetic diversity using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA and nuclear intron data. Molecular dating was used to elucidate the evolutionary and phylogeographic history of Amblysomus. Our phylogenetic reconstructions show that A. hottentotus comprises several distinct lineages, or evolutionarily significant units (ESUs, some with restricted geographic ranges and thus worthy of conservation attention. Divergence of the major lineages dated to the early Pliocene, with later radiations in the GMPA during the late-Pliocene to early-Pleistocene. Evolutionary diversification within Amblysomus may have been driven by uplift of the Great Escarpment c. 5-3 million years ago (Ma, habitat changes associated with intensification of the east-west rainfall gradient across South Africa and the influence of subsequent global climatic cycles. These drivers possibly facilitated geographic spread of ancestral lineages, local adaptation and vicariant isolation. Our study adds to growing empirical evidence identifying East and southern Africa as cradles of vertebrate diversity.

  15. Antimicrobial resistance among Enterobacteriaceae in South America: history, current dissemination status and associated socioeconomic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonelli, Raquel Regina; Moreira, Beatriz Meurer; Picão, Renata Cristina

    2014-04-01

    South America exhibits some of the higher rates of antimicrobial resistance in Enterobactericeae worldwide. This continent includes 12 independent countries with huge socioeconomic differences, where the ample access to antimicrobials, including counterfeit ones, coexists with ineffective health systems and sanitation problems, favoring the emergence and dissemination of resistant strains. This work presents a literature review concerning the evolution and current status of antimicrobial resistance threats found among Enterobacteriaceae in South America. Resistance to β-lactams, fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides was emphasized along with description of key epidemiological studies that highlight the success of specific resistance determinants in different parts of the continent. In addition, a discussion regarding political and socioeconomic factors possibly related to the dissemination of antimicrobial resistant strains in clinical settings and at the community is presented. Finally, in order to assess the possible sources of resistant bacteria, we compile the current knowledge about the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in isolates in South American' food, food-producing animals and off-hospitals environments. By addressing that intensive intercontinental commerce and tourism neutralizes the protective effect of geographic barriers, we provide arguments reinforcing that globally integrated efforts are needed to decelerate the emergence and dissemination of antimicrobial resistant strains. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. When landscaping goes bad: The incipient invasion of Mahonia bealei in the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Craig R.; Garmestani, A.S.; LaBram, J.A.; Peck, A.E.; Prevost, L.B.

    2006-01-01

    Woodlots are forest islands embedded within an urban matrix, and often represent the only natural areas remaining in suburban areas. Woodlots represent critical conservation areas for native plants, and are important habitat for wildlife in urban areas. Invasion by non-indigenous (NIS) plants can alter ecological structure and function, and may be especially severe in remnant forests where NIS propagule pressure is high. Woody shrubs in the Family Berberidaceae have been well documented as invaders of the forest-urban matrix in North America. Mahonia bealei (Berberidaceae) is a clonal shrub native to China, and is a popular ornamental in the Southeastern United States. Mahoni bealei is listed as "present" on some local and state floras, but almost nothing is known regarding its invasion potential in the United States. We sampled 15 woodlots in Clemson, South Carolina, to assess the invasion of M. bealei and other woody non-indigenous species (NIS). M. bealei invaded 87% of the woodlots surveyed and species richness of NIS on these woodlots varied from 5 to 14. Stepwise-multiple regression indicated that less canopy cover and older M. bealei predicted greater abundance of M. bealei , and that not all subdivisions were equally invaded (P < 0.0001; r 2 = 0.88). The impact of M. bealei on native flora and fauna may be considerable, and it is likely to continue to spread in the Southeastern United States. M. bealei should be recognized as an aggressive invader in the Southeastern United States, with the potential for negative impacts on native flora and fauna. ?? Springer 2006.

  17. Twenty-five years of violence: the epidemiology of terrorism in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Báez, Amado Alejandro; Sztajnkrycer, Matthew D; Zane, Richard; Giräldez, Ediza

    2008-01-01

    Terrorism is a global public health burden. South Americans have been victims of terrorism for many decades. While the causes vary, the results are the same: death, disability, and suffering. The objective of this study was to perform a comprehensive, epidemiological, descriptive study of terrorist incidents in South America. This is a cross-sectional, descriptive study. Data from January 1971 to July 2006 was selected using the RAND Terrorism Chronology 1968-1997 and RAND-Memorial Institute for Prevention of Terrorism (MIPT) Terrorism Incident database (1998-Present). Statistical significance was set at 0.05. The database reported a total of 2,997 incidents in South American countries that resulted in 3,435 victims with injuries (1.15 per incident) and 1,973 fatalities (0.66 per incident). The overall case fatality ratio (CFR) was 35.8%. Colombia had the majority of incidents with 57.9% (1,734 of 2,997), followed by Peru with 363 (12.1%), and Argentina with 267 (8.9%). The highest individual CFR occurred in Paraguay (83.3%), and the lowest in Chile with 4.8%. Of the total injuries and deaths, Colombia had 66.1% (2,269 of 2,997) of all injuries and 75.2% (1,443 out of 1,920) of all deaths. Living in the country of Colombia was associated with a 16 times greater likelihood of becoming a victim of terrorist violence [odds ratio (OR) 16.15; 95% CI 13.45 to 19.40; p < 0.0001]. The predominant method of choice for terrorist incidents was the use of conventional explosives with 2,543 of2,883 incidents (88.2%). Terrorist incidents in South America have accounted for nearly 2,000 deaths, with conventional explosive devices as the predominant method of choice. Understanding the nature of terrorist attacks and the medical consequences assist emergency preparedness and disaster management officials in allocating resources and preparing for potential future events.

  18. Palm harvest impacts in north-western South America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Tropical forests harbor thousands of useful plants that are harvested and used in subsistence economies or traded in local, regional or international markets. The effect on the ecosystem is little known, and the forests resilience is badly understood. Palms are the most useful group of plants...... in tropical American forests. This paper introduces a cross-disciplinary study of the effects of harvesting palm products from the tropical forests in north-western South America. The size of the resource is estimated through palm community studies in the different forest formations that determines the number...... of species and individuals of all palm species. The genetic structure of useful palm species is studied to determine how much harvesting of the species contributes to genetic erosion of its populations, and whether extraction can be made without harm. Almost all palm species are used in rural communities...

  19. Agricultural impacts of glyphosate-resistant soybean cultivation in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdeira, Antonio L; Gazziero, Dionsio L P; Duke, Stephen O; Matallo, Marcus B

    2011-06-08

    In the 2009/2010 growing season, Brazil was the second largest world soybean producer, followed by Argentina. Glyphosate-resistant soybeans (GRS) are being cultivated in most of the soybean area in South America. Overall, the GRS system is beneficial to the environment when compared to conventional soybean. GRS resulted in a significant shift toward no-tillage practices in Brazil and Argentina, but weed resistance may reduce this trend. Probably the highest agricultural risk in adopting GRS in Brazil and South America is related to weed resistance due to use of glyphosate. Weed species in GRS fields have shifted in Brazil to those that can more successfully withstand glyphosate or to those that avoid the time of its application. Five weed species, in order of importance, Conyza bonariensis (L.) Cronquist, Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronquist, Lolium multiflorum Lam., Digitaria insularis (L.) Mez ex Ekman, and Euphorbia heterophylla L., have evolved resistance to glyphosate in GRS in Brazil. Conyza spp. are the most difficult to control. A glyphosate-resistant biotype of Sorghum halepense L. has evolved in GRS in Argentina and one of D. insularis in Paraguay. The following actions are proposed to minimize weed resistance problem: (a) rotation of GRS with conventional soybeans in order to rotate herbicide modes of action; (b) avoidance of lower than recommended glyphosate rates; (c) keeping soil covered with a crop or legume at intercrop intervals; (d) keeping machinery free of weed seeds; and (d) use of a preplant nonselective herbicide plus residuals to eliminate early weed interference with the crop and to minimize escapes from later applications of glyphosate due to natural resistance of older weeds and/or incomplete glyphosate coverage.

  20. The burden of oesophageal cancer in Central and South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, Enrique; Sierra, Monica S; Musetti, Carina; Forman, David

    2016-09-01

    Oesophageal cancer shows marked geographic variations and is one of the leading causes of cancer death worldwide. We described the burden of this malignancy in Central and South America. Regional and national level incidence data were obtained from 48 population-based cancer registries in 13 countries. Mortality data were obtained from the WHO mortality database. Incidence of oesophageal cancer by histological subtype were available from high-quality population-based cancer registries. Males had higher incidence and mortality rates than females (male-to-female ratios: 2-6:1 and 2-5:1). In 2003-2007, the highest rates were in Brazil, Uruguay, Argentina and Chile. Mortality rates followed the incidence patterns. Incidence of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) was higher than adenocarcinoma (AC), except in females from Cuenca (Ecuador). SCC and AC incidence were higher in males than females, except in the Region of Antofagasta and Valdivia (Chile), Manizales (Colombia) and Cuenca (Ecuador). Incidence and mortality rates tended to decline in Argentina, Chile, Brazil (incidence) and Costa Rica from 1997 to 2008. The geographic variation and sex disparity in oesophageal cancer across Central and South America may reflect differences in the prevalence of tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption which highlights the need to implement and/or strengthen tobacco and alcohol control policies. Maté consumption, obesity, diet and Helicobacter pylori infection may also explain the variation in oesophageal cancer rates but these relationships should be evaluated. Continuous monitoring of oesophageal cancer rates is necessary to provide the basis for cancer prevention and control in the region. Copyright © 2015 International Agency for Research on Cancer. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Ancient mitochondrial DNA reveals convergent evolution of giant short-faced bears (Tremarctinae) in North and South America

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Kieren J.; Bray, Sarah C.; Bover, Pere; Soibelzon, Leopoldo; Schubert, Blaine W.; Prevosti, Francisco; Prieto, Alfredo; Martin, Fabiana; Austin, Jeremy J.; Cooper, Alan

    2016-01-01

    The Tremarctinae are a subfamily of bears endemic to the New World, including two of the largest terrestrial mammalian carnivores that have ever lived: the giant, short-faced bears Arctodus simus from North America and Arctotherium angustidens from South America (greater than or equal to 1000 kg). Arctotherium angustidens became extinct during the Early Pleistocene, whereas Arctodus simus went extinct at the very end of the Pleistocene. The only living tremarctine is the spectacled bear (Trem...

  2. Southeastern Regional Geologic Characterization Report. Executive summary. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-08-01

    This Executive Summary of the final Southeastern Regional Geologic Characterization Report (RGCR) is issued primarily for public information purposes, and provides a general overview of the report. The complete RGCR presents available regional geologic information pertinent to siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in central Maryland; noncoastal Virginia, North Carolina, and South Carolina; and northern Georgia. For each of the states within the Southeastern Region, information is provided on the geologic disqualifying factor and the geologic regional screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening

  3. Southeastern Regional Environmental Characterization Report: executive summary. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-08-01

    This Executive Summary of the final ''Southeastern Regional Environmental Characterization Report'' (RECR) is issued primarily for public information purposes and provides a general overview of the report. The complete RECR presents available regional environmental information pertinent to siting a repository or high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in central Maryland; noncoastal Virginia, North Carolina, and South Carolina; and northern Georgia. For each of the states within the Southeastern Region, information is provided on the environmental disqualifying factors and the environmental regional screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening

  4. Potential role of vegetation dynamics on recent extreme droughts over tropical South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, G.; Erfanian, A.; Fomenko, L.

    2017-12-01

    Tropical South America is a drought hot spot. In slightly over a decade (2005-2016), the region encountered three extreme droughts (2005, 2010, and 2016). Recurrent extreme droughts not only impact the region's eco-hydrology and socio-economy, but are also globally important as they can transform the planet's largest rainforest, the Amazon, from a carbon sink to a carbon source. Understanding drought drivers and mechanisms underlying extreme droughts in tropical South America can help better project the fate of the Amazon rainforest in a changing climate. In this study we use a regional climate model (RegCM4.3.4) coupled with a comprehensive land-surface model (CLM4.5) to study the present-day hydroclimate of the region, focusing specifically on what might have caused the frequent recurrence of extreme droughts. In the context of observation natural variability of the global oceanic forcing, we tackle the role of land-atmosphere interactions and ran the model with and without dynamic vegetation to study how vegetation dynamics and carbon-nitrogen cycles may have influenced the drought characteristics. Our results demonstrate skillful simulation of the South American climate in the model, and indicate substantial sensitivity of the region's hydroclimatology to vegetation dynamics. This presentation will compare the role of global oceanic forcing versus regional land surface feedback in the recent recurrent droughts, and will characterize the effects of vegetation dynamics in enhancing the drought severity. Preliminary results on future projections of the regional ecosystem and droughts perspective will be also presented.

  5. Overseas Educational Developments, 1981: Mexico, South America, Southeast Asia. A World Higher Education Communique Special Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Institute of International Education, New York, NY.

    Educational developments in Mexico, South America, and Southeast Asia are covered in five seminar papers. In addition, country educational profiles are presented on Mexico, Hong Kong, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Indonesia. In "International Students from Southeast Asia," John F. Brohm considers the following…

  6. Morphological characteristics of the Hermann's tortoise (Testudo hermanni Gmelin, 1789 in the south-eastern part of Kosovo and Metohija

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labus Nenad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the results of the analysis of morphological characteristics of the Hermann's tortoise from three localities in south­eastern part of Kosovo and Metohija. 75 adult Hermann's tortoises (33 males and 42 females have been analyzed. Morphometric analysis has been done on 7 traits. We considered the plastron black pigmentation patterns and frequencies for each pigmentation states were calculated. Females were larger than males for all morphometric traits. Based on the most important dimensions of carapace and plastron length and width, the Hermann's tortoises from the south-eastern part of Kosovo and Metohija are the most similar to the individuals of the population from the southern part of the Balkan Peninsula (the southern part of Serbia and the northern part of Greece. In relation to the populations from central and eastern Serbia, individuals from our studied area have higher values.

  7. Radon in groundwaters from Guarany aquifer, South America: environmental and exploration implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonotto, D.M.; Caprioglio, L.

    2002-01-01

    Groundwater and sandstone samples were analyzed for radon in Guarany aquifer, Parana sedimentary basin, South America. The dissolved radon ranged between 3 and 3303 pCi/l, being lognormally distributed, with a modal value of 1315 pCi/l, and a median value of 330 pCi/l. 222 Rn leakage experiments for sandstones yielded a theoretical value of 1390 pCi/l for 222 Rn in water, showing that theoretical modeling can reliably be used to interpret laboratory and field data

  8. Quantitative morphotectonic analysis of the South-Eastern Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionuţ Cristea, Alexandru

    2015-04-01

    South-Eastern Carpathians (Vrancea Region) have received an increasing scientific attention during the past years, mostly resulting in a detailed reconstruction of their exumation history. Moreover structural and thermocronological data suggest that the frontal part of the SE Carpathians conserves the youngest topography in the Romanian Carpathians resulting from a deformational process occurring during the late Pliocene - Early Pleistocene. This significant tectonic activity continues to the present time as it is confirmed by the geodetic measurements and by the frequency of crustal earthquakes. The specific effects of the Quaternary deformations on the regional fluvial system were associated so far with an increased incision and the formation of the degradational (strath) terraces, downstream tiling of terraces, the establishment of local drainage divides and young longitudinal river profiles. Our study further investigates the possible influence of the recent tectonic activity on the characteristics of the drainage basins in the area and the distribution of the over-steepened stream reaches using spatial autocorrelation techniques (Getis Ord Gi* statistics and Anselin's Local Moran's I). For the first, hypsometric integrals (Hi) and transverse topographic symmetry factor were analyzed. For the last, we used locally computed normalized channel steepness index (ksn). Due to the highly variable lithology in the region (specific to the Flysch areas), additional correlations of the determined values with the geological units and rock types have been made in order to assess the effects. The results show that the geographic clustering of the high Hi and ksn values is more significant than the lithological one, and, although the rock strength have local influences, this is not sufficient to explain the regional distribution of the values, generally between 26.5o and 26.66o E (p

  9. South America electric power integration: an utopia or a reality?; Integracao eletrica sul-americana: utopia ou realidade?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velez, Jaime

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this chapter is the discussing on the economic and institutional conditions necessary to the South America electric power integration in the context of the changes in the electric industry initiated on the 1980's years.

  10. Virtually full-length subtype F and F/D recombinant HIV-1 from Africa and South America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laukkanen, T.; Carr, J. K.; Janssens, W.; Liitsola, K.; Gotte, D.; McCutchan, F. E.; Op de Coul, E.; Cornelissen, M.; Heyndrickx, L.; van der Groen, G.; Salminen, M. O.

    2000-01-01

    For reliable classification of HIV-1 strains appropriate reference sequences are needed. The HIV-1 genetic subtype F has a wide geographic spread, causing significant epidemics in South America, Africa, and some regions of Europe. Previously only two full-length sequences of each of the HIV-1

  11. Land use change and ecosystem service provision in Pampas and Campos grasslands of southern South America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Modernel Hristoff, Pablo; Rossing, W.A.H.; Corbeels, M.; Dogliotti, S.; Picasso, V.; Tittonell, P.

    2016-01-01

    New livestock production models need to simultaneously meet the increasing global demand for meat and preserve biodiversity and ecosystem services. Since the 16th century beef cattle has been produced on the Pampas and Campos native grasslands in southern South America, with only small amounts of

  12. Daily and seasonal activity patterns of free range South-American rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEXANDRO M. TOZETTI

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at describing daily and seasonal variation in the activity of a population of South-American rattlesnakes (Crotalus durissus in a savanna like habitat (Cerrado in Southeastern Brazil. Seasonal and daily activities of snakes were evaluated by the number of captures of snakes during road surveys, accidental encounters, and relocations by radio-tracking. Our results show that climatic variables such as air temperature and rainfall have little influence on the activity pattern of rattlesnakes. Our findings indicate that rattlesnakes spend most of the day resting and most of the night in ambush posture. The South-American rattlesnake is active throughout the year with a discrete peak in activity of males during the matting season. The possibility of maintaining activity levels even during the coldest and driest season can facilitate the colonization of several habitats in South America. This possibility currently facilitates the colonization of deforested areas by rattlesnakes.

  13. Storm-time total electron content and its response to penetration electric fields over South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. M. de Siqueira

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work the response of the ionosphere due to the severe magnetic storm of 7–10 November 2004 is investigated by analyzing GPS Total Electron Content (TEC maps constructed for the South America sector. In order to verify the disturbed zonal electric fields in South America during the superstorm, ionospheric vertical drift data obtained from modeling results are used in the analysis. The vertical drifts were inferred from ΔH magnetometer data (Jicamarca-Piura following the methodology presented by Anderson et al. (2004. Also used were vertical drifts measured by the Jicamarca ISR. Data from a digisonde located at São Luís, Brazil (2.33° S, 44.2° W, dip latitude 0.25° are presented to complement the Jicamarca equatorial data. Penetration electric fields were observed by the comparison between the equatorial vertical drifts and the Interplanetary Electric Field (IEF. The TEC maps obtained from GPS data reflect the ionospheric response over the South America low-latitude and equatorial region. They reveal unexpected plasma distributions and TEC levels during the main phase of the superstorm on 7 November, which is coincident with the local post-sunset hours. At this time an increase in the pre-reversal enhancement was expected to develop the Equatorial Ionization Anomaly (EIA but we observed the absence of EIA. The results also reveal well known characteristics of the plasma distributions on 8, 9, and 10 November. The emphasized features are the expansion and intensification of EIA due to prompt penetration electric fields on 9 November and the inhibition of EIA during post-sunset hours on 7, 8, and 10 November. One important result is that the TEC maps provided a bi-dimensional view of the ionospheric changes offering a spatial description of the electrodynamics involved, which is an advantage over TEC measured by isolated GPS receivers.

  14. Multi-year GNSS monitoring of atmospheric IWV over Central and South America for climate studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Luciano; Bianchi, Clara; Fernández, Laura; Natali, María Paula; Meza, Amalia; Moirano, Juan

    2017-04-01

    Atmospheric water vapour has been acknowledged as an essential climate variable. Weather prediction and hazard assessment systems benefit from real-time observations, whereas long-term records contribute to climate studies. Nowadays, ground-based GNSS products have become widely employed, complementing satellite observations over the oceans. Although the past decade has seen a significant development of the GNSS infrastructure in Central and South America, its potential for atmospheric water vapour monitoring has not been fully exploited. With this in mind, we have performed a regional, seven-year long and homogeneous analysis, comprising 136 GNSS tracking stations, obtaining high-rate and continuous observations of column integrated water vapour and troposphere zenith total delay (Bianchi et al. 2016). As preliminary application for this data set, we have estimated local water vapour trends, their significance, and their relation with specific climate regimes. We have found evidence of drying at temperate regions in South America, at a rate of about 2% per decade, while a slow moistening of the troposphere over tropical regions is also weakly suggested by our results. Furthermore, we have assessed the regional performance of the empirical model GPT2w to blindly estimate troposphere delays. The model fairly reproduces the observed mean delays, including their annual and semi-annual variations. Nevertheless, a long-term evaluation has shown systematical biases, up to 20 mm, probably inherited form the underling atmospheric reanalysis. Additionally, the complete data set has been made openly available at a scientific repository (doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.858234). References: C. Bianchi, L. Mendoza, L. Fernandez, M. P. Natali, A. Meza, J. F. Moirano, Multi-year GNSS monitoring of atmospheric IWV over Central and South America for climate studies, Ann. Geophys., ISSN 0992-7689, eISSN 1432-0576, 34 (7), 623-639 (doi:10.5194/angeo-34-623-2016).

  15. Water vapour trends at several tropospheric levels over South America between 1973 and 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales, L.; Mattar, C.; Da-Silva, L.; Abarca, R.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper water vapour trends were analyzed at several tropospheric levels over South America between 1973 and 2003. It was carried out using in situ values retrieved by 15 radiosonde stations and NCEP NCAR Reanalysis data (NNR). NNR and radiosonde water vapour data were linked to Koeppen-Geiger climatic zones to calculate anomalies, trends, and the non-parametric statistical significance for each mandatory level. A methodology used to process radiosonde data is shown. Water vapour trends in tropical climates presented positive decadal trends. This is statistically significant for the first mandatory levels retrieved by radiosonde. The highest values are presented in average with NNR; the decadal magnitude for climate Af being 0.15 g kg -1 for 1000 and 925 h Pa, and for climate As 0.27 g kg -1 for 925 and 850 h Pa. For non-tropical climates the magnitude trends of specific humidity are affected by the spatial resolution of NNR, which is seen when comparing the results received by the radiosondes. Finally, this paper shows the initial results of water vapour content trends in the last three decades over South America. Strong climatic events and synoptic oscillations were not commented upon.

  16. Growing Brazilian demand to spur gas network in South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deffarges, E.H.; Maurer, L.I.A.

    1993-01-01

    A recent combination in South America of economic and geopolitical factors is prompting development of a new integrated gas-pipeline network in the continent's Southern Cone. The crucial factors include privatization, regional integration, economic growth, and environmental concerns. The area, Latin America's largest regional entity, includes Brazil (population 150 million and a 1990 GNP of about $375 billion, 9th largest in the world), Argentina (population 32 million and the third largest Latin American economy after Brazil and Mexico), Bolivia, Chile, Paraguay, and Uruguay. Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay are members of the MercoSur economic bloc whose objective is to develop free trade in the region. There are very few integrated pipeline networks in the world. Besides the giant North American system, with hundreds of producers and pipelines, there is only one other large integrated network. It connects continental European countries to their outside suppliers such as Norway, the C.I.S., and Algeria. The emergence of a new pipeline system is therefore important for the natural-gas industry worldwide and even more so if it occurs in a region now growing rapidly after a decade of economic difficulties

  17. Tobacco advertisement exposure and tobacco consumption among youths in South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geneviéve Plamondon

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assesses the statistical association between exposure to tobacco marketing and tobacco consumption among adolescents in South America, by using data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey. Materials and methods. Using data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS, the exposure to tobacco marketing at the school level was studied from advertising in TV, radio, massive public events and street advertisement. Tobacco behaviour was considered. The total pooled sample used was 134 073 youths from Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Peru, Brazil, Uruguay, Suriname, Colombia, Guyana, Ecuador, Paraguay and Venezuela. Results. The exposure to tobacco marketing is positively and significantly associated to the probability of youths experimenting with tobacco (at least once in their lifetime. For regular smokers, exposure to tobacco marketing is positively and significantly associated to smoking intensity. Conclusions. These results call for the implementation of strong restrictions on tobacco advertisement of various types in South American countries.

  18. A Taxonomic Update of Small Mammal Plague Reservoirs in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonvicino, Cibele R; Oliveira, João A; Cordeiro-Estrela, Pedro; D'andrea, Paulo S; Almeida, Alzira M P

    2015-10-01

    Plague is a disease of epidemic potential that may emerge with discontinuous outbreaks. In South America, 50 wild rodent species have been identified as plague reservoirs, in addition to one lagomorph and two marsupials. To review the nomenclature of plague reservoirs, we examined specimens collected in plague foci, carried out new surveys in Brazilian plague regions, and re-evaluated the nomenclature of South American reservoirs on the basis of the current literature. Five of the 15 species involved with plague in Argentina, three of 10 species involved with plague in Bolivia, three of the seven species involved with plague in Peru, five of the nine species involved with plague in Ecuador, and six of the nine species involved with plague in Brazil have undergone taxonomic changes. In the last 20 years, plague cases were recorded in Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador, and Peru. These four countries have a high rodent species richness in plague foci, a fact that may be decisive for the maintenance of plague in the wild.

  19. Effects of Bio solids Application on Pasture and Grape Vines in South-Eastern Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nash, D.; Butler, C.; Cody, J.; Warne, M.S.J.; McLaughlin, M.J.; Heemsbergen, D.; Broos, K.; McLaughlin, M.J.; Heemsbergen, D.; Broos, K.; Bell, M.; Barry, G.; Pritchard, D.; Penny, N.; Penny, N.

    2011-01-01

    Bio solids were applied to a pasture and a vineyard in south-eastern Australia. At both sites, soil Cd, Cu, and Zn concentrations linearly increased with bio solids application rates although not to the extent of exceeding soil quality guidelines. Bio solids marginally increased soil C and N concentrations at the pasture site but significantly increased P concentrations. With lower overall soil fertility at the vineyard, bio solids increased C, N, and P concentrations. At neither site did bio solids application affect soil microbial endpoints. Bio solids increased pasture production compared to the unfertilised control but had little effect on grape production or quality. Interestingly, over the 3-year trial, there was no difference in pasture production between the bio solids treated plots and plots receiving inorganic fertiliser. These results suggest that bio solids could be used as a fertiliser to stimulate pasture production and as a soil conditioner to improve vineyard soils in this region.

  20. Sympatric and allopatric combinations of Lymnaea columella and Fasciola hepatica from southern and south-eastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, L H L; Lima, W S; Guimaraes, M P

    2009-09-01

    Experimental infections of Lymnaea columella with Fasciola hepatica were carried out to test the effect of sympatric and allopatric combinations between parasite and host, by using snails and flukes from southern and south-eastern Brazil. Four groups of 50 snails were infected with four miracidia per snail: two groups in sympatric and two groups in allopatric combinations. Sympatric combinations between parasite and host were more efficient than allopatric ones when snails from Itajubá were used, but the opposite was observed in infections involving snails from Pelotas. The sympatric association between L. columella and F. hepatica from Itajubá was significantly higher than in the other combinations. We concluded that the host-parasite relationship between L. columnella and F. hepatica may vary according to the geographical origin of the snails and flukes involved.

  1. Southeastern Power Administration 2011 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-12-31

    Dear Secretary Chu: I am pleased to submit Southeastern Power Administration’s (Southeastern) fiscal year (FY) 2011 Annual Report for your review. This report reflects our agency’s programs, accomplishments, operational, and financial activities for the 12-month period beginning October 1, 2010, and ending September 31, 2011. This past year, Southeastern marketed approximately 6.2 billion kilowatt-hours of energy to 489 wholesale customers in 10 southeastern states. Revenues from the sale of this power totaled more than $264 million. With the financial assistance and support of Southeastern’s customers, funding for capitalized equipment purchases and replacements at hydroelectric facilities operated by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) continued in FY 2011. This funding, which totaled more than $45 million, provided much needed repairs and maintenance for aging projects in Southeastern’s marketing area. Currently, there are more than 214 customers participating in the funding efforts in the Georgia-Alabama-South Carolina, Kerr-Philpott, and Cumberland Systems of projects. Drought conditions continued in the southeastern region of the United States this past year, particularly in the Savannah River Basin. Lack of rain placed strains on our natural and financial resources. Power purchases for FY 2011 totaled approximately $38 million. About $9 million of this amount was for replacement power, which is purchased only during adverse water conditions in order to meet Southeastern’s customer contract requirements. Southeastern’s goal is to maximize the benefits of our region’s water resources. Competing uses of these resources will present another challenging year for Southeastern’s employees. With the cooperation and communication among the Department of Energy (DOE), preference customers, and Corps, I am certain Southeastern is positioned to meet these challenges in the future. We are committed to providing reliable hydroelectric power to

  2. EGNOS Based APV Procedures Development Possibilities In The South-Eastern Part Of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaleta Wojciech Z.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available On 14th and 15th March 2011 for the first time approach with vertical guidance (APV-I was conducted on Polish territory in Katowice, Kraków and Mielec. This was the milestone for GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System and Area Navigation (RNAV use as a new instrument approach chance for NPA (Non-Precision Approach and PA (Precision Approach in Poland. The paper presents the experiment study of EGNOS SIS (Signal in Space due to APV (Approach with Vertical Guidance procedures development possibilities in the south-eastern part of Poland. Researches were conducted from January 2014 till June 2014 in three Polish cities: Warszawa, Kraków and Rzeszów. EGNOS as SBAS (Satellite Based Augmentation System in according with ICAO's Annex 10 has to meet restrictive requirements for three dimensional accuracy, system integrity, availability and continuity of SIS. Because of ECAC (European Civil Aviation Conference states to EGNOS coverage in the eastern part of Europe, location of mention above stations, shows real usefulness for SIS tests and evaluation of the results [EUROCONTROL, 2008].

  3. Parallel diversifications of Cremastosperma and Mosannona (Annonaceae), tropical rainforest trees tracking Neogene upheaval of South America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pirie, M.D.; Maas, P.J.M.; Wilschut, R.A.; Melchers-Sharrott, H.; Chatrou, L.W.

    2018-01-01

    Much of the immense present day biological diversity of Neotropical rainforests originated from the Miocene onwards, a period of geological and ecological upheaval in South America. We assess the impact of the Andean orogeny, drainage of Lake Pebas and closure of the Panama isthmus on two clades of

  4. Parallel diversifications of Cremastosperma and mosannona (annonaceae), tropical rainforest trees tracking neogene upheaval of South America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pirie, Michael D.; Maas, Paul J.M.; Wilschut, Rutger A.; Melchers-Sharrott, Heleen; Chatrou, Lars W.

    2018-01-01

    Much of the immense present day biological diversity of Neotropical rainforests originated from the Miocene onwards, a period of geological and ecological upheaval in South America. We assess the impact of the Andean orogeny, drainage of Lake Pebas and closure of the Panama isthmus on two clades of

  5. Severe Weather Events over Southeastern Brazil during the 2016 Dry Season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Rehbein

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Southeastern Brazil is the most populated and economically developed region of this country. Its climate consists of two distinct seasons: the dry season, extending from April to September, the precipitation is significantly reduced in comparison to that of the wet season, which extends from October to March. However, during nine days of the 2016 dry season, successive convective systems were associated with atypical precipitation events, tornadoes and at least one microburst over the southern part of this region. These events led to flooding, damages to buildings, shortages of electricity and water in several places, many injuries, and two documented deaths. The present study investigates the synoptic and dynamical features related to these anomalous events. The convective systems were embedded in an unstable environment with intense low-level jet flow and strong wind shear and were supported by a sequence of extratropical cyclones occurring over the Southwest Atlantic Ocean. These features were intensified by the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO in its phase 8 and by intense negative values of the Pacific South America (PSA 2 mode.

  6. Occurrence of tongue worm, Linguatula cf. serrata (Pentastomida: Linguatulidae in wild canids and livestock in south-eastern Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shokoofeh Shamsi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Pentastomids are obligate zoonotic arthropod parasites utilising canids and vulpids as their definitive hosts and several herbivorous species as their intermediate hosts. Reported only 10 times in Australia over the last 150 years as incidental findings, adult Pentastomids referred to as Linguatula serrata have been encountered in nasal cavities of domestic and wild dogs, and foxes. Nymphs have been reported in cattle and rabbits. In the present study, a number of potential definitive hosts, including red foxes (Vulpes vulpes, wild dogs (Canis lupus dingo and C.l. dingo x C. familiaris and feral cats (Felis catus, and intermediate hosts cattle (Bos taurus, sheep (Ovis aries, feral pigs (Sus scrofa, rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus, goats (Capra hircus and a European hare (Lepus europaeus, from the highlands of south-eastern Australia were examined. Of the animals examined 67.6% of wild dogs (n = 37, 14.5% of red foxes (n = 55 and 4.3% of cattle (n = 164 were found to be infected with Pentastomids, herein identified as Linguatula cf. serrata. The common occurrence of the parasite in wild dogs and less frequently in foxes suggests these wild canids have potential to act as a reservoir for infection of livestock, wildlife, domestic dogs and possibly humans. The unexpected high frequency of the parasite in wild dogs and foxes in south-eastern Australia suggests the parasite is more common than previously realised. Of the potential intermediate hosts in the region, only 4.3% of cattle were found to be infected with pentastomid nymphs which suggest the search for the host(s acting as the main intermediate host in the region should continue. Future studies should investigate transmission patterns, health impacts on hosts and whether the parasite has zoonotic significance in Australia. Keywords: Tongue worm, Australia, Linguatulidae, Pentastomida

  7. The coexistence of peace and conflict in South America: toward a new conceptualization of types of peace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Mario Battaglino

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available South America's predominant democratic regimes and its increasing interdependence on regional trade have not precluded the emergence of militarized crises between Colombia and Venezuela or the revival of boundary claims between Chile and Peru. This way, how can we characterize a zone that, in spite of its flourishing democracy and dense economic ties, remain involved in territorial disputes for whose resolution the use of force has not yet been discarded? This article contends that existing classifications of zones of peace are not adequate to explain this unusual coexistence. Thus, its main purpose is to develop a new analytical category of regional peace for assessing this phenomenon: the hybrid peace. It aims to research the evolution of security systems in South America during the previous century and build a new, threefold classification of peace zones: negative peace zones, hybrid peace zones, and positive peace zones.

  8. Marine biodiversity in the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of South America: knowledge and gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miloslavich, Patricia; Klein, Eduardo; Díaz, Juan M; Hernández, Cristián E; Bigatti, Gregorio; Campos, Lucia; Artigas, Felipe; Castillo, Julio; Penchaszadeh, Pablo E; Neill, Paula E; Carranza, Alvar; Retana, María V; Díaz de Astarloa, Juan M; Lewis, Mirtha; Yorio, Pablo; Piriz, María L; Rodríguez, Diego; Yoneshigue-Valentin, Yocie; Gamboa, Luiz; Martín, Alberto

    2011-01-31

    The marine areas of South America (SA) include almost 30,000 km of coastline and encompass three different oceanic domains--the Caribbean, the Pacific, and the Atlantic--ranging in latitude from 12∘N to 55∘S. The 10 countries that border these coasts have different research capabilities and taxonomic traditions that affect taxonomic knowledge. This paper analyzes the status of knowledge of marine biodiversity in five subregions along the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of South America (SA): the Tropical East Pacific, the Humboldt Current,the Patagonian Shelf, the Brazilian Shelves, and the Tropical West Atlantic, and it provides a review of ecosystem threats and regional marine conservation strategies. South American marine biodiversity is least well known in the tropical subregions (with the exception of Costa Rica and Panama). Differences in total biodiversity were observed between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans at the same latitude. In the north of the continent, the Tropical East Pacific is richer in species than the Tropical West Atlantic, however, when standardized by coastal length, there is very little difference among them. In the south, the Humboldt Current system is much richer than the Patagonian Shelf. An analysis of endemism shows that 75% of the species are reported within only one of the SA regions, while about 22% of the species of SA are not reported elsewhere in the world. National and regional initiatives focusing on new exploration, especially to unknown areas and ecosystems, as well as collaboration among countries are fundamental to achieving the goal of completing inventories of species diversity and distribution.These inventories will allow accurate interpretation of the biogeography of its two oceanic coasts and latitudinal trends,and will also provide relevant information for science based policies.

  9. Head and neck cancer burden and preventive measures in Central and South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdomo, Sandra; Martin Roa, Guillermo; Brennan, Paul; Forman, David; Sierra, Mónica S

    2016-09-01

    Central and South America comprise one of the areas characterized by high incidence rates for head and neck cancer. We describe the geographical and temporal trends in incidence and mortality of head and neck cancers in the Central and South American region in order to identify opportunities for intervention on the major identified risk factors: tobacco control, alcohol use and viral infections. We obtained regional- and national-level incidence data from 48 population-based cancer registries in 13 countries and cancer deaths from the WHO mortality database for 18 countries. Age-standardized incidence (ASR) and mortality (ASMR) rates per 100,000 person-years were estimated. Brazil had the highest incidence rates for oral and pharyngeal cancer in the region for both sexes, followed by Cuba, Uruguay and Argentina. Cuba had the highest incidence and mortality rates of laryngeal cancer in the region for males and females. Overall, males had rates about four times higher than those in females. Most countries in the region have implemented WHO recommendations for both tobacco and alcohol public policy control. Head and neck squamous-cell cancer (HNSCC) incidence and mortality rates in the Central and South America region vary considerably across countries, with Brazil, Cuba, French Guyana, Uruguay and Argentina experiencing the highest rates in the region. Males carry most of the HNSCC burden. Improvement and implementation of comprehensive tobacco and alcohol control policies as well as the monitoring of these factors are fundamental to prevention of head and neck cancers in the region. Copyright © 2015 International Agency for Research on Cancer. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. The influence of the Itaipu 60 Hz excitation system and stabilizer in the dynamic performance of the south/southeastern interconnected system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira Filho, Xisto; Gomes, P.; Garos, I. [ELETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pedroso, A. [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Jardim, J.L [FURNAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Queiroz, V. [Itaipu Binacional, Foz do Iguacu, PR (Brazil)

    1987-12-31

    This paper presents the main characteristics of Brazilian South/Southeastern interconnected system. Special attention is given to the Itaipu power plant which was considered the main basis for hydro generation expansion in the Brazilian interconnected system for the period 1982/1990. The paper also analyses the flexibility of the Itaipu 60 Hz Power System Stabilizer (PSS) for a more effective contribution to attenuate the dynamic problems, considering its influence not only for local mode oscillations, but also for the inter-area types. 7 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  11. The buffalo in Southern South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zava

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The number of buffaloes in the American continent is growing at the explosive rate of 12.7 % a year, well above all other continents. Within this context the different situations of the southern part of South America are described, those countries that two hundred years ago were part of the River Plate Viceroyship and the Chile General Command, both of them part of the Spanish empire. The first steps of buffaloes in Paraguay, Bolivia and Uruguay. The expansion of buffaloes in Argentina and their recent start up in Chile. The production systems in the region are described, principally Argentina and Paraguay. The major changes and expansion of agriculture in Argentina are displacing cattle production from the North towards the Tropics, where buffalo has proven to be very superior in productivity compared to cattle production thanks to its very good adaptation to the local conditions. In Paraguay, a totally subtropical country, something very similar is happening. Paraguay has consolidated its sales of buffalo hides and beef. Argentina is well on its way to having a very efficient buffalo beef marketing competing with cattle of the highest quality. Buffalo milk production is still not mature in these countries, although there are several projects underway in Uruguay, Bolivia and Argentina.

  12. Book review: Vetter, H. 2005. Terralog. Turtles of the World. Vol. 3. Central and South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Book review: Vetter, H. 2005. Terralog. Turtles of the World. Vol. 3. Central and South America/Schildkröten der Welt Band 3. Mittel- und Südamerika: 1-128, color pictures 606 + 9. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt, Germany.ISBN 3-930612-82-8; 29.7 x 20.8 cm

  13. Ranking Business and Economics Journals in South America Using the Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Jennifer K.; Pradenas, Lorena; Parada, Victor; Scherer, Robert F.

    2012-01-01

    Access to published research for knowledge creation and education in the administrative science disciplines in South America has been enhanced since the introduction of the Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO). Although SciELO has been available as an online journal indexing and publication service since 1998, there have been no…

  14. A Cutaneous Ulcer Resulting from Mycobacterium ulcerans—Leishmania braziliensis Coinfection in South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mougin, Benjamin; Avenel-Audran, Martine; Hasseine, Lilia; Martin, Ludovic; Cottin, Jane; Pomares, Christelle; Delaunay, Pascal; Marty, Pierre; Ravel, Christophe; Chabasse, Dominique; Abgueguen, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Buruli ulcer is a tropical skin disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. Its mode of transmission is not yet clearly understood. We report here a cutaneous ulcer in a European traveler in South America resulting from a coinfection detected specifically for Mycobacterium ulcerans and Leishmania braziliensis DNA with real-time polymerase chain reaction. This observation of a unique cutaneous ulcer raises the issue about possible modes of transmission of those two pathogens by the same vector. PMID:22049045

  15. ECLAMC Study: prevalence patterns of hypospadias in South America: multi-national analysis over a 24-year period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Fernández

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate prevalence trends of hypospadias in South-America it is essential to perform multicenter and multinational studies with the same methodology. Herein we present systematic data as part of an international multicenter initiative evaluating congenital malformations in South America over a 24-year period. Materials and Methods A nested case-control study was conducted using the Latin American Collaborative Study of Congenital Malformations (ECLAMC, between January 1989 and December 2012. Cases were stratified as isolated (IH and non-isolated hypospadias (NIH. Global prevalence was calculated and discriminated by country. Associations between birth weight and gestational age, and NIH distribution by associated abnormality and severity of hypospadias, were analyzed. Results A total of 159 hospitals from six countries participated, reporting surveillance on 4.020.384 newborns. A total of 4.537 hypospadias cases were detected, with a global prevalence of 11.3/10.000 newborns. Trend analyses showed in Chile, Brazil and Uruguay a statistically significant increase in prevalence. Analysis of severity and associated anomalies did not to find an association for distal cases, but did for proximal (RR=1.64 [95% CI=1.33-2.03]. Conclusion This is one of only a few Latin American multicenter studies reporting on the epidemiology of hypospadias in South America in the last two decades. Our data adds to evidence suggesting an increase in some countries in the region at different times. There were also variations in prevalence according to severity. This study adds to literature describing associated anomalies at a hospital-based level.

  16. ECLAMC Study: Prevalence patterns of hypospadias in South America: Multi-national analysis over a 24-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Nicolás; Pérez, Jaime; Monterrey, Pedro; Poletta, Fernando A; Bägli, Darius J; Lorenzo, Armando J; Zarante, Ignacio

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate prevalence trends of hypospadias in South-America it is essential to perform multicenter and multinational studies with the same methodology. Herein we present systematic data as part of an international multicenter initiative evaluating congenital malformations in South America over a 24-year period. A nested case-control study was conducted using the Latin American Collaborative Study of Congenital Malformations (ECLAMC), between January 1989 and December 2012. Cases were stratified as isolated (IH) and non-isolated hypospadias (NIH). Global prevalence was calculated and discriminated by country. Associations between birth weight and gestational age, and NIH distribution by associated abnormality and severity of hypospadias, were analyzed. A total of 159 hospitals from six countries participated, reporting surveillance on 4.020.384 newborns. A total of 4.537 hypospadias cases were detected, with a global prevalence of 11.3/10.000 newborns. Trend analyses showed in Chile, Brazil and Uruguay a statistically significant increase in prevalence. Analysis of severity and associated anomalies did not to find an association for distal cases, but did for proximal (RR=1.64 [95% CI=1.33-2.03]). This is one of only a few Latin American multicenter studies reporting on the epidemiology of hypospadias in South America in the last two decades. Our data adds to evidence suggesting an increase in some countries in the region at different times. There were also variations in prevalence according to severity. This study adds to literature describing associated anomalies at a hospital-based level. Copyright® by the International Brazilian Journal of Urology.

  17. Correlation of proterozoic sediments of Western and Central Africa and South America based upon radiochronological and paleontological data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonhomme, M.G.

    1982-01-01

    Nearly 70 new Rb-Sr isochron ages and many K-Ar conventional ages have been determined between 1975 and 1980 on Proterozoic sedimentary or metasedimentary sequences in western and Central Africa and South America. Some stratigraphic results have been established: (1) five formations have been dated of the Lower Proterozoic; (2) a long sedimentation gap occurs, mainly in western Africa and in some regions of Central Africa and South America between nearly 1600 and 1100 Ma; (3) the upper Riphean assemblages of stromatolites have been dated and compared to those of the Eurasian craton; (4) two main glacial events have been dated, the first one placed at ca. 950 Ma, the second during the Vendian, at ca. 650-620 Ma; (5) it can be stated that, when applied to Precambrian sequences, all stratigraphic methods must be used together. (Auth.)

  18. Mast fruiting is a frequent strategy in woody species of eastern South America.

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    Natalia Norden

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is thought that mast seeding is a rare reproductive strategy in the tropics, since tropical climates are less variable, and fruit consumers tend to be more generalist in these regions. However, previous tests of this hypothesis were based on only few tropical datasets, and none from tropical South America. Moreover, reproductive strategies have been quantified based on the coefficient of variation of interannual seed production, an index that potentially confounds masting and high interannual variability in seed production. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We developed a new approach to model the monthly variability in seed production for 28 tree species, and 20 liana species monitored during 5 years in a tropical forest of Central French Guiana. We found that 23% of the species showed a masting pattern, 54% an annual fruiting pattern, and 23% an irregular fruiting pattern. The majority of masting species were trees (8 out of 11, most of them animal-dispersed. The classification into reproductive strategies based on the coefficient of variation was inconsistent with our results in nearly half of the cases. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study is the first to clearly evidence the frequency of the masting strategy in a tropical forest community of Eastern South America. The commonness of the masting strategy in tropical plants may promote species coexistence through storage dynamics.

  19. Seasonal influence of ENSO on the Atlantic ITCZ and equatorial South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münnich, M.; Neelin, J. D.

    2005-11-01

    In late boreal spring, especially May, a strong relationship exists in observations among precipitation anomalies over equatorial South America and the Atlantic intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ), and eastern equatorial Pacific and central equatorial Atlantic sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTA). A chain of correlations of equatorial Pacific SSTA, western equatorial Atlantic wind stress (WEA), equatorial Atlantic SSTA, sea surface height, and precipitation supports a causal chain in which El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) induces WEA stress anomalies, which in turn affect Atlantic equatorial ocean dynamics. These correlations show strong seasonality, apparently arising within the atmospheric links of the chain. This pathway and the influence of equatorial Atlantic SSTA on South American rainfall in May appear independent of that of the northern tropical Atlantic. Brazil's Nordeste is affected by the northern tropical Atlantic. The equatorial influence lies further to the north over the eastern Amazon and the Guiana Highlands.

  20. Review of mammalogical research in the Guianas of northern South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Burton K

    2016-03-01

    Research on mammals in the Guianas of northern South America has had a checkered history. In this review, I summarize the notable contributions to mammalogical study in Guyana, Suriname and French Guiana. These studies began in the mid-18th century with the binomial nomenclature system of scientific classification created by the Swedish naturalist Carl Linnaeus, who described 23 species new to science based on holotype specimens from the Guianas. Notwithstanding popular accounts by amateur naturalists visiting this region, over the next 7 decades there was only sporadic taxonomic work done on Guianan mammals primarily by researchers at European museums. The first comprehensive biological exploration took place in the 1840s during a geographic survey of the boundaries of British Guiana. However, it was not until almost half a century later that scientific publications began to regularly document the increasing species diversity in the region, including the prodigious work of Oldfield Thomas at the British Museum of Natural History in London. Another lull in the study of mammals occurred in the mid-1910s to the early 1960s after which foreign researchers began to rediscover the Guianas and their pristine habitats. This biological renaissance is still ongoing and I give a prospectus on the direction of future research in one of the last frontiers of tropical rainforest. An initiative that would be greatly beneficial is the establishment of a university network in the Guianas with graduate-based research to develop a cadre of professional experts on biodiversity and evolution as seen in other countries of South America. © 2016 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  1. How Local Landholder Groups Collectively Manage Weeds in South-Eastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Sonia; Rogers, Sarah

    2017-09-01

    For two decades researchers and policy makers have been arguing that community-based collective action is needed to effectively control weeds. Yet there has been little social research into the ways that collective weed control emerges at local scales. The aim of this paper is to investigate the mechanisms through which three local landholder groups in south-eastern Australia collectively manage weeds and the measures they use to evaluate success. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with members of three Landcare groups—Jerrawa Creek/Upper Lachlan, MacLaughlin River and Towamba Valley—as well as government staff external to the groups. The results reveal that for all three groups collective weed control is about supporting individual weed control efforts as well as proactively engaging landholders with the worst infestations. The groups were seen to be successful because they focused on the common challenge that weeds pose to all landholders, thereby removing the shame associated with having weeds, and because they organised community events that were as much about building and maintaining social relationships as improving weed control. Groups were positive about what they had achieved as collectives of landholders, but also saw an important role for government in providing funding, engaging with landholders who were unwilling to engage directly with the group, and controlling weeds on public lands.

  2. The palaeobiogeography of South American gomphotheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spencer G. Lucas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gomphotheriid proboscideans reached South America as Late Cenozoic immigrants from North America. However, disagreements over alpha taxonomy, age dating and phylogenetic relationships have produced three competing hypotheses about this immigration: (1 a single gomphothere immigration took place soon after the ~3 Ma closure of the Panamanian isthmus; (2 two separate gomphothere immigrations took place after closure of the isthmus; or (3 an earlier, Late Miocene (before 9 Ma immigration brought gomphotheres into South America. A critical re-evaluation of the alpha taxonomy, age dating and phylogenetic relationships of Neotropical gomphotheres identifies two valid genera of South American gomphotheres, Cuvieronius and Notiomastodon (= “Haplomastodon”, = “Stegomastodon” from South America and recognizes “Amahuacatherium” as an invalid genus likely based on a specimen of Notiomastodon. The oldest well-dated South American gomphothere fossil is Marplatan, ~2.5 Ma, from Argentina. The case for an age of “Amahuacatherium” older than 9 Ma is refuted by mammalian biostratigraphy and a re-evaluation of the relevant magnetostratigraphy. North American Rhynchotherium descended from Gomphotherium during the Late Hemphillian (~5–6 Ma and gave rise to Cuvieronius in North America by the end of the Blancan (~2 Ma time. Notiomastodon evolved from Cuvieronius in South America during the Pleistocene. The case for a close relationship between the Neotropical gomphotheres and Sinomastodon from China is rejected. Central America was not a center of endemic gomphothere evolution and merely acted as a pathway for the immigration of gomphotheres from north to south: Gomphotherium into Central America during the Miocene, Cuvieronius to Central America by Early Pleistocene time and on to South America. After closure of the Panamanian isthmus, Cuvieronius immigrated to South America, where it gave rise to Notiomastodon by Middle Pleistocene time. The

  3. Conserving the grassland Important Bird Areas (IBAs) of southern South America: Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay, and Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrian S. Di Giacomo; Santiago Krapovickas

    2005-01-01

    In the southern part of South America, knowledge about bird species distribution is still not used as a tool for land use planning and conservation priority-setting. BirdLife International’s Important Bird Areas (IBA) Program is an appropriate vehicle for analyzing existing information about birds, and to generate new data where necessary. IBA inventories...

  4. Over-harvesting driven by consumer demand leads to population decline: big-leaf mahogany in South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Grogan; Arthur G. Blundell; R. Matthew Landis; Ani Youatt; Raymond E. Gullison; Martha Martinez; Roberto Kometter; Marco Lentini; Richard E. Rice

    2010-01-01

    Consumer demand for the premier neotropical luxury timber, big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla), has driven boom-and-bust logging cycles for centuries, depleting local and regional supplies from Mexico to Bolivia. We revise the standard historic range map for mahogany in South America and estimate the extent to which commercial stocks have been depleted using...

  5. Fish and aquatic habitat conservation in South America: a continental overview with emphasis on neotropical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barletta, M; Jaureguizar, A J; Baigun, C; Fontoura, N F; Agostinho, A A; Almeida-Val, V M F; Val, A L; Torres, R A; Jimenes-Segura, L F; Giarrizzo, T; Fabré, N N; Batista, V S; Lasso, C; Taphorn, D C; Costa, M F; Chaves, P T; Vieira, J P; Corrêa, M F M

    2010-06-01

    Fish conservation in South America is a pressing issue. The biodiversity of fishes, just as with all other groups of plants and animals, is far from fully known. Continuing habitat loss may result in biodiversity losses before full species diversity is known. In this review, the main river basins of South America (Magdalena, Orinoco, Amazon and Paraná-La Plata system), together with key aquatic habitats (mangrove-fringed estuaries of the tropical humid, tropical semi-arid and subtropical regions) are analysed in terms of their characteristics and main concerns. Habitat loss was the main concern identified for all South American ecosystems. It may be caused by damming of rivers, deforestation, water pollution, mining, poor agricultural practice or inadequate management practice. Habitat loss has a direct consequence, which is a decrease in the availability of living resources, a serious social and economic issue, especially for South American nations which are all developing countries. The introduction of exotic species and overfishing were also identified as widespread across the continent and its main freshwater, coastal and marine ecosystems. Finally, suggestions are made to find ways to overcome these problems. The main suggestion is a change of paradigm and a new design for conservation actions, starting with integrated research and aiming at the co-ordinated and harmonized management of the main transboundary waters of the continent. The actions would be focused on habitat conservation and social rescue of the less well-off populations of indigenous and non-indigenous peoples. Energy and freshwater demands will also have to be rescaled in order to control habitat loss.

  6. Antimicrobial Activity and Chemical Composition of Essential Oils from Verbenaceae Species Growing in South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina M. Pérez Zamora

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The Verbenaceae family includes 2600 species grouped into 100 genera with a pantropical distribution. Many of them are important elements of the floras of warm-temperature and tropical regions of America. This family is known in folk medicine, and its species are used as digestive, carminative, antipyretic, antitussive, antiseptic, and healing agents. This review aims to collect information about the essential oils from the most reported species of the Verbenaceae family growing in South America, focusing on their chemical composition, antimicrobial activity, and synergism with commercial antimicrobials. The information gathered comprises the last twenty years of research within the South American region and is summarized taking into consideration the most representative species in terms of their essential oils. These species belong to Aloysia, Lantana, Lippia, Phyla, and Stachytarpheta genera, and the main essential oils they contain are monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, such as β-caryophyllene, thymol, citral, 1,8-cineole, carvone, and limonene. These compounds have been found to possess antimicrobial activities. The synergism of these essential oils with antibiotics is being studied by several research groups. It constitutes a resource of interest for the potential use of combinations of essential oils and antibiotics in infection treatments.

  7. LATTES: a new gamma-ray detector concept for South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assis P.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently the detection of Very High Energy gamma-rays for astrophysics rely on the measurement of the Extensive Air Showers (EAS either using Cherenkov detectors or EAS arrays with larger field of views but also larger energy thresholds. In this talk we present a novel hybrid detector concept for a EAS array with an improved sensitivity in the lower energies (~ 100 GeV. We discuss its main features, capabilities and present preliminary results on its expected perfomances and sensitivities.This wide field of view experiment is planned to be installed at high altitude in South America making it a complementary project to the planned Cherenkov telescope experiments and a powerful tool to trigger further observations of variable sources and to detect transients phenomena.

  8. Brazilian peppertree (Schinus terebinthifolius) in Florida and South America: Evidence of a possible niche shift driven by hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazilian peppertree (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, Anacardiaceae) was introduced into Florida from South America in the 1800s and commercialized as an ornamental plant. Based on herbaria records and available literature, it began to escape cultivation and invade ruderal and natural habitats in t...

  9. The nematode community in the Atlantic rainforest lizard Enyalius perditus Jackson, from south-eastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto-Lima, A F; Toledo, G M; Anjos, L A

    2012-12-01

    Studies focusing on communities of helminths from Brazilian lizards are increasing, but there are many blanks in the knowledge of parasitic fauna of wild fauna. This lack of knowledge hampers understanding of ecological and parasitological aspects of involved species. Moreover, the majority of research has focused on parasitic fauna of lizards from families Tropiduridae and Scincidae. Only a few studies have looked at lizards from the family Leiosauridae, including some species of Enyalius. This study presents data on the gastrointestinal parasite fauna of Enyalius perditus and their relationships with ecological aspects of hosts in a disturbed Atlantic rainforest area in the state of Minas Gerais, south-eastern Brazil. Two nematode species, Oswaldocruzia burseyi [(Molineidae) and Strongyluris oscari (Heterakidae) were found. Nematode species showed an aggregated distribution in this host population, with O. burseyi being more aggregated than S. oscari. The present study extends the range of occurrence of O. burseyi to the Brazilian continental area.

  10. First record of Smilodon fatalis Leidy, 1868 (Felidae, Machairodontinae) in the extra-Andean region of South America (late Pleistocene, Sopas Formation), Uruguay: Taxonomic and paleobiogeographic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzuetti, Aldo; Perea, Daniel; Ubilla, Martín; Rinderknecht, Andrés

    2018-01-01

    The Felidae are known in South America from the Ensenadan Stage/Age onwards. Among them, machairodonts of the genus Smilodon stand out. Three species are recognized, and all three are present on the continent: S. gracilis from the early-middle Pleistocene in north-east Venezuela; S. fatalis, found only in Lujanian sediments on the west side of the Andes (north-west of Peru and south-west of Ecuador); and S. populator, which inhabited the eastern part of the Andes during the Ensenadan and Lujanian. This distribution has led to the suggestion that the last two felids were allopatric during the Lujanian. Here, we report the first evidence of S. fatalis in the eastern part of the continent (Sopas Formation, late Pleistocene of Uruguay), based on an almost complete skull. This finding not only enlarges its distribution in South America but questions the idea of allopatric distribution. It also adds a new component to the mammalian predator trophic level of Uruguay, with the capacity to predate large South American herbivores and megaherbivores. A revision of materials previously assigned to S. populator in the extra-Andean zone of South America will be required.

  11. Predicting the energy consumption of heated plastic greenhouses in south-eastern Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, J. C.; Baile, A.; Bonachela, S.; Gonzalez-Real, M. M.; Perez-Parra, J.

    2006-01-01

    Measurements of heat consumption in a parral type greenhouse, equipped with an air-heating system, were carried out in south-eastern Spain (Almeria) during the 1998/99 winter. From the daily values of heat consumption (Qd, MJ m-2 d-1) recorded in five identical greenhouses heated to different night temperature set-points (Tc), and data of minimum outside air temperature (Te,min), relationships between Qd and the temperature difference ( Tmin = Tc . Te,min) were established. Linear regressions between Qd and delta Tmin gave satisfactory fits (R2 ranging from 0.75 to 0.83), considering that Te,min was the only input data for the model. When all data were pooled, the correlation was curvilinear, the best fit to a 2nd order polynomial being Qd = 0.049 deltaTmin 2 . 0.001 Tmin + 1.107 (R2 = 0.89). Validation of this model was performed using data obtained during other years, giving a fair agreement at the daily (R2 0.86), 10-day (R2 = 0.95) and yearly (R2 = 0.99) time scales. This simple model could be of interest to growers for decision-making related to the choice of set-point temperature and crop planning in heated greenhouses. (Author)

  12. Acceptability of general practice services for Afghan refugees in south-eastern Melbourne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchikanti, Prashanti; Cheng, I-Hao; Advocat, Jenny; Russell, Grant

    2017-04-01

    Over 750000 refugees have resettled in Australia since 1945. Despite complex health needs related to prior traumatic experiences and the challenges of resettlement in a foreign country, refugees experience poor access to primary care. Health and settlement service providers describe numerous cultural, communication, financial and health literacy barriers. This study aimed to investigate the acceptability of general practitioner (GP) services and understand what aspects of acceptability are relevant for Afghan refugees in south-eastern Melbourne. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with two Afghan community leaders and 16 Dari- or English-speaking Afghan refugees who accessed GP services. Two distinct narratives emerged - those of recently arrived refugees and established refugees (living in Australia for 3 years or longer). Transecting these narratives, participants indicated the importance of: (1) a preference for detailed clinical assessments, diagnostic investigations and the provision of prescriptions at the first consultation; (2) 'refugee-friendly' staff; and (3) integrated, 'one-stop-shop' GP clinic features. The value of acceptable personal characteristics evolved over time - GP acceptability was less a consideration for recently arrived, compared with more, established refugees. The findings reinforce the importance of tailoring healthcare delivery to the evolving needs and healthcare expectations of newly arrived and established refugees respectively.

  13. Korean Investments in Latin America: Current Status and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taik-Hwan Jyoung

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available This thesis first took an overall look at the relationship between Asia and Central and South America. Meanwhile, this thesis studied the growth potential of these two continents and the rapid growth trend compared with other areas. Based on these, this thesis emphasized the necessity of the cooperation between Asia and Central and South America, which has been alienated for a long period. Upon studying of this thesis, the reader will track the connection of the overseas investment strategy of Korea to the domestic and overseas economic factors while analyzing its motivation and feature, etc. Also, it analyzes Korea's future investment in Central and South America as comparing with the strategies of Japan and Taiwan. Besides, in this thesis the author is trying to get future-oriented experiences from the analyses in areas such as trade, investment experience, culture difference and personnel exchange, and the prospect of the relationship between Korea and Central and South America. This thesis brought forward the 'blueprint' about promoting the cooperation between Asia and Central and South America, such as to organize the meeting for the new setting summit conference of Asian and Central American leaders, to add members from Central and South America countries to the MERCOSUR of APEC, to expand items in order to promote mutual-communication.

  14. Ocean deformation processes at the Caribbean-North America-South America triple junction: Initial results of the 2007 ANTIPLAC marine survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benard, F.; Deville, E.; Le Drezen, E.; Loubrieu, B.; Maltese, L.; Patriat, M.; Roest, W.; Thereau, E.; Umber, M.; Vially, R.

    2007-12-01

    Marine geophysical data (multibeam and seismic lines) acquired in 2007 (ANTIPLAC survey) in the North-South Americas-Caribbean triple point (Central Atlantic, Barracuda and Tiburon ridges area), provide information about the structure, the tectonic processes and the timing of the deformation in this large diffuse zone of polyphase deformation. The deformation of the plate boundary between the north and south Americas is distributed on several structures located in the Atlantic plain, at the front of the Barbados accretionary prism. In this area of deformation of the Atlantic oceanic lithosphere, the main depressions and transform troughs are filled by Late Pliocene-Pleistocene turbidite sediments, especially in the Barracuda trough, north of Barracuda ridge. These sediments are not issued from the Lesser Antilles volcanic arc but they are sourced from the East, probably by the Orinoco turbidite distal system, through channels transiting in the Atlantic abyssal plain. These Late Pliocene- Quaternary sediments show locally spectacular evidences of syntectonic deformation. It can be shown notably that Barracuda ridge includes a pre-existing transform fault system which has been folded and uplifted very recently during Pleistocene times. This recent deformation has generate relieves up to 2 km high with associated erosion processes notably along the northern flank the Barracuda ridge. The subduction of these recently deformed ridges induces deformation of earlier structures within the Barbados accretionary prism. These asperities within the Atlantic oceanic lithosphere which is subducted in the Lesser Antilles active margin are correlated with the zone of intense seismic activity below the volcanic arc.

  15. Biodegradation of cyanide in groundwater and soils from gasworks sites in south-eastern Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meehan, S.M.E.; Weaver, T.R.; Lawrence, C.R. [University of Melbourne, Parkvills, Vic. (Australia). School of Earth Sciences

    1999-07-01

    Groundwater from a gasworks site in south-eastern Australia has been found to contain high concentrations of cyanide (total), sulphate, and ammonia (1400 mg L{sup -1}, 6500 mg L{sup -1}, and 580 mg L{sup -1} respectively). Soil from another gasworks site has been found to contain 587 mg kg{sup -1} of cyanide (total), with concentrations of cyanide in the groundwater at this site being relatively low ({lt} 21 mgL{sup -1} CN(Total)). Experiments were conducted to determine the biodegradation rates of cyanide in groundwater and soils using samples from both sites. Column experiments and bioreactors were constructed to produce both aerobic and anaerobic conditions for the groundwater containing high concentrations of cyanide. Samples of water were taken periodically to analyse the pH, redox potential, temperature, and concentrations of cyanide (free and total), sulphate, ammonia, nitrate and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Initial results indicate that concentrations of cyanide are declining in both aerobic and anaerobic conditions, with biodegradation one process producing degradation. 9 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Holocene fire activity and vegetation response in South-Eastern Iberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Romera, Graciela; Carrión, José S.; Pausas, Juli G.; Sevilla-Callejo, Miguel; Lamb, Henry F.; Fernández, Santiago; Burjachs, Francesc

    2010-05-01

    Since fire has been recognized as an essential disturbance in Mediterranean landscapes, the study of long-term fire ecology has developed rapidly. We have reconstructed a sequence of vegetation dynamics and fire changes across south-eastern Iberia by coupling records of climate, fire, vegetation and human activities. We calculated fire activity anomalies (FAAs) in relation to 3 ka cal BP for 10-8 ka cal BP, 6 ka cal BP, 4 ka cal BP and the present. For most of the Early to the Mid-Holocene uneven, but low fire events were the main vegetation driver at high altitudes where broadleaved and coniferous trees presented a highly dynamic post-fire response. At mid-altitudes in the mainland Segura Mountains, fire activity remained relatively stable, at similar levels to recent times. We hypothesize that coastal areas, both mountains and lowlands, were more fire-prone landscapes as biomass was more likely to have accumulated than in the inland regions, triggering regular fire events. The wet and warm phase towards the Mid-Holocene (between ca 8 and 6 ka cal BP) affected the whole region and promoted the spread of mesophytic forest co-existing with Pinus, as FAAs appear strongly negative at 6 ka cal BP, with a less important role of fire. Mid and Late Holocene landscapes were shaped by an increasing aridity trend and the rise of human occupation, especially in the coastal mountains where forest disappeared from ca 2 ka cal BP. Mediterranean-type vegetation (evergreen oaks and Pinus pinaster- halepensis types) showed the fastest post-fire vegetation dynamics over time.

  17. Species Profile: Flatwoods Salamander (Ambystoma cingulatum) on Military Installations in the Southeastern United States

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Palis, John

    1997-01-01

    .... Fish and Wildlife Service. The species inhabits the lower Southeastern Coastal Plain from southern South Carolina to northern Florida, and westward through Georgia to extreme southwestern Alabama...

  18. Exploration of the South-Eastern Alps lithosphere with 3D refraction seismics project Alp 2002 – data acquisition in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Gosar

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Using combined seismic refraction/wide-angle reflection method project Alp 2002 explored the contact zone between South-Eastern Alps, Dinarides and Pannonian basin. In a network of 12 profiles of 4100 km total length, which are spread over seven countries,1055 portable seismographs were deployed and 31 strong (300 kg explosions fired. In Slovenia 127 seismographs were deployed along five profiles totalling 575 km and two explosions fired near Vojnik and Gradin. The collected data will allow construction of athree-dimensional model of the lithosphere and will contribute to the understanding of the tectonics and geodynamics at the junction of European, Adriatic and Tisza plates.

  19. Molecular paleoparasitological diagnosis of Ascaris sp. from coprolites: new scenery of ascariasis in pre-Colombian South America times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Leles

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Paleoparasitological studies using microscopy showed that Ascarisand Trichuris trichiura are the human intestinal parasites most found in archaeological sites. However, in pre-Columbian South American archaeological sites, Ascaris is rare. In this work we standardized a molecular methodology for Ascaris diagnosis directly from ancient DNA retrieved from coprolites. Using cythochrome b gene (142 bp target, ancient DNA sequences were retrieved from South American samples, negative by microscopy. Moreover, the methodology applied was sensitive enough to detect ancient DNA extracted from 30 Ascaris eggs from an European coprolite. These results revealed a new scenery for the paleodistribution of Ascaris in South America.

  20. A review of the genus Orionis Shaw (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Euphorinae) and first records of the genus from South America and the Oriental Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortoni, Marco Aurélio; Shimbori, Eduardo Mitio; Shaw, Scott Richard; Souza-Gessner, Carolina DA Silva; Penteado-Dias, Angélica Maria

    2016-12-16

    Orionis is a small Neotropical euphorine genus, currently in the tribe Perilitini. Although the biology of the genus is unknown, Orionis eximius (Muesebeck) was described from a single female specimen reared from a cocoon associated with Lantana camara. Here, we present a taxonomic revision of Orionis and the first records of the genus from South America and Thailand, with descriptions of three new species: O. brasiliensis sp. nov., O. ecuadoriensis sp. nov. and O. orientalis sp. nov. We also report the first record of O. eximius from South America (Ecuador). A revised key for the described species is presented.

  1. Status of soil acidification in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. E. Fenn; T. G. Huntington; S. B. McLaughlin; C. Eagar; A. Gomez; R. B. Cook

    2006-01-01

    Forest soil acidification and depletion of nutrient cations have been reported for several forested regions in North America, predominantly in the eastern United States, including the northeast and in the central Appalachians, but also in parts of southeastern Canada and the southern U.S. Continuing regional inputs of nitrogen and sulfur are of concern because of...

  2. Old age mortality in Eastern and South-Eastern Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danan Gu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Eastern and South-Eastern Asian countries have witnessed a marked decline in old age mortality in recent decades. Yet no studies have investigated the trends and patterns in old age morality and cause-of-death in the region. Objective: We reviewed the trends and patterns of old age mortality and cause-of-death for countries in the region. Methods: We examined data on old age mortality in terms of life expectancy at age 65 and age-specific death rates from the 2012 Revision of the World Population Prospects for 14 countries in the region (China, Hong Kong, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Indonesia, Japan, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Myanmar, Malaysia, Mongolia, Philippines, Republic of Korea, Singapore, Thailand, and Viet Nam and data on cause-of-death from the WHO for five countries (China, Hong Kong, Japan, Republic of Korea, and Singapore from 1980 to 2010. Results: While mortality transitions in these populations took place in different times, and at different levels of socioeconomic development and living environment, changes in their age patterns and sex differentials in mortality showed certain similarities: women witnessed a similar decline to men in spite of their lower mortality, and young elders had a larger decline than the oldest-old. In all five countries examined for cause-of-death, most of the increases in life expectancy at age 65 in both men and women were attributable to declines in mortality from stroke and heart disease. GDP per capita, educational level, and urbanization explained much of the variations in life expectancy and cause-specific mortality, indicating critical contributions of these basic socioeconomic development indicators to the mortality decline over time in the region. Conclusions: These findings shed light on the relationship between epidemiological transition, changing age patterns of mortality, and improving life expectancy in these populations.

  3. The collision of rights and its impact on access to essential medicines: Challenges for South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Allard Soto

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The collision between intellectual property rights and the right to health due to obligations assumed simultaneously –the WTO trips Agreement and the United Nations International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights– by the twelve countries of South America, has had a profound impact regarding their populations access to essential medicines. The paper reports this situation in the region, while placing it in the context of the debate on trade and human rights, which has been particularly strong since the beginning of this century in the field of public health. The need for South American countries to strengthen intraregional cooperation as well as the promotion of South-South cooperation in access to essential medicines, taking into account the prevalence of pharmaceutical patents held by private laboratories in the northern hemisphere, is underlined. The advances made in this direction by the South American Health Council of Unasur, together with its actions as a regional bloc at the WTO meetings, are promising steps that must be complemented by the development of joint drug production capabilities.

  4. Trade Facilitation Indicators and their Potential Impact on Trade Between the Countries of South-Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toševska-Trpčevska Katerina

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we base our analysis on previous OECD findings and analysis of trade facilitation indicators for assessing relative economic and trade impact of specific trade facilitation measures for the countries of South-Eastern Europe. In the analysis we plan to include all CEFTA-2006 members, except Moldova, and other countries which are part of this region: Bulgaria, Romania and Greece. We plan to construct twelve trade facilitation indicators (TFIs that correspond to the main policy areas under negotiations at the WTO. The indicators are composed from seventy-eight variables, whose values are drawn from publicly available data. We plan to use these indicators in gravity model in order to estimate the impact of those policy areas on trade volumes between the countries of the region. The use of individual trade facilitation indicators should also enable countries to better assess which trade facilitation measures deserve priority.

  5. Regional programme for the eradication of the Carambola fruit fly in South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malavasi, Aldo; Sauers-Muller, Alies van; Midgarden, David; Kellman, Victorine; Didelot, Dominique; Caplong, Phillippe; Ribeiro, Odilson

    2000-01-01

    Bactrocera carambolae Drew and Hancock, the Carambola fruit fly (CFF), was probably introduced into Suriname from Indonesia in the 1960s or 1970s. The most likely mechanism of introduction was people arriving at Suriname from Indonesia by air, through Amsterdam. Any other method of transport would be too lengthy. Air travel was not commonly available to the general Surinamese population before the 1960s. About one-fifth of the Surinamese population is of Indonesian origin, and many strong ties remained between the countries. These ties are loosening with the increasing number of generations after immigration, which occurred in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. The first recorded Bactrocera found in Suriname was in 1975, when flies were reared from a market fruit and preserved unidentified in the Ministry of Agriculture's insect collection. Bactrocera were not recorded again until 1986, when infested fruits were brought to the attention of the Ministry by a homeowner. These specimens were sent to the United States for identification and were identified as Dacus dorsalis. B. carambolae was formally described in 1994 as a species belonging to the B. dorsalis complex (Drew and Hancock 1994). At that time, in 1986, little importance was given to the finding in the United States, perhaps because the identifier was unaware that Suriname is in South America rather than Asia. The international community would only become aware of the establishment of a Dacus/Bactrocera species in the Americas four years later. The population of flies in the Guyanas has now been identified as B. carambolae, and its establishment in South America is a threat to the production and marketing of fruits throughout the tropical and subtropical Americas and the Caribbean (Hancock 1989). It might be expected that the newly established B. carambolae would move rapidly into the tropical forests where there are many species of the native Anastrepha fruit flies and, presumably, many

  6. A synthesis of ENSO effects on drylands in Australia, North America and South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Holmgren

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamentally, El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO is a climatic and oceanographic phenomenon, but it has profound effects on terrestrial ecosystems. Although the ecological effects of ENSO are becoming increasingly known from a wide range of terrestrial ecosystems (Holmgren et al., 2001, their impacts have been more intensively studied in arid and semiarid systems. In this brief communication, we summarize the main conclusions of a recent symposium on the effects of ENSO in these ecosystems, which was convened as part of the First Alexander von Humboldt International Conference on the El Niño Phenomenon and its Global Impact, in Guayaquil, Ecuador, from 16–20 May 2005. Participants in the symposium shared results and perspectives from research conducted in North and South America and Australia, regions where the ecological effects of ENSO have been studied in depth. Although the reports covered a wide array of organisms and ecological systems (Fig. 1, a recurring theme was the strong increase in rainfall associated with ENSO events in dry ecosystems (during the El Niño phase of the oscillation in the Americas and the La Niña phase in Australia. Because inter-annual variability in precipitation is such a strong determinant of productivity in arid and semiarid ecosystems, increased ENSO rainfall is crucial for plant recruitment, productivity and diversity in these ecosystems. Several long-term studies show that this pulse in primary productivity causes a subsequent increase in herbivores, followed by an increase in carnivores, with consequences for changes in ecosystem structure and functioning that can be quite complex.

  7. ITS-2 sequences-based identification of Trichogramma species in South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. P. Almeida

    Full Text Available Abstract ITS2 (Internal transcribed spacer 2 sequences have been used in systematic studies and proved to be useful in providing a reliable identification of Trichogramma species. DNAr sequences ranged in size from 379 to 632 bp. In eleven T. pretiosum lines Wolbachia-induced parthenogenesis was found for the first time. These thelytokous lines were collected in Peru (9, Colombia (1 and USA (1. A dichotomous key for species identification was built based on the size of the ITS2 PCR product and restriction analysis using three endonucleases (EcoRI, MseI and MaeI. This molecular technique was successfully used to distinguish among seventeen native/introduced Trichogramma species collected in South America.

  8. Preliminary comparative study of middle Anisian vertebrate ichnoassociation from South-Eastern Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdiserri, D.; Todesco, R.; Avanzini, M.

    2009-04-01

    Anisian vertebrate tracks from the south-eastern Alps are known since the first decades of 1900s (Abel, 1926). The sedimentary units yielding footprints are characterized by the alternation of limestone influenced by terrigenous supply with mere marine and volcanic layers allowing a precise dating. In this study, we compare four different ichnoassociations from three different outcrops in the South-Eastern Alps correlating them chronologically and sedimentologically. They were found to be subsequent in time from Lower Pelsonian (Bad Gfrill-Voltago Conglomerate; Todesco, 2007) through middle Pelsonian (Bad Gfrill- Giovo Formation) (Valdiserri et al., 2006) and basal Illyrian (Piz da Peres- Richthofen Conglomerate; Todesco et al., 2008) to the middle Illyrian (Val Duron-Morbiac Limestone; Avanzini et al., 2007). In all these ichno-associations, Rhynchosauroides, an ichno-genus referable to a lizard - like trackmaker well known in the European Anisian, is dominant. Within this group at least four different morphotypes are known, probably reflecting both intraspecific variation (i.e. sexual dimorphism) and different ichnospecies. Although the Chirotheridae group, referred to Archosaurian trackmakers Synaptichnium is represented in both Pelsonian ichnoassociation of the Bad Gfrill outcrop, while Chirotherium , Isochirotherium and Brachichirotherium are recognized both in Pelsonian and in Illyrian ichnosites with a incremental presence in the Illyrian The ichofamiliae Rotodactylidae und Procolophonidae seem well represented in the Pelsonian strata but absent in the Illyrian ones. The preliminarly comparative analysis of these four correlated ichnosites and the comparision with the yet known ones (Avanzini and Mietto 2008) pointed out the expected predominance of the Lepidosaurian-Archosaurian association typical for the middle Triassic ichnofauna. The incremental presence of the Chirotherian track in Illyrian and the presence of the Procolophonichium just in the

  9. Unprecedented drought over tropical South America in 2016: significantly under-predicted by tropical SST.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erfanian, Amir; Wang, Guiling; Fomenko, Lori

    2017-07-19

    Tropical and sub-tropical South America are highly susceptible to extreme droughts. Recent events include two droughts (2005 and 2010) exceeding the 100-year return value in the Amazon and recurrent extreme droughts in the Nordeste region, with profound eco-hydrological and socioeconomic impacts. In 2015-2016, both regions were hit by another drought. Here, we show that the severity of the 2015-2016 drought ("2016 drought" hereafter) is unprecedented based on multiple precipitation products (since 1900), satellite-derived data on terrestrial water storage (since 2002) and two vegetation indices (since 2004). The ecohydrological consequences from the 2016 drought are more severe and extensive than the 2005 and 2010 droughts. Empirical relationships between rainfall and sea surface temperatures (SSTs) over the tropical Pacific and Atlantic are used to assess the role of tropical oceanic variability in the observed precipitation anomalies. Our results indicate that warmer-than-usual SSTs in the Tropical Pacific (including El Niño events) and Atlantic were the main drivers of extreme droughts in South America, but are unable to explain the severity of the 2016 observed rainfall deficits for a substantial portion of the Amazonia and Nordeste regions. This strongly suggests potential contribution of non-oceanic factors (e.g., land cover change and CO2-induced warming) to the 2016 drought.

  10. Hot continent: South America is open for fast growth in the natural gas sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinsch, A. E.

    1997-01-01

    Opportunities for participation in the rapid expansion of the natural gas sector in South America following privatization and deregulation initiatives, were examined on a country-by-country basis. In Colombia and Venezuela opportunities exist primarily in domestic development of the gas sector, whereas in the countries of the southern cone - Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay, Peru and Uruguay - the situation is said to be ripe for energy sector integration. Currently, a second regional pipeline link, with a capacity of 129 Bcf/year, is nearing completion, which will carry gas from west Argentina to Santiago, Chile, to supplement the 77 Bcf/year pipeline carrying gas from Bolivia to the Argentine border, where it connects with a trunk line to supply the Buenos Aires market. A Canadian Energy Research Institute study, to be published in the summer of 1997, focuses on the various pipeline links being put forward to integrate the gas resources in the southern cone with existing and potential gas markets. The integration scenarios examined are predicted to reveal both economic and commercial merit for the pipeline corridors. Canadian energy and pipeline companies are said to be well positioned to take advantage of the opportunities resulting from these initiatives, and to help making the vision of an integrated gas pipeline network in the southern cone of South America a reality

  11. South America South of the Amazon River--A Climatological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-08-01

    direction of EAFl MORNING flow. By early morning, the flow reverses and localized convergence occurs over open water. Southern Peru’s Lake Titicaca is an...Lake Titicaca (16’ In Bolivia, the range reforms along the S, 690 W) is the highest freshwater lake in the southeastern edge of the Altiplano. In Chile...9g S is a combination of glacial and volcanic covers 3,200 square miles. Drainage from Lake formations; rugged, snow-capped ranges average Titicaca

  12. The 2011 Mineral, Virginia, earthquake and its significance for seismic hazards in eastern North America: overview and synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, J. Wright; Chapman, Martin C.; Green, Russell A.

    2015-01-01

    The 23 August 2011 Mw (moment magnitude) 5.7 ± 0.1, Mineral, Virginia, earthquake was the largest and most damaging in the central and eastern United States since the 1886 Mw 6.8–7.0, Charleston, South Carolina, earthquake. Seismic data indicate that the earthquake rupture occurred on a southeast-dipping reverse fault and consisted of three subevents that progressed northeastward and updip. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) "Did You Feel It?" intensity reports from across the eastern United States and southeastern Canada, rockfalls triggered at distances to 245 km, and regional groundwater-level changes are all consistent with efficient propagation of high-frequency seismic waves (∼1 Hz and higher) in eastern North America due to low attenuation.

  13. Bilobate leaves of Bauhinia (Leguminosae, Caesalpinioideae, Cercideae) from the middle Miocene of Fujian Province, southeastern China and their biogeographic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yanxiang; Wong, William Oki; Shi, Gongle; Shen, Si; Li, Zhenyu

    2015-11-16

    Morphological and molecular phylogenetic studies suggest that the pantropical genus Bauhinia L. s.l. (Bauhiniinae, Cercideae, Leguminosae) is paraphyletic and may as well be subdivided into nine genera, including Bauhinia L. s.s. and its allies. Their leaves are usually characteristic bilobate and are thus easily recognized in the fossil record. This provides the opportunity to understand the early evolution, diversification, and biogeographic history of orchid trees from an historical perspective under the framework of morphological and molecular studies. The taxonomy, distribution, and leaf architecture of Bauhinia and its allies across the world are summarized in detail, which formed the basis for classifying the bilobate leaf fossils and evaluating the fossil record and biogeography of Bauhinia. Two species of Bauhinia are described from the middle Miocene Fotan Group of Fujian Province, southeastern China. Bauhinia ungulatoides sp. nov. is characterized by shallowly to moderately bilobate, pulvinate leaves with shallowly cordate bases and acute apices on each lobe, as well as paracytic stomatal complexes. Bauhinia fotana F.M.B. Jacques et al. emend. possesses moderately bilobate, pulvinate leaves with moderately to deeply cordate bases and acute or slightly obtuse apices on each lobe. Bilobate leaf fossils Bauhinia ungulatoides and B. fotana together with other late Paleogene - early Neogene Chinese record of the genus suggest that Bauhinia had been diverse in South China by the late Paleogene. Their great similarities to some species from South America and South Asia respectively imply that Bauhinia might have undergone extensive dispersals and diversification during or before the Miocene. The fossil record, extant species diversity, as well as molecular phylogenetic analyses demonstrate that the Bauhiniinae might have originated in the Paleogene of low-latitudes along the eastern Tethys Seaway. They dispersed southwards into Africa, migrated from Eurasia to

  14. Correlations of some Neoproterozoic carbonate-dominated successions in South America based on high-resolution chemostratigraphy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcides Nobrega Sial

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This report reviews and incorporates new elemental and isotope chemostratigraphic data for correlation of Neoproterozoic carbonate-dominated successions in South America (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay. These thick mixed carbonate/siliciclastic successions were largely deposited in epicontinental basins or accumulated on passive margins on the edges of cratons (e.g. São Francisco, Amazonia, Rio Apa Block, Pampia and Río de la Plata paleocontinents during extensional events related to the rifting of the Rodinia Supercontinent. From the stratigraphic point of view, these successions occur as three mega-sequences: glaciogenic, marine carbonate platform (above glaciomarine diamictites or rift successions, and dominantly continental to transitional siliciclastics. In the orogenic belts surrounding cratons, carbonate-dominated successions with important volcanoclastic/siliciclastic contribution have been, in most cases, strongly deformed. The precise ages of these successions remain a matter of debate, but recently new paleontological and geochronological data have considerably constrained depositional intervals. Here, we report high-resolution C, O, Sr, and S isotope trends measured in well-preserved sample sets and mainly use Sr and C isotopes in concert with lithostratigraphic/biostratigraphic observations to provide detailed correlations of these successions. The establishing of a high-level and definite chemostratigraphic correlation between Neoproterozoic basins in South America is the main goal of this work.

  15. Climate and humans set the place and time of Proboscidean extinction in late Quaternary of South America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lima-Ribeiro, Matheus Souza; Nogues, David Bravo; Terribile, Levi Carina

    2013-01-01

    of human hunting, but if climatic conditions were suitable like in Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), the time-for-extinction would be at least 3 times longer under the same human hunting pressures. Thus, our findings support the ``Broken Zig-Zag'' model and show that South American Proboscideans might have been...... (ENMs) and modeled the timing for extinction under human hunting scenario, and both variables were used to explain the extinction dynamics of Proboscideans during a full interglacial/glacial cycle (from 126 ka to 6 ka) in South America. We found a large contraction in the geographic range size of two...

  16. The trade interchange between Latin America and South Korea: The impact of technological development in the trade integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Merritt Tapia

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Trade relations between Latin America and the Republic of Korea started in the early sixties, but only after the beginning of the new century have become more dynamic, especially for the Asian nation. Behind the Korean export boom is the governmental thrust to science and technology, which has resulted in the production of goods with higher added value. The pattern of trade specialization followed by South Korea has allowed it to become one of the leading exporting nations of high technology goods in the world. On the other hand, Latin American nations have also enjoyed a remarkable growth in exports in the last decade, although their exporting profile contrast with that of Korea because their exports tend to be mainly primary products with low added value and some semi-finished goods . The pattern of specialization in Latin America is explained by its provision of vast natural resources, giving it a comparative advantage in world commodity markets. Unfortunately these advantages have not translated into sustained industrial developments throughout the region. In this context, the purpose of this paper is to illustrate the trade trends between South Korea and Latin America in the last ten years in an attempt to understand the reasons behind the asymmetries in trade flows that have been set in this period. The underlying assumption is that the commercial relationship between both parties depends on the pattern of specialization emerged in recent times and responds to the institutional policies implemented by both South Korea and by Latin American nations. The case of Mexico is highlighted because it is getting historic deficits with the Asian nation.

  17. Effects of mapped variation in soil conditions on estimates of soil carbon and nitrogen stocks for South America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batjes, N.H.

    2000-01-01

    Organic carbon and total nitrogen stocks for South America are computed using four 1:5,000,000 scale soil data sets of different spatial resolution. These are the 60' by 60' resolution Zobler soil data file, the 30' by 30' resolution World Inventory of Soil Emission Potentials (WISE) database, a 5'

  18. Gastroptychus Cavimurus sp. nov., a new Chirostylid (Crustacea, Decapoda, Anomura) from off the western coast of South America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baba, K.

    1977-01-01

    During the second cruise of the Japanese Research Vessel "Kaiyo Maru" to the western coast of South America in 1968-69, Dr. Osame Tabeta of the Shimonoseki University of Fisheries, then on the staff of the Kyushu University, collected a number of galatheids off the northern Peruvian coast. All of

  19. Characterization of non-calcareous 'thin' red clay from south-eastern Brazil: applicability in wall tile manufacture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, S. J.G.; Holanda, J. N.F., [Grupo de Materiais Ceramicos - LAMAV-CCT, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-04-15

    In this work the use of 'thin' red clay from south-eastern Brazil (Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ) as raw material for the manufacture of wall tile was investigated. A wide range of characterization techniques was employed, including X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), grain-size analysis, and thermogravimetric analysis. The wall tile body was prepared by the dry process. The tile pieces were uniaxially pressed and fired between 1080 - 1180 deg C using a fast-firing cycle. The following technological properties were determined: linear shrinkage, water absorption, apparent density, and flexural strength. The development of the microstructure was followed by SEM and XRD analyses. It was found that the 'thin' red clay is kaolinitic type containing a substantial amount of quartz. The results also showed that the 'thin' red clay could be used in the manufacture of wall tiles, as they present properties compatible with those specified for class BIII of ISO 13006 standard. (author)

  20. Ice core based Pb pollution from gasoline in South America in the context of a 2000 year metallurgical history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichler, Anja; Gramlich, Gabriela; Kellerhals, Thomas; Tobler, Leonhard; Schwikowski, Margit

    2015-04-01

    Lead (Pb) is highly neurotoxic and, in contrast to many other heavy metals including cobalt, copper, and zinc, it has no beneficial effects to humans even at low concentrations. The introduction of leaded gasoline in the 1920s initiated a period of unabated growth in the global emissions of Pb. Prior to the onset of leaded gasoline phase-out in the 1970s, atmospheric Pb levels increased dramatically. Long-term histories of Pb pollution in Eastern and Western Europe, Asia, and North America suggest that emissions from leaded gasoline within the Northern Hemisphere are dominant compared to that from metallurgy and coal combustion during the second half of the 20th century. However, there is no equivalent data for Southern America. Although exploitation of the extensive polymetallic deposits of the Andean Altiplano in South America since pre-colonial times has caused substantial emissions of neurotoxic Pb into the atmosphere, its historical significance compared to recent Pb pollution from leaded gasoline is not yet resolved. Here we present the first comprehensive, high-resolution two millennia Pb emission history for South America, based on ice core records of Pb concentrations, Pb enrichment factors (EFs), and Pb isotope ratios from Illimani glacier in Bolivia. Complementary to local air pollution recorded in lake sediments, ice cores from mid latitude glaciers provide information about more extended source areas. Illimani is the highest mountain of the eastern Bolivian Andes and is located at the northeastern margin of the Bolivian Altiplano. The ice core Pb deposition history revealed enhanced Pb EFs due to metallurgical processing for silver production during periods of the Tiwanaku/Wari culture (AD 450-950), the Inca empires (AD 1450-1532), colonial times (AD 1532-1900), and tin production at the beginning of the 20th century. After the 1960s 208Pb/207Pb ratios decreased significantly, whereas Pb EFs increased by a factor of three compared to the emission level

  1. Multistation digisonde observations of equatorial spread F in South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. W. Reinisch

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Directional ionogram and F-region drift observations were conducted at seven digisonde stations in South America during the COPEX campaign from October to December 2002. Five stations in Brazil, one in Argentina, and one in Peru, monitored the ionosphere across the continent to study the onset and development of F-region density depletions that cause equatorial spread F (ESF. New ionosonde techniques quantitatively describe the prereversal uplifting of the F layer at the magnetic equator and the eastward motion of the depletions over the stations. Three of the Brazilian stations were located along a field line with a 350-km apex over the equator to investigate the relation of the occurrence of ESF and the presence of sporadic E-layers at the two E-region intersections of the field line. No simple correlation was found.

  2. Gallbladder cancer: South American experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo, Gerardo F; Gentile, Alberto; Parada, Luis A

    2016-10-01

    Large differences in terms of incidence and mortality due to gallbladder cancer (GBC) have been reported worldwide. Moreover, it seems that GBC has unique characteristics in South America. We surveyed the literature looking for information about the epidemiology, basic and translational research, and clinical trials performed in South America in order to critically analyze the magnitude of this health problem in the region. Compared to other geographic areas, age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR) for GBC in women are very high, particularly in many western areas of South America. Genetic, as well as dietary and environmental factors likely contribute to the pathogenesis of this disease in the area. Compared to other regions the profile of abnormalities of key genes such as KRAS and TP53 in GBC seems to slightly differ in South America, while the clinical behavior appears to be similar with a median overall survival (OS) of 6.5 to 8 months in advanced GBC. In contrast to Europe and USA, prophylactic cholecystectomy is a common practice in western areas of South America. GBC particularly affects women in South America, and represents a significant public health problem. It appears to have peculiarities that pose an urgent need for additional research aimed to discover risk factors, molecular events associated with its development and new treatment options for this lethal disease.

  3. Mid-Holocene to Present Climate Transition in Tropical South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcq, B.; Cordeiro, R.; Sifeddine, A.; Braconnot, P.; Dias, P. S.; Costa, R.; Jorgetti, T.

    2008-12-01

    The classical illustration of Holocene climate changes in tropical South America is the huge rising of Titicaca lake level from 4400 to 4000 cal BP. Because the Amazon basin is the source of Andean rainfalls we have explored Amazonian data of climate changes during the Holocene to better understand the cause of this abrupt transition. Amazonian data confirm the existence of mid-Holocene dryness: (1) lacustrine level studies show a lower precipitation/evaporation budget than present, with the lowest lake levels between 8500 and 6800 cal BP; (2) although the dominant Holocene vegetation has always been the rainforest in the heart of Amazonia, this forest expanded towards the northwestern and southwestern regions from 6800 to 1550 cal BP, moreover, pioneer elements of the rainforest developed during the mid-Holocene and the best example is those of Cecropia, between 9000 and 5000 cal BP. (3) soil d13C indicates a forest expansion over savannas areas in Roraima (north), Mato Grosso and Rondonia (southwest), during the Holocene. (4) the mid-Holocene (8000- 4000 cal BP) is characterized by repeated occurrences of forest fires, marked by the presence of charcoals in soils and lacustrine sediments. However these different records are not characterized by abrupt transitions at the end of the Middle Holocene in Amazonia. In the Andean records there is a clear north-south shift in the timing of the transition. Analysis of coupled Ocean Atmosphere Model simulations suggest that convection in Amazon basin is directly controlled by insolation leading to an almost linear response of local climate to the global forcing. Differently, in the eastern and south-western regions where the rain is brought by the South American Monsoon, the climate transition appears more abrupt. It may be because the involved climate mechanisms are more complex and depend on Ocean/Atmosphere/Vegetation coupled process (ITCZ position, ZCAS formation, etc.). Tectonic movements or threshold links to

  4. Shifts in composition of avian communities related to temperate-grassland afforestation in southeastern South America Alterações na composição de comunidades de aves relacionadas ao florestamento de campos temperados no sudeste da América do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael A. Dias

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Afforestation of temperate grasslands with fast-growing trees for industrial pulpwood production is spreading in South America. Despite high afforestation rates resulting from governmental policies that stimulate pulpwood production in grasslands of southern Brazil and Uruguay, the impact of this activity on biodiversity remains to be properly assessed. We used an Impact-Reference study design to evaluate how grassland afforestation affects the composition of grassland bird assemblages. We sampled eucalyptus plantations and neighboring natural grasslands in southern Brazil from 2006-2009, and relied on nested sampling and analysis to separate the effects of afforestation from the natural variability of grasslands. We recorded a significant difference in composition between assemblages from grasslands and tree plantations. Species adapted to open, treeless areas tended to be negatively affected in relation to edge or forest birds in eucalyptus plantations. Afforestation is systematically replacing the bird assemblage of hilltop grasslands by a collection of common edge and forest species that occur in nearby riverine and hillside forests. Although most grassland birds negatively affected by tree plantations are common and widespread, observed and predicted afforestation rates in southeastern South America may result in regional population reductions in the near future.O florestamento de campos temperados com árvores de crescimento rápido para a produção industrial de celulose está aumentando na América do Sul. Apesar das elevadas taxas de florestamento resultantes de políticas governamentais que estimulam o plantio de árvores para celulose em campos do sul do Brasil e Uruguai, o impacto dessa atividade sobre a biodiversidade ainda carece de avaliação adequada. Utilizamos um delineamento experimental do tipo impacto-referência para avaliar como o florestamento dos campos afeta a composição da assembleia de aves campestres. Amostramos

  5. Seasonal and spatial variations of marine litter on the south-eastern Black Sea coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzi, Yahya; Seyhan, Kadir

    2017-07-15

    The south-eastern Black Sea coast in Turkey was evaluated for marine litter composition and density covering nine beaches during four seasons. The marine litter (>2cm in size), was collected from the coast and categorized into material and usage categories. The data analysis showed that plastic was the most abundant litter (≥61.65%) by count and weight followed by styrofoam and fabric. The marine litter density ranged from 0.03 to 0.58 with a mean (±SD) of 0.16±0.02 items/m 2 by count. Based on weight, it varied between 0.44 and 14.74g/m 2 with 3.35±1.63. The east side had a higher marine litter density than the west side with significant differences between beaches. The variations due to different seasons were not significant for any beach. The results of this study should provide baseline information about the coastal marine pollution and will assist the mitigation strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Natural radioactivity in groundwater from the south-eastern Arabian Peninsula and environmental implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murad, A; Zhou, X D; Yi, P; Alshamsi, D; Aldahan, A; Hou, X L; Yu, Z B

    2014-10-01

    Groundwater is the most valuable resource in arid regions, and recognizing radiological criteria among other water quality parameters is essential for sustainable use. In the investigation presented here, gross-α and gross-β were measured in groundwater samples collected in the south-eastern Arabian Peninsula, 67 wells in Unite Arab Emirates (UAE), as well as two wells and one spring in Oman. The results show a wide gross-α and gross-β activities range in the groundwater samples that vary at 0.01∼19.5 Bq/l and 0.13∼6.6 Bq/l, respectively. The data show gross-β and gross-α values below the WHO permissible limits for drinking water in the majority of the investigated samples except those in region 4 (Jabel Hafit and surroundings). No correlation between groundwater pH and the gross-α and gross-β, while high temperatures probably enhance leaching of radionuclides from the aquifer body and thereby increase the radioactivity in the groundwater. This conclusion is also supported by the positive correlation between radioactivity and amount of total dissolved solid. Particular water purification technology and environmental impact assessments are essential for sustainable and secure use of the groundwater in regions that show radioactivity values far above the WHO permissible limit for drinking water.

  7. Monograph of the Genus Elodea (Hydrocharitaceae: Part 2. The species found in the Andes and Western South America Monograph of the Genus Elodea (Hydrocharitaceae: Part 2. The species found in the Andes and Western South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    St. John Harold

    1964-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Elodea Richard in Michaux was first published in 1803 (Fl. Bor.-Am. 1: 20, 1803, based upon the single species. E. Canadensis from Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Though this was stated to have perfect flowers, it is now certain that the holotype specimens and the plants in nature are dioecious. Very abundant are plants bearing pistillate flowers with three stigmas and three acicular staminodia. Staminate plants are rare, but occur throughout the natural range of the species. Their flowers have nine stamens, but no trace of a gynoecium. Two well known species are now separated and placed in the genus Egeria Planch., a group just monographed by the writer. Left in Elodea are seventeen species. These are to be found in two broad areas, the northern ones in the United States and southern Canada; the southern ones in South America. As yet there is no evidence of any indigenous species of Elodea in Central America.The genus Elodea Richard in Michaux was first published in 1803(Fl. Bor.-Am. 1: 20, 1803, based upon the single species. E. Canadensis from Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Though this was stated to have perfect flowers, it is now certain that the holotype specimens and the plants in nature are dioecious. Very abundant are plants bearing pistillate flowers with three stigmas and three acicular staminodia. Staminate plants are rare, but occur throughout the natural range of the species. Their flowers have nine stamens, but no trace of a gynoecium. Two well known species are now separated and placed in the genus Egeria Planch., a group just monographed by the writer. Left in Elodeaare seventeen species. These are to be found in two broad areas, the northern ones in the United Statesand southern Canada; the southern ones in South America. As yet there is no evidence of any indigenous species of Elodea in Central America.

  8. Climate variability and human impact on the environment in South America during the last 2000 years: synthesis and perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flantua, S.G.A.; Hooghiemstra, H.; Vuillle, M.; Behling, H.; Carson, J.F.; Gosling, W.D.; Hoyos, I.; Ledru, M.P.; Montoya, E.; Mayle, F.; Maldonado, A.; Rull, V.; Tonello, M.S.; Whiyney, B.S.; González-Arango, C.

    2015-01-01

    An improved understanding of present-day climate variability and change relies on high-quality data sets from the past two millennia. Global efforts to reconstruct regional climate modes are in the process of validating and integrating paleo-proxies. For South America, however, the full potential of

  9. Readings from Asia: Questioning America Again

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yerim Kim

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Chang Sei-jin. Sangsangdoen America: 1945 nyǒn 8wol ihu Hangukui neisǒn seosanǔn ǒtteoke mandǔleogǒtnǔnga 상상된 아메리카: 1945년 8월 이후 한국의 네이션 서사는 어떻게 만들어졌는가 [Imagined America: How national narratives of Korea have been constructed since August 1945]. Seoul: Purǔn Yeoksa, 2012.Research on U.S.–South Korean relations has continued steadily over the decades, especially in the fields of history and literature, resulting in many notable studies. However, the general tendency of this scholarship has been to introduce and analyze the United States as a discrete entity. While this perspective is useful in some regards, it is also necessary to investigate how this entity was felt, perceived, and constructed by those on the receiving end. By shifting the focus from “what America was in South Korea” to “how America was imagined in South Korea,” Sei-Jin Chang’s Imagined America: How National Narratives of Korea Have Been Constructed since August 1945 provides an insightful approach to this issue of complexity.

  10. Temperature sensitivity of extreme precipitation events in the south-eastern Alpine forelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeer, Katharina; Kirchengast, Gottfried

    2016-04-01

    How will convective precipitation intensities and patterns evolve in a warming climate on a regional to local scale? Studies on the scaling of precipitation intensities with temperature are used to test observational and climate model data against the hypothesis that the change of precipitation with temperature will essentially follow the Clausius-Clapeyron (CC) equation, which corresponds to a rate of increase of the water holding capacity of the atmosphere by 6-7 % per Kelvin (CC rate). A growing number of studies in various regions and with varying approaches suggests that the overall picture of the temperature-precipitation relationship is heterogeneous, with scaling rates shearing off the CC rate in both upward and downward directions. In this study we investigate the temperature scaling of extreme precipitation events in the south-eastern Alpine forelands of Austria (SEA) based on a dense rain gauge net of 188 stations, with sub-daily precipitation measurements since about 1990 used at 10-min resolution. Parts of the study region are European hot-spots for severe hailstorms and the region, which is in part densely populated and intensively cultivated, is generally vulnerable to climate extremes. Evidence on historical extremely heavy short-time and localized precipitation events of several hundred mm of rain in just a few hours, resulting in destructive flash flooding, underline these vulnerabilities. Heavy precipitation is driven by Mediterranean moisture advection, enhanced by the orographic lifting at the Alpine foothills, and hence trends in positive sea surface temperature anomalies might carry significant risk of amplifying future extreme precipitation events. In addition, observations from the highly instrumented subregion of south-eastern Styria indicate a strong and robust long-term warming trend in summer of about 0.7°C per decade over 1971-2015, concomitant with a significant increase in the annual number of heat days. The combination of these

  11. Southeastern Federal Power Program. Combined financial statements, September 30, 1996 and 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    The Southeastern Federal Power Program (SEFPP) consists of all activities associated with the production, transmission and disposition of Federal power marketed under Section 5 of the Flood Control Act of 1944 from projects in the ten southeastern states. The ten states are: Virginia, West Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Tennessee, and Kentucky. Power is marketed to customers in 11 states - the above ten plus Illinois. SEFPP includes the accounts of two separate Federal government agencies- the Southeastern Power Administration (Southeastern) of the Department of Energy and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps). Southeastern purchases, transmits, and markets power within four separate power systems (each including one or more Corps generating projects for which rates are set). Specific and joint-use costs allocated to power are included in the attached statements of assets. Federal investment and liabilities under utility plant and cash. The accounts of SEFPP are maintained in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles and the Uniform System of Accounts prescribed for electric utilities by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC). SEFPP`s accounting policies also reflect requirements of specific legislation and executive directives issued by the applicable government agencies. Southeastern and Corps properties and income are exempt from taxation. Southeastern and the Corps receive Congressional appropriations through the Department of Energy (DOE) and the Department of Defense to finance their operations. The Corps also receives Congressional appropriations to finance construction of its hydroelectric projects.

  12. Analysis of tropospheric ozone and carbon monoxide profiles over South America based on MOZAIC/IAGOS database and model simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia A. Yamasoe

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We analysed ozone and carbon monoxide profiles measured by commercial aircrafts from the MOZAIC/IAGOS fleet, during ascending and descending flights over Caracas, in Venezuela, from August 1994 to December 2009, over Rio de Janeiro, from 1994 to 2004 and from July 2012 to June 2013, and over São Paulo, in Brazil, from August 1994 to 2005. For ozone, results showed a clean atmosphere over Caracas presenting the highest seasonal mean in March, April and May. Backward trajectory analyses with FLEXPART, of case studies for which the measured concentrations were high, showed that contributions from local, Central and North America, the Caribbean and Africa either from anthropogenic emissions, biomass burning or lightning were possible. Satellite products as fire counts from MODIS, lightning flash rates from LIS, and CO and O3 from Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer and wind maps at different levels helped corroborate previous findings. Sensitivity studies performed with the chemical transport model GEOS-Chem captured the effect of anthropogenic emissions but underestimated the influence of biomass burning, which could be due to an underestimation of GFEDv2 emission inventory. The model detected the contribution of lightning from Africa in JJA and SON and from South America in DJF, possibly from the northeast of Brazil. Over São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, GEOS-Chem captured the seasonal variability of lightning produced in South America and attributed this source as the most important in this region, except in JJA, when anthropogenic emissions were addressed as the more impacting source of ozone precursors. However, comparison with the measurements indicated that the model overestimated ozone formation, which could be due to the convective parameterisation or the stratospheric influence. The highest ozone concentration was observed during September to November, but the model attributed only a small influence of biomass burning from South

  13. The Role of Satellite Imagery to Improve Pastureland Estimates in South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graesser, J.

    2015-12-01

    Agriculture has changed substantially across the globe over the past half century. While much work has been done to improve spatial-temporal estimates of agricultural changes, we still know more about the extent of row-crop agriculture than livestock-grazed land. The gap between cropland and pastureland estimates exists largely because it is challenging to characterize natural versus grazed grasslands from a remote sensing perspective. However, the impasse of pastureland estimates is set to break, with an increasing number of spaceborne sensors and freely available satellite data. The Landsat satellite archive in particular provides researchers with immense amounts of data to improve pastureland information. Here we focus on South America, where pastureland expansion has been scrutinized for the past few decades. We explore the challenges of estimating pastureland using temporal Landsat imagery and focus on key agricultural countries, regions, and ecosystems. We focus on the suggested shift of pastureland from the Argentine Pampas to northern Argentina, and the mixing of small-scale and large-scale ranching in eastern Paraguay and how it could impact the Chaco forest to the west. Further, the Beni Savannahs of northern Bolivia and the Colombian Llanos—both grassland and savannah regions historically used for livestock grazing—have been hinted at as future areas for cropland expansion. There are certainly environmental concerns with pastureland expansion into forests; but what are the environmental implications when well-managed pasture systems are converted to intensive soybean or palm oil plantation? Tropical, grazed grasslands are important habitats for biodiversity, and pasturelands can mitigate soil erosion when well managed. Thus, we must improve estimates of grazed land before we can make informed policy and conservation decisions. This talk presents insights into pastureland estimates in South America and discusses the feasibility to improve current

  14. Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera in springs in Trentino (south-eastern Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana SILVERI

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Within the CRENODAT project (Biodiversity assessment and integrity evaluation of springs of Trentino - Italian Alps - and longterm ecological research, 2004-2008 we studied a total of 90 springs in Trentino (south-eastern Alps, Italy, 75 of which were used for statistical analysis. The springs were grouped into seven different types and represented all the available lithologies in the study area. Macrozoobenthos (Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera; EPT was collected from stones, bryophytes and sediments. We investigated which physical, chemical or environmental features were important in determining EPT assemblage metrics at sites, by calculating the Shannon-Wiener diversity index, and applying a one-way ANOVA test, ANOSIM and SIMPER analyses. Statistical results highlighted the island character of the springs, each spring having its specific history and abiotic characteristics, which select for unique community patterns. For the faunistic analyses, we considered all springs where EPT taxa were recorded; a total of 88 taxa. Highest species richness was recorded among the Trichoptera, followed by the Plecoptera and Ephemeroptera, with 52, 30 and 6 taxa respectively. Fifteen Trichoptera and three Plecoptera species were recorded as new for the Autonomous Province of Trento. Our results confirm that, in the harsh environment of the Alps, the mild and stable ecological conditions that characterize spring-fed brooks contribute to maintaining and enhancing the regional biodiversity. Springs act as refuge areas for stream biota, providing more favourable conditions during spates or droughts (common in Alpine headwaters, or for particular stages of the insect life cycles. Springs also provide specific habitats for strictly crenobiontic species.

  15. The female reproductive cycle of the neotropical snake Atractus pantostictus (Fernandes and Puorto, 1993) from south-eastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Resende, F C; Nascimento, L B

    2015-06-01

    Data on reproductive activity of fossorial species are limited because the specimens are difficult to be observed and captured. Here in, we present the reproductive cycle of female Atractus pantostictus, a fossorial neotropical species, and the sexual maturity of males and females in south-eastern Brazil. The female reproductive cycle of A. pantostictus is seasonal, with vitellogenic follicles being found from September to April and eggs in November, February, March and April with the number varying between two and four. Spermatozoa were found in the lumen of the glandular and non-glandular uterus in females collected during the rainy season. Sperm storage tubules were found in the posterior infundibulum of the females, where the storage of sperm occurs for a short time. The storage may occur because mating and ovulation are dissociated. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. High level of molecular and phenotypic biodiversity in Jatropha curcas from Central America compared to Africa, Asia and South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The main bottleneck to elevate jatropha (Jatropha curcas L.) from a wild species to a profitable biodiesel crop is the low genetic and phenotypic variation found in different regions of the world, hampering efficient plant breeding for productivity traits. In this study, 182 accessions from Asia (91), Africa (35), South America (9) and Central America (47) were evaluated at genetic and phenotypic level to find genetic variation and important traits for oilseed production. Results Genetic variation was assessed with SSR (Simple Sequence Repeat), TRAP (Target Region Amplification Polymorphism) and AFLP (Amplified fragment length polymorphism) techniques. Phenotypic variation included seed morphological characteristics, seed oil content and fatty acid composition and early growth traits. Jaccard’s similarity and cluster analysis by UPGM (Unweighted Paired Group Method) with arithmetic mean and PCA (Principle Component Analysis) indicated higher variability in Central American accessions compared to Asian, African and South American accessions. Polymorphism Information Content (PIC) values ranged from 0 to 0.65. In the set of Central American accessions. PIC values were higher than in other regions. Accessions from the Central American population contain alleles that were not found in the accessions from other populations. Analysis of Molecular Variance (AMOVA; P jatropha oil significantly differed (P < 0.05) between regions. Conclusions The pool of Central American accessions showed very large genetic variation as assessed by DNA-marker variation compared to accessions from other regions. Central American accessions also showed the highest phenotypic variation and should be considered as the most important source for plant breeding. Some variation in early growth traits was found within a group of accessions from Asia and Africa, while these accessions did not differ in a single DNA-marker, possibly indicating epigenetic variation. PMID:24666927

  17. Phytosociological studies of the forests with sessile oak and Norway spruce from South-Eastern Transylvania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Indreica

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The forests with sessile oak (Quercus petraea and Norway spruce (Picea abies from south-eastern Transylvania represent a peculiar type of phytocenoses, rather unusual for the present-day vegetation of Romania’s territory. Aim of the study is to provide a detailed description of the vegetation and to identify the phytosociological and typological units to which it could belong. Beside this, stand structure and regeneration status of the main tree species are illustrated. The studied area is located around Carpathian intermountain depressions Braşov and Ciuc, where vegetation had a peculiar history and today sessile oak forests on high altitude exists, interfering with spruce forests. The hypothesis of the process naturalness is supported by vegetation history in the area, climate, stand structure and peculiarities of herb layer composition (the mixture of relic of both mountain-boreal origin and south-European origin, like Vaccinium vitis-idaea, Pyrola rotundifolia and respectively Potentilla micrantha, Lathyrus venetus respectively. Sintaxonomically, studied phytocenoses with sessile oak and spruce belong mainly to acidophilus oak forests (Luzulo luzuloidis-Quercetum petraeae, but some of them resemble oak-hornbeam forests (Carici pilosae-Carpinetum, indicating a more recent change in stand structure and suggesting that not the soil, but the climate is the driving force of succession. Regeneration of sessile oak is at least satisfactory, but the expansion of spruce in such stands could seriously restrict the survival of sessile oak. A new typological unit will be appropriate,for a better management of sessile oak forests with spruce admixture.

  18. Phytosociological studies of the forests with sessile oak and Norway spruce from South-Eastern Transylvania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Indreica

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The forests with sessile oak (Quercus petraea and Norway spruce (Picea abies from south-eastern Transylvania represent a peculiar type of phytocenoses, rather unusual for the present-day vegetation of Romania’s territory. Aim of the study is to provide a detailed description of the vegetation and to identify the phytosociological and typological units to which it could belong. Beside this, stand structure and regeneration status of the main tree species are illustrated. The studied area is located around Carpathian intermountain depressions Brasov and Ciuc, where vegetation had a peculiar history and today sessile oak forests on high altitude exists, interfering with spruce forests. The hypothesis of the process naturalness is supported by vegetation history in the area, climate, stand structure and peculiarities of herb layer composition (the mixture of relic of both mountain-boreal origin and south-European origin, like Vaccinium vitis-idaea, Pyrola rotundifolia and respectively Potentilla micrantha, Lathyrus venetus respectively. Sintaxonomically, studied phytocenoses with sessile oak and spruce belong mainly to acidophilus oak forests (Luzulo luzuloidis-Quercetum petraeae, but some of them resemble oak-hornbeam forests (Carici pilosae-Carpinetum, indicating a more recent change in stand structure and suggesting that not the soil, but the climate is the driving force of succession. Regeneration of sessile oak is at least satisfactory, but the expansion of spruce in such stands could seriously restrict the survival of sessile oak. A new typological unit will be appropriate, for a better management of sessile oak forests with spruce admixture.

  19. The environmental paradox in generation: How South America is gradually becoming more dependent on thermal generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arango, Santiago; Larsen, Erik R.

    2010-01-01

    There has been an increasing focus on global warming, emission of green house gases (GHG), and the problems this might create. In this article, we review the trend in sustainable and renewable electricity generation in South America, where the generation portfolio increasingly depends on thermal generation, in particular gas. South America is a region that has relatively low emissions, but the current development is not desirable in environmental terms. We analyze the underlying reasons for this development, which is related to security of supply, deregulation, and the cost of renewable energy. We review and discuss the policies to promote renewables in the region. We analyze the potential advantages and drawbacks of different types of market interventions, such as direct subsidies that create potentially strong market distortions, more sophisticated market interventions that might be less intrusive but not necessarily as effective as, e.g. firm energy markets. We also review market-based solutions such as the Clean Market Mechanism and its potential, and the use of renewable electricity in non-interconnected zones, which might be one of the most economically attractive applications of renewables. However, without a stronger and more aggressive intervention from the governments in the region it is unlikely that the increase in thermal generation can be stopped. (author)

  20. [Infection by hepatitis virus among the indigenous populations of South America: a review of the problem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echevarría, J M; Blitz-Dorfman, L; Pujot, F H

    1996-09-01

    After the report of the epidemic outbreak of delta hepatitis among the Yukpa amerindians in the early 80s, the viral hepatitis arose as an important health problem in all the Amerindian communities from the north of South America and the Amazonian Basin. Despite the few data available, the results obtained in different communities from Venezuela (Yukpa, Barí, Yanomami) have shown a high endemicity of hepatitis B and D virus infections and a significant prevalence of hepatitis E virus-specific antibody among their members. By contrast, the infection by hepatitis C virus, which is present in all the urban areas from South America, seems uncommon, or even absent among some Amerindian populations. At the moment, a satisfactory explanation for this findings has not yet been arised. However, it could be possible that the margination of these populations regarding the health care system has been keeping them free of an infection largely linked worldwide to iatrogeny. Vaccination of Amerindian populations against hepatitis B should be taken as a priority of the health care programs. Moreover, such programs should consider the iatrogenic transmission of the HCV as a matter of concern regarding such populations, since parenterally transmitted hepatitis viruses seems to spread quickly among their members once they are introduced, giving rise to serious health problems.

  1. Post-Palaeozoic uplift history of southeastern Australia revisited: results from a process-based mode of landscape evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Der Beek, P.A.; Braun, J.; Lambeck, K.

    1999-01-01

    Developments over the last decade in the debate concerning the geomorphic evolution of the south-eastern Australian highlands are reviewed, taking as a starting point the model of passive denudation and isostatic rebound of a Palaeozoic mountain belt presented by Lambeck and Stephenson (1986). This model has been popular in the geomorphological community because it provides a quantitative framework to explain the very low rates of landscape evolution inferred from most geomorphological studies. The model has, however, also been criticised for its treatment of erosion as being linearly dependent on elevation, as well as for its predictions of regional uplift and denudation patterns that are not in accord with inferences from fission-track thermochronological data. Part of controversy stems from conceptual misunderstandings on the interpretation of data and from insufficient consideration of questions of spatial and temporal scale. First results of a new physical process-based model for large-scale long-term landscape evolution in the south-eastern highlands are presented. These show that the denudation history and drainage development of south-eastern Australia can be explained to a first order without invoking large-scale mid-Cretaceous or Tertiary uplift events. The model predicts drainage patterns in southeastern Australia to have evolved by rearrangement of an initially north-westerly directed drainage net, caused by drops in base-level during Mesozoic rifting along the southern and eastern margins of the study region. The geomorphology and available fission-track data in the Snowy Mountains region (and possibly also in the Bathurst - Blue Mountains region) do require renewed (mid Cretaceous?) uplift to have taken place. The model results are discussed in the light of recent controversies surrounding the southeastern highlands-their uplift history, denudation rates, depth of denudation of the coastal strip and inferred Mesozoic drainage patterns. Copyright (1999

  2. Acoustic regulations for housing and schools in Europe and South America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machimbarrena, Maria; Rasmussen, Birgit

    2017-01-01

    Acoustic regulations for housing and schools exist in most countries in Europe, the main reasons being protection of health of citizens in their homes and optimizing learning and work conditions in schools. Comparative studies in Europe have shown a high diversity of descriptors and limit values...... for acoustic requirements. Considering globalization and noise as a health issue, it is important to extend attention to other parts of the world and establish dialogue and cooperation. As a pilot study, acoustic regulations in three countries in South America, namely Argentina, Brazil and Chile, have been...... awareness among authorities and building industry and to exchange experience about construction solutions. The paper includes examples of specific acoustic requirements on airborne and impact sound insulation, noise from traffic and from service equipment for housing and schools and in addition...

  3. Breakfast habits and heath perceptions in South-eastern Spanish adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soriano-Ayala Encarnación

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The principal aims of this study are to describe breakfast consumption patterns of south-eastern Spanish adolescents, examine the relationship between breakfast consumption and feelings of well-being and fitness and compare breakfast behaviour between men and women to identify if there is a gender gap. Design: A cross-sectional research with cluster sampling in two primary schools and seven secondary schools. The instrument used was a modified version of the Kidscreen-27 questionnaire. Sample: 2,125 students aged between 10 and 19 years old from different nationalities, mainly Romanian, Moroccan and Spanish. Results: The study identifies some youngsters who skip breakfast and no have no food intake over the course of the morning. About 35% of the teenagers skip daily breakfast before they leave for school, and a worrying 1,8% do not eat any food during the whole morning. Questionnaire outcomes also expresses that the amount of biscuits ingested increased as the number of times that adolescents have breakfast at home decreases. There are significant gender differences, women it less foods than men. Differences are especially significant in case of milk, bread or cereals and butter or oil. Finally, chisquare contrast analysis show students that have breakfast before leaving to school perceive better feelings about how well and fit they are than those student who do not have breakfast daily. Conclusions. Findings supports the need for further enhance health education programs focused on breakfast habits, especially with women. This study is part of the project “Education for Cross-cultural Health in Immigrant and Native Adolescents from Almeria: Analysis and intervention for optimization and improvement” supported by the National R+D Plan of the Ministry of Economy and Finance (Ref: EDU2011-26887

  4. The emerald ash borer: a new exotic pest in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert A. Haack; Eduard Jendak; Liu Houping; Keneth R. Marchant; Toby R. Petrice; Therese M. Poland; Hui Ye

    2002-01-01

    Yet another new exotic forest pest has been discovered in North America, and this time the infestation is centered in Michigan and Ontario. In May and June 2002, adults of an unidentified buprestid beetle were collected from ash (Fraxinus) trees in the Detroit area of southeastern Michigan.

  5. The Lost South Gobi Microcontinent: Protolith Studies of Metamorphic Tectonites and Implications for the Evolution of Continental Crust in Southeastern Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Heumann

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The Central Asian Orogenic Belt, or Altaids, is an amalgamation of volcanic arcs and microcontinent blocks that records a complex late Precambrian–Mesozoic accretionary history. Although microcontinents cored by Precambrian basement are proposed to play an integral role in the accretion process, a lack of isotopic data hampers volume estimates of newly produced arc-derived versus old-cratonic crust in southeastern Mongolia. This study investigates metamorphic tectonites in southern Mongolia that have been mapped as Precambrian in age, largely on the basis of their high metamorphic grade and high strain. Here we present results from microstructural analyses and U-Pb zircon geochronology on samples from Tavan Har (44.05° N, 109.55° E and the Yagan-Onch Hayrhan metamorphic core complex (41.89° N, 104.24° E. Our results show no compelling evidence for Precambrian basement in southeastern Mongolia. Rather, the protoliths to all tectonites examined are Paleozoic–Mesozoic age rocks, formed during Devonian–Carboniferous arc magmatism and subsequent Permian–Triassic orogenesis during collision of the South Mongolia arc with the northern margin of China. These results yield important insights into the Paleozoic accretionary history of southern Mongolia, including the genesis of metamorphic and igneous basement during the Paleozoic, as well as implications for subsequent intracontinental reactivation.

  6. The distribution of the bats of South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzel, Jennifer M. [USDA Forest Service, Parsons, WV (United States); Menzel, Michael A. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States); Ford, W. Mark [USDA Forest Service, Parsons, WV (United States); Edwards, John W. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States); Sheffield, Steven R. [George Mason Univ., Fairfax, VA (United States); Kilgo, John C. [USDA Forest Service, New Ellenton, SC (United States); Bunch, Mary S. [South Carolina Dept. of Natural Resources, Pendleton, SC (United States)

    2003-03-01

    Menzel. J.M., M.A. Menzel, W.M. Ford, J.W. Edwards, S.R. Sheffield, J.C. Kilgo, and M.S. Bunch. 2003. The distribution of the bats of South Carolina. Southeastern Nat. 2(1): 121-152. There is a paucity of information available about the distribution of bats in the southeastern United States. We synthesized records from museums, bat captures, and bats submitted for rabies testing to provide a more accurate and useful distribution for natural resource managers and those planning to research bats in South Carolina. Distributional information, including maps, collection localities within counties, and literature references, for all 14 species of bats that occur in South Carolina, has never been synthesized. To provide better information on the state's bat fauna, we have updated distributions for all species that occur in South Carolina.

  7. Polychaeta Orbiniidae from Antarctica, the Southern Ocean, the Abyssal Pacific Ocean, and off South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, James A

    2017-01-12

    The orbiniid polychaetes chiefly from Antarctic and subantarctic seas and off South America are described based on collections of the National Museum of Natural History and new material from surveys conducted by the United States Antarctic Program and other federal and privately funded sources as well as participation in international programs. A total of 44 species of Orbiniidae distributed in 10 genera are reported from the Pacific Ocean and waters off South America and Antarctica. Twenty-one species are new to science; one species is renamed. Berkeleyia heroae n. sp., B. abyssala n. sp., B. weddellia n. sp.; B. hadala n. sp., Leitoscoloplos simplex n. sp., L. plataensis n. sp., L. nasus n. sp., L. eltaninae n. sp., L. phyllobranchus n. sp., L. rankini n. sp., Scoloplos bathytatus n. sp., S. suroestense n. sp., Leodamas hyphalos n. sp., L. maciolekae n. sp., L. perissobranchiatus n. sp., Califia bilamellata n. sp., Orbinia orensanzi n. sp., Naineris antarctica n. sp., N. argentiniensis n. sp., Orbiniella spinosa n. sp., and O. landrumae n. sp. are new to science. A new name, Naineris furcillata, replaces N. chilensis Carrasco, 1977, a junior homonym of N. dendtritica chilensis Hartmann‑Schröder, 1965, which is raised to full species status. Leodamas cochleatus (Ehlers, 1900) is removed from synonymy and redescribed. A neotype is established for Leodamas verax Kinberg, 1966, the type species. A general overview of Leodamas species is provided. The Leitoscoloplos kerguelensis (McIntosh, 1885) complex is reviewed and partially revised. Definitions of the genera of the Orbiniidae are updated to conform to recently described taxa. Several new synonymies are proposed following a reexamination of previously described type specimens. The morphological characters used to identify and classify orbiniids are reviewed. The biogeographic and bathymetric distributions of the South American and Southern Ocean orbiniid fauna are reviewed.

  8. HIV-1 subtype F1 epidemiological networks among Italian heterosexual males are associated with introduction events from South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Alessia; Simonetti, Francesco R; Zehender, Gianguglielmo; De Luca, Andrea; Micheli, Valeria; Meraviglia, Paola; Corsi, Paola; Bagnarelli, Patrizia; Almi, Paolo; Zoncada, Alessia; Paolucci, Stefania; Gonnelli, Angela; Colao, Grazia; Tacconi, Danilo; Franzetti, Marco; Ciccozzi, Massimo; Zazzi, Maurizio; Balotta, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    About 40% of the Italian HIV-1 epidemic due to non-B variants is sustained by F1 clade, which circulates at high prevalence in South America and Eastern Europe. Aim of this study was to define clade F1 origin, population dynamics and epidemiological networks through phylogenetic approaches. We analyzed pol sequences of 343 patients carrying F1 subtype stored in the ARCA database from 1998 to 2009. Citizenship of patients was as follows: 72.6% Italians, 9.3% South Americans and 7.3% Rumanians. Heterosexuals, Homo-bisexuals, Intravenous Drug Users accounted for 58.1%, 24.0% and 8.8% of patients, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that 70% of sequences clustered in 27 transmission networks. Two distinct groups were identified; the first clade, encompassing 56 sequences, included all Rumanian patients. The second group involved the remaining clusters and included 10 South American Homo-bisexuals in 9 distinct clusters. Heterosexual modality of infection was significantly associated with the probability to be detected in transmission networks. Heterosexuals were prevalent either among Italians (67.2%) or Rumanians (50%); by contrast, Homo-bisexuals accounted for 71.4% of South Americans. Among patients with resistant strains the proportion of clustering sequences was 57.1%, involving 14 clusters (51.8%). Resistance in clusters tended to be higher in South Americans (28.6%) compared to Italian (17.7%) and Rumanian patients (14.3%). A striking proportion of epidemiological networks could be identified in heterosexuals carrying F1 subtype residing in Italy. Italian Heterosexual males predominated within epidemiological clusters while foreign patients were mainly Heterosexual Rumanians, both males and females, and South American Homo-bisexuals. Tree topology suggested that F1 variant from South America gave rise to the Italian F1 epidemic through multiple introduction events. The contact tracing also revealed an unexpected burden of resistance in epidemiological

  9. Environmental controls on the distribution and diversity of lentic Chironomidae (Insecta: Diptera) across an altitudinal gradient in tropical South America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matthews-Bird, F.; Gosling, W.D.; Coe, A.L.; Bush, M.; Mayle, F.E.; Axford, Y.; Brooks, S.J.

    To predict the response of aquatic ecosystems to future global climate change, data on the ecology and distribution of keystone groups in freshwater ecosystems are needed. In contrast to mid- and high-latitude zones, such data are scarce across tropical South America (Neotropics). We present the

  10. Salinity tolerance of non-native suckermouth armoured catfish (Loricariidae: Pterygoplichthys) in south-eastern Mexico: implications for invasion and dispersal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capps, Krista A.; Nico, Leo G.; Mendoza-Carranza, Manuel; Arevalo-Frias, Wendi; Ropicki, Andrew J.; Heilpern, Sebastian A.; Rodiles-Hernandez, Rocio

    2011-01-01

    1. Salinity tolerance is one of several important physiological attributes that determine invasion success and the pattern of dispersal of introduced aquatic organisms. Introduced freshwater fishes able to tolerate elevated salinities have the potential to invade and exploit brackish-water (mixohaline) environments and use estuaries and coastal waters as 'bridges' for dispersing from one coastal river system to another. 2. Several members of the neotropical suckermouth armoured catfish genus Pterygoplichthys (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) have established non-native populations in inland waters of North and Central America, Asia and islands in the Caribbean, and Pacific and Indian oceans. Loricariids are generally considered to be strictly freshwater; but a few naturally occur in mesohaline habitats. 3.Catch and habitat data from 2004–2005 and 2009–2011 fish surveys in the Grijalva–Usumacinta River delta region (south-eastern Mexico) confirmed that introduced Pterygoplichthys populations established in upstream freshwater sites (where these catfish are abundant) have recently dispersed into downstream oligohaline and mesohaline estuarine habitats. During 2009–2011 surveys, these non-native catfish — tentatively identified as P. pardalis or its hybrids — were found in sites with salinities ranging from 1 to 8 ppt (mean 5.2 ppt). 4.Acute-salinity experiments were conducted with Pterygoplichthys (110–302 mm standard length, N=140) captured in the Grijalva–Usumacinta Basin to determine upper salinity tolerance levels. Tests demonstrated that individuals maintained in salinities of 0.2 ppt were able to survive abrupt (acute) exposure to salinities up to 10 ppt with little mortality over 10 days (240 h experimental endpoint). A few individuals survived abrupt exposure to 11 and 12 ppt for 20 or more hours, although none survived more than a few hours at 16 ppt or greater. 5.These field and experimental results provide quantitative evidence that non

  11. The Amazon rainforest, climate change, and drought: How will what is below the surface affect the climate of tropical South America?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, A.; Denning, A. S.; Baker, I.; Randall, D.; Dazlich, D.

    2008-12-01

    Several climate models have predicted an increase in long-term droughts in tropical South America due to increased greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Although the Amazon rainforest is resilient to seasonal drought, multi-year droughts pose a definite problem for the ecosystem's health. Furthermore, drought- stressed vegetation participates in feedbacks with the atmosphere that can exacerbate drought. Namely, reduced evapotranspiration further dries out the atmosphere and affects the regional climate. Trees in the rainforest survive seasonal drought by using deep roots to access adequate stores of soil moisture. We investigate the climatic impacts of deep roots and soil moisture by coupling the Simple Biosphere (SiB3) model to Colorado State University's general circulation model (BUGS5). We compare two versions of SiB3 in the GCM during years with anomalously low rainfall. The first has strong vegetative stress due to soil moisture limitations. The second experiences less stress and has more realistic representations of surface biophysics. In the model, basin-wide reductions in soil moisture stress result in increased evapotranspiration, precipitation, and moisture recycling in the Amazon basin. In the savannah region of southeastern Brazil, the unstressed version of SiB3 produces decreased precipitation and weaker moisture flux, which is more in-line with observations. The improved simulation of precipitation and evaporation also produces a more realistic Bolivian high and Nordeste low. These changes highlight the importance of subsurface biophysics for the Amazonian climate. The presence of deep roots and soil moisture will become even more important if climate change brings more frequent droughts to this region in the future.

  12. COELIAC DISEASE IN CENTRAL AND SOUTH AMERICA: time for a concerted approach to its epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Affifa FARRUKH

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Central and South America offer an opportunity to resolve some of the current controversies that surround the epidemiology of celiac disease. Through a concerted action which brings together clinicians, researchers and patients there is an opportunity to establish robust data sets which will allow detailed analysis of environmental and genetic factors. In this review available data from the continent together with data from Spain and Italy are drawn together to give a current picture in the hope that it will stimulate further research.

  13. Mapping of SPI drought index in South-Eastern Europe, theory and practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bihari, Z.; Szentimrey, T.; Lakatos, M.; Gregorič, G.; Likso, T.

    2010-09-01

    In recent decades drought has a major impact on the economy in South-Eastern Europe (SEE). The annual precipitation has decreased from the beginning of 20th century. Additional problem is that the intensity of precipitation increases in average. The part of runoff became larger, and greater part of the precipitation runs to the rivers, streamlets, and less part infiltrates into the soil. Therefore, the available water reduces for vegetation. Summarized, the drought tendency increases in the region. The Drought Management Centre for South East Europe was established to deal with these events and try to improve drought management and policy. One method to calculate the extent of a drought event is the application of drought indices. Several indices are used for this purpose, one of them is the Standard Precipitation Index (SPI) developed by McKee et al. The SPI is based only on precipitation and can be used to monitor conditions on a variety of time scales. The SPI calculation for any location is based on long-term precipitation record for a desired period. This long-term record is fitted to a gamma probability distribution, which is then transformed into the standard normal distribution. In the practice SPI is calculated mainly for 1, 3, 6 months. The SPI calculator which is offered on the project page of DMCSEE is applied for SPI calculations in this study. For the interpolation of SPI we use the MISH interpolation method developed at Hungarian Meteorological Service (Meteorological Interpolation based on Surface Homogenized Data Basis; Szentimrey, Bihari, 2007). The interpolation can be realized in to ways: 1. The SPI values are calculated in grid points after gridding (by gridding part of MISH) the station precipitation data series 2. The station based SPI values are interpolated by method MISH One of the main feature of MISH is that it use longtime data series for modelling of the necessary climate statistical parameters while the SPI calculations are also based

  14. The carbon balance of South America: a review of the status, decadal trends and main determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gloor

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We summarise the contemporary carbon budget of South America and relate it to its dominant controls: population and economic growth, changes in land use practices and a changing atmospheric environment and climate. Component flux estimate methods we consider sufficiently reliable for this purpose encompass fossil fuel emission inventories, biometric analysis of old-growth rainforests, estimation of carbon release associated with deforestation based on remote sensing and inventories, and agricultural export data. Alternative methods for the estimation of the continental-scale net land to atmosphere CO2 flux, such as atmospheric transport inverse modelling and terrestrial biosphere model predictions, are, we find, hampered by the data paucity, and improved parameterisation and validation exercises are required before reliable estimates can be obtained. From our analysis of available data, we suggest that South America was a net source to the atmosphere during the 1980s (~ 0.3–0.4 Pg C a−1 and close to neutral (~ 0.1 Pg C a−1 in the 1990s. During the latter period, carbon uptake in old-growth forests nearly compensated for the carbon release associated with fossil fuel burning and deforestation.

    Annual mean precipitation over tropical South America as inferred from Amazon River discharge shows a long-term upward trend. Although, over the last decade dry seasons have tended to be drier, with the years 2005 and 2010 in particular experiencing strong droughts. On the other hand, precipitation during the wet seasons also shows an increasing trend. Air temperatures have also increased slightly. Also with increases in atmospheric CO2 concentrations, it is currently unclear what effect these climate changes are having on the forest carbon balance of the region. Current indications are that the forests of the Amazon Basin have acted as a substantial long-term carbon sink, but with the most recent

  15. 75 FR 20390 - Robert Bosch LLC, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Bosch Management Services North America...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-19

    ...-site leased workers of Bosch Management Services North America, South Haven Community Hospital... leased workers of Bosch Management Services North America, South Haven Community Hospital, Huffmaster Inc..., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Bosch Management Services North America, South Haven Community...

  16. Late Cretaceous-recent tectonic assembly of diverse crustal blocks in Central America, the Nicaraguan Rise, the Colombian Basin and northern South America as seen on a 1600-km-long, geologic and structural transect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, J.; Mann, P.

    2015-12-01

    We have constructed a 1600-km-long transect from northern Honduras to northern Colombia that crosses northeastward-striking crustal blocks using a combination of offshore seismic data, gravity and magnetic data, well subsidence information, nearby outcrop information, and results from previous thermochronological, geochronological, geochemical and paleostress studies. The transect defines three major crustal and structural provinces: 1) Precambrian-Paleozoic, Chortis continental block whose northern edge is defined by the North America-Caribbean plate boundary. Events in this ~20-25-km-thick province include two major unconformities at the top of the Cretaceous and Eocene, associated southeast-dipping thrust faults related to collision of the Great Arc of the Caribbean (GAC) and Caribbean Large Igneous Province (CLIP) with the Chortis continental block. A third event is Eocene to recent subsidence and transtensional basins formed during the opening of the Cayman trough; 2) Late Cretaceous GAC and CLIP of oceanic arc and plateau origin, whose northern, deformed edge corresponds to the mapped Siuna belt of northern Nicaragua. This crustal province has a ~15-20-km-thick crust and is largely undeformed and extends across the Lower Nicaraguan Rise, Hess fault, to the southern limit of the Colombian basin where about 300 km of this province has been subducted beneath the accretionary wedge of the South Caribbean deformed belt of northwestern South America; and 3) Eocene to recent accretionary prism and intramontane basins on continental crust of northern South America, where Miocene accelerated exhumation and erosion of Paleogene and Cretaceous rocks reflect either shallow subduction of the CLIP or the Panama collisional event to the southwest.

  17. Opportunities and challenges in developing gas markets in South America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duarte, Cristiano Boaventura [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The article has the objective of identifying and analyzing the key market levers and drivers, emerging issues and challenges in developing the gas markets in South America. In section 1, the paper provides an overview of the most relevant indicators in the natural gas markets of the region. Data such as natural gas proven reserves; production; consumption; trade movements (by pipeline and LNG) and main aspects of regulatory framework are shown. In section 2, some of the key challenges and opportunities in developing gas markets in the region are identified, including those relating to market integration, political aspects and the main players' investments. In section 3, possible strategies from governments and enterprises to overcome those challenges, and seize the potential opportunities of the region are examined. In section 4, the conclusions point to the potential of developing the gas markets as a means to diversify the energy sources in the region, fostering a successful process of economic growth and political integration in the area. (author)

  18. Fossorial snake genus Apostolepis from South America (Serpentes: Colubridae: Elapomorphinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Lema, Thales

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available An update commented list of the snake genus Apostolepis from South America, with keys for identification of the species. They are fossorial snakes that present different coloration according their distribution: (a 7 to 3 dark stripes coloration, without light nuchal collar (if present, vestigial, with snout not projected beyond jaws - in Amazonian and enclaves within Caatinga domain; (b 5 dark striped dorsal pattern, snout projected, usually without white nuchal collars — from region of contact between Cerrado and Chaco domains; (c dorsal pattern coloration uniformly red, with nucho-cervical collars, snout usually projected — in Cerrado with dispersion to Chaco and Caatinga; (d 2 or none dark stripes dorsally, venter immaculate or with black blotches, snout projecting: (e an aberrant pattern with oblique black dorsal stripes, without collars, head black and snout projecting — one species in an enclave within Caatinga, with 17 rows of scales instead of 15.

  19. Crash and rebound of indigenous populations in lowland South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Marcus J.; Walker, Robert S.; Kesler, Dylan C.

    2014-04-01

    Lowland South America has long been a battle-ground between European colonization and indigenous survival. Initial waves of European colonization brought disease epidemics, slavery, and violence that had catastrophic impacts on indigenous cultures. In this paper we focus on the demography of 238 surviving populations in Brazil. We use longitudinal censuses from all known indigenous Brazilian societies to quantify three demographic metrics: 1) effects of European contact on indigenous populations; 2) empirical estimates of minimum viable population sizes; and 3) estimates of post-contact population growth rates. We use this information to conduct population viability analysis (PVA). Our results show that all surviving populations suffered extensive mortality during, and shortly after, contact. However, most surviving populations exhibit positive growth rates within the first decade post-contact. Our findings paint a positive demographic outlook for these indigenous populations, though long-term survival remains subject to powerful externalities, including politics, economics, and the pervasive illegal exploitation of indigenous lands.

  20. Cyclicality of bank capital buffers in South-Eastern Europe: endogenous and exogenous aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Kundid Novokmet

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The interdependence between the regulatory capital ratio and macroeconomic indicators, with reference to the phenomena cyclicality and pro-cyclicality is a widely emphasized disadvantage of the capital adequacy concept. Redesign of the aforementioned concept towards the countercyclical capital requirements is a kind of recognition of the creators of the Basel standards of the previous oversights in its development. This paper aims to explore empirically the direction, intensity and significance of endogenous and exogenous determinants of the changes in banks’ capital buffers by taking into consideration both the impact of the macroeconomic properties and the bank-specific characteristics of South-Eastern Europe. More than 80 commercial banks in the period from 2000-2010 have been encompassed by the research. Use of a dynamic panel analysis led to the conclusion that the bank capital buffers decreased during the observed period, with the exception of certain years during the economic expansion, which confirms the appropriateness of regulatory requirements considering the countercyclical capital buffers. Nevertheless, it might be that capital building and spending in the future will not follow the pattern from the last decade due to the specificities of the observed period, as well as the banking sector ownership transformations, economic and credit growth as well as asset prices growth in the post-transitional period, and finally, the real crisis which spilled over onto the financial sectors.

  1. Checklist of helminths from lizards and amphisbaenians (Reptilia, Squamata of South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RW Ávila

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive and up to date summary of the literature on the helminth parasites of lizards and amphisbaenians from South America is herein presented. One-hundred eighteen lizard species from twelve countries were reported in the literature harboring a total of 155 helminth species, being none acanthocephalans, 15 cestodes, 20 trematodes and 111 nematodes. Of these, one record was from Chile and French Guiana, three from Colombia, three from Uruguay, eight from Bolivia, nine from Surinam, 13 from Paraguay, 12 from Venezuela, 27 from Ecuador, 17 from Argentina, 39 from Peru and 103 from Brazil. The present list provides host, geographical distribution (with the respective biome, when possible, site of infection and references from the parasites. A systematic parasite-host list is also provided.

  2. A review of the nutritional content and technological parameters of indigenous sources of meat in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadoun, A; Cabrera, M C

    2008-11-01

    Meat yields, proximate compositions, fatty acids compositions and technological parameters are reviewed for species which might be further developed as indigenous sources of meat in South America. These include the alpaca (Lama pacos), capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris), guanaco (Lama guanicoe), llama (Lama glama), nutria (Myocastor coypus), collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu), greater rhea (Rhea americana), lesser rhea (Rhea pennata), yacare (Caiman crocodilus yacare), tegu lizard (Tupinambis merianae) and green iguana (Iguana iguana).

  3. Phylogeography and Sex-Biased Dispersal across Riverine Manatee Populations (Trichechus inunguis and Trichechus manatus) in South America

    OpenAIRE

    Satiz?bal, Paula; Mignucci-Giannoni, Antonio A.; Duch?ne, Sebasti?n; Caicedo-Herrera, Dalila; Perea-Sicchar, Carlos M.; Garc?a-D?vila, Carmen R.; Trujillo, Fernando; Caballero, Susana J.

    2012-01-01

    Phylogeographic patterns and sex-biased dispersal were studied in riverine populations of West Indian (Trichechus manatus) and Amazonian manatees (T. inunguis) in South America, using 410bp D-loop (Control Region, Mitochondrial DNA) sequences and 15 nuclear microsatellite loci. This multi-locus approach was key to disentangle complex patterns of gene flow among populations. D-loop analyses revealed population structuring among all Colombian rivers for T. manatus, while microsatellite data sug...

  4. The OECD-BEPS Measures to Deal with Aggressive Tax Planning in South America and Sub-Saharan Africa : The Challenges Ahead

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mosquera, Valderrama I.J.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to assess the feasibility to introduce the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)-BEPS measures to deal with aggressive tax planning in South America and Sub-Saharan Africa. The BEPS and its Action Plan have been developed by the OECD following

  5. Draft genome sequence of pathogenic bacteria Vibrio parahaemolyticus strain Ba94C2, associated with acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease isolate from South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leda Restrepo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a pathogenic bacteria which has been associated to the early mortality syndrome (EMS also known as hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND causing high mortality in shrimp farms. Pathogenic strains contain two homologous genes related to insecticidal toxin genes, PirA and PirB, these toxin genes are located on a plasmid contained within the bacteria. Genomic sequences have allowed the finding of two strains with a divergent structure related to the geographic region from where they were found. The isolates from the geographic collection of Southeast Asia and Mexico show variable regions on the plasmid genome, indicating that even though they are not alike they still conserve the toxin genes. In this paper, we report for the first time, a pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus strain in shrimp from South America that showed symptoms of AHPND. The genomic analysis revealed that this strain of V. parahaemolyticus found in South America appears to be more related to the Southeast Asia as compared to the Mexican strains. This finding is of major importance for the shrimp industry, especially in regards to the urgent need for disease control strategies to avoid large EMS outbreaks and economic loss, and to determine its dispersion in South America. The whole-genome shotgun project of V. parahaemolyticus strain Ba94C2 have been deposited at DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank under the accession PRJNA335761.

  6. Rearming and Low Perception of International Threat in South America: Is that Coexistence Possible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge M. Battaglino

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to critically analyze the use of the concept of rearmament to explain the purchases of arms in South America. The use of this term has not only contributed to the conceptual confusion but also to a risky political use of it. The concept rearmament has a specific historical meaning which is often link to situations of acute perceptions of threat among states and to the imminent break of war. From a theoretical and empirical perspective, neither the historical understanding of the concept nor its empirical referents are present in the region.

  7. Biostratigraphy of the upper Bajocian-middle Callovian (Middle Jurassic), South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccardi, A. C.; Westermann, G. E. G.; Elmi, S.

    The biostratigraphic division of the upper Bajocian-middle Callovian of South America is based on ammonites from different sections of the following provinces and regions: Neuquén, Mendoza, and San Juan in Argentina; Malleco, Linares, Talca, Atacama, Antofagasta, and Tarapacá in Chile. The complete upper Bajocian-middle Callovian succession includes the following biostratigraphic units: the Megasphaeroceras magnum assemblage zone, lowermost upper Bajocian; the Cadomites-Tulitidae mixed assemblages, (?lower) middle and upper Bathonian; the Steinmanni zone, index Lilloettia steinmanni (Spath), uppermost Bathonian, with two local horizons— Stenocephalites gerthi horizon (Argentina) and Choffatia jupiter horizon (northern Chile); the Vergarensis zone, index Eurycephalites vergarensis (Burck.), near the Bathonian-Callovian boundary; the Bodenbenderi zone, index Neuqueniceras (Frickites) bodenbenderi (Tornq.), lower Callovian; the Proximum zone, index Hecticoceras proximum Elmi, uppermost lower Callovian; and the Rehmannia (Loczyceras) patagoniensis horizon, middle Callovian.

  8. A contribution to the subdivision of the precambrian in South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brito Neves, B.B. de; Teixeira, W.; Tassinari, C.C.G.; Kawashita, K.

    1990-01-01

    On the shield areas of the South America continent (about 5,000,000 km 2 large) there are about 17,000 geochronological determinations available. More than 75% of this amount has been carried out in the Centro de Pesquisas Geocronologicas da Universidade de Sao Paulo, CPGeo-USP, in the last 25 years. The majority of these data were accomplished through Rb-Sr (ca.60%) and K-Ar (ca.40%) methods. The author tried to work this amount of data on a coherent way according to the progress observed in the geologic and geotectonic knowledge during the last two decades. One of the fundamental goals was to outline an up-to-date subdivision for the Precambrian of this continent, having in mind a contribution to the International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS), Subcommission of Precambrian Stratigraphy (SPS) of the IUGS. (author)

  9. Two Millennia of Pb Pollution Related to Altiplano Metallurgical Activities and Leaded Gasoline in South America from Illimani Ice Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichler, A.; Gramlich, G.; Kellerhals, T.; Tobler, L.; Schwikowski, M.

    2014-12-01

    The exploitation of the extended polymetallic deposits of the Altiplano in South America led to significant emissions of the neurotoxic Pb into the atmosphere already since pre-Colonial times. Long-term histories of Pb pollution in Eastern and Western Europe, Asia, and North America suggest that within the Northern Hemisphere emissions from metallurgy and coal combustion are minor compared to that from leaded gasoline during the second half of the 20th century. However, there is no equivalent data for Southern America. Here we present the first comprehensive, high-resolution two millennia Pb emission history for South America, based on an ice core record from Illimani glacier in Bolivia. Illimani is the highest mountain of the eastern Bolivian Andes and is located at the northeastern margin of the Bolivian Altiplano. The 2000 year ice-core based decadal Pb deposition history revealed highest Pb Enrichment Factors (EFs) during the period 1965-85. Metallurgical processing for silver production during periods of the Tiwanaku culture (400-900 AD), the Inca empire (1450-1532 AD), colonial times (1532-1900 AD), and the tin production at the beginning of the 20th century were identified as major sources for enhanced Pb EFs before the 1960s. Gasoline related Pb emissions in 1965-85, however, led to a threefold increase of the Pb EFs compared to the emission level from metal production, considerably preceding those of the past 2000 years. This finding is complementary to the local air pollution signal preserved in lake sediments and in good agreement with various studies from the Northern Hemisphere.

  10. Urban agglomerations in the function of regional integration of Serbia in South-Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tošić Dragutin

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article is analyzed the importance of urban agglomerations in the regional organization of Serbian space at one side, and on the other side they are taken as carriers of the future integration of the Serbian urban system into the urban of the South-Eastern Europe (SEE. In the regional configuration of Serbia, more different forms of territorial impacts of urbanization, urban areas and urban regions. High level of urban centralization is formed under the influence of the population density and functions of the metropolitan area of Belgrade. The problems of unbalanced disposition of population growth and qualitative transformation of urban centers are stressed and analyzed. Based on the role in integration process in the SEE, the metropolitan region of Belgrade is pointed out as its principal carrier and the metropolitan region of Niš as its secondary carrier, as well as the urban centers of importance for the cross-border regional cooperation. As the most suitable instrument of internal regional integration the model of Functional Urban Regions (FURs or Functional Urban Areas (FUAs is proposed, and for external regional integration is proposed the model of Metropolitan European Growth Areas (MEGAs. The coherent short-term and long-term development strategies for Serbian towns and their regions seem absent.

  11. Acoustic impedance properties of seafloor sediments off the coast of Southeastern Hainan, South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Zhengyu; Chen, Zhong; Wang, Jingqiang; Zheng, Xufeng; Yan, Wen; Tian, Yuhang; Luo, Yun

    2018-04-01

    Geoacoustic parameters are essential inputs to sediment wave propagation theories and are vital to underwater acoustic environment and explorations of the sea bottom. In this study, 21 seafloor sediment samples were collected off the coast of southeastern Hainan in the South China Sea. The sound speed was measured using a portable WSD-3 digital sonic instrument and the coaxial differential distance measurement method. Based on the measured sound speed and physical properties, the acoustic impedance and the pore-water-independent index of impedance (IOI) were calculated in this study. Similar to the sound speed, the IOI values are closely related to the sediment physical properties and change gradually from the northwest to the southeast. The relations between IOI and physical properties were studied and compared to the relations between the sound speed and physical properties. IOI is better correlated to physical properties than sound speed. This study also uses an error norm method to analyze the sensitivity of IOI to the physical parameters in the double-parameter equations and finds that the most influential physical parameters are as follows: wet bulk density > porosity > clay content > mean particle size.

  12. Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains of the Beijing genotype are rarely observed in tuberculosis patients in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritacco, Viviana; López, Beatriz; Cafrune, Patricia I; Ferrazoli, Lucilaine; Suffys, Philip N; Candia, Norma; Vásquez, Lucy; Realpe, Teresa; Fernández, Jorge; Lima, Karla V; Zurita, Jeannete; Robledo, Jaime; Rossetti, Maria L; Kritski, Afranio L; Telles, Maria A; Palomino, Juan C; Heersma, Herre; van Soolingen, Dick; Kremer, Kristin; Barrera, Lucía

    2008-08-01

    The frequency of the Beijing genotype of Mycobacterium tuberculosis as a cause of tuberculosis (TB) in South America was determined by analyzing genotypes of strains isolated from patients that had been diagnosed with the disease between 1997 and 2003 in seven countries of the subcontinent. In total, 19 of the 1,202 (1.6%) TB cases carried Beijing isolates, including 11 of the 185 patients from Peru (5.9%), five of the 512 patients from Argentina (1.0%), two of the 252 Brazilian cases (0.8%), one of the 166 patients from Paraguay (0.6%) and none of the samples obtained from Chile (35), Colombia (36) and Ecuador (16). Except for two patients that were East Asian immigrants, all cases with Beijing strains were native South Americans. No association was found between carrying a strain with the Beijing genotype and having drug or multi-drug resistant disease. Our data show that presently transmission of M. tuberculosis strains of the Beijing genotype is not frequent in Latin America. In addition, the lack of association of drug resistant TB and infection with M. tuberculosis of the Beijing genotype observed presently demands efforts to define better the contribution of the virulence and lack of response to treatment to the growing spread of Beijing strains observed in other parts of the world.

  13. Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains of the Beijing genotype are rarely observed in tuberculosis patients in South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana Ritacco

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The frequency of the Beijing genotype of Mycobacterium tuberculosis as a cause of tuberculosis (TB in South America was determined by analyzing genotypes of strains isolated from patients that had been diagnosed with the disease between 1997 and 2003 in seven countries of the subcontinent. In total, 19 of the 1,202 (1.6% TB cases carried Beijing isolates, including 11 of the 185 patients from Peru (5.9%, five of the 512 patients from Argentina (1.0%, two of the 252 Brazilian cases (0.8%, one of the 166 patients from Paraguay (0.6% and none of the samples obtained from Chile (35, Colombia (36 and Ecuador (16. Except for two patients that were East Asian immigrants, all cases with Beijing strains were native South Americans. No association was found between carrying a strain with the Beijing genotype and having drug or multi-drug resistant disease. Our data show that presently transmission of M. tuberculosis strains of the Beijing genotype is not frequent in Latin America. In addition, the lack of association of drug resistant TB and infection with M. tuberculosis of the Beijing genotype observed presently demands efforts to define better the contribution of the virulence and lack of response to treatment to the growing spread of Beijing strains observed in other parts of the world.

  14. Structure of the crust beneath the Southeastern Tibetan Plateau from Teleseismic Receiver Functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, Lili; Rondenay, S.; Hilst, R.D. van der

    Southeastern Tibet marks the site of presumed clockwise rotation of the crust due to the India-Eurasian collision and abutment against the stable Sichuan basin and South China block. Knowing the structure of the crust is a key to better understanding crustal deformation and seismicity in this

  15. Myth and catastrophic reality: using cosmogonic mythology to identify cosmic impacts and massive plinian eruptions in holocene South America.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masse, W. B. (William Bruce)

    2004-01-01

    Major natural catastrophes (e.g., 'universal' floods, fire, darkness, and sky falling down) are prominently reflected in traditional South American creation myths, cosmology, religion, and worldview. We are now beginning to recognize that cosmogonic myths represent a rich and largely untapped data set concerning the most dramatic natural events and processes experienced by each cultural group during the past several thousand years. Observational details regarding specific catastrophes are encoded in myth storylines, typically cast in terms of supernatural characters and actions. Not only are the myths amenable to scientific analysis, but also some sets of myths encode multiple catastrophes in meaningful relative chronological order. The present study considers more than 4200 myths, including more than 260 'universal' catastrophe myths from cultural groups throughout South America. These myths are examined in light of available geological, paleoenvironmental, archeological, and documentary evidence. Our analysis reveals three possible ultra-plinian volcanic eruptions, two in Columbia and the other in the Gran Chaco, the latter likely associated with a poorly dated late Holocene eruption of Nuevo Mundo in central Bolivia. Our analysis also identifies a set of traditions likely linked with the well-known Campo del Cielo iron meteorite impact in northern Argentina originally hypothesized to have occurred around 4000 years ago. Intriguingly, these traditions strongly suggest that the Campo del Cielo impact triggered widespread mass fires in the Gran Chaco region and possibly in the Brazilian Highlands. Several other potential cosmic impacts, distinct from Campo del Cielo, are hinted at in the mythology of other locations in South America. The numerous catastrophe myths in the Gran Chaco region exhibit the most coherent chronological sequence of any South American region. The sequence begins with a 'Great Flood,' by far the most widespread

  16. Climate-biomes, pedo-biomes and pyro-biomes: which world view explains the tropical forest - savanna boundary in South America?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langan, Liam; Higgins, Steven; Scheiter, Simon

    2015-04-01

    Elucidating the drivers of broad vegetation formations improves our understanding of earth system functioning. The biome, defined primarily by the dominance of a particular growth strategy, is commonly employed to group vegetation into similar units. Predicting tropical forest and savanna biome boundaries in South America has proven difficult. Process based DGVMs (Dynamic global vegetation models) are our best tool to simulate vegetation patterns, make predictions for future changes and test theory, however, many DGVMs fail to accurately simulate the spatial distribution or indeed presence of the South American savanna biome which can result in large differences in modelled ecosystem structural properties. Evidence suggests fire plays a significant role in mediating these forest and savanna biome boundaries, however, fire alone does not appear to be sufficient to predict these boundaries in South America using DGVMs hinting at the presence of one or more missing environmental factors. We hypothesise that soil depth, which affects plant available water by determining maximum storage potential and influences temporal availability, may be one of these missing environmental factors. To test our hypothesis we use a novel vegetation model, the aDGVM2. This model has been specifically designed to allow plant trait strategies, constrained by trade-offs between traits, evolve based on the abiotic and biotic conditions where the resulting community trait suites are emergent properties of model dynamics. Furthermore it considers root biomass in multiple soil layers and therefore allows the consideration of alternative rooting strategies, which in turn allows us to explore in more detail the role of soil hydraulic factors in controlling biome boundary distributions. We find that changes in soil depth, interacting with fire, affect the relative dominance of tree and grass strategies and thus the presence and spatial distribution of forest and savanna biomes in South America

  17. South Africa : tous les projets | Page 3 | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sujet: INTERNATIONAL FINANCE, INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL MARKET, FINANCIAL POLICY, DEMOGRAPHY, DEMOGRAPHIC CHANGE, DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION. Région: Americas, Brazil, South America, Asia, China, Far East Asia, India, South and Central Asia, Global, Africa, South Africa, South of Sahara.

  18. Seasonal precipitation patterns along pathways of South American low-level jets and aerial rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poveda, Germán.; Jaramillo, Liliana; Vallejo, Luisa F.

    2014-01-01

    We study the seasonal dynamics of the eastern Pacific (CHOCO) and Caribbean low-level jets (LLJ), and aerial rivers (AR) acting on tropical and subtropical South America. Using the ERA-Interim reanalysis (1979-2012), we show that the convergence of both LLJs over the eastern Pacific-western Colombia contributes to the explanation of the region's world-record rainfall. Diverse variables involved in the transport and storage of moisture permit the identification of an AR over northern South America involving a midtropospheric easterly jet that connects the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans across the Andes, with stronger activity in April to August. Other major seasonal AR pathways constitute part of a large gyre originating over the tropical North Atlantic, veering to the southeast over the eastern Andes and reaching regions of northern Argentina and southeastern Brazil. We illustrate the distribution of average seasonal precipitation along the LLJs and AR pathways with data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (1998-2011), combined with considerations of CAPE, topography, and land cover. In addition, the theory of the biotic pump of atmospheric moisture (BiPAM) is tested at seasonal time scales, and found to hold in 8 out of 12 ARs, and 22 out of 32 forest-covered tracks (64% in distance) along the ARs. Deviations from BiPAM's predictions of rainfall distribution are explained by the effects of topography, orography, and land cover types different from forests. Our results lend a strong observational support to the BiPAM theory at seasonal time scales over South American forested flat lands.

  19. Rock art at the pleistocene/holocene boundary in Eastern South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Walter A; Araujo, Astolfo G M; Bernardo, Danilo V; Kipnis, Renato; Feathers, James K

    2012-01-01

    Most investigations regarding the first americans have primarily focused on four themes: when the New World was settled by humans; where they came from; how many migrations or colonization pulses from elsewhere were involved in the process; and what kinds of subsistence patterns and material culture they developed during the first millennia of colonization. Little is known, however, about the symbolic world of the first humans who settled the New World, because artistic manifestations either as rock-art, ornaments, and portable art objects dated to the Pleistocene/Holocene transition are exceedingly rare in the Americas. Here we report a pecked anthropomorphic figure engraved in the bedrock of Lapa do Santo, an archaeological site located in Central Brazil. The horizontal projection of the radiocarbon ages obtained at the north profile suggests a minimum age of 9,370 ± 40 BP, (cal BP 10,700 to 10,500) for the petroglyph that is further supported by optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dates from sediment in the same stratigraphic unit, located between two ages from 11.7 ± 0.8 ka BP to 9.9 ± 0.7 ka BP. These data allow us to suggest that the anthropomorphic figure is the oldest reliably dated figurative petroglyph ever found in the New World, indicating that cultural variability during the Pleistocene/Holocene boundary in South America was not restricted to stone tools and subsistence, but also encompassed the symbolic dimension.

  20. Benefits of Sharing Information: Supermodel Ensemble and Applications in South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, P. L.

    2006-05-01

    A model intercomparison program involving a large number of academic and operational institutions has been implemented in South America since 2003, motivated by the SALLJEX Intercomparison Program in 2003 (a research program focused on the identification of the role of the Andes low level jet moisture transport from the Amazon to the Plata basin) and the WMO/THORPEX (www.wmo.int/thorpex) goals to improve predictability through the proper combination of numerical weather forecasts. This program also explores the potential predictability associated with the combination of a large number of possible scenarios in the time scale of a few days to up to 15 days. Five academic institutions and five operational forecasting centers in several countries in South America, 1 academic institution in the USA, and the main global forecasting centers (NCEP, UKMO, ECMWF) agreed to provide numerical products based on operational and experimental models. The metric for model validation is concentrated on the fit of the forecast to surface observations. Meteorological data from airports, synoptic stations operated by national weather services, automatic data platforms maintained by different institutions, the PIRATA buoys etc are all collected through LDM/NCAR or direct transmission. Approximately 40 models outputs are available on a daily basis, twice a day. A simple procedure based on data assimilation principles was quite successful in combining the available forecasts in order to produce temperature, dew point, wind, pressure and precipitation forecasts at station points in S. America. The procedure is based on removing each model bias at the observational point and a weighted average based on the mean square error of the forecasts. The base period for estimating the bias and mean square error is of the order of 15 to 30 days. Products of the intercomparison model program and the optimal statistical combination of the available forecasts are public and available in real time (www

  1. Are we filling the data void? An assessment of the amount and extent of plant collection records and census data available for tropical South America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Feeley

    Full Text Available Large-scale studies are needed to increase our understanding of how large-scale conservation threats, such as climate change and deforestation, are impacting diverse tropical ecosystems. These types of studies rely fundamentally on access to extensive and representative datasets (i.e., "big data". In this study, I asses the availability of plant species occurrence records through the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF and the distribution of networked vegetation census plots in tropical South America. I analyze how the amount of available data has changed through time and the consequent changes in taxonomic, spatial, habitat, and climatic representativeness. I show that there are large and growing amounts of data available for tropical South America. Specifically, there are almost 2,000,000 unique geo-referenced collection records representing more than 50,000 species of plants in tropical South America and over 1,500 census plots. However, there is still a gaping "data void" such that many species and many habitats remain so poorly represented in either of the databases as to be functionally invisible for most studies. It is important that we support efforts to increase the availability of data, and the representativeness of these data, so that we can better predict and mitigate the impacts of anthropogenic disturbances.

  2. Detection of non-natural springtime precipitation change over northern South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkhordarian, A.; Behrangi, A.; Mechoso, C. R.

    2017-12-01

    Here we determine whether the climate over South America has changed as a result of human activity since the beginning of the industrial revolution. To this end, we assess whether the observed changes are likely to have been due to natural (internal) variability alone, and if not, whether they are consistent with what models simulate as response to anthropogenic and natural forcing. Internal variability is estimated using 12,000-year control runs derived from CMIP5 archive. Results indicate that, in the past decades, trends in springtime (ASO, August-October) precipitation over South America have a magnitude that is beyond the estimated range due to natural (internal) variability or natural forcings alone. Evidence for the presence of an external driving factor is clearly detectable in the observed precipitation record (with less than 5% risk of error). The regression results illustrate the concerted emergence of an anthropogenic signal consistent with greenhouse gas (GHG) in observed decreasing 30-year trends of precipitation ending in 1998 and later on. In addition, the fingerprint of land-use-change signal is detectable in the observed precipitation decrease over 1983-2012. While the influence of GHG signal is detectable in precipitation, an observed decrease up to 10 mm/decade drying over the Amazon region, is much larger than the changes simulated by global and regional climate models as response to GHG forcing. We further show that the projected increasing trend of vapor pressure deficit (VPD), an indicator of background aridity, by the climate models with GHG forcing is much smaller than that observed over the Amazon rainforest. This may imply that models may underestimate the resulting reductions in forest CO2 uptake that could function as a positive feedback to rising temperature and reducing precipitation. Taking the ensemble of 23 IPCC models as a crude metric of probabilities, we further show that with 19 out of 24 models the effect of GS signal

  3. A 500-year history of floods in the semi arid basins of south-eastern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez García, Carlos; Schulte, Lothar; Peña, Juan Carlos; Carvalho, Filpe; Brembilla, Carla

    2016-04-01

    Floods are one of the natural hazards with higher incidence in the south-eastern Spain, the driest region in Europe, causing fatalities, damage of infrastructure and economic losses. Flash-floods in semi arid environments are related to intensive rainfall which can last from few hours to days. These floods are violent and destructive because of their high discharges, sediment transport and aggradation processes in the flood plain. Also during historical times floods affected the population in the south-eastern Spain causing sever damage or in some cases the complete destruction of towns. Our studies focus on the flood reconstruction from historical sources of the Almanzora, Aguas and Antas river basins, which have a surface between 260-2600 km2. We have also compiled information from the Andarax river and compared the flood series with the Guadalentín and Segura basins from previous studies (Benito et. al., 2010 y Machado et al., 2011). Flood intensities have been classified in four levels according to the type of damage: 1) ordinary floods that only affect agriculture plots; 2) extraordinary floods which produce some damage to buildings and hydraulic infrastructure; 3) catastrophic floods which caused sever damage, fatalities and partial or complete destruction of towns. A higher damage intensity of +1 magnitude was assigned when the event is recorded from more than one major sub-basin (stretches and tributaries such as Huércal-Overa basin) or catchment (e.g. Antas River). In total 102 incidences of damages and 89 floods were reconstructed in the Almanzora (2.611 km2), Aguas (539 km2), Antas (261 km2) and Andarax (2.100 km2) catchments. The Almanzora River was affected by 36 floods (1550-2012). The highest events for the Almanzora River were in 1580, 1879, 1973 and 2012 producing many fatalities and destruction of several towns. In addition, we identified four flood-clusters 1750-1780, 1870-1900, 1960-1977 and 1989-2012 which coincides with the periods of

  4. a survey of rice production and processing in south east nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A SURVEY OF RICE PRODUCTION AND PROCESSING IN SOUTH EAST NIGERIA. ... in South-Eastern Nigeria was carried out by investigative survey approach. ... labour and traditional approach in the production and processing of rice.

  5. Overview of Iodine Deficiency Prevention Strategies in the South-Eastern Europe and Central Asia Region: 2009–2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory A. Gerasimov

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Universal salt iodization (USI strategies gained strong momentum in countries of the Southern Europe and Central Asia (SECA region during the 2000–2009 decade. By the end of the first decade, several countries in the region had already reached the goal of optimum iodine nutrition; other countries were quickly approaching this goal, and in only a few countries the progress toward USI had remained slow. This paper reports an overview of the two Sub-Regional workshops (for countries of Eastern Europe and Central Asia and South-Eastern Europe conducted in 2015 and 2016. Both workshops demonstrate that the SECA region remains on track in the pursuit of USI for sustainable IDD elimination. Notwithstanding the noted imperfections, none of the data or information from countries of the region suggested that the conquest of iodine deficiency is seriously threatened. However, more efforts should be made to develop and streamline USI strategies in Russia and Ukraine, two major countries that are lagging behind.

  6. Characterization of non-calcareous 'thin' red clay from south-eastern Brazil: applicability in wall tile manufacture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, S.J.G.; Holanda, J.N.F., E-mail: sidnei_rjsousa@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: holanda@uenf.br [Grupo de Materiais Ceramicos - LAMAV-CCT, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-04-15

    In this work the use of 'thin' red clay from south-eastern Brazil (Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ) as raw material for the manufacture of wall tile was investigated. A wide range of characterization techniques was employed, including X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), grain-size analysis, and thermogravimetric analysis. The wall tile body was prepared by the dry process. The tile pieces were uniaxially pressed and fired between 1080 - 1180 deg C using a fast-firing cycle. The following technological properties were determined: linear shrinkage, water absorption, apparent density, and flexural strength. The development of the microstructure was followed by SEM and XRD analyses. It was found that the 'thin' red clay is kaolinitic type containing a substantial amount of quartz. The results also showed that the 'thin' red clay could be used in the manufacture of wall tiles, as they present properties compatible with those specified for class BIII of ISO 13006 standard. (author)

  7. The influence of socioeconomic factors on the conservation of traditional knowledge: a cross scale comparison of palm use in Northwestern South America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paniagua-Zambrana, Narel; Cámara-Leret, Rodrigo; Bussmann, Rainer W.

    2014-01-01

    We explored the power of 14 socioeconomic factors for predicting differences in traditional knowledge about palms (Arecaceae) at the personal, household, and regional levels in 25 locations in the Amazon, Andes, and Chocó of northwestern South America. Using semistructured interviews, we gathered...

  8. Discovery of the first telemid spider (Araneae, Telemidae) from South America, and the first member of the family bearing a stridulatory organ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupérré, Nadine; Tapia, Elicio

    2015-09-21

    The genus Kinku n. gen. is established for the first telemid spider found in South America. The new species, Kinku turumanya n. sp. is characterized by the unique conformation of the male palp and the presence of an abdominal anterioventral stridulatory organ.

  9. Mining and development: are they compatible in South America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Page, W

    1976-12-01

    Mining operations will require new methods and policies if they are to be of positive benefit to Third World countries. A review of experiences in South America reveals that few jobs were created in spite of intensive capital costs. Concentration of political power in a small elite group, such as miners, tends to counter efforts to improve working conditions and bring about better income distribution to the general population. Foreign exchange earnings and central government revenues benefit disproportionately to the social and economic needs of the people. More appropriate policies for developing countries will (1) seek mining opportunities with lower capital and higher labor intensity, (2) reduce foreign mining expenditures in favor of local input, and (3) reassess the government and mining-sector relationship as it applies to investment of mining surpluses. Any new policy directions will have to cope with the reluctance of miners to accept changes that are not in their direct interest and with those incompatible with tribal ancestral land use. Countries with a large investment in mining operations will be reluctant to change policies, particularly those recommended by outsiders. (24 references) (DCK)

  10. Cystic echinococcosis in South America: a call for action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos F. Pavletic

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Cystic echinococcosis (CE or hydatidosis, a parasitic zoonosis caused by a cestode of the family Taeniidae, species Echinococcus granulosus, is endemic in Argentina, Chile, Peru, Uruguay, and southern Brazil. This report presents CE figures for these five countries in 2009 – 2014 and proposes indicators to measure national control programs. Nearly 5 000 new CE cases were diagnosed annually in the five countries during the study period. The average case fatality rate was 2.9%, which suggests that CE led to approximately 880 deaths in these countries during the 6-year period. CE cases that required secondary or tertiary health care had average hospital stays of 10.6 days, causing a significant burden to health systems. The proportion of new cases (15% in children less than 15 years of age suggests ongoing transmission. Despite figures showing that CE is not under control in South America, the long-standing implementation of national and local control programs in three of the five countries has achieved reductions in some of the indicators. The Regional Initiative for the Control of CE, which includes the five countries and provides a framework for networking and collaboration, must intensify its efforts.

  11. Interventions that effectively target Anopheles funestus mosquitoes could significantly improve control of persistent malaria transmission in south-eastern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaindoa, Emmanuel W; Matowo, Nancy S; Ngowo, Halfan S; Mkandawile, Gustav; Mmbando, Arnold; Finda, Marcelina; Okumu, Fredros O

    2017-01-01

    Malaria is transmitted by many Anopheles species whose proportionate contributions vary across settings. We re-assessed the roles of Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles funestus, and examined potential benefits of species-specific interventions in an area in south-eastern Tanzania, where malaria transmission persists, four years after mass distribution of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs). Monthly mosquito sampling was done in randomly selected households in three villages using CDC light traps and back-pack aspirators, between January-2015 and January-2016, four years after the last mass distribution of LLINs in 2011. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to identify members of An. funestus and Anopheles gambiae complexes. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect Plasmodium sporozoites in mosquito salivary glands, and to identify sources of mosquito blood meals. WHO susceptibility assays were done on wild caught female An. funestus s.l, and physiological ages approximated by examining mosquito ovaries for parity. A total of 20,135 An. arabiensis and 4,759 An. funestus were collected. The An. funestus group consisted of 76.6% An. funestus s.s, 2.9% An. rivulorum, 7.1% An. leesoni, and 13.4% unamplified samples. Of all mosquitoes positive for Plasmodium, 82.6% were An. funestus s.s, 14.0% were An. arabiensis and 3.4% were An. rivulorum. An. funestus and An. arabiensis contributed 86.21% and 13.79% respectively, of annual entomological inoculation rate (EIR). An. arabiensis fed on humans (73.4%), cattle (22.0%), dogs (3.1%) and chicken (1.5%), but An. funestus fed exclusively on humans. The An. funestus populations were 100% susceptible to organophosphates, pirimiphos methyl and malathion, but resistant to permethrin (10.5% mortality), deltamethrin (18.7%), lambda-cyhalothrin (18.7%) and DDT (26.2%), and had reduced susceptibility to bendiocarb (95%) and propoxur (90.1%). Parity rate was higher in An. funestus (65.8%) than

  12. The presence of species of Pseudochironomus Malloch 1915 (Diptera: Chironomidae) in watercourses of Chaco Serrano Ecoregion (Argentina, South America).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paggi, Analía C; Rodriguez Garay, Gretel N

    2015-05-15

    Male imagos of Pseudochironomus viridis (Kieffer) are redescribed, the immature stages are described and figured for the first time. During this study, larva and pupal exuviae associated to P. richardsoni (Malloch) were recorded for the first time for South America. The specimens were collected from a stream and a river in the Pampasic Hills System in the Chaco Serrano ecoregion of Argentina.

  13. Extreme rainfall, vulnerability and risk: a continental-scale assessment for South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorosmarty, Charles J.; de Guenni, Lelys Bravo; Wollheim, Wilfred M.; Pellerin, Brian A.; Bjerklie, David M.; Cardoso, Manoel; D'Almeida, Cassiano; Colon, Lilybeth

    2013-01-01

    Extreme weather continues to preoccupy society as a formidable public safety concern bearing huge economic costs. While attention has focused on global climate change and how it could intensify key elements of the water cycle such as precipitation and river discharge, it is the conjunction of geophysical and socioeconomic forces that shapes human sensitivity and risks to weather extremes. We demonstrate here the use of high-resolution geophysical and population datasets together with documentary reports of rainfall-induced damage across South America over a multi-decadal, retrospective time domain (1960–2000). We define and map extreme precipitation hazard, exposure, affectedpopulations, vulnerability and risk, and use these variables to analyse the impact of floods as a water security issue. Geospatial experiments uncover major sources of risk from natural climate variability and population growth, with change in climate extremes bearing a minor role. While rural populations display greatest relative sensitivity to extreme rainfall, urban settings show the highest rates of increasing risk. In the coming decades, rapid urbanization will make South American cities the focal point of future climate threats but also an opportunity for reducing vulnerability, protecting lives and sustaining economic development through both traditional and ecosystem-based disaster risk management systems.

  14. Extreme rainfall, vulnerability and risk: a continental-scale assessment for South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vörösmarty, Charles J; Bravo de Guenni, Lelys; Wollheim, Wilfred M; Pellerin, Brian; Bjerklie, David; Cardoso, Manoel; D'Almeida, Cassiano; Green, Pamela; Colon, Lilybeth

    2013-11-13

    Extreme weather continues to preoccupy society as a formidable public safety concern bearing huge economic costs. While attention has focused on global climate change and how it could intensify key elements of the water cycle such as precipitation and river discharge, it is the conjunction of geophysical and socioeconomic forces that shapes human sensitivity and risks to weather extremes. We demonstrate here the use of high-resolution geophysical and population datasets together with documentary reports of rainfall-induced damage across South America over a multi-decadal, retrospective time domain (1960-2000). We define and map extreme precipitation hazard, exposure, affectedpopulations, vulnerability and risk, and use these variables to analyse the impact of floods as a water security issue. Geospatial experiments uncover major sources of risk from natural climate variability and population growth, with change in climate extremes bearing a minor role. While rural populations display greatest relative sensitivity to extreme rainfall, urban settings show the highest rates of increasing risk. In the coming decades, rapid urbanization will make South American cities the focal point of future climate threats but also an opportunity for reducing vulnerability, protecting lives and sustaining economic development through both traditional and ecosystem-based disaster risk management systems.

  15. South Africa : tous les projets | Page 7 | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sujet: Science and Technology, MEDICAL RESEARCH, HUMAN GENETICS, GENETIC ENGINEERING, BIOTECHNOLOGY. Région: Brazil, South America, China, Far East Asia, India, South Africa, North of Sahara, South of Sahara, North and Central America, Central Asia, South Asia, Canada. Programme: Économies en ...

  16. Cystic echinococcosis in South America: systematic review of species and genotypes of Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato in humans and natural domestic hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucher, Marcela Alejandra; Macchiaroli, Natalia; Baldi, Germán; Camicia, Federico; Prada, Laura; Maldonado, Lucas; Avila, Héctor Gabriel; Fox, Adolfo; Gutiérrez, Ariana; Negro, Perla; López, Raúl; Jensen, Oscar; Rosenzvit, Mara; Kamenetzky, Laura

    2016-02-01

    To systematically review publications on Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato species/genotypes reported in domestic intermediate and definitive hosts in South America and in human cases worldwide, taking into account those articles where DNA sequencing was performed; and to analyse the density of each type of livestock that can act as intermediate host, and features of medical importance such as cyst organ location. Literature search in numerous databases. We included only articles where samples were genotyped by sequencing since to date it is the most accurate method to unambiguously identify all E. granulosus s. l. genotypes. Also, we report new E. granulosus s. l. samples from Argentina and Uruguay analysed by sequencing of cox1 gene. In South America, five countries have cystic echinococcosis cases for which sequencing data are available: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Peru and Uruguay, adding up 1534 cases. E. granulosus s. s. (G1) accounts for most of the global burden of human and livestock cases. Also, E. canadensis (G6) plays a significant role in human cystic echinococcosis. Likewise, worldwide analysis of human cases showed that 72.9% are caused by E. granulosus s. s. (G1) and 12.2% and 9.6% by E. canadensis G6 and G7, respectively. E. granulosus s. s. (G1) accounts for most of the global burden followed by E. canadensis (G6 and G7) in South America and worldwide. This information should be taken into account to suit local cystic echinococcosis control and prevention programmes according to each molecular epidemiological situation. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Tuberculosis among transhumant pastoralist and settled communities of south-eastern Mauritania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aissata Lô

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Transhumant pastoralists of Mauritania were assumed to have a high prevalence of tuberculosis (TB because of reduced access to diagnostic testing. No population-based survey on TB has been published for Mauritania. Objective: The goal of this study was to estimate the prevalence of presumptive TB cases among mobile pastoralists and villagers in a remote zone of Mauritania. Design: In the south-eastern province of Hodh Ech Chargui, 250 adult pastoralists and 250 villagers were randomly enrolled using multistage cluster sampling in February 2012. A TB centre nurse examined participants using a standard clinical protocol, and a participant questionnaire was completed. Focus group discussions and interviews were conducted with community members and health personnel, respectively. Results: Fourteen new presumptive TB cases were identified, leading to an overall prevalence of 2.8%, (95% confidence interval (CI 1.5–4.7%. The prevalence was non-significantly higher among villagers than pastoralists (3.6% vs. 2.0%. Assuming illness duration was 3 years and all presumptive cases started treatment, an overall crude incidence of 933 cases/100,000 was derived. Five of six presumptive cases in Djiguenni were confirmed by sputum smear microscopy, but none out of eight presumptive cases were confirmed in Néma, although the same nurse performed all clinical examinations in both departments. This result was attributed to the use of expired reagents in Néma. Communities mentioned distance rather than lack of information as the main constraint to seeking diagnosis, but poor diagnostic centre performance also delayed decision-making. Conclusions: TB prevalences were high among both pastoralists and villagers. None of the 14 presumptive cases sought prior diagnostic testing. TB diagnostic centres in the remote rural study zone were poorly equipped. These centres must remain in operation to reduce TB incidence in vulnerable communities in insecure

  18. First web-based database on total phenolics and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) of fruits produced and consumed within the south Andes region of South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speisky, Hernan; López-Alarcón, Camilo; Gómez, Maritza; Fuentes, Jocelyn; Sandoval-Acuña, Cristian

    2012-09-12

    This paper reports the first database on antioxidants contained in fruits produced and consumed within the south Andes region of South America. The database ( www.portalantioxidantes.com ) contains over 500 total phenolics (TP) and ORAC values for more than 120 species/varieties of fruits. All analyses were conducted by a single ISO/IEC 17025-certified laboratory. The characterization comprised native berries such as maqui ( Aristotelia chilensis ), murtilla ( Ugni molinae ), and calafate ( Barberis microphylla ), which largely outscored all other studied fruits. Major differences in TP and ORAC were observed as a function of the fruit variety in berries, avocado, cherries, and apples. In fruits such as pears, apples, apricots, and peaches, a significant part of the TP and ORAC was accounted for by the antioxidants present in the peel. These data should be useful to estimate the fruit-based intake of TP and, through the ORAC data, their antioxidant-related contribution to the diet of south Andes populations.

  19. Water withdrawals and trends from the Floridan aquifer system in the southeastern United States, 1950-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marella, Richard L.; Berndt, Marian P.

    2005-01-01

    The Floridan aquifer system in the southeastern United States is one of the most productive aquifers in the world (Miller, 1990). This aquifer system underlies an area of about 100,000 square miles in southern Alabama, eastern and southern Georgia, southeastern Mississippi, southern South Carolina, and all of Florida. The Floridan aquifer system is the primary source of water for nearly 10 million people and supports agriculture, industry, and tourism throughout most of the region. In most areas, water from this aquifer is potable and needs very little treatment before use. However, in southern Florida (south of Lake Okeechobee), northwestern Florida and southern Alabama and Mississippi (Pensacola and westward), and eastern South Carolina, water in the aquifer system generally is not potable. The purpose of this report is to: Provide a general description of the Floridan aquifer system; Discuss water withdrawals by category for 2000; Highlight trends in water withdrawals between 1950 and 2000; and Provide a brief summary on the effects that human impacts have on the Floridan aquifer system.

  20. Hans Kelsen – The Reception of “Pure Theory” in South America, Particularly in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo de Abreu Boucault

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to examine the reception of « Pure theory of Law », of Hans Kelsen in some South-American countries, throughout institutional approaches and also the diffusion of this theory as well its acceptance by cultural agents who represented academic and professional law environment, in Uruguay, Colombia, Argentina and Brazil. The historical period of this study concerns the early times of 40 till our days. Although the reference of Kelsen’s thought about theory of law may appear as a constant feature on South-American jurists, mainly till the decade of 1980, actually we can identify real problems that claim for a falsehood about the guidelines of the pure theory of law and ambiguities in connection to theoretical issues within positivist traditions in face of authoritarian governments in Latin America.

  1. The Influence of Volcanic Eruptions on the Climate of Tropical South America During the Last Millennium in an Isotope-Enabled General Circulation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colose, Christopher M.; LeGrande, Allegra N.; Vuille, Mathias

    2016-01-01

    Currently, little is known on how volcanic eruptions impact large-scale climate phenomena such as South American paleo-intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) position and summer monsoon behavior. In this paper, an analysis of observations and model simulations is employed to assess the influence of large volcanic eruptions on the climate of tropical South America. This problem is first considered for historically recent volcanic episodes for which more observations are available but where fewer events exist and the confounding effects of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) lead to inconclusive interpretation of the impact of volcanic eruptions at the continental scale. Therefore, we also examine a greater number of reconstructed volcanic events for the period 850 CE to present that are incorporated into the NASA GISS ModelE2-R simulation of the last millennium. An advantage of this model is its ability to explicitly track water isotopologues throughout the hydrologic cycle and simulating the isotopic imprint following a large eruption. This effectively removes a degree of uncertainty associated with error-prone conversion of isotopic signals into climate variables, and allows for a direct comparison between GISS simulations and paleoclimate proxy records. Our analysis reveals that both precipitation and oxygen isotope variability respond with a distinct seasonal and spatial structure across tropical South America following an eruption. During austral winter, the heavy oxygen isotope in precipitation is enriched, likely due to reduced moisture convergence in the ITCZ domain and reduced rainfall over northern South America. During austral summer, however, more negative values of the precipitation isotopic composition are simulated over Amazonia, despite reductions in rainfall, suggesting that the isotopic response is not a simple function of the "amount effect". During the South American monsoon season, the amplitude of the temperature response to volcanic forcing is

  2. Barcoding the butterflies of southern South America: Species delimitation efficacy, cryptic diversity and geographic patterns of divergence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo D Lavinia

    Full Text Available Because the tropical regions of America harbor the highest concentration of butterfly species, its fauna has attracted considerable attention. Much less is known about the butterflies of southern South America, particularly Argentina, where over 1,200 species occur. To advance understanding of this fauna, we assembled a DNA barcode reference library for 417 butterfly species of Argentina, focusing on the Atlantic Forest, a biodiversity hotspot. We tested the efficacy of this library for specimen identification, used it to assess the frequency of cryptic species, and examined geographic patterns of genetic variation, making this study the first large-scale genetic assessment of the butterflies of southern South America. The average sequence divergence to the nearest neighbor (i.e. minimum interspecific distance was 6.91%, ten times larger than the mean distance to the furthest conspecific (0.69%, with a clear barcode gap present in all but four of the species represented by two or more specimens. As a consequence, the DNA barcode library was extremely effective in the discrimination of these species, allowing a correct identification in more than 95% of the cases. Singletons (i.e. species represented by a single sequence were also distinguishable in the gene trees since they all had unique DNA barcodes, divergent from those of the closest non-conspecific. The clustering algorithms implemented recognized from 416 to 444 barcode clusters, suggesting that the actual diversity of butterflies in Argentina is 3%-9% higher than currently recognized. Furthermore, our survey added three new records of butterflies for the country (Eurema agave, Mithras hannelore, Melanis hillapana. In summary, this study not only supported the utility of DNA barcoding for the identification of the butterfly species of Argentina, but also highlighted several cases of both deep intraspecific and shallow interspecific divergence that should be studied in more detail.

  3. Barcoding the butterflies of southern South America: Species delimitation efficacy, cryptic diversity and geographic patterns of divergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavinia, Pablo D; Núñez Bustos, Ezequiel O; Kopuchian, Cecilia; Lijtmaer, Darío A; García, Natalia C; Hebert, Paul D N; Tubaro, Pablo L

    2017-01-01

    Because the tropical regions of America harbor the highest concentration of butterfly species, its fauna has attracted considerable attention. Much less is known about the butterflies of southern South America, particularly Argentina, where over 1,200 species occur. To advance understanding of this fauna, we assembled a DNA barcode reference library for 417 butterfly species of Argentina, focusing on the Atlantic Forest, a biodiversity hotspot. We tested the efficacy of this library for specimen identification, used it to assess the frequency of cryptic species, and examined geographic patterns of genetic variation, making this study the first large-scale genetic assessment of the butterflies of southern South America. The average sequence divergence to the nearest neighbor (i.e. minimum interspecific distance) was 6.91%, ten times larger than the mean distance to the furthest conspecific (0.69%), with a clear barcode gap present in all but four of the species represented by two or more specimens. As a consequence, the DNA barcode library was extremely effective in the discrimination of these species, allowing a correct identification in more than 95% of the cases. Singletons (i.e. species represented by a single sequence) were also distinguishable in the gene trees since they all had unique DNA barcodes, divergent from those of the closest non-conspecific. The clustering algorithms implemented recognized from 416 to 444 barcode clusters, suggesting that the actual diversity of butterflies in Argentina is 3%-9% higher than currently recognized. Furthermore, our survey added three new records of butterflies for the country (Eurema agave, Mithras hannelore, Melanis hillapana). In summary, this study not only supported the utility of DNA barcoding for the identification of the butterfly species of Argentina, but also highlighted several cases of both deep intraspecific and shallow interspecific divergence that should be studied in more detail.

  4. 77 FR 34037 - Georgia-Alabama-South Carolina System of Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    ... Marketing Division, Southeastern Power Administration, Department of Energy, 1166 Athens Tech Road, Elberton... a public information and comment forum for the Georgia-Alabama-South Carolina customers and... before June 5, 2012. The Georgia-Alabama-South Carolina customers, through their representatives, have...

  5. Improving precipitation simulation from updated surface characteristics in South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Gabriel; Silva, Maria Elisa Siqueira; Moraes, Elisabete Caria; Chiquetto, Júlio Barboza; da Silva Cardozo, Francielle

    2017-07-01

    Land use and land cover maps and their physical-chemical and biological properties are important variables in the numerical modeling of Earth systems. In this context, the main objective of this study is to analyze the improvements resulting from the land use and land cover map update in numerical simulations performed using the Regional Climate Model system version 4 (RegCM4), as well as the seasonal variations of physical parameters used by the Biosphere Atmosphere Transfer Scheme (BATS). In general, the update of the South America 2007 land use and land cover map, used by the BATS, improved the simulation of precipitation by 10 %, increasing the mean temporal correlation coefficient, compared to observed data, from 0.84 to 0.92 (significant at p Atlantic convergence zone (SACZ) positioning, presenting a spatial pattern of alternated areas with higher and lower precipitation rates. These important differences occur due to the replacement of tropical rainforest for pasture and agriculture and the replacement of agricultural areas for pasture, scrubland, and deciduous forest.

  6. The first hypothelminorheic Crustacea (Amphipoda, Dogielinotidae, Hyalella from South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Rodrigues

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Most of known troglobiotic species occur in caves and subterranean environments from great depths. However, recently more attention has been given to other subterranean environments, such as the hypothelminorheic habitats. It comprises the most superficial among all subterranean habitats. This kind of environment is characterized by the constant presence of wet spots, absence of light and very particular abiotic characteristics, comprising unique species. The first hypothelminorheic Amphipoda from South America is here described, a new species of the genus Hyalella which occurs in a wetland on Southern Brazil. The new species differs from other troglobiotics of the genus by the presence of a curved seta on the inner ramus of uropod 1 and elongation of appendices, as the first pair of antennae and peraeopods 6 and 7. However, human impacts in the area where the new species occurs have changed heavily their habitat, which may have led the species to a critical level of threat or even extinction, demonstrating the fragility of this environment.a

  7. Comparative evaluation of the IPCC AR5 CMIP5 versus the AR4 CMIP3 model ensembles for regional precipitation and their extremes over South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolen, J.; Kodra, E. A.; Ganguly, A. R.

    2011-12-01

    The assertion that higher-resolution experiments or more sophisticated process models within the IPCC AR5 CMIP5 suite of global climate model ensembles improves precipitation projections over the IPCC AR4 CMIP3 suite remains a hypothesis that needs to be rigorously tested. The questions are particularly important for local to regional assessments at scales relevant for the management of critical infrastructures and key resources, particularly for the attributes of sever precipitation events, for example, the intensity, frequency and duration of extreme precipitation. Our case study is South America, where precipitation and their extremes play a central role in sustaining natural, built and human systems. To test the hypothesis that CMIP5 improves over CMIP3 in this regard, spatial and temporal measures of prediction skill are constructed and computed by comparing climate model hindcasts with the NCEP-II reanalysis data, considered here as surrogate observations, for the entire globe and for South America. In addition, gridded precipitation observations over South America based on rain gage measurements are considered. The results suggest that the utility of the next-generation of global climate models over the current generation needs to be carefully evaluated on a case-by-case basis before communicating to resource managers and policy makers.

  8. Pain symptoms of the spine and work ergonomics of people in south-eastern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przysada, Grzegorz; Leszczak, Justyna; Czenczek-Lewandowska, Ewelina; Podgórska-Bednarz, Justyna; Rykała, Justyna; Glista, Joanna; Weres, Aneta; Drużbicki, Mariusz; Michalak, Barbara; Mazur, Artur

    2013-01-01

    Pain disorders of the spine are the most common causes of appointments with physiotherapists. It has been estimated that nine out of ten adults at least once in their lifetime experience spine pains and five out of ten working people have this kind of ailments a minimum once a year. The evaluation of the occurrence of spine pains in people who are professionally active with regards to obeying the rules of work ergonomics. The research group has been composed of 100 people professionally active from south-eastern Poland. Their ages have been from 20 to 50 years (average age has been 35 years). In the research the authors' own survey and VAS scale have been used on which the surveyed person has marked the intensity of pain experience in the area of the spine. Greater pain in the spine has been experienced by people who have never obeyed the rules of, among others, manual lifting and/or carrying the maximum load, lifting and carrying heavy objects, in their work. The lowest degree of pain has been experienced by those who obeyed the above-mentioned rules. Assuming the incorrect body posture during the everyday activities and disobeying the rules of ergonomics resulting from lack of knowledge are crucial factors in the occurrence of spine pains. People who disobey rules of ergonomics experienced spine pain to a higher degree.

  9. Qualitative and quantitative composition of microplastics particles during the expeditionary measurement program in the South-Eastern Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esiukova, Elena; Bagaeva, Margarita; Chubarenko, Natalia

    2016-04-01

    According to the tasks of the Russian Science Foundation project "Physical and dynamical properties of marine microplastics particles and their transport in a basin with vertical and horizontal salinity gradient on the example of the Baltic Sea" number 15-17-10020, a comprehensive expeditionary program of measurements in the South-Eastern Baltic started. The project is aimed at finding solutions for a number of problems caused by superfluous plastic pollution in the World Ocean and, in particular, in the Baltic Sea. This pollution has been accumulating for years and just recently it has become obvious that only multidisciplinary approach (geographical, biological, chemical, etc.) to the issues related to the processes of transformation of properties and propagation of plastic particles will allow the study of physical aspects of the problem. During the first stage of the study samples should be selected from the water surface, water column at various horizons, bottom sediments in the Baltic Sea, from different areas at the beaches - in order to further examine the qualitative and quantitative composition of microplastic particles in different seasons for different hydrophysical situations. Reconnaissance survey was begun to choose the fields for research close to point and distributed sources of microplastics. Preference is given to those beaches that are exposed to maximum anthropogenic pollution: areas around the town of Baltiysk, the northern part of the Vistula Spit (near the settlement of Kosa), and the Sambia peninsula coast (settlements of Yantarny, Donskoye, Primorye, Kulikovo, towns of Svetlogorsk, Pionersky, Zelenogradsk). Locations for experimental sites were found in order to assess time for formation of microplastics (Vistula Spit, Kosa settlement). In June-November, 2015 there were 5 expeditions in the waters of the South-Eastern Baltic, 7 expeditions along the coast line of the Baltic Sea (in Kaliningrad Oblast), and 5 expeditions to the Vistula

  10. Monotypic no longer: a new species of Panca Evans (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae: Hesperiinae: Moncini) from South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolibaina, Diego Rodrigo; Carneiro, Eduardo; Mielke, Olaf Hermann Hendrik; Casagrande, Mirna Martins; Lamas, Gerardo

    2017-05-19

    A new species belonging to the previously monotypic genus Panca Evans, 1955, P. moseri Dolibaina, Carneiro & O. Mielke sp. nov., from grasslands areas of Peru, Bolivia and Brazil is described. Adults and male and female genitalia of the new species are illustrated, described in detail, and compared with the type species of the genus, Lerodea subpunctuli Hayward, 1934, and with its externally most similar and sympatric species, Vidius mictra Evans, 1955. The systematic position of the genus Panca and its association with lowland open natural habitats of South America are discussed.

  11. Availability of pearl producing marine bivalves in south-eastern coast of Bangladesh and culture potentialities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Ataur Rahman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted during September 2014 to July 2015 to identify the pearl bearing bivalves in south-eastern coast of Bangladesh and culture potentialities of marine oyster in captivity based on field investigation. A total of 7 pearl bearing bivalve species were identified in the coast with a salinity of 18-34 ppt, pH 8.1-8.3 and water depth ranged 0.2-2.0 meter in their habitat. From the collected bivalves, most abundant oyster species windowpane oyster, Placuna placenta (Linnaeus, 1758 was reared in fiber glass tanks with seawater for a period of 6 months. During rearing highest survival rate of 88% was observed in T1 with sandy and gravel substratum and lowest survival rate of 78% was found in T2 with muddy substratum. Average temperature and salinity were varied between 24 °C-25 °C and 21-26 ppt respectively. From the reared oyster, highest 54 nos. small pearls in the month of April and lowest 7 pearls in December from a single P. placenta were obtained. The study proved that pearls can be obtained from the marine oysters in captivity in Bangladesh, and this offers large scale culture potentialities in our coast.

  12. Evaluation of critical thinking application in medical ultrasound practice among sonographers in south-eastern Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agwu, K.K.; Ogbu, S.O.I.; Okpara, E.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the application of critical thinking (CT) in medical ultrasound by sonographers in south-eastern Nigeria as a measure of the quality of practice. Methods: A semi-structured questionnaire based on six elements of CT was distributed to 82 sonographers selected through a simple random sampling. The questionnaire investigated the application of the elements of interpretation, analysis, evaluation, inference, explanation and self-regulation involved in CT by medical sonographers. The data for each respondent were categorized into age, experience and the elements of CT. Statistical analyses were done using mean and Spearman's Rank correlation. Results: The overall mean score of the practitioners on all the elements of CT application was 8.65 ± 6.76 against a total of 60. The application of CT did not show any correlation with age or clinical experience using Spearman's Rank correlation (r = -0.017; p > 0.05 and r = -0.086; p > 0.05, respectively). Conclusions: The results show that there is poor application of CT by medical sonographers in the locality which may impact negatively on the outcome of this diagnostic process. Increase in the number of formal training programmes in sonography and inclusion of CT skills in the curriculum are recommended

  13. Care of patients with Huntington's disease in South America: a survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Oliveira Horta Maciel

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Huntington's disease (HD is a rare neurodegenerative disease with a multitude of symptoms, which requires access to specialized multidisciplinary care for adequate management. The aim of this study was to survey the characteristics of care in various HD centers in South America (SA. Methods A questionnaire was sent to 24 centers involved in the care for HD patients in SA. Results Of the total 24 centers, 19 (79.2% are academic units. The majority of centers (62.5% are general movement disorders clinics. Multidisciplinary care is available in 19 (79.2% centers and in 20 (83.3% care is provided free of charge. Genetic testing and counseling are available in 25 and 66.6% of centers, respectively. The majority of centers (83.3% have no institutional support for end-stage care. Conclusions Although HD centers in SA are committed to providing multidisciplinary care, access to genetic counseling and end-stage care are lacking in most centers.

  14. An enigmatic aquatic snake from the Cenomanian of Northern South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Albino

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We report the first record of a snake from the Cretaceous of northern South America. The remains come from the La Luna Formation (La Aguada Member, Cenomanian of Venezuela and consist of several vertebrae, which belong to the precloacal region of the vertebral column. Comparisons to extant and extinct snakes show that the remains represent a new taxon, Lunaophis aquaticus gen. et sp nov. An aquatic mode of life is supported by the ventral position of the ribs, indicating a laterally compressed body. The systematic relationships of this new taxon are difficult to determine due to the scarcity of fossil material; it is, however, a representative of an early lineage of snakes that exploited tropical marine pelagic environments, as reflected by the depositional conditions of the La Aguada Member. Lunaophis is also the first aquatic snake from the Cenomanian found outside of the African and European Tethyan and Boreal Zones.

  15. Warm and Dry Spells (WDS in Austral Winter over Central South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Satyamurty

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The horizontal and vertical structure of unusually warm and dry spells (WDS over the central parts of South America during the winter and post-winter months (JJAS are studied. During WDS the mean temperature and humidity anomalies over central Brazil are about +4.1°C and −13.2%, respectively. The mean duration of WDS is 11 days and their mean frequency is less than one per year during the months of JJAS. Apparently, WDS have no preference for the phase of ENSO. Widespread and persistent subsidence in the middle troposphere is observed in tropical Brazil during WDS, which renders the lower tropospheric air warm and dry. The negative anomalies of the specific humidity are observed to be associated with the subsidence regions. A strong, slow moving ridge in the eastern South Pacific and a low-pressure center in northern Argentina are important surface characteristics during the WDS. A more detailed investigation of two specific WDS events, a strong event (August–September 1999 and a moderate one (June 2002, shows a blocking-like situation in the 500-hPa geopotential and surface pressure fields in the Pacific. The South Atlantic subtropical high somewhat approaches the continent. Strong northerlies over the central and eastern parts of Brazil are also observed in the lower troposphere. During WDS the regional circulation acquires summertime characteristics, except for the absence of precipitation, and the circulation in the meridional plane is in the opposite sense from the Hadley circulation. A frontal system, supported by a 500-hPa trough, advances into central Brazil, causing the dissipation of the anomalous situation.

  16. Corrigendum to "Three climatic cycles recorded in a loess-palaeosol sequence at Semlac (Romania)-Implications for dust accumulation in south-eastern Europe" [Quat. Sci. Rev. 154C (2016) 130-142

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeeden, C.; Kels, H.; Hambach, U.; Schulte, P.; Protze, J.; Eckmeier, E.; Marković, S. B.; Klasen, N.; Lehmkuhl, F.

    2018-05-01

    In the article 'Three climatic cycles recorded in a loess-palaeosol sequence at Semlac (Romania)-Implications for dust accumulation in south-eastern Europe' (Zeeden et al., 2016) we employed rock magnetic and grain size proxy data in combination with OSL- and correlative age models. The data and dating is combined to discuss glacial-interglacial paleoclimate variability in an Eurasian context. This dataset was also interpreted regarding the dust source in the eastern Carpathian (Middle Danube) Basin.

  17. Oral Manifestations of Tropical Infectious Diseases of Central and South America. Part II. Bacterial and Mycotic Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-05-24

    resemble pulmonary tuberculosis , in which 8% of the patients develop ora l or pha ryngea l lesions. In patients with disseminated paracocc idioido...ions , par t icularl y Mexico , Panama , and northern South America .1 The disease occurs most fre- quentl y before the age of ten years and is rare...30-50 years of age.7’’8 Infect i on most comon l y occurs through inhalation of spores resulting in a pulmonary infection which may or may not become

  18. South Africa : tous les projets | Page 6 | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sujet: INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY, PATENT LAW, PHARMACEUTICALS, PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY, ESSENTIAL DRUGS, ACCESS TO HEALTH CARE, SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY. Région: India, South Africa, North of Sahara, South of Sahara, North and Central America, South America, Central Asia, ...

  19. Notes from the field: chikungunya virus spreads in the Americas - Caribbean and South America, 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Marc; Staples, J Erin

    2014-06-06

    In December 2013, the World Health Organization reported the first local transmission of chikungunya virus in the Western Hemisphere, with autochthonous cases identified in Saint Martin. Since then, local transmission has been identified in 17 countries or territories in the Caribbean or South America (Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, British Virgin Islands, Dominica, Dominican Republic, French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Guyana, Haiti, Martinique, Puerto Rico, Saint Barthelemy, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Martin, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, and Sint Maarten). As of May 30, 2014, a total of 103,018 suspected and 4,406 laboratory-confirmed chikungunya cases had been reported from these areas. The number of reported cases nearly doubled during the previous 2 weeks. More than 95% of the cases have been reported from five jurisdictions: Dominican Republic (38,656 cases), Martinique (30,715), Guadeloupe (24,428), Haiti (6,318), and Saint Martin (4,113). The highest incidences have been reported from Saint Martin (115 cases per 1,000 population), Martinique (76 per 1,000), Saint Barthelemy (74 per 1,000), and Guadeloupe (52 per 1,000). Further expansion of these outbreaks and spread to other countries in the region is likely.

  20. Antarctica: Arena for South American Cooperation or Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child, Jack

    A number of converging circumstances suggest that Antarctica may be a major object of geopolitical attention in South America in the decade to come. The Malvinas/Falklands crisis focused geopolitical attention on the South Atlantic and the chain of Southern (Austral) Islands which link the southern tip of South America to the Antarctic Peninsula.…

  1. Crustal deformation mechanism in southeastern Tibetan Plateau: Insights from numerical modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.; Liu, S.; Chen, L.

    2017-12-01

    The Indo-Asian collision developed the complicated crustal deformation around the southeastern Tibetan plateau. Numerous models have proposed to explain the crustal deformation, but the mechanism remains controversial, especially the increasing multi-geophysics data, which demonstrate the existence of lower velocity, lower resistivity and high conductivity, implying that lower crustal flow is responsible for the crustal deformation, arguing for the lower crust flow model. To address the relations between the crust flow and the surface deformation, we employ a three-dimensional viscoelastic finite model to investigate the possible influence on the surface deformation, and discuss the stress field distribution under the model. Our preliminary results suggest that lower crustal flow plays an important role in crustal deformation in southeastern Tibetan plateau. The best fitting is achieved when the flow velocity of the lower crust is approximately 10-11 mm/a faster than that of the upper crust. Crustal rheological properties affect regional crustal deformation, when the viscosity of the middle and lower crust in the South China block reaches 1022 and 1023 Pa.s, respectively; the predicted match observations well, especially for the magnitude within the South China block. The maximum principal stress field exhibits clear zoning, gradually shifting from an approximately east-west orientation in the northern Bayan Har block to southeast in the South China block, southwest in the western Yunnan block, and a radially divergent distribution in the Middle Yunnan and Southern Yunnan blocks.

  2. Microsatellite data suggest significant population structure and differentiation within the malaria vector Anopheles darlingi in Central and South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achee Nicole L

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anopheles darlingi is the most important malaria vector in the Neotropics. An understanding of A. darlingi's population structure and contemporary gene flow patterns is necessary if vector populations are to be successfully controlled. We assessed population genetic structure and levels of differentiation based on 1,376 samples from 31 localities throughout the Peruvian and Brazilian Amazon and Central America using 5–8 microsatellite loci. Results We found high levels of polymorphism for all of the Amazonian populations (mean RS = 7.62, mean HO = 0.742, and low levels for the Belize and Guatemalan populations (mean RS = 4.3, mean HO = 0.457. The Bayesian clustering analysis revealed five population clusters: northeastern Amazonian Brazil, southeastern and central Amazonian Brazil, western and central Amazonian Brazil, Peruvian Amazon, and the Central American populations. Within Central America there was low non-significant differentiation, except for between the populations separated by the Maya Mountains. Within Amazonia there was a moderate level of significant differentiation attributed to isolation by distance. Within Peru there was no significant population structure and low differentiation, and some evidence of a population expansion. The pairwise estimates of genetic differentiation between Central America and Amazonian populations were all very high and highly significant (FST = 0.1859 – 0.3901, P DA and FST distance-based trees illustrated the main division to be between Central America and Amazonia. Conclusion We detected a large amount of population structure in Amazonia, with three population clusters within Brazil and one including the Peru populations. The considerable differences in Ne among the populations may have contributed to the observed genetic differentiation. All of the data suggest that the primary division within A. darlingi corresponds to two white gene genotypes between Amazonia (genotype 1

  3. On the motion od the Caribbean relative to South-America: New results from GPS geodesy 1999-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Rosa, R.; Marquez, J.; Bravo, M.; Madriz, Y.; Mencin, D.; Wesnousky, S. G.; Molnar, P. H.; Bilham, R.; Perez, O. J.

    2013-05-01

    Our previous (1994-2006) collaborative GPS studies in southern Caribbean and northern South-America (SA) show that along its southern boundary in north-central and northeastern Venezuela (Vzla) the Caribbean plate (CP) slips easterly at ~20 mm/a relative to SA, and that in northwestern South-America slip-partitioning takes place resulting in 12 mm/a of dextral motion across the Venezuelan Andes, ~6 mm/a of which occur along the main trace of the NE-trending Bocono fault, and the rest is taken up by SE-subduction of the CP beneath northwestern SA. A series of new velocity vectors obtained in the region from GPS geodesy in 1999-2012 and their corresponding elastic modelings shows that in north-central Vzla part (~3 mm/a) of the C-SA relative dextral shear is taken up by the east-trending continental La Victoria fault, which runs ~50 kms south of San Sebastian fault off-shore and is sub-parallel to it, the later taken up the rest of the motion. The velocity we find for Aruba Is (~20 mm/y due ~east) is consistent with the motion predicted by the Euler pole (61,9° N; 75,7 °W; ω = 0,229 °/Ma) we previously calculated to describe the C-SA relative plate motion. New velocity vectors obtained across the Venezuelan Andes are consistent with a modeled surface velocity due to 12 mm/a of dextral shear below a locking depth of 14 km on one or more vertical N50°E striking faults located within the 100-km wide Andean ranges. The Andes also show a horizontal convergence rate of 2 to 4 mm/a suggesting an uplift rate of ~1.7 mm/a if thrust motion takes place on shallowly dipping faults parallel to the Andes.

  4. Long-term background denudation rates of southern and southeastern Brazilian watersheds estimated with cosmogenic 10Be

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa Gonzalez, Veronica; Bierman, Paul R.; Fernandes, Nelson F.; Rood, Dylan H.

    2016-09-01

    In comparison to humid temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere, less is known about the long-term (millennial scale) background rates of erosion in Southern Hemisphere tropical watersheds. In order to better understand the rate at which watersheds in southern and southeastern Brazil erode, and the relationship of that erosion to climate and landscape characteristics, we made new measurements of in situ produced 10Be in river sediments and we compiled all extant measurements from this part of the country. New data from 14 watersheds in the states of Santa Catarina (n = 7) and Rio de Janeiro (n = 7) show that erosion rates vary there from 13 to 90 m/My (mean = 32 m/My; median = 23 m/My) and that the difference between erosion rates of basins we sampled in the two states is not significant. Sampled basin area ranges between 3 and 14,987 km2, mean basin elevation between 235 and 1606 m, and mean basin slope between 11 and 29°. Basins sampled in Rio de Janeiro, including three that drain the Serra do Mar escarpment, have an average basin slope of 19°, whereas the average slope for the Santa Catarina basins is 14°. Mean basin slope (R2 = 0.73) and annual precipitation (R2 = 0.57) are most strongly correlated with erosion in the basins we studied. At three sites where we sampled river sand and cobbles, the 10Be concentration in river sand was greater than in the cobbles, suggesting that these grain sizes are sourced from different parts of the landscape. Compiling all cosmogenic 10Be-derived erosion rates previously published for southern and southeastern Brazil watersheds to date (n = 76) with our 14 sampled basins, we find that regional erosion rates (though low) are higher than those of watersheds also located on other passive margins including Namibia and the southeastern North America. Brazilian basins erode at a pace similar to escarpments in southeastern North America. Erosion rates in southern and southeastern Brazil are directly and positively related to

  5. Implications of groundwater hydrology to buffer design in the southeastern U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge Sun; James M. Vose; Devendra M. Amatya; Carl Trettin; Steven G. McNulty

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the hydrologic processes of shallow groundwater to better define and design forest riparian management zones in headwater streams of two contrasting terrains in the southeastern U.S. We employed two long-term experimental watersheds, WS80 (206 ha) and WS77 (151 ha) at the Santee Experimental Forests in South Carolina, and WS2...

  6. The understanding of the formation of valleys and its implication on site characterization: Moredalen and Pukedalen, south-eastern Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiren, Sven A.; Waenstedt, Stefan; Straeng, Thomas

    2010-11-01

    In south-eastern Sweden, there are a number of over-deepened narrow valleys, more than 20 m deep, formed in Precambrian bedrock located above the highest post-glacial shoreline. Canyon-like valleys, called 'kursu' or kursu valleys, are generally interpreted to be formed by glaciofluvial erosion. An example of such a valley is Moredalen, a canyon in the Fennoscandian Shield, which has an implication on site selection for radioactive waste disposal. There are also more open over-deepened valleys along which sub-glacial flow has occurred, e.g. Pukedalen. The main part of this paper discusses a combined geological and geophysical investigation of Moredalen, with the aim to investigate possible reasons for the formation of such an unusual feature formed in acid vulcanite and foliated tonalitic to granodioritic rocks. Moredalen is a marked, approximately 7 km long, E-W striking valley that cuts through a plateau (c. 140 m a.s.l.), and an elevated block of the sub-Cambrian peneplain. Glaciofluvial sediments can be found up-streams where the canyon widens to the west. Just east of the valley is a larger delta deposited at the highest post-glacial shoreline (c. 105 m a.s.l). Further east of, and in line with the Moredalen valley there is an esker. Rock debris in the valley is angular. Pukedalen is a northwest-southeast trending valley incised in massive granite. The valley is in its northern parts relatively open and becomes narrow in its south-eastern part having partly a vertical south-western wall. Rock surfaces are smooth along the valley and rock debris in the valley consists generally of rounded blocks. In line with Pukedalen, on both sides at great distances though, there are eskers. Geomorphological features of this kind indicate certain characteristics of the bedrock that need to be considered during safety analysis of repositories for nuclear waste. The distinct weakness zones along which the kursu-valleys are formed create prominent transport paths for

  7. The understanding of the formation of valleys and its implication on site characterization: Moredalen and Pukedalen, south-eastern Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiren, Sven A.; Waenstedt, Stefan; Straeng, Thomas (GEOSIGMA AB (Sweden))

    2010-11-15

    In south-eastern Sweden, there are a number of over-deepened narrow valleys, more than 20 m deep, formed in Precambrian bedrock located above the highest post-glacial shoreline. Canyon-like valleys, called 'kursu' or kursu valleys, are generally interpreted to be formed by glaciofluvial erosion. An example of such a valley is Moredalen, a canyon in the Fennoscandian Shield, which has an implication on site selection for radioactive waste disposal. There are also more open over-deepened valleys along which sub-glacial flow has occurred, e.g. Pukedalen. The main part of this paper discusses a combined geological and geophysical investigation of Moredalen, with the aim to investigate possible reasons for the formation of such an unusual feature formed in acid vulcanite and foliated tonalitic to granodioritic rocks. Moredalen is a marked, approximately 7 km long, E-W striking valley that cuts through a plateau (c. 140 m a.s.l.), and an elevated block of the sub-Cambrian peneplain. Glaciofluvial sediments can be found up-streams where the canyon widens to the west. Just east of the valley is a larger delta deposited at the highest post-glacial shoreline (c. 105 m a.s.l). Further east of, and in line with the Moredalen valley there is an esker. Rock debris in the valley is angular. Pukedalen is a northwest-southeast trending valley incised in massive granite. The valley is in its northern parts relatively open and becomes narrow in its south-eastern part having partly a vertical south-western wall. Rock surfaces are smooth along the valley and rock debris in the valley consists generally of rounded blocks. In line with Pukedalen, on both sides at great distances though, there are eskers. Geomorphological features of this kind indicate certain characteristics of the bedrock that need to be considered during safety analysis of repositories for nuclear waste. The distinct weakness zones along which the kursu-valleys are formed create prominent transport paths for

  8. Arboviral Etiologies of Acute Febrile Illnesses in Western South America, 2000–2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forshey, Brett M.; Guevara, Carolina; Laguna-Torres, V. Alberto; Cespedes, Manuel; Vargas, Jorge; Gianella, Alberto; Vallejo, Efrain; Madrid, César; Aguayo, Nicolas; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Suarez, Victor; Morales, Ana Maria; Beingolea, Luis; Reyes, Nora; Perez, Juan; Negrete, Monica; Rocha, Claudio; Morrison, Amy C.; Russell, Kevin L.; J. Blair, Patrick; Olson, James G.; Kochel, Tadeusz J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) are among the most common agents of human febrile illness worldwide and the most important emerging pathogens, causing multiple notable epidemics of human disease over recent decades. Despite the public health relevance, little is know about the geographic distribution, relative impact, and risk factors for arbovirus infection in many regions of the world. Our objectives were to describe the arboviruses associated with acute undifferentiated febrile illness in participating clinics in four countries in South America and to provide detailed epidemiological analysis of arbovirus infection in Iquitos, Peru, where more extensive monitoring was conducted. Methodology/Findings A clinic-based syndromic surveillance system was implemented in 13 locations in Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, and Paraguay. Serum samples and demographic information were collected from febrile participants reporting to local health clinics or hospitals. Acute-phase sera were tested for viral infection by immunofluorescence assay or RT-PCR, while acute- and convalescent-phase sera were tested for pathogen-specific IgM by ELISA. Between May 2000 and December 2007, 20,880 participants were included in the study, with evidence for recent arbovirus infection detected for 6,793 (32.5%). Dengue viruses (Flavivirus) were the most common arbovirus infections, totaling 26.0% of febrile episodes, with DENV-3 as the most common serotype. Alphavirus (Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus [VEEV] and Mayaro virus [MAYV]) and Orthobunyavirus (Oropouche virus [OROV], Group C viruses, and Guaroa virus) infections were both observed in approximately 3% of febrile episodes. In Iquitos, risk factors for VEEV and MAYV infection included being male and reporting to a rural (vs urban) clinic. In contrast, OROV infection was similar between sexes and type of clinic. Conclusions/Significance Our data provide a better understanding of the geographic range of arboviruses in South

  9. Robotic-assisted partial Nephrectomy: initial experience in South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo C. Lemos

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE:To report the initial outcomes of robotic-assisted partial nephrectomy in a tertiary center in South America. MATERIAL AND METHODS: From 11/2008 to 12/2009, a total of 16 transperitoneal robotic-assisted partial nephrectomies were performed in 15 patients to treat 18 kidney tumors. One patient with bilateral tumor had two procedures, while two patients with two synchronous unilateral tumors had a single operation to remove them. Eleven (73% patients were male and the right kidney was affected in 7 (46% patients. The median patient age and tumor size were 57 years old and 30 mm, respectively. Five (28% tumors were hilar and/or centrally located. RESULTS: The median operative time, warm ischemia time and estimated blood loss was 140 min, 27 min and 120 mL, respectively. Blood transfusion was required in one patient with bilateral tumor, and one additional pyelolithotomy was performed due to a 15mm stone located in the renal pelvis. The histopathology analysis showed 15 (83% malignant tumors, which 10 (67% were clear cell carcinoma. The median hospital stay was 72 hrs and no major complication was observed. CONCLUSION: Robotic-assisted partial nephrectomy is safe and represents a valuable option to perform minimally invasive nephron-sparing surgery.

  10. New insights into deglacial climate variability in tropical South America from molecular fossil and isotopic indicators in Lake Titicaca

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanahan, T. M.; Hughen, K. A.; Fornace, K.; Baker, P. A.; Fritz, S. C.

    2010-12-01

    As one of the main centers of tropical convection, the South American Altiplano plays a crucial role in the long-term climate variability of South America. However, both the timing and the drivers of climate variability on orbital to millennial timescales remain poorly understood for this region. New data from molecular fossil (e.g., TEX86) and compound specific hydrogen isotope (D/H) analyses provide new insights into the climate evolution of this region over the last ~50 kyr. TEX86 temperature reconstructions suggest that the Altiplano warmed as early as 19- 21 kyr ago and proceeded rapidly, consistent with published evidence for an early retreat of LGM glaciers at this time at some locations. The early warming signal observed at Lake Titicaca also appears to be synchronous with continental temperature reconstructions at some sites in tropical Africa, but leads tropical SST changes by several thousands of years. Although the initiation of warming coincided with the peak in southern hemisphere summer insolation, subsequent temperature increases were accompanied by decreases in southern hemisphere insolation, suggesting a northern hemisphere driver for temperature changes in tropical South America. Preliminary D/H ratios from leaf waxes appear to support existing data suggesting that wet conditions prevailed until the late glacial/early Holocene and are broadly consistent with local southern hemisphere summer insolation forcing of the summer monsoon. These data suggest that temperature and precipitation changes during the last deglaciation were decoupled and that both local and extratropical drivers are important for controlling climate change in this region on orbital timescales.

  11. Status and challenges for conservation of small mammal assemblages in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelt, Douglas A; Meserve, Peter L

    2014-08-01

    South America spans about 44° latitude, covers almost 18 million km(2) , and is second only to Africa in continental mammal species richness. In spite of this richness, research on the status of this fauna and on the nature and magnitude of contemporary threats remains limited. Distilling threats to this diverse fauna at a continental scale is challenging, in part because of the limited availability of rigorous studies. Recognizing this constraint, we summarize key threats to small mammals in South America, emphasizing the roles of habitat loss and degradation, direct persecution, and the increasing threat of climate change. We focus on three regional 'case studies': the tropical Andes, Amazonia and adjacent lowland regions, and the southern temperate region. We close with a brief summary of recent findings at our long-term research site in north-central Chile as they pertain to projected threats to this fauna. Habitat alteration is a pervasive threat that has been magnified by market forces and globalization (e.g. extensive agricultural development in Amazonia), and threatens increasing numbers of populations and species. Climate change poses even greater threats, from changes in rainfall and runoff regimes and resulting changes in vegetative structure and composition to secondary influences on fire dynamics. It is likely that many changes have yet to be recognized, but existing threats suggest that the future may bring dramatic changes in the distribution of many mammal taxa, although it is not clear if key habitat elements (vegetation) will respond as rapidly as climatic factors, leading to substantial uncertainty. Climate change is likely to result in 'winners' and 'losers' but available information precludes detailed assessment of which species are likely to fall into which category. In the absence of long-term monitoring and applied research to characterize these threats more accurately, and to develop strategies to reduce their impacts, managers already are

  12. Total electron content responses to HILDCAAs and geomagnetic storms over South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mara de Siqueira Negreti, Patricia; Rodrigues de Paula, Eurico; Nicoli Candido, Claudia Maria

    2017-12-01

    Total electron content (TEC) is extensively used to monitor the ionospheric behavior under geomagnetically quiet and disturbed conditions. This subject is of greatest importance for space weather applications. Under disturbed conditions the two main sources of electric fields, which are responsible for changes in the plasma drifts and for current perturbations, are the short-lived prompt penetration electric fields (PPEFs) and the longer-lasting ionospheric disturbance dynamo (DD) electric fields. Both mechanisms modulate the TEC around the globe and the equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) at low latitudes. In this work we computed vertical absolute TEC over the low latitude of South America. The analysis was performed considering HILDCAA (high-intensity, long-duration, continuous auroral electrojet (AE) activity) events and geomagnetic storms. The characteristics of storm-time TEC and HILDCAA-associated TEC will be presented and discussed. For both case studies presented in this work (March and August 2013) the HILDCAA event follows a geomagnetic storm, and then a global scenario of geomagnetic disturbances will be discussed. Solar wind parameters, geomagnetic indices, O / N2 ratios retrieved by GUVI instrument onboard the TIMED satellite and TEC observations will be analyzed and discussed. Data from the RBMC/IBGE (Brazil) and IGS GNSS networks were used to calculate TEC over South America. We show that a HILDCAA event may generate larger TEC differences compared to the TEC observed during the main phase of the precedent geomagnetic storm; thus, a HILDCAA event may be more effective for ionospheric response in comparison to moderate geomagnetic storms, considering the seasonal conditions. During the August HILDCAA event, TEC enhancements from ˜ 25 to 80 % (compared to quiet time) were observed. These enhancements are much higher than the quiet-time variability observed in the ionosphere. We show that ionosphere is quite sensitive to solar wind forcing and

  13. A review of estuarine fish research in South America: what has been achieved and what is the future for sustainability and conservation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaber, S J M; Barletta, M

    2016-07-01

    Estuarine fish research in South America began in the early 20th Century, but it is only within the last 40 years that detailed studies have been undertaken. This review firstly summarizes research results from South American estuaries by geographic area, starting with the temperate south-east, then the temperate-sub-tropical transition zone in Brazil, then the semi-arid and tropical estuaries of north and north-east Brazil including the Amazon complex, then the north and Caribbean coasts and finally down the Pacific coast of the continent. They include almost all types of estuarine systems, from large open systems (e.g. the temperate Rio de La Plata and tropical Amazon) to extensive coastal lakes (e.g. the temperate Patos Lagoon and tropical Cienega Grande de Santa Marta). They encompass a broad range of climatic and vegetation types, from saltmarsh systems in the south-east and fjords in the south-west to both arid and humid tropical systems, dominated by mangroves in the north. Their tidal regimes range from microtidal (e.g. Mar Chiquita, Argentina) through mesotidal (e.g. Goiana, Brazil) to macrotidal in the Amazon complex where they can exceed 7 m. The review uses where possible the recent standardization of estuarine fish categories and guilds, but the ways that fishes use tropical South American systems may necessitate further refinements of the categories and guilds, particularly in relation to freshwater fishes, notably the Siluriformes, which dominate many north and north-east South American systems. The extent to which South American studies contribute to discussions and paradigms of connectivity and estuarine dependence is summarized, but work on these topics has only just begun. The anthropogenic issue of pollution, particularly in relation to heavy metals and fishes and fisheries in estuaries is more advanced, but the possible effects of climate change have barely been addressed. Studies around conservation and management are briefly reviewed and

  14. Drug Trafficking as a Lethal Regional Threat in Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    and Bolivia. 28 Panama It produces marijuana and serves as a critical transit country for all drugs coming from South America to the United...Colombian drug cartels. Paraguay This is a marijuana producing country. Its production probably never leaves South America; it is believed to supply...broad diversification of their products. The Mexican DTOs went through great efforts to establish laboratories for the cheap synthetic drugs in Mexico

  15. PREFACE: Introduction to the proceedings of Dynamics Days South America 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macau, Elbert E. N.; Pereira, Tiago; Prado, Antonio F. B. A.; Turci, Luiz F. R.; Winter, Othon C.

    2011-03-01

    This proceedings presents selected contributions from the participants of South America Dynamics Days 2011, which was hosted by the National Institute for Space Research (INPE), Brazil, in July 2010. Dynamics Days was founded in 1980 and is the longest standing and most respected international series of meetings devoted to the field of dynamics and nonlinearity. Traditionally it has brought together researchers from a wide range of backgrounds - including physics, biology, engineering, chemistry and mathematics - for interdisciplinary research into nonlinear science. Dynamics Days South America 2010 marked the beginning of the South American branch of Dynamics Days. It brought together, for the first time in South America, researchers from a wide range of backgrounds who share a common interest in the theory and applications of nonlinear dynamics. Thus, South American researchers had a forum to promote regional as well as international scientific and technological exchange and collaboration especially, but not exclusively, on problems that are particularly relevant for the development of science and technology in the South American region. Furthermore, the conference also brought together prominent scientists from around the world to review recent developments in nonlinear science. This conference comprised plenary invited talks, minisymposia, contributed talks and poster sessions. The articles that are compiled here were chosen from among the works that were presented as contributed talks and posters. They represent a good selection which allows one to put issues that were discussed during the conference into perspective. It is possible to evaluate the success of an initiative by using several indices. In relation to attendees, the conference had 311 participants from 22 countries, who presented 341 works. About 86% of the participants came from South American countries. These figures allow one to classify this Dynamics Days conference as that with the greatest

  16. Atlantic small-mammal: a dataset of communities of rodents and marsupials of the Atlantic forests of South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovendorp, Ricardo S; Villar, Nacho; de Abreu-Junior, Edson F; Bello, Carolina; Regolin, André L; Percequillo, Alexandre R; Galetti, Mauro

    2017-08-01

    The contribution of small mammal ecology to the understanding of macroecological patterns of biodiversity, population dynamics, and community assembly has been hindered by the absence of large datasets of small mammal communities from tropical regions. Here we compile the largest dataset of inventories of small mammal communities for the Neotropical region. The dataset reviews small mammal communities from the Atlantic forest of South America, one of the regions with the highest diversity of small mammals and a global biodiversity hotspot, though currently covering less than 12% of its original area due to anthropogenic pressures. The dataset comprises 136 references from 300 locations covering seven vegetation types of tropical and subtropical Atlantic forests of South America, and presents data on species composition, richness, and relative abundance (captures/trap-nights). One paper was published more than 70 yr ago, but 80% of them were published after 2000. The dataset comprises 53,518 individuals of 124 species of small mammals, including 30 species of marsupials and 94 species of rodents. Species richness averaged 8.2 species (1-21) per site. Only two species occurred in more than 50% of the sites (the common opossum, Didelphis aurita and black-footed pigmy rice rat Oligoryzomys nigripes). Mean species abundance varied 430-fold, from 4.3 to 0.01 individuals/trap-night. The dataset also revealed a hyper-dominance of 22 species that comprised 78.29% of all individuals captured, with only seven species representing 44% of all captures. The information contained on this dataset can be applied in the study of macroecological patterns of biodiversity, communities, and populations, but also to evaluate the ecological consequences of fragmentation and defaunation, and predict disease outbreaks, trophic interactions and community dynamics in this biodiversity hotspot. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  17. Structural signatures of water-soluble organic aerosols in contrasting environments in South America and Western Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Regina M B O; Matos, João T V; Paula, Andreia S; Lopes, Sónia P; Pereira, Guilherme; Vasconcellos, Pérola; Gioda, Adriana; Carreira, Renato; Silva, Artur M S; Duarte, Armando C; Smichowski, Patricia; Rojas, Nestor; Sanchez-Ccoyllo, Odon

    2017-08-01

    This study describes and compares the key structural units present in water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) fraction of atmospheric aerosols collected in different South American (Colombia - Medellín and Bogotá, Peru - Lima, Argentina - Buenos Aires, and Brazil - Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, and Porto Velho, during moderate (MBB) and intense (IBB) biomass burning) and Western European (Portugal - Aveiro and Lisbon) locations. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance ( 1 H NMR) spectroscopy was employed to assess the relative distribution of non-exchangeable proton functional groups in aerosol WSOC of diverse origin, for the first time to the authors' knowledge in South America. The relative contribution of the proton functional groups was in the order H-C > H-C-C= > H-C-O > Ar-H, except in Porto Velho during MBB, Medellín, Bogotá, and Buenos Aires, for which the relative contribution of H-C-O was higher than that of H-C-C=. The 1 H NMR source attribution confirmed differences in aging processes or regional sources between the two geographic regions, allowing the differentiation between urban combustion-related aerosol and biological particles. The aerosol WSOC in Aveiro, Lisbon, and Rio de Janeiro during summer are more oxidized than those from the remaining locations, indicating the predominance of secondary organic aerosols. Fresh emissions, namely of smoke particles, becomes important during winter in Aveiro and São Paulo, and in Porto Velho during IBB. The biosphere is an important source altering the chemical composition of aerosol WSOC in South America locations. The source attribution in Medellín, Bogotá, Buenos Aires, and Lima confirmed the mixed contributions of biological material, secondary formation, as well as urban and biomass burning emissions. Overall, the information and knowledge acquired in this study provide important diagnostic tools for future studies aiming at understanding the water-soluble organic aerosol problem, their sources and

  18. Exceptional Chromosomal Evolution and Cryptic Speciation of Blind Mole Rats Nannospalax leucodon (Spalacinae, Rodentia from South-Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Savić

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Mole rats are exclusively subterranean and highly specialized rodents. Their long lifespans, remarkable anti-cancer mechanisms, and various distinctive adaptive features make them a useful research model. Moreover, opposing convergence of morphological traits, they have developed extremely high karyotype variability. Thus, 74 chromosomal forms have been described so far and new ones are being revealed continuously. These evolved during the process of rapid radiation and occur in different biogeographical regions. During research into their reproductive biology we have already provided substantial evidence for species-level separation of these taxa. Here, we review diverse chromosomal forms of the lesser blind mole rat, Mediterranean Nannospalax leucodon, distributed in South-eastern Europe, their karyotype records, biogeography, origin, and phylogeny from our extensive research. In the light of new data from molecular genetic studies, we question some former valuations and propose a cryptospecies rank for seven reproductively isolated chromosomal forms with sympatric and parapatric distribution and clear ecogeographical discrepances in their habitats, as well as new experimental and theoretical methods for understanding the courses of speciation of these unique fossorial mammals.

  19. Evolving perception on the benefits of vaccination as a foot and mouth disease control policy: contributions of South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Ingrid E; Malirat, Viviana; Falczuk, Abraham J

    2005-12-01

    Within the past decade, changes in perceptions on the benefits of vaccination as an appropriate tool to achieve complete foot and mouth disease eradication have become evident. The former negative view was derived from misconceptions, resulting mainly from the belief that vaccines are not entirely effective and that vaccination masks asymptomatic viral circulation. The advent in the 1990s of vaccination policies implemented within a strategic eradication plan in South America, and during recurrence of the disease in disease-free regions contributed towards generating more reliable and visible outcomes of vaccination programs, paving the way towards a new perception. Particularly relevant was the development and application of novel serodiagnostic approaches to assess silent viral circulation, irrespective of vaccination. The use in South America of vaccination allied to serosurveys to accompany viral clarification during eradication campaigns and after emergencies clearly established the importance of this control tool to stop the spread of viral infection. This alliance gave input to break many myths associated with the use of vaccines, including the belief that immunized carrier animals pose an epidemiologic risk. This experience launched new concepts that supported the internationally recognized status of foot and mouth disease-free regions with vaccination and the 'vaccination to live' policy as an alternative to 'stamping out'.

  20. Evaluating Ultraviolet Radiation Exposures Determined from TOMS Satellite Data at Sites of Amphibian Declines in Central and South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Elizabeth M.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Many amphibian species have experienced substantial population declines, or have disappeared altogether, during the last several decades at a number of amphibian census sites in Central and South America. This study addresses the use of satellite-derived trends in solar ultraviolet-B (UV-B; 280-320 nm) radiation exposures at these sites over the last two decades, and is intended to demonstrate a role for satellite observations in determining whether UV-B radiation is a contributing factor in amphibian declines. UV-B radiation levels at the Earth's surface were derived from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) satellite data, typically acquired daily since 1979. These data were used to calculate the daily erythemal (sunburning) UV-B, or UV-B(sub ery), exposures at the latitude, longitude, and elevation of each of 20 census sites. The annually averaged UV-B(sub ery) dose, as well as the maximum values, have been increasing in both Central and South America, with higher levels received at the Central American sites. The annually averaged UV-B(sub ery) exposures increased significantly from 1979-1998 at all 11 Central American sites examined (r(exp 2) = 0.60 - 0.79; P= 6750 J/sq m*d) to the annual UV-B(sub ery) total has increased from approx. 5% to approx. 15% in Central America over the 19 year period, but actual daily exposures for each species are unknown. Synergy among UV-B radiation and other factors, especially those associated with alterations of water chemistry (e.g., acidification) in aqueous habitats is discussed. These findings justify further research concerning whether UV-B(sub ery) radiation plays a role in amphibian population declines and extinctions.

  1. The institutional foundations of energetic integration at the South America; Os fundamentos institucionais na integracao energetica da America do Sul

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez, Lizett Paola Lopez; Guerra, Sinclair Mallet-Guy [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia]. E-mails: lizlosu@fem.unicamp.br, sguerra@fem.unicamp.br; Udaeta, Miguel Edgar Morales [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia (IEE)]. E-mail: udaeta@pea.usp.br

    2006-07-01

    From the revision and analysis of the energy integration process in South America, the present article goals to show which are the institutional basis that endorse the process, once these entities act directly with questions related to the energy sector or to the wider economic integration where the energy integration is inserted. Thus, the Regional entities, that can be associations, organizations and commissions, like ALADI, ARPEL, CEPAL, CIER, OLADE and others are mentioned and analyzed. The analysis points out that these entities constitute the institutional basis for support the decision making of the region countries, considering the achieved studies, the promoted debates, the establishment of norms and information treatment. Finally, it is emphasized that these entities can not and should not have decide and execute, since are the governments (politic will) the responsible for the planning and coordination role for having the integration project effectively implemented. (author)

  2. Moisture source in the Hyblean Mountains region (south-eastern Sicily, Italy): Evidence from stable isotopes signature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grassa, Fausto [Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione di Palermo, Via Ugo La Malfa, 153, 90146 Palermo (Italy)]. E-mail: f.grassa@pa.ingv.it; Favara, Rocco [Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione di Palermo, Via Ugo La Malfa, 153, 90146 Palermo (Italy); Valenza, Mariano [Dipartimento CFTA, Universita di Palermo, Palermo, Via Archirafi, 36, 90123, Palermo (Italy)

    2006-12-15

    Here the authors present results of an isotope study on precipitation collected during a 2-a period from a rain-gauge network consisting of 6 stations located at different elevations in the Hyblean Mountains (HM) region, in south-eastern Sicily. The slope of the local meteoric water line ({delta}D = 6.50 {delta} {sup 18}O + 9.87) obtained for the region suggests that precipitation is affected by evaporation during rainfall events. The main variations in rainwater isotope composition are due to seasonal effects and elevation. An average {sup 2}H excess value of +21.2 per mille was found for precipitation events less affected by evaporation (i.e. when the rainfall was >65 mm/month). The spatial distribution of O isotope composition of precipitation shows a negative gradient from east and south to the inner areas. The depositional rate of Cl, used as a tracer of the origin of air masses, is highest at the coastal rain-gauges (SR and MRG stations) and lowest on the northern flank of the HM region (SC station). Based on these findings, a model is proposed for the origin of precipitation in the HM region, which assumes that a Mediterranean-derived component is the main source of moisture in the studied area. D/H and {sup 18}O/{sup 16}O ratios of inferred meteoric recharge waters were also compared with the isotope composition of waters collected from the main local springs and wells. The best linear fit of the {delta} {sup 18}O vs {delta}D relationship for Hyblean groundwater is {delta}D = 4.85 {delta} {sup 18}O-2.01. The enrichment of heavy isotopes in Hyblean groundwater is probably due to evaporation occurring after precipitation events or to a recharging contribution from surface waters (lakes or rivers) enriched in heavy isotopes.

  3. Moisture source in the Hyblean Mountains region (south-eastern Sicily, Italy): Evidence from stable isotopes signature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grassa, Fausto; Favara, Rocco; Valenza, Mariano

    2006-01-01

    Here the authors present results of an isotope study on precipitation collected during a 2-a period from a rain-gauge network consisting of 6 stations located at different elevations in the Hyblean Mountains (HM) region, in south-eastern Sicily. The slope of the local meteoric water line (δD = 6.50 δ 18 O + 9.87) obtained for the region suggests that precipitation is affected by evaporation during rainfall events. The main variations in rainwater isotope composition are due to seasonal effects and elevation. An average 2 H excess value of +21.2 per mille was found for precipitation events less affected by evaporation (i.e. when the rainfall was >65 mm/month). The spatial distribution of O isotope composition of precipitation shows a negative gradient from east and south to the inner areas. The depositional rate of Cl, used as a tracer of the origin of air masses, is highest at the coastal rain-gauges (SR and MRG stations) and lowest on the northern flank of the HM region (SC station). Based on these findings, a model is proposed for the origin of precipitation in the HM region, which assumes that a Mediterranean-derived component is the main source of moisture in the studied area. D/H and 18 O/ 16 O ratios of inferred meteoric recharge waters were also compared with the isotope composition of waters collected from the main local springs and wells. The best linear fit of the δ 18 O vs δD relationship for Hyblean groundwater is δD = 4.85 δ 18 O-2.01. The enrichment of heavy isotopes in Hyblean groundwater is probably due to evaporation occurring after precipitation events or to a recharging contribution from surface waters (lakes or rivers) enriched in heavy isotopes

  4. Mapping the isotopic signature of methane in South-Eastern Spain: complementing biogeochemical long-term research with short term observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Àgueda, Alba; Morguí, Josep Anton; Vazquez Garcia, Eusebi; Curcoll, Roger; Lowry, David; Fisher, Rebecca E.; Nisbet, Euan G.

    2016-04-01

    As a greenhouse gas, methane has a global warming potential of 25 in a 100 year scale. In order to establish mitigation plans it is important to assess its sources and sinks which can be both of geological and biological origin. South-Eastern Spain is a region with many different possible methane sources: i) by seismic activity of many geological faults both inland and in the neighbouring marine region (i.e. the Carboneras fault crossing the Alborán Sea along Málaga coastline); ii) by seepage of methane from hydrates present in the marine regions close to the Gibraltar Strait and the Gulf of Cádiz; iii) by emissions from fossil fuels caused by high traffic of merchant ships and the presence of large harbours (Algeciras, Tetuan and Cádiz), and the Africa - Europe Gas Transport Network in the Gibraltar Strait region; iv) by organic matter decomposition in both highly productive marshlands and eutrophic reservoirs; v) by burning of agricultural debris for energy supply, mainly from olive residues. In this study, a methane mapping survey has been conducted in the area around three atmospheric stations of the ClimaDat Atmospheric Network for Continuous Measurements of Greenhouse Gases (www.climadat.es) located in South-Eastern Spain (Sierra de Grazalema (SGC3), Tarifa (EEC3) and Sierra de Segura (SSC3). A cavity ring down spectrometer (CRDS) (G2301m, Picarro®) installed on a car has been used to measure methane concentrations. Additionally, in selected points, air samples have been collected in Tedlar bags for isotopic signature analysis by CF-GC-IRMS (Continuous Flow Gas Chromatography-Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry). In order to obtain a map facilitating the identification of the different methane sources in the background air at regional scale, the mapping of isotopic signature of methane together with its concentration is a useful tool to obtain fast and direct information that will contribute to the knowledge of methane transport at the regional scale and

  5. First record of Acizzia jamatonica (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) in North America: friend or foe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael D. Ulyshen; Douglass Miller

    2007-01-01

    Acizzia jamatonica (Kuwayama) (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Psyllidae) is reported for the first time in North America. Because the species is thought to feed exclusively on Albizia, it may prove to be an effective biocontrol agent against the invasive Albizia julibrissin Durazzini in the southeastern United States. Because A. julibrissin is also an ornamental plant of...

  6. Impact of Asian Soft Power in Latin America - China and South Korea as Emerging Powers in the Subcontinent

    OpenAIRE

    Milanowitsch, Bianca Katharina; Derichs, Claudia (Prof. Dr.)

    2018-01-01

    Has the use of soft power as a strategic foreign policy tool enabled China and South Korea to position themselves as emerging powers in Latin America? This study operationalizes and conceptualizes the concept of soft power by measuring it through specific categories within a case study and offers an extended definition of emerging powers. The concept of soft power has been defined by IR theory as a tool only available to hegemonic or strong powers, which has perpetuated an inherent western bi...

  7. Behaviour and Ecology of Male Aye-Ayes (Daubentonia madagascariensis) in the Kianjavato Classified Forest, South-Eastern Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randimbiharinirina, Doménico Roger; Raharivololona, Brigitte M; Hawkins, Melissa T R; Frasier, Cynthia L; Culligan, Ryan R; Sefczek, Timothy M; Randriamampionona, Richard; Louis, Edward E

    2018-01-01

    Previous studies found that aye-ayes (Daubentonia madagascariensis) consume a variety of non-invertebrate resources, supporting the hypothesis that aye-ayes are too large-bodied to focus feeding efforts on insects. However, these conclusions were based on introduced populations, with little known about aye-aye behaviour and ecology in its natural habitat. This study investigates activity budgets, diet, and home range/territories of 2 male aye-ayes in the Kianjavato Classified Forest, a disturbed forest in south-eastern Madagascar, from October 2013 to October 2014. We used radiotelemetry and focal-animal sampling methods to collect behavioural data. We recorded GPS coordinates of the focal animal every 20 min, calculating the home range size for each individual. Results showed that male aye-ayes spent most of their time feeding and travelling. Their feeding time primarily focussed on larvae and adult insects from various substrates, and to a lesser extent Canarium spp. seeds. Home range sizes of the 2 males varied between individuals, overlapped greatly, and appeared to be related to the location of females. Our findings indicate that aye-aye behaviours are strongly indicative of insect-centric feeding ecology. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Patterns of radiotherapy for cancer patients in south-eastern Netherlands, 1975-1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Jong, B.; Crommelin, M.; van der Heijden, L.H.; Coebergh, J.W.

    1994-01-01

    Radiotherapy patterns were determined in all 34 487 cancer patients diagnosed between 1975 and 1989 in south-eastern Netherlands, a densely populated and prosperous area with a greying population of almost 1 million inhabitants. Specialised care was available in 10 community hospitals with expanding staffs and in a non-academic radiotherapy centre, the distance never exceeding 50 km. With respect to western Europe the cancer incidence rates for this area were relatively high for males and average for females during this period. We computed overall and tumour-specific percentages of patients receiving radiotherapy as primary treatment (RT1a) and estimated this for initial treatment of recurrence or metastasis (RT1b). The total number of patients receiving RT1a increased by about 2% per year, but age-adjusted figures remained stable at 36% for females and increased from 28% to 32% for males. Since 1986 about 40% of all new cases receive RT1a and RT1b and about 40% of all RT1a undergo secondary radiotherapy for recurrence or metastasis. Of all male and female patients 70% and 50%, respectively, were over 60. Diverse underlying tumour-specific trends in RT1a were observed: children and adolescents with cancer received RT1a less often (25% vs. 40%) as did patients with cervical (55% vs. 80%), ovarian (9% vs. 17%), small cell lung (25% vs. 55%) and non-melanoma skin cancer (5% vs. 55%); patients with stage 1 breast (70% vs. 45%), rectal (30% vs. 10%) and prostate cancer (31% vs. 13%) and adenocarcinoma of the lung (40% vs. 20%) received RT1a more often. Despite easy access to specialised care, waiting lists for radiotherapy (until 1987) and more diverse referral and treatment policies in the non-academic setting may have led to a modest application of radiotherapy

  9. Redescription of Hanleya brachyplax (Polyplacophora, Hanleyidae from the south-southeastern Brazilian coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime A. Jardim

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Hanleya brachyplax Simone & Jardim in Rios, 2009 is described in detail. The species occurs off the southeastern and south coast of Brazil (São Paulo and Santa Catarina states in depths from 250 to 408 m. It differs from its congeners in having uniform white valves; wide intermediate valves; the tail valve with straight profile in the antemucronal area, and a concave postmucronal surface; and a cream-colored girdle, covered by non-articulated spines. An anatomical investigation was also performed, showing the main muscle groups; the presence of gills in the posterior third of the pallial groove; auricle with six orifices; a very flat kidney, restricted to the posterior half of the animal; and a simple esophageal region. The odontophore has a single pair of long cartilages. The buccal musculature is also described.Hanleya brachyplax Simone & Jardim in Rios, 2009 é descrita em detalhes. A espécie ocorre entre as costas Sul e Sudeste do Brasil (Estados de São Paulo e Santa Catarina em profundidades de 250 a 408 m. Se diferenciando das espécies do mesmo gênero por apresentar valvas uniformemente brancas; valvas intermediarias largas; valva anal com a região antemucronal reta e região postmucronal suavemente concava; cinturão creme, revestido de espinhos não articulados. Um estudo anatômico foi realizado, evidenciando os principais grupos musculares; restrição dos filamentos branquiais à região posterior da cavidade palial; aurículas com seis orifícios; rim achatado e restrito a porção posterior do animal; região esofágica simples. O odontóforo composto por um par de cartilagens simples. Musculatura da massa bucal é também descrita.

  10. Phytosociological and ecological study of springs in Trentino (south-eastern Alps, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro PETRAGLIA

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A phytosociological survey of the crenic vegetation was made in Trentino (south-eastern Alps, combining the field method of the Braun-Blanquet approach with a numerical syntaxonomical analysis. A set of 139 phytosociological relevés, including vascular plants and bryophytes, were classified using cluster analysis. The vegetation types were assigned to 7 different phytosociological classes: Platyhypnidio-Fontinalietea antipyreticae, Montio-Cardaminetea, Adiantetea, Scheuchzerio-Caricetea nigrae, Molinio- Arrhenatheretea, Galio-Urticetea, Mulgedio-Aconitetea. The classes Platyhypnidio-Fontinalietea antipyreticae and Montio- Cardaminetea represent the core of crenic vegetation, including permanently or intermittently submerged plant communities, mostly made up of bryophytes, or non-submerged communities dominated by bryophytes or vascular plants. The other classes include chasmophytic bryophyte-rich communities and hygrophilous or tall herb communities lying around the periphery of the springs. 23 vegetation types were identified and, whenever possible, classified at the association level, or as phytocoena. The environmental parameters showed different ranges among vegetation types. A number of environmental variables were recorded during the vegetation survey, including altitude, shading, discharge, flow velocity, with exhaustive hydrochemical sampling. Conductivity, alkalinity and pH showed similar distribution patterns, clearly separating the vegetation types into two distinct groups, differing in the nature of the substratum. The altitudinal range was very broad and shading was also very variable. Nitrate and phosphate levels showed that the majority of vegetation types were irrigated by oligotrophic crenic waters. Finally, the bryophyte-dominated vegetation types belonging to the class Platyhypnidio-Fontinalietea antipyreticae occurred in springs with the highest discharge values and variation. Discriminant analysis confirmed that the

  11. 3. South American symposium on isotope geology. Extended abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-10-01

    This publication include papers in the fields on Methodology, thermochronology, and geochronology; Evolution of cratonic South America; Magmatic processes; Environmental geology, hydrogeology, isotopic stratigraphy and paleoclimatology; Economic Geology and Evolution of the Andean margin of South America

  12. Supplement of: The Influence of Volcanic Eruptions on the Climate of Tropical South America During the Last Millennium in an Isotope-Enabled General Circulation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colose, Christopher; LeGrande, Allegra N.; Vuille, Mathias

    2016-01-01

    Currently, little is known on how volcanic eruptions impact large-scale climate phenomena such as South American paleo-intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) position and summer monsoon behavior. In this paper, an analysis of observations and model simulations is employed to assess the influence of large volcanic eruptions on the climate of tropical South America. This problem is first considered for historically recent volcanic episodes for which more observations are available but where fewer events exist and the confounding effects of El NioSouthern Oscillation (ENSO) lead to inconclusive interpretation of the impact of volcanic eruptions at the continental scale. Therefore, we also examine a greater number of reconstructed volcanic events for the period 850CE to present that are incorporated into the NASA GISS ModelE2-R simulation of the last millennium.An advantage of this model is its ability to explicitly track water isotopologues throughout the hydrologic cycle and simulating the isotopic imprint following a large eruption. This effectively removes a degree of uncertainty associated with error-prone conversion of isotopic signals into climate variables, and allows for a direct comparison between GISS simulations and paleoclimate proxy records.Our analysis reveals that both precipitation and oxygen isotope variability respond with a distinct seasonal and spatial structure across tropical South America following an eruption. During austral winter, the heavy oxygen isotope in precipitation is enriched, likely due to reduced moisture convergence in the ITCZ domain and reduced rainfall over northern South America. During austral summer, however, more negative values of the precipitation isotopic composition are simulated over Amazonia, despite reductions in rainfall, suggesting that the isotopic response is not a simple function of the amount effect. During the South American monsoon season, the amplitude of the temperature response to volcanic forcing is larger

  13. Hydration kinetics of some durum and bread wheat varieties grown in south-eastern region of turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yildirm, A.

    2017-01-01

    Hydration kinetics of wheat varieties grown in South-Eastern Region of Turkey, covering a temperature range from 25 to 50 degree C was examined. Peleg's model together with Arrhenius relationship were successfully used to evaluate water uptake of some Durum (Local names; Zenit and BurgosBurgos) and Bread (Local names; Dariyel and Karatopak) wheat varieties during soaking at a temperature range of 25-50 degree C. Model was found to be suitable for describing the soaking behaviour of wheat kernels with a coefficient of determination (R2) and Root mean square error (RMSE) greater than 0.9805, and less than 0.051, respectively. The Peleg rate and capacity constants, K1 and K2, were affected by temperature and wheat varieties. Activation energy values of Zenit, BurgosBurgos, Dariyel and Karatopak wheats were found as 39.94, 38.03, 36.25 and 29.54 kJ mol-1, respectively. Zenit wheat was the least hydrated while Karatopak was the most hydrated one due to kernel size and protein content. General equations to describe the water uptake of wheat varieties as a function of soaking time, temperature and initial moisture content were developed. These derived equations can be used for wheat operations such as tempering, mixing, knedding etc. (author)

  14. Links between riparian landcover, instream environment and fish assemblages in headwater streams of south-eastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Bruna B.; Miranda, Leandro E.; Cetra, Mauricio

    2013-01-01

    We hypothesised and tested a hierarchical organisation model where riparian landcover would influence bank composition and light availability, which in turn would influence instream environments and control fish assemblages. The study was conducted during the dry season in 11 headwater tributaries of the Sorocaba River in the upper Paraná River Basin, south-eastern Brazil. We focused on seven environmental factors each represented by one or multiple environmental variables and seven fish functional traits each represented by two or more classes. Multivariate direct gradient analyses suggested that riparian zone landcover can be considered a higher level causal factor in a network of relations that control instream characteristics and fish assemblages. Our results provide a framework for a hierarchical conceptual model that identifies singular and collective influences of variables from different scales on each other and ultimately on different aspects related to stream fish functional composition. This conceptual model is focused on the relationships between riparian landcover and instream variables as causal factors on the organisation of stream fish assemblages. Our results can also be viewed as a model for headwater stream management in that landcover can be manipulated to influence factors such as bank composition, substrates and water quality, whereas fish assemblage composition can be used as indicators to monitor the success of such efforts.

  15. A new species of the genus Alterosa (Trichoptera: Philopotaminae from Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Abrantes Jardim

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Philopotamidae is a large caddisfly family with 20 extant genera comprising about 1 000 described species worldwide. Alterosa contains 22 described species distributed in South and Southeastern Brazil. Adults of the genus are very similar in general structure, but are remarkable for their wide variation in male genitalic morphology. The specimens were collected with Pennsylvania light traps and preserved in 80% ethanol. Alterosa nessimiani sp. nov. is described and figured from male specimens collected in streams of Rio de Janeiro state, Southeastern Brazil. The new species is closely related to A. jordaensis Blahnik 2005, from which it can be distinguished by the presence of two spines on the intermediate appendages and by the shape of tergum X. Rev. Biol. Trop. 60 (2: 577-580. Epub 2012 June 01.

  16. Pesticide residues in berries harvested from South-Eastern Poland (2009-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matyaszek, Aneta; Szpyrka, Ewa; Podbielska, Magdalena; Słowik-Borowiec, Magdalena; Kurdziel, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Poland is a leading grower/producer of berries in Europe that are either eaten raw or processed. As well as berries this includes fruit such as grapes, strawberries and other small fruits. Testing for the presence of active substances in Plant Protection Products, (PPP), in such fruit is however important, as part of measures taken to minimise human intake. To determine the incidence of pesticide residues in berries harvested from South-Eastern Poland in 2009-2011. . Chromatographic separation followed by analytical detection was performed on 250 samples of various test fruits using an accredited methodology: GC/ECD/NPD, together with spectrophotometric detection wherever necessary, according to PN-EN ISO/IEC 17025. As part of previous monitoring, 126 active substances were identified in 2009, 132 in 2010 and 153 in 2011; levels were compared to Maximum Residue Limits (MRLs). RESULTS;. Analyses showed that 46.4% of samples contained PPPs of which 4% exceeded the MRL. The most were found in raspberries, (58.8% of all tested), followed by 58.3% redcurrants, and gooseberries as well as 50% grapes. The most frequently found active substances of PPPs were pyrimethanil (15.6%), dithiocarbamates (12.4%), procymidone (8%), cyprodinil (5.6%) and difenoconazole (5.2%). The highest MRL exceedances were found in blackcurrants. Testing also revealed many examples of pesticides not recommended for the protection of specific crops: propiconazole in gooseberries, cyprodinil, flusilazole, iprodione, pyrimethanil in blackcurrants and folpet and captan in raspberries. Furthermore, active substances whose use in PPPs have been forbidden since 2008 were also detected, ie. endosulfan in blackcurrants and strawberries, fenitrothion in black and red currants as well as procymidone in raspberries, blackcurrants and strawberries. These data are consistent to those obtained from the whole of Poland and the European Union (EU). Most pesticides were present in raspberries, redcurrants

  17. [Low rate of oropharyngeal human papillomavirus infection among women with cervical lesion. Preliminary results from the South-Eastern Hungarian population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanya, Melinda; Jakó, Mária; Terhes, Gabriella; Szakács, László; Kaiser, László; Deák, Judit; Bártfai, György

    2016-01-10

    Although the natural history of cervical and oral human papillomavirus infection has been intensively investigated in the past years, the ability of this virus to infect oral and genital mucosae in the same individual and its potential to co-infect both cervical and oral mucosa are still unclear. The aim of the authors was to assess the presence of oropharyngeal human papillomavirus infection in women with cervical lesions in the South-Eastern Hungarian population. The total of 103 women have been included in the study between March 1, 2013 and January 1, 2015. Brushing was used to collect cells from the oropharyngeal mucosa. Human papillomavirus DNA was detected using polymerase chain reaction, and Amplicor line blot test was used for genotyping. Oropharyngeal human papillomavirus infection was detected in 2 cases (3%). The detected genotypes were 31, 40/61 and 73 in the oropharyngeal region. The results indicate that in women with cervical lesions oropharyngeal human papillomavirus infection rarely occurs.

  18. Seismic tomographic constraints on plate-tectonic reconstructions of Nazca subduction under South America since late Cretaceous (˜80 Ma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y. W.; Wu, J.; Suppe, J.

    2017-12-01

    Global seismic tomography has provided new and increasingly higher resolution constraints on subducted lithospheric remnants in terms of their position, depth, and volumes. In this study we aim to link tomographic slab anomalies in the mantle under South America to Andean geology using methods to unfold (i.e. structurally restore) slabs back to earth surface and input them to globally consistent plate reconstructions (Wu et al., 2016). The Andean margin of South America has long been interpreted as a classic example of a continuous subduction system since early Jurassic or later. However, significant gaps in Andean plate tectonic reconstructions exist due to missing or incomplete geology from extensive Nazca-South America plate convergence (i.e. >5000 km since 80 Ma). We mapped and unfolded the Nazca slab from global seismic tomography to produce a quantitative plate reconstruction of the Andes back to the late Cretaceous 80 Ma. Our plate model predicts the latest phase of Nazca subduction began in the late Cretaceous subduction after a 100 to 80 Ma plate reorganization, which is supported by Andean geology that indicates a margin-wide compressional event at the mid-late Cretaceous (Tunik et al., 2010). Our Andean plate tectonic reconstructions predict the Andean margin experienced periods of strike-slip/transtensional and even divergent plate tectonics between 80 to 55 Ma. This prediction is roughly consistent with the arc magmatism from northern Chile between 20 to 36°S that resumed at 80 Ma after a magmatic gap. Our model indicates the Andean margin only became fully convergent after 55 Ma. We provide additional constraints on pre-subduction Nazca plate paleogeography by extracting P-wave velocity perturbations within our mapped slab surfaces following Wu et al. (2016). We identified localized slow anomalies within our mapped Nazca slab that apparently show the size and position of the subducted Nazca ridge, Carnegie ridge and the hypothesized Inca plateau

  19. Statistical properties of aerosol-cloud-precipitation interactions in South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Jones

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Given the complex interaction between aerosol, cloud, and atmospheric properties, it is difficult to extract their individual effects to observed rainfall amount. This research uses principle component analysis (PCA that combines Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS aerosol and cloud products, NCEP Reanalysis atmospheric products, and rainrate estimates from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM precipitation radar (PR to assess if aerosols affect warm rain processes. Data collected during September 2006 over the Amazon basin in South America during the biomass-burning season are used. The goal of this research is to combine these observations into a smaller number of variables through PCA with each new variable having a unique physical interpretation. In particular, we are concerned with PC variables whose weightings include aerosol optical thickness (AOT, as these may be an indicator of aerosol indirect effects. If they are indeed occurring, then PC values that include AOT should change as a function of rainrate.

    To emphasize the advantage of PCA, changes in aerosol, cloud, and atmospheric observations are compared to rainrate. Comparing no-rain, rain, and heavy rain only (>5 mm h−1 samples, we find that cloud thicknesses, humidity, and upward motion are all greater during rain and heavy rain conditions. However, no statistically significant difference in AOT exists between each sample, indicating that atmospheric conditions are more important to rainfall than aerosol concentrations as expected. If aerosols are affecting warm process clouds, it would be expected that stratiform precipitation would decrease as a function increasing aerosol concentration through either Twomey and/or semi-direct effects. PCA extracts the latter signal in a variable labeled PC2, which explains 15% of the total variance and is second in importance the variable (PC1 containing the broad atmospheric conditions. PC2

  20. The experiences of internationally educated nurses in the southeastern United States of America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, R M; Foster, J W; Hepburn, K W

    2013-09-01

    US healthcare facilities have addressed nursing shortages in part by recruiting internationally educated nurses (IENs), and studies suggest IENs may make up a significant percentage of the nursing workforce in urban hospitals. Despite the economic recession of 2008-2012, international nurse migration is expected to continue. Little is known about IENs in the southeastern USA, and no studies have compared their perspectives to those of their US counterparts. The purpose of this study was to gain a deeper understanding about the experiences of IENs compared to those of US registered nurses (RNs) practising in two urban hospitals in southeastern USA. This study involved two rounds of semi-structured interviews of 82 IENs and US RNs. Interviews focused on themes relating to education, barriers to practice, intent to stay in nursing and IENs' migration experiences. Most IENs interviewed migrated to the USA after 1990 to join their family and do not plan to return to their home countries to practise. Most IENs initially received their Associate Degree in Nursing; many have obtained their Bachelor of Science in Nursing degree. IENs and newly licensed US RNs faced similar barriers when they began practising in the USA, but IENs faced additional challenges adjusting to the attitudes of US patients, the perceived lack of respect for nurses and delivering total patient care. IENs would benefit from orientation regarding the cultural differences in the USA. In other ways, their challenges are similar to those of US RNs; policies regarding education, recruitment and retention could target both groups together. © 2013 The Authors. International Nursing Review © 2013 International Council of Nurses.

  1. Magnetic investigation and 2½ D gravity profile modelling across the Beattie magnetic anomaly in the southeastern Karoo Basin, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiyegunhi, Christopher; Gwavava, Oswald

    2017-03-01

    The southeastern Karoo Basin is considered to be one of the most prospective areas for shale gas exploration in South Africa. An interesting magnetic anomaly, the Beattie magnetic anomaly (BMA), and geologic intrusions are seen on the magnetic map. To date, the source of the BMA and interconnectivity of the igneous intrusions are not well understood. In this study, we investigate the interconnectivity of the igneous intrusions and possible location of the source of the BMA using gravity and magnetic methods. The gravity model results showed that igneous intrusions are interconnected at depth, which probably pose threat by increasing the risk of fracking the Karoo for shale gas exploration. The magnetic results revealed that the BMA becomes stronger with depth. The average depths to the top of the shallow and deep magnetic sources were estimated to be approximately 0.6 and 15 km, respectively.

  2. First case of New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase in Klebsiella pneumoniae from Ecuador: An update for South America

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Romero-Alvarez; Jorge Reyes; Viviana Quezada; Carolina Satán; Nelson Cevallos; Sofía Barrera; Gabriel Trueba; Luis E. Escobar; José E. Villacís

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To describe a clinical case of Klebsiella pneumoniae harboring a New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM) plasmid in Ecuador and to present a map of reports of NDM isolates in South America. Methods: The modified Hodge test, carbapenem inactivation method, imipenemâEDTA disk method (synergy), and Rapidec Carba NP test were used to identify antibiotic resistance mechanisms. The presence of resistance genes was explored with a conjugation assay, and molecular confirmation of NDM was per...

  3. Lowland tapir distribution and habitat loss in South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Luis Passos Cordeiro

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The development of species distribution models (SDMs can help conservation efforts by generating potential distributions and identifying areas of high environmental suitability for protection. Our study presents a distribution and habitat map for lowland tapir in South America. We also describe the potential habitat suitability of various geographical regions and habitat loss, inside and outside of protected areas network. Two different SDM approaches, MAXENT and ENFA, produced relative different Habitat Suitability Maps for the lowland tapir. While MAXENT was efficient at identifying areas as suitable or unsuitable, it was less efficient (when compared to the results by ENFA at identifying the gradient of habitat suitability. MAXENT is a more multifaceted technique that establishes more complex relationships between dependent and independent variables. Our results demonstrate that for at least one species, the lowland tapir, the use of a simple consensual approach (average of ENFA and MAXENT models outputs better reflected its current distribution patterns. The Brazilian ecoregions have the highest habitat loss for the tapir. Cerrado and Atlantic Forest account for nearly half (48.19% of the total area lost. The Amazon region contains the largest area under protection, and the most extensive remaining habitat for the tapir, but also showed high levels of habitat loss outside protected areas, which increases the importance of support for proper management.

  4. Lowland tapir distribution and habitat loss in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Jose Luis Passos; Fragoso, José M V; Crawshaw, Danielle; Oliveira, Luiz Flamarion B

    2016-01-01

    The development of species distribution models (SDMs) can help conservation efforts by generating potential distributions and identifying areas of high environmental suitability for protection. Our study presents a distribution and habitat map for lowland tapir in South America. We also describe the potential habitat suitability of various geographical regions and habitat loss, inside and outside of protected areas network. Two different SDM approaches, MAXENT and ENFA, produced relative different Habitat Suitability Maps for the lowland tapir. While MAXENT was efficient at identifying areas as suitable or unsuitable, it was less efficient (when compared to the results by ENFA) at identifying the gradient of habitat suitability. MAXENT is a more multifaceted technique that establishes more complex relationships between dependent and independent variables. Our results demonstrate that for at least one species, the lowland tapir, the use of a simple consensual approach (average of ENFA and MAXENT models outputs) better reflected its current distribution patterns. The Brazilian ecoregions have the highest habitat loss for the tapir. Cerrado and Atlantic Forest account for nearly half (48.19%) of the total area lost. The Amazon region contains the largest area under protection, and the most extensive remaining habitat for the tapir, but also showed high levels of habitat loss outside protected areas, which increases the importance of support for proper management.

  5. SOUTH AMERICA: Looking for partners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    A Regional Meeting on Fundamental Physics organized at the CIF International Physics Centre in Bogota, Colombia, in April, looked at future international collaboration possibilities for physicists from the South American Andean region in general, and from Colombia in particular

  6. Maritime security report : cocaine smuggling from South America to Europe and the United States increased in 2000 via commercial maritime and other modes of transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-09-01

    An increase in the detected and estimated transatlantic flow of cocaine smuggled from South America to the United States and Europe in 2000 has been reported by the U.S. Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP). According to the ONDCP "Annual A...

  7. South America-Africa missing links revealed by the taxonomy of deep-sea molluscs: Examples from prochaetodermatid aplacophorans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa, Paulo Vinicius Ferraz; Miranda, Marcel Sabino; Passos, Flávio Dias

    2018-02-01

    Prochaetodermatidae (Mollusca, Aplacophora, Caudofoveata), typical inhabitants of the deep sea, occur mainly along the continental slope, sometimes in high abundance. Their diversity in some regions, such as the South Atlantic Ocean, is little studied. The genus Claviderma is so far composed of one Pacific Ocean, two Indian Ocean and seven Atlantic Ocean species. Collections of the southeastern Brazilian coast contained three species of this genus. One, C. virium sp. nov., is new to science, and the other two, C. crassum and C. amplum, are new occurrences, extending their distributions southward into the western Atlantic. The external morphology and details of their radula and sclerites are described. The new species is distinguished by its long trunk and comparatively narrow, short posterium, and its trunk sclerites bearing numerous evident transverse growth lines. In the Atlantic Ocean, species with similar body forms and with sclerites of the same shape occur off the western and eastern coasts: the South American C. compactum is similar externally to the African C. brevicaudatum, and the Brazilian C. virium sp. nov. is comparable to the eastern Atlantic C. gladiatum. This suggests that these pairs of species are sister-groups, sharing the same morphological traits as a result of common ancestry. In the western and eastern Atlantic, most species of Claviderma that live over a wider range of depths are more widely distributed.

  8. Ascosphaera apis, the entomopathogenic fungus affecting larvae of native bees (Xylocopa augusti): First report in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynaldi, Francisco J; Lucia, Mariano; Genchi Garcia, María L

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays several invertebrate pollinators of crops and wild plants are in decline as result of multiple and, sometimes, unknown factors; among them, the modern agricultural practices, pests and diseases are postulated as the most important factors. Bees of the genus Xylocopa are considered effective pollinators of passion fruit crops in tropical regions, as well as important pollinators in wild plants, but these bees are attacked by several pathogens that affect different stages in their life cycle. The fungal species of the genus Ascosphaera are commonly associated with social and solitary bee larvae causing chalkbrood disease. The aim of the present study was to demonstrate the presence of Ascosphaera apis affecting larvae of Xylocopa augusti in South America. For this purpose, A. apis was isolated from affected larvae in YGPSA medium. Final identification was run out by three techniques: (1) Microscopic examination of the hyphae and sizes of the fruiting bodies; (2) Mating test, and specific sexual compatibility test, and (3) PCR detection, using specific primers. This study demonstrates for the first time the presence of A. apis affecting larvae of X. augusti in South America. The evidence of A. apis affecting the larvae of X. augusti, and the fact that the sharing of pathogens between different bee species has been underestimated, suggests the need for further epidemiological studies in order to determine not only the prevalence of this pathogen among wild pollinators, but also its relationship to the sudden collapse of honey bee colonies in this region. Copyright © 2014 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. Unusual past dry and wet rainy seasons over Southern Africa and South America from a climate perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Bellprat

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Southern Africa and Southern South America have experienced recent extremes in dry and wet rainy seasons which have caused severe socio-economic damages. Selected past extreme events are here studied, to estimate how human activity has changed the risk of the occurrence of such events, by applying an event attribution approach (Stott et al., 2004comprising global climate models of Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5. Our assessment shows that models' representation of mean precipitation variability over Southern South America is not adequate to make a robust attribution statement about seasonal rainfall extremes in this region. Over Southern Africa, we show that unusually dry austral summers as occurred during 2002/2003 have become more likely, whereas unusually wet austral summers like that of 1999/2000 have become less likely due to anthropogenic climate change. There is some tentative evidence that the risk of extreme high 5-day precipitation totals (as observed in 1999/2000 have increased in the region. These results are consistent with CMIP5 models projecting a general drying trend over SAF during December–January–February (DJF but also an increase in atmospheric moisture availability to feed heavy rainfall events when they do occur. Bootstrapping the confidence intervals of the fraction of attributable risk has demonstrated estimates of attributable risk are very uncertain, if the events are very rare. The study highlights some of the challenges in making an event attribution study for precipitation using seasonal precipitation and extreme 5-day precipitation totals and considering natural drivers such as ENSO in coupled ocean–atmosphere models.

  10. The Archeomagnetic field in South America: Present status and perspectives (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, G. A.; Trindade, R. I.; Gallet, Y.; Poletti, W.; Begnini, G. S.; Genevey, A.; Legoff, M.

    2013-12-01

    Geomagnetic field variations over decadal to millennial timescales can be determined from direct (i.e. observatory) and indirect (e.g. from archeological artifacts and volcanics) sources. Before the observatory era, the recovery of these variations is however still strongly penalized by the very uneven both geographical and temporal distributions of the available archeo/paleomagnetic dataset. In particular, the southern hemisphere contributes with only ~3% of the global archeomagnetic database. Moreover, most of these data present restrictions due to their poor experimental reliability and to the lack of good age control. Therefore, new intensity and directional data from the southern hemisphere are strongly requested for the next generation of archeomagnetic field models. In this presentation, we will report on intensity and inclination results obtained from different regions in Brazil. A collection of twenty-three site-mean archeointensity data were obtained by our team from architectural brick fragments dated to the past 500 years from Northeast and Southeast Brazil. This dataset was complemented by a series of new results from South Brazil. In addition, we also obtained inclination data, after reconstructing the firing position of the ancient bricks from modern analogs of historical brickyards. Thirteen site-mean inclination results dated to between 1790 AD and 1950 AD and five inclination results spanning the 1590-1920 AD time interval were so determined from Southeast and Northeast Brazil, respectively. Altogether, our data, which are geographically distributed over more than 20 degrees in latitude, allow us to discuss the large-scale influence in Brazil and South America of non-dipolar features of the geomagnetic field during the past few centuries.

  11. George Kubler Shifting South: Architecture History Following Geopolitics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sousa Santos, Eliana

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This essay aims to present the shifting relations between North America and the South - South America and the South of Europe - through the work of the historian George Kubler. At the beginning of his career as a scholar, Kubler was invited by the Department of State to participate in a conference on inter-American relations. Later, with the positioning of the United States in World War II, the transatlantic relationship between the US and Europe became more prominent. Kubler’s research interests followed this change: His research shift from South America to peripheral Southern Europe reflects an availability of funding given his country's geopolitical interests. So far, artists and other scholars have praised Kubler’s vast work regarding the art and architecture of different 'Souths' mainly as a sign of 'nonalignment' and of his attention to the condition of peripheral countries.

  12. Heterogeneous seismic anisotropy in the transition zone and uppermost lower mantle: evidence from South America, Izu-Bonin and Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynner, Colton; Long, Maureen D.

    2015-06-01

    Measurements of seismic anisotropy are commonly used to constrain deformation in the upper mantle. Observations of anisotropy at mid-mantle depths are, however, relatively sparse. In this study we probe the anisotropic structure of the mid-mantle (transition zo