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Sample records for southeastern iberia sima

  1. Holocene fire activity and vegetation response in South-Eastern Iberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Romera, Graciela; Carrión, José S.; Pausas, Juli G.; Sevilla-Callejo, Miguel; Lamb, Henry F.; Fernández, Santiago; Burjachs, Francesc

    2010-05-01

    Since fire has been recognized as an essential disturbance in Mediterranean landscapes, the study of long-term fire ecology has developed rapidly. We have reconstructed a sequence of vegetation dynamics and fire changes across south-eastern Iberia by coupling records of climate, fire, vegetation and human activities. We calculated fire activity anomalies (FAAs) in relation to 3 ka cal BP for 10-8 ka cal BP, 6 ka cal BP, 4 ka cal BP and the present. For most of the Early to the Mid-Holocene uneven, but low fire events were the main vegetation driver at high altitudes where broadleaved and coniferous trees presented a highly dynamic post-fire response. At mid-altitudes in the mainland Segura Mountains, fire activity remained relatively stable, at similar levels to recent times. We hypothesize that coastal areas, both mountains and lowlands, were more fire-prone landscapes as biomass was more likely to have accumulated than in the inland regions, triggering regular fire events. The wet and warm phase towards the Mid-Holocene (between ca 8 and 6 ka cal BP) affected the whole region and promoted the spread of mesophytic forest co-existing with Pinus, as FAAs appear strongly negative at 6 ka cal BP, with a less important role of fire. Mid and Late Holocene landscapes were shaped by an increasing aridity trend and the rise of human occupation, especially in the coastal mountains where forest disappeared from ca 2 ka cal BP. Mediterranean-type vegetation (evergreen oaks and Pinus pinaster- halepensis types) showed the fastest post-fire vegetation dynamics over time.

  2. Area monitoring intelligent system - SIMA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhoem, P.; Hisas, F.; Gelardi, G.

    1990-01-01

    The area monitoring intelligent system (SIMA) is an equipment to be used in radioprotection. SIMA has the function of monitoring the radiation levels of determined areas of the installations where radioactive materials are handled. (Author) [es

  3. Sima Qian and His Historical Records

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    <正> Sima Qian (145-86 BC), a native of Xiayang (now Hancheng, Shaanxi Province), is regarded as China’s greatest historiographer. He is best known for his history book, Historical Records (Shi Ji).Son of Sima Tan, who held the post of the Grand Historian (Tai Shi Ling ) of the Han Dynasty (206 BC-AD 25), Sima

  4. Small mammals from Sima de los Huesos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuenca-Bescós, G; Laplana Conesa, C; Canudo, J I; Arsuaga, J L

    1997-01-01

    A small collection of rodents from Sima de los Huesos helps to clarify the stratigraphic position of this famous human locality. The presence of Allocricetus bursae and Pliomys lenki relictus and the size of A. bursae, Apodemus sylvaticus and Eliomys quercinus suggest a Middle Pleistocene age (Saalian) to the Clays where humans have been found.

  5. Sima de los Huesos (Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain). The site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsuaga, J L; Martínez, I; Gracia, A; Carretero, J M; Lorenzo, C; García, N

    1997-01-01

    In this article a topographical description of the Cueva Mayor Cueva de Silo cave system is provided, including a more detailed topography of the Sala de los Ciclopes Sala de las Oseras-Sima de los Huesos sector. The history of the excavations and discoveries of human and carnivore fossils in Sima de los Huesos and adjacent passages is briefly reported, as well as the increase, throughout the succeeding field seasons, of the human collection and changes in the relative representation of the different skeletal elements and major biases. The carnivore assemblage structure is also considered. Examining the characteristics of the bone breccia, and the current and ancient karst topography, different alternative accesses are discussed for the accumulation of carnivores and humans in the Sima de los Huesos. Taking into account all the available information, an anthropic origin for the accumulation of human fossils seems to us to be the most likely explanation.

  6. Neogene to recent contraction and basin inversion along the Nubia-Iberia boundary in SW Iberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Adrià; Fernández, Oscar; Terrinha, Pedro; Muñoz, Josep Anton

    2017-02-01

    The SW of Iberia is currently undergoing compression related to the convergence between Nubia and Iberia. Multiple compressive structures, and their related seismic activity, have been documented along the diffuse Nubia-Iberia plate boundary, including the Gorringe bank west of the Gulf of Cadiz, and the Betic-Rif orogen to the east. Despite seismic activity indicating a dominant compressive stress along the Algarve margin in the Gulf of Cadiz, the structures at the origin of this seismicity remain elusive. This paper documents the contractional structures that provide linkage across the Gulf of Cadiz and play a major role in defining the present-day seismicity and bathymetry of this area. The structures described in this paper caused the Neogene inversion of the Jurassic oblique passive margin that formed between the central Atlantic and the Ligurian Tethys. This example of a partially inverted margin provides insights into the factors that condition the inversion of passive margins.

  7. Topo-Iberia GPS network: installation complete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazaradze, G.

    2009-04-01

    As part of the project, titled "Geociencias en Iberia: Estudios integrados de topografía y evolución 4D: Topo-Iberia", we have established a network of 26 continuous GPS stations, covering the Spanish part of the Iberian Peninsula (22 stations) and Morocco (4 stations). A major objective behind the establishment of this array is to monitor millimeter level deformation of the crust due to the collision of African and Eurasian (including Iberian) tectonic plates. More specific goals of the project include the identification of the areas and/or specific seismic faults which exhibit higher deformation rates, which could imply an increased seismic hazard in these specific areas. The network has been designed as two X-shaped transects crossing the peninsula from NE to SW and NW to SE, with relatively coarse distribution of the stations, superimposed with denser coverage in the seismically active areas of the Betics, Pyrenees and Cantabrian chains. The majority of the built monuments consist of 1.5-1.8 m tall concrete pillars of 40 cm in diameter anchored to the bedrock using iron rebars. One station in Huesca was built according the UNAVCO's short drilled braced monument (SDBM) specifications. All the monuments were equipped with the SCIGN leveling mounts to ensure the precise antenna alignment and re-alignment in case of the antenna replacement, as well as, tamper resistance of the monument mark. In places were the snow accumulation was possible the antennas were covered with plastic radomes. The instrumentation used is Trimble NetRS dual-frequency receivers with choke-ring antennas. The communication is mainly via cellular telephone system. As of December 2008, the network installation has been competed and all the stations are fully operational. Here we report the milestones of the installation of the network and, as well as, present the first preliminary results of the analysis of the data. Besides the newly established Topo-Iberia CGPS stations, we have included

  8. SIMA: Python software for analysis of dynamic fluorescence imaging data

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    Patrick eKaifosh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescence imaging is a powerful method for monitoring dynamic signals in the nervous system. However, analysis of dynamic fluorescence imaging data remains burdensome, in part due to the shortage of available software tools. To address this need, we have developed SIMA, an open source Python package that facilitates common analysis tasks related to fluorescence imaging. Functionality of this package includes correction of motion artifacts occurring during in vivo imaging with laser-scanning microscopy, segmentation of imaged fields into regions of interest (ROIs, and extraction of signals from the segmented ROIs. We have also developed a graphical user interface (GUI for manual editing of the automatically segmented ROIs and automated registration of ROIs across multiple imaging datasets. This software has been designed with flexibility in mind to allow for future extension with different analysis methods and potential integration with other packages. Software, documentation, and source code for the SIMA package and ROI Buddy GUI are freely available at http://www.losonczylab.org/sima/.

  9. Profiles in medical courage: women's rights and Sima Samar

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    Robbins RA

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous profiles have focused on physicians who placed their careers in jeopardy to follow their beliefs. Sima Samar is different because she has not only risked her career, but her life. She has shown extraordinary courage in ignoring death threats and defying religious misogynists to ensure that Afghan girls and women had access to health care and education. Following the fall of the Taliban in 2001, Dr. Samar became the first woman appointed to a cabinet position in the interim Afghan government. Ousted by religious conservatives, she serves today as the chair of the Afghan Independent Human Rights Commission.

  10. Competencias en ciencias: los ambientes digitales Simas y Coolmodes

    OpenAIRE

    Mauricio Vergara Nieto; Jairo Ernesto Castillo Hernández

    2008-01-01

    El presente artículo tiene como objetivo describir los resultados del proyecto de investigación "Simas y Coolmodes en el desarrollo de competencias básicas" en lo concerniente al área de física. Se describe la construcción de una comunidad de aprendizaje bajo un modelo pedagógico colaborativo y significativo. Algunos resultados son la conformación de una red de aprendizaje, la representación del conocimiento por categorías ontológicas y el desarrollo de competencias básicas.

  11. SIMA: Semilleros de investigación, Mentes Abiertas

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    Alix Zoraida Bohórquez

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Los semilleros de Investigación son comunidades de aprendizaje orientados a la sensibilización y reflexión en torno al quehacer investigativo. SIMA, es el Semillero de Investigación del Programa de Enfermería De La Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander, Planteado en el Plan de Acción de investigación, creado con el fin de desarrollar habilidades afectivas y cognitivas en pro de la formación integral de los estudiantes y profesores interesados en hacer de la investigación una herramienta para el desarrollo personal y profesional, así como del fortalecimiento de la cultura investigativa del programa

  12. Drought impacts on cereal yields in Iberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Célia; Liberato, Margarida L. R.; Russo, Ana; Montero, Irene

    2014-05-01

    In the present context of climate change, land degradation and desertification it becomes crucial to assess the impact of droughts to determine the environmental consequences of a potential change of climate. Large drought episodes in Iberian Peninsula have widespread ecological and environmental impacts, namely in vegetation dynamics, resulting in significant crop yield losses. During the hydrological years of 2004/2005 and 2011/2012 Iberia was affected by two extreme drought episodes (Garcia-Herrera et al., 2007; Trigo et al., 2013). This work aims to analyze the spatial and temporal behavior of climatic droughts at different time scales using spatially distributed time series of drought indicators, such as the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) (Vicente-Serrano et al., 2010). This climatic drought index is based on the simultaneous use of precipitation and temperature. We have used CRU TS3 dataset to compute SPEI and the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI). Results will be analyzed in terms of the mechanisms that are responsible by these drought events and will also be used to assess the impact of droughts in crops. Accordingly an analysis is performed to evaluate the large-scale conditions required for a particular extreme anomaly of long-range transport of water vapor from the subtropics. We have used the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) ERA Interim reanalyses, namely, the geopotential height fields, temperature, wind, divergence data and the specific humidity at all pressure levels and mean sea level pressure (MSLP) and total column water vapor (TCWV) for the Euro-Atlantic sector (100°W to 50°E, 0°N-70°N) at full temporal (six hourly) and spatial (T255; interpolated to 0.75° regular horizontal grid) resolutions available to analyse the large-scale conditions associated with the drought onset. Our analysis revealed severe impacts on cereals crop productions and yield (namely wheat) for Portugal and

  13. Impact of drought on wildfires in Iberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Ana; Gouveia, Célia M.; DaCamara, Carlos; Sousa, Pedro; Trigo, Ricardo M.

    2015-04-01

    months in August. In the Eastern and Northwestern regions the correlation was most significant for the SPI for 3 and 6 months. Thus, the relation between wildfires and drought is better explained in the Northern and Southwestern regions by the temperature influence and on the Northwestern and Eastern by the precipitation influence. Gouveia C.M., Bastos A., Trigo R.M., DaCamara C.C. (2012) "Drought impacts on vegetation in the pre and post-fire events over Iberian Peninsula". Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 12, 3123-3137, 2012. Vicente-Serrano S.M., Santiago Beguería, Juan I. López-Moreno (2010) "A Multi-scalar drought index sensitive to global warming: The Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index - SPEI". Journal of Climate 23: 1696-1718. Trigo R.M., Sousa P., Pereira M., Rasilla D., Gouveia C.M. (2013) "Modelling wildfire activity in Iberia with different Atmospheric Circulation Weather Types". International Journal of Climatology, DOI: 10.1002/joc.3749 Sousa PM, Trigo RM, Pereira MG, Bedia J, Gutiérrez JM, 2014. Different approaches to model future burnt area in the Iberian Peninsula. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 202, 11-25. doi:10.1016/j.agrformet.2014.11.018 Acknowledgements: This work was partially supported by national funds through FCT (Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia, Portugal) under project QSECA (PTDC/AAGGLO/4155/2012).

  14. Nuclear DNA sequences from the Middle Pleistocene Sima de los Huesos hominins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Matthias; Arsuaga, Juan-Luis; de Filippo, Cesare; Nagel, Sarah; Aximu-Petri, Ayinuer; Nickel, Birgit; Martínez, Ignacio; Gracia, Ana; Bermúdez de Castro, José María; Carbonell, Eudald; Viola, Bence; Kelso, Janet; Prüfer, Kay; Pääbo, Svante

    2016-03-24

    A unique assemblage of 28 hominin individuals, found in Sima de los Huesos in the Sierra de Atapuerca in Spain, has recently been dated to approximately 430,000 years ago. An interesting question is how these Middle Pleistocene hominins were related to those who lived in the Late Pleistocene epoch, in particular to Neanderthals in western Eurasia and to Denisovans, a sister group of Neanderthals so far known only from southern Siberia. While the Sima de los Huesos hominins share some derived morphological features with Neanderthals, the mitochondrial genome retrieved from one individual from Sima de los Huesos is more closely related to the mitochondrial DNA of Denisovans than to that of Neanderthals. However, since the mitochondrial DNA does not reveal the full picture of relationships among populations, we have investigated DNA preservation in several individuals found at Sima de los Huesos. Here we recover nuclear DNA sequences from two specimens, which show that the Sima de los Huesos hominins were related to Neanderthals rather than to Denisovans, indicating that the population divergence between Neanderthals and Denisovans predates 430,000 years ago. A mitochondrial DNA recovered from one of the specimens shares the previously described relationship to Denisovan mitochondrial DNAs, suggesting, among other possibilities, that the mitochondrial DNA gene pool of Neanderthals turned over later in their history.

  15. The Sima de los Huesos crania (Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain). A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsuaga, J L; Martínez, I; Gracia, A; Lorenzo, C

    1997-01-01

    The Sima de los Huesos (Sierra de Atapuerca) cranial remains found up to and including the 1995 field season are described and compared with other fossils in order to assess their evolutionary relationships. The phenetic affinities of the Sima de los Huesos crania and a large sample of Homo fossils are investigated through principal component analyses. Metrical comparisons of the Sima de los Huesos and other European and African Middle Pleistocene fossils with Neandertals are performed using Z-scores relative to the Neandertal sample statistics. The most relevant cranial traits are metrically and morphologically analyzed and cladistically evaluated. The Sima de los Huesos crania exhibit a number of primitive traits lost in Upper Pleistocene Neandertals (especially in the braincase, but also in the facial skeleton), as well as other traits that are transitional to the Neandertal morphology (particularly in the occipital bone), and features close to what is found in Neandertals (as the supraorbital morphology and midfacial prognathism). Different combinations of primitive and derived traits (shared with Neandertals) are also displayed by the other European Middle Pleistocene fossils. In conclusion, the Sima de los Huesos sample is evolutionarily related to Neandertals as well as to the other European Middle Pleistocene fossils. In our opinion, all the European Middle Pleistocene fossils belong to the Neandertal lineage, and none can be included in an Afroeuropean common ancestor of Neandertals and modern humans.

  16. Surface modifications of the Sima de los Huesos fossil humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, P; Fernandez Jalvo, Y

    1997-01-01

    The sample of fossil human bones from the Sima de los Huesos, Atapuerca, has been analysed to trace parts of its taphonomic history. The work reported here is restricted to analysis of the skeletal elements preserved and their surface modifications. Preliminary plans of specimen distribution published 6 years ago indicate that the skeletal elements are dispersed within the cave, but more recent data are not yet available. Most of the fossils are broken, with some breakage when the bone was fresh and some when already partly mineralized, both types showing some rounding. There are few longitudinal breaks on shafts of long bones and so very few bone splinters. All skeletal elements are preserved but in unequal proportions, with elements like femora, humeri and mandibles and teeth with greater structural density being best represented. There is no evidence of weathering or of human damage such as cut marks on any of the human assemblage, but trampling damage is present on most bones. Carnivore damage is also common, with some present on more than half the sample, but it is mostly superficial, either on the surfaces of shafts and articular ends or on the edges of spiral breaks. The sizes and distribution of the carnivore pits indicate extensive canid activity, and this is interpreted as scavenging of the bones in place in the cave. Indications of tooth marks from a larger carnivore indicate the activity possibly of a large felid: the marks are too large to be produced by small canids, with the larger marks concentrated on spiral breaks on the more robust bones, and there is no evidence of bone crushing and splintering in the manner of hyaenas. The nature of the SH human assemblage is also consistent with accumulation by humans, the evidence for this being the lack of other animals, especially the lack of herbivorous animals, associated with the humans, and the high number of individuals preserved.

  17. La Directísima en los Alpes, Austria

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    Schmidt, Wilhelm

    1979-06-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the construction procesa of the «straight» expressway through the Tauern AIps, where several engineering works deserve special mention: — The Tauern Tunnel, 6.4 km In length. — The Katschberg Tunnel, 5.4 km In length. — The Eben-Pongan cloverleaf. — The Liesertal stretch, 75 per 100 of its length being tunnels and viaducts. The most important of this Is the Tauern Tunnel where, owing to the serious problems encountered in the brittle character of the soil, the Austrian tunnel excavation process was used, this method consisting in tensing the mountain soil in order to be able to counteract the high pressures occurring. This tunnel has a 600 m long, 11 m diameter ventilation shaft, the largest of its kind in the World.

    Se trata, en este artículo, del proceso de construcción de la Autopista de Tauern, La Directísima, en los Alpes, en la que destacan varias obras: — Túnel de Tauern, de 6,4 km de longitud. — Túnel de Katschberg, de 5,4 km de longitud. — Punto de enlace Eben-Pongau. — Tramo de Liesertal, realizado en un 75 por 100 mediante viaductos y túneles. La obra más importante es el túnel de Tauern donde, debido a los grandes problemas surgidos por la naturaleza quebradiza del terreno, hubo de emplearse un método austríaco de perforación de túneles consistente en poner en tensión la montaña para, de esta manera, contrarrestar las altas presiones que se producen. Este túnel tiene un pozo de ventilación de 600 m de longitud y 11 m de diámetro de perforación. Es el pozo vertical más grande del mundo.

  18. Direct U-series analysis of the Lezetxiki humerus reveals a Middle Pleistocene age for human remains in the Basque Country (northern Iberia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de-la-Rúa, Concepción; Altuna, Jesús; Hervella, Monserrat; Kinsley, Leslie; Grün, Rainer

    2016-04-01

    In 1964, a human humerus was found in a sedimentary deposit in Lezetxiki Cave (Basque Country, northern Iberia). The first studies on the stratigraphy, associated mammal faunal remains and lithic implements placed the deposits containing the humerus into the Riss glacial stage. Direct chronometric evidence has so far been missing, and the previous chronostratigraphic framework and faunal dating gave inconsistent results. Here we report laser ablation U-series analyses on the humerus yielding a minimum age of 164 ± 9 ka, corresponding to MIS 6. This is the only direct dating analysis of the Lezetxiki humerus and confirms a Middle Pleistocene age for this hominin fossil. Morphometric analyses suggest that the Lezetxiki humerus has close affinities to other Middle Pleistocene archaic hominins, such as those from La Sima de los Huesos at Atapuerca. This emphasizes the significance of the Lezetxiki fossil within the populations that predate the Neanderthals in south-western Europe. It is thus an important key fossil for the understanding of human evolution in Europe during the Middle Pleistocene, a time period when a great morphological diversity is observed but whose phylogenetic meaning is not yet fully understood. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The socio-political conceptualization of Serengeti landscapes in Europe: The case of 'Western Iberia'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjaan Pellis; Martijn Felder; Rene van der Duim

    2015-01-01

    This paper reflects on the socio-political conceptualization of ‘Western Iberia', one of Rewilding Europe's first pilot areas. Drawing from Actor Network Theory and social theories discussing Politics of Scale, we illustrate how ‘Western Iberia' is continuously being negotiated through practices in different sites within / outside its geographical...

  20. The inception of a Paleotethyan magmatic arc in Iberia

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    M.F. Pereira

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a compilation of recent U-Pb (zircon ages of late Carboniferous–early Permian (LC–EP calc-alkaline batholiths from Iberia, together with a petrogenetic interpretation of magma generation based on comparisons with Mesozoic and Tertiary Cordilleran batholiths and experimental melts. Zircon U-Pb ages distributed over the range ca. 315–280 Ma, indicate a linkage between calc-alkaline magmatism, Iberian orocline generation and Paleotethys subduction. It is also shown that Iberian LC–EP calc-alkaline batholiths present unequivocal subduction-related features comparable with typical Cordilleran batholiths of the Pacific Americas active margin, although geochemical features were partially obscured by local modifications of magmas at the level of emplacement by country rock assimilation. When and how LC–EP calc-alkaline batholiths formed in Iberia is then discussed, and a new and somewhat controversial interpretation for their sources and tectonic setting (plume-assisted relamination is suggested. The batholiths are proposed to have formed during the subduction of the Paleotethys oceanic plate (Pangaea self-subduction and, consequently, they are unrelated to Variscan collision. The origin of the Iberian batholiths is related to the Eurasian active margin and probably represents the inception of a Paleotethyan arc in the core of Pangaea.

  1. A mitochondrial genome sequence of a hominin from Sima de los Huesos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Matthias; Fu, Qiaomei; Aximu-Petri, Ayinuer; Glocke, Isabelle; Nickel, Birgit; Arsuaga, Juan-Luis; Martínez, Ignacio; Gracia, Ana; de Castro, José María Bermúdez; Carbonell, Eudald; Pääbo, Svante

    2014-01-16

    Excavations of a complex of caves in the Sierra de Atapuerca in northern Spain have unearthed hominin fossils that range in age from the early Pleistocene to the Holocene. One of these sites, the 'Sima de los Huesos' ('pit of bones'), has yielded the world's largest assemblage of Middle Pleistocene hominin fossils, consisting of at least 28 individuals dated to over 300,000 years ago. The skeletal remains share a number of morphological features with fossils classified as Homo heidelbergensis and also display distinct Neanderthal-derived traits. Here we determine an almost complete mitochondrial genome sequence of a hominin from Sima de los Huesos and show that it is closely related to the lineage leading to mitochondrial genomes of Denisovans, an eastern Eurasian sister group to Neanderthals. Our results pave the way for DNA research on hominins from the Middle Pleistocene.

  2. 78 FR 33051 - Non-Rock Alternatives to Shoreline Protection Demonstration Project (LA-16) Iberia, Jefferson...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Natural Resources Conservation Service Non-Rock Alternatives to...-Rock Alternatives to Shoreline Protection Demonstration Project (LA-16), Iberia, Jefferson, and... and environmental limitations preclude the use of rock structures. The shoreline protection systems...

  3. Geoelectric Exploration of the Purísima-Rumicruz District, Jujuy Province, Argentina

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    Luciano López

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purísima-Rumicruz district consists of several polymetallic veins, rich in copper and lead. The veins have a breccia texture and are located in shear bands, with locally high concentrations of sulfides in a carbonatic gangue. The host rock of the veins consists of a black shale sequence with thin levels of fine sands, with a low degree of metamorphism, and corresponds to the Acoite formation (Lower Ordovician. The depositional environment was an open clastic platform where storm processes prevailed. An exploratory program using induced polarization and resistivity with the dipole-dipole method was carried out with the objective of establishing geoelectric anomalies in depth, which would permit the identification of exploratory targets. The group of veins was divided into three sectors: Purísima, El Brechón, and La Nueva. Low-resistivity values correspond to faulty zones, some of which are related to surface veins. The presence of diagenetic pyrite in the shales of Acoite formation considerably increases background chargeability (induced polarization values. However, small chargeability anomalies associated to low-resistivity values represent exploratory targets for the Purísima-Rumicruz district.

  4. Phase Evolution and Mechanical Behavior of the Semi-Solid SIMA Processed 7075 Aluminum Alloy

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    Behzad Binesh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Microstructural and mechanical behaviors of semi-solid 7075 aluminum alloy were investigated during semi-solid processing. The strain induced melt activation (SIMA process consisted of applying uniaxial compression strain at ambient temperature and subsequent semi-solid treatment at 600–620 °C for 5–35 min. Microstructures were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS, and X-ray diffraction (XRD. During the isothermal heating, intermetallic precipitates were gradually dissolved through the phase transformations of α-Al + η (MgZn2 → liquid phase (L and then α-Al + Al2CuMg (S + Mg2Si → liquid phase (L. However, Fe-rich precipitates appeared mainly as square particles at the grain boundaries at low heating temperatures. Cu and Si were enriched at the grain boundaries during the isothermal treatment while a significant depletion of Mg was also observed at the grain boundaries. The mechanical behavior of different SIMA processed samples in the semi-solid state were investigated by means of hot compression tests. The results indicated that the SIMA processed sample with near equiaxed microstructure exhibits the highest flow resistance during thixoforming which significantly decreases in the case of samples with globular microstructures. This was justified based on the governing deformation mechanisms for different thixoformed microstructures.

  5. Onshore wind energy potential over Iberia: present and future projections

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    Rochinha, Carlos A.; Santos, João A.; Liberato, Margarida L. R.; Pinto, Joaquim G.

    2014-05-01

    Onshore grid-connected wind power generation has been explored for more than three decades in the Iberian Peninsula. Further, increasing attention has been devoted to renewable energy sources in a climate change context. While advantages of wind energy are widely recognized, its distribution is not spatially homogeneous and not uniform throughout the year. Hence, understanding these spatial-temporal distributions is critical in power system planning. The present study aims at assessing the potential power output estimated from 10 m wind components simulated by a regional climate model (CCLM), driven by ERA40 reanalysis. Datasets are available on a grid with a high spatial resolution (approximately 20 km) and over a 40-yr period (1961-2000). Furthermore, several target sites, located in areas with high installed wind generation capacity, are selected for local-to-regional scale assessments. The results show that potential wind power is higher over northern Iberia, mostly in Cantabria and Galicia, while Andalucía and Cataluña record the lowest values. With respect to the intra-annual variability, summer is by far the season with the lowest potential energy outputs. Furthermore, the inter-annual variability reveals an overall downward long-term trend over the 40-yr period, particularly in the winter time series. A CCLM transient experiment, forced by the SRES A1B emission scenario, is also discussed for a future period (2041-2070), after a model validation/calibration process (bias corrections). Significant changes in the wind power potential are projected for the future throughout Iberia, but their magnitude largely depends on the locations. This work was partially supported by FEDER (Fundo Europeu de Desenvolvimento Regional) funds through the COMPETE (Programa Operacional Factores de Competitividade) and by national funds through FCT (Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia, Portugal) under project STORMEx FCOMP-01-0124-FEDER- 019524 (PTDC/AAC-CLI/121339/2010).

  6. “Santísima Muerte, Vístete de Negro, Santísima Muerte, Vístete de Blanco”: La Santa Muerte’s Illegal Marginalizations

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    Desirée A. Martín

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available La Santísima Muerte, the death saint patron of the marginalized and dispossessed in Mexico, the United States, and beyond, is especially favored by devotees who identify with her duality between dark and light, and good and evil. Most of Santa Muerte’s devotees understand that good and evil coexist in her, and they often simultaneously appeal to both. At the same time, illegality and marginalization, which are generally associated with the saint’s “dark” or “evil” sides, take on multiple, diverse forms, encompassing criminalized activity such as narcotrafficking, religious transgressions that reflect unorthodox spiritual practices such as witchcraft, and most contentiously of all, the very conditions of poverty and racialization in Mexico. Nevertheless, cultural representations of Santa Muerte often resist such diversity and persist in opposing her dark and light sides. Films such as Eva Aridjis’s La Santa Muerte and Pável Valenzuela Arámburo’s La Santísima Muerte aim to represent all Santa Muerte in all of her multiplicity and to correct stereotypical representations of the death saint in general. But perhaps inadvertently, Aridjis’s film reinforces the contrast, rather than the intersections, between “light” and “dark”. However, in La Santísima Muerte, Valenzuela Arámburo deliberately embraces the saint’s contradictory duality to provide a different perspective on illegality and criminality, simultaneously accepting such illegality as a dark menace in the vein of Santa Muerte’s typical detractors, and rearticulating it as a necessary aspect of the saint’s holy works. Valenzuela Arámburo’s film not only emphasizes that the very same devotees invoke Santa Muerte for her powers of “good” as well as for those of “evil”, it demonstrates that these devotees incorporate the saint’s dark side as they see fit not as a consequence of their marginalized status, but as a means to resist it. Thus, while

  7. Matuyama-age lithic tools from the Sima del Elefante site, Atapuerca (northern Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parés, Josep M; Pérez-González, Alfredo; Rosas, Antonio; Benito, A; Bermúdez de Castro, J M; Carbonell, E; Huguet, R

    2006-02-01

    Paleomagnetic results obtained from the sedimentary fill at the Sima del Elefante site in Atapuerca, Spain, reveal a geomagnetic reversal, interpreted as the Matuyama-Brunhes boundary (0.78 Ma). The uppermost lithostratigraphic units (E17 through E19), which contain Mode II and III archaeological assemblages, display normal polarity magnetization, whereas the six lowermost units (E9 through E16) yield negative latitudinal virtual geomagnetic pole positions. Units E9 through E13, all of which display reverse magnetic polarity, contain Mode I (Oldowan) lithic tools, testifying to the presence of humans in the early Pleistocene (0.78-1.77 Ma).

  8. Coastal dynamics off Northwest Iberia during a stormy winter period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, Pablo; Ruiz-Villarreal, Manuel; García-García, Luz; González-Nuevo, Gonzalo; Cabanas, Jose Manuel

    2013-01-01

    The consequences of a stormy winter period (2009/2010) on the shelf and coastal dynamics off Northwest Iberia are analysed by using model results in combination with the set of available observations in the frame of the Iberian Margin Ocean Observatory (RAIA), a cross-border infrastructure among North Portugal and Galicia (Spain). During the study winter, the frequent arrival of weather fronts forced river plumes to flow along the inner shelf in a fast (>1 m s-1) jet-like structure. The buoyant current strongly influenced the outer rías, the name of the estuaries in the region, where a strong decay of surface salinity (15 °C) and salty (>35.9) waters into the rías associated with the Iberian Poleward Current. Finally, some Lagrangian modelling experiments were performed to analyse the transport ability of the plume and the effect that could have had in the biological material trapped on it. The experiments reveal that an overall northward displacement of surface particles will be expected after several alternate wind events.

  9. Climate deteriorations and Neanderthal demise in interior Iberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, D; Kolb, T; Alcaraz-Castaño, M; Heinrich, S; Baumgart, P; Calvo, R; Sánchez, J; Ryborz, K; Schäfer, I; Bliedtner, M; Zech, R; Zöller, L; Faust, D

    2018-05-04

    Time and circumstances for the disappearance of Neanderthals and its relationship with the advent of Modern Humans are not yet sufficiently resolved, especially in case of the Iberian Peninsula. Reconstructing palaeoenvironmental conditions during the last glacial period is crucial to clarifying whether climate deteriorations or competition and contacts with Modern Humans played the pivotal role in driving Neanderthals to extinction. A high-resolution loess record from the Upper Tagus Basin in central Spain demonstrates that the Neanderthal abandonment of inner Iberian territories 42 kyr ago coincided with the evolvement of hostile environmental conditions, while archaeological evidence testifies that this desertion took place regardless of modern humans' activities. According to stratigraphic findings and stable isotope analyses, this period corresponded to the driest environmental conditions of the last glacial apart from an even drier period linked to Heinrich Stadial 3. Our results show that during Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 4 and 2 climate deteriorations in interior Iberia temporally coincided with northern hemisphere cold periods (Heinrich stadials). Solely during the middle MIS 3, in a period surrounding 42 kyr ago, this relation seems not straightforward, which may demonstrate the complexity of terrestrial climate conditions during glacial periods.

  10. The carnivore remains from the Sima de los Huesos Middle Pleistocene site (Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, N; Arsuaga, J L; Torres, T

    1997-01-01

    Remains of carnivores from the Sima de los Huesos site representing at least 158 adult individuals of a primitive (i.e., not very speleoid) form of Ursus deningeri Von Reichenau 1906, have been recovered through the 1995 field season. These new finds extend our knowledge of this group in the Sierra de Atapuerca Middle Pleistocene. Material previously classified as Cuoninae indet, is now assigned to Canis lupus and a third metatarsal assigned in 1987 to Panthera of gombaszoegensis, is in our opinion only attributable to Panthera sp. The family Mustelidae is added to the faunal list and includes Martes sp. and a smaller species. The presence of Panthera leo cf. fossilis, Lynx pardina spelaea and Felis silvestris, is confirmed. The presence of a not very speloid Ursus deningeri, together with the rest of the carnivore assemblage, points to a not very late Middle Pleistocene age, i.e., oxygen isotope stage 7 or older. Relative frequencies of skeletal elements for the bear and fox samples are without major biases. The age structure of the bear sample, based on dental wear stages, does not follow the typical hibernation mortality profile and resembles a catastrophic profile. The site was not a natal or refuge den. The hypothesis that the site was a natural trap is the most plausible. If the Sima de los Huesos functioned as a natural trap (without an egress out), the human accumulation cannot be attributed to carnivore: activities and must be explained differently.

  11. High resolution multi-scalar drought indices for Iberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Ana; Gouveia, Célia; Trigo, Ricardo; Jerez, Sonia

    2014-05-01

    The Iberian Peninsula has been recurrently affected by drought episodes and by adverse associated effects (Gouveia et al., 2009), ranging from severe water shortages to losses of hydroelectricity production, increasing risk of forest fires, forest decline and triggering processes of land degradation and desertification. Moreover, Iberia corresponds to one of the most sensitive areas to current and future climate change and is nowadays considered a hot spot of climate change with high probability for the increase of extreme events (Giorgi and Lionello, 2008). The spatial and temporal behavior of climatic droughts at different time scales was analyzed using spatially distributed time series of multi-scalar drought indicators, such as the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) (Vicente-Serrano et al., 2010). This new climatic drought index is based on the simultaneous use of precipitation and temperature fields with the advantage of combining a multi-scalar character with the capacity to include the effects of temperature variability on drought assessment. Moreover, reanalysis data and the higher resolution hindcasted databases obtained from them are valuable surrogates of the sparse observations and widely used for in-depth characterizations of the present-day climate. Accordingly, this work aims to enhance the knowledge on high resolution drought patterns in Iberian Peninsula, taking advantage of high-resolution (10km) regional MM5 simulations of the recent past (1959-2007) over Iberia. It should be stressed that these high resolution meteorological fields (e.g. temperature, precipitation) have been validated for various purposes (Jerez et al., 2013). A detailed characterization of droughts since the 1960s using the 10 km resolution hidncasted simulation was performed with the aim to explore the conditions favoring drought onset, duration and ending, as well as the subsequent short, medium and long-term impacts affecting the environment and the

  12. Luminescence dating and palaeomagnetic age constraint on hominins from Sima de los Huesos, Atapuerca, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Lee J; Demuro, Martina; Parés, Josep M; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Aranburu, Arantza; Bermúdez de Castro, José María; Carbonell, Eudald

    2014-02-01

    Establishing a reliable chronology on the extensive hominin remains at Sima de los Huesos is critical for an improved understanding of the complex evolutionary histories and phylogenetic relationships of the European Middle Pleistocene hominin record. In this study, we use a combination of 'extended-range' luminescence dating techniques and palaeomagnetism to provide new age constraint on sedimentary infills that are unambiguously associated with the Sima fossil assemblage. Post-infrared-infrared stimulated luminescence (pIR-IR) dating of K-feldspars and thermally transferred optically stimulated luminescence (TT-OSL) dating of individual quartz grains provide weighted mean ages of 433 ± 15 ka (thousands of years) and 416 ± 19 ka, respectively, for allochthonous sedimentary horizons overlying the hominin-bearing clay breccia. The six replicate luminescence ages obtained for this deposit are reproducible and provide a combined minimum age estimate of 427 ± 12 ka for the underlying hominin fossils. Palaeomagnetic directions for the luminescence dated sediment horizon and underlying fossiliferous clays display exclusively normal polarities. These findings are consistent with the luminescence dating results and confirm that the hominin fossil horizon accumulated during the Brunhes Chron, i.e., within the last 780 ka. The new bracketing age constraint for the Sima hominins is in broad agreement with radiometrically dated Homo heidelbergensis fossil sites, such as Mauer and Arago, and suggests that the split of the H. neanderthalensis and H. sapiens lineages took place during the early Middle Pleistocene. More widespread numerical dating of key Early and Middle Pleistocene fossil sites across Europe is needed to test and refine competing models of hominin evolution. The new luminescence chronologies presented in this study demonstrate the versatility of TT-OSL and pIR-IR techniques and the potential role they could play in helping to refine evolutionary

  13. Current issues in late Middle Palaeolithic chronology : New assessments from Northern Iberia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maroto, Julia; Vaquero, Manuel; Arrizabalaga, Alvaro; Baena, Javier; Baquedano, Enrique; Jorda, Jesus; Julia, Ramon; Montes, Ramon; Van Der Plicht, Johannes; Rasines, Pedro; Wood, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    The Iberian Peninsula plays a central role in the current debates on the Middle-Upper Palaeolithic transition and the Neanderthal extinction. This is largely due to the chronological data which some authors have suggested show a clear divide between Northern Iberia, where the Upper Palaeolithic

  14. Dating the last Neanderthals in Central Iberia - New evidence from Abrigo del Molino, Segovia, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehl, Martin; Álvarez-Alonso, David; de Andrés-Herrero, María; Díez-Herrero, Andrés; Klasen, Nicole; Rojo-Hernández, Julio; Weniger, Gerd-Christian

    2017-04-01

    The timing of Neanderthal disappearance in the Iberian Peninsula is a hotly debated subject in Palaeolithic archaeology. Several studies suggested a late survival in South and Central Iberia until about 32,000 year ago (ka), but were probably subject to significant age underestimation due to contamination of dating samples and/or lack of stratigraphic integrity. More recently, Late Neanderthal presence was dated to no later than 38 ka. In Central Iberia, few archaeological sites contain Mousterian levels attesting occupation by Neanderthals. The newly discovered rock shelter of Abrigo del Molino contains chronologically well-constraint Mousterian levels, which, according to radiocarbon dating on bone, place the latest Neanderthal occupation to around 42-44 ka and within Greenland interstadial 11. Accumulation of these levels took place after deposition of fluvial and slope sediments, dated to around 46 ± 3.5 ka using luminescence techniques, and probably correlating with Greenland stadial 13 including Heinrich event 5. Micromorphological evidence of banded sediment fabrics suggests frost dynamics pointing to cold climate conditions during that time in Central Spain. Abrigo del Molino thus provides a detailed and chronologically well-constrained record on Late Neanderthal presence and morphodynamic change in Central Iberia during times of millennial-scale climate changes. The site gives further evidence for an early rather than late disappearance of Neanderthals in Iberia.

  15. Are subduction zones invading the atlantic? Evidence from the southwest iberia margin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duarte, João C.; Rosas, Filipe M.; Terrinha, Pedro; Schellart, Wouter P.; Boutelier, David; Gutscher, Marc André; Ribeiro, António

    Subduction initiation at passive margins plays a central role in the plate tectonics theory. However, the process by which a passive margin becomes active is not well understood. In this paper we use the southwest Iberia margin (SIM) in the Atlantic Ocean to study the process of passive margin

  16. Neandertal roots: Cranial and chronological evidence from Sima de los Huesos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsuaga, J L; Martínez, I; Arnold, L J; Aranburu, A; Gracia-Téllez, A; Sharp, W D; Quam, R M; Falguères, C; Pantoja-Pérez, A; Bischoff, J; Poza-Rey, E; Parés, J M; Carretero, J M; Demuro, M; Lorenzo, C; Sala, N; Martinón-Torres, M; García, N; Alcázar de Velasco, A; Cuenca-Bescós, G; Gómez-Olivencia, A; Moreno, D; Pablos, A; Shen, C-C; Rodríguez, L; Ortega, A I; García, R; Bonmatí, A; Bermúdez de Castro, J M; Carbonell, E

    2014-06-20

    Seventeen Middle Pleistocene crania from the Sima de los Huesos site (Atapuerca, Spain) are analyzed, including seven new specimens. This sample makes it possible to thoroughly characterize a Middle Pleistocene hominin paleodeme and to address hypotheses about the origin and evolution of the Neandertals. Using a variety of techniques, the hominin-bearing layer could be reassigned to a period around 430,000 years ago. The sample shows a consistent morphological pattern with derived Neandertal features present in the face and anterior vault, many of which are related to the masticatory apparatus. This suggests that facial modification was the first step in the evolution of the Neandertal lineage, pointing to a mosaic pattern of evolution, with different anatomical and functional modules evolving at different rates. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  17. Craniosynostosis in the Middle Pleistocene human Cranium 14 from the Sima de los Huesos, Atapuerca, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracia, Ana; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Martínez, Ignacio; Lorenzo, Carlos; Carretero, José Miguel; Bermúdez de Castro, José María; Carbonell, Eudald

    2009-04-21

    We report here a previously undescribed human Middle Pleistocene immature specimen, Cranium 14, recovered at the Sima de los Huesos (SH) site (Atapuerca, Spain), that constitutes the oldest evidence in human evolution of a very rare pathology in our own species, lambdoid single suture craniosynostosis (SSC). Both the ecto- and endo-cranial deformities observed in this specimen are severe. All of the evidence points out that this severity implies that the SSC occurred before birth, and that facial asymmetries, as well as motor/cognitive disorders, were likely to be associated with this condition. The analysis of the present etiological data of this specimen lead us to consider that Cranium 14 is a case of isolated SSC, probably of traumatic origin. The existence of this pathological individual among the SH sample represents also a fact to take into account when referring to sociobiological behavior in Middle Pleistocene humans.

  18. Carnivore activity in the Sima de los Huesos (Atapuerca, Spain) hominin sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Nohemi; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Martínez, Ignacio; Gracia-Téllez, Ana

    2014-08-01

    The Sima de los Huesos (SH) site is the largest accumulation of human remains from the Middle Pleistocene known to date. Studies in the last two decades have proposed different hypotheses to explain carnivore activity in the SH human sample. This study provides new data in order to test these different interpretations, and therefore to understand the role of the carnivores in site formation at SH. Carnivores are usually not the origin of large accumulations of hominin fossils in the Eurasian record. The results show that marks of carnivore activity in the SH sample appear very infrequently, which we interpret as indicating that carnivore activity was very sporadic at the site. This is in stark contrast with previous studies. The comparison of bone modification patterns at SH to actualistic carnivore data allows us to suggest that bears were likely to have been the carnivore responsible for the modification observed on both human and bear fossils.

  19. Does it matter which Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) tool you choose? - a comparative assessment of SimaPro and GaBi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Ivan Tengbjerg; Moltesen, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    SimaPro and GaBi are the leading software tools used for life cycle assessments. Assessing product systems applying the exact same unit process foundation would be expected to yield comparable result sets with either tool. The software performances are compared based on a random sample of 100 unit...... of these differences are so large that they could influence the conclusions. For some of the 100 unit processes, six elementary flows were inventoried differently in SimaPro and GaBi, with an extreme maximum comparative ratio of 109. The implementation of the impact assessment methodologies shows notable differences...... processes. The research question investigated here is; can there be a difference between SimaPro and GaBi influencing the results and the decisions based on them? In many cases the results are identical between SimaPro and GaBi or nearly so, but in other cases the results reveal differences. Some...

  20. Phase I Marine and Terrestrial Cultural Resources Survey of 13 Project Items Located on Marsh Island, Iberia Parish, Louisiana

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barr, William

    1999-01-01

    This report presents the results of Phase I cultural resources survey and archeological inventory of two marine and 11 terrestrial project items on and near Marsh Island in Iberia Parish, Louisiana...

  1. A context for the last Neandertals of interior Iberia: Los Casares cave revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcaraz-Castaño, Manuel; Alcolea-González, Javier; Kehl, Martin; Albert, Rosa-María; Baena-Preysler, Javier; de Balbín-Behrmann, Rodrigo; Cuartero, Felipe; Cuenca-Bescós, Gloria; Jiménez-Barredo, Fernando; López-Sáez, José-Antonio; Piqué, Raquel; Rodríguez-Antón, David; Yravedra, José; Weniger, Gerd-Christian

    2017-01-01

    Although the Iberian Peninsula is a key area for understanding the Middle to Upper Paleolithic transition and the demise of the Neandertals, valuable evidence for these debates remains scarce and problematic in its interior regions. Sparse data supporting a late Neandertal persistence in the Iberian interior have been recently refuted and hence new evidence is needed to build new models on the timing and causes of Neandertal disappearance in inland Iberia and the whole peninsula. In this study we provide new evidence from Los Casares, a cave located in the highlands of the Spanish Meseta, where a Neandertal-associated Middle Paleolithic site was discovered and first excavated in the 1960's. Our main objective is twofold: (1) provide an updated geoarcheological, paleoenvironmental and chronological framework for this site, and (2) discuss obtained results in the context of the time and nature of the last Neandertal presence in Iberia. We conducted new fieldwork in an interior chamber of Los Casares cave named 'Seno A'. Our methods included micromorphology, sedimentology, radiocarbon dating, Uranium/Thorium dating, palinology, microfaunal analysis, anthracology, phytolith analysis, archeozoology and lithic technology. Here we present results on site formation processes, paleoenvironment and the chronological setting of the Neandertal occupation at Los Casares cave-Seno A. The sediment sequence reveals a mostly in situ archeological deposit containing evidence of both Neandertal activity and carnivore action in level c, dated to 44,899-42,175 calendar years ago. This occupation occurred during a warm and humid interval of Marine Isotopic Stage 3, probably correlating with Greenland Interstadial 11, representing one of the latest occurrences of Neandertals in the Iberian interior. However, overlying layer b records a deterioration of local environments, thus providing a plausible explanation for the abandonment of the site, and perhaps for the total disappearance of

  2. A context for the last Neandertals of interior Iberia: Los Casares cave revisited.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Alcaraz-Castaño

    Full Text Available Although the Iberian Peninsula is a key area for understanding the Middle to Upper Paleolithic transition and the demise of the Neandertals, valuable evidence for these debates remains scarce and problematic in its interior regions. Sparse data supporting a late Neandertal persistence in the Iberian interior have been recently refuted and hence new evidence is needed to build new models on the timing and causes of Neandertal disappearance in inland Iberia and the whole peninsula. In this study we provide new evidence from Los Casares, a cave located in the highlands of the Spanish Meseta, where a Neandertal-associated Middle Paleolithic site was discovered and first excavated in the 1960's. Our main objective is twofold: (1 provide an updated geoarcheological, paleoenvironmental and chronological framework for this site, and (2 discuss obtained results in the context of the time and nature of the last Neandertal presence in Iberia.We conducted new fieldwork in an interior chamber of Los Casares cave named 'Seno A'. Our methods included micromorphology, sedimentology, radiocarbon dating, Uranium/Thorium dating, palinology, microfaunal analysis, anthracology, phytolith analysis, archeozoology and lithic technology. Here we present results on site formation processes, paleoenvironment and the chronological setting of the Neandertal occupation at Los Casares cave-Seno A.The sediment sequence reveals a mostly in situ archeological deposit containing evidence of both Neandertal activity and carnivore action in level c, dated to 44,899-42,175 calendar years ago. This occupation occurred during a warm and humid interval of Marine Isotopic Stage 3, probably correlating with Greenland Interstadial 11, representing one of the latest occurrences of Neandertals in the Iberian interior. However, overlying layer b records a deterioration of local environments, thus providing a plausible explanation for the abandonment of the site, and perhaps for the total

  3. SiMA: A simplified migration assay for analyzing neutrophil migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weckmann, Markus; Becker, Tim; Nissen, Gyde; Pech, Martin; Kopp, Matthias V

    2017-07-01

    three non-asthmatic patients gives a first hint to the capability of SiMA assay in the context of migration based diagnostics. Using SiMA we were able to identify typical migration profiles of the chemoattractants IL-8, fMLP, and LTB 4 , the effect of the matrices FN versus HEM as well as the response to different medications, that is, Prednisolone induced a change of direction of migrating neutrophils in FN but no such effect was observed in human placental matrix. In addition, neutrophils of asthmatic individuals showed an increased proportion of cells migrating toward the vehicle. With the SiMA platform we presented a simplified but yet flexible platform for cost-effective tracking and quantification of neutrophil migration. The introduced method is based on a simple microscopic video stage, standardized, commercially available, µ-fluidic migration chambers and automated image analysis, and track validation software. © 2017 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. © 2017 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  4. The Sima de los Huesos (Burgos, northern Spain): palaeoenvironment and habitats of Homo heidelbergensis during the Middle Pleistocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Nuria; Arsuaga, Juan Luis

    2011-06-01

    Interpreting how environmental dynamics respond to global climate change and how this has affected human evolution and dispersal is an on-going topic of debate. During the early Middle Pleistocene (˜0.6-0.4 Ma), as compared to earlier, environmental conditions were relatively more stable, with longer climatic cycles alternating between open and forested landscapes. During this interval, humans spread successfully providing an important number of fossil sites where fossils or tools are reported. The Atapuerca-Sima de los Huesos (Burgos, northern Spain) site (Atapuerca-SH) is one of the earliest localities with hominin evidence in the European Middle Pleistocene, with the most important accumulation of Homo heidelbergensis so far. We have analyzed the abundant faunal record from Sima de los Huesos, which is mainly comprised of carnivores, in order to approach an interpretation of the palaeoenvironmental circumstances where these hominids inhabited within the Sierra. Other sites from Sierra de Atapuerca referred to the same Faunal Unit (FU 6), are roughly contemporaneous, and include important ungulates, which are here analyzed with Atapuerca-SH. Additional information provided by isotopic analysis helps elucidate the ancient ecology of taxa present in Sima de los Huesos allowing for an accurate portrayal of the setting in which humans lived. The timing of the spread of Homo heidelbergensis is dominated by a relative climatic and environmental stability and points to a landscape dominated by savannah-like open woodland.

  5. Early Pleistocene human hand phalanx from the Sima del Elefante (TE) cave site in Sierra de Atapuerca (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, Carlos; Pablos, Adrián; Carretero, José Miguel; Huguet, Rosa; Valverdú, Josep; Martinón-Torres, María; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Carbonell, Eudald; Bermúdez de Castro, José María

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a new Early Pleistocene proximal hand phalanx (ATE9-2) from the Sima del Elefante cave site (TE - Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain), ascribed to Homo sp., is presented and comparatively described in the context of the evolution of the genus Homo. The ATE9-2 specimen is especially important because of the paucity of hand bones in the human fossil record during the Early Pleistocene. The morphological and metrical analyses of the phalanx ATE9-2 indicate that there are no essential differences between it and comparator fossil specimens for the genus Homo after 1.3 Ma (millions of years ago). Similar to Sima de los Huesos and Neandertal specimens, ATE9-2 is a robust proximal hand phalanx, probably reflecting greater overall body robusticity in these populations or a higher gracility in modern humans. The age of level TE9 from Sima del Elefante and morphological and metrical studies of ATE9-2 suggest that the morphology of the proximal hand phalanges and, thus, the morphology of the hand could have remained stable over the last 1.2-1.3 Ma. Taking into account the evidence recently provided by a metacarpal from Kaitio (Kenya) from around 1.42 Ma, we argue that modern hand morphology is present in the genus Homo subsequent to Homo habilis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. An assessment of wind energy potential in Iberia under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberato, Margarida L. R.; Santos, João A.; Rochinha, Carlos; Reyers, Mark; Pinto, Joaquim G.

    2015-04-01

    Wind energy potential in Iberia is assessed for recent-past (1961-2000) and future (2041-2070) climates. For recent-past, a COSMO-CLM simulation driven by ERA-40 is used. COSMO-CLM simulations driven by ECHAM5 following the A1B scenario are used for future projections. A 2 MW rated power wind turbine is selected. Mean potentials, inter-annual variability and irregularity are discussed on annual/seasonal scales and on a grid resolution of 20 km. For detailed regional assessments eight target sites are considered. For recent-past conditions, the highest daily mean potentials are found in winter over northern and eastern Iberia, particularly on high-elevation or coastal regions. In northwestern Iberia, daily potentials frequently reach maximum wind energy output (50 MWh day-1), particularly in winter. Southern Andalucía reveals high potentials throughout the year, whereas the Ebro valley and central-western coast show high potentials in summer. The irregularity in annual potentials is moderate (2 MWh day-1). The northward displacement of North Atlantic westerly winds (autumn-spring) and the strengthening of easterly flows (summer) are key drivers of future projections. Santos, J.A.; Rochinha, C.; Liberato, M.L.R.; Reyers, M.; Pinto, J.G. (2015) Projected changes in wind energy potentials over Iberia. Renewable Energy, 75, 1: 68-80. doi: 10.1016/j.renene.2014.09.026 Acknowledgements: This work was partially supported by FEDER (Fundo Europeu de Desenvolvimento Regional) funds through the COMPETE (Programa Operacional Factores de Competitividade) and by national funds through FCT (Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia, Portugal) under project STORMEx FCOMP-01-0124-FEDER-019524 (PTDC/AAC-CLI/121339/2010).

  7. ODP Leg 210 Drills the Newfoundland Margin in the Newfoundland-Iberia Non-Volcanic Rift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucholke, B. E.; Sibuet, J.

    2003-12-01

    The final leg of the Ocean Drilling Project (Leg 210, July-September 2003) was devoted to studying the history of rifting and post-rift sedimentation in the Newfoundland-Iberia rift. For the first time, drilling was conducted in the Newfoundland Basin along a transect conjugate to previous drill sites on the Iberia margin (Legs 149 and 173) to obtain data on a complete `non-volcanic' rift system. The prime site during this leg (Site 1276) was drilled in the transition zone between known continental crust and known oceanic crust at chrons M3 and younger. Extensive geophysical work and deep-sea drilling have shown that this transition-zone crust on the conjugate Iberia margin is exhumed continental mantle that is strongly serpentinized in its upper part. Transition-zone crust on the Newfoundland side, however, is typically a kilometer or more shallower and has much smoother topography, and seismic refraction data suggest that the crust may be thin (about 4 km) oceanic crust. A major goal of Site 1276 was to investigate these differences by sampling basement and a strong, basinwide reflection (U) overlying basement. Site 1276 was cored from 800 to 1737 m below seafloor with excellent recovery (avg. 85%), bottoming in two alkaline diabase sills >10 m thick that are estimated to be 100-200 meters above basement. The sills have sedimentary contacts that show extensive hydrothermal metamorphism. Associated sediment structural features indicate that the sills were intruded at shallow levels within highly porous sediments. The upper sill likely is at the level of the U reflection, which correlates with lower Albian - uppermost Aptian(?) fine- to coarse-grained gravity-flow deposits. Overlying lower Albian to lower Oligocene sediments record paleoceanographic conditions similar to those on the Iberia margin and in the main North Atlantic basin, including deposition of `black shales'; however, they show an extensive component of gravity-flow deposits throughout.

  8. Extreme summer temperatures in Iberia: health impacts and associated synoptic conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia-Herrera , R.; Diaz , J.; Trigo , R. M.; Hernández , E.

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of extreme summer temperatures on daily mortality in two large cities of Iberia: Lisbon (Portugal) and Madrid (Spain). Daily mortality and meteorological variables are analysed using the same methodology based on Box-Jenkins models. Results reveal that in both cases there is a triggering effect on mortality when maximum daily temperature exceeds a given threshold (34°C in Lisbon and 36°C in Madrid). The impact of most intense heat events is very ...

  9. Genetic characterization of uniparental lineages in populations from Southwest Iberia with past malaria endemicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pereira, Vania; Gomes, Verónica; Amorim, António

    2010-01-01

    then compared with data from other Portuguese and non-Portuguese populations. In Coruche, the genetic profile was similar to the profile usually found in Portugal. In Alcacer do Sal, the frequency of sub-Saharan mtDNA L lineages was the highest ever reported (22%) in Europe. In Pias, mtDNA diversity revealed...... influence might be traced to ancient contacts with Greeks, Phoenicians, and Carthaginians, who established important trading networks in southern Iberia....

  10. Postcranial morphology of the middle Pleistocene humans from Sima de los Huesos, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Carretero, José-Miguel; Lorenzo, Carlos; Gómez-Olivencia, Asier; Pablos, Adrián; Rodríguez, Laura; García-González, Rebeca; Bonmatí, Alejandro; Quam, Rolf M; Pantoja-Pérez, Ana; Martínez, Ignacio; Aranburu, Arantza; Gracia-Téllez, Ana; Poza-Rey, Eva; Sala, Nohemi; García, Nuria; Alcázar de Velasco, Almudena; Cuenca-Bescós, Gloria; Bermúdez de Castro, José María; Carbonell, Eudald

    2015-09-15

    Current knowledge of the evolution of the postcranial skeleton in the genus Homo is hampered by a geographically and chronologically scattered fossil record. Here we present a complete characterization of the postcranium of the middle Pleistocene paleodeme from the Sima de los Huesos (SH) and its paleobiological implications. The SH hominins show the following: (i) wide bodies, a plesiomorphic character in the genus Homo inherited from their early hominin ancestors; (ii) statures that can be found in modern human middle-latitude populations that first appeared 1.6-1.5 Mya; and (iii) large femoral heads in some individuals, a trait that first appeared during the middle Pleistocene in Africa and Europe. The intrapopulational size variation in SH shows that the level of dimorphism was similar to modern humans (MH), but the SH hominins were less encephalized than Neandertals. SH shares many postcranial anatomical features with Neandertals. Although most of these features appear to be either plesiomorphic retentions or are of uncertain phylogenetic polarity, a few represent Neandertal apomorphies. Nevertheless, the full suite of Neandertal-derived features is not yet present in the SH population. The postcranial evidence is consistent with the hypothesis based on the cranial morphology that the SH hominins are a sister group to the later Neandertals. Comparison of the SH postcranial skeleton to other hominins suggests that the evolution of the postcranium occurred in a mosaic mode, both at a general and at a detailed level.

  11. Clavicles, scapulae and humeri from the Sima de los Huesos site (Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carretero, J M; Arsuaga, J L; Lorenzo, C

    1997-01-01

    The scapulae, clavicles and humeri recovered from the Sima de los Huesos (SH) site between 1976 and 1994 are studied. All elements are briefly described anatomically with metrics and compared with other fossil hominids in order to establish the morphological pattern of the SH hominids. A minimum of 13 individuals are represented by the humeri in the SH sample. Almost all of them can be classified as adolescents and young adults. The morphology of the SH hominid shoulder girdle and humeri indicates that much of the shoulder morphology recognized in the later true Neandertal was present in Europe long before they appeared. Thus, this morphological pattern is not exclusive to Neandertals alone. The SH clavicles, scapulae and humeri share with the Neandertals many traits usually considered to be Neandertal specializations. The comparative analysis of the SH evidence suggests that most of the SH and Neandertal shared traits are either primitive features within the genus Homo or even for all hominids, or display high variability within different hominid samples. These traits must be used with caution, or not used at all, in phylogenetic analysis. There are, however, traits that to date have only been detected in the SH hominids and the Neanderials, which could be exclusive to the European phyletic lineage (clade) of Homo.

  12. Enamel hypoplasias and physiological stress in the Sima de los Huesos Middle Pleistocene hominins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, E; Rozzi, F Ramirez; Bermúdez de Castro, J M; Martinón-Torres, M; Wasterlain, S N; Sarmiento, S

    2004-11-01

    This study presents an analysis of linear enamel hypoplasias (LEH) and plane-form defects (PFD) in the hominine dental sample from the Sima de los Huesos (SH) Middle Pleistocene site in Atapuerca (Spain). The SH sample comprises 475 teeth, 467 permanent and 8 deciduous, belonging to a minimum of 28 individuals. The method for recording PFD and LEH is discussed, as well as the definition of LEH. The prevalence of LEH and PFD in SH permanent dentition (unilateral total count) is 4.6% (13/280). Only one deciduous tooth (lower dc) showed an enamel disruption. Prevalence by individual ranges from 18.7-30%. The most likely explanation for the relatively low LEH and PFD prevalence in the SH sample suggests that the SH population exhibited a low level of developmental stress. The age at occurrence of LEH and PFD was determined by counting the number of perikymata between each lesion and the cervix of the tooth. Assuming a periodicity of nine days for the incremental lines, the majority of LEH in the SH sample occurred during the third year of life and may be related to the metabolic stress associated with weaning.

  13. Microstructural evolution and rheological properties of AA6063 alloy produced by semisolid processing (SIMA and MHD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bustos, O.; Leiva, R.; Sanchez, C.; Ordonez, S.; Carvajal, L.; Mannheim, R.

    2007-01-01

    In this work the rheological behaviour and the microstructural evolution of alloy AA6063 submitted to two different processing routes were studied: cold deformation and partial fusion (SIMA process) and magneto hydrodynamic stirring during its solidification (MHD process). The microstructural evolution during the isothermal holding was studied to verify if the Ost wald ripening mechanisms, classic growth and coalescence, are applicable to alloys made by these processing routes. The rheological properties were evaluated using a compression rheometer with parallel plates and digital capture of position and time data. Compression tests were made in short cylinders extracted from ingots that showed: a dendritic microstructure typical of as cast material, a typical microstructure of cold deformed material and a microstructure of materials obtained by MHD process. It was found that a globular microstructure has a typical behaviour of a fluid when being formed in semisolid state, contrary to the behaviour of the as cast dendritic microstructure. In addition, the mechanisms that operate in the microstructural evolution during the isothermal holdings were verified, through metallographic analysis. (Author) 29 refs

  14. The “Sima del Elefante” cave site at Atapuerca (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huguet, R.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The “Sima del Elefante” (TE site (Atapuerca, Spain is a major cave infill with a stratigraphic succession 25 m thick and 15 m wide, wealthy in animal bones and evidences of human occupation at different Pleistocene ages. TE site is under systematic excavation since 1996, and the inferior and superior levels are being dug up independently. The exposed section has been divided into 21 lito-stratigraphic units defined by major unconformities. Concerning the cave history, at least three main infill phases have been identified. The lower phase (TE8-TE14 is dated to Early Pleistocene (between 1.1 and 1.4 million years ago on the basis of inverse paleomagnetics and belonging to the later Early Pleistocene on the basis of biochronology. The TE lower phase is providing a rich faunal assemblage, and shows evidence of human occupation. A set of stone tools of flint, and possibly, calcareous, is being found at these levels. Hence, the lower part of the TE section documents early presence of hominids in Europe and constituted an important element in the understanding of human dispersions out-of-Africa. The middle phase (TE15-TE19 dated to Middle Pleistocene and it is further sud-divided into a basal part (TE15-TE17, still largely unexplored, but no vertebrate fossil record is present at this levels. Units TE18, and mainly TE19 unit, date to late Middle Pleistocene, and contain an abundant record of large mammals as well as stone tools included in calcareous breccias. The TE19 G level contains abundant pieces of charcoal, though verification of its antropic character is pending. Finally, the third and last sedimentary phase (TE20 and TE21 date to Last Pleistocene and it defined the final infilling of the cavity and soil formation. The chronological intervals represented in the fertile levels of the Sima del Elefante enlarge the temporal and biostratigraphic local succession at the Atapuerca Hill complex. The lower phase was deposited in a time previous to

  15. Iglesia de la Santísima Trinidad en Viena-Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Mayr, Fritz

    1979-05-01

    Full Text Available The profession of the designer of the Holy Trinity Church is clearly reflected ¡n this work, one of the most interesting Austrian religious buildings. His Sculptor trade does not impose on him any technical or social condition, but rather, affords him the necessary freedom to search for religious feeling through the most varied means and media. Thus, using 152 blocks of different sizes and shapes, he constructs a diversified sculptoric volume where the parochial facilities and the church proper are housed. These blocks, alternating with glazed surfaces, help to create inside a feeling of quiet seclusion so necessary in this type of buildings.

    La profesión del autor de la iglesia de la Santísima Trinidad queda claramente reflejada en su obra, una de las realizaciones religiosas austríacas más interesantes. Su carácter de escultor no le impone condicionantes técnicos o sociales, por el contrario, le deja libre para buscar el sentido religioso por los medios más distintos. Así, mediante 152 bloques de diferentes tamaños y formas configura un diversificado volumen escultórico en el que distribuye ios locales parroquiales y la iglesia propiamente dicha. Estos bloques, alternando con las variadas superficies acristaladas, contribuyen a crear en el interior el ambiente de recogimiento tan necesario en este tipo de construcciones.

  16. Seismic evidence of exhumed mantle rock basement at the Gorringe Bank and the adjacent Horseshoe and Tagus abyssal plains (SW Iberia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallarès, Valentí; Martínez-Loriente, Sara; Prada, Manel; Gràcia, Eulàlia; Ranero, César; Gutscher, Marc-André; Bartolome, Rafael; Gailler, Audrey; Dañobeitia, Juan José; Zitellini, Nevio

    2013-03-01

    The Gorringe Bank is a gigantic seamount that separates the Horseshoe and Tagus abyssal plains offshore SW Iberia, in a zone that hosts the convergent boundary between the Africa and Eurasia plates. Although the region has been the focus of numerous investigations since the early 1970s, the lack of appropriate geophysical data makes the nature of the basement, and thus the origin of the structures, still debated. In this work, we present combined P-wave seismic velocity and gravity models along a transect that crosses the Gorringe Bank from the Tagus to the Horseshoe abyssal plains. The P-wave velocity structure of the basement is similar in the Tagus and Horseshoe plains. It shows a 2.5-3.0 km-thick top layer with a velocity gradient twice stronger than oceanic Layer 2 and an abrupt change to an underlying layer with a five-fold weaker gradient. Velocity and density is lower beneath the Gorringe Bank probably due to enhanced fracturing, that have led to rock disaggregation in the sediment-starved northern flank. In contrast to previous velocity models of this region, there is no evidence of a sharp crust-mantle boundary in any of the record sections. The modelling results indicate that the sediment overlays directly serpentinite rock, exhumed from the mantle with a degree of serpentinization decreasing from a maximum of 70-80% under the top of Gorringe Bank to less than 5% at a depth of ˜20 km. We propose that the three domains were originally part of a single serpentine rock band, of nature and possibly origin similar to the Iberia Abyssal Plain ocean-continent transition, which was probably generated during the earliest phase of the North Atlantic opening that followed continental crust breakup (Early Cretaceous). During the Miocene, the NW-SE trending Eurasia-Africa convergence resulted in thrusting of the southeastern segment of the exhumed serpentinite band over the northwestern one, forming the Gorringe Bank. The local deformation associated to plate

  17. Intrapopulational body size variation and cranial capacity variation in Middle Pleistocene humans: the Sima de los Huesos sample (Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, C; Carretero, J M; Arsuaga, J L; Gracia, A; Martínez, I

    1998-05-01

    A sexual dimorphism more marked than in living humans has been claimed for European Middle Pleistocene humans, Neandertals and prehistoric modern humans. In this paper, body size and cranial capacity variation are studied in the Sima de los Huesos Middle Pleistocene sample. This is the largest sample of non-modern humans found to date from one single site, and with all skeletal elements represented. Since the techniques available to estimate the degree of sexual dimorphism in small palaeontological samples are all unsatisfactory, we have used the bootstraping method to asses the magnitude of the variation in the Sima de los Huesos sample compared to modern human intrapopulational variation. We analyze size variation without attempting to sex the specimens a priori. Anatomical regions investigated are scapular glenoid fossa; acetabulum; humeral proximal and distal epiphyses; ulnar proximal epiphysis; radial neck; proximal femur; humeral, femoral, ulnar and tibial shaft; lumbosacral joint; patella; calcaneum; and talar trochlea. In the Sima de los Huesos sample only the humeral midshaft perimeter shows an unusual high variation (only when it is expressed by the maximum ratio, not by the coefficient of variation). In spite of that the cranial capacity range at Sima de los Huesos almost spans the rest of the European and African Middle Pleistocene range. The maximum ratio is in the central part of the distribution of modern human samples. Thus, the hypothesis of a greater sexual dimorphism in Middle Pleistocene populations than in modern populations is not supported by either cranial or postcranial evidence from Sima de los Huesos.

  18. Fossil hominin radii from the Sima de los Huesos Middle Pleistocene site (Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Laura; Carretero, José Miguel; García-González, Rebeca; Lorenzo, Carlos; Gómez-Olivencia, Asier; Quam, Rolf; Martínez, Ignacio; Gracia-Téllez, Ana; Arsuaga, Juan Luis

    2016-01-01

    Complete radii in the fossil record preceding recent humans and Neandertals are very scarce. Here we introduce the radial remains recovered from the Sima de los Huesos (SH) site in the Sierra de Atapuerca between 1976 and 2011 and which have been dated in excess of 430 ky (thousands of years) ago. The sample comprises 89 specimens, 49 of which are attributed to adults representing a minimum of seven individuals. All elements are described anatomically and metrically, and compared with other fossil hominins and recent humans in order to examine the phylogenetic polarity of certain radial features. Radial remains from SH have some traits that differentiate them from those of recent humans and make them more similar to Neandertals, including strongly curved shafts, anteroposterior expanded radial heads and both absolutely and relatively long necks. In contrast, the SH sample differs from Neandertals in showing a high overall gracility as well as a high frequency (80%) of an anteriorly oriented radial tuberosity. Thus, like the cranial and dental remains from the SH site, characteristic Neandertal radial morphology is not present fully in the SH radii. We also analyzed the cross-sectional properties of the SH radial sample at two different levels: mid-shaft and at the midpoint of the neck length. When standardized by shaft length, no difference in the mid-shaft cross-sectional properties were found between the SH hominins, Neandertals and recent humans. Nevertheless, due to their long neck length, the SH hominins show a higher lever efficiency than either Neandertals or recent humans. Functionally, the SH radial morphology is consistent with more efficient pronation-supination and flexion-extension movements. The particular trait composition in the SH sample and Neandertals resembles more closely morphology evident in recent human males. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Southeastern Science Policy Colloquium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humphries, F.

    1995-06-22

    This conference covers four main topics: (1) Southeastern Labor Market and its Impact on Corporate/Industry Development; (2) New Issues for Science and Technology in the Year 2000 and Beyond; (3) The Role of Academia in Developing the Labor Force of the Southeast; and (4) K-12 Education: Challenges for the 21st Century.

  20. The Contribution of the Topo-Iberia Project to the Knowledge of the Western Mediterranean Geodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz Cusi, J.

    2012-12-01

    The large scale research program Topo-Iberia aims to unravel the complex structure and mantle processes in the area of interaction between the African and European continental plates in the western Mediterranean. The project, funded by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Education, started in 2007 and will be active till Fall 2013. Topo-Iberia has gathered expertise of different fields of the Earth Sciences. One of the key assets of the project involves the deploying of a technological observatory platform, IberArray, with unprecedented resolution and coverage. This platform is currently building up a comprehensive, multidisciplinary data set, stored by the SIGEOF database, which includes seismological, GPS and magnetotelluric data. Using also other analytical methodologies included in the Topo-Iberia program (potential fields, quantitative analysis of the topography, dating methods) the final scope of the project is to study the relationship between superficial and deep-rooted processes. Topo-Iberia has also benefited from the interaction with other projects investigating the same area, as the American program PICASSO, the French Pyrope or the Portuguese WILAS. This interaction includes sharing the available data to better assess the key geological questions. This contribution will present the current state of the most significant scientific results which are arising from the data acquired using the Iberarray platform. -. SKS splitting analysis has provided a spectacular image of the anisotropic pattern over the area, including a clear rotation of the fast velocity direction along the Gibraltar Arc. -. Receiver functions have revealed the crustal thickness variations beneath the Rif and southern Iberia, including a crustal root beneath the Rif not clearly documented previously. The 410-km and 660-km upper mantle discontinuities have been investigated using novel cross-correlation/stacking techniques. -. Surface wave tomography using both earthquakes and ambient

  1. The technical processes of quarrying in the Late Iron Age of Western Iberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús RODRÍGUEZ HERNÁNDEZ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reconstructs the technical processes involved in producing the stone works made by the communities of Western Iberia during the Late Iron Age. For this study, we use both archaeological and ethnographic data. We analyze the characteristics of granite, the extraction process in the quarry, the available means of transport, the tools used and the carving process, focusing analysis on the zoomorphic sculptures known as “verracos”. Assessment of these technical aspects is essential for the analysis of the finished products and constitutes a first step in better understanding the status of stonemasons within the protohistoric societies of the Western Iberian Peninsula.

  2. Middle Palaeolithic flint procurement in Central Mediterranean Iberia: Implications for human mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleix Eixea

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Different flint types from the Middle Palaeolithic site of Abrigo de la Quebrada (Chelva, Valencia are characterized,  both macro- and microscopically, and compared with types found at other localities in the region. Although procurement predominantly concerned the immediate vicinity of sites, our results show the presence of the same types in assemblages separated by distances of up to 120 km. The long distances involved are suggestive of a pattern of North-South mobility of human groups along the coastline of central Mediterranean Iberia.

  3. The bony labyrinth of the middle Pleistocene Sima de los Huesos hominins (Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quam, Rolf; Lorenzo, Carlos; Martínez, Ignacio; Gracia-Téllez, Ana; Arsuaga, Juan Luis

    2016-01-01

    We performed 3D virtual reconstructions based on CT scans to study the bony labyrinth morphology in 14 individuals from the large middle Pleistocene hominin sample from the site of the Sima de los Huesos (SH) in the Sierra de Atapuerca in northern Spain. The Atapuerca (SH) hominins represent early members of the Neandertal clade and provide an opportunity to compare the data with the later in time Neandertals, as well as Pleistocene and recent humans more broadly. The Atapuerca (SH) hominins do not differ from the Neandertals in any of the variables related to the absolute and relative sizes and shape of the semicircular canals. Indeed, the entire Neandertal clade seems to be characterized by a derived pattern of canal proportions, including a relatively small posterior canal and a relatively large lateral canal. In contrast, one of the most distinctive features observed in Neandertals, the low placement of the posterior canal (i.e., high sagittal labyrinthine index), is generally not present in the Atapuerca (SH) hominins. This low placement is considered a derived feature in Neandertals and is correlated with a more vertical orientation of the ampullar line (LSCm  PPp), and third part of the facial canal (LSCm < FC3). Some variation is present within the Atapuerca (SH) sample, however, with a few individuals approaching the Neandertal condition more closely. In addition, the cochlear shape index in the Atapuerca (SH) hominins is low, indicating a reduction in the height of the cochlea. Although the phylogenetic polarity of this feature is less clear, the low shape index in the Atapuerca (SH) hominins may be a derived feature. Regardless, cochlear height subsequently increased in Neandertals. In contrast to previous suggestions, the expanded data in the present study indicate no difference across the genus Homo in the angle of inclination of the cochlear basal turn (COs < LSCm). Principal components analysis largely confirms these observations. While not

  4. The temporal bones from Sima de los Huesos Middle Pleistocene site (Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain). A phylogenetic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, I; Arsuaga, J L

    1997-01-01

    Three well-preserved crania and 22 temporal bones were recovered from the Sima de los Huesos Middle Pleistocene site up to and including the 1994 field season. This is the largest sample of hominid temporal bones known from a single Middle Pleistocene site and it offers the chance to characterize the temporal bone morphology of an European Middle Pleistocene population and to study the phylogenetic relationships of the SH sample with other Upper and Middle Pleistocene hominids. We have carried out a cladistic analysis based on nine traits commonly used in phylogenetic analysis of Middle and Late Pleistocene hominids: shape of the temporal squama superior border, articular eminence morphology, contribution of the sphenoid bone to the median glenoid wall, postglenoid process projection, tympanic plate orientation, presence of the styloid process, mastoid process projection, digastric groove morphology and anterior mastoid tubercle. We have found two autapomorphies on the Home erectus temporal bone: strong reduction of the postglenoid process and absence of the styloid process. Modern humans, Neandertals and the Middle Pleistocene fossils from Europe and Africa constitute a clade characterized by a convex superior border of the temporal squama. The European Middle Pleistocene fossils from Sima de los Huesos, Petralona, Steinheim, Bilzingsleben and Castel di Guido share a Neandertal apomorphy: a relatively flat articular eminence. The fossils from Ehringsdorf, La Chaise Suardi and Biache-Saint-Vaast also display another Neandertal derived trait: an anteriorly obliterated digastric groove. Modern humans and the African Middle Pleistocene fossils share a synapomorphy: a sagittally orientated tympanic plate.

  5. Exploring Institutional Transformations to Address High-End Climate Change in Iberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan David Tàbara

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Either meeting the UNFCCC Paris agreement to limit global average warming below the 2–1.5 °C threshold, or going beyond it entails huge challenges in terms of institutional innovation and transformation. This research describes a participatory integrated assessment process aimed at exploring the options, opportunities, necessary capacities and implications for institutional co-operation and innovation in the Iberian Peninsula under High-End Climate Change (HECC. Using in-depth interviews and a novel participatory research approach, different scenario narratives and pathways about the future of Iberia have been identified using Shared Socio-economic Pathways (SSPs. Special attention is given to the knowledge and policy options needed to implement cross-border organizational changes and co-operation mechanisms that would support the Integrated Climate Governance of the Tagus and Guadiana river basins. We show that a wealth of institutional innovation pathways and specific options and solutions exist not only to reduce GHG emissions (mitigation and the negative impacts of climate change (adaptation, but, above all, to generate new forms of social-ecological system interactions aligned with sustainability (transformation. In particular, and depending on which scenario contexts unfold in the future in Iberia, different kinds of institutional and governance capacities and clusters of solutions may be needed in order to achieve transformation.

  6. Red squirrels from south–east Iberia: low genetic diversity at the southernmost species distribution limit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas, J. M.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available South–east Iberia is the southernmost limit of this species in Europe. Squirrels in the region mainly inhabit coniferous forests of Pinus. In this study, we analyzed the pattern of mitochondrial genetic variation of southern Iberian red squirrels. Fragments of two mitochondrial genes, a 350–base pair of the displacement loop (D–loop and a 359–bp of the cytochrome b (Cytb, were sequenced using samples collected from 88 road–kill squirrels. The genetic variation was low, possibly explained by a recent bottleneck due to historical over–exploitation of forest resources. Habitat loss and fragmentation caused by deforestation and geographic isolation may explain the strong genetic subdivision between the study regions. Six new haplotypes for the D–loop and two new haplotypes for the Cytb fragments are described. A Cytb haplotype of south–east Iberia was found to be present in Albania and Japan, suggesting local extinction of this haplotype in intermediate areas. No significant clustering was found for the south–east of Spain or for the other European populations (except Calabria in the phylogenetic analysis.

  7. Anthropogenic impact and lead pollution throughout the Holocene in Southern Iberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Alix, A; Jimenez-Espejo, F J; Lozano, J A; Jiménez-Moreno, G; Martinez-Ruiz, F; García Sanjuán, L; Aranda Jiménez, G; García Alfonso, E; Ruiz-Puertas, G; Anderson, R Scott

    2013-04-01

    Present day lead pollution is an environmental hazard of global proportions. A correct determination of natural lead levels is very important in order to evaluate anthropogenic lead contributions. In this paper, the anthropogenic signature of early metallurgy in Southern Iberia during the Holocene, more specifically during the Late Prehistory, was assessed by mean of a multiproxy approach: comparison of atmospheric lead pollution, fire regimes, deforestation, mass sediment transport, and archeological data. Although the onset of metallurgy in Southern Iberia is a matter of controversy, here we show the oldest lead pollution record from Western Europe in a continuous paleoenvironmental sequence, which suggests clear lead pollution caused by metallurgical activities since ~3900 cal BP (Early Bronze Age). This lead pollution was especially important during Late Bronze and Early Iron ages. At the same time, since ~4000 cal BP, an increase in fire activity is observed in this area, which is also coupled with deforestation and increased erosion rates. This study also shows that the lead pollution record locally reached near present-day values many times in the past, suggesting intensive use and manipulation of lead during those periods in this area. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Más sobre Iberia y los topónimos griegos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrados, Francisco R.

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper, which follows a former one in Emerita 68, 2000, pp.1-18, collects and studies the Greek toponymy of Southern and Mediterranean Spain: its origin, dialectal character and chronology. This toponymy offers an insight on the knowledge of this area by the Greeks. Frequently it translates or hellenizes indigenous or Phoenician names. It can be said that the Greek toponymy is one of the witnesses at our disposal for achieving a better understanding of the role the greeks played in Iberia.Este artículo, que continúa uno anterior en Emerita 58, 2000, pp.1-18, recoge y estudia la toponimia griega de la zona meridional y mediterránea de España: su origen, sus características dialectales y su cronología. Este material ofrece una visión del conocimiento que los griegos tenían de esta área. A menudo se trata de traducciones o helenizaciones de topónimos indígenas o fenicios. Puede afirmarse que la toponimia griega es uno de los testimonios de que disponemos para un mejor conocimiento del papel que jugaron los griegos en Iberia.

  9. Iberia and Etruria: notes for a review of relations | Iberia y Etruria: notas para una revisión de las relaciones | Iberia y Etruria: notas para una revisión de las relaciones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique A. Llobregat Conesa

    1982-12-01

    Full Text Available Algunos recientes hallazgos de objetos de posible origen etrusco: un ánfora, un jarro de bronce, encontrados en el litoral meridional valenciano, son el punto de arranque para una revisión de la bibliografía y de las opiniones sobre las relaciones entre Etruria e Iberia, un repaso a los hallazgos hispánicos de carácter etrusco, y una hipótesis sobre paralelismo e influencias en el campo de la plástica mayor y de la arquitectura. | Quelques récents trouvailles d'objets de possible origine étrusque (une amphore, une cruche en bronze apparus en sites du littoral d'Alicante, donnent le point de départ pour une révision de la bibliographie et des différents avis des auteurs espagnols sur les rapports entre l'Etrurie et l'Ibérie, et aussi pour une mise à point de l'état actual de la recherche sur les objets d'origine étrusque apparus en Espagne et pour lancer une hypothèse qui met en valeur les parallèles et les influences étrusques sur la statuaire et l'architecture ibériques.

  10. Dynamical Mechanisms and Variability of Dry and Wet Spells in Iberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberato, Margarida L. R.; Montero, Irene; Gouveia, Célia

    2014-05-01

    Dry and wet spells in Iberia have widespread ecological and environmental negative impacts resulting in major socioeconomic damages such as crop yield losses or increasing forest fire risk [Gouveia et al. 2009; Amraoui et al. 2013] and flash flooding, urban inundations, landslides and associated human and infrastructure damages [Liberato et al. 2013]. The 20th century was characterized by a negative trend on precipitation and a positive trend on temperature in southern Europe. On the other hand recent results suggest that there are opposite tendencies in the duration of wet and dry spells over the Iberia. At the monthly and seasonal scales, the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), the Eastern Atlantic (EA) and the Scandinavian (SCAN) patterns are important large-scale variability modes that control the Iberian precipitation regime. The NAO modulates the westerly atmospheric flow by shifting the polar jet and the associated storm-tracks. At the sub-monthly scale, extratropical cyclones have a significant impact on Iberian climate and are one of the primary causes of extreme events occurrence over the region [Liberato et al. 2011; 2013]. In this work we investigate the connection between midlatitude cyclones and the onset and recurrent character of droughts, heavy precipitation and spell duration in Iberia. Our results confirm the links between unusual circulation patterns with these extreme events. Moreover we show how the frequency on the occurrence of extratropical cyclones on the Euro-Atlantic region is critical in explaining the tails of the precipitation distribution in Iberia. Acknowledgments: This work was partially supported by national funds through FCT (Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia, Portugal) under project QSECA (PTDC/AAG-GLO/4155/2012). References: Amraoui M., M. L. R. Liberato, T. J. Calado, C. C. DaCamara, L. P. Coelho, R. M. Trigo, C. M. Gouveia (2013) Fire activity over Mediterranean Europe based on information from Meteosat-8. Forest

  11. The religious polemics of the Muslims of Late Medieval Christian Iberia : Identity and religious authority in Mudejar Islam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colominas Aparicio, M.

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the politics of identity of the Muslims in Late Medieval Christian Iberia (Mudejars). Mudejars had to endure the pressure exerted by the Christian majority society and also the criticism from their co-religionists in Muslim lands who contested their exceptional

  12. Episodic melting and magmatic recycling along 50 Ma in the Variscan belt linked to the orogenic evolution in NW Iberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Alonso, G.; López-Carmona, A.; García Acera, G.; Martín Garro, J.; Fernández-Suárez, J.; Gärtner, A.; Hofmann, M.

    2017-12-01

    The advent of a large amount of more precise U-Pb age data on Variscan granitoids from NW Iberia in recent years has provided a more focused picture of the magmatic history of the Western European Variscan belt (WEVB). Based on these data, three main pulses of magmatic activity seem to be well established.

  13. Effect of RE elements on the microstructural evolution of as cast and SIMA processed Mg-4Al alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nayyeri, Mohammad Javad; Khomamizadeh, Farzad

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → In this article, we examined the effect of Rare Earth elements on the microstructural development of as cast and semisolid Mg-4Al alloy produced by SIMA process. → Our investigations contained metallographic observation, scanning electron microscope and quantitative metallographic methods. → Results showed that alloy's dendrites turn into larger fully dendritic shape with sharp and narrow arms from equiaxed rosette type as the amount of RE elements increased from 0 through 4 percent. → Also we studied the effect of RE elements on the quality and quantityof intragranular liquid droplets as well as kinetic of microstructural changes. → Moreover, the effect of REs on the other parameters such as fraction of liquid, shape factor and particle size was studied.In this article, we examined the effect of Rare Earth elements on the microstructural development of as cast and semisolid Mg-4Al alloy produced by SIMA process. Our investigations contained metallographic observation, scanning electron microscope and quantitative metallographic methods. Results showed that alloy's dendrites turn into larger fully dendritic shape with sharp and narrow arms from equiaxed rosette type as the amount of RE elements increased from 0 through 4 percent. Also we studied the effect of RE elements on the quality and quantityof intragranular liquid droplets as well as kinetic of microstructural changes. Moreover, the effect of REs on the other parameters such as fraction of liquid, shape factor and particle size was studied. - Abstract: In the present article, the effect of Rare Earth elements on the microstructural development of as cast and semisolid Mg-4Al alloy produced by SIMA process is studied. Investigation conducted by metallographic observation, scanning electron microscope and quantitative metallographic methods. Results showed that alloy's dendrites turn into larger fully dendritic shape with sharp and narrow arms from equiaxed rosette type as the

  14. Land degradation and improvement trends over Iberia in the last three decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Célia M.; Páscoa, Patrícia; Russo, Ana; Trigo, Ricardo

    2017-04-01

    Land degradation and desertification are recognised as an important environmental and social problem in arid and semiarid regions, particularly within a climate change context. In the last three decades the entire Mediterranean basin has been affected by more frequent droughts, covering large sectors and often lasting several months. Simultaneously, the stress imposed by land management practices, such as land abandonment and intensification, highlights the need of a continuous monitoring and early detection of degradation. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) from GIMMS dataset was used as an indicator of land degradation or improvement over Iberia between 1982 and 2012. The precipitation influence on NDVI was previously removed and the negative/positive trends of the obtained residuals were presumed to indicate land degradation/improvement. Overall the Iberian Peninsula is dominated by widespread land improvement with only a few hot spots of land degradation located in central and southern sectors and also in east Mediterranean and Atlantic coasts. Less than 20% of the area presenting land degradation is located within regions where land cover changes were observed, being the new land cover types associated with transitional woodland-shrub, permanent and annual crops and permanently irrigated land areas. Although being a very small fraction, the pixels of land degradation are mainly located on a semi-arid region. The monotonic changes and trend shifts present in the NDVI dataset were also assessed. The major shifts in vegetation trends and the corresponding year of occurrence were associated with the main disturbances observed in Iberia, namely the major wildfires' seasons in Portugal, and also to land abandonment and to new agricultural practices that resulted from the construction of new dams. The results obtained provide a new outlook of the real nature of degradation or improvement of vegetation in Iberia in the last three decades

  15. Non-masticatory uses of anterior teeth of Sima de los Huesos individuals (Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, Marina; Bermúdez de Castro, José M; Carbonell, Eudald; Arsuaga, Juan Luis

    2008-10-01

    In this study we examine the labial and occlusal surfaces of incisors and canines of hominins recovered from the Sima de los Huesos (SH), middle Pleistocene site, in order to establish the possible extra-masticatory use of anterior teeth. We have compared the microwear of these fossils with microwear from the anterior teeth of Australian Aborigines, a population characterized by ethnographic evidence of the use of their teeth as a third hand. These two samples of teeth were microscopically analyzed using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Our results support the "cultural" origin of microwear observed on fossil teeth: we conclude that the SH hominins used their anterior teeth as a "third hand" for para- or extra-masticatory activities.

  16. Three new human skulls from the Sima de los Huesos Middle Pleistocene site in Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsuaga, J L; Martínez, I; Gracia, A; Carretero, J M; Carbonell, E

    1993-04-08

    Three important fossil hominids were found in July 1992 in the Middle Pleistocene cave site called Sima de los Huesos (Sierra de Atapuerca, Burgos, Northern Spain). One is a complete calvaria (cranium 4), the second a virtually complete cranium (cranium 5), the third represents a more fragmentary cranium of an immature individual (cranium 6). There is a large difference in size between the two adult specimens (for example endocranial volume 1,125 cm3 versus 1,390 cm3). The Atapuerca human remains are dated to > 300,000 years. The Atapuerca cranial sample fits within the 'archaic Homo sapiens' group, but is well differentiated from the Asian Homo erectus group. The extensive Atapuerca human collection is the most complete sample of Middle Pleistocene humans yet discovered from one site, and appears to document an early stage in Neanderthal evolution.

  17. Human hyoid bones from the middle Pleistocene site of the Sima de los Huesos (Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, I; Arsuaga, J L; Quam, R; Carretero, J M; Gracia, A; Rodríguez, L

    2008-01-01

    This study describes and compares two hyoid bones from the middle Pleistocene site of the Sima de los Huesos in the Sierra de Atapuerca (Spain). The Atapuerca SH hyoids are humanlike in both their morphology and dimensions, and they clearly differ from the hyoid bones of chimpanzees and Australopithecus afarensis. Their comparison with the Neandertal specimens Kebara 2 and SDR-034 makes it possible to begin to approach the question of temporal variation and sexual dimorphism in this bone in fossil humans. The results presented here show that the degree of metric and anatomical variation in the fossil sample was similar in magnitude and kind to living humans. Modern hyoid morphology was present by at least 530 kya and appears to represent a shared derived feature of the modern human and Neandertal evolutionary lineages inherited from their last common ancestor.

  18. Pattern of dental development in Hominid XVIII from the Middle Pleistocene Atapuerca-Sima de los Huesos site (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermudez De Castro, J M; Rosas, A

    2001-04-01

    . We describe the pattern of dental development of Hominid XVIII from the Middle Pleistocene Sima de los Huesos (SH) site of the Sierra de Atapuerca (Burgos, Spain). As expected, this pattern is similar to that of modern humans. A delay of development of the lower and upper canines was observed. In contrast, the relative advanced development of the lower second molars and, especially, the upper and lower third molars is noteworthy. This latter feature seems to be common in Pleistocene hominids, and suggests that the pattern of dental development evolved in the genus Homo during the Pleistocene. In European Middle Pleistocene hominids, this pattern probably was facilitated by the extra space available in the mandible and maxilla for developing teeth. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. On the age of the hominid fossils at the Sima de los Huesos, Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain: paleomagnetic evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parés, J M; Pérez-González, A; Weil, A B; Arsuaga, J L

    2000-04-01

    We report new paleomagnetic data for the Middle Pleistocene hominid-bearing strata in the Sima de los Huesos, North Spain. Sediments (brown muds with human and bear fossils and the underlying sterile clayey and sandy unit) preserve both normal and reversed magnetic components. The sterile unit has exclusively reversed magnetization, dating back to the Matuyama Chron, and thus is Lower Pleistocene in age. The overlying fossiliferous muds have a dominant normal magnetization that overprints a partially resolved reversed magnetization. These data are compatible with one of the reversal events that occurred during the Brunhes Chron. Combined with the existing U-series dates and evidence from the macro- and microfauna, these paleomagnetic results suggest an age of the hominid fossils between 325 to 205 ka, whereas the underlying sand and silts are older than 780 ka. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Knowledge about useful entomofauna in the county of La Purísima Palmar de Bravo, Puebla State, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. H. Zetina

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Eighteen species of edible insects belonging to 15 families of six orders of Insecta were recorded in the county of La Purísima Palmar de Bravo in Puebla State, Mexico. They had the following taxonomic distribution among the different families: Lygaeidae, Pentatomidae, Membracidae, Cercopidae, Psocidae, Melolonthidae, Curculionidae, Cossidae, Megathymidae, Pyralidae, Geometridae and Apidae, all with a single recorded species; the families Acrididae, Formicidae and Vespidae with two species in each family. The latter were the most abundant families, and Hymenoptera was the most salient order with five species. Three species were reported as new registers of edible insects for Mexico and also for the world. The nutritive value of insects in terms of macro and micronutrients is discussed.

  1. Combining X-ray based methods to study the protohistoric bronze technology in Western Iberia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valério, P., E-mail: pvalerio@ctn.ist.utl.pt [Centro de Ciências e Tecnologias Nucleares (C2TN), Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, Estrada Nacional 10 (km 139,7), 2695-066 Bobadela LRS (Portugal); Silva, R.J.C., E-mail: rjcs@fct.unl.pt [CENIMAT/I3N, Departamento de Ciência dos Materiais, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, FCT, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Monte de Caparica (Portugal); Soares, A.M.M., E-mail: amsoares@ctn.ist.utl.pt [Centro de Ciências e Tecnologias Nucleares (C2TN), Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, Estrada Nacional 10 (km 139,7), 2695-066 Bobadela LRS (Portugal); Araújo, M.F., E-mail: faraujo@ctn.ist.utl.pt [Centro de Ciências e Tecnologias Nucleares (C2TN), Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, Estrada Nacional 10 (km 139,7), 2695-066 Bobadela LRS (Portugal); Gonçalves, A.P., E-mail: apg@ctn.ist.utl.pt [Centro de Ciências e Tecnologias Nucleares (C2TN), Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, Estrada Nacional 10 (km 139,7), 2695-066 Bobadela LRS (Portugal); Soares, R.M., E-mail: ruigusmao@hotmail.com [UNIARQ, Centro de Arqueologia da Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Letras, Alameda da Universidade, 1600-214 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2015-09-01

    The Phoenician arrival at Iberian coastal regions had an actual influence on indigenous technology. A collection of coeval metallurgical remains and artefacts was studied by EDXRF, micro-EDXRF, SEM–EDS and XRD, to identify certain features of the production and utilisation of metal in protohistoric Western Iberia. The composition of artefacts indicates a prevalence of Cu–Sn alloys with low content of impurities (Pb, As, Sb and Fe) during Late Bronze and Early Iron Ages, while the composition of slags points to a smaller loss of copper in Phoenician smelting operations. Moreover, the amount of iron impurities in metal proved to be a helpful discriminator between indigenous and Phoenician-based metallurgies, showing that later alloys have higher amounts of iron. Besides, the indigenous alloys have higher tin contents that can probably be explained by the easier access to metal sources of local communities.

  2. Combining X-ray based methods to study the protohistoric bronze technology in Western Iberia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valério, P.; Silva, R.J.C.; Soares, A.M.M.; Araújo, M.F.; Gonçalves, A.P.; Soares, R.M.

    2015-01-01

    The Phoenician arrival at Iberian coastal regions had an actual influence on indigenous technology. A collection of coeval metallurgical remains and artefacts was studied by EDXRF, micro-EDXRF, SEM–EDS and XRD, to identify certain features of the production and utilisation of metal in protohistoric Western Iberia. The composition of artefacts indicates a prevalence of Cu–Sn alloys with low content of impurities (Pb, As, Sb and Fe) during Late Bronze and Early Iron Ages, while the composition of slags points to a smaller loss of copper in Phoenician smelting operations. Moreover, the amount of iron impurities in metal proved to be a helpful discriminator between indigenous and Phoenician-based metallurgies, showing that later alloys have higher amounts of iron. Besides, the indigenous alloys have higher tin contents that can probably be explained by the easier access to metal sources of local communities

  3. Environmental Assessment for decommissioning the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Weeks Island Facility, Iberia Parish, Louisiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) Weeks Island site is one of five underground salt dome crude oils storage facilities operated by the Department of Energy (DOE). It is located in Iberia Parish, Louisiana. The purpose of the proposed action is to decommission the Weeks Island crude oil storage after the oil inventory has been transferred to other SPR facilities. Water intrusion into the salt dome storage chambers and the development of two sinkholes located near the aboveground facilities has created uncertain geophysical conditions. This Environmental Assessment describes the proposed decommissioning operation, its alternatives, and potential environmental impacts. Based on this analyses, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and has issued the Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  4. Climate change and population dynamics during the late Mesolithic and the Neolithic transition in Iberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Fernández López de Pablo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores how Early Holocene climate changes in the Western Mediterranean would have affected Late Mesolithic settlement distribution and subsistence strategies in Iberian Peninsula, thereby giving rise to various adaptive scenarios. The current radiocarbon data set concerning the Neolithisation process has revealed the rapidity of the spread of farming in Iberia. Considering both the implications of the last hunter-gatherers’ adaptation strategies and the population dynamics of agro-pastoral communities, we address the migration patterns underlying the Mesolithic- Neolithic transition. In conclusion, we propose that the initial colonization process was the result of two successive and spatially heterogeneous migrations: Maritime Pioneer Colonization and targeted migration to places favorable to the new economic system.

  5. Environmental Assessment for decommissioning the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Weeks Island Facility, Iberia Parish, Louisiana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) Weeks Island site is one of five underground salt dome crude oils storage facilities operated by the Department of Energy (DOE). It is located in Iberia Parish, Louisiana. The purpose of the proposed action is to decommission the Weeks Island crude oil storage after the oil inventory has been transferred to other SPR facilities. Water intrusion into the salt dome storage chambers and the development of two sinkholes located near the aboveground facilities has created uncertain geophysical conditions. This Environmental Assessment describes the proposed decommissioning operation, its alternatives, and potential environmental impacts. Based on this analyses, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and has issued the Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI)

  6. Post-depositional tectonic modification of VMS deposits in Iberia and its economic significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castroviejo, Ricardo; Quesada, Cecilio; Soler, Miguel

    2011-07-01

    The original stratigraphic relationships and structure of VMS deposits are commonly obscured by deformation. This can also affect their economic significance, as shown by several Iberian Pyrite Belt (IPB, SW Iberia) examples. The contrasting rheologic properties of the different lithologies present in an orebody (massive sulphide, feeder stockwork, alteration envelope, volcanic and sedimentary rocks) play a major role in determining its overall behaviour. Variscan thin-skinned tectonics led to stacking of the massive pyrite and stockwork bodies in duplex structures, resulting in local thickening and increased tonnage of minable mineralization. Furthermore, differential mechanical behaviour of the different sulphide minerals localised the detachments along relatively ductile sulphide-rich bands. The result was a geochemical and mineralogical reorganisation of most deposits, which now consist of barren, massive pyrite horses, bounded by base metal-rich ductile shear zones. Metal redistribution was enhanced by mobilisation of the base metal sulphides from the initially impoverished massive pyrite, through pressure-solution processes, to tensional fissures within the already ductile shear zones. In NW Iberia, VMS deposits were also strongly overprinted by the Variscan deformation during emplacement of the Cabo Ortegal and Órdenes allochthonous nappe complexes, but no stacking of the orebodies was produced. Original contacts were transposed, and the orebodies, their feeder zones and the country rock acquired pronounced laminar geometry. In lower-grade rocks (greenschist facies, Cabo Ortegal Complex), solution transfer mechanisms are common in pyrite, which remains in the brittle domain, while chalcopyrite shows ductile behaviour. In higher-grade rocks (amphibolite facies, Órdenes Complex), metamorphic recrystallisation overprints earlier deformation textures. The contrasting behaviour of the IPB and NW Iberian deposits is explained by key factors that affect their

  7. Matrilineal Heritage in Southern Iberia Reveals Deep Genetic Links between Continents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Candela L; Calderón, Rosario

    2017-03-01

    Within the Mediterranean Basin, the Iberian Peninsula has been a focus of attraction for several cultures and civilizations from its prehistory and history, making it a target territory for studying human migration patterns and peopling processes using a wide and heterogeneous spectrum of genomic markers. While its Cantabrian fringe represents the most regularly analysed area in terms of its mitochondrial diversity, the absence of monographic surveys on the maternal genetic composition of southern Iberians (i.e., Andalusians) is striking. In this work, we present a comprehensive view of various aspects of the human maternal heritage of the autochthonous Andalusian population regarding specific mitochondrial haplogroups considered key candidates to determine the genetic relationship between Europe and Africa. Data reveal that southern Iberian populations do not have genetically homogeneous mitochondrial DNA profiles, and their observed genetic affinity with north-western African populations represents strong signals of old, sustained and bidirectional human movements between the northern and southern shores of the western Mediterranean. Thorough analyses of African mtDNA haplogroups have shown that the most relevant African contribution within Iberian Peninsula could be explained as a consequence of prehistoric events. The subsequent historic episodes helped to strengthen the ties between both shores. In southern Iberia, mitochondrial and other genetic markers show that the Strait of Gibraltar together with its surrounding maritime areas should be considered a bridge between continents. More broadly, the Mediterranean Sea has acted as a transport surface, that is, as a permeable barrier to human migrations from prehistoric and historic times. In conclusion, this research contributes to our knowledge of processes that have shaped the recent human genetic history in the Mediterranean and, more specifically, of the population dynamics that the inhabitants of southern

  8. The 19 January 2013 windstorm over the North Atlantic: large-scale dynamics and impacts on Iberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarida L.R. Liberato

    2014-10-01

    Results show that Gong underwent an explosive development with ‘bomb’ characteristics between the Azores and the Iberian Peninsula, with a deepening rate unusually high for these latitudes. The rapid deepening of Gong was supported by the southerly displacement of the polar jet stream; by a pronounced cyclonic potential vorticity streamer which approached Iberia from northwest; and by the presence of an atmospheric river over the western and central subtropical North Atlantic converging into Gong׳s genesis region and then crossing the Atlantic basin, moving along with the storm towards Iberia. Understanding the dynamics of these high impact extreme events may be of relevance in view of improving extreme forecasts as well as of public awareness, policy making and risk assessment and management of severe weather in Portugal.

  9. The Sima de los Huesos hominids date to beyond U/Th equilibrium (>350 kyr) and perhaps to 400-500 kyr: New radiometric dates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, J.L.; Shamp, D.D.; Aramburu, Arantza; Arsuaga, J.L.; Carbonell, E.; Bermudez de Castro, Jose Maria

    2003-01-01

    The Sima de los Huesos site of the Atapuerca complex near Burgos, Spain contains the skeletal remains of at least 28 individuals in a mud breccia underlying an accumulation of the Middle Pleistocene cave bear (U. deningeri). Earlier dating estimates of 200 to 320 kyr were based on U-series and ESR methods applied to bones, made inaccurate by unquantifiable uranium cycling. We report here on a new discovery within the Sima de los Huesos of human bones stratigraphically underlying an in situ speleothem. U-series analyses of the speleothem shows the lower part to be at isotopic U/Th equilibrium, translating to a firm lower limit of 350 kyr for the SH hominids. Finite dates on the upper part suggest a speleothem growth rate of c. 1 cm/32 kyr. This rate, along with paleontological constraints, place the likely age of the hominids in the interval of 400 to 600 kyr. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. El Patrimonio artístico del convento de la Santísima Trinidad de Úbeda en los siglos XVI y XVII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Cruz García Torralbo

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Enmarcado en un contexto histórico de reformas eclesiásticas patrocinadas por Inocencio III (1198-1216, y de sensibilidad social ante el problema de la esclavitud de hermanos cristianos en poder musulmán, tiene lugar el nacimiento de la Orden de la Santísima Trinidad en 1198 y de la Merced en la centuria siguiente.

  11. Cross-sectional properties of the lower limb long bones in the Middle Pleistocene Sima de los Huesos sample (Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Laura; Carretero, José Miguel; García-González, Rebeca; Arsuaga, Juan Luis

    2018-04-01

    The recovery to date of three complete and five partial femora, seven complete tibiae, and four complete fibulae from the Atapuerca Sima de los Huesos site provides an opportunity to analyze the biomechanical cross-sectional properties in this Middle Pleistocene population and to compare them with those of other fossil hominins and recent modern humans. We have performed direct comparisons of the cross-sectional geometric parameters and reduced major axis (RMA) regression lines among different samples. We have determined that Atapuerca Sima de los Huesos (SH) fossils have significantly thicker cortices than those of recent modern humans for the three leg bones at all diaphyseal levels, except that of the femur at 35% of biomechanical length. The SH bones are similar to those of Neandertals and Middle Pleistocene humans and different from Homo sapiens in their diaphyseal cross-sectional shape and strength parameters. When standardized by estimated body size, both the SH and Neandertal leg bones have in general greater strength than those of H. sapiens from the early modern (EMH), Upper Paleolithic (UP), and recent populations (RH). The Sima de los Huesos human leg bones have, in general terms, an ancestral pattern similar to that of Pleistocene humans and differing from H. sapiens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Atmospheric forcing in the occurrence of precipitation extremes in Iberia: comparison between the eastern and western sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, J. A.; Mendes, A. R.

    2009-09-01

    The occurrence of severe precipitation deficits in the Iberian Peninsula has major socio-economic and environmental impacts. Several previous studies emphasized the leading role of the large-scale atmospheric flow in the occurrence of long periods with significant precipitation lacks. However, due to the high complexity of the Iberian orography, the sensitivity of the local rain-generating mechanisms to large-scale anomalies is remarkably different from region to region. A principal component analysis of the annual precipitation amounts recorded at a network of meteorological stations over the entire peninsula for the period 1961-1998 corroborates this heterogeneity. With particular significance is the contrast between the western and eastern sectors of the peninsula. In fact, taking into account earlier studies, precipitation in western Iberia is strongly related to large-scale atmospheric patterns over the North Atlantic. On the contrary, precipitation over eastern Iberia is much less associated with these large-scale forcing patterns, but much more linked to local/regional mechanisms. In order to test these hypotheses, eight meteorological stations, four in the western half (Porto, Bragança, Lisboa and Beja) and four in the eastern half (Barcelona, Valencia, Tortosa and Zaragoza) of Iberia are selected taking into account, firstly, the geographical location, and secondly the quality and homogeneity of the respective time series. A set of extremely wet/dry seasons was subsequently chosen for each weather station separately, taking into account the 90th percentile of the respective empirical distributions. The analysis of the different atmospheric fields (precipitation rates, convective precipitation, precipitable water, specific humidity, relative humidity, surface temperature, sea surface pressure, geopotential heights, wind components and vorticity at different isobaric levels) is undertaken by using data from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction

  13. Morphological description and comparison of the dental remains from Atapuerca-Sima de los Huesos site (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinón-Torres, María; Bermúdez de Castro, José María; Gómez-Robles, Aida; Prado-Simón, Leyre; Arsuaga, Juan Luis

    2012-01-01

    The systematic excavation of the Sima de los Huesos (SH) site in Sierra de Atapuerca (Burgos, Spain) has yielded the largest hominin collection worldwide for the Middle Pleistocene. The dental sample now consists of more than 500 teeth that provide exceptional opportunities to define the dental morphological pattern of a Middle Pleistocene population as well as develop hypotheses about the origins of the Neanderthals. The dental collection has now increased to over 533 specimens (525 permanent and 8 deciduous teeth), necessitating new morphological assessments. Thus, we present a detailed morphological description of the SH permanent dentition recovered up to 2007, accomplishing comparisons with European Middle Pleistocene hominins, Neanderthals, and early and contemporary Homo sapiens. We find that SH dentitions present all the morphological traits that, either in their degree of expression, frequency, or particular combination, are usually considered as typical of Homo neanderthalensis. This study ratifies the deep roots of the Neanderthal lineage in the Middle Pleistocene of Europe. In addition, SH teeth are morphologically "more Neanderthal" than other penecontemporaneous Middle Pleistocene samples such as Mauer or Arago, and even more derived than some classic Neanderthal samples. Thus, our study would not sustain the linearity of the accretion process hypothesized for the origins of the Neanderthals, and we suggest that other evolutionary models and scenarios should be explored for the Middle and Upper Pleistocene of Europe. We propose that more than one hominin lineage may have coexisted during the Middle Pleistocene in Europe. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Human calcanei from the Middle Pleistocene site of Sima de los Huesos (Sierra de Atapuerca, Burgos, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pablos, Adrián; Martínez, Ignacio; Lorenzo, Carlos; Sala, Nohemi; Gracia-Téllez, Ana; Arsuaga, Juan Luis

    2014-11-01

    The existence of calcanei in the fossil record prior to modern humans and Neandertals is very scarce. This skeletal element is fundamental to understanding the evolution of the morphology of the foot in human evolution. Here we present and metrically and comparatively describe 29 calcaneus remains from the Middle Pleistocene site of Sima de los Huesos (SH) (Sierra de Atapuerca, Burgos, Spain). These calcanei belong to 15 individuals (nine adults, two adolescents and four immature individuals). The metric and morphological differences in the calcanei among Middle and Late Pleistocene hominins tend to be subtle. However, the calcanei from SH are broad and robust with large articular surfaces and most significantly, exhibit a very projected sustentaculum tali. A biomechanical and phylogenetic interpretation is proffered to explain the observed morphology of these calcanei. It has been possible to propose tentative sex assignments for the SH calcanei based on size, using methods similar to those used to establish sex from the talus bones from SH. The estimation of stature based on the calcaneus provides a mean of 175.3 cm for males and 160.6 for females, which is similar to that obtained using other skeletal parts from the site. In sum, the SH calcanei are robust with a proportionally long tubercle and a projected sustentaculum tali, which are traits shared by Neandertals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Human talus bones from the Middle Pleistocene site of Sima de los Huesos (Sierra de Atapuerca, Burgos, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pablos, Adrián; Martínez, Ignacio; Lorenzo, Carlos; Gracia, Ana; Sala, Nohemi; Arsuaga, Juan Luis

    2013-07-01

    Here we present and describe comparatively 25 talus bones from the Middle Pleistocene site of the Sima de los Huesos (SH) (Sierra de Atapuerca, Burgos, Spain). These tali belong to 14 individuals (11 adult and three immature). Although variation among Middle and Late Pleistocene tali tends to be subtle, this study has identified unique morphological characteristics of the SH tali. They are vertically shorter than those of Late Pleistocene Homo sapiens, and show a shorter head and a broader lateral malleolar facet than all of the samples. Moreover, a few shared characters with Neanderthals are consistent with the hypothesis that the SH population and Neanderthals are sister groups. These shared characters are a broad lateral malleolar facet, a trochlear height intermediate between modern humans and Late Pleistocene H. sapiens, and a short middle calcaneal facet. It has been possible to propose sex assignment for the SH tali based on their size. Stature estimates based on these fossils give a mean stature of 174.4 cm for males and 161.9 cm for females, similar to that obtained based on the long bones from this same site. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Rates of anterior tooth wear in Middle Pleistocene hominins from Sima de los Huesos (Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermúdez de Castro, J M; Martinón-Torres, M; Sarmiento, S; Lozano, M; Arsuaga, J L; Carbonell, E

    2003-10-14

    This study presents quantitative data on the rates of anterior tooth wear in a Pleistocene human population. The data were obtained for the hominin sample of the Sima de los Huesos site in Atapuerca, Spain. The fossil record belongs to a minimum of 28 individuals of the same biological population, assigned to the species Homo heidelbergensis. We have estimated the original and the preserved crown height of the mandibular incisors (I1 and I2) of 11 individuals, whose age at death can be ascertained from the mineralization stage and tooth eruption. Results provide a range of 0.276-0.348 and 0.288-0.360 mm per year for the mean wear rate of the mandibular I1 and I2, respectively, in individuals approximately 16-18 years old. These data suggest that incisors' crowns would be totally worn out toward the fifth decade of life. Thus, we expect the life expectancy of this population to be seriously limited. These data, which could be contrasted with results obtained on hominins at other sites, could be of interest for estimating the death age of adult individuals.

  17. The terms 'Iberia' and 'Iberians' in Greek and Latin sources: a study about their origin and scope | Los términos "Iberia" e "Íberos" en las fuentes grecolatinas: estudio acerca de su origen y ámbito de aplicación

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    Adolfo Jerónimo Domínguez Monedero

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with two basic problems: establish the possible relationship between Pontic Iberia and the origin of the name of Spanish Iberia, studying the information which surely some Greek mythical stories comprise, and establish the contents exclusively geographical, and far of any ethnical consideration, which the word «Iberia» (Hispania had in ancient times, turning to the graeco-latin authors' witness. | Este artículo se propone dos objetivos fundamentales: establecer la relación que pudo existir entre la Iberia póntica y el origen del nombre de la Iberia hispánica, mediante el estudio de la posible información contenida en algunas narraciones míticas griegas, y establecer el contenido exclusivamente geográfico, y alejado de cualquier planteamiento de tipo étnico, que en la Antigüedad tuvo el término «Iberia» (Hispania, acudiendo a los testimonios de los autores grecolatinos.

  18. A mid-third millennium BC collective burial cave in central Iberia: El Rebollosillo (Torrelaguna, Madrid

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    Pedro Díaz-del-Río

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available El Rebollosillo is a small karstic cave located in the center of Iberia used for the disposition of secondary burials during the mid third millennium BC. We present bioanthropological, isotopic (87Sr/86Sr, δ13C and δ18O analyses and 16 radiocarbon dates on human remains, as well as mineralogical characterization of 6 beads (4 of them variscite from Palazuelo de las Cuevas, Zamora, and a quantitative analysis of 43 pottery fragments recovered during the 1989 excavations. A minimum of 21 individuals have been identified, covering all age ranges and sex. Low percentages of pathologies have been detected, mainly dental calculus and caries, with specific cases of cribra orbitalia, periostosis and arthritis. Only adults received a clearly individualized treatment, suggestive of achieved status. We interpret the evidence as a multi-staged mortuary program, the last phase of which is documented at the site, with previous stages perhaps carried out elsewhere, and we evaluate these results in the context of the regional funerary record.

  19. Magnetotelluric Imaging of the Lithosphere Across the Variscan Orogen (Iberian Autochthonous Domain, NW Iberia)

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    Alves Ribeiro, J.; Monteiro-Santos, F. A.; Pereira, M. F.; Díez Fernández, R.; Dias da Silva, Í.; Nascimento, C.; Silva, J. B.

    2017-12-01

    A new magnetotelluric (MT) survey comprising 17 MT soundings throughout a 30 km long N30°W transect in the Iberian autochthons domain of NW Iberia (Central Iberian Zone) is presented. The 2-D inversion model shows the resistivity structure of the continental crust up to 10 km depth, heretofore unavailable for this region of the Variscan Orogen. The MT model reveals a wavy structure separating a conductive upper layer underlain by a resistive layer, thus picturing the two main tectonic blocks of a large-scale D2 extensional shear zone (i.e., Pinhel shear zone). The upper layer represents a lower grade metamorphic domain that includes graphite-rich rocks. The lower layer consists of high-grade metamorphic rocks that experienced partial melting and are associated with granites (more resistive) emplaced during crustal thinning. The wavy structure is the result of superimposed crustal shortening responsible for the development of large-scale D3 folds (e.g., Marofa synform), later deflected and refolded by a D4 strike-slip shear zone (i.e., Juzbado-Penalva do Castelo shear zone). The later contribution to the final structure of the crust is marked by the intrusion of postkinematic granitic rocks and the propagation of steeply dipping brittle fault zones. Our study demonstrates that MT imaging is a powerful tool to understand complex crustal structures of ancient orogens in order to design future prospecting surveys for mineral deposits of economic interest.

  20. Laterality in the first Neolithic and Chalcolithic farming communities in northern Iberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez-Ballesteros, Eder; Arrizabalaga, Alvaro

    2015-05-01

    Laterality is a quality, widespread throughout the vertebrate kingdom. It consists in assigning different roles to each side of the body by granting predominance to one of the sides. Humans too display this quality and the specialization of each hemisphere in our brain was already present in the first vertebrates. We usually refer to right-handed and left-handed people depending on the upper limb that is assigned the dominant role. For a long time, it has been thought that the proportion of left-handed people in a population has remained constant in all cultures and during our evolution. However, laterality is affected by sociocultural influences and varies geographically and chronologically. Using archaeological remains, it is possible to obtain information about the laterality of our ancestors and determine laterality indices for past populations. We developed an experimental programme to determine which characteristics of a polished axe indicate the laterality of its maker. We describe a method based on the orientation of the edge and we study the Neolithic and Chalcolithic farming communities in northern Iberia to evaluate the laterality in those populations. The right/left laterality ratio for the Neolithic and Chalcolithic populations is very similar to the range detected for modern non-industrial societies.

  1. Mitochondrial haplogroup H1 in north Africa: an early holocene arrival from Iberia.

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    Claudio Ottoni

    Full Text Available The Tuareg of the Fezzan region (Libya are characterized by an extremely high frequency (61% of haplogroup H1, a mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA haplogroup that is common in all Western European populations. To define how and when H1 spread from Europe to North Africa up to the Central Sahara, in Fezzan, we investigated the complete mitochondrial genomes of eleven Libyan Tuareg belonging to H1. Coalescence time estimates suggest an arrival of the European H1 mtDNAs at about 8,000-9,000 years ago, while phylogenetic analyses reveal three novel H1 branches, termed H1v, H1w and H1x, which appear to be specific for North African populations, but whose frequencies can be extremely different even in relatively close Tuareg villages. Overall, these findings support the scenario of an arrival of haplogroup H1 in North Africa from Iberia at the beginning of the Holocene, as a consequence of the improvement in climate conditions after the Younger Dryas cold snap, followed by in situ formation of local H1 sub-haplogroups. This process of autochthonous differentiation continues in the Libyan Tuareg who, probably due to isolation and recent founder events, are characterized by village-specific maternal mtDNA lineages.

  2. Seamounts along the Iberian continental margins; Los montes submarinos en los margenes continentales de Iberia

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    Vazquez, J. T.; Alonso, B.; Fernandez-Puga, M. C.; Gomez-Ballesteros, M.; Iglesias, J.; Palomino, D.; Roque, C.; Ercilla, G.; Diaz-del-Rio, V.

    2015-07-01

    Seamounts are first-order morphological elements on continental margins and in oceanic domains, which have been extensively researched over recent decades in all branches of oceanography. These features favour the development of several geological processes, and their study gives us a better understanding of their geological and morphological domains. The seamounts around Iberia are numerous and provide excellent examples of the geo diversity of these morphological elements. Here we present a compilation of 15 seamounts around the Iberian Peninsula. These seamounts have different origins related to the geodynamic evolution (volcanism, extensional or compressive tectonics, and diapirism) of the domains where they are located. The current configuration of their relief has been influenced by Neogene-Quaternary tectonics. Their positioning controls the current morpho-sedimentary processes in the basins and on the margins, and high- lights the fact that downslope processes on seamount flanks (mass flows, turbidite flows, and landslides) and processes parallel to seamounts (contouritic currents) correspond to the major geological features they are associated with them. Biogenic structures commonly develop on the tops of seamounts where occasionally isolated shelves form that have carbonate-dominated sedimentation. (Author)

  3. Insights into the lithospheric architecture of Iberia and Morocco from teleseismic body-wave attenuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezada, Maximiliano J.

    2017-11-01

    The long and often complicated tectonic history of continental lithosphere results in lateral strength heterogeneities which in turn affect the style and localization of deformation. In this study, we produce a model for the attenuation structure of Iberia and northern Morocco using a waveform-matching approach on P-wave data from teleseismic deep-focus earthquakes. We find that attenuation is correlated with zones of intraplate deformation and seismicity, but do not find a consistent relationship between attenuation and recent volcanism. The main features of our model are low to moderate Δt* in the undeformed Tertiary basins of Spain and high Δt* in areas deformed by the Alpine orogeny. Additionally, low Δt* is found in areas where the Alboran slab is thought to be attached to the Iberian and African lithosphere, and high Δt* where it has detached. These features are robust with respect to inversion parameters, and are consistent with independent data. Very mild backazimuthal dependence of the measurements and comparison with previous results suggest that the source of the attenuation is sub-crustal. In line with other recent studies, the range of Δt* we observe is much larger than can be expected from lithospheric thickness or temperature variations.

  4. Middle Pleistocene lower back and pelvis from an aged human individual from the Sima de los Huesos site, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonmatí, Alejandro; Gómez-Olivencia, Asier; Arsuaga, Juan-Luis; Carretero, José Miguel; Gracia, Ana; Martínez, Ignacio; Lorenzo, Carlos; Bérmudez de Castro, José María; Carbonell, Eudald

    2010-10-26

    We report a nearly complete lumbar spine from the Middle Pleistocene site of the Sima de los Huesos (SH) that is assigned to the previously published SH male Pelvis 1 [Arsuaga JL, et al. (1999). Nature 399: 255-258]. The "SH Pelvis 1 individual" is a unique nearly complete lumbo-pelvic complex from the human Middle Pleistocene fossil record, and offers a rare glimpse into the anatomy and past lifeways of Homo heidelbergensis. A revised reconstruction of Pelvis 1, together with the current fossil evidence, confirms our previous hypothesis that the morphology of this pelvis represents the primitive pattern within the genus Homo. Here we argue that this primitive pattern is also characterized by sexual dimorphism in the pelvic canal shape, implying complicated deliveries. In addition, this individual shows signs of lumbar kyphotic deformity, spondylolisthesis, and Baastrup disease. This suite of lesions would have postural consequences and was most likely painful. As a result, the individual's daily physical activities would have been restricted to some extent. Reexamination of the age-at-death agrees with this individual being over 45 y old, relying on the modern human pattern of changes of the articular surfaces of the os coxae. The presence of degenerative pathological lesions and the advanced age-at-death of this individual make it the most ancient postcranial evidence of an aged individual in the human fossil record. Additional nonpathological SH lumbo-pelvic remains are consistent with previous hypotheses, suggesting a less-pronounced sagittal spinal curvature in Neandertals compared with Homo sapiens.

  5. Dentine morphology of Atapuerca-Sima de los Huesos lower molars: Evolutionary implications through three-dimensional geometric morphometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanegraef, Hester; Martinón-Torres, María; Martínez de Pinillos, Marina; Martín-Francés, Laura; Vialet, Amélie; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Bermúdez de Castro, José María

    2018-02-08

    This study aims to explore the affinities of the Sima de los Huesos (SH) population in relation to Homo neanderthalensis, Arago, and early and contemporary Homo sapiens. By characterizing SH intra-population variation, we test current models to explain the Neanderthal origins. Three-dimensional reconstructions of dentine surfaces of lower first and second molars were produced by micro-computed tomography. Landmarks and sliding semilandmarks were subjected to generalized Procrustes analysis and principal components analysis. SH is often similar in shape to Neanderthals, and both groups are generally discernible from Homo sapiens. For example, the crown height of SH and Neanderthals is lower than for modern humans. Differences in the presence of a mid-trigonid crest are also observed, with contemporary Homo sapiens usually lacking this feature. Although SH and Neanderthals show strong affinities, they can be discriminated based on certain traits. SH individuals are characterized by a lower intra-population variability, and show a derived dental reduction in lower second molars compared to Neanderthals. SH also differs in morphological features from specimens that are often classified as Homo heidelbergensis, such as a lower crown height and less pronounced mid-trigonid crest in the Arago fossils. Our results are compatible with the idea that multiple evolutionary lineages or populations coexisted in Europe during the Middle Pleistocene, with the SH paradigm phylogenetically closer to Homo neanderthalensis. Further research could support the possibility of SH as a separate taxon. Alternatively, SH could be a subspecies of Neanderthals, with the variability of this clade being remarkably higher than previously thought. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Geometric morphometric analysis of allometric variation in the mandibular morphology of the hominids of Atapuerca, Sima de los Huesos site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas, Antonio; Bastir, Markus

    2004-06-01

    Allometry is an important factor of morphological integration that contributes to the organization of the phenotype and its variation. Variation in the allometric shape of the mandible is particularly important in hominid evolution because the mandible carries important taxonomic traits. Some of these traits are known to covary with size, particularly the retromolar space, symphyseal curvature, and position of the mental foramen. The mandible is a well studied system in the context of the evolutionary development of complex morphological structures because it is composed of different developmental units that are integrated within a single bone. In the present study, we investigated the allometric variation of two important developmental units that are separated by the inferior nerve (a branch of CN V3). We tested the null hypothesis that there would be no difference in allometric variation between the two components. Procrustes-based geometric morphometrics of 20 two-dimensional (2D) landmarks were analyzed by multivariate regressions of shape on size in samples from 121 humans, 48 chimpanzees, and 50 gorillas (all recent specimens), eight fossil hominids from Atapuerca, Sima de los Huesos (AT-SH), and 17 Neandertals. The findings show that in all of the examined species, there was significantly greater allometric variation in the supra-nerve unit than in the infra-nerve unit. The formation of the retromolar space exhibited an allometric relationship with the supra-nerve unit in all of the species studied. The formation of the chin-like morphology is an "apodynamic" feature of the infra-nerve unit in the AT-SH hominids. The results of this study support the hypothesis that allometry contributes to the organization of variation in complex morphological structures. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Iberia : capital federal de la IIª República Española (Un proyecto de Rubio i Tuduri

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    Carlos Sambricio

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available A los pocos meses de proclamarse, en 1931, la II República Española, Nicolás Rubio i Tuduri presentaba —en el marco de la Exposición organizada por la Asociación de Arquitectos de Cataluña, celebrada en la barcelonesa Galería Maragall— una propuesta un tanto sorprendente: el proyecto de una nueva Capital Federal de la República Española que él denominaba Iberia.

  8. Suicide in Batman, Southeastern Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altindag, Abdurrahman; Ozkan, Mustafa; Oto, Remzi

    2005-01-01

    The southeastern part of Turkey has comparatively high female suicide rates. We aimed to research social, economic, cultural, and psychiatric reasons of suicides in Batman in a case-controlled psychological autopsy study comparing suicides with matched community controls. The female suicide rate was 9.3 per 100.000 and the female/male ratio was…

  9. The hydro-geomorphological event of December 1909 in Iberia: social impacts and triggering conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Susana; Ramos, Alexandre M.; Zêzere, José L.; Trigo, Ricardo M.; Vaquero, José M.

    2015-04-01

    According to the Disaster database (Zêzere et al., 2014), a Disaster event is a set of flood and landslide cases sharing the same trigger, which may have a widespread spatial extension and a certain magnitude. The Disaster event with the highest number of floods and landslides cases occurred in Portugal in the period 1865-2010 was registered between 20 and 28 December 1909. This event also caused important socioeconomic impacts over the Spanish territory, especially in the Douro basin and in the northern section of the Tagus basin. Despite such widespread impact in western Iberia there is no scientific publication addressing the triggering conditions and the social consequences of this disastrous event. Therefore, this work aims to characterize the spatial distribution and social impacts of the December 1909 hydro-geomorphologic event over Iberia. In addition, the meteorological conditions that triggered the event are analysed using the 20 Century Reanalysis dataset from NOAA and rainfall data from Iberian meteorological stations. The historical data source used to analyse the event of December 1909 in Portugal is the Disaster Database (Zêzere et al., 2014). This database contains detailed data on the spatial location and social impacts (fatalities, injuries, missing people, evacuated and homeless people) of hydro-geomorphologic disasters (flood and landslide cases) occurred in Portugal (1865-2010) and referred in newspapers. In Spain the data collection process was supported by the systematic analysis of daily newspapers and using the same entry criteria of the Disaster database, to ensure data integrity and enable comparison with Portuguese records. The Iberian Peninsula was spatially affected during this event along the SW-NE direction spanning between Lisbon, Santarém, Porto and Guarda (in Portugal), until Salamanca, Valladolid, Zamora, Orense, León, Palencia (in Spain). The social and economic impacts of the December 1909 disaster event were higher on the

  10. Metric and morphological study of the upper cervical spine from the Sima de los Huesos site (Sierra de Atapuerca, Burgos, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Olivencia, Asier; Carretero, José Miguel; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Rodríguez-García, Laura; García-González, Rebeca; Martínez, Ignacio

    2007-07-01

    In this article, the upper cervical spine remains recovered from the Sima de los Huesos (SH) middle Pleistocene site in the Sierra de Atapuerca (Burgos, Spain) are described and analyzed. To date, this site has yielded more than 5000 human fossils belonging to a minimum of 28 individuals of the species Homo heidelbergensis. At least eleven individuals are represented by the upper cervical (C1 and C2) specimens: six adults and five subadults, one of which could represent an adolescent individual. The most complete adult vertebrae (three atlases and three axes) are described, measured, and compared with other fossil hominins and modern humans. These six specimens are associated with one another and represent three individuals. In addition, one of these sets of cervical vertebrae is associated with Cranium 5 (Individual XXI) from the site. The metric analysis demonstrates that the Sima de los Huesos atlases and axes are metrically more similar to Neandertals than to our modern human comparative sample. The SH atlases share with Neandertals a sagittally elongated canal. The most remarkable feature of the SH (and Neandertal) axes is that they are craniocaudally low and mediolaterally wide compared to our modern male sample. Morphologically, the SH sample shares with Neandertals a higher frequency of caudally projected anterior atlas arch, which could reflect greater development of the longus colli muscle. In other features, such as the frequency of weakly developed tubercles for the attachment of the transverse ligament of the atlas, the Sima de los Huesos fossils show intermediate frequencies between our modern comparative samples and the Neandertals, which could represent the primitive condition. Our results are consistent with the previous phylogenetic interpretation of H. heidelbergensis as an exclusively European species, ancestral only to H. neanderthalensis.

  11. The record precipitation and flood event in Iberia in December 1876: description and synoptic analysis

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    Ricardo Machado Trigo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The first week of December 1876 was marked by extreme weather conditions that affected the south-western sector of the Iberian Peninsula, leading to an all-time record flow in two large international rivers. As a direct consequence, several Portuguese and Spanish towns and villages located in the banks of both rivers suffered serious flood damage on 7 December 1876. These unusual floods were amplified by the preceding particularly autumn wet months, with October 1876 presenting extremely high precipitation anomalies for all western Iberia stations. Two recently digitised stations in Portugal (Lisbon and Evora, present a peak value on 5 December 1876. Furthermore, the values of precipitation registered between 28 November and 7 December were so remarkable that, the episode of 1876 still corresponds to the maximum average daily precipitation values for temporal scales between 2 and 10 days. Using several different data sources, such as historical newspapers of that time, meteorological data recently digitised from several stations in Portugal and Spain and the recently available 20th Century Reanalysis, we provide a detailed analysis on the socio-economic impacts, precipitation values and the atmospheric circulation conditions associated with this event. The atmospheric circulation during these months was assessed at the monthly, daily and sub-daily scales. All months considered present an intense negative NAO index value, with November 1876 corresponding to the lowest NAO value on record since 1865. We have also computed a multivariable analysis of surface and upper air fields in order to provide some enlightening into the evolution of the synoptic conditions in the week prior to the floods. These events resulted from the continuous pouring of precipitation registered between 28 November and 7 December, due to the consecutive passage of Atlantic low-pressure systems fuelled by the presence of an atmospheric-river tropical moisture flow over

  12. Spring precipitation in inland Iberia: land-atmosphere interactions and recycling and amplification processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios-Entenza, A.; Miguez-Macho, G.

    2012-04-01

    Inland Iberia, the highest peak of rainfall occurs in May, being critical for agriculture in large water-limited areas. We investigate here the role of the soil moisture - precipitation feedback in the intensification of the water cycle in spring and in the aforementioned maximum of precipitation in the interior of the Iberian Peninsula. We conducted paired, high-resolution simulations with the WRF-ARW model, using a nested grid that covers the Iberian Peninsula at 5km resolution. Eleven months of May (from May 2000 to May 2010) and eleven months of January (from January 2000 to January 2010) were selected. For each month, we performed two simulations: a control one, where all land-atmosphere fluxes are normally set up, and the corresponding experiment, where evapotranspired water over land in the nested domain is not incorporated into the atmosphere, although the corresponding latent heat flux is considered in the surface energy budget. As expected, precipitation is higher in the control runs with respect to the experiments and, furthermore, this fraction of extra rainfall substantially exceeds the value of the analytical recycling ratio. This suggests that amplification processes, and not only direct recycling, may play an important role in the maximum of precipitation observed in the Iberian spring. We estimated the amplification effect to be as large as the recycling with calculations using analytical methods of separation of both contributions. We also develop here a procedure to quantify the amplification impact using the no-ET experiment and results confirm those obtained analytically. These results suggest that in the Iberian spring, under favourable synoptic conditions and given a small supply of external moisture that triggers large-scale convection, land-atmosphere interactions can intensify and sustain convective processes in time. Thus there is a large impact of local land-surface fluxes on precipitation and that alterations of anthropogenic nature can

  13. Exceptional winter storms affecting Western Iberia and extremes: diagnosis, modelling and multi-model ensemble projection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberato, M. L. R.; Pinto, J. G.; Gil, V.; Ramos, A. M.; Trigo, R. M.

    2017-12-01

    Extratropical cyclones dominate autumn and winter weather over Western Europe and particularly over the Iberian Peninsula. Intense, high-impact storms are one of the major weather risks in the region, mostly due to the simultaneous occurrence of high winds and extreme precipitation events. These intense extratropical cyclones may result in windstorm damage, flooding and coastal storm surges, with large societal impacts. In Portugal, due to the extensive human use of coastal areas, the natural and built coastal environments have been amongst the most affected. In this work several historical winter storms that adversely affected the Western Iberian Peninsula are studied in detail in order to contribute to an improved assessment of the characteristics of these events. The diagnosis has been performed based on instrumental daily precipitation and wind records, on satellite images, on reanalysis data and through model simulations. For several examples the synoptic evolution and upper-level dynamics analysis of physical processes controlling the life cycle of extratropical storms associated with the triggering of the considered extreme events has also been accomplished. Furthermore, the space-time variability of the exceptionally severe storms affecting Western Iberia over the last century and under three climate scenarios (the historical simulation, the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios) is presented. These studies contribute to improving the knowledge of atmospheric dynamics controlling the life cycle of midlatitude storms associated to severe weather (precipitation and wind) in the Iberian Peninsula. AcknowledgementsThis work is supported by the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT), Portugal, through project UID/GEO/50019/2013 - Instituto Dom Luiz. A. M. Ramos is also supported by a FCT postdoctoral grant (FCT/DFRH/SFRH/BPD/84328/2012).

  14. PERFORMATIVIDAD DE LA ANSIEDAD: ENCUENTROS MATERIALES ENTRE ROMA Y LAS COMUNIDADES LOCALES EN EL NOROESTE DE IBERIA (The Performativity of Anxiety: Material Encounters between Rome and Local Communities in Northwestern Iberia

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    Javier Rodríguez-Corral

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza desde una aproximación performativa la formación de topografías emocionales en relación a los castros de la Segunda Edad del Hierro (siglos II-I a. C. en el noroeste de Iberia. En particular, explora cómo los individuos, al incardinarse con diversos tipos de formas y prácticas materiales e iconográficas, fueron afectados emocionalmente de un modo que ayudó a estructurar la realidad social de las comunidades locales. Al examinar la manera en que los individuos se relacionaron con este mundo material, podemos trazar la creación de una nueva estrategia sociomaterial de resistencia, que fue crucial para gestionar sentimientos tales como la ansiedad, consecuencia de la presencia de Roma en la región. ENGLISH: This paper analyzes the shaping of emotional topographies in connection with late Iron Age hillforts (2nd-1st centuries BC in Northwestern Iberia using a performative approach. In particular, it explores how, by engaging with various material and iconographic forms and practices, people were affected emotionally in ways that helped to structure the social reality of the local communities. By examining the manner in which people engaged with this material world, we can trace the creation of new sociomaterial strategies of resistance, which were crucial in managing anxieties caused by Roman presence in the region.

  15. Fuel load and flight ranges of blackcaps Sylvia atricapilla in northern Iberia during autumn and spring migrations

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    JUAN ARIZAGA, EMILIO BARBA

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Fuel accumulation, mainly as fatty acids, is one of the main characteristics of migratory birds. Studying to what extent each population or species manages fuel load and how it varies along routes of migration or between seasons (autumn and spring migrations is crucial to our understanding of bird migration strategies. Our aim here was to analyse whether migratory blackcaps Sylvia atricapilla passing through northern Iberia differ in their mean fuel loads, rate of fuel accumulation and 'potential' flight ranges between migration seasons. Blackcaps were mist netted for 4 h-periods beginning at dawn from 16 September to 15 November 2003–2005, and from 1 March to 30 April 2004–2006 in a European Atlantic hedgerow at Loza, northern Iberia. Both fuel load and fuel deposition rate (this latter assessed with difference in body mass of within-season recaptured individuals were higher in autumn than in spring. Possible hypotheses explaining these results could be seasonal-associated variations in food availability (likely lower during spring than during autumn, the fact that a fraction of the migrants captured in spring could breed close to the study area and different selective pressures for breeding and wintering [Current Zoology 55 (6: 401–410, 2009].

  16. From the Atlas to the Variscan Core of Iberia: Progress on the Knowledge of Mantle Anisotropy from SKS Splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz Cusi, J.; Grevemeyer, I.; Thomas, C.; Harnafi, M.

    2012-12-01

    The data provided by the dense Iberarray broad-band seismic network deployed in the framework of the large-scale TopoIberia project, as well as from permanent broad-band stations operating in Morocco, Portugal and Spain has allowed to get a large scale view of the anisotropic properties of the mantle beneath the western termination of the Mediterranean region and its transition to the Atlantic ocean. In this contribution we will gather the previously presented results with the analysis of the data provided by IberArray stations in the central part of Iberia, broad-band OBSs deployments in the Alboran Sea and the Gulf of Cadiz and new seismic networks deployed in the High Atlas and the Moroccan Meseta. The High Atlas has been investigated using data from a broad-band network installed by the Univ. of Munster with a primary focus on the study of the properties of the deep mantle. Additionally, up to 10 Iberarray stations have been shifted southward to complete the survey along the Atlas and to investigate the Moroccan Meseta. In agreement with the results presented by the Picasso team along a profile crossing the Atlas northward, the anisotropy observed in this area is small (0.6 - 0.9 s) with a fast polarization direction (FPD) oriented roughly E-W. It is important to note that there is a very significant number of high quality events without evidence for anisotropy. This may be the result of the combined effect of two or more anisotropic layers or of the presence of a large vertical component of flow in the upper mantle. Moving northwards, the first TopoIberia-Iberarray deployment in the Betics-Alboran zone has evidenced a spectacular rotation of the FPD along the Gibraltar arc following the curvature of the Rif-Betic chain, from roughly N65E beneath the Betics to close to N65W beneath the Rif chain. To complete this image, we have now processed data from two OBS deployments in the Alboran Sea and Gulf of Cadiz installed by Geomar as part of the TopoMed project

  17. High-resolution U-series dates from the Sima de los Huesos hominids yields 600 +∞-66: implications for the evolution of the early Neanderthal lineage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, James L.; Williams, Ross W.; Rosenbauer, Robert J.; Aramburu, Arantza; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Garcia, Nuria; Cuenca-Bescos, Gloria

    2007-01-01

    The Sima de los Huesos site of the Atapuerca complex near Burgos, Spain contains the skeletal remains of at least 28 individuals in a mud-breccia underlying an accumulation of the Middle Pleistocene cave bear (Ursus deningeri). We report here on new high-precision dates on the recently discovered speleothem SRA-3 overlaying human bones within the Sima de los Huesos. Earlier analyses of this speleothem by TIMS (thermal-ionization mass-spectrometry) showed the lower part to be indistinguishable from internal isotopic equilibrium at the precision of the TIMS instrumentation used, yielding minimum age of 350 kyr (kyr = 103 yr before present). Reanalysis of six samples of SRA-3 by inductively-coupled plasma-multicollector mass-spectrometry (ICP-MS) produced high-precision analytical results allowing calculation of finite dates. The new dates cluster around 600 kyr. A conservative conclusion takes the lower error limit ages as the minimum age of the speleothem, or 530 kyr. This places the SH hominids at the very beginnings of the Neandertal evolutionary lineage.

  18. Exhumación, identificación y causa de muerte en 1936 de los restos humanos recuperados en la sima El Raso de Urbasa (Navarra

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    Herrasti, L., Ríos, L., Pérez de la Iglesia, L., Baeta, M., Nuñez, C., Martínez de Pancorbo, M., CAstaños, P., Castaños, J., Etxeberria, F.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan, en este caso, los resultados de la investigación llevada a cabo en una sima de Urbasa (Navarra, a la que fueron arrojados los cadáveres de diez personas asesinadas en 1936, con el propósito de ocultar el crimen, durante la Guerra Civil española. Se trata de población civil, que fue asesinada con carácter extrajudicial. Como aspecto tafonómico a destacar, los restos humanos presentan marcas de carroñeo provocado por perros que cayeron o fueron echados a la sima en la misma época. A partir del análisis histórico, arqueológico, antropológico y genético, se establece la identidad y la causa de muerte de estas víctimas como parte de las investigaciones desarrolladas en materia de Memoria Histórica. Las evidencias de carácter forense confirman los hechos conocidos históricamente con carácter objetivo, como evidencia del crimen cometido contra víctimas de población civil.

  19. SiMa Cells for a Serotype Specific and Sensitive Cell-Based Neutralization Test for Botulinum Toxin A and E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, Nicola; Rajagopal, Shalini; Stickings, Paul; Sesardic, Dorothea

    2017-07-20

    Botulinum toxins (BoNTs), of which there are seven serotypes, are among the most potent neurotoxins, with serotypes A, B and E causing human botulism. Antitoxins form the first line of treatment for botulism, and functional, highly sensitive in vitro methods for toxin neutralization are needed to replace the current in vivo methods used for determination of antitoxin potency. In this preliminary proof of concept study, we report the development of a neutralization test using the neuroblastoma SiMa cell line. The assay is serotype specific for either BoNT/A or BoNT/E, which both cleave unique sequences on SNAP-25 within SiMa cells. The end point is simple immunodetection of cleaved SNAP-25 from cell lysates with antibodies detecting only the newly exposed sequence on SNAP-25. Neutralizing antibodies prevent the toxin-induced cleavage of SNAP-25. The toxin neutralization assay, with an EC50 of ~2 mIU/mL determined with a standardized reference antiserum, is more sensitive than the mouse bioassays. Relevance was demonstrated with commercial and experimental antitoxins targeting different functional domains, and of known in vivo neutralizing activities. This is the first report describing a simple, specific, in vitro cell-based assay for the detection of neutralizing antibodies against BoNT/A and BoNT/E with a sensitivity exceeding that of the mouse bioassay.

  20. Extreme summer temperatures in Iberia: health impacts and associated synoptic conditions

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    R. García-Herrera

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effect of extreme summer temperatures on daily mortality in two large cities of Iberia: Lisbon (Portugal and Madrid (Spain. Daily mortality and meteorological variables are analysed using the same methodology based on Box-Jenkins models. Results reveal that in both cases there is a triggering effect on mortality when maximum daily temperature exceeds a given threshold (34°C in Lisbon and 36°C in Madrid. The impact of most intense heat events is very similar for both cities, with significant mortality values occurring up to 3 days after the temperature threshold has been surpassed. This impact is measured as the percentual increase of mortality associated to a 1°C increase above the threshold temperature. In this respect, Lisbon shows a higher impact, 31%, as compared with Madrid at 21%. The difference can be attributed to demographic and socio-economic factors. Furthermore, the longer life span of Iberian women is critical to explain why, in both cities, females are more susceptible than males to heat effects, with an almost double mortality impact value.

    The analysis of Sea Level Pressure (SLP, 500hPa geopotential height and temperature fields reveals that, despite being relatively close to each other, Lisbon and Madrid have relatively different synoptic circulation anomalies associated with their respective extreme summer temperature days. The SLP field reveals higher anomalies for Lisbon, but extending over a smaller area. Extreme values in Madrid seem to require a more western location of the Azores High, embracing a greater area over Europe, even if it is not as deep as for Lisbon. The origin of the hot and dry air masses that usually lead to extreme heat days in both cities is located in Northern Africa. However, while Madrid maxima require wind blowing directly from the south, transporting heat from Southern Spain and Northern Africa, Lisbon maxima occur under more easterly

  1. Extreme summer temperatures in Iberia: health impacts and associated synoptic conditions

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    R. García-Herrera

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effect of extreme summer temperatures on daily mortality in two large cities of Iberia: Lisbon (Portugal and Madrid (Spain. Daily mortality and meteorological variables are analysed using the same methodology based on Box-Jenkins models. Results reveal that in both cases there is a triggering effect on mortality when maximum daily temperature exceeds a given threshold (34°C in Lisbon and 36°C in Madrid. The impact of most intense heat events is very similar for both cities, with significant mortality values occurring up to 3 days after the temperature threshold has been surpassed. This impact is measured as the percentual increase of mortality associated to a 1°C increase above the threshold temperature. In this respect, Lisbon shows a higher impact, 31%, as compared with Madrid at 21%. The difference can be attributed to demographic and socio-economic factors. Furthermore, the longer life span of Iberian women is critical to explain why, in both cities, females are more susceptible than males to heat effects, with an almost double mortality impact value. The analysis of Sea Level Pressure (SLP, 500hPa geopotential height and temperature fields reveals that, despite being relatively close to each other, Lisbon and Madrid have relatively different synoptic circulation anomalies associated with their respective extreme summer temperature days. The SLP field reveals higher anomalies for Lisbon, but extending over a smaller area. Extreme values in Madrid seem to require a more western location of the Azores High, embracing a greater area over Europe, even if it is not as deep as for Lisbon. The origin of the hot and dry air masses that usually lead to extreme heat days in both cities is located in Northern Africa. However, while Madrid maxima require wind blowing directly from the south, transporting heat from Southern Spain and Northern Africa, Lisbon maxima occur under more easterly conditions, when Northern African air

  2. Extensional Fault Evolution and its Flexural Isostatic Response During Iberia-Newfoundland Rifted Margin Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Romeu, J.; Kusznir, N.; Manatschal, G.; Roberts, A.

    2017-12-01

    During the formation of magma-poor rifted margins, upper lithosphere thinning and stretching is achieved by extensional faulting, however, there is still debate and uncertainty how faults evolve during rifting leading to breakup. Seismic data provides an image of the present-day structural and stratigraphic configuration and thus initial fault geometry is unknown. To understand the geometric evolution of extensional faults at rifted margins it is extremely important to also consider the flexural response of the lithosphere produced by fault displacement resulting in footwall uplift and hangingwall subsidence. We investigate how the flexural isostatic response to extensional faulting controls the structural development of rifted margins. To achieve our aim, we use a kinematic forward model (RIFTER) which incorporates the flexural isostatic response to extensional faulting, crustal thinning, lithosphere thermal loads, sedimentation and erosion. Inputs for RIFTER are derived from seismic reflection interpretation and outputs of RIFTER are the prediction of the structural and stratigraphic consequences of recursive sequential faulting and sedimentation. Using RIFTER we model the simultaneous tectonic development of the Iberia-Newfoundland conjugate rifted margins along the ISE01-SCREECH1 and TGS/LG12-SCREECH2 seismic lines. We quantitatively test and calibrate the model against observed target data restored to breakup time. Two quantitative methods are used to obtain this target data: (i) gravity anomaly inversion which predicts Moho depth and continental lithosphere thinning and (ii) reverse post-rift subsidence modelling to give water and Moho depths at breakup time. We show that extensional faulting occurs on steep ( 60°) normal faults in both proximal and distal parts of rifted margins. Extensional faults together with their flexural isostatic response produce not only sub-horizontal exhumed footwall surfaces (i.e. the rolling hinge model) and highly rotated (60

  3. El gobierno del caballo montado en la antigüedad clásica con especial referencia al caso de Iberia. Bocados, espuelas y la cuestión de la silla de montar, estribos y herraduras

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    Quesada Sanz, Fernando

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available We examine the different elements of the horse’s tack in Antiquity: bits, spurs, saddle, stirrups and the problem of horseshoes, with special reference to the case of Iberia.

    Se analizan los elementos de control del caballo montado en la Antigüedad: bocados, espuelas, silla y estribos, y se hace referencia al problema de las herraduras, todo ello con especial referencia al caso de la antigua Iberia.

  4. On Childhood in Prehistory: The Analysis of Inner Iberia Societies from the VIth and IIIrd Millenia BC

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    Ana Mercedes Herrero Corral

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Research about children had been traditionally forgotten by the archaeology due to some factors as their difficult preservation and identification. The literature on Prehistory has mostly forgotten children, who had received a marginal and inappropriate treatment for been considered as passive members of the society. However, immature individuals belong to the community and are determinants for an appropriated reproduction of their social, economic and ideological patterns, through the learning processes, initiation rituals, etc. It appears absolutely necessary to take children into an account if we want to approach past societies. The main goal of this research is to collect and analyze the different funerary evidences of children, as it could provide valuable information to approach their social and economic role in prehistoric societies. In particular, it would be focus on inner Iberia sites from 5500 to 2000 cal AC (Neolithic and Copper Age, as during this period of time, crucial transformations occur in Western Europe prehistoric societies.

  5. Fluid mixing and the deep biosphere of a fossil Lost City-type hydrothermal system at the Iberia Margin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Frieder; Humphris, Susan E; Guo, Weifu; Schubotz, Florence; Schwarzenbach, Esther M; Orsi, William D

    2015-09-29

    Subseafloor mixing of reduced hydrothermal fluids with seawater is believed to provide the energy and substrates needed to support deep chemolithoautotrophic life in the hydrated oceanic mantle (i.e., serpentinite). However, geosphere-biosphere interactions in serpentinite-hosted subseafloor mixing zones remain poorly constrained. Here we examine fossil microbial communities and fluid mixing processes in the subseafloor of a Cretaceous Lost City-type hydrothermal system at the magma-poor passive Iberia Margin (Ocean Drilling Program Leg 149, Hole 897D). Brucite-calcite mineral assemblages precipitated from mixed fluids ca. 65 m below the Cretaceous paleo-seafloor at temperatures of 31.7 ± 4.3 °C within steep chemical gradients between weathered, carbonate-rich serpentinite breccia and serpentinite. Mixing of oxidized seawater and strongly reducing hydrothermal fluid at moderate temperatures created conditions capable of supporting microbial activity. Dense microbial colonies are fossilized in brucite-calcite veins that are strongly enriched in organic carbon (up to 0.5 wt.% of the total carbon) but depleted in (13)C (δ(13)C(TOC) = -19.4‰). We detected a combination of bacterial diether lipid biomarkers, archaeol, and archaeal tetraethers analogous to those found in carbonate chimneys at the active Lost City hydrothermal field. The exposure of mantle rocks to seawater during the breakup of Pangaea fueled chemolithoautotrophic microbial communities at the Iberia Margin, possibly before the onset of seafloor spreading. Lost City-type serpentinization systems have been discovered at midocean ridges, in forearc settings of subduction zones, and at continental margins. It appears that, wherever they occur, they can support microbial life, even in deep subseafloor environments.

  6. Palaeomagnetism in the Sines massif (SW Iberia) revisited: evidences for Late Cretaceous hydrothermal alteration and associated partial remagnetization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, P.; Silva, P. F.; Moita, P.; Kratinová, Z.; Marques, F. O.; Henry, B.

    2013-10-01

    This study revisits the palaeomagnetism of the Sines massif (˜76 Ma) in the southwestern Iberian Margin (Portugal). The palaeomagnetic analysis was complemented by a comprehensive study of the magnetic mineralogy by means of rock magnetic measurements and petrographic observations. The overall dispersion of palaeomagnetic directions (declination ranging between ˜N0° and ˜N50°) and their migration observed during stepwise demagnetizations have revealed the superposition of remanence components. We interpret this complex palaeomagnetic behaviour as related to the regional hydrothermalism associated with the last stages of Late Cretaceous magmatic activity. This environment favoured mineralogical alteration and a partial chemical remagnetization, giving in most samples a composite magnetization, which has been erroneously interpreted as the primary one in a previous study, then leading to a questionable model for Cretaceous Iberia rotation. Nonetheless, for some samples a single component has been isolated. Interesting rock magnetic properties and microscopic observations point to a well-preserved magnetic mineralogy for these samples, with magnetite clearly of primary origin. The associated ChRM mean direction (D/I = 3.9°/46.5°, α95 = 1.7°, N = 31 samples) then represents the true primary magnetization of the Sines massif. This new palaeomagnetic direction and the corresponding palaeomagnetic pole (long = 332.0°, lat = -79.5°, A95 = 1.7°) agrees with those from the other palaeomagnetic works for the same period and region (e.g. the Sintra and Monchique massifs), yielding a lack of significant rotation of Iberia relative to stable Europe since the uppermost Late Cretaceous (Campanian-Maastrichtian).

  7. The Filador Rock Shelter (Margalef de Montsant, Tarragona and its cultural and chronological context in Northeastern Iberia

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    García-Argüelles Andreu, Pilar

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we review briefly our twenty-years of excavation in the Filador rock shelter. We give the most important results in sedimentology, faunal remains, pollen, lithic industries and radiocarbon dates that we have obtained since 1979. We give also our opinion about the chronocultural situation of the site in the epipalaeolithic period in the northeastern Iberia, based on the radiocabon dates known until now. This is the first synthetic publication of this major site since professor Fortea reviewed the ancient excavations in 1973. The Filador rock shelter keeps on being one of the bases of the chronocultural structure of Epipalaeolithic in norteastern Iberia.

    En este articulo se pasa revista, de forma resumida, a 20 años de excavaciones en el abrigo del Filador y se dan a conocer los resultados más importantes (sedimentología, fauna, polen, industria, dataciones, etc.., obtenidos con la aplicación de nuevas técnicas de estudio desde 1979. Del mismo modo replanteamos su ubicación cronocultural dentro del marco geográfico del NE peninsular a partir de las dataciones radiocarbónicas conocidas hasta el momento. Se trata del primer trabajo de síntesis sobre el yacimiento realizado con posterioridad al estudio de J. Fortea (Fortea 1973; el Filador sigue siendo un referente obligado del Epipaleolítico de la zona en tanto que muestra la mayoría de las facies cronoculturales que definen esta fase en el NE ibérico.

  8. Extreme Mesozoic crustal thinning in the Eastern Iberia margin: The example of the Columbrets Basin (Valencia Trough)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohn, G.; Etheve, N.; Frizon de Lamotte, D.; Roca, E.; Tugend, J.; Gómez-Romeu, J.

    2017-12-01

    Eastern Iberia preserves a complex succession of Mesozoic rifts partly or completely inverted during the Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic in relation with Africa-Eurasia convergence. Notably, the Valencia Trough, classically viewed as part of the Cenozoic West Mediterranean basins, preserves in its southwestern part a thick Mesozoic succession (locally »10km thick) over a highly thinned continental basement (locally only »3,5km thick). This sub-basin referred to as the Columbrets Basin, represents a Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous hyper-extended rift basin weakly overprinted by subsequent events. Its initial configuration is well preserved allowing us to unravel its 3D architecture and tectono-stratigraphic evolution in the frame of the Mesozoic evolution of eastern Iberia. The Columbrets Basin benefits from an extensive dataset combining high resolution reflection seismic profiles, drill holes, refraction seismic data and Expanding Spread Profiles. Its Mesozoic architecture is controlled by interactions between extensional deformation and halokinesis involving the Upper Triassic salt. The thick uppermost Triassic to Cretaceous succession describes a general synclinal shape, progressively stretched and dismembered towards the basin borders. The SE-border of the basin is characterized by a large extensional detachment fault acting at crustal scale and interacting locally with the Upper Triassic décollement. This extensional structure accommodates the exhumation of the continental basement and part of the crustal thinning. Eventually our results highlight the complex interaction between extreme crustal thinning and occurrence of a pre-rift salt level for the deformation style and tectono-stratigraphic evolution of hyper-extended rift basins.

  9. Flow in the western Mediterranean shallow mantle: Insights from xenoliths in Pliocene alkali basalts from SE Iberia (eastern Betics, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidas, Károly; Konc, Zoltán.; Garrido, Carlos J.; Tommasi, Andréa.; Vauchez, Alain; Padrón-Navarta, José Alberto; Marchesi, Claudio; Booth-Rea, Guillermo; Acosta-Vigil, Antonio; Szabó, Csaba; Varas-Reus, María. Isabel; Gervilla, Fernando

    2016-11-01

    Mantle xenoliths in Pliocene alkali basalts of the eastern Betics (SE Iberia, Spain) are spinel ± plagioclase lherzolite, with minor harzburgite and wehrlite, displaying porphyroclastic or equigranular textures. Equigranular peridotites have olivine crystal preferred orientation (CPO) patterns similar to those of porphyroclastic xenoliths but slightly more dispersed. Olivine CPO shows [100]-fiber patterns characterized by strong alignment of [100]-axes subparallel to the stretching lineation and a girdle distribution of [010]-axes normal to it. This pattern is consistent with simple shear or transtensional deformation accommodated by dislocation creep. One xenolith provides evidence for synkinematic reactive percolation of subduction-related Si-rich melts/fluids that resulted in oriented crystallization of orthopyroxene. Despite a seemingly undeformed microstructure, the CPO in orthopyroxenite veins in composite xenoliths is identical to those of pyroxenes in the host peridotite, suggesting late-kinematic crystallization. Based on these observations, we propose that the annealing producing the equigranular microstructures was triggered by melt percolation in the shallow subcontinental lithospheric mantle coeval to the late Neogene formation of veins in composite xenoliths. Calculated seismic properties are characterized by fast propagation of P waves and polarization of fast S waves parallel to olivine [100]-axis (stretching lineation). These data are compatible with present-day seismic anisotropy observations in SE Iberia if the foliations in the lithospheric mantle are steeply dipping and lineations are subhorizontal with ENE strike, implying dominantly horizontal mantle flow in the ENE-WSW direction within vertical planes, that is, subparallel to the paleo-Iberian margin. The measured anisotropy could thus reflect a lithospheric fabric due to strike-slip deformation in the late Miocene in the context of WSW tearing of the subducted south Iberian margin

  10. Abrupt temperature changes and contrasted hydrological responses during Greenland Stadial 1 in northern Iberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolomé, Miguel; Moreno, Ana; Sancho, Carlos; Stoll, Heather; Cacho, Isabel; Spötl, Christoph; Edwards, R. Lawrence; Cheng, Hai; Hellstrom, John

    2016-04-01

    to a reduced growth rate, is reproduced in two stalagmites more from Central Iberia (La Galiana Cave, Soria province). Monitoring of Seso Cave shows low speleothem δ13C and Mg/Ca values coinciding with increased infiltration into the cave as a result of a higher precipitation-evaporation balance in the region. This is consistent with well-documented processes by which slower drip rates enhance degassing and raise dripwater Mg/Ca ratios and δ13C values. Therefore, these proxy data suggest a first phase of relatively drier conditions until 12,500 y b2k and a progressive increase in humidity afterward. This gradual transition from dry to wet conditions starting at 12,500 y b2k occurred during a progressive warming of the subtropical Atlantic Ocean (Schmidt et al., 2011) and a resumption of the Atlantic overturning circulation (Hughen et al., 2000) while conditions in Greenland were still cold. This, therefore, demonstrates a rapid coupling among terrestrial (atmospheric) and oceanic systems at the mid-GS-1 transition on the European continent. This second phase of GS-1 calls for a revision of the well established model of dry and cold stadials during the last glacial period.

  11. Comparing erosion rates in burnt forests and agricultural fields for a mountain catchment in NW Iberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, João Pedro; Marisa Santos, Juliana; Bernard-Jannin, Léonard; Keizer, Jan Jacob

    2013-04-01

    A large part of northwestern Iberia is nowadays covered by commercial forest plantations of eucalypts and maritime pines, which have partly replaced traditional agricultural land-uses. The humid Mediterranean climate, with mild wet winters and warm dry summers, creates favorable conditions for the occurrence of frequent and recurrent forest fires. Erosion rates in recently burnt areas have been the subject of numerous studies; however, there is still a lack of information on their relevance when compared with agricultural erosion rates, impairing a comprehensive assessment of the role of forests for soil protection. This study focuses on Macieira de Alcoba, head-water catchment in the Caramulo Mountain Range, north-central Portugal, with a mixture of agricultural fields (mostly a rotation between winter pastures and summer cereals) on the lower slopes and forest plantations (mostly eucalypts) on the upper slopes. Agricultural erosion in this catchment has been monitored since 2010; a forest fire in 2011 presented an opportunity to compare post-fire and agricultural erosion rates at nearby sites with comparable soil and climatic conditions. Erosion rates were monitored between 2010 and 2013 by repeated surveys of visible erosion features and, in particular, by mapping and measuring rills and gullies after important rainfall events. During the 2011/2012 hydrological year, erosion rates in the burnt forest were two orders of magnitude above those in agricultural fields, amounting to 17.6 and. 0.1 Mg ha-1, respectively. Rills were widespread in the burnt area, while in the agricultural area they were limited to a small number of fields with higher slope; these particular fields experienced an erosion rate of 2.3 Mg ha-1, still one order of magnitude lower than at the burnt forest site. The timing of the erosion features was also quite distinct for the burnt area and the agricultural fields. During the first nine months after the fire, rill formation was not observed in

  12. Diet and environment 1.2 million years ago revealed through analysis of dental calculus from Europe's oldest hominin at Sima del Elefante, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Karen; Radini, Anita; Buckley, Stephen; Blasco, Ruth; Copeland, Les; Burjachs, Francesc; Girbal, Josep; Yll, Riker; Carbonell, Eudald; Bermúdez de Castro, Jose María

    2017-02-01

    Sima del Elefante, Atapuerca, Spain contains one of the earliest hominin fragments yet known in Europe, dating to 1.2 Ma. Dental calculus from a hominin molar was removed, degraded and analysed to recover entrapped remains. Evidence for plant use at this time is very limited and this study has revealed the earliest direct evidence for foods consumed in the genus Homo. This comprises starchy carbohydrates from two plants, including a species of grass from the Triticeae or Bromideae tribe, meat and plant fibres. All food was eaten raw, and there is no evidence for processing of the starch granules which are intact and undamaged. Additional biographical detail includes fragments of non-edible wood found adjacent to an interproximal groove suggesting oral hygiene activities, while plant fibres may be linked to raw material processing. Environmental evidence comprises spores, insect fragments and conifer pollen grains which are consistent with a forested environment.

  13. Paleopathological evidence of the cranial remains from the Sima de los Huesos Middle Pleistocene site (Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain). Description and preliminary inferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, P J; Gracía, A; Martínez, I; Arsuaga, J L

    1997-01-01

    The large Sima de los Huesos sample provides for the first time the opportunity of performing a paleopathological study of a Middle Pleistocene population. A high frequency of bilateral temporomandibular arthropathy has been observed. We found an ear hyperostosis in Cranium 4, that probably caused deafness that we consider to be of infectious origin. Three osteomata were found in the cranial collection. One severe trauma was evident on the left supraorbital torus of an immature individual. Many cranial vault erosions, mostly restricted to the external table, are found in the sample. Cranium 5 displays thirteen of these. Cranium 5 also shows an extensive maxillary osteitis associated with a dental apical abscess, as well as another dental apical abscess in its mandible. Most of the adult frontal bones show a worm-like pattern of vascular channelling in the orbital roof, also found in modern populations.

  14. Degradation assessment of natural forest of the management area «The Guásimas», Buey Arriba municipality. Granma

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    Eduardo Gutiérrez Rivero

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted in natural forests producers Management Area «The Guásimas», in the municipality of Buey Arriba Granma province, in order to assess their state of degradation. 13 plots of 500 m2 were erected under a stratified sampling in which dasometric parameters (diameter and height were determined, it worked with the indicators: behavior diameter classes and spatial analysis through geomatics techniques. The degradation of forest stands 7 and 10 is evidenced by the absence of economic trees in diameter classes better represented. Overharvesting, free grazing, selective exploitation of commercial tree species quality, logging, shifting cultivation, part of the culture of conuco as the main factors of degradation in the studied stands.

  15. Nonocclusal dental microwear analysis of 300,000-year-old Homo heilderbergensis teeth from Sima de los Huesos (Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Pérez, A; Bermúdez De Castro, J M; Arsuaga, J L

    1999-04-01

    Casts of nonocclusal enamel surfaces of 190 teeth from the Middle Pleistocene site of Sima de los Huesos have been micrographed by scanning electron microscopy. Microscopic analyses of striation density and length by orientation show distinct patterns of intrapopulation variability. Significant differences in the number and length of the striations by orientation are found between maxillary and mandibular teeth. This probably reflects differences in the mechanical forces involved in the process of chewing food. Significant differences are present between isolated and in situ teeth that could be caused by postdepositional processes differentially affecting the isolated teeth. In addition, a distinct and very unusual striation pattern is observed in a sample of teeth that can be explained only by a strong nondietary, most probably postmortem abrasion of the enamel surfaces. These teeth have a very high density of scratches, shorter in length than those found on other teeth, that are not indicative of dietary habits. No known depositional process may account for the presence of such postmortem wear since heavy transportation of materials within the clayish sediments has been discarded for the site. Despite this, a characteristic dietary striation pattern can be observed in most of the teeth analyzed. Most likely the diet of the Homo heidelbergensis hominids from Sima de los Huesos was highly abrasive, probably with a large dependence on hard, poorly processed plant foods, such as roots, stems, and seeds. A highly significant sex-related difference in the striation pattern can also be observed in the teeth analyzed, suggesting a differential consistency in the foods eaten by females and males.

  16. Thrust-wrench interference tectonics in the Gulf of Cadiz (Africa-Iberia plate boundary in the North-East Atlantic): Insights from analog models

    OpenAIRE

    Duarte , João ,; Rosas , Filipe ,; Terrinha , Pedro; Gutscher , Marc-André ,; Malavielle , Jacques; Silva , Sonia; Matias , Luis

    2011-01-01

    International audience; In the Gulf of Cadiz key segment of the Africa-Iberia plate boundary (North-East Atlantic ocean), three main different modes of tectonic interference between a recently identified wrench system (SWIM) and the Gulf of Cadiz Accretionary Wedge (GCAW) were tested through analog sand-box modeling: a) An active accretionary wedge on top of a pre-existent inactive basement fault; b) An active strike-slip fault cutting a previously formed, inactive, accretionary wedge; and c)...

  17. Genetic structure, relationships and admixture with wild relatives in native pig breeds from Iberia and its islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gama, Luis T; Martínez, Amparo M; Carolino, Inês; Landi, Vincenzo; Delgado, Juan V; Vicente, Antonio A; Vega-Pla, José L; Cortés, Oscar; Sousa, Conceição O

    2013-06-14

    Native pig breeds in the Iberian Peninsula are broadly classified as belonging to either the Celtic or the Mediterranean breed groups, but there are other local populations that do not fit into any of these groups. Most of the native pig breeds in Iberia are in danger of extinction, and the assessment of their genetic diversity and population structure, relationships and possible admixture between breeds, and the appraisal of conservation alternatives are crucial to adopt appropriate management strategies. A panel of 24 microsatellite markers was used to genotype 844 animals representing the 17 most important native swine breeds and wild populations existing in Portugal and Spain and various statistical tools were applied to analyze the results. Genetic diversity was high in the breeds studied, with an overall mean of 13.6 alleles per locus and an average expected heterozygosity of 0.80. Signs of genetic bottlenecks were observed in breeds with a small census size, and population substructure was present in some of the breeds with larger census sizes. Variability among breeds accounted for about 20% of the total genetic diversity, and was explained mostly by differences among the Celtic, Mediterranean and Basque breed groups, rather than by differences between domestic and wild pigs. Breeds clustered closely according to group, and proximity was detected between wild pigs and the Mediterranean cluster of breeds. Most breeds had their own structure and identity, with very little evidence of admixture, except for the Retinto and Entrepelado varieties of the Mediterranean group, which are very similar. Genetic influence of the identified breed clusters extends beyond the specific geographical areas across borders throughout the Iberian Peninsula, with a very sharp transition from one breed group to another. Analysis of conservation priorities confirms that the ranking of a breed for conservation depends on the emphasis placed on its contribution to the between- and

  18. Spatial impact and triggering conditions of the exceptional hydro-geomorphological event of December 1909 in Iberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, S.; Ramos, A. M.; Zêzere, J. L.; Trigo, R. M.; Vaquero, J. M.

    2016-02-01

    According to the DISASTER database the 20-28 December 1909 event was the hydro-geomorphologic event with the highest number of flood and landslide cases that occurred in Portugal in the period 1865-2010 (Zêzere et al., 2014). This event also caused important social impacts over the Spanish territory, especially in the Douro Basin, having triggered the highest floods in more than 100 years at the river's mouth in the city of Oporto. This work has a dual purpose: (i) to characterize the spatial distribution and social impacts of the December 1909 hydro-geomorphologic DISASTER event over Portugal and Spain; (ii) to analyse the meteorological conditions that triggered the event and the spatial distribution of the precipitation anomalies. Social impacts that occurred in Portugal were obtained from the Disaster database (Zêzere et al., 2014) whereas the data collection for Spain was supported by the systematic analysis of Spanish daily newspapers. In addition, the meteorological conditions that triggered the event are analysed using the 20th Century Reanalysis data set from NOAA and precipitation data from Iberian meteorological stations. The Iberian Peninsula was spatially affected during this event along the SW-NE direction spanning from Lisbon, Santarém, Oporto, and Guarda (in Portugal), to Salamanca, Valladolid, Zamora, Orense, León, and Palencia (in Spain). In Iberia, 134 DISASTER cases were recorded (130 flood cases; 4 landslides cases) having caused 89 casualties (57 due to floods and 32 due to landslides) and a further total of 3876 affected people, including fatalities, injured, missing, evacuated, and homeless people. This event was associated with outstanding precipitation registered at Guarda (Portugal) on 22 December 1909 and unusual meteorological conditions characterized by the presence of a deep low-pressure system located over the NW Iberian Peninsula with a stationary frontal system striking the western Iberian Peninsula. The presence of an upper

  19. Using crustal thickness and subsidence history on the Iberia-Newfoundland margins to constrain lithosphere deformation modes during continental breakup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanniot, Ludovic; Kusznir, Nick; Manatschal, Gianreto; Mohn, Geoffroy

    2014-05-01

    Observations at magma-poor rifted margins such as Iberia-Newfoundland show a complex lithosphere deformation history during continental breakup and seafloor spreading initiation leading to complex OCT architecture with hyper-extended continental crust and lithosphere, exhumed mantle and scattered embryonic oceanic crust and continental slivers. Initiation of seafloor spreading requires both the rupture of the continental crust and lithospheric mantle, and the onset of decompressional melting. Their relative timing controls when mantle exhumation may occur; the presence or absence of exhumed mantle provides useful information on the timing of these events and constraints on lithosphere deformation modes. A single lithosphere deformation mode leading to continental breakup and sea-floor spreading cannot explain observations. We have determined the sequence of lithosphere deformation events for two profiles across the present-day conjugate Iberia-Newfoundland margins, using forward modelling of continental breakup and seafloor spreading initiation calibrated against observations of crustal basement thickness and subsidence. Flow fields, representing a sequence of lithosphere deformation modes, are generated by a 2D finite element viscous flow model (FeMargin), and used to advect lithosphere and asthenosphere temperature and material. FeMargin is kinematically driven by divergent deformation in the upper 15-20 km of the lithosphere inducing passive upwelling beneath that layer; extensional faulting and magmatic intrusions deform the topmost upper lithosphere, consistent with observations of deformation processes occurring at slow spreading ocean ridges (Cannat, 1996). Buoyancy enhanced upwelling, as predicted by Braun et al. (2000) is also kinematically included in the lithosphere deformation model. Melt generation by decompressional melting is predicted using the parameterization and methodology of Katz et al. (2003). The distribution of lithosphere deformation, the

  20. Climate and environment of the earliest West European hominins inferred from amphibian and squamate reptile assemblages: Sima del Elefante Lower Red Unit, Atapuerca, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blain, Hugues-Alexandre; Bailon, Salvador; Cuenca-Bescós, Gloria; Bennàsar, Maria; Rofes, Juan; López-García, Juan Manuel; Huguet, Rosa; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Bermúdez de Castro, José Maria; Carbonell, Eudald

    2010-11-01

    The Sima del Elefante cave, in the Sierra de Atapuerca (Burgos, Spain), is famous for the fact that level TE9 of its Lower Red Unit recently delivered the oldest hominin remains of Western Europe, identified as Homo antecessor and dated by biostratigraphy and radiometric methods to ca 1.2 Ma. Given the importance of this discovery, every effort is being made to reconstruct the landscapes where these hominins once thrived. The amphibian and squamate reptile assemblage of the Sima del Elefante Lower Red Unit is here studied for the first time. The faunal list comprises at least 17 species (roughly 12,000 bone fossil remains): Salamandra salamandra, Triturus cf. marmoratus, Alytes obstetricans, Pelobates cultripes, Pelodytes punctatus, Bufo bufo, Bufo calamita, Hyla arborea, Rana sp., cf. Pelophylax sp., Lacerta s.l., small-sized indeterminate lacertids, Anguis fragilis, Natrix cf. natrix, Natrix cf. maura, Coronella cf. girondica and Vipera sp. As the amphibians and squamate reptiles do not differ at species level from the extant herpetofauna of the Iberian Peninsula, they can contribute to the reconstruction of the landscape and climate. In this paper, the mutual climatic range and habitat weighting methods are applied to the amphibian and squamate reptile assemblages in order to estimate quantitative data. The results from the squamate and amphibian study indicate that during the hominin presence the mean annual temperature (MAT = 10-13 °C) was always slightly warmer than at present and the mean annual precipitation (MAP = 800-1000 mm) was greater than today in the Burgos area. The landscape had open habitats in the vicinity of the Atapuerca caves throughout the sequence, with wet points in the surrounding area, and a predominance of humid meadows and open woodlands. These results mainly agree with those for large mammals, small mammals and the pollen analysis. The climate and landscape of TE-LRU are very similar to those reconstructed for the TD6 "Aurora Stratum

  1. Late Cambrian magmatic arc activity in peri-Gondwana: geochemical evidence from the Basal Allochthonous Units of NW Iberia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andonaegui, P.; Abati, J.; Díez-Fernández, R.

    2017-07-01

    The North African section of the Gondwana margin was the site of voluminous, arc-related magmatism during the Late Neoproterozoic (Avalonian–Cadomian orogen). The lower (and older) metasedimentary sequence that constitutes the Basal Units of the Allochthonous Complexes of NW Iberia was deposited in that setting. In these units, sedimentation was followed by the intrusion of tonalites and granodiorites in the late Cambrian (ca. 493–489Ma). In the Late Paleozoic, the collision of Gondwana and Laurussia (Variscan orogeny) deformed and metamorphosed the whole ensemble. New whole rock geochemical analysis performed in seven samples of metatonalites and fourteen samples of metagranodiorites are characterized by: i) slight enrichment in incompatible elements (Rb, Ba, Th, U), ii) negative anomalies in Nb, Ta, P, and Ti, and iii) negative anomalies in Eu. These chemical features are in agreement with a subduction-related setting for the genesis of both types of magma, which is also supported by chemical discrimination using tectonic setting diagrams. Positive anomalies of Pb suggest a crustal component. The new geochemical data reveal that the convergent orogen that ruled the paleogeography of the Gondwana periphery during the Neoproterozoic (Cadomian orogen) remained active bey.

  2. Testing thin-skinned inversion of a prerift salt-bearing passive margin (Eastern Prebetic Zone, SE Iberia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escosa, Frederic O.; Roca, Eduard; Ferrer, Oriol

    2018-04-01

    Detailed geologic mapping combined with well and seismic data from the Eastern Prebetic Zone (SE Iberia) reveal extensional and contractional structures that permit characterization of passive margin development and its incorporation into a thin-skinned fold-and-thrust belt. The study area is represented by NW-directed, ENE-trending folds and thrusts faults locally disrupted by the NW-trending Matamoros Basin and the active Jumilla and La Rosa diapirs. These structures resulted from the thin-skinned inversion of the proximal part of the Eastern South Iberian passive margin containing prerift salt. Here, Upper Jurassic to Santonian thick-skinned extension controlled the accumulation of sediment over mobile prerift salt. This in turn defined the style of salt tectonics characterized by monoclinal drape folds, suprasalt extensional faults and diapirs. The structural and sedimentological analysis suggests that during extension, salt localizes strain thus decoupling sub- and suprasalt deformation. Thick-skinned extension controls suprasalt deformation as well as its location and distribution which changes over time. Salt also localizes strain during inversion. The preexisting salt structures, weaker than adjacent areas, preferentially absorb the contractional deformation. In addition, the stepped subsalt geometry that results from thick-skinned extension also controls the shortening propagation. Therefore, the degree of strain localization depends on the thickness of the suprasalt cover and on the dip of subsalt faults relative to the thin-skinned transport direction.

  3. The population genomics of archaeological transition in west Iberia: Investigation of ancient substructure using imputation and haplotype-based methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Martiniano

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We analyse new genomic data (0.05-2.95x from 14 ancient individuals from Portugal distributed from the Middle Neolithic (4200-3500 BC to the Middle Bronze Age (1740-1430 BC and impute genomewide diploid genotypes in these together with published ancient Eurasians. While discontinuity is evident in the transition to agriculture across the region, sensitive haplotype-based analyses suggest a significant degree of local hunter-gatherer contribution to later Iberian Neolithic populations. A more subtle genetic influx is also apparent in the Bronze Age, detectable from analyses including haplotype sharing with both ancient and modern genomes, D-statistics and Y-chromosome lineages. However, the limited nature of this introgression contrasts with the major Steppe migration turnovers within third Millennium northern Europe and echoes the survival of non-Indo-European language in Iberia. Changes in genomic estimates of individual height across Europe are also associated with these major cultural transitions, and ancestral components continue to correlate with modern differences in stature.

  4. The 2005 and 2012 major drought events in Iberia: monitoring vegetation dynamics and crop yields using satellite data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Célia M.; Trigo, Ricardo M.

    2014-05-01

    The Iberian Peninsula is recurrently affected by drought episodes and therefore by the adverse effects associated that range from severe water shortages to economic losses and related social impacts. During the hydrological years of 2004/2005 and 2011/2012, Iberia was hit by two of the worst drought episodes ever recording in this semi-arid region (Garcia-Herrera at al., 2007; Trigo et al., 2013). These two drought episodes were extreme in both its magnitude and spatial extent. A tendency towards a drier Mediterranean for the period 1970-2010 in comparison with 1901-70 has been identified (Hoerling et al., 2012), reinforcing the need for a continuous monitoring of vegetation stress and reliable estimates of the drought impacts. The strong effect of water scarcity on vegetation dynamics is well documented in Mediterranean and other semi-arid regions. Despite the usual link established between the decrease of vegetation greenness and the lack of precipitation during a considerably long period, the impact on vegetation activity may be amplified by other climatic anomalies, such as high temperature, high wind, and low relative humidity. The recent availability of consistent satellite imagery covering large regions over long periods of time has progressively reinforced the role of remote sensing in environmental studies, in particular in those related to drought episodes (e.g. Gouveia et al., 2009). The aim of the present work is to assess and monitor the cumulative impact over time of drought conditions on vegetation over Iberian Peninsula. For this purpose we have used the regional fields of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) as obtained from the VEGETATION-SPOT5 instrument, from 1999 to 2013. The entire 15-yr long period was analysed, but particular attention was devoted to the two extreme drought episodes of 2004-2005 and 2011-2012. During the hydrological years of 2004-2005 and 2011-2012 drought episodes negative anomalies of NDVI were observed over

  5. Impact of sea-level rise on earthquake and landslide triggering offshore the Alentejo margin (SW Iberia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, M. C.; Roque, C.; Luttrell, K. M.; Vázquez, J. T.; Alonso, B.

    2016-12-01

    Earthquakes and submarine landslides are recurrent and widespread manifestations of fault activity offshore SW Iberia. The present work tests the effects of sea-level rise on offshore fault systems using Coulomb stress change calculations across the Alentejo margin. Large-scale faults capable of generating large earthquakes and tsunamis in the region, especially NE-SW trending thrusts and WNW-ESE trending dextral strike-slip faults imaged at basement depths, are either blocked or unaffected by flexural effects related to sea-level changes. Large-magnitude earthquakes occurring along these structures may, therefore, be less frequent during periods of sea-level rise. In contrast, sea-level rise promotes shallow fault ruptures within the sedimentary sequence along the continental slope and upper rise within distances of failures may either increase (if triggered by shallow fault ruptures) or decrease (if triggered by deep fault ruptures) as a result of sea-level rise. Moreover, observations of slope failures affecting the area of the Sines contourite drift highlight the role of sediment properties as preconditioning factors in this region.

  6. How Far into Europe Did Pikas (Lagomorpha: Ochotonidae) Go during the Pleistocene? New Evidence from Central Iberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laplana, César; Sevilla, Paloma; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Arriaza, Mari Carmen; Baquedano, Enrique; Pérez-González, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the first find of pika remains in the Iberian Peninsula, at a site in central Spain. A fragmented mandible of Ochotona cf. pusilla was unearthed from Layer 3 (deposited some 63.4±5.5 ka ago as determined by thermoluminescence) of the Buena Pinta Cave. This record establishes new limits for the genus geographic distribution during the Pleistocene, shifting the previous edge of its known range southwest by some 500 km. It also supports the idea that, even though Europe’s alpine mountain ranges represented a barrier that prevented the dispersal into the south to this and other taxa of small mammals from central and eastern Europe, they were crossed or circumvented at the coldest time intervals of the end of the Middle Pleistocene and of the Late Pleistocene. During those periods both the reduction of the forest cover and the emersion of large areas of the continental shelf due to the drop of the sea level probably provided these species a way to surpass this barrier. The pika mandible was found accompanying the remains of other small mammals adapted to cold climates, indicating the presence of steppe environments in central Iberia during the Late Pleistocene. PMID:26535576

  7. Stature estimation from complete long bones in the Middle Pleistocene humans from the Sima de los Huesos, Sierra de Atapuerca (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carretero, José-Miguel; Rodríguez, Laura; García-González, Rebeca; Arsuaga, Juan-Luis; Gómez-Olivencia, Asier; Lorenzo, Carlos; Bonmatí, Alejandro; Gracia, Ana; Martínez, Ignacio; Quam, Rolf

    2012-02-01

    Systematic excavations at the site of the Sima de los Huesos (SH) in the Sierra de Atapuerca (Burgos, Spain) have allowed us to reconstruct 27 complete long bones of the human species Homo heidelbergensis. The SH sample is used here, together with a sample of 39 complete Homo neanderthalensis long bones and 17 complete early Homo sapiens (Skhul/Qafzeh) long bones, to compare the stature of these three different human species. Stature is estimated for each bone using race- and sex-independent regression formulae, yielding an average stature for each bone within each taxon. The mean length of each long bone from SH is significantly greater (p Huesos hominins nor the Neandertals should be considered 'short' people. In fact, the average stature within the genus Homo seems to have changed little over the course of the last two million years, since the appearance of Homo ergaster in East Africa. It is only with the emergence of H. sapiens, whose earliest representatives were 'very tall', that a significant increase in stature can be documented. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. 论司马相如“买官”“窃妻”辨析%Analysis of Sima Xiangru's "Buying the Official"and "Stealing Wife"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴婉霞

    2016-01-01

    Sima Xiangru is a famous scholar in Han Dynasty,known as "Fu sheng".But the controversy of his conduct is al-ways there,this article analyes his "buying the official"and "stealing wife".In fact,his behavior obeyed the law of the socie-ty.%司马相如是汉代著名的辞赋家,被尊称为“赋圣”。但对他品行的争议始终存在,争议的焦点主要集中在两个方面:“以赀为郎”和“窃赀卓氏”。“赀选”是汉代选拔官吏的一种制度,司马相如的“以赀为郎”是符合当时选拔官员的制度的,不存在买官一说。而司马相如和卓文君回到临邛的目的是为了利用临邛繁荣的经济环境去谋生,卓王孙“分金”的主要原因是出于对司马相如名望的依附,不存在“窃妻”“窃财”之说。

  9. The lithic industry of Sima del Elefante (Atapuerca, Burgos, Spain) in the context of Early and Middle Pleistocene technology in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lombera-Hermida, Arturo; Bargalló, Amèlia; Terradillos-Bernal, Marcos; Huguet, Rosa; Vallverdú, Josep; García-Antón, Maria-Dolores; Mosquera, Marina; Ollé, Andreu; Sala, Robert; Carbonell, Eudald; Rodríguez-Álvarez, Xosé-Pedro

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents the lithic assemblages documented at Sima del Elefante (TE) and their importance in the context of the Early and Middle Pleistocene human occupation of Europe. We also study changes in human behaviour within the context of the palaeoenvironmental evolution of the Sierra de Atapuerca. This site has characteristics that are of great value for the study of human evolution. The lower levels of TE (Units TE7-TE14) are an essential reference for understanding the early stages of the colonization of Europe. The TE9c level has provided stone tools (Mode 1), faunal remains, and human fossils dated to 1.22 Ma (millions of years ago). Moreover, this is one of the few European sites with a stratigraphic sequence that includes remains of human occupations predating the Jaramillo subchron (Early Pleistocene) and from the Late Middle Pleistocene (Units TE18-TE19). Despite this, the presence of archaeologically sterile units (TE15-17) prevents us from establishing a continuous relationship between the Early and Middle Pleistocene human settlements and, consequently, between their technological and behavioural differences. We can, however compare the technological and palaeoeconomic strategies adopted by different species of hominins during two key phases of the occupation of Europe. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Cetacean records along São Paulo state coast, Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos César de Oliveira Santos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The São Paulo state (SP coast (23º18'S, 44º42'W; 25º14'S, 48º01'W is of approximately 600 km in length, bordering the Western Atlantic Ocean, in southeastern Brazil. Cetacean sightings and strandings have long been observed throughout this area. Scattered data from scientific publications, skeletal remains in museums, photographs and articles from newspaper files, universities and aquaria have been organised and updated since 1993. Field investigations on strandings and sightings have also been conducted. A total of 29 cetacean species have been recorded, including 7 baleen whales (Mysticeti and 22 toothed whales (Odontoceti, as follows: Balaenoptera physalus, B. borealis, B. edeni, B. acutorostrata, B. bonaerensis, Megaptera novaeangliae, Eubalaena australis, Physeter macrocephalus, Kogia breviceps, K. sima, Berardius arnuxii, Mesoplodon europaeus, M. mirus, Ziphius cavirostris, Orcinus orca, Feresa attenuata, Globicephala melas, G. macrorhynchus, Pseudorca crassidens, Delphinus capensis, Lagenodelphis hosei, Steno bredanensis, Tursiops truncatus, Stenella frontalis, S. longirostris, S. coeruleoalba, Lissodelphis peronii, Sotalia guianensis and Pontoporia blainvillei. Several species have been observed only once and include strays from their areas of common distribution, as well as species with known preferences for offshore distribution. Others, such as P. blainvillei and S. guianensis, are common coastal dwellers year-round. Z. cavirostris, P. crassidens and L. hosei are reported for the first time on the SP coast.A costa do Estado de São Paulo (SP (23º18'S, 44º42'O; 25º14'S, 48º01'O apresenta aproximadamente 600 km de extensão voltada para o Oceano Atlântico Ocidental no sudeste do Brasil. Registros de encalhes e de avistamentos de cetáceos vêm sendo realizados ao longo desse litoral. Desde 1993, dados obtidos em literatura científica, material osteológico encontrado em museus, fotografias e artigos de arquivos de jornais

  11. Post-tectonic landscape evolution in NE Iberia using staircase terraces: Combined effects of uplift and climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Claudia J.; Sancho, Carlos; McDonald, Eric V.; Peña-Monné, José Luis; Pueyo, Emilio L.; Rhodes, Edward; Calle, Mikel; Soto, Ruth

    2017-09-01

    River incision into bedrock resulting from the combined effects of tectonic uplift and climate governs long-term regional landscape evolution. We determined spatial and temporal patterns of post-orogenic stream incision from a sequence of well-preserved staircase terraces developed over the last 1 Ma in the Central Pyrenees and its southern foreland Ebro basin (NE Spain). Extensive remnants of ten vertically separated terraces (Qt1 to Qt10, from oldest to youngest) were mapped along 170 km of the Cinca River valley, transverse to the Pyrenean mountain belt. Multiple outcrops appear in the upper reach of the valley (Ainsa sector, 50 km from headwaters) as well as in the lower reach (Albalate sector, 125 km from headwaters). Fluvial incision into bedrock was calculated using (i) differentially corrected GPS measurements of the altitude of straths and (ii) numerical dating of alluvial sediments from the lower terraces (Qt5 to Qt9) by Optically Stimulated Luminescence, previously reported by Lewis et al. (2009), and supplemented with new dates for the upper terraces (Qt1, Qt2 and Qt3) based on paleomagnetism and supported by soil development. Considering altitude differences and the elapsed time between successive well preserved terrace couples (Qt3-Qt7, Qt7-Qt9 and Qt9-Active channel), mean bedrock incision rates ranged from 0.76 to 0.38 m ka- 1, at the upper reach of the valley (Ainsa section), and from 0.61 to 0.20 m ka- 1, at the lower reach (Albalate section). River incision along the valley produced vertically separated, near-parallel longitudinal terrace profiles evidencing a rapid near-uniform regional uplift as response to (i) the tectonic lithospheric thickening in NE Iberia and (ii) the erosional download rebound related to the Ebro basin exorheism. Moreover, a subtle upstream divergence of strath profiles may have been a consequence of an increase in uplift rate toward the head of the valley. Additionally, incision rates changed over time as indicate

  12. Southeastern Power Administration 2011 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-12-31

    Dear Secretary Chu: I am pleased to submit Southeastern Power Administration’s (Southeastern) fiscal year (FY) 2011 Annual Report for your review. This report reflects our agency’s programs, accomplishments, operational, and financial activities for the 12-month period beginning October 1, 2010, and ending September 31, 2011. This past year, Southeastern marketed approximately 6.2 billion kilowatt-hours of energy to 489 wholesale customers in 10 southeastern states. Revenues from the sale of this power totaled more than $264 million. With the financial assistance and support of Southeastern’s customers, funding for capitalized equipment purchases and replacements at hydroelectric facilities operated by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) continued in FY 2011. This funding, which totaled more than $45 million, provided much needed repairs and maintenance for aging projects in Southeastern’s marketing area. Currently, there are more than 214 customers participating in the funding efforts in the Georgia-Alabama-South Carolina, Kerr-Philpott, and Cumberland Systems of projects. Drought conditions continued in the southeastern region of the United States this past year, particularly in the Savannah River Basin. Lack of rain placed strains on our natural and financial resources. Power purchases for FY 2011 totaled approximately $38 million. About $9 million of this amount was for replacement power, which is purchased only during adverse water conditions in order to meet Southeastern’s customer contract requirements. Southeastern’s goal is to maximize the benefits of our region’s water resources. Competing uses of these resources will present another challenging year for Southeastern’s employees. With the cooperation and communication among the Department of Energy (DOE), preference customers, and Corps, I am certain Southeastern is positioned to meet these challenges in the future. We are committed to providing reliable hydroelectric power to

  13. Southeastern Power Administration 2012 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-01-01

    Dear Secretary Moniz: I am pleased to submit Southeastern Power Administration’s (Southeastern) fiscal year (FY) 2012 Annual Report for your review. This report reflects our agency’s programs, accomplishments, operational, and financial activities for the 12-month period beginning October 1, 2011, and ending September 30, 2012. This past year, Southeastern marketed approximately 5.4 billion kilowatt-hours of energy to 487 wholesale customers in 10 southeastern states. Revenues from the sale of this power totaled about $263 million. With the financial assistance and support of Southeastern’s customers, funding for capitalized equipment purchases and replacements at hydroelectric facilities operated by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) continued in FY 2012. Currently, there are more than 214 customers participating in funding infrastructure renewal efforts of powerplants feeding the Georgia-Alabama-South Carolina, Kerr-Philpott, and Cumberland Systems. This funding, which totaled more than $71 million, provided much needed repairs and maintenance for aging projects in Southeastern’s marketing area. Drought conditions continued in the southeastern region of the United States this past year, particularly in the Savannah River Basin. Lack of rainfall strained our natural and financial resources. Power purchases for FY 2012 in the Georgia-Alabama-South Carolina System totaled approximately $29 million. About $8 million of this amount was for replacement power, which is purchased only during adverse water conditions in order to meet Southeastern’s customer contract requirements. Southeastern’s goal is to maximize the benefits of our region’s water resources. Competing uses of these resources will present another challenging year for Southeastern’s employees. With the cooperation and communication among the Department of Energy (DOE), preference customers, and Corps, I am certain Southeastern is positioned to meet these challenges in the future. We

  14. Crustal thickness and velocity structure across the Moroccan Atlas from long offset wide-angle reflection seismic data: The SIMA experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayarza, P.; Carbonell, R.; Teixell, A.; Palomeras, I.; Martí, D.; Kchikach, A.; Harnafi, M.; Levander, A.; Gallart, J.; Arboleya, M. L.; Alcalde, J.; Fernández, M.; Charroud, M.; Amrhar, M.

    2014-05-01

    The crustal structure and topography of the Moho boundary beneath the Atlas Mountains of Morocco has been constrained by a controlled source, wide-angle seismic reflection transect: the SIMA experiment. This paper presents the first results of this project, consisting of an almost 700 km long, high-resolution seismic profile acquired from the Sahara craton across the High and the Middle Atlas and the Rif Mountains. The interpretation of this seismic data set is based on forward modeling by raytracing, and has resulted in a detailed crustal structure and velocity model for the Atlas Mountains. Results indicate that the High Atlas features a moderate crustal thickness, with the Moho located at a minimum depth of 35 km to the S and at around 31 km to the N, in the Middle Atlas. Upper crustal shortening is resolved at depth through a crustal root where the Saharan crust underthrusts the northern Moroccan crust. This feature defines a lower crust imbrication that, locally, places the Moho boundary at ˜40-41 km depth in the northern part of the High Atlas. The P-wave velocity model is characterized by relatively low velocities, mostly in the lower crust and upper mantle, when compared to other active orogens and continental regions. These low deep crustal velocities together with other geophysical observables such as conductivity estimates derived from MT measurements, moderate Bouguer gravity anomaly, high heat flow, and surface exposures of recent alkaline volcanism lead to a model where partial melts are currently emplaced at deep crustal levels and in the upper mantle. The resulting model supports the existence of a mantle upwelling as mechanism that would contribute significantly to sustain the High Atlas topography. However, the detailed Moho geometry deduced in this work should lead to a revision of the exact geometry and position of this mantle feature and will require new modeling efforts.

  15. From the Atlas to the Rif a Crustal seismic image across Morocco: The SIMA & RIFSEIS control source wide-angle seismic reflection data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonell, Ramon; Ayarza, Puy; Gallart, Josep; Diaz, Jordi; Harnafi, Mimoun; Levander, Alan; Teixell, Antonio

    2014-05-01

    The velocity structure of the crust and the geometry of the Moho across Morocco has been the main target of two recently acquired wide-angle seismic reflection transects. One is the SIMA experiment which provided seismic constraints beneath the Atlas Mountains and the second has been the RIFSEIS experiment which sampled the RIF orogen. Jointly these controlled source wide-angle seismic reflection data results in an almost 700 km, seismic profile going from the the Sahara craton across the High and Middle Atlas and Rif Mountain till the Gibraltar-Arc (Alboran). Current work on the interpretation of the seismic data-set is based on forward modeling, ray-tracing, as well as low fold wide-angle stacking. The data has resulted in a detailed crustal structure and velocity model for the Atlas Mountains and a 700 km transect revealing the irregular topography of the Moho beneath these two mountain orogens. Results indicate that the High Atlas features a moderate crustal thickness and that shortening is resolved at depth through a crustal root where the Saharan crust under-thrusts below the Moroccan crust, defining a lower crust imbrication which locally places the Moho boundary at, approximately, 40 km depth. The P-wave velocity model is characterized, in averaged, by relatively low velocities. These low deep crustal velocities together with other geophysical observables such as: conductivity estimates derived from Mt measurements; moderate Bouguer gravity anomaly; surface exposures of recent alkaline volcanics; lead the interpretation to propose that partial melts are currently emplaced in the deep crustal levels and in the upper mantle. The Moho discontinuity defines a crust which is in average relatively thin beneath the Atlas which is almost a 4000 m high orogenic belt. The resulting model supports existence of mantle upwelling as a possible mechanism that contributes, significantly, to maintain the High Atlas topography.

  16. Emerging Energy Alternatives for the Southeastern States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanakos, E. K. (Editor)

    1978-01-01

    The proceedings of the first symposium on emerging energy alternatives for the Southeastern States are presented. Some topics discussed are: (1) solar energy, (2) wood energy, (3) novel energy sources, (4) agricultural and industrial process heat, (5) waste utilization, (6) energy conservation and (7) ocean thermal energy conversion.

  17. Summary of southeastern group breakout sessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bob Ford; Charles P. Nicholson

    1993-01-01

    The breakout sessions held by the southeastern representatives at the Partners In Flight meeting in Colorado were extremely well attended Most states were represented, as well as several federal agencies (including USFS, USFWS, TVA, EPA), and non-government organizations. Two sessions were held, one to discuss a strategy of management by...

  18. Pre-Hercynian hydrothermalism in South Iberia: lead isotope geochemistry constraints; Hydrothermalisme ante-hercynien en Sud-Iberie: apport de la geochimie isotopique du plomb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcoux, E.; Onezime, J. [Orleans Univ., Institut des Sciences de la Terre d' Orleans, 45 (France); Pascual, E. [Universite d' Huelva, Dept. de Geologia y MIneria, Huelva (Spain)

    2002-04-01

    Lead isotope study has been performed on massive sulphide deposits of Ossa-Morena and Aracena Belt (South Iberia). Results suggest the existence of at least two ancient hydrothermal events. The first one, Upper Brioverian in age ({approx}600-570 Ma), gave birth to Maria-Luisa and Puebla de la Reina massive sulphide deposits; it thus confirms the existence of a Cadomian orogen in South Iberia. Isotopic compositions indicate a local contribution of mantle-derived material (Maria Luisa mine), confirming the presence of ancient oceanic crust in Aracena Belt. This mineralizing event seems to extend till the Armorican Massif. The second episode, Eo-Hercynian in age ({approx}400-350 Ma) has allowed genesis of massive sulphide deposits of la Nava Paredon and Aguas Blancas, and could be coeval with the emplacement of South-Iberian massive sulphide ore deposits in the neighbouring South-Portuguese Zone. A more continental crustal source for later ore deposits could explain the much more important metal accumulation in this zone. (authors)

  19. Recent Male-Mediated Gene Flow over a Linguistic Barrier in Iberia, Suggested by Analysis of a Y-Chromosomal DNA Polymorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurles, Matthew E.; Veitia, Reiner; Arroyo, Eduardo; Armenteros, Manuel; Bertranpetit, Jaume; Pérez-Lezaun, Anna; Bosch, Elena; Shlumukova, Maria; Cambon-Thomsen, Anne; McElreavey, Ken; López de Munain, Adolfo; Röhl, Arne; Wilson, Ian J.; Singh, Lalji; Pandya, Arpita; Santos, Fabrício R.; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Jobling, Mark A.

    1999-01-01

    Summary We have examined the worldwide distribution of a Y-chromosomal base-substitution polymorphism, the T/C transition at SRY-2627, where the T allele defines haplogroup 22; sequencing of primate homologues shows that the ancestral state cannot be determined unambiguously but is probably the C allele. Of 1,191 human Y chromosomes analyzed, 33 belong to haplogroup 22. Twenty-nine come from Iberia, and the highest frequencies are in Basques (11%; n=117) and Catalans (22%; n=32). Microsatellite and minisatellite (MSY1) diversity analysis shows that non-Iberian haplogroup-22 chromosomes are not significantly different from Iberian ones. The simplest interpretation of these data is that haplogroup 22 arose in Iberia and that non-Iberian cases reflect Iberian emigrants. Several different methods were used to date the origin of the polymorphism: microsatellite data gave ages of 1,650, 2,700, 3,100, or 3,450 years, and MSY1 gave ages of 1,000, 2,300, or 2,650 years, although 95% confidence intervals on all of these figures are wide. The age of the split between Basque and Catalan haplogroup-22 chromosomes was calculated as only 20% of the age of the lineage as a whole. This study thus provides evidence for direct or indirect gene flow over the substantial linguistic barrier between the Indo-European and non–Indo-European–speaking populations of the Catalans and the Basques, during the past few thousand years. PMID:10521311

  20. Southeastern Power Administration 2008 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-12-29

    Dear Secretary Chu: I am pleased to submit Southeastern Power Administration’s (Southeastern’s) fiscal year (FY) 2008 Annual Report for your review. The information included in this document reflects our agency’s programs, accomplishments, operational and financial activities for the 12-month period beginning October 1, 2007 and ending September 30, 2008. Southeastern marketed more than 4.5 billion kilowatt-hours of energy to 491 wholesale customers in ten southeastern states this past year. Revenues from the sale of this power totaled approximately $263 million. Drought conditions persisted in the southeastern region of the United States during FY 2008 placing strains on our natural and financial resources. Power purchases for FY 2008 totaled $91 million. Approximately $44 million of this amount was for replacement power which is paid only during adverse water conditions in order to meet our customers’ contract requirements. With the continued financial assistance and support of our Federal power customers, funding for capitalized equipment purchases and replacements at U.S. Army Corps of Engineers’ (Corps) hydroelectric projects provided much needed repairs and maintenance for these aging facilities. Southeastern’s cyber and physical security programs continued to be reviewed and updated to meet Department of Energy (DOE), Homeland Security, and North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) standards and requirements. In the coming year, Southeastern will continue open communication and cooperation with DOE, the Federal power customers, and the Corps to maximize the benefits of our region’s water resources. Although competing uses of water and the prolonged drought conditions will present another challenging year for our agency, Southeastern’s employees will meet these challenges and continue to provide reliable hydroelectric power to the people in the southeast. Sincerely, Kenneth E.Legg Administrator

  1. Pável Valenzuela Arámburo, Santísima muerte : Niña blanca, niña bonita. El culto popular a la Santa Muerte

    OpenAIRE

    Le Luherne, Moran

    2015-01-01

    El documental Santísima muerte : Niña blanca, niña bonita. El culto popular a la Santa Muerte de Pável Valenzuela Arámburo forma parte de un proyecto de investigación titulado « Mística popular transfronteriza. Tradiciones y santos populares en la frontera México-Estados Unidos », coordinado por el Doctor José Manuel Valenzuela Arce y publicado en el Colegio de la Frontera Norte. Se enfoca en el culto de la Santa Muerte, culto religioso que emergió desde principios del siglo veinte en México,...

  2. Effect of the strain-induced melt activation (SIMA) process on the tensile properties of a new developed super high strength aluminum alloy modified by Al-5Ti-1B grain refiner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haghparast, Amin [School of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nourimotlagh, Masoud [Young Researchers Club, Dareshahr Branch, Islamic Azad university (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Alipour, Mohammad, E-mail: Alipourmo@ut.ac.ir [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    In this study, the effect of Al-5Ti-1B grain refiners and modified strain-induced melt activation process on an Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy was studied. The optimum level of Ti was found to be 0.1 wt.%. The specimens subjected to deformation ratio of 40% (at 300 Degree-Sign C) and various heat treatment times (10-40 min) and temperature (550-600 Degree-Sign C) regimes were characterized in this study. Reheating condition to obtain a fine globular microstructure was optimized. Microstructural examinations were conducted by optical and scanning electron microscopy coupled with an energy dispersive spectrometry. The optimum temperature and time in strain-induced melt activation process are 575 Degree-Sign C and 20 min, respectively. T6 heat treatment including quenching to room temperature and aging at 120 Degree-Sign C for 24 h was employed to reach to the maximum strength. Significant improvements in mechanical properties were obtained with the addition of grain refiner combined with T6 heat treatment. After the T6 heat treatment, the average tensile strength increased from 283 MPa to 587 and 332 MPa to 617 for samples refined with 2 wt.% Al-5Ti-1B before and after strain-induced melt activation process and extrusion process, respectively. Ultimate strength of Ti-refined specimens without SIMA process has a lower value than globular microstructure specimens after SIMA and extrusion process. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of Al-5Ti-1B on the aluminum alloy produced by SIMA process was studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Al-5Ti-1B is an effective in reducing the grain and reagent fine microstructure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reheating condition to obtain a fine globular microstructure was optimized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The optimum temperature and time in SIMA process are 575 Degree-Sign C and 20 min respectively. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer UTS of globular structure specimens have a more value than Ti-refined specimens.

  3. DESARROLLANDO UNA PLATAFORMA MULTIMEDIAL PARA EL APRENDIZAJE DEL INGLÉS EN LAS CARRERAS DE INGENIERÍA DE LA UNIVERSIDAD CATÓLICA DE LA SANTÍSIMA CONCEPCIÓN DESIGNING A MULTIMEDIA PLATFORM FOR THE LEARNING OF ENGLISH IN THE ENGINEERING DEGREES AT UNIVERSIDAD CATÓLICA DE LA SANTÍSIMA CONCEPCIÓN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Heraldo Díaz Larenas

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available La adjudicación del proyecto MECESUP USC 0201 "Inglés como lengua extranjera en el pregrado: innovación de la enseñanza aprendizaje y mejoramiento de la competencia comunicativa en la Universidad Católica de la Santísima Concepción" permitió el desarrollo de una plataforma multimedial que tiene como objetivo apoyar el aprendizaje del idioma inglés de los estudiantes de las carreras de Ingeniería de la Universidad. Esta plataforma está compuesta de diferentes secciones que apuntan al desarrollo de la lectura, audición, escritura y expresión oral. Los estudiantes pueden, además, practicar vocabulario, gramática y pronunciación. El estado de avance de los estudiantes queda registrado en la plataforma, a fin de que los docentes puedan monitorear el trabajo de los estudiantes. Con la plataforma de aprendizaje se espera que los estudiantes desarrollen la habilidad del trabajo autónomo y, además, puedan mejorar su rendimiento en la asignatura de inglés.The government-funded project MECESUP USC 0201 "Inglés como lengua extranjera en el pregrado: innovación de la enseñanza aprendizaje y mejoramiento de la competencia comunicativa en la Universidad Católica de la Santísima Concepción" has led to the design of a multimedia platform whose main aim is to support engineering students' learning of English. The multimedia platform has got different sections that aim at developing reading, listening, writing and speaking skills. The students can also practice vocabulary, grammar, and pronunciation. Students' work progress remains registered in the platform so as to allow teachers to monitor students' work. Together with improving their language proficiency, it is expected that students can also develop autonomous learning strategies through their interaction with the platform.

  4. Extensional fault geometry and its flexural isostatic response during the formation of the Iberia - Newfoundland conjugate rifted margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Romeu, Júlia; Kusznir, Nick; Manatschal, Gianreto; Roberts, Alan

    2017-04-01

    Despite magma-poor rifted margins having been extensively studied for the last 20 years, the evolution of extensional fault geometry and the flexural isostatic response to faulting remain still debated topics. We investigate how the flexural isostatic response to faulting controls the structural development of the distal part of rifted margins in the hyper-extended domain and the resulting sedimentary record. In particular we address an important question concerning the geometry and evolution of extensional faults within distal hyper-extended continental crust; are the seismically observed extensional fault blocks in this region allochthons from the upper plate or are they autochthons of the lower plate? In order to achieve our aim we focus on the west Iberian rifted continental margin along the TGS and LG12 seismic profiles. Our strategy is to use a kinematic forward model (RIFTER) to model the tectonic and stratigraphic development of the west Iberia margin along TGS-LG12 and quantitatively test and calibrate the model against breakup paleo-bathymetry, crustal basement thickness and well data. RIFTER incorporates the flexural isostatic response to extensional faulting, crustal thinning, lithosphere thermal loads, sedimentation and erosion. The model predicts the structural and stratigraphic consequences of recursive sequential faulting and sedimentation. The target data used to constrain model predictions consists of two components: (i) gravity anomaly inversion is used to determine Moho depth, crustal basement thickness and continental lithosphere thinning and (ii) reverse post-rift subsidence modelling consisting of flexural backstripping, decompaction and reverse post-rift thermal subsidence modelling is used to give paleo-bathymetry at breakup time. We show that successful modelling of the structural and stratigraphic development of the TGS-LG12 Iberian margin transect also requires the simultaneous modelling of the Newfoundland conjugate margin, which we

  5. Precise dating of the Middle-to-Upper Paleolithic transition in Murcia (Spain supports late Neandertal persistence in Iberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Zilhão

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The late persistence in Southern Iberia of a Neandertal-associated Middle Paleolithic is supported by the archeological stratigraphy and the radiocarbon and luminescence dating of three newly excavated localities in the Mula basin of Murcia (Spain. At Cueva Antón, Mousterian layer I-k can be no more than 37,100 years-old. At La Boja, the basal Aurignacian can be no less than 36,500 years-old. The regional Middle-to-Upper Paleolithic transition process is thereby bounded to the first half of the 37th millennium Before Present, in agreement with evidence from Andalusia, Gibraltar and Portugal. This chronology represents a lag of minimally 3000 years with the rest of Europe, where that transition and the associated process of Neandertal/modern human admixture took place between 40,000 and 42,000 years ago. The lag implies the presence of an effective barrier to migration and diffusion across the Ebro river depression, which, based on available paleoenvironmental indicators, would at that time have represented a major biogeographical divide. In addition, (a the Phlegraean Fields caldera explosion, which occurred 39,850 years ago, would have stalled the Neandertal/modern human admixture front because of the population sink it generated in Central and Eastern Europe, and (b the long period of ameliorated climate that came soon after (Greenland Interstadial 8, during which forests underwent a marked expansion in Iberian regions south of 40°N would have enhanced the “Ebro Frontier” effect. These findings have two broader paleoanthropological implications: firstly, that, below the Ebro, the archeological record made prior to 37,000 years ago must be attributed, in all its aspects and components, to the Neandertals (or their ancestors; secondly, that modern human emergence is best seen as an uneven, punctuated process during which long-lasting barriers to gene flow and cultural diffusion could have existed across rather short distances, with

  6. Crustal and upper mantle shear velocities of Iberia, the Alboran Sea, and North Africa from ambient noise and ballistic finite-frequency Rayleigh wave tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomeras, I.; Villasenor, A.; Thurner, S.; Levander, A.; Gallart, J.; mimoun, H.

    2013-12-01

    The complex Mesozoic-Cenozoic Alpine deformation in the western Mediterranean extends from the Pyrenees in northern Spain to the Atlas Mountains in southern Morocco. The Iberian plate was accreted to the European plate in late Cretaceous, resulting in the formation of the Pyrenees. Cenozoic African-European convergence resulted in subduction of the Tethys oceanic plate beneath Europe. Rapid Oligocene slab rollback from eastern Iberia spread eastward and southward, with the trench breaking into three segments by the time it reached the African coast. One trench segment moved southwestward and westward creating the Alboran Sea, floored by highly extended continental crust, and building the encircling Betics Rif mountains comprising the Gibraltar arc, and the Atlas mountains, which formed as the inversion of a Jurassic rift. A number of recent experiments have instrumented this region with broad-band arrays (the US PICASSO array, Spanish IberArray and Siberia arrays, the University of Munster array), which, including the Spanish, Portuguese, and Moroccan permanent networks, provide a combined array of 350 stations having an average interstation spacing of ~60 km. Taking advantage of this dense deployment, we have calculated the Rayleigh waves phase velocities from ambient noise for short periods (4 s to 40 s) and teleseismic events for longer periods (20 s to 167 s). Approximately 50,000 stations pairs were used to measure the phase velocity from ambient noise and more than 160 teleseismic events to measure phase velocity for longer periods. The inversion of the phase velocity dispersion curves provides a 3D shear velocity for the crust and uppermost mantle. Our results show differences between the various tectonic regions that extend to upper mantle depths (~200 km). In Iberia we obtain, on average, higher upper mantle shear velocities in the western Variscan region than in the younger eastern part. We map high upper mantle velocities (>4.6 km/s) beneath the

  7. Using crustal thickness, subsidence and P-T-t history on the Iberia-Newfoundland & Alpine Tethys margins to constrain lithosphere deformation modes during continental breakup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanniot, L.; Kusznir, N. J.; Manatschal, G.; Mohn, G.; Beltrando, M.

    2013-12-01

    Observations at magma-poor rifted margins such as Iberia-Newfoundland show a complex lithosphere deformation history and OCT architecture, resulting in hyper-extended continental crust and lithosphere, exhumed mantle and scattered embryonic oceanic crust before continental breakup and seafloor spreading. Initiation of seafloor spreading requires both the rupture of the continental crust and lithospheric mantle, and the onset of decompressional melting. Their relative timing controls when mantle exhumation may occur; the presence or absence of exhumed mantle provides useful information on the timing of these events and constraints on lithosphere deformation modes. A single kinematic lithosphere deformation mode leading to continental breakup and sea-floor spreading cannot explain observations. We have determined the sequence of lithosphere deformation events, using forward modelling of crustal thickness, subsidence and P-T-t history calibrated against observations on the present-day Iberia-Newfoundland and the fossil analogue Alpine Tethys margins. Lithosphere deformation modes, represented by flow fields, are generated by a 2D finite element viscous flow model (FeMargin), and used to advect lithosphere and asthenosphere temperature and material. FeMargin is kinematically driven by divergent deformation in the topmost upper lithosphere inducing passive upwelling beneath that layer; the upper lithosphere is assumed to deform by extensional faulting and magmatic intrusions, consistent with observations of deformation processes occurring at slow spreading ocean ridges (Cannat, 1996). Buoyancy enhanced upwelling is also included in the kinematic model as predicted by Braun et al (2000). We predict melt generation by decompressional melting using the parameterization and methodology of Katz et al., 2003. We use a series of numerical experiments, tested and calibrated against crustal thicknesses and subsidence observations, to determine the distribution of lithosphere

  8. Southeastern Power Administration 2007 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2007-12-28

    Dear Secretary Chu: I am proud to submit Southeastern Power Administration’s (Southeastern’s) fiscal year (FY) 2007 Annual Report for your review. The information included in this report reflects Southeastern’s programs, accomplishments, and financial activities for the 12-month period beginning October 1, 2006 and ending September 30, 2007. Southeastern marketed more than 5 billion kilowatt-hours of energy to 492 wholesale Federal power customers in an 11-state marketing area in FY 2007. Revenues from the sale of this power totaled approximately $219 million. Drought conditions continued to plague the southeast region of the United States during 2007 placing strains on our natural and financial resources. Southeastern purchased more than $40 million in replacement power to meet customer contract requirements to ensure the continued reliability of our nation’s power grid. With the financial assistance and support of our Federal power customers, continued funding for capitalized equipment replacements at various Corps of Engineers’ (Corps) hydroelectric projects provided much needed repairs and maintenance for aging facilities. Southeastern’s cyber and physical security program continued to be reviewed and updated to meet Department of Energy (DOE), Homeland Security, and North American Electric Reliability Corporation standards and requirements. Plans for the upcoming year include communication and cooperation with DOE, Federal power customers, and the Corps to maximize the benefits of our nation’s water resources. Competition for the use of water and the prolonged drought conditions will present another challenging year for our agency. The employees at Southeastern will be proactive in meeting these challenges and providing reliable hydroelectric power to the people in the southeast. Sincerely, Kenneth E. Legg Administrator

  9. Geology and preliminary dating of the hominid-bearing sedimentary fill of the Sima de los Huesos Chamber, Cueva Mayor of the Sierra de Atapuerca, Burgos, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, J L; Fitzpatrick, J A; León, L; Arsuagà, J L; Falgueres, C; Bahain, J J; Bullen, T

    1997-01-01

    Sediments of the Sima de los Huesos vary greatly over distances of a few meters. This is typical of interior cave facies, and caused by cycles of cut and fill. Mud breccias containing human bones, grading upwards to mud containing bear bones, fill an irregular surface cut into basal marks and sands. The lack of Bedding and the chaotic abundance of fragile speleothem clasts in the fossiliferous muds suggests that the deposit was originally a subterranean pond facies, and that after emplacement of the human remains, underwent vigorous post-depositional rotation and collapse and brecciation, caused by underlying bedrock dissolution and undermining. The fossiliferous deposits are capped by flowstone and guano-bearing muds which lack large-mammal fossils. U-series and radiocarbon dating indicates the capping flowstones formed from about 68 ka to about 25 ka. U-series analyses of speleothem clasts among the human fossils indicate that all are at, or close to, isotopic equilibrium (> 350 ka). The distribution of U-series dates for 25 bear bones (154 +/- 66 ka) and for 16 human bones (148 +/- 34 ka) is similar and rather broad. Because the human bones seem to be stratigraphically older than chose of the bears, the results would indicate that most of the bones have been accumulating uranium irregularly with time. Electron spin resonance (ESR) analyses of six selected bear bones indicates dates of 189 +/- 28 ka, for which each is cordant with their corresponding U-series date (181 +/- 41 ka). Combined ESR and U-series dates for these samples yielded 200 +/- 4 ka. Such agreement is highly suggestive that uranium uptake in these bones was close to the early-uptake (EU) model, and the dates are essentially correct. Another three selected samples yielded combined ESR U-series dates of 320 +/- 4 ka with a modeled intermediate-mode of uranium uptake. The dating results, therefore, seem to provide a firm minimum age of about 200 ka for the human entry: and suggestive evidence of

  10. The genomic history of southeastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieson, Iain; Alpaslan-Roodenberg, Songül; Posth, Cosimo; Szécsényi-Nagy, Anna; Rohland, Nadin; Mallick, Swapan; Olalde, Iñigo; Broomandkhoshbacht, Nasreen; Candilio, Francesca; Cheronet, Olivia; Fernandes, Daniel; Ferry, Matthew; Gamarra, Beatriz; Fortes, Gloria González; Haak, Wolfgang; Harney, Eadaoin; Jones, Eppie; Keating, Denise; Krause-Kyora, Ben; Kucukkalipci, Isil; Michel, Megan; Mittnik, Alissa; Nägele, Kathrin; Novak, Mario; Oppenheimer, Jonas; Patterson, Nick; Pfrengle, Saskia; Sirak, Kendra; Stewardson, Kristin; Vai, Stefania; Alexandrov, Stefan; Alt, Kurt W; Andreescu, Radian; Antonović, Dragana; Ash, Abigail; Atanassova, Nadezhda; Bacvarov, Krum; Gusztáv, Mende Balázs; Bocherens, Hervé; Bolus, Michael; Boroneanţ, Adina; Boyadzhiev, Yavor; Budnik, Alicja; Burmaz, Josip; Chohadzhiev, Stefan; Conard, Nicholas J; Cottiaux, Richard; Čuka, Maja; Cupillard, Christophe; Drucker, Dorothée G; Elenski, Nedko; Francken, Michael; Galabova, Borislava; Ganetsovski, Georgi; Gély, Bernard; Hajdu, Tamás; Handzhyiska, Veneta; Harvati, Katerina; Higham, Thomas; Iliev, Stanislav; Janković, Ivor; Karavanić, Ivor; Kennett, Douglas J; Komšo, Darko; Kozak, Alexandra; Labuda, Damian; Lari, Martina; Lazar, Catalin; Leppek, Maleen; Leshtakov, Krassimir; Vetro, Domenico Lo; Los, Dženi; Lozanov, Ivaylo; Malina, Maria; Martini, Fabio; McSweeney, Kath; Meller, Harald; Menđušić, Marko; Mirea, Pavel; Moiseyev, Vyacheslav; Petrova, Vanya; Price, T Douglas; Simalcsik, Angela; Sineo, Luca; Šlaus, Mario; Slavchev, Vladimir; Stanev, Petar; Starović, Andrej; Szeniczey, Tamás; Talamo, Sahra; Teschler-Nicola, Maria; Thevenet, Corinne; Valchev, Ivan; Valentin, Frédérique; Vasilyev, Sergey; Veljanovska, Fanica; Venelinova, Svetlana; Veselovskaya, Elizaveta; Viola, Bence; Virag, Cristian; Zaninović, Joško; Zäuner, Steve; Stockhammer, Philipp W; Catalano, Giulio; Krauß, Raiko; Caramelli, David; Zariņa, Gunita; Gaydarska, Bisserka; Lillie, Malcolm; Nikitin, Alexey G; Potekhina, Inna; Papathanasiou, Anastasia; Borić, Dušan; Bonsall, Clive; Krause, Johannes; Pinhasi, Ron; Reich, David

    2018-03-08

    Farming was first introduced to Europe in the mid-seventh millennium bc, and was associated with migrants from Anatolia who settled in the southeast before spreading throughout Europe. Here, to understand the dynamics of this process, we analysed genome-wide ancient DNA data from 225 individuals who lived in southeastern Europe and surrounding regions between 12000 and 500 bc. We document a west-east cline of ancestry in indigenous hunter-gatherers and, in eastern Europe, the early stages in the formation of Bronze Age steppe ancestry. We show that the first farmers of northern and western Europe dispersed through southeastern Europe with limited hunter-gatherer admixture, but that some early groups in the southeast mixed extensively with hunter-gatherers without the sex-biased admixture that prevailed later in the north and west. We also show that southeastern Europe continued to be a nexus between east and west after the arrival of farmers, with intermittent genetic contact with steppe populations occurring up to 2,000 years earlier than the migrations from the steppe that ultimately replaced much of the population of northern Europe.

  11. García & Cernadas (eds., Reginae Iberia: El Poder Regio Femenino en Los Reinos Medievales Peninsulares (Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lledo Ruiz Domingo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The volume "Reginae Iberia" is a compilation of some of the papers presented at the International Congress on Queens and Infantas in Medieval Iberian Kingdoms, held in Santiago de Compostela from the 21st to 23rd May 2014. The editors of this volume, Miguel García and Silvia Cernadas, selected a total of 12 articles, which despite focussing on very different topics, all served to emphasise a shared central idea. With these articles, the editors aimed to present a range of new and complementary readings on the Iberian monarchy, whilst highlighting the leading role of women at the heart of these houses and challenging the perception that they served purely for decorative or reproductive purposes

  12. Crustal and upper mantle velocity structure of Southern Iberia, the sea of Alboran, and the Gibraltar arc determined by local earthquake tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Blanco

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available A "local earthquake tomography" of a large area encompassing the South of Iberia, the sea of Alboran, the Gibraltar arc, and Northern Morrocco, has been performed using first arrival times recorded at various Spanish and Morroccan seismic networks. A total of 52 stations and 639 earthquakes provided over 6300 first P arrivals and 4400 S arrivals. Three features of interest appear in the results: i a continuous low velocity structure which correlates with the Betics, the Gibraltar arc and the Rif; ii a high velocity feature which persists to a depth of approximately 30 km, positioned near the coast of Malaga on the northern margin of the Alboran sea; iii a low velocity feature, extending to a minimum depth of approximately 40 km, which coincides with the Granada basin and a strong negative Bouguer gravity anomaly.

  13. An objective daily Weather Type classification for Iberia since 1850; patterns, trends, variability and impact in precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, A. M.; Trigo, R. M.; Lorenzo, M. N.; Vaquero, J. M.; Gallego, M. C.; Valente, M. A.; Gimeno, L.

    2009-04-01

    In recent years a large number of automated classifications of atmospheric circulation patterns have been published covering the entire European continent or specific sub-regions (Huth et al., 2008). This generalized use of objective classifications results from their relatively straightforward computation but crucially from their capacity to provide simple description of typical synoptic conditions as well as their climatic and environmental impact. For this purpose, the vast majority of authors has employed the Reanalyses datasets, namely from either NCEP/NCAR or ECMWF projects. However, both these widely used datasets suffer from important caveats, namely their restricted temporal coverage, that is limited to the last six decades (NCEP/NCAR since 1948 and ECMWF since 1958). This limitation has been partially mitigated by the recent availability of continuous daily mean sea level pressure obtained within the European project EMULATE, that extended the historic records over the extra-tropical Atlantic and Europe (70°-25° N by 70° W-50° E), for the period 1850 to the present (Ansell, T. J. et al. 2006). Here we have used the extended EMULATE dataset to construct an automated version of the Lamb Weather type (WTs) classification scheme (Jones et al 1993) adapted for the center of the Iberian Peninsula. We have identified 10 basic WTs (Cyclonic, Anticyclonic and 8 directional types) following a similar methodology to that previously adopted by Trigo and DaCamara, 2000 (for Portugal) and Lorenzo et al. 2008 (for Galicia, northwestern Iberia). We have evaluated trends of monthly/seasonal frequency of each WT for the entire period and several shorter periods. Finally, we use the long-term precipitation time series from Lisbon (recently digitized) and Cadiz (southern Spain) to evaluate, the impact of each WT on the precipitation regime. It is shown that the Anticyclonic (A) type, although being the most frequent class in winter, gives a rather small contribution to

  14. Jonia e Iberia

    OpenAIRE

    León, Pilar

    2003-01-01

    Las relaciones entre Jonia e Ibería atestiguan la existencia de un eje Oriente-Occidente en la cuenca del Mediterráneo, cuyo funcionamiento resulta especialmente activo en época arcaica. Se analiza aquí el carácter intrínseco de esas relaciones y se las observa desde una perspectiva nueva, que implica reciprocidad de algún modo, y que esclarece el sentido del influjo jonio sobre el arte ibérico, matizado por lo efímero y tangencial de dicho influjo.--------------------------------------------...

  15. Perforated peptic ulcer in southeastern Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chin-Hsien; Chang, Wen-Hsiung; Shih, Shou-Chuan; Lin, Shee-Chan; Bair, Ming-Jong

    2010-09-01

    No studies focus on the population with perforated peptic ulcer in southeastern Taiwan. The present study aimed to assess the differences between the different races and the risk factors related to mortality and morbidity in postoperative patients in southeastern Taiwan. The medical records of 237 patients were reviewed retrospectively. The following factors were analyzed: patient profiles, coexisting illnesses, diagnostic method, fever, preoperative shock, clinical data at emergency room, delay operation, site of perforation, operative method, positive ascites culture, species of microbes in ascites culture, postoperative complications, death and the length of hospital stay. Aborigines were significantly different from non-aborigines in the ratio of female cases and in the habits of alcohol drinking and betel nut chewing. There were also four significantly different variables between them: fever, hemoglobin value, site of perforation and operative method. Total postoperative complication rate was 41.3% and 39 patients (16.6%) died. In multivariate analysis, age > or = 65 years, lipase > upper normal limit and preoperative shock were independent predictors of mortality. Significant risk factors associated with morbidity were NSAIDs use, creatinine > 1.5 mg/dL and preoperative shock. Aborigines were different from non-aborigines in several categories. In southeastern Taiwan, NSAIDs use, creatinine > 1.5 mg/dL and preoperative shock were independent risk factors of morbidity, and age > or = 65 years, lipase > upper normal limit and preoperative shock were independent risk factors of mortality in postoperative perforated peptic ulcer. Lipase > upper normal limit is needed for further research on the influence on mortality.

  16. Estructura de tallas y crecimiento de los cangrejos Callinectes arcuatus y C. bellicosus (Decapoda: Portunidae en la laguna costera Las Guásimas, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Hernández

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Presentamos información sobre la estructura de tallas, la relación ancho-peso y los parámetros de crecimiento de las jaibas Callinectes arcuatus y C. bellicosus. Las muestras fueron recolectadas mensualmente con una red de arrastre tipo camaronera durante el día y la noche desde marzo 1998 hasta febrero 2000 en una laguna costera del Golfo de California. C. bellicosus (n= 878 fue más abundante que C. arcuatus (n= 357 y su intervalo de talla de 8.4- 166 mm ancho del caparazón (AC y 9-130 mm AC, respectivamente. Ambas poblaciones son representadas principalmente por jóvenes (75 mm AC entre 37-75 mm AC y adultos entre 76- 90 mm AC. La relación ancho-peso mostró que los machos crecen más que las hembras en ambas especies y se observó una tendencia de crecimiento isométrico. Los parámetros de crecimiento para C. arcuatus estimados con el modelo von Bertalanffy fueron: K= 0.84 año-1, L∞= 140 a -0.12 mm para C. arcuatus, y K= 0.9 año -1, L∞= 169 a -0.11 mm para C. bellicosus. Estos resultados mostraron que la edad relativa a la cual se alcanza el crecimiento máximo es entre los tres y cuatro años de edad para ambas especies.Size frequency distribution and growth of the crabs Callinectes arcuatus and C. bellicosus (Decapoda: Portunidae in Las Guásimas coastal lagoon, Mexico. Information on size frequency distribution, the width-weight relation and growth parameters of the crabs Callinectes arcuatus and C. bellicosus is presented. The data comes from samples taken with a trawl net both day and night on a monthly basis from March 1998 to February 2000 in a coastal lagoon from Gulf of California. C. bellicosus (n= 878 was more abundant than C. arcuatus (n= 357 and its size frequency distribution presented carapace width CW ranges of 8.4-166 mm and 9-130 mm respectively. Both populations were mainly represented by juveniles (75 mm in CW ranging from 37 to 75 mm in CW, and adults (>75 mm in CW between 76 and 90 mm in CW. In both species

  17. Flammability of litter from southeastern trees: a preliminary assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Morgan Varner; Jeffrey M. Kane; Erin M. Banwell; Jesse K. Kreye

    2015-01-01

    The southeastern United States possesses a great diversity of woody species and an equally impressive history of wildland fires. Species are known to vary in their flammability, but little is known about southeastern species. We used published data and our own collections to perform standard litter flammability tests on a diverse suite of 25 native overstory trees from...

  18. Zoonotic Leprosy in the Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rahul; Singh, Pushpendra; Loughry, W.J.; Lockhart, J. Mitchell; Inman, W. Barry; Duthie, Malcolm S.; Pena, Maria T.; Marcos, Luis A.; Scollard, David M.; Cole, Stewart T.

    2015-01-01

    Nine-banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus) are naturally infected with Mycobacterium leprae and have been implicated in zoonotic transmission of leprosy. Early studies found this disease mainly in Texas and Louisiana, but armadillos in the southeastern United States appeared to be free of infection. We screened 645 armadillos from 8 locations in the southeastern United States not known to harbor enzootic leprosy for M. leprae DNA and antibodies. We found M. leprae–infected armadillos at each location, and 106 (16.4%) animals had serologic/PCR evidence of infection. Using single-nucleotide polymorphism variable number tandem repeat genotyping/genome sequencing, we detected M. leprae genotype 3I-2-v1 among 35 armadillos. Seven armadillos harbored a newly identified genotype (3I-2-v15). In comparison, 52 human patients from the same region were infected with 31 M. leprae types. However, 42.3% (22/52) of patients were infected with 1 of the 2 M. leprae genotype strains associated with armadillos. The geographic range and complexity of zoonotic leprosy is expanding. PMID:26583204

  19. Simas, cavernas y pozos para ocultar cadáveres en la Guerra Civil española (1936-1939. Aportaciones desde la Antropología Forense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ETXEBERRIA, F., SERRULLA, F., HERRASTI, L.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Son miles las víctimas de la Guerra Civil (1936-1939 que permanecen enterradas en fosas comunes repartidas por todo el territorio. Pero además de las fosas en zonas marginales o en cementerios, se emplearon también pozos artificiales y simas naturales para hacer desaparecer las evidencias de los crímenes cometidos. Este recurso ha sido utilizado a lo largo de toda la historia en situaciones de conflicto y explica algunos hallazgos que se han realizado: la ocultación de los cuerpos en espacios aparentemente imposibles para su localización y rescate posterior. Sin embargo, el avance en las técnicas arqueológicas implicadas en el ámbito de las Ciencias Forenses han posibilitado la adecuada recuperación de estos restos y su posterior análisis.

  20. Searching Jesuit´s footsteps in the Argentinean pampas: the misión “Nuestra Señora de la Purísima Concepción de los Indios Pampas” (1740-1753

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Pedrotta

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In may 1740, Jesuits Querini and Strobel started the mission “Nuestra Señora de la Purísima Concepción de los Indios Pampas”, at the mouth of the Salado River in the Argentinean pampas, thus beginning an ambitious evangelizer project for the indigenous groups that inhabited in the Pampa and Patagonia lands. Within a few years, the new town had to be moved to a nearby site, where settled until 1753. This paper presents the analysis of the document database collected in the context of archaeological investigations that we began in 1998, focused on aspects related to the mission geographical environment, its initial population, buildings and layout, as well as the information about the current location of the two settlements that consecutively formed it.

  1. La invención “ética” del sujeto indígena en la Brevísima relación de la destruición de las Indias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo V. García

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available En la Brevísima relación de la destruición de las Indias, Bartolomé de Las Casas “inventa” un sujeto indígena como “criatura de Dios” y súbdito de Castilla. Reprobando la violencia de la conquista, este texto defiende y reafirma la naturaleza humana del amerindio. Además, y esto es acaso lo más actual de su alegato, inaugura en el Nuevo Mundo la construcción ética del otro, la discusión teórica y la praxis defensora de los derechos humanos, los tópicos centrales de la moderna literatura de testimonio. Asimismo, aunque la Brevísima relación inicia la “leyenda negra” de España, también busca preservar sus intereses. En efecto, Las Casas escribió las páginas más duras contra una de las “Españas” –conquistadores y encomenderos–, pero también apeló con esperanza y pasión a la “España” que podía detener el genocidio: el monarca y su poder. Negación y afirmación, la ambigüedad ideológica lascasiana intenta extirpar el mal en América e impedir la eventual destrucción del Imperio: el castigo divino.

  2. Evaluation of the TMPA-3B42 precipitation product using a high-density rain gauge network over complex terrain in northeastern Iberia

    KAUST Repository

    El Kenawy, Ahmed M.

    2015-08-29

    The performance of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA)-3B42 version 7 product is assessed over north-eastern Iberia, a region with considerable topographical gradients and complexity. Precipitation characteristics from a dense network of 656 rain gauges, spanning the period from 1998 to 2009, are used to evaluate TMPA-3B42 estimates on a daily scale. A set of accuracy estimators, including the relative bias, mean absolute error (MAE), root mean square error (RMSE) and Spearman coefficient was used to evaluate the results. The assessment indicates that TMPA-3B42 product is capable of describing the seasonal characteristics of the observed precipitation over most of the study domain. In particular, TMPA-3B42 precipitation agrees well with in situ measurements, with MAE less than 2.5mm.day-1, RMSE of 6.4mm.day-1 and Spearman correlation coefficients generally above 0.6. TMPA-3B42 provides improved accuracies in winter and summer, whereas it performs much worse in spring and autumn. Spatially, the retrieval errors show a consistent trend, with a general overestimation in regions of low altitude and underestimation in regions of heterogeneous terrain. TMPA-3B42 generally performs well over inland areas, while showing less skill in the coastal regions. A set of skill metrics, including a false alarm ratio [FAR], frequency bias index [FBI], the probability of detection [POD] and threat score [TS], is also used to evaluate TMPA performance under different precipitation thresholds (1, 5, 10, 25 and 50mm.day-1). The results suggest that TMPA-3B42 retrievals perform well in specifying moderate rain events (5-25mm.day-1), but show noticeably less skill in producing both light (<1mm.day-1) and heavy rainfall thresholds (more than 50mm.day-1). Given the complexity of the terrain and the associated high spatial variability of precipitation in north-eastern Iberia, the results reveal that TMPA-3B42 data provide an

  3. Evaluation of the TMPA-3B42 precipitation product using a high-density rain gauge network over complex terrain in northeastern Iberia

    KAUST Repository

    El Kenawy, Ahmed M.; Lopez-Moreno, Juan I.; McCabe, Matthew; Vicente-Serrano, Sergio M.

    2015-01-01

    The performance of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA)-3B42 version 7 product is assessed over north-eastern Iberia, a region with considerable topographical gradients and complexity. Precipitation characteristics from a dense network of 656 rain gauges, spanning the period from 1998 to 2009, are used to evaluate TMPA-3B42 estimates on a daily scale. A set of accuracy estimators, including the relative bias, mean absolute error (MAE), root mean square error (RMSE) and Spearman coefficient was used to evaluate the results. The assessment indicates that TMPA-3B42 product is capable of describing the seasonal characteristics of the observed precipitation over most of the study domain. In particular, TMPA-3B42 precipitation agrees well with in situ measurements, with MAE less than 2.5mm.day-1, RMSE of 6.4mm.day-1 and Spearman correlation coefficients generally above 0.6. TMPA-3B42 provides improved accuracies in winter and summer, whereas it performs much worse in spring and autumn. Spatially, the retrieval errors show a consistent trend, with a general overestimation in regions of low altitude and underestimation in regions of heterogeneous terrain. TMPA-3B42 generally performs well over inland areas, while showing less skill in the coastal regions. A set of skill metrics, including a false alarm ratio [FAR], frequency bias index [FBI], the probability of detection [POD] and threat score [TS], is also used to evaluate TMPA performance under different precipitation thresholds (1, 5, 10, 25 and 50mm.day-1). The results suggest that TMPA-3B42 retrievals perform well in specifying moderate rain events (5-25mm.day-1), but show noticeably less skill in producing both light (<1mm.day-1) and heavy rainfall thresholds (more than 50mm.day-1). Given the complexity of the terrain and the associated high spatial variability of precipitation in north-eastern Iberia, the results reveal that TMPA-3B42 data provide an

  4. Redistribution of cesium-137 in southeastern watersheds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McHenry, J.R.; Ritchie, J.C.

    1975-01-01

    Sediment samples from 14 southeastern agricultural reservoirs and surface samples from representative soils from the contributing water shed areas were analyzed for 137 Cs. The concentrations of 137 Cs measured reflect the nature of the watershed, its cover, its use, and man's activities. Since the redistribution of 137 Cs was assumed to result from soil erosion, recent erosion rates can be calculated from the measured 137 Cs accumulations in sediments and from the decreases in the 137 Cs calculated to have been deposited on upland soils. Measured concentrations of 137 Cs ranged from 14 to 158 nCi/m 2 in surface soils. As much as 525 nCi/m 2 of 137 Cs was measured in the deposited sediment profile. Watershed budgets for 137 Cs were calculated for three representative watersheds using available sediment survey information and the measured 137 Cs concentrations

  5. Oceanographic processes and products around the Iberian margin: a new multidisciplinary approach; Procesos oceanograficos y sus productos alrededor del margen de Iberia: una nueva aproximacion multidisciplinar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez-Molina, F. J.; Wahlin, A.; Bruno, M.; Ercilla, G.; Llave, E.; Serra, N.; Roson, G.; Puig, P.; Rebesco, M.; Van Rooij, D.; Roque, D.; Gonzalez-Pola, C.; Sanchez, F.; Gomez, M.; Preu, B.; Schwenk, T.; Hanebuth, T. J. J.; Sanchez Leal, R. F.; Garcia-Lafuente, J.; Bracjenridge, R. E.; Juan, C.; Stow, D. A. V.; Sanchez-Gonzalez, J. M.

    2015-07-01

    Our understanding of the role of bottom currents and associated oceanographic processes (e.g., overflows, barotropic tidal currents) including intermittent processes (e.g., vertical eddies, deep sea storms, horizontal vortices, internal waves and tsunamis) is rapidly evolving. Many deep-water processes remain poorly under- stood due to limited direct observations, but may generate significant depositional and erosional features on both short- and long-term time scales. This paper describes these oceanographic processes and examines their potential role in the sedimentary features around the Iberian margin. The paper explores the implications of the processes studied, given their secondary role relative to other factors such as mass-transport and turbiditic processes. An integrated interpretation of these oceanographic processes requires an understanding of contourites, sea-floor features, their spatial and temporal evolution, and the near-bottom flows that form them. Given their complex, three-dimensional and temporally-variable nature, integration of these processes into sedimentary, oceanographic and climatological frameworks will require a multidisciplinary approach that includes Geology, Physical Oceanography, Paleoceanography and Benthic Biology. This approach will synthesize oceanographic data, seafloor morphology, sediments and seismic images to improve our knowledge of permanent and intermittent processes around Iberia, and evaluate their conceptual and regional role in the sedimentary evolution of the margin. (Author)

  6. Towards a regional ocean forecasting system for the IBI (Iberia-Biscay-Ireland area: developments and improvements within the ECOOP project framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Cailleau

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The regional ocean operational system remains a key element in downscaling from large scale (global or basin scale systems to coastal ones. It enables the transition between systems in which the resolution and the resolved physics are quite different. Indeed, coastal applications need a system to predict local high frequency events (inferior to the day such as storm surges, while deep sea applications need a system to predict large scale lower frequency ocean features. In the framework of the ECOOP project, a regional system for the Iberia-Biscay-Ireland area has been upgraded from an existing V0 version to a V2. This paper focuses on the improvements from the V1 system, for which the physics are close to a large scale basin system, to the V2 for which the physics are more adapted to shelf and coastal issues. Strong developments such as higher regional physics resolution in the NEMO Ocean General Circulation Model for tides, non linear free surface and adapted vertical mixing schemes among others have been implemented in the V2 version. Thus, regional thermal fronts due to tidal mixing now appear in the latest version solution and are quite well positioned. Moreover, simulation of the stratification in shelf areas is also improved in the V2.

  7. The Assessment Of Small Games On Fadama Land In Southeastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Assessment Of Small Games On Fadama Land In Southeastern Nigeria And The Potential For Development. ... country can offer feasible operational strategy for sustainable wildlife species development. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  8. The potential of energy farming in the southeastern California desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew, V.

    1980-04-01

    The use of energy forms to provide future sources of energy for California is considered. Marginal desert lands in southeastern California are proposed for the siting of energy farms using acacia, eucalyptus, euphorbia, guayule, jojoba, mesquite, or tamarisk.

  9. The vegetation of Malilangwe Wildlife Reserve, south-eastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The vegetation of Malilangwe Wildlife Reserve, south-eastern Zimbabwe. ... African Journal of Range and Forage Science ... Comparisons with other southern African savannas are made, and similarities and differences are discussed.

  10. Rickettsia parkeri in Gulf Coast Ticks, Southeastern Virginia, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Rickettsia parkeri in Gulf Coast Ticks, Southeastern Virginia, USA Chelsea L. Wright, Robyn M. Nadolny, Ju Jiang, Allen L. Richards, Daniel E...Virginia. We found that 43.1% of the adult Gulf Coast ticks collected in the summer of 2010 carried Rickettsia parkeri, suggesting that persons living in...or visiting southeastern Virginia are at risk for infection with this pathogen. Rickettsia parkeri is an obligate intracellular bacterium belonging

  11. Uranium assessment for the Precambrian pebble conglomerates in southeastern Wyoming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borgman, L.E.; Sever, C.; Quimby, W.F.; Andrew, M.E.; Karlstrom, K.E.; Houston, R.S.

    1981-03-01

    This volume is a geostatistical resource estimate of uranium and thorium in quartz-pebble conglomerates, and is a companion to Volume 1: The Geology and Uranium Potential to Precambrian Conglomerates in the Medicine Bow Mountains and Sierra Madre of Southeastern Wyoming; and to Volume 2: Drill-Hole Data, Drill-Site Geology, and Geochemical Data from the Study of Precambrian Uraniferous Conglomerates of the Medicine Bow Mountains and the Sierra Madre of Southeastern Wyoming

  12. Southeastern Cancer Study Group: breast cancer studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smalley, R.V.; Bartolucci, A.A.; Moore, M.

    1983-01-01

    During the past 10 years, the Southeastern Cancer Study Group (SECSG) has been engaged in one major adjuvant study and three major advanced disease studies for patients with adenocarcinoma of the breast. The adjuvant study is demonstrating that six months of adjuvant CMF is the therapeutic equivalent of 12 months and that post-operative irradiation is of no added therapeutic benefit. In patients with advanced disease, a low dose 5 drug combination of CMFVP induces more objective responses than single agent 5FU, but improves survival only for those patients with liver metastases when compared to the sequential use of the same 5 single agents. The three drug combination, CAF, utilizing doxorubicin, induces more objective responses than low dose CMFVP, but it does not improve overall survival. The addition of a phase active combination, CAMELEON, (i.e., sequentially alternating therapy) of CAF has not improved the duration of disease control and survival for patients with liver metastases, lymphangitic and nodular lung metastases compared to CAF. Aggressive combination chemotherapeutic approaches to patients with advanced disease provide better and longer disease and tumor control but only marginal improvements in overall survival. Adding additional agents to a maximally tolerable regimen has not improved the therapeutic outcome

  13. Karst in evaporites in southeastern New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachman, G.O.

    1987-09-01

    Permian evaporites in southeastern New Mexico include gypsum, anhydrite, and salt, which are subject to both blanket and local, selective dissolution. Dissolution has produced many hundreds of individual karst features including collapse sinks, karst valleys, blind valleys, karst plains, caves, and breccia pipes. Dissolution began within some formations during Permian time and has been intermittent but continual ever since. Karst features other than blanket deposits of breccia are not preserved from the early episodes of dissolution, but some karst features preserved today - such as breccia pipes - are remnants of karst activity that was active at least as early as mid-Pleistocene time. Rainfall was much more abundant during Late Pleistocene time, and many features visible today may have been formed then. The drainage history of the Pecos River is related to extensive karstification of the Pecos Valley during mid-Pleistocene time. Large-scale stream piracy and dissolution of salt in the subsurface resulted in major shifts and excavations in the channel. In spite of intensive groundwater studies that have been carried out in the region, major problems in near-surface evaporite karst remain to be solved. Among these are determination of recharge areas and time of recharge. 109 refs., 31 figs., 1 tab

  14. Groundwater Quality of Southeastern Brazzaville, Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matini Laurent

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The groundwater in southeastern Brazzaville (Congo was analyzed for their fluoride contents and others related parameters in rainy season. The fluoride contents in water samples (wells and spring can be gather in three classes in the study area: low, optimal, high. Fluoride concentration in water samples presents a low significant correlation with Ca2+. This suggests that fluoride in the groundwater come from fluoride-bearing minerals such as CaF2 (fluorite. Maps were drawn to show the geographical distribution of EC, Ca2+, Mg2+and F-. Factor analysis and cluster analysis were applied to the dataset. Factor analysis resulted in four factors explained 76.90% of the total groundwater quality variance. Factor 1 (hardness of the groundwater includes total hardness, the concentration of K+, Ca2+ and pH. Factor 2 (low mineralization of the groundwater includes concentrations of TDS, Cl--, SO42+ and EC. Factor 3 (anthropogenic activities with the impact of agricultural fertilizers, farming activities, domestic wastewater, septic tanks includes concentrations of Na+ and NO3-. Factor 4 (weathering of calcium minerals includes concentrations of F-. For cluster analysis, Ward’s method and the Euclidean distance were used. The findings of the cluster analysis are presented in the form of dendrogram of the well water sites (cases. The discriminating parameters between clusters have been highlighted from the Student test. In majority, they are in accordance with those highlighted by factor analysis.

  15. Seismic risk map for Southeastern Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mioto, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    During the last few years, some studies regarding seismic risk were prepared for three regions of Brazil. They were carried on account of two basic interests: first, toward the seismic history and recurrence of Brazilian seismic events; second, in a way as to provide seismic parameters for the design and construction of hydro and nuclear power plants. The first seismic risk map prepared for the southeastern region was elaborated in 1979 by 6he Universidade de Brasilia (UnB-Brasilia Seismological Station). In 1981 another seismic risk map was completed on the basis of seismotectonic studies carried out for the design and construction of the Nuclear power plants of Itaorna Beach (Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro) by IPT (Mining and Applied Geology Division). In Brazil, until 1984, seismic studies concerning hydro and nuclear power plants and other civil construction of larger size did not take into account the seismic events from the point of view of probabilities of seismic recurrences. Such analysis in design is more important than the choice of a level of intensity or magnitude, or adoption of a seismicity level ased on deterministic methods. In this way, some considerations were made, concerning the use of seisms in Brazilian designs of hydro and nuclear power plants, as far as seismic analysis is concerned, recently altered over the current seismic risk panorama. (D.J.M.) [pt

  16. Dengue Virus in Bats from Southeastern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotomayor-Bonilla, Jesús; Chaves, Andrea; Rico-Chávez, Oscar; Rostal, Melinda K.; Ojeda-Flores, Rafael; Salas-Rojas, Mónica; Aguilar-Setien, Álvaro; Ibáñez-Bernal, Sergio; Barbachano-Guerrero, Arturo; Gutiérrez-Espeleta, Gustavo; Aguilar-Faisal, J. Leopoldo; Aguirre, A. Alonso; Daszak, Peter; Suzán, Gerardo

    2014-01-01

    To identify the relationship between landscape use and dengue virus (DENV) occurrence in bats, we investigated the presence of DENV from anthropogenically changed and unaltered landscapes in two Biosphere Reserves: Calakmul (Campeche) and Montes Azules (Chiapas) in southern Mexico. Spleen samples of 146 bats, belonging to 16 species, were tested for four DENV serotypes with standard reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) protocols. Six bats (4.1%) tested positive for DENV-2: four bats in Calakmul (two Glossophaga soricina, one Artibeus jamaicensis, and one A. lituratus) and two bats in Montes Azules (both A. lituratus). No effect of anthropogenic disturbance on the occurrence of DENV was detected; however, all three RT-PCR–positive bat species are considered abundant species in the Neotropics and well-adapted to disturbed habitats. To our knowledge, this study is the first study conducted in southeastern Mexico to identify DENV-2 in bats by a widely accepted RT-PCR protocol. The role that bats play on DENV's ecology remains undetermined. PMID:24752688

  17. Pellet feed adsorbed with the recombinant Lactococcus lactis BFE920 expressing SiMA antigen induced strong recall vaccine effects against Streptococcus iniae infection in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daniel; Beck, Bo Ram; Lee, Sun Min; Jeon, Jongsu; Lee, Dong Wook; Lee, Jae Il; Song, Seong Kyu

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a fish feed vaccine that provides effective disease prevention and convenient application. A lactic acid bacterium (LAB), Lactococcus lactis BFE920, was modified to express the SiMA antigen, a membrane protein of Streptococcus iniae. The antigen was engineered to be expressed under the nisin promoter, which is induced by nisin produced naturally by the host LAB. Various sizes (40 ± 3.5 g, 80 ± 2.1 g, and 221 ± 2.4 g) of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) were vaccinated by feeding the extruded pellet feed, onto which the SiMA-expressing L. lactis BFE920 (1.0 × 10(7) CFU/g) was adsorbed. Vaccine-treated feed was administered twice a day for 1 week, and priming and boosting were performed with a 1-week interval in between. The vaccinated fish had significantly elevated levels of antigen-specific serum antibodies and T cell marker mRNAs: CD4-1, CD4-2, and CD8a. In addition, the feed vaccine significantly induced T cell effector functions, such as the production of IFN-γ and activation of the transcription factor that induces its expression, T-bet. When the flounder were challenged by intraperitoneal infection and bath immersion with S. iniae, the vaccinated fish showed 84% and 82% relative percent survival (RPS), respectively. Furthermore, similar protective effects were confirmed even 3 months after vaccination in a field study (n = 4800), indicating that this feed vaccine elicited prolonged duration of immunopotency. In addition, the vaccinated flounder gained 21% more weight and required 16% less feed to gain a unit of body weight compared to the control group. The data clearly demonstrate that the L. lactis BFE920-SiMA feed vaccine has strong protective effects, induces prolonged vaccine efficacy, and has probiotic effects. In addition, this LAB-based fish feed vaccine can be easily used to target many different pathogens of diverse fish species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Petrology of the Porriño late-Variscan pluton from NW Iberia. A model for post-tectonic plutons in collisional settings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    González Menéndez, L.; Gallastegui, G.; Cuesta, A.; Montero, P.; Rubio-Ordoñez, A.; Molina, J.F.; Bea, F.

    2017-07-01

    The Variscan orogen of NW Iberia contains abundant syn- and post-tectonic granitoids. The post-tectonic granitoids are metaluminous to slightly peraluminous, I-type granites, monzogranites ± granodiorites ± tonalites. The Porriño pluton studied here is a representative example. It consists of two units: i) a pink-red, peraluminous, biotite granite and ii) a gray, metaluminous to peraluminous, biotite (± amphibole ± titanite) monzogranite, including maficintermediate enclaves. SHRIMP U-Pb dating yielded 290-295Ma ages for all the units. The mineralogy and geochemistry show that the pink-red granite has features of I- and A-type granites, whereas the gray monzogranite and enclaves are I-types. Sr isotopes show scattered values for the pink-red granite (87Sr/86Sr295Ma ≈ 0.702-0.710) and uniform values for the gray monzogranite and enclaves (87Sr/86Sr295Ma≈ 0.705-0.706). Geochemical results indicate a peritectic entrainment of clinopyroxene + orthopyroxene ± Ca-plagioclase ± ilmenite ± garnet, and minor accessory phases (± zircon ± titanite ± apatite) into a melt similar to the leucocratic gray monzogranite. A mafic-intermediate source is proposed for the gray monzogranite and its enclaves. Restitic protoliths generated granitic melts with A-type features such as the pink-red granite. The I-type nature of many post-tectonic granitoids could be explained by the previous extraction of S-type syn-tectonic granites that left restites and less fertile rocks. Late orogenic new melting affected the previously unmelted and more mafic lithologies of the lower-middle crust, and gave rise to I-type granitoids. Repeated melting events affecting such lithologies and previous restites could have generated granitic melts with A-type features.

  19. Saline water in southeastern New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiss, W.L.; Peterson, J.B.; Ramsey, T.R.

    1969-01-01

    Saline waters from formations of several geologic ages are being studied in a seven-county area in southeastern New Mexico and western Texas, where more than 30,000 oil and gas tests have been drilled in the past 40 years. This area of 7,500 sq. miles, which is stratigraphically complex, includes the northern and eastern margins of the Delaware Basin between the Guadalupe and Glass Mountains. Chloride-ion concentrations in water produced from rocks of various ages and depths have been mapped in Lea County, New Mexico, using machine map-plotting techniques and trend analyses. Anomalously low chloride concentrations (1,000-3,000 mg/l) were found along the western margin of the Central Basin platform in the San Andres and Capitan Limestone Formations of Permian age. These low chloride-ion concentrations may be due to preferential circulation of ground water through the more porous and permeable rocks. Data being used in the study were obtained principally from oil companies and from related service companies. The P.B.W.D.S. (Permian Basin Well Data System) scout-record magnetic-tape file was used as a framework in all computer operations. Shallow or non-oil-field water analyses acquired from state, municipal, or federal agencies were added to these data utilizing P.B.W.D.S.-compatible reference numbers and decimal latitude-longitude coordinates. Approximately 20,000 water analyses collected from over 65 sources were coded, recorded on punch cards and stored on magnetic tape for computer operations. Extensive manual and computer error checks for duplication and accuracy were made to eliminate data errors resulting from poorly located or identified samples; non-representative or contaminated samples; mistakes in coding, reproducing or key-punching; laboratory errors; and inconsistent reporting. The original 20,000 analyses considered were reduced to 6,000 representative analyses which are being used in the saline water studies. ?? 1969.

  20. Paleodemografía y biología de los homínidos del Pleistoceno Medio de Europa. El caso de la Sima de los Huesos de Atapuerca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bermúdez de Castro, José María

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Not available.Las excavaciones sistemáticas realizadas hasta la campaña de 1997 en el yacimiento de la Sima de los Huesos (SH de la Sierra de Atapuerca (Burgos ha proporcionado un excepcional conjunto de más de 2000 restos fósiles humanos pertenecientes a un número mínimo (NMI de 32 individuos. Las características del yacimiento de SH y el estudio tafonómico del registro sugieren un origen antrópico para la acumulación de los homínidos. Sin embargo, la discusión sobre el modelo que se ajusta a la distribución de mortalidad observada, catastrófico vs. atricional, está siendo muy fructífera para las investigaciones sobre ciertas características biológicas de la especie, Homo heidelbergensis, a la que pertenecen los homínidos de SH.

  1. Adaptación del modelo de deserción universitaria de Tinto a la Universidad Católica de la Santísima Concepción, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Saldaña Villa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En esta investigación se adaptó el modelo de Vincent Tinto para analizar la deserción de los alumnos deIngeniería Civil en la Universidad Católica de la Santísima Concepción, Chile. El objetivo de este estudio esidentificar qué factores afectan la permanencia de los estudiantes en la carrera escogida, considerando característicaspropias de los alumnos, el compromiso con la institución y el rendimiento académico al interior de launiversidad. La metodología utilizada es el análisis de eventos históricos y se modela a través de una regresiónlogística binaria, construyendo un modelo que predice correctamente el 90,3% de los casos. Las variables quemejor explican la deserción son los ingresos familiares y el rendimiento académico de los alumnos; sin embargo,se plantea la necesidad de repensar la relación entre ingresos y deserción a la luz de los resultados de este estudio.Se concluye que el modelo de Tinto y su adaptación a la realidad chilena son un esquema conceptual válidopara examinar el fenómeno de la deserción universitaria.

  2. Geomorphological stability of Permo-Triassic albitized profiles - case study of the Montseny-Guilleries High (NE Iberia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parcerisa, D.; Casas, L.; Franke, C.; Gomez-Gras, D.; Lacasa, G.; Nunez, J. A.; Thiry, M.

    2010-05-01

    albitization. Biotites are not or weakly chloritized. However, these "unaltered" (or primary) granites are strongly weathered into granite boulders embedded in grus by the present-day climatic conditions. The maturest paleoprofiles occur at the northern part of the Catalan Coastal Ranges (i.e. the Montseny-Guilleries High) where the Variscan basement remained exposed during Triassic times. Towards the South the profiles progressively disappear and Triassic sediments acquire their maximum thickness here. The alteration profiles are related with the Permo-Triassic paleosurface still outcroping on wide areas [Gómez-Gras and Ferrer, 1999]. They are partially covered by Triassic fluvial sandstones (Buntsandstein facies) in the South [Gómez-Gras, 1993] and by Palaeocene alluvial conglomerates in the West [Anadón et al., 1979]. The Triassic paleosurface shows a remarkable stability successively outcropping during Mesozoic and Tertiary times, the pre-Tertiary exhumation and even the present day weathering affected very little these albitized profiles. The hardness and thus preservation of the Triassic paleosurface is mainly related to the albitization. The albitized granites are entirely lacking anorthitic plagioclase, which is much more sensitive to chemo-mechanical weathering. Development of albite and additional chloritization of the primary biotite crystals render the rocks much more resistant to weathering and erosion. This stability is particularly well expressed in case of the Montseny-Guilleries High, which is limited by a high fault scarp at the south-eastern margin. The albitized top of the scarp shows remarkably hard fresh rocks, whereas the base of the scarp (formed of primary, non-albitized facies) is deeply weathered into gruss. This is causing much smother landscape reliefs in the valleys and thalwegs. Since a long time the remarkable persistence of the Triassic paleosurface expressed in the Paleozoic massifs has been highlighted by geomorphologists. Only recently we

  3. Tectonic history of the southeastern North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatcher, R.D. Jr. (Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

    1993-03-01

    The present-day configuration of the crust of southeastern North America (SENA) is the product of a lengthy history traceable through more than 1 billion yr. of geologic time. The Appalachians (AP) record complete Wilson cycles of opening and closing of several oceans from ca. 690 Ma to 245 M. The final event forming the AP was the collision of SENA with Gondwana to form the supercontinent Pangaea. The Ouachitas (OA) had a somewhat different history culminating with island-arc collision during the Pennsylvanian--before the final collision began in the AP. SENA faced the open lapetos ocean no earlier than the Early Cambrian. The AP and OA were built on an earlier margin formed by rifting of the Rodonia super-continent formed by construction of the 1.2 to 1.0 Ga Grenville orogen, and farther west, a crust formed by still earlier (1.3 and 1.8 Ga) events. Recent suggestions that part of the AP platform is in Argentina raises the possibility that a fragment was rifted from between the AP and OA during the early Paleozoic. The crust beneath the Mississippi Embayment is atypical of continental crust, and would have been rifted during the Neoproterozoic and early Paleozoic. The Argentine fragment may have been removed along a transform that was reactivated several times since. Northern Pangaea was rifted during the Late Triassic and Early Jurassic and SENA once again faced open ocean-the nascent present Atlantic (AT) when spreading began. The Gulf of Mexico (GOM) also opened then forming extensive salt deposits. The AT opened partly along the old suture, but produced a failed rift in GA and FL leaving a piece of Africa forming the crust beneath the Coastal Plain as far south as central FL. The overlying sediments record recurrent uplift and decay of the AP and OA, cooling of new AT oceanic crust, eustatic sea-level changes during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic, and uplift of the Rockies providing a new source of voluminous detritus that is still being deposited in the GOM.

  4. Extending GIS Technology to Study Karst Features of Southeastern Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Y.; Tipping, R. G.; Alexander, E. C.; Alexander, S. C.

    2001-12-01

    This paper summarizes ongoing research on karst feature distribution of southeastern Minnesota. The main goals of this interdisciplinary research are: 1) to look for large-scale patterns in the rate and distribution of sinkhole development; 2) to conduct statistical tests of hypotheses about the formation of sinkholes; 3) to create management tools for land-use managers and planners; and 4) to deliver geomorphic and hydrogeologic criteria for making scientifically valid land-use policies and ethical decisions in karst areas of southeastern Minnesota. Existing county and sub-county karst feature datasets of southeastern Minnesota have been assembled into a large GIS-based database capable of analyzing the entire data set. The central database management system (DBMS) is a relational GIS-based system interacting with three modules: GIS, statistical and hydrogeologic modules. ArcInfo and ArcView were used to generate a series of 2D and 3D maps depicting karst feature distributions in southeastern Minnesota. IRIS ExplorerTM was used to produce satisfying 3D maps and animations using data exported from GIS-based database. Nearest-neighbor analysis has been used to test sinkhole distributions in different topographic and geologic settings. All current nearest-neighbor analyses testify that sinkholes in southeastern Minnesota are not evenly distributed in this area (i.e., they tend to be clustered). More detailed statistical methods such as cluster analysis, histograms, probability estimation, correlation and regression have been used to study the spatial distributions of some mapped karst features of southeastern Minnesota. A sinkhole probability map for Goodhue County has been constructed based on sinkhole distribution, bedrock geology, depth to bedrock, GIS buffer analysis and nearest-neighbor analysis. A series of karst features for Winona County including sinkholes, springs, seeps, stream sinks and outcrop has been mapped and entered into the Karst Feature Database

  5. Southeastern Regional Geologic Characterization Report. Executive summary. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-08-01

    This Executive Summary of the final Southeastern Regional Geologic Characterization Report (RGCR) is issued primarily for public information purposes, and provides a general overview of the report. The complete RGCR presents available regional geologic information pertinent to siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in central Maryland; noncoastal Virginia, North Carolina, and South Carolina; and northern Georgia. For each of the states within the Southeastern Region, information is provided on the geologic disqualifying factor and the geologic regional screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening

  6. Characterizing rainfall parameters which influence erosivity in southeastern Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obi, M.E.; Salako, F.K.

    1993-12-01

    An investigation was carried out to characterize some selected parameters which influence rainfall erosivity in southeastern Nigeria. Rainfall amount, distribution, duration, intensity, storm types, energy loads and frequency of rain events in the region were studied using data from stations located in three major agroecological zones. Raindrop size and detaching capacity were evaluated in one of the stations for two months. The mean annual rainfall erosivity values for southeastern Nigeria point to the fact that rainfall tend to be highly erosive. 25 refs, 6 figs, 8 tabs

  7. Southeastern Regional Environmental Characterization Report: executive summary. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-08-01

    This Executive Summary of the final ''Southeastern Regional Environmental Characterization Report'' (RECR) is issued primarily for public information purposes and provides a general overview of the report. The complete RECR presents available regional environmental information pertinent to siting a repository or high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in central Maryland; noncoastal Virginia, North Carolina, and South Carolina; and northern Georgia. For each of the states within the Southeastern Region, information is provided on the environmental disqualifying factors and the environmental regional screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening

  8. Radiocarbon dates of the Iron Age hillfort of O Achadizo (Boiro, A Coruña, NW Iberia: an approach to the dating of marine shells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubinos Pérez, Antonio

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The excavation of the hillfort of O Achadizo has brought to light several domestic structures intermingled with rubish heaps, belonging to the Iron Age Castro culture of NW Iberia. The abundant organic remains have constituted the basis for a systematic programme of radiocarbon dating of the different stratigraphic levels, which shows that the main occupation of the site took place between the VI and the II centuries cal. BC. Moreover, we have checked the 14C dates obtained from terrestrial samples (bones and charcoal against those made on marine shells coming from the same strata. As a result, we have found that the latter have an apparent age of 316±I9 years, caused by the reservoir effect. Therefore, we stress the need for taking into account -and correcting whenever possible- such a deviation before using samples of marine origin for chronological purposes.

    La excavación del castro de O Achadizo (Boiro, A Coruña puso al descubierto una serie de estructuras domésticas, así como varios basureros, encuadrables todos ellos dentro de la cultura castreña del Noroeste ibérico. El hecho de poder disponer de una gran cantidad de material orgánico procedente de los distintos niveles de habitación ha permitido llevar a cabo un programa sistemático de datación mediante el radiocarbono. Como resultado de los análisis radiométricos se deduce que la principal ocupación del yacimiento tuvo lugar entre los siglos VI al II cal BC. Por otra parte hemos cotejado las dataciones obtenidas sobre muestras con la misma procedencia estratigráfica, de origen terrestre (huesos y carbones y oceánico (conchas, a fin de evaluar el efecto de reserva marina. El valor medio de la edad aparente de las conchas de O Achadizo (316 ±19 es semejante al calculado para la costa portuguesa y subraya la necesidad de efectuar una corrección de las dataciones hechas sobre material orgánico de origen marino.

  9. State of pine decline in the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lori Eckhardt; Mary Anne Sword Sayer; Don Imm

    2010-01-01

    Pine decline is an emerging forest health issue in the southeastern United States. Observations suggest pine decline is caused by environmental stress arising from competition, weather, insects and fungi, anthropogenic disturbances, and previous management. The problem is most severe for loblolly pine on sites that historically supported longleaf pine, are highly...

  10. Some Spatial Aspects of Southeastern United States Climatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soule, Peter T.

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on the climatology of an eight-state region in the southern and southeastern United States. Discusses general controls of climate and spatial patterns of various climatic averages. Examines mapped extremes as a means of fostering increased awareness of the variability that exists for climatic conditions in the region. (CMK)

  11. Economics of conservation systems research in the Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of conservation systems in crop production is not a new concept in the southeastern United States. In 1978, researchers from across the Southeast met in Griffin, Georgia for the first annual Southern Conservation Agricultural Systems Conference. Four of the ten presentations specifically men...

  12. preliminary investigation of pegmatites in obudu area, southeastern

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stream sediment samples were collected from Southern Obudu. Plateau area ... The elements in Obudu stream sediments show perfect, strong, moderate and weak correlations among themselves ..... also be due to the low radioactive materials in the area. However .... geochemistry in southeastern Asia: soils, sediments ...

  13. Southeastern Community College Annual Progress Report, December 1995.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, R. Gene

    Presenting information on the status of Southeastern Community College (SCC), in Iowa, this annual progress report highlights basic institutional data, financial information, and improvements and planned changes of the college as of 1995. Part 1 presents basic data on SCC, including facility locations, assessed property valuation, district…

  14. Plant community variability on a small area in southeastern Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    James G. MacCracken; Daniel W. Uresk; Richard M. Hansen

    1984-01-01

    Plant communities are inherently variable due to a number of environmental and biological forces. Canopy cover and aboveground biomass were determined for understory vegetation in plant communities of a prairie grassland-forest ecotone in southeastern Montana. Vegetation units were described using polar ordination and stepwise discriminant analysis. Nine of a total of...

  15. Mulching An Arenic Hapludult In Southeastern Nigeria: Effects On ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out over two cropping seasons at Umudike, southeastern Nigeria, to determine the type and quantity of mulch that would improve some selected physical properties of an Arenic Hapludult and optimize the rhizome yield of turmeric. Effects of mulch rate on bulk density (BD), total porosity (TP), ...

  16. Hepatitis C virus infection in pregnant women in Southeastern Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the seroprevalence of Hepatitis C virus and its possible risk factors in antenatal clinic attendees. Methods: A cross-sectional survey involving 820 consecutive and consenting antenatal clinic attendees at five antenatal clinics in Aba, Southeastern Nigeria over the period 15 June – 15 November, ...

  17. The Economics Of Goat Production In Southeastern Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The West African Dwarf goat is indigenous to Southeastern Nigeria and is raised by many families under small·scale and intensive management systems. Results showed that the average households kept 6 goats, but that expansion was limited by hour and feed procurement problems. Both males and females owned goats ...

  18. Oak-Black Bear Relationships in Southeastern Uplands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph D. Clark

    2004-01-01

    Bears (Ursus americanus) primarily occur in upland habitats in the Southeast because uplands were the last to be developed for agriculture and were more likely to become publicly owned. National parks and forests created in the early to mid-1900s served as sources to supply surrounding uplands with bears. Bears could not survive in southeastern...

  19. Lowland riparian herpetofaunas: the San Pedro River in southeastern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip C. Rosen

    2005-01-01

    Previous work has shown that southeastern Arizona has a characteristic, high diversity lowland riparian herpetofauna with 62-68 or more species along major stream corridors, and 46-54 species in shorter reaches within single biomes, based on intensive fieldwork and museum record surveys. The San Pedro River supports this characteristic herpetofauna, at least some of...

  20. Circulation in the Southeastern Mediterranean Sea (EGITTO-NICOP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-30

    Circulation in the Southeastern Mediterranean Sea (EGITTO-NICOP) Pierre-Marie Poulain Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica ...Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale,Borgo Grotta Gigante, 42/c,34010 Sgonico (Trieste), Italy, , 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER

  1. Physico-chemical properties of a Haplic Acrisol in Southeastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physico-chemical properties of a Haplic Acrisol in Southeastern Nigeria amended with rice mill waste and NPK fertilizer. ... conductivity (Ksat) and mean weight diameter (MWD) of water stable aggregates significantly by 41.1, 368.2 and 155.8%, respectively, and resulted in 20.9% significant decrease in bulk density (BD).

  2. Cranial discrete traits in the middle pleistocene humans from Sima de los Huesos (Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain). Does hypostosis represent any increase in "ontogenetic stress" along the Neanderthal lineage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzi, G; Gracia, A; Arsuaga, J L

    2000-03-01

    Cranial discrete traits may be regarded as markers of dynamic responses to general and local perturbations of the morphogenetic pattern, particularly when they are viewed and examined in terms of hypostosis vs. hyperostosis. There are indications, in fact, that the variation between these two opposite conditions relates to mechanical stress suffered by the bony structures during early stages of growth and development. In a previous comparison between Neanderthals and modern humans, variable degrees and contrasting distribution patterns of hypostosis were found [Manzi et al. (1996), JHE30: 511-527]. In the present paper, the occurrence, expression and cranial distribution of 20 hypo-hyperostotic traits are examined in the Middle Pleistocene sample from Atapuerca - Sima de los Huesos (Spain), with the principal aim being to test whether or not the degree of cranial hypostosis increases during the evolution of the Neanderthals. Other Middle Pleistocene representatives of the genus Homo (Kabwe and Petralona), the Italian Neanderthals, and a large recent European sample are also considered. A general consistency between the gradual appearance and stabilization of the Neanderthal cranial features and the results of the present analysis is found and is interpreted as an indication that hypostosis does mark the occurrence of "ontogenetic stress". As suggested more than half a century ago by S. Sergi, an increase in "ontogenetic stress" in the Neanderthal lineage could result from the relationship between intracranial pressures and other (heterochronic) effects produced by the growth of a large brain (encephalization) and the ossification of an archaic (platycephalic) cranial vault. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  3. INTERNET ADDICTION IN BALKAN AND SOUTH-EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis PETASAKIS

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of Internet has increased dramatically in recent years. Although there is no standardized definition of Internet addiction, there is acknowledgement among researchers that this phenomenon does exist. In this study, we identify various similarities and differences among people in the Balkan and South-Eastern European countries about Internet addiction. There are many factors such as cultural differences, gender differences, psychosocial variables, computer attitudes and time.We present the experience from studies concerning Internet addiction in all over the world. A specific research with the use of Young's 20-scale was also conducted in five Balkan and South-Eastern European countries (Republic of Moldova, Romania, Republic of Bulgaria, Hellenic Republic, Republic of Cyprus.The findings are interesting. Although there is a need for Interest using, there are also cases where the addiction, dependence and abuse is apparent.

  4. Ecosystem vulnerability to climate change in the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, Jennifer M.; Costanza, Jennifer

    2016-08-11

    Two recent investigations of climate-change vulnerability for 19 terrestrial, aquatic, riparian, and coastal ecosystems of the southeastern United States have identified a number of important considerations, including potential for changes in hydrology, disturbance regimes, and interspecies interactions. Complementary approaches using geospatial analysis and literature synthesis integrated information on ecosystem biogeography and biodiversity, climate projections, vegetation dynamics, soil and water characteristics, anthropogenic threats, conservation status, sea-level rise, and coastal flooding impacts. Across a diverse set of ecosystems—ranging in size from dozens of square meters to thousands of square kilometers—quantitative and qualitative assessments identified types of climate-change exposure, evaluated sensitivity, and explored potential adaptive capacity. These analyses highlighted key gaps in scientific understanding and suggested priorities for future research. Together, these studies help create a foundation for ecosystem-level analysis of climate-change vulnerability to support effective biodiversity conservation in the southeastern United States.

  5. Geothermometric evaluation of geothermal resources in southeastern Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neupane, G.; Mattson, E. D.; McLing, T. L.; Palmer, C. D.; Smith, R. W.; Wood, T. R.; Podgorney, R. K.

    2016-01-01

    Southeastern Idaho exhibits numerous warm springs, warm water from shallow wells, and hot water from oil and gas test wells that indicate a potential for geothermal development in the area. We have estimated reservoir temperatures from chemical composition of thermal waters in southeastern Idaho using an inverse geochemical modeling technique (Reservoir Temperature Estimator, RTEst) that calculates the temperature at which multiple minerals are simultaneously at equilibrium while explicitly accounting for the possible loss of volatile constituents (e.g., CO2), boiling and/or water mixing. The temperature estimates in the region varied from moderately warm (59 °C) to over 175 °C. Specifically, hot springs near Preston, Idaho, resulted in the highest reservoir temperature estimates in the region.

  6. Cluster analysis of Southeastern U.S. climate stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stooksbury, D. E.; Michaels, P. J.

    1991-09-01

    A two-step cluster analysis of 449 Southeastern climate stations is used to objectively determine general climate clusters (groups of climate stations) for eight southeastern states. The purpose is objectively to define regions of climatic homogeneity that should perform more robustly in subsequent climatic impact models. This type of analysis has been successfully used in many related climate research problems including the determination of corn/climate districts in Iowa (Ortiz-Valdez, 1985) and the classification of synoptic climate types (Davis, 1988). These general climate clusters may be more appropriate for climate research than the standard climate divisions (CD) groupings of climate stations, which are modifications of the agro-economic United States Department of Agriculture crop reporting districts. Unlike the CD's, these objectively determined climate clusters are not restricted by state borders and thus have reduced multicollinearity which makes them more appropriate for the study of the impact of climate and climatic change.

  7. Impacts of the post-fire erosion processes compared with the agricultural erosion rates for a mountain catchment in NW Iberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marisa Santos, Juliana; Nunes, João Pedro; Bernard-Jannin, Léonard; Gonzalez Pelayo, Oscar; Keizer, Jan Jacob

    2014-05-01

    Mediterranean ecosystems are very vulnerable to soil erosion by water due to particular characteristics of climate, lithology and land use history. Moreover, the foreseen climate changes might worsen land degradation and desertification, in which soil erosion has been classified as one of the most important driving forces. In this context, the frequent forest fires seen in some Mediterranean regions can case disturbances to vegetation cover and enhance soil erosion processes. This work addresses this issue for the Caramulo mountain range, NW Iberia. In the past century, large land use changes occurred due to massive afforestation. Changes from mixed natural forest cover and shrublands to Pine, the introduction of Eucalyptus plantations and, more recently, a trend for the substitution of pines by eucalypts, are the evidence of a large and rapid land use change in the last decades. Forest fires started to occur as afforestation proceeded, as a consequence of the disappearance of pasturage and accumulation of highly inflammable material; they became more frequent after the 1960's and became a determinant factor for land use changes in this region. Data collection focused on the Macieira de Alcoba catchment, a headwater agro-forested catchment (94 ha) located in this region. It has a wet Mediterranean climate, with an average annual rainfall of about 1300 mm (2002-2012), concentrated in autumn and winter, while spring and summer are dryer seasons. The mean annual temperature is 14°C and in summer it can reach 35°C. The land use is mixed, with forest and agriculture lands covering respectively 60 and 35% of the catchment area, 5% being built-up areas in the village of Macieira de Alcoba. In the last decades, this catchment suffered several forest fires (in 1969, 1986, 1991, and 2011). Erosion processes are related with periods of low vegetation cover in autumn in fields with a pasture-corn rotation, but also with forest plantations after clear-cutting and especially

  8. Mechanical mastication as a fuels treatment in southeastern forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesse K. Kreye; J. Morgan Varner; Leda N. Kobziar

    2016-01-01

    Mastication is an increasingly common fuels treatment that redistributes ‘‘ladder’’ fuels to the forest floor to reduce vertical fuel continuity, crown fire potential, and fireline intensity. Despite its widespread adoption, it remains unclear how mastication impacts fuels, fire behavior, or plant communities  across Southeastern forest ecosystems. We evaluated these...

  9. Stratigraphy and Tectonics of Southeastern Serenitatis. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, T. A.

    1976-01-01

    Results of investigations of returned Apollo 17 samples, and Apollo 15 and 17 photographs have provided a broad data base on which to interpret the southeastern Serenitatis region of the moon. Although many of the pre-Apollo 17 mission interpretations remain valid, detailed mapping of this region and correlation with earth-based and orbital remote-sensing data have resulted in a revision of the local mare stratigraphy.

  10. A new species of Dorstenia (Moraceae from southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Santos

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Dorstenia stellaris is a new species from southeastern Brazil. This species is endemic to the region and differs from the others by its star shaped coenanthium and cordiform leaves. A description and illustration of this species is presented here. Dorstenia stellaris is found in moist and shady places, in small populations within the type locality, thus we recommend its inclusion in the endangered (EN status of conservation.

  11. Load shedding scheme in the south/southeastern interconnected system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira Filho, Xisto; Couri, J J.G.; Gomes, P; Almeida, P C [ELETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1988-12-31

    This paper presents some characteristics of the Brazilian interconnected system and discusses the load shedding scheme in its different stages considering the beginning of operation of the Itaipu power plant. The present situation of the South and Southeastern load shedding scheme combination is also commented. Finally, the interconnected system evolution and the effects on the load shedding schemes are discussed. 4 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Improving rapeseed production practices in the southeastern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, D.L.; Breve, M.A.; Raymer, P.L.; Minton, N.A.; Sumner, D.R. (Georgia Univ., Tifton, GA (USA). Georgia Coastal Plain Experiment Station)

    1990-04-01

    Oilseed rape or rapeseed is a crop which offers a potential for double-cropping in the southeastern United States. This final project report describes the results from a three year study aimed at evaluating the effect of different planting and harvesting practices on establishment and yield of three rape cultivars, and the double cropping potential of rapeseed in the southeastern United States. The project was conducted on two yield sites in Tifton, Georgia during 1986--87, 1987--88 and 1988--89. The general objective of this research is to improve the seed and biomass yield of winter rapeseed in the southeastern United States by developing appropriate agronomic practices for the region. The primary constraint is to grow rapeseed within the allowable period for double cropping with an economically desirable crop, such as peanut or soybean. Planting and harvesting are the most critical steps in this process. Therefore, the specific objectives of this research were: evaluate and improve the emergence of rapeseed by developing planting techniques that enhance the soil, water and seed regimes for winter rapeseed in the southeast, and evaluate and improve the yields of harvested rapeseed by developing techniques for determining the optimum timing of harvest and efficient methods for harvesting winter rapeseed in the southeast. 6 refs., 12 figs., 9 tabs.

  13. floodzones_iberia_FEMA_1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — The Q3 Flood Data are derived from the Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMS) published by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). The file is georeferenced to...

  14. Species Profile: Flatwoods Salamander (Ambystoma cingulatum) on Military Installations in the Southeastern United States

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Palis, John

    1997-01-01

    .... Fish and Wildlife Service. The species inhabits the lower Southeastern Coastal Plain from southern South Carolina to northern Florida, and westward through Georgia to extreme southwestern Alabama...

  15. Response to state comments on the revised draft Southeastern Regional Characterization Reports for the Crystalline Repository Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-08-01

    The purpose of this document is to respond to the comments received from the states of the Southeastern Region on the revised draft Southeastern Regional Characterization Reports (RCRs). The responses in this document indicate the manner in which the suggestions or comments received have been considered in modifying the revised draft Southeastern RCRs. Both general comments related to the overall Crystalline Repository Project (CRP) and comments on specific sections of the RCRs are addressed. This document responds to Southeastern State comments on both the revised draft Southeastern Regional Geologic Characterization Report (RGCR) and the revised draft Southeastern Regional Environmental Characterization Report (RECR)

  16. Visceral Leishmaniasis in Southeastern Iran: A Narrative Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraj SHARIFI

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL has strong links with poverty, substantial medical and veterinary impacts. This review aimed to focus in studies published during 1994-2016 on VL in southeastern Iran.Methods: The present review is based on expert knowledge and historical studies published during the past 23 yr (1994-2016 on VL in southeastern Iran. In addition, related literature found in PubMed by using the keywords such as visceral leishmaniasis, kala-azar, and Leishmania infantum are included.Results: Overall, 118 children aged 4.2 yr were detected as infected with human VL (HVL. The majority of the cases were from Orzoieh district (37.1% in southwest of Kerman Province, followed by Sirjan (15.7%, Jiroft (14.8%, Kahnuj (9.3% and to lesser extent from other areas. The male to female ratio was 1.7. The three most frequent clinical features were represented by fever (100.0%, anemia (95.0% and splenomegaly (91.5%. Altogether, 42.0% of the VL cases developed secondary bacterial infections, the overall case-fatality rate was 3.4%, and majorities (88.0% of the VL patients were undernourished. Overall, 733 dogs and wild canines were examined by different techniques with various seroprevalence ranges.Conclusion: In southeastern Iran, VL is endemic in Orzoieh district in Kerman Province. While the dogs are implicated as the main domestic reservoir of VL, wide range of wild canines can serve as a secondary potential reservoir host.

  17. Hurdles to Forest Friendly Farming: Sustainability Lessons from Southeastern Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Keys

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide the search is on for sustainable solutions to the competing needs for forest conservation and agricultural development. A strategy with contemporary salience arises in intensive, sedentarized agriculture that can protect forests and enhance livelihoods for forest dwellers. This paper investigates why intensive agriculture does not limit deforestation in southeastern Mexico’s Calakmul Municipality. It argues that agriculture faces challenges from a range of biophysical and socioeconomic factors in tropical regions and that this encourages expanded land use for intensive farmers.

  18. Observations On Some Upper Amazonian Wetlands of Southeastern Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Householder, J. E.; Muttiah, R.; Khanal, S.

    2007-05-01

    Upper Amazonian wetlands represent little studied, poorly understood, and grossly under protected systems. Scientific investigation of Amazonian wetlands is in its infancy; nor is there much known about their ecological services. Regionally, wetlands form a ubiquitous and significant component of floodplain habitat fed by perennial springs as well as overland runoff. Locally, wetland vegetation forms bewilderingly complex vegetation mosaics that seem to be governed by local topography and hydrology. Drawing upon intensive field campaigns and remotely sensed imagery, we summarize the results and experiences gathered in wetlands of southeastern Peru.

  19. Characterization of Nighttime Light Variability Over the Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Tony A.; Molthan, Andrew L.; Schultz, Lori A.

    2016-01-01

    City lights provide indications of human activity at night. Nighttime satellite imagery offers daily snapshots of this activity. With calibrated, science-quality imagery, long-term monitoring can also be achieved. The degree to which city lights fluctuate, however, is not well known. For the application of detecting power outages, this degree of variability is crucial for assessing reductions to city lights based on historical trends. Eight southeastern U.S. cities are analyzed to understand the relationship between emission variability and several population centers. A preliminary, example case power outage study is also discussed as a transition into future work.

  20. The impact of climate change on hailstorms in southeastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niall, Stephanie; Walsh, Kevin

    2005-11-01

    Data from a number of locations around southeastern Australia were analysed to determine the influence of climate change on the frequency and intensity of hail events in this region. The relationship between Convective Available Potential Energy (CAPE), frequently used as a measure of atmospheric instability, and hailstorms was investigated using both NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data (a data set comprising a blend of observations and model simulations) and also direct sounding data obtained from the Australian National Climate Centre. Two locations were chosen in southeastern Australia, Mount Gambier and Melbourne, over the months August to October for the period 1980-2001. A statistically significant relationship between hail incidence and CAPE values was established for both NCEP/NCAR and sounding data at both study sites. A stronger relationship was found between hail incidence and the CAPE, which was calculated using NCEP/NCAR data, than that between hail and the CAPE from the actual sounding data. A similar analysis was also conducted at both sites using the totals-totals index (TT index), which is an alternative measure of atmospheric instability.The CSIRO Mk3 Climate System Model was used to simulate values of CAPE for Mount Gambier in an environment containing double the pre-industrial concentrations of equivalent CO2. The results showed a significant decrease in CAPE values in the future. From this, assuming the relationship between CAPE and hail remains unchanged under enhanced greenhouse conditions, it is possible that there will be a decrease in the frequency of hail in southeastern Australia if current rates of CO2 emission are sustained. The severity of future hail events was investigated using crop-loss data from insurance companies. Strongest correlations were found between the crop-loss ratio (value of crop lost to hail damage over the total insured value of crop) and the number of days in a crop season with a TT index greater than 55. Results from the

  1. 40 CFR 81.30 - Southeastern Wisconsin Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.30 Section 81.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.30 Southeastern Wisconsin Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Milwaukee Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Wisconsin) has been renamed the Southeastern...

  2. 40 CFR 81.123 - Southeastern Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.123 Section 81.123 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.123 Southeastern Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Southeastern Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by the...

  3. Entropy dynamics in cone production of longleaf pine forests in the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiongwen Chen; Dale G. Brockway; Qinfeng Guo

    2016-01-01

    Sporadic temporal patterns of seed production are a challenge for the regeneration and restoration of longleaf pine, which is a keystone component of an endangered ecosystem in the southeastern United States. In this study, long-term data for longleaf pine cone production, collected at six sites across the southeastern region, was examined from the perspective of...

  4. 76 FR 33967 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Southeastern States; Suspension of Marketing Order Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    ... IR] Irish Potatoes Grown in Southeastern States; Suspension of Marketing Order Provisions AGENCY... suspends the marketing order for Irish potatoes grown in Southeastern states (order), and the rules and regulations implemented thereunder, through March 1, 2014. The order regulates the handling of Irish potatoes...

  5. Climate Change Impacts on Flooding in Southeastern Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switanek, Matt; Truhetz, Heimo; Reszler, Christian

    2015-04-01

    Floods in southeastern Austria can cause significant damage to life, property and infrastructure. These flood events are often the result of extreme precipitation from small-scale convective storms. In order to more accurately model the changes to flood magnitude and frequency, Regional Climate Models (RCMs) must be able to simulate small-scale convective storms similar to those that have been observed. Even as computational resources have increased, RCMs are just now achieving the high spatial and temporal scales necessary to physically resolve the processes that govern small-scale convection. With increased resolution, RCMs can rely on their internal physics to model convective precipitation and need not depend on parameterization. This study uses historical and future scenarios of Regional Climate Models (RCMs) run at a spatial scale of 3 km and temporal scale of 1 hr. In order to subsequently force a hydrological flood model, the sub-daily precipitation and temperature data from the RCMs are first bias corrected. A newly proposed bias correction method is presented and compared to the commonly used quantile mapping. The proposed bias correction method performs better in its ability to preserve the model projected climate change signal (measured by changes in mean and variance). Lastly, the changes in the quantity and frequency of projected extreme precipitation, at the watershed level, are analyzed with respect to the historic time period. With these improvements in dynamical modeling and bias correction methods, a clearer picture emerges revealing the more likely impacts climate change will have on floods in southeastern Austria.

  6. Geothermal Reservoir Temperatures in Southeastern Idaho using Multicomponent Geothermometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neupane, Ghanashyam [Idaho National Lab. (INL) and Center for Advanced Energy Studies, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Mattson, Earl D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL) and Center for Advanced Energy Studies, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); McLing, Travis L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Center for Advanced Energy Studies; Palmer, Carl D. [Univ. of Idaho, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Smith, Robert W. [Univ. of Idaho and Center for Advanced Energy Studies, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Wood, Thomas R. [Univ. of Idaho and Center for Advanced Energy Studies, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Podgorney, Robert K. [Idaho National Lab. (INL) and Center for Advanced Energy Studies, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Southeastern Idaho exhibits numerous warm springs, warm water from shallow wells, and hot water within oil and gas test wells that indicate a potential for geothermal development in the area. Although the area exhibits several thermal expressions, the measured geothermal gradients vary substantially (19 – 61 ºC/km) within this area, potentially suggesting a redistribution of heat in the overlying ground water from deeper geothermal reservoirs. We have estimated reservoir temperatures from measured water compositions using an inverse modeling technique (Reservoir Temperature Estimator, RTEst) that calculates the temperature at which multiple minerals are simultaneously at equilibrium while explicitly accounting for the possible loss of volatile constituents (e.g., CO2), boiling and/or water mixing. Compositions of a selected group of thermal waters representing southeastern Idaho hot/warm springs and wells were used for the development of temperature estimates. The temperature estimates in the the region varied from moderately warm (59 ºC) to over 175 ºC. Specifically, hot springs near Preston, Idaho resulted in the highest temperature estimates in the region.

  7. Geothermal Reservoir Temperatures in Southeastern Idaho using Multicomponent Geothermometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neupane, Ghanashyam; Mattson, Earl D.; McLing, Travis L.; Smith, Robert W.; Wood, Thomas R.; Podgorney, Robert K.

    2015-01-01

    Southeastern Idaho exhibits numerous warm springs, warm water from shallow wells, and hot water within oil and gas test wells that indicate a potential for geothermal development in the area. Although the area exhibits several thermal expressions, the measured geothermal gradients vary substantially (19 - 61 °C/km) within this area, potentially suggesting a redistribution of heat in the overlying ground water from deeper geothermal reservoirs. We have estimated reservoir temperatures from measured water compositions using an inverse modeling technique (Reservoir Temperature Estimator, RTEst) that calculates the temperature at which multiple minerals are simultaneously at equilibrium while explicitly accounting for the possible loss of volatile constituents (e.g., CO2), boiling and/or water mixing. Compositions of a selected group of thermal waters representing southeastern Idaho hot/warm springs and wells were used for the development of temperature estimates. The temperature estimates in the the region varied from moderately warm (59 °C) to over 175 °C. Specifically, hot springs near Preston, Idaho resulted in the highest temperature estimates in the region.

  8. Facebook Usage by Mayors in Central and Southeastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milica Vučković

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The ever increasing rise of social media network users consequently leaves a mark on political communication. While social media tools are already adopted in political marketing, primarily in election campaigning, governments are still new in using social media. The aim of this study is to examine how Facebook is used by city mayors in countries of Central and Southeastern Europe in two months period, from March 1st to April 30th of 2012. Using content analysis we first analyzed status massages in order to see what kind of status messages they post: personal or political. Secondly, we conducted an analysis of comments on the examined statuses, in order to examine if citizens make constructive, cynical, supportive or neutral comments. We examined ten city mayors’ Facebook pages in five countries, Bulgaria, Croatia, Hungary, Macedonia and Slovenia. The results have revealed that city mayors in Central and Southeastern Europe use Facebook almost exclusively for official purposes. Secondly, the analysis of citizens’ comments demonstrates that expressing cynicism on Facebook is not the trend in these countries. The findings further confirm that Facebook is a good platform for gathering supporters, while there were no strong evidence found that it serves as platform for constructive discussion. The paper finally discusses how politician’s status messages can engage a larger number of citizens.

  9. Drought-sensitive aquifer settings in southeastern Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Tammy M.; Risser, Dennis W.

    2005-01-01

    This report describes the results of a study conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, Bureau of Topographic and Geologic Survey, to determine drought-sensitive aquifer settings in southeastern Pennsylvania. Because all or parts of southeastern Pennsylvania have been in drought-warning or drought-emergency status during 6 of the past 10 years from 1994 through 2004, this information should aid well owners, drillers, and water-resource managers in guiding appropriate well construction and sustainable use of Pennsylvania's water resources. 'Drought-sensitive' aquifer settings are defined for this study as areas unable to supply adequate quantities of water to wells during drought. Using information from previous investigations and a knowledge of the hydrogeology and topography of the study area, drought-sensitive aquifer settings in southeastern Pennsylvania were hypothesized as being associated with two factors - a water-table decline (WTD) index and topographic setting. The WTD index is an estimate of the theoretical water-table decline at the ground-water divide for a hypothetical aquifer with idealized geometry. The index shows the magnitude of ground-water decline after cessation of recharge is a function of (1) distance from stream to divide, (2) ground-water recharge rate, (3) transmissivity, (4) specific yield, and (5) duration of the drought. WTD indices were developed for 39 aquifers that were subsequently grouped into categories of high, moderate, and low WTD index. Drought-sensitive settings determined from the hypothesized factors were compared to locations of wells known to have been affected (gone dry, replaced, or deepened) during recent droughts. Information collected from well owners, drillers, and public agencies identified 2,016 wells affected by drought during 1998-2002. Most of the available data on the location of drought-affected wells in the study area were

  10. Archaeological Remains Accounting for the Presence and Exploitation of the North Atlantic Right Whale Eubalaena glacialis on the Portuguese Coast (Peniche, West Iberia), 16th to 17th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, António; Venâncio, Rui; Brito, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    The former occurrence of the North Atlantic right whale Eubalaena glacialis on the Portuguese coast may be inferred from the historical range of that species in Europe and in NW Africa. It is generally accepted that it was the main prey of coastal whaling in the Middle Ages and in the pre-modern period, but this assumption still needs firming up based on biological and archaeological evidence. We describe the skeletal remains of right whales excavated at Peniche in 2001–2002, in association with archaeological artefacts. The whale bones were covered by sandy sediments on the old seashore and they have been tentatively dated around the 16th to 17th centuries. This study contributes material evidence to the former occurrence of E. glacialis in Portugal (West Iberia). Some whale bones show unequivocal man-made scars. These are associated to wounds from instruments with a sharp-cutting blade. This evidence for past human interaction may suggest that whaling for that species was active at Peniche around the early 17th century. PMID:24505251

  11. Archaeological remains accounting for the presence and exploitation of the North Atlantic right whale Eubalaena glacialis on the Portuguese Coast (Peniche, West Iberia, 16th to 17th Century.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António Teixeira

    Full Text Available The former occurrence of the North Atlantic right whale Eubalaena glacialis on the Portuguese coast may be inferred from the historical range of that species in Europe and in NW Africa. It is generally accepted that it was the main prey of coastal whaling in the Middle Ages and in the pre-modern period, but this assumption still needs firming up based on biological and archaeological evidence. We describe the skeletal remains of right whales excavated at Peniche in 2001-2002, in association with archaeological artefacts. The whale bones were covered by sandy sediments on the old seashore and they have been tentatively dated around the 16th to 17th centuries. This study contributes material evidence to the former occurrence of E. glacialis in Portugal (West Iberia. Some whale bones show unequivocal man-made scars. These are associated to wounds from instruments with a sharp-cutting blade. This evidence for past human interaction may suggest that whaling for that species was active at Peniche around the early 17th century.

  12. Southeastern Federal Power Program. Combined financial statements, September 30, 1996 and 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    The Southeastern Federal Power Program (SEFPP) consists of all activities associated with the production, transmission and disposition of Federal power marketed under Section 5 of the Flood Control Act of 1944 from projects in the ten southeastern states. The ten states are: Virginia, West Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Tennessee, and Kentucky. Power is marketed to customers in 11 states - the above ten plus Illinois. SEFPP includes the accounts of two separate Federal government agencies- the Southeastern Power Administration (Southeastern) of the Department of Energy and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps). Southeastern purchases, transmits, and markets power within four separate power systems (each including one or more Corps generating projects for which rates are set). Specific and joint-use costs allocated to power are included in the attached statements of assets. Federal investment and liabilities under utility plant and cash. The accounts of SEFPP are maintained in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles and the Uniform System of Accounts prescribed for electric utilities by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC). SEFPP`s accounting policies also reflect requirements of specific legislation and executive directives issued by the applicable government agencies. Southeastern and Corps properties and income are exempt from taxation. Southeastern and the Corps receive Congressional appropriations through the Department of Energy (DOE) and the Department of Defense to finance their operations. The Corps also receives Congressional appropriations to finance construction of its hydroelectric projects.

  13. Plutonium in Atlantic coastal estuaries in the southeastern United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, D.W.; LeRoy, J.H.; Cross, F.A.

    1975-01-01

    A survey was made to begin to provide baseline information on the Pu distribution of representative estuarine and coastal areas of the southeastern United States. Sediments and marsh grass (Spartina) were collected and analyzed from three locations within a tidal marsh. In three estuaries (Savannah, Neuse, and Newport), the suspended particulate matter (1 μm and greater) was filtered from waters with different salinities, and the plutonium content of the particulates determined. The Savannah River estuary, in addition to fallout Pu, has received up to 0.3 Ci of Pu from the Savannah River Plant (SRP) of the U. S. Energy Research and Development Administration. The SRP plutonium has a variable isotopic composition that can influence Pu isotopic ratios in the estuarine system. The other estuaries do not have nuclear installations upstream. Data are included on the content of 238 Pu, 239 Pu, and 240 Pu in sediments and marsh grass of the Savannah River estuary

  14. Sericea lespedeza biomass composition for bioenergy in the southeastern USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosjidis Jorge A.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sericea lespedeza (Lespedeza cuneata (Dumont G. Don is used for forage or as a soil conservation plant that has shown potential for the production of ligno-cellulosic biomass in the Southeastern USA. Four genotypes of sericea lespedeza were grown at Tallassee, Alabama. Plant canopy of those genotypes was divided into three 10-cm strata. Year of harvest affected NDF, protein and hemicellulose content of leaves and stems. Cut affected NDF, cellulose and hemicellulose content and protein of leaves. No differences were measured among the four genotypes except for protein content in the stems. Leaves had a much higher protein content than stems which makes them undesirable for biofuel use. Large strata effects on stem composition were measured on all traits except lignin which had the same value across the strata. Values of NDF, ADF, cellulose, and hemicellulose increased from the top of the stem to the base whereas protein content was reduced.

  15. Organic carbon input in shallow groundwater at Aspo, southeastern Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallin, B.

    1993-01-01

    The variation in carbon and oxygen isotopes in calcite fissure fillings and dissolved carbonate from shallow groundwaters has been examined at Aspo, southeastern Sweden. The shallow water lens is refilled by meteoric water and is considered as an open system. The σ 13 C-signatures of the dissolved carbonate fall within a narrow range of -15.8 to -17.4 per-thousand, indicative of organic an organic carbon source. The low σ 13 C-values suggest that input of soil-CO 2 is the dominating carbon source for the system. σ 13 C and σ 18 O-values in the calcite fissure fillings show a wide range in values with a possible two end-member mixing of early post glacial atmospheric CO 2 dominated system to a present day soil-CO 2 dominating carbon source

  16. Arsenic in sediments from the southeastern Baltic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnaga, Galina; Wyse, Eric; Azemard, Sabine; Stankevicius, Algirdas; Mora, Stephen de

    2006-01-01

    Arsenic occurs as a persistent constituent in many of the chemical weapons dumped into the Baltic Sea; it can be used as an indicator of leakage and dispersal of released munitions to the marine environment. Total arsenic was analysed in sediment samples taken from the Lithuanian economic zone in the Baltic Sea, which included samples from the chemical munitions dumpsite in the Gotland Basin and national monitoring stations in the southeastern Baltic Sea. Arsenic concentrations in sediments ranged from 1.1 to 19.0 mg kg -1 , with an average of 3.4 mg kg -1 . Although there was evidence of slightly elevated arsenic content in sediments near the weapons dumpsite, arsenic concentrations were nevertheless quite low relative to other investigations in the Baltic and North Seas. - Arsenic concentrations in sediments near chemical weapons dumpsites were only slightly elevated

  17. Treehoppers (Homoptera, Membracidae in southeastern Brazil: use of host plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedito C. Lopes

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available A survey on the use of host plants by treehoppers in plants in cerrado (savanna vegetation at Moji-Guaçu (São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil was made. Fifty-two species of treehoppers were recorded in association with 40 host plant species from October 1980 to February 1982. The families Araliaceae, Asteraceae, Leguminosae, Malpighiaceae, Myrtaceae and Nyctaginaceae were the most commonly used for oviposition. Byrsonima intermedia A. Juss. (Malpighiaceae had the highest number of associated treehopper species (10 species. The abundance of treehopper individuals was related to the hot and rainy season (from October to February, while during the cold and dry season (from March to September there was a decrease in the number of these Homoptera. After the occurrence of a frost, few adults and nymphs were observed on the host plants for one to two months.

  18. Causal attribution of mental illness in South-Eastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikwuka, Ugo; Galbraith, Niall; Nyatanga, Lovemore

    2014-05-01

    Understanding of mental illness in sub-Saharan Africa has remained under-researched in spite of the high and increasing neuropsychiatric burden of disease in the region. This study investigated the causal beliefs that the Igbo people of south-eastern Nigeria hold about schizophrenia, with a view to establishing the extent to which the population makes psychosocial, biological and supernatural attributions. Multi-stage sampling was used to select participants (N = 200) to which questionnaires were administered. Mean comparison of the three causal models revealed a significant endorsement of supernatural causation. Logistic regressions revealed significant contributions of old age and female gender to supernatural attribution; old age, high education and Catholic religious denomination to psychosocial attributions; and high education to biological attributions. It is hoped that the findings would enlighten, augment literature and enhance mental health care service delivery.

  19. Facing Change in Southeastern North Carolina: How Do We Respond?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Hossfeld

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Once referred to as the "vale of humility between two mountains of conceit," North Carolina has transformed itself from its humble origins to a progressive state embracing the new millennium. From the boom of the Research Triangle to the financial banking hub of Charlotte, the state stands out on many indicators of progress, prosperity and leadership. Yet the very problems that have plagued the state for centuries endure, and the residue of these is the very issue Southeastern North Carolinians must address. Persistent poverty, affordable housing, low incomes and enduring racial inequalities are the age-old problems plaguing our region. Coupled with remarkable population growth and a growing immigrant population, the face of Down East is changing – and how we respond is critical to our future. A number of suggestions on economic development for areas of poverty are suggested.

  20. Seaweed cultivation on the Southern and Southeastern Brazilian Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciane Pellizzari

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Seaweeds are used directly as food or applied indirectly as texturing agents with gelling and thickening properties (carrageenan, agar and alginates in many industries. They can also be used as fertilizers, animal feed, biomass for fuel, cosmetics and a source of pharmaceuticals, among other applications. The aquaculture of macroalgae is an alternative for producing raw material. Brazil has a coastline with numerous locations suitable for this endeavor. However, despite the known economical and social relevance of seaweed cultivation, Brazilians do not have tradition of using edible seaweeds. In general, the raw material for indirect use (e.g., as a texturing agent is imported. Consequently, seaweed aquaculture is still incipient in Brazil. This contribution presents data and information about macroalgae cultivation on commercial and experimental scales performed on the Southern and Southeastern Brazilian Coastline, as well as a brief overview of research related to some species cultivated in the last decade.

  1. Status of birds at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landeen, D.S.; Johnson, A.R.; Mitchell, R.M.

    1992-06-01

    The US Department of Energy has entered into agreements with the Washington State Department of Ecology, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and Hanford Site contractors to focus work activities on cleanup and stabilization of radioactive and hazardous waste sites located at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington. Ecological characterization is an essential part of the remediation process, and the identification of biotic components such as bird species that could be impacted by cleanup activities is an important part of the initial environmental characterizations. Site characterization work has resulted in this list of 238 birds that have been observed at the Hanford Site. This list is presented with a status rating for abundance and seasonal occurrence

  2. Residential fuelwood consumption in the southeastern U.S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christiansen, E.H.; Larsen, M.D.; Rejda, Karen; Bliss, J.C.; Nepal, S.K.

    1993-01-01

    A telephone survey of households in 13 states in the southeastern U.S. determined residential fuelwood acquisition and use for heating during the 1991 heating season. Although wood burning accounted for only 10% of the total household heat requirement of the region, it accounted for 51% of the total heat requirements of wood-burning households. One-quarter (25%) of the households burned wood, consuming almost 9 million standard cords. Three-quarters (77%) of wood-burning households reported that wood burning contributed to household heating requirements. Wood as a source of home heating was particularly important to low income households, both rural and urban. Wood is the sole source of home heating for 17% of the wood-burning households in the regions. (Author)

  3. Zika virus emergence in mosquitoes in southeastern Senegal, 2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diawo Diallo

    Full Text Available Zika virus (ZIKV; genus Flavivirus, family Flaviviridae is maintained in a zoonotic cycle between arboreal Aedes spp. mosquitoes and nonhuman primates in African and Asian forests. Spillover into humans has been documented in both regions and the virus is currently responsible for a large outbreak in French Polynesia. ZIKV amplifications are frequent in southeastern Senegal but little is known about their seasonal and spatial dynamics. The aim of this paper is to describe the spatio-temporal patterns of the 2011 ZIKV amplification in southeastern Senegal.Mosquitoes were collected monthly from April to December 2011 except during July. Each evening from 18:00 to 21:00 hrs landing collections were performed by teams of 3 persons working simultaneously in forest (canopy and ground, savannah, agriculture, village (indoor and outdoor and barren land cover sites. Mosquitoes were tested for virus infection by virus isolation and RT-PCR. ZIKV was detected in 31 of the 1,700 mosquito pools (11,247 mosquitoes tested: Ae. furcifer (5, Ae. luteocephalus (5, Ae. africanus (5, Ae. vittatus (3, Ae. taylori, Ae. dalzieli, Ae. hirsutus and Ae. metallicus (2 each and Ae. aegypti, Ae. unilinaetus, Ma. uniformis, Cx. perfuscus and An. coustani (1 pool each collected in June (3, September (10, October (11, November (6 and December (1. ZIKV was detected from mosquitoes collected in all land cover classes except indoor locations within villages. The virus was detected in only one of the ten villages investigated.This ZIKV amplification was widespread in the Kédougou area, involved several mosquito species as probable vectors, and encompassed all investigated land cover classes except indoor locations within villages. Aedes furcifer males and Aedes vittatus were found infected within a village, thus these species are probably involved in the transmission of Zika virus to humans in this environment.

  4. The disappearing San of southeastern Africa and their genetic affinities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlebusch, Carina M; Prins, Frans; Lombard, Marlize; Jakobsson, Mattias; Soodyall, Himla

    2016-12-01

    Southern Africa was likely exclusively inhabited by San hunter-gatherers before ~2000 years ago. Around that time, East African groups assimilated with local San groups and gave rise to the Khoekhoe herders. Subsequently, Bantu-speaking farmers, arriving from the north (~1800 years ago), assimilated and displaced San and Khoekhoe groups, a process that intensified with the arrival of European colonists ~350 years ago. In contrast to the western parts of southern Africa, where several Khoe-San groups still live today, the eastern parts are largely populated by Bantu speakers and individuals of non-African descent. Only a few scattered groups with oral traditions of Khoe-San ancestry remain. Advances in genetic research open up new ways to understand the population history of southeastern Africa. We investigate the genomic variation of the remaining individuals from two South African groups with oral histories connecting them to eastern San groups, i.e., the San from Lake Chrissie and the Duma San of the uKhahlamba-Drakensberg. Using ~2.2 million genetic markers, combined with comparative published data sets, we show that the Lake Chrissie San have genetic ancestry from both Khoe-San (likely the ||Xegwi San) and Bantu speakers. Specifically, we found that the Lake Chrissie San are closely related to the current southern San groups (i.e., the Karretjie people). Duma San individuals, on the other hand, were genetically similar to southeastern Bantu speakers from South Africa. This study illustrates how genetic tools can be used to assess hypotheses about the ancestry of people who seemingly lost their historic roots, only recalling a vague oral tradition of their origin.

  5. Long-term evolution of denudational escarpments in southeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherem, Luis Felipe Soares; Varajão, Cesar Augusto C.; Braucher, Regis; Bourlés, Didier; Salgado, André Augusto R.; Varajão, Angélica C.

    2012-11-01

    Topographic relief in southeastern Brazil consists of a sequence of stepped surfaces that formed after the fragmentation of Gondwana during the Cretaceous, Tertiary and Quaternary tectonic pulses. This region is drained by four major rivers within four major river basins, with interfluves that contain denudational escarpments, fault escarpments and mountain ranges. This study presents an analysis of the long-term evolution of two denudational escarpments, the Cristiano Otoni and the São Geraldo steps, which divide the river basins of the São Francisco, Doce and Paraíba do Sul rivers in southeastern Brazil. Denudation rates were obtained through the measurement of mean concentrations of in situ produced cosmogenic 10Be in sand-sized fluvial quartz sediments collected from granitic terrains. The rates were calculated and compared with one another and correlated to the basin-scale mean relief, slope, area, and stream power. The mean denudation rates of the Cristiano Otoni and São Geraldo highlands are 8.77 (± 2.78) m My- 1 and 15.68 (± 4.53) m My- 1, respectively. The mean denudation rates of the Cristiano Otoni and São Geraldo escarpments are 17.50 (± 2.71) m My- 1 and 21.22 (± 4.24) m My- 1, respectively. The denudation rates of the catchments of highlands that drain toward the escarpments are similar to those of their respective highlands. The results demonstrate that relief and slope have similar positive control on the denudation rates for all of the samples despite their different geomorphic context and history of landscape evolution. The São Francisco River Basin is losing area to the Doce River Basin, which, in turn, is losing area to the Paraíba do Sul River Basin.

  6. Ozone response to emission reductions in the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Charles L.; Hidy, George M.

    2018-06-01

    Ozone (O3) formation in the southeastern US is studied in relation to nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions using long-term (1990s-2015) surface measurements of the Southeastern Aerosol Research and Characterization (SEARCH) network, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) O3 measurements, and EPA Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNET) nitrate deposition data. Annual fourth-highest daily peak 8 h O3 mixing ratios at EPA monitoring sites in Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi exhibit statistically significant (p total oxidized nitrogen (NOy) mixing ratios at SEARCH sites declined in proportion to NOx emission reductions. CASTNET data show declining wet and dry nitrate deposition since the late 1990s, with total (wet plus dry) nitrate deposition fluxes decreasing linearly in proportion to reductions of NOx emissions by ˜ 60 % in Alabama and Georgia. Annual nitrate deposition rates at Georgia and Alabama CASTNET sites correspond to 30 % of Georgia emission rates and 36 % of Alabama emission rates, respectively. The fraction of NOx emissions lost to deposition has not changed. SEARCH and CASTNET sites exhibit downward trends in mean annual nitric acid (HNO3) concentrations. Observed relationships of O3 to NOz (NOy-NOx) support past model predictions of increases in cycling of NO and increasing responsiveness of O3 to NOx. The study data provide a long-term record that can be used to examine the accuracy of process relationships embedded in modeling efforts. Quantifying observed O3 trends and relating them to reductions in ambient NOy species concentrations offers key insights into processes of general relevance to air quality management and provides important information supporting strategies for reducing O3 mixing ratios.

  7. Species Profile: Gopher Frog (Rana capito spp.) on Military Installations in the Southeastern United States

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Palis, John

    1997-01-01

    ....' Gopher frogs inhabit xeric upland pine communities of the Southeastern Coastal Plain from the southern half of the North Carolina coastal plain to southern Florida and westward to eastern Louisiana...

  8. Macrobenthic community structure response to coastal hypoxia off Southeastern Arabian sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ingole, B.S.; Periasamy, R.; De, K.

    occurrence of coastal hypoxia condition (30 to 100 m depth) and normoxic bottom waters over the Southeastern Arabian Sea (SEAS). The macrofaunal communities patterns were analyzed by using various statistical methods (e.g. rank correlation, hierarchical...

  9. Fluctuations in productivity and denitrification in the southeastern Arabian Sea during the Late Quaternary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kessarkar, P; Rao, V.P; Naqvi, S.W.A.; Chivas, A.R.; Saino, T.

    Sedimentological and stable isotopic characteristics of sediments have been studied in a core from the southeastern Arabian Sea containing records of the past 70 ka. Palaeoproductivity proxies such as organic carbon (C sub(org)), total nitrogen (TN...

  10. Aquatic macroinvertebrate diversity and composition in streams along an altitudinal gradient in Southeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Henriques-Oliveira, Ana Lucia; Nessimian, Jorge Luiz

    2010-01-01

    Aquatic macroinvertebrate diversity and composition in streams along an altitudinal gradient in Southeastern Brazil. A study concerning taxonomic richness and composition of the aquatic insect fauna in streams within the same catchment basin along an altitudinal gradient in Southeast Brazil, was conducted to test the hypothesis that there is a faunal discontinuity in the biocenotic composition, related to differences in altitude and latitude. In Southeastern Brazil, around latitude 22°, this ...

  11. Zirconium and hafnium in the southeastern Atlantic States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertie, J.B.

    1958-01-01

    The principal source of zirconium and hafnium is zircon, though a minor source is baddeleyite, mined only in Brazil. Zircon is an accessory mineral in igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks, but rarely occurs in hardrock in minable quantities. The principal sources of zircon are therefore alluvial deposits, which are mined in many countries of five continents. The principal commercial deposits in the United States are in Florida, though others exist elsewhere in the southeastern Coastal Plain. The evidence indicates that conditions for the accumulation of workable deposits of heavy minerals were more favorable during the interglacial stages of the Pleistocene epoch than during Recent time. Therefore detrital ores of large volume and high tenor are more likely to be found in the terrace deposits than along the present beaches. Other concentrations of heavy minerals, however, are possible at favored sites close to the Fall Line where the Tuscaloosa formation rests upon the crystalline rocks of the Piedmont province. A score of heavy and semiheavy minerals occur in the detrital deposits of Florida, but the principal salable minerals are ilmenite, leucoxene, rutile, and zircon, though monazite and staurolite are saved at some mining plants. Commercial deposits of heavy minerals are generally required to have a tenor of 4 percent, though ores with a lower tenor can be mined at a profit if the content of monazite is notably high. The percentages of zircon in the concentrates ranges from 10 to 16 percent, and in eastern Florida from 13 to 15 percent. Thus the tenor in zircon of the ore-bearing sands ranges from 0.4 to 0.6 percent. The content of hafnium in zircon is immaterial for many uses, but for some purposes very high or very low tenors in hafnium are required. Alluvial zircon cannot be separated into such varieties, which, if needed, must be obtained from sources in bedrock. It thus becomes necessary to determine the Hf : Zr ratios in zircon from many kinds of

  12. Chronostratigraphy in karst records from the Epipaleolithic to the Mid/Early Neolithic (c. 13.0-6.0 cal ka BP) in the Catalan Coastal Ranges of NE Iberia: environmental changes, sedimentary processes and human activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergadà, M. Mercè; Cervelló, Josep M.; Edo, Manel; Cebrià, Artur; Oms, F. Xavier; Martínez, Pablo; Antolín, Ferran; Morales, Juan Ignacio; Pedro, Mireia

    2018-03-01

    The stratigraphic, sedimentary and palaeoenvironmental features reflected in cavities in the Catalan Coastal Ranges of NE Iberia (Can Sadurní and Guineu caves) characterize the periods of pronounced climatic and human complexity that occurred c. 13.0-6.0 cal ka BP. This includes the stages of the Younger Dryas and Mid/Early Holocene, the latter being one of the periods of so-called Rapid Climatic Changes (RCCs). These caves, like others in Mediterranean contexts, are the result of an old duct originating in the saturated zone of the karst system and open to the outside; recording a succession of different detrital and anthropic episodes of the Epipaleolithic, Mesolithic and Neolithic communities. From this study it can be seen that paleoclimatic events do not always present clear signals in the karst records, especially c. 12.7-7.4 cal ka BP, corresponding to the Epipaleolithic and Mesolithic. It is characterized by a stratigraphic discontinuity in which there are phases with predominantly detrital sedimentation alternating with hiatus intervals. Detrital sedimentation formed by fine material colluvium with gravitational movements or solifluction processes in fresh and humid conditions. It appears in the following chronological intervals: 12.7-12.2 cal ka BP, 11.5/11.1-10.7/10.4 cal ka BP and 8.2-8.0 cal ka BP (less humid). Hiatus phases are represented in the rest of the sequence up to c. 7.4 cal ka BP. From the sedimentary point of view these stages of hiatus are indicative of phases of stability or lack of episodes with seasonal contrasts; a fact that would cause interruptions to detrital deposition in the interior of the caves. In contrast, in the period c. 7.4 to 6.0 cal ka BP, attributed to the Middle and Early Neolithic, there is a certain stratigraphic continuity. From the sedimentary point of view it is distinguished by a variability of processes that responds to accumulative episodes of short duration characteristic of morphogenesis of the slopes in an

  13. Ozone response to emission reductions in the southeastern United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. Blanchard

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Ozone (O3 formation in the southeastern US is studied in relation to nitrogen oxide (NOx emissions using long-term (1990s–2015 surface measurements of the Southeastern Aerosol Research and Characterization (SEARCH network, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA O3 measurements, and EPA Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNET nitrate deposition data. Annual fourth-highest daily peak 8 h O3 mixing ratios at EPA monitoring sites in Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi exhibit statistically significant (p  <  0.0001 linear correlations with annual NOx emissions in those states between 1996 and 2015. The annual fourth-highest daily peak 8 h O3 mixing ratios declined toward values of ∼ 45–50 ppbv and monthly O3 maxima decreased at rates averaging ∼ 1–1.5 ppbv yr−1. Mean annual total oxidized nitrogen (NOy mixing ratios at SEARCH sites declined in proportion to NOx emission reductions. CASTNET data show declining wet and dry nitrate deposition since the late 1990s, with total (wet plus dry nitrate deposition fluxes decreasing linearly in proportion to reductions of NOx emissions by ∼ 60 % in Alabama and Georgia. Annual nitrate deposition rates at Georgia and Alabama CASTNET sites correspond to 30 % of Georgia emission rates and 36 % of Alabama emission rates, respectively. The fraction of NOx emissions lost to deposition has not changed. SEARCH and CASTNET sites exhibit downward trends in mean annual nitric acid (HNO3 concentrations. Observed relationships of O3 to NOz (NOy–NOx support past model predictions of increases in cycling of NO and increasing responsiveness of O3 to NOx. The study data provide a long-term record that can be used to examine the accuracy of process relationships embedded in modeling efforts. Quantifying observed O3 trends and relating them to reductions in ambient NOy species concentrations offers key insights into processes of general relevance to air quality management and

  14. Traditional culture of Slovakian minorities in Central and Southeastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavkovski Peter

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Throughout Europe and within various historical and socio-economic conditions, Slovaks have formed many enclaves and diasporas. In order to investigate common cultural and ethnic characteristics and/or differences between Slovaks in Slovakia and the various diasporas that they formed in relationship with majorities of their host countries, we suggest the usage of the cartographic method. Namely, during the 1997-1999 the Institute of Ethnology of the Slovakian Academy of Science used the cartographic method to analyze various complex questions relating to the traditional culture and ethnic history of many Slovakian minorities in the countries of Central Europe: in Poland, Ukraine, Romania and Hungary. The project was named Traditional Culture of Slovakian Minorities in Central Europe - the application of ethno-cartographic method in research and comparison of cultural manifestation. The project yield positive results and in 2000-2002 proceeded with yet another scientific project: Traditional Culture of Slovakian Minorities in Southeastern Europe - the application of the cartographic method in research and comparison of cultural manifestations once more, the data were obtained on the traditional folk culture of the Slovakian enclaves in Vojvodina and Croatia. The cartographic method used in both projects enabled researchers to document relevant data in a relatively short period of time. A solid foundation was created for a scientific synthesis of selected topics that deal with the traditional culture of Slovakian minorities in Central and Southeastern Europe, and its comparisons with the parent country culture. The cartographic method is widely used in Slovakia, in some 250 sites. Further, the scientific project of the Institute of Ethnology of the Slovakian Academy of Science named Traditional Culture of Slovakian Minorities in Central and Southern Europe as an integral part of their cultural inheritance (In between cultural stability and

  15. Geochemistry of 210Pb in the southeastern, US estuarine system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storti, F.W.

    1980-11-01

    This study was an attempt to determine the geochemical behavior of 210 Pb in southeastern salt marsh estuaries. As a part of this study the 210 Pb dating technique was applied to natural and anthropogenic deposits of the region. 210 Pb activity of sediment and water from the Georgia coastal area was measured by alpha spectroscopy. The effects of grain size and carbon content of the sediment on 210 Pb concentrations was evaluated and the activity of 210 Pb in dissolved and particulate phases of rivers was measured as a function of salinity. Ages and sedimentation rates of sedimentary deposits were also determined for some deposits. 210 Pb activity in dissolved and particulate phases of rivers showed no clear trends as functions of salinity. River particulate activities were three to four times higher than dissolved activities. The relationship between 210 Pb activity in salt marsh sediments and grain size was highly significant. Direct application of the 210 Pb method to date and determine sedimentation rates of natural and anthropogenic deposits was partially successful. The anthropogenic deposits, however, had to be dated on the basis of normalizing 210 Pb activities to grain size (% silt and clay) and carbon content

  16. Postglacial vegetation history of Mitkof Island, Alexander Archipelago, southeastern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ager, Thomas A.; Carrara, Paul E.; Smith, Jane L.; Anne, Victoria; Johnson, Joni

    2010-03-01

    An AMS radiocarbon-dated pollen record from a peat deposit on Mitkof Island, southeastern Alaska provides a vegetation history spanning ˜12,900 cal yr BP to the present. Late Wisconsin glaciers covered the entire island; deglaciation occurred > 15,400 cal yr BP. The earliest known vegetation to develop on the island (˜12,900 cal yr BP) was pine woodland ( Pinus contorta) with alder ( Alnus), sedges (Cyperaceae) and ferns (Polypodiaceae type). By ˜12,240 cal yr BP, Sitka spruce ( Picea sitchensis) began to colonize the island while pine woodland declined. By ˜11,200 cal yr BP, mountain hemlock ( Tsuga mertensiana) began to spread across the island. Sitka spruce-mountain hemlock forests dominated the lowland landscapes of the island until ˜10,180 cal yr BP, when western hemlock ( Tsuga heterophylla) began to colonize, and soon became the dominant tree species. Rising percentages of pine, sedge, and sphagnum after ˜7100 cal yr BP may reflect an expansion of peat bog habitats as regional climate began to shift to cooler, wetter conditions. A decline in alders at that time suggests that coastal forests had spread into the island's uplands, replacing large areas of alder thickets. Cedars ( Chamaecyparis nootkatensis, Thuja plicata) appeared on Mitkof Island during the late Holocene.

  17. The geology of the southeastern Baltic Sea: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ūsaitytė, Daiva

    2000-06-01

    The Baltic Sea, particularly its southeastern part, is discussed in the paper. Investigations of regional character as well as specialized studies in the area are reviewed. General historical works are mentioned briefly. Previous surveys since the 1950s are presented by the subject studied. The compilation of geological structure of the SE Baltic Sea bottom and adjacent land of Balticum (Baltic States: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania) is based on considerable amounts of summarized materials. The crystalline basement, sedimentary cover and Quaternary deposits are characterized in the comprehensive survey of geological structure. From a stratigraphical point of view, geological sequence of the platformal cover is comparatively complete: deposits of all geological systems (from the Archean to Cenozoic) are present in the Baltic Syneclise. Considering geotectonical cycles, the sedimentary cover of the syneclise is subdivided into four structural complexes. The thickness and distribution of Quaternary deposits are closely related to the recent bottom relief of the Baltic Sea that in turn is inherited from the Pre-Quaternary surface. Buried palaeo-valleys are characteristic of the Pre-Quaternary surface in the Baltic region and the Baltic Sea bottom. The Quaternary is characterized by layers of various geneses and by sharp changes of their thicknesses.

  18. Mortality among Guarani Indians in Southeastern and Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Moreira Cardoso

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, indigenous peoples display a high burden of disease, expressed by profound health inequalities in comparison to non-indigenous populations. This study describes mortality patterns among the Guarani in Southern and Southeastern Brazil, with a focus on health inequalities. The Guarani population structure is indicative of high birth and death rates, low median age and low life expectancy at birth. The crude mortality rate (crude MR = 5.0/1,000 was similar to the Brazilian national rate, but the under-five MR (44.5/1,000 and the infant mortality rate (29.6/1,000 were twice the corresponding MR in the South and Southeast of Brazil. The proportion of post-neonatal infant deaths was 83.3%, 2.4 times higher than general population. The proportions of ill-defined (15.8% and preventable causes (51.6% were high. The principal causes of death were respiratory (40.6% and infectious and parasitic diseases (18.8%, suggesting precarious living conditions and deficient health services. There is a need for greater investment in primary care and interventions in social determinants of health in order to reduce the health inequalities.

  19. Mortality among Guarani Indians in Southeastern and Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Andrey Moreira; Coimbra, Carlos E A; Barreto, Carla Tatiana Garcia; Werneck, Guilherme Loureiro; Santos, Ricardo Ventura

    2011-01-01

    Worldwide, indigenous peoples display a high burden of disease, expressed by profound health inequalities in comparison to non-indigenous populations. This study describes mortality patterns among the Guarani in Southern and Southeastern Brazil, with a focus on health inequalities. The Guarani population structure is indicative of high birth and death rates, low median age and low life expectancy at birth. The crude mortality rate (crude MR = 5.0/1,000) was similar to the Brazilian national rate, but the under-five MR (44.5/1,000) and the infant mortality rate (29.6/1,000) were twice the corresponding MR in the South and Southeast of Brazil. The proportion of post-neonatal infant deaths was 83.3%, 2.4 times higher than general population. The proportions of ill-defined (15.8%) and preventable causes (51.6%) were high. The principal causes of death were respiratory (40.6%) and infectious and parasitic diseases (18.8%), suggesting precarious living conditions and deficient health services. There is a need for greater investment in primary care and interventions in social determinants of health in order to reduce the health inequalities.

  20. Stable-isotope studies of groundwaters in southeastern New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, S.J.

    1987-01-01

    Oxygen-18/16 and deuterium/hydrogen ratio measurements have been made on groundwaters sampled according to specific field criteria applied during pump tests of the Rustler Formation in Nash Draw, a solution-subsidence valley west of the WIPP site in the northern Delaware Basin of southeastern New Mexico. Comparison of these data with similar measurements on other groundwaters from the northern Delaware Basin indicates two nonoverlapping populations of meteoric groundwaters. Most of the Rustler waters in Nash Draw and at the WIPP site and older waters from the eastern two-thirds of the Capitan Limestone constitute one population, while unconfined groundwaters originating as observable modern surface recharge to alluvium, the near-surface Rustler in southwestern Nash Draw, and the Capitan in the Guadalupe Mountains (Carlsbad Caverns) constitute the other. The isotopic distinction suggests that Rustler groundwater in most of Nash Draw and at the WIPP site is not receiving significant modern meteoric recharge. A likely explanation for this distinction is that meteoric recharge to most of the Rustler and Capitan took place in the geologic past under climatic conditions significantly different from the present. 25 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  1. Low water quality in tropical fishponds in southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIMONE M. COSTA

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Expansion of aquaculture around the world has heavily impacted the environment. Because fertilizers are needed to raise fish, one of the main impacts is eutrophication, which lowers water quality and increases the frequency of algal blooms, mostly cyanobacteria. To evaluate whether the water quality in 30 fishponds in southeastern Brazilian met the requirements of Brazilian legislation, we analyzed biotic and abiotic water conditions. We expected that the high nutrient levels due to fertilization would cause low water quality. We also analyzed cyanotoxins in seston and fish muscle in some systems where cyanobacteria were dominant. The fishponds ranged from eutrophic and hypereutrophic with high phytoplankton biomass. Although cyanobacteria were dominant in most of the systems, cyanotoxins occurred in low concentrations, possibly because only two of the 12 dominant species were potential producers of microcystins. The high phosphorus concentrations caused the low water quality by increasing cyanobacteria, chlorophyll-a, turbidity, and thermotolerant coliforms, and by depleting dissolved oxygen. We found that all the 30 systems were inappropriate for fish culture, according to Brazilian legislation, based on at least one of the parameters measured. Furthermore, there was not any single system in the water-quality thresholds, according to the Brazilian legislation, to grow fish. Our findings indicate the need for better management to minimize the impacts of eutrophication in fishponds, in addition to a rigorous control to guarantee good food.

  2. Chagas Cardiomyopathy in New Orleans and the Southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Robert C; Burak, Joshua; Tiwari, Sumit; Chakraborti, Chayan; Sander, Gary E

    2016-01-01

    Chagas disease (CD), caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, affects 6-7 million people worldwide annually, primarily in Central and South America, and >300,000 people in the United States. CD consists of acute and chronic stages. Hallmarks of acute CD include fever, myalgia, diaphoresis, hepatosplenomegaly, and myocarditis. Symptoms of chronic CD include pathologic involvement of the heart, esophagus, and colon. Myocardial involvement is identifiable by electrocardiogram and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging showing inflammation and left ventricular wall functional abnormalities. We present two cases of CD identified in a single hospital in the Southeastern United States. Case 1 presents a patient with symptoms of anginal chest pain and associated shortness of breath with myocardial involvement suggestive of ischemic infarction but normal coronary arteries. Case 2 describes a patient with no physical symptoms and echocardiogram with ejection fraction of 50% with posterolateral and anterolateral wall hypokinesis but normal coronary arteries. With a growing number of immigrants from Central and South America in the United States, it is imperative for clinicians to include CD as part of the differential diagnosis for patients presenting with heart disease who have a history of exposure to T. cruzi endemic areas.

  3. Heterospecific sociality of birds on beaches from southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Cestari

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the sociality of heterospecific assemblages of birds have promoted a greater understanding of the types of interactions and survivorship between coexisting species. This study verified the group compositions in bird assemblages and analyzed the sociality of migratory and resident species on sandy beaches of southeastern Brazil. A transect was established on the median portion of beaches and all the groups of bird species (monospecific, heterospecific and solitary individuals were registered four days per month from November 2006 to April 2007. The sociality of each species was calculated by its frequency in heterospecific groups, its proportional number of contacts with other species in heterospecific groups, and the number of species that it associated with. Semipalmated Sandpiper Calidris pusilla (Linnaeus, 1766 and Semipalmated Plover Charadrius semipalmatus Bonaparte, 1825 (both migratory had the highest degree of sociality and did not show a preference to associate with either residents or migratory species. Sanderling Calidris alba (Pallas, 1764 (migratory occupied the third position in the sociality rank and associated with migratory species frequently. Southern Caracara Carara plancus (Miller, 1777 and Black Vulture Coragyps atratus (Beschstein, 1793 (both resident were uniquely found among heterospecific groups with necrophagous and resident species. Kelp Gull Larus dominicanus Lichtenstein, 1823 (resident associated more frequently with resident species. The sociality in assemblages of birds may promote advantages such as an increased collective awareness in dangerous situations and indication of sites with abundant food sources.

  4. Lead and cadmium in wild birds in southeastern Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Fernandez, A.J.; Sanchez-Garcia, J.A.; Luna, A. [Univ. of Murcia (Spain); Jimenez-Montalban, P. [Regional Environmental Agency, Murcia (Spain). Centro de Recuperacion de Fauna Silvestre El Valle

    1995-12-01

    The main purpose of this study was to monitor exposure to lead and cadmium in wild birds in Murcia, a southeastern region of Spain on the Mediterranean coast. This region lies on one of the African-European flyways. Samples of liver, kidney, brain, bone, and whole blood from several species of wild birds were obtained during 1993. The authors found a clear relationship between cadmium and lead concentrations in birds and their feedings habits. Vultures (Gyps fulvus) had the highest concentrations of lead (mean 40 {micro}g/dl in blood), and seagulls (Larus argentatus and Larus ridibundus) the highest concentrations of cadmium (mean 4.43 {micro}g/g in kidney). Insectivores had high concentrations of both metals, and diurnal and nocturnal raptors showed the lowest tissue concentrations. The findings that tissue and blood concentrations were generally not elevated suggests environmental (rather than acute) exposure. Birds from more industrialized areas of the region studied here had higher concentrations of both lead and cadmium.

  5. Southeastern Regional geologic characterization report. Volume 1. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-08-01

    This report presents available geologic information pertinent to siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in central Maryland; noncoastal Virginia, North Carolina, and South Carolina; and northern Georgia. For each of the states within the Southeastern Region, information is provided on the geological disqualifying factor and the geologic regional screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening. The geological factor and variables include deep mines and quarries, rock mass extent, postemplacement faulting, suspected Quaternary faulting, seismicity, rock and mineral resources, major ground-water discharge zones, ground-water resources, state of stress, thickness of rock mass, and thickness of overburden. Information is presented on the age, areal extent, shape, composition, texture, degree and type of alteration, thickness, and structural features associated with each rock body or complex. Regional seismic and tectonic information is presented, including patterns of earthquake occurrence, earthquake magnitudes, horizontal ground accelerations, and vertical crustal movements. Also included are discussions of the rock and mineral deposits or mines located within or near crystalline bodies; ground-water resources and regional hydrology; postulated changes in climate and the associated effects; and landforms, surface processes, and surficial materials on or near the rock bodies

  6. Predicting red wolf release success in the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Manen, Frank T.; Crawford, Barron A.; Clark, Joseph D.

    2000-01-01

    Although the red wolf (Canis rufus) was once found throughout the southeastern United States, indiscriminate killing and habitat destruction reduced its range to a small section of coastal Texas and Louisiana. Wolves trapped from 1973 to 1980 were taken to establish a captive breeding program that was used to repatriate 2 mainland and 3 island red wolf populations. We collected data from 320 red wolf releases in these areas and classified each as a success or failure based on survival and reproductive criteria, and whether recaptures were necessary to resolve conflicts with humans. We evaluated the relations between release success and conditions at the release sites, characteristics of released wolves, and release procedures. Although <44% of the variation in release success was explained, model performance based on jackknife tests indicated a 72-80% correct prediction rate for the 4 operational models we developed. The models indicated that success was associated with human influences on the landscape and the level of wolf habituation to humans prior to release. We applied the models to 31 prospective areas for wolf repatriation and calculated an index of release success for each area. Decision-makers can use these models to objectively rank prospective release areas and compare strengths and weaknesses of each.

  7. Thunderstorm incidence in southeastern Brazil estimated from different data sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Pinto Jr.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a comparative analysis of the thunderstorm incidence in southeastern Brazil obtained from thunderstorm days observed at two different epochs (from 1910 to 1951 and from 1971 to 1984 and from lightning data provided by the Brazilian lightning location system RINDAT (from 1999 to 2006 and the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS on board the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM satellite (from 1998 to 2010. The results are interpreted in terms of the main synoptic patterns associated with thunderstorm activity in this region, indicating that the prevailing synoptic pattern associated with thunderstorm activity is the occurrence of frontal systems and their modulation by the South Atlantic Convergence Zone (SACZ and topography. Evidence of urban effects is also found. The results are also discussed in the context of practical applications involving their use in the Brazilian lightning protection standards, suggesting that the present version of the Brazilian standards should be revised incorporating RINDAT and LIS data. Finally, the results are important to improve our knowledge about the limitations of the different techniques used to record the thunderstorm activity and support future climatic studies.

  8. Revised draft: Southeastern Regional geologic characterization report. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-11-01

    This report presents available geologic information pertinent to siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in Georgia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Virginia. For each of the states within the southeastern region, information is provided on the disqualifying factor and the screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening. These factors and variables include hydrologically significant natural resources, rock mass extent, postemplacement faulting, suspected Quaternary faulting, seismicity, rock and mineral resources, major ground-water discharge zones, water resources, ground-water salinity, and state of stress. Information is presented on the age, areal extent, shape, thickness of overburden, composition, texture, degree and type of alteration, and structural features associated with each rock body or complex. Regional seismic and tectonic information is presented, including patterns of earthquake occurrence, earthquake magnitudes, horizontal ground accelerations, and vertical crustal movements. Also included are discussions of the rock and mineral deposits or mines located within or near crystalline bodies; groundwater resources and regional hydrology; postulated changes in climate and the associated effects; and landforms, surface processes, and surficial materials on or near the subject rock bodies. A discussion of the relationship between the DOE Siting Guidelines and the geologic disqualifying factor and regional screening variables to be used in the region-to-area screening process is also presented

  9. Nesting habitat and productivity of Swainson's Hawks in southeastern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Catherine; Boal, Clint W.; DeStefano, Stephen; Hobbs, Royden J.

    2013-01-01

    We studied Swainson's Hawks (Buteo swainsoni) in southeastern Arizona to assess the status of the local breeding population. Nest success (≥1 young fledged) was 44.4% in 1999 with an average of 1.43 ± 0.09 (SE) young produced per successful pair. Productivity was similar in 2000, with 58.2% nesting success and 1.83 ± 0.09 fledglings per successful pair. Mesquite (Prosopis velutina) and cottonwood (Populus fremontii) accounted for >50% of 167 nest trees. Nest trees were taller than surrounding trees and random trees, and overall there was more vegetative cover at nest sites than random sites. This apparent requirement for cover around nest sites could be important for management of the species in Arizona. However, any need for cover at nest sites must be balanced with the need for open areas for foraging. Density of nesting Swainson's Hawks was higher in agriculture than in grasslands and desert scrub. Breeding pairs had similar success in agricultural and nonagricultural areas, but the effect of rapid and widespread land-use change on breeding distribution and productivity continues to be a concern throughout the range of the species.

  10. Can coyotes affect deer populations in Southeastern North America?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilgo, J., C.; Ray, H., Scott; Ruth, Charles; Miller, Karl, V.

    2010-07-01

    ABSTRACT The coyote (Canis latrans) is a recent addition to the fauna of eastern North America, and in many areas coyote populations have been established for only a decade or two. Although coyotes are known predators of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in their historic range, effects this new predator may have on eastern deer populations have received little attention. We speculated that in the southeastern United States, coyotes may be affecting deer recruitment, and we present 5 lines of evidence that suggest this possibility. First, the statewide deer population in South Carolina has declined coincident with the establishment and increase in the coyote population. Second, data sets from the Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina indicate a new mortality source affecting the deer population concurrent with the increase in coyotes. Third, an index of deer recruitment at SRS declined during the period of increase in coyotes. Fourth, food habits data from SRS indicate that fawns are an important food item for coyotes during summer. Finally, recent research from Alabama documented significant coyote predation on fawns there. Although this evidence does not establish cause and effect between coyotes and observed declines in deer recruitment, we argue that additional research should proactively address this topic in the region. We identified several important questions on the nature of the deer–coyote relationship in the East.

  11. The clientele of traditional birth homes in rural southeastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izugbara, C Otutubikey; Ukwayi, J Kinuabeye

    2003-03-01

    Although it is widely documented that traditional birth homes (TBHs) do more than deliver babies, little is known about the other functions in addition to child delivery, which TBHs perform. Drawing on in-depth individual interviews with 13 traditional birth attendants (TBAs) and 147 users of TBHs, we profile the characteristics and health conditions of the clientele of TBHs in four rural communities in southeastern Nigeria. We found that TBHs provide their clients, who are mainly less educated women and girls, health services that range from child delivery, child sex selection, and abortion to family planning and cures for vaginal bleeding. Women are attracted to TBHs because the services are low cost, the women require privacy about their conditions, the TBHs are close by, and the women are confident in the abilities of TBHs. Rural women are bound by poverty, culture, and local values in their choices of services. We assert that health interventions to local people will need to be couched within frameworks that are responsive to their socioeconomic and cultural sensitivities if they are to deliver their expected impact.

  12. A case control study of fowl pox in southeastern Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, D M; Martin, S W

    1990-06-01

    An outbreak of fowl pox, which occurred in south-eastern Ontario between July 1988 and April 1989, was investigated in the spring of 1989 to determine factors associated with the spread of the disease. Clinical fowl pox was confirmed on five farms (cases). Twenty-seven farms, out of 35 egg producers with quota from Durham region to Northumberland county, provided information as controls. Bivariate analyses were performed on mail survey data using Fisher's exact test and odds ratios. Although the tests of hypotheses lacked statistical power because of the small number of case farms, and barns, a number of significant associations were found. At the farm level, fowl pox infection was associated with pullets purchased from a particular pullet grower. At the barn level, fowl pox infection was associated with pullets from a particular grower, mixing different groups of pullets, and a trend towards having birds early in the laying period, and higher numbers of birds placed. Fowl pox-infected barns had higher mortality and lower egg production postoutbreak. The results may indicate that the virus enters the laying barn at, or near, the time new birds are placed. Better communication among producers, catch-and-fill crews, and others associated with the egg industry, as well as more complete records of dates, sources, and persons involved with pullet placements, are recommended.

  13. Granitic rocks from the southern Gyeongsang basin, southeastern Korea, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yoon-Jong

    1980-01-01

    In southern Gyeongsang basin, southeastern Korea, there are many granitic rock masses. They were divided into 7 groups according to their geological evidences. K-Ar age was determined on 36 samples obtained from the respective groups. Group A: pre-Gyeongsang granitic rock (Pre-Cretaceous), A 1 220 m.y., A 2 166 m.y.; group B: outer zone granitic rock (Cretaceous), 115-72 m.y.; group C: ditto (ditto), 97-70 m.y.; group D: ditto (ditto), 89-68 m.y.; group E: ditto (ditto), 82-68 m.y.; group F: inner zone granitic rock (Cretaceous), 75-74 m.y.; group G: Tertiary granitic rock, 63-41 m.y. The large part of the Cretaceous granitic masses show the double elongated ring form. Most of the Tertiary granitic rocks were probably emplaced in close relation with the Eonyang fault line and Ulsan fault line/or their extension line of the area. (J.P.N.)

  14. Assessment of environmental radioactivity for Sanliurfa region of southeastern Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozkurt, Ahmet; Yorulmaz, Nuri; Kam, Erol; Karahan, Gursel; Osmanlioglu, Ahmet Erdal

    2007-01-01

    This study assesses the level of background radiation for Sanliurfa province of southeastern Turkey. Measurements of outdoor gamma radiation (of terrestrial and cosmic origin) in air were performed at 112 locations using a plastic scintillator and the average absorbed dose was found as 60.9 nGy/h (corresponding to an effective dose of 74.7μSv/y). The radionuclide activity concentrations in 45 soil samples collected from the study area were measured through gamma-ray spectrometry and the average activities were determined as 20.8, 24.95 and 298.6 for the natural radionuclides 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K, respectively, and 9.08 Bq/kg for the fission product 137 Cs. The natural radioactivity sources resulted in an effective dose of 46.9μSv/y. The radioactivity levels of 53 drinking water samples were measured as 0.038 Bq/l for gross-alpha activity and 0.1324 Bq/l for gross-beta activity using gross-alpha and gross-beta counting methods (equivalent to an effective dose of 7.76μSv/y). When compared with the data available for other Turkish cities, the outdoor gamma doses and soil radioactivity concentrations obtained in this study indicate a background radiation level that falls within natural limits. On the other hand, the measured gross-alpha and -beta activities in drinking water are relatively higher

  15. Geographical Clusters and Predictors of Rabies in Three Southeastern States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Sara; Sanderson, Wayne T; Christian, W Jay; Browning, Steven R

    2017-06-01

    The rabies virus causes progressive encephalomyelitis that is fatal in nearly 100% of untreated cases. In the United States, wildlife act as the primary reservoir for rabies; prevention, surveillance, and control costs remain high. The purpose of this study is to understand the current distribution of wildlife rabies in three southeastern states, with particular focus on raccoons as the primary eastern reservoir, as well as identify demographic and geographic factors which may affect the risk of human exposure. This ecologic study obtained county-level rabies surveillance data from state health departments and the United States Department of Agriculture Wildlife services for North Carolina, Virginia, and West Virginia from 2010 to 2013. A spatial statistical analysis was performed to identify county clusters with high or low rates of raccoon rabies in the three states. Potential demographic and geographic factors associated with these varying rates of rabies were assessed using a multivariable negative binomial regression model. In North Carolina, raccoons constituted 50% of positive tests, in Virginia, 49%, and in West Virginia, 50%. Compared to persons residing in West Virginia counties, persons in North Carolina counties had 1.67 times the risk of exposure (p rabies exposure. Further research is needed to better understand the effect of the oral rabies vaccine program in controlling the risk of human exposure to raccoon rabies.

  16. Land Use Change and Land Degradation in Southeastern Mediterranean Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symeonakis, Elias; Calvo-Cases, Adolfo; Arnau-Rosalen, Eva

    2007-07-01

    The magnitude of the environmental and social consequences of soil erosion and land degradation in semiarid areas of the Mediterranean region has long been recognized and studied. This paper investigates the interrelationship between land use/cover (LULC) changes and land degradation using remotely sensed and ancillary data for southeastern Spain. The area of study, the Xaló River catchment situated in the north of the Alicante Province, has been subjected to a number of LULC changes during the second half of the 20th century such as agricultural abandonment, forest fires, and tourist development. Aerial photographs dating back to 1956 were used for the delineation of historic LULC types; Landsat ETM+ data were used for the analysis and mapping of current conditions. Two important indicators of land degradation, namely, susceptibility to surface runoff and soil erosion, were estimated for the two dates using easily parametrizable models. The comparison of 1956 to 2000 conditions shows an overall “recuperating” trend over the catchment and increased susceptibility to soil erosion only in 3% of the catchment area. The results also identify potential degradation hot-spots where mitigation measures should be taken to prevent further degradation. The readily implemented methodology, based on modest data requirements demonstrated by this study, is a useful tool for catchment to regional scale land use change and land degradation studies and strategic planning for environmental management.

  17. Zoo-sanitary aspects of goat husbandry in Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurora Maria Guimarães Gouveia

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Minas Gerais is the largest one out of the four states that comprise the southeastern region of Brazil, with the bigest goat herd of this region. The characterization of health aspects of dairy goat husbandry was done in 84 dairy herds in 81 municipalities and 200 beef herds in 70 municipalities in the State of Minas Gerais. A questionnaire was filled out for each herd, requesting data regarding the farm, the herd and the farmer by the veterinarians within the Agriculture and Livestock Institute of Minas Gerais (Instituto Mineiro de Agropecuária – IMA. A data bank was developed in Windows Excel and analyzed using the Epi-Info system. Comparisons of categorical variables were based on Chi-square test. The individual identification of the animals was done at 73.8% of dairy farms and at 7.5% of beef farms, use of quarentine at 15.5% and 4.0%, isolation of sick animals at 30.9% and 11.0%, requisition of sanitary certificate in the acquisition of new animals at 28.6% and 1.5%, regular veterinary monitoring at 52.4% and 1.5%, respectively. The main health problems reported at dairy and beef farms, respectively, were abortion (50.0% and 49.5%, mastitis (41.7% and 19.0%, pneumonia (37.4% and 16.5%, diarrhea (34.5% and 16.5% and caseous lymphadenitis (20.2% and 43.0%.

  18. Geology and resources of the Tar Sand Triangle, southeastern Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dana, G.F.; Oliver, R.L.; Elliott, J.R.

    1984-05-01

    The Tar Sand Triangle is located in southeastern Utah between the Dirty Devil and Colorado Rivers and covers an area of about 200 square miles. The geology of the area consists of gently northwest dipping strata exposed in the box canyons and slopes of the canyonlands morphology. Strata in the area range in age from Jurassic to Permian. The majority of tar sand saturation is found in the Permian White Rim Sandstone Member of the Cutler Formation. The White Rim Sandstone Member consists of a clean, well-sorted sandstone which was deposited in a shallow marine environment. Resources were calculated from analytical data from the three coreholes drilled by the Laramie Energy Technology Center and other available data. The total in-place resources, determined from this study, are 6.3 billion barels. Previous estimates ranged from 2.9 to 16 million barrels. More coring and analyses will be necessary before a more accurate determination of resources can be attempted. 8 references, 11 figures, 7 tables.

  19. Revised draft: Southeastern Regional environmental characterization report. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-11-01

    This report presents available environmental information pertinent to siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in central Maryland; noncoastal Virginia, North Carolina, and South Carolina; and northern Georgia. For each of the states within the Southeastern Region, information is provided on those environmental disqualifying factors and regional screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening. These environmental factors and variables include existing and proposed federal protected lands, proximity to federal protected lands, existing state protected lands, proximity to state protected lands, population density and distribution, proximity to highly populated areas, national and state forest lands, state wild-life lands, designated critical habitats for threatened and endangered species, surface water bodies, and wetlands. In addition, supplementary descriptive information providing a general characterization of the region is presented, as is information on environmental parameters that may be of use at later phases of screening. Also included is a discussion of the relationship between the US Department of Energy (DOE) Siting Guidelines and those environmental disqualifying factors and regional screening variables to be used in the region-to-area screening process

  20. Southeastern Regional Environmental Characterization Report. Volume 1. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-08-01

    This report presents available environmental information pertinent to siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in central Maryland; noncoastal Virginia, North Carolina, and South Carolina; and northern Georgia. For each of the States within the Southeastern Region, information is provided on those environmental disqualifying factors and regional screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening. These environmental factors and variables include existing and proposd Federal-protected lands, components of National Forest Lands, proximity to Federal-protected lands, existing State-protected lands, proximity to State-protected lands, population density and distribution, proximity to highly populated areas, or to 1-mile-square areas with 1000 or more persons, national and State forest lands, designated critical habitats for threatened and endangered species, surface water bodies, and wetlands. In addition, supplementary descriptive information providing a general characterization of the region is presented, as is information on environmental parameters that will be of use at later phases of screening. Also included is a discussion of the relationship between the US Department of Energy Siting Guidelines (10 CFR 960) and those environmental disqualifying factors and regional screening variables to be used in the region-to-area screening process

  1. Genetic heritage of the Old Order Mennonites of southeastern Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puffenberger, E G

    2003-08-15

    The Old Order Mennonites of southeastern Pennsylvania are a religious isolate with origins in 16th-century Switzerland. The Swiss Mennonites immigrated to Pennsylvania over a 50-year period in the early 18th century. The history of this population in the United States provides insight into the increased incidence of several genetic diseases, most notably maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), Hirschsprung disease (HSCR), and congenital nephrotic syndrome. A comparison between the Old Order Mennonites and the Old Order Amish demonstrates the unique genetic heritage of each group despite a common religious and geographic history. Unexpectedly, several diseases in both groups demonstrate allelic and/or locus heterogeneity. The population genetics of the 1312T --> A BCKDHA gene mutation, which causes classical MSUD, are presented in detail. The incidence of MSUD in the Old Order Mennonites is estimated to be 1/358 births, yielding a corrected carrier frequency of 7.96% and a mutation allele frequency of 4.15%. Analysis of the population demonstrates that repeated cycles of sampling effects, population bottlenecks, and subsequent genetic drift were important in shaping the current allele frequencies. A linkage disequilibrium analysis of 1312T --> A mutation haplotypes is provided and discussed in the context of the known genealogical history of the population. Finally, data from microsatellite marker genotyping within the Old Order Mennonite population are provided that show a significant but modest decrease in genetic diversity and elevated levels of background linkage disequilibrium. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Gravity and magnetic modelling in the Vrancea Zone, south-eastern Carpathians: Redefinition of the edge of the East European Craton beneath the south-eastern Carpathians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bocin, A.; Stephenson, R.; Matenco, L.; Mocanu, V.

    2013-01-01

    A 2D gravity and magnetic data model has been constructed along a 71. km densely observed profile, called DACIA PLAN GRAV MAN's. The profile crosses part of the nappe pile of the south-eastern Carpathians and includes the seismically active Vrancea Zone and was acquired with the objective to

  3. Religions in South-Eastern Europe: The Historico-Anthropological Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Mitterauer

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The article approaches religious phenomena in South-Eastern Europe in a historico-anthropological manner. With the aid of historical comparison, the author tries to throw light on the religious phenomena of South-Eastern Europe and to present them in a lucid review. A significant place in this process is given to historical sociology as a discipline which, among other, also deals with the religious conditioning of social processes. The text consists of two parts. In the first, the author deals with the question of the religious particularity of South-Eastern Europe and considers it from several viewpoints. The author regards the most important features of the religious situation in that part of Europe as being particularism, archaicism and syncretism. He analyses the historical conditioning of the viability of the three monotheistic world religions in the region, their influence on the social development of South-Eastern Europe, the stance of the authorities towards religious communities and the existence of diverse traditions within individual religious cultures. Along with analysis of the presence of ancient elements and the continuity of pre-Christian rituals and beliefs, the author also stresses the strong syncretism marking the religious traditions of South-Eastern Europe. In the second part of the text the author compares religious phenomena in South-Eastern Europe and analyses regional religious traditions. He presents from the historico-anthropological aspect the religious rituals, the bearers of rituals, the place and time of rituals and the ritual languages of each of the world religions represented in the region. Emphasising the continuity of religious life and religious traditions in South-Eastern Europe, the author ends with the period of Communist rule in the second half of the 20th century, and deliberation that Communism, too, with its atheist doctrine in the secular form of cult, in fact carried on from religious tradition.

  4. The Path towards Endangered Species: Prehistoric Fisheries in Southeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Mariana Samôr; Bertucci, Thayse Cristina Pereira; Rapagnã, Luciano; Tubino, Rafael de Almeida; Monteiro-Neto, Cassiano; Tomas, Acácio Ribeiro Gomes; Tenório, Maria Cristina; Lima, Tânia; Souza, Rosa; Carrillo-Briceño, Jorge Domingo; Haimovici, Manuel; Macario, Kita; Carvalho, Carla; Aguilera Socorro, Orangel

    2016-01-01

    Brazilian shellmounds are archaeological sites with a high concentration of marine faunal remains. There are more than 2000 sites along the coast of Brazil that range in age from 8,720 to 985 cal BP. Here, we studied the ichthyoarchaeological remains (i.e., cranial/postcranial bones, otoliths, and teeth, among others) at 13 shellmounds on the southern coast of the state of Rio de Janeiro, which are located in coastal landscapes, including a sandy plain with coastal lagoons, rocky islands, islets and rocky bays. We identified patterns of similarity between shellmounds based on fish diversity, the ages of the assemblages, littoral geomorphology and prehistoric fisheries. Our new radiocarbon dating, based on otolith samples, was used for fishery characterization over time. A taxonomical study of the ichthyoarchaeological remains includes a diversity of 97 marine species, representing 37% of all modern species (i.e., 265 spp.) that have been documented along the coast of Rio de Janeiro state. This high fish diversity recovered from the shellmounds is clear evidence of well-developed prehistoric fishery activity that targeted sharks, rays and finfishes in a productive area influenced by coastal marine upwelling. The presence of adult and neonate shark, especially oceanic species, is here interpreted as evidence of prehistoric fisheries capacity for exploitation and possibly overexploitation in nursery areas. Various tools and strategies were used to capture finfish in seasonal fisheries, over rocky reef bottoms and in sandy littoral environments. Massive catches of whitemouth croaker, main target dermersal species of South Atlantic coast, show evidence of a reduction in body size of approximately 28% compared with modern fisheries. Fishery activity involving vulnerable species, especially in nursery areas, could mark the beginning of fish depletion along the southeastern Brazilian coast and the collapse of natural fish populations. PMID:27355355

  5. The spatial distribution of forest damages in southeastern Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jokinen, J.; Maekinen, E.; Meinander, O.; Haarala, S. [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland)

    1995-12-31

    Up to the present time scientists researching the causes of the vast areas of forest damages observed in Europe and North America have presented many different hypotheses. Among the first explanations was the damaging effect of acid rain. Some researchers claimed that of all air pollutants ozone was the most important damaging agent. The stress theory emphasizes the interaction of nitrogen oxides and sulphur dioxide with oxidants, hydrocarbons and heavy metals to be the main cause of toxic effects. In addition to above-mentioned theories, projects carried out by the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) have revealed that under northern conditions coniferous forests have been damaged even in situations where the emissions consist of sulphur and nitrogen compounds occurring together. This theory postulates that the interaction of the above pollutants may be responsible by themselves for the effects on coniferous forests. The interaction is supposed to cause damages by two different mechanisms, namely, by causing direct toxic effects or through wintering failures. These mechanisms are indicated by the total nitrogen and sulphur concentration relationships of the needles. In the first case both sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides occur at such a high levels in the air that they cause direct damages, while in the second case sulphur dioxide concentration, in particular, is lower and both compounds can then be used as nutrients causing nutrient imbalance and a loss of wintering hardiness of the needles. The study area in these projects was southeastern Finland, which is one of the most polluted areas in our country. Domestic emissions from the paper and pulp industry, as well as the Russian emissions (e g. from the Leningrad region) affect this area. The aim of this study was to test the sulphur-nitrogen hypothesis using data collected from the Kymi province, S.E. Finland. (author)

  6. The Path towards Endangered Species: Prehistoric Fisheries in Southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Mariana Samôr; Bertucci, Thayse Cristina Pereira; Rapagnã, Luciano; Tubino, Rafael de Almeida; Monteiro-Neto, Cassiano; Tomas, Acácio Ribeiro Gomes; Tenório, Maria Cristina; Lima, Tânia; Souza, Rosa; Carrillo-Briceño, Jorge Domingo; Haimovici, Manuel; Macario, Kita; Carvalho, Carla; Aguilera Socorro, Orangel

    2016-01-01

    Brazilian shellmounds are archaeological sites with a high concentration of marine faunal remains. There are more than 2000 sites along the coast of Brazil that range in age from 8,720 to 985 cal BP. Here, we studied the ichthyoarchaeological remains (i.e., cranial/postcranial bones, otoliths, and teeth, among others) at 13 shellmounds on the southern coast of the state of Rio de Janeiro, which are located in coastal landscapes, including a sandy plain with coastal lagoons, rocky islands, islets and rocky bays. We identified patterns of similarity between shellmounds based on fish diversity, the ages of the assemblages, littoral geomorphology and prehistoric fisheries. Our new radiocarbon dating, based on otolith samples, was used for fishery characterization over time. A taxonomical study of the ichthyoarchaeological remains includes a diversity of 97 marine species, representing 37% of all modern species (i.e., 265 spp.) that have been documented along the coast of Rio de Janeiro state. This high fish diversity recovered from the shellmounds is clear evidence of well-developed prehistoric fishery activity that targeted sharks, rays and finfishes in a productive area influenced by coastal marine upwelling. The presence of adult and neonate shark, especially oceanic species, is here interpreted as evidence of prehistoric fisheries capacity for exploitation and possibly overexploitation in nursery areas. Various tools and strategies were used to capture finfish in seasonal fisheries, over rocky reef bottoms and in sandy littoral environments. Massive catches of whitemouth croaker, main target dermersal species of South Atlantic coast, show evidence of a reduction in body size of approximately 28% compared with modern fisheries. Fishery activity involving vulnerable species, especially in nursery areas, could mark the beginning of fish depletion along the southeastern Brazilian coast and the collapse of natural fish populations.

  7. Hospital morbidity among Guarani Indians in Southeastern and Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Andrey Moreira; Coimbra, Carlos E A; Tavares, Felipe Guimarães

    2010-03-01

    Studies on hospital morbidity among Brazilian indigenous peoples are relatively recent, show limited coverage, and lack data sources capable of generating specific indicators according to ethnic group. The current study describes hospital morbidity in the indigenous population living in 83 Guarani villages in Southern and Southeastern Brazil (N=6,483), based on primary data obtained from a hospital admissions surveillance system implemented in 2007-2008, specifically for a case-control study on acute respiratory infections (ARI) in Guarani children. During the study period there were 666 hospitalizations in a total of 497 individuals, the majority under 5 years of age (71.9%). Respiratory illnesses were the main causes of hospitalization (64.6%), especially in children (<5 years: 77.6%; <1 year: 83.4%) and exceeded the proportions of hospital admissions from these causes in other indigenous groups. The overall hospitalization rate (per 100 person-years) was 8.8, or 71.4 under 1 year and 21.0 from 1 to 4 years of age. The ARI hospitalization rate (5.3) was 6.5 and 2.0 times higher than for diarrhea and other causes, respectively, while in children under 5 years of age (ARI=23.7) these differences were 7.4 and 5.4 times, respectively. The standardized Guarani hospitalization rate exceeded the standardized rates for the South and Southeast of Brazil by 40% and 210%, respectively. Hospitalization for primary care sensitive conditions and the high ARI rates indicate the need for studies to understand the epidemiology of ARI and investments to upgrade primary health care for the Guarani.

  8. Refeeding syndrome in Southeastern Taiwan: our experience with 11 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-Ju; Chen, Huan-Lin; Bair, Ming-Jong; Wu, Chia-Hsien; Lin, I-Tsung; Lee, Yuan-Kai; Chu, Cheng-Hsin

    2014-08-14

    To present our experience with refeeding syndrome in southeastern Taiwan. We conducted a retrospective study during a 2-year period at the Mackay Memorial Hospital, Taitung Branch. We enrolled patients with very little or no nutrition intake for more than 10 d, a high risk group of refeeding syndrome, including those suffering from alcohol abuse, cancerous cachexia, chronic malnutrition, and prolonged starvation. A total of 11 patients (7 males, 4 females) with nasogastric feeding were included as having refeeding syndrome. Most of them had the symptoms of diarrhea, lethargy, and leg edema. The initial nutritional supplement was found to be relatively high in calories (1355.1 ± 296.2 kcal/d), high in protein (47.3 ± 10.4 gm/d), low in vitamin B1 (2.0 ± 0.5 mg/d), low in potassium (1260.4 ± 297.7 mg/d), and low in phosphorus (660.1 ± 151.8 mg/d). Furthermore, hypophosphatemia (2.4 ± 0.9 mg/dL) was noted during follow-up. Based on the suggestions of a dietician and a gastroenterologist, the clinical disorders of diarrhea, malaise and leg edema were significantly improved. The level of phosphate was also increased (3.3 ± 0.6 mg/dL). Refeeding syndrome is an overlooked and risky disorder that has some potentially fatal complications. Nasogastric feeding in nursing homes is an important risk factor for patients and deserves greater attention based on the initial results of this study.

  9. Old age mortality in Eastern and South-Eastern Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danan Gu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Eastern and South-Eastern Asian countries have witnessed a marked decline in old age mortality in recent decades. Yet no studies have investigated the trends and patterns in old age morality and cause-of-death in the region. Objective: We reviewed the trends and patterns of old age mortality and cause-of-death for countries in the region. Methods: We examined data on old age mortality in terms of life expectancy at age 65 and age-specific death rates from the 2012 Revision of the World Population Prospects for 14 countries in the region (China, Hong Kong, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Indonesia, Japan, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Myanmar, Malaysia, Mongolia, Philippines, Republic of Korea, Singapore, Thailand, and Viet Nam and data on cause-of-death from the WHO for five countries (China, Hong Kong, Japan, Republic of Korea, and Singapore from 1980 to 2010. Results: While mortality transitions in these populations took place in different times, and at different levels of socioeconomic development and living environment, changes in their age patterns and sex differentials in mortality showed certain similarities: women witnessed a similar decline to men in spite of their lower mortality, and young elders had a larger decline than the oldest-old. In all five countries examined for cause-of-death, most of the increases in life expectancy at age 65 in both men and women were attributable to declines in mortality from stroke and heart disease. GDP per capita, educational level, and urbanization explained much of the variations in life expectancy and cause-specific mortality, indicating critical contributions of these basic socioeconomic development indicators to the mortality decline over time in the region. Conclusions: These findings shed light on the relationship between epidemiological transition, changing age patterns of mortality, and improving life expectancy in these populations.

  10. The Path towards Endangered Species: Prehistoric Fisheries in Southeastern Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Samôr Lopes

    Full Text Available Brazilian shellmounds are archaeological sites with a high concentration of marine faunal remains. There are more than 2000 sites along the coast of Brazil that range in age from 8,720 to 985 cal BP. Here, we studied the ichthyoarchaeological remains (i.e., cranial/postcranial bones, otoliths, and teeth, among others at 13 shellmounds on the southern coast of the state of Rio de Janeiro, which are located in coastal landscapes, including a sandy plain with coastal lagoons, rocky islands, islets and rocky bays. We identified patterns of similarity between shellmounds based on fish diversity, the ages of the assemblages, littoral geomorphology and prehistoric fisheries. Our new radiocarbon dating, based on otolith samples, was used for fishery characterization over time. A taxonomical study of the ichthyoarchaeological remains includes a diversity of 97 marine species, representing 37% of all modern species (i.e., 265 spp. that have been documented along the coast of Rio de Janeiro state. This high fish diversity recovered from the shellmounds is clear evidence of well-developed prehistoric fishery activity that targeted sharks, rays and finfishes in a productive area influenced by coastal marine upwelling. The presence of adult and neonate shark, especially oceanic species, is here interpreted as evidence of prehistoric fisheries capacity for exploitation and possibly overexploitation in nursery areas. Various tools and strategies were used to capture finfish in seasonal fisheries, over rocky reef bottoms and in sandy littoral environments. Massive catches of whitemouth croaker, main target dermersal species of South Atlantic coast, show evidence of a reduction in body size of approximately 28% compared with modern fisheries. Fishery activity involving vulnerable species, especially in nursery areas, could mark the beginning of fish depletion along the southeastern Brazilian coast and the collapse of natural fish populations.

  11. Machine Learning to Assess Grassland Productivity in Southeastern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce-Campos, G. E.; Heilman, P.; Armendariz, G.; Moser, E.; Archer, V.; Vaughan, R.

    2015-12-01

    We present preliminary results of machine learning (ML) techniques modeling the combined effects of climate, management, and inherent potential on productivity of grazed semi-arid grasslands in southeastern Arizona. Our goal is to support public land managers determine if agency management policies are meeting objectives and where to focus attention. Monitoring in the field is becoming more and more limited in space and time. Remotely sensed data cover the entire allotments and go back in time, but do not consider the key issue of species composition. By estimating expected vegetative production as a function of site potential and climatic inputs, management skill can be assessed through time, across individual allotments, and between allotments. Here we present the use of Random Forest (RF) as the main ML technique, in this case for the purpose of regression. Our response variable is the maximum annual NDVI, a surrogate for grassland productivity, as generated by the Google Earth Engine cloud computing platform based on Landsat 5, 7, and 8 datasets. PRISM 33-year normal precipitation (1980-2013) was resampled to the Landsat scale. In addition, the GRIDMET climate dataset was the source for the calculation of the annual SPEI (Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index), a drought index. We also included information about landscape position, aspect, streams, ponds, roads and fire disturbances as part of the modeling process. Our results show that in terms of variable importance, the 33-year normal precipitation, along with SPEI, are the most important features affecting grasslands productivity within the study area. The RF approach was compared to a linear regression model with the same variables. The linear model resulted in an r2 = 0.41, whereas RF showed a significant improvement with an r2 = 0.79. We continue refining the model by comparison with aerial photography and to include grazing intensity and infrastructure from units/allotments to assess the

  12. Malaria situation in an endemic area, southeastern iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajjad Fekri

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is an endemic infectious disease in southeastern parts of Iran. Despite years of efforts and intervention programs against malaria, transmission still occurs in Jask County.The epidemiological perspective of malaria in Jask County was conducted by gathering data from Jask County health center, during 2006-2010. A knowledge, attitude and practice study was also carried out. Data analysis was conducted using SPSS ver. 11.5.A total of 2875 malaria cases were recorded, with highest and lowest numbers in 2007 and 2010, respectively. The number of cases had a decreasing trend from 1022 cases in 2006 to 114 cases in 2010. The main causative parasitic agent was Plasmodium vivax. Blood examination rate and slide positive rate were also decreased from 39.5% and 4.3% in 2006 to 15.6% and 1.4% in 2010, respectively. Most of people interviewed in the KAP study had a good knowledge about malaria transmission and symptoms but their use of the bed net for prevention was low (35%.Malaria incidence had significant reduction during the study years. The main reason for this may be due to changing environmental condition for Anopheline breeding and survival because of drought. Another reason may be integration of vector management by using long lasting insecticide treated bed nets, active case detection and treatment by implementation of mobile teams and increasing in financial sources of malaria control program. Knowledge, attitude and practice of people were good in malaria control and prevention, but needs to do more activities for health education and awareness.

  13. Validation of Satellite Derived Cloud Properties Over the Southeastern Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, J.; Minnis, P.; Zuidema, P.; Sun-Mack, S.; Palikonda, R.; Nguyen, L.; Fairall, C.

    2005-12-01

    Satellite measurements of cloud properties and the radiation budget are essential for understanding meso- and large-scale processes that determine the variability in climate over the southeastern Pacific. Of particular interest in this region is the prevalent stratocumulus cloud deck. The stratocumulus albedos are directly related to cloud microphysical properties that need to be accurately characterized in Global Climate Models (GCMs) to properly estimate the Earth's radiation budget. Meteorological observations in this region are sparse causing large uncertainties in initialized model fields. Remote sensing from satellites can provide a wealth of information about the clouds in this region, but it is vital to validate the remotely sensed parameters and to understand their relationship to other parameters that are not directly observed by the satellites. The variety of measurements from the R/V Roger Revelle during the 2003 STRATUS cruise and from the R/V Ron Brown during EPIC 2001 and the 2004 STRATUS cruises are suitable for validating and improving the interpretation of the satellite derived cloud properties. In this study, satellite-derived cloud properties including coverage, height, optical depth, and liquid water path are compared with in situ measurements taken during the EPIC and STRATUS cruises. The remotely sensed values are derived from Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) imager data, Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data from the Terra and Aqua satellites, and from the Visible and Infrared Scanner (VIRS) aboard the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite. The products from this study will include regional monthly cloud climatologies derived from the GOES data for the 2003 and 2004 cruises as well as micro and macro physical cloud property retrievals centered over the ship tracks from MODIS and VIRS.

  14. HIV Testing Trends: Southeastern Pennsylvania, 2002–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yehia, Baligh R.; Harhay, Michael O.; Fetzer, Bradley; Brady, Kathleen A.; Long, Judith A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract There are limited data on HIV testing trends after 2006 when the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) introduced opt-out HIV testing with the aims of identifying HIV-infected persons early and linking them to care. We used data from the Southeastern Pennsylvania Household Health Survey between 2002 and 2010 to evaluate HIV testing over time. 50,698 adult (≥18 years) survey respondents were included. HIV testing increased after the CDC recommendations: 42.1% of survey respondents received testing at least once in 2002 versus 51.4% in 2010, p<0.001. Testing trends increased among all demographic groups, but existing differences in testing before 2006 persisted after that year as follows: younger patients, racial/ethnic minorities, patients on Medicaid were all more likely to get tested than their counterparts. Blacks and patients seeking care in community health centers had the fastest rise in HIV testing. The probability of HIV testing in Blacks was 0.56 (95% CI 0.54–0.60) in 2002 and increased to 0.73 (0.70–0.76) by 2010. Patients seeking care in community health centers had a probability of HIV testing of 0.57 (0.47–0.66) in 2002, which increased to 0.69 (0.60–0.77) by 2010. In comparison, patients in private clinics had an HIV testing probability of 0.40 (0.36–0.43) in 2002 compared to 0.47 (0.40–0.54) in 2010. HIV testing is increasing, particularly among ethnic minorities and in community health centers. However, testing remains to be improved in that setting and across all clinic types. PMID:24742326

  15. The spatial distribution of forest damages in southeastern Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jokinen, J; Maekinen, E; Meinander, O; Haarala, S [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Up to the present time scientists researching the causes of the vast areas of forest damages observed in Europe and North America have presented many different hypotheses. Among the first explanations was the damaging effect of acid rain. Some researchers claimed that of all air pollutants ozone was the most important damaging agent. The stress theory emphasizes the interaction of nitrogen oxides and sulphur dioxide with oxidants, hydrocarbons and heavy metals to be the main cause of toxic effects. In addition to above-mentioned theories, projects carried out by the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) have revealed that under northern conditions coniferous forests have been damaged even in situations where the emissions consist of sulphur and nitrogen compounds occurring together. This theory postulates that the interaction of the above pollutants may be responsible by themselves for the effects on coniferous forests. The interaction is supposed to cause damages by two different mechanisms, namely, by causing direct toxic effects or through wintering failures. These mechanisms are indicated by the total nitrogen and sulphur concentration relationships of the needles. In the first case both sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides occur at such a high levels in the air that they cause direct damages, while in the second case sulphur dioxide concentration, in particular, is lower and both compounds can then be used as nutrients causing nutrient imbalance and a loss of wintering hardiness of the needles. The study area in these projects was southeastern Finland, which is one of the most polluted areas in our country. Domestic emissions from the paper and pulp industry, as well as the Russian emissions (e g. from the Leningrad region) affect this area. The aim of this study was to test the sulphur-nitrogen hypothesis using data collected from the Kymi province, S.E. Finland. (author)

  16. Quantitative morphotectonic analysis of the South-Eastern Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionuţ Cristea, Alexandru

    2015-04-01

    South-Eastern Carpathians (Vrancea Region) have received an increasing scientific attention during the past years, mostly resulting in a detailed reconstruction of their exumation history. Moreover structural and thermocronological data suggest that the frontal part of the SE Carpathians conserves the youngest topography in the Romanian Carpathians resulting from a deformational process occurring during the late Pliocene - Early Pleistocene. This significant tectonic activity continues to the present time as it is confirmed by the geodetic measurements and by the frequency of crustal earthquakes. The specific effects of the Quaternary deformations on the regional fluvial system were associated so far with an increased incision and the formation of the degradational (strath) terraces, downstream tiling of terraces, the establishment of local drainage divides and young longitudinal river profiles. Our study further investigates the possible influence of the recent tectonic activity on the characteristics of the drainage basins in the area and the distribution of the over-steepened stream reaches using spatial autocorrelation techniques (Getis Ord Gi* statistics and Anselin's Local Moran's I). For the first, hypsometric integrals (Hi) and transverse topographic symmetry factor were analyzed. For the last, we used locally computed normalized channel steepness index (ksn). Due to the highly variable lithology in the region (specific to the Flysch areas), additional correlations of the determined values with the geological units and rock types have been made in order to assess the effects. The results show that the geographic clustering of the high Hi and ksn values is more significant than the lithological one, and, although the rock strength have local influences, this is not sufficient to explain the regional distribution of the values, generally between 26.5o and 26.66o E (p

  17. Socio-economic benefits from protected areas in southeastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heagney, E C; Kovac, M; Fountain, J; Conner, N

    2015-12-01

    International case studies of protected area performance increasingly report that conservation and socio-economic outcomes are interdependent. Effective conservation requires support and cooperation from local governments and communities, which in turn requires that protected areas contribute to the economic well-being of the communities in which they are sited. Despite increasing recognition of their importance, robust studies that document the socio-economic impacts of protected areas are rare, especially in the developed world context. We proposed 3 potential pathways through which protected areas might benefit local communities in the developed world: the improved local housing value, local business stimulus, and increased local funding pathways. We examined these pathways by undertaking a statistical longitudinal analysis of 110 regional and rural communities covering an area of approximately 600,000 km(2) in southeastern Australia. We compared trends in 10 socio-economic indicators describing employment, income, housing, business development and local government revenue from 2000 to 2010. New protected areas acquisitions led to an increased number of new dwelling approvals and associated developer contributions, increased local business numbers, and increased local government revenue from user-pays services and grants. Longer-term effects of established protected areas included increased local council revenue from a variety of sources. Our findings provide support for each of our 3 proposed benefit pathways and contribute new insights into the cycling of benefits from protected areas through the economy over time. The business and legislative models in our study are typical of those operating in many other developed countries; thus, the benefit pathways reported in our study are likely to be generalizable. By identifying and communicating socio-economic benefits from terrestrial protected areas in a developed world context, our findings represent an important

  18. Three new cave-dwelling trechine ground beetles from eastern and southeastern Serbia (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Trechinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćurčić S.B.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Three new troglobitic trechine ground beetle species are described from three caves in eastern and southeastern Serbia: Duvalius (Paraduvalius bogovinae sp. n., from the Bogovinska Pećina Cave, village of Bogovina, Kučajske Planine Mts., near Boljevac, eastern Serbia; D. (P. milutini sp. n., from the Samar cave system, village of Kopajkošara, Mt. Kalafat, near Svrljig, southeastern Serbia, and D. (P. beljanicae sp. n., from the Velika Atula Cave, village of Strmosten, Mt. Beljanica, near Despotovac, eastern Serbia. The new species are easily distinguished from relatives. All important morphological features, along with the diagnoses and illustrations of the new taxa are presented. The new species are relicts and endemics of eastern and southeastern Serbia. They probably belong to old phyletic lineages of Tertiary or even pre-Tertiary origin. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173038

  19. Elevation Pattern in Growth Coherency on the Southeastern Tibetan Plateau.

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    Lixin Lyu

    Full Text Available It is generally expected that inter-annual changes in radial growth among trees would be similar to the increase in altitude due to the limitation of increasingly harsher climatic factors. Here, we examine whether this pattern exists in alpine forests on the southeastern Tibetan Plateau. Increment cores were collected from mature trees at the lower, middle and upper limits of balfour spruce (Picea likiangensis var. balfouriana (Rehd. et Wils. Hillier ex Slsvin forests at the Buze and Yela Mountains in Basu County, Changdu Prefecture of Tibet, China. The treeline elevations are 4320 m and 4510 m a.s.l. for Buze and Yela, respectively. Tree-ring widths were measured, crossdated, and detrended to obtain a sequence of ring-width indices for each individual sample. Annual growth rate, climate sensitivity, growth-climate relationships, and growth synchrony among trees were calculated and compared across altitudes. In Buze Mountain, the annual growth rate of trees has no significant difference across altitudes. The mean sensitivity of trees is lower at the treelines than at lower elevations. Tree growth has stronger correlation with winter temperature at upper elevations than at lower elevations, has significant correlation with moisture, not temperature, in the growing season, and the growth response to moisture is lower at the treeline than at lower elevations. The correlation among individual tree-ring sequences is lower at the treeline than at sites at lower elevation. In Yela Mountain, the characterisitics of annual growth rate, mean sensitivity, tree growth-climate relationships, and inter-serial correlation are similar to those in Buze, but their differences along altitudinal gradients are less significant as those in Buze. Our data do not support the general expectation of growth convergence among individuals with increasing altitude. We conclude that individual heterogeneity and microhabitat diversity are important features for treeline trees

  20. Elevation Pattern in Growth Coherency on the Southeastern Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Lixin; Deng, Xu; Zhang, Qi-Bin

    It is generally expected that inter-annual changes in radial growth among trees would be similar to the increase in altitude due to the limitation of increasingly harsher climatic factors. Here, we examine whether this pattern exists in alpine forests on the southeastern Tibetan Plateau. Increment cores were collected from mature trees at the lower, middle and upper limits of balfour spruce (Picea likiangensis var. balfouriana (Rehd. et Wils.) Hillier ex Slsvin) forests at the Buze and Yela Mountains in Basu County, Changdu Prefecture of Tibet, China. The treeline elevations are 4320 m and 4510 m a.s.l. for Buze and Yela, respectively. Tree-ring widths were measured, crossdated, and detrended to obtain a sequence of ring-width indices for each individual sample. Annual growth rate, climate sensitivity, growth-climate relationships, and growth synchrony among trees were calculated and compared across altitudes. In Buze Mountain, the annual growth rate of trees has no significant difference across altitudes. The mean sensitivity of trees is lower at the treelines than at lower elevations. Tree growth has stronger correlation with winter temperature at upper elevations than at lower elevations, has significant correlation with moisture, not temperature, in the growing season, and the growth response to moisture is lower at the treeline than at lower elevations. The correlation among individual tree-ring sequences is lower at the treeline than at sites at lower elevation. In Yela Mountain, the characterisitics of annual growth rate, mean sensitivity, tree growth-climate relationships, and inter-serial correlation are similar to those in Buze, but their differences along altitudinal gradients are less significant as those in Buze. Our data do not support the general expectation of growth convergence among individuals with increasing altitude. We conclude that individual heterogeneity and microhabitat diversity are important features for treeline trees that may dampen

  1. Epidemiology of stroke in a rural community in Southeastern Nigeria

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    Enwereji KO

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Kelechi O Enwereji,1 Maduaburochukwu C Nwosu,1 Adesola Ogunniyi,2 Paul O Nwani,1 Azuoma L Asomugha,1 Ezinna E Enwereji3 1Neurology Unit, Department of Medicine, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, Anambra State, Nigeria; 2Neurology Unit, Department of Medicine, University College Hospital Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria; 3Department of Community Medicine/Nursing Sciences, College of Medicine, Abia State University, Uturu, Abia State, Nigeria Background: The prevalence and incidence of stroke vary from community to community worldwide. Nonetheless, not much is known about the current epidemiology of stroke in rural Nigeria and indeed Africa. Methods: We carried out a two-phase door-to-door survey in a rural, predominantly low-income, community in Anambra, Southeastern Nigeria. We used a modified World Health Organization (WHO protocol for detecting neurological diseases in the first phase, and a stroke-specific questionnaire and neurological examination in the second phase. An equal number of sex- and age-matched stroke-negative subjects were examined. Results: We identified ten stroke subjects in the study. The crude prevalence of stroke in rural Nigeria was 1.63 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.78–3.00 per 1,000 population. The crude prevalence of stroke in males was 1.99 (95% CI 0.73–4.33 per 1,000, while that for females was 1.28 (95% CI 0.35–3.28 per 1,000 population. The peak age-specific prevalence of stroke was 12.08 (95% CI 3.92–28.19 per 1,000, while after adjustment to WHO world population, the peak was 1.0 (95% CI 0.33–2.33 per 1,000. Conclusion: The prevalence of stroke was found to be higher than previously documented in rural Nigeria, with a slightly higher prevalence in males than females. This is, however, comparable to data from rural Africa. Keywords: Africa, developing country, prevalence

  2. Early irrigation systems in southeastern Arizona: the ostracode perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios-Fest, Manuel R.; Mabry, Jonathan B.; Nials, Fred; Holmlund, James P.; Miksa, Elizabeth; Davis, Owen K.

    2001-10-01

    For the first time, the Early Agricultural Period (1200 BC-150 AD) canal irrigation in the Santa Cruz River Valley, southeastern Arizona, is documented through ostracode paleoecology. Interpretations based on ostracode paleoecology and taphonomy are supported by anthropological, sedimentological, geomorphological, and palynological information, and were used to determine the environmental history of the northern Tucson Basin during the time span represented by the sequence of canals at Las Capas (site AZ AA:12:753 ASM). We also attempt to elucidate based on archaeological artifacts if the Hohokam or a previous civilization built the canals. Between 3000 and 2400 radiocarbon years BP, at least three episodes of canal operation are defined by ostracode assemblages and pollen records. Modern (mid-late 20th century) canals supported no ostracodes, probably because of temporally brief canal operation from local wells. Three stages of water management are well defined during prehistoric canal operation. Ostracode faunal associations indicate that prehistoric peoples first operated their irrigation systems in a simple, 'opportunistic' mode (diversion of ephemeral flows following storms), and later in a complex, 'functional' mode (carefully timed diversions of perennial flows). The geomorphological reconstruction indicates that these canals had a minimum length of 1.1 km, and were possibly twice as long. The hydraulic reconstruction of these canals suggests that they had similar gradients (0.05-0.1%) to later prehistoric canals in the same valley. Discharges were also respectable. When flowing at bank-full, the largest canal provided an acre-foot of water in about 2.3 h; when flowing half-full (probably a more realistic assumption), it produced an acre-foot of water in about 8.6 h. Palynological records of the oldest canals (here identified as Features 3 and 4; 3000-2500 years BP) indicate they were used temporarily, since riparian vegetation did not grow consistently in

  3. The Governance of Energy Poverty in Southeastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouzarovski, Stefan; Sarlamanov, Robert; Petrova, Saska

    2011-03-01

    This report presents the outcomes of a recently-completed research project aimed at uncovering the different ways in which energy poverty - understood as a condition wherein the domestic energy services available to a household are below socially and materially-necessitated levels - is produced by, and mitigated through, the interaction of relevant decision-making institutions in the energy, social welfare, health and housing domains. The project focused on conditions in Southeastern Europe, where energy prices have been recently on the rise despite falling incomes and poor access to efficient and adequate energy services. We explored the legal frameworks and governance practices that underpin energy poverty-related policies the Republic of Macedonia and Bulgaria: two neighboring countries at different development stages in terms of the state's regulatory capacity to support households vulnerable to energy deprivation. Data was gathered and analyzed with the aid of interviews with decision-makers, as well as a review of written legal and policy documents. The broad-level patterns of energy poverty in both countries were established with the aid of analyses of published statistical data, and findings from the secondary literature. The findings of the study revealed that both states have moved from a reactive policy regime - entailing a slow process of energy liberalization and privatization due to social welfare concerns, gradual energy price increases, and the inadequate development of targeted social welfare programs - towards a more proactive approach, which has involved the strengthening and expansion of social safety nets, accompanied by the introduction of comprehensive measures such as block tariffs and direct earmarked support. Even though the shift from one regime to the other has taken place at a much faster and stronger pace in Bulgaria, both states still lack targeted residential energy efficiency programs for vulnerable households, and the flow of

  4. Diagnosis of Pentatrichomonas hominis from domestic cats in Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline S. dos Santos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. dos Santos C.S., McIntosh D., Berto B.P., de Jesus V.L.T., da Rocha C.N.C., Fernandes J.I., Scott F.B. & Lopes C.W.G. Diagnosis of Pentatrichomonas hominis from domestic cats in Southeastern Brazil. [Diagnóstico de Pentatrichomonas hominis em gatos no sudeste do Brasil.] Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 37(Supl.1:25-31, 2015. Curso de Pós-Graduação em Ci- ências Veterinárias, Anexo 1, Instituto de Veterinária, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, BR-465 Km 7, Campus Seropédica, RJ 23897-970, Brasil. E-mail: carolinespitz@yahoo.com.br The parabasalid flagellate Tritrichomonas foetus is recognized as the causative agent of large bowel diarrhea in domestic cats. A second species of parabasalid flagellate Pentatrichomonas hominis, has also been reported in association with domestic cats, albeit almost exclusively as a commensal organism. However, there is growing evidence to suggest that P. hominis may also be involved in feline gastro-intestinal disorders including diarrhea and that the incidence of infection with P. hominis may have been underestimated due to it being misidentified as T. foetus. The aim of the current study was to establish the basis for routine morphological identification of P. hominis employing light microscopy and to apply the methodology to the examination of cases of diarrhea in a laboratory population of Brazilian domestic cats (n =39. A detailed morphological description of P. hominis isolated from 11 cats with diarrhea was produced and molecular analyses were performed in support of the morphological data and to demonstrate the absence of T. foetus in infected cats. All animals with diarrhea were demonstrated to be infected solely with P. hominis. The findings of the current study provide a straight forward and validated method for the differential diagnosis of P. hominis and contribute to the on-going debate surrounding the pathogenic potential of this parabasalid flagellate.

  5. Gastrointestinal parasites of maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus, Illiger 1815) in a suburban area in southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massara, R L; Paschoal, A M O; Chiarello, A G

    2015-08-01

    We examined 42 maned wolf scats in an unprotected and disturbed area of Cerrado in southeastern Brazil. We identified six helminth endoparasite taxa, being Phylum Acantocephala and Family Trichuridae the most prevalent. The high prevalence of the Family Ancylostomatidae indicates a possible transmission via domestic dogs, which are abundant in the study area. Nevertheless, our results indicate that the endoparasite species found are not different from those observed in protected or least disturbed areas, suggesting a high resilience of maned wolf and their parasites to human impacts, or a common scenario of disease transmission from domestic dogs to wild canid whether in protected or unprotected areas of southeastern Brazil.

  6. Winklerites serbicus, a new endogean species of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Bembidiini from southeastern Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćurčić S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A new endogean bembidiine ground beetle species, Winklerites serbicus sp. n., from a cave in the southeastern part of Serbia is both described and diagnosed. Male and female genital structures and other taxonomically important characters are illustrated. The new species is clearly distinct from its closest congeners. Fifteen species of the genus so far known are arranged in six groups. The new species is both endemic and relict, inhabiting southeastern Serbia only. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173038 i br. 47007

  7. Hydrology of the Upper Malad River basin, southeastern Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluhowski, Edward J.

    1970-01-01

    The report area comprises 485 square miles in the Basin and Range physiographic province. It includes most of eastern' Oneida County and parts of Franklin, Bannock, and Power Counties of southeastern Idaho. Relief is about 5,000 feet; the floor of the Malad Valley is at an average altitude of about 4,400 feet. Agriculture is, by far, ,the principal economic .activity. In 1960 the population of the upper Malad River basin was about 3,600, of which about 60 percent resided in Malad City, the county seat of Oneida County. The climate is semiarid throughout the Malad Valley and its principal tributary valleys; ,above 6,500 feet the climate is subhumid. Annual precipitation ranges from about 13 inches in the lower Malad Valley to more than 30 inches on the highest peaks of the Bannock and Malad ranges. Owing to ,the normally clear atmospheric conditions, large daily and seasonal temperature fluctuations are common. Topography, distance from the Pacific Ocean, .and the general atmospheric circulation are the principal factors governing the climate of the Malad River basin. The westerlies transport moisture from the P.acific Ocean toward southeastern Idaho. The north-south tren4ing mountains flanking the basin are oriented orthogonally to the moisture flux so that they are very effective in removing precipitable water from the air. A minimum uplift of 6,000 feet is required to transport moisture from the Pacific source region; accordingly, most air masses are desiccated long before they reach the Malad basin. Heaviest precipitation is generally associated with steep pressure gradients in the midtroposphere that are so oriented as to cause a deep landward penetration of moisture from the Pacific Ocean. Annual water yields in the project area range from about 0.8 inch in the, lower Malad Valley to more than 19 inches on the high peaks north and east of Malad City. The mean annual water yield for the entire basin is 4 inches, or about 115,000 acre-feet. Evaporation is

  8. Wildlife habitats in managed rangelands—the Great Basin of southeastern Oregon: introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris Maser; Jack Ward. Thomas

    1983-01-01

    The need for a way by which rangeland managers can account for wildlife in land-use planning, in on-the-ground management actions, and in preparation of environmental impact statements is discussed. Principles of range-land-wildlife interactions and management are described along with management systems. The Great Basin of southeastern Oregon was selected as a well-...

  9. Crop response to biochar under differing irrigation levels in the southeastern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Application of biochar to soils is hypothesized to increase crop yield. Crop productivity impacts of biochar application in Southeastern cropping systems consisting of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.), corn (Zea mays L.), and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) produced under varying rates of irrigation have...

  10. Pervasive hydrologic effects on freshwater mussels and riparian trees in southeastern floodplain ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew L. Rypel; Wendell R. Haag; Robert H. Findlay

    2009-01-01

    We present long-term growth trends for 13 freshwater mussel species from two unregulated rivers and one regulated river in the southeastern U.S. Coastal Plain. We also collected baldcypress (Taxodium distichum (L.) Rich.) tree cores adjacent to mussel collection sites in one river and directly compared tree and mussel chronologies in this river. To extend our analysis...

  11. The south-eastern North Sea : losses of vertebrate fauna during the past 2000 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolff, W.J.

    At least 31 species of marine mammals, marine and coastal birds, and marine and anadromous fish have disappeared temporarily or permanently from the coasts of The Netherlands and in most cases also from the south-eastern North Sea (south of 54 degrees N) during the past 2000 years-In 18-22 cases,

  12. Three-year progression of emerald ash borer-induced decline and mortality in southeastern Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal J.K. Gandhi; Annemarie Smith; Robert P. Long; Robin A.J. Taylor; Daniel A. Herms

    2008-01-01

    We monitored the progression of ash (Fraxinus spp.) decline and mortality due to emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, in 38 forest stands in the upper Huron River watershed region of southeastern Michigan from 2004-2007. Black ash (F. nigra), green ash (F. pennsylvanica), and white ash...

  13. How Productive Are Southeastern Wisconsin Schools? Regional Report. Volume 3, Number 10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Jeffrey K.; Lemke, Melissa

    2006-01-01

    Public schools can be considered a form of workforce development, and thus it is important to measure the "work product" of the schools. The Public Policy Forum's annual analysis of public schools in the 50 districts serving southeastern Wisconsin measured absenteeism as educational opportunities lost because children were not in class.…

  14. Superintendents' Perceptions of the School Improvement Planning Process in the Southeastern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunaway, David M.; Bird, James J.; Wang, Chuang; Hancock, Dawson

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study of school improvement planning in the southeastern USA was to establish the current view of the process through the eyes of the district superintendents. The answers to the questions were consistently mixed. Generally, the presence of school improvement planning is prevalent in the large majority of districts. However,…

  15. Public Entrepreneurs and the Adoption of Broad-Based Merit Aid beyond the Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingle, William Kyle; Petroff, Ruth Ann

    2013-01-01

    The concentration of broad-based merit aid adoption in the southeastern United States has been well noted in the literature. However, there are states that have adopted broad-based merit aid programs outside of the Southeast. Guided by multiple theoretical frameworks, including innovation diffusion theory (e.g., Gray, 1973, 1994; Rogers, 2003),…

  16. Ecological correlates of flying squirrel microhabitat use and density in temperate rainforests of southeastern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston P. Smith; Scott M. Gende; Jeffrey V. Nichols

    2004-01-01

    We studied habitat relations of the Prince of Wales flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus griseifrons), an endemic of the temperate, coniferous rainforest of southeastern Alaska, because of concerns over population viability from extensive clear-cut logging in the region. We used stepwise logistic regression to examine relationships between...

  17. Evolution in the Southeastern USA: Factors Influencing Acceptance and Rejection in Pre-Service Science Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaze, Amanda L.; Goldston, M. Jenice; Dantzler, John

    2015-01-01

    Evolution continues to be a controversial topic around the world but nowhere is this more apparent locally than in the Southeastern region of the USA. In this study, we explored acceptance and rejection of evolution among pre-service science teachers in a teaching college in the rural Southeast and sought to determine (1) what relationships exist…

  18. Authigenic gypsum in a deep sea core from Southeastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Guptha, M.V.S.

    Authigenic gypsum has been encountered in a deep sea core RC9-157 from the southeastern Arabian Sea at a depth of 4111 m which is a zone of lysocline. The formation of gypsum in the deep sea region is attributed to the prevailing sulphate rich...

  19. Multibeam bathymetry and CTD measurements in two fjord systems in southeastern Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Kristian Kjellerup; Weinrebe, Reimer Wilhelm; Bendtsen, Jørgen

    2017-01-01

    We present bathymetry and hydrological observations collected in the summer of 2014 from two fjordsystems in southeastern Greenland with a multibeam sonar system. Our results provide a detailed bathymetricmap of the fjord complex around the island of Skjoldungen in Skjoldungen Fjord and the outer...

  20. Dental Faculty Perceptions of Workplace Environment and Job Satisfaction at a Southeastern University, College of Dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Sharon L.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to replicate the American Dental Education Association 2007 Dental Faculty Perceptions of Workplace Environment survey at A Southeastern University, College of Dentistry. The study examined dental faculty perceptions of academic workplace variables including culture and environment, as well as professional development…

  1. The ‘Mycenaeans’ in the south-eastern Aegean revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eerbeek, J.

    2014-01-01

    The main subject of this dissertation is the Mycenaean archaeological evidence from the south-eastern Aegean. The term "Mycenaean" is typically used to refer to the dominant archaeological culture of the central and southern Greek mainland during the Late Bronze Age, which is dated between about

  2. A remarkable new species of winter stonefly (Plecoptera: Capniidae) from Southeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yu-Zhou; Chen, Zhi-Teng

    2016-09-22

    A new species of the genus Capnia s.l., C. zijinshana Du & Chen, sp. nov. is described and illustrated from Jiangsu Province, of southeastern China. The new species is distinguished from other known Chinese capniid species by the unique thoracic sclerites and genitalic characters.

  3. Diverse characteristics of wetlands restored under the Wetlands Reserve Program in the Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diane De Steven; Joel M. Gramling

    2012-01-01

    The Wetlands Reserve Program (WRP) restores converted or degraded wetlands on private working lands; however, the nature and outcomes of such efforts are undocumented in the Southeastern U.S. Identification of wetland types is needed to assess the program's conservation benefits, because ecological functions differ with hydrogeomorphic (HGM) type. We reviewed...

  4. Pre-monsoon living planktonic foraminifera from the Southeastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Guptha, M.V.S.; Naidu, P.D.; Muralinath, A.S.

    LOGICAL SoCIETY OF INDIA Vol. 36, Dec. 1990, pp. 654 to 660 Pre-Monsoon Living Planktonic Foraminifera from the Southeastern Arabian Sea M. V. S. GUPTHA.. P. DIVAKAR NAlDU AND A. S. MURALINATH Nalional Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa 403004...

  5. Seasonal dynamics of ectomycorrhizal fungus assemblages on oak seedlings in the southeastern Appalachian Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    John F. Walker; Orson K. Jr. Miller; Jonathan L. Horton

    2008-01-01

    The potential for seasonal dynamics in ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungal assemblages has important implications for the ecology of both the host trees and the fungal associates. We compared EM fungus distributions on root systems of out-planted oak seedlings at two sites in mixed southeastern Appalachian Mountain forests at the Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory in North Carolina...

  6. Food and vices in south-eastern Nigeria: implications for poverty ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objectives include among others an examination of the nature of poverty in South-Eastern Nigeria; an investigation to ascertain whether or not, poverty results in hunger, etc. The following were the findings: Hunger seems to have ravaged our society. This is because majority of our people are poor and are unable to ...

  7. Life Satisfaction and Happiness Among the Roma in Central and Southeastern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamberi, Ermira; Martinovic, Borja; Verkuijten, Maykel

    2015-01-01

    This study examines general life satisfaction and happiness as two indicators of subjective well-being among Roma and non-Roma populations in Central and Southeastern Europe. Using a sample of 11,997 participants (Roma N = 8,399, non-Roma N = 3,598) from the Regional Roma Survey in 2011 we test a

  8. The Household Costs of Visceral Leishmaniasis Care in South-eastern Nepal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uranw, S.; Meheus, F.; Baltussen, R.M.; Rijal, S.; Boelaert, M.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an important public health problem in south-eastern Nepal affecting very poor rural communities. Since 2005, Nepal is involved in a regional initiative to eliminate VL. This study assessed the economic impact of VL on households and examined

  9. Impacts of multiple stresses on water demand and supply across the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge Sun; Steven G. McNulty; Jennifer A. Moore Myers; Erika C. Cohen

    2008-01-01

    Assessment of long-term impacts of projected changes in climate, population, and land use and land cover on regional water resource is critical to the sustainable development of the southeastern United States. The objective of this study was to fully budget annual water availability for water supply (precipitation ) evapotranspiration + groundwater supply + return flow...

  10. Implications of groundwater hydrology to buffer design in the southeastern U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge Sun; James M. Vose; Devendra M. Amatya; Carl Trettin; Steven G. McNulty

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the hydrologic processes of shallow groundwater to better define and design forest riparian management zones in headwater streams of two contrasting terrains in the southeastern U.S. We employed two long-term experimental watersheds, WS80 (206 ha) and WS77 (151 ha) at the Santee Experimental Forests in South Carolina, and WS2...

  11. Synergistic effects of drought and deforestation on the resilience of the south-eastern Amazon rainforest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staal, A.; Dekkers, S.; Hirota Magalhaes, M.; Nes, van E.H.

    2015-01-01

    The south-eastern Amazon rainforest is subject to ongoing deforestation and is expected to become drier due to climate change. Recent analyses of the distribution of tree cover in the tropics show three modes that have been interpreted as representing alternative stable states: forest, savanna and

  12. The quest for methods to identify longleaf pine stump relicts in Southeastern Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas L. Eberhardt; Philip M. Sheridan; Chi-Leung So; Arvind A.R. Bhuta; Karen G. Reed

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of lightwood and turpentine stumps in southeastern Virginia raised questions about the true historical range for longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.). Several investigative studies were therefore carried out to develop a method to determine the taxa of these relicts. Chemical approaches included the use of near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy coupled with...

  13. 76 FR 65360 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Southeastern States; Suspension of Marketing Order Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-21

    ... operate without marketing order requirements in order to review the effectiveness of the order. During the... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 953 [Doc. No. AMS-FV-11-0027; FV11-953-1 FR] Irish Potatoes Grown in Southeastern States; Suspension of Marketing Order Provisions...

  14. A hotspot of large branchiopod diversity in south-eastern Zimbabwe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Large branchiopods are considered threatened across much of their global range. However, because several regions, including Zimbabwe in general and its south-eastern lowveld in particular, remain largely unstudied, interpretations of species distribution patterns are often based on limited data. A detailed study of large ...

  15. Quality of life and sex-differences in a South-Eastern Nigerian stroke ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study set out to provide preliminary data on the QOL of stroke survivors in South-Eastern Nigeria and also investigate sex-differences in the QOL. Methods One hundred and three volunteering stroke survivors (53 males, 50 females) were recruited from various settings. The Stroke-Specific Quality of Life (SS-QOL) scale ...

  16. Fuel consumption models for pine flatwoods fuel types in the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinton S. Wright

    2013-01-01

    Modeling fire effects, including terrestrial and atmospheric carbon fluxes and pollutant emissions during wildland fires, requires accurate predictions of fuel consumption. Empirical models were developed for predicting fuel consumption from fuel and environmental measurements on a series of operational prescribed fires in pine flatwoods ecosystems in the southeastern...

  17. Physical fertility of degraded acid sands in South-eastern Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We evaluated the physical fertility of degraded and undegraded acid sands in Akwa Ibom State, South-eastern Nigeria. The soils were similar in texture, being predominantly sandy, averaging 90.1% in degraded and 89.9% in undegraded soil. Bulk density averaged 1.50g/cm3 and 1.45g/cm3, while macropores averaged ...

  18. Scab severity in relation to hedge pruning pecan trees in the Southeastern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scab is the most damaging disease of pecan in the Southeastern USA. Pecan trees are tall (up to 30+ m), and managing disease in the upper canopy is problematic. Hedge pruning trees to ~12 m is being explored to facilitate efficacy of ground-based fungicide sprays, but resulting vigorous shoot growth...

  19. Examining Literature on Hispanic Student Achievement in the Southeastern United States and North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Michele A.; Segovia, Edelmira; Tap, Bethany

    2016-01-01

    We surveyed literature on factors that may influence Hispanic students academically including generational status, gender roles, and use of language in the Southeastern United States and North Carolina. We discuss how risk factors can be addressed (e.g., increasing awareness of risk factors, tutoring, mentoring, and after-school programs). We…

  20. Trends in municipal-well installations and aquifer utilization in southeastern Minnesota, 1880-1980

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, D.G.

    1985-01-01

    Water distributed by municipal systems has been the largest off-stream use of water in southeastern Minnesota for the past 100 years. Water pumped by these systems in 1980 totaled 102.3 billion gallons, with 60.1 billion gallons supplied by ground water. Ground water supplies 294 of the 309 municipal systems in the area.

  1. Survey to evaluate escape of Eucalyptus spp. seedlings from plantations in southeastern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac A. Callaham; John A. Stanturf; William J. Hammond; Donald L. Rockwood; Evelyn S. Wenk; Joseph J. O’Brien

    2013-01-01

    Interest in biomass-based energy in the southeastern Unites States has led to increased need for fast-growing tree species. Several Eucalyptus species exhibit characteristics that make them attractive in the bioenergy context. However, some of these also possess traits that suggest they could become invasive. To make a preliminary assessment of the...

  2. Atrazine fate and transport within the coastal zone in southeastern Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbicide transport from crop-land to coastal waters may adversely impact water quality. This work examined potential atrazine impact from use on a farm field adjacent to the Jobos Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve on Puerto Rico’s southeastern coast. Atrazine application was linked to residu...

  3. Annosus Root Disease Hazard Rating, Detection, and Management Strategies in the Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. A. Alexander

    1989-01-01

    Annosus root disease (ARD), is the major root disease of pines in the southeastern United States where severely affected trees exhibit growth loss. Assessing the potential damage of ARD is essential for making effective disease control and management decisions. A soil hazard rating system developed to identify potential for tree mortality is described. The Annosus...

  4. Hydrologic and nutrient response of groundwater to flooding of cranberry farms in southeastern Massachusetts, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seasonal flooding of cranberry farms is essential for long-term sustainability of cranberry production in southeastern Massachusetts, with roughly 90% of growers flooding for fall harvesting and winter protection. Although considered a significant source of recharge to the regional unconfined aquif...

  5. Web Conference vs Webcast: The Perceived Effectiveness of Training Sessions at a Southeastern Community College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jenny Bailey

    2017-01-01

    Professional development is a lifelong learning process and technology has provided and will continue to provide new and different delivery methods. Regardless of the delivery method, the intention of professional development is to increase teacher knowledge, which in turn, increases student achievement. At a southeastern community college,…

  6. Conceptual framework for improved wind-related forest threat assessment in the Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott L. Goodrick; John A. Stanturf

    2010-01-01

    In the Southeastern United States, forests are subject to a variety of damage-causing wind phenomena that range in scale from very localized (downbursts and tornadoes) to broad spatial scales (hurricanes). Incorporating the threat of wind damage into forest management plans requires tools capable of assessing risk across this range of scales. Our conceptual approach...

  7. Hydrology, geomorphology, and vegetation of Coastal Plain rivers in the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliff R. Hupp

    2000-01-01

    Rivers of the Coastal Plain of the southeastern United States are characteristically low-gradient meandering systems that develop broad floodplains subjected to frequent and prolonged flooding. These floodplains support a relatively unique forested wetland (Bottomland Hardwoods), which have received considerable ecological study, but distinctly less hydrogeomorphic...

  8. Molecular phylogenetics and systematic revision of the south-eastern Australian Helicarionidae (Gastropoda, Stylommatophora)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hyman, I.T.; Iglesia Lamborena, de la I.; Köhler, F.

    2017-01-01

    The south-eastern Australian helicarionid clade currently comprises six genera of snails and semislugs united by genital characters, including an epiphallic flagellum that produces a spiraling, spinose spermatophore, the absence of an epiphallic caecum, and the presence of at most a very short

  9. Simulated soil organic carbon response to tillage, yield, and climate change in the southeastern Coastal Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intensive tillage, low-residue crops, and a warm, humid climate have contributed to soil organic carbon (SOC) loss in the southeastern Coastal Plains region. Conservation (CnT) tillage and winter cover cropping are current management practices to rebuild SOC; however, there is sparse long-term field...

  10. Life-cycle inventory of manufacturing hardwood lumber in Southeastern US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard D. Bergman; Scott A. Bowe

    2012-01-01

    Environmental impacts associated with the building industry have become of increasing importance. Materials and energy consumed during manufacture of building materials such as lumber affect a building’s environmental performance. This study determined environmental impacts of manufacturing hardwood lumber in the southeastern US using the life-cycle inventory method....

  11. Bat Response To Carolina Bays and Wetland Restoration in the Southeastern U.S. Coastal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer M. Menzel; Michael A. Menzel; John C. Kilgo; W. Mark Ford; John W. Edwards

    2005-01-01

    Bat activity in the southeastern United States is concentrated over riparian areas and wetland habitats. The restoration and creation of wetlands for mitigation purposes is becoming common in the Southeast. Understanding the effects of these restoration efforts on wetland flora and fauna is thus becoming increasingly important. Because bats (Order: Chiroptera) consist...

  12. Potential biological control agents for management of cogongrass (Cyperales: Poaceae) in the southeastern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogongrass, Imperata cylindrica (L.) Palisot de Beauvois (Cyperales: Poaceae), is a noxious invasive weed in the southeastern USA. Surveys for potential biological control agents of cogongrass were conducted in Asia and East Africa from 2013 to 2016. Several insect herbivores were found that may hav...

  13. The Lack of a Long-Term Growth Effect of Annosus Control in Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. H. Tainter; J. G. Williams; N. J. Hess; S. W. Oak; D. A. Starkey

    1989-01-01

    An evaluation of basal area increment was made in 1988 of six pine plantations located across the southeastern United States. These plantations had been thinned in 1969-1970 and stumps treated with borax to measure long-term efficacy of annosus root rot control. In the present study, no long-term growth effects were identified. There were neither negative growth...

  14. Structure of the crust beneath the Southeastern Tibetan Plateau from Teleseismic Receiver Functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, Lili; Rondenay, S.; Hilst, R.D. van der

    Southeastern Tibet marks the site of presumed clockwise rotation of the crust due to the India-Eurasian collision and abutment against the stable Sichuan basin and South China block. Knowing the structure of the crust is a key to better understanding crustal deformation and seismicity in this

  15. Fungicide rotation schemes for managing Phytophthora fruit rot of watermelon across southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southeastern states produce about 50% of the watermelons in the United States (U.S.) where conditions are optimal for development of Phytophthora fruit rot prevail. Phytophthora fruit rot significantly limits watermelon production by causing serious yield losses to growers before and after harvest. ...

  16. Status of fusiform rust incidence in slash and loblolly pine plantations in the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    KaDonna C. Randolph

    2016-01-01

    Southern pine tree improvement programs have been in operation in the southeastern United States since the 1950s. Their goal has been to improve volume growth, tree form, disease resistance, and wood quality in southern pines, particularly slash pine (Pinus elliottii) and loblolly pine (P. taeda). The disease of focus has been...

  17. Long-term changes in fusiform rust incidence in the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    KaDonna C. Randolph; Ellis B. Cowling; Dale A. Starkey

    2015-01-01

    Fusiform rust is the most devastating disease of slash pine (Pinus elliottii) and loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) in the southeastern United States. Since the 1970s, the USDA Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program has assessed fusiform rust incidence on its network of ground plots in 13 states across the...

  18. Epidemiological studies on postpartum thyroid dysfunction and thyroid cancer in Southeastern Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.L.P. Kuijpens (Hans)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractThe studies described in this thesis concentrate OIl epidemiological and pathogenetic aspects of postpartum thyroid dysfunction (PPTD) and related topics, and on epidemiological and treatment aspects of thyroid cancer. The studies were petfonned in the southeastern part of the

  19. 76 FR 7119 - Grapes Grown in Designated Area of Southeastern California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-09

    ... Southeastern California; Increased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION... Regulatory Flexibility Act (RFA) (5 U.S.C. 601-612), the Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) has considered... Marketing Service. [FR Doc. 2011-2875 Filed 2-8-11; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 3410-02-P ...

  20. Toward an Understanding of People Management Issues in SMEs: a South-Eastern European Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szamosi, Leslie T.; Duxbury, Linda; Higgins, Chris

    2004-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on developing an understanding, and benchmarking, human resource management HRM issues in small and medium enterprises SMEs in South-Eastern Europe. The importance of SMEs in helping transition-based economies develop is critical, but at the same time the research indicates that the movement toward westernized business…

  1. Modeling the impacts of wood pellet demand on forest dynamics in southeastern United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duden, Anna S.; Verweij, Pita A.; Junginger, H. Martin; Abt, Robert C.; Henderson, Jesse D.; Dale, Virginia H.; Kline, Keith L.; Karssenberg, Derek; Verstegen, Judith A.; Faaij, André P.C.; van der Hilst, Floor

    2017-01-01

    The export of wood pellets from the southeastern United States (USA) has grown significantly in recent years, following rising demand from Europe. Increased wood pellet demand could lead to spatially variable changes in timberland management and area in the USA. This study presents an assessment of

  2. Relationship between crown dieback and drought in the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael K. Crosby; Zhaofei Fan; Martin A. Spetich; Theodor D. Leininger; Xingang. Fan

    2012-01-01

    Forest Health and Monitoring (FHM) and Palmer's Drought Severity Index (PDSI) data were obtained for 11 states in the southeastern United States to assess the relationship between drought and crown dieback. Correlation analyses were performed at the species group and ecoregion levels within the study area. The results indicate a negative correlation between...

  3. PROCSEE: Policy Challenges for Professional Higher Education in Central and South-Eastern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Policnik, Jasmina; Sauli Miklavcic, Alicia Leonor; Alupei-Durach, Flavia; Nožica, Žarko; Chrást, Ondrej; Voldánová, Iva; Karpíšek, Michal; Dinya, László; Medve, Anna; Wéber, György; Racsko, Réka; Perényi, Petra; Camilleri, Anthony F.

    2016-01-01

    PROCSEE is a policy-oriented project, aimed at strengthening the provision of professional higher education, by strengthening the policy-work conducted by umbrella organizations representing professional higher education institutions in Central and South-Eastern in Europe. Working together over three years, the project intends to: (1) identify the…

  4. Hydrology of the middle San Pedro area, southeastern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordova, Jeffrey T.; Dickinson, Jesse; Beisner, Kimberly R.; Hopkins, Candice B.; Kennedy, Jeffrey R.; Pool, Donald R.; Glenn, Edward P.; Nagler, Pamela L.; Thomas, Blakemore E.

    2015-05-05

    In the middle San Pedro Watershed in southeastern Arizona, groundwater is the primary source of water supply for municipal, domestic, industrial, and agricultural use. The watershed comprises two smaller subareas, the Benson subarea and the Narrows-Redington subarea. Early 21st century projections for heavy population growth in the watershed have not yet become a reality, but increased groundwater withdrawals could have undesired consequences - such as decreased base flow to the San Pedro River, and groundwater-level declines - that would lead to the need to deepen existing wells. This report describes the hydrology, hydrochemistry, water quality, and development of a groundwater budget for the middle San Pedro Watershed, focusing primarily on the elements of groundwater movement that could be most useful for the development of a groundwater modelPrecipitation data from Tombstone, Arizona, and base flow at the stream-gaging station on the San Pedro River at Charleston both show relatively dry periods during the 1960s through the mid-1980s and in the mid-1990s to 2009, and wetter periods from the mid-1980s through the mid-1990s. Water levels in four out of five wells near the mountain fronts show cyclical patterns of recharge, with rates of recharge greatest in the early 1980s through the mid-1990s. Three wells near the San Pedro River recorded their lowest levels during the 1950s to the mid-1960s. The water-level record from one well, completed in the confined part of the coarse-grained lower basin fill, showed a decline of approximately 21 meters.Annual flow of the San Pedro River, measured at the Charleston and Redington gages, has decreased since the 1940s. The median annual streamflow and base flow at the gaging station on the river near Tombstone has decreased by 50 percent between the periods 1968–1986 and 1997–2009. Estimates of streamflow infiltration along the San Pedro River during 1914–2009 have decreased 44 percent, with the largest decreases in

  5. Age and growth of the southeastern Brazilian sardine, Sardinella brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Anita Saccardo

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian sardine datawere collected between September 1981 and August 1982 from the southeastern Brazilian waters. Otoliths were read using reflected ligth on the surface of the whole structure. Three methods were used to determine the time of ring formation, being the mean length per ring the best one. There are two annual rings clearly visible, one laid down in November/December, and the other one laid down in March/April. A method of age determination is described, being the maximum age 3 years.A idade da sardinha Sardinella brasiliensis foi determinada pelo exame de otólitos de exemplares provenientes de desembarques da pesca comercial e artesanal, na área compreendida entre 22ºS (Cabo Frio, RJ e 28ºS (Cabo de Santa Marta, Grande, SC, durante o período 1981-83. Este estudo e parte de um programa mais amplo de nominado "Programa Integrado de Estu dos Biológicos sobre Sardinha", desenvolvido na região sudeste do Brasil desde 1981, objetivando conhecer as variações dos parâmetros biológicos da espécie, e fornecer subsídios a avaliação pesqueira do recurso. Foram contados os anéis translúcidos dos otolitos, colocados inteiros em recipientes de fundo preto, imersos em álcool 70% e iluminados com luz incidente sob estereomicroscópio binocular. Além das contagens, foram efetuadas medidas das distancias do núcleo do otolito ao bordo, e do núcleo a cada anél translúcido, bem como observações da natureza do bordo. Foram utilizados três métodos para determinar a época e periodicidade de formação dos anéis. Os parâmetros de crescimento L, K e t0 foram estimados, e as curvas ajustadas usando-se a equação de von Bertalanffy. Os resultados mostraram que os otolitos possuem de 0 a 7 anéis, sendo formados dois anéis por ano: um entre novembro-dezembro, e outro entre março-abril. Estas épocas estão intimamente ligadas ao período de reprodução. Descreveu-se um método para a determinação da idade de sardinha, tendo

  6. Ichthyoplankton distribution and abundance off southeastern and southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Martins de Freitas

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the distribution of fish eggs and larvae along the southeastern and southern Brazilian coast. Plankton samples were collected at 85 stations using a Bongo net, and water salinity and temperature were profiled with a CTD. Results showed that fish eggs and larvae, and zooplankton biovolume were distributed in coastal waters with mean temperature of 23ºC and salinity between 33 and 34. The largest egg abundance occurred along Iguape (24º'S with a partial overlap with zooplankton biovolume and fish larvae were most abundant near shore close to Santos (24ºS. These protected coastal waters presented a surface layer with lower salinity and higher temperatures, while the bottom layer had cooler water. Ichthyoplankton abundance was low off Cabo Frio (22º'S, while a maximum in fish eggs occurred around Cabo Santa Marta Grande (28ºS.A abundância de ovos e larvas de peixes serve como um indicador do tamanho do estoque desovante, e a variabilidade nestes parâmetros está associada a flutuações no recrutamento de recursos pesqueiros. No sul e sudeste do Brasil a distribuição do ictioplâncton é influenciada pela dinâmica da Confluência Subtropical, pelo aporte de água doce e pela ação do vento na camada superficial do oceano. Este trabalho tem como objetivo descrever a distribuição de ovos e larvas de peixes ao longo da área compreendida entre Cabo Frio (22º'S e o Cabo de Santa Marta Grande (28ºS, entre 15/11 e 05/12/95. Em 85 estações foram coletadas amostras de plâncton com uma rede Bongo de 60cm de diâmetro e 330m m de malha, dotada de fluxômetro e arrastada obliquamente. Salinidade e temperatura foram obtidas em cada estação com um CTD. O maior número de ovos e larvas de peixes e biovolume de zooplâncton foram encontrados em áreas distintas na região costeira, em temperaturas entre 23 e 24ºC e salinidades entre 33 e 34. As larvas foram mais abundantes na costa de Santos; os

  7. Paleocommunity turnover in an Early Pliocene seamount from southeastern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ramos, Diego Antonio; Zuschin, Martin

    2017-04-01

    Seamounts are topographic elevations under the sea, regardless of their size and relief. They support rich living communities and are important biodiversity hotspots, but many of the fundamental ecological processes that maintain seamount communities remain poorly understood. In contrast to snapshot observations conducted on extant seamounts, fossil examples may provide the opportunity to assess how temporal changes in physico-chemical parameters relate to paleocommunity turnovers in these particular biotopes. Here we deal with an Early Pliocene (Zanclean) small seamount in southeastern Spain. This classic locality is extremely rich in fossil macroinvertebrates and was subject to studies of some taxonomic groups in the late seventies. However, the detailed stratigraphy is herein outlined for the first time. The overall feature is a shallowing upward succession about 35 m thick which onlaps a Miocene volcanic ridge. The occurrence of the planktonic foraminifera Globorotalia margaritae and G. puncticulata allow attribution to the MPl3 biozone of the Mediterranean Pliocene. We measured two sections that can be divided in a lower interval of fine-grained bryozoan-rich deposits and a upper interval of biocalcarenite increasingly rich in rhodoliths upsection. The whole series is bioturbated, with Thalassinoides traces being more common upsection. Biofabrics comprise mostly densely-packed suites of disarticulated and fragmented shells of calcitic fauna (large oysters are often bioeroded by clionid sponges), suggesting relatively low sedimentation rates and reworking by storms (e.g., channelized shell-beds, tubular tempestites). The prevailing taxonomic groups are cheilostome bryozoans, oysters, brachiopods, pectinids, echinoderms, cirripedes and corals. The lower interval contains octocoral internodes (Isididae) (only recorded at the base of the section). Scleratinians like Balanophyllia? decrease in abundance upsection. Bryozoans are extremely abundant and diverse, with

  8. Assessing climate-sensitive ecosystems in the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanza, Jennifer; Beck, Scott; Pyne, Milo; Terando, Adam; Rubino, Matthew J.; White, Rickie; Collazo, Jaime

    2016-08-11

    Climate change impacts ecosystems in many ways, from effects on species to phenology to wildfire dynamics. Assessing the potential vulnerability of ecosystems to future changes in climate is an important first step in prioritizing and planning for conservation. Although assessments of climate change vulnerability commonly are done for species, fewer have been done for ecosystems. To aid regional conservation planning efforts, we assessed climate change vulnerability for ecosystems in the Southeastern United States and Caribbean.First, we solicited input from experts to create a list of candidate ecosystems for assessment. From that list, 12 ecosystems were selected for a vulnerability assessment that was based on a synthesis of available geographic information system (GIS) data and literature related to 3 components of vulnerability—sensitivity, exposure, and adaptive capacity. This literature and data synthesis comprised “Phase I” of the assessment. Sensitivity is the degree to which the species or processes in the ecosystem are affected by climate. Exposure is the likely future change in important climate and sea level variables. Adaptive capacity is the degree to which ecosystems can adjust to changing conditions. Where available, GIS data relevant to each of these components were used. For example, we summarized observed and projected climate, protected areas existing in 2011, projected sea-level rise, and projected urbanization across each ecosystem’s distribution. These summaries were supplemented with information in the literature, and a short narrative assessment was compiled for each ecosystem. We also summarized all information into a qualitative vulnerability rating for each ecosystem.Next, for 2 of the 12 ecosystems (East Gulf Coastal Plain Near-Coast Pine Flatwoods and Nashville Basin Limestone Glade and Woodland), the NatureServe Habitat Climate Change Vulnerability Index (HCCVI) framework was used as an alternative approach for assessing

  9. Modeling of Rayleigh wave dispersion in Iberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Badal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Phase and group velocities of 15–70 s Rayleigh waves propagating across the Iberian Peninsula have been transformed into local dispersion curves by linear inversion of travel times. The procedure permits that the waveform dispersion to be obtained as a continuous period-dependent velocity function at grid points belonging to the area probed by the waves, thus providing phase- and group-velocity contour maps for several periods within the interval of interest. The regionalization process rests on a homogeneous initial data set in which the number of observations remains almost constant for all periods of reference. Damped least-squares inversion of the local dispersion curves for shear-wave velocity structure is performed to obtain depth-dependent S-wave velocity profiles at the grid points covering the model region. The reliability of the results should improve significantly owing to the use of phase and group velocities simultaneously. On this basis, we have built horizontal depth sections that give an updated view of the seismic velocity structure of the peninsula at lithospheric and upper mantle depths (20–200 km. After averaging all the pure-path S-wave velocities previously determined at each grid point, the velocity-depth models so obtained for major tectonic units allow the comparison between the Hercynian basement and other areas of Mesozoic folding and Tertiary basins.

  10. Extreme Windstorms and Related Impacts on Iberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberato, Margarida L. R.; Ordóñez, Paulina; Pinto, Joaquim G.; Ramos, Alexandre M.; Karremann, Melanie K.; Trigo, Isabel F.

    2014-05-01

    Extreme windstorms are one of the major natural catastrophes in the mid latitudes, one of the most costly natural hazards in Europe and are responsible for substantial economic damages and even fatalities. During the recent winters, the Iberian Peninsula was hit by severe (wind) storms such as Klaus (January 2009), Xynthia (February 2010) and Gong (January 2013) which exhibited uncommon characteristics. They were all explosive extratropical cyclones formed over the mid-Atlantic, travelling then eastwards at lower latitudes than usual along the edge of the dominant North Atlantic storm track. In this work we present a windstorm catalogue for the Iberian Peninsula, where the characteristics of the potentially more destructive windstorms for the 1979-2012 period are identified. For this purpose, the potential impact of high winds over the Iberian Peninsula is assessed by using a daily damage index based on maximum wind speeds that exceeds the local 98th percentile threshold. Then, the characteristics of extratropical cyclones associated with these events are analyzed. Results indicate that these are fast moving, intense cyclones, typically located near the northwestern tip of the Iberian Peninsula. This work was partially supported by FEDER (Fundo Europeu de Desenvolvimento Regional) funds through the COMPETE (Programa Operacional Factores de Competitividade) and by national funds through FCT (Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia, Portugal) under project STORMEx FCOMP-01-0124-FEDER- 019524 (PTDC/AAC-CLI/121339/2010). A. M. Ramos was also supported by a FCT postdoctoral Grant (FCT/DFRH/SFRH/BPD/84328/2012).

  11. Mirandese language and genetic differentiation in Iberia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinto, J C; Alves E Silva Pereira, Vania; Marques, S L

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In the Iberian Peninsula, the Mirandese dialect, spoken in Miranda do Douro (Portugal) close to the north-eastern border with Spain, has attracted much attention. Aim, subjects and methods: This study focuses on providing further insight into the connections forged between Miranda do......, which can be a discreet sign of isolation of that population over the years that might have led the way to the preservation of a language not spoken anywhere else in the country. The analysis of X-STRs particularly brought to light the presence of a subtle population sub-structure at the micro......-geographical area encompassing the north-eastern border, which seems to portray the importance of the political border as a mechanism withholding gene flow between the two countries....

  12. First record of Variable Wheatear Oenanthe picata (Aves: Passeriformes: Muscicapidae from Osmanabad District and range extension to southeastern Maharashtra, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Thakur

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes sighting of Variable Wheatear Oenanthe picata, near Tuljapur. This is a first record from Osmanabad District and constitutes a range extension to southeastern India. 

  13. Reduced near-surface thermal inversions in 2005-06 in the southeastern Arabian Sea (Lakshadweep Sea)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nisha, K.; Rao, S.A.; Gopalakrishna, V.V.; Rao, R.R.; GirishKumar, M.S.; Pankajakshan, T.; Ravichandran, M.; Rajesh, S.; Girish, K.; Johnson, Z.; Anuradha, M.; Gavaskar, S.S.M.; Suneel, V.; Krishna, S.M.

    Repeat XBT transects made at near-fortnightly intervals in the Lakshadweep Sea (southeastern Arabian Sea) and ocean data assimilation products are examined to describe the year-to-year variability in the observed near-surface thermal inversions...

  14. Corallimorpharia collected during the CANCAP expeditions (1976-1986) in the south-eastern part of the North Atlantic*

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, den J.C.; Ocaña, O.; Brito, A.

    1993-01-01

    Species of Corallimorpharia collected during the CANCAP expeditions in the south-eastern part of the North Atlantic are described and discussed, altogether five species belonging to three genera of Corallimorphidae: the shallow water forms Corynactis viridis Allman, 1846, Pseudocorynactis

  15. Gastrointestinal parasites of maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus, Illiger 1815 in a suburban area in southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RL Massara

    Full Text Available AbstractWe examined 42 maned wolf scats in an unprotected and disturbed area of Cerrado in southeastern Brazil. We identified six helminth endoparasite taxa, being Phylum Acantocephala and Family Trichuridae the most prevalent. The high prevalence of the Family Ancylostomatidae indicates a possible transmission via domestic dogs, which are abundant in the study area. Nevertheless, our results indicate that the endoparasite species found are not different from those observed in protected or least disturbed areas, suggesting a high resilience of maned wolf and their parasites to human impacts, or a common scenario of disease transmission from domestic dogs to wild canid whether in protected or unprotected areas of southeastern Brazil.

  16. Molecular detection of Histoplasma capsulatum in insectivorous and frugivorous bats in Southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Bruna; Langoni, Helio; da Silva, Rodrigo Costa; Menozzi, Benedito Donizete; Bosco, Sandra de Moraes Gimenes; Paiz, Laís Moraes; Augusto, Livia Carla Ramos; Richini-Pereira, Virgínia Bodelão

    2017-12-27

    Bats are considered to play a significant role in the epidemiology of histoplasmosis, worldwide. We investigated the occurrence of H. capsulatum in lung samples from 89 bats, from urban areas in Southeastern Brazil, using nested PCR based on ribosomal DNA. Fungal DNA was detected in 31/89 samples (34.8%), of which 13/31 were Molossids (41.9%), 4/31 Eumops spp. (12.9%), 2/31 Artibeus lituratus (6.5%), and 12/31 others (38.7%). This is the first report of natural infection by H. capsulatum in A. lituratus in Southeastern Brazil, which reinforces the importance of these synanthropic animals in the epidemiology of histoplasmosis in urban areas. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Land changes and their driving forces in the Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napton, Darrell E.; Auch, Roger F.; Headley, Rachel; Taylor, Janis

    2010-01-01

    The ecoregions of the Middle Atlantic Coastal Plain, Southeastern Plains, Piedmont, and Blue Ridge provide a continuum of land cover from the Atlantic Ocean to the highest mountains in the East. From 1973 to 2000, each ecoregion had a unique mosaic of land covers and land cover changes. The forests of the Blue Ridge Mountains provided amenity lands. The Piedmont forested area declined, while the developed area increased. The Southeastern Plains became a commercial forest region, and most agricultural lands that changed became forested. Forests in the Middle Atlantic Coastal Plain declined, and development related to recreation and retirement increased. The most important drivers of land conversion were associated with commercial forestry, competition between forest and agriculture, and economic and population growth. These and other drivers were modified by each ecoregion’s unique suitability and land use legacies with the result that the same drivers often produced different land changes in different ecoregions.

  18. A new species of the genus Alterosa (Trichoptera: Philopotaminae from Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Abrantes Jardim

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Philopotamidae is a large caddisfly family with 20 extant genera comprising about 1 000 described species worldwide. Alterosa contains 22 described species distributed in South and Southeastern Brazil. Adults of the genus are very similar in general structure, but are remarkable for their wide variation in male genitalic morphology. The specimens were collected with Pennsylvania light traps and preserved in 80% ethanol. Alterosa nessimiani sp. nov. is described and figured from male specimens collected in streams of Rio de Janeiro state, Southeastern Brazil. The new species is closely related to A. jordaensis Blahnik 2005, from which it can be distinguished by the presence of two spines on the intermediate appendages and by the shape of tergum X. Rev. Biol. Trop. 60 (2: 577-580. Epub 2012 June 01.

  19. IAEA/WHO postal dose audits for radiotherapy hospitals in Eastern and South-Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izewska, J.; Vatnitsky, S.; Shortt, K.R.

    2004-01-01

    The IAEA/WHO TLD programme has been in operation for 34 years. In this period the calibration of approximately 5200 high-energy photon beams in over 1300 radiotherapy hospitals in 115 countries worldwide was checked. Of these, 18% of the audits were performed in Eastern and South-Eastern Europe. There are large contrasts in the region; while the results are very good for most countries, a few countries struggle with basic problems in dosimetry. The hospitals operating radiotherapy services without qualified medical physicists or dosimetry equipment have poorer results than those properly equipped and staffed. Only about 2/3 of TLD audit participants in Eastern Europe have the appropriate dosimetry equipment. To achieve consistency of the audit results within Eastern and South-Eastern Europe, strengthening of radiotherapy infrastructure in a few countries would be necessary. (authors)

  20. The Strongylidae belonging to Strongylus genus in horses from southeastern Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Studzińska, M. B.; Tomczuk, K.; Demkowska-Kutrzepa, M.; Szczepaniak, K.

    2012-01-01

    Postmortem parasitic examinations of the large intestines of 725 slaughtered horses from individual farmers in southeastern Poland were carried out. The examinations were carried out monthly since February 2006 until January 2007 (except for August 2007 because of a technological stoppage in the slaughterhouse). The examinations included the intensiveness and extensiveness of the infestation of the Strongylidae belonging to the Strongylus genus. The Strongylidae were found in 26.5 % of the ex...

  1. Observation and Analysis of Particle Nucleation at a Forest Site in Southeastern US

    OpenAIRE

    Pillai, Priya; Khlystov, Andrey; Walker, John; Aneja, Viney

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the characteristics of new particle formation at a forest site in southeastern US. Particle size distributions above a Loblolly pine plantation were measured between November 2005 and September 2007 and analyzed by event type and frequency, as well as in relation to meteorological and atmospheric chemical conditions. Nucleation events occurred on 69% of classifiable observation days. Nucleation frequency was highest in spring. The highest daily nucleation (class A and B ev...

  2. An inventory of wetland non-passerine birds along a southeastern Brazilian coastal area

    OpenAIRE

    D.C. Tavares; S. Siciliano

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the list of non-passerine birds of coastal environments of the Quissama municipality, northern Rio de Janeiro State, southeastern Brazil. The surveys were conducted monthly between June 2011 and May 2012. Additional ad libitum observations were made between February 2008 and July 2012. We recorded 76 waterbird species of 15 families, of which Scolopacidae was the most representative, with 15 species. The high Nearctic shorebird species richness observed in coastal lagoo...

  3. Two new species of Portanini (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Aphrodinae) from Southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, Márcio; Mejdalani, Gabriel

    2016-11-23

    Two new species, Portanus restingalis and Paraportanus marica, are described and illustrated from Restinga de Maricá, a sandy coastal plain in Rio de Janeiro State, Southeastern Brazil. Comparative notes on the two new species are given. Portanus youngi and Paraportanus eburatus are newly recorded from Brazil and Guyana, respectively. A checklist of all known species of Portanini with their geographic distribution is provided.

  4. Multibeam bathymetry and CTD measurements in two fjord systems in southeastern Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Kristian Kjellerup; Weinrebe, Reimer Wilhelm; Bendtsen, Jørgen

    2017-01-01

    We present bathymetry and hydrological observations collected in the summer of 2014 from two fjordsystems in southeastern Greenland with a multibeam sonar system. Our results provide a detailed bathymetricmap of the fjord complex around the island of Skjoldungen in Skjoldungen Fjord and the outer...... of the distribution of subglacial meltwater. Data are available through the PANGAEA website at https://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.860627....

  5. A NEW SPECIES OF BEAMERANA YOUNG, 1952 (HEMIPTERA: CICADELLIDAE: TYPHLOCYBINAE FROM SOUTHEASTERN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luci Boa Nova Coelho

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A new species of the Neotropical leafhopper genus Beamerana Young, 1952 (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Typhlocybinae is described and illustrated based on the specimens from Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil. Beamerana boomerang sp. nov. differs from its congeners by the fore wing venation and the male genitalia. A key to the species of Beamerana is provided. The genus is recorded for Brazil for the first time.

  6. Arthropod recolonization in the restoration of a semideciduous forest in southeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Pais, Mara P; Varanda, Elenice M

    2010-01-01

    The use of arthropods for monitoring habitat changes has grown widely in the last decades. In Brazil, however, most of the studies in restored areas have involved only vegetation changes. The present study aimed at investigating recolonization patterns of epigeic arthropods in recently restored sites of semideciduous forests in southeastern Brazil. We compared the community structure of adjoining sites 5, 17, 29 and 36 months old with that at a nearby forest remnant (reference site). We also ...

  7. First Record of Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) (Diptera, Calliphoridae) in Southeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, Antonia de Castro; UNIRIO; Cardoso, Debora; UESB; Lessa, Cláudia Soares dos Santos; UNIRIO; Moya-Borja, Gonzalo Efrain; UFRRJ; Aguiar, Valéria Magalhães; UNIRIO

    2013-01-01

    The present note reports the first record of Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) in Southeastern Brazil, in the municipality of Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro. The collecting was conducted with Diptera traps using fresh fish as bait. Primeiro Registro de Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) (Diptera, Calliphoridae) no Sudeste do Brasil Resumo. A presente nota relata o primeiro registro da espécie Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart), no Sudeste do Brasil, no Município de Serop&...

  8. Synergistic effects of drought and deforestation on the resilience of the south-eastern Amazon rainforest

    OpenAIRE

    Staal, A.; Dekkers, S.; Hirota Magalhaes, M.; Nes, van, E.H.

    2015-01-01

    The south-eastern Amazon rainforest is subject to ongoing deforestation and is expected to become drier due to climate change. Recent analyses of the distribution of tree cover in the tropics show three modes that have been interpreted as representing alternative stable states: forest, savanna and treeless states. This situation implies that a change in environmental conditions, such as in the climate, could cause critical transitions from a forest towards a savanna ecosystem. Shifts to savan...

  9. Perceptions of Global Warming Among the Poorest Counties in the Southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Gregory D; Bell, Ronny A

    2018-03-07

    The geographic position and high level of poverty in the southeastern United States are significant risk factors that contribute to the region's high vulnerability to climate change. The goal of this study was to evaluate beliefs and perceptions of global warming among those living in poverty in the poorest counties in the southeastern United States. Results from this project may be used to support public health efforts to increase climate-related messaging to vulnerable and underserved communities. This was an ecological study that analyzed public opinion poll estimates from previously gathered national level survey data (2016). Responses to 5 questions related to beliefs, attitudes, and perceptions of global warming were evaluated. Counties below the national average poverty level (13.5%) were identified among 11 southeastern US states (Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Michigan, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia). Student t tests were used to compare public perceptions of global warming among the poorest urban and rural counties with national-level public opinion estimates. Overall, counties below the national poverty level in the southeastern US were significantly less likely to believe that global warming was happening compared with national-level estimates. The poorest rural counties were less likely to believe that global warming was happening than the poorest urban counties. Health care providers and public health leaders at regional and local levels are in ideal positions to raise awareness and advocate the health implications of climate change to decision makers for the benefit of helping underserved communities mitigate and adequately adapt to climate-related threats.

  10. Climate change impacts on coastal and pelagic environments in the southeastern Bay of Biscay

    OpenAIRE

    Chust, G; Borja, Á; Caballero, A; Irigoien, X; Sáenz, J; Moncho, R; Marcos, M; Liria, P; Hidalgo, J; Valle, M; Valencia, V

    2011-01-01

    International audience; The impacts of global climate change on the Basque coast and the pelagic systems within the southeastern Bay of Biscay are reviewed. Climate projections under greenhouse gas emission scenarios indicate that this area will experience changes in climate throughout the 21st century, including warming of surface air (especially heat wave episodes), intensification of extreme daily rainfall (10%), warming of the upper 100 m of the ocean layer (1.5 to 2.05°C), and sea level ...

  11. Geomorphology Drives Amphibian Beta Diversity in Atlantic Forest Lowlands of Southeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz, Amom Mendes; Le?o-Pires, Thiago Augusto; Sawaya, Ricardo J.

    2016-01-01

    Beta diversity patterns are the outcome of multiple processes operating at different scales. Amphibian assemblages seem to be affected by contemporary climate and dispersal-based processes. However, historical processes involved in present patterns of beta diversity remain poorly understood. We assess and disentangle geomorphological, climatic and spatial drivers of amphibian beta diversity in coastal lowlands of the Atlantic Forest, southeastern Brazil. We tested the hypothesis that geomorph...

  12. A new species of Contulma Flint (Trichoptera, Anomalopsychidae from southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela A. Jardim

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Contulma Flint (Trichoptera, Anomalopsychidae from southeastern Brazil. Contulma sana sp. nov. is described and illustrated based on specimens collected in the Rio Macaé Basin, Macaé, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. The new species can be distinguished from congeners by the following male genitalia characters: long posterior lobes, dorsomedian processes of segment IX diverging on apical third, and well developed phallotremal sclerite. The female and immature stages are unknown.

  13. Tuberculosis among transhumant pastoralist and settled communities of south-eastern Mauritania

    OpenAIRE

    L?, Aissata; Tall-Dia, Anta; Bonfoh, Bassirou; Schelling, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Background: Transhumant pastoralists of Mauritania were assumed to have a high prevalence of tuberculosis (TB) because of reduced access to diagnostic testing. No population-based survey on TB has been published for Mauritania.Objective: The goal of this study was to estimate the prevalence of presumptive TB cases among mobile pastoralists and villagers in a remote zone of Mauritania.Design: In the south-eastern province of Hodh Ech Chargui, 250 adult pastoralists and 250 villagers were rando...

  14. Extensiveness and Effectiveness of Corporate Governance Regulations in South-Eastern Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Bobirca; Paul-Gabriel Miclaus

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the article is to illustrate the main characteristics of the corporate governance challenge facing the countries of South-Eastern Europe (SEE) and to subsequently determine and assess the extensiveness and effectiveness of corporate governance regulations in these countries. Therefore, we start with an overview on the subject of the key problems of corporate governance in transition. We then address the issue of corporate governance measurement for SEE coun...

  15. Evaluation of selected geochemical anomalies in Colorado and the Southeastern US. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, R.H.

    1980-08-01

    This study demonstrates the utility of HSSR geochemical data from stream sediment in exploration for uranium. In the southeastern US, four uraniferous occurrences and associated radiometric anomalies were identified in areas where uranium mineralization has not been previously reported. At two localities, assays of about .01% have been obtained from saprolite. There is some evidence which suggests that uranium may have been leached at these localities and that higher grades of U are likely at depth

  16. Rare Plants of Southeastern Hardwood Forests and the Role of Predictive Modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imm, D.W.; Shealy, H.E. Jr.; McLeod, K.W.; Collins, B.

    2001-01-01

    Habitat prediction models for rare plants can be useful when large areas must be surveyed or populations must be established. Investigators developed a habitat prediction model for four species of Southeastern hardwood forests. These four examples suggest that models based on resource and vegetation characteristics can accurately predict habitat, but only when plants are strongly associated with these variables and the scale of modeling coincides with habitat size

  17. Gravity and magnetic modelling in the Vrancea Zone, south-eastern Carpathians: Redefinition of the edge of the East European Craton beneath the south-eastern Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocin, A.; Stephenson, R.; Matenco, L.; Mocanu, V.

    2013-11-01

    A 2D gravity and magnetic data model has been constructed along a 71 km densely observed profile, called DACIA PLAN GRAV MAN's. The profile crosses part of the nappe pile of the south-eastern Carpathians and includes the seismically active Vrancea Zone and was acquired with the objective to illuminate the basement structure and affinity in this area. The modelling approach was to create an initial model from well constrained geological information, integrate it with previous seismic ray tracing and tomographic models and then alter it outside the a priori constraints in order to reach the best fit between observed and calculated potential field anomalies. The results support a realignment of the position of the TTZ (Tornquist-Teisseyre Zone), the profound tectonic boundary within Europe that separates Precambrian cratonic lithosphere of the East European Craton (EEC) from younger accreted lithosphere of Phanerozoic mobile belts to its west. The TTZ is shown to lie further to the south-west than was previously inferred within Romania, where it is largely obscured by the Carpathian nappes. The crust of the EEC beneath the south-eastern Carpathians is inferred to terminate along a major crustal structure lying just west of the Vrancea seismogenic zone. The intermediate depth seismicity of the Vrancea Zone therefore lies within the EEC lithosphere, generally supporting previously proposed models invoking delamination of cratonic lithosphere as the responsible mechanism.

  18. Compatibility of switchgrass as an energy crop in farming systems of the southeastern USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bransby, D.I.; Rodriguez-Kabana, R.; Sladden, S.E. [Auburn Univ., AL (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The objective of this paper is to examine the compatibility of switchgrass as an energy crop in farming systems in the southeastern USA, relative to other regions. In particular, the issues addressed are (1) competition between switchgrass as an energy crop and existing farm enterprises, based primarily on economic returns, (2) complementarity between switchgrass and existing farm enterprises, and (3) environmental benefits. Because projected economic returns for switchgrass as an energy crop are highest in the Southeast, and returns from forestry and beef pastures (the major existing enterprises) are low, there is a very strong economic incentive in this region. In contrast, based on current information, economic viability of switchgrass as an energy crop in other regions appears doubtful. In addition, switchgrass in the southeastern USA would complement forage-livestock production, row crop production and wildlife and would provide several additional environmental benefits. It is concluded that the southeastern USA offers the greatest opportunity for developing switchgrass as an economically viable energy crop.

  19. Simulated responses of streams and ponds to groundwater withdrawals and wastewater return flows in southeastern Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Carl S.; Walter, Donald A.; Barbaro, Jeffrey R.

    2015-12-21

    Water use, such as withdrawals, wastewater return flows, and interbasin transfers, can alter streamflow regimes, water quality, and the integrity of aquatic habitat and affect the availability of water for human and ecosystem needs. To provide the information needed to determine alteration of streamflows and pond water levels in southeastern Massachusetts, existing groundwater models of the Plymouth-Carver region and western (Sagamore flow lens) and eastern (Monomoy flow lens) Cape Cod were used to delineate subbasins and simulate long-term average and average monthly streamflows and pond levels for a series of water-use conditions. Model simulations were used to determine the extent to which streamflows and pond levels were altered by comparing simulated streamflows and pond levels under predevelopment conditions with streamflows and pond levels under pumping only and pumping with wastewater return flow conditions. The pumping and wastewater return flow rates used in this study are the same as those used in previously published U.S. Geological Survey studies in southeastern Massachusetts and represent the period from 2000 to 2005. Streamflow alteration for the nontidal portions of streams in southeastern Massachusetts was evaluated within and at the downstream outlets of 78 groundwater subbasins delineated for this study. Evaluation of streamflow alteration at subbasin outlets is consistent with the approach used by the U.S. Geological Survey for the topographically derived subbasins in the rest of Massachusetts.

  20. [Stingrays in rivers in southeastern Brazil: occurrence localities and impact on the population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrone Neto, Domingos; Haddad Junior, Vidal

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, our aim was to describe the process of colonization of the upper Paraná basin, southeastern Brazil, by stingrays, showing the current situation, likely trend and impact caused and discussing some management actions and mitigation measures. Interviews were held with riverbank people and health professionals, to gather information on occurrences of stingrays and accidents associated with these animals, along with underwater observations and collection of specimens, between 2004 and 2009 in localities in the States of São Paulo, Paraná and Mato Grosso do Sul, in the southeastern, southern and part of the central-western regions of Brazil. Three species of stingrays were identified in the study area, thus demonstrating that they were using the paths opened by the Tietê-Paraná Waterway to disperse. Sixteen victims of accidents involving these animals were found, mainly bathers and fishermen. Attention was drawn to the fact that these cases had not been reported, yet they presented high morbidity with notable temporary incapacity for work. This is the first report on biological invasion involving species of elasmobranchs in the literature and, because stingrays are colonizing densely populated areas and are expanding their range of distribution each year, it can be expected that their negative interactions with humans will intensify, with important changes in the epidemiological profile of accidents due to venomous animals occurring in southeastern Brazil.

  1. Variation in the structure of bird nests between northern Manitoba and southeastern Ontario.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla A Crossman

    Full Text Available Traits that converge in appearance under similar environmental conditions among phylogenetically independent lineages are thought to represent adaptations to local environments. We tested for convergence in nest morphology and composition of birds breeding in two ecologically different locations in Canada: Churchill in northern Manitoba and Elgin in southeastern Ontario. We examined nests from four families of passerine birds (Turdidae: Turdus, Parulidae: Dendroica, Emberizidae: Passerculus and Fringillidae: Carduelis where closely related populations or species breed in both locations. Nests of American Robins, Yellow Warblers, and Carduelis finches had heavier nest masses, and tended to have thicker nest-walls, in northern Manitoba compared with conspecifics or congenerics breeding in southeastern Ontario. Together, all species showed evidence for wider internal and external nest-cup diameters in northern Manitoba, while individual species showed varying patterns for internal nest-cup and external nest depths. American Robins, Yellow Warblers, and Carduelis finches in northern Manitoba achieved heavier nest masses in different ways. American Robins increased all materials in similar proportions, and Yellow Warblers and Common Redpolls used greater amounts of select materials. While changes in nest composition vary uniquely for each species, the pattern of larger nests in northern Manitoba compared to southeastern Ontario in three of our four phylogenetically-independent comparisons suggests that birds are adapting to similar selective pressures between locations.

  2. Future Expectations of High School Students In Southeastern Turkey: Factors behind Future Expectations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin Şimşek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to identify various future expectations of high school students in southeastern Turkey and factors behind their expectations. The sample of the study, which had a descriptive and associational survey design consisted of 1106 students randomly selected from 54 different high schools located in nine cities in southeastern Turkey. Data were collected through the “Future Expectation Scale (FES” developed by the researcher. Results indicated that personal and professional future, educational future, economic future and social future expectations of high school students in southeastern Turkey were generally above the average level. According to the study, being a teacher and a doctor took the first place among several professions to be further preferred by high school students. It was also concluded that future expectations of high school students did not differ on gender, high school type, CGPA, level of mother education, father’s occupation, family income level, the number of siblings, receiving pre-school education, and language spoken at home. On the other hand, future expectations of high school students were found to differ on the city where students being taught, grade level, corporal punishment, and tendency toward being a dropout.

  3. A revised annotated checklist of the Chironomidae (Insecta: Diptera) of the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Broughton A.; Hudson, Patrick L.; Lenat, David R.; Smith, David

    1997-01-01

    A revised annotated checklist for the chironomid midges (Diptera: Chironomidae) of the southeastern United States is presented that includes the states of Alabama, Florida, Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Tennessee. Much of the information concerns occurrence and habitat preference records based upon the authors' data, as well as published and unpublished data. Some information is also presented that includes aspects of biology, habitat preference, bibliographic sources, and nomenclatorial changes. Based upon the present work, the chironomid fauna of the southeastern states is comprised of 189 genera (172 described, 17 informally or unofficially described) and 754 species (505 described, 17 informally or unofficially described, 33 that are assumed for generic or subgeneric presence only, 197 estimated species, and 2 species groups). Several new species synonyms and generic placements are recognized. Thirty-eight genera known from the Nearctic region remain unknown from the southeastern states. Diversity of species was greatest in the subfamily Chironominae, considering named as well as unnamed and estimated species. There were no significant changes in overall regional distribution patterns of subfamilies or habitat preferences form that which has been previously reported. The greatest totals for regional records, habitat types, and state occurrences were the Coastal Plain (378), streams (271), and North Carolina (373), respectively.

  4. Glazed pottery of the South-Eastern Crimea from the excavations of the Tsarev settlement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iudin Nikita I.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the findings of glazed ceramics produced in the South-Eastern Crimea, and then excavated at the Tsarev settlement. Their typology, chronology and topography are being introduced by the author. On the basis of the 165 analyzed fragments and whole vessels the author suggests a 4-level classification scheme, which includes the production center, functional purpose of the items, morphological characteristics and ornamentation of the vessels. Basic types and variations of vessels’ shapes are being described according to three major chronological periods: 1. Early 1300s, 2. 1330s, 3. The second half of the 14th century. Notably, the earliest findings of ceramics dated by the first two periods were located on the South-Eastern part of the Tsarev settlement. Most of all, its are the bowls on a circular underpan lacking ornamentation and covered with green transparent glazing. Since the second half of the 14th century the vessels from the South-Eastern Crimea had been widely spread on the entire area of the settlement. The assortment of vessels’ shapes used at this time along with jars and bowls, was now widened by aftobes and apothecary amphoras.

  5. Variation in the Structure of Bird Nests between Northern Manitoba and Southeastern Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossman, Carla A.; Rohwer, Vanya G.; Martin, Paul R.

    2011-01-01

    Traits that converge in appearance under similar environmental conditions among phylogenetically independent lineages are thought to represent adaptations to local environments. We tested for convergence in nest morphology and composition of birds breeding in two ecologically different locations in Canada: Churchill in northern Manitoba and Elgin in southeastern Ontario. We examined nests from four families of passerine birds (Turdidae: Turdus, Parulidae: Dendroica, Emberizidae: Passerculus and Fringillidae: Carduelis) where closely related populations or species breed in both locations. Nests of American Robins, Yellow Warblers, and Carduelis finches had heavier nest masses, and tended to have thicker nest-walls, in northern Manitoba compared with conspecifics or congenerics breeding in southeastern Ontario. Together, all species showed evidence for wider internal and external nest-cup diameters in northern Manitoba, while individual species showed varying patterns for internal nest-cup and external nest depths. American Robins, Yellow Warblers, and Carduelis finches in northern Manitoba achieved heavier nest masses in different ways. American Robins increased all materials in similar proportions, and Yellow Warblers and Common Redpolls used greater amounts of select materials. While changes in nest composition vary uniquely for each species, the pattern of larger nests in northern Manitoba compared to southeastern Ontario in three of our four phylogenetically-independent comparisons suggests that birds are adapting to similar selective pressures between locations. PMID:21552515

  6. Variation in the structure of bird nests between northern Manitoba and southeastern Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossman, Carla A; Rohwer, Vanya G; Martin, Paul R

    2011-04-28

    Traits that converge in appearance under similar environmental conditions among phylogenetically independent lineages are thought to represent adaptations to local environments. We tested for convergence in nest morphology and composition of birds breeding in two ecologically different locations in Canada: Churchill in northern Manitoba and Elgin in southeastern Ontario. We examined nests from four families of passerine birds (Turdidae: Turdus, Parulidae: Dendroica, Emberizidae: Passerculus and Fringillidae: Carduelis) where closely related populations or species breed in both locations. Nests of American Robins, Yellow Warblers, and Carduelis finches had heavier nest masses, and tended to have thicker nest-walls, in northern Manitoba compared with conspecifics or congenerics breeding in southeastern Ontario. Together, all species showed evidence for wider internal and external nest-cup diameters in northern Manitoba, while individual species showed varying patterns for internal nest-cup and external nest depths. American Robins, Yellow Warblers, and Carduelis finches in northern Manitoba achieved heavier nest masses in different ways. American Robins increased all materials in similar proportions, and Yellow Warblers and Common Redpolls used greater amounts of select materials. While changes in nest composition vary uniquely for each species, the pattern of larger nests in northern Manitoba compared to southeastern Ontario in three of our four phylogenetically-independent comparisons suggests that birds are adapting to similar selective pressures between locations.

  7. Spatial distribution of mercury in southeastern Alaskan streams influenced by glaciers, wetlands, and salmon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagorski, Sonia A.; Engstrom, Daniel R.; Hudson, John P.; Krabbenhoft, David P.; Hood, Eran; DeWild, John F.; Aiken, George R.

    2014-01-01

    Southeastern Alaska is a remote coastal-maritime ecosystem that is experiencing increased deposition of mercury (Hg) as well as rapid glacier loss. Here we present the results of the first reported survey of total and methyl Hg (MeHg) concentrations in regional streams and biota. Overall, streams draining large wetland areas had higher Hg concentrations in water, mayflies, and juvenile salmon than those from glacially-influenced or recently deglaciated watersheds. Filtered MeHg was positively correlated with wetland abundance. Aqueous Hg occurred predominantly in the particulate fraction of glacier streams but in the filtered fraction of wetland-rich streams. Colonization by anadromous salmon in both glacier and wetland-rich streams may be contributing additional marine-derived Hg. The spatial distribution of Hg in the range of streams presented here shows that watersheds are variably, yet fairly predictably, sensitive to atmospheric and marine inputs of Hg. -- Highlights: • We sampled 21 streams in southeastern Alaska for water, sediments, and biota. • Aqueous Hg showed significant relationships with wetlands and DOC. • Biota had higher mercury in wetland-rich streams than in glacier-fed streams. • Spawning salmon appear to contribute methylmercury to stream foodwebs. -- This original survey of mercury concentration and form in southeastern Alaskan streamwater and biota shows substantial spatial variation linked to landscape factors and salmon influence

  8. DOMESTIC VS INTERNATIONAL RISK DIVERSIFICATION POSSIBILITIES IN SOUTHEASTERN EUROPEAN STOCK MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinisa Bogdan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Modern portfolio theory is one of the most important investment decision tools in finances. In 1952 Harry Markowitz set the foundations of the Modern portfolio theory, since than this theory was a backbone of many studies that dealt with investment decisions. This research applies mean-variance portfolio optimization on the international Southeastern Europe and domestic Croatian stock market exchange. Aim of this research is to compare risk diversification possibilities on the Southeastern European capital markets and on the Croatian Capital market. By analyzing nine stock market indices in the Southeastern Europe and twenty stocks from Zagreb Stock Exchange in the period of 36 months, results clearly show that internationally diversified portfolios offer better portfolio risk reduction than domestically diversified portfolios. Lowest achieved risk in international portfolio outperformed lowest achieved risk in domestic portfolio. Since risk is lower, returns are also much lower compared to domestic stock portfolios. Results of this research also report that domestic stock portfolios outperformed international portfolios at the risk level equal or higher than 0,97%, for the same risk, domestic portfolios offer greater returns.

  9. Public Integrity and Performance of Governance. A Comparative Study for South-Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucica Matei

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The studies concerning the impact of corruption on the effectiveness of governance are numerous, valorising profound approaches, based on criteria and standards related to good governance, organizational behaviour.The concepts and mechanisms specific for econometrics and statistics provide the quantitative support for qualitative analyses, substantiating public policies, in view to assure effectiveness in performance measurement.For all South-Eastern European countries, the level of development and social organization determines specific ethical behaviours. In this context, the current paper aims a comparative economic and social evaluation of the correlations between corruption, performance and economic freedom in South-Eastern European countries, including Romania.The working hypotheses turn into consideration the following issues:- corruption holds national specific character and the statistic, econometric or sociologic analyses reveal that it is stable during the time;- an effective governance leads to increasing the citizens’ welfare;- if a country is poor and the economic freedom is reduced than the bureaucratic and political system tends to be more corrupted;- the perspective of accession into the EU has led to the perception concerning the reduction of the corruption level.The above hypotheses will be completed and we shall achieve comparative analyses, relevant for the group of South-Eastern European countries. The above quantitative analyses will use both own results of the researches carried out by the authors and public results of World Bank, Transparency International and Heritage Foundation, as well as results of authorities responsible for national statistics. The comparative research is achieved on a 10 years period, comprising also the moment of accession into the European Union for some states.

  10. Differences in CAPE between wet and dry spells of the monsoon over the southeastern peninsular India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, T. S.; Rao, T. N.; Rajeevan, M.

    2018-03-01

    In the present research we explored the variability of convective available potential energy (CAPE) during wet and dry spells over southeast India. Comparison between India Meteorological Department (IMD) observations and reanalysis products (NCEP, ERA-interim, and MERRA) reconfirms that gridded data sets can be utilized to fill the void of observations. Later, GPS radiosonde measurements made at Gadanki (13.5 N, 79.2 E) Andre analysis output are utilized to address key scientific issues related to CAPE over the southeastern peninsular region. They are: (1) How does CAPE vary between different spells of the Indian summer monsoon (i.e., from wet to dry spell)? (2) Does differences in CAPE and in the vertical structure of buoyancy between spells are localized features over Gadanki or observed all over southeastern peninsular region? (3) What physical/dynamical processes are responsible for the differences in CAPE between spells and how do they affect the convection growth in dry spell? Interestingly, CAPE is higher in wet spell than in dry spell, in contrast to the observations made elsewhere over land and warm oceans. Similar feature (high CAPE in wet spell) is observed at all grid points in the southeastern peninsular India. Furthermore, vertical buoyancy profiles show only one peak in the middle-upper troposphere in wet spell, while two peaks are observed in most of the profiles (66%) in dry spell over the entire study region in all the reanalysis products. Plausible mechanisms are discussed for the observed CAPE differences. They are, among others, timing of sounding with reference to rain occurrence, rapid buildup of surface instabilities, moistening of lower troposphere by evaporation of the surface moisture in wet spell, enhanced low-level moisture convergence, evaporation of rain in relatively warm and dry atmosphere, and reduction of positive buoyancy in dry spell. The omnipresence of stable layers and strong and deep shear in the presence of weak updrafts

  11. Satellite-Enhanced Regional Downscaling for Applied Studies: Extreme Precipitation Events in Southeastern South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, A.; Gomes, G.; Ivanov, V. Y.

    2016-12-01

    Frequently found in southeastern South America during the warm season from October through May, strong and localized precipitation maxima are usually associated with the presence of mesoscale convective complexes (MCCs) travelling across the region. Flashfloods and landslides can be caused by these extremes in precipitation, with damages to the local communities. Heavily populated, southeastern South America hosts many agricultural activities and hydroelectric production. It encompasses one of the most important river basins in South America, the La Plata River Basin. Therefore, insufficient precipitation is equally prejudicial to the region socio-economic activities. MCCs are originated in the warm season of many regions of the world, however South American MCCs are related to the most severe thunderstorms, and have significantly contributed to the precipitation regime. We used the hourly outputs of Satellite-enhanced Regional Downscaling for Applied Studies (SRDAS), developed at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro in Brazil, in the analysis of the dynamics and physical characteristics of MCCs in South America. SRDAS is the 25-km resolution downscaling of a global reanalysis available from January 1998 through December 2010. The Regional Spectral Model is the SRDAS atmospheric component and assimilates satellite-based precipitation estimates from the NOAA/Climate Prediction Center MORPHing technique global precipitation analyses. In this study, the SRDAS atmospheric and land-surface variables, global reanalysis products, infrared satellite imagery, and the physical retrievals from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), on board of the NASA's Aqua satellite, were used in the evaluation of the MCCs developed in southeastern South America from 2008 and 2010. Low-level circulations and vertical profiles were analyzed together to establish the relevance of the moisture transport in connection with the upper-troposphere dynamics to the development of those MCCs.

  12. Groundwater intensive use and mining in south-eastern peninsular Spain: Hydrogeological, economic and social aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custodio, Emilio; Andreu-Rodes, José Miguel; Aragón, Ramón; Estrela, Teodoro; Ferrer, Javier; García-Aróstegui, José Luis; Manzano, Marisol; Rodríguez-Hernández, Luis; Sahuquillo, Andrés; Del Villar, Alberto

    2016-07-15

    Intensive groundwater development is a common circumstance in semiarid and arid areas. Often abstraction exceeds recharge, thus continuously depleting reserves. There is groundwater mining when the recovery of aquifer reserves needs more than 50years. The MASE project has been carried out to compile what is known about Spain and specifically about the south-eastern Iberian Peninsula and the Canary Islands. The objective was the synthetic analysis of available data on the hydrological, economic, managerial, social, and ethical aspects of groundwater mining. Since the mid-20th century, intensive use of groundwater in south-eastern Spain allowed extending and securing the areas with traditional surface water irrigation of cash crops and their extension to former dry lands, taking advantage of good soils and climate. This fostered a huge economic and social development. Intensive agriculture is a main activity, although tourism plays currently an increasing economic role in the coasts. Many aquifers are relatively high yielding small carbonate units where the total groundwater level drawdown may currently exceed 300m. Groundwater storage depletion is estimated about 15km(3). This volume is close to the total contribution of the Tagus-Segura water transfer, but without large investments paid for with public funds. Seawater desalination complements urban supply and part of cash crop cultivation. Reclaimed urban waste water is used for irrigation. Groundwater mining produces benefits but associated to sometimes serious economic, administrative, legal and environmental problems. The use of an exhaustible vital resource raises ethical concerns. It cannot continue under the current legal conditions. A progressive change of water use paradigm is the way out, but this is not in the mind of most water managers and politicians. The positive and negative results observed in south-eastern Spain may help to analyse other areas under similar hydrogeological conditions in a less

  13. Vertebrate endemism in south-eastern Africa numerically redefines a biodiversity hotspot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Sandun J; ProcheŞ, Şerban; Ratnayake-Perera, Dayani; Ramdhani, Syd

    2018-02-20

    We use numerical methods to explore patterns of vertebrate endemism in south-eastern Africa, refining the boundaries of the intuitively-defined Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany biodiversity hotspot, also proposing a zoogeographic regionalisation. An incidence matrix of 300 vertebrate species endemic to south-eastern Africa sensu lato in 37 operational geographic units were used in (a) phenetic cluster analysis (PCA) using the algorithm of unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averages (phenetic approach), and (b) parsimony analysis of endemicity (PAE; parsimony approach), in order to numerically evaluate the bioregional delimitations. The analyses provide a valid biogeographical entity 37% larger than the Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany hotspot, but substantially (131%) higher in vertebrate endemicity viz. the Greater Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany (GMPA) region of vertebrate endemism. South-east Africa is recognised as a dominion in the global zoogeographical area hierarchy, with subordinate units including the GMPA province. Various spatially-based measures of endemism were mapped for vertebrate species restricted to the dominion, i.e. endemic to south-eastern Africa sensu stricto. Areas and centres of endemism detected respectively from PAE and PCA, within the south-east Africa dominion also support the refined boundary of the GMPA region of endemism, which provides a better spatial conservation priority compared to the Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany hotspot. Reptiles and amphibians are found to be the main drivers of the overall pattern of endemism, while the pattern in freshwater fish is the most distinctive. Our analyses also indicate a good congruence of the centres of endemism across different terrestrial vertebrate taxa.

  14. Population Genetic Structure of Venturia effusa, Cause of Pecan Scab, in the Southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Clive H; Hotchkiss, Michael W; Young, Carolyn A; Charlton, Nikki D; Chakradhar, Mattupalli; Stevenson, Katherine L; Wood, Bruce W

    2017-05-01

    Venturia effusa is the most important pathogen of pecan in the southeastern United States. Little information exists on the population biology and genetic diversity of the pathogen. A hierarchical sampling of 784 isolates from 63 trees in 11 pecan orchards in the southeastern United States were screened against a set of 30 previously characterized microsatellite markers. Populations were collected from Georgia (n = 2), Florida (n = 1), Alabama (n = 2), Mississippi (n = 1), Louisiana (n = 1), Illinois (n = 1), Oklahoma (n = 1), Texas (n = 1), and Kansas (n = 1). Clonality was low in all orchard populations (≤10.1% of isolates), and there were consistently high levels of genotypic diversity (Shannon-Weiner's index = 3.49 to 4.59) and gene diversity (Nei's measure = 0.513 to 0.713). Analysis of molecular variance showed that, although 81% of genetic diversity occurred at the scale of the individual tree, 16% occurred between orchards and only 3% between trees within orchards. All populations could be differentiated from each other (P = 0.01), and various cluster analyses indicated that some populations were more closely related compared with other pairs of populations. This is indicative of some limited population differentiation in V. effusa in the southeastern United States. Bayesian and nearest-neighbor methods suggested eight clusters, with orchards from Georgia and Florida being grouped together. A minimum spanning tree of all 784 isolates also indicated some isolate identification with source population. Linkage disequilibrium was detected in all but one population (Kansas), although 8 of the 11 populations had pecan and pecan scab, which is that V. effusa became an issue on cultivated pecan in the last approximately 120 years (recent population expansion). Recently reported mating type genes and the sexual stage of this fungus may help explain the observed population characteristics, which bear a strong resemblance to those of other well

  15. Creating a stakeholder-driven unified conservation blueprint for 15 southeastern states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, T. E.

    2017-12-01

    The dramatic changes sweeping the Southeastern United States — such as urbanization, competition for water resources, extreme weather events, sea-level rise, and climate change — pose unprecedented challenges for sustaining our natural and cultural resources. Defining the conservation landscape of the future requires a new model of working together across entities, factions, and political boundaries through a collaborative process. We will illustrate how ecosystem service valuation can be built using a stakeholder-drive process which has united the conservation community through a shared, long-term vision for the future through the Southeast Conservation Adaptation Strategy (SECAS). Through SECAS, diverse public and private partners have worked together to design and achieve a connected network of landscapes and seascapes that supports thriving fish and wildlife populations and improved quality of life for people across the southeastern U.S. and the Caribbean. The scope of SECAS is the fifteen southeastern states that comprise the Southeast Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies (SEAFWA) plus Puerto Rico and the United States Virgin Islands. SECAS was initiated by SEAFWA and the federal Southeast Natural Resource Leaders Group with support from six Landscape Conservation Cooperatives (LCCs), the Southeast Climate Science Center, and the Southeast Aquatic Resources Partnership. In October of 2016, SECAS achieved a major milestone with the release of a first draft of a conservation blueprint for the Southeast and Caribbean. This blueprint stitches together the conservation and restoration priorities of multiple LCCs in the region into one unifying map — a living spatial plan to make the SECAS vision a reality. Whether you are an urban planner, a private landowner, a non-profit advocate, a public lands manager, or anyone else committed to sustaining our natural and cultural heritage for future generations, join the SECAS conversation at www.secassoutheast.org

  16. Light-absorbing impurities enhance glacier albedo reduction in the southeastern Tibetan plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yulan; Kang, Shichang; Cong, Zhiyuan; Schmale, Julia; Sprenger, Michael; Li, Chaoliu; Yang, Wei; Gao, Tanguang; Sillanpää, Mika; Li, Xiaofei; Liu, Yajun; Chen, Pengfei; Zhang, Xuelei

    2017-07-01

    Light-absorbing impurities (LAIs) in snow of the southeastern Tibetan Plateau (TP) and their climatic impacts are of interest not only because this region borders areas affected by the South Asian atmospheric brown clouds but also because the seasonal snow and glacier melt from this region form important headwaters of large rivers. In this study, we collected surface snow and snowpit samples from four glaciers in the southeastern TP in June 2015 to investigate the comprehensive observational data set of LAIs. Results showed that the LAI concentrations were much higher in the aged snow and granular ice than in the fresh snow and snowpits due to postdepositional processes. Impurity concentrations fluctuated across snowpits, with maximum LAI concentrations frequently occurring toward the bottom of snowpits. Based on the SNow ICe Aerosol Radiative model, the albedo simulation indicated that black carbon and dust account for approximately 20% of the albedo reduction relative to clean snow. The radiative forcing caused by black carbon and dust deposition on the glaciers were between 1.0-141 W m-2 and 1.5-120 W m-2, respectively. Black carbon (BC) played a larger role in albedo reduction and radiative forcing than dust in the study area, enhancing approximately 15% of glacier melt. Analysis based on the Fire INventory from NCAR indicated that nonbiomass-burning sources of BC played an important role in the total BC deposition, especially during the monsoon season. This study suggests that eliminating anthropogenic BC could mitigate glacier melt in the future of the southeastern TP.

  17. When landscaping goes bad: The incipient invasion of Mahonia bealei in the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Craig R.; Garmestani, A.S.; LaBram, J.A.; Peck, A.E.; Prevost, L.B.

    2006-01-01

    Woodlots are forest islands embedded within an urban matrix, and often represent the only natural areas remaining in suburban areas. Woodlots represent critical conservation areas for native plants, and are important habitat for wildlife in urban areas. Invasion by non-indigenous (NIS) plants can alter ecological structure and function, and may be especially severe in remnant forests where NIS propagule pressure is high. Woody shrubs in the Family Berberidaceae have been well documented as invaders of the forest-urban matrix in North America. Mahonia bealei (Berberidaceae) is a clonal shrub native to China, and is a popular ornamental in the Southeastern United States. Mahoni bealei is listed as "present" on some local and state floras, but almost nothing is known regarding its invasion potential in the United States. We sampled 15 woodlots in Clemson, South Carolina, to assess the invasion of M. bealei and other woody non-indigenous species (NIS). M. bealei invaded 87% of the woodlots surveyed and species richness of NIS on these woodlots varied from 5 to 14. Stepwise-multiple regression indicated that less canopy cover and older M. bealei predicted greater abundance of M. bealei , and that not all subdivisions were equally invaded (P < 0.0001; r 2 = 0.88). The impact of M. bealei on native flora and fauna may be considerable, and it is likely to continue to spread in the Southeastern United States. M. bealei should be recognized as an aggressive invader in the Southeastern United States, with the potential for negative impacts on native flora and fauna. ?? Springer 2006.

  18. The tectonic evolution of the southeastern Terceira Rift/São Miguel region (Azores)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiß, B. J.; Hübscher, C.; Lüdmann, T.

    2015-07-01

    The eastern Azores Archipelago with São Miguel being the dominant subaerial structure is located at the intersection of an oceanic rift (Terceira Rift) with a major transform fault (Gloria Fault) representing the westernmost part of the Nubian-Eurasian plate boundary. The evolution of islands, bathymetric highs and basin margins involves strong volcanism, but the controlling geodynamic and tectonic processes are currently under debate. In order to study this evolution, multibeam bathymetry and marine seismic reflection data were collected to image faults and stratigraphy. The basins of the southeastern Terceira Rift are rift valleys whose southwestern and northeastern margins are defined by few major normal faults and several minor normal faults, respectively. Since São Miguel in between the rift valleys shows an unusual W-E orientation, it is supposed to be located on a leaky transform. South of the island and separated by a N120° trending graben system, the Monacco Bank represents a N160° oriented flat topped volcanic ridge dominated by tilted fault blocks. Up to six seismic units are interpreted for each basin. Although volcanic ridges hamper a direct linking of depositional strata between the rift and adjacent basins, the individual seismic stratigraphic units have distinct characteristics. Using these units to provide a consistent relative chrono-stratigraphic scheme for the entire study area, we suggest that the evolution of the southeastern Terceira Rift occurred in two stages. Considering age constrains from previous studies, we conclude that N140° structures developed orthogonal to the SW-NE direction of plate-tectonic extension before ~ 10 Ma. The N160° trending volcanic ridges and faults developed later as the plate tectonic spreading direction changed to WSW-ENE. Hence, the evolution of the southeastern Terceira Rift domain is predominantly controlled by plate kinematics and lithospheric stress forming a kind of a re-organized rift system.

  19. Velocity Model for CO2 Sequestration in the Southeastern United States Atlantic Continental Margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollmann, J.; Knapp, C. C.; Almutairi, K.; Almayahi, D.; Knapp, J. H.

    2017-12-01

    The sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO2) is emerging as a major player in offsetting anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. With 40% of the United States' anthropogenic CO2 emissions originating in the southeast, characterizing potential CO2 sequestration sites is vital to reducing the United States' emissions. The goal of this research project, funded by the Department of Energy (DOE), is to estimate the CO2 storage potential for the Southeastern United States Atlantic Continental Margin. Previous studies find storage potential in the Atlantic continental margin. Up to 16 Gt and 175 Gt of storage potential are estimated for the Upper Cretaceous and Lower Cretaceous formations, respectively. Considering 2.12 Mt of CO2 are emitted per year by the United States, substantial storage potential is present in the Southeastern United States Atlantic Continental Margin. In order to produce a time-depth relationship, a velocity model must be constructed. This velocity model is created using previously collected seismic reflection, refraction, and well data in the study area. Seismic reflection horizons were extrapolated using well log data from the COST GE-1 well. An interpolated seismic section was created using these seismic horizons. A velocity model will be made using P-wave velocities from seismic reflection data. Once the time-depth conversion is complete, the depths of stratigraphic units in the seismic refraction data will be compared to the newly assigned depths of the seismic horizons. With a lack of well control in the study area, the addition of stratigraphic unit depths from 171 seismic refraction recording stations provides adequate data to tie to the depths of picked seismic horizons. Using this velocity model, the seismic reflection data can be presented in depth in order to estimate the thickness and storage potential of CO2 reservoirs in the Southeastern United States Atlantic Continental Margin.

  20. Nokia hakkab väsima / Heikki Kirotar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kirotar, Heikki

    2005-01-01

    Nokia mobiiltelefonide müük kasvas ka III kvartalis, kuid maailma ulatuses oli see vaid 1%. Aasta jooksul on mobiiltelefonide müük kasvanud 25%, eelkõige on kasvanud Motorola mobiiltelefonide müük. Keerulisemate ja kallimate telefonide turu liider on aga Nokia. Lisa: Sony-Ericssoni uus toode on Walkman-muusikatelefon

  1. TOF-SIMA analysis of coating on MCP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Chunping; Liang Handong; Sun Dongxu

    2007-01-01

    Microchannel plate (MCP) is a sophisticated electronic optical device. It has advantages of high gain, small size, and low using voltage as a detector. The electronic transmission film on the MCP input plane could effectively avoid the positive ion feedback, and protect the photocathode, eliminate flicker noise, and prolong the lifespan of the device. In conclusion, the different films of the input plane can affect the performance of the MCP. Therefore, there is practical value to study surface coating composition of MCP for understanding the relationship between composition and performance and developing high-powered MCP. In the experiment, TOF-SIMS is used to study the surface coating composition of MCP. The results show that there are some main metal elements such as Si, K, Cr, Ni, Rh, Cs and Pb in the surface of the MCP. (authors)

  2. Historia extensísima de la Anapo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renán Vega Cantor

    1996-05-01

    Full Text Available Resistencia y oposición al Establecimiento del Frente Nacional. Los orígenes de la Alianza Nacional Popular (Anapo, Colombia 1953-1964. César Augusto Ayala Diago. Colciencias, Comité de Investigaciones para el Desarrollo Científico, Cindec, Línea de Investigación en Historia Política, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá, 1996, 371 págs.

  3. Platinum-Group Elements in Soils and Street Dust of the Southeastern Administrative District of Moscow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladonin, D. V.

    2018-03-01

    The contents of five platinum-group metals (Ru, Rh, Pd, Ir, and Pt) in soils and street dust of the Southeastern administrative district (SEAD) of Moscow have been determined. The contents of these elements in soils may considerably exceed their natural abundances in the lithosphere and are characterized by considerable variability and asymmetric frequency distribution. A close correlation between Rh, Pd, and Pt contents in soils and street dust has been shown. The data on the contents of the elements and the ratios between them suggest that motor vehicles are the major source of pollution of soils and street dust in the studied district.

  4. Distribution and size of the mojarra Diapterus rhombeus (Cuvier) (Actinopterygii, Gerreidae) in a Southeastern Brazilian bay

    OpenAIRE

    Costa,Marcus Rodrigues da; Albieri,Rafael Jardim; Neves,Leonardo Mitrano; Santos,Alex Braz Lacone; Araujo,Francisco Gerson

    2012-01-01

    Diapterus rhombeus is one of the most abundant fish species in the Sepetiba bay, which is a 520 km² semi-closed coastal area in Southeastern Brazil. The size and distribution of this species have been described in order to assess the use of the area as a rearing ground in both spatial and temporal (seasonal) dimensions. A fish sampling program was conducted monthly by using an otter trawl between October 1998 and September 1999, in three bay zones (outer, middle and inner), defined according ...

  5. The business for power : hydro-electricity in southeastern British Columbia 1897-1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mouat, J.

    1997-01-01

    The evolution and development of the hydroelectric power industry in southeastern British Columbia was chronicled by recounting the first hundred years of the West Kootenay Power and Light Electrical Utility. The utility's first generator produced electricity in the summer of 1898 when hydro-electric companies were a new phenomenon. The factors behind the success of the company, the personalities of the promoters and entrepreneurs that launched the company, the complex interplay of unique events and the social and political context that illustrate a fascinating process in which electricity became an integral part of everyday life, are described. Refs., tabs., figs

  6. Precambrian continental crustal evolution of Southeastern Sao Paulo state - Brazil: based on isotopic evidences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tassinari, C.C.G.

    1988-01-01

    The isotopic studies on granitic intrusions, orthogneissic rocks and migmatitic terranes in the Southeastern Sao Paulo are presented, indicating the age and the geochemical nature of the continental crust of this area. Approximately 300 Ar, Sr and Pb isotopic age determinations are included in this paper, categorized as to their reliability and significance. Looking for the continental crust growth related to the geological time, at the end of the lower Proterozoic, at least 85% of the continental crust has already accreted and differentiated. (C.G.C.)

  7. Studies on endoparasites of the black bear (Ursus americanus) in the southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crum, J M; Nettles, V F; Davidson, W R

    1978-04-01

    Examination of 53 black bears (Ursus americanus) from six states in the southeastern United States revealed at least 17 species of endoparasites, including Sarcocystis sp., Spirometra mansonoides (spargana), Macracanthorhynchus ingens, Ancylostoma caninum, Arthrocephalus lotoris, Baylisascaris transfuga, Capillaria aerophila, Capillaria putorii, Crenosoma sp., Cyathospirura sp., Dirofilaria immitis, Gnathostoma sp., Gongylonema pulchrum, microfilariae, Molineus barbatus, Physaloptera sp. and Strongyloides sp. Twelve of these represent new host records for black bear, and two are considered to be new species. Data are presented on prevalence, intensity and geographic distribution of each species. Pathologic effects were associated with infections of spargana of S. mansonoides and adults of C. aerophilia.

  8. Corneroboletus, a new genus to accommodate the southeastern Asian Boletus indecorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Nian-Kai; Cai, Qing; Yang, Zhu L

    2012-01-01

    Corneroboletus was erected in the Boletaceae to accommodate Boletus indecorus originally described from southeastern Asia. The mucilaginous surface of the basidioma, the ixohyphoepithelium pileipellis and the irregularly warty to irregularly bacillate ornamentation of basidiospores distinguish this fungus from other described species in Boletaceae. Phylogenetic placement of this fungus was investigated further with molecular data including LSU rRNA and concatenated alignment of nrLSU, 5.8S rRNA and rpb2 genes, and an independent lineage among existing genera of Boletaceae was suggested by our phylogenetic results. Consequently a description, illustrations and a comparison of Corneroboletus with allied taxa are presented.

  9. Yellow and purple nutsedges survey in the southeastern Buenos Aires Province, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyherabide Juan José

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A survey of 79 fields was conducted between December 1993 and January 1994, to determine the distribution and relative importance of species of the genus Cyperus, to justify developing management strategies in the southeastern of Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. Yellow and purple nutsedge were found in 43% and 9% respectively of the surveyed fields. Thirty eight per cent of the surveyed area showed a heavy infestation of yellow nutsedge, and in 90% of cases yellow nutsedge was invading fields cultivated with summer crops and associated with one or more of other seven perennial weeds, mainly bermudagrass.

  10. Lizard assemblage from a sand dune habitat from southeastern Brazil: a niche overlap analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winck, Gisele R; Hatano, Fabio; Vrcibradic, Davor; VAN Sluys, Monique; Rocha, Carlos F D

    2016-01-01

    Communities are structured by interactions of historical and ecological factors, which influence the use of different resources in time and space. We acquired data on time of activity, microhabitat use and diet of a lizard assemblage from a sand dune habitat in a coastal area, southeastern Brazil (Restinga de Jurubatiba). We analyzed the data of niche overlap among species in these three axes (temporal, spatial and trophic) using null models. We found a significant overlap within the trophic niche, whereas the overlap for the other axes did not differ from the expected. Based on this result, we discuss the factors acting on the structure of the local lizard community.

  11. The blunt-headed vine snake, Imantodes cenchoa (Linnaeus, 1758, in Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Caldeira Costa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The blunt-headed vine snake, Imantodes cenchoa, has a large distribution, occurring from the east coast of Mexico to Argentina. In Brazil, it is found from the Amazon in the north, to Santa Catarina in the south. In the state of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil, there are only two records of I. cenchoa in the literature. In the present study, a search for I. cenchoa from Minas Gerais was conducted in the main Brazilian herpetological collections, revealing a total of 13 localities with records of this species.

  12. Lizards and Amphisbaenians, municipality of Viçosa, state of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigues, A. C.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We performed a survey of lizards and amphisbaenians from municipality of Viçosa, in Atlantic Forest from state ofMinas Gerais, southeastern Brazil, based on data of the herpetological collections of Museu de Zoologia João Moojen,Universidade Federal de Viçosa, and Museu de Zoologia, Universidade de São Paulo. One hundred and forty sixspecimens of 14 species were analyzed, belonging to the following families: Amphisbaenidae, Anguidae, Gekkonidae,Gymnophthalmidae, Leiosauridae, Polychrotidae, Scincidae, Teiidae and Tropiduridae. We hope to supply basicinformation that helps to understand species distribution of this group in the Atlantic Forest of Minas Gerais andsoutheastern Brazil.

  13. Selenium in the upper Blackfoot River watershed, southeastern Idaho, 2001-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mebane, Christopher A.; Mladenka, Greg; Van Every, Lynn; Williams, Marshall L.; Hardy, Mark A.; Garbarino, John R.

    2014-11-05

    The upper Blackfoot River in southeastern Idaho receives runoff from 12 large phosphate mines. Waste shales that are removed to access the phosphate ore are highly enriched with selenium, resulting in elevated selenium in runoff from the mine waste dumps. In 2001, in cooperation with the Bureau of Land Management, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began monitoring streamflow, selenium, and other water-quality parameters at a single location near the outlet of the upper Blackfoot River to the Blackfoot Reservoir. Water samples primarily were collected by a flow triggered, automated pump sampler, supplemented by manual point and equal-width integrated manual samples.

  14. Longitudinal anthropometric assessment of infants born to HIV-1-infected mothers, Belo Horizonte, Southeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Fausto, Maria Arlene; Carneiro, Mariângela; Antunes, Carlos Maurício F; Colosimo, Enrico Antonio; Pinto, Jorge Andrade

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the growth parameters in infants who were born to HIV-1-infected mothers. METHODS: The study was a longitudinal evaluation of the z-scores for the weight-for-age (WAZ), weight-for-length (WLZ) and length-for-age (LAZ) data collected from a cohort. A total of 97 non-infected and 33 HIV-infected infants born to HIV-1-infected mothers in Belo Horizonte, Southeastern Brazil, between 1995 and 2003 was studied. The average follow-up period for the infected and non-infected ch...

  15. Lizard assemblage from a sand dune habitat from southeastern Brazil: a niche overlap analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GISELE R. WINCK

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Communities are structured by interactions of historical and ecological factors, which influence the use of different resources in time and space. We acquired data on time of activity, microhabitat use and diet of a lizard assemblage from a sand dune habitat in a coastal area, southeastern Brazil (Restinga de Jurubatiba. We analyzed the data of niche overlap among species in these three axes (temporal, spatial and trophic using null models. We found a significant overlap within the trophic niche, whereas the overlap for the other axes did not differ from the expected. Based on this result, we discuss the factors acting on the structure of the local lizard community.

  16. Effect of coarse woody debris manipulation on soricid and herpetofaunal communities in upland pine stands of the southeastern coastal plain.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Justin, Charles

    2009-04-01

    Abstract -The majority of studies investigating the importance of coarse woody debris (CWD) to forest- floor vertebrates have taken place in the Pacific Northwest and southern Appalachian Mountains, while comparative studies in the southeastern Coastal Plain are lacking. My study was a continuation of a long-term project investigating the importance of CWD as a habitat component for shrew and herpetofaunal communities within managed pine stands in the southeastern Coastal Plain. Results suggest that addition of CWD can increase abundance of southeastern and southern short-tailed shrews. However, downed wood does not appear to be a critical habitat component for amphibians and reptiles. Rising petroleum costs and advances in wood utilization technology have resulted in an emerging biofuels market with potential to decrease CWD volumes left in forests following timber harvests. Therefore, forest managers must understand the value of CWD as an ecosystem component to maintain economically productive forests while conserving biological diversity.

  17. Using fine-scale fuel measurements to assess wildland fuels, potential fire behavior and hazard mitigation treatments in the southeastern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger D. Ottmar; John I. Blake; William T. Crolly

    2012-01-01

    The inherent spatial and temporal heterogeneity of fuel beds in forests of the southeastern United States may require fine scale fuel measurements for providing reliable fire hazard and fuel treatment effectiveness estimates. In a series of five papers, an intensive, fine scale fuel inventory from the Savanna River Site in the southeastern United States is used for...

  18. Peculiarities of distribution of oil polution in the Southeastern Baltic by satellite data and in situ measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulycheva, E. V.; Krek, A. V.; Kostianoy, A. G.

    2016-01-01

    The results of satellite monitoring of oil pollution of the sea surface and field measurements of the concentration of oil products in the water column and bottom sediments for the first time allowed the establishment of a relation between the surface pollution from ships and the general characteristics of spatial and temporal distribution of oil products in the Southeastern Baltic Sea. Areas with increased concentrations of oil products in the surface and bottom layers were determined in the southeastern Baltic Sea. The basic directions of pollution spread, which are consistent with the main direction of annual mean transport of substances in the Gdansk Basin, are determined.

  19. A regional modeling framework of phosphorus sources and transport in streams of the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Ana Maria.; Hoos, Anne B.; Terziotti, Silvia

    2011-01-01

    We applied the SPARROW model to estimate phosphorus transport from catchments to stream reaches and subsequent delivery to major receiving water bodies in the Southeastern United States (U.S.). We show that six source variables and five land-to-water transport variables are significant (p < 0.05) in explaining 67% of the variability in long-term log-transformed mean annual phosphorus yields. Three land-to-water variables are a subset of landscape characteristics that have been used as transport factors in phosphorus indices developed by state agencies and are identified through experimental research as influencing land-to-water phosphorus transport at field and plot scales. Two land-to-water variables – soil organic matter and soil pH – are associated with phosphorus sorption, a significant finding given that most state-developed phosphorus indices do not explicitly contain variables for sorption processes. Our findings for Southeastern U.S. streams emphasize the importance of accounting for phosphorus present in the soil profile to predict attainable instream water quality. Regional estimates of phosphorus associated with soil-parent rock were highly significant in explaining instream phosphorus yield variability. Model predictions associate 31% of phosphorus delivered to receiving water bodies to geology and the highest total phosphorus yields in the Southeast were catchments with already high background levels that have been impacted by human activity.

  20. Crustal deformation mechanism in southeastern Tibetan Plateau: Insights from numerical modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.; Liu, S.; Chen, L.

    2017-12-01

    The Indo-Asian collision developed the complicated crustal deformation around the southeastern Tibetan plateau. Numerous models have proposed to explain the crustal deformation, but the mechanism remains controversial, especially the increasing multi-geophysics data, which demonstrate the existence of lower velocity, lower resistivity and high conductivity, implying that lower crustal flow is responsible for the crustal deformation, arguing for the lower crust flow model. To address the relations between the crust flow and the surface deformation, we employ a three-dimensional viscoelastic finite model to investigate the possible influence on the surface deformation, and discuss the stress field distribution under the model. Our preliminary results suggest that lower crustal flow plays an important role in crustal deformation in southeastern Tibetan plateau. The best fitting is achieved when the flow velocity of the lower crust is approximately 10-11 mm/a faster than that of the upper crust. Crustal rheological properties affect regional crustal deformation, when the viscosity of the middle and lower crust in the South China block reaches 1022 and 1023 Pa.s, respectively; the predicted match observations well, especially for the magnitude within the South China block. The maximum principal stress field exhibits clear zoning, gradually shifting from an approximately east-west orientation in the northern Bayan Har block to southeast in the South China block, southwest in the western Yunnan block, and a radially divergent distribution in the Middle Yunnan and Southern Yunnan blocks.

  1. Effects of human trampling on a rocky shore fauna on the Sao Paulo coast, southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, M N; Rosso, S

    2009-11-01

    Increased tourist activity in coastal regions demands management strategies to reduce impacts on rocky shores. The highly populated coastal areas in southeastern Brazil are an example of degradation caused by development of industry and tourism. Among different shore impacts, trampling has been intensively studied, and may represent a significant source of stress for intertidal fauna. A randomised blocks design was applied to experimentally study the effects of two different trampling intensities on richness, diversity, density and biomass of the rocky shore fauna of Obuseiro beach, Guarujá, southeastern Brazil. Blocks were distributed in two portions of the intertidal zone, dominated respectively by Chthamalus bisinuatus (Cirripedia) and Isognomon bicolor (Bivalvia). Blocks were trampled over three months, simulating the vacation period in Brazil and were monitored for the following nine months. Results indicate that Chthamalus bisinuatus is vulnerable to trampling impacts. Richness, diversity and turn-over index tended to be higher in trampled plots four months after trampling ceased. In general, results agree with previous trampling studies, suggesting that even low intensities of trampling may cause some impact on intertidal communities. Management strategies should include isolation of sensitive areas, construction of boardwalks, visitor education and monitoring programmes. In Brazil, additional data obtained from experimental studies are necessary in order to achieve a better understanding of trampling impacts on rocky shore communities.

  2. Gravity measurements in southeastern Alaska reveal negative gravity rate of change caused by glacial isostatic adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, W.; Miura, S.; Sato, T.; Sugano, T.; Freymueller, J.; Kaufman, M.; Larsen, C. F.; Cross, R.; Inazu, D.

    2010-12-01

    For the past 300 years, southeastern Alaska has undergone rapid ice-melting and land uplift attributable to global warming. Corresponding crustal deformation (3 cm/yr) caused by the Little Ice Age retreat is detectable with modern geodetic techniques such as GPS and tidal gauge measurements. Geodetic deformation provides useful information for assessing ice-melting rates, global warming effects, and subcrustal viscosity. Nevertheless, integrated geodetic observations, including gravity measurements, are important. To detect crustal deformation caused by glacial isostatic adjustment and to elucidate the viscosity structure in southeastern Alaska, Japanese and U.S. researchers began a joint 3-year project in 2006 using GPS, Earth tide, and absolute gravity measurements. A new absolute gravity network was established, comprising five sites around Glacier Bay, near Juneau, Alaska. This paper reports the network's gravity measurements during 2006-2008. The bad ocean model in this area hindered ocean loading correction: Large tidal residuals remain in the observations. Accurate tidal correction necessitated on-site tidal observation. Results show high observation precision for all five stations: day ice thickness changes. A gravity bias of about -13.2 ± 0.1 mGal exists between the Potsdam and current FG5 gravity data.

  3. The Strongylidae belonging to Strongylus genus in horses from southeastern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studzińska, M B; Tomczuk, K; Demkowska-Kutrzepa, M; Szczepaniak, K

    2012-10-01

    Postmortem parasitic examinations of the large intestines of 725 slaughtered horses from individual farmers in southeastern Poland were carried out. The examinations were carried out monthly since February 2006 until January 2007 (except for August 2007 because of a technological stoppage in the slaughterhouse). The examinations included the intensiveness and extensiveness of the infestation of the Strongylidae belonging to the Strongylus genus. The Strongylidae were found in 26.5% of the examined horses. Strongylus vulgaris was the most dominant nematode and had a 22.8% prevalence, Strongylus edentatus was carried by 18.3% of the horses. Strongylus equinus was identified only in 1.7% of the examined horses. Our findings revealed that combined infestation of S. vulgaris and S. edentatus occurred in 100 (52.1%) of the 725 horses infected by the Strongylidae. The present results indicate that the lowest prevalence of strongyle species except for S. equinus was found in January, February, and March. However, it is difficult to draw a conclusion because of an extremely low extensiveness of infestation. The results indicate that the prevalence of the Strongylidae in horses from southeastern Poland is limited.

  4. Emerging Administrations and Sustainable Development in South-Eastern Europe. Case study: Romania and Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Berceanu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Fifteen years ago, Agenda 21, the United Nations' call to action for sustainable development, envisaged that the necessary harmonization and extension of existing policies and plans would occur through the adoption of an identifiable strategy for sustainable development. Since then, sustainable development is a widely used phrase and idea and it has many different meanings and therefore provokes many different responses. The aim of the article is to explore the role of the emerging South-Eastern administrations in the sustainable development under the changes and rules imposed by the European Union pressure. We will analyze both concepts, emerging administrations and sustainable development from the perspective of system theory and we will make the link with the concept of emergence, which is utilized to research and to analyze the nature of the changes in the public administration starting from the approach of the systemic theory. The research will be focused on the states form the south-eastern Europe, thus in the case study we will make a comparison between Romania and Bulgaria, as new member states of the European Union.

  5. Multiple Determinants of Anuran Richness and Occurrence in an Agricultural Region in South-Eastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Vitor H. M.; Rossa-Feres, Denise de C.

    2014-04-01

    In agricultural landscapes, studies that identify factors driving species richness and occupancy are important because they can guide farmers to use conservation practices that minimize species loss. In this context, anurans are threatened by habitat loss because they depend on the characteristics of both local water bodies and adjacent landscapes. We used a model selection approach to evaluate the influence of local and landscape variables in determining anuran species richness and occurrence in 40 freshwater bodies in a heavily deforested region of semideciduous Atlantic Forest in southeastern Brazil. Our aim was to develop recommendations for conservation of anuran communities in rural areas. Pond hydroperiod and area were the most important variables for explaining anuran species richness and occupancy, with greatest species richness being found in water bodies with intermediate hydroperiod and area. Other important variables that reflected individual species occupancies were the number of vegetation types and pond isolation. In addition, recent studies evidenced that water bodies near forest fragments have higher anuran abundance or diversity. In conclusion, we suggest the maintenance of semi-permanent ponds, isolated from large rivers or reservoirs and near forest fragments, as an effective strategy to conserve anuran fauna in agricultural landscapes of southeastern Brazil. Brazilian government requires the maintenance of forests as legal reserve in each farm, and farmers need to maintain ponds as drinking water for cattle or crop irrigation. For this reason, the guidelines suggested in the present study can be easily adopted, without additional costs to rural productivity.

  6. Economic impacts of industrial wood energy use in the Southeastern U.S.A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easterly, J.L.; Boras, K.

    1991-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of a study designed to quantify the conomic impacts associated with industrial/commercial wood energy use in the Southeastern region of the US. The study was funded by the US Department of Energy's Southeastern Regional Biomass Energy Program, managed by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). The study involved four overall activities: (1) estimation of industrial fuelwood consumption; (2) calculation of economic impact multipliers for the states and region via the use of the US Forest Service input/output model IMPLAN; (3) development of a personal computer-based input/output decision model using Lotus 1-2-3 software, for use in the study, as well as for future use by state planners, and (4) input of all the state data into the decision model and calculation of the state and regional economic impacts. The results of the analysis found net income for the region to be approximately $880 million/year, with 57,000 net jobs generated, as a result of 47.2 million tons of industrial fuelwood consumption in the region in 1987. For the year 2000, regional wood consumption was estimated to be 65.6 million tons, with the resulting net income for the region estimated to be $1.7 billion, resulting in the creation of 97,700 net jobs

  7. DOES THE HIGHER EDUCATION PROMOTE STUDENTS’ ENTREPRENEURIAL POTENTIAL IN THE SOUTH-EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIMITAR NIKOLOSK

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, there is a widespread recognition that business start-ups are a driving force of economic growth and significant job creation. Given the segmented characteristics of the labour markets, youth population is among those segments that are disproportionally affected by high and sustained unemployment. The situation with youth unemployment is particularly unfavourable in developing countries such as South-Eastern European countries where almost half of the active young population is jobless. Even though the governments in these countries have repeatedly undertaken measures for improving the position of youth on the labour markets, it seems that these endeavours have not reached the planned goals. From this perspective, it is important to analyse the potential contribution of education, and particularly the higher education to the development of entrepreneurship. The aim of this paper is to assess the role of the higher education in South-Eastern European countries in fostering the students’ entrepreneurial potential. For this purpose we have carried out a survey on representative samples of students in two universities: “St. Kliment Ohridski” (Macedonia and “Aleksander Xhuvani” (Albania. We found that considerable number of surveyed students have ideas for starting own businesses, but only a small portion of them attempted to develop their business ideas in practice. As a consequence, we can conclude that there exists a wide room for further policy recommendations that will shape directions for future reforms in the SEECs higher education systems and will improve the students’ entrepreneurial potential

  8. Late Pleistocene paleohydrology near the boundary of the Sonoran and Chihuahuan Deserts, southeastern Arizona, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigati, Jeffery S.; Bright, Jordon E.; Shanahan, Timothy M.; Mahan, Shannon

    2009-01-01

    Ground-water discharge (GWD) deposits form in arid environments as water tables rise and approach or breach the ground surface during periods of enhanced effective precipitation. Where preserved, these deposits contain information on the timing and elevation of past ground-water fluctuations. Here we report on the investigation of a series of GWD deposits that are exposed in discontinuous outcrops along a ???150-km stretch of the San Pedro Valley in southeastern Arizona, near the boundary of the Sonoran and Chihuahuan Deserts. Chronologic, isotopic, geochemical, faunal assemblage (ostracodes and gastropods), and sedimentological evidence collectively suggest that the elevation of the regional water table in the valley rose in response to a change in climate ???50 ka ago and remained relatively high for the next ???35 ka before falling during the B??lling-Aller??d warm period, rebounding briefly during the Younger Dryas cold event, and falling again at the onset of the Holocene. The timing of these hydrologic changes coincides closely with variations in ??18O values of calcite from a nearby speleothem to the west and changes in lake levels at pluvial Lake Cochise to the east. Thus, in southeastern Arizona, the assumption that changes in climate are reflected in all aspects of the hydrologic cycle of a region simultaneously is validated. The timing of these changes also broadly coincides with variations in the GISP2 ??18O record, which supports the hypothesis that atmospheric teleconnections existed between the North Atlantic and the deserts of the American Southwest during the late Pleistocene.

  9. Sediment Flux and Storage in a Rural Southeastern Piedmont River System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, C. R.; Martin, J. K.

    2001-12-01

    A sediment budget was developed for a representative rural southeastern Piedmont watershed to provide information on the relative importance of sediment sources. Sediment issues in the southeastern Piedmont are complicated by the so-called legacy sediment produced by poor farming practices during the cotton-farming era, approximately 1810-1930. The Murder Creek basin near Monticello, GA was chosen because: it featured forestry and agriculture as the principal land uses; a USGS gage provided a flow record; and the creek deposited in a reservoir built in 1948. Suspended load export was calculated using a sediment rating curve and the USGS flow time series. Bed load export was determined by estimating the volume of sediment deposited in the reservoir since construction. Unpaved road erosion was estimated using the WEPP model, and other surface erosion was estimated using USLE and delivery ratios. Historical floodplain storage was determined by coring floodplain deposits, measuring the depth to the pre-historic/historic sediment interface, and multiplying by the area of the floodplain. Recent accretion rates were estimated using dendrogeomorphology. Results showed that the practices of the cotton farming era deposited an average of 1.6 meters of sediment on the floodplains. This depth was relatively uniform across the watershed. The cotton-farming sediment in storage exceeds the current annual export by a factor of about 5000. Approximately half of the current export comes from current inputs, and half comes from remobilized floodplain sediments.

  10. West Nile virus circulation in South-Eastern Romania, 2011 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinu, S; Cotar, A I; Pănculescu-Gătej, I R; Fălcuţă, E; Prioteasa, F L; Sîrbu, A; Oprişan, G; Bădescu, D; Reiter, P; Ceianu, C S

    2015-05-21

    Lineage 2 West Nile virus (WNV), previously found only in sub-Saharan Africa and Madagascar, was identified in Hungary in 2004 and has rapidly expanded in Europe in the past decade. Following a significant outbreak of West Nile fever with neurological cases caused by lineage 1 WNV in Romania in 1996, scattered cases have been recorded in the south-east of the country in each transmission season. Another outbreak, affecting a larger area and caused by lineage 2 WNV, was recorded in 2010. We analysed human sera from neuroinvasive West Nile fever cases and mosquitoes, sampled in south-eastern Romania between 2011 and 2013, for the presence of WNV genome, and obtained partial NS5 and envelope glycoprotein sequences. Human- and mosquito-derived WNV sequences were highly similar (99%) to Volgograd 2007 lineage 2 WNV and differed from isolates previously detected in central and southern Europe. WNV was detected in one pool of Culex pipiens s.l. males, documenting vertical transmission. Lineage 4 WNV, of unknown pathogenicity to mammals, was found in the amphibian-feeding mosquito Uranotaenia unguiculata from the Danube Delta. Our results present molecular evidence for the maintenance of the same isolates of Volgograd 2007-like lineage 2 WNV in south-eastern Romania between 2011 and 2013.

  11. Influence of coarse woody debris on the soricid community in southeastern Coastal Plain pine stands.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Justin, C.; Castleberry, Steven, B.; Kilgo, John, C.

    2010-07-01

    Shrew abundance has been linked to the presence of coarse woody debris (CWD), especially downed logs, in many regions in the United States. We investigated the importance of CWD to shrew communities in managed upland pine stands in the southeastern United States Coastal Plain. Using a randomized complete block design, 1 of the following treatments was assigned to twelve 9.3-ha plots: removal (n 5 3; all downed CWD _10 cm in diameter and _60 cm long removed), downed (n 5 3; 5-fold increase in volume of downed CWD), snag (n 5 3; 10-fold increase in volume of standing dead CWD), and control (n 5 3; unmanipulated). Shrews (Blarina carolinensis, Sorex longirostris, and Cryptotis parva) were captured over 7 seasons from January 2007 to August 2008 using drift-fence pitfall trapping arrays within treatment plots. Topographic variables were measured and included as treatment covariates. More captures of B. carolinensis were made in the downed treatment compared to removal, and captures of S. longirostris were greater in downed and snag compared to removal. Captures of C. parva did not differ among treatments. Captures of S. longirostris were positively correlated with slope. Our results suggest that abundance of 2 of the 3 common shrew species of the southeastern Coastal Plain examined in our study is influenced by the presence of CWD.

  12. Estimated hydrologic budgets of kettle-hole ponds in coastal aquifers of southeastern Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Donald A.; Masterson, John P.

    2011-01-01

    Kettle-hole ponds in southeastern Massachusetts are in good hydraulic connection to an extensive coastal aquifer system that includes the Plymouth-Carver aquifer system on the mainland and aquifers underlying Cape Cod. The ponds receive water from, and contribute water to, the underlying glacial aquifer; ponds also receive water from precipitation and lose water to evaporation from the pond surface. Some ponds are connected to surface-water drainage systems and receive water from or contribute water to streams or adjacent wetlands. The Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection currently (2011) is developing Total Maximum Daily Loads of phosphorus for the freshwater ponds in the region to maintain the health of pond ecosystems; the amounts and sources of water fluxes into and out of the ponds are important factors in determining the amount of phosphorus that can be assimilated into a pond. To assist in this effort, the U.S. Geological Survey used groundwater-flow models of the coastal aquifer system to estimate hydrologic budgets-including inflows and outflows from the aquifer system and adjacent streams and wetlands, and recharge from precipitation-for 425 ponds in southeastern Massachusetts.

  13. Timing of floods in southeastern China: Seasonal properties and potential causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Gu, Xihui; Singh, Vijay P.; Shi, Peijun; Luo, Ming

    2017-09-01

    Flood hazards and flood risks in southeastern China have been causing increasing concerns due to dense population and highly-developed economy. This study attempted to address changes of seasonality, timing of peak floods and variability of occurrence date of peak floods using circular statistical methods and the modified Mann-Kendall trend detection method. The causes of peak flood changes were also investigated. Results indicated that: (1) floods were subject to more seasonality and temporal clustering when compared to precipitation extremes. However, seasonality of floods and extreme precipitation was subject to spatial heterogeneity in northern Guangdong. Similar changing patterns of peak floods and extreme precipitation were found in coastal regions; (2) significant increasing/decreasing seasonality, but no confirmed spatial patterns, were observed for peak floods and extreme precipitation. Peak floods in northern Guangdong province had decreasing variability, but had larger variability in coastal regions; (3) tropical cyclones had remarkable impacts on extreme precipitation changes in coastal regions of southeastern China, and peak floods as well. The landfalling of tropical cyclones was decreasing and concentrated during June-September; this is the major reason for earlier but enhanced seasonality of peak floods in coastal regions. This study sheds new light on flood behavior in coastal regions in a changing environment.

  14. Detection of asymptomatic renal Leptospira infection in abattoir slaughtered cattle in southeastern Georgia, United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreekumari Rajeev

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Leptospirosis is one of the most widespread zoonotic infectious diseases affecting humans and animals. Several animal species, including cattle, can act as potential asymptomatic carriers facilitating zoonotic transmission of Leptospira. This study was conducted to assess the occurrence of asymptomatic renal Leptospira carriers among cattle slaughtered in southeastern Georgia, United States. Methods: A battery of diagnostic tests, including dark field microscopy, direct fluorescent antibody staining, polymerase chain reaction, and culture, were performed on a set of bovine kidneys (n = 37 collected from an abattoir in southeastern Georgia, United States. Virulence of a field isolate obtained from this study was tested in a hamster experimental model. Results: Motile spirochete-like structures were observed by dark field microscopy in 23 (59% out of 37 kidney samples tested. In all, 29 samples (78% were positive by direct fluorescent antibody staining. Only 11 (29.7% samples by polymerase chain reaction and 3 (8.1% by culture were positive for Leptospira sp. The isolates obtained by culture were confirmed as Leptospira borgpetersenii. Hamsters experimentally infected with one of the Leptospira field isolates obtained from this study did not show clinical signs but developed renal infection with interstitial nephritis and tubular necrosis. Conclusions: This study confirms that asymptomatic Leptospira renal infection is present among cattle in the region. Our findings underscore the need for future studies to assess the potential environmental contamination and transmission to humans in contact with infected cattle.

  15. Determinants of Food Crop Diversity and Profitability in Southeastern Nigeria: A Multivariate Tobit Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanzidur Rahman

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study jointly determines the factors influencing decisions to diversify into multiple food crops (i.e., rice, yam and cassava vis-à-vis profitability of 400 farmers from Ebonyi and Anambra states of Southeastern Nigeria using a multivariate Tobit model. Model diagnostic reveals that the decisions to diversify into multiple crops and profits generated therefrom are significantly correlated, thereby justifying use of a multivariate approach. Results reveal that 68% of the farmers grew at least two food crops and profitability is highest for only rice producers followed by joint rice and yam producers, which are mainly for sale. Farm size is the most dominant determinant of crop diversity vis-à-vis profitability. A rise in the relative price of plowing significantly reduces profitability of yam and rice. High yield is the main motive for growing yam and cassava whereas ready market is for rice. Other determinants with varying level of influences are proximity to market and/or extension office, extension contact, training, agricultural credit, subsistence pressure and location. Policy recommendations include investments in market infrastructure and credit services, land and/or tenurial reform and input price stabilization to promote food crop diversity vis-à-vis profitability in Southeastern Nigeria.

  16. Spatial and temporal variation of tectonic uplift in the southeastern Ethiopian Plateau from morphotectonic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Liang; Alemu, Tadesse; Gani, Nahid D.; Abdelsalam, Mohamed G.

    2018-05-01

    We use morphotectonic analysis to study the tectonic uplift history of the southeastern Ethiopian Plateau (SEEP). Based on studies conducted on the Northwestern Ethiopian Plateau, steady-state and pulsed tectonic uplift models were proposed to explain the growth of the plateau since 30 Ma. We test these two models for the largely unknown SEEP. We present the first quantitative morphotectonic study of the SEEP. First, in order to infer the spatial distribution of the tectonic uplift rates, we extract geomorphic proxies including normalized steepness index ksn, hypsometric integral HI, and chi integral χ from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) digital elevation model (DEM). Second, we compare these rates with the thickness of flood basalt that we estimated from geological maps. Third, to constrain the timing of regional tectonic uplift, we develop a knickpoint celerity model. Fourth, we compare our results to those from the Northwestern Ethiopian Plateau to suggest a possible mechanism to explain regional tectonic uplift of the entire Ethiopian Plateau. We find an increase in tectonic uplift rates from the southeastern escarpments of the Afar Depression in the northeast to that of the Main Ethiopian Rift to the southwest. We identify three regional tectonic uplift events at 11.7, 6.5, and 4.5 Ma recorded by the development of regionally distributed knickpoints. This is in good agreement with ages of tectonic uplift events reported from the Northwestern Ethiopian Plateau.

  17. Detection of asymptomatic renal Leptospira infection in abattoir slaughtered cattle in southeastern Georgia, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilha, Marcia; Woldemeskel, Moges; Berghaus, Roy D; Pence, Mel E

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Leptospirosis is one of the most widespread zoonotic infectious diseases affecting humans and animals. Several animal species, including cattle, can act as potential asymptomatic carriers facilitating zoonotic transmission of Leptospira. This study was conducted to assess the occurrence of asymptomatic renal Leptospira carriers among cattle slaughtered in southeastern Georgia, United States. Methods: A battery of diagnostic tests, including dark field microscopy, direct fluorescent antibody staining, polymerase chain reaction, and culture, were performed on a set of bovine kidneys (n = 37) collected from an abattoir in southeastern Georgia, United States. Virulence of a field isolate obtained from this study was tested in a hamster experimental model. Results: Motile spirochete-like structures were observed by dark field microscopy in 23 (59%) out of 37 kidney samples tested. In all, 29 samples (78%) were positive by direct fluorescent antibody staining. Only 11 (29.7%) samples by polymerase chain reaction and 3 (8.1%) by culture were positive for Leptospira sp. The isolates obtained by culture were confirmed as Leptospira borgpetersenii. Hamsters experimentally infected with one of the Leptospira field isolates obtained from this study did not show clinical signs but developed renal infection with interstitial nephritis and tubular necrosis. Conclusions: This study confirms that asymptomatic Leptospira renal infection is present among cattle in the region. Our findings underscore the need for future studies to assess the potential environmental contamination and transmission to humans in contact with infected cattle. PMID:26770734

  18. Resinosis Inhibits Monochamus spp. (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) Colonization of Healthy Shortleaf Pines in Southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethington, Matthew W; Galligan, Larry D; Stephen, Fred M

    2018-05-14

    The genus Monochamus Dejean (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) includes large, woodboring, longhorned beetles, which colonize pine trees in North America. Many authors have classified the genus as saprophagous, but one recent study reported successful colonization of standing jack pine trees (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) (Pinales: Pinaceae) following severe wind disturbance in Minnesota. We tested whether two Monochamus species native to the southeastern United States (M. titillator (Fabricius) and M. carolinensis (Olivier)) could successfully colonize healthy shortleaf pines (Pinus echinata Mill.) (Pinales: Pinaceae) in recently harvested stands without coincident abiotic or biotic stressors, such as lightning strikes or bark beetle attacks. We attached commercially available semiochemical lures, including monochamol, ethanol, and ipsenol, to healthy shortleaf pine trees and observed Monochamus spp. oviposition response. Egg development was monitored following oviposition by harvesting attacked trees and dissecting oviposition pits. High numbers of oviposition pits were observed on trees treated with lures containing the bark beetle pheromone ipsenol and pits were highly concentrated on the tree bole near lures. Although egg deposition occurred, pit dissection revealed large amounts of resin present in almost all dissected pits and that egg hatch and subsequent larval development were rare. Our results demonstrate that southeastern Monochamus spp. are unlikely to be primary pests of healthy shortleaf pines due to resinosis. To better understand the host finding behavior of these two Monochamus species, we also conducted trapping trials with several semiochemical combinations. Both species and sexes demonstrated similar attraction to compounds, and the most attractive lure combined host volatiles, pheromone, and sympatric insect kairomone.

  19. Prevalence, pattern, and determinants of placental malaria in a population of southeastern Nigerian parturients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezebialu, Ifeanyichukwu U; Eke, Ahizechukwu C; Ezeagwuna, Dorothy A; Nwachukwu, Chukwuemeka E; Ifediata, Francis; Ezebialu, Chinenye U

    2012-12-01

    Placental malaria is a complication of malaria in pregnancy and is associated with adverse outcomes. Its burden is highest in Sub-Saharan Africa, but despite this, data based on histological analysis are scarce from this region. Questionnaires administered by the researchers were used to obtain information from parturients at a university teaching hospital in southeastern Nigeria between April and November 2010. Maternal blood and placental blood were collected for analysis. Placental blocks were taken for histological analysis. Statistical analyses were done using SPSS v. 17. Three hundred and sixty-five placentas were analyzed, out of which 254 showed histological evidence of malaria parasitization, giving a prevalence of 69.6%. Of the 254 placentas, 23 (9.0%) showed active infection and 196 (77.2%) showed active-on-past infection, while 35 (13.8%) showed past infection. Rural residence, hemoglobin genotype AA, not receiving intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp), and not sleeping under insecticide-treated bed nets (ITN) were significantly associated with placental malaria. Placental parasite density was inversely related to parity. This study showed that the prevalence of placental malaria in southeastern Nigeria is high, and demonstrated that the mean parasite density was inversely related to parity. Significant factors associated with placental malaria were also identified. Appreciation of these significant factors will assist program managers in implementing the strategies for the prevention of malaria in pregnancy. Copyright © 2012 International Society for Infectious Diseases. All rights reserved.

  20. Air - water temperature relationships in the trout streams of southeastern Minnesota’s carbonate - sandstone landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krider, Lori A.; Magner, Joseph A.; Perry, Jim; Vondracek, Bruce C.; Ferrington, Leonard C.

    2013-01-01

    Carbonate-sandstone geology in southeastern Minnesota creates a heterogeneous landscape of springs, seeps, and sinkholes that supply groundwater into streams. Air temperatures are effective predictors of water temperature in surface-water dominated streams. However, no published work investigates the relationship between air and water temperatures in groundwater-fed streams (GWFS) across watersheds. We used simple linear regressions to examine weekly air-water temperature relationships for 40 GWFS in southeastern Minnesota. A 40-stream, composite linear regression model has a slope of 0.38, an intercept of 6.63, and R2 of 0.83. The regression models for GWFS have lower slopes and higher intercepts in comparison to surface-water dominated streams. Regression models for streams with high R2 values offer promise for use as predictive tools for future climate conditions. Climate change is expected to alter the thermal regime of groundwater-fed systems, but will do so at a slower rate than surface-water dominated systems. A regression model of intercept vs. slope can be used to identify streams for which water temperatures are more meteorologically than groundwater controlled, and thus more vulnerable to climate change. Such relationships can be used to guide restoration vs. management strategies to protect trout streams.

  1. Low prevalence of Borrelia bavariensis in Ixodes ricinus ticks in southeastern Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatz, Martin; Muellegger, Robert R; Hizo-Teufel, Cecilia; Fingerle, Volker

    2014-10-01

    Borrelia bavariensis was recently described as a distinct genospecies among the B. burgdorferi sensu lato complex. The prevalence of B. bavariensis in Austria, a highly endemic area for tick-transmitted pathogens, is scarcely characterized. To investigate the prevalence of B. bavariensis in Ixodes ricinus ticks we reevaluated the results of a study conducted in 518 ticks from southeastern Austria collected in 2002 and 2003. The presence of B. burgdorferi s.l.-specific DNA in ticks was analyzed by a PCR for the outer surface protein A (ospA) gene. Borrelia species were differentiated by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis, and samples positive for B. bavariensis were further analyzed by multilocus sequence analysis. Two of 133 (1.5%) B. burgdorferi s.l.-positive I. ricinus ticks were infected with B. bavariensis. Both specimens were coinfected with the OspA serotype 5 of B. garinii. Borrelia bavariensis is present; however, seem to be rare in I. ricinus ticks in southeastern Austria. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Structure and floristic similarities of upper montane forests in Serra Fina mountain range, southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Dias Meireles

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The upper montane forests in the southern and southeastern regions of Brazil have an unusual and discontinuous geographic distribution at the top of the Atlantic coastal mountain ranges. To describe the floristic composition and structure of the Atlantic Forest near its upper altitudinal limit in southeastern Brazil, 30 plots with 10 × 10 m were installed in three forest sites between 2,200 and 2,300 m.a.s.l. at Serra Fina. The floristic composition and phytosociological structure of this forest were compared with other montane and upper montane forests. In total, 704 individuals were included, belonging to 24 species, 15 families, and 19 genera. Myrsinaceae, Myrtaceae, Symplocaceae, and Cunoniaceae were the most important families, and Myrsine gardneriana, Myrceugenia alpigena, Weinmannia humilis, and Symplocos corymboclados were the most important species. The three forest sites revealed differences in the abundance of species, density, canopy height, and number of stems per individual. The upper montane forests showed structural similarities, such as lower richness, diversity, and effective number of species, and they tended to have higher total densities and total dominance per hectare to montane forests. The most important species in these upper montane forests belong to Austral-Antartic genera or neotropical and pantropical genera that are typical of montane areas. The high number of species shared by these forests suggests past connections between the vegetation in southern Brazilian high-altitude areas.

  3. 75 FR 18233 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 5-Year Status Reviews of 10 Southeastern Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    ...] Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 5-Year Status Reviews of 10 Southeastern Species AGENCY: Fish.... Definitions A. Species includes any species or subspecies of fish, wildlife, or plant, and any distinct... means any species that is in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of its range...

  4. Seasonal changes in chemical composition and nutritive value of native forages in a spruce-hemlock forest, southeastern Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas A. Hanley; Jay D. McKendrick

    1983-01-01

    Twenty-two forages from Admiralty Island, southeastern Alaska, were monitored bimonthly for one year to assess seasonal changes in their chemical composition: neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, cellulose, lignin/cutin, invitro dry-matter digestibility, total nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sodium, copper, manganese, iron, and zinc....

  5. Signal-transfer Modeling for Regional Assessment of Forest Responses to Environmental Changes in the Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert J. Luxmoore; William W. Hargrove; M. Lynn Tharp; Wilfred M. Post; Michael W. Berry; Karen S. Minser; Wendell P. Cropper; Dale W. Johnson; Boris Zeide; Ralph L. Amateis; Harold E. Burkhart; V. Clark Baldwin; Kelly D. Peterson

    2000-01-01

    Stochastic transfer of information in a hierarchy of simulators is offered as a conceptual approach for assessing forest responses to changing climate and air quality across 13 southeastern states of the USA. This assessment approach combines geographic information system and Monte Carlo capabilities with several scales of computer modeling for southern pine species...

  6. Case study: Massachusetts Department of Public Health's Southeastern Massachusetts health study on leukemia around Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station: Who won?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flanagan, Anita [Boston Edison Company (United States)

    1993-07-01

    In October 1990, the Massachusetts Department of Public Health released their Southeastern Massachusetts health study. This is a study of leukemia incidence in 22 towns around Pilgrim NPP, for the period 1978 through 1986. Pilgrim Station had been returned to operation following a 3 year outage, from 1986-1989. During this period, some $300 million in capital outlay was invested by Boston Edison in upgrading safety systems and installing the so-Called Three Mile Island upgrades. A copy of the peer review panel report is attached to this paper. Because of the interest in the Southeastern Massachusetts Health Study in Europe. There are three major points the Panel made which can summarized: 1. No excess of leukemia was found around Pilgrim Station. 2. The Southeastern Massachusetts Health Study over-predicted by a factor of 90 the number of leukemia cases attributable to plant operation. 3. The Southeastern Massachusetts Health Study failed to account for exposure to natural background radiation, which represents far larger biological exposure than plant Operation. Given All Of This, One Might Ask Why Didn't Common Sense Prevail In The Beginning? One Answer Might Be The Energy Of The Media In Pursuing The Story And Playing It Up No Matter What. Another Answer Might Be That The Original Study Purported To Show 'What Everyone Knows'. No One Really Stopped To Question Whether The Study Was Politically Motivated, Given That The Division of Environmental Health's Budget Had Been Cut.

  7. Case study: Massachusetts Department of Public Health's Southeastern Massachusetts health study on leukemia around Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station: Who won?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flanagan, Anita

    1993-01-01

    In October 1990, the Massachusetts Department of Public Health released their Southeastern Massachusetts health study. This is a study of leukemia incidence in 22 towns around Pilgrim NPP, for the period 1978 through 1986. Pilgrim Station had been returned to operation following a 3 year outage, from 1986-1989. During this period, some $300 million in capital outlay was invested by Boston Edison in upgrading safety systems and installing the so-Called Three Mile Island upgrades. A copy of the peer review panel report is attached to this paper. Because of the interest in the Southeastern Massachusetts Health Study in Europe. There are three major points the Panel made which can summarized: 1. No excess of leukemia was found around Pilgrim Station. 2. The Southeastern Massachusetts Health Study over-predicted by a factor of 90 the number of leukemia cases attributable to plant operation. 3. The Southeastern Massachusetts Health Study failed to account for exposure to natural background radiation, which represents far larger biological exposure than plant Operation. Given All Of This, One Might Ask Why Didn't Common Sense Prevail In The Beginning? One Answer Might Be The Energy Of The Media In Pursuing The Story And Playing It Up No Matter What. Another Answer Might Be That The Original Study Purported To Show 'What Everyone Knows'. No One Really Stopped To Question Whether The Study Was Politically Motivated, Given That The Division of Environmental Health's Budget Had Been Cut

  8. The 2014 assessment of stream quality in the Piedmont and southern Appalachian Mountain region of southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celeste Journey; Paul M. Bradley; Peter Van Metre

    2016-01-01

    During the spring and summer of 2014, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water- Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA) assessed stream quality across the Piedmont and southern Appalachian Mountain region in the southeastern United States.

  9. 75 FR 17950 - Notice of Intent To Prepare Amendments to the Southeastern Oregon Resource Management Plan (RMP...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-08

    ... Cicuit ruled on the Southeastern Oregon RMP in Oregon Natural Desert Association v. Bureau of Land... Lakeview RMP in Oregon Natural Desert Association v. Gammon, No. 07- 35728 (9th Cir.), pending resolution... observed; A systematic interdisciplinary approach to integrate, physical, biological, economic, and other...

  10. Pyrolysis-Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry Characterization of Humic Acids in Coastal Spodosols from Southeastern Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buurman, P.; Vidal-Torrado, P.; Martin-Neto, L.

    2012-01-01

    This study on humic acids (HAs) of podzol horizons from the southeastern region of Brazil investigated the accumulation and degradation of soil organic matter (SOM) in warm-climate podzols. Humic acids from sandy coastal Spodosols (Histic Alaquod and Arenic Alorthod) from Cardoso Island in Sao Paulo

  11. Bottom water oxygenation history in southeastern Arabian Sea during the past 140 ka: Results from redox-sensitive elements

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pattan, J.N; Pearce, N

    The concentrations of multiple redox-sensitive elements such as Re, U, Mo, Cd, V, Sb, and Tl were determined in sediments from the southeastern Arabian Sea (9 degrees 21 minutes N: 71 degrees 59 minutes E) to understand the bottom water oxygenation...

  12. Wildland fire risk and social vulnerability in the Southeastern United States: An exploratory spatial data analysis approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassandra Johnson Gaither; Neelam C. Poudyal; Scott Goodrick; J. M. Bowker; Sparkle L Malone; Jianbang. Gan

    2011-01-01

    The southeastern U.S. is one of the more wildland fire prone areas of the country and also contains some of the poorest or most socially vulnerable rural communities. Our project addresses wildland fire risk in this part of the U.S and its intersection with social vulnerability. We examine spatial association between high wildland fire prone areas which also rank high...

  13. Changes in forest species composition and structure after stand-replacing wildfire in the mountains of southeastern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald D. Quinn; Lin Wu

    2005-01-01

    A wildfire in the Chiricahua Mountains of southeastern Arizona apparently altered the long-term structure of the forest. The pre-fire canopy forest, which had not burned for 100 years, was an even mixture of Arizona pines and Rocky Mountain Douglas-firs. A decade later the new forest was numerically dominated by quaking aspen seedlings in clumps separated by persistent...

  14. An improved algorithm for small and cool fire detection using MODIS data: A preliminary study in the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanting Wang; John J. Qu; Xianjun Hao; Yongqiang Liu; William T. Sommers

    2006-01-01

    Traditional fire detection algorithms mainly rely on hot spot detection using thermal infrared (TIR) channels with fixed or contextual thresholds. Three solar reflectance channels (0.65 μm, 0.86 μm, and 2.1 μm) were recently adopted into the MODIS version 4 contextual algorithm to improve the active fire detection. In the southeastern United...

  15. Political Incongruity between Students' Ideological Identity and Stance on Specific Public Policies in a Predominantly White Southeastern State Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, Jeremy T.; Carstens, Brittany A.; Wright, Jennifer M.; Williams, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    The study determined whether or not a predominantly Caucasian sample (N = 187) attending a southeastern state's major public university embraced political policies consistent with their self-identified political ideology. The findings showed that the highest percentage of students identified with a conservative ideology and that a much lower…

  16. Mineral cycling in southeastern ecosystems. Proceedings of a symposium held at Augusta, Georgia May 1--3, 1974

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howell, F.G.; Gentry, J.B.; Smith, M.H. (eds.)

    1975-01-01

    Sixty-six papers were presented on cycling of natural and man-made elements, including terrestrial, freshwater and marine environments, as well as current ideas on modeling. Principles governing elemental flow included radiocesium in natural environments, especially in the southeastern United States. Individual entries were made for 47 items.

  17. K-Ar geology, geochemistry and geochronology from the Maria River region dikes, Parana State southeastern part, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Junior, Renato Oliveira da; Dall'Agnol, Roberto; Oliveira, Elson Paiva de

    1996-01-01

    The paper synthesizes the geological, petrographical, geochemical and geochronological data from the Maria River region dikes, situated at the southeastern part of the Para State, Brazil. It identifies five groups of dikes and determines the age of these dikes, through the Potassium-Argon (K-Ar) methodology

  18. Climate Change Education in the Southeastern U.S. Through Public Dialogue: Not Just Preaching to the Choir

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeal, Karen S.; Hammerman, James K. L.; Christiansen, Jonathan A.; Carroll, F. Julian

    2014-01-01

    Climate change education in the southeastern United States can be challenging. Due to economic factors, as well as the conservative political and faith perspectives typical of the region, high proportions (40%) of the population are not engaged, not convinced, or doubt Earth's climate is changing or that climate change has anthropogenic causes.…

  19. SAMAC Analytical Notes II: preliminary results of x-ray fluorescence analysis of archeological materials from southeastern Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snow, D.H.; Fullbright, H.J.

    1977-02-01

    A series of prehistoric potsherds, local clay samples, and possible tempering materials from archeological excavations in southeastern Utah have been examined by x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. The results obtained for this small sampling demonstrate the usefulness of the technique in characterizing the clays, the potsherd pastes, and the decorative pigments

  20. Organohalogen exposure in a Eurasian owl (Bubo bubo) population from Southeastern Spain: Temporal-spatial trends and risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gomez-Ramirez, P.; Martinez-Lopez, E.; Garcia-Fernandez, A.; Zweers, A.J.; Brink, van den N.W.

    2012-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine insecticides (OCs) were analysed in 58 Eurasian Eagle owl (Bubo bubo) unhatched eggs collected between 2004 and 2009 in Southeastern Spain. Levels of p,p'-DDE were found to be higher than in eggs laid by